Science.gov

Sample records for donald c. cook-1 reactor

  1. IMR Interview: Donald C. Burr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Management Review, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Donald C. Burr, founder and CEO of PEOPLExpress, discusses the keys to the success of PEOPLExpress from the "peanuts fares" to the humanistic style of management, and the eventual demise of the airline. One area discussed is the role of information systems in business and the result of the airline's lack of an effective computerized…

  2. IMR Interview: Donald C. Burr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Management Review, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Donald C. Burr, founder and CEO of PEOPLExpress, discusses the keys to the success of PEOPLExpress from the "peanuts fares" to the humanistic style of management, and the eventual demise of the airline. One area discussed is the role of information systems in business and the result of the airline's lack of an effective computerized…

  3. NEW EMPLOYEES ON THE JOB - DONALD E HEGBERG OF THE NUCLEAR REACTOR DIVISION DISCUSSES NUCLEAR ROCKET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    NEW EMPLOYEES ON THE JOB - DONALD E HEGBERG OF THE NUCLEAR REACTOR DIVISION DISCUSSES NUCLEAR ROCKET FUEL ELEMENT EXPERIMENT WITH CHARLES L YOUNGER - THE DISCUSSION IS PREPATORY TO CONDUCTING THE EXPERIMENT AT THE PLUM BROOK STATION REACTOR FACILITY

  4. 76 FR 52356 - Indiana Michigan Power Company, Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 1; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... COMMISSION Indiana Michigan Power Company, Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 1; Environmental Assessment and... to Indiana Michigan Power Company (the licensee), for operation of Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit... ZIRLO\\TM\\ fuel to a peak road average burnup limit of 62 gigawatt-days per metric ton uranium...

  5. 77 FR 51071 - Indiana Michigan Power Company, Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 2, Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... COMMISSION Indiana Michigan Power Company, Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 2, Environmental Assessment and... Indiana Michigan Power Company (the licensee), for operation of Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 2 (CNP... load average burnup limit of 62 gigawatt-days per metric ton uranium (GWD/MTU). The proposed...

  6. Career Development, Assessment and Counseling: Applications of the Donald E. Super C-DAC Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, W. Larry; And Others

    Career counseling is central to the counseling profession. The Career Development, Assessment, and Counseling (C-DAC) approach to career counseling, which facilitates the career development of people throughout their lives, has received wide attention; an analysis of the theory and research from which this model was derived are examined here. The…

  7. Career Development, Assessment and Counseling: Applications of the Donald E. Super C-DAC Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, W. Larry; And Others

    Career counseling is central to the counseling profession. The Career Development, Assessment, and Counseling (C-DAC) approach to career counseling, which facilitates the career development of people throughout their lives, has received wide attention; an analysis of the theory and research from which this model was derived are examined here. The…

  8. Determination of compliance with PL 92-500 Section 316(b) for the Donald C. Cook Nuclear Power Plant of the Indiana and Michigan Power Company

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, R K; Freeman, III, R F

    1980-04-01

    Region III of the US Fish and Wildlife Service contracted with the Division of Environmental Impact Studies, Argonne National Laboratory, to make the 316(b) determination for the Donald C. Cook Nuclear Power Plant of the Indiana and Michigan Power Company and to make recommendations for improvement in intake design to facilitate compliance. To conduct this assessment, appropriate literature on screening systems and reports furnished by the applicant on intake design and operation and on ecological studies at the site were reviewed. Modifications of the location and design of the existing intake and possibilities of retrofitting with fine-mesh screening to screen larval forms of fishes were examined. It was determined that currently there is no dictated need for fine-mesh screening of intake flow at the D.C. Cook Nuclear Power Plant.

  9. Prometheus Reactor I&C Software Development Methodology, for Action

    SciTech Connect

    T. Hamilton

    2005-07-30

    The purpose of this letter is to submit the Reactor Instrumentation and Control (I&C) software life cycle, development methodology, and programming language selections and rationale for project Prometheus to NR for approval. This letter also provides the draft Reactor I&C Software Development Process Manual and Reactor Module Software Development Plan to NR for information.

  10. Surveillance of WWER-440C reactor pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Brumovsky, M.; Pav, T.

    1993-12-01

    In Czechoslovakia there are six units of Water-Water Power Reactor (WWER)-440 C type reactors (pressurized water reactor [PWR] type) incorporated with pressure vessel surveillance specimens. These sets of specimens are kept for carrying out static tensile testing, impact notch toughness testing, and static fracture toughness testing, and are supplemented by necessary sets of neutron flux monitors. Results of mechanical testing of these specimens evaluated after one to five years of reactor operation are summarized and discussed with respect to the effect of individual heats and welding joints, radiation embrittlement laws, and lead factor and pressure vessel lifetime assessment.

  11. A Conversation with Donald Thomas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Ronald S.

    1986-01-01

    The former Salt Lake City (Utah) superintendent, Donald Thomas, now the deputy superintendent in South Carolina, is interviewed about educational reform and the role of state and federal policymaking in the reform movement. (MD)

  12. Membrane reactor technology for C5/C6 hydroisomerization.

    PubMed

    McLeary, E E; Buijsse, E J W; Gora, L; Jansen, J C; Maschmeyer, Th

    2005-04-15

    In this paper, we propose an improved hydroisomerization process, making use of membrane reactor technology. Linear alkanes are selectively supplied from a hydrocarbon feed (consisting of branched and linear alkanes) through an inert tubular membrane to a packed bed of catalyst. The results indicate that n-, mono- and di-branched components in a gas mixture can be separated with a selectivity factor of greater than 20 with a zeolite membrane under dedicated parameter settings. The RON-value of the product was calculated to be as high as 90 in a single pass reactor, which is 50 points higher than the feed value. The flux through the membrane could be optimized to give a STY/ATY ratio for the reactor of 877 m-1, which falls within the limits of technical feasibility.

  13. The determination of neutron energy spectrum in reactor core C1 of reactor VR-1 Sparrow

    SciTech Connect

    Vins, M.

    2008-07-15

    This contribution overviews neutron spectrum measurement, which was done on training reactor VR-1 Sparrow with a new nuclear fuel. Former nuclear fuel IRT-3M was changed for current nuclear fuel IRT-4M with lower enrichment of 235U (enrichment was reduced from former 36% to 20%) in terms of Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program. Neutron spectrum measurement was obtained by irradiation of activation foils at the end of pipe of rabit system and consecutive deconvolution of obtained saturated activities. Deconvolution was performed by computer iterative code SAND-II with 620 groups' structure. All gamma measurements were performed on Canberra HPGe. Activation foils were chosen according physical and nuclear parameters from the set of certificated foils. The Resulting differential flux at the end of pipe of rabit system agreed well with typical spectrum of light water reactor. Measurement of neutron spectrum has brought better knowledge about new reactor core C1 and improved methodology of activation measurement. (author)

  14. Continuous flow Sonogashira C-C coupling using a heterogeneous palladium-copper dual reactor.

    PubMed

    Tan, Li-Min; Sem, Zhi-Yu; Chong, Wei-Yuan; Liu, Xiaoqian; Hendra; Kwan, Wei Lek; Lee, Chi-Lik Ken

    2013-01-04

    We report the development of a heterogeneous catalyst system on continuous flow chemistry. A palladium (Pd) coated tubular reactor was placed in line with copper (Cu) tubing using a continuous flow platform, and a Sonogashira C-C coupling reaction was used to evaluate the performance. The reactions were favorably carried out in the Cu reactor, catalyzed by the traces of leached Pd from the Pd reactor. The leached Pd and Cu were trapped with a metal scavaging resin at the back-end of the continuous flow system, affording a genuine approach toward green chemistry.

  15. Characterization of 14C in Swedish light water reactors.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Asa; Aronsson, Per-Olof; Lundgren, Klas; Stenström, Kristina

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a 4-y investigation of 14C in different waste streams of both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Due to the potential impact of 14C on human health, minimizing waste and releases from the nuclear power industry is of considerable interest. The experimental data and conclusions may be implemented to select appropriate waste management strategies and practices at reactor units and disposal facilities. Organic and inorganic 14C in spent ion exchange resins, process water systems, ejector off-gas and replaced steam generator tubes were analyzed using a recently developed extraction method. Separate analysis of the chemical species is of importance in order to model and predict the fate of 14C within process systems as well as in dose calculations for disposal facilities. By combining the results of this investigation with newly calculated production rates, mass balance assessments were made of the 14C originating from production in the coolant. Of the 14C formed in the coolant of BWRs, 0.6-0.8% was found to be accumulated in the ion exchange resins (core-specific production rate in the coolant of a 2,500 MWth BWR calculated to be 580 GBq GW(e)(-1) y(-1)). The corresponding value for PWRs was 6-10% (production rate in a 2,775 MWth PWR calculated to be 350 GBq GW(e)(-1) y(-1)). The 14C released with liquid discharges was found to be insignificant, constituting less than 0.5% of the production in the coolant. The stack releases, routinely measured at the power plants, were found to correspond to 60-155% of the calculated coolant production, with large variations between the BWR units.

  16. Chemical compatibility issues associated with use of SiC/SiC in advanced reactor concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Dane F.

    2015-09-01

    Silicon carbide/silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) composites are of interest for components that will experience high radiation fields in the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR), the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR), or the Fluoride-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR). In all of the reactor systems considered, reactions of SiC/SiC composites with the constituents of the coolant determine suitability of materials of construction. The material of interest is nuclear grade SiC/SiC composites, which consist of a SiC matrix [high-purity, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) SiC or liquid phase-sintered SiC that is crystalline beta-phase SiC containing small amounts of alumina-yttria impurity], a pyrolytic carbon interphase, and somewhat impure yet crystalline beta-phase SiC fibers. The interphase and fiber components may or may not be exposed, at least initially, to the reactor coolant. The chemical compatibility of SiC/SiC composites in the three reactor environments is highly dependent on thermodynamic stability with the pure coolant, and on reactions with impurities present in the environment including any ingress of oxygen and moisture. In general, there is a dearth of information on the performance of SiC in these environments. While there is little to no excess Si present in the new SiC/SiC composites, the reaction of Si with O2 cannot be ignored, especially for the FHR, in which environment the product, SiO2, can be readily removed by the fluoride salt. In all systems, reaction of the carbon interphase layer with oxygen is possible especially under abnormal conditions such as loss of coolant (resulting in increased temperature), and air and/ or steam ingress. A global outline of an approach to resolving SiC/SiC chemical compatibility concerns with the environments of the three reactors is presented along with ideas to quickly determine the baseline compatibility performance of SiC/SiC.

  17. The McDonaldization of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dennis, Ed.; Wynyard, Robin, Ed.

    The essays in this collection discuss the future of the university in the context of the "McDonaldization" of society and of academia. The idea of McDonaldization, a term coined by G. Ritzer (1998), provides a tool for looking at the university and its inevitable changes. The chapters are: (1) "Enchanting McUniversity: Toward a…

  18. George MacDonald's Estimate of Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridmore, John

    2007-01-01

    The nineteenth-century fantasy writer George MacDonald believed that "it is better to be a child in a green field than a knight of many orders." In this paper, I shall explore the bearing of this high estimate of childhood on spiritual education. MacDonald explores the spirituality of the child in his essay "A Sketch of Individual Development" and…

  19. EVALUATION OF ACTIVATION PRODUCTS IN REMAINING IN REMAINING K-, L- AND C-REACTOR STRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D.; Webb, R.

    2010-09-30

    An analytic model and calculational methodology was previously developed for P-reactor and R-reactor to quantify the radioisotopes present in Savannah River Site (SRS) reactor tanks and the surrounding structural materials as a result of neutron activation of the materials during reactor operation. That methodology has been extended to K-reactor, L-reactor, and C-reactor. The analysis was performed to provide a best-estimate source term input to the Performance Assessment for an in-situ disposition strategy by Site Decommissioning and Demolition (SDD). The reactor structure model developed earlier for the P-reactor and R-reactor analyses was also used for the K-reactor and L-reactor. The model was suitably modified to handle the larger Creactor tank and associated structures. For all reactors, the structure model consisted of 3 annular zones, homogenized by the amount of structural materials in the zone, and 5 horizontal layers. The curie content on an individual radioisotope basis and total basis for each of the regions was determined. A summary of these results are provided herein. The efficacy of this methodology to accurately predict the radioisotopic content of the reactor systems in question has been demonstrated and is documented in Reference 1. As noted in that report, results for one reactor facility cannot be directly extrapolated to other SRS reactors.

  20. Reactor User Interface Technology Development Roadmaps for a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Outlet Temperature of 750 degrees C

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Mckirdy

    2010-12-01

    This report evaluates the technology readiness of the interface components that are required to transfer high-temperature heat from a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) to selected industrial applications. This report assumes that the HTGR operates at a reactor outlet temperature of 750°C and provides electricity and/or process heat at 700°C to conventional process applications, including the production of hydrogen.

  1. Sir Donald Ross, pioneer aortic valve surgeon.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, David

    2015-06-01

    Tribute to Sir Donald Ross by David Wheatley, as read by Robert Kleinloog, President, Society of Cardiothoracic Surgeons of South Africa at the Annual Congress of the South African Heart Association 19 October 2014.

  2. APOLLO XII CREW - WELCOME - USS HORNET - REAR ADMIRAL DONALD DAVID

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-24

    S69-22876 (24 Nov. 1969) --- Rear Admiral Donald C. David, Commander, Manned Spacecraft Recovery Force, Pacific, welcomes the crew of the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission aboard the USS Hornet, prime recovery vessel for the mission. A color guard was also on hand for the welcoming ceremonies. Inside the Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) are (left to right) astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander; Richard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot; and Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot.

  3. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Szilard, L.

    1963-09-10

    A breeder reactor is described, including a mass of fissionable material that is less than critical with respect to unmoderated neutrons and greater than critical with respect to neutrons of average energies substantially greater than thermal, a coolant selected from sodium or sodium--potassium alloys, a control liquid selected from lead or lead--bismuth alloys, and means for varying the quantity of control liquid in the reactor. (AEC)

  4. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1961-07-25

    A means is described for co-relating the essential physical requirements of a fission chain reaction in order that practical, compact, and easily controllable reactors can be built. These objects are obtained by employing a composition of fissionsble isotope and moderator in fluid form in which the amount of fissionsble isotcpe present governs the reaction. The size of the reactor is no longer a critical factor, the new criterion being the concentration of the fissionable isotope.

  5. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Roman, W.G.

    1961-06-27

    A pressurized water reactor in which automatic control is achieved by varying the average density of the liquid moderator-cooiant is patented. Density is controlled by the temperature and power level of the reactor ftself. This control can be effected by the use of either plate, pellet, or tubular fuel elements. The fuel elements are disposed between upper and lower coolant plenum chambers and are designed to permit unrestricted coolant flow. The control chamber has an inlet opening communicating with the lower coolant plenum chamber and a restricted vapor vent communicating with the upper coolant plenum chamber. Thus, a variation in temperature of the fuel elements will cause a variation in the average moderator density in the chamber which directly affects the power level of the reactor.

  6. REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Spitzer, L. Jr.

    1961-10-01

    Thermonuclear reactors, methods, and apparatus are described for controlling and confining high temperature plasma. Main axial confining coils in combination with helical windings provide a rotational transform that avoids the necessity of a figure-eight shaped reactor tube. The helical windings provide a multipolar helical magnetic field transverse to the axis of the main axial confining coils so as to improve the effectiveness of the confining field by counteracting the tendency of the more central lines of force in the stellarator tube to exchange positions with the magnetic lines of force nearer the walls of the tube. (AEC)

  7. McDonald's Recipe for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2012-01-01

    Who isn't familiar with McDonald's? Its golden arches are among the most recognizable brand icons in the U.S. What many are less familiar with is the methodical and distinguished learning and development that supports that brand. Training that begins by preparing employees to serve customers at the counter, and extends to programs that help…

  8. McDonald's Recipe for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2012-01-01

    Who isn't familiar with McDonald's? Its golden arches are among the most recognizable brand icons in the U.S. What many are less familiar with is the methodical and distinguished learning and development that supports that brand. Training that begins by preparing employees to serve customers at the counter, and extends to programs that help…

  9. McDonald's vs Father Christmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Simpson, Amanda

    2004-01-01

    Mathematics in textbooks and indeed in conventional classrooms is often presented as exercises or worksheets in which the mathematics itself has been processed into a form that is easily digested. This McDonald's version of mathematics ensures that the mathematical skill or technique is laid bare and typically the sole focus of attention. In this…

  10. Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert M.

    1976-10-05

    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  11. Donald R. Nielsen New WRR Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robb, David W.

    Bridging the gap between the disciplines of engineering and agriculture is a major goal for Water Resources Research (WRR), says Donald R. Nielsen, who was appointed to a 4-year term as WRR editor, effective January 1, 1985. Nielsen succeeds Stephen J. Burges as the WRR editor for hydrology, physical, chemical, and biological sciences. Ronald G. Cummings, at the University of New Mexico, is the WRR editor for policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law.

  12. Improving queuing service at McDonald's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Hock Lye; Teh, Su Yean; Wong, Chin Keat; Lim, Hooi Kie; Migin, Melissa W.

    2014-07-01

    Fast food restaurants are popular among price-sensitive youths and working adults who value the conducive environment and convenient services. McDonald's chains of restaurants promote their sales during lunch hours by offering package meals which are perceived to be inexpensive. These promotional lunch meals attract good response, resulting in occasional long queues and inconvenient waiting times. A study is conducted to monitor the distribution of waiting time, queue length, customer arrival and departure patterns at a McDonald's restaurant located in Kuala Lumpur. A customer survey is conducted to gauge customers' satisfaction regarding waiting time and queue length. An android app named Que is developed to perform onsite queuing analysis and report key performance indices. The queuing theory in Que is based upon the concept of Poisson distribution. In this paper, Que is utilized to perform queuing analysis at this McDonald's restaurant with the aim of improving customer service, with particular reference to reducing queuing time and shortening queue length. Some results will be presented.

  13. Irradiation capsule for testing magnetic fusion reactor first-wall materials at 60 and 200/sup 0/C

    SciTech Connect

    Conlin, J.A.

    1985-08-01

    A new type of irradiation capsule has been designed, and a prototype has been tested in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) for low-temperature irradiation of Magnetic Fusion Reactor first-wall materials. The capsule meets the requirements of the joint US/Japanese collaborative fusion reactor materials irradiation program for the irradiation of first-wall fusion reactor materials at 60 and 200/sup 0/C. The design description and results of the prototype capsule performance are presented.

  14. Hydrogeological and Groundwater Flow Model for C, K, L, and P Reactor Areas, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.P.

    1999-02-24

    A regional groundwater flow model encompassing approximately 100 mi{sup 2} surrounding the C, K. L. and P reactor areas has been developed. The Reactor flow model is designed to meet the planning objectives outlined in the General Groundwater Strategy for Reactor Area Projects by providing a common framework for analyzing groundwater flow, contaminant migration and remedial alternatives within the Reactor Projects team of the Environmental Restoration Department.

  15. 78 FR 15747 - Charlissa C. Smith (Denial of Senior Reactor Operator License)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Charlissa C. Smith (Denial of Senior Reactor Operator License) Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution Pursuant to 10 CFR 2.313(c) and 2.321(b), the Atomic Safety and...

  16. Report on the lunar ranging at McDonald Observatory, 1 February - 31 May 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palm, C. S.; Wiant, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    The four spring lunations produced 105 acquisitions, including the 2000th range measurement made at McDonald Observatory. Statistics were normal for the spring months. Laser and electronics problems are noted. The Loran-C station delay was corrected. Preliminary doubles data is shown. New magnetic tape data formats are presented. R and D efforts include a new laser modification design.

  17. 14C content in vegetation in the vicinities of Brazilian nuclear power reactors.

    PubMed

    Dias, Cíntia Melazo; Santos, Roberto Ventura; Stenström, Kristina; Nícoli, Iêda Gomes; Skog, Göran; da Silveira Corrêa, Rosangela

    2008-07-01

    (14)C specific activities were measured in grass samples collected around Brazilian nuclear power reactors. The specific activity values varied between 227 and 299 Bq/kg C. Except for two samples which showed (14)C specific activities 22% above background values, half of the samples showed background specific activities, and the other half had a (14)C excess of 1-18%. The highest specific activities were found close to the nuclear power plants and along the main wind directions (NE and NNE). The activity values were found to decrease with increasing distance from the reactors. The unexpectedly high (14)C excess values found in two samples were related to the local topography, which favors (14)C accumulation and limits the dispersion of the plume. The results indicate a clear (14)C anthropogenic signal within 5 km around the nuclear power plants which is most prominent along northeastwards, the prevailing wind direction.

  18. Finding the Heartbeat: Applying Donald Graves's Approaches and Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koshewa, Allen

    2011-01-01

    Donald Graves's early professional books inspired Koshewa to look more deeply into student writing during the 1980s, and to value all phases of the writing process. Graves's perspective on uncovering and celebrating voice elevated Koshewa's writing instruction to a new plane. In this article, he writes about the impact that Donald Graves's work…

  19. Finding the Heartbeat: Applying Donald Graves's Approaches and Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koshewa, Allen

    2011-01-01

    Donald Graves's early professional books inspired Koshewa to look more deeply into student writing during the 1980s, and to value all phases of the writing process. Graves's perspective on uncovering and celebrating voice elevated Koshewa's writing instruction to a new plane. In this article, he writes about the impact that Donald Graves's work…

  20. The "McDonaldization" of Higher Education: Food for Thought?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, David

    1995-01-01

    Identifies the components of the current social trend, "McDonaldization", as efficiency, calculability, predictability, and the substitution of nonhuman technology for human technology (or control). Contends that market forces and mass production have imposed "McDonaldization," on the British educational system. Considers…

  1. Ronald McDonald Sagt: "Herzlich Willkommen in Deutschland!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumann, Bertha

    A self-instructional unit for first-year high school students of German is presented which is designed to familiarize the student with McDonald's in a German city and to increase appreciation of the similarities and differences between a McDonald's in America and one in Germany. Notes to the teacher outline specific objectives, student evaluation,…

  2. Experience in Collaboration: McDenver at McDonald's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Clarice Sue

    2002-01-01

    The McDenver at McDonald's project provided a nontraditional, community-based teaching and learning environment for faculty and students in a health, physical education, and recreation (HPER) department and a school of nursing. Children and parents come to McDonald's, children received developmental screenings, and parents completed conferences…

  3. Grooms receives 2011 Donald L. Turcotte Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-02-01

    Ian Grooms has been awarded the AGU Donald L. Turcotte Award, given annually to recent Ph.D. recipients for outstanding dissertation research that contributes directly to the field of nonlinear geophysics. Grooms's thesis is entitled “Asymptotic and numerical methods for rapidly rotating buoyant flow.” He presented an invited talk and was formally presented with the award at the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, held 5-9 December in San Francisco, Calif. Grooms received his B.S. in mathematics from the College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Va., in 2005. He received a Ph.D. in applied mathematics in 2011 under the supervision of Keith Julien at the University of Colorado at Boulder. His research interests include asymptotic and numerical methods for multiscale problems in geophysical fluid dynamics.

  4. Pragmatic Leadership Advice from Donald Rumsfeld

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teany, Douglas R.

    2003-01-01

    When President Gerald Ford appointed Donald Rumsfeld as his Secretary of Defense in 1975, Rumsfeld became the youngest defense secretary in US. history. Today, as defense secretary for President George W. Bush, Rumsfeld is the most senior appointee to hold that post. Between political assignments, he became an expert at turning around troubled corporations. His work at G.D. Searle-now a subsidiary of Pharmacia-earned him awards as an outstanding chief executive officer in the pharmaceutical industry. Rumsfeld's management philosophy is unique and direct, and the best part is he's written it down. While serving in the Ford administration, Rumsfeld wrote a white paper titled Rumsfeld's Rules. These rules were written as guiding principles for White House staff. First published in 1980, the rules were revised and expanded in 2001 to include broader insights on management, work and leadership. They reflect more than 40 years of Rumsfeld's wisdom and experience.

  5. Donald H. Menzel: Scientist, Educator Builder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, J. M.; Gingerich, O.; Layzer, D.; Noyes, R. W.; Parkinson, W. H.; Welther, B.

    2001-05-01

    A centennial symposium in honor of Donald H. Menzel was held at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics on May 11, 2001. Menzel was known especially for his studies of the solar chromosphere, for his theoretical work on gaseous nebulae, and for his role in founding the Sacramento Peak and High Altitude observatories and in bringing the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory to Cambridge. Menzel received his Ph.D. at Princeton, where he was fascinated and excited by the lectures of Henry Norris Russell about the new theoretical astrophysics. At Lick Observatory, Menzel investigated the solar chromosphere using solar eclipse spectra, and published the results in a major volume in 1931. The value for the mean molecular weight he deduced for the lower chromosphere helped persuade Russell and others that hydrogen was the major constituent of the solar atmosphere, as Cecilia Payne had intimated earlier. Menzel's studies of solar eclipse spectra also led him to propose, in a paper written with R. T. Birge, that hydrogen had an isotope of mass 2, a suggestion that motivated Harold Urey to isolate the isotope (deuterium) chemically. Menzel joined the Harvard faculty in 1932. His interest in investigating the sun led him to observe more than a dozen solar eclipses, to exploit the coronagraph, and to found two solar observatories: at Climax, Colorado, and at Sunspot, New Mexico. He served as Director of the Harvard College Observatory from 1952 to 1966. During this time he suggested bringing and arranged to bring the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory to Harvard. Speakers at the symposium on Menzel's life, times, and scientific legacy included Donald Osterbrock, David DeVorkin, David Layzer, Jay Pasachoff, Barbara Welther, Thomas Bogdan, Jack Zirker, and France Cordova. The organizing committee was Owen Gingerich, David Layzer, Robert Noyes, William Parkinson, Jay Pasachoff, and Barbara Welther.

  6. Advanced Reactor Licensing: Experience with Digital I&C Technology in Evolutionary Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, RT

    2004-09-27

    This report presents the findings from a study of experience with digital instrumentation and controls (I&C) technology in evolutionary nuclear power plants. In particular, this study evaluated regulatory approaches employed by the international nuclear power community for licensing advanced l&C systems and identified lessons learned. The report (1) gives an overview of the modern l&C technologies employed at numerous evolutionary nuclear power plants, (2) identifies performance experience derived from those applications, (3) discusses regulatory processes employed and issues that have arisen, (4) captures lessons learned from performance and regulatory experience, (5) suggests anticipated issues that may arise from international near-term deployment of reactor concepts, and (6) offers conclusions and recommendations for potential activities to support advanced reactor licensing in the United States.

  7. A biographical memoir of Donald Edward White

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muffler, L. J. Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Donald E. White was a leading scientist for the U.S. Geological Survey, where his career was devoted almost entirely to the study of hydrothermal processes in the Earth’s crust, from the dual perspectives of active geothermal systems and of extinct hydrothermal systems now represented only by ore deposits and alteration patterns. White was devoted to analyzing the mechanisms by which ore-forming metals are concentrated, transported, and deposited. His early work on antimony deposits and on mercury transport led to the understanding that these elements, as well as some precious metals, were concentrated in hydrothermal convection systems characterized by dilute chloride waters of predominantly meteoric origin. He concluded, on the other hand, that base metals required more concentrated brines, as was impressively confirmed in the early 1960s by the discovery of the metal-rich fluids of the Salton Sea geothermal system and subsequently by the recognition of sulfide-depositing hydrothermal systems on the sea floor. His studies of active hot-spring systems elucidated the principles of geyser activity and provided the scientific foundation for research programs aimed at the understanding of geothermal systems throughout the world.

  8. SiC Semiconductor Detector Power Monitors for Space Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Reisi Fard, Mehdi; Blue, Thomas E.; Miller, Don W.

    2004-02-04

    As a part of a Department of Energy-Nuclear Engineering Research Initiative (NERI) Project, we are investigating SiC semiconductor detectors as power monitors for Generation IV power reactors. SiC detectors are well-suited as power monitors for reactors for space nuclear propulsion, due to their characteristics of small size, mass, and power consumption; mechanical ruggedness; radiation hardness; capability for high temperature operation; and potential for pulse mode operation at high count rates, which may allow for a reduction in the complexity of the reactor instrumentation and control system, as well as allow for verification of detector sensitivity, verification of channel operability, and channel self-repair. In this paper, a mathematical model of a SiC detector is presented. The model includes a description of the formation of electron-hole pairs in a SiC diode detector, using the computer code TRIM. The TRIM results are used as input to a MATLAB simulation of detector current output pulse formation, the results of which are intended for use as the input to a model of the detector channel as a whole.

  9. Regional groundwater flow model for C, K. L. and P reactor areas, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.P.

    2000-02-11

    A regional groundwater flow model encompassing approximately 100 mi2 surrounding the C, K, L, and P reactor areas has been developed. The reactor flow model is designed to meet the planning objectives outlined in the General Groundwater Strategy for Reactor Area Projects by providing a common framework for analyzing groundwater flow, contaminant migration and remedial alternatives within the Reactor Projects team of the Environmental Restoration Department. The model provides a quantitative understanding of groundwater flow on a regional scale within the near surface aquifers and deeper semi-confined to confined aquifers. The model incorporates historical and current field characterization data up through Spring 1999. Model preprocessing is automated so that future updates and modifications can be performed quickly and efficiently. The CKLP regional reactor model can be used to guide characterization, perform scoping analyses of contaminant transport, and serve as a common base for subsequent finer-scale transport and remedial/feasibility models for each reactor area.

  10. C-O bond Formation in a Microfluidic Reactor: High Yield SNAr Substitution of Heteroaryl Chlorides.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohammad Parvez; Jagodzinska, Barbara; Campagna, Jesus; Spilman, Patricia; John, Varghese

    2016-05-11

    This study describes our development of a novel and efficient procedure for C-O bond formation under mild conditions, for coupling heteroaryl chlorides with phenols or primary aliphatic alcohols. We utilized a continuous-flow microfluidic reactor for C-O bond formation in electron-deficient pyrimidines and pyridines in a much more facile manner with a cleaner reaction profile, high yield, quick scalability and without the need for the transition metal catalyst. This approach can be of general utility to make C-O bond containing intermediates of industrial importance in a continuous and safe manner.

  11. 118. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    118. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April 29, 1940. EAST TRANSEPT MURAL, 'CHILDHOOD OF VIRGIN MARY'. (NORTH ELEVATION) - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  12. 164. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    164. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April 8, 1940. HAND WROUGHT HARDWARE (EAST ELEVATION). WEST NAVE TO PATIO - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  13. 183. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    183. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April 2, 1940. PENDENTIVE MURAL - SACRISTY - 'ST. ISADORE OF SPAIN'. (NORTHEAST ELEVATION). - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  14. 96. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    96. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. March 29, 1940. ST. XAVIER (SOUTH ELEVATION). (STATUE ON INVENTORY OF 1797 - ONE OF OLDEST IN MISSION). HIGH ALTAR - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  15. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey., Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. January ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic American Buildings Survey., Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. January 24, 1940. DETAIL OF SIDE ENTRANCE. (SOUTH ELEVATION). - Don Jose Albino Baca House, Old Santa Fe Trail, Las Vegas, San Miguel County, NM

  16. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey., Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. January ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey., Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. January 23, 1940. ENTRANCE DETAIL (SOUTH ELEVATION). - Don Jose Albino Baca House, Old Santa Fe Trail, Las Vegas, San Miguel County, NM

  17. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey., Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. January ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey., Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. January 24, 1940 (NORTHEAST ELEVATION). - Don Jose Albino Baca House, Old Santa Fe Trail, Las Vegas, San Miguel County, NM

  18. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey., Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. January ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey., Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. January 24, 1940 General View (North East Elevation). - Don Jose Albino Baca House, Old Santa Fe Trail, Las Vegas, San Miguel County, NM

  19. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey., Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey., Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. May 10, 1940. PATIO (SOUTH ELEVATION). - Don Jose Albino Baca House, Old Santa Fe Trail, Las Vegas, San Miguel County, NM

  20. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey., Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. January ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey., Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. January 23, 1940. GENERAL VIEW (SOUTH ELEVATION). - Don Jose Albino Baca House, Old Santa Fe Trail, Las Vegas, San Miguel County, NM

  1. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey., Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey., Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. May 10, 1940 GENERAL VIEW (EAST ELEVATION). - Don Jose Albino Baca House, Old Santa Fe Trail, Las Vegas, San Miguel County, NM

  2. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey., Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. January ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey., Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. January 24, 1940 Patio (WEST ELEVATION). - Don Jose Albino Baca House, Old Santa Fe Trail, Las Vegas, San Miguel County, NM

  3. Mission Specialist Donald A. Thomas prepares to enter Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-83 Mission Specialist Donald A. Thomas prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Columbia at Launch Pad 39A with assistance from white room closeout crew members (from left) Rick Welty, Bob Saulnier, and Rene Arriens.

  4. 47. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. March 28, 1940. FLUTED CEILING AND HEADING ON STAIRWAYS. (EAST ELEVATION). - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  5. 45. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. March 27, 1940. FLUTED CEILING - STAIRWAY TO WEST TOWER. (SOUTH ELEVATION). - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  6. 78. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. March 29, 1940. ST. JOSEPH, SACRED HEART. (SOUTH ELEVATION). WEST TRANSEPT - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  7. 53. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. March 24, 1940. THE CIMBORIO, PARAPETS, LIONS, FINIALS. (SOUTHWEST ELEVATION) - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  8. 152. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    152. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. March 28, 1940. PENDENTIVE MURAL - CHOIR LOFT - ST. MARK WITH LION. (NORTHEAST ELEVATION) - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  9. 57. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April 10, 1940. LIONS HEAD, FINIAL, MAIN CHURCH. (NORTH ELEVATION). - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  10. 205. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    205. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April 10, 1940. LIONS and COLUMNS, HILL OF THE CROSS (SOUTHWEST ELEVATION). - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  11. 186. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    186. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. March 29, 1940. CONFESSIONAL AND ORIGINAL CHAIR. (NORTH ELEVATION). - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  12. 169. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    169. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. March 29, 1940. HOLY WATER FOUNT. WEST WALL OF NAVE. (EAST ELEVATION). - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  13. 117. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. March 29, 1940. 'OUR LADY OF THE ROSARY'. EAST TRANSEPT MURAL. (NORTH ELEVATION). - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  14. 90. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. March 29, 1940. PAINTED DOOR. WEST WALL MAIN ALTAR. (EAST ELEVATION). - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  15. 23. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April 8, 1940. MAIN FACADE, BALCONY VIGAS (SOUTH ELEVATION). - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  16. 158. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    158. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April 2, 1940. MURAL EAST SIDE NAVE. 'DESCENT OF THE HOLY GHOST'. (WEST ELEVATION). - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  17. 25. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April 8, 1940. ST. 'LUCY' or 'LUCIA'. (SOUTH ELEVATION). FACADE - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  18. 116. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    116. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April 29, 1940. MEDALLION - ST. ELIZABETH OF HUNGARY. NICHE - ST. FIDELIS. (NORTHWEST ELEVATION). EAST TRANSEPT - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  19. ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL FOR HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING GROUTING OPERATIONS IN C-REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.

    2011-07-12

    C-reactor disassembly basin is being prepared for deactivation and decommissioning (D and D). D and D activities will consist primarily of immobilizing contaminated scrap components and structures in a grout-like formulation. The disassembly basin will be the first area of the C-reactor building that will be immobilized. The scrap components contain aluminum alloy materials. Any aluminum will corrode very rapidly when it comes in contact with the very alkaline grout (pH > 13), and as a result would produce hydrogen gas. To address this potential deflagration/explosion hazard, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) reviewed and evaluated existing experimental and analytical studies of this issue to determine if any process constraints are necessary. The risk of accumulation of a flammable mixture of hydrogen above the surface of the water during the injection of grout into the C-reactor disassembly area is low if the assessment of the aluminum surface area is reliable. Conservative calculations estimate that there is insufficient aluminum present in the basin areas to result in significant hydrogen accumulation in this local region. The minimum safety margin (or factor) on a 60% LFL criterion for a local region of the basin (i.e., Horizontal Tube Storage) was greater than 3. Calculations also demonstrated that a flammable situation in the vapor space above the basin is unlikely. Although these calculations are conservative, there are some measures that may be taken to further minimize the risk of developing a flammable condition during grouting operations.

  20. Apollo 12 crew welcomed aboard U.S.S. Hornet by Rear Admiral Donald David

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Rear Admiral Donald C. David, Commander, Manned Spacecraft Recovery Force, Pacific, welcomes the crew of the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, prime recovery vessel for the mission. A color guard was also on hand for the welcoming ceremonies. Inside the Mobile Quarantine Facility are (left to right) Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander; Richard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot; and Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot.

  1. Irradiation creep of various ferritic alloys irradiated {approximately}400 C in the PFR and FFTF reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Toloczko, M.B.; Garner, F.A.; Eiholzer, C.R.

    1998-03-01

    Three ferritic alloys were irradiated in two fast reactors to doses of 50 dpa or more at temperatures near 400 C. One martensitic alloy, HT9, was irradiated in both the FFTF and PFR reactors. PFR is the Prototype Fast Reactor in Dourneay, Scotland, and FFTF is the Fast Flux Test Facility in Richland, WA. D57 is a developmental alloy that was irradiated in PFR only, and MA957 is a Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersion-hardened ferritic alloy that was irradiated only in FFTF. These alloys exhibited little or no void swelling at {approximately}400 C. Depending on the alloy starting condition, these steels develop a variety of non-creep strains early in the irradiation that are associated with phase changes. Each of these alloys creeps at a rate that is significantly lower than that of austenitic steels irradiated in the same experiments. The creep compliance for ferritic alloys in general appears to be {approximately}0.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} MPa{sup {minus}1} dpa{sup {minus}1}, independent of both composition and starting state. The addition of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a dispersoid does not appear to change the creep behavior.

  2. ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE HEATING OF SOILS AT C-REACTOR AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Blundy, R; Michael Morgenstern, M; Joseph Amari, J; Annamarie MacMurray, A; Mark Farrar, M; Terry Killeen, T

    2007-09-10

    Chlorinated solvent contamination of soils and groundwater is an endemic problem at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and originated as by-products from the nuclear materials manufacturing process. Five nuclear reactors at the SRS produced special nuclear materials for the nation's defense program throughout the cold war era. An important step in the process was thorough degreasing of the fuel and target assemblies prior to irradiation. Discharges from this degreasing process resulted in significant groundwater contamination that would continue well into the future unless a soil remediation action was performed. The largest reactor contamination plume originated from C-Reactor and an interim action was selected in 2004 to remove the residual trichloroethylene (TCE) source material by electrical resistance heating (ERH) technology. This would be followed by monitoring to determine the rate of decrease in concentration in the contaminant plume. Because of the existence of numerous chlorinated solvent sources around SRS, it was elected to generate in-house expertise in the design and operation of ERH, together with the construction of a portable ERH/SVE system that could be deployed at multiple locations around the site. This paper describes the waste unit characteristics, the ERH system design and operation, together with extensive data accumulated from the first deployment adjacent to the C-Reactor building. The installation heated the vadose zone down to 62 feet bgs over a 60 day period during the summer of 2006 and raised soil temperatures to over 200 F. A total of 730 lbs of trichloroethylene (TCE) were removed over this period, and subsequent sampling indicated a removal efficiency of 99.4%.

  3. 10 CFR 72.108 - Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater than Class C waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor... RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Siting Evaluation Factors § 72.108 Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater than Class C waste transportation. The...

  4. 10 CFR 72.108 - Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater than Class C waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor... RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Siting Evaluation Factors § 72.108 Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater than Class C waste transportation. The...

  5. 10 CFR 72.108 - Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater than Class C waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor... RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Siting Evaluation Factors § 72.108 Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater than Class C waste transportation....

  6. 10 CFR 72.108 - Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater than Class C waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor... RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Siting Evaluation Factors § 72.108 Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater than Class C waste transportation....

  7. 10 CFR 72.108 - Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater than Class C waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor... RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Siting Evaluation Factors § 72.108 Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater than Class C waste transportation....

  8. Nitrifying-denitrifying filters and UV-C disinfection reactor: a combined system for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ben Rajeb, Asma; Mehri, Inès; Nasr, Houda; Najjari, Afef; Saidi, Neila; Hassen, Abdennaceur

    2017-03-01

    Biological treatment systems use the natural processes of ubiquitous organisms to remove pollutants and improve the water quality before discharge to the environment. In this paper, the nitrification/denitrification reactor allowed a reduction in organic load, but offered a weak efficiency in nitrate reduction. However, the additions of the activated sludge in the reactor improve this efficiency. A decrease of [Formula: see text] values from 13.3 to 8 mg/l was noted. Nevertheless, sludge inoculation led to a net increase of the number of pathogenic bacteria. For this reason, a UV-C pilot reactor was installed at the exit of the biological nitrification-denitrification device. Thus, a fluence of 50 mJ.cm(-2) was sufficient to achieve values of 20 MPN/100 ml for fecal coliform and 6 MPN/100 ml for fecal streptococci, conforms to Tunisian Standards of Rejection. On the other hand, the DGGE approach has allowed a direct assessment of the bacterial community changes upon the treated wastewater.

  9. The performance of a combined nitritation-anammox reactor treating anaerobic digestion supernatant under various C/N ratios.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Zuo, Jiane; Lin, Jia; Li, Peng

    2015-04-01

    A combined nitritation-anammox reactor was developed to treat the digestion supernatant under various C/N ratios. Due to the difficulties for heterotroph to utilize the refractory organics, the reactor presented relatively stable performance with increasing supernatant addition. Nevertheless, the adverse effects of supernatant would accumulate during the long-term operation and thus weakened the activity and shock resistance of microbes, which further led to the gradual decrease of reactor performance after 92 days' operation. Under this circumstance, supernatant with volatile fatty acids (VFAs) residuals was further introduced into the reactor to investigate the performance of combined nitritation-anammox process with VFA addition. With the appearance of VFAs, the nitrogen removal performance gradually restored and the reactor finally achieved stable and efficient performance with C/N ratio of 0.35. The VFA residuals within 150 mg/L in the supernatant served as the extra electron donors and stimulated the heterotrophic denitrification process, which was vital for the enhancement of reactor. The nitrogen removal rate and total nitrogen removal efficiency reached 0.49 kg N/(m3·day) and 88.8% after 140 days' operation, respectively. The combined nitritation-anammox reactor was proved suitable to treat digestion supernatant. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Obituary: Donald Alexander Macrae, 1916-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaquist, E. R.

    2007-12-01

    With the passing of Donald Alexander MacRae on 6 December 2006 at age 90, the astronomy community lost a visionary scientist and a great educator in the field. Don MacRae was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, on 19 February 1916, to Donald Alexander and Laura Geddes (Barnstead) MacRae. His father was originally a classics scholar and preceptor of Greek and Latin at Princeton, but at the time of Don's birth in 1916 he was Dean of the Dalhousie Law School in Halifax. The family moved to Toronto, Ontario, in 1924 when his father joined the faculty of Osgoode Hall Law School in Toronto as a Professor of Law. After the family moved to Toronto, where he received most of his early education, he obtained his undergraduate degree in Mathematics and Physics in 1937 from the University of Toronto (U of T). He obtained the degree of A.M. in 1940 and of Ph.D. in 1943 from Harvard University under the mentorship of Bart Bok in the field of galactic structure. During his early career he worked briefly at the University of Pennsylvania, Cornell University, and Carbide and Chemical Corporation at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. For Don the latter work was a brief and somewhat uneasy association with the Manhattan Project. In 1946, he obtained a position at Case Institute of Technology (now Case Western Reserve University), where he worked until 1953. In 1953, he accepted a position at the U of T, replacing Ralph Williamson, who had earlier introduced Don to the emerging field of radio astronomy while they both were at Cornell. Don's primary research field was stellar spectroscopy, but his interests were much broader than this, and he possessed an abiding ability to interest students and faculty in new and emerging ideas. In the early 1960s he developed a strong interest in the nature and origin of the lunar surface, and discussed these extensively with colleagues. Many of his ideas on this subject were later confirmed by the lunar exploration program. Don's continuing interest in radio astronomy

  11. 75 FR 30077 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Digital I&C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Digital I&C Systems The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation and Control (DI&C) Systems will hold a meeting on... Digital Instrumentation and Control (DI&C) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). Topics will include...

  12. 75 FR 51499 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C Systems The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation and Controls (I&C) Systems will hold a meeting on...--8:30 a.m. until 12 p.m. The Subcommittee will review Digital I&C Interim Staff Guidance on...

  13. McDonaldization, Islamic teachings, and funerary practices in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Zafar

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on George Ritzer's sociological concept of McDonaldization, this article explores the transformation of burial practices in Kuwait. It is argued that traditional, religious, and private ways of dealing with death have been modernized using the fast-food model of McDonald's. This article examines Islamic teachings on burial and how that model has been applied to the traditional Muslim funerary services, including cemetery management, grave excavation, funeral prayers, burial, and condolences, to make them more efficient vis-a-vis more profitable. Based on personal observations and random interviews, the study finds that the state bureaucracy in Kuwait has made burial rituals more efficient, standardized, calculable, and controlled. Furthermore, several associated irrationalities are also considered. Findings suggest that some individuals may not be happy with these changes but there is no popular resistance to McDonaldization of the burial practices, probably due to the authoritarian and welfare nature of the State of Kuwait.

  14. The Paediatric Cardiology Hall of Fame – Donald Nixon Ross.

    PubMed

    Somerville, Jane

    2015-10-01

    Donald Nixon Ross, FRCS (4 October 1922 to 7 July 2014) was a South African-born British cardiothoracic surgeon, who developed the pulmonary autograft, known as the Ross procedure, for the treatment of aortic valve disease, and also performed the first heart transplant in the United Kingdom in 1968. This paper, written by Jane Somerville, Professor of Cardiology [Retired], Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, provides the personal recollections about Donald Ross from Jane Somerville, and thus provides a unique snapshot of cardiac surgical history.

  15. Model of a two-stage rf plasma reactor for SiC deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, G. M.; Giuliani, J. L.

    2001-07-01

    A reactor is proposed for plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition of silicon carbide (SiC) at low pressure (˜few Torr). The inductively coupled plasma lies upstream of the growth substrate and serves to dissociate the precursor silane/propane/hydrogen inlet gas. Unlike existing reactors, the design offers the potential for separate control of the temperature in the dissociation region and at the growth substrate. The geometrical parameters and flow conditions appropriate for SiC growth are analyzed with a one-dimensional flow simulation model which includes approximations for lateral diffusive losses to cold walls as well as deposition to the substrate. Twenty-one neutral species and 24 ions are followed with 179 reactions. At 3 Torr, 10 W/cm3, and 300 cm/s inlet flow velocity, the model predicts a growth rate of ˜3 μm/h downstream from the plasma. Negligible ion density exists over the substrate as long as the silane density is sufficiently large due to a feedback process between Si+ and SiH4. Besides heating the gas, the plasma is an efficient source of radical H atoms, which in turn control the abundance of some hydrocarbon species over the substrate. C2H2 is the dominant contributor to the C-bearing flux onto the substrate and the Si atom, which forms by electron reactions, is the most important Si-bearing species. Finally, a sensitive transition in deposition rate is found for the C-bearing species as the power increases from 5 to 10 W/cm3.

  16. Design and Testing of D.C. Conduction Pump for Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Nashine, B.K.; Dash, S.K.; Gurumurthy, K.; Rajan, M.; Vaidyanathan, G.

    2006-07-01

    DC Conduction pump immersed in sodium forms a part of Failed Fuel Location Module (FFLM) of 500 MWe Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) currently under construction. FFLM housed in control plug of the reactor, is used to locate the failed fuel sub-assembly due to clad rupture in the fuel pin. The DC conduction pump sucks the sodium from the top of fuel sub-assemblies through the selector valve and pumps the sodium to hold up for detecting the presence of delayed neutrons. Presence of delayed neutron is the indication of failure in the sampled fuel sub-assembly. The DC Conduction Pump was chosen because of its low voltage operation (2 V) where argon/alumina ceramic can provide required electrical insulation even at operating temperature of 560 deg. C without much complication on the manufacturing front. Sampling of sodium from top of different sub-assemblies is achieved by operation of selector valve in-conjunction with the drive motor. FFLM requires the pump to be immersed in sodium pool at {approx} 560 deg. C located above the fuel sub-assemblies in the reactor. The Pump of 0.36 m{sup 3}/h capacity and developing 1.45 Kg/ cm{sup 2} pressure was designed, manufactured and tested. The DC Conduction Pump has a stainless steel duct filled with liquid sodium, which is to be pumped. The stainless steel duct is kept in magnetic field obtained by means of electromagnet. The electromagnet is made of soft iron and the coil made of copper conductor surrounds the yoke portion of electromagnet. The external DC source of 2000 Amps, 2 Volt is used to send current through sodium placed in the stainless steel duct and the same current is sent through copper coil of electromagnet for producing required magneto motive force, which in turn produces required magnetic field. The interaction of current in sodium (placed in stainless steel duct) and magnetic field produced by the electromagnet in the duct region produces pumping force in the sodium. Electromagnet, copper coil, stainless steel

  17. 78 FR 50457 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C will hold a briefing on September 19, 2013, Room T... identification of digital system failure modes and use of hazard analysis methods for digital safety systems....

  18. 77 FR 67688 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C will hold a meeting on November 16, 2012, Room...

  19. 76 FR 7882 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C Systems The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation & Control (DI&C) Systems will hold a meeting...

  20. Donald Graves in Australia--"Children Want to Write ..."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshe, R. D., Ed.

    The articles in this collection are intended to present a detailed picture of the work of Donald Graves and his associates at the Writing Process Laboratory (WPL) of the University of New Hampshire. The introduction provides an overview of the work of Graves and examines his views of beginning writing, writing conferences, revision, audience, and…

  1. Donald Norman's "The Invisible Computer" and Its Implications for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Joanne M.

    In "The Invisible Computer," Donald Norman illustrates his theory of invisible computers turning into information appliances with examples of past inventions like the radio, automobile, and phonograph. Second generation computers have evolved as far as technology will allow. At the present time, the technology itself is the driving force…

  2. Preschoolers' Author-illustrator Study of Donald Crews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meacham, Sohyun; Meacham, Shuaib; Kirkland-Holmes, Gloria; Han, Myae

    2017-01-01

    This teaching tip reports a case of an author-illustrator study of Donald Crews. It discusses the suitability of his books for an author-illustrator study in preschool classrooms and emphasizes the significance of his work for family literacy among racial and ethnic minority groups. A Head Start classroom of preschoolers investigated Crews's books…

  3. Bridge Suture for Successful McDonald Emergency Cerclage.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Hori, Yoshiaki; Shirafuji, Aya; Kato, Mitsunori; Kato, Jyun; Kobayashi, Hiroto; Tsuchida, Toru; Fukae, Tsukasa

    2017-01-01

    To create awareness about a surgical technique termed bridge suture, which is performed as a pretreatment before a McDonald cerclage is performed on an emergency to treat severe cervical insufficiency. Procedures for bridge suture were reviewed in detail and outcomes of 16 patients treated with bridge suture followed by McDonald cerclage were evaluated retrospectively. Using the bridge suture, the edges of uterine cervix were temporarily sutured and the external uterine os was closed, while the hourglass-shaped fetal membranes were concomitantly confined within the cervix; subsequently, a McDonald cerclage was performed. Over a 22-year period, 16 patients with a dilated cervix and bulging fetal membranes were treated using the technique of bridge suture followed by an emergency cerclage. The mean gestational age at cerclage was 22.5 weeks; the mean gestational age at delivery was 30.7 weeks; and the mean interval between cerclage and delivery was 8.2 weeks. In 15 out of 16 cases, cerclage was performed without encountering any complications. No maternal complications, including cervical laceration, were observed. The mean body weight of 17 neonates, including that of a twin, was 1,516 g and of them, 15 neonates survived. The important outcome of bridge suture is the replacement of fetal membranes back into the uterine cavity before McDonald's cerclage is performed. Pretreatment with bridge suture may facilitate the performance of a successful emergency cerclage and contribute to good maternal and neonatal outcomes. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Reconsiderations: Donald Murray and the Pedagogy of Surprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballenger, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Toward the end of his life, Donald Murray felt that his approach to writing instruction was no longer appreciated by journals in his field. Nevertheless, his emphasis on encouraging students to surprise themselves through informal writing still has considerable value. (Contains 1 note.)

  5. Conference Teaching: A Response to Donald M. Murray

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasourelis, John Paul

    2006-01-01

    This instructional note describes the successful application and adaptation of teacher-student conference techniques as suggested by Donald M. Murray in his book "A Writer Teaches Writing." Athanasourelis states that while he believes that Murray overestimates students' abilities when he describes the conference process as "the working talk of…

  6. Aloneness and the Complicated Selves of Donald M. Murray

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines Donald M. Murray's ideas about what he considered the essential solitude of all writing and what happens within that solitude. Murray, a pioneer of the process and modern expressivism movements in composition, identified a number of forces that he felt were at work within his mind whenever he wrote; this complicated aloneness…

  7. Reconsiderations: Donald Murray and the Pedagogy of Surprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballenger, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Toward the end of his life, Donald Murray felt that his approach to writing instruction was no longer appreciated by journals in his field. Nevertheless, his emphasis on encouraging students to surprise themselves through informal writing still has considerable value. (Contains 1 note.)

  8. Aloneness and the Complicated Selves of Donald M. Murray

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines Donald M. Murray's ideas about what he considered the essential solitude of all writing and what happens within that solitude. Murray, a pioneer of the process and modern expressivism movements in composition, identified a number of forces that he felt were at work within his mind whenever he wrote; this complicated aloneness…

  9. Conference Teaching: A Response to Donald M. Murray

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasourelis, John Paul

    2006-01-01

    This instructional note describes the successful application and adaptation of teacher-student conference techniques as suggested by Donald M. Murray in his book "A Writer Teaches Writing." Athanasourelis states that while he believes that Murray overestimates students' abilities when he describes the conference process as "the working talk of…

  10. McDonald and Company Securities Library User Survey, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfgram, Derek E.

    The library of McDonald and Company Securities is important to the success of the business and its employees. This study assesses the needs and expectations of the library users, and analyzes how well the current library services are meeting those needs and expectations. A questionnaire was distributed to a large random sample of the firm's…

  11. Computers, Kids and Writing: An Interview with Donald Graves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, John O.

    1984-01-01

    Writing expert Donald Graves discusses various issues related to writing and computers, suggesting that word processors can help bring out the natural writers in students. Six tips for conducting successful writing conferences are listed and discussed with sample student and teacher commentary. Software to improve writing skills is also discussed.…

  12. Training for QSC: How McDonald's Makes Library Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aycock, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Written by a former McDonald's manager who earned a master's degree in library science, this article describes how "QSC"--quality, services, and cleanliness--can be applied to libraries in the same way it is used by restaurants. Argues that libraries are simply businesses that cater to customers. (Contains 42 references.) (NB)

  13. Deconstructing the McGurk-MacDonald Illusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Alsius, Agnes

    2009-01-01

    Cross-modal illusions such as the McGurk-MacDonald effect have been used to illustrate the automatic, encapsulated nature of multisensory integration. This characterization is based in the widespread assumption that the illusory percept arising from intersensory conflict reflects only the end-product of the multisensory integration process, with…

  14. Training for QSC: How McDonald's Makes Library Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aycock, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Written by a former McDonald's manager who earned a master's degree in library science, this article describes how "QSC"--quality, services, and cleanliness--can be applied to libraries in the same way it is used by restaurants. Argues that libraries are simply businesses that cater to customers. (Contains 42 references.) (NB)

  15. McDONALD OBSERVATORY ARCHIVE OF OPTICAL LINEAR POLARIZATION MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, Beverley J.; Wills, D.; Breger, M.

    2011-06-01

    We present 990 previously unpublished optical linear polarization measurements of quasars, active galactic nuclei, and some stars observed for interstellar polarization. The observations, covering the period 1981-2000, were made with McDonald Observatory's 2.1 m Struve reflector and the Breger photopolarimeter.

  16. 97. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April 23, 1940. TOP PEDIMENT - 'GOD THE FATHER'. UPPER NICHE - 'OUR LADY' (B.V.M.) LOWER NICHE - 'ST. FRANCIS XAVIER'. (SOUTH ELEVATION). HIGH ALTAR - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  17. Engineering Porous Polymer Hollow Fiber Microfluidic Reactors for Sustainable C-H Functionalization.

    PubMed

    He, Yingxin; Rezaei, Fateme; Kapila, Shubhender; Rownaghi, Ali A

    2017-05-17

    Highly hydrophilic and solvent-stable porous polyamide-imide (PAI) hollow fibers were created by cross-linking of bare PAI hollow fibers with 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APS). The APS-grafted PAI hollow fibers were then functionalized with salicylic aldehyde for binding catalytically active Pd(II) ions through a covalent postmodification method. The catalytic activity of the composite hollow fiber microfluidic reactors (Pd(II) immobilized APS-grafted PAI hollow fibers) was tested via heterogeneous Heck coupling reaction of aryl halides under both batch and continuous-flow reactions in polar aprotic solvents at high temperature (120 °C) and low operating pressure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analyses of the starting and recycled composite hollow fibers indicated that the fibers contain very similar loadings of Pd(II), implying no degree of catalyst leaching from the hollow fibers during reaction. The composite hollow fiber microfluidic reactors showed long-term stability and strong control over the leaching of Pd species.

  18. Leaching of /sup 14/C and /sup 36/Cl from Hanford reactor graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, W.J.; Morgan, W.C.

    1988-12-01

    The leach rates of /sup 14C/ and /sup 36Cl/ were measured on solid cylindrical samples of graphite prepared from a bar retrieved from one of the surplus Hanford production reactors. Static leach tests were conducted in deionized water and Hanford ground water at temperatures of 20/degree/C to 90/degree/C for 8 weeks. The graphite samples were completely submerged in the leachant, and the entire volume of leachant was changed and analyzed weekly. The leach rates of both /sup 14C/ and /sup 36Cl/ decreased with time and appeared to approach steady-state values that were independent of temperature in the case of /sup 36Cl/ but decreased with temperature in the case of /sup 14C/. Both radionuclides leached more slowly in Hanford ground water. The data are compared with previously measured and estimated leach rates. Implications of the data regarding possible rate-limiting mechanisms are also discussed. 4 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Obituary: Donald Edward Osterbrock, 1924-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, Sylvain

    2007-12-01

    Donald Edward Osterbrock, one of the leading figures of post-World War II astronomy, died suddenly of a heart attack on 11 January 2007, while walking near his office at the University of California, Santa Cruz. He was 82 years old. His initials spelled D.E.O. (God in latin!), but he was known simply as Don to his many friends and colleagues. Don's long and productive career spanned five decades. His scientific work helped shape our understanding of lower main-sequence stars, the ionized interstellar medium, and active galactic nuclei. He was also a highly respected historian of astronomy who shed new light on 19th- and 20th-century astronomy. Don was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, on 13 July 1924. Both of his parents were of German descent and valued hard work, education, and science. They both completed their high-school education at night while working full-time during the day. His father eventually became a professor of electrical engineering at the University of Cincinnati. Don's plan to become an astronomer was put on hold when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941. After graduation from high school, Don joined the United States Army and trained as a meteorologist, taking all of the physics and mathematics courses required for a bachelor's degree in physics from the University of Chicago. He was eventually sent to islands in the Pacific Ocean but never was in harm's way. After three years of service, Don returned to Chicago to obtain his bachelor's degree in 1948, his M.S. in astronomy in 1949, and a Ph.D. in astronomy in 1952. Don's years at the University of Chicago and the University's Yerkes Observatory in Williams Bay, Wisconsin, were pivotal for his career and personal life. He came in contact with such luminaries as Otto Struve, Bengt Strömgren, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, and William W. Morgan. At Yerkes, he also met and married Irene L. Hansen, a native of Williams Bay, who was employed as a member of the Yerkes staff. They had a son, William, now

  20. Hydrogeological Analysis and Groundwater Flow for C-Reactor Area with Contaminant Transport for C-Reactor Seepage Basins (CRSB) and C-Area Burning/Rubble Pit (CBRP)

    SciTech Connect

    FLACH, GREGORYP.

    1999-12-01

    A groundwater flow model encompassing approximately 4 mi2 within C Reactor area has been developed. The objectives and goals of the C Reactor Area groundwater model are to: Provide a common hydrogeologic and groundwater flow modeling framework for C Area that can be easily updated as additional field data is collected from waste site investigations. Provide a baseline groundwater flow model for use in subsequent flow and transport simulations for remedial/feasibility studies for C Area waste sites. Provide baseline transport simulations for CBRP and CRSB that reconstruct historical contaminant distributions and simulate future plume migration from each waste unit. Provide a working groundwater flow model for particle tracking and analysis to guide subsequent field characterization activities. The model incorporates historical and current field characterization data up through spring 1999. The model simulates groundwater flow within the area bounded to the west and north by Fourmile Branch, to the south by Caster Creek, and to the east by a line between Fourmile Branch and the headwaters of Caster Creek. Vertically the model extends from ground surface to the top of the Gordon aquifer. The chosen areal grid is 14,600 by 13,200 feet with a resolution of 200 feet. The model accurately reproduces groundwater flow directions from the CBRP and CRSB, and matches targets for hydraulic head, recharge and baseflow within calibration goals. The hydrogeologic model reflects aquifer heterogeneity as derived from CPT lithologic data.

  1. Examination of Surface Deposits on Oldbury Reactor Core Graphite to Determine the Concentration and Distribution of 14C.

    PubMed

    Payne, Liam; Heard, Peter J; Scott, Thomas B

    2016-01-01

    Pile Grade A graphite was used as a moderator and reflector material in the first generation of UK Magnox nuclear power reactors. As all of these reactors are now shut down there is a need to examine the concentration and distribution of long lived radioisotopes, such as 14C, to aid in understanding their behaviour in a geological disposal facility. A selection of irradiated graphite samples from Oldbury reactor one were examined where it was observed that Raman spectroscopy can distinguish between underlying graphite and a surface deposit found on exposed channel wall surfaces. The concentration of 14C in this deposit was examined by sequentially oxidising the graphite samples in air at low temperatures (450°C and 600°C) to remove the deposit and then the underlying graphite. The gases produced were captured in a series of bubbler solutions that were analysed using liquid scintillation counting. It was observed that the surface deposit was relatively enriched with 14C, with samples originating lower in the reactor exhibiting a higher concentration of 14C. Oxidation at 600°C showed that the remaining graphite material consisted of two fractions of 14C, a surface associated fraction and a graphite lattice associated fraction. The results presented correlate well with previous studies on irradiated graphite that suggest there are up to three fractions of 14C; a readily releasable fraction (corresponding to that removed by oxidation at 450°C in this study), a slowly releasable fraction (removed early at 600°C in this study), and an unreleasable fraction (removed later at 600°C in this study).

  2. Examination of Surface Deposits on Oldbury Reactor Core Graphite to Determine the Concentration and Distribution of 14C

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Liam; Heard, Peter J.; Scott, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    Pile Grade A graphite was used as a moderator and reflector material in the first generation of UK Magnox nuclear power reactors. As all of these reactors are now shut down there is a need to examine the concentration and distribution of long lived radioisotopes, such as 14C, to aid in understanding their behaviour in a geological disposal facility. A selection of irradiated graphite samples from Oldbury reactor one were examined where it was observed that Raman spectroscopy can distinguish between underlying graphite and a surface deposit found on exposed channel wall surfaces. The concentration of 14C in this deposit was examined by sequentially oxidising the graphite samples in air at low temperatures (450°C and 600°C) to remove the deposit and then the underlying graphite. The gases produced were captured in a series of bubbler solutions that were analysed using liquid scintillation counting. It was observed that the surface deposit was relatively enriched with 14C, with samples originating lower in the reactor exhibiting a higher concentration of 14C. Oxidation at 600°C showed that the remaining graphite material consisted of two fractions of 14C, a surface associated fraction and a graphite lattice associated fraction. The results presented correlate well with previous studies on irradiated graphite that suggest there are up to three fractions of 14C; a readily releasable fraction (corresponding to that removed by oxidation at 450°C in this study), a slowly releasable fraction (removed early at 600°C in this study), and an unreleasable fraction (removed later at 600°C in this study). PMID:27706228

  3. Biohydrogen production from glucose in upflow biofilm reactors with plastic carriers under extreme thermophilic conditions (70 degrees C).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hang; Zeng, Raymond J; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-08-01

    Biohydrogen could efficiently be produced in glucose-fed biofilm reactors filled with plastic carriers and operated at 70 degrees C. Batch experiments were, in addition, conducted to enrich and cultivate glucose-fed extreme-thermophilic hydrogen producing microorganisms from a biohydrogen CSTR reactor fed with household solid waste. Kinetic analysis of the biohydrogen enrichment cultures show that substrate (glucose) likely inhibited hydrogen production when its concentration was higher than 1 g/L. Different start up strategies were applied for biohydrogen production in biofilm reactors operated at 70 degrees C, and fed with synthetic medium with glucose as the only carbon and energy source. A biofilm reactor, started up with plastic carriers, that were previously inoculated with the enrichment cultures, resulted in higher hydrogen yield (2.21 mol H(2)/mol glucose consumed) but required longer start up time (1 month), while a biofilm reactor directly inoculated with the enrichment cultures reached stable state much faster (8 days) but with very low hydrogen yield (0.69 mol H(2)/mol glucose consumed). These results indicate that hydraulic pressure is necessary for successful immobilization of bacteria on carriers, while there is the risk of washing out specific high yielding bacteria.

  4. 78 FR 31988 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; In the Matter of Charlissa C. Smith (Denial of Senior Reactor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; In the Matter of Charlissa C. Smith (Denial of Senior Reactor.... Charlissa Smith's demand for hearing. LBP-13-03, 77 NRC ---- (2013). This hearing will consider Ms. Smith's...

  5. The McDonald Observatory lunar laser ranging project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverberg, E. C.

    1978-01-01

    A summary of the activities of the McDonald lunar laser ranging station at Fort Davis for the FY 77-78 fiscal year is presented. The lunar laser experiment uses the observatory 2.7m reflecting telescope on a thrice-per-day, 21-day-per-lunation schedule. Data are recorded on magnetic tapes and sent to the University of Texas at Austin where the data is processed. After processing, the data is distributed to interested analysis centers and later to the National Space Science Data Center where it is available for routine distribution. Detailed reports are published on the McDonald operations after every fourth lunation or approximately once every 115 days. These reports contain a day-by-day documentation of the ranging activity, detailed discussions of the equipment development efforts, and an abundance of other information as is needed to document and archive this important data type.

  6. Photos of Astronaut Donald K. Slayton during World War II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Photos of Astronaut Donald K. Slayton during World War II. The first view shows Slayton (on right) beside a Douglas A-26 bomber in the Pacific Theater of Operations during the summer of 1945, probably on Okinawa. The second man is 1st. Lt. Ed Steinman (28359); This view shows Slayton as an eighteen-year-old U.S. Army Air Force cadet at Victoria Field, Vernon, Texas in the autumn of 1942.

  7. 10 CFR 72.128 - Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste, and other radioactive waste storage and handling. 72.128... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C...

  8. 10 CFR 72.128 - Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste, and other radioactive waste storage and handling. 72.128... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C...

  9. Methane production from cattle waste in laboratory reactors at 40/sup 0/ and 60/sup 0/C after solid-liquid separation

    SciTech Connect

    Rorick, M.B.; Spahr, S.L.; Bryant, M.P.

    1980-11-01

    Whole dairy waste and liquid effluent separated from the same waste with a solid-liquid separator were fermented at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. Chemical analyses of the two materials were similar. Methane production was superior in thermophilic reactors. With substrates adjusted to 4.1% volatile solids, average methane production at 60/sup 0/C (166 ml/g volatile solids fed to reactors at 3- and 6-day retention time) was as efficient as at 40/sup 0/C (162 ml/g at 5- and 10-day retention times). Thermophilic reactors produced 1.67 liter methane/liter reactor per day as compared to .93 liter for mesophilic reactors. Efficiency of methanogenesis was no greater for whole waste than for separated effluent. Production of methane for the two substrates averaged over retention times and temperatures was 156 ml/g volatile solids fed to reactor for whole waste and 173 ml/g for separated effluent.

  10. Ronald McDonald Sagt: Die Deklination des Adjektivs Ist Wichtig! Ubungen fur Studenten. (Ronald McDonald Says: The Declension of Adjectives Is Important! Exercises for Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headrick, Robert J., Jr.

    A booklet intended for classroom use in beginning and intermediate German instruction provides students with a series of authentic McDonald's fast food restaurant placemats with which to review and reinforce adjective endings. Specific objectives are for students to: read and discuss each of the German McDonald's trayliners, complete a series of…

  11. Mechanical properties of SiC composites neutron irradiated under light water reactor relevant temperature and dose conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyanagi, Takaaki; Katoh, Yutai

    2017-10-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) fiber-reinforced SiC matrix (SiC/SiC) composites are being actively investigated for use in accident-tolerant core structures of light water reactors (LWRs). Owing to the limited number of irradiation studies previously conducted at LWR-coolant temperature, this study examined SiC/SiC composites following neutron irradiation at 230-340 °C to 2.0 and 11.8 dpa in the High Flux Isotope Reactor. The investigated materials were chemical vapor infiltrated (CVI) SiC/SiC composites with three different reinforcement fibers. The fiber materials were monolayer pyrolytic carbon (PyC) -coated Hi-Nicalon™ Type-S (HNS), Tyranno™ SA3 (SA3), and SCS-Ultra™ (SCS) SiC fibers. The irradiation resistance of these composites was investigated based on flexural behavior, dynamic Young's modulus, swelling, and microstructures. There was no notable mechanical properties degradation of the irradiated HNS and SA3 SiC/SiC composites except for reduction of the Young's moduli by up to 18%. The microstructural stability of these composites supported the absence of degradation. In addition, no progressive swelling from 2.0 to 11.8 dpa was confirmed for these composites. On the other hand, the SCS composite showed significant mechanical degradation associated with cracking within the fiber. This study determined that SiC/SiC composites with HNS or SA3 SiC/SiC fibers, a PyC interphase, and a CVI SiC matrix retain their properties beyond the lifetime dose for LWR fuel cladding at the relevant temperature.

  12. Mechanical properties of SiC composites neutron irradiated under light water reactor relevant temperature and dose conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Koyanagi, Takaaki; Katoh, Yutai

    2017-07-04

    Silicon carbide (SiC) fiber–reinforced SiC matrix (SiC/SiC) composites are being actively investigated for use in accident-tolerant core structures of light water reactors (LWRs). Owing to the limited number of irradiation studies previously conducted at LWR-coolant temperature, this paper examined SiC/SiC composites following neutron irradiation at 230–340 °C to 2.0 and 11.8 dpa in the High Flux Isotope Reactor. The investigated materials were chemical vapor infiltrated (CVI) SiC/SiC composites with three different reinforcement fibers. The fiber materials were monolayer pyrolytic carbon (PyC) -coated Hi-Nicalon™ Type-S (HNS), Tyranno™ SA3 (SA3), and SCS-Ultra™ (SCS) SiC fibers. The irradiation resistance of these composites wasmore » investigated based on flexural behavior, dynamic Young's modulus, swelling, and microstructures. There was no notable mechanical properties degradation of the irradiated HNS and SA3 SiC/SiC composites except for reduction of the Young's moduli by up to 18%. The microstructural stability of these composites supported the absence of degradation. In addition, no progressive swelling from 2.0 to 11.8 dpa was confirmed for these composites. On the other hand, the SCS composite showed significant mechanical degradation associated with cracking within the fiber. Finally, this study determined that SiC/SiC composites with HNS or SA3 SiC/SiC fibers, a PyC interphase, and a CVI SiC matrix retain their properties beyond the lifetime dose for LWR fuel cladding at the relevant temperature.« less

  13. In situ reactor radiation-induced attenuation in sapphire optical fibers heated up to 1000 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, Christian M.; Blue, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the suitability of using instrumentation utilizing sapphire optical fibers in a high temperature nuclear reactor environment. For this, the broadband (500-2200 nm, or 0.56-2.48 eV) optical transmission in commercially available sapphire optical fibers was monitored in situ prior to, during, and after reactor irradiation. Portions of the sapphire fibers were heated to temperatures up to 1000 °C during irradiation. The sapphire fibers were irradiated, mostly at a neutron flux of 5.0 × 1011 n/cm2/s and a gamma dose rate of 28 kGy/h (dose in sapphire), to a total neutron fluence of 6.4 × 1016 n/cm2 and total gamma dose on the order of 1 MGy. Results were generally consistent with the results of previous in situ measurements of the transmission in unheated sapphire fibers during reactor irradiation. Added attenuation at 850, 1300, and 1550 nm, appears to be limited by the growth of radiation-induced defect centers that are located in the ultra violet to the visible range and is therefore less at 1300 and 1550 nm than at 850 nm. A linear increase in attenuation, due to displacement damage effects, was observed with increased irradiation time at constant reactor power. However, the rate of increase of the added attenuation during constant power reactor irradiation monotonically decreased with increasing temperature up to 1000 °C, with the most significant decrease occurring between 300 and 600 °C. Additional calculations predicted that the majority of (if not all of) the observed increases in attenuation during irradiation at 600 and 1000 °C were due to effects in the unheated sections of the irradiated sapphire fibers. These results suggest that, for a reactor radiation environment similar to that tested in this work, heating sapphire fibers to temperatures of 600 °C or greater during irradiation would significantly reduce (or possibly eliminate entirely) the rate of growth of the added attenuation in the sapphire fibers.

  14. Expedition 6 flight engineer Donald Pettit suits up before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Expedition 6 flight engineer Donald Pettit suits up before launch. This will be his first Shuttle flight. The primary mission is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 11 at 12:58 a.m. EST.

  15. Expedition 6 flight engineer Donald Pettit suits up for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 flight engineer Donald Pettit relaxes during suitup for launch. Pettit will be making his first Shuttle flight. The primary mission for the crew is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for 8:15 p.m. EST.

  16. The night sky brightness at McDonald Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalinowski, J. K.; Roosen, R. G.; Brandt, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    Baseline observations of the night sky brightness in B and V are presented for McDonald Observatory. In agreement with earlier work by Elvey and Rudnick (1937) and Elvey (1943), significant night-to-night and same-night variations in sky brightness are found. Possible causes for these variations are discussed. The largest variation in sky brightness found during a single night is approximately a factor of two, a value which corresponds to a factor-of-four variation in airglow brightness. The data are used to comment on the accuracy of previously published surface photometry of M 81.

  17. 10 CFR 72.128 - Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste, and other radioactive waste storage and handling. 72.128... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  18. 10 CFR 72.128 - Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste, and other radioactive waste storage and handling. 72.128... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  19. 10 CFR 72.128 - Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste, and other radioactive waste storage and handling. 72.128... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  20. Study of Pu consumption in light water reactors: Evaluation of GE advanced boiling water reactor plants, compilation of Phase 1C task reports

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-15

    This report summarizes the evaluations conducted during Phase 1C of the Pu Disposition Study have provided further results which reinforce the conclusions reached during Phase 1A & 1B: These conclusions clearly establish the benefits of the fission option and the use of the ABWR as a reliable, proven, well-defined and cost-effective means available to disposition the weapons Pu. This project could be implemented in the near-term at a cost and on a schedule being validated by reactor plants currently under construction in Japan and by cost and schedule history and validated plans for MOX plants in Europe. Evaluations conducted during this phase have established that (1) the MOX fuel is licensable based on existing criteria for new fuel with limited lead fuel rod testing, (2) that the applicable requirements for transport, handling and repository storage can be met, and (3) that all the applicable safeguards criteria can be met.

  1. YF-12A #935 with test pilot Donald L. Mallick

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    NASA test pilot Don Mallick, in full pressure suit, stands in front of the YF-12A (60-6935). Don is ready for a flight across the Western United States. Donald L. Mallick joined the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics' Langley Aeronautical Laboratory at Hampton, Virginia, as a research pilot, in June 1957. He transferred to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in February 1963. Mallick attended Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, for the period 1948-1949, studying Mechanical Engineering before entering the U.S. Navy for pilot training. Don served during the Korean War period, 1950-1954, flying F2H-2 Banshee jets from the carriers, USS F.D. Roosevelt and the USS Wasp. Later in 1954 he returned to school at the University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, graduating with Honors in June 1957 and earning his degree in aeronautical engineering. Don joined the Naval Reserves and served in almost all categories of Reserve operations before retiring in 1970 as a Lieutenant Commander. As a research pilot at NACA-NASA Langley Don flew quantitative stability-&-control and handling-qualities tests on modified helicopters. On the Vertol VZ-2 Vertical Short Take-off and Landing research aircraft, he performed qualitative evaluation flights. Other aircraft flown for flight tests were: F2H-1 Banshee, F-86D, F9F-2 and F8U-3, F11F-1 Tigercat, and F-100C. Don also flew support and photo flights. In his capacity as research pilot at the NASA Flight Research Center Don was assigned to NASA's Lockheed Jetstar General Purpose Airborne Simulator (GPAS). He flew all of the tests, with the majority being as project pilot. Mallick made a flight in the lightweight M2-F1 lifting body on January 30, 1964. In 1964, Don was assigned to and completed the USAF Test pilot school, Class 64A. Later in 1964, he flew as the co-project pilot on the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) making over seventy

  2. YF-12A #935 with test pilot Donald L. Mallick

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    NASA test pilot Don Mallick, in full pressure suit, stands in front of the YF-12A (60-6935). Don is ready for a flight across the Western United States. Donald L. Mallick joined the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics' Langley Aeronautical Laboratory at Hampton, Virginia, as a research pilot, in June 1957. He transferred to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in February 1963. Mallick attended Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, for the period 1948-1949, studying Mechanical Engineering before entering the U.S. Navy for pilot training. Don served during the Korean War period, 1950-1954, flying F2H-2 Banshee jets from the carriers, USS F.D. Roosevelt and the USS Wasp. Later in 1954 he returned to school at the University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, graduating with Honors in June 1957 and earning his degree in aeronautical engineering. Don joined the Naval Reserves and served in almost all categories of Reserve operations before retiring in 1970 as a Lieutenant Commander. As a research pilot at NACA-NASA Langley Don flew quantitative stability-&-control and handling-qualities tests on modified helicopters. On the Vertol VZ-2 Vertical Short Take-off and Landing research aircraft, he performed qualitative evaluation flights. Other aircraft flown for flight tests were: F2H-1 Banshee, F-86D, F9F-2 and F8U-3, F11F-1 Tigercat, and F-100C. Don also flew support and photo flights. In his capacity as research pilot at the NASA Flight Research Center Don was assigned to NASA's Lockheed Jetstar General Purpose Airborne Simulator (GPAS). He flew all of the tests, with the majority being as project pilot. Mallick made a flight in the lightweight M2-F1 lifting body on January 30, 1964. In 1964, Don was assigned to and completed the USAF Test pilot school, Class 64A. Later in 1964, he flew as the co-project pilot on the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) making over seventy

  3. Fabrication of (U, Zr) C-fueled/tungsten-clad specimens for irradiation in the Plum Brook Reactor Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Fuel samples, 90UC - 10 ZrC, and chemically vapor deposited tungsten fuel cups were fabricated for the study of the long term dimensional stability and compatibility of the carbide-tungsten fuel-cladding systems under irradiation. These fuel samples and fuel cups were assembled into the fuel pins of two capsules, designated as V-2E and V-2F, for irradiation in NASA Plum Brook Reactor Facility at a fission power density of 172 watts/c.c. and a miximum cladding temperature of 1823 K. Fabrication methods and characteristics of the fuel samples and fuel cups prepared are described.

  4. McDonald Observatory Visitor Center Education Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemenway, M. K.; Armosky, B. J.; Wetzel, M.; Preston, S.

    2002-12-01

    The opening of the new Visitor Center at McDonald Observatory in Fort Davis, Texas provided an opportunity to greatly expand the Observatory's outreach efforts to students and teachers. In addition to a theater, outdoor telescope park, and amphitheater, the facility contains a classroom and an exhibit entitled ``Decoding Starlight." In preparation for the opening, new teacher-friendly materials were written to provide standards aligned (both state and national) classroom activities for students. These activities form the core for both the multi-day Professional Development Program for teachers and the Student Field Experience Program. Student Field Experiences often begin with a tour specifically designed for student groups to emphasize careers and life at the Observatory. The group then interacts with the exhibit using Exhibit Guides that were developed for various grade levels. When their schedule allows, student groups may also participate in nighttime observing activities. Smaller groups (under 30 members) may choose from a menu of hands-on activities offered within the classroom. The positive reception of these activities has led to their inclusion in the existing Elderhostel program for senior citizens. We gratefully acknowledge the support of NSF 96-26965 ``Fingerprinting the Universe - An Interactive, Bilingual Exhibit on Spectroscopy," NSF 97-05340 ``Universo, Hispanic Heritage Month Programs, and StarDate in the Classroom," and NASA IDEAS HST-ED-90234-.01 ``Enriching the Experience at McDonald Observatory: Pre/Post Visit Materials for Teachers and Students."

  5. Irradiation creep of various ferritic alloys irradiated at {approximately}400{degrees}C in the PFR and FFTF reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Toloczko, M.B.; Garner, F.A.; Eiholzer, C.R.

    1997-04-01

    Three ferritic alloys were irradiated in two fast reactors to doses of 50 dpa or more at temperatures near 400{degrees}C. One martensitic alloy, HT9, was irradiated in both the FFTF and PFR reactors. PFR is the Prototype Fast Reactor in Dourneay, Scotland, and FFTF is the Fast Flux Test Facility in Richland, WA. D57 is a developmental alloy that was irradiated in PFR only, and MA957 is a Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersion-hardened ferritic alloy that was irradiated only in FFTF. These alloys exhibited little or no void swelling at {approximately}400{degrees}C. Depending on the alloy starting condition, these steels develop a variety of non-creep strains early in the irradiation that are associated with phase changes. Each of these alloys creeps at a rate that is significantly lower than that of austenitic steels irradiated in the same experiments. The creep compliance for ferritic alloys in general appears to be {approximately}0.5 x 10{sup {minus}6} MPa{sup {minus}1} dpa{sup {minus}1}, independent of both composition and starting state. The addition of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a dispersoid does not appear to change the creep behavior.

  6. Field study of moving bed biofilm reactor technology for post-treatment of wastewater lagoon effluent at 1 degree C.

    PubMed

    Almomani, Fares A; Delatolla, Robert; Ormeci, Banu

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the potential use ofmoving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) systems as ammonia removal post-treatment units for wastewater (WW) treatment lagoons that demonstrate large temperature changes throughout their operational year (1 - 20 degrees C). The study was carried out over a six-month period using laboratory-scale MBBR reactors fed with incoming effluent from a full-scale lagoon. The study shows that significant average ammonia removal rates of 0.26 and 0.11 kgN/m . d were achieved at 20 degrees C and 1C. The increase in the ammonia removal rates with increasing temperature from 1 degrees C to 20 degrees C showed a strong correlation to an applied temperature correction coefficient model. No significant accumulation of effluent nitrite was observed at 1 degrees C or after being fed with synthetic wastewater (SWW); indicating that cold temperatures and transitions from real WW to SWW did not stress the nitrifiers. Furthermore, the study demonstrates that changes in temperature or changes from real WW to SWW do not affect the mass of biofilm attached per MBBR carrier. Hence, based on the results of this study, it is concluded that MBBR is a promising technology for post-treatment ammonia removal of WW lagoon effluent.

  7. Effect of the C:N:P ratio on the denitrifying dephosphatation in a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR).

    PubMed

    Mielcarek, Artur; Rodziewicz, Joanna; Janczukowicz, Wojciech; Thornton, Arthur J; Jóźwiak, Tomasz; Szymczyk, Paula

    2015-12-01

    A series of investigations were conducted using sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) to explore the influence of C:N:P ratio on biological dephosphatation including the denitrifying dephosphatation and the denitrification process. Biomass in the reactor occurred mainly in the form of a biofilm attached to completely submerged disks. Acetic acid was used as the source of organic carbon. C:N:P ratios have had a significant effect on the profiles of phosphate release and phosphate uptake and nitrogen removal. The highest rates of phosphate release and phosphate uptake were recorded at the C:N:P ratio of 140:70:7. The C:N ratio of 2.5:1 ensured complete denitrification. The highest rate of denitrification was achieved at the C:N:P ratio of 140:35:7. The increase of nitrogen load caused an increase in phosphates removal until a ratio C:N:P of 140:140:7. Bacteria of the biofilm exposed to alternate conditions of mixing and aeration exhibited enhanced intracellular accumulation of polyphosphates. Also, the structure of the biofilm encouraged anaerobic-aerobic as well as anoxic-anaerobic and absolutely anaerobic conditions in a SBBR. These heterogeneous conditions in the presence of nitrates may be a significant factor determining the promotion of denitrifying polyphosphate accumulating organism (DNPAO) development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Rapid analysis of 14C and 3H in graphite and concrete for decommissioning of nuclear reactor.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaolin

    2005-06-01

    A rapid oxidizing combustion method using a commercial Sample Oxidizer has been investigated to determine separately the 14C and 3H activities in graphite and concrete. By this method the sample preparation time can be reduced to 2-3 min. The detection limits for 3H and 14C are 0.96 and 0.58 Bq/g graphite and 0.11 and 0.06 Bq/g concrete, respectively. The cross contamination of 14C and tritium in the preparation of samples is less than 0.2%. The interference of other radionuclides in the determination of 14C and tritium in graphite is insignificant. The analytical accuracy, investigated by the standard addition method, is better than 95%. In addition, an acid digestion method has also been used to examine the graphite and concrete activities, to allow comparison with the method developed herein. The two methods show good agreement for graphite samples. Graphite samples were collected from the Danish Reactors DR-2 and DR-3, in addition to two concrete cores drilled in the Danish reactor DR-2; these were analysed for 3H and 14C using the method that has been developed.

  9. Comparison of polyurethane foam and biodegradable polymer as carriers in moving bed biofilm reactor for treating wastewater with a low C/N ratio.

    PubMed

    Chu, Libing; Wang, Jianlong

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison between two different materials used as carriers: inert polyurethane (PU) foam and biodegradable polymer polycaprolactone (PCL) particles for the removal of organics and nitrogen from wastewater with a low C/N ratio using moving bed biofilm reactors. The results, during a monitoring period of four months, showed that TOC and ammonium removal efficiency was higher in reactor 2 filled with PU carriers than in reactor 1 filled with PCL carriers (90% and 65% in the former, compared with 72% and 56% in the latter at an hydraulic retention time of 14 h). Reactor 1 showed good behavior in terms of total nitrogen removal as the biodegradable polymer was an effective substrate providing reducing power for denitrification. From three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix analysis, it was shown that the effluent from reactor 1 contained mainly protein-like and soluble microbial product-like substances. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Comparative Study of McDonald's Wedding Narratives with the Model of Anchoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Mimi

    2016-01-01

    Fast-food giant McDonald's announced in 2010 that they would start hosting wedding ceremonies and receptions for couples who would like to get married in their restaurants in Hong Kong. This paper conducts a study comparing the differing representations of McDonald's wedding services through a narrative analytical approach. Specifically, this…

  11. A conversation with Donald Berwick on implementing national health reform.

    PubMed

    Berwick, Donald

    2012-08-01

    Michael Birnbaum interviews Donald Berwick shortly after his departure from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services about the national health care landscape. Berwick discusses the strategic vision, policy levers, operational challenges, and political significance of federal health care reform. He rejects the notion that the Affordable Care Act represents a government takeover of health care financing or service delivery but says the law's Medicaid expansion and its creation of health benefit exchanges present a "watershed moment for American federalism." Berwick argues that the solution to Medicare's cost-containment challenge lies in quality improvement. He is optimistic that accountable care organizations can deliver savings and suggests that shifting risk downstream to providers throws the health insurance model into question. Finally, looking to the future, Berwick sees a race against time to make American health care more affordable.

  12. McDonald Observations of J1118+480

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monroy, Lorena; Mason, Paul A.; Robinson, E. L.

    2011-10-01

    Starting in the summer of 2010 and continuing to the summer of 2011, we observed J1118+480 at McDonald Observatory using Argos (a charged-coupled device, CCD, camera) for a total of 13 nights. We present the light curves from the gathered nights that have been reduced using scientific linex operating system and IRAF. The light curve data is converted to Heliocentric Julian Date (HJD) and the delta Magnitude between a comparison star and the target star (J1118+480) is plotted. We performed a period search of our light curves using Phase Dispersion Minimization (PDM) and we discuss the implications of the period search. This research is supported by a National Science Foundation, Partnership in Astronomy and Astrophysics Research and Education (PAARE) grant to the University of Texas at El Paso.

  13. Donald Menzel: His Founding and Funding of Solar Observatories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welther, B. L.

    2002-12-01

    In January 1961 Donald Menzel wrote to his cousin, M. H. Bruckman, "I am proudest of the observatories that I have built in the West." The first of those facilities, a solar observatory, was founded in 1940 in Colorado and later came to be known as the High Altitude Observatory. The second one, also a solar observatory, was founded a dozen years later at Sacramento Peak in New Mexico. The third facility, however, established at Fort Davis, Texas, was the Harvard Radio Astronomy Observatory. Although Menzel was primarily a theoretical astrophysicist, renowned for his studies of the solar chromosphere, he was also an entrepreneur who had a talent for developing observatories and coping with numerous setbacks in funding and staffing. Where many others would have failed, Menzel succeeded in mentoring colleagues and finding sources of financial support. This paper will draw primarily on letters and other materials in the Harvard University Archives.

  14. Reliability and validity of the McDonald Play Inventory.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Ann E; Vigen, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the ability of a two-part self-report instrument, the McDonald Play Inventory, to reliably and validly measure the play activities and play styles of 7- to 11-yr-old children and to discriminate between the play of neurotypical children and children with known learning and developmental disabilities. A total of 124 children ages 7-11 recruited from a sample of convenience and a subsample of 17 parents participated in this study. Reliability estimates yielded moderate correlations for internal consistency, total test intercorrelations, and test-retest reliability. Validity estimates were established for content and construct validity. The results suggest that a self-report instrument yields reliable and valid measures of a child's perceived play performance and discriminates between the play of children with and without disabilities. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  15. Fission products measured from highly-enriched uranium irradiated under 10B4C in a research reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, Lori A.; Friese, Judah I.; Finn, Erin C.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Hines, Corey C.; King, Matthew D.; Wall, Donald E.

    2016-03-01

    Critical assemblies provide one method of achieving a fast neutron spectrum that is close to a 235U fission-energy neutron spectrum for nuclear data measurements. Previous work has demonstrated the use of a natural boron carbide capsule for spectral-tailoring in a mixed spectrum reactor as an alternate and complementary method for performing fission-energy neutron experiments. Previous fission products measurements showed that the neutron spectrum achievable with natural boron carbide was not as hard as what can be achieved with critical assemblies. New measurements performed with the Washington State University TRIGA reactor using a boron carbide capsule 96% enriched in 10B for irradiations resulted in a neutron spectrum very similar to a critical assembly and a pure 235U fission spectrum. The current work describes an experiment involving a highly-enriched uranium target irradiated under the new 10B4C capsule. Fission product yields were measured following radiochemical separations and are presented here. Reactor dosimetry measurements for characterizing neutron spectra and fluence for the enriched boron carbide capsule and critical assemblies are also discussed.

  16. 2011 Astronomy Day at McDonald Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Sandra; Hemeway, M.; Wetzel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Our philosophy is that everyday is Astronomy Day because the McDonald Observatory's Frank N. Bash Visitors Center is open 362 days a year. So, how did we create a special celebration for the "Astronomy Day” declared by the Astronomical League? During September 26-29 we conducted 20 videoconferences and served 12,559 students with "Astronomy Day” programming. Connect2Texas provides bridging for a network of Texas-based museums and cultural, historical, and scientific organizations that offer educational content to schools throughout the state via videoconferencing. Connect2Texas connected McDonald Observatory to 334 schools; most of these schools were in Texas, but schools in a dozen other states also participated. While most schools had a "view-only" connection, at least 20 of the schools had interactive connections, whereby the students could ask questions of the presenter. Connect2Texas also collects evaluation information from the participating schools that we will use to produce a report for our funders and make modifications to future programs as need be. The videoconferences were offered free of charge. The theme for the 2011 Astronomy Day program was the Year of the Solar System, which aligns with NASA's theme for 2011 and 2012. By aligning with this NASA theme, we could leverage NASA artwork and materials to both advertise and enrich the learning experience. Videoconference materials also included pre- and post-videoconference assessment sheets, an inquiry based activity, and pre- and post-videoconference activities, all of which were made available online. One of the lessons learned from past Astronomy Day videoconferences is that the days the Astronomical League declares as "Astronomy Day” are not always good days for Texas schools to participate. So, we choose an Astronomy Day that meets the needs of Texas schools and our schedule - so any day can be Astronomy Day. 2011 Astronomy Day was made possible by The Meyer-Levy Charitable Trust.

  17. Simultaneous removal of C and N from fish effluents in filter reactors: Effect of recirculation ratio on the axial distribution of microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Giustinianovich, Elisa A; Aspé, Estrella R; Behar, Jack E; Campos, Víctor L; Roeckel, Marlene D

    2015-09-15

    We simultaneously removed carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) from fish effluents in compact filter reactors operating at different recirculation ratios (RRs) (2, 10 and without recirculation) to demonstrate microbial coexistence and determine the effect of the RR on the axial bacterial stratification. We also examined the global performance of anoxic, anaerobic and aerobic processes. Microbial communities (bacteria and archaea) were analyzed using 16s rRNA amplification followed by DGGE analyses. Their banding profiles were analyzed using ecological parameters and the most representative bands were sequenced. TOC removal was larger than 98% in the three reactors. The total N removal was 48% for the RR-2 reactor, whereas in the RR-10 reactor, there was no N removal due to the absence of nitrification in the final aerobic step. Coexistence and stratification of microorganisms were observed. The microbial communities were correlated with distinct biochemical processes in each reactor fraction. The RR had a large effect on the distribution of the microbial communities. When the RR increased from 2 to 10, the stratification decreased from 60 to 30%, suggesting a close relationship between reactor performance and the presence of nitrifiers. In the RR-10 reactor, the nitrifier concentration was only 4%. Thus, in combined processes, filter reactors should operate with a moderate RR to favor bacterial stratification and improve performance.

  18. Study of Fe-12Cr-20Mn-W-C austenitic steels irradiated in the SM-2 reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamardin, V. K.; Bulanova, T. M.; Neustroyev, V. S.; Ostrovsky, Z. E.; Kosenkov, V. M.; Ivanov, L. I.; Djomina, E. V.

    1992-09-01

    A comparison has been made between the mechanical properties and swelling of austenitic stainless steels EP-838 (Fe-Cr-Mn) and 316SS (Fe-Cr-Ni) irradiated in the mixed-neutron spectrum of the SM-2 reactor in the temperature range 400-800°C (every 100°C) to 16 dpa dose with 1000 and 3000 appm helium generation correspondingly, determined by nickel content. EP-838 exhibited less susceptibility to void swelling and radiation hardening. Fe-12Cr-20Mn-W-0.1C steel without nickel irradiated at 100°C to 21 dpa exhibited significant radiation hardening accompanied by α-phase formation in the steel structure.

  19. Ra: A high efficiency, D-/sup 3/He, tandem mirror fusion reactor: Appendix C

    SciTech Connect

    Santarius, J.F.; Attaya, H.; Corradini, M.L.; El-Guebaly, L.A.; Emmert, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Larsen, E.M.; Maynard, C.W.; Musicki, Z.; Sawan, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Ra tandem mirror fusion reactor concept features inherent safety, high net plant efficiency, low cost of electricity, low radioactive waste generation, low activation, highly efficient direct conversion, thin radiation shields, and axisymmetric magnets. The safety and environmental features are achieved through the use of D/He-3 fuel, while the high efficiency derives from a new operating mode. ICRF stabilization allows an axisymmetric magnet set. 11 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. The effect of C/N ratio on ammonia oxidising bacteria community structure in a laboratory nitrification-denitrification reactor.

    PubMed

    Ballinger, S J; Head, I M; Curtis, T P; Godley, A R

    2002-01-01

    A laboratory scale reactor operated as a single sludge, denitrification-nitrification bioreactor (DNB), was fed a synthetic wastewater. The effect of the C/N ratio of the influent on the structure of beta-proteobacterial autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacterial (AOB) communities was determined by DGGE analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified using a range of AOB-selective primers. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) was used to determine quantitative changes in the AOB communities. When operated at a C/N ratio of 2 the DNB was effective in nitrogen removal and nitrification was measured at approximately 1.0 mg NH4+-N/g dry wt/h. Altering the C/N ratio to 5 resulted in a 50% reduction in nitrification rates. Nitrification was restored to its original level when the C/N ratio was returned to 2. AOB were detected by DGGE analysis of samples from the DNB under all operating conditions but the changes in C/N ratio and nitrification rates were accompanied by changes in the community structure of the AOB. However, quantitative FISH analysis indicated that beta-proteobacterial AOB were only present in high numbers (ca. 10(8) cells/ml) under the original operating conditions with a C/N ratio of 2. Beta-proteobacterial AOB could not be detected by FISH when the C/N ratio was 5. When nitrification activity was restored by returning the C/N ratio to 2, beta-proteobacterial AOB were still not detected and it is likely that either beta-proteobacterial AOB were not responsible for ammonia oxidation or that beta-proteobacterial AOB that did not contain the target sites for the range of 4 AOB selective probes used, were present in the reactor.

  1. Degradation of industrial waste waters on Fe/C-fabrics. Optimization of the solution parameters during reactor operation.

    PubMed

    Bozzi, A; Yuranova, T; Lais, P; Kiwi, J

    2005-04-01

    This study addresses the pre-treatment of toxic and recalcitrant compounds found in the waste waters arriving at a treating station for industrial effluents containing chlorinated aromatics and non-aromatic compounds, anilines, phenols, methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE). By reducing the total organic carbon (TOC) of these waste waters the hydraulic load for the further bacterial processing in the secondary biological treatment is decreased. The TOC decrease and discoloration of the waste waters was observed only under light irradiation in the reactor by immobilized Fenton processes on Fe/C-fabrics but not in the dark. The energy of activation for the degradation of the waste waters was of 4.2 kcal/mol. The degradation of the waste waters was studied in the reactor as a function of (a) the amount of oxidant used (H2O2), (b) the recirculation rate, (c) the solution pH and (d) the applied temperature. With these parameters taken as input factors, statistical modeling allows one to estimate the most economic use of the oxidant and electrical energy to degrade these waste waters. The concentration of the most abundant organic pollutants during waste waters degradation was followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The ratio of the biological oxygen demand to the total organic carbon BOD5/TOC increased significantly due to the Fe/C-fabric catalyzed treatment from an initial value of 2.03 to 2.71 (2 h). The reactor results show that the recirculation rate has no influence on the TOC decrease of the treated waters but affects the BOD increase of these solutions.

  2. Current Zero Missing Phenomena caused by D.C. Current which Flows from Shunt Reactor at the Ground Fault and its Interruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Takayuki; Eto, Atsushi; Koshizuka, Tadashi; Nishiwaki, Susumu; Kudo, Kietsu; Matsushita, Kozo; Hosokawa, Osamu

    At substations where shunt reactors are installed, when a ground fault occurs near the reactor, d.c. current flows from the reactor to the fault point. There are cases where circuit breakers installed near the reactor interrupt only the d.c. current from the reactor with long arcing times. In those cases, attention should be paid to the damage of the contacts. This paper shows the investigation of the d.c. current interrupting performance for the 550kV one-break SF6 gas circuit breaker. In the range of some hundreds amperes, the d.c. arc voltages with long arcing times of the 550kV one-break circuit breaker were measured. The d.c. current waveform and arcing time at the d.c. current interruption by 550kV one-break circuit breaker in the 500kV cable system were calculated. Interrupting test circuit for the d.c. current interruption was constructed in the high power laboratory. From the interrupting test results, it was made clear that the circuit breaker had a good interrupting performance after the d.c. current interruptions.

  3. Removal Site Evaluation Report to the C-Reactor Seepage Basins (904-066, -067 and -068G)

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.R.

    1997-07-01

    Removal Site Evaluation Reports are prepared in accordance with Section 300.410 of the National Contingency Plan (NCP) and Section X of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). The C-Reactor Seepage Basins (904-066G,-067G,-068G) are listed in Appendix C, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Units List, of the FFA. The purpose of this investigation is to report information concerning conditions at this unit sufficient to assess the threat (if any) posed to human health and the environment and to determine the need for additional CERCLA action. The scope of the investigation included a review of past survey and investigation data, the files, and a visit to the unit.Through this investigation unacceptable conditions of radioactive contaminant uptake in on-site vegetation were identified. This may have resulted in probable contaminant migration and become introduced into the local ecological food chain. As a result, the SRS will initiate a time critical removal action in accordance with Section 300.415 of the NCP and FFA Section XIV to remove, treat (if required), and dispose of contaminated vegetation from the C-Reactor Seepage Basins. Erosion in the affected areas will be managed by an approved erosion control plan. further remediation of this unit will be conducted in accordance with the FFA.

  4. Continuous flowing micro-reactor for aqueous reaction at temperature higher than 100 °C

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Fei; Wang, Baojun; Wang, Wei; Dong, Tian; Tong, Jianhua; Xia, Shanhong; Wu, Wengang; Li, Zhihong

    2013-01-01

    Some aqueous reactions in biological or chemical fields are accomplished at a high temperature. When the reaction temperature is higher than 100 °C, an autoclave reactor is usually required to elevate the boiling point of the water by creating a high-pressure environment in a closed system. This work presented an alternative continuous flowing microfluidic solution for aqueous reaction with a reaction temperature higher than 100 °C. The pressure regulating function was successfully fulfilled by a small microchannel based on a delicate hydrodynamic design. Combined with micro heater and temperature sensor that integrated in a single chip by utilizing silicon-based microfabrication techniques, this pressure regulating microchannel generated a high-pressure/high-temperature environment in the upstream reaction zone when the reagents continuously flow through the chip. As a preliminary demonstration, thermal digestion of aqueous total phosphorus sample was achieved in this continuous flowing micro-reactor at a working pressure of 990 kPa (under the working flow rate of 20 nl/s) along with a reaction temperature of 145 °C. This continuous flowing microfluidic solution for high-temperature reaction may find applications in various micro total analysis systems. PMID:24404024

  5. Ronald McDonald dit: "Tout le monde connait: 'Deuxsteakshachessaucespecialesaladefromageoignons dansuntriplepainrondrecouvertdegrainsdesesames'" (Ronald McDonald Says: "Everyone Knows: 'Two-All-Beef-Patties-Special-Sauce-Lettuce-Cheese-Pickles- Onions-on-a-Sesame-Seed Bun'").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headrick, Robert J., Jr.

    This booklet is intended for classroom use in first-year high school French to acquaint students with the McDonald's fast food restaurants in Paris. The specific objectives are for the student to: (1) discuss the similarities and differences between the American and Parisian McDonald's, (2) set up a miniature McDonald's in the classroom, (3) order…

  6. Ronald McDonald pregunta: "Puedes decir: 'dostortosdepurocarnederessalsaespeciallechugagueso- pepinillosycebollasenunpanconsemillasdeajonjoli'?" (Ronald McDonald Asks: "Can You Say: 'Two-All-Beef-Patties-Special-Sauce-Lettuce-Cheese-Pickles-Onions-On- A-Sesame-Seed-Bun'?" Activities in Spanish).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headrick, Robert J., Jr.

    This booklet is intended for classroom use in first-year high school Spanish to acquaint students with the McDonald's fast food restaurants in Costa Rica. The specific objectives are for the student to: (1) discuss the similarities and differences between the American and Costa Rican McDonald's, (2) set up a miniature McDonald's in the classroom,…

  7. Ronald McDonald pregunta: "Puedes decir: 'dostortosdepurocarnederessalsaespeciallechugagueso- pepinillosycebollasenunpanconsemillasdeajonjoli'?" (Ronald McDonald Asks: "Can You Say: 'Two-All-Beef-Patties-Special-Sauce-Lettuce-Cheese-Pickles-Onions-On- A-Sesame-Seed-Bun'?" Activities in Spanish).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headrick, Robert J., Jr.

    This booklet is intended for classroom use in first-year high school Spanish to acquaint students with the McDonald's fast food restaurants in Costa Rica. The specific objectives are for the student to: (1) discuss the similarities and differences between the American and Costa Rican McDonald's, (2) set up a miniature McDonald's in the classroom,…

  8. Ronald McDonald dit: "Tout le monde connait: 'Deuxsteakshachessaucespecialesaladefromageoignons dansuntriplepainrondrecouvertdegrainsdesesames'" (Ronald McDonald Says: "Everyone Knows: 'Two-All-Beef-Patties-Special-Sauce-Lettuce-Cheese-Pickles- Onions-on-a-Sesame-Seed Bun'").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headrick, Robert J., Jr.

    This booklet is intended for classroom use in first-year high school French to acquaint students with the McDonald's fast food restaurants in Paris. The specific objectives are for the student to: (1) discuss the similarities and differences between the American and Parisian McDonald's, (2) set up a miniature McDonald's in the classroom, (3) order…

  9. Nanocrystalline SiC and Ti3SiC2 Alloys for Reactor Materials: Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Charles H.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Shin, Yongsoon; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Borlaug, Brennan A.; Jiang, Weilin; Arreguin, Shelly A.

    2015-01-15

    A new dual-phase nanocomposite of Ti₃SiC₂/SiC is being synthesized using preceramic polymers, ceramic powders, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) designed to be suitable for advanced nuclear reactors and perhaps as fuel cladding. The material is being designed to have superior fracture toughness compared to SiC, adequate thermal conductivity, and higher density than SiC/SiC composites. This annual report summarizes the progress towards this goal and reports progress in understanding certain aspects of the material behavior but some shortcomings in achieving full density or in achieving adequate incorporation of CNTs. The measured thermal conductivity is adequate and falls into an expected range based on SiC and Ti₃SiC₂. Part of this study makes an initial assessment for Ti₃SiC₂ as a barrier to fission product transport. Ion implantation was used to introduce fission product surrogates (Ag and Cs) and a noble metal (Au) in Ti₃SiC₂, SiC, and a synthesized at PNNL. The experimental results indicate that the implanted Ag in SiC is immobile up to the highest temperature (1273 K) applied in this study; in contrast, significant out-diffusion of both Ag and Au in MAX phase Ti₃SiC₂ occurs during ion implantation at 873 K. Cs in Ti₃SiC₂ is found to diffuse during post-irradiation annealing at 973 K, and noticeable Cs release from the sample is observed. This study may suggest caution in using Ti₃SiC₂ as a fuel cladding material for advanced nuclear reactors operating at very high temperatures. Progress is reported in thermal conductivity modeling of SiC-based materials that is relevant to this research, as is progress in modeling the effects of CNTs on fracture strength of SiC-based materials.

  10. 78 FR 76103 - Donald V. Bernardo, a/k/a Don Bernarndo, 701 Fredericksburg Road, Mathews, NC 28105; Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Donald V. Bernardo, a/k/a Don Bernarndo, 701 Fredericksburg Road, Mathews... District of Florida, Donald V. Bernardo, a/k/a Don Bernardo (``Bernardo''), was convicted of Section 38 of..., Donald V. Bernardo, a/k/a Don Bernardo, with a last known address at: 701 Fredericksburg Road,...

  11. Modeling prismatic HTGRs with U.S. N.R.C advanced gas reactor evaluator (AGREE)

    SciTech Connect

    Seker, V.; Drzewiecki, T.; Downar, T.; Kelly, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    A core fluids and heat transfer model has been developed for the prismatic high temperature gas reactor in support of the US NRC Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) evaluation model. The core fluids modeling relies on a subchannel approach in which the primary coolant flow path through the core region and vertical in-core and ex-core gaps can be modeled as individual subchannels. These subchannels are connected together to represent a three dimensional reactor. An initial validation calculation for the core fluids model has been performed using data available in literature for bypass flow. The predicted bypass flow was within 2.6% of the value reported in the literature. The core level heat transfer model is based on a triangular finite volume method, where the base triangle is one sixth of the prismatic block. In order to improve the spatial accuracy at this level, a triangular refinement method was also implemented. The fuel compact temperature is calculated by a cylindrical conduction model which is implicitly coupled to the triangular core level model. The preliminary verification of the model was performed by comparing AGREE to a finite element code COMSOL by analyzing the MHTGR core heat transfer. Further verification and validation is currently an ongoing effort. (authors)

  12. Assessing the health impact of transnational corporations: a case study on McDonald's Australia.

    PubMed

    Anaf, Julia; Baum, Frances E; Fisher, Matt; Harris, Elizabeth; Friel, Sharon

    2017-02-06

    The practices of transnational corporations affect population health through production methods, shaping social determinants of health, or influencing the regulatory structures governing their activities. There has been limited research on community exposures to TNC policies and practices. Our pilot research used McDonald's Australia to test methods for assessing the health impacts of one TNC within Australia. We adapted existing Health Impact Assessment methods to assess McDonald's activities. Data identifying potential impacts were sourced through document analysis, including McDonald's corporate literature; media analysis and semi-structured interviews. We commissioned a spatial and socioeconomic analysis of McDonald's restaurants in Australia through Geographic Information System technology. The data was mapped against a corporate health impact assessment framework which included McDonald's Australia's political and business practices; products and marketing; workforce, social, environmental and economic conditions; and consumers' health related behaviours. We identified both positive and detrimental aspects of McDonald's Australian operations across the scope of the CHIA framework. We found that McDonald's outlets were slightly more likely to be located in areas of lower socioeconomic status. McDonald's workplace conditions were found to be more favourable than those in many other countries which reflects compliance with Australian employment regulations. The breadth of findings revealed the need for governments to strengthen regulatory mechanisms that are conducive to health; the opportunity for McDonald's to augment their corporate social responsibility initiatives and bolster reputational endorsement; and civil society actors to inform their advocacy towards health and equity outcomes from TNC operations. Our study indicates that undertaking a corporate health impact assessment is possible, with the different methods revealing sufficient information to

  13. Nitrifying moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) biofilm and biomass response to long term exposure to 1 °C.

    PubMed

    Hoang, V; Delatolla, R; Abujamel, T; Mottawea, W; Gadbois, A; Laflamme, E; Stintzi, A

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to investigate moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) nitrification rates, nitrifying biofilm morphology, biomass viability as well as bacterial community shifts during long-term exposure to 1 °C. Long-term exposure to 1 °C is the key operational condition for potential ammonia removal upgrade units to numerous northern region treatment systems. The average laboratory MBBR ammonia removal rate after long-term exposure to 1 °C was measured to be 18 ± 5.1% as compared to the average removal rate at 20 °C. Biofilm morphology and specifically the thickness along with biomass viability at various depths in the biofilm were investigated using variable pressure electron scanning microscope (VPSEM) imaging and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) imaging in combination with viability live/dead staining. The biofilm thickness along with the number of viable cells showed significant increases after long-term exposure to 1 °C. Hence, this study observed nitrifying bacteria with higher activities at warm temperatures and a slightly greater quantity of nitrifying bacteria with lower activities at cold temperatures in nitrifying MBBR biofilms. Using DNA sequencing analysis, Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira (ammonia oxidizers) as well as Nitrospira (nitrite oxidizer) were identified and no population shift was observed between 20 °C and after long-term exposure to 1 °C.

  14. Fluctuating selection models and McDonald-Kreitman type analyses.

    PubMed

    Gossmann, Toni I; Waxman, David; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2014-01-01

    It is likely that the strength of selection acting upon a mutation varies through time due to changes in the environment. However, most population genetic theory assumes that the strength of selection remains constant. Here we investigate the consequences of fluctuating selection pressures on the quantification of adaptive evolution using McDonald-Kreitman (MK) style approaches. In agreement with previous work, we show that fluctuating selection can generate evidence of adaptive evolution even when the expected strength of selection on a mutation is zero. However, we also find that the mutations, which contribute to both polymorphism and divergence tend, on average, to be positively selected during their lifetime, under fluctuating selection models. This is because mutations that fluctuate, by chance, to positive selected values, tend to reach higher frequencies in the population than those that fluctuate towards negative values. Hence the evidence of positive adaptive evolution detected under a fluctuating selection model by MK type approaches is genuine since fixed mutations tend to be advantageous on average during their lifetime. Never-the-less we show that methods tend to underestimate the rate of adaptive evolution when selection fluctuates.

  15. What will Donald Trump's presidency mean for health? A scorecard.

    PubMed

    McKee, Martin; Greer, Scott L; Stuckler, David

    2017-02-18

    US Presidents make their mark on health, for better or worse. Donald Trump campaigned on a populist platform to "make America great again". While the actual policies his administration will pursue-and the priority he will place on each of them-remain in many ways uncertain, both his statements and his nominations for key government posts suggest that his presidency could have profound implications for health. His proposal to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act with a "better reform", his stance on reproductive rights, and his approaches to other areas, such as science policy and climate change, coupled with his stated intention to put "America first" are creating anxiety and uncertainty about America's domestic health policies and its global leadership role in areas such as security and development. We propose criteria on which the global health community can judge the success or failure of a Trump presidency, based on a selection of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals that apply to health.

  16. Stellar Radial Velocities with IGRINS at McDonald Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mace, Gregory; Jaffe, Daniel; Park, Chan; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2016-06-01

    Exoplanet searches with dedicated instrumentation have made 1 m/s radial velocity (RV) precision routine.Yet, RVs for large samples of stars generally remain at the 1km/s level.TheImmersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) is a revolutionary instrument that exploits broad spectral coverage at high-resolution in the near-infrared.IGRINS on the 2.7 meter Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory is nearly as sensitive as CRIRES at the 8 meter Very Large Telescope. However, IGRINS at R=45,000 has more than 30 times the spectral grasp of CRIRES.The use of a silicon immersion grating facilitates a compact cryostat while providing simultaneous wavelength coverage from 1.45 - 2.45 microns. Wehave developed a pipeline to cross-correlate the more than 20,000 resolution elements in two IGRINS exposures and provide relative RVs with uncertainties of 50m/s (<1% of a resolution element). Absolute RVs are limited by thezero point uncertainty, which is 150m/s.IGRINS RVs will be provided for thousands of objects per year as a default procedure of the data reduction pipeline, creating a legacy product for multi-epoch studies of low-mass, stellar and substellar multiplicity.

  17. Unpublished draft paper on sexuality by Donald Meltzer.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Editor's note: Albert Mason discovered an unpublished paper by Donald Meltzer dating from around 1968 and has made the text available to the IJP. He writes "my best guess is that Meltzer gave me the paper to read/approve about the time I was preparing to move to Los Angeles (1968-69) and that I hastily packed it away with other papers. It got buried, and only came to light recently, kind of like a lost score that turns up in someone's attic!" The patient Meltzer discusses in his paper is a patient who Dr Mason treated for approximately 11 years, and about whom Dr Mason consulted with Dr Meltzer early in the treatment. Dr Mason has also provided the original report he wrote about the patient in the 1960s. Following an introduction by Dr Abbot Bronstein, we have published extracts from Dr Mason's report, including the following: details about the case, the two dreams which Dr Mason believes were 'turning point dreams', and a third dream called the 'hula hula dream', as well as the clinical material leading up to it.

  18. Simultaneous C and N removal from saline salmon effluents in filter reactors comprising anoxic-anaerobic-aerobic processes: effect of recycle ratio.

    PubMed

    Giustinianovich, Elisa A; Aspé, Estrella R; Huiliñir, César E; Roeckel, Marlene D

    2014-01-01

    Salmon processing generates saline effluents with high protein load. To treat these effluents, three compact tubular filter reactors were installed and an integrated anoxic/anaerobic/aerobic process was developed with recycling flow from the reactor's exit to the inlet stream in order to save organic matter (OM) for denitrification. The reactors were aerated in the upper section with recycle ratios (RR) of 0, 2, and 10, respectively, at 30°C. A tubular reactor behave as a plug flow reactor when RR = 0, and as a mixed flow reactor when recycle increases, thus, different RR values were used to evaluate how it affects the product distribution and the global performance. Diluted salmon process effluent was prepared as substrate. Using loads of 1.0 kg COD m(-3)d(-1) and 0.15 kg total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) m(-3)d(-1) at HRT of 2 d, 100% removal efficiencies for nitrite and nitrate were achieved in the anoxic-denitrifying section without effect of the dissolved oxygen in the recycled flow on denitrification. Removals >98% for total organic carbon (TOC) was achieved in the three reactors. The RR had no effect on the TOC removal; nevertheless a higher efficiency in total nitrogen removal in the reactor with the highest recycle ratio was observed: 94.3% for RR = 10 and 46.6% for RR = 2. Results showed that the proposed layout with an alternative distribution in a compact reactor can efficiently treat high organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations from a saline fish effluent with OM savings in denitrification.

  19. Calculation of the pressure vessel failure fraction of fuel particle of gas turbine high temperature reactor 300 C

    SciTech Connect

    Aihara, J.; Ueta, S.; Mozumi, Y.; Sato, H.; Sawa, K.; Motohashi, Y.

    2007-07-01

    In high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs), coated particles are used as fuels. For upgrading HTGR technologies, present SiC coating layer which is used as the 3. layer could be replaced with ZrC coating layer which have much higher temperature stability in addition to higher resistance to chemical attack by fission product palladium than the SiC coating layer. The ZrC layer could deform plastically at high temperatures. Therefore, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency modified an existing pressure vessel failure fraction calculation code to treat the plastic deformation of the 3. layer in order to predict failure fraction of ZrC coated particle under irradiation. Finite element method is employed to calculate the stress in each coating layer. The pressure vessel failure fraction of the coated fuel particles under normal operating condition of GTHTR300C is calculated by the modified code. The failure fraction is evaluated as low as 3.5 x 10{sup -6}. (authors)

  20. Pyrolysis of Tropyl Radical (C7H7) and Benzyl Radical (C6H5CH2) in a Heated Micro-Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckingham, Grant; Ellison, Barney; Porterfield, Jessica P.; Daily, John W.; Ahmed, Musahid; Robichaud, David; Nimlos, Mark R.

    2016-06-01

    Benzyl radical (C6H5CH2) is a crucial intermediate in the combustion and pyrolysis of substituted aromatic species that are common both in modern gasoline and potential future biofuels. The decomposition of benzyl radical is complicated and has been shown by isotopic labeling to require interesting isomerizations pathways. To better understand these pathways, a set of C7H7 radicals has been studied in a heated micro-reactor. Through multiple experiments, it has be shown that benzyl radical and cycloheptatrienyl (tropyl) radical (c-C7H7) do not interconvert, even at temperatures where both have completely thermally decomposed. To confirm this, tropyl radical has been studied directly and its pyrolysis is quite simple, only cyclopentadienyl radical (c-C5H5) and acetylene (HCCH) are formed. Cyclopentadienyl radical then decomposes to acetylene and propargyl radical (HCCCH2). These products have all been identified through use of tunable synchrotron radiation by confirming their respective photoionization spectra. Matrix isolation infrared (IR) spectroscopy has also been used to identity these products. A previously unanswered question in benzyl radical decomposition has been addressed by studying the pyrolysis of 2,5-norbornadiene, which indicates benzyl radical may decompose through a norbornadiene-like bicyclic radical intermediate. This pathways successfully predicts the correct isotopically labeled products observed previously during 13C labeled benzyl pyrolysis.

  1. Nitrate removal by organotrophic anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria with C2/C3 fatty acid in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuhai; Li, Dong; Zhang, Xiaojing; Zeng, Huiping; Yang, Yin; Zhang, Jie

    2015-10-01

    In anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process, a harsh ratio of nitrite to ammonia in influent was demanded, and the max nitrogen removal efficiency could only achieve to 89%, both of which limited the development of Anammox. The aim of this work was to study the nitrate removal by organotrophic anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AAOB) with C2/C3 fatty acid in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. In this study, organotrophic AAOB was successfully enriched by adding acetate and propionate with the total organic carbon to nitrogen (TOC/N) ratio of 0.1. In the condition of low substrate, the TN removal efficiency reached 90%, with the effluent TN of around 11.8 mg L(-1). After the addition of acetate and propionate, the predominant species in Anammox granular sludge transformed to Candidatus Jettenia that belonging to organotrophic AAOB from the Candidatus Kuenenia relating to general AAOB.

  2. Study on Fracture Behavior of 2D-C/C Composite for Application to Control Rod of Very High Temperature Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumita, J.; Fujita, I.; Shibata, T.; Makita, T.; Takagi, T.; Kunimoto, E.; Sawa, K.; Kim, W.; Park, J.

    2011-10-01

    For a control rod element of the Very High Temperature Reactor, a carbon fiber reinforced carbon matrix composite (C/C composite) is one of the major candidate materials for its high strength and thermal stability. In this study, in order to establish the data base of the 2D-C/C composite, the fracture data was obtained by simulating the crack expected to be generated under the VHTR condition and the oxidation effect on the fracture behavior was evaluated. Moreover, the fracture mechanism of the C/C composite was investigated through scanning electron microscope observation. This study showed that the oxidized matrix caused reduction of the fracture toughness and the reduction ratio was dependent on the density of matrix and a number cracks. With increasing the oxidation, the fracture toughness is mainly dependent on the fiber characteristics. Furthermore, the crack grows along the boundary between fiber bundles without breaking the fiber. The cracks which were initiated at the interface between the matrix and the fiber were gathered into the voids in the boundary between fiber bundles, and, then, the cracks grew up in the matrix.

  3. Identification of tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA)-utilizing organisms in BioGAC reactors using 13C-DNA stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Aslett, Denise; Haas, Joseph; Hyman, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Biodegradation of the gasoline oxygenates methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) can cause tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) to accumulate in gasoline-impacted environments. One remediation option for TBA-contaminated groundwater involves oxygenated granulated activated carbon (GAC) reactors that have been self-inoculated by indigenous TBA-degrading microorganisms in ground water extracted from contaminated aquifers. Identification of these organisms is important for understanding the range of TBA-metabolizing organisms in nature and for determining whether self-inoculation of similar reactors is likely to occur at other sites. In this study (13)C-DNA-stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify TBA-utilizing organisms in samples of self-inoculated BioGAC reactors operated at sites in New York and California. Based on 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences, all TBA-utilizing organisms identified were members of the Burkholderiales order of the β-proteobacteria. Organisms similar to Cupriavidus and Methylibium were observed in both reactor samples while organisms similar to Polaromonas and Rhodoferax were unique to the reactor sample from New York. Organisms similar to Hydrogenophaga and Paucibacter strains were only detected in the reactor sample from California. We also analyzed our samples for the presence of several genes previously implicated in TBA oxidation by pure cultures of bacteria. Genes Mpe_B0532, B0541, B0555, and B0561 were all detected in (13)C-metagenomic DNA from both reactors and deduced amino acid sequences suggested these genes all encode highly conserved enzymes. One gene (Mpe_B0555) encodes a putative phthalate dioxygenase-like enzyme that may be particularly appropriate for determining the potential for TBA oxidation in contaminated environmental samples.

  4. Optimization of C/N and current density in a heterotrophic/biofilm-electrode autotrophic denitrification reactor (HAD-BER).

    PubMed

    Tong, Shuang; Chen, Nan; Wang, Heng; Liu, Hengyuan; Tao, Chen; Feng, Chuanping; Zhang, Baogang; Hao, Chunbo; Pu, Jiaoyang; Zhao, Jiamin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were applied to optimize the C/N and current density in a heterotrophic/biofilm-electrode autotrophic denitrification reactor (HAD-BER). Results showed that nitrate could be effectively reduced over a wide range of C/Ns (0.84-1.3535) and current densities (96.8-370.0 mA/m(2)); however, an optimum C/N of 1.13 and optimum current density of 239.6 mA/m(2) were obtained by RSM. Moreover, the HAD-BER performance under the optimum conditions resulted in almost 100% nitrate-N removal efficiency and low nitrite-N and ammonia-N accumulation. Furthermore, under the optimum conditions, H2 generated from water electrolysis matched the CO2 produced by heterotrophic denitrification by stoichiometric calculation. Therefore, CCD and RSM could be used to acquire optimum operational conditions and improve the nitrate removal efficiency and energy consumption in the HAD-BER. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of Nb-1%Zr-0.1%C alloy as structural components for high temperature reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwanadh, B.; Vaibhav, K.; Jha, S. K.; Mirji, K. V.; Samajdar, I.; Srivastava, D.; Tewari, R.; Saibaba, N.; Dey, G. K.

    2012-08-01

    The Nb-1Zr-0.1C (wt.%) alloy is being considered for structural components in the proposed Compact High-Temperature-Reactors (HTR). The present work reports on the development of 30-50 kg ingots of the alloy in correct composition as well as technology for forming the material in various shapes. The work deals with the deformation behavior of as-cast material at different temperatures and strain rates, recrystallization behavior at different temperature and time and evolution of microstructures at different processing conditions (as-cast, deformed and recrystallized). The as-cast Nb alloys were deformed up to 35% at different temperatures. The deformation results showed that the flow stress of the as-cast Nb alloy increases with increasing temperature from 800 °C to 1000 °C. Beyond 1200 °C, substantial decrease in the strength of the alloy was noticed. To determine the optimum recrystallization temperature and time for the alloy, several heat treatments were conducted by systematically varying temperature and time. It was found that the deformed Nb alloy could be recrystallized by annealing at 1300 °C for 3 h. The microstructures of the as-cast, deformed and recrystallized samples of Nb-1%Zr-0.1%C alloy were systematically characterized by optical, electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The Nb-1Zr-0.1C alloy showed significant differences in the microstructure after different thermo-mechanical treatments. Microstructures of the Nb alloy showed two phases: the matrix (bcc) phase and the carbide phase. Electron Microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopic analyses revealed that the carbide precipitation undergoes various phase transformations. The as-cast structure of Nb alloy had hexagonal Nb2C precipitates in the Nb matrix and after extrusion, the deformed microstructure had two types of carbide precipitates: needle and rectangular morphology precipitates. The needle shape precipitates were of (Nb, Zr)2C

  6. Fast Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, S.; Pisanti, O.

    The following sections are included: * Elementary Considerations * The Integral Equation to the Neutron Distribution * The Critical Size for a Fast Reactor * Supercritical Reactors * Problems and Exercises

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Kepler-80 transit timing observations (MacDonald+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, M. G.; Ragozzine, D.; Fabrycky, D. C.; Ford, E. B.; Holman, M. J.; Isaacson, H. T.; Lissauer, J. J.; Lopez, E. D.; Mazeh, T.; Rogers, L.; Rowe, J. F.; Steffen, J. H.; Torres, G.

    2017-05-01

    Kepler-80 was observed photometrically by the Kepler Space Telescope. We had access to several sets of Transit Timing (TT) measurements, including the publicly available data from Rowe & Thompson (arXiv:1504.00707) and Mazeh et al. 2013 (Cat. J/ApJS/208/16). We also had the updated long-cadence TT estimates from the Mazeh group (Holczer et al. 2016, Cat. J/ApJS/225/9) and short-cadence TT data from both co-authors JR and DF. These were all measured using similar methods (see Mazeh et al. 2013, Cat. J/ApJS/208/16) and had no major differences. Spectra were taken of Kepler-80 by Keck and McDonald Observatories, and these spectra and preliminary interpretations are available on the Kepler Community Follow-up Observing Program (CFOP) website (https://cfop.ipac.caltech.edu). We acquired an 1800s high-resolution spectrum with the Keck I telescope and the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES) on 2011 July 20. The standard California Planet Search setup and data reduction of HIRES was used, resulting in a S/N of 35 at 5500Å. The C2 decker, with dimensions of 0.87''*14'', was used to allow a resolution of ~60000 and sky subtraction. (5 data files).

  8. Influence of the C/N ratio on the performance of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) producing sequencing batch reactors at short SRTs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Katja; Kleerebezem, Robbert; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2010-04-01

    Many waste streams that are suitable substrates for mixed culture bioplastic (polyhydroxyalkanoate, PHA) production are nutrient limited and may need to be supplemented to allow sufficient growth of PHA accumulating bacteria. The scope of this study was to investigate the necessity of nutrient supplementation for the enrichment of an efficient PHA producing mixed culture. We studied the influence of different degrees of carbon and nitrogen limitation on the performance of an acetate-fed feast-famine sequencing batch reactor (SBR) employed to enrich PHA storing bacteria. The microbial reaction rates in the SBR showed a shift with a change in the limiting substrate: high acetate uptake rates were found in carbon-limited SBRs (medium C/N ratios 6-13.2 Cmol/Nmol), while nitrogen-limited SBRs (medium C/N ratios 15-24 Cmol/Nmol) were characterized by high ammonia uptake rates. Biomass in strongly nitrogen-limited SBRs had higher baseline PHA contents in the SBR, but carbon-limited SBRs resulted usually in biomass with higher maximal PHA storage capacities. The PHA storage capacity in a nitrogen-limited SBR operated at 0.5 d SRT decreased significantly over less than 5 months operation. For the microbial selection and biomass production stage of a PHA production process carbon limitation seems thus favourable and nutrient deficient wastewaters may consequently require supplementation with nutrients for the selection of a stable PHA storing biomass with a high storage capacity.

  9. Limitations encountered for the treatment of a low C:N waste using a modified membrane-aerated biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Landes, Nicholas C; Jackson, W Andrew; Morse, Audra N

    2011-02-01

    A modified membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (mMABR) that combined oxygen permeable membranes and inert attachment media to support both nitrification and denitrification was used to treat a carbon-limited (COD:N = 1.8) and ammonium-rich (NH4+ = 650 g-N/m3) space habitation waste stream. An eight-fold increase in intramembrane air pressure did not affect process performance; however, for an air pressure of 11 kPa (gauge), lower and upper hydraulic loading limits for the mMABR were identified at 30 g-N/m3 x d and 123 g-N/m3 x d, respectively. Oxygen limitation occurred at the highest loading rate and alkalinity limitation occurred at the lowest loading rate. Partial nitrification was noted at both limitations. Additionally, increased recirculation ratios were shown to decrease denitrification efficiency. Mean carbon and nitrogen removal rates were as high as 75.3 g-C/m3 x d (0.26 g-C/m2d) and 63.8 g-N/m3 x d (0.22 g-N/m2 x d), respectively. The mMABR achieved maximal nitrification and denitrification performance given the stoichiometric nature of the waste.

  10. Screening for potential fermentative hydrogen production from black water and kitchen waste in on-site UASB reactor at 20 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Luostarinen, S; Pakarinen, O; Rintala, J

    2008-06-01

    The potential of black water and a mixture of black water and kitchen waste as substrates for on-site dark fermentative hydrogen production was screened in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors at 20 degrees C. Three different inocula were used with and without heat treatment. With glucose, the highest specific hydrogenogenic activity was 69 ml H2 g volatile solids(-1) d(-1) in batch assays and the highest hydrogen yield 0.44 mol H2 mol glucose(-1) in upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor. The mixture of black water and kitchen waste degraded readily into volatile fatty acids in the reactors, thus showing potential for hydrogen production. In the conditions applied, however, the highest end product was propionate and no hydrogen was produced. Black water alone apparently contained too little readily soluble carbohydrates for hydrogen producing bacteria, and little VFA and no hydrogen was produced.

  11. Nanocrystalline SiC and Ti3SiC2 Alloys for Reactor Materials: Diffusion of Fission Product Surrogates

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Charles H.; Jiang, Weilin

    2014-11-01

    MAX phases, such as titanium silicon carbide (Ti3SiC2), have a unique combination of both metallic and ceramic properties, which make them attractive for potential nuclear applications. Ti3SiC2 has been suggested in the literature as a possible fuel cladding material. Prior to the application, it is necessary to investigate diffusivities of fission products in the ternary compound at elevated temperatures. This study attempts to obtain relevant data and make an initial assessment for Ti3SiC2. Ion implantation was used to introduce fission product surrogates (Ag and Cs) and a noble metal (Au) in Ti3SiC2, SiC, and a dual-phase nanocomposite of Ti3SiC2/SiC synthesized at PNNL. Thermal annealing and in-situ Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) were employed to study the diffusivity of the various implanted species in the materials. In-situ RBS study of Ti3SiC2 implanted with Au ions at various temperatures was also performed. The experimental results indicate that the implanted Ag in SiC is immobile up to the highest temperature (1273 K) applied in this study; in contrast, significant out-diffusion of both Ag and Au in MAX phase Ti3SiC2 occurs during ion implantation at 873 K. Cs in Ti3SiC2 is found to diffuse during post-irradiation annealing at 973 K, and noticeable Cs release from the sample is observed. This study may suggest caution in using Ti3SiC2 as a fuel cladding material for advanced nuclear reactors operating at very high temperatures. Further studies of the related materials are recommended.

  12. Operators in the Plum Brook Reactor Facility Control Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-03-21

    Donald Rhodes, left, and Clyde Greer, right, monitor the operation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Plum Brook Reactor Facility from the control room. The 60-megawatt test reactor, NASA’s only reactor, was the eighth largest test reactor in the world. The facility was built by the Lewis Research Center in the late 1950s to study the effects of radiation on different materials that could be used to construct nuclear propulsion systems for aircraft or rockets. The reactor went critical for the first time in 1961. For the next two years, two operators were on duty 24 hours per day working on the fission process until the reactor reached its full-power level in 1963. Reactor Operators were responsible for monitoring and controlling the reactor systems. Once the reactor was running under normal operating conditions, the work was relatively uneventful. Normally the reactor was kept at a designated power level within certain limits. Occasionally the operators had to increase the power for a certain test. The shift supervisor and several different people would get together and discuss the change before boosting the power. All operators were required to maintain a Reactor Operator License from the Atomic Energy Commission. The license included six months of training, an eight-hour written exam, a four-hour walkaround, and testing on the reactor controls.

  13. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Zinn, W.H.; Anderson, H.L.

    1958-09-16

    Means are presenied for increasing the reproduction ratio of a gaphite- moderated neutronic reactor by diminishing the neutron loss due to absorption or capture by gaseous impurities within the reactor. This means comprised of a fluid-tight casing or envelope completely enclosing the reactor and provided with a valve through which the casing, and thereby the reactor, may be evacuated of atmospheric air.

  14. Evaluation of the 2010 McDonald multiple sclerosis criteria in children with a clinically isolated syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kornek, Barbara; Schmitl, Beate; Vass, Karl; Zehetmayer, Sonja; Pritsch, Martin; Penzien, Johann; Karenfort, Michael; Blaschek, Astrid; Seidl, Rainer; Prayer, Daniela; Rostasy, Kevin

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging diagnostic criteria for paediatric multiple sclerosis have been established on the basis of brain imaging findings alone. The 2010 McDonald criteria for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, however, include spinal cord imaging for detection of lesion dissemination in space. The new criteria have been recommended in paediatric multiple sclerosis. (1) To evaluate the 2010 McDonald multiple sclerosis criteria in children with a clinically isolated syndrome and to compare them with recently proposed magnetic resonance criteria for children; (2) to assess whether the inclusion of spinal cord imaging provided additional value to the 2010 McDonald criteria. We performed a retrospective analysis of brain and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging scans from 52 children with a clinically isolated syndrome. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the magnetic resonance criteria were assessed. The 2010 McDonald dissemination in space criteria were more sensitive (85% versus 74%) but less specific (80% versus 100%) compared to the 2005 McDonald criteria. The Callen criteria were more accurate (89%) compared to the 2010 McDonald (85%), the 2005 McDonald criteria for dissemination in space (81%), the KIDMUS criteria (46%) and the Canadian Pediatric Demyelinating Disease Network criteria (76%). The 2010 McDonald criteria for dissemination in time were more accurate (93%) than the dissemination in space criteria (85%). Inclusion of the spinal cord did not increase the accuracy of the McDonald criteria.

  15. Nanostructure evolution under irradiation of Fe(C)MnNi model alloys for reactor pressure vessel steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiapetto, M.; Becquart, C. S.; Domain, C.; Malerba, L.

    2015-06-01

    Radiation-induced embrittlement of bainitic steels is one of the most important lifetime limiting factors of existing nuclear light water reactor pressure vessels. The primary mechanism of embrittlement is the obstruction of dislocation motion produced by nanometric defect structures that develop in the bulk of the material due to irradiation. The development of models that describe, based on physical mechanisms, the nanostructural changes in these types of materials due to neutron irradiation are expected to help to better understand which features are mainly responsible for embrittlement. The chemical elements that are thought to influence most the response under irradiation of low-Cu RPV steels, especially at high fluence, are Ni and Mn, hence there is an interest in modelling the nanostructure evolution in irradiated FeMnNi alloys. As a first step in this direction, we developed sets of parameters for object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) simulations that allow this to be done, under simplifying assumptions, using a "grey alloy" approach that extends the already existing OKMC model for neutron irradiated Fe-C binary alloys [1]. Our model proved to be able to describe the trend in the buildup of irradiation defect populations at the operational temperature of LWR (∼300 °C), in terms of both density and size distribution of the defect cluster populations, in FeMnNi model alloys as compared to Fe-C. In particular, the reduction of the mobility of point-defect clusters as a consequence of the presence of solutes proves to be key to explain the experimentally observed disappearance of detectable point-defect clusters with increasing solute content.

  16. Update on ORNL TRANSFORM Tool: Simulating Multi-Module Advanced Reactor with End-to-End I&C

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Richard Edward; Fugate, David L.; Cetiner, Sacit M.; Qualls, A. L.

    2015-05-01

    The Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Dynamic System Modeling Tool project is in the fourth year of development. The project is designed to support collaborative modeling and study of various advanced SMR (non-light water cooled reactor) concepts, including the use of multiple coupled reactors at a single site. The focus of this report is the development of a steam generator and drum system model that includes the complex dynamics of typical steam drum systems, the development of instrumentation and controls for the steam generator with drum system model, and the development of multi-reactor module models that reflect the full power reactor innovative small module design concept. The objective of the project is to provide a common simulation environment and baseline modeling resources to facilitate rapid development of dynamic advanced reactor models; ensure consistency among research products within the Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface technical area; and leverage cross-cutting capabilities while minimizing duplication of effort. The combined simulation environment and suite of models are identified as the TRANSFORM tool. The critical elements of this effort include (1) defining a standardized, common simulation environment that can be applied throughout the Advanced Reactors Technology program; (2) developing a library of baseline component modules that can be assembled into full plant models using available geometry, design, and thermal-hydraulic data; (3) defining modeling conventions for interconnecting component models; and (4) establishing user interfaces and support tools to facilitate simulation development (i.e., configuration and parameterization), execution, and results display and capture.

  17. Photocatalytic Membrane Reactor for the Removal of C.I. Disperse Red 73

    PubMed Central

    Buscio, Valentina; Brosillon, Stephan; Mendret, Julie; Crespi, Martí; Gutiérrez-Bouzán, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    After the dyeing process, part of the dyes used to color textile materials are not fixed into the substrate and are discharged into wastewater as residual dyes. In this study, a heterogeneous photocatalytic process combined with microfiltration has been investigated for the removal of C.I. Disperse Red 73 from synthetic textile effluents. The titanium dioxide (TiO2) Aeroxide P25 was selected as photocatalyst. The photocatalytic treatment achieved between 60% and 90% of dye degradation and up to 98% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal. The influence of different parameters on photocatalytic degradation was studied: pH, initial photocatalyst loading, and dye concentration. The best conditions for dye degradation were pH 4, an initial dye concentration of 50 mg·L−1, and a TiO2 loading of 2 g·L−1. The photocatalytic membrane treatment provided a high quality permeate, which can be reused.

  18. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea in horizontal flow biofilm reactors treating ammonia-contaminated air at 10 °C.

    PubMed

    Gerrity, Seán; Clifford, Eoghan; Kennelly, Colm; Collins, Gavin

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of novel, Horizontal Flow Biofilm Reactor (HFBR) technology for the treatment of ammonia (NH3)-contaminated airstreams. Three laboratory-scale HFBRs were used for remediation of an NH3-containing airstream at 10 °C during a 90-d trial to test the efficacy of low-temperature treatment. Average ammonia removal efficiencies of 99.7 % were achieved at maximum loading rates of 4.8 g NH3 m(3) h(-1). Biological nitrification of ammonia to nitrite (NO2 (-)) and nitrate (NO3 (-)) was mediated by nitrifying bacterial and archaeal biofilm populations. Ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB) were significantly more abundant than ammonia-oxidising archaea (AOA) vertically at each of seven sampling zones along the vertical HFBRs. Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira, were the two most dominant bacterial genera detected in the HFBRs, while an uncultured archaeal clone dominated the AOA community. The bacterial community composition across the three HFBRs was highly conserved, although variations occurred between HFBR zones and were driven by physicochemical variables. The study demonstrates the feasibility of HFBRs for the treatment of ammonia-contaminated airstreams at low temperatures; identifies key nitrifying microorganisms driving the removal process; and provides insights for process optimisation and control. The findings are significant for industrial applications of gas oxidation technology in temperate climates.

  19. Characteristics of biofilm attaching to carriers in moving bed biofilm reactor used to treat vitamin C wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-bing; Xu, Ke; Wang, Zhao; Ding, Li-li; Ren, Hong-qiang

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate characteristics of biofilm attaching firmly to carriers in the moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) used for vitamin C wastewater treatment, experiments were undertaken with instrumental analysis methods. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs of MBBR biofilms revealed that there were rod-shaped microbes and cocci in the biofilm, and microbes were embedded within medium substances and the biofilm matrix adhered firmly to carriers, leading to the formation of a smooth compacted surface at the base of the biofilm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) layer surrounded cell, sequestered inorganics to form a mixed structure, which ensured firm attachment of the biofilm to the carrier. X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments and thermogravimetry analysis revealed that (i) the biofilm contained many inorganic substances, about 70.5%, and the inorganic substances contained multiple classes of inorganic with a high boiling point; (ii) inorganic elements such as calcium and phosphorous were selectively absorbed and accumulated in the biofilm as insoluble compounds with amorphous phases, rendering the biofilm highly resistant to detachment. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed carbohydrates were the main EPS. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Interaction of Impurity (Li, Be, B and C) and Hydrogen Isotope Pellet Injection with Reactor-relevant Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Baiquan; J, P. Allain; Peng, Lilin; Wang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Zhi; Yan, Jiancheng

    2005-02-01

    Based on the two-dimensional kinetic ablation theory of the hydrogen pellet ablation developed by Kuteev [B.V. Kuteev, Nuclear Fusion, 35 (1995) 431], an algorithm of erosion speed and ablation rate calculations for Li, Be, and B impurity pellets in reactor-relevant plasma has been derived. Results show compatibilities of lithium pellet injection used in α-particle diagnostics are positive in comparison with other solid impurity pellets (e.g. Be, B and C). Using the 2-D Kuteev lentil model, including kinetic effects, we find that currently existing pellet injection techniques will not meet core-fueling requirements for ITER-FEAT. A pressure as high as 254 MPa must be applied to a pellet accelerator with a 200 cm-long single-stage pneumatic gun, in order to accelerate a pellet with a radius rp0 = 0.5 cm to a velocity of νp0, 24 × 105 cm/s penetrating 100 cm into the ITER plasma core. Comparisons of pellet velocity- and radius-dependent penetration depth between the Neutral Gas Shielding and the Kuteev's models are made. However, we find that the isotopic effects can lead to a 33% lower pellet speed for solid DT, compared to an identical H2 pellet penetrating the same length in ITER-FEAT plasma, and our calculations show that HFS injection will much improve core fueling efficiency.

  1. cBSA-147 for the preparation of bacterial biofilms in a microchannel reactor.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jeck Fei; Jaenicke, Stephan; Eisele, Klaus; Dorn, Jan; Weil, Tanja

    2010-09-01

    Whole cells are attractive biocatalysts, particularly if the reaction requires cofactors or involves multiple transformations. Immobilization of the catalyst is often a prerequisite for continuous processes. The highly cationic chemically modified plasma protein bovine serum albumin (cBSA-147) has been applied for the electrostatically mediated immobilization of the planktonic bacterium E. coli BL21 star (DE3), and the resulting biofilms were superior to those formed on poly-L-lysine coated surfaces. The biocatalyst was immobilized in a capillary column (inside diameter of 530 μm and L=30 m) and evaluated in the enantioselective reduction of ethyl acetoacetate to R-(-)ethyl hydroxybutyrate. In continuous operation in the microreactor format, the productivity of the cells was about 30% higher than that determined in a bench-scale fermentation system. This increase is attributed to the improved mass transfer over short geometrical dimensions. The similarity in the results indicates that studies on a biofilm-coated microreactor can be used for the accelerated collection of data for process optimization.

  2. MLRS - A lunar/artificial satellite laser ranging facility at the McDonald Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelus, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    Experience from lunar and satellite laser ranging experiments carried out at McDonald Observatory has been used to design the McDonald Laser Ranging Station (MLRS). The MLRS is a dual-purpose installation designed to obtain observations from the LAGEOS satellite and lunar targets. The instruments used at the station include a telescope assembly 0.76 meters in diameter; a Q-switched doubled neodymium YAG laser with a pulse rate of three nanoseconds; and a GaAs photodetector with Fabry-Perot interferometric filter. A functional diagram of the system is provided. The operating parameters of the instruments are summarized in a table.

  3. MLRS - A lunar/artificial satellite laser ranging facility at the McDonald Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelus, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    Experience from lunar and satellite laser ranging experiments carried out at McDonald Observatory has been used to design the McDonald Laser Ranging Station (MLRS). The MLRS is a dual-purpose installation designed to obtain observations from the LAGEOS satellite and lunar targets. The instruments used at the station include a telescope assembly 0.76 meters in diameter; a Q-switched doubled neodymium YAG laser with a pulse rate of three nanoseconds; and a GaAs photodetector with Fabry-Perot interferometric filter. A functional diagram of the system is provided. The operating parameters of the instruments are summarized in a table.

  4. McUniversities Revisited: A Comparison of University and McDonald's Casual Employee Experiences in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadolny, Andrew; Ryan, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    The McDonaldization of higher education refers to the transformation of universities from knowledge generators to rational service organizations or "McUniversities". This is reflected in the growing dependence on a casualized academic workforce. The article explores the extent to which the McDonaldization thesis applies to universities…

  5. McUniversities Revisited: A Comparison of University and McDonald's Casual Employee Experiences in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadolny, Andrew; Ryan, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    The McDonaldization of higher education refers to the transformation of universities from knowledge generators to rational service organizations or "McUniversities". This is reflected in the growing dependence on a casualized academic workforce. The article explores the extent to which the McDonaldization thesis applies to universities…

  6. Preliminary materials selection issues for the next generation nuclear plant reactor pressure vessel.

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Majumdar, S.; Shankar, P. S.; Shah, V. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-03-21

    In the coming decades, the United States and the entire world will need energy supplies to meet the growing demands due to population increase and increase in consumption due to global industrialization. One of the reactor system concepts, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), with helium as the coolant, has been identified as uniquely suited for producing hydrogen without consumption of fossil fuels or the emission of greenhouse gases [Generation IV 2002]. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected this system for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, to demonstrate emissions-free nuclear-assisted electricity and hydrogen production within the next 15 years. The NGNP reference concepts are helium-cooled, graphite-moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactors with a design goal outlet helium temperature of {approx}1000 C [MacDonald et al. 2004]. The reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. The use of molten salt coolant, especially for the transfer of heat to hydrogen production, is also being considered. The NGNP is expected to produce both electricity and hydrogen. The process heat for hydrogen production will be transferred to the hydrogen plant through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX). The basic technology for the NGNP has been established in the former high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) and demonstration plants (DRAGON, Peach Bottom, AVR, Fort St. Vrain, and THTR). In addition, the technologies for the NGNP are being advanced in the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) project, and the South African state utility ESKOM-sponsored project to develop the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). Furthermore, the Japanese HTTR and Chinese HTR-10 test reactors are demonstrating the feasibility of some of the planned components and materials. The proposed high operating temperatures in the VHTR place significant constraints on the choice of material selected for the reactor pressure vessel for

  7. Modeling the effect in of criticality from changes in key parameters for small High Temperature Nuclear Reactor (U-BatteryTM) using MCNP4C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauzi, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    The neutron transport code, Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) which was wellkown as the gold standard in predicting nuclear reaction was used to model the small nuclear reactor core called "U-batteryTM", which was develop by the University of Manchester and Delft Institute of Technology. The paper introduces on the concept of modeling the small reactor core, a high temperature reactor (HTR) type with small coated TRISO fuel particle in graphite matrix using the MCNPv4C software. The criticality of the core were calculated using the software and analysed by changing key parameters such coolant type, fuel type and enrichment levels, cladding materials, and control rod type. The criticality results from the simulation were validated using the SCALE 5.1 software by [1] M Ding and J L Kloosterman, 2010. The data produced from these analyses would be used as part of the process of proposing initial core layout and a provisional list of materials for newly design reactor core. In the future, the criticality study would be continued with different core configurations and geometries.

  8. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Technology Development Roadmaps: The Technical Path Forward for 750–800°C Reactor Outlet Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    John Collins

    2009-08-01

    This document presents the NGNP Critical PASSCs and defines their technical maturation path through Technology Development Roadmaps (TDRMs) and their associated Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs). As the critical PASSCs advance through increasing levels of technical maturity, project risk is reduced and the likelihood of within-budget and on-schedule completion is enhanced. The current supplier-generated TRLs and TDRMs for a 750–800°C reactor outlet temperature (ROT) specific to each supplier are collected in Appendix A.

  9. McJobs and Pieces of Flair: Linking McDonaldization to Alienating Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treiber, Linda Ann

    2013-01-01

    This article offers strategies for teaching about rationality, bureaucracy, and social change using George Ritzer's "The McDonaldization of Society" and its ideas about efficiency, predictability, calculability, and control. Student learning is facilitated using a series of strategies: making the familiar strange, explaining…

  10. McJobs and Pieces of Flair: Linking McDonaldization to Alienating Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treiber, Linda Ann

    2013-01-01

    This article offers strategies for teaching about rationality, bureaucracy, and social change using George Ritzer's "The McDonaldization of Society" and its ideas about efficiency, predictability, calculability, and control. Student learning is facilitated using a series of strategies: making the familiar strange, explaining…

  11. Beneath the Golden Arches: The McDonald's Corporation [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brufke, Edward F.

    This teacher developed case study which surveys the meteoric rise of the McDonald's Corporation and that of its chief promoter, Ray Kroc, is intended to help secondary students develop an understanding of economics and of the decision-making process. A teacher's guide containing questions for discussion and suggestions for class activities is…

  12. McDonaldization and commercial outdoor recreation and tourism in Alaska

    Treesearch

    Sera J. Zegre; Mark D. Needham; Linda E. Kruger; Randall S. Rosenberger

    2012-01-01

    This article uses perceptions of commercial tour operators in Juneau, Alaska, to examine the extent to which the commercial outdoor recreation and tourism industry in this area reflects principles of McDonaldization—efficiency, calculability, predictability and control. Data from interviews with 23 operators suggest that this industry in Juneau illustrates these...

  13. McDonald's and the Environmental Defense Fund: A Case Study of a Green Alliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livesey, Sharon M.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the public discourse of McDonald's and the Environmental Defense Fund's alliance. Shows that both partners drew from the emerging discourse of market environmentalism and from the older paradigm of command and control. Argues that this rhetorical ambivalence is emblematic of the contemporaneous sociopolitical conflict over how the…

  14. The Rationalization of Everything? Using Ritzer's McDonaldization Thesis To Teach Weber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippmann, Stephen; Aldrich, Howard

    2003-01-01

    Outlines a plan for helping undergraduate students appreciate Max Weber's theoretical achievements, teaching critical thinking about what constitutes 'the good life' in rationalized societies. Uses the book "The McDonaldization of Society" (George Ritzer) to encourage student interest in Weber's work. Describes field exercises and…

  15. 75 FR 56504 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Rigel Optics, Inc. and Donald Wayne Hatch; Order Denying...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Rigel Optics, Inc. and Donald Wayne Hatch; Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Rigel Optics, Inc., 477 South 28th Street..., Related Person. A. Denial of Export Privileges of Rigel Optics, Inc. On May 12, 2009, in the U.S. District...

  16. Remembering Donald G. Paterson: Before the Separation between Industrial-Organizational and Vocational Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdheim, Jesse; Zickar, Michael J.; Yankelevich, Maya

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the disconnect between industrial-organizational (I-O) and vocational psychology in the context of Donald Paterson's career, an applied psychologist who bridged both disciplines. Paterson's interests in "both" vocational guidance and personnel selection suggest that these fields are interwoven, despite the prevailing gap…

  17. Remembering Donald G. Paterson: Before the Separation between Industrial-Organizational and Vocational Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdheim, Jesse; Zickar, Michael J.; Yankelevich, Maya

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the disconnect between industrial-organizational (I-O) and vocational psychology in the context of Donald Paterson's career, an applied psychologist who bridged both disciplines. Paterson's interests in "both" vocational guidance and personnel selection suggest that these fields are interwoven, despite the prevailing gap…

  18. Things That Help Us Perform: Commentary on Ideas from Donald A. Norman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickelman, Gary J.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews and summarizes "Things That Make Us Smart," a book by Donald Norman that defends human attributes in the age of electronic systems. Topics include human performance; kinds of cognition; kinds of learning; design principles for electronic performance support systems; and examples. (LRW)

  19. McDonald's and the Environmental Defense Fund: A Case Study of a Green Alliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livesey, Sharon M.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the public discourse of McDonald's and the Environmental Defense Fund's alliance. Shows that both partners drew from the emerging discourse of market environmentalism and from the older paradigm of command and control. Argues that this rhetorical ambivalence is emblematic of the contemporaneous sociopolitical conflict over how the…

  20. Flight Engineer Donald R. Pettit looks closely at Sodium Chloride within a 50-millimeter metal loop

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-12

    ISS006-E-39142 (12 March 2003) --- Astronaut Donald R. Pettit, Expedition Six NASA ISS science officer, looks closely at a water bubble within a 50-millimeter metal loop. The experiment took place in the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS).

  1. Where Were the Whistleblowers? The Case of Allan McDonald and Roger Boisjoly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Lea P.

    Employees who "blow the whistle" on their company because they believe it is engaged in practices that are illegal, immoral, or harmful to the public, often face grave consequences for their actions, including demotion, harassment, forced resignation, or termination. The case of Allan McDonald and Roger Boisjoly, engineers who blew the…

  2. The Rationalization of Everything? Using Ritzer's McDonaldization Thesis To Teach Weber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippmann, Stephen; Aldrich, Howard

    2003-01-01

    Outlines a plan for helping undergraduate students appreciate Max Weber's theoretical achievements, teaching critical thinking about what constitutes 'the good life' in rationalized societies. Uses the book "The McDonaldization of Society" (George Ritzer) to encourage student interest in Weber's work. Describes field exercises and…

  3. Beneath the Golden Arches: The McDonald's Corporation [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brufke, Edward F.

    This teacher developed case study which surveys the meteoric rise of the McDonald's Corporation and that of its chief promoter, Ray Kroc, is intended to help secondary students develop an understanding of economics and of the decision-making process. A teacher's guide containing questions for discussion and suggestions for class activities is…

  4. A continued program of planetary study at the University of Texas McDonald Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trafton, L.

    1991-01-01

    The program conducts solar system research in support of NASA missions and of general astronomical interest. Investigations of composition, physical characteristics and changes in solar system bodies are conducted primarily using the facilities of McDonald Observatory. Progress, accomplishments, and projected accomplishments are discussed.

  5. Flight Engineer Donald R. Pettit performs IFM on the TVIS in the SM during Expedition Six

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-01-07

    ISS006-E-18234 (7 January 2003) --- Astronaut Donald R. Pettit, Expedition 6 NASA ISS science officer, performs in-flight maintenance (IFM) on the Treadmill Vibration Isolation System (TVIS) in the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS).

  6. BOILING REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Untermyer, S.

    1962-04-10

    A boiling reactor having a reactivity which is reduced by an increase in the volume of vaporized coolant therein is described. In this system unvaporized liquid coolant is extracted from the reactor, heat is extracted therefrom, and it is returned to the reactor as sub-cooled liquid coolant. This reduces a portion of the coolant which includes vaporized coolant within the core assembly thereby enhancing the power output of the assembly and rendering the reactor substantially self-regulating. (AEC)

  7. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, F.

    1959-10-27

    A reactor in which at least a portion of the moderator is in the form of movable refractory balls is described. In addition to their moderating capacity, these balls may serve as carriers for fissionable material or fertile material, or may serve in a coolant capacity to remove heat from the reactor. A pneumatic system is used to circulate the balls through the reactor.

  8. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1961-09-01

    A boiling-water nuclear reactor is described wherein control is effected by varying the moderator-to-fuel ratio in the reactor core. This is accomplished by providing control tubes containing a liquid control moderator in the reactor core and providing means for varying the amount of control moderatcr within the control tubes.

  9. Launch of Russian reactor postponed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-05

    Astronomers and weapons scientists seemed heated on a collision course a few months ago over the military's plans to send a Russian nuclear reactor into space. But an agreement reached in late January has prevented a pile-up, at least for 6 months. The astronomers, led by Donald Lamb of the University of Chicago, were objecting to plans by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO) to launch Topaz 2, an experimental Russian nuclear reactor, arguing that rogue particles from it might ruin sensitive gamma ray experiments. The reactor is designed to propel itself in space with a jet of xenon ions. One worry was that leaking gamma rays and positrons, which can travel in the earth's magnetic field and pop up in the darndest places, might cause false signals in gamma ray monitors (Science, 18 December 1992, p. 1878). The worry has abated now that SDI officials will postpone choosing a rocket and mission altitutde for Topaz 2 for 6 months, while experts study how its emissions at various altitudes might affect instruments aboard the Gamma Ray Observatory and other satellites. In effect, the SDIO has agreed to an environmental impact study for space, following an unusual meeting organized by former Russian space official Roald Sagdeev at the University of Maryland on 19 January. There the Russian designers of Topaz 2, its new owners at the SDIO, and critics in the astronomy community achieved common ground: that more study was needed.

  10. Colleagues Pay Tribute to Dr. Donald A.B. Lindberg, Retiring After Three Decades of NLM Leadership | NIH MedlinePlus ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Colleagues Pay Tribute to Dr. Donald A.B. Lindberg, Retiring After Three Decades of NLM Leadership ... of Contents Outgoing NLM Director Dr. Donald A.B. Lindberg. Photo courtesy of Ernie Branson, NIH On ...

  11. Submarine geology and geomorphology of active Sub-Antarctic volcanoes: Heard and McDonald Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, S. J.; Coffin, M. F.; Whittaker, J. M.; Lucieer, V.; Fox, J. M.; Carey, R.; Arculus, R. J.; Bowie, A. R.; Chase, Z.; Robertson, R.; Martin, T.; Cooke, F.

    2016-12-01

    Heard and McDonald Islands (HIMI) are World Heritage listed sub-Antarctic active volcanic islands in the Southern Indian Ocean. Built atop the Kerguelen Plateau by Neogene-Quaternary volcanism, HIMI represent subaerial exposures of the second largest submarine Large Igneous Province globally. Onshore, processes influencing island evolution include glaciers, weathering, volcanism, vertical tectonics and mass-wasting (Duncan et al. 2016). Waters surrounding HIMI are largely uncharted, due to their remote location. Hence, the extent to which these same processes shape the submarine environment around HIMI has not been investigated. In early 2016, we conducted marine geophysical and geologic surveys around HIMI aboard RV Investigator (IN2016_V01). Results show that volcanic and sedimentary features prominently trend east-west, likely a result of erosion by the eastward flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current and tidal currents. However, spatial patterns of submarine volcanism and sediment distribution differ substantially between the islands. >70 sea knolls surround McDonald Island suggesting substantial submarine volcanism. Geophysical data reveals hard volcanic seafloor around McDonald Island, whereas Heard Island is characterised by sedimentary sequences tens of meters or more thick and iceberg scours - indicative of glacial processes. Differences in submarine geomorphology are likely due to the active glaciation of Heard Island and differing rock types (Heard: alkali basalt, McDonald: phonolite), and dominant products (clastics vs. lava). Variations may also reflect different magmatic plumbing systems beneath the two active volcanoes (Heard produces larger volumes of more focused lava, whilst McDonald extrudes smaller volumes of more evolved lavas from multiple vents across the edifice). Using geophysical data, corroborated with new and existing geologic data, we present the first geomorphic map revealing the processes that shape the submarine environment around HIMI.

  12. CONVECTION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, R.P.; King, L.D.P.

    1960-03-22

    An homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing convection circulation of the liquid fuel is proposed. The reactor has an internal heat exchanger looated in the same pressure vessel as the critical assembly, thereby eliminating necessity for handling the hot liquid fuel outside the reactor pressure vessel during normal operation. The liquid fuel used in this reactor eliminates the necessity for extensive radiolytic gas rocombination apparatus, and the reactor is resiliently pressurized and, without any movable mechanical apparatus, automatically regulates itself to the condition of criticality during moderate variations in temperature snd pressure and shuts itself down as the pressure exceeds a predetermined safe operating value.

  13. Research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tonneson, L.C.; Fox, G.J.

    1996-04-01

    There are currently 284 research reactors in operation, and 12 under construction around the world. Of the operating reactors, nearly two-thirds are used exclusively for research, and the rest for a variety of purposes, including training, testing, and critical assembly. For more than 50 years, research reactor programs have contributed greatly to the scientific and educational communities. Today, six of the world`s research reactors are being shut down, three of which are in the USA. With government budget constraints and the growing proliferation concerns surrounding the use of highly enriched uranium in some of these reactors, the future of nuclear research could be impacted.

  14. Soil Stabilization/Solidification Grout Mix Design Study for the C-, K-, L-, and P-Reactor Seepage Basins Closure Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, P.

    2002-07-31

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), reactor seepage basins received low-level radioactive purge water from the disassembly basins between 1957 and 1991. Almost all of the radioactivity was due to tritium which migrated quickly from the basins via leaching. Most of the remaining radioactivity is associated with cesium-137 (Cs-137), strontium-90 (Sr-90). and plutonium-239/240 (Pu-239/240). These constituents are present in soils immediately beneath each basin. This Revision 1 report documents the results of a bench-scale study conducted by SAIC under Contract No. C001311N to develop a grout mix capable of stabilizing the constituents of concern via the S/S treatment of the soils for reactor seepage basins at four SRS locations: C-Area (CRSB), K-Area (KRSB), L-Area (LRSB), and P-Area (PRSB). It recommends a specific grout mix for each reactor seepage basin and provides recommendations, limitations, and constraints for the full-scale field implementation.

  15. Selective epitaxial silicon growth in the 650-1100 °C range in a reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor using dichlorosilane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regolini, J. L.; Bensahel, D.; Scheid, E.; Mercier, J.

    1989-02-01

    Selective epitaxial silicon layers have been grown in a reduced pressure (<2 Torr) reactor in the 650-1100 °C temperature range using only dichlorosilane (DCS) gas diluted in hydrogen. The growth rate plotted in Arrhenius coordinates (log G vs 1/T) shows an activation energy of 59 kcal/mol in the 650-800 °C range. A comparison is made between the DCS system and our previous results concerning the SiH4/HCl/H2 system.

  16. A KINETIC MODEL FOR H2O2/UV PROCESS IN A COMPLETELY MIXED BATCH REACTOR. (R825370C076)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A dynamic kinetic model for the advanced oxidation process (AOP) using hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet irradiation (H2O2/UV) in a completely mixed batch reactor (CMBR) is developed. The model includes the known elementary chemical and photochemical reac...

  17. A KINETIC MODEL FOR H2O2/UV PROCESS IN A COMPLETELY MIXED BATCH REACTOR. (R825370C076)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A dynamic kinetic model for the advanced oxidation process (AOP) using hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet irradiation (H2O2/UV) in a completely mixed batch reactor (CMBR) is developed. The model includes the known elementary chemical and photochemical reac...

  18. Job/task analysis for I C (Instrumentation and Controls) instrument technicians at the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, L.L.

    1989-09-01

    To comply with Department of Energy Order 5480.XX (Draft), a job/task analysis was initiated by the Maintenance Management Department at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The analysis was applicable to instrument technicians working at the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). This document presents the procedures and results of that analysis. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Biogeochemistry of lead in McDonalds Branch Watershed, New Jersey Pine Barrens

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.S.; Johnson, A.H.; Wang, D.

    1985-01-01

    Lead concentrations, fluxes, and storage were measured in the vegetation, forest floor, and acid, sandy mineral soil (Quartzip-samments) of a forested watershed in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. Atmospherically deposited Pb at the McDonalds Branch Watershed was 140 g ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ (8 ..mu..g L/sup -1/ in bulk precipitation) in 1980 to 1982, a substantial reduction from 350 g ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ (17 ..mu..g L/sup -1/ in bulk precipitation) in 1978 to 1979. Virtually all Pb falling on the uplands was retained - 75% by the organic forest floor and 25% by mineral soils, especially in B and C soil horizons. Total Pb content of the forest floor was 7.6 kg ha/sup -1/, with an accumulation rate of 100 g ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ (1980-1982), or 1.3% of the forest floor pool. Estimated mean residence time of Pb in the forest floor was 220 yr. About 35 g Pb ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ moved out of the forest floor in solution through the E horizon and was correlated strongly with dissolved organic matter. Approximately 30 g Pb ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ accumulated in the B and C soil horizons. Less than 1 g Pb ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ percolated past a depth of 2 m. Lowland muck soils and vegetation accumulated 98% of incoming Pb, with only 3.2 g Pb ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ exported in the stream. Lead concentrations in the stream were correlated positively with dissolved organic matter and water level in the swamps. Lead in biota was contained mainly in the bark, fine roots, and foliage. Concentrations were: fine roots (18 mg kg/sup -1/) > bark (15 mg kg/sup -1/) > foliage (4 mg kg/sup -1/) > wood (0.5 mg kg/sup -1/). Although Pb concentrations in herbs, mosses, and lichens ranged from 10 to 60 mg kg/sup -1/, these plants accounted for very little biomass. Total Pb content of biota was 335 g ha/sup -1/, about 4% of the forest floor Pb content.

  20. Enhancement of acetate productivity in a thermophilic (55 °C) hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor with mixed culture syngas (H2/CO2) fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun-Qi; Yu, Shi-Jin; Zhang, Fang; Xia, Xiu-Yang; Zeng, Raymond J

    2017-03-01

    Conversion of organic wastes to syngas is an attractive way to utilize wastes. The produced syngas can be further used to produce a variety of chemicals. In this study, a hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor with mix cultures was operated at 55 °C to convert syngas (H2/CO2) into acetate. A high concentration of acetate (42.4 g/L) was reached in batch experiment while a maximum acetate production rate of 10.5 g/L/day was achieved in the continuous-flow mode at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day. Acetate was the main product in both batch and continuous-flow experiments. n-Butyrate was the other byproduct in the reactor. Acetate accounted for more than 98.5 and 99.1% of total volatile fatty acids in batch and continuous modes, respectively. Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing results showed that microorganisms were highly purified and enriched in the reactor. The main genus was Thermoanaerobacterium (66% of relative abundance), which was usually considered as H2 producer in the literature, however, likely played a role as a H2 consumer in this study. This study provides a new method to generate the high producing rate and purity of acetate from syngas.

  1. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fraas, A.P.; Mills, C.B.

    1961-11-21

    A neutronic reactor in which neutron moderation is achieved primarily in its reflector is described. The reactor structure consists of a cylindrical central "island" of moderator and a spherical moderating reflector spaced therefrom, thereby providing an annular space. An essentially unmoderated liquid fuel is continuously passed through the annular space and undergoes fission while contained therein. The reactor, because of its small size, is particularly adapted for propulsion uses, including the propulsion of aircraft. (AEC)

  2. Neutron-Induced Microstructural Evolution of Fe-15Cr-16Ni Alloys at ~400 C During Neutron Irradiation in the FFTF Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Okita, Taira; Sato, Toshihiko; Sekimura, Naoto; Garner, Francis A.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Wolfer, W. G.; Isobe, Yoshihiro

    2001-06-30

    An experiment conducted at ~400 degrees C on simple model austenitic alloys (Fe-15Cr-16Ni and Fe-15Cr-16Ni-0.25Ti, both with and without 500 appm boron) irradiated in the FFTF fast reactor at seven different dpa rates clearly shows that lowering of the atomic displacement rate leads to a pronounced reduction in the transient regime of void swelling. While the steady state swelling rate (~1%/dpa) of these alloys is unaffected by changes in the dpa rate, the transient regime of swelling can vary from <1 to ~60 dpa when the dpa rate varies over more than two orders of magnitude. This range of dpa rates covers the full span of fusion, PWR and fast reactor rates. The origin of the flux sensitivity of swelling arises first in the evolution of the Frank dislocation loop population, its unfaulting, and the subsequent evolution of the dislocation network. There also appears to be some flux sensitivity to the void nucleation process. Most interestingly, the addition of titanium suppresses the void nucleation process somewhat, but does not alter the duration of the transient regime of swelling or its sensitivity to dpa rate. Side-by-side irradiation of boron-modified model alloys in this same experiment shows that higher helium generation rates homogenize the swelling somewhat, but do not significantly change its magnitude or flux sensitivity. The results of this study support the prediction that austenitic alloys irradiated at PWR-relevant displacement rates will most likely swell more than when irradiated at higher rates characteristic of fast reactors. Thus, the use of swelling data accumulated in fast reactors may possibly lead to an under-prediction of swelling in lower-flux PWRs and fusion devices.

  3. The Ronald McDonald House as an alternative to antepartum hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Scott C; Klein, Kristine A; Clark, David A; Ross, Steve L; Veille, Jean-Claude

    2004-10-01

    We sought to evaluate the use of the Ronald McDonald House (RMH) for selected high-risk pregnant women. Beginning in November of 1999, women on the Maternal Fetal Medicine service at Albany Medical Center Hospital (AMCH) were candidates for antepartum lodging at the Ronald McDonald House (RMH). Women whose only indication for antepartum hospitalization was to maintain proximity to a tertiary care center were offered stays at the RMH. Antenatal and neonatal outcomes were reviewed. A total of 41 antepartum subjects stayed at the RMH during the study period. No adverse perinatal outcomes were identified due to utilization of the RMH. Patients stayed at the RMH instead of staying at AMCH as inpatients for a total of 586 days during the study period. Outpatient management at the RMH is a cost-effective alternative for selected high-risk pregnancies. No adverse outcomes in the study population were attributable to the utilization of the RMH.

  4. Globalization Theory: Lessons from the Exportation of McDonaldization and the New Means of Consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Ritzer, George; Malone, Elizabeth L. ); Ritzer, George

    2001-07-30

    McDonaldization and the exportation of the new means of consumption tend to support the view that in at least some sectors the world is growing more homogeneous than heterogeneous. Against those globalization theorists who tend to focus on the importance of the local and therefore on heterogeneity, the study of McDonaldization and the new means of consumption emphasizes transnational issues and uniformity throughout the world. Fast-food restaurants do adapt to local markets, but the basic procedures of operation and marketing remain the same across a wide range of international settings. This is true even of indigenous versions. The uniformity is exported by transnational corporations, with nation-states less and less able to control or restrict such exports.

  5. Globalization Theory: Lessons from the Exportation of McDonaldization and the New Means of Consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Ritzer, George; Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2000-07-31

    McDonaldization and the exportation of the new means of consumption tend to support the view that in at least some sectors the world is growing more homogeneous than heterogeneous. Against those globalization theorists who tend to focus on the importance of the local and therefore on heterogeneity, the study of McDonaldization and the new means of consumption emphasizes transnational issues and uniformity throughout the world. Fast-food restaurants do adapt to local markets, but the basic procedures of operation and marketing remain the same across a wide range of international settings. This is true even of indigenous versions. The uniformity is exported by transnational corporations, with nation-states less and less able to control or restrict such exports.

  6. Hospital consolidation gives opportunity to redefine focus. Interview by Donald E.L. Johnson.

    PubMed

    Lenz, D W

    1992-09-01

    P/SL Healthcare System, Denver, just completed a five-year ordeal of consolidating two hospitals, expanding tertiary services and building and moving into a new $120 million facility, Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center. The process was interrupted by the sale of the hospitals, which forced a construction halt. In this interview with Donald E.L. Johnson, editor and publisher of Health Care Strategic Management, Donald W. Lenz, president of P/SL Medical Center, discusses planning the merger, constructing the facility, managing the move and positioning the hospital for the future. The hospital's design is innovative, with parts of the facility resembling a fine hotel. The curved building is attractive and improves productivity by concentrating central services in easily accessible areas.

  7. REACTOR COOLING

    DOEpatents

    Quackenbush, C.F.

    1959-09-29

    A nuclear reactor with provisions for selectively cooling the fuel elements is described. The reactor has a plurality of tubes extending throughout. Cylindrical fuel elements are disposed within the tubes and the coolant flows through the tubes and around the fuel elements. The fuel elements within the central portion of the reactor are provided with roughened surfaces of material. The fuel elements in the end portions of the tubes within the reactor are provlded with low conduction jackets and the fuel elements in the region between the central portion and the end portions are provided with smooth surfaces of high heat conduction material.

  8. McDonald Observatory Visitors Center: Where Families and Students Decode Starlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, S.; Armosky, B. J.; Benedict, G. F.; Cianciolo, F.; Hemenway, M. K.; Wetzel, M.; Wren, W. R.

    2002-12-01

    "Decoding Starlight" is the name of the 2,400 square-foot, interactive, and bilingual (English/Spanish) exhibit on spectroscopy that opened in March 2002 at the new McDonald Observatory Visitors Center in Fort Davis, Texas. The exhibit was designed by McDonald Observatory public outreach and education staff, astronomers, Sears-Russell Consultants, Inc. of Canada and built by ExPlus, Inc., Dulles, Virginia. Rhotenberry-Wellen Architects, Midland, Texas, designed the new visitors center in a style reminiscent of structures left by the Anasazi, ancestors of today's Pueblo cultures in the American Southwest, while incorporating spectroscopy into the building's accents. Spectroscopy was selected as the theme of the exhibit as well as the topic of many of the educational programs that are conducted at the Visitors Center in order to align with the mission of the largest telescope at McDonald Observatory, the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET), owned by an international consortium of universities. Evaluation of the "Decoding Starlight" exhibit, construction plans for the McDonald Observatory Visitors Center, and operating techniques are being shared with the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO). SAAO is planning a new visitors center in association with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), currently under construction in the Southern Hemisphere in Sutherland, South Africa and based on the design of the HET. We gratefully acknowledge the support of NSF 96-26965 `Fingerprinting the Universe - An Interactive, Bilingual Exhibit on Spectroscopy' and NSF 00-84618 `U.S.-South Africa Workshop: Educational Outreach for Observatories with State-of-the-Art Telescopes; Cape Town, South Africa, Feb. 2-6.

  9. Diagnosis and quantification of glycerol assimilating denitrifying bacteria in an integrated fixed-film activated sludge reactor via 13C DNA stable-isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huijie; Chandran, Kartik

    2010-12-01

    Glycerol, a byproduct of biodiesel and oleo-chemical manufacturing operations, represents an attractive alternate to methanol as a carbon and electron donor for enhanced denitrification. However, unlike methanol, little is known about the diversity and activity of glycerol assimilating bacteria in activated sludge. In this study, the microbial ecology of glycerol assimilating denitrifying bacteria in a sequencing batch integrated fixed film activated sludge (SB-IFAS) reactor was investigated using (13)C-DNA stable isotope probing (SIP). During steady state SB-IFAS reactor operation, near complete nitrate removal (92.7 ± 5.8%) was achieved. Based on (13)C DNA clone libraries obtained after 360 days of SB-IFAS reactor operation, bacteria related to Comamonas spp. and Diaphorobacter spp. dominated in the suspended phase communities. (13)C assimilating members in the biofilm community were phylogenetically more diverse and were related to Comamonas spp., Bradyrhizobium spp., and Tessaracoccus spp. Possibly owing to greater substrate availability in the suspended phase, the glycerol-assimilating denitrifying populations (quantified by real-time PCR) were more abundant therein than in the biofilm phase. The biomass in the suspended phase also had a higher specific denitrification rate than the biofilm phase (p = 4.33e-4), and contributed to 69.7 ± 4.5% of the overall N-removal on a mass basis. The kinetics of glycerol based denitrification by suspended phase biomass were approximately 3 times higher than with methanol. Previously identified methanol assimilating denitrifying bacteria were not associated with glycerol assimilation, thereby suggesting limited cross-utilization of these two substrates for denitrification in the system tested.

  10. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1993-03-02

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  11. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Hearn, Dennis; Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120.degree. to 300.degree. F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  12. Investigation of plant control strategies for the supercritical C0{sub 2}Brayton cycle for a sodium-cooled fast reactor using the plant dynamics code.

    SciTech Connect

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J.

    2011-04-12

    inlet sodium temperatures by about 10 C. This temperature rise could presumably be precluded or significantly reduced through fine adjustment of the control rods and pump motors. The third option assumes that the reactor core power and primary and intermediate system flow rates are ideally reduced linearly in a programmed fashion that instantaneously matches the prescribed load demand. The calculated behavior of this idealized case reveals a number of difficulties because the control strategy for the S-CO{sub 2} cycle overcools the reactor potentially resulting in the calculation of sodium bulk freezing and the onset of sodium boiling. The results show that autonomous SFR operation may be viable for the particular assumed load change transient and deserves further investigation for other transients and postulated accidents.

  13. Going back to Donald: how comparisons shape judgmental priming effects.

    PubMed

    Mussweiler, Thomas; Damisch, Lysann

    2008-12-01

    The authors examine how judgmental priming effects are shaped by comparisons. Specifically, they suggest that concept priming involves spontaneous activation of concept-consistent standards, which are then spontaneously compared to the judgmental target. In 6 studies, they used a variety of priming methods (contextual cue, subliminal priming, indirect priming) to test these notions of spontaneous standard activation and spontaneous comparison. Study 1 demonstrates that priming a trait concept activates concept-consistent standards. Study 2 suggests that these activated standards contribute to priming effects. If alternative standards that are not particularly consistent with the primed concept are activated, priming effects diminish. Studies 3-6 show that the magnitude and direction of priming effects depend on the intensity and the type of the engaged comparison. Specifically, Study 3 demonstrates that the magnitude of a priming effect depends on the intensity of comparative processing. Studies 4 through 6 show that the direction of a priming effect (assimilation vs. contrast) depends on whether judges engage in a similarity or dissimilarity testing comparison mechanism--a factor which has been found to shape comparison consequences in other domains. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Welcome from Library Director Donald A.B. Lindberg, M.D. | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Welcome to the NIH MedlinePlus Magazine. Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table of Contents Donald ... about their efforts to cure disease. Lastly, the magazine's lively graphics, fun quizzes and practical tips have ...

  15. Enzymatic oxidation of cephalosporin C using whole cells of the yeast Triginopsis variabilis within a "cross-flow filter-reactor".

    PubMed

    Vicenzi, J T; Hansen, G J

    1993-04-01

    An economical process for the enzymatic oxidation of cephalosporin C to glutaryl-7-ACA was developed at a pilot plant scale. The process utilized nonviable whole cells of the yeast Triginopsis variabilis containing high levels of D-amino acid oxidase. Prior to use, the whole cells were permeabilized with a 25% acetone/water solution which enhanced their apparent activity by 20- to 50-fold. After permeabilization, the whole cells were incubated at pH 11, which served to selectively deactivate catalase which was present in very large quantities. Deactivation of catalase was critical to achieving high reaction yields. The whole cells were utilized within a "cross-flow filter-reactor" which allowed easy and economical recycle of the cells for repeated use. The overall yield of glutaryl-7-ACA from cephalosporin C was 90-95%. The overall productivity of the yeast was 13 kg cephalosporin C oxidized per kilogram yeast (dry basis). The reaction was run at a concentration of 40 g cephalosporin CL-1 and the overall reactor productivity was 11 g glutaryl-7-ACA l-1 h-1. The process has been thoroughly demonstrated on a 35-l scale, and it should be directly scaleable to 10,000 l or more.

  16. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.

    1958-04-22

    A nuclear reactor for isotope production is described. This reactor is designed to provide a maximum thermal neutron flux in a region adjacent to the periphery of the reactor rather than in the center of the reactor. The core of the reactor is generally centrally located with respect tn a surrounding first reflector, constructed of beryllium. The beryllium reflector is surrounded by a second reflector, constructed of graphite, which, in tune, is surrounded by a conventional thermal shield. Water is circulated through the core and the reflector and functions both as a moderator and a coolant. In order to produce a greatsr maximum thermal neutron flux adjacent to the periphery of the reactor rather than in the core, the reactor is designed so tbat the ratio of neutron scattering cross section to neutron absorption cross section averaged over all of the materials in the reflector is approximately twice the ratio of neutron scattering cross section to neutron absorption cross section averaged over all of the material of the core of the reactor.

  17. Reactor building

    SciTech Connect

    Hista, J. C.

    1984-09-18

    Reactor building comprising a vessel shaft anchored in a slab which is peripherally locked. This reactor building comprises a confinement enclosure within which are positioned internal structures constituted by an internal structure floor, a vessel shaft, a slab being positioned between the general floor and the internal structure floor, the vesse

  18. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.; Johnson, H.W.

    1961-04-01

    BS>A nuclear reactor incorporating fuel rods passing through a moderator and including tubes of a material of higher Thermal conductivity than the fuel in contact with the fuel is described. The tubes extend beyond the active portion of the reactor into contant with a fiuld coolant.

  19. Analysis of Reference Design for Nuclear-Assisted Hydrogen Production at 750°C Reactor Outlet Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Michael G. McKellar; Edwin A. Harvego

    2010-05-01

    The use of High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) for the efficient production of hydrogen without the greenhouse gas emissions associated with conventional fossil-fuel hydrogen production techniques has been under investigation at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INL) for the last several years. The activities at the INL have included the development, testing and analysis of large numbers of solid oxide electrolysis cells, and the analyses of potential plant designs for large scale production of hydrogen using a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to provide the process heat and electricity to drive the electrolysis process. The results of this research led to the selection in 2009 of HTE as the preferred concept in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) hydrogen technology down-selection process. However, the down-selection process, along with continued technical assessments at the INL, has resulted in a number of proposed modifications and refinements to improve the original INL reference HTE design. These modifications include changes in plant configuration, operating conditions and individual component designs. This report describes the resulting new INL reference design coupled to two alternative HTGR power conversion systems, a Steam Rankine Cycle and a Combined Cycle (a Helium Brayton Cycle with a Steam Rankine Bottoming Cycle). Results of system analyses performed to optimize the design and to determine required plant performance and operating conditions when coupled to the two different power cycles are also presented. A 600 MWt high temperature gas reactor coupled with a Rankine steam power cycle at a thermal efficiency of 44.4% can produce 1.85 kg/s of hydrogen and 14.6 kg/s of oxygen. The same capacity reactor coupled with a combined cycle at a thermal efficiency of 42.5% can produce 1.78 kg/s of hydrogen and 14.0 kg/s of oxygen.

  20. Design and Testing of a 10B4C Capsule for Spectral-Tailoring in Mixed-Spectrum Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Wittman, Richard S.; Metz, Lori A.; Finn, Erin C.; Friese, Judah I.

    2014-04-11

    A boron carbide capsule highly enriched in 10B has been designed and used for spectral-tailoring experiments at the TRIGA reactor at Washington State University. New experiments show that enriching the boron to 96% B-10 results in additional absorption of neutrons in the resonance region thereby producing a neutron spectrum that is much closer to a pure 235U fission spectrum. A cadmium outer cover was used to reduce thermal heating. The neutron spectrum calculated with MCNP was found to be in very good agreement with measured activation rates from neutron fluence monitors.

  1. Effect of carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio on nitrogen removal from shrimp production waste water using sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Roy, Dhiriti; Hassan, Komi; Boopathy, Raj

    2010-10-01

    The United States Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP) introduced a new technology for shrimp farming called recirculating raceway system. This is a zero-water exchange system capable of producing high-density shrimp yields. However, this system produces wastewater characterized by high levels of ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate due to 40% protein diet for the shrimp at a high density of 1,000 shrimp per square meter. The high concentrations of nitrate and nitrite (greater than 25 ppm) are toxic to shrimp and cause high mortality. So treatment of this wastewater is imperative in order to make shrimp farming viable. One simple method of treating high-nitrogen wastewater is the use of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). An SBR is a variation of the activated sludge process, which accomplishes many treatment events in a single reactor. Removal of ammonia and nitrate involved nitrification and denitrification reactions by operating the SBR aerobically and anaerobically in sequence. Initial SBR operation successfully removed ammonia, but nitrate concentrations were too high because of carbon limitation in the shrimp production wastewater. An optimization study revealed the optimum carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio of 10:1 for successful removal of all nitrogen species from the wastewater. The SBR operated with a C:N ratio of 10:1 with the addition of molasses as carbon source successfully removed 99% of ammonia, nitrate, and nitrite from the shrimp aquaculture wastewater within 9 days of operation.

  2. Compact Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Pharis E.

    2007-01-01

    Weyl's Gauge Principle of 1929 has been used to establish Weyl's Quantum Principle (WQP) that requires that the Weyl scale factor should be unity. It has been shown that the WQP requires the following: quantum mechanics must be used to determine system states; the electrostatic potential must be non-singular and quantified; interactions between particles with different electric charges (i.e. electron and proton) do not obey Newton's Third Law at sub-nuclear separations, and nuclear particles may be much different than expected using the standard model. The above WQP requirements lead to a potential fusion reactor wherein deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei. Because the deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei at temperatures and energies lower than specified by the standard model there is no harmful radiation as a byproduct of this fusion process. Therefore, a reactor using this reaction does not need any shielding to contain such radiation. The energy released from each reaction and the absence of shielding makes the deuterium-plus-deuterium-to-helium (DDH) reactor very compact when compared to other reactors, both fission and fusion types. Moreover, the potential energy output per reactor weight and the absence of harmful radiation makes the DDH reactor an ideal candidate for space power. The logic is summarized by which the WQP requires the above conditions that make the prediction of DDH possible. The details of the DDH reaction will be presented along with the specifics of why the DDH reactor may be made to cause two deuterium nuclei to preferentially fuse to a helium nucleus. The presentation will also indicate the calculations needed to predict the reactor temperature as a function of fuel loading, reactor size, and desired output and will include the progress achieved to date.

  3. Compact Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Pharis E.

    2007-01-30

    Weyl's Gauge Principle of 1929 has been used to establish Weyl's Quantum Principle (WQP) that requires that the Weyl scale factor should be unity. It has been shown that the WQP requires the following: quantum mechanics must be used to determine system states; the electrostatic potential must be non-singular and quantified; interactions between particles with different electric charges (i.e. electron and proton) do not obey Newton's Third Law at sub-nuclear separations, and nuclear particles may be much different than expected using the standard model. The above WQP requirements lead to a potential fusion reactor wherein deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei. Because the deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei at temperatures and energies lower than specified by the standard model there is no harmful radiation as a byproduct of this fusion process. Therefore, a reactor using this reaction does not need any shielding to contain such radiation. The energy released from each reaction and the absence of shielding makes the deuterium-plus-deuterium-to-helium (DDH) reactor very compact when compared to other reactors, both fission and fusion types. Moreover, the potential energy output per reactor weight and the absence of harmful radiation makes the DDH reactor an ideal candidate for space power. The logic is summarized by which the WQP requires the above conditions that make the prediction of DDH possible. The details of the DDH reaction will be presented along with the specifics of why the DDH reactor may be made to cause two deuterium nuclei to preferentially fuse to a helium nucleus. The presentation will also indicate the calculations needed to predict the reactor temperature as a function of fuel loading, reactor size, and desired output and will include the progress achieved to date.

  4. Rapid preparation of high electrochemical performance LiFePO4/C composite cathode material with an ultrasonic-intensified micro-impinging jetting reactor.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bin; Huang, Xiani; Yang, Xiaogang; Li, Guang; Xia, Lan; Chen, George

    2017-11-01

    A joint chemical reactor system referred to as an ultrasonic-intensified micro-impinging jetting reactor (UIJR), which possesses the feature of fast micro-mixing, was proposed and has been employed for rapid preparation of FePO4 particles that are amalgamated by nanoscale primary crystals. As one of the important precursors for the fabrication of lithium iron phosphate cathode, the properties of FePO4 nano particles significantly affect the performance of the lithium iron phosphate cathode. Thus, the effects of joint use of impinging stream and ultrasonic irradiation on the formation of mesoporous structure of FePO4 nano precursor particles and the electrochemical properties of amalgamated LiFePO4/C have been investigated. Additionally, the effects of the reactant concentration (C=0.5, 1.0 and 1.5molL(-1)), and volumetric flow rate (V=17.15, 51.44, and 85.74mLmin(-1)) on synthesis of FePO4·2H2O nucleus have been studied when the impinging jetting reactor (IJR) and UIJR are to operate in nonsubmerged mode. It was affirmed from the experiments that the FePO4 nano precursor particles prepared using UIJR have well-formed mesoporous structures with the primary crystal size of 44.6nm, an average pore size of 15.2nm, and a specific surface area of 134.54m(2)g(-1) when the reactant concentration and volumetric flow rate are 1.0molL(-1) and 85.74mLmin(-1) respectively. The amalgamated LiFePO4/C composites can deliver good electrochemical performance with discharge capacities of 156.7mAhg(-1) at 0.1C, and exhibit 138.0mAhg(-1) after 100 cycles at 0.5C, which is 95.3% of the initial discharge capacity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.V.; Bowen, J.H.; Dent, K.H.

    1958-12-01

    A heterogeneous, natural uranium fueled, solid moderated, gas cooled reactor is described, in which the fuel elements are in the form of elongated rods and are dlsposed within vertical coolant channels ln the moderator symmetrically arranged as a regular lattice in groups. This reactor employs control rods which operate in vertical channels in the moderator so that each control rod is centered in one of the fuel element groups. The reactor is enclosed in a pressure vessel which ls provided with access holes at the top to facilitate loading and unloadlng of the fuel elements, control rods and control rod driving devices.

  6. Effects of post-reactor functionalization on the phase behaviour of an ethylene-1-octene copolymer studied using solid-state high resolution 13C NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Calucci, Lucia; Cicogna, Francesca; Forte, Claudia

    2013-10-07

    The effects of post-reactor functionalization with naphthoate-TEMPO on the structure and morphology of an ethylene-1-octene copolymer were investigated by means of solid-state NMR techniques and DSC measurements. Selective (13)C MAS experiments allowed the orthorhombic and the monoclinic crystalline phases and two amorphous phases with different degree of mobility to be detected and quantified. (13)C and (1)H relaxation time measurements and spin diffusion experiments gave insight into the polymer dynamics within the different phases, the crystalline domain dimensions, and the rate of chain diffusion between amorphous and crystalline phases. Comparison of the results obtained for the pristine copolymer and the functionalized samples clearly indicated that the functionalization procedure causes redistribution within the crystalline and the amorphous phases with no relevant change in the degree of crystallinity or in the crystalline domain average size, and slows down chain diffusion.

  7. Acetate treatment in 70 degrees C upflow anaerobic sludge-blanket (UASB) reactors: start-up with thermophilic inocula and the kinetics of the UASB sludges.

    PubMed

    Lepistö, R; Rintala, J A

    1995-11-01

    This study focused on the use the thermophilic anaerobic granulae in the start-up of 70 degrees C acetate-fed upflow anaerobic sludge-blanket (UASB) reactors and the kinetics of granulae grown at 70 degrees C. In the UASB reactors, chemical oxygen demand removal commenced within 48 h of the start-up. The maximum reduction in chemical oxygen demand was 84% with the feed containing yeast and 71% without a yeast supplement. In the bioassays, the yeast-grown sludge converted 98% of the acetate consumed to methane as compared to 92% for the sludge grown without yeast. The highest initial specific methane production rate (mu-CH4) of the UASB sludges grown at 70 degrees C was 0.088 h(-1) at an acetate concentration of 4.6mM. The higher initial acetate concentration was found to prolong the lag-phase in methane production significantly and to decrease mu-CH4. The half-saturation constant (Ks), the inhibition constant (Ki), the inhibition response coefficient (n) and the mu-CH4-max, calculated according to a modified Haldane equation, were 1.5 mM, 2.8 mM, 0.8 and 0.28 h(-1), respectively. The prolonged starvation of the 70 degrees C sludge (15 days) decreased the mu-CH4 from about 0.022 h(-1) to 0.011 h(-1) and increased the lag phase in methane production from 6 h to 24 h as compared with non-starved sludge.

  8. Recent fault movement in Lake McDonald, Montana: Evidence from acoustic sub-bottom profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, J. A.; Cronin, V. S.; Allen, P. M.; White, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    Lake McDonald is the largest of the 12 large lakes in Glacier National Park, Montana, formed in previously glaciated valleys and dammed by outwash and moraine deposits at their outlets. Lake McDonald is 15 km long, 1.6 km wide and trends northeast. The location of the lake was on the eastern edge of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet during the late Wisconsin Glaciation. Published maps indicate the lake basin is crossed by the northwest-striking Flathead and Nyack normal faults and two unnamed faults (Whipple, 1992, USGS Map I-1508-F). Recent seismicity in northwest Montana consists mostly of magnitude 3 to 4 earthquakes, one of which occurred between the Flathead and Nyack faults, northwest of the lake. Using 1 kHz Uniboom profiling of Lake McDonald, Mullins and others (1991, Arctic Alpine Res 23(3), 311-319) found 150 m of simply-stratified, undisturbed sediment fill within a V-shaped bedrock basin with steeply sloping sides. No evidence was found to suggest that the faults within the lake have been recently active. In this study, we collected 55 km of 24 kHz sub-bottom profiling data to more closely examine the upper 10 m of the sediment fill for evidence of recent fault motion. The upper 10 m of the fill consists of sub-meter thick, alternating layers of highly reflective and nearly acoustically transparent deposits, along with numerous chaotic mass-wasting deposits emanating from the adjacent sides of the basin. One of these mass-wasting deposits is 1.3 km wide, 5 m thick, and lies unburied on the modern lake floor. The trace of Flathead Fault, where it crosses the northeastern end of the lake, is marked by a precipitous, 125 m high, down-to-the-southwest escarpment. The base of the escarpment consists of a series of basinward-stepping terraces, the southwestern-most of which is onlapped by recent sediment. The onlapping sediments show no clear evidence of faulting next to the escarpment, but motion between the various terraces cannot be ruled out. The trace of Nyack

  9. Double Chooz and a history of reactor θ13 experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suekane, Fumihiko; Junqueira de Castro Bezerra, Thiago

    2016-07-01

    This is a contribution paper from the Double Chooz (DC) experiment to the special issue of Nuclear Physics B on the topics of neutrino oscillations, celebrating the recent Nobel prize to Profs. T. Kajita and A.B. McDonald. DC is a reactor neutrino experiment which measures the last neutrino mixing angle θ13. The DC group presented an indication of disappearance of the reactor neutrinos at a baseline of ∼1 km for the first time in 2011 and is improving the measurement of θ13. DC is a pioneering experiment of this research field. In accordance with the nature of this special issue, physics and history of the reactor-θ13 experiments, as well as the Double Chooz experiment and its neutrino oscillation analyses, are reviewed.

  10. Double Chooz and a history of reactor θ13 experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Suekane, Fumihiko; Junqueira de Castro Bezerra, Thiago

    2016-04-11

    This is a contribution paper from the Double Chooz (DC) experiment to the special issue of Nuclear Physics B on the topics of neutrino oscillations, celebrating the recent Nobel prize to Profs. T. Kajita and A.B. McDonald. DC is a reactor neutrino experiment which measures the last neutrino mixing angle θ13. In addition, the DC group presented an indication of disappearance of the reactor neutrinos at a baseline of similar to 1 km for the first time in 2011 and is improving the measurement of θ13. DC is a pioneering experiment of this research field. In accordance with the naturemore » of this special issue, physics and history of the reactor-θ13 experiments, as well as the Double Chooz experiment and its neutrino oscillation analyses, are reviewed.« less

  11. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.

    1960-04-01

    A nuclear reactor is described consisting of blocks of graphite arranged in layers, natural uranium bodies disposed in holes in alternate layers of graphite blocks, and coolant tubes disposed in the layers of graphite blocks which do not contain uranium.

  12. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.

    1960-11-22

    A nuclear reactor is described wherein horizontal rods of thermal- neutron-fissionable material are disposed in a body of heavy water and extend through and are supported by spaced parallel walls of graphite.

  13. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.L.

    1960-09-20

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising fissionable material dispersed in graphite blocks, helium filling the voids of the blocks and the spaces therebetween, and means other than the helium in thermal conductive contact with the graphite for removing heat.

  14. Reactor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Echtler, J. Paul

    1981-01-01

    A reactor apparatus for hydrocracking a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous feedstock to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the hydrocarbonaceous feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst.

  15. Chemical Reactors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  16. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hurwitz, H. Jr.; Brooks, H.; Mannal, C.; Payne, J.H.; Luebke, E.A.

    1959-03-24

    A reactor of the heterogeneous, liquid cooled type is described. This reactor is comprised of a central region of a plurality of vertically disposed elongated tubes surrounded by a region of moderator material. The central region is comprised of a central core surrounded by a reflector region which is surrounded by a fast neutron absorber region, which in turn is surrounded by a slow neutron absorber region. Liquid sodium is used as the primary coolant and circulates through the core which contains the fuel elements. Control of the reactor is accomplished by varying the ability of the reflector region to reflect neutrons back into the core of the reactor. For this purpose the reflector is comprised of moderator and control elements having varying effects on reactivity, the control elements being arranged and actuated by groups to give regulation, shim, and safety control.

  17. Reactor Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lema, Juan M.; López, Carmen; Eibes, Gemma; Taboada-Puig, Roberto; Moreira, M. Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    In this chapter, the engineering aspects of processes catalyzed by peroxidases will be presented. In particular, a discussion of the existing technologies that utilize peroxidases for different purposes, such as the removal of recalcitrant compounds or the synthesis of polymers, is analyzed. In the first section, the essential variables controlling the process will be investigated, not only those that are common in any enzymatic system but also those specific to peroxidative reactions. Next, different reactor configurations and operational modes will be proposed, emphasizing their suitability and unsuitability for different systems. Finally, two specific reactors will be described in detail: enzymatic membrane reactors and biphasic reactors. These configurations are especially valuable for the treatment of xenobiotics with high and poor water solubility, respectively.

  18. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  19. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, J.; Sharbaugh, J.E.; Fauth, W.L. Jr.; Palladino, N.J.; DeHuff, P.G.

    1962-10-23

    A nuclear reactor incorporating seed and blanket assemblies is designed. Means are provided for obtaining samples of the coolant from the blanket assemblies and for varying the flow of coolant through the blanket assemblies. (AEC)

  20. REACTOR SHIELD

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Ohlinger, L.E.; Young, G.J.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1959-02-17

    Radiation shield construction is described for a nuclear reactor. The shield is comprised of a plurality of steel plates arranged in parallel spaced relationship within a peripheral shell. Reactor coolant inlet tubes extend at right angles through the plates and baffles are arranged between the plates at right angles thereto and extend between the tubes to create a series of zigzag channels between the plates for the circulation of coolant fluid through the shield. The shield may be divided into two main sections; an inner section adjacent the reactor container and an outer section spaced therefrom. Coolant through the first section may be circulated at a faster rate than coolant circulated through the outer section since the area closest to the reactor container is at a higher temperature and is more radioactive. The two sections may have separate cooling systems to prevent the coolant in the outer section from mixing with the more contaminated coolant in the inner section.

  1. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, H.C.

    1959-01-13

    A neutronic reactor of the heterogeneous, fluid cooled tvpe is described. The reactor is comprised of a pressure vessel containing the moderator and a plurality of vertically disposed channels extending in spaced relationship through the moderator. Fissionable fuel material is placed within the channels in spaced relationship thereto to permit circulation of the coolant fluid. Separate means are provided for cooling the moderator and for circulating a fluid coolant thru the channel elements to cool the fuel material.

  2. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.R.

    1962-07-24

    A fluidized bed nuclear reactor and a method of operating such a reactor are described. In the design means are provided for flowing a liquid moderator upwardly through the center of a bed of pellets of a nentron-fissionable material at such a rate as to obtain particulate fluidization while constraining the lower pontion of the bed into a conical shape. A smooth circulation of particles rising in the center and falling at the outside of the bed is thereby established. (AEC)

  3. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Breden, C.R.; Dietrich, J.R.

    1961-06-20

    A water-soluble non-volatile poison may be introduced into a reactor to nullify excess reactivity. The poison is removed by passing a side stream of the water containing the soluble poison to an evaporation chamber. The vapor phase is returned to the reactor to decrease the concentration of soluble poison and the liquid phase is returned to increase the concentration of soluble poison.

  4. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-07-14

    High temperature reactors which are uniquely adapted to serve as the heat source for nuclear pcwered rockets are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of an outer tubular heat resistant casing which provides the main coolant passageway to and away from the reactor core within the casing and in which the working fluid is preferably hydrogen or helium gas which is permitted to vaporize from a liquid storage tank. The reactor core has a generally spherical shape formed entirely of an active material comprised of fissile material and a moderator material which serves as a diluent. The active material is fabricated as a gas permeable porous material and is interlaced in a random manner with very small inter-connecting bores or capillary tubes through which the coolant gas may flow. The entire reactor is divided into successive sections along the direction of the temperature gradient or coolant flow, each section utilizing materials of construction which are most advantageous from a nuclear standpoint and which at the same time can withstand the operating temperature of that particular zone. This design results in a nuclear reactor characterized simultaneously by a minimum critiral size and mass and by the ability to heat a working fluid to an extremely high temperature.

  5. Building a regional medical center. Interview by Donald E.L. Johnson.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, A P

    1990-04-01

    Allen P. Fletcher is president of a 372-bed community hospital that is between Atlanta and Birmingham and loses patients to hospitals in those cities more frequently than he likes. Northeast Alabama Regional Medical Center, Anniston, Alabama, runs an average daily census of about 165 patients and many of its 100 active physicians are so busy that they have waiting lists. Fletcher has been president of Northeast for six years. He holds an MHA from Georgia State University. In an interview with Donald E.L. Johnson, editor and publisher of Health Care Strategic Management, Fletcher talks about the small window of opportunity he sees for secondary hospitals.

  6. Astronaut Donald McMonagle checks drainage hose on his life raft in training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-06-28

    S94-37521 (28 June 1994) --- Astronaut Donald R. McMonagle, mission commander, checks the drainage hose on his rapidly fashioned life raft during an emergency bailout training exercise in the Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Weightless Environment Training Facility (WET-F). Making his third flight in space covering 343 hours, McMonagle will be joined by four other NASA astronauts and a European mission specialist for a week and a half in space aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis. The flight will support the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-3) mission.

  7. McDonald XP-85 Airplane in 40x80 foot Wind Tunnel.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1948-04-08

    Front View of McDonald XP-85 Plan Model. Parasite Airplane designed to be carried in the B-36 bombay (never built) At the time it was the smallest Jet powered airplane. The McDonnell XF-85 Goblin was an American prototype fighter aircraft conceived during World War II by McDonnell Aircraft. It was intended to be deployed from the bomb bay of the giant Convair B-36 bomber as a parasite fighter. The XF-85's intended role was to defend bombers from hostile interceptor aircraft, a need demonstrated during World War II

  8. Astronaut Donald McMonagle works with HPP-2 experiment on middeck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-11-14

    STS066-22-012 (3-14 Nov 1994) --- On the Space Shuttle Atlantis' mid-deck, astronaut Donald R. McMonagle, mission commander, works with the Heat Pipe Performance (HPP-2) experiment. HPP-2 was flown to investigate the thermal performance and fluid dynamics of heat pipes operating with asymmetric and multiple heating zones under microgravity conditions. McMonagle was joined by four other NASA astronauts and a European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut for 11-days aboard Atlantis in Earth-orbit in support of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-3) mission.

  9. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix A-3: Basis for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste light water reactor projections

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, A.; Tuite, P.; Tuite, K.; Woodberry, S.

    1994-09-01

    This study characterizes low-level radioactive waste types that may exceed Class C limits at light water reactors, estimates the amounts of waste generated, and estimates radionuclide content and distribution within the waste. Waste types that may exceed Class C limits include metal components that become activated during operations, process wastes such as cartridge filters and decontamination resins, and activated metals from decommissioning activities. Operating parameters and current management practices at operating plants are reviewed and used to estimate the amounts of low-level waste exceeding Class C limits that is generated per fuel cycle, including amounts of routinely generated activated metal components and process waste. Radionuclide content is calculated for specific activated metals components. Empirical data from actual low-level radioactive waste are used to estimate radionuclide content for process wastes. Volumes and activities are also estimated for decommissioning activated metals that exceed Class C limits. To estimate activation levels of decommissioning waste, six typical light water reactors are modeled and analyzed. This study does not consider concentration averaging.

  10. On the shape of stress corrosion cracks in sensitized Type 304 SS in Boiling Water Reactor primary coolant piping at 288 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Kwon; Kramer, Daniel; Macdonald, Digby D.

    2014-11-01

    Evolution of the shape of surface cracks in sensitized Type 304 SS in Boiling Water Reactor primary coolant circuit piping at the reactor operating temperature of 288 °C is explored as a function of various environmental variables, such as electrochemical potential (ECP), solution conductivity, flow velocity, and multiplier for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) standard exchange current density (SECD), using the coupled environment fracture model (CEFM). For this work, the CEFM was upgraded by incorporating Shoji's model for calculating the crack tip strain rate and more advanced expressions were used for estimating the stress intensity factor for semi-elliptical surface cracks. This revised CEFM accurately predicts the dependence of the crack growth rate on stress intensity factor and offers an alternative explanation for the development of semi-elliptical cracks than that provided by fracture mechanics alone. The evolution of surface crack semi-elliptical shape depends strongly upon various environmental variables identified above, and the CEFM predicts that the minor axis of the ellipse should be oriented perpendicular to the surface, in agreement with observation. The development of the observed semi-elliptical cracks with the minor axis perpendicular to the surface is therefore attributed to the dependence of the crack growth rate on the electrochemical crack length.

  11. Activities of the Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin reports on its activities during the period 1 Jan. 1986 to 30 June 1986. Extensive observations of Halley's Comet were obtained. The comet exhibited large variability; moreover, its variability was much more rapid than can be accounted for by water vaporization as the sole controller of activity. Jupiter satellite Io's atmosphere was found to be distended by more than the equilibrium scale height but less than for unimpeded streaming into space. The atmosphere is at least temporarily bound to IO. Uranus' (3-0) H2 quadrupole line shapes require a modification of Baines and Bergstralh's standard model which incorporates at high altitude absorbing haze in addition to the lower haze layer. A fraction of normal H2 equal to 0.25 + or 0.10 is derived, in good agreement with the standard model. This result is unchanged when the preliminary temperature structure derived by the Voyager Radio Occultation Experiment is used instead of Appleby's model c. Out of the six Pluto-Charon mutual events observed this year, data were obtained on four. Preliminary analysis is yielding improved estimates for the diameters, masses, densities, and albedos of these objects.

  12. The impact of a new McDonald's restaurant on eating behaviours and perceptions of local residents: A natural experiment using repeated cross-sectional data.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Lukar E; Ball, Kylie; Lamb, Karen E; McCann, Jennifer; Parker, Kate; Crawford, David A

    2016-05-01

    Neighbourhood food environments are posited as an important determinant of eating behaviours; however causality is difficult to establish based on existing studies. Using a natural experiment study design (incorporating repeated cross-sectional data), we tested whether the development of a new McDonald's restaurant increased the frequency of consumption of McDonald's products amongst local residents in the suburbs of Tecoma (site of a new McDonald's restaurant development) and Monbulk (control site) in Victoria, Australia. Across both sites, the reported frequency of McDonald's consumption did not change during the follow-up surveys. In the context explored, the development of a new McDonald's restaurant has not resulted in an increased consumption of McDonald's products.

  13. 77 FR 55509 - Indiana Michigan Power Company; Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... 10 CFR part 50 requires that the Baker-Just equation be used to predict the rates of energy release, hydrogen concentration, and cladding oxidation from the metal/water reaction. The Baker-Just equation... states that the rates of energy release, hydrogen concentration, and cladding oxidation from the...

  14. Statement of Honorable Donald C. Winter Secretary of the Navy Before the House Armed Services Committee

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    and SH - 60F helicopters with the primary mission of undersea and surface warfare. The MH-60S will support the CSG and ESG combat logistics, search...capability to the Navy and Marine Corps. Critical to this capability are the MH-60R/S and the UH-1 programs. The MH-60R will replace the aging SH -60B

  15. 76 FR 55422 - Indiana Michigan Power Company; Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Models.'' The regulations in 10 CFR 50.46 contain acceptance criteria for the emergency core cooling... the licensee's proposed exemption will not result in a violation of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as...-approved loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) models and methods. The underlying purpose of 10 CFR part...

  16. Research reactors - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    A broad overview of different types of research and type reactors is provided in this paper. Reactor designs and operating conditions are briefly described for four reactors. The reactor types described include swimming pool reactors, the High Flux Isotope Reactor, the Mark I TRIGA reactor, and the Advanced Neutron Source reactor. Emphasis in the descriptions is placed on safety-related features of the reactors. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. A VUV Photoionization Study of the Combustion-Relevant Reaction of the Phenyl Radical (C6H5) with Propylene (C3H6) in a High Temperature Chemical Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    University of Hawaii at Manoa; Sandia National Laboratories; Zhang, Fangtong; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Golan, Amir; Ahmed, Musahid; Hansen, Nils

    2012-02-22

    We studied the reaction of phenyl radicals (C6H5) with propylene (C3H6) exploiting a high temperature chemical reactor under combustion-like conditions (300 Torr, 1,200-1,500 K). The reaction products were probed in a supersonic beam by utilizing tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation from the Advanced Light Source and recording the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves at mass-to-charge ratios of m/z = 118 (C9H10+) and m/z = 104 (C8H8+). Our results suggest that the methyl and atomic hydrogen losses are the two major reaction pathways with branching ratios of 86 10 percent and 14 10 percent. The isomer distributions were probed by fitting the recorded PIE curves with a linear combination of the PIE curves of the individual C9H10 and C8H8 isomers. Styrene (C6H5C2H3) was found to be the exclusive product contributing to m/z = 104 (C8H8+), whereas 3-phenylpropene, cis-1-phenylpropene, and 2-phenylpropene with branching ratios of 96 4 percent, 3 3 percent, and 1 1 percent could account for signal at m/z = 118 (C9H10+). Although searched for carefully, no evidence of the bicyclic indane molecule could be provided. The reaction mechanisms and branching ratios are explained in terms of electronic structure calculations nicely agreeing with a recent crossed molecular beam study on this system.

  18. A VUV photoionization study of the combustion-relevant reaction of the phenyl radical (C6H5) with propylene (C3H6) in a high temperature chemical reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fangtong; Kaiser, Ralf I; Golan, Amir; Ahmed, Musahid; Hansen, Nils

    2012-04-12

    We studied the reaction of phenyl radicals (C(6)H(5)) with propylene (C(3)H(6)) exploiting a high temperature chemical reactor under combustion-like conditions (300 Torr, 1200-1500 K). The reaction products were probed in a supersonic beam by utilizing tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation from the Advanced Light Source and recording the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves at mass-to-charge ratios of m/z = 118 (C(9)H(10)(+)) and m/z = 104 (C(8)H(8)(+)). Our results suggest that the methyl and atomic hydrogen losses are the two major reaction pathways with branching ratios of 86 ± 10% and 14 ± 10%. The isomer distributions were probed by fitting the recorded PIE curves with a linear combination of the PIE curves of the individual C(9)H(10) and C(8)H(8) isomers. Styrene (C(6)H(5)C(2)H(3)) was found to be the exclusive product contributing to m/z = 104 (C(8)H(8)(+)), whereas 3-phenylpropene, cis-1-phenylpropene, and 2-phenylpropene with branching ratios of 96 ± 4%, 3 ± 3%, and 1 ± 1% could account for the signal at m/z = 118 (C(9)H(10)(+)). Although searched for carefully, no evidence of the bicyclic indane molecule could be provided. The reaction mechanisms and branching ratios are explained in terms of electronic structure calculations nicely agreeing with a recent crossed molecular beam study on this system.

  19. The effects of McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken and Pizza Hut meals on recommended diets.

    PubMed

    Malouf, N M; Colagiuri, S

    1995-06-01

    The objective was to study the effect of three common takeaway meals on recommended healthy diets. New South Wales Department of Health recommended diets of 5020, 6275, 9205 and 12,540 kilojoules were used. An evening meal from each of these diets was substituted with one of three common fast food chain takeaway meals 1, 2, 3 and 5 times per week. The 3 takeaway meals were from McDonalds, Pizza Hut and Kentucky Fried Chicken. The effects of each of these meals on average daily kilojoule, fibre, fat, P/S ratio, protein and carbohydrate intakes were assessed. The takeaway meals were high in fat and kilojoules and low in fibre and therefore contravened the Dietary Guidelines for Australians. Addition of these meals increased average kilojoule consumption and the percentage energy contribution of fat and decreased the P/S ratio and fibre intake. The magnitude of these deleterious effects was directly proportional to the number of times the meals were included each week and inversely proportional to the energy content of the diet. The adverse effects were greatest with the McDonalds and Kentucky Fried Chicken meals. Takeaway meals may be convenient but the meals which were tested were too high in fat and kilojoules and too low in fibre to be a regular part of a balanced diet. Even one takeaway meal per week adversely affects the lower kilojoule recommended healthy diets.

  20. REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2011-01-28

    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  1. Time-dependent temper embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel steel: Correlation between microstructural evolution and mechanical properties during tempering at 650 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuanwei; Han, Lizhan; Yan, Guanghua; Liu, Qingdong; Luo, Xiaomeng; Gu, Jianfeng

    2016-11-01

    The microstructural evolution of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel and its effect on the mechanical properties during tempering at 650 °C were studied to reveal the time-dependent toughness and temper embrittlement. The results show that the toughening of the material should be attributed to the decomposition of the martensite/austenite constituents and uniform distribution of carbides. When the tempering duration was 5 h, the strength of the investigated steel decreased to strike a balance with the material impact toughness that reached a plateau. As the tempering duration was further increased, the material strength was slightly reduced but the material impact toughness deteriorated drastically. This time-dependent temper embrittlement is different from traditional temper embrittlement, and it can be partly attributed to the softening of the matrix and the broadening of the ferrite laths. Moreover, the dimensions and distribution of the grain carbides are the most important factors of the impact toughness.

  2. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Part 6, appendices A, B, and C

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events (including internal flooding, but excluding internal fire). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, reviewed the WE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. In particular, these results are assessed in relation to the design and operational characteristics of the various reactor and containment types, and by comparing the IPEs to probabilistic risk assessment characteristics. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants.

  3. Enhancing biodegradation of C16-alkyl quaternary ammonium compounds using an oxygen-based membrane biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Lai, YenJung Sean; Ontiveros-Valencia, Aura; Ilhan, Zehra Esra; Zhou, Yun; Miranda, Evelyn; Maldonado, Juan; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2017-10-15

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) (e.g., hexadecyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide, CTAB) are emerging contaminants with widespread use as surfactants and disinfectants. Because the initial step of QAC biodegradation is mono-oxygenation, QAC degraders require O2, but normal aeration leads to serious foaming. Here, we developed and tested an oxygen-based membrane biofilm reactor (O2-MBfR) that delivers O2 by diffusion through the walls of hollow-membranes to a biofilm accumulating on the outer surface of membranes. The O2-MBfR sustained QAC biodegradation even with high and toxic QAC input concentrations, up to 400 mg/L CTAB. Bubbleless O2 transfer completely eliminated foaming, and biofilm accumulation helped the QAC biodegraders resist toxicity. Pseudomonas, Achromobacter, Stenotrophomonas, and members of the Xanthomonadaceae family were dominant in the biofilm communities degrading CTAB, and their proportions depended on the O2-delivery capacity of the membranes. Bacteria capable of biodegrading QACs often harbor antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) that help them avoid QAC toxicity. Gene copies of ARGs were detected in biofilms and liquid, but the levels of ARGs were 5- to 35-fold lower in the liquid than in the biofilm. In summary, the O2-MBfR achieved aerobic biodegradation of CTAB with neither foaming nor toxicity, and it also minimized the spread of ARGs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.; Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.M.; Young, G.J.

    1958-09-01

    This patent relates to neutronic reactors of the heterogeneous water cooled type, and in particular to a fuel element charging and discharging means therefor. In the embodiment illustrated the reactor contains horizontal, parallel coolant tubes in which the fuel elements are disposed. A loading cart containing a magnzine for holding a plurality of fuel elements operates along the face of the reactor at the inlet ends of the coolant tubes. The loading cart is equipped with a ram device for feeding fuel elements from the magazine through the inlot ends of the coolant tubes. Operating along the face adjacent the discharge ends of the tubes there is provided another cart means adapted to receive irradiated fuel elements as they are forced out of the discharge ends of the coolant tubes by the incoming new fuel elements. This cart is equipped with a tank coataining a coolant, such as water, into which the fuel elements fall, and a hydraulically operated plunger to hold the end of the fuel element being discharged. This inveation provides an apparatus whereby the fuel elements may be loaded into the reactor, irradiated therein, and unloaded from the reactor without stopping the fiow of the coolant and without danger to the operating personnel.

  5. Nitrogen removal from slaughterhouse wastewater through partial nitrification followed by denitrification in intermittently aerated sequencing batch reactors at 11 degreeC.

    PubMed

    Pan, Min; Henry, Liam Garry; Liu, Rui; Huang, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed to examine the removal of nitrogen from high strength slaughterhouse wastewater at 11 degreeC via partial nitrification followed by denitrification (PND), using the intermittently aerated sequencing batch reactor (IASBR) technology. The slaughterhouse wastewater contained chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 6068 mg/L, total nitrogen (TN) of 571 mg/L, total phosphorus (TP) of 51 mg/L and suspended solids of 1.8 g/L, on average. The laboratory-scale IASBR reactors had a working volume of 8 L and was operated at an average organic loading rate of 0.61 g COD/(L-d). At the cycle duration of 12 h, COD was efficiently removed under three aeration rates of 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 L air/min. Among the three aeration rates, the optimum aeration rate was 0.6 L air/min with removals of COD, TN, and TP of 98%, 98%, and 96%, respectively. The treated wastewater met the Irish emission standards. The microbial community analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization shows 12 +/- 0.4% of ammonium oxidizing bacteria, and 7.2 - 0.4% of nitrite oxidizing bacteria in the general bacteria (EUB) in the activated sludge at the aeration rate of 0.6 L air/min, leading to efficient partial nitrification. PND effectively removed nitrogen from slaughterhouse wastewater at 11degreeC, but PND efficiency was dependent on the aeration rate applied. PND efficiencies were up to 75.8%, 70.1% and only 25.4% at the aeration rates of 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 L air/min.

  6. Behavior of metallic materials between 550 and 870/sup 0/C in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor helium under pressures of 2 and 50 bar

    SciTech Connect

    Cappelaere, M.; Perrot, M.; Sannier, J.

    1984-08-01

    In order to estimate the influence of the helium pressure on the corrosion of ferritic and austenitic materials, tests were carried out under 2 absolute bar in a circuit without helium recirculation and under 50 bar in the AIDA loop. In both cases the partial pressures of impurities were 1.500, 50, 450, and 50 ..mu..atm for H/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O, CO, and CH/sub 4/, respectively. The interruption of the French high-temperature gas-cooled reactor RandD program has only produced limited results: 1. At 650/sup 0/C the behavior of 11% chromium ferritic steel HT 9, Types 304 and 316 austenitic steels, and Incoloy Alloy 800H is excellent; the oxidation rates are low and decrease with time. 2. At 750 and 870/sup 0/C, Hastelloy-X offers better resistance to external and intergranular oxidation than alloys 800H and Inconel-617. 3. At these three temperatures, the oxidation kinetics are appreciably faster under a pressure of 50 bar than under 2 bar. 4. Whereas carbon steel is subject to decarburization at 550/sup 0/C, a carburization phenomenon is observed for alloys 800H, Inconel-617, and Hastelloy-X at 750 and especially at 870/sup 0/C. 5. As for the influence of the initial surface preparation, mechanically polished specimens generally present a lower oxidation rate than those polished electrochemically.

  7. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1958-07-15

    A nuclear reactor of the homogeneous liquid fuel type is described wherein the fissionable isotope is suspended or dissolved in a liquid moderator such as water. The reactor core is comprised essentially of a spherical vessel for containing the reactive composition surrounded by a reflector, preferably of beryllium oxide. The reactive composition may be an ordinary water solution of a soluble salt of uranium, the quantity of fissionable isotope in solution being sufficient to provide a critical mass in the vessel. The liquid fuel is stored in a tank of non-crtttcal geometry below the reactor vessel and outside of the reflector and is passed from the tank to the vessel through a pipe connecting the two by air pressure means. Neutron absorbing control and safety rods are operated within slots in the reflector adjacent to the vessel.

  8. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.

    1957-10-01

    A reactor of the type which preferably uses plutonium as the fuel and a liquid moderator, preferably ordinary water, and which produces steam within the reactor core due to the heat of the chain reaction is described. In the reactor shown the fuel elements are essentially in the form of trays and are ventically stacked in spaced relationship. The water moderator is continuously supplied to the trays to maintain a constant level on the upper surfaces of the fuel element as it is continually evaporated by the heat. The steam passes out through the spaces between the fuel elements and is drawn off at the top of the core. The fuel elements are clad in aluminum to prevent deterioration thereof with consequent contamimation of the water.

  9. REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Fortescue, P.; Nicoll, D.

    1962-04-24

    A control system employed with a high pressure gas cooled reactor in which a control rod is positioned for upward and downward movement into the neutron field from a position beneath the reactor is described. The control rod is positioned by a coupled piston cylinder releasably coupled to a power drive means and the pressurized coolant is directed against the lower side of the piston. The coolant pressure is offset by a higher fiuid pressure applied to the upper surface of the piston and means are provided for releasing the higher pressure on the upper side of the piston so that the pressure of the coolant drives the piston upwardly, forcing the coupled control rod into the ncutron field of the reactor. (AEC)

  10. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Young, G.J.

    1958-10-14

    A method is presented for loading and unloading rod type fuel elements of a neutronic reactor of the heterogeneous, solld moderator, liquid cooled type. In the embodiment illustrated, the fuel rods are disposed in vertical coolant channels in the reactor core. The fuel rods are loaded and unloaded through the upper openings of the channels which are immersed in the coolant liquid, such as water. Unloading is accomplished by means of a coffer dam assembly having an outer sleeve which is placed in sealing relation around the upper opening. A radiation shield sleeve is disposed in and reciprocable through the coffer dam sleeve. A fuel rod engaging member operates through the axial bore in the radiation shield sleeve to withdraw the fuel rod from its position in the reactor coolant channel into the shield, the shield snd rod then being removed. Loading is accomplished in the reverse procedure.

  11. Bioconversion reactor

    DOEpatents

    McCarty, Perry L.; Bachmann, Andre

    1992-01-01

    A bioconversion reactor for the anaerobic fermentation of organic material. The bioconversion reactor comprises a shell enclosing a predetermined volume, an inlet port through which a liquid stream containing organic materials enters the shell, and an outlet port through which the stream exits the shell. A series of vertical and spaced-apart baffles are positioned within the shell to force the stream to flow under and over them as it passes from the inlet to the outlet port. The baffles present a barrier to the microorganisms within the shell causing them to rise and fall within the reactor but to move horizontally at a very slow rate. Treatment detention times of one day or less are possible.

  12. Catalytic reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Aaron, Timothy Mark; Shah, Minish Mahendra; Jibb, Richard John

    2009-03-10

    A catalytic reactor is provided with one or more reaction zones each formed of set(s) of reaction tubes containing a catalyst to promote chemical reaction within a feed stream. The reaction tubes are of helical configuration and are arranged in a substantially coaxial relationship to form a coil-like structure. Heat exchangers and steam generators can be formed by similar tube arrangements. In such manner, the reaction zone(s) and hence, the reactor is compact and the pressure drop through components is minimized. The resultant compact form has improved heat transfer characteristics and is far easier to thermally insulate than prior art compact reactor designs. Various chemical reactions are contemplated within such coil-like structures such that as steam methane reforming followed by water-gas shift. The coil-like structures can be housed within annular chambers of a cylindrical housing that also provide flow paths for various heat exchange fluids to heat and cool components.

  13. POWER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, W.H.

    1958-07-01

    A fast nuclear reactor system ls described for producing power and radioactive isotopes. The reactor core is of the heterogeneous, fluid sealed type comprised of vertically arranged elongated tubular fuel elements having vertical coolant passages. The active portion is surrounded by a neutron reflector and a shield. The system includes pumps and heat exchangers for the primary and secondary coolant circuits. The core, primary coolant pump and primary heat exchanger are disposed within an irapenforate tank which is filled with the primary coolant, in this case a liquid metal such as Na or NaK, to completely submerge these elements. The tank is completely surrounded by a thick walled concrete shield. This reactor system utilizes enriched uranium or plutonium as the fissionable material, uranium or thorium as a diluent and thorium or uranium containing less than 0 7% of the U/sup 235/ isotope as a fertile material.

  14. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1957-09-24

    Reactors of the type employing plates of natural uranium in a moderator are discussed wherein the plates are um-formly disposed in parallel relationship to each other thereby separating the moderator material into distinct and individual layers. Each plate has an uninterrupted sunface area substantially equal to the cross-sectional area of the active portion of the reactor, the particular size of the plates and the volume ratio of moderator to uranium required to sustain a chain reaction being determinable from the known purity of these materials and other characteristics such as the predictable neutron losses due to the formation of radioactive elements of extremely high neutron capture cross section.

  15. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.W.; Young, G.J.

    1958-04-15

    A nuclear reactor which uses uranium in the form of elongated tubes as fuel elements and liquid as a coolant is described. Elongated tubular uranium bodies are vertically disposed in an efficient neutron slowing agent, such as graphite, for example, to form a lattice structure which is disposed between upper and lower coolant tanks. Fluid coolant tubes extend through the uranium bodies and communicate with the upper and lower tanks and serve to convey the coolant through the uranium body. The reactor is also provided with means for circulating the cooling fluid through the coolant tanks and coolant tubes, suitable neutron and gnmma ray shields, and control means.

  16. Synthesis of superior fast charging-discharging nano-LiFePO4/C from nano-FePO4 generated using a confined area impinging jet reactor approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-min; Yan, Pen; Xie, Yin-Yin; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-dong; Ma, Zi-Feng

    2013-06-14

    LiFePO4/C nanocomposites with excellent electrochemical performance is synthesized from nano-FePO4, generated by a novel method using a confined area impinging jet reactor (CIJR). When discharged at 80 C (13.6 Ag(-1)), the LiFePO4/C delivers a discharge capacity of 95 mA h g(-1), an energy density of 227 W h kg(-1) and a power density of 34 kW kg(-1).

  17. Measurement of the enthalpy and specific heat of a Be2C-graphite-UC2 reactor fuel material to 1980 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, E. P.

    1982-03-01

    The enthalpy and specific heat of a Be2C-Graphite-UC2 composite nuclear fuel material have been measured over the temperature range 298 1980 K using both differential scanning calorimetry and liquid argon vaporization calorimetry. The fuel material measured was developed at Sandia National Laboratories for use in pulsed test reactors. The material is a hot-pressed composite consisting of 40 vol% Be2C, 49.5 vol% graphite, 3.5 vol% UC2, and 7.0 vol% void. The specific heat was measured with the differential scanning calorimeter over the temperature range 298 950 K, while the enthalpy was measured over the range 1185 1980 K with the liquid argon vaporization calorimeter. The normal spectral emittance at a wavelength of 6.5×10-5 cm was also measured over the experimental temperature range. The combined experimental enthalpy data were fit using a spline routine and differentiated to give the specific heat. Comparison of the measured specific heat of the composite to the specific heat calculated by summing the contributions of the individual components indicates that the specific heat of the Be2C component differs significantly from literature values and is approximately 0.56 cal · g-1 · K -1 (2.3×103J · kg-1 · K -1) for temperatures above 1000 K.

  18. Fabrication and evaluation of SiC/Cu functionally graded material used for plasma facing components in a fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yun-Han; Li, Jiang-Tao; Ge, Chang-Chun; Bai, Xin-De

    2002-06-01

    A new SiC/Cu functionally graded material that contains a spectrum of 0-100% compositional distributions of SiC used for plasma facing component was proposed and fabricated by a novel process termed graded sintering under ultra-high pressure, by which a near dense graded composite has been successfully obtained. Tests on plasma relevant performances showed that in SiC/Cu graded composite the CD 4 production due to chemical sputtering is 85% lower than that of SMF800 nuclear graphite, while its thermal desorption is about 10% of that graphite; fatigue cracks and chemical decomposition were found on the surface of SiC/Cu FGM after 300 cyclic impacts of laser pulse with power density of 398 MW/m 2; slight damage was also observed on the material surface after in situ plasma irradiation in a Tokamak facility.

  19. Neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Carleton, John T.

    1977-01-25

    A graphite-moderated nuclear reactor includes channels between blocks of graphite and also includes spacer blocks between adjacent channeled blocks with an axis of extension normal to that of the axis of elongation of the channeled blocks to minimize changes in the physical properties of the graphite as a result of prolonged neutron bombardment.

  20. Sonochemical Reactors.

    PubMed

    Gogate, Parag R; Patil, Pankaj N

    2016-10-01

    Sonochemical reactors are based on the generation of cavitational events using ultrasound and offer immense potential for the intensification of physical and chemical processing applications. The present work presents a critical analysis of the underlying mechanisms for intensification, available reactor configurations and overview of the different applications exploited successfully, though mostly at laboratory scales. Guidelines have also been presented for optimum selection of the important operating parameters (frequency and intensity of irradiation, temperature and liquid physicochemical properties) as well as the geometric parameters (type of reactor configuration and the number/position of the transducers) so as to maximize the process intensification benefits. The key areas for future work so as to transform the successful technique at laboratory/pilot scale into commercial technology have also been discussed. Overall, it has been established that there is immense potential for sonochemical reactors for process intensification leading to greener processing and economic benefits. Combined efforts from a wide range of disciplines such as material science, physics, chemistry and chemical engineers are required to harness the benefits at commercial scale operation.

  1. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.L.

    1958-10-01

    The design of control rods for nuclear reactors are described. In this design the control rod consists essentially of an elongated member constructed in part of a neutron absorbing material and having tube means extending therethrough for conducting a liquid to cool the rod when in use.

  2. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.; Ohlinger, L.A.; Weinberg, A.M.; Wigner, E.P.; Young, G.J.

    1959-10-27

    BS>A reactor cooled by water, biphenyl, helium, or other fluid with provision made for replacing the fuel rods with the highest plutonium and fission product content without disassembling the entire core and for promptly cooling the rods after their replacement in order to prevent build-up of heat from fission product activity is described.

  3. Neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wende, Charles W. J.

    1976-08-17

    A safety rod for a nuclear reactor has an inner end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient and neutron capture cross section approximately equal to those of the adjacent shield, a central portion containing materials of high neutron capture cross section and an outer end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient at least equal to that of the adjacent shield.

  4. In situ 13C DEPT-MRI as a tool to spatially resolve chemical conversion and selectivity of a heterogeneous catalytic reaction occurring in a fixed-bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Akpa, Belinda S; Mantle, Michael D; Sederman, Andrew J; Gladden, Lynn F

    2005-06-07

    The distortionless enhancement by polarisation transfer (DEPT) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has been used to provide the first in situ spatially-resolved and quantitative measurement of chemical conversion and selectivity within a fixed-bed reactor using natural abundance 13C NMR.

  5. 10 CFR 1.43 - Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... health and safety, the environment, or the safeguarding of nuclear reactor facilities; (c) Assesses and... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. 1.43 Section 1.43... Program Offices § 1.43 Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. The Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation— (a...

  6. 10 CFR 1.43 - Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... health and safety, the environment, or the safeguarding of nuclear reactor facilities; (c) Assesses and... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. 1.43 Section 1.43... Program Offices § 1.43 Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. The Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation— (a...

  7. 10 CFR 1.43 - Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... health and safety, the environment, or the safeguarding of nuclear reactor facilities; (c) Assesses and... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. 1.43 Section 1.43... Program Offices § 1.43 Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. The Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation— (a...

  8. 10 CFR 1.43 - Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... health and safety, the environment, or the safeguarding of nuclear reactor facilities; (c) Assesses and... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. 1.43 Section 1.43... Program Offices § 1.43 Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. The Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation— (a...

  9. 10 CFR 1.43 - Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... health and safety, the environment, or the safeguarding of nuclear reactor facilities; (c) Assesses and... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. 1.43 Section 1.43... Program Offices § 1.43 Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. The Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation— (a...

  10. [Performance of nitrogen and phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater of different C/N ratios using intelligent controlled systems sequencing batch biofilm reactor ( SBBR)].

    PubMed

    Jin, Yun-Xiao; Feng, Chuan-Ping; Ding, Da-Hu; Hao, Chun-Bo; Song, Lin

    2011-03-01

    The laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to treat synthetic municipal wastewater at different C/N ratios, using a developed intelligent controller sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR), which formed alternative aerobic-anoxic environment. The performance of nitrogen and phosphorus removal was investigated under different conditions (T = 25 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C, V(aeration) = 150 L/h, COD = 300 mg/L, TP = 5 mg/L, TN = 30 mg/L, t(operation) = 15 d; TN = 60 mg/L, t(operation) = 20 d; TN = 90 mg/L, t(operation) = 20 d). The average removal efficiency of COD reaches 85.2%, 91.1% and 97.7%, the average removal efficiency of TP achieves 94.1%, 95.9%, 96.7% ,the average removal efficiency of NH4(+) -N reaches 95.8%, 99.2%, 80.0%, and the average removal efficiency of TN are 90.7%, 81.1%, 58.3%, respectively. With the decrease of C/N ratios, the removal efficiency of N decreases significantly, while the removal efficiency of COD and TP increase slightly. In intelligent controlled SBBR, simultaneous nitrification and denitrification and shortened simultaneous nitrification and denitrification occur, meanwhile, the denitrification of the system strengthens with the increasing of C/N ratios. After the influent finished, intelligent controlled SBBR starts to operate in aerobic-anoxic environment. The efficiency of phosphorus removal is high, moreover, the theory of phosphorus removal is different from the conventional theory of release anaerobic and uptake aerobic phosphorus.

  11. Infantile sexuality: Its place in the conceptual developments of Anna Freud and Donald W. Winnicott.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Angela

    2016-06-01

    This essay explores the place of infantile sexuality in the theories of Anna Freud and Donald W Winnicott. Both Anna Freud and D.W. Winnicott incorporated and at the same time changed the classical psychoanalytic account of infantile sexuality and the instinctual drives. Whilst Anna Freud remained closer to her father's original conceptualization, she developed a multidimensional model of development which gave the drives a foundational status whist also maintaining their significance in giving meaning and texture to children's subjective experience. Winnicott also retained much of S. Freud's original theorizing except that in a fundamental way he turned it on its head when considering earliest development. For him the establishment of the self was paramount, and the drives and infantile sexuality merely served to give substance to that self.

  12. Expedition 6 flight engineer Donald Pettit suits up for second launch attempt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 flight engineer Donald Pettit is eager for launch as he suits up for a second launch attempt on mission STS-113. The launch on Nov. 22 was scrubbed due to poor weather conditions at the Transoceanic Abort Landing sites. Pettit will be making his first Shuttle flight. The launch will carry the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is now scheduled for Nov. 23 at 7:50 p.m. EST.

  13. Apollo 11 Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector: Initial Measurements from the McDonald Observatory.

    PubMed

    Alley, C O; Chang, R F; Curri, D G; Mullendore, J; Poultney, S K; Rayner, J D; Silverberg, E C; Steggerda, C A; Plotkin, H H; Williams, W; Warner, B; Richardson, H; Bopp, B

    1970-01-23

    Acquisition measurements of the round-trip travel time of light, from the McDonald Observatory to the Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector deployed on the moon by the Apollo 11 astronauts, were made on 20 August and on 3, 4, and 22 September 1969. The uncertainty in the round-trip travel time was +/- 15 nanoseconds, with the pulsed ruby laser and timing system used for the acquisition. The uncertainty in later measurements of a planned long-term sequence from this observatory is expected to be an order of magnitude smaller. The successful performance of the retro-reflector at several angles of solar illumination, as well as during and after a lunar night, confirms the prediction of thermal design analyses.

  14. From "The Depleted Self" to "The Will to Believe": Excavating the Hermeneutics of Donald Capps.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Yolanda

    2017-09-05

    The concept of "reframing" lies at the heart of the pastoral psychology of Donald Capps. In previous articles I have argued that the process of reframing follows a circular hermeneutics. An excavation of Capps' hermeneutics reveals foundations in the fields of philosophy and psychology. This article focuses on the legacy of Johann Gottfried von Herder, Friedrich Schleiermacher, William James and Paul Ricoeur. It explores the differences and commonalities between William James and Friedrich Schleiermacher's understanding of religious experience as well as Paul Ricoeur's understanding of narrativity and traces these strains to Capps' pastoral psychology. As illustration of his pastoral approach to healing and wholeness the problem of "the depleted self," so prevalent in "our narcissistic age," encounters the healing narrative of Jesus that appeals to "the will to believe."

  15. A description of the lunar ranging station at McDonald Observatory.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverberg, E. C.; Currie, D. G.

    1972-01-01

    The equipment of this station which has been in operation since the deployment of the first corner reflector by the Apollo 11 astronauts. The McDonald 2.7-m telescope is used for both transmission and reception of pulsed ruby laser light during three 45-minute daily laser runs about three weeks in a month. The present laser pulse width, timing system, calibration procedures, and signal levels are designed to achieve ranging with an accuracy to 1 nanosecond. The data rates obtained since September, 1970, are consistent with the scientific commitments of the lunar ranging program. Most of the over 200 acquisitions obtained have an accuracy to better than plus or minus 30 cm. Details of the telescope matching optics, guiding and timing equipment, and calibration procedures are discussed. Representative lunar range data are included.

  16. Nanocrystalline SiC and Ti3SiC2 Alloys for Reactor Materials: Thermal and Mechanical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Charles H.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Shin, Yongsoon; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Borlaug, Brennan A.; Jiang, Weilin

    2014-04-01

    SiC-polymers (pure polycarbosilane and polycarbosilane filled with SiC-particles) are being combined with Si and TiC powders to create a new class of polymer-derived ceramics for consideration as advanced nuclear materials in a variety of applications. Compared to pure SiC these materials have increased fracture toughness with only slightly reduced thermal conductivity. Future work with carbon nanotube (CNT) mats will be introduced with the potential to increase the thermal conductivity and the fracture toughness. At present, this report documents the fabrication of a new class of monolithic polymer derived ceramics, SiC + SiC/Ti3SiC2 dual phase materials. The fracture toughness of the dual phase material was measured to be significantly greater than Hexoloy SiC using indentation fracture toughness testing. However, thermal conductivity of the dual phase material was reduced compared to Hexoloy SiC, but was still appreciable, with conductivities in the range of 40 to 60 W/(m K). This report includes synthesis details, optical and scanning electron microscopy images, compositional data, fracture toughness, and thermal conductivity data.

  17. Education Partnerships in Teacher Training: McDonald Observatory and the Giant Magellan Telescope Organization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, Keely; Preston, Sandra Lee; Hemenway, Mary; Malasarn, Davin; Wetzel, Marc

    2015-08-01

    McDonald Observatory in remote, west Texas has a long history of providing K-12 teacher professional development (PD) through workshops at the observatory. Recently, we have started a new teacher PD program in partnership with the Giant Magellan Telescope Organization (GMTO) to provide teacher training and establish a network of teachers and students engaged in the Giant Magellan Telescope. The GMT Teacher workshop has been offered to 30 teachers during the summers of 2014 and 2015; continued engagement has been offered to the teachers through online resources, networking, participation in other teacher PD opportunities and conferences. Evaluation has been conducted using several metrics immediately post workshops, and long term followup evaluation methods. At the close of the 2014 workshop teachers reported learning about the telescopes and nighttime observing, and the promise of the GMT. Consensus statements at the close of the workshop also spoke about passion for and appreciation of astronomy. The major source of recommendation during the year one workshop was to provide more detailed information or activities on the GMT during the workshops. While this does prove challenging to incorporate a full slate of activities on the GMT before the telescope is even built, we are currently working to produce more take-home materials which are GMT specific, continue to make general connections to telescope technology and science that are applicable to the GMT with the teachers. McDonald Observatory and GMTO will continue to partner to offer teacher PD related to the GMT, and increase the network of teachers and students engaged in the GMT, up and through the beginning of its operations in 2020. We will present the current highlights, evaulation outcome results, and future outlook for this program and collaboration.

  18. An Application of Bion's Theory of Thinking and Transformations in Hallucinosis. An Experience of Supervision with Dr Donald Meltzer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emanuel, Ricky

    2012-01-01

    I hope in this paper to show how Bion's theory of thinking and his later theory of transformations in hallucinosis, enabled psychotherapy in a special school setting many years ago to be undertaken with a psychotic child who was constantly hallucinating. The work was carried out under the expert supervision of Dr Donald Meltzer who managed…

  19. Teaching as Goal-Less and Reflective Design: A Conversation with Herbert A. Simon and Donald Schon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Go, Johnny C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines Donald Schon's critique of Herbert Simon's "science of design" to determine whether later developments in Simon's thought--particularly, his theories of "bounded rationality" and "goal-less designing"--can contribute to an appreciation of Schon's notion of reflective practice. The paper then argues, that viewed through the…

  20. "Why Didn't I Know about This Book When I Started?": In Memory of Donald Graves and Arthur Applebee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrosky, Anthony; Mihalakis, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    This essay explores Donald Graves' groundbreaking research of the 1980s. We show how Graves' approach to the teaching of writing built on his sensitive appreciation of the ways children actually engage in the composing process when they are given the opportunity to produce writing that is meaningful to them. However, the issue for us is not simply…

  1. An Application of Bion's Theory of Thinking and Transformations in Hallucinosis. An Experience of Supervision with Dr Donald Meltzer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emanuel, Ricky

    2012-01-01

    I hope in this paper to show how Bion's theory of thinking and his later theory of transformations in hallucinosis, enabled psychotherapy in a special school setting many years ago to be undertaken with a psychotic child who was constantly hallucinating. The work was carried out under the expert supervision of Dr Donald Meltzer who managed…

  2. The Construction of Leadership Images in the Popular Press: The Case of Donald Burr and People Express.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chao C.; Meindl, James R.

    1991-01-01

    To explore social construction of leadership, one study examined the rise and fall of Donald Burr and People Express Airline, a celebrated saga in entrepreneurship. Content analyses of image descriptions and metaphors projected by the popular press revealed that Burr's image was reconstructed to account for the dramatic performance failure of the…

  3. Teaching as Goal-Less and Reflective Design: A Conversation with Herbert A. Simon and Donald Schon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Go, Johnny C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines Donald Schon's critique of Herbert Simon's "science of design" to determine whether later developments in Simon's thought--particularly, his theories of "bounded rationality" and "goal-less designing"--can contribute to an appreciation of Schon's notion of reflective practice. The paper then argues, that viewed through the…

  4. "Why Didn't I Know about This Book When I Started?": In Memory of Donald Graves and Arthur Applebee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrosky, Anthony; Mihalakis, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    This essay explores Donald Graves' groundbreaking research of the 1980s. We show how Graves' approach to the teaching of writing built on his sensitive appreciation of the ways children actually engage in the composing process when they are given the opportunity to produce writing that is meaningful to them. However, the issue for us is not simply…

  5. The Coude spectrograph and echelle scanner of the 2.7 m telescope at McDonald observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tull, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    The design of the Coude spectrograph of the 2.7 m McDonald telescope is discussed. A description is given of the Coude scanner which uses the spectrograph optics, the configuration of the large echelle and the computer scanner control and data systems.

  6. C3: The Compositional Construction of Context. A New, More Effective and Efficient Way to Marshal Inferences from Background Knowledge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    effective communication with automomous systems Dr. David D. McDonald Prof. James D. Pustejovsky Smart Information Flow Technologies, dba SIFT, LLC C3-Q...effective and efficient way to marshal inferences from background knowledge’ N00014-13-1-0228 Dr. David McDonald Smart Information Flow Technologies, dba

  7. High growth rate 4H-SiC epitaxial growth using dichlorosilane in a hot-wall CVD reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Iftekhar; Chandrasekhar, M. V. S.; Klein, Paul B.; Caldwell, Joshua D.; Sudarshan, Tangali

    2011-02-01

    Thick, high quality 4H-SiC epilayers have been grown in a vertical hot-wall chemical vapor deposition system at a high growth rate on (0 0 0 1) 8° off-axis substrates. We discuss the use of dichlorosilane as the Si-precursor for 4H-SiC epitaxial growth as it provides the most direct decomposition route into SiCl 2, which is the predominant growth species in chlorinated chemistries. A specular surface morphology was attained by limiting the hydrogen etch rate until the system was equilibrated at the desired growth temperature. The RMS roughness of the grown films ranged from 0.5-2.0 nm with very few morphological defects (carrots, triangular defects, etc.) being introduced, while enabling growth rates of 30-100 μm/h, 5-15 times higher than most conventional growths. Site-competition epitaxy was observed over a wide range of C/Si ratios, with doping concentrations <1×10 14 cm -3 being recorded. X-ray rocking curves indicated that the epilayers were of high crystallinity, with linewidths as narrow as 7.8 arcsec being observed, while microwave photoconductive decay (μPCD) measurements indicated that these films had high injection (ambipolar) carrier lifetimes in the range of 2 μs.

  8. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-12-15

    A reactor which is particularly adapted tu serve as a heat source for a nuclear powered alrcraft or rocket is described. The core of this reactor consists of a porous refractory modera;or body which is impregnated with fissionable nuclei. The core is designed so that its surface forms tapered inlet and outlet ducts which are separated by the porous moderator body. In operation a gaseous working fluid is circulated through the inlet ducts to the surface of the moderator, enters and passes through the porous body, and is heated therein. The hot gas emerges into the outlet ducts and is available to provide thrust. The principle advantage is that tremendous quantities of gas can be quickly heated without suffering an excessive pressure drop.

  9. REACTOR UNLOADING

    DOEpatents

    Leverett, M.C.

    1958-02-18

    This patent is related to gas cooled reactors wherein the fuel elements are disposed in vertical channels extending through the reactor core, the cooling gas passing through the channels from the bottom to the top of the core. The invention is a means for unloading the fuel elements from the core and comprises dump values in the form of flat cars mounted on wheels at the bottom of the core structure which support vertical stacks of fuel elements. When the flat cars are moved, either manually or automatically, for normal unloading purposes, or due to a rapid rise in the reproduction ratio within the core, the fuel elements are permtted to fall by gravity out of the core structure thereby reducing the reproduction ratio or stopping the reaction as desired.

  10. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wade, E.J.

    1958-09-16

    This patent relates to a reflector means for a neutronic reactor. A reflector comprised of a plurality of vertically movable beryllium control members is provided surrounding the sides of the reactor core. An absorber of fast neutrons comprised of natural uramum surrounds the reflector. An absorber of slow neutrons surrounds the absorber of fast neutrons and is formed of a plurality of beryllium blocks having natural uranium members distributcd therethrough. in addition, a movable body is positioned directly below the core and is comprised of a beryllium reflector and an absorbing member attached to the botiom thereof, the absorbing member containing a substance selected from the goup consisting of natural urantum and Th/sup 232/.

  11. REACTOR MONITORING

    DOEpatents

    Bugbee, S.J.; Hanson, V.F.; Babcock, D.F.

    1959-02-01

    A neutron density inonitoring means for reactors is described. According to this invention a tunnel is provided beneath and spaced from the active portion of the reactor and extends beyond the opposite faces of the activc portion. Neutron beam holes are provided between the active portion and the tunnel and open into the tunnel near the middle thereof. A carriage operates back and forth in the tunnel and is adapted to convey a neutron detector, such as an ion chamber, and position it beneath one of the neutron beam holes. This arrangement affords convenient access of neutron density measuring instruments to a location wherein direct measurement of neutron density within the piles can be made and at the same time affords ample protection to operating personnel.

  12. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor including two rotatable plugs and a positive top core holddown structure. The top core holddown structure is divided into two parts: a small core cover, and a large core cover. The small core cover, and the upper internals associated therewith, are attached to the small rotating plug, and the large core cover, with its associated upper internals, is attached to the large rotating plug. By so splitting the core holddown structures, under-the-plug refueling is accomplished without the necessity of enlarging the reactor pressure vessel to provide a storage space for the core holddown structure during refueling. Additionally, the small and large rotating plugs, and their associated core covers, are arranged such that the separation of the two core covers to permit rotation is accomplished without the installation of complex lifting mechanisms.

  13. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1958-08-19

    A neuclear reactor is described of the heterogeneous type and employing replaceable tubular fuel elements and heavy water as a coolant and moderator. A pluraltty of fuel tubesa having their axes parallel, extend through a tank type pressure vessel which contatns the liquid moderator. The fuel elements are disposed within the fuel tubes in the reaetive portion of the pressure vessel during normal operation and the fuel tubes have removable plug members at each end to permit charging and discharging of the fuel elements. The fuel elements are cylindrical strands of jacketed fissionable material having helical exterior ribs. A bundle of fuel elements are held within each fuel tube with their longitudinal axes parallel, the ribs serving to space them apart along their lengths. Coolant liquid is circulated through the fuel tubes between the spaced fuel elements. Suitable control rod and monitoring means are provided for controlling the reactor.

  14. Neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Warren R.

    1978-05-30

    A graphite-moderated, water-cooled nuclear reactor including a plurality of rectangular graphite blocks stacked in abutting relationship in layers, alternate layers having axes which are normal to one another, alternate rows of blocks in alternate layers being provided with a channel extending through the blocks, said channeled blocks being provided with concave sides and having smaller vertical dimensions than adjacent blocks in the same layer, there being nuclear fuel in the channels.

  15. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashby, J.W.

    1958-09-16

    ABS>A graphite moderator structure is presented for a nuclear reactor compriscd of an assembly of similarly orientated prismatic graphite blocks arranged on spaced longitudinal axes lying in common planes wherein the planes of the walls of the blocks are positioned so as to be twisted reintive to the planes of said axes so thatthe unlmpeded dtrect paths in direction wholly across the walls of the blocks are limited to the width of the blocks plus spacing between the blocks.

  16. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1961-01-24

    A core structure for neutronic reactors adapted for the propulsion of aircraft and rockets is offered. The core is designed for cooling by gaseous media, and comprises a plurality of hollow tapered tubular segments of a porous moderating material impregniated with fissionable fuel nested about a common axis. Alternate ends of the segments are joined. In operation a coolant gas passes through the porous structure and is heated.

  17. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Koch, L.J.; Rice, R.E. Jr.; Denst, A.A.; Rogers, A.J.; Novick, M.

    1961-12-01

    An active portion assembly for a fast neutron reactor is described wherein physical distortions resulting in adverse changes in the volume-to-mass ratio are minimized. A radially expandable locking device is disposed within a cylindrical tube within each fuel subassembly within the active portion assembly, and clamping devices expandable toward the center of the active portion assembly are disposed around the periphery thereof. (AEC)

  18. REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Ruano, W.J.

    1957-12-10

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which utilize elongited rod type fuel elements immersed in a liquid moderator and shows a design whereby control of the chain reaction is obtained by varying the amount of moderator or reflector material. A central tank for containing liquid moderator and fuel elements immersed therein is disposed within a surrounding outer tank providing an annular space between the two tanks. This annular space is filled with liquid moderator which functions as a reflector to reflect neutrons back into the central reactor tank to increase the reproduction ratio. Means are provided for circulating and cooling the moderator material in both tanks and additional means are provided for controlling separately the volume of moderator in each tank, which latter means may be operated automatically by a neutron density monitoring device. The patent also shows an arrangement for controlling the chain reaction by injecting and varying an amount of poisoning material in the moderator used in the reflector portion of the reactor.

  19. Space reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranken, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    Progress in design studies and technology for the SP-100 Project - successor to the Space Power Advanced Reactor (SPAR) Project - is reported for the period October 1, 1981 to March 31, 1982. The basis for selecting a high-temperature, UO2-fueled, heat-pipe-cooled reactor with a thermoelectric conversion system as the 100/kW-sub e/ reference design has been reviewed. Although no change has been made in the general concept, design studies have been done to investigate various reactor/conversion system coupling methods and core design modifications. Thermal and mechanical finite element modeling and three dimensional Monte Carlo analysis of a core with individual finned fuel elements are reported. Studies of unrestrained fuel irradiation data are discussed that are relevant both to the core modeling work and to the design and fabrication of the first in-pile irradiation test, which is also reported. Work on lithium-filled core heat pipe development is described, including the attainment of 15.6 kW/sub t/ operation at 1525 K for a 2-m-long heat pipe with a 15.7-mm outside diameter. The successful operation of a 5.5-m-long, lightweight potassium/titanium heat pipe at 760 K is described, and test results of a thermoelectric module with GaP-modified SiGe thermoelectric elements are presented.

  20. High flux reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, J.A.; Heath, R.L.; Liebenthal, J.L.; DeBoisblanc, D.R.; Leyse, C.F.; Parsons, K.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Wadkins, R.P.; Harker, Y.D.; Fillmore, G.N.

    1988-08-16

    A high flux nuclear reactor is described comprising: (a) a pressure vessel including reactor coolant inlet means at the first end thereof and reactor coolant outlet means at the second end thereof; (b) a reactor coolant; (c) a first core segment housed within the pressure vessel, the first core segment including a plurality of concentric, circumferential fuel plates, the spacing between the concentric fuel plates forming coolant flow channels, each fuel plate being thin relative to the spacing between the fuel plates; (d) means for stationarily supporting the first core segment from the pressure vessel; (e) a second core segment housed within the pressure vessel and spaced axialy apart from the first core segment such that a coolant mixing plenum is formed therebetween, the second core segment including a plurality of concentric, circumferential fuel plates, the spacing between the concentric fuel plates forming coolant flow channels, each fuel plate being thin relative to the spacing between the fuel plates; (f) means for stationarily supporting the second core segment from the pressure vessel; and (g) first core coolant bypass means for channeling a volume of the coolant between the inlet means and the coolant mixing plenum such that the coolant volume bypasses the first core segment.

  1. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization. Appendix G: Evaluation of potential for greater-than-Class C classification of irradiated hardware generated by utility-operated reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, J.E.

    1991-08-01

    This study compiles and evaluates data from many sources to expand a base of data from which to estimate the activity concentrations and volumes of greater-than-Class C low-level waste that the Department of Energy will receive from the commercial power industry. Sources of these data include measurements of irradiated hardware made by or for the utilities that was classified for disposal in commercial burial sites, measurements of neutron flux in the appropriate regions of the reactor pressure vessel, analyses of elemental constituents of the particular structural material used for the components, and the activation analysis calculations done for hardware. Evaluations include results and assumptions in the activation analyses. Sections of this report and the appendices present interpretation of data and the classification definitions and requirements.

  2. Fissioning Plasma Core Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, Dennis; Butler, Carey; West, Nicole; Cole, John W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Institute for Scientific Research, Inc. (ISR) research program consist of: 1.Study core physics by adapting existing codes: MCNP4C - Monte Carlo code; COMBINE/VENTURE - diffusion theory; SCALE4 - Monte Carlo, with many utility codes. 2. Determine feasibility and study major design parameters: fuel selection, temperature and reflector sizing. 3. Study reactor kinetics: develop QCALC1 to model point kinetics; study dynamic behavior of the power release.

  3. BioReactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosiano, John; Roberts, Randy; Cleland, Tim; Gray, Perry

    2003-04-18

    BioReactor is a simulation tool kit for modeling networks of coupled chemical processes (or similar productions rules). The tool kit is implemented in C++ and has the following functionality: 1. Monte Carlo discrete event simulator 2. Solvers for ordinary differential equations 3. Genetic algorithm optimization routines for reverse engineering of models using either Monte Carlo or ODE representation )i.e., 1 or 2)

  4. Nuclear Reactors. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogerton, John F.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: How Reactors Work; Reactor Design; Research, Teaching, and Materials Testing; Reactors (Research, Teaching and Materials); Production Reactors; Reactors for Electric Power…

  5. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.; Rowan, William J.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor in which the core components, including fuel-rod assemblies, control-rod assemblies, fertile rod-assemblies, and removable shielding assemblies, are supported by a plurality of separate inlet modular units. These units are referred to as inlet module units to distinguish them from the modules of the upper internals of the reactor. The modular units are supported, each removable independently of the others, in liners in the supporting structure for the lower internals of the reactor. The core assemblies are removably supported in integral receptacles or sockets of the modular units. The liners, units, sockets and assmblies have inlet openings for entry of the fluid. The modular units are each removably mounted in the liners with fluid seals interposed between the opening in the liner and inlet module into which the fluid enters and the upper and lower portion of the liner. Each assembly is similarly mounted in a corresponding receptacle with fluid seals interposed between the openings where the fluid enters and the lower portion of the receptacle or fitting closely in these regions. As fluid flows along each core assembly a pressure drop is produced along the fluid so that the fluid which emerges from each core assembly is at a lower pressure than the fluid which enters the core assembly. However because of the seals interposed in the mountings of the units and assemblies the pressures above and below the units and assemblies are balanced and the units are held in the liners and the assemblies are held in the receptacles by their weights as they have a higher specific gravity than the fluid. The low-pressure spaces between each module and its liner and between each core assembly and its module is vented to the low-pressure regions of the vessel to assure that fluid which leaks through the seals does not accumulate and destroy the hydraulic balance.

  6. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashley, J.W.

    1958-12-16

    A graphite moderator structure is described for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor having a vertical orlentation wherein the structure is physically stable with regard to dlmensional changes due to Wigner growth properties of the graphite, and leakage of coolant gas along spaces in the structure is reduced. The structure is comprised of stacks of unlform right prismatic graphite blocks positioned in layers extending in the direction of the lengths of the blocks, the adjacent end faces of the blocks being separated by pairs of tiles. The blocks and tiles have central bores which are in alignment when assembled and are provided with cooperatlng keys and keyways for physical stability.

  7. ELECTRONUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, E.O.; McMillan, E.M.; Alvarez, L.W.

    1960-04-19

    An electronuclear reactor is described in which a very high-energy particle accelerator is employed with appropriate target structure to produce an artificially produced material in commercial quantities by nuclear transformations. The principal novelty resides in the combination of an accelerator with a target for converting the accelerator beam to copious quantities of low-energy neutrons for absorption in a lattice of fertile material and moderator. The fertile material of the lattice is converted by neutron absorption reactions to an artificially produced material, e.g., plutonium, where depleted uranium is utilized as the fertile material.

  8. REACTOR COMPONETN

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.

    1959-10-27

    A reactor fuel element comprised of a slug of fissionable material disposed in a sheath of corrosion resistantmaterial is described. The sheath is in the form of a tubular container closed at one end and is in tight-fitting engagement with the peripheral sunface of the slug. An inner cap is insented into the open end of the sheath against the slug, which end is then bent around the inner cap and welded thereto. An outer cap is then welded around its peripheny to the bent portion of the container.

  9. Photocatalytic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bischoff, B.L.; Fain, D.E.; Stockdale, J.A.D.

    1999-01-19

    A photocatalytic reactor is described for processing selected reactants from a fluid medium comprising at least one permeable photocatalytic membrane having a photocatalytic material. The material forms an area of chemically active sites when illuminated by light at selected wavelengths. When the fluid medium is passed through the illuminated membrane, the reactants are processed at these sites separating the processed fluid from the unprocessed fluid. A light source is provided and a light transmitting means, including an optical fiber, for transmitting light from the light source to the membrane. 4 figs.

  10. Reviving astrometry on the McDonald observatory 2.1-m Otto Struve telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J.; Riddle, A.

    2014-07-01

    The first regular observations of asteroids at McDonald observatory started in 1950 with a 10-inch telescope as part of the Yerkes-McDonald survey, which was followed by a long lull after its completion in 1952. Astrometric observations resumed in the early 70s using the 2.1-m telescope, but were mainly of faint outer solar system satellites to support the emerging planetary space program. Observation of asteroids was later added to the program in order to refine the fundamental reference frame and to aid Hubble Space Telescope astrometry. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) have been the main emphasis since 1995 using a 0.76 m telescope, which worked very well while the surveys concentrated on objects 1 km or larger. However, NASA's mission to discover and catalogue NEOs has been extended down to objects 140 m in size. Most of these new NEO candidates are outside the reach of the 0.76-m telescope. In 2011, the Otto Struve telescope has received a new instrument, the Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse, or CQUEAN (Park, 2012). The telescope-camera combination allows us to follow up virtually any object discovered by the various NEO search teams, as it provides measurable images of a 19th magnitude source with a single 10 second exposure in the red. The field of view is 4.8' by 4.8', with 0.281 arcsec/pixel resolution, and we can fully sample the point-spread function for precision astrometry. Although this telescope is 75 years old, we are getting circular stellar images for exposures up to 240 seconds with the CQUEAN auto-guider. We obtained images of M71 at three different air masses during two nights in the Sloan i and r filter bands. The σ of the standard coordinate residuals is a little under 0.07 seconds of arc for both cases. We have also looked at the field of view for systematic errors both in direction and magnitude, and we found it to be satisfactorily uniform. The overall quality of our data is improved due to better angular resolution and dome seeing. Based on

  11. Draft environmental impact statement for the siting, construction, and operation of New Production Reactor capacity. Volume 3, Sections 7-12, Appendices A-C

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts, both on a broad programmatic level and on a project-specific level, concerning a proposed action to provide new tritium production capacity to meet the nation`s nuclear defense requirements well into the 21st century. A capacity equivalent to that of about a 3,000-megawatt (thermal) heavy-water reactor was assumed as a reference basis for analysis in this EIS; this is the approximate capacity of the existing production reactors at DOE`s Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. The EIS programmatic alternatives address Departmental decisions to be made on whether to build new production facilities, whether to build one or more complexes, what size production capacity to provide, and when to provide this capacity. Project-specific impacts for siting, constructing, and operating new production reactor capacity are assessed for three alternative sites: the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; and the Savannah River Site. For each site, the impacts of three reactor technologies (and supporting facilities) are assessed: a heavy-water reactor, a light-water reactor, and a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Impacts of the no-action alternative also are assessed. The EIS evaluates impacts related to air quality; noise levels; surface water, groundwater, and wetlands; land use; recreation; visual environment; biotic resources; historical, archaeological, and cultural resources; socioeconomics; transportation; waste management; and human health and safety. The EIS describes in detail the potential radioactive releases from new production reactors and support facilities and assesses the potential doses to workers and the general public. This volume contains references; a list of preparers and recipients; acronyms, abbreviations, and units of measure; a glossary; an index and three appendices.

  12. CFD coupled kinetic modeling and simulation of hot wall vertical tubular reactor for deposition of SiC crystal from MTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollick, P. K.; Venugopalan, R.; Srivastava, D.

    2017-10-01

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process is generally carried out in a hot wall reactor of vertical or horizontal type keeping the substrate inside the chamber on which deposition is targeted. Present study is focused to explain the role of hydrodynamics and temperature conditions on the overall coating rates inside a hot wall vertical tubular reactor. Deposition of β-Silicon Carbide crystals from Methytricholorosilane catalyzed by hydrogen is modeled here considering growth kinetics which can be successfully described - using only two steps. Finite Element Method based simulation is performed to obtain the flow and temperature profiles inside the hot wall reactor. Model equations for kinetics are derived in differential form based on mass balance considering transport of species. Kinetic parameters were approximated comparing the experimentally found coating rates as reported earlier. Present model is seen to fit reasonably well for the wide variation of gas flow rates as well as temperature. Apart from the flow rates of total fluid at inlet and initial wall temperature of reactor, sample position and the inlet diameter of the reactor are found to be key important parameters for the desired coating to take place. Model prediction thus can provide better knowledge in order to carefully choose process parameters in designing the reactor for achieving optimized deposition rates by CVD with desired properties.

  13. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  14. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    DOEpatents

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  15. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CORE INSTRUMENT

    DOEpatents

    Mims, L.S.

    1961-08-22

    A multi-purpose instrument for measuring neutron flux, coolant flow rate, and coolant temperature in a nuclear reactor is described. The device consists essentially of a hollow thimble containing a heat conducting element protruding from the inner wall, the element containing on its innermost end an amount of fissionsble materinl to function as a heat source when subjected to neutron flux irradiation. Thermocouple type temperature sensing means are placed on the heat conducting element adjacent the fissionable material and at a point spaced therefrom, and at a point on the thimble which is in contact with the coolant fluid. The temperature differentials measured between the thermocouples are determinative of the neutron flux, coolant flow, and temperature being measured. The device may be utilized as a probe or may be incorporated in a reactor core. (AE C)

  16. Control Means for Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Manley, J. H.

    1961-06-27

    An apparatus for controlling a nuclear reactor includes a tank just below the reactor, tubes extending from the tank into the reactor, and a thermally expansible liquid neutron absorbent material in the tank. The liquid in the tank is exposed to a beam of neutrons from the reactor which heats the liquid causing it to expand into the reactor when the neutron flux in the reactor rises above a predetermincd danger point. Boron triamine may be used for this purpose.

  17. asymptoticMK: A Web-Based Tool for the Asymptotic McDonald-Kreitman Test.

    PubMed

    Haller, Benjamin C; Messer, Philipp W

    2017-05-05

    The McDonald-Kreitman (MK) test is a widely used method for quantifying the role of positive selection in molecular evolution. One key shortcoming of this test lies in its sensitivity to the presence of slightly deleterious mutations, which can severely bias its estimates. An asymptotic version of the MK test was recently introduced that addresses this problem by evaluating polymorphism levels for different mutation frequencies separately, and then extrapolating a function fitted to that data. Here, we present asymptoticMK, a web-based implementation of this asymptotic MK test. Our web service provides a simple R-based interface into which the user can upload the required data (polymorphism and divergence data for the genomic test region and a neutrally evolving reference region). The web service then analyzes the data and provides plots of the test results. This service is free to use, open-source, and available at http://benhaller.com/messerlab/asymptoticMK.html We provide results from simulations to illustrate the performance and robustness of the asymptoticMK test under a wide range of model parameters. Copyright © 2017 Haller and Messer.

  18. McDonaldization or commercial re-stratification: corporatization and the multimodal organisation of English doctors.

    PubMed

    Waring, Justin; Bishop, Simon

    2013-04-01

    This paper investigates transitions in the social organisation of medicine found in the extended opportunities for private corporations to own, manage and deliver public healthcare services in the English National Health Service. It follows recent calls to explain the reconstruction of medical work without reducing analysis to either the structures of organisational control or the strategic resistance of doctors. Accordingly, the paper considers how doctors interact, mediate and co-create new organisational environments. Central to our analysis are the variable sources of power that influence whether doctors acquiesce, resist or re-create change. Drawing on ethnographic research carried out between 2006 and 2010 in two Independent Sector Treatment Centres - private providers of public healthcare - the paper shows how doctors' responses to bureaucratic and commercial structures reflect their own structured forms of power, which have variable value within this new commercial environment. These include clinical experience and specialist knowledge, but also social and economic influence. Building on established sociological debates, these divergent sources of power explain how for some doctors the expansion of private healthcare might involve more extreme forms of McDonaldization, while for others it might involve opportunities for Commercial Re-stratification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Early life attachment: mother-baby relationship in Donald Winnicott's theory].

    PubMed

    Levín, Alicia Rut

    2014-01-01

    The present article refers to the maternal function in the mother-infant early bond from Donald Winnicott's psychoanalitic point of view. This author, authorized since he was a pediatrician and a psychoanalitic doctor, was capable to see the prematurity of the human baby and the affective state of the mother function before the child's birth. The needs of the newborn and his mother far from being complementary have their specificity that make necessary to consider the holding function that is expected from the mother. This work addresses the dimension of the reality as a limit and an organizer of the psychism in the early mother-baby relationship. The author works this topic from the paradigm of the building of a space that takes place in the mutual dynamic. She analyzes the illusion and disillusion function to build a possible destiny for the maternity and in the transition of the baby to the autonomy of a new person. When it's said about "the primary", it is in the sense of the time of building the psychism. A relational time, as Winnicott says, in which when we find an infant, we will always find the maternal care.

  20. The McDonaldization of childhood: children's mental health in neo-liberal market cultures.

    PubMed

    Timimi, Sami

    2010-11-01

    As the failings of neo-liberalism have recently been revealed through the collapse of much of the banking and financial services sector, it seems an opportune time to think about the impact this economic, political, and social value system has had on the well-being of children. After analyzing how our beliefs and practices around children and families are shaped by a variety of economic, political, and cultural pressures, I discuss how policies that promote a particular form of aggressive capitalism lead to a narcissistic value system that permeates social institutions, including those that deal with children. Not only does this impact children's emotional well-being, but it also shapes the way we conceptualize children and their problems. These dynamics facilitate the rapid growth of child psychiatric diagnoses and the tendency to deal with aberrant behavior or emotions in children through technical--particularly pharmaceutical--interventions, a phenomenon I refer to as the 'McDonaldization' of children's mental health. The present article seeks to challenge many of the unhelpful cultural assumptions regarding childhood embedded within the narrow biomedical frame that neo-liberalism has encouraged.

  1. MO-B-16A-01: Memorial to Donald D. Tolbert - Memorial Lecture

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, R

    2014-06-15

    The Medical Physics community lost one of its prominent leaders in April, 2013 with the passing of Donald D. Tolbert, PhD. He received his Doctorate at the University of Kansas followed by post Doctoral training at Florida State University and the University of Wisconsin. He was Chief of Radiation Therapy Medical Physics at the University of Wisconsin Hospital for 7 years before relocating to Honolulu Hawaii, where he founded the consulting group Mid-Pacific Medical Physics. Don was a leader in both the AAPM and the ACR, chairing the Professional Council and the Commission on Medical Physics. He was active on the AAPM Board of Directors and a member of the ACR Board of Chancellors. Dr. Tolbert's approach to the difficult problems of the times was admired and respected by colleagues in Medical Physics, Radiation Oncology, and Diagnostic Radiology. He always rose above the heated political rhetoric and led the discussion to higher ground. His wisdom was continually sought to solve complicated problems. Following retirement, he returned to homes in Kansas and Colorado, devoting his time to writing about coping with diabetes and providing support for Seniors in Beloit Kansas. Don is survived by his wife, Mattie, his 3 children and 5 grandchildren. He will be greatly missed.

  2. CQUEAN: New CCD Camera System For The Otto Struve Telescope At The McDonald Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Soojong; Park, W.; Im, M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the overall characteristics and the performance of an optical CCD camera system, Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse (CQUEAN), which is being used at the 2.1m Otto Struve Telescope of the McDonald Observatory since 2010 August. CQUEAN was developed for follow-up imaging observations of near infrared bright sources such as high redshift quasar candidates (z > 4.5), Gamma Ray Bursts, brown dwarfs, and young stellar objects. For efficient observations of the red objects, CQUEAN has a science camera with a deep depletion CCD chip. By employing an auto-guiding system and a focal reducer to enhance the field of view at the classic cassegrain focus, we achieved a stable guiding in 20 minute exposures, an imaging quality with FWHM > 0.6 arcsec over the whole field (4.8 × 4.8 arcmin), and a limiting magnitude of z = 23.4 AB mag at 5-sigma with one hour integration.

  3. LASSO observations at McDonald and OCA/CERGA: A preliminary analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veillet, CH.; Fridelance, P.; Feraudy, D.; Boudon, Y.; Shelus, P. J.; Ricklefs, R. L.; Wiant, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    The Laser Synchronization from Synchronous Orbit (LASSO) observations between USA and Europe were made possible with the move of Meteosat 3/P2 toward 50 deg W. Two Lunar Laser Ranging stations participated into the observations: the MLRS at McDonald Observatory (Texas, USA) and OCA/CERGA (Grasse, France). Common sessions were performed since 30 Apr. 1992, and will be continued up to the next Meteosat 3/P2 move further West (planned for January 1993). The preliminary analysis made with the data already collected by the end of Nov. 1992 shows that the precision which can be obtained from LASSO is better than 100 ps, the accuracy depending on how well the stations maintain their time metrology, as well as on the quality of the calibration (still to be made.) For extracting such a precision from the data, the processing has been drastically changed compared to the initial LASSO data analysis. It takes into account all the measurements made, timings on board, and echoes at each station. This complete use of the data increased dramatically the confidence into the synchronization results.

  4. Interplay between MacDonald and Hall-Littlewood expansions of extended torus superpolynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.; Shakirov, Sh.; Sleptsov, A.

    2012-05-01

    In [1] extended superpolynomials were introduced for the torus links T [ m, mk + r], which are functions on the entire space of time variables and, at expense of reducing the topological invariance, possess additional algebraic properties, resembling those of the matrix model partition functions and the KP/Toda tau-functions. Not surprisingly, being a suitable extension it actually allows one to calculate the superpolynomials. These functions are defined as expansions into MacDonald polynomials, and their dependence on k is entirely captured by the action of the cut-and-join operator, like in the HOMFLY case. We suggest a simple description of the coefficients in these character expansions, by expanding the initial (at k = 0) conditions for the k-evolution into the new auxiliary basis, this time provided by the Hall-Littlewood polynomials, which, hence, play a role in the description of the dual m-evolution. For illustration we list manifest expressions for a few first series, mk ± 1 , mk ± 2 , mk ± 3 , mk ± 4. Actually all formulas were explicitly tested up to m = 17 strands in the braid.

  5. Oral Histories in Meteoritics and Planetary Science—XXI: Donald Burnett

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Derek W. G.

    2013-09-01

    In this interview, Donald Burnett (Fig. 1) describes how he applied to the University of Chicago, with considerable support from his father, where he took classes from Harold Urey and was inspired by Ed Anders to pursue a career in nuclear chemistry and, later, cosmochemistry. As a graduate student at the University of California at Berkeley, Don learned to use charged-particle tracks as a detector for radioactive nuclei, a technique that he applied to a wide variety of problems over the next 20 years, including the neutron profile probe that was deployed on the Moon. After a one-year postdoc with William Fowler at the California Institute of Technology, he became involved with Jerry Wasserburg, who ultimately obtained a faculty position for him in the Geology Division. Since then, Don has worked on a number of fundamental problems in cosmochemistry, chronology of the solar system, the initial Pu/U abundance, fractionation of U and Pu in igneous processes, and elemental abundances. This last interest led him to advocate, propose, and lead the Genesis space mission to collect and return samples of the solar wind. The crash of the return capsule caused alarm, but some aspects of the mission were unaffected and others have been successfully handled, so that several major new results have been published: the lack of an SEP component in lunar samples, the Ne and Ar composition of the solar wind, and, most importantly, the oxygen and nitrogen isotopic composition of the Sun. Don received the Leonard Medal in 2012.

  6. Carbon structural materials for fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Virgiliev, Yu.S.; Kurolenkin, E.I.

    1993-12-31

    This report describes properties of several structural carbon materials being investigated as materials for fusion reactors. Materials include: graphite, graphite doped with boron and titanium; and C-C composites. Radiation effects and additive effects are described.

  7. Performance of the Zeeman analyzer system of the McDonald Observatory 2.7 meter telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, S. S.; Tull, R. G.; Kelton, P. W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes a multichannel photoelectric Zeeman analyzer at the coude spectrograph of the McDonald 2.7 m reflector. A comparison of Lick and McDonald observations of HD 153882 reveals no significant difference in slopes or zero points of the two magnetic fields indicating that the systematic scale difference of 30-40% is probably instrumental in origin. Observations of the magnetic variable beta Cor Bor revealed a more nearly sinusoidal magnetic curve with less internal scatter than the photographically determined field measures of the Lick and Mauna Kea Zeeman systems. Investigation of periodicity in the secularly varying magnetic minima of beta Cor Bor did not yield evidence of previously noted periodicities other than that expected from the time structure of the data sampling.

  8. Mentoring young researchers: can the Donald J Cohen Fellowships model be applicable and useful to Australasian psychiatry?

    PubMed

    Adler, Robert; Martin, Andres; Park, Chohye; Rey, Joseph; Tan, Susan

    2007-06-01

    To describe the experience with the Donald J Cohen Fellowship program of the International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions (IACAPAP) and examine whether this model may be applied by the RANZCP to attract and support young researchers in Australasia. The program at the September 2006 IACAPAP conference included 50 young researchers, 16 mentors and 8 'host fellows', and consisted of exclusive poster sessions, daily small-group mentoring meetings, oral presentation of selected papers, and a summary and feedback session. Informal feedback from mentors, mentees and conference organisers was very positive. A proposal about funding, participants and activities is presented. This suggests that a mentoring model similar to the Donald J Cohen Fellowship program can be easily conducted in Australasia. Implementing a program of this type would give College Fellows, the Australian Medical Council, the Commonwealth Government and other relevant organizations a clear message that the RANZCP is seriously committed to fostering and supporting research.

  9. Immobilization of TiO2 and Fe-C-TiO2 photocatalysts on the cotton material for application in a flow photocatalytic reactor for decomposition of phenol in water.

    PubMed

    Tryba, Beata

    2008-03-01

    TiO2 and Fe-C-TiO2 photocatalysts have been immobilized on the cotton material and used in a flow photocatalytic reactor for phenol decomposition. The cotton material has been applied as a support for photocatalyst, because can be easily removed and replaced in a reactor, what facilitates the performance of the photocatalytic process. Fe-C-TiO2 photocatalyst has been prepared by modification of TiO2 fine particles of anatase structure with FeC2O4 through heating in Ar at 500 degrees C. The immobilized photocatalysts could efficiently decompose phenol in multiple use, Fe-C-TiO2 showed higher photocatalytic activity than TiO2, around 15-18 mg and 15-16 mg of phenol have been decomposed after 5 h of UV irradiation on Fe-C-TiO2 and TiO2, respectively. After addition of H2O2 the phenol decomposition and the mineralization degree have been accelerated, especially with immobilized Fe-C-TiO2 photocatalyst, in case of that the photo-Fenton reaction occurred. In the presence of H2O2 around 26-28 mg and 21-24 mg of phenol have been decomposed on Fe-C-TiO2 and TiO2 respectively, after 5 h of UV irradiation.

  10. Expedition Six Flight Engineer Donald R. Pettit is loading software on PC in U.S. Lab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-06

    ISS006-E-07133 (9 December 2002) --- Astronaut Donald R. Pettit, Expedition 6 NASA ISS science officer, works to set up Pulmonary Function in Flight (PuFF) hardware in preparation for a Human Research Facility (HRF) experiment in the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS). Expedition 6 is the fourth and final expedition crew to perform the HRF/PuFF Experiment on the ISS.

  11. Expedition Six Flight Engineer Donald R. Pettit is loading software on PC in U.S. Lab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-06

    ISS006-E-07134 (9 December 2002) --- Astronaut Donald R. Pettit, Expedition Six NASA ISS science officer, works to set up Pulmonary Function in Flight (PuFF) hardware in preparation for a Human Research Facility (HRF) experiment in the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS). Expedition Six is the fourth and final expedition crew to perform the HRF/PuFF Experiment on the ISS.

  12. McDonald Observatory Planetary Search - A high precision stellar radial velocity survey for other planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, William D.; Hatzes, Artie P.

    1993-01-01

    The McDonald Observatory Planetary Search program surveyed a sample of 33 nearby F, G, and K stars since September 1987 to search for substellar companion objects. Measurements of stellar radial velocity variations to a precision of better than 10 m/s were performed as routine observations to detect Jovian planets in orbit around solar type stars. Results confirm the detection of a companion object to HD114762.

  13. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Stewart, H.B.

    1958-12-23

    A nuclear reactor of the type speclfically designed for the irradiation of materials is discussed. In this design a central cyllndrical core of moderating material ls surrounded by an active portlon comprlsed of an annular tank contalning fissionable material immersed ln a liquid moderator. The active portion ls ln turn surrounded by a reflector, and a well ls provided in the center of the core to accommodate the materlals to be irradiated. The over-all dimensions of the core ln at least one plane are equal to or greater than twice the effective slowing down length and equal to or less than twlce the effective diffuslon length for neutrons in the core materials.

  14. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, F.

    1962-12-18

    A power plant is described comprising a turbine and employing round cylindrical fuel rods formed of BeO and UO/sub 2/ and stacks of hexagonal moderator blocks of BeO provided with passages that loosely receive the fuel rods so that coolant may flow through the passages over the fuels to remove heat. The coolant may be helium or steam and fiows through at least one more heat exchanger for producing vapor from a body of fluid separate from the coolant, which fluid is to drive the turbine for generating electricity. By this arrangement the turbine and directly associated parts are free of particles and radiations emanating from the reactor. (AEC)

  15. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    McGarry, R.J.

    1958-04-22

    Fluid-cooled nuclear reactors of the type that utilize finned uranium fuel elements disposed in coolant channels in a moderater are described. The coolant channels are provided with removable bushings composed of a non- fissionable material. The interior walls of the bushings have a plurality of spaced, longtudinal ribs separated by grooves which receive the fins on the fuel elements. The lands between the grooves are spaced from the fuel elements to form flow passages, and the size of the now passages progressively decreases as the dlstance from the center of the core increases for the purpose of producing a greater cooling effect at the center to maintain a uniform temperature throughout the core.

  16. Nuclear reactor neutron shielding

    DOEpatents

    Speaker, Daniel P; Neeley, Gary W; Inman, James B

    2017-09-12

    A nuclear reactor includes a reactor pressure vessel and a nuclear reactor core comprising fissile material disposed in a lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel. The lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel is disposed in a reactor cavity. An annular neutron stop is located at an elevation above the uppermost elevation of the nuclear reactor core. The annular neutron stop comprises neutron absorbing material filling an annular gap between the reactor pressure vessel and the wall of the reactor cavity. The annular neutron stop may comprise an outer neutron stop ring attached to the wall of the reactor cavity, and an inner neutron stop ring attached to the reactor pressure vessel. An excore instrument guide tube penetrates through the annular neutron stop, and a neutron plug comprising neutron absorbing material is disposed in the tube at the penetration through the neutron stop.

  17. Reactor and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Wheeler, John A.

    1976-08-10

    A nuclear reactor having a flattened reactor activity curve across the reactor includes fuel extending over a lesser portion of the fuel channels in the central portion of the reactor than in the remainder of the reactor.

  18. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Yant, Howard W.; Stinebiser, Karl W.; Anzur, Gregory C.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor, particularly a liquid-metal breeder reactor, whose upper internals include outlet modules for channeling the liquid-metal coolant from selected areas of the outlet of the core vertically to the outlet plenum. The modules are composed of a highly-refractory, high corrosion-resistant alloy, for example, INCONEL-718. Each module is disposed to confine and channel generally vertically the coolant emitted from a subplurality of core-component assemblies. Each module has a grid with openings, each opening disposed to receive the coolant from an assembly of the subplurality. The grid in addition serves as a holdown for the assemblies of the corresponding subplurality preventing their excessive ejection upwardly from the core. In the region directly over the core the outlet modules are of such peripheral form that they nest forming a continuum over the core-component assemblies whose outlet coolant they confine. Each subassembly includes a chimney which confines the coolant emitted by its corresponding subassemblies to generally vertical flow between the outlet of the core and the outlet plenum. Each subplurality of assemblies whose emitted coolant is confined by an outlet module includes assemblies which emit lower-temperature coolant, for example, a control-rod assembly, or fertile assemblies, and assemblies which emit coolant of substantially higher temperature, for example, fuel-rod assemblies. The coolants of different temperatures are mixed in the chimneys reducing the effect of stripping (hot-cold temperature fluctuations) on the remainder of the upper internals which are composed typically of AISI-304 or AISI-316 stainless steel.

  19. A novel sorbent for transport reactors and fluidized bed reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, R.; Cesario, M.; Gershanovich, Y.; Sibold, J.; Windecker, B.

    1998-12-31

    Coal Fired Gasifier Combined Cycles (GCC) have both high efficiency and very low emissions. GCCs critically need a method of removing the H{sub 2}S produced from the sulfur in the coal from the hot gases. There has been extensive research on hot gas cleanup systems, focused on the use of a zinc oxide based sorbent (e.g., zinc titanate). TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) is developing a novel sorbent with improved attrition resistance for transport reactors and fluidized bed reactors. The authors are testing sorbents at conditions simulating the operating conditions of the Pinon Pine clean coal technology plant. TDA sulfided several different formulations at 538 C and found several that have high sulfur capacity when tested in a fluidized bed reactor. TDA initiated sorbent regeneration at 538 C. The sorbents retained chemical activity with multiple cycles. Additional tests will be conducted to evaluate the best sorbent formulation.

  20. Reactor safety method

    DOEpatents

    Vachon, Lawrence J.

    1980-03-11

    This invention relates to safety means for preventing a gas cooled nuclear reactor from attaining criticality prior to start up in the event the reactor core is immersed in hydrogenous liquid. This is accomplished by coating the inside surface of the reactor coolant channels with a neutral absorbing material that will vaporize at the reactor's operating temperature.

  1. The High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    Brookhaven National Laboratory`s High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) was built because of the need of the scientist to always want `more`. In the mid-50`s the Brookhaven Graphite reactor was churning away producing a number of new results when the current generation of scientists, led by Donald Hughes, realized the need for a high flux reactor and started down the political, scientific and engineering path that led to the BFBR. The effort was joined by a number of engineers and scientists among them, Chemick, Hastings, Kouts, and Hendrie, who came up with the novel design of the HFBR. The two innovative features that have been incorporated in nearly all other research reactors built since are: (i) an under moderated core arrangement which enables the thermal flux to peak outside the core region where beam tubes can be placed, and (ii) beam tubes that are tangential to the core which decrease the fast neutron background without affecting the thermal beam intensity. Construction began in the fall of 1961 and four years later, at a cost of $12 Million, criticality was achieved on Halloween Night, 1965. Thus began 30 years of scientific accomplishments.

  2. Volcanism, Iron, and Phytoplankton in the Heard and McDonald Islands Region, Southern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, M. F.; Arculus, R. J.; Bowie, A. R.; Chase, Z.; Robertson, R.; Trull, T. W.; Heobi in2016 v01 Shipboard Party, T.

    2016-12-01

    Phytoplankton supply approximately half of the oxygen in Earth's atmosphere, and iron supply limits the growth of phytoplankton in the anemic Southern Ocean. Situated entirely within the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean are Australia's only active subaerial volcanoes, Heard and McDonald islands (HIMI) on the central Kerguelen Plateau, a large igneous province. Widespread fields of submarine volcanoes, some of which may be active, extend for distances of up to several hundred kilometers from the islands. The predominantly eastward-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current sweeps across the central Kerguelen Plateau, and extensive blooms of phytoplankton are observed on the Plateau down-current of HIMI. The goal of RV Investigator voyage IN2016_V01, conducted in January/February 2016, is to test the hypothesis that hydrothermal fluids, which cool active submarine volcanoes in the HIMI region, ascend from the seafloor and fertilise surface waters with iron, thereby enhancing biological productivity beginning with phytoplankton. Significant initial shipboard results include: Documentation, for the first time, of the role of active HIMI and nearby submarine volcanoes in supplying iron to the Southern Ocean. Nearshore waters had elevated dissolved iron levels. Although biomass was not correspondingly elevated, fluorescence induction data indicated highly productive resident phytoplankton. Discovery of >200 acoustic plumes emanating from the seafloor and ascending up to tens of meters into the water column near HIMI. Deep tow camera footage shows bubbles rising from the seafloor in an acoustic plume field north of Heard Island. Mapping 1,000 km2 of uncharted seafloor around HIMI. Submarine volcanic edifices punctuate the adjacent seafloor, and yielded iron-rich rocks similar to those found on HIMI, respectively. Acoustic plumes emanating from some of these features suggest active seafloor hydrothermal systems.

  3. Precision Astrometry of Near Earth Objects at McDonald Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, Andrew; Ries, J. G.

    2013-01-01

    The McDonald astrometry group has been observing Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) since 1998 with a 0.76m telescope. The main goal is to confirm newly discovered objects and follow-up known, but under-observed objects. NASA's mission to discover and catalogue 90 percent of NEOs larger than 1 km as soon as possible has been extended down to 140 m. The number of objects in the 140 m size range is much larger than the number of 1 km sized asteroids and thus, a collision is more likely to involve a smaller one. These objects are faint with absolute magnitudes 21.5 or larger. We are resuming the program concentrating on faint/small NEOs on the 2.1m Otto Struve telescope with the Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse (Park, 2012). The telescope-camera combination allows us to follow-up virtually any object discovered by the various NEO search teams as it provides detectable images of a 19th magnitude source with a 10 second exposure in the red. The field of view is 4.7’ by 4.7’, with 0.276 ‘’/pixel resolution, and we can fully sample the PSF for precision astrometry. Our first task is to characterize the plate solution, the transformation between the standard and pixel coordinates with the least number of coefficients, but removing all systematic errors from the residuals. We obtained images of M71 at three different airmasses during two nights in September. We also took exposures of asteroids with well-known orbits to test our astrometry. The results and the evaluation will be presented at the meeting. This research is funded by NASA NEO Program grant NNX12AG09G. Park, W.K., et al.,(2012), PASP, Vol. 124.

  4. PREFACE: Donald D Harrington Symposium on the Geology of the Aegean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catlos, Elizabeth J.

    2008-03-01

    This volume of the IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Sciences presents a selection of papers given at the Donald D Harrington Symposium on the Geology of the Aegean held on the campus of the University of Texas at Austin on April 28-30, 2008. Donald D Harrington was born in Illinois in 1899 and moved westward after serving in the Army Air Corps during World War I. Mr Harrington took a position as a landman with Marlin Oil Company in Oklahoma. When the Texas Panhandle oil boom hit in 1926, he moved to Amarillo, Texas, where he met Sybil Buckingham—the granddaughter of one of Amarillo's founding families. They married in 1935 and went on to build one of the most successful independent oil and gas operations in Texas history. The couple created the Don and Sybil Harrington Foundation in 1951 to support worthy causes such as museums, medical research, education, and the arts. At the Harrington Symposium on the Geology of the Aegean, researchers presented papers organized under five general themes: (1) the geology of Aegean in general (2) the geologic history of specific domains within the Aegean (Cyclades, Menderes, Kazdag, Rhodope, Crete, southern Balkans, etc) (3) the dynamic tectonic processes that occur within the Aegean (4) its geo-archeological history, natural history and hazards and (5) comparisons of the Aegean to regions elsewhere (e.g., Basin and Ranges; Asian extensional terranes). The Aegean is a locus of dynamic research in a variety of fields, and the symposium provided an opportunity for geologists from a range of disciplines to interact and share new results and information about their research in the area. At the opening reception in the Harry S Ransom Center, Dr Clark Burchfiel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA) provided a keynote address on the outstanding geologic problems of the Aegean region. His paper in this volume outlines a framework for future studies. We also call attention to a paper in this volume by Dr Y

  5. Home-made carbonated water and the consumption of water and other beverages in children and adolescents: results of the DONALD study.

    PubMed

    Sichert-Hellert, W; Kersting, M

    2004-12-01

    To determine differences in intake of water, drinking water and beverages between consumers (C) and non-consumers (NC) of carbonated water prepared at home. Matched pairs design; 3-d-weighed diet records; participants of the DONALD Study (Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study) aged 2-18 y (n = 550, mean: 8.2 y). The most important beverage was either carbonated (C: females 265, males 299 g/d) or bottled water (NC: males 267, females 282 g/d) followed by juice (120-174 g/d), soft drinks (134-167 g/d) and milk (84-149 g/d). Water intake from beverages was higher in males (NC: 902 and C: 906 g/d) than in females (NC: 789 and C: 771 g/d). However, total water intake per energy was higher in females (NC: 0.88 and C: 0.91 g/kcal) than in males (NC: 0.80 and C: 0.83 g/kcal). C had a significantly higher mean drinking water intake (tap + bottled + carbonated water) in percentage of total water intake (%TW) than NC, and lower mean intakes of milk, bottled water and tap water, respectively. There was a significantly lower mean fat intake in C (females: 32 and males: 33% of energy) versus NC (females: 34 and males: 36% of energy). Irrespective of carbonated water consumption, females had better drinking habits than males, with significantly higher mean intakes of water from food (%TW), water from beverages + food (%TW), and total water per energy. Drinking habits and total water intakes of consumers are quite similar to those of non-consumers of carbonated water. Females in general show more favourable drinking habits than males.

  6. Extended use of alanine irradiated in experimental reactor for combined gamma- and neutron-dose assessment by ESR spectroscopy and thermal neutron fluence assessment by measurement of (14)C by LSC.

    PubMed

    Bartoníček, B; Kučera, J; Světlík, I; Viererbl, L; Lahodová, Z; Tomášková, L; Cabalka, M

    2014-11-01

    Gamma- and neutron doses in an experimental reactor were measured using alanine/electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. The absorbed dose in alanine was decomposed into contributions caused by gamma and neutron radiation using neutron kerma factors. To overcome a low sensitivity of the alanine/ESR response to thermal neutrons, a novel method has been proposed for the assessment of a thermal neutron flux using the (14)N(n,p) (14)C reaction on nitrogen present in alanine and subsequent measurement of (14)C by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Coupled reactor kinetics and heat transfer model for heat pipe cooled reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Steven A.; Houts, Michael

    2001-02-01

    Heat pipes are often proposed as cooling system components for small fission reactors. SAFE-300 and STAR-C are two reactor concepts that use heat pipes as an integral part of the cooling system. Heat pipes have been used in reactors to cool components within radiation tests (Deverall, 1973); however, no reactor has been built or tested that uses heat pipes solely as the primary cooling system. Heat pipe cooled reactors will likely require the development of a test reactor to determine the main differences in operational behavior from forced cooled reactors. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of a systems code capable of modeling the coupling between the reactor kinetics and heat pipe controlled heat transport. Heat transport in heat pipe reactors is complex and highly system dependent. Nevertheless, in general terms it relies on heat flowing from the fuel pins through the heat pipe, to the heat exchanger, and then ultimately into the power conversion system and heat sink. A system model is described that is capable of modeling coupled reactor kinetics phenomena, heat transfer dynamics within the fuel pins, and the transient behavior of heat pipes (including the melting of the working fluid). This paper focuses primarily on the coupling effects caused by reactor feedback and compares the observations with forced cooled reactors. A number of reactor startup transients have been modeled, and issues such as power peaking, and power-to-flow mismatches, and loading transients were examined, including the possibility of heat flow from the heat exchanger back into the reactor. This system model is envisioned as a tool to be used for screening various heat pipe cooled reactor concepts, for designing and developing test facility requirements, for use in safety evaluations, and for developing test criteria for in-pile and out-of-pile test facilities. .

  8. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Thomson, Wallace B.

    2004-03-16

    A nuclear reactor comprising a cylindrical pressure vessel, an elongated annular core centrally disposed within and spaced from the pressure vessel, and a plurality of ducts disposed longitudinally of the pressure vessel about the periphery thereof, said core comprising an annular active portion, an annular reflector just inside the active portion, and an annular reflector just outside the active a portion, said annular active portion comprising rectangular slab, porous fuel elements radially disposed around the inner reflector and extending the length of the active portion, wedge-shaped, porous moderator elements disposed adjacent one face of each fuel element and extending the length of the fuel element, the fuel and moderator elements being oriented so that the fuel elements face each other and the moderator elements do likewise, adjacent moderator elements being spaced to provide air inlet channels, and adjacent fuel elements being spaced to provide air outlet channels which communicate with the interior of the peripheral ducts, and means for introducing air into the air inlet channels which passes through the porous moderator elements and porous fuel elements to the outlet channel.

  9. Characteristics of potential repository wastes: Volume 4, Appendix 4A, Nuclear reactors at educational institutions of the United States; Appendix 4B, Data sheets for nuclear reactors at educational institutions; Appendix 4C, Supplemental data for Fort St. Vrain spent fuel; Appendix 4D, Supplemental data for Peach Bottom 1 spent fuel; Appendix 4E, Supplemental data for Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    Volume 4 contains the following appendices: nuclear reactors at educational institutions in the United States; data sheets for nuclear reactors at educational institutions in the United States(operational reactors and shut-down reactors); supplemental data for Fort St. Vrain spent fuel; supplemental data for Peach Bottom 1 spent fuel; and supplemental data for Fast Flux Test Facility.

  10. Characteristics of potential repository wastes: Volume 4, Appendix 4A, Nuclear reactors at educational institutions of the United States; Appendix 4B, Data sheets for nuclear reactors at educational institutions; Appendix 4C, Supplemental data for Fort St. Vrain spent fuel; Appendix 4D, Supplemental data for Peach Bottom 1 spent fuel; Appendix 4E, Supplemental data for Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    Volume 4 contains the following appendices: nuclear reactors at educational institutions in the United States; data sheets for nuclear reactors at educational institutions in the United States(operational reactors and shut-down reactors); supplemental data for Fort St. Vrain spent fuel; supplemental data for Peach Bottom 1 spent fuel; and supplemental data for Fast Flux Test Facility.

  11. 75 FR 8154 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... NRC staff regarding new advanced reactor designs such as NuScale, Iris, Babcock and Wilcox Modular... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards In accordance with the purposes of Sections 29 and 182b of the Atomic Energy Act (42 U.S.C. 2039, 2232b), the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS...

  12. 75 FR 57302 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Public Meeting In accordance with the purposes of Sections 29 and 182b of the Atomic Energy Act (42 U.S.C. 2039, 2232b), the Advisory Committee on Reactor... Associated with the Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) Design Certification Application...

  13. 76 FR 5218 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards In accordance with the purposes of Sections 29 and 182b of the Atomic Energy Act (42 U.S.C. 2039, 2232b), the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS... Facilities and Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) for Reactors (Open)--The Committee will...

  14. Five Lectures on Nuclear Reactors Presented at Cal Tech

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Weinberg, Alvin M.

    1956-02-10

    The basic issues involved in the physics and engineering of nuclear reactors are summarized. Topics discussed include theory of reactor design, technical problems in power reactors, physical problems in nuclear power production, and future developments in nuclear power. (C.H.)

  15. Accelerator based fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Keh-Fei; Chao, Alexander Wu

    2017-08-01

    A feasibility study of fusion reactors based on accelerators is carried out. We consider a novel scheme where a beam from the accelerator hits the target plasma on the resonance of the fusion reaction and establish characteristic criteria for a workable reactor. We consider the reactions d+t\\to n+α,d+{{}3}{{H}\\text{e}}\\to p+α , and p+{{}11}B\\to 3α in this study. The critical temperature of the plasma is determined from overcoming the stopping power of the beam with the fusion energy gain. The needed plasma lifetime is determined from the width of the resonance, the beam velocity and the plasma density. We estimate the critical beam flux by balancing the energy of fusion production against the plasma thermo-energy and the loss due to stopping power for the case of an inert plasma. The product of critical flux and plasma lifetime is independent of plasma density and has a weak dependence on temperature. Even though the critical temperatures for these reactions are lower than those for the thermonuclear reactors, the critical flux is in the range of {{10}22}-{{10}24}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-2}~{{\\text{s}}-1} for the plasma density {ρt}={{10}15}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} in the case of an inert plasma. Several approaches to control the growth of the two-stream instability are discussed. We have also considered several scenarios for practical implementation which will require further studies. Finally, we consider the case where the injected beam at the resonance energy maintains the plasma temperature and prolongs its lifetime to reach a steady state. The equations for power balance and particle number conservation are given for this case.

  16. 300 nights of science with IGRINS at McDonald Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mace, Gregory; Kim, Hwihyun; Jaffe, Daniel T.; Park, Chan; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kaplan, Kyle; Yu, Young Sam; Yuk, In-Soo; Chun, Moo-Young; Pak, Soojong; Kim, Kang-Min; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Sneden, Christopher A.; Afsar, Melike; Pavel, Michael D.; Lee, Hanshin; Oh, Heeyoung; Jeong, Ueejeong; Park, Sunkyung; Kidder, Benjamin; Lee, Hye-In; Nguyen Le, Huynh Anh; McLane, Jacob; Gully-Santiago, Michael; Oh, Jae Sok; Lee, Sungho; Hwang, Narae; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2016-08-01

    The Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) is a revolutionary instrument that exploits broad spectral coverage at high-resolution in the near-infrared. IGRINS employs a silicon immersion grating as the primary disperser, and volume-phase holographic gratings cross-disperse the H and K bands onto Teledyne Hawaii-2RG arrays. The use of an immersion grating facilitates a compact cryostat while providing simultaneous wavelength coverage from 1.45 - 2.5 μm. There are no cryogenic mechanisms in IGRINS and its high-throughput design maximizes sensitivity. IGRINS on the 2.7 meter Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory is nearly as sensitive as CRIRES at the 8 meter Very Large Telescope. However, IGRINS at R≍45,000 has more than 30 times the spectral grasp of CRIRES* in a single exposure. Here we summarize the performance of IGRINS from the first 300 nights of science since commissioning in summer 2014. IGRINS observers have targeted solar system objects like Pluto and Ceres, comets, nearby young stars, star forming regions like Taurus and Ophiuchus, the interstellar medium, photo dissociation regions, the Galactic Center, planetary nebulae, galaxy cores and super novae. The rich near-infrared spectra of these objects motivate unique science cases, and provide information on instrument performance. There are more than ten submitted IGRINS papers and dozens more in preparation. With IGRINS on a 2.7m telescope we realize signal-to-noise ratios greater than 100 for K=10.3 magnitude sources in one hour of exposure time. Although IGRINS is Cassegrain mounted, instrument flexure is sub-pixel thanks to the compact design. Detector characteristics and stability have been tested regularly, allowing us to adjust the instrument operation and improve science quality. A wide variety of science programs motivate new tools for analyzing high-resolution spectra including multiplexed spectral extraction, atmospheric model fitting, rotation and radial velocity, unique

  17. Tokamak reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of tokamak reactor studies with particular attention to commercial reactor concepts developed within the last three years. Emphasis is placed on DT fueled reactors for electricity production. A brief history of tokamak reactor studies is presented. The STARFIRE, NUWMAK, and HFCTR studies are highlighted. Recent developments that have increased the commercial attractiveness of tokamak reactor designs are discussed. These developments include smaller plant sizes, higher first wall loadings, improved maintenance concepts, steady-state operation, non-divertor particle control, and improved reactor safety features.

  18. Procuring gametes for research and therapy: the argument for unisex altruism--a response to Donald Evans.

    PubMed

    Dickenson, D L

    1997-04-01

    There has been a troublesome anomaly in the UK between cash payment to men for sperm donation and the effective assumption that women will pay to donate eggs. Some commentators, including Donald Evans in this journal, have argued that the anomaly should be resolved by treating women on the same terms as men. But this argument ignores important difficulties about property in the body, particularly in relation to gametes. There are good reasons for thinking that the contract model and payment for gametes are both inappropriate, and that a model based on altruism should be applied to both sexes.

  19. Water quality and hydrogeochemical processes in McDonalds Branch Basin, New Jersey pinelands, 1984-88. Water resources investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsson, P.A.; Barringer, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    The report describes the spatial and temporal variability in the chemical constituents of surface and ground water in a small watershed in the Pinelands and discusses the complex hydrologic and geochemical processes thought to contribute to the variability associated with the freshwater wetlands within the basin. The report presents hydrologic measurements (precipitation amounts, stream stage and discharge, and water-table altitudes) and water-quality data (from analysis of samples of bulk and wet precipitation, surface water, and ground water) collected as part of a 1986-88 study by the USGS at McDonalds Branch basin.

  20. The McDonald Observatory Planet Search: New Long-period Giant Planets and Two Interacting Jupiters in the HD 155358 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Paul; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, J.; Brugamyer, Erik J.; Simon, Attila E.; Barnes, Stuart I.; Caldwell, Caroline

    2012-04-01

    We present high-precision radial velocity (RV) observations of four solar-type (F7-G5) stars—HD 79498, HD 155358, HD 197037, and HD 220773—taken as part of the McDonald Observatory Planet Search Program. For each of these stars, we see evidence of Keplerian motion caused by the presence of one or more gas giant planets in long-period orbits. We derive orbital parameters for each system and note the properties (composition, activity, etc.) of the host stars. While we have previously announced the two-gas-giant HD 155358 system, we now report a shorter period for planet c. This new period is consistent with the planets being trapped in mutual 2:1 mean-motion resonance. We therefore perform an in-depth stability analysis, placing additional constraints on the orbital parameters of the planets. These results demonstrate the excellent long-term RV stability of the spectrometers on both the Harlan J. Smith 2.7 m telescope and the Hobby-Eberly telescope.

  1. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lelevkin, V. M. Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V.

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  2. Attrition reactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Charles D.; Davison, Brian H.

    1993-01-01

    A reactor vessel for reacting a solid particulate with a liquid reactant has a centrifugal pump in circulatory flow communication with the reactor vessel for providing particulate attrition, resulting in additional fresh surface where the reaction can occur.

  3. Attrition reactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.D.; Davison, B.H.

    1993-09-28

    A reactor vessel for reacting a solid particulate with a liquid reactant has a centrifugal pump in circulatory flow communication with the reactor vessel for providing particulate attrition, resulting in additional fresh surface where the reaction can occur. 2 figures.

  4. Risk of multiple sclerosis after a first demyelinating syndrome in an Australian Paediatric cohort: clinical, radiological features and application of the McDonald 2010 MRI criteria.

    PubMed

    Tantsis, Esther M; Prelog, Kristina; Brilot, Fabienne; Dale, Russell C

    2013-11-01

    The risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) is dependent on multiple variables, including geographical location. There is increasing interest in the early recognition and treatment of MS in children. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we determined the clinical and radiological features that were predictive of MS in 88 children from New South Wales, Australia, with a first acute demyelinating syndrome (ADS) who were followed for a minimum of one year. We tested the McDonald, KIDMUS, Callen and Verhey MRI criteria for paediatric MS. After a mean follow-up of 5.2 years, 13/88 (15%) of children had MS. Using multivariate analysis, preceding infection was protective of MS, and corpus callosal lesions, the combined presence of both well and poorly demarcated lesions, and contrast-enhancing lesions on MRI were predictive of MS. The sensitivity and specificity of the respective radiological criteria were McDonald 2005 (69%, 68%), McDonald 2010 (58%, 95%), KIDMUS (8%, 100%), Callen (69%, 85%) and Verhey (62%, 84%). When McDonald 2010 criteria were applied to baseline and serial scans, the sensitivity and specificity was 91% and 93%. Despite the long follow-up, the risk of MS appears lower in New South Wales children compared to previously reported cohorts. Radiological features are more predictive than clinical features in predicting MS. The McDonald 2010 criteria performed well although the dissemination in time criteria on baseline scans is difficult to apply to children with encephalopathy.

  5. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  6. NEUTRONIC REACTOR POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.

    1962-12-25

    This patent relates to a nuclear reactor power plant incorporating an air-cooled, beryllium oxide-moderated, pebble bed reactor. According to the invention means are provided for circulating a flow of air through tubes in the reactor to a turbine and for directing a sidestream of the circu1ating air through the pebble bed to remove fission products therefrom as well as assist in cooling the reactor. (AEC)

  7. UCLA program in reactor studies: The ARIES tokamak reactor study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The ARIES research program is a multi-institutional effort to develop several visions of tokamak reactors with enhanced economic, safety, and environmental features. The aims are to determine the potential economics, safety, and environmental features of a range of possible tokamak reactors, and to identify physics and technology areas with the highest leverage for achieving the best tokamak reactor. Four ARIES visions are currently planned for the ARIES program. The ARIES-1 design is a DT-burning reactor based on modest'' extrapolations from the present tokamak physics database and relies on either existing technology or technology for which trends are already in place, often in programs outside fusion. ARIES-2 and ARIES-4 are DT-burning reactors which will employ potential advances in physics. The ARIES-2 and ARIES-4 designs employ the same plasma core but have two distinct fusion power core designs; ARIES-2 utilize the lithium as the coolant and breeder and vanadium alloys as the structural material while ARIES-4 utilizes helium is the coolant, solid tritium breeders, and SiC composite as the structural material. Lastly, the ARIES-3 is a conceptual D-{sup 3}He reactor. During the period Dec. 1, 1990 to Nov. 31, 1991, most of the ARIES activity has been directed toward completing the technical work for the ARIES-3 design and documenting the results and findings. We have also completed the documentation for the ARIES-1 design and presented the results in various meetings and conferences. During the last quarter, we have initiated the scoping phase for ARIES-2 and ARIES-4 designs.

  8. NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Epler, E.P.; Hanauer, S.H.; Oakes, L.C.

    1959-11-01

    A control system is described for a nuclear reactor using enriched uranium fuel of the type of the swimming pool and other heterogeneous nuclear reactors. Circuits are included for automatically removing and inserting the control rods during the course of normal operation. Appropriate safety circuits close down the nuclear reactor in the event of emergency.

  9. Improved vortex reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, James P.; Scahill, John W.

    1995-01-01

    An improved vortex reactor system for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor.

  10. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Don

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  11. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    ScienceCinema

    Miley, Don

    2016-07-12

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  12. NEUTRONIC REACTOR SHIELDING

    DOEpatents

    Borst, L.B.

    1961-07-11

    A special hydrogenous concrete shielding for reactors is described. In addition to Portland cement and water, the concrete essentially comprises 30 to 60% by weight barytes aggregate for enhanced attenuation of fast neutrons. The biological shields of AEC's Oak Ridge Graphite Reactor and Materials Testing Reactor are particular embodiments.

  13. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  14. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-03-02

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  15. Efficient Silicon Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, H. E.; Hill, D. M.; Jewett, D. N.

    1983-01-01

    High-purity silicon efficiently produced and transferred by continuous two-cycle reactor. New reactor operates in relatively-narrow temperature rate and uses large surfaces area to minimize heat expenditure and processing time in producing silicon by hydrogen reduction of trichlorosilane. Two cycles of reactor consists of silicon production and removal.

  16. ``What Are Astronomers Doing?" at McDonald Observatory: An Education/Public Outreach Website and Museum Kiosk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemenway, M. K.; Preston, S. L.; Johnson, R. A.; Young, C. H.; Connor, P. S.; Summers, A. C.; Tykoski, M. J.

    2004-05-01

    ``What are Astronomers Doing?" is a weekly updated web site and on-site kiosk that details current research at McDonald Observatory for the general public. At any given time, site visitors will find descriptions of all research going on that week on the Observatory's three traditionally scheduled telescopes, a description of an approved trimester project for the queue-scheduled Hobby-Eberly Telescope, and descriptions of any maintenance or special public events on the telescopes. There is also a ``NASA Astronomer of the Week" profile in which some of the featured astronomers are those who perform research that does not require McDonald telescopes. Each project write-up is accompanied by a biography of the astronomer or engineer in charge. Graduate-student, undergraduate, and K-12 teacher interns prepared material for the site. All text is edited by a professional editor and tech edited for accuracy by astronomers. Additionally, site-related classroom activities are available for grade 6-12 classrooms. The web template is available for use by other institutions. We gratefully acknowledge the support of NSF 0227870 ``What Are Astronomers Doing?: A Project for MPS Internships in Public Science Education" and support for the ``NASA Astronomer of the Week" profile by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under an Education and Public Outreach supplement to Grant/Contract/Agreement No. NAG5-13057 issued through the Office of Space Science.

  17. The McDonaldization of appraisal? Doctors' views of the early impacts of medical revalidation in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Archer, Julian; Nunn, Suzanne; Regan de Bere, Sam

    2017-09-01

    Medical regulation is rapidly changing with claims that systems such as revalidation/relicensing will reassure the public. Yet the impact of such initiatives is unknown. Using the principles of efficiency, calculability, predictability and control through technology, identified by Ritzer, and exampled by the McDonalds business model, we analyzed interviews with doctors between May 2012-Dec 2013 which focused on doctor experiences of appraisal and revalidation in SW England. The research found significant changes in appraisals since the launch of revalidation in December 2012. Appraisal has been standardized with a list of supporting information that must be collected by doctors. The success of implementation is measured in the numbers of appraisals completed but less is known about the quality of the appraisal itself. Such efficiencies have been supported by IT systems that themselves might be at risk of driving the process. There are potential advantages to McDonaldization including appraisals available to all, not just for doctors working in the NHS, and a potentially more appetizing recipe for their completion. As yet a state of McAppraisal has not been reached; with a complete transfer of trust in the doctor to trust in the appraisal process within revalidation. However policymakers will need to continue to ensure that regulatory initiatives, such as revalidation, are not just a process for their own sake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. McDonald Criteria 2010 and 2005 Compared: Persistence of High Oligoclonal Band Prevalence Despite Almost Doubled Diagnostic Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Schwenkenbecher, Philipp; Sarikidi, Anastasia; Wurster, Ulrich; Bronzlik, Paul; Sühs, Kurt-Wolfram; Raab, Peter; Stangel, Martin; Pul, Refik; Skripuletz, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 McDonald criteria were developed to allow a more rapid diagnosis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) by only one MRI of the brain. Although cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is not a mandatory part of the latest criteria, the evidence of an intrathecal humoral immunoreaction in the form of oligoclonal bands (OCB) is crucial in the diagnostic workup. To date, the impact of the 2010 McDonald criteria on the prevalence of OCB has not been investigated. We retrospectively evaluated data of 325 patients with a clinical relapse suggestive of demyelination that were treated in a German university hospital between 2010 and 2015. One hundred thirty-six patients (42%) were diagnosed with MS and 189 patients with CIS when the criteria of 2010 were applied. The criteria of 2005 allowed only 70 patients (22%) to be designated as MS. In contrast, the prevalence of OCB was marginal affected in MS patients with 96% for the criteria of 2010 and 98.5% for the criteria of 2005. In conclusion, OCB are prevalent in most MS patients and reflect the chronic inflammatory nature of the disease. We recommend CSF examination to exclude alternative diagnoses and reevaluation of the diagnosis MS in patients with negative OCB. PMID:27657060

  19. WE-A-201-00: Anne and Donald Herbert Distinguished Lectureship On Modern Statistical Modeling.

    PubMed

    Deasy, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    Chris Marshall: Memorial Introduction Donald Edmonds Herbert Jr., or Don to his colleagues and friends, exemplified the "big tent" vision of medical physics, specializing in Applied Statistics and Dynamical Systems theory. He saw, more clearly than most, that "Making models is the difference between doing science and just fooling around [ref Woodworth, 2004]". Don developed an interest in chemistry at school by "reading a book" - a recurring theme in his story. He was awarded a Westinghouse Science scholarship and attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology (later Carnegie Mellon University) where his interest turned to physics and led to a BS in Physics after transfer to Northwestern University. After (voluntary) service in the Navy he earned his MS in Physics from the University of Oklahoma, which led him to Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore to pursue a PhD. The early death of his wife led him to take a salaried position in the Physics Department of Colorado College in Colorado Springs so as to better care for their young daughter. There, a chance invitation from Dr. Juan del Regato to teach physics to residents at the Penrose Cancer Hospital introduced him to Medical Physics, and he decided to enter the field. He received his PhD from the University of London (UK) under Prof. Joseph Rotblat, where I first met him, and where he taught himself statistics. He returned to Penrose as a clinical medical physicist, also largely self-taught. In 1975 he formalized an evolving interest in statistical analysis as Professor of Radiology and Head of the Division of Physics and Statistics at the College of Medicine of the University of South Alabama in Mobile, AL where he remained for the rest of his career. He also served as the first Director of their Bio-Statistics and Epidemiology Core Unit working in part on a sickle-cell disease. After retirement he remained active as Professor Emeritus. Don served for several years as a consultant to the Nuclear Regulatory

  20. Nuclear propulsion apparatus with alternate reactor segments

    DOEpatents

    Szekely, Thomas

    1979-04-03

    1. Nuclear propulsion apparatus comprising: A. means for compressing incoming air; B. nuclear fission reactor means for heating said air; C. means for expanding a portion of the heated air to drive said compressing means; D. said nuclear fission reactor means being divided into a plurality of radially extending segments; E. means for directing a portion of the compressed air for heating through alternate segments of said reactor means and another portion of the compressed air for heating through the remaining segments of said reactor means; and F. means for further expanding the heated air from said drive means and the remaining heated air from said reactor means through nozzle means to effect reactive thrust on said apparatus.

  1. Cascade ICF power reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, W.J.; Pitts, J.H.

    1986-05-20

    The double-cone-shaped Cascade reaction chamber rotates at 50 rpm to keep a blanket of ceramic granules in place against the wall as they slide from the poles to the exit slots at the equator. The 1 m-thick blanket consists of layers of carbon, beryllium oxide, and lithium aluminate granules about 1 mm in diameter. The x rays and debris are stopped in the carbon granules; the neutrons are multiplied and moderated in the BeO and breed tritium in the LiAlO/sub 2/. The chamber wall is made up of SiO tiles held in compression by a network of composite SiC/Al tendons. Cascade operates at a 5 Hz pulse rate with 300 MJ in each pulse. The temperature in the blanket reaches 1600 K on the inner surface and 1350 K at the outer edge. The granules are automatically thrown into three separate vacuum heat exchangers where they give up their energy to high pressure helium. The helium is used in a Brayton cycle to obtain a thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency of 55%. Studies have been done on neutron activation, debris recovery, vaporization and recondensation of blanket material, tritium control and recovery, fire safety, and cost. These studies indicate that Cascade appears to be a promising ICF reactor candidate from all standpoints. At the 1000 MWe size, electricity could be made for about the same cost as in a future fission reactor.

  2. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. (a) As specified in paragraphs (b), (c... advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel or nuclear waste must contain the following... irradiated reactor fuel or nuclear waste shipment; (2) A description of the irradiated reactor fuel...

  3. The role of inoculum and reactor configuration for microbial community composition and dynamics in mainstream partial nitritation anammox reactors.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Shelesh; Karst, Søren M; Gilbert, Eva M; Horn, Harald; Nielsen, Per H; Lackner, Susanne

    2017-03-10

    Implementation of partial nitritation anammox (PNA) in the mainstream (municipal wastewater treatment) is still under investigation. Microbial community structure and reactor type can influence the performance of PNA reactor; yet, little is known about the role of the community composition of the inoculum and the reactor configuration under mainstream conditions. Therefore, this study investigated the community structure of inocula of different origin and their consecutive community dynamics in four different lab-scale PNA reactors with 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. These reactors were operated for almost 1 year and subjected to realistic seasonal temperature fluctuations as in moderate climate regions, that is, from 20°C in summer to 10°C in winter. The sequencing analysis revealed that the bacterial community in the reactors comprised: (1) a nitrifying community (consisting of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB), ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB)); (2) different heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria and other putative heterotrophic bacteria (HB). The nitrifying community was the same in all four reactors at the genus level, although the biomasses were of different origin. Community dynamics revealed a stable community in the moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) in contrast to the sequencing batch reactors (SBR) at the genus level. Moreover, the reactor design seemed to influence the community dynamics, and reactor operation significantly influenced the overall community composition. The MBBR seems to be the reactor type of choice for mainstream wastewater treatment.

  4. Reactor vessel support system

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P.; Holley, John C.

    1982-01-01

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  5. Nuclear reactor overflow line

    DOEpatents

    Severson, Wayne J.

    1976-01-01

    The overflow line for the reactor vessel of a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor includes means for establishing and maintaining a continuous bleed flow of coolant amounting to 5 to 10% of the total coolant flow through the overflow line to prevent thermal shock to the overflow line when the reactor is restarted following a trip. Preferably a tube is disposed concentrically just inside the overflow line extending from a point just inside the reactor vessel to an overflow tank and a suction line is provided opening into the body of liquid metal in the reactor vessel and into the annulus between the overflow line and the inner tube.

  6. Thorium fueled reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipaun, S.

    2017-01-01

    Current development in thorium fueled reactors shows that they can be designed to operate in the fast or thermal spectrum. The thorium/uranium fuel cycle converts fertile thorium-232 into fissile uranium-233, which fissions and releases energy. This paper analyses the characteristics of thorium fueled reactors and discusses the thermal reactor option. It is found that thorium fuel can be utilized in molten salt reactors through many configurations and designs. A balanced assessment on the feasibility of adopting one reactor technology versus another could lead to optimized benefits of having thorium resource.

  7. Packed-Bed Reactor Study of NETL Sample 196c for the Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Simulated Flue Gas Mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, James S.; Hammache, Sonia; Gray, McMahan L.; Fauth Daniel J.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2012-04-24

    An amine-based solid sorbent process to remove CO2 from flue gas has been investigated. The sorbent consists of polyethylenimine (PEI) immobilized onto silica (SiO2) support. Experiments were conducted in a packed-bed reactor and exit gas composition was monitored using mass spectrometry. The effects of feed gas composition (CO2 and H2O), temperature, and simulated steam regeneration were examined for both the silica support as well as the PEI-based sorbent. The artifact of the empty reactor was also quantified. Sorbent CO2 capacity loading was compared to thermogravimetric (TGA) results to further characterize adsorption isotherms and better define CO2 working capacity. Sorbent stability was monitored by periodically repeating baseline conditions throughout the parametric testing and replacing with fresh sorbent as needed. The concept of the Basic Immobilized Amine Sorbent (BIAS) Process using this sorbent within a system where sorbent continuously flows between the absorber and regenerator was introduced. The basic tenet is to manipulate or control the level of moisture on the sorbent as it travels around the sorbent circulation path between absorption and regeneration stages to minimize its effect on regeneration heat duty.

  8. High temperature reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulera, I. V.; Sinha, R. K.

    2008-12-01

    With the advent of high temperature reactors, nuclear energy, in addition to producing electricity, has shown enormous potential for the production of alternate transport energy carrier such as hydrogen. High efficiency hydrogen production processes need process heat at temperatures around 1173-1223 K. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), is currently developing concepts of high temperature reactors capable of supplying process heat around 1273 K. These reactors would provide energy to facilitate combined production of hydrogen, electricity, and drinking water. Compact high temperature reactor is being developed as a technology demonstrator for associated technologies. Design has been also initiated for a 600 MWth innovative high temperature reactor. High temperature reactor development programme has opened new avenues for research in areas like advanced nuclear fuels, high temperature and corrosion resistant materials and protective coatings, heavy liquid metal coolant technologies, etc. The paper highlights design of these reactors and their material related requirements.

  9. Spinning fluids reactor

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  10. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Taft, William E.

    1994-01-01

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

  11. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

    1994-12-20

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

  12. Results of Charpy V-Notch Impact Testing of Structural Steel Specimens Irradiated at ~30°C to 1 x 1016 neutrons/cm2 in a Commercial Reactor Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Iskander, S. K.; Stoller, R. E.

    1997-04-01

    A capsule containing Charpy V-notch (CVN) and mini-tensile specimens was irradiated at ~30°C (~ 85°F) in the cavity of a commercial nuclear power plant to a fluence of 1 x 1016 neutrons/cm2 (>1 MeV). The capsule included six CVN impact specimens of archival High Flux Isotope Reactor A212 grade B ferritic steel and five CVN impact specimens of a well-studied A36 structural steel. This irradiation was part of the ongoing study of neutron-induced damage effects at the low temperature and flux experienced by reactor supports. The plant operators shut down the plant before the planned exposure was reached. The exposure of these specimens produced no significant irradiation-induced embrittlement. Of interest were the data on unirradiated specimens in the L-T orientation machined from a single plate of A36 structural steel, which is the same specification for the structural steel used in some reactor supports. The average CVN energy of five unirradiated specimens obtained from one region of the plate and tested at room temperature was ~ 99 J, while the energy of 11 unirradiated specimens from other locations of the same plate was 45 J, a difference of ~ 220%. The CVN impact energies for all 18 specimens ranged from a low of 32 J to a high of 111 J. Moreover, it appears that the University of Kansas CVN impact energy data of the unirradiated specimens at the 100-J level are shifted toward higher temperatures by about 20 K. The results were an example of the extent of scatter possible in CVN impact testing. Generic values for the CVN impact energy of A36 should be used with caution in critical applications.

  13. A high-temperature liquid chromatographic reactor approach for investigating the solvolytic stability of a pharmaceutical compound and an investigation of its retention behavior on a C18-modified zirconia stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Skrdla, Peter J; Bopra, Angela; Chasse, Tyson; Wang, Tao

    2008-06-09

    The solvolysis kinetics of a developmental active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) were investigated using a high temperature (HT)-HPLC reactor approach to determine whether it might be possible to use the technique to efficiently screen the relative stabilities of typical APIs (particularly those that are stable at the column temperatures achievable on most HPLC systems and over durations of less than 60 min-a reasonable upper limit for typical method run time). It was discovered that the on-column API degradation kinetics better obeyed a second-order model than a first-order one. Employing a newly developed mathematical treatment, the apparent activation energy for the process was determined to be 85.7+/-1.6 kJ/mol; the apparent frequency factor was found to be (3.9+/-0.4)x10(4) s(-1). The retention mechanism of the API on the C18-modified zirconia column (ZirChrom) Diamondbond-C18) was investigated using a van't Hoff analysis. It was discovered that the logarithm of the retention factor (following correction for the gradient elution of the assay method) exhibited a quadratic dependence on the reciprocal of the absolute temperature. While the retention was found to be predominantly enthalpically driven over the majority of temperatures investigated in this study (ranging from 40 to 200 degrees C), a regression fit of the curve predicted a maximum at approximately 20 degrees C, indicative of a transition from predominantly enthalpically controlled retention to a mainly entropically driven mechanism. A table summarizing the thermodynamic retention parameters at each experimental column temperature is provided. Finally, the preliminary application of the HT-HPLC reactor approach to the study of degradation kinetics of other APIs is discussed in terms of some unexpected findings obtained using the zirconia column.

  14. Neutron fluxes in test reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Youinou, Gilles Jean-Michel

    2017-01-01

    Communicate the fact that high-power water-cooled test reactors such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) or the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) cannot provide fast flux levels as high as sodium-cooled fast test reactors. The memo first presents some basics physics considerations about neutron fluxes in test reactors and then uses ATR, HFIR and JHR as an illustration of the performance of modern high-power water-cooled test reactors.

  15. Knowledge for medicine and health care--laudation at the occasion of the honorary doctorate bestowed to Donald A. B. Lindberg by UMIT, University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology in Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria.

    PubMed

    van Bemmel, Jan H

    2005-01-01

    Dr. Donald A. B. Lindberg, Director of the U.S. National Library of Medicine, received an honorary doctorate from UMIT, the University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology in Innsbruck, Tyrol. The celebration took place on September 28, 2004 at an academic event during a conference of the Austrian, German, and Swiss Societies of Medical Informatics, GMDS2004. Dr. Lindberg has been a pioneer in the field of computers in health care from the early 1960s onwards. In 1984 he became the Director of the National Library of Medicine in Bethesda, the world's largest fully computerized biomedical library. Dr. Lindberg has been involved in the early activities of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA), among others being the chair of the Organizing Committee for MEDINFO 86 in Washington D.C. He was elected the first president of the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA), and served as an editor of Methods of Information in Medicine.

  16. REUSABLE ADSORBENTS FOR DILUTE SOLUTIONS SEPARATION. 6. BATCH AND CONTINUOUS REACTORS FOR ADSORPTION AND DEGRADATION OF 1,2-DICHLOROBENZENE FROM DILUTE WASTEWATER STREAMS USING TITANIA AS A PHOTOCATALYST. (R828598C753)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two types of external lamp reactors were investigated for the titania catalyzed photodegradation of 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB) from a dilute water stream. The first one was a batch mixed slurry reactor and the second one was a semi-batch reactor with continuous feed recycle wit...

  17. REUSABLE ADSORBENTS FOR DILUTE SOLUTIONS SEPARATION. 6. BATCH AND CONTINUOUS REACTORS FOR ADSORPTION AND DEGRADATION OF 1,2-DICHLOROBENZENE FROM DILUTE WASTEWATER STREAMS USING TITANIA AS A PHOTOCATALYST. (R828598C753)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two types of external lamp reactors were investigated for the titania catalyzed photodegradation of 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB) from a dilute water stream. The first one was a batch mixed slurry reactor and the second one was a semi-batch reactor with continuous feed recycle wit...

  18. Mass and Performance Estimates for 5 to 1000 kW(e) Nuclear Reactor Power Systems for Space Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    25 Schematic Diagram Of The " Topaz " Moderated TFE Space Reactor (Ref. 6)... 26 Schematic Diagram Of A Moderate TFE Reactor With Driver Fuel...reactor (Ref. 4), (b)a moderated TFE reactor ( TOPAZ , Ref. 5), and (c) a TFE reactor with SNAP driver fuel (Ref. 6). All of these concepts...or driver fuel permits coolant temperatures up to 1000 K or more. The TOPAZ reactor (Figure 2.5) incorporates a Zirconium- Hydride moderator

  19. HORIZONTAL BOILING REACTOR SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1958-11-18

    Reactors of the boiling water type are described wherein water serves both as the moderator and coolant. The reactor system consists essentially of a horizontal pressure vessel divided into two compartments by a weir, a thermal neutronic reactor core having vertical coolant passages and designed to use water as a moderator-coolant posltioned in one compartment, means for removing live steam from the other compartment and means for conveying feed-water and water from the steam compartment to the reactor compartment. The system further includes auxiliary apparatus to utilize the steam for driving a turbine and returning the condensate to the feed-water inlet of the reactor. The entire system is designed so that the reactor is self-regulating and has self-limiting power and self-limiting pressure features.

  20. High energy reactor neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raper, Neill

    We present the first measurement of a nonzero reactor neutrino flux with energies above 8 MeV. Measurements are taken with the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiments detectors, using the Guangdong Nuclear Power Station as a source. Disagreement between data and theory regarding rate and shape of reactor neutrino spectra have made the need for direct measurement clear. Data are especially useful at high energies, where far fewer isotopes contribute. Neutrino candidates are correlated to reactor power and reactor power is extrapolated to zero in order to separate neutrino events from background. We find evidence of reactor neutrinos up to ˜12.5 MeV at 1.92 sigma above 0 and include a survey of isotopes likely to be contributing neutrinos in this energy range.

  1. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  2. Improved vortex reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    1995-05-09

    An improved vortex reactor system is described for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor. 12 figs.

  3. The Integral Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.I.

    1988-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative liquid metal reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. It seeks to specifically exploit the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel in a way that leads to substantial improvements in the characteristics of the complete reactor system. This paper describes the key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, with emphasis on its safety characteristics. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Dreffin, R.S.

    1959-12-15

    A control means for a nuclear reactor is described. Particularly a device extending into the active portion of the reactor consisting of two hollow elements coaxially disposed and forming a channel therebetween, the cross sectional area of the channel increasing from each extremity of the device towards the center thereof. An element of neutron absorbing material is slidably positionable within the inner hollow element and a fluid reactor poison is introduced into the channel defined by the two hollow elements.

  5. NEUTRONIC REACTOR SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Goett, J.J.

    1961-01-24

    A system is described which includes a neutronic reactor containing a dispersion of fissionable material in a liquid moderator as fuel and a conveyor to which a portion of the dispersion may be passed and wherein the self heat of the slurry evaporates the moderator. Means are provided for condensing the liquid moderator and returning it to the reactor and for conveying the dried fissionable material away from the reactor.

  6. FLOW SYSTEM FOR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, W.H.

    1963-06-11

    A reactor is designed with means for terminating the reaction when returning coolant is below a predetermined temperature. Coolant flowing from the reactor passes through a heat exchanger to a lower reservoir, and then circulates between the lower reservoir and an upper reservoir before being returned to the reactor. Means responsive to the temperature of the coolant in the return conduit terminate the chain reaction when the temperature reaches a predetermined minimum value. (AEC)

  7. University Reactor Sharing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. W.D. Reece

    1999-09-01

    The University Reactor Sharing Program provides funding for reactor experimentation to institutions that do not normally have access to a research reactor. Research projects supported by the program include items such as dating geological material to producing high current super conducting magnets. The funding also gives small colleges and universities the opportunity to use the facility for teaching courses in nuclear processes; specifically neutron activation analysis and gamma spectroscopy.

  8. Cronbach's [Alpha], Revelle's [Beta], and McDonald's [Omega][sub H]: Their Relations with Each Other and Two Alternative Conceptualizations of Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinbarg, Richard E.; Revelle, William; Yovel, Iftah; Li, Wen

    2005-01-01

    We make theoretical comparisons among five coefficients--Cronbach's [alpha], Revelle's [beta], McDonald's [omega][sub h], and two alternative conceptualizations of reliability. Though many end users and psychometricians alike may not distinguish among these five coefficients, we demonstrate formally their nonequivalence. Specifically, whereas…

  9. Flight Engineer Donald R. Pettit works with the InSpace experiments in the MSG in the U.S. Lab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-01

    ISS006-E-41733 (1 April 2003) --- Astronaut Donald R. Pettit, Expedition Six NASA ISS science officer, works with the InSpace (Investigating the Structure of Paramagnetic Aggregates from Colloidal Emulsions) experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) in the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS).

  10. Response to the Letter to the Editor of Crop Science from Donald R. Davis regarding our research article published in Crop Science (2011: 51:2721-2727)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This letter serves as a response to the Letter to the Editor submitted by Donald R. Davis regarding our research article entitled “Mineral Concentration of Broccoli Florets in Relation to Year of Cultivar Release” published in Crop Science (2011, 51:2721-2727). In our manuscript, we clearly stated ...

  11. First Response to "The Teacher as a Service Professional," by Donald A. Myers: Don't Settle for a Booby Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikula, John

    2008-01-01

    In this response to Donald A. Myers's "The Teacher as a Service Professional" (2008 [this issue]), the author suggests that teacher educators should not buy into Myers's concept because such would sell them short and be counterproductive to the advancement of the teaching profession. Teacher educators must not give up their struggle to advance the…

  12. Cronbach's [Alpha], Revelle's [Beta], and McDonald's [Omega][sub H]: Their Relations with Each Other and Two Alternative Conceptualizations of Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinbarg, Richard E.; Revelle, William; Yovel, Iftah; Li, Wen

    2005-01-01

    We make theoretical comparisons among five coefficients--Cronbach's [alpha], Revelle's [beta], McDonald's [omega][sub h], and two alternative conceptualizations of reliability. Though many end users and psychometricians alike may not distinguish among these five coefficients, we demonstrate formally their nonequivalence. Specifically, whereas…

  13. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, Juhani

    1996-01-01

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

  14. Remote Reactor Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Adam; Dazeley, Steve; Dobie, Doug; Marleau, Peter; Brennan, Jim; Gerling, Mark; Sumner, Matthew; Sweany, Melinda

    2014-10-21

    The overall goal of the WATCHMAN project is to experimentally demonstrate the potential of water Cerenkov antineutrino detectors as a tool for remote monitoring of nuclear reactors. In particular, the project seeks to field a large prototype gadolinium-doped, water-based antineutrino detector to demonstrate sensitivity to a power reactor at ~10 kilometer standoff using a kiloton scale detector. The technology under development, when fully realized at large scale, could provide remote near-real-time information about reactor existence and operational status for small operating nuclear reactors out to distances of many hundreds of kilometers.

  15. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, J.

    1996-03-19

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

  16. HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR POWER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    King, L.D.P.

    1959-09-01

    A homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing forced circulation of the liquid fuel is described. The reactor does not require fuel handling outside of the reactor vessel during any normal operation including complete shutdown to room temperature, the reactor being selfregulating under extreme operating conditions and controlled by the thermal expansion of the liquid fuel. The liquid fuel utilized is a uranium, phosphoric acid, and water solution which requires no gus exhaust system or independent gas recombining system, thereby eliminating the handling of radioiytic gas.

  17. Membrane reactors at Degussa.

    PubMed

    Wöltinger, Jens; Karau, Andreas; Leuchtenberger, Wolfgang; Drauz, Karlheinz

    2005-01-01

    The review covers the development of membrane reactor technologies at Degussa for the synthesis of fine chemicals. The operation of fed-batch or continuous biocatalytic processes in the enzyme membrane reactor (EMR) is well established at Degussa. Degussa has experience of running EMRs from laboratory gram scale up to a production scale of several hundreds of tons per year. The transfer of the enzyme membrane reactor from biocatalysis to chemical catalysis in the chemzyme membrane reactor (CMR) is discussed. Various homogeneous catalysts have been investigated in the CMR, and the scope and limitation of this new technique is discussed.

  18. Heterogeneous Recycling in Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Forget, Benoit; Pope, Michael; Piet, Steven J.; Driscoll, Michael

    2012-07-30

    Current sodium fast reactor (SFR) designs have avoided the use of depleted uranium blankets over concerns of creating weapons grade plutonium. While reducing proliferation risks, this restrains the reactor design space considerably. This project will analyze various blanket and transmutation target configurations that could broaden the design space while still addressing the non-proliferation issues. The blanket designs will be assessed based on the transmutation efficiency of key minor actinide (MA) isotopes and also on mitigation of associated proliferation risks. This study will also evaluate SFR core performance under different scenarios in which depleted uranium blankets are modified to include minor actinides with or without moderators (e.g. BeO, MgO, B4C, and hydrides). This will be done in an effort to increase the sustainability of the reactor and increase its power density while still offering a proliferation resistant design with the capability of burning MA waste produced from light water reactors (LWRs). Researchers will also analyze the use of recycled (as opposed to depleted) uranium in the blankets. The various designs will compare MA transmutation efficiency, plutonium breeding characteristics, proliferation risk, shutdown margins and reactivity coefficients with a current reference sodium fast reactor design employing homogeneous recycling. The team will also evaluate the out-of-core accumulation and/or burn-down rates of MAs and plutonium isotopes on a cycle-by-cycle basis. This cycle-by-cycle information will be produced in a format readily usable by the fuel cycle systems analysis code, VISION, for assessment of the sustainability of the deployment scenarios.

  19. Gas-cooled fast reactor fuel fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, Randall; Meyer, Mitch; Jue, Jan-Fong; Gan, Jian

    2007-09-01

    The gas-cooled fast reactor is a high temperature helium-cooled Generation IV reactor concept. Operating parameters for this type of reactor are well beyond those of current fuels so a novel fuel must be developed. One fuel concept calls for UC particles dispersed throughout an SiC matrix. This study examines a hybrid reaction bonding process as a possible fabrication route for this fuel. Processing parameters are also optimized. The process combines carbon and SiC powders and a carbon yielding polymer. In order to obtain dense reaction bonded SiC samples the porosity to carbon ratio in the preform must be large enough to accommodate SiC formation from the carbon present in the sample, however too much porosity reduces mechanical integrity which leads to poor infiltration properties. The porosity must also be of a suitable size to allow silicon transport throughout the sample but keep residual silicon to a minimum.

  20. Gas-Fast Reactor Fuel Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Randall Fielding; Mitchell Meyer; Ramprashad Prabhakaran; Jim Miller; Sean McDeavitt

    2005-11-01

    The gas-cooled fast reactor is a high temperature helium cooled Generation IV reactor concept. Operating parameters for this type of reactor are well beyond those of current fuels so a novel fuel must be developed. One fuel concept calls for UC particles dispersed throughout a SiC matrix. This study examines a hybrid reaction bonding process as a possible fabrication route for this fuel. Processing parameters are also optimized. The process combines carbon and SiC powders and a carbon yielding polymer. In order to obtain dense reaction bonded SiC samples the porosity to carbon ratio in the preform must be large enough to accommodate SiC formation from the carbon present in the sample, however too much porosity reduces mechanical integrity which leads to poor infiltration properties . The porosity must also be of a suitable size to allow silicon transport throughout the sample but keep residual silicon to a minimum.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF RADIOACTIVITY IN THE REACTOR VESSEL OF THE HEAVY WATER COMPONENT TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, Dennis

    2010-06-01

    The Heavy Water Component Test Reactor (HWCTR) facility is a pressurized heavy water reactor that was used to test candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. The reactor operated at nominal power of 50 MW{sub th}. The reactor coolant loop operated at 1200 psig and 250 C. Two isolated test loop were designed into the reactor to provide special test conditions. Fig. 1 shows a cut-away view of the reactor. The two loops are contained in four inch diameter stainless steel piping. The HWCTR was operated for only a short duration, from March 1962 to December 1964 in order to test the viability of test fuel elements and other reactor components for use in a heavy water power reactor. The reactor achieved 13,882 MWd of total power while testing 36 different fuel assemblies. In the course of operation, HWCTR experienced the cladding failures of 10 separate test fuel assemblies. In each case, the cladding was breached with some release of fuel core material into the isolated test loop, causing fission product and actinide contamination in the main coolant loop and the liquid and boiling test loops. Despite the contribution of the contamination from the failed fuel, the primary source of radioactivity in the HWCTR vessel and internals is the activation products in the thermal shields, and to a lesser degree, activation products in the reactor vessel walls and liner. A detailed facility characterization report of the HWCTR facility was completed in 1996. Many of the inputs and assumptions in the 1996 characterization report were derived from the HWCTR decommissioning plan published in 1975. The current paper provides an updated assessment of the radioisotopic characteristics of the HWCTR vessel and internals to support decommissioning activities on the facility.

  2. Importance of cerebrospinal fluid analysis in the era of McDonald 2010 criteria: a German-Austrian retrospective multicenter study in patients with a clinically isolated syndrome.

    PubMed

    Huss, André M; Halbgebauer, Steffen; Öckl, Patrick; Trebst, Corinna; Spreer, Annette; Borisow, Nadja; Harrer, Andrea; Brecht, Isabel; Balint, Bettina; Stich, Oliver; Schlegel, Sabine; Retzlaff, Nele; Winkelmann, Alexander; Roesler, Romy; Lauda, Florian; Yildiz, Özlem; Voß, Elke; Muche, Rainer; Rauer, Sebastian; Bergh, Florian Then; Otto, Markus; Paul, Friedemann; Wildemann, Brigitte; Kraus, Jörg; Ruprecht, Klemens; Stangel, Martin; Buttmann, Mathias; Zettl, Uwe K; Tumani, Hayrettin

    2016-12-01

    The majority of patients presenting with a first clinical symptom suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS) do not fulfill the MRI criteria for dissemination in space and time according to the 2010 revision of the McDonald diagnostic criteria for MS and are thus classified as clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). To re-evaluate the utility of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis in the context of the revised McDonald criteria from 2010, we conducted a retrospective multicenter study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictive value of oligoclonal IgG bands (OCBs) in patients with CIS. Patients were recruited from ten specialized MS centers in Germany and Austria. We collected data from 406 patients; at disease onset, 44/406 (11 %) fulfilled the McDonald 2010 criteria for MS. Intrathecal IgG OCBs were detected in 310/362 (86 %) of CIS patients. Those patients were twice as likely to convert to MS according to McDonald 2010 criteria as OCB-negative individuals (hazard ratio = 2.1, p = 0.0014) and in a shorter time period of 25 months (95 % CI 21-34) compared to 47 months in OCB-negative individuals (95 % CI 36-85). In patients without brain lesions at first attack and presence of intrathecal OCBs (30/44), conversion rate to MS was 60 % (18/30), whereas it was only 21 % (3/14) in those without OCBs. Our data confirm that in patients with CIS the risk of conversion to MS substantially increases if OCBs are present at onset. CSF analysis definitely helps to evaluate the prognosis in patients who do not have MS according to the revised McDonald criteria.

  3. Use of the 2010 McDonald criteria can facilitate early diagnosis of pediatric multiple sclerosis in a predominantly black cohort.

    PubMed

    Williams, Mitchel T; Tapos, Daniela O; Juhász, Csaba

    2014-12-01

    Pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis represents around 3-5% of all patients with multiple sclerosis. Both the 2005 and 2010 McDonald criteria for multiple sclerosis have been suggested for the possible use in pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis. Modifications incorporated into the 2010 criteria enabled the fulfillment of dissemination in time to be met with the initial magnetic resonance imaging. The present study was designed to compare the diagnostic sensitivity of these criteria at initial presentation, the time to fulfilling them, and secondary effects of ethnicity in pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis. Twenty-five children with clinically definite multiple sclerosis (mean age, 14.6 ± 3.1 years; 15 girls) from a single center between 2005 and 2012 were analyzed using both the 2005 and 2010 McDonald criteria based on initial clinical presentation and neuroimaging findings comparing diagnostic sensitivity, time interval to meet diagnosis, and ethnicity. Initial multiple sclerosis diagnosis rates applying the 2005 McDonald criteria were 32% compared with 92% for the 2010 criteria (P = 0.0003). The mean time after initial signs until the 2005 and 2010 McDonald criteria for multiple sclerosis were met was 5.0 vs 0.7 months, respectively (P = 0.001). Time to diagnosis using the 2010 criteria was shorter in black children than the European white (P = 0.005). The 2010 McDonald criteria are an appropriate tool for the timely diagnosis of pediatric multiple sclerosis, especially in black children, potentially allowing an earlier initiation of disease-modifying therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Heard Island and McDonald Islands Acoustic Plumes: Split-beam Echo sounder and Deep Tow Camera Observations of Gas Seeps on the Central Kerguelen Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, S. J.; Spain, E. A.; Coffin, M. F.; Whittaker, J. M.; Fox, J. M.; Bowie, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Heard and McDonald islands (HIMI) are two active volcanic edifices on the Central Kerguelen Plateau. Scientists aboard the Heard Earth-Ocean-Biosphere Interactions voyage in early 2016 explored how this volcanic activity manifests itself near HIMI. Using Simrad EK60 split-beam echo sounder and deep tow camera data from RV Investigator, we recorded the distribution of seafloor emissions, providing the first direct evidence of seabed discharge around HIMI, mapping >244 acoustic plume signals. Northeast of Heard, three distinct plume clusters are associated with bubbles (towed camera) and the largest directly overlies a sub-seafloor opaque zone (sub-bottom profiler) with >140 zones observed within 6.5 km. Large temperature anomalies did not characterize any of the acoustic plumes where temperature data were recorded. We therefore suggest that these plumes are cold methane seeps. Acoustic properties - mean volume backscattering and target strength - and morphology - height, width, depth to surface - of plumes around McDonald resembled those northeast of Heard, also suggesting gas bubbles. We observed no bubbles on extremely limited towed camera data around McDonald; however, visibility was poor. The acoustic response of the plumes at different frequencies (120 kHz vs. 18 kHz), a technique used to classify water column scatterers, differed between HIMI, suggestiing dissimilar target size (bubble radii) distributions. Environmental context and temporal characteristics of the plumes differed between HIMI. Heard plumes were concentrated on flat, sediment rich plains, whereas around McDonald plumes emanated from sea knolls and mounds with hard volcanic seafloor. The Heard plumes were consistent temporally, while the McDonald plumes varied temporally possibly related to tides or subsurface processes. Our data and analyses suggest that HIMI acoustic plumes were likely caused by gas bubbles; however, the bubbles may originate from two or more distinct processes.

  5. Determination of C0-60 in Cobalt Slugs and Slabs and Radionuclides in Curium Sampler Slugs L-Reactor Disassembly Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, V.R.

    2004-01-23

    Co-60 was historically produced in the SRS reactors. Cobalt slugs were irradiated in the early 1970s. Post-production, remaining cobalt slugs (including slab form) were consolidated for storage. There are approximately nine hundred cobalt slugs currently stored awaiting final disposition. These slugs had historically incomplete documentation for activity rates; therefore, assaying was required in order to determine their activity levels. Since the gamma dose rate from these slugs is extremely high, the most cost effective way to shield a source of this magnitude from personnel and the radiation detector was to use the basin water in which the slugs are stored as the shield. A sodium iodide gamma detector was placed above a specially designed air collimator assembly, so that slug was at least eight feet from the detector and was shielded by the basin water. Using a sodium iodide detector and multichannel analyzer system and an underwater collimator assembly, Co-60 concentrations we re determined for Disassembly Basin cobalt slugs and slabs and 18 curium sampler slugs. The total activity of all of the assayed slugs summed to 31,783 curies. From the Co-60 concentrations of the curium sampler slugs, the irradiation flux was determined for the known irradiation time. The amounts of Pu-238, 239, 240, 241, 242; Am-241, 243; and Cm-242, 244 produced were then obtained based on the original amount of Pu-239 irradiated.

  6. Surface heat flux feedback controlled impurity seeding experiments with Alcator C-Mod’s high-Z vertical target plate divertor: performance, limitations and implications for fusion power reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, D.; Wolfe, S. M.; LaBombard, B.; Kuang, A. Q.; Lipschultz, B.; Reinke, M. L.; Hubbard, A.; Hughes, J.; Mumgaard, R. T.; Terry, J. L.; Umansky, M. V.; The Alcator C-Mod Team

    2017-08-01

    The Alcator C-Mod team has recently developed a feedback system to measure and control surface heat flux in real-time. The system uses real-time measurements of surface heat flux from surface thermocouples and a pulse-width modulated piezo valve to inject low-Z impurities (typically N2) into the private flux region. It has been used in C-Mod to mitigate peak surface heat fluxes  >40 MW m-2 down to  <10 MW m-2 while maintaining excellent core confinement, H 98  >  1. While the system works quite well under relatively steady conditions, use of it during transients has revealed important limitations on feedback control of impurity seeding in conventional vertical target plate divertors. In some cases, the system is unable to avoid plasma reattachment to the divertor plate or the formation of a confinement-damaging x-point MARFE. This is due to the small operational window for mitigated heat flux in the parameters of incident plasma heat flux, plasma density, and impurity density as well as the relatively slow response of the impurity gas injection system compared to plasma transients. Given the severe consequences for failure of such a system to operate reliably in a reactor, there is substantial risk that the conventional vertical target plate divertor will not provide an adequately controllable system in reactor-class devices. These considerations motivate the need to develop passively stable, highly compliant divertor configurations and experimental facilities that can test such possible solutions.

  7. Lunar Surface Reactor Shielding Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shawn; McAlpine, William; Lipinski, Ronald

    2006-01-20

    A nuclear reactor system could provide power to support long term human exploration of the moon. Such a system would require shielding to protect astronauts from its emitted radiations. Shielding studies have been performed for a Gas Cooled Reactor system because it is considered to be the most suitable nuclear reactor system available for lunar exploration, based on its tolerance of oxidizing lunar regolith and its good conversion efficiency. The goals of the shielding studies were to determine a material shielding configuration that reduces the dose (rem) to the required level in order to protect astronauts, and to estimate the mass of regolith that would provide an equivalent protective effect if it were used as the shielding material. All calculations were performed using MCNPX, a Monte Carlo transport code. Lithium hydride must be kept between 600 K and 700 K to prevent excessive swelling from large amounts of gamma or neutron irradiation. The issue is that radiation damage causes separation of the lithium and the hydrogen, resulting in lithium metal and hydrogen gas. The proposed design uses a layer of B4C to reduce the combined neutron and gamma dose to below 0.5Grads before the LiH is introduced. Below 0.5Grads the swelling in LiH is small (less than about 1%) for all temperatures. This approach causes the shield to be heavier than if the B4C were replaced by LiH, but it makes the shield much more robust and reliable.

  8. Dynamic simulation platform to verify the performance of the reactor regulating system for a research reactor

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    Digital instrumentation and controls system technique is being introduced in new constructed research reactor or life extension of older research reactor. Digital systems are easy to change and optimize but the validated process for them is required. Also, to reduce project risk or cost, we have to make it sure that configuration and control functions is right before the commissioning phase on research reactor. For this purpose, simulators have been widely used in developing control systems in automotive and aerospace industries. In these literatures, however, very few of these can be found regarding test on the control system of research reactor with simulator. Therefore, this paper proposes a simulation platform to verify the performance of RRS (Reactor Regulating System) for research reactor. This simulation platform consists of the reactor simulation model and the interface module. This simulation platform is applied to I and C upgrade project of TRIGA reactor, and many problems of RRS configuration were found and solved. And it proved that the dynamic performance testing based on simulator enables significant time saving and improves economics and quality for RRS in the system test phase. (authors)

  9. Skin Injuries Reduce Survival and Modulate Corticosterone, C-Reactive Protein, Complement Component 3, IgM, and Prostaglandin E2 after Whole-Body Reactor-Produced Mixed Field (n + γ-Photons) Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Juliann G.; Ledney, G. David

    2013-01-01

    Skin injuries such as wounds or burns following whole-body γ-irradiation (radiation combined injury (RCI)) increase mortality more than whole-body γ-irradiation alone. Wound-induced decreases in survival after irradiation are triggered by sustained activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase pathways, persistent alteration of cytokine homeostasis, and increased susceptibility to systemic bacterial infection. Among these factors, radiation-induced increases in interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations in serum were amplified by skin wound trauma. Herein, the IL-6-induced stress proteins including C-reactive protein (CRP), complement 3 (C3), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were evaluated after skin injuries given following a mixed radiation environment that might be found after a nuclear incident. In this report, mice received 3 Gy of reactor-produced mixed field (n + γ-photons) radiations at 0.38 Gy/min followed by nonlethal skin wounding or burning. Both wounds and burns reduced survival and increased CRP, C3, and PGE2 in serum after radiation. Decreased IgM production along with an early rise in corticosterone followed by a subsequent decrease was noted for each RCI situation. These results suggest that RCI-induced alterations of corticosterone, CRP, C3, IgM, and PGE2 cause homeostatic imbalance and may contribute to reduced survival. Agents inhibiting these responses may prove to be therapeutic for RCI and improve related survival. PMID:24175013

  10. Skin injuries reduce survival and modulate corticosterone, C-reactive protein, complement component 3, IgM, and prostaglandin E 2 after whole-body reactor-produced mixed field (n + γ-photons) irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Juliann G; Ledney, G David

    2013-01-01

    Skin injuries such as wounds or burns following whole-body γ-irradiation (radiation combined injury (RCI)) increase mortality more than whole-body γ-irradiation alone. Wound-induced decreases in survival after irradiation are triggered by sustained activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase pathways, persistent alteration of cytokine homeostasis, and increased susceptibility to systemic bacterial infection. Among these factors, radiation-induced increases in interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations in serum were amplified by skin wound trauma. Herein, the IL-6-induced stress proteins including C-reactive protein (CRP), complement 3 (C3), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were evaluated after skin injuries given following a mixed radiation environment that might be found after a nuclear incident. In this report, mice received 3 Gy of reactor-produced mixed field (n + γ-photons) radiations at 0.38 Gy/min followed by nonlethal skin wounding or burning. Both wounds and burns reduced survival and increased CRP, C3, and PGE2 in serum after radiation. Decreased IgM production along with an early rise in corticosterone followed by a subsequent decrease was noted for each RCI situation. These results suggest that RCI-induced alterations of corticosterone, CRP, C3, IgM, and PGE2 cause homeostatic imbalance and may contribute to reduced survival. Agents inhibiting these responses may prove to be therapeutic for RCI and improve related survival.

  11. Reactor Simulator Testing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Test Objectives Summary: a) Verify operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation & control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. b) Examine cooling & heat regeneration performance of the cold trap purification. c) Test the ALIP pump at voltages beyond 120V to see if the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s can be obtained in the RxSim. Testing Highlights: a) Gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively for operations (NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain). b) Instrumentation & Control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings and ramped within prescribed constraints. It effectively interacted with reactor simulator control model and defaulted back to temperature control mode if the transient fluctuations didn't dampen. c) Cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the minimum temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. d) ALIP produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz.

  12. Heat pipe reactors for space power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, D. R.; Ranken, W. A.; Salmi, E. W.

    1977-01-01

    A family of heat pipe reactors design concepts has been developed to provide heat to a variety of electrical conversion systems. Three power plants are described that span the power range 1-500 kWe and operate in the temperature range 1200-1700 K. The reactors are fast, compact, heat-pipe cooled, high-temperature nuclear reactors fueled with fully enriched refractory fuels, UC-ZrC or UO2. Each fuel element is cooled by an axially located molybdenum heat pipe containing either sodium or lithium vapor. Virtues of the reactor designs are the avoidance of single-point failure mechanisms, the relatively high operating temperature, and the expected long lifetimes of the fuel element components.

  13. Heat pipe reactors for space power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, D. R.; Ranken, W. A.; Salmi, E. W.

    1977-01-01

    A family of heat pipe reactors design concepts has been developed to provide heat to a variety of electrical conversion systems. Three power plants are described that span the power range 1-500 kWe and operate in the temperature range 1200-1700 K. The reactors are fast, compact, heat-pipe cooled, high-temperature nuclear reactors fueled with fully enriched refractory fuels, UC-ZrC or UO2. Each fuel element is cooled by an axially located molybdenum heat pipe containing either sodium or lithium vapor. Virtues of the reactor designs are the avoidance of single-point failure mechanisms, the relatively high operating temperature, and the expected long lifetimes of the fuel element components.

  14. Ion beam analysis of materials in the PBMR reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malherbe, Johan B.; Friedland, E.; van der Berg, N. G.

    2008-04-01

    South Africa is developing a new type of high temperature nuclear reactor, the so-called pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR). The planned reactor outlet temperature of this gas-cooled reactor is approximately 900 °C. This high temperature places some severe restrictions on materials, which can be used. The name of the reactor is derived from the form of the fuel elements, which are in the form of pebbles, each with a diameter of 60 mm. Each pebble is composed of several thousands of coated fuel particles. The coated particle consists of a nucleus of UO2 surrounded by several layers of different carbons and SiC. The diameter of the fuel particles is 0.92 mm. A brief review will be given of the advantages of this nuclear reactor, of the materials in the fuel elements and their analysis using ion beam techniques.

  15. NEUTRONIC REACTOR SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1959-02-10

    A reactor system incorporating a reactor of the heterogeneous boiling water type is described. The reactor is comprised essentially of a core submerged adwater in the lower half of a pressure vessel and two distribution rings connected to a source of water are disposed within the pressure vessel above the reactor core, the lower distribution ring being submerged adjacent to the uppcr end of the reactor core and the other distribution ring being located adjacent to the top of the pressure vessel. A feed-water control valve, responsive to the steam demand of the load, is provided in the feedwater line to the distribution rings and regulates the amount of feed water flowing to each distribution ring, the proportion of water flowing to the submerged distribution ring being proportional to the steam demand of the load. This invention provides an automatic means exterior to the reactor to control the reactivity of the reactor over relatively long periods of time without relying upon movement of control rods or of other moving parts within the reactor structure.

  16. REFLECTOR FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Fraas, A.P.

    1963-08-01

    A reflector for nuclear reactors that comprises an assembly of closely packed graphite rods disposed with their major axes substantially perpendicular to the interface between the reactor core and the reflector is described. Each graphite rod is round in transverse cross section at (at least) its interface end and is provided, at that end, with a coaxial, inwardly tapering hole. (AEC)

  17. NEUTRONIC REACTOR BURIAL ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1961-05-01

    A burial assembly is shown whereby an entire reactor core may be encased with lead shielding, withdrawn from the reactor site and buried. This is made possible by a five-piece interlocking arrangement that may be easily put together by remote control with no aligning of bolt holes or other such close adjustments being necessary.

  18. N Reactor hydrogen control

    SciTech Connect

    Shuford, D.H.; Kripps, L.J.

    1988-08-01

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power reactor in the Soviet Union, a number of reviews were conducted of the N Reactor. Hydrogen generation during postulates severe accidents and the possibility of resulting hydrogen deflagrations/detonations that could affect confinement integrity were issues raised in several reviews, along with recommendations for adding hydrogen mitigation features. To respond to these reviews, an N Reactor Safety Enhancement Program and a subsequent Accelerated Safety Enhancement Program were initiated to address all post-Chernobyl N Reactor review findings. The Safety Enhancement Program and Accelerated Safety Enhancement Program efforts involving hydrogen control included the following: Calculate the potential hydrogen source for a range of severe accidents at the N Reactor to establish an acceptable design basis for the hydrogen mitigation system; Analyze the N Reactor confinement hydrogen mixing capability to identify areas of concern and to the verify effectiveness of the hydrogen mitigation system; Select, design, and construct a hydrogen mitigation system to enhance the N Reactor capability to accommodate possible hydrogen generation from postulated severe accidents; Provide post-accident hydrogen monitoring as an operator aid in assessing confinement conditions. In additions, it was necessary to verify that incorporation of the hydrogen mitigation system had no adverse impact N Reactor safety (e.g., radiological consequence analyses). 77 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Polymerization Reactor Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaates, J. Michael

    1987-01-01

    Describes a polymerization reactor engineering course offered at Michigan Technological University which focuses on the design and operation of industrial polymerization reactors to achieve a desired degree of polymerization and molecular weight distribution. Provides a list of the course topics and assigned readings. (TW)

  20. The Integral Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I. ); Lineberry, M.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory, since 1984, has been developing the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). This paper will describe the way in which this new reactor concept came about; the technical, public acceptance, and environmental issues that are addressed by the IFR; the technical progress that has been made; and our expectations for this program in the near term. 5 refs., 3 figs.