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Sample records for donor criteria edc

  1. Extended Criteria Donors in Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vodkin, Irine; Kuo, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    Mortality rates on the liver transplant waiting list are increasing. The shortage of organs has resulted in higher utilization of extended criteria donors (ECDs), with centers pushing the limits of what is acceptable for transplantation. Donor quality is more appropriately represented as a continuum of risk, and careful selection and matching of ECD grafts with recipients may lead to excellent outcomes. Although there is no precise definition for what constitutes an ECD liver, this review focuses on frequently cited characteristics, including donor age, steatosis, donation after cardiac death, and donors with increased risk of disease transmission.

  2. Criteria for selecting organ donors and recipients.

    PubMed

    Michielsen, P

    1990-11-01

    As there is a world-wide shortage of organs for transplantation, the selection of the patients is more defined by the availability of transplantable organs than by the medical condition of the potential recipient. This shortage of cadaveric organs is mainly responsible for the use of living donors. With HLA identical sibling donors the results are better than with cadaveric organs, but the ethical problems are usually underestimated. For the parent-to-child donation, the HLA compatibility is less than what could be achieved with well-matched cadaveric donors. The use of genetically unrelated donors is unacceptable from the ethical as well as from the medical point of view. The short- and long-term risk of donation has been insufficiently documented. The experience with the introduction of an opting-out legislation in Belgium in 1987 demonstrates that the shortage of cadaveric organs can be overcome. Harmonization of the legislation is, however, necessary so as to achieve comparable organ retrieval rates between countries participating in organ-exchange organisations.

  3. Utilization of kidneys with similar kidney donor risk index values from standard versus expanded criteria donors.

    PubMed

    Woodside, K J; Merion, R M; Leichtman, A B; de los Santos, R; Arrington, C J; Rao, P S; Sung, R S

    2012-08-01

    With the shortage of standard criteria donor (SCD) kidneys, efficient expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidney utilization has become more vital. We investigated the effects of the ECD label on kidney recovery, utilization and outcomes. Using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients from November 2002 to May 2010, we determined recovery and transplant rates, and modeled discard risk, for kidneys within a range of kidney donor risk index (KDRI) 1.4-2.1 that included both SCD and ECD kidneys. To further compare similar quality kidneys, these kidneys were again divided into three KDRI intervals. Overall, ECD kidneys had higher recovery rates, but lower transplant rates. However, within each KDRI interval, SCD and ECD kidneys were transplanted at similar rates. Overall, there was increased risk for discard for biopsied kidneys. SCD kidneys in the lower two KDRI intervals had the highest risk of discard if biopsied. Pumped kidneys had a lower risk of discard, which was modulated by KDRI for SCD kidneys but not ECD kidneys. Although overall ECD graft survival was worse than SCD, there were no differences within individual KDRI intervals. Thus, ECD designation adversely affects neither utilization nor outcomes beyond that predicted by KDRI.

  4. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... your body handles stress and responds to the environment. Results of animal and human scientific studies support a link between EDCs and ... to cause endocrine, reproductive, or neurological problems in humans. ... environmental contamination. For example, in 1976 an industrial accident ...

  5. Criteria for initiation and evaluation of minority donor programs and application to the example of donors of Turkish descent in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A H; Solloch, U V; Baier, D; Yazici, B; Ozcan, M; Stahr, A; Schumacher, S; Ehninger, G; Rutt, C

    2009-10-01

    Minority donor programs aim to improve access to unrelated hematopoietic SCT for specific ethnic groups through directed donor recruitment. We have developed criteria for initiation and evaluation of such programs and applied them to the situation of donors of Turkish descent in Germany, as well as a program by DKMS German Bone Marrow Center that targets this group. Criteria for program initiation include the number of accessible minority donors, potential impact on the chances of finding matching donors, and general access to unrelated transplantation for patients of the targeted group. Success criteria comprise number and availability of recruited donors, the effect of these donors on the HLA phenotype distribution of a donor file, and the number of donations resulting from the program. More than 40 000 donors of Turkish descent have been recruited within the analyzed program to date. Recruited minority donors show more favorable demographic characteristics but lower availability rates than do German donors. Although HLA haplotype distributions of Turkish and German donors differ considerably, patients with common Turkish HLA phenotypes should benefit from the German donor pool even without a specific minority program. The analysis of donations from minority donors, however, shows specific benefits for patients with rare HLA phenotypes.

  6. Assessment of Graft Selection Criteria in Living-Donor Liver Transplantation: The Jikei Experience.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Hiroaki; Wakiyama, Shigeki; Futagawa, Yasuro; Iida, Tomonori; Matsumoto, Michinori; Haruki, Koichiro; Ishida, Yuichi; Misawa, Takeyuki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2015-07-01

    In living-donor liver transplantation, graft selection is especially important for the safety of the live donor and an acceptable outcome for the recipient. The essential medical requirements for living liver donation at Jikei University Hospital are as follows: an adult aged 65 years or younger, in good general condition, with partial liver volume of more than 35% of the standard liver volume (SLV) for the recipient, and without severe liver steatosis. Based on our criteria, we performed 13 living-donor liver transplantations between 2007 and 2013, including 1 retransplantation. Three cases were outside our standard donor criteria, including age (18 and 66 years) and 33% graft volume (GV) to SLV ratio for the recipient on preoperative volumetry using computed tomography. In 2 cases, the actual GV to SLV ratio at transplantation was less than 35%. Median postoperative hospital stay was 11 days for the donors, and 29 days for the recipients. All donors returned to their preoperative status, and all recipients were discharged in good condition. Our medical requirements for living liver donation seem to be acceptable because of the good outcome.

  7. Extended criteria donors in liver transplantation Part I: reviewing the impact of determining factors.

    PubMed

    Nemes, Balázs; Gámán, György; Polak, Wojciech G; Gelley, Fanni; Hara, Takanobu; Ono, Shinichiro; Baimakhanov, Zhassulan; Piros, Laszlo; Eguchi, Susumu

    2016-07-01

    The definition and factors of extended criteria donors have already been set; however, details of the various opinions still differ in many respects. In this review, we summarize the impact of these factors and their clinical relevance. Elderly livers must not be allocated for hepatitis C virus (HCV) positives, or patients with acute liver failure. In cases of markedly increased serum transaminases, donor hemodynamics is an essential consideration. A prolonged hypotension of the donor does not always lead to an increase in post-transplantation graft loss if post-OLT care is proper. Hypernatremia of less than 160 mEq/L is not an absolute contraindication to accept a liver graft per se. The presence of steatosis is an independent and determinant risk factor for the outcome. The gold standard of the diagnosis is the biopsy. This is recommended in all doubtful cases. The use of HCV+ grafts for HCV+ recipients is comparable in outcome. The leading risk factor for HCV recurrence is the actual RNA positivity of the donor. The presence of a proper anti-HBs level seems to protect from de novo HBV infection. A favourable outcome can be expected if a donation after cardiac death liver is transplanted in a favourable condition, meaning, a warm ischemia time < 30 minutes, cold ischemia time < 8-10 hours, and donor age 50-60 years. The pathway of organ quality assessment is to obtain the most relevant information (e.g. biopsy), consider the co-existing donor risk factors and the reserve capacity of the recipient, and avoid further technical issues.

  8. Renal transplantation with expanded criteria donors: Which is the optimal immunosuppression?

    PubMed Central

    Filiopoulos, Vassilis; Boletis, John N

    2016-01-01

    The growing gap between demand and supply for kidney transplants has led to renewed interest in the use of expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidneys in an effort to increase the donor pool. Although most studies of ECD kidney transplantation confirm lower allograft survival rates and, generally, worse outcomes than standard criteria donor kidneys, recipients of ECD kidneys generally have improved survival compared with wait-listed dialysis patients, thus encouraging the pursuit of this type of kidney transplantation. The relative benefits of transplantation using kidneys from ECDs are dependent on patient characteristics and the waiting time on dialysis. Because of the increased risk of poor graft function, calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-induced nephrotoxicity, increased incidence of infections, cardiovascular risk, and malignancies, elderly recipients of an ECD kidney transplant are a special population that requires a tailored immunosuppressive regimen. Recipients of ECD kidneys often are excluded from transplant trials and, therefore, the optimal induction and maintenance immunosuppressive regimen for them is not known. Approaches are largely center specific and based upon expert opinion. Some data suggest that antithymocyte globulin might be the preferred induction agent for elderly recipients of ECD kidneys. Maintenance regimens that spare CNIs have been advocated, especially for older recipients of ECD kidneys. CNI-free regimens are not universally accepted due to occasionally high rejection rates. However, reduced CNI exposure and CNI-free regimens based on mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors have shown acceptable outcomes in appropriately selected ECD transplant recipients. PMID:27011908

  9. Criteria for viability assessment of discarded human donor livers during ex vivo normothermic machine perfusion.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Michael E; op den Dries, Sanna; Karimian, Negin; Weeder, Pepijn D; de Boer, Marieke T; Wiersema-Buist, Janneke; Gouw, Annette S H; Leuvenink, Henri G D; Lisman, Ton; Porte, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Although normothermic machine perfusion of donor livers may allow assessment of graft viability prior to transplantation, there are currently no data on what would be a good parameter of graft viability. To determine whether bile production is a suitable biomarker that can be used to discriminate viable from non-viable livers we have studied functional performance as well as biochemical and histological evidence of hepatobiliary injury during ex vivo normothermic machine perfusion of human donor livers. After a median duration of cold storage of 6.5 h, twelve extended criteria human donor livers that were declined for transplantation were ex vivo perfused for 6 h at 37 °C with an oxygenated solution based on red blood cells and plasma, using pressure controlled pulsatile perfusion of the hepatic artery and continuous portal perfusion. During perfusion, two patterns of bile flow were identified: (1) steadily increasing bile production, resulting in a cumulative output of ≥ 30 g after 6 h (high bile output group), and (2) a cumulative bile production <20 g in 6 h (low bile output group). Concentrations of transaminases and potassium in the perfusion fluid were significantly higher in the low bile output group, compared to the high bile output group. Biliary concentrations of bilirubin and bicarbonate were respectively 4 times and 2 times higher in the high bile output group. Livers in the low bile output group displayed more signs of hepatic necrosis and venous congestion, compared to the high bile output group. In conclusion, bile production could be an easily assessable biomarker of hepatic viability during ex vivo machine perfusion of human donor livers. It could potentially be used to identify extended criteria livers that are suitable for transplantation. These ex vivo findings need to be confirmed in a transplant experiment or a clinical trial.

  10. Medium-term outcome of recipients of marginal donor hearts selected with new stress-echocardiographic techniques over standard criteria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Heart transplantation is limited by severe donor organ shortage. Regardless of the changes made in the acceptance of marginal donors, any such mechanism cannot be considered successful unless recipient graft survival rates remain acceptable. A stress echo-driven selection of donors has proven successful in older donors with normal left ventricular resting function and in standard donors with reversible resting left ventricular dysfunction acutely improving during stress, or slowly improving (over hours) during intensive hormonal treatment. Aim of this study is to assess the medium-term outcome of recipients of marginal donor hearts selected with new echocardiographic techniques over standard criteria. Methods and results We enrolled 43 recipients of marginal donor hearts: age > 55 years, or < 55 years but with concomitant risk factors, n = 32; acutely improving during stress, n = 3; or slowly improving during hormonal treatment, n = 8. At follow-up (median, 30 months; interquartile range, 21–52 months), 37 of the recipients were still alive. One-year survival was 93%. Conclusion The strict use of new stress-echocardiographic techniques over standard criteria of marginal donor management, together with comprehensive monitoring of the donor, has the potential to substantially increase the number of donor hearts without adverse effects on recipient medium-term outcome. PMID:24935114

  11. Section 4. Further expanding the criteria for HCC in living donor liver transplantation: the Tokyo University experience.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Sumihito; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2014-04-27

    In Asia, evidence-based guidelines for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have evolved, including the option of liver transplantation. Because of the continuing serious organ shortage, however, living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) remains the mainstream in Japan. Unlike deceased donor transplantation, living donor transplantation is not always limited by the restrictions imposed by the nationwide organ allocation system. The decision for transplantation may depend on institutional or case-by-case considerations, balancing the will of the donor, the operative risk, and the overall survival benefit. Cumulative data from the Japanese national multicenter registry analysis as well as individual center experiences suggest further expanding the criteria for LDLT for HCC from the Milan criteria is feasible with acceptable outcomes.

  12. Long-term exposure to belatacept in recipients of extended criteria donor kidneys.

    PubMed

    Charpentier, B; Medina Pestana, J O; Del C Rial, M; Rostaing, L; Grinyó, J; Vanrenterghem, Y; Matas, A; Zhang, R; Mühlbacher, F; Pupim, L; Florman, S

    2013-11-01

    Patients in the BENEFIT-EXT study received extended criteria donor kidneys and a more intensive (MI) or less intensive (LI) belatacept immunosuppression regimen, or cyclosporine A (CsA). Patients who remained on assigned therapy through year 3 were eligible to enter a long-term extension (LTE) study. Three hundred four patients entered the LTE (n = 104 MI; n = 113 LI; n = 87 CsA), and 260 continued treatment through year 5 (n = 91 MI; n = 100 LI; n = 69 CsA). Twenty patients died during the LTE (n = 5 MI; n = 9 LI; n = 6 CsA), and eight experienced graft loss (n = 2 MI; n = 1 LI; n = 5 CsA). Three patients experienced an acute rejection episode (n = 2 MI; n = 1 LI). The incidence rate of serious adverse events, viral infections and fungal infections was similar across groups during the LTE. There were four cases of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) from the beginning of the LTE to year 5 (n = 3 LI; n = 1 CsA); two of three PTLD cases in the LI group were in patients who were seronegative for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV(-)) at transplantation. Mean ± SD calculated GFR at year 5 was 55.9 ± 17.5 (MI), 59.0 ± 29.1 (LI) and 44.6 ± 16.4 (CsA) mL/min/1.73 m(2) . Continued treatment with belatacept was associated with a consistent safety profile and sustained improvement in renal function versus CsA over time.

  13. Dual Kidney Allocation Score: A Novel Algorithm Utilizing Expanded Donor Criteria for the Allocation of Dual Kidneys in Adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Adam P; Price, Thea P; Lieby, Benjamin; Doria, Cataldo

    2016-09-08

    BACKGROUND Dual kidney transplantation (DKT) of expanded-criteria donors is a cost-intensive procedure that aims to increase the pool of available deceased organ donors and has demonstrated equivalent outcomes to expanded-criteria single kidney transplantation (eSKT). The objective of this study was to develop an allocation score based on predicted graft survival from historical dual and single kidney donors. MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) data for 1547 DKT and 26 381 eSKT performed between January 1994 and September 2013. We utilized multivariable Cox regression to identify variables independently associated with graft survival in dual and single kidney transplantations. We then derived a weighted multivariable product score from calculated hazard ratios to model the benefit of transplantation as dual kidneys. RESULTS Of 36 donor variables known at the time of listing, 13 were significantly associated with graft survival. The derived dual allocation score demonstrated good internal validity with strong correlation to improved survival in dual kidney transplants. Donors with scores less than 2.1 transplanted as dual kidneys had a worsened median survival of 594 days (24%, p-value 0.031) and donors with scores greater than 3.9 had improved median survival of 1107 days (71%, p-value 0.002). There were 17 733 eSKT (67%) and 1051 DKT (67%) with scores in between these values and no differences in survival (p-values 0.676 and 0.185). CONCLUSIONS We have derived a dual kidney allocation score (DKAS) with good internal validity. Future prospective studies will be required to demonstrate external validity, but this score may help to standardize organ allocation for dual kidney transplantation.

  14. Feasibility of renal transplantation after unroofing of a large renal cyst in an expanded criteria donor

    PubMed Central

    Kanagarajah, Prashanth; Ekwenna, Obi; Ayyathurai, Rajinikanth; Burk, George W.; Ciancio, Gaetano

    2013-01-01

    We present a case in which a deceased donor kidney with a large simple cyst was successfully unroofed and transplanted to a 61-year-old male. The donor was a 62-year-old male with a history of hypertension for 2 years; cerebral vascular accident was the cause of death. A large 8-cm cyst distorting the renal hilum was identified upon the procurement of the deceased donor kidney. Prior to transplantation, the large cyst was unroofed from the allograft; the frozen section confirmed a benign cyst and the transplant was performed. Postoperatively, the serum creatinine level was 1.4 mg/ml at 22-month follow-up and the patient was normotensive. Deceased donor kidneys with giant cysts distorting the renal hilum can be effectively transplanted. PMID:24049388

  15. Trends in Usage and Outcomes for Expanded Criteria Donor Kidney Transplantation in the United States Characterized by Kidney Donor Profile Index

    PubMed Central

    Rege, Aparna; Irish, Bill; Castleberry, Anthony; Vikraman, Deepak; Sanoff, Scott; Ravindra, Kadiyala; Sudan, Debra

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing concern in the kidney transplant community about the declining use of expanded criteria donors (ECD) despite improvement in survival and quality of life. The recent introduction of the Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI), which provides a more granular characterization of donor quality, was expected to increase utilization of marginal kidneys and decrease the discard rates. However, trends and practice patterns of ECD kidney utilization on a national level based on donor organ quality as per KDPI are not well known. We, therefore, performed a trend analysis of all ECD recipients in the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) registry between 2002 and 2012, after calculating the corresponding KDPI, to enable understanding the trends of usage and outcomes based on the KDPI characterization. High-risk recipient characteristics (diabetes, body mass index ≥30 kg/m2, hypertension, and age ≥60 years) increased over the period of the study (trend test p<0.001 for all). The proportion of ECD transplants increased from 18% in 2003 to a peak of 20.4% in 2008 and then declined thereafter to 17.3% in 2012. Using the KDPI >85% definition, the proportion increased from 9.4% in 2003 to a peak of 12.1% in 2008 and declined to 9.7% in 2012. Overall, although this represents a significant utilization of kidneys with KDPI >85% over time (p<0.001), recent years have seen a decline in usage, probably related to regulations imposed by Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). When comparing the hazards of graft failure by KDPI, ECD kidneys with KDPI >85% have a slightly lower risk of graft failure compared to standard criteria donor (SCD) kidneys with KDPI >85%, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.95, a confidence interval (CI) of 0.94-0.96, and statistical significance of p<0.001. This indicates that some SCD kidneys may actually have a lower estimated quality, with a higher Kidney Donor Risk Index (KDRI), than some ECDs. The incidence of

  16. Transplanting hearts after death measured by cardiac criteria: the challenge to the dead donor rule.

    PubMed

    Veatch, Robert M

    2010-06-01

    The current definition of death used for donation after cardiac death relies on a determination of the irreversible cessation of the cardiac function. Although this criterion can be compatible with transplantation of most organs, it is not compatible with heart transplantation since heart transplants by definition involve the resuscitation of the supposedly "irreversibly" stopped heart. Subsequently, the definition of "irreversible" has been altered so as to permit heart transplantation in some circumstances, but this is unsatisfactory. There are three available strategies for solving this "irreversibility problem": altering the definition of death so as to rely on circulatory irreversibility, rather than cardiac; defining death strictly on the basis of brain death (either whole-brain or more pragmatically some higher brain criteria); or redefining death in traditional terms and simultaneously legalizing some limited instances of medical killing to procure viable hearts. The first two strategies are the most ethically justifiable and practical.

  17. A comparison of two questionnaires on Informed Consent for extended criteria liver donors.

    PubMed

    Bruzzone, Paolo; Giannarelli, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Un questionario riguardante il consenso informato del ricevente per i cosiddetti donatori marginali di fegato (“extended criteria donors”-ECD) è stato inviato, previa approvazione del Comitato Etico, via e-mail ai membri di 2 società scientifiche, ELPAT(Ethical,Legal and Psychologic Aspects of Organ Transplantation) ed ELITA (European Liver and Intestine Transplant Association)-ELTR(European Liver Transplant Registry). I risultati sono stati pubblicati in diversi lavori apparsi su Transplantation Proceedings. Analizzando statisticamente le tabelle negli articoli 2011 ELPAT e 2013 ELITA, nel lavoro più recente meno Centri Trapianto di fegato (LTC) hanno considerato l’età fino a 80 anni (p<.002) e SGOT>90 IU (p<.02), o tutti i criteri insieme (p<.0001), come indicatori di donatore marginale. Ciò potrebbe riflettere il fatto che nel tempo i LTC sono divenuti meno selettivi, a causa della crescente mortalità dei pazienti in lista di attesa. Considerando che in tutti i nostri studi abbiamo riscontrato un notevole ricorso agli ECD, è necessario che i pazienti ricevano tutte le informazioni che vogliano richiedere sia al momento dell’iscrizione in lista di attesa, sia quando il fegato di un donatore venga effettivamente loro proposto. E’ anche possibile creare una lista di attesa separata, per pazienti che non accettano ECD: tale scelta però ritarda in modo inevitabile il trapianto e quindi, potenzialmente, aumenta la mortalità in lista di attesa.

  18. EDC RESEARCH AT EPA ATLANTIC ECOLOGY DIVISION: DO ENVIRONMENTAL EDCS IMPACT FISH POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Atlantic Ecology Division, Office of Research and Development, EP A is a marine laboratory situated on Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. Researchers at AED are investigating the effects endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the aquatic environment might have on reproductive ...

  19. The benefits of pulsatile machine perfusion of standard criteria deceased donor kidneys at a geographically remote transplant center.

    PubMed

    Chueh, Shih-Chieh Jeff; Sankari, Bashir R; Lipscomb, Lorie; Modak, Asmita; Castello, Michael G; Avallone, Edwin J

    2014-01-01

    Benefits of pulsatile machine perfusion (pumping) of standard criteria donor (SCD) kidneys are unclear. Our center is located 4½ hours from our Organ Procurement Organization. We evaluated outcomes of pumping SCD kidneys under such circumstances by conducting a retrospective examination of all SCD kidneys transplanted between January 2007 and March 2012, comparing kidneys pumped (28 [group 1]) versus standard cold storage (77 [group 2]). Group 1 had fewer delayed graft function (DGF, 3.57% vs. 23.38%, p = 0.02) and slow graft function (SGF, 7.14% vs. 24.68%; p = 0.047) and faster serum creatinine recovery curve (p < 0.001) than group 2. Having a kidney pumped decreases the incidence (odds ratio [OR], 0.059) of DGF, SGF, or primary nonfunction. Group 1 were quicker to reach an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >30 ml/min (OR, 4.186; confidence interval [CI], [2.448-7.157]) or an eGFR >60 ml/min (OR, 2.669; CI [1.255-5.679]). Pumping the SCD kidneys in a geographically remote transplant center tended to be better than those preserved in cold storage. However, except recovery curve of serum creatinine during the first postoperative month, other parameters failed to reach statistical significance in the post hoc examination of the contemporary groups. Prospective paired kidney study is required to scrutinize this finding.

  20. Evaluation of eligibility criteria in living donor liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma by α-SMA-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Takamura, Hiroyuki; Nakanuma, Shinichi; Hayashi, Hironori; Tajima, Hidehiro; Kakinoki, Kaheita; Sakai, Seisyo; Makino, Isamu; Nakagawara, Hisatoshi; Miyashita, Tomoharu; Okamoto, Koichi; Nakamura, Keishi; Oyama, Katunobu; Inokuchi, Masashi; Ninomiya, Itasu; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Fushida, Sachio; Fujimura, Takashi; Ohnishi, Ichiro; Kayahara, Masato; Tani, Takashi; Arai, Kuniaki; Yamashita, Taro; Yamashita, Tatsuya; Kitamura, Hoshiko; Ikeda, Hiroko; Kaneko, Shuichi; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Matsui, Osamu; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2013-10-01

    The eligibility criteria of liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) must clearly confirm the prognosis not only from pathological diagnosis but also from pre-operative imaging diagnosis. In the present study, we evaluated published eligibility criteria for LT based on both pre-operative imaging diagnosis and pathological diagnosis using living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) recipients at our hospital by α-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in HCC. The Up-to-seven (Up-to-7), Asan and Tokyo criteria were evaluated, in both overall survival and HCC disease-free survival, to be statistically significantly beneficial criteria to define post-LDLT prognosis. Recipients only within Up-to-7 criteria based on both pre-operative imaging diagnosis and pathological diagnosis survived without HCC recurrence. Recipients with proliferation of α-SMA-positive CAFs in HCC had significantly poorer prognosis. All survival recipients without HCC recurrence, who were above the Up-to-7 criteria in pathological diagnosis, had no proliferation of α-SMA-positive CAFs. As a result of multivariate analysis, the significant independent factors defining prognosis of recipients after LDLT for HCC were Up-to-7 criteria and proliferation of α-SMA-positive CAFs. The ideal eligibility criteria for LDLT with HCC is Up-to-7 criteria and α-SMA-positive CAFs was considered to be an important factor in HCC recurrence. LDLT should be limited to recipients within Up-to-7 criteria or without proliferation of α-SMA-positive CAFs.

  1. Expanding the criteria of organ procurement from donors with prostate cancer: the application of the new Italian guidelines.

    PubMed

    D'Errico-Grigioni, A; Fiorentino, M; Vasuri, F; Corti, B; Ridolfi, L; Grigioni, W F; Bagni, Alberto; Pirini, Maria Giulia; Malvi, Deborah; Fabbrizio, Benedetta; Caprara, Giacomo; Alvaro, Nicola

    2010-08-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) represents the most prevalent malignancy in men more than 60-year-old, posing a problem in organ procurement from elderly subjects. However, most of the currently diagnosed CaP are low-grade and intraprostatic, with low metastatic risk, and there is recent evidence that most patients are overdiagnosed. The Italian National guidelines about organ acceptance from neoplastic donors changed in March 2005, extending the pool of potential candidates with CaP and introducing the function of a second opinion expert. Between 2001 and February 2005, 40 candidate donors with total PSA>/=10 and/or positive digital rectal examination underwent histopathological analysis of the prostate: 15 (37.5%) donors harboured CaP, and 25 (62%) were judged at 'standard risk'. After the introduction of the new guidelines in 2005, the second opinion expert judged at 'standard risk' 48 of 65 donors, while 17 of 65 needed histopathological analysis. Four (6.2%) donors harboured CaP, and 61 (94%) where judged at 'standard risk', with a significant increase of donated and actually transplanted organs. The application of the new guidelines and the introduction of a second opinion expert allowed a significant extension of the 'standard risk' category also to CaP patients, decreasing the histopathological examinations and expanding the donor pool.

  2. Added-value from a multi-criteria selection of donor catchments in the prediction of continuous streamflow series at ungauged pollution control-sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drogue, Gilles; Ben Khediri, Wiem; Conan, Céline

    2016-05-01

    We explore the potential of a multi-criteria selection of donor catchments in the prediction of continuous streamflow series by the spatial proximity method. Three criteria have been used: (1) spatial proximity; (2) physical similarity; (3) stream gauging network topology. An extensive assessment of our spatial proximity method variant is made on a 149 catchment-data set located in the Rhine-Meuse catchment. The competitiveness of the method is evaluated against spatial interpolation of catchment model parameters with ordinary kriging. We found that the spatial proximity approach is more efficient than ordinary kriging. When distance to upstream/downstream stream gauge stations is considered as a second order criterion in the selection of donor catchments, an unprecedented level of efficiency is reached for nested catchments. Nevertheless, the spatial proximity method does not take advantage from physical similarity between donor catchments and receiver catchments because catchments that are the most hydrologically similar to each catchment poorly match with the catchments that are the most physically similar to each catchment.

  3. EDC-37 Deflagration Rates at Elevated Pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Maienschein, J L; Koerner, J G

    2008-01-31

    We report deflagration rates on EDC-37 at high pressures. Experiments are conducted using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory High Pressure Strand Burner (HPSB) apparatus. The HPSB contains a deflagrating sample in a small volume, high pressure chamber. The sample consists of nine, 6.35 mm diameter, 6.35 mm length cylinders stacked on end, with burn wires placed between cylinders. Sample deflagration is limited to the cross-sectional surface of the cylinder by coating the cylindrical surface of the tower with Halthane 88-2 epoxy. Sample deflagration is initiated on one end of the tower by a B/KNO{sub 3} and HNS igniter train. Simultaneous temporal pressure history and burn front time of arrival measurements yield the laminar deflagration rate for a range of pressures and provide insight into deflagration uniformity. These measurements are one indicator of overall thermal explosion violence. Specific details of the experiment and the apparatus can be found in the literature.

  4. Evaluation of surfactant flushing for remediating EDC-tar contamination.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chenju; Hsieh, Cheng-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene dichloride tar (EDC-tar) is a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) waste originated from the process of vinyl chloride production, with major constituents including chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. This study investigated the feasibility of Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation (SEAR) for treating EDC-tar contaminated aquifers. Initial experiments explored the potential to enhance the apparent solubility of EDC-tar using single or mixed surfactants. The results showed that an aqueous solution mixed anionic and non-ionic surfactants (i.e., SDS/Tween 80) exhibited higher EDC-tar apparent solubility and lower surface tension than other surfactant systems tested. Additionally, alkaline pH aids in increasing the EDC-tar apparent solubility. In column flushing experiments, it was seen that the alkaline mixed SDS/Tween 80 solution showed better removal of pure EDC-tar from silica sand porous media. Furthermore, separation of EDC-tar in the surfactant solution was conducted employing a salting-out effect. Significant separation of DNAPL was observed when 13 wt.% or more NaCl was added to the solution. Overall, this study evaluates the feasibility of using SEAR for remediating EDC-tar contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater.

  5. Evaluation of surfactant flushing for remediating EDC-tar contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chenju; Hsieh, Cheng-Lin

    2015-06-01

    Ethylene dichloride tar (EDC-tar) is a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) waste originated from the process of vinyl chloride production, with major constituents including chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. This study investigated the feasibility of Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation (SEAR) for treating EDC-tar contaminated aquifers. Initial experiments explored the potential to enhance the apparent solubility of EDC-tar using single or mixed surfactants. The results showed that an aqueous solution mixed anionic and non-ionic surfactants (i.e., SDS/Tween 80) exhibited higher EDC-tar apparent solubility and lower surface tension than other surfactant systems tested. Additionally, alkaline pH aids in increasing the EDC-tar apparent solubility. In column flushing experiments, it was seen that the alkaline mixed SDS/Tween 80 solution showed better removal of pure EDC-tar from silica sand porous media. Furthermore, separation of EDC-tar in the surfactant solution was conducted employing a salting-out effect. Significant separation of DNAPL was observed when 13 wt.% or more NaCl was added to the solution. Overall, this study evaluates the feasibility of using SEAR for remediating EDC-tar contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater.

  6. Reconditioning by end-ischemic hypothermic in-house machine perfusion: A promising strategy to improve outcome in expanded criteria donors kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gallinat, Anja; Amrillaeva, Vera; Hoyer, Dieter P; Kocabayoglu, Peri; Benko, Tamas; Treckmann, Jürgen W; van Meel, Marieke; Samuel, Undine; Minor, Thomas; Paul, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    This clinical study evaluates end-ischemic hypothermic machine perfusion (eHMP) in expanded criteria donors (ECD) kidneys. eHMP was initiated upon arrival of the kidney in our center and continued until transplantation. Between 11/2011 and 8/2014 eHMP was performed in 66 ECD kidneys for 369 (98-912) minutes after 863 (364-1567) minutes of cold storage (CS). In 49 of 66 cases, the contralateral kidney from the same donor was preserved by static CS only and accepted by another Eurotransplant (ET) center. Five (10.2%) of these kidneys were ultimately judged as "not transplantable" by the accepting center and discarded. After exclusion of early unrelated graft losses, 43 kidney pairs from the same donor were eligible for direct comparison of eHMP vs CS only: primary non-function and delayed graft function (DGF) were 0% vs 9.3% (P=.04) and 11.6% vs 20.9% (P=.24). There was no statistically significant difference in 1-year graft survival (eHMP vs CS only: 97.7% vs 88.4%, P=.089). In a multivariate analysis, eHMP was an independent factor for prevention of DGF (OR: 0.28, P=.041). Development of DGF was the strongest risk factor for 1-year graft failure (Renal resistance: 38.2, P<.001). In summary, eHMP is a promising reconditioning technique to improve the quality and acceptance rate of suboptimal grafts.

  7. The classic EDCs, phthalate esters and organochlorines, in relation to abnormal sperm quality: a systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Yang, Lu; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Zhan; Yu, Yongquan; Wang, Meilin; Cromie, Meghan; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The association between endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and human sperm quality is controversial due to the inconsistent literature findings, therefore, a systematic review with meta-analysis was performed. Through the literature search and selection based on inclusion criteria, a total of 9 studies (7 cross-sectional, 1 case-control, and 1 pilot study) were analyzed for classic EDCs (5 studies for phthalate esters and 4 studies for organochlorines). Funnel plots revealed a symmetrical distribution with no evidence of publication bias (Begg’s test: intercept = 0.40; p = 0.692). The summary odds ratios (OR) of human sperm quality associated with the classic EDCs was 1.67 (95% CI: 1.31–2.02). After stratification by specific chemical class, consistent increases in the risk of abnormal sperm quality were found in phthalate ester group (OR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.09–1.95) and organochlorine group (OR = 1.98; 95% CI: 1.34–2.62). Additionally, identification of official data, and a comprehensive review of the mechanisms were performed, and better elucidated the increased risk of these classic EDCs on abnormal sperm quality. The present systematic review and meta-analysis helps to identify the impact of classic EDCs on human sperm quality. However, it still highlights the need for additional epidemiological studies in a larger variety of geographic locations. PMID:26804707

  8. The classic EDCs, phthalate esters and organochlorines, in relation to abnormal sperm quality: a systematic review with meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Yang, Lu; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Zhan; Yu, Yongquan; Wang, Meilin; Cromie, Meghan; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The association between endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and human sperm quality is controversial due to the inconsistent literature findings, therefore, a systematic review with meta-analysis was performed. Through the literature search and selection based on inclusion criteria, a total of 9 studies (7 cross-sectional, 1 case-control, and 1 pilot study) were analyzed for classic EDCs (5 studies for phthalate esters and 4 studies for organochlorines). Funnel plots revealed a symmetrical distribution with no evidence of publication bias (Begg’s test: intercept = 0.40 p = 0.692). The summary odds ratios (OR) of human sperm quality associated with the classic EDCs was 1.67 (95% CI: 1.31–2.02). After stratification by specific chemical class, consistent increases in the risk of abnormal sperm quality were found in phthalate ester group (OR = 1.52 95% CI: 1.09–1.95) and organochlorine group (OR = 1.98 95% CI: 1.34–2.62). Additionally, identification of official data, and a comprehensive review of the mechanisms were performed, and better elucidated the increased risk of these classic EDCs on abnormal sperm quality. The present systematic review and meta-analysis helps to identify the impact of classic EDCs on human sperm quality. However, it still highlights the need for additional epidemiological studies in a larger variety of geographic locations.

  9. The classic EDCs, phthalate esters and organochlorines, in relation to abnormal sperm quality: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Yang, Lu; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Zhan; Yu, Yongquan; Wang, Meilin; Cromie, Meghan; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-01-25

    The association between endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and human sperm quality is controversial due to the inconsistent literature findings, therefore, a systematic review with meta-analysis was performed. Through the literature search and selection based on inclusion criteria, a total of 9 studies (7 cross-sectional, 1 case-control, and 1 pilot study) were analyzed for classic EDCs (5 studies for phthalate esters and 4 studies for organochlorines). Funnel plots revealed a symmetrical distribution with no evidence of publication bias (Begg's test: intercept = 0.40; p = 0.692). The summary odds ratios (OR) of human sperm quality associated with the classic EDCs was 1.67 (95% CI: 1.31-2.02). After stratification by specific chemical class, consistent increases in the risk of abnormal sperm quality were found in phthalate ester group (OR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.09-1.95) and organochlorine group (OR = 1.98; 95% CI: 1.34-2.62). Additionally, identification of official data, and a comprehensive review of the mechanisms were performed, and better elucidated the increased risk of these classic EDCs on abnormal sperm quality. The present systematic review and meta-analysis helps to identify the impact of classic EDCs on human sperm quality. However, it still highlights the need for additional epidemiological studies in a larger variety of geographic locations.

  10. Th-17 Alloimmune Responses in Renal Allograft Biopsies From Recipients of Kidney Transplants Using Extended Criteria Donors During Acute T Cell-Mediated Rejection.

    PubMed

    Matignon, M; Aissat, A; Canoui-Poitrine, F; Grondin, C; Pilon, C; Desvaux, D; Saadoun, D; Barathon, Q; Garrido, M; Audard, V; Rémy, P; Lang, P; Cohen, J; Grimbert, P

    2015-10-01

    Although renal transplantation using expanded criteria donors has become a common practice, immune responses related to immunosenescence in those kidney allografts have not been studied yet in humans. We performed a retrospective molecular analysis of the T cell immune response in 43 kidney biopsies from patients with acute T cell-mediated rejection including 25 from recipients engrafted with a kidney from expanded criteria donor and 18 from recipients grafted with optimal kidney allograft. The clinical, transplant and acute T cell-mediated rejection characteristics of both groups were similar at baseline. The expression of RORγt, Il-17 and T-bet mRNA was significantly higher in the elderly than in the optimal group (p = 0.02, p = 0.036, and p = 0.01, respectively). Foxp3 mRNA levels were significantly higher in elderly patients experiencing successful acute T cell-mediated rejection reversal (p = 0.03). The presence of IL-17 mRNA was strongly associated with nonsuccessful reversal in elderly patients (p = 0.008). Patients with mRNA IL17 expression detection and low mRNA Foxp3 expression experienced significantly more treatment failure (87.5%) than patients with no mRNA IL17 expression and/or high mRNA Foxp3 expression (26.7%; p = 0.017). Our study suggests that the Th17 pathway is involved in pathogenesis and prognosis of acute T cell-mediated rejection in recipients of expanded criteria allograft.

  11. EDC-2: The Endocrine Society's Second Scientific Statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, V. A.; Fenton, S. E.; Flaws, J. A.; Nadal, A.; Prins, G. S.; Toppari, J.; Zoeller, R. T.

    2015-01-01

    The Endocrine Society's first Scientific Statement in 2009 provided a wake-up call to the scientific community about how environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) affect health and disease. Five years later, a substantially larger body of literature has solidified our understanding of plausible mechanisms underlying EDC actions and how exposures in animals and humans—especially during development—may lay the foundations for disease later in life. At this point in history, we have much stronger knowledge about how EDCs alter gene-environment interactions via physiological, cellular, molecular, and epigenetic changes, thereby producing effects in exposed individuals as well as their descendants. Causal links between exposure and manifestation of disease are substantiated by experimental animal models and are consistent with correlative epidemiological data in humans. There are several caveats because differences in how experimental animal work is conducted can lead to difficulties in drawing broad conclusions, and we must continue to be cautious about inferring causality in humans. In this second Scientific Statement, we reviewed the literature on a subset of topics for which the translational evidence is strongest: 1) obesity and diabetes; 2) female reproduction; 3) male reproduction; 4) hormone-sensitive cancers in females; 5) prostate; 6) thyroid; and 7) neurodevelopment and neuroendocrine systems. Our inclusion criteria for studies were those conducted predominantly in the past 5 years deemed to be of high quality based on appropriate negative and positive control groups or populations, adequate sample size and experimental design, and mammalian animal studies with exposure levels in a range that was relevant to humans. We also focused on studies using the developmental origins of health and disease model. No report was excluded based on a positive or negative effect of the EDC exposure. The bulk of the results across the board strengthen the

  12. EVALUATION OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNIQUES FOR EDC REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many of the chemicals identified as potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be present in surface or ground waters used as drinking water sources, due to their disposal via domestic and industrial sewage treatment systems and wet-weather runoff. In order to decrease t...

  13. A randomized trial of basiliximab with three different patterns of cyclosporin A initiation in renal transplant from expanded criteria donors and at high risk of delayed graft function.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Amado; Marcén, Roberto; Valdés, Francisco; Plumed, Jaime Sánchez; Solà, Ricard; Errasti, Pedro; Lauzurica, Ricardo; Pallardó, Luis; Bustamante, Jesús; Amenábar, Juan José; Plaza, Juan José; Gómez, Ernesto; Grinyó, Josep Maria; Rengel, Manuel; Puig, Josep Maria; Sanz, Aurelio; Asensio, Concepción; Andrés, Inés

    2009-01-01

    This study assays therapy with basiliximab and different patterns of cyclosporin A (CsA) initiation in renal transplant (RT) recipients from expanded criteria donors (ECD) and at high risk of delayed graft function (DGF). A multicentre six-month open-label randomized trial with three parallel groups treated with basiliximab plus steroids, mycophenolate mofetil and different patterns of CsA initiation: early within 24 h post-RT at 3 mg/kg/d (Group 1; n = 38), and at 5 mg/kg/d (Group 2; n = 40), or delayed after 7-10 d at 5 mg/kg/d (Group 3; n = 36). There were no differences among groups in six months GFR (43.1 +/- 12, 48.0 +/- 14 and 47.2 +/- 17 mL/min, respectively), DGF (Group 1: 31%, Group 2: 37%, Group 3: 42%), nor biopsy-proven acute rejection, although clinically treated and biopsy-proven acute rejection was significantly higher in Group 3 (25%) vs. Group 1 (5.3%, p < 0.05). At six months no differences were observed in death-censored graft survival or patient survival. Induction therapy with basiliximab and three CsA-ME initiation patterns in RT recipients from ECD and at high risk of DGF presented good renal function and graft survival at six months. Late onset group did not achieve improvement in DGF rate and showed a higher incidence of clinically treated and biopsy-proven acute rejection.

  14. ASSESSEMNT OF GONAD SIZE IN TAUTOGOLABRUS ADSPERSUS AS AN INDICATOR OF REPRODUCTION AND EDC EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cunner habitat includes estuarine and marine areas where sewage treatment and other discharges containing estrogenic (EDCs) are likely.

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment may disturb the population dynamics of wildlife by affecting their reproductive...

  15. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs).

    PubMed

    Palioura, Eleni; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder of unclear etiopathogenesis that is likely to involve genetic and environmental components synergistically contributing to its phenotypic expression. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and in particular Bisphenol A (BPA) represent a group of widespread pollutants intensively investigated as possible environmental contributors to PCOS pathogenesis. Substantial evidence from in vitro and animal studies incriminates endocrine disruptors in the induction of reproductive and metabolic aberrations resembling PCOS characteristics. In humans, elevated BPA concentrations are observed in adolescents and adult PCOS women compared to reproductively healthy ones and are positively correlated with hyperandrogenemia, implying a potential role of the chemical in PCOS pathophysiology, although a causal interference cannot yet be established. It is plausible that developmental exposure to specific EDCs could permanently alter neuroendocrine, reproductive and metabolic regulation favoring PCOS development in genetically predisposed individuals or it could accelerate and/or exacerbate the natural course of the syndrome throughout life cycle exposure.

  16. A review of the genotoxicity of 1,2-dichloroethane (EDC).

    PubMed

    Gwinn, Maureen R; Johns, Douglas O; Bateson, Thomas F; Guyton, Kathryn Z

    2011-01-01

    1,2-Dichloroethane (EDC, CAS#107-06-2) is a high production volume halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbon that is used mainly in the manufacture of vinyl chloride. EDC has been found in ambient and residential air samples, as well as in groundwater, surface water and drinking water. EDC has been well-studied in a variety of genotoxicity assays, and appears to involve the metabolic activation of the parent compound. We critically evaluated the genotoxicity data of EDC and its metabolites as part of an evaluation of carcinogenic mechanisms of action of EDC. EDC is genotoxic in multiple test systems via multiple routes of exposure. EDC has been shown to induce DNA adduct formation, gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations in the presence of key activation enzymes (including CYP450s and/or GSTs) in laboratory animal and in vitro studies. EDC was negative for clastogenesis as measured by the micronucleus assay in mice. In general, an increased level of DNA damage is observed related to the GSH-dependent bioactivation of EDC. Increased chromosomal aberrations with increased CYP450 expression were suggestive of a role for the oxidative metabolites of EDC in inducing chromosomal damage. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that EDC exposure, in the presence of key enzymes (including CYP450s and/or GSTs), leads to DNA adduct formation, gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations.

  17. Performance of Electrostatic Dust Collectors (EDCs) for Endotoxin Assessment in Homes: Effect of Mailing, Placement, Heating and Electrostatic Charge

    PubMed Central

    Kilburg-Basnyat, Brita; Metwali, Nervana; Thorne, Peter S.

    2016-01-01

    Electrostatic Dust Collectors (EDCs) are in use for passive sampling of bioaerosols, but particular aspects of their performance have not yet been evaluated. This study investigated the effect of mailing EDCs on endotoxin loading and the effect of EDC deployment in front of and away from heated ventilation on endotoxin sampling. Endotoxin sampling efficiency of heated and unheated EDC cloths was also evaluated. Cross-country express mailing of dust-spiked EDCs yielded no significant changes in endotoxin concentrations compared to dust-only samples for both high spiked-EDCs (p=0.30) and low spiked-EDCs (p=0.36). EDCs were also deployed in 20 identical apartments with one EDC placed in front of the univent heater in each apartment and contemporaneous EDC placed on the built-in bookshelf in each apartment. The endotoxin concentrations were significantly different (p=0.049) indicating that the placement of EDC does impact endotoxin sampling. Heated and unheated EDCs were deployed for 7 days in pairs in farm homes. There was a significant difference between endotoxin concentrations (p=0.027) indicating that heating EDCs may diminish their electrostatic capabilities and impact endotoxin sampling. The last study investigated the electrostatic charge of 12 heated and 12 unheated EDC cloths. There was a significant difference in charge (p=0.009) which suggests that heating EDC cloths may make them less effective for sampling. In conclusion, EDCs can be mailed to and from deployment sites, EDC placement in relationship to ventilation is crucial, and heating EDCs reduces their electrostatic charge which may diminish their endotoxin sampling capabilities. PMID:26325020

  18. Performance of electrostatic dust collectors (EDCs) for endotoxin assessment in homes: Effect of mailing, placement, heating, and electrostatic charge.

    PubMed

    Kilburg-Basnyat, Brita; Metwali, Nervana; Thorne, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Electrostatic Dust Collectors (EDCs) are in use for passive sampling of bioaerosols, but particular aspects of their performance have not yet been evaluated. This study investigated the effect of mailing EDCs on endotoxin loading and the effect of EDC deployment in front of, and away from, heated ventilation on endotoxin sampling. Endotoxin sampling efficiency of heated and unheated EDC cloths was also evaluated. Cross-country express mailing of dust-spiked EDCs yielded no significant changes in endotoxin concentrations compared to dust-only samples for both high-spiked EDCs (p = 0.30) and low-spiked EDCs (p = 0.36). EDCs were also deployed in 20 identical apartments with one EDC placed in front of the univent heater in each apartment and contemporaneous EDC placed on the built-in bookshelf in each apartment. The endotoxin concentrations were significantly different (p = 0.049) indicating that the placement of EDC does impact endotoxin sampling. Heated and unheated EDCs were deployed for 7 days in pairs in farm homes. There was a significant difference between endotoxin concentrations (p = 0.027) indicating that heating EDCs may diminish their electrostatic capabilities and impact endotoxin sampling. The last study investigated the electrostatic charge of 12 heated and 12 unheated EDC cloths. There was a significant difference in charge (p = 0.009) which suggests that heating EDC cloths may make them less effective for sampling. In conclusion, EDCs can be mailed to and from deployment sites, EDC placement in relationship to ventilation is crucial, and heating EDCs reduces their electrostatic charge which may diminish their endotoxin sampling capabilities.

  19. EFFECTS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS (EDCS) ON FETAL TESTES HORMONE PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) on Fetal Testes Hormone Production
    CS Lambright, VS Wilson, JR Furr, CJ Wolf, N Noriega, LE Gray, Jr
    US EPA, ORD/NHEERL/RTD, RTP, NC 27711

    Exposure to EDCs during critical periods of fetal sexual development can have...

  20. Organization versus activation: the role of endocrine-disrupting contaminants (EDCs) during embryonic development in wildlife.

    PubMed Central

    Guillette, L J; Crain, D A; Rooney, A A; Pickford, D B

    1995-01-01

    Many environmental contaminants disrupt the vertebrate endocrine system. Although they may be no more sensitive to endocrine-disrupting contaminants (EDCs) than other vertebrates, reptiles are good sentinels of exposure to EDCs due to the lability in their sex determination. This is exemplified by a study of alligators at Lake Apopka, Florida, showing that EDCs have altered the balance of reproductive hormones resulting in reproductive dysfunction. Such alterations may be activationally or organizationally induced. Much research emphasizes the former, but a complete understanding of the influence of EDCs in nature can be generated only after consideration of both activational and organizational alterations. The organizational model suggests that a small quantity of an EDC, administered during a specific period of embryonic development, can permanently modify the organization of the reproductive, immune, and nervous systems. Additionally, this model helps explain evolutionary adaptations to naturally occurring estrogenic compounds, such as phytoestrogens. PMID:8593864

  1. The egg-sharing model for human therapeutic cloning research: managing donor selection criteria, the proportion of shared oocytes allocated to research, and amount of financial subsidy given to the donor.

    PubMed

    Heng, Boon Chin; Tong, Guo Qing; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in human therapeutic cloning made by Hwang and colleagues have opened up new avenues of therapy for various human diseases. However, the major bottleneck of this new technology is the severe shortage of human donor oocytes. Egg-sharing in return for subsidized fertility treatment has been suggested as an ethically justifiable and practical solution to overcome the shortage of donor oocytes for therapeutic cloning. Because the utilization of shared oocytes in therapeutic cloning research does not result in any therapeutic benefit to a second party, this would necessitate a different management strategy compared to their use for the assisted conception of infertile women who are unable to produce any oocytes of their own. It is proposed that the pool of prospective egg-sharers in therapeutic cloning research be limited only to younger women (below 30 years of age) with indications for either male partner sub-fertility or tubal blockage. With regards to the proportion of the shared gametes being allocated to research, a threshold number of retrieved oocytes should be set that if not exceeded, would result in the patient being automatically removed from the egg-sharing scheme. Any excess supernumerary oocyte above this threshold number can be contributed to science, and allocation should be done in a randomized manner. Perhaps, a total of 10 retrieved oocytes from the patient may be considered a suitable threshold, since the chances of conception are unlikely to be impaired. With regards to the amount of subsidy being given to the patient, it is suggested that the proportion of financial subsidy should be equal to the proportion of the patient's oocytes being allocated to research. No doubt, the promise of future therapeutic benefit may be offered to the patient instead of financial subsidy. However, this is ethically controversial because therapeutic cloning has not yet been demonstrated to be a viable model of clinical therapy and any promises made to

  2. The measured temperature and pressure of EDC37 detonation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, J. W.; Richley, J. C.; Sutton, B. D.; Price, E.; Ota, T. A.

    2017-01-01

    We present the experimentally determined temperature and pressure of the detonation products of EDC37; a HMX based conventional high explosive. These measurements were performed on a series of cylinder tests. The temperature measurements were undertaken at the end of the cylinder with optical fibres observing the bare explosive through a LiF window. The temperature of the products was measured for approximately 2 µs using single colour pyrometry, multicolour pyrometry and also using time integrated optical emission spectroscopy with the results from all three methods being broadly consistent. The peak temperature was found to be ≈ 3600 K dropping to ≈ 2400 K at the end of the measurement window. The spectroscopy was time integrated and showed that the emission spectra can be approximated using a grey body curve between 520 - 800 nm with no emission or absorption lines being observed. The pressure was obtained using an analytical method which requires the velocity of the expanding cylinder wall and the velocity of detonation. The pressure drops from an initial CJ value of ≈ 38 GPa to ≈ 4 GPa after 2 µs.

  3. EDCs DataBank: 3D-Structure database of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Montes-Grajales, Diana; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2015-01-02

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are a group of compounds that affect the endocrine system, frequently found in everyday products and epidemiologically associated with several diseases. The purpose of this work was to develop EDCs DataBank, the only database of EDCs with three-dimensional structures. This database was built on MySQL using the EU list of potential endocrine disruptors and TEDX list. It contains the three-dimensional structures available on PubChem, as well as a wide variety of information from different databases and text mining tools, useful for almost any kind of research regarding EDCs. The web platform was developed employing HTML, CSS and PHP languages, with dynamic contents in a graphic environment, facilitating information analysis. Currently EDCs DataBank has 615 molecules, including pesticides, natural and industrial products, cosmetics, drugs and food additives, among other low molecular weight xenobiotics. Therefore, this database can be used to study the toxicological effects of these molecules, or to develop pharmaceuticals targeting hormone receptors, through docking studies, high-throughput virtual screening and ligand-protein interaction analysis. EDCs DataBank is totally user-friendly and the 3D-structures of the molecules can be downloaded in several formats. This database is freely available at http://edcs.unicartagena.edu.co.

  4. Roles of Edc3 in the oxidative stress response and CaMCA1-encoded metacaspase expression in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Jinmi

    2014-11-01

    The Edc3 protein is an enhancer of mRNA decapping, and acts as a scaffold protein for the mRNA granules that are known as processing bodies in yeast. In the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, various stresses, such as glucose depletion, oxidative stress, and filamentation defects, induce the accumulation of processing bodies. Here, we report that the edc3/edc3 deletion strain showed increased resistance to various stresses, including hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid, and high temperature. Oxidative stress is known to induce the intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic cell death in C. albicans. We found that the ROS level was lower in edc3/edc3 cells than in wild-type cells following oxidative stress. We also observed that expression of the metacaspase gene CaMCA1 was decreased in edc3/edc3 cells. Overexpression of CaMCA1 suppressed the decreased accumulation of ROS and the increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide in edc3/edc3 cells. The catalase Cat1 and the superoxide dismutase Sod1 were upregulated in edc3/edc3 cells as compared with wild-type cells. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that EDC3 plays a critical role in the expression of CaMCA1 and the oxidative stress response in C. albicans.

  5. Reevaluating the dead donor rule.

    PubMed

    Collins, Mike

    2010-04-01

    The dead donor rule justifies current practice in organ procurement for transplantation and states that organ donors must be dead prior to donation. The majority of organ donors are diagnosed as having suffered brain death and hence are declared dead by neurological criteria. However, a significant amount of unrest in both the philosophical and the medical literature has surfaced since this practice began forty years ago. I argue that, first, declaring death by neurological criteria is both unreliable and unjustified but further, the ethical principles which themselves justify the dead donor rule are better served by abandoning that rule and instead allowing individuals who have suffered severe and irreversible brain damage to become organ donors, even though they are not yet dead and even though the removal of their organs would be the proximal cause of death.

  6. Effects of carbon-based nanoparticles (CNPs) on the fate of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in different agricultural soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumpe, Britta; Wolski, Sabrina; Marschner, Bernd

    2013-04-01

    Nanotechnology is a major innovative scientific and economic growth area. To date there is a lack about possible adverse effects that may be associated with manufactured nanomaterial in terrestrial environments. Since it is known that on the one hand carbon-based nanoparticles (CNPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) strongly interact in wastewater and that on the other hand CNPs and EDCs are released together via wastewater irrigation to agricultural soils, knowledge of CNP effects on the EDC fate in the soil environment is needed for further risk assessments. The overall goal of this project is to gain a better understanding of interaction of CNPs with EDCs within the soil system. Three different soil samples were applied with different CNPs, EDCs and CNP-EDC complexes and incubated over a period of 6 weeks. The EDC mineralization as well as their uptake by soil microorganisms was monitored to describe impacts of the nanomaterial on the EDC fate. As quality control for the biological soil activity soil respiration, enzyme activities and the soil microbial biomass were monitored in all incubated soil samples. Clearly, EDCs bound in CNP complexes showed a decrease in mineralization. While the free EDCs showed a total mineralization of 34 to 45 %, the nano complexed EDCs were only mineralized to 12 to 15 %. Since no effects of the nanomaterial on the biological soil activity were observed, we conclude that the reduced EDC mineralization is directly linked to their interaction with the CNPs. Since additionally the EDC adsorption to CNPs reduced the EDC uptake by soil microorganism, we assume that CNPs generally form more or less recalcitrant aggregates which likely protect the associated EDCs from degradation.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF CHEMICAL METHODS TO CHARACTERIZE EXPOSURE TO EDCS IN THE NEUSE RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    To develop a quantitative health and environmental risk assessment of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), information on exposures is essential. A full exposure assessment has complex requirements that require preliminary information to direct further research in this area....

  8. Empirical Establishment of Oligonucleotide Probe Design Criteria; Use of Microarrays with Different Probe Sizes for Monitoring Gene Expression; Temporal Transcriptomic Analysis as Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough Transitions into Stationary Phase during Electron Donor Depletion

    SciTech Connect

    He, Q.; He, Z.; Huang, K. H.; Alm, E. J.; Wan, X. F.; Hazen, T. C.; Arkin, A. P.; Wall, J. D.; Zhou, J. Z.; Fields, M. W.

    2005-07-15

    In order to experimentally establish the criteria for designing gene-specific and group-specific oligonucleotide probes, an oligonucleotide array was constructed that contained perfect match (PM) and mismatch (MM) probes (50mers and 70mers) based upon 4 genes. The effects of probe-target identity, continuous stretch, mismatch position, and hybridization free energy on specificity were examined. Little hybridization was observed at a probe-target identity of <85% for both 50mer and 70mer probes........Based on the experimental results, a set of criteria are suggested for the design of gene-specific and group-specific oligonucleotide probes, and these criteria should provide valuable information for the development of new software and algorithms for microarray-based studies.; Microarrays with oligonucleotides of different lengths were used to monitor gene expression at a wholegenome level. To determine what length of oligonucleotide is a better alternative to PCR-generated probes, the performance of oligonucleotide probes was systematically compared to that of their PCR-generated counterparts for 96 genes from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in terms of overall signal intensity, numbers of genes detected, specificity, sensitivity, and differential gene expression under experimental conditions. .......To evaluate differential gene expression under experimental conditions, S. oneidensis MR-1 cells were exposed to low- or high-pH conditions for 30 and 60 min, and the transcriptional profiles detected by oligonucleotide probes (50-mer, 60-mer, and 70-mer) were closely correlated with those detected by the PCR probes. The results demonstrated that 70-mer oligonucleotides can provide the performance most comparable to the performance obtained with PCR-generated probes.; Desulfovibrio vulgaris was cultivated in a defined medium, and biomass was sampled for approximately 70 h to characterize the shifts in gene expression as cells transitioned from the exponential to the

  9. Effect of Transpiration on Plant Accumulation and Translocation of PPCP/EDCs

    PubMed Central

    Dodgen, Laurel K; Ueda, Aiko; Wu, Xiaoqin; Parker, David R; Gan, Jay

    2015-01-01

    The reuse of treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation in arid and hot climates where plant transpiration is high may affect plant accumulation of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study, carrot, lettuce, and tomato plants were grown in solution containing 16 PPCP/EDCs in either a cool-humid or a warm-dry environment. Leaf bioconcentration factors (BCF) were positively correlated with transpiration for chemical groups of different ionized states (p < 0.05). However, root BCFs were correlated with transpiration only for neutral PPCP/EDCs (p < 0.05). Neutral and cationic PPCP/EDCs showed similar accumulation, while anionic PPCP/EDCs had significantly higher accumulation in roots and significantly lower accumulation in leaves (p < 0.05). Results show that plant transpiration may play a significant role in the uptake and translocation of PPCP/EDCs, which may have a pronounced effect in arid and hot climates where irrigation with treated wastewater is common. PMID:25594843

  10. Effect of transpiration on plant accumulation and translocation of PPCP/EDCs.

    PubMed

    Dodgen, Laurel K; Ueda, Aiko; Wu, Xiaoqin; Parker, David R; Gan, Jay

    2015-03-01

    The reuse of treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation in arid and hot climates where plant transpiration is high may affect plant accumulation of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study, carrot, lettuce, and tomato plants were grown in solution containing 16 PPCP/EDCs in either a cool-humid or a warm-dry environment. Leaf bioconcentration factors (BCF) were positively correlated with transpiration for chemical groups of different ionized states (p < 0.05). However, root BCFs were correlated with transpiration only for neutral PPCP/EDCs (p < 0.05). Neutral and cationic PPCP/EDCs showed similar accumulation, while anionic PPCP/EDCs had significantly higher accumulation in roots and significantly lower accumulation in leaves (p < 0.05). Results show that plant transpiration may play a significant role in the uptake and translocation of PPCP/EDCs, which may have a pronounced effect in arid and hot climates where irrigation with treated wastewater is common.

  11. Identification of Edc3p as an enhancer of mRNA decapping in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Kshirsagar, Meenakshi; Parker, Roy

    2004-01-01

    The major pathway of mRNA decay in yeast initiates with deadenylation, followed by mRNA decapping and 5'-3' exonuclease digestion. An in silico approach was used to identify new proteins involved in the mRNA decay pathway. One such protein, Edc3p, was identified as a conserved protein of unknown function having extensive two-hybrid interactions with several proteins involved in mRNA decapping and 5'-3' degradation including Dcp1p, Dcp2p, Dhh1p, Lsm1p, and the 5'-3' exonuclease, Xrn1p. We show that Edc3p can stimulate mRNA decapping of both unstable and stable mRNAs in yeast when the decapping enzyme is compromised by temperature-sensitive alleles of either the DCP1 or the DCP2 genes. In these cases, deletion of EDC3 caused a synergistic mRNA-decapping defect at the permissive temperatures. The edc3Delta had no effect when combined with the lsm1Delta, dhh1Delta, or pat1Delta mutations, which appear to affect an early step in the decapping pathway. This suggests that Edc3p specifically affects the function of the decapping enzyme per se. Consistent with a functional role in decapping, GFP-tagged Edc3p localizes to cytoplasmic foci involved in mRNA decapping referred to as P-bodies. These results identify Edc3p as a new protein involved in the decapping reaction. PMID:15020463

  12. Uptake and Accumulation of Four PPCP/EDCs in Two Leafy Vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Dodgen, LK; Li, J; Parker, D; Gan, JJ

    2013-01-01

    Many pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are present in reclaimed water, leading to concerns of human health risks from the consumption of food crops irrigated with reclaimed water. This study evaluated the potential for plant uptake and accumulation of four commonly occurring PPCP/EDCs, i.e., bisphenol A (BPA), diclofenac sodium (DCL), naproxen (NPX), and 4-nonylphenol (NP), by lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and collards (Brassica oleracea) in hydroponic culture, using 14C-labeled compounds. In both plant species, plant accumulation followed the order of BPA > NP > DCL > NPX and accumulation in roots was much greater than in leaves and stems. Concentrations of 14C-PPCP/EDCs in plant tissues ranged from 0.22±0.03 to 927± 213 ng/g, but nearly all 14C-residue was non-extractable. PPCP/EDCs, particularly BPA and NP, were also extensively transformed in the nutrient solution. Dietary uptake of these PPCP/EDCs by humans was predicted to be negligible. PMID:23911624

  13. Dimorphic placental stress: A repercussion of interaction between endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and fetal sex.

    PubMed

    Sood, Surbhi; Shekhar, Sudhanshu; Santosh, Winkins

    2017-02-01

    Placental homeostasis is critical for fetal development as it determines the health of mother and fetus during pregnancy and in later life. Interestingly even the fetus, in a sexually dimorphic manner, influences the pedantic growth and development of placenta. Although placenta is thought to act as a protective barrier against chemical exposures, certain endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are circulating in mother's blood tend to cross placenta. These EDCs have been reported to cause changes in expression levels of certain genes, immunogenic factors and non-coding RNAs such as micro RNA (miRNA) and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) leading to placental stress. We hypothesize that these changes in placenta occur in a sexually dimorphic manner as a result of interaction between EDC exposure and fetal sex. Therefore, we propose that the ability of placenta to respond and buffer EDC exposure depends on fetal sex and, hence the EDC associated disease susceptibility of one sex differs from the other.

  14. Environmental epigenomics: Current approaches to assess epigenetic effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC's) on human health.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Orozco, Natalia; Santiago-Toledo, Gerardo; Barrón, Valeria; Espinosa-García, Ana María; García-García, José Antonio; García-Arrazola, Roeb

    2017-02-10

    Environmental Epigenomics is a developing field to study the epigenetic effect on human health from exposure to environmental factors. Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been detected primarily in pharmaceutical drugs, personal care products, food additives, and food containers. Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been associated with a high incidence and prevalence of many endocrine-related disorders in humans. Nevertheless, further evidence is needed to establish a correlation between exposure to EDC and human disorders. Conventional detection of EDCs is based on chemical structure and concentration sample analysis. However, substantial evidence has emerged, suggesting that cell exposure to EDCs leads to epigenetic changes, independently of its chemical structure with non-monotonic low-dose responses. Consequently, a paradigm shift in toxicology assessment of EDCs is proposed based on a comprehensive review of analytical techniques used to evaluate the epigenetic effects. Fundamental insights reported elsewhere are compared in order to establish DNA methylation analysis as a viable method for assessing endocrine disruptors beyond the conventional study approach of chemical structure and concentration analysis.

  15. Uptake and accumulation of four PPCP/EDCs in two leafy vegetables.

    PubMed

    Dodgen, L K; Li, J; Parker, D; Gan, J J

    2013-11-01

    Many pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are present in reclaimed water, leading to concerns of human health risks from the consumption of food crops irrigated with reclaimed water. This study evaluated the potential for plant uptake and accumulation of four commonly occurring PPCP/EDCs, i.e., bisphenol A (BPA), diclofenac sodium (DCL), naproxen (NPX), and 4-nonylphenol (NP), by lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and collards (Brassica oleracea) in hydroponic culture, using (14)C-labeled compounds. In both plant species, plant accumulation followed the order of BPA > NP > DCL > NPX and accumulation in roots was much greater than in leaves and stems. Concentrations of (14)C-PPCP/EDCs in plant tissues ranged from 0.22 ± 0.03 to 927 ± 213 ng/g, but nearly all (14)C-residue was non-extractable. PPCP/EDCs, particularly BPA and NP, were also extensively transformed in the nutrient solution. Dietary uptake of these PPCP/EDCs by humans was predicted to be negligible.

  16. QSAR classification of estrogen receptor binders and pre-screening of potential pleiotropic EDCs.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Gramatica, P

    2010-10-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are suspected of posing serious threats to human and wildlife health through a variety of mechanisms, these being mainly receptor-mediated modes of action. It is reported that some EDCs exhibit dual activities as estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) binders. Indeed, such compounds can affect the normal endocrine system through a dual complex mechanism, so steps should be taken not only to identify them a priori from their chemical structure, but also to prioritize them for experimental tests in order to reduce and even forbid their usage. To date, very few EDCs with dual activities have been identified. The present research uses QSARs, to investigate what, so far, is the largest and most heterogeneous ER binder data set (combined METI and EDKB databases). New predictive classification models were derived using different modelling methods and a consensus approach, and these were used to virtually screen a large AR binder data set after strict validation. As a result, 46 AR antagonists were predicted from their chemical structure to also have potential ER binding activities, i.e. pleiotropic EDCs. In addition, 48 not yet recognized ER binders were in silico identified, which increases the number of potential EDCs that are substances of very high concern (SVHC) in REACH. Thus, the proposed screening models, based only on structure information, have the main aim to prioritize experimental tests for the highlighted compounds with potential estrogenic activities and also to design safer alternatives.

  17. Polish Society of Endocrinology Position statement on endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs).

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, Aleksandra; Rachoń, Dominik; Milewicz, Andrzej; Ruchała, Marek; Bolanowski, Marek; Jędrzejuk, Diana; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Górska, Maria; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Kos-Kudła, Beata; Lewiński, Andrzej; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    With the reference to the position statements of the Endocrine Society, the Paediatric Endocrine Society, and the European Society of Paediatric Endocrinology, the Polish Society of Endocrinology points out the adverse health effects caused by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) commonly used in daily life as components of plastics, food containers, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. The statement is based on the alarming data about the increase of the prevalence of many endocrine disorders such as: cryptorchidism, precocious puberty in girls and boys, and hormone-dependent cancers (endometrium, breast, prostate). In our opinion, it is of human benefit to conduct epidemiological studies that will enable the estimation of the risk factors of exposure to EDCs and the probability of endocrine disorders. Increasing consumerism and the industrial boom has led to severe pollution of the environment with a corresponding negative impact on human health; thus, there is great necessity for the biomonitoring of EDCs in Poland.

  18. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  19. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  20. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  1. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  2. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  3. NMR-based Metabolomics for Studying Toxicity, Compensation, and Recovery in Small Fish Exposed to EDCs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining the impact(s) on fish and other aquatic organisms of exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) is critical for determining the risks that these chemicals pose. However, to accurately evaluate these risks, beyond simply measuring a “before and after exposure” ...

  4. Transformation and Removal Pathways of Four Common PPCP/EDCs in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Dodgen, LK; Li, J; Wu, X; Lu, Z; Gan, JJ

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) enter the soil environment via irrigation with treated wastewater, groundwater recharge, and land application of biosolids. The transformation and fate of PPCP/EDCs in soil affects their potential for plant uptake and groundwater pollution. This study examined four PPCP/EDCs (bisphenol A, diclofenac, naproxen, and 4-nonylphenol) in soil by using 14C-labeling and analyzing mineralization, extractable residue, bound residue, and formation of transformation products. At the end of 112 d of incubation, the majority of 14C-naproxen and 14C-diclofenac was mineralized to 14CO2, while a majority of 14C-bisphenol A and 14C-nonylphenol was converted to bound residue. After 112 d, the estimated half-lives of the parent compounds were only 1.4 – 5.4 d. However a variety of transformation products were found and several for bisphenol A and diclofenac were identified, suggesting the need to consider degradation intermediates in soils impacted by PPCP/EDCs. PMID:24997388

  5. Executive Summary to EDC-2: The Endocrine Society's Second Scientific Statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, V. A.; Fenton, S. E.; Flaws, J. A.; Nadal, A.; Prins, G. S.; Toppari, J.; Zoeller, R. T.

    2015-01-01

    This Executive Summary to the Endocrine Society's second Scientific Statement on environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) provides a synthesis of the key points of the complete statement. The full Scientific Statement represents a comprehensive review of the literature on seven topics for which there is strong mechanistic, experimental, animal, and epidemiological evidence for endocrine disruption, namely: obesity and diabetes, female reproduction, male reproduction, hormone-sensitive cancers in females, prostate cancer, thyroid, and neurodevelopment and neuroendocrine systems. EDCs such as bisphenol A, phthalates, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diethyl ethers, and dioxins were emphasized because these chemicals had the greatest depth and breadth of available information. The Statement also included thorough coverage of studies of developmental exposures to EDCs, especially in the fetus and infant, because these are critical life stages during which perturbations of hormones can increase the probability of a disease or dysfunction later in life. A conclusion of the Statement is that publications over the past 5 years have led to a much fuller understanding of the endocrine principles by which EDCs act, including nonmonotonic dose-responses, low-dose effects, and developmental vulnerability. These findings will prove useful to researchers, physicians, and other healthcare providers in translating the science of endocrine disruption to improved public health. PMID:26414233

  6. INFLUENCE OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS (EDCS) ON MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT AND TUMOR SUSCEPTIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Influence of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs) on Mammary Gland Development and Tumor Susceptibility.

    Suzanne E. Fenton1, and Jennifer Rayner1,2

    1 Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL/ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, and 2 Department of Environmen...

  7. Donor Tag Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... Games > Donor Tag Game Printable Version Donor Tag Game This feature requires version 6 or later of ... LGBTQ+ Donors Blood Donor Community Real Stories SleevesUp Games Facebook Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Enter your ...

  8. [Kidney grafts from elderly donors].

    PubMed

    Hiesse, Christian; Pessione, Fabienne; Cohen, Sophie

    2003-06-07

    FROM AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL POINT OF VIEW: The epidemiology of renal transplantation had greatly changed over the past 10 years. The increasing number of patients with renal failure and candidates for transplantation increases the demand for grafts, whereas the sampling rate of organs remains stable. The mean age of the donors is rising, hence underlining the question of the use of organs of so-called "borderline" quality. THE WEAK POINTS OF ELDERLY GRAFTS: Aging of the kidneys affects the structure of the parenchyma and renal function, which decreases, notably in hypertensive persons. The elderly graft exhibits a critical mass of nephrons that is insufficient to fulfil the functional requirements of a poorly equipped recipient. The recipient is more sensitive to the added agressions: prolonged ischemia and immunological and medicinal agressions. THE RESULTS OF RENAL GRAFT FROM ELDERLY DONORS: They are quantitatively and qualitatively inferior to those of renal transplants from "ideal" donors. The donor's age is a significant factor influencing negatively influences the survival of the transplanted kidney, but dependent on past vascular history. Good results regarding the maintenance of dialysis are obtained by selecting the donors and by avoiding added risk factors. THE ASSESSMENT OF A GRAFT FROM AN ELDERLY DONOR: This, basically, relies on clinical criteria: donor's history, cause of death and accurate measurement of the renal function. A biopsy of the graft, at the time of sampling, provides useful information. TRANSPLANTATION STRATEGY OF A GRAFT FROM AN ELDERLY DONOR: Donor-recipient matching by age is a common approach. Grafting of both kidneys in the same recipient is a method presently under assessment. The episode of ischemia must be reduced and the immunosuppressive therapy adapted.

  9. Cadaveric donor selection and management.

    PubMed

    Studer, Sean M; Orens, Jonathan B

    2004-12-01

    The current availability of lung donors is far exceeded by the number of potential transplant recipients who are waiting for an organ. This disparity results in significant morbidity and mortality for those on the waiting list. Although it is desirable to increase overall consent rates for organ donation, doing so requires an intervention to affect societal response. In contrast, increased procurement of organs from marginal donors and improved donor management may be realized through increased study and practice changes within the transplant community. Transplantation of organs from marginal or extended-criteria donors may result in some increase in complications or mortality, but this possibility must be weighed against the morbidity and risk of death risk faced by individuals on the waiting list. The effects of this trade-off are currently being studied in kidney transplantation, and perhaps in the near future lung transplantation may benefit from a similar analysis. Until that time, the limited data regarding criteria for donor acceptability must be incorporated into practice to maximize the overall benefits of lung transplantation.

  10. Novel guidelines for organ donor cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Hassanain, Mazen

    2014-05-20

    Donor transmitted malignancy is a real disastrous risk when dealing with expanded criteria donors. As donor age is increasing, guidelines for cancer screening of the elderly brain dead organ donors must be evidence-based but systematic review of such is sparse. Based on a review of published literature and our 20 years' experience, we propose a new series of guidelines concerning screening for the four most common malignancies: breast colon, lung and prostate cancer. Prospective testing of the efficacy of such protocol will then follow.

  11. Short-term effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of EDC mixtures on Mytilus galloprovincialis digestive gland.

    PubMed

    Canesi, Laura; Borghi, Cristina; Ciacci, Caterina; Fabbri, Rita; Lorusso, Lucia Cecilia; Vergani, Laura; Marcomini, Antonio; Poiana, Giulio

    2008-05-30

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), including both natural estrogens and estrogenic chemicals, are almost ubiquitous in the aquatic environment. In the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis different estrogenic compounds, both individually and in mixtures, were shown to affect the immune function both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, individual estrogens, the natural estrogen 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) and the xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA), have been recently demonstrated to alter functional parameters and gene expression in mussel digestive gland, a tissue that plays a central role in metabolism and in nutrient distribution to the gonad during gamete maturation, with possible consequences on gametogenesis. In this work, the possible effects of a synthetic mixture of EDCs on the digestive gland were evaluated. The mixture contained seven estrogenic chemicals (17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethynyl estradiol, mestranol (MES), nonylphenol, nonylphenol monoethoxylate carboxylate (NP1EC), BPA, benzophenone (BP)), in proportions similar to those previously found in water samples of a coastal lagoon. Mussels were injected with different concentrations of the mixture (approximate nominal concentrations of total EDCs: 0.0177, 0.177, 1.77 and 177 ng/g dw) and tissues sampled 24 h post-injection. The mixture induced significant changes in lysosomal biomarkers (lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), neutral lipid (NL) and lipofuscin (LF) accumulation) as well as in the activities of catalase, glutathione transferase (GST), and of the glycolytic enzymes phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate kinase (PK). Moreover, downregulation of the gene transcription for the Mytilus estrogen receptor MeER1 isoform and for catalase, as evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR, were observed. Significant changes in lysosomal biomarkers, enzyme activities and gene transcription were also recorded at 72 h post-injection. The results demonstrate that short-term exposure to environmentally relevant

  12. [Experimental behavioral tests using monkey and rat offspring born from mothers exposed perinatally to EDCs].

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro

    2005-06-01

    Purpose of this study is to conduct risk assessment of EDCs for the development of CNS in humans by extrapolation from the results of behavioral tests in rats and monkeys. Our hypotheses on the mechanism which gives an adverse effect of EDCs to the developing neural systems are as follows. Thyroid hormone (TH) disrupting chemicals induce deterioration of neural development and estrogen (E2) agonistic chemicals may disturb apoptosis of fetal neural cells resulting in injury of normal neural circuit. The strategy of this study is a bottom up system; for example, basic information was obtained by an experiment using rats and then an experiment using monkey was designed to adapt the results from rats. The monkey experiment data will be assessed in comparison with human behavior. The tactics of this study are, however, a top down system. It is neural behaviors which are an end point evaluation that are primarily performed. They are mother-infant interactions, social behaviors, open field test, memory and learning tests, etc. As for analysis of the mechanism of EDCs' adverse effect, we tried two methods: one is an in vivo drug biased test which interferes with the monoamine oxidase (MAO) system and the other is an in vitro primary neural cell culture. EDCs including BPA, NP, propylthiouracil (PTU) and PCB-OH are injected orally to pregnant rats from gestation day 3 (GD3) to post natal day 21 (PND21) at weaning and their offspring were tested. On the other hand TCDD, BPA and PCB effect are assessed in rhesus monkey or cynomolgus monkey offspring. The study is still continuing and we will present the results obtained to date.

  13. CHANGES IN GENE AND PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN ZEBRAFISH (DANIO RERIO) FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTALLY-RELEVANT ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS (EDCS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are increasingly being reported in waterways worldwide and have been shown to affect fish species by disrupting numerous aspects of development, behavior, reproduction, and survival. Furthermore, new data have suggested that the reduced repr...

  14. Comparison of EDCs removal in full and pilot scale membrane bioreactor plants: Effect of flux rate on EDCs removal in short SRT.

    PubMed

    Komesli, O T; Muz, M; Ak, M S; Bakırdere, S; Gökçay, C F

    2016-06-17

    Currently, it is estimated that over 1 billion people are short of adequate portable water and this is expected to increase to 2.5 billion in the year 2025. Membrane Bioreactors (MBR) are now accepted as important tools to extend the availability of water by facilitating the reuse of wastewaters. Sludge Retention Time (SRT) and liquid flux rate are the two most important parameters for controlling the MBR process. In this study, the removal of selected endocrine disrupter compounds (EDCs), diltiazem, progesterone, estrone (E1), carbamazepine (Cbz) and acetaminophen (Acet), by one full scale (VRM) and one pilot scale (clear-box) MBR plants was investigated. During the study, sludge age was set at 10 days and the sludge concentration was fixed at about 5.0 g/L. The transmembrane pressure (TMP) got higher with either increasing flux or sludge concentration in the membrane chamber. Therefore, changing the flux from 13 to 30 L/m(2)-h in both plants caused enhancement in TMP from -25 to -300 mbar in the clear-box and from -160 to over -350 in the full scale MBRs. It was understood that flux had very little effect on the removal of EDCs at very low concentrations. Moreover, diltiazem was completely removed in the full scale whereas no removal was achieved in the pilot scale. Estrone and progesterone were completely removed by biodegradation in both plants. Acetaminophen was completely removed in the full scale plant whereas over 95% removal was achieved in the pilot scale MBR.

  15. Mutational analysis of metacaspase CaMca1 and decapping activator Edc3 in the pathogenicity of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Seok-Eui; Kim, Jinmi

    2016-12-01

    Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, displays apoptotic cell death in response to various stresses and a wide range of antifungal treatments. CaMca1, which is the only metacaspase in C. albicans, has been described as a key player in apoptotic cell death. Edc3 is an mRNA decapping activator and a scaffold protein of processing bodies. Edc3 was previously shown to regulate CaMCA1 expression and oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. In this study, we analyzed the contribution of the catalytic residues of the CaMca1 to the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and pathogenicity of C. albicans. The CaMCA1(C292A) mutation decreased caspase activity to a level similar to that observed in the Camca1/Camca1 deletion strain and over-expression of CaMCA1(C292A) failed to suppress the oxidative-stress phenotypes of the edc3/edc3 mutant strain. The edc3/edc3, Camca1/Camca1, and CaMCA1(C292A) mutant strains were not virulent in a murine candidiasis model. Filamentation defects were observed in the Camca1/Camca1 mutant cells, whereas this defect was only partial in CaMCA1(C292A) mutant cells. These results suggest that CaMca1 and Edc3 play essential roles in the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and virulence of C. albicans, and also support the notion that Edc3 is a key regulator of CaMca1 expression.

  16. Donor cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Arguelles, Alejandro

    2012-04-01

    Minimal residual disease refers to the tumour cells that are still present in a given patient after completion of a therapeutic scheme. The demonstration and quantification of residual neoplastic cells has a crucial impact in clinical decision making, for it might prompt continuation of treatment, while the absence of such cells might serve as evidence to withdraw therapy. Therefore, both sensitivity and specificity of the methods used to unravel residual neoplastic cells must be highly reliable and robust. Flow cytometry has been widely used for this purpose, and its clinical performance depends mainly on the criteria of interpretation, rather than in the technique by itself; molecular biology techniques have proved to be highly sensitive and specific but unfortunately they cannot be used in all patients or in all types of leukemia. Finally, the development of donor cell leukemia in transplanted patients, might mimic residual disease and add more confusion to an already controversial issue. These topics are discussed in this paper.

  17. An analysis of the lack of donor pancreas utilization from younger adult organ donors.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Alexander C; Wainright, Jennifer L; Sleeman, Elizabeth; McBride, Maureen A; Baker, Tim; Samana, Ciara; Stock, Peter

    2010-09-15

    Donor pancreas utilization rates for whole organ transplant have remained low and have decreased over time. To identify the reasons for nonuse of pancreas from donors who meet common baseline acceptance criteria, we examined Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network data from 2005 to 2007 and identified a subgroup of 1763 "potential pancreas donors" defined by age (19-40 years), body mass index (<30 kg/m), successful liver donation, and negative viral serology testing, which were not used. We characterize this cohort of potential donors including reasons for refusal, factors that may contribute to pancreas acceptance and function, and potential explanations for the lack of growth in pancreas organ utilization.

  18. Occurrence and spatial distribution of EDCs and related compounds in waters and sediments of Iberian rivers.

    PubMed

    Gorga, Marina; Insa, Sara; Petrovic, Mira; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-15

    The environmental presence of chemicals capable of affecting the endocrine system has become a matter of scientific and public concern after certain endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs) have been detected in the aquatic environment. In this work, 31 different EDCs and related compounds (suspect EDCs) belonging to different contaminant classes were studied: 10 estrogens, natural and synthetic, 8 alkylphenolic compounds, bisphenol A, triclosan and triclorocaraban, 4 parabens, 2 benzotriazoles, 3 organophosphorous flame retardants and the chemical marker caffeine, in river water and sediment of four Iberian rivers (Ebro, Llobregat, Júcar and Guadalquivir). An extensive sampling has been undertaken in two monitoring campaigns (2010 and 2011). A total of 77 samples of water and 75 sediments were collected. For this propose two different multiresidue analytical methods were applied, using the automated online EQuan/TurboFlow™ liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detection in tandem. In terms of concentrations the compounds found at the highest average concentrations were: nonylphenol monocarboxylate (NP1EC), tolyltriazole (TT), tris(chloroisopropyl)phosphate (TCPP) found at average concentrations above 100 ng/L, followed by 1H-benzotriazole and tris(butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBEP) found at average concentration higher than 50 ng/L. Natural and synthetic hormones were found at low levels not exceeding 16 ng/L and 7 ng/g for water and sediment, respectively, however they contributed to more than 80% of the total estrogenicity of the samples (expressed as the equivalents of estradiol EEQ, ng/L). Regarding the spatial distribution of these contaminants, the Llobregat river was found to be the most contaminated river basin, having sites near the mouth of the river the ones with the highest contaminant load. In the Ebro river basin several hot spots were identified and Júcar showed to be the least contaminated. Overall, the study confirmed the presence of

  19. Immobilization of cytochrome c on cysteamine-modified gold electrodes with EDC as coupling agent.

    PubMed

    De Wael, Karolien; Buschop, Hans; De Smet, Lina; Adriaens, Annemie

    2008-07-15

    Cyclic voltammetry has been applied for the characterization of cross-linked horse heart cytochrome c (HHC) on cysteamine-modified gold electrodes. The cross-linking, i.e. amide bond formation, between the proteins was achieved by using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) as coupling reagent. The optimal conditions for the formation of the HHC film were determined by varying the HHC concentration. In addition the reproducibility, stability and the influence of the scan rate upon these films were investigated with cyclic voltammetry. The protein film stability in a 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer solution was tested by UV/vis absorption spectroscopy.

  20. [Assessment and selection of kidney living donors].

    PubMed

    Gentil Govantes, Miguel Ángel; Pereira Palomo, Porfirio

    2010-01-01

    Donor protection should always be taken account during the selection and assessment of a living donor. On these terms, the evaluation of a potential donor must include these issues: 1) The donor act is altruistic, consciousness and out of coercion; 2) Life expectancy and quality of life of the recipient will improve after the living donor kidney transplantation; 3) The donor has normal renal function and the potential risk of developing nephropathy in the long term follow up is scarce (familiar nephropathies and other processes that may increase the potential risk for renal disease in the future, like severe hypertension, diabetes, etc must be ruled out). The glomerular filtrate should meet criteria for the normal function corresponding to age furthermore the absence of proteinuria and urine smear is normal; 4) The screening in the donor should contemplate those clinical situations or diseases non related to the kidney function but might elevate the surgical and/or anesthesia risk besides disease transmission to the recipient (as neoplasia or infections); 5) The surgical act is possible without technical difficulties and always performed after a negative result of the crossmatch between donor and recipient. The living donor evaluation process will follow a different schedule based on each particular case and the center facilities. Any case, the mentioned process is divided in two parts: The first one contains an initial screening (using non invasive and low cost tests) that allows discarding contraindications for donation (in both donor and recipient). In a second phase the assessment of the donor varies with donor characteristics. However, a test for renal function is mandatory besides imaging techniques (like angioTC), screening for transmissible diseases and a detailed evaluation for psychosocial aspects preferably made by professional. Moreover Spanish policy on living donation requires a report with information about the consent for donation developed by an

  1. Stabilization of collagen with EDC/NHS in the presence of L-lysine: a comprehensive study.

    PubMed

    Usha, R; Sreeram, K J; Rajaram, A

    2012-02-01

    This paper reports the effect of L-lysine on the conformational, rheological, and thermal properties of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) cross linked collagen and investigates the influence of l-lysine on the self assembly processes of collagen. In the absence of L-lysine, the rheological characterization of collagen cross linked with EDC/NHS showed an increase in shearing stress with shearing speed indicating that the collagen chains become rigid and the molecules are reluctant to flow. On the other hand, the increase in shearing stress with shearing speed is comparatively much less in the presence of L-lysine indicating a greater flexibility of the collagen molecules. The self assembly processes of collagen treated with EDC/NHS in the absence and presence of L-lysine were characterized using powder XRD, FT-IR, polarizing optical microscopy and kinetic studies. XRD studies show an increase in peak intensity and sharpness in the presence of L-lysine indicating the enhancement of crystallinity of collagen nano-fibrils. FT-IR results suggest that the incorporation of L-lysine in the EDC/NHS cross linking favors the molecular stability of collagen. From the present study, it is possible to conclude that the pre-treatment of collagen with L-lysine enhances EDC/NHS cross linking and can be used for biomaterial applications.

  2. Phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in Anzali Wetland, Iran: elevated concentrations of 4-nonylphenol, octhylphenol and bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Samar; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Sari, Abbas Esmaili; Bahramifar, Nader; Rahbarizade, Fatemeh

    2012-05-01

    We have studied the distribution and value of phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in surface sediment samples taken from Anzali Wetland, Iran. These samples were collected from 22 stations during the time span of June-May 2010. In each of the sampling stations, we detected 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), octylphenol (OP), and bisphenol A (BPA) with maximal concentrations of 29, 4.3, and 7 μg g(-1) dry weight (dw), respectively. High levels of alkylphenols (APs) and BPA were also found near urban areas. Furthermore there were no significant differences between those stations in terms of the detected levels. One of the important factors in controlling the fate of these compounds in the aquatic environment appeared to be Total Organic Carbon (TOC). Hierarchical cluster analysis showed differences in the biomarker characteristics of EDCs and TOC between the stations. Our findings indicate that EDCs are ubiquitous in sediments from northeast Wetlands of Iran, contaminating the aquatic habitats in this area.

  3. Bioavailability of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs): Liposome-water partitioning and lipid membrane permeation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    The bioavailability of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is a function of a number of parameters including the ability of the chemical to partition into organic tissue and reach receptor sites within an organism. In this dissertation, equilibrium partition coefficients between water and lipid membrane vesicles and artificial lipid membrane permeability were investigated for evaluating bioavailability of aqueous pollutants. Structurally diverse endocrine disrupting chemicals were chosen as model compounds for partitioning experiments and simple hydrophobic organic chemicals were used for the evaluation of a parallel artificial membrane device developed to mimic bioconcentration rates in fish. Hydrophobic interactions represented by octanol/water partition coefficients (KOWs) were not appropriate for estimating lipid membrane/water partition coefficients (Klipws) for the selected EDCs having a relatively large molar liquid volume (MLV) and containing polar functional groups. Correlations that include MLV and polar surface area (PSA) reduce the predicted value of log K lipw, suggesting that lipid membranes are less favorable than 1-octanol for a hydrophobic solute because of the changes in membrane fluidity and the amount of cholesterol in the lipid bilayers. These results suggested that KOW alone has limited potential for estimating K lipw, and MLV or PSA may be used as additional descriptors for developing quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). The poor correlations between KOW and Klipw observed in this research may be due to the highly organized structure of lipid bilayers. Measured thermodynamic constants demonstrated that the entropy contribution becomes more dominant for more organized liposomes having saturated lipid tails. This implies that entropy-driven partitioning process makes Klipw different from KOW especially for more saturated lipid bilayer membranes. In the parallel artificial membrane system developed, a membrane filter

  4. Removal of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during sand filtration and ozonation at a municipal sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Norihide; Shinohara, Hiroyuki; Murata, Ayako; Kiri, Kentaro; Managaki, Satoshi; Sato, Nobuyuki; Takada, Hideshige

    2007-11-01

    We investigated the efficiencies of removal of 24 pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during sand filtration and ozonation in an operating municipal sewage treatment plant (STP). The target compounds were 2 phenolic antiseptics (thymol, triclosan), 5 acidic analgesics or anti-inflammatories (ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, fenoprofen, mefenamic acid), 4 amide pharmaceuticals (propyphenazone, crotamiton, carbamazepine, diethyltoluamide), 7 antibiotics (sulfapyridine, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, azithromycin, erythromycin anhydride, clarithromycin, roxithromycin), 3 phenolic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) (nonylphenol:NP, octylphenol:OP, bisphenol A:BPA) and 3 natural estrogens (17 beta-estradiol:E2, estrone:E1, estriol:E3). Ozonation removed approximately 80% or more of the phenolic antiseptics, crotamiton, sulfonamide and macrolide antibiotics, and 17 beta-estradiol. Their removal is discussed in terms of chemical structure. The study ascertained the validity of ozonation mechanisms proposed by previous studies in an actually running STP. Compounds with a CC double bond or an aromatic structure with electron donors (e.g., phenol, alkyl, methoxy, or non-protonated amine) were susceptible to ozonation. Compounds with amide structures were resistant. Removal of the PhACs during sand filtration was generally inefficient, probably because of their low hydrophobicities. The combination of ozonation and sand filtration with activated sludge treatment gave efficient removal (>80%) of all the target compounds except carbamazepine and diethyltoluamide. Among all the steps in the plant, ozonation contributed substantially to overall removal of naproxen, ketoprofen, triclosan, crotamiton, sulfapyridine, macrolide antibiotics, and estrone.

  5. Transplanting Kidneys from Deceased Donors With Severe Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Heilman, R L; Smith, M L; Kurian, S M; Huskey, J; Batra, R K; Chakkera, H A; Katariya, N N; Khamash, H; Moss, A; Salomon, D R; Reddy, K S

    2015-08-01

    Our aim was to determine outcomes with transplanting kidneys from deceased donors with acute kidney injury, defined as a donor with terminal serum creatinine ≥2.0 mg/dL, or a donor requiring acute renal replacement therapy. We included all patients who received deceased donor kidney transplant from June 2004 to October 2013. There were 162 AKI donor transplant recipients (21% of deceased donor transplants): 139 in the standard criteria donor (SCD) and 23 in the expanded criteria donor (ECD) cohort. 71% of the AKI donors had stage 3 (severe AKI), based on acute kidney injury network (AKIN) staging. Protocol biopsies were done at 1, 4, and 12 months posttransplant. One and four month formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) biopsies from 48 patients (24 AKI donors, 24 non-AKI) underwent global gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays (96 arrays). DGF was more common in the AKI group but eGFR, graft survival at 1 year and proportion with IF/TA>2 at 1 year were similar for the two groups. At 1 month, there were 898 differentially expressed genes in the AKI group (p-value <0.005; FDR <10%), but by 4 months there were no differences. Transplanting selected kidneys from deceased donors with AKI is safe and has excellent outcomes.

  6. CCHCR1 interacts with EDC4, suggesting its localization in P-bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Y.H.; Wong, C.C.; Li, K.W.; Chan, K.M.; Boukamp, P.; Liu, W.K.

    2014-09-10

    Coiled‐coil alpha‐helical rod protein 1 (CCHCR1) is suggested as a candidate biomarker for psoriasis for more than a decade but its function remains poorly understood because of the inconsistent findings in the literature. CCHCR1 protein is suggested to be localized in the cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondria, or centrosome and to regulate various cellular functions, including steroidogenesis, proliferation, differentiation, and cytoskeleton organization. In this study, we attempted to find a consensus between these findings by identifying the interaction partners of CCHCR1 using co-immunoprecipiation with a stable cell line expressing EGFP-tagged CCHCR1. Out of more than 100 co-immunoprecipitants identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), the enhancer of mRNA-decapping protein 4 (EDC4), which is a processing body (P-body) component, was particularly found to be the major interacting partner of CCHCR1. Confocal imaging confirmed the localization of CCHCR1 in P-bodies and its N-terminus is required for this subcellular localization, suggesting that CCHCR1 is a novel P-body component. As P-bodies are the site for mRNA metabolism, our findings provide a molecular basis for the function of CCHCR1, any disruption of which may affect the transcriptome of the cell, and causing abnormal cell functions. - Highlights: • We identified CCHCR1 as a novel P-body component. • We identified EDC4 as the major interacting partner of CCHCR1. • N-terminus of CCHCR1 protein is required for its P-bodies localization.

  7. Volunteer donor apheresis.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Dan A

    2002-02-01

    Volunteer donor apheresis has evolved from early plasmapheresis procedures that collected single components into technically advanced multicomponent procedures that can produce combinations of red blood cells, platelets, and plasma units. Blood collection and utilization is increasing annually in the United States. The number of apheresis procedures is also increasing such that single donor platelet transfusions now exceed platelet concentrates from random donors. Donor qualifications for apheresis vary from those of whole blood. Depending on the procedure, the donor weight, donation interval, and platelet count must be taken into consideration. Adverse effects of apheresis are well known and fortunately occur in only a very small percentage of donors. The recruitment of volunteer donors is one of the most challenging aspects of a successful apheresis program. As multicomponent apheresis becomes more commonplace, it is important for collection centers to analyze the best methods to recruit and collect donors.

  8. METABOLOMICS AS A TOOL FOR DISCRIMINATING AMONG ADAPTIVE, COMPENSATORY, AND TOXIC RESPONSES UPON EXPOSURE OF SMALL FISH TO EDCS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining the impact(s) of exposure on aquatic organisms by endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) is essential for determining the risks that these chemicals pose. However, to accurately evaluate these risks, beyond simply measuring a before and after exposure snapshot, resear...

  9. TRANSGENERATIONAL (IN UTERO/LACTATIONAL) EXPOSURE PROTOCOL TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECTS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS (EDCS) IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This protocol is designed to evaluate the effects of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs) through fetal (transplacental) and/or neonatal (via the dam's milk) exposure during the critical periods of reproductive organogenesis in the rat. Continued direct exposure to the F1 pups...

  10. Identification of the Rps28 binding motif from yeast Edc3 involved in the autoregulatory feedback loop controlling RPS28B mRNA decay.

    PubMed

    Kolesnikova, Olga; Back, Régis; Graille, Marc; Séraphin, Bertrand

    2013-11-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Edc3 protein was previously reported to participate in the auto-regulatory feedback loop controlling the level of the RPS28B messenger RNA (mRNA). We show here that Edc3 binds directly and tightly to the globular core of Rps28 ribosomal protein. This binding occurs through a motif that is present exclusively in Edc3 proteins from yeast belonging to the Saccharomycetaceae phylum. Functional analyses indicate that the ability of Edc3 to interact with Rps28 is not required for its general function and for its role in the regulation of the YRA1 pre-mRNA decay. In contrast, this interaction appears to be exclusively required for the auto-regulatory mechanism controlling the RPS28B mRNA decay. These observations suggest a plausible model for the evolutionary appearance of a Rps28 binding motif in Edc3.

  11. Management to optimize organ procurement in brain dead donors.

    PubMed

    Mascia, L; Mastromauro, I; Viberti, S; Vincenzi, M; Zanello, M

    2009-03-01

    The demand for donor organs continues to exceed the number of organs available for transplantation. Many reasons may account for this discrepancy, such as the lack of consent, the absence of an experienced coordinator team able to solve logistical problems, the use of strict donor criteria, and suboptimal, unstandardized critical care management of potential organ donors. This has resulted in efforts to improve the medical care delivered to potential organ donors, so as to reduce organ shortages, improve organ procurement, and promote graft survival. The physiological changes that follow brain death entail a high incidence of complications jeopardizing potentially transplantable organs. Adverse events include cardiovascular changes, endocrine and metabolic disturbances, and disruption of internal homeostasis. Brain death also upregulates the release of pro-inflammatory molecules. Recent findings support the hypothesis that a preclinical lung injury characterized by an enhanced inflammatory response is present in potential donors and may predispose recipients to an adverse clinical prognosis following lung transplantation. In clinical practice, hypotension, diabetes insipidus, relative hypothermia, and natremia are more common than disseminated intravascular coagulation, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary oedema, acute lung injury, and metabolic acidosis. Strategies for the management of organ donors exist and consist of the normalization of donor physiology. Management has been complicated by the recent use of ''marginal'' donors and donors of advanced age or with ''extended'' criteria. Current guidelines suggest that the priority of critical care management for potential organ donors should be shifted from a ''cerebral protective'' strategy to a multimodal strategy aimed to preserve peripheral organ function.

  12. Blood donor selection in European Union directives: room for improvement

    PubMed Central

    de Kort, Wim; Mayr, Wolfgang; Jungbauer, Christof; Vuk, Tomislav; Kullaste, Riin; Seifried, Erhard; Grazzini, Giuliano; de Wit, Jeroen; Folléa, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Background Transfusion-transmissible infections have made both blood bankers and health authorities overly cautious. The general public expects and hence reinforces this policy. To obtain a high level of blood product safety, blood and plasma donors have to meet increasingly stringent eligibility criteria; however, it is not known whether this policy translates into improved outcomes for patients. There is a risk that the management of donors does not match the ambition of greater safety for patients. European directives related to the collection process and donor selection will probably be reconsidered in the next few years. Material and methods The development of European directives on donor selection and their basis in the literature were reviewed with an emphasis on the background and considerations for eligibility criteria to be included in the directives. Results The precautionary principle appears to be the predominant reason behind the set of eligibility criteria. However, the formal eligibility criteria, put into force in 2004, do not balance with the developments of the past decade in laboratory tests and measures that have substantially reduced actual infection risks. In no cases were the effects of eligibility criteria on the donor pool and donor well-being quantified. Regional differences in the epidemiology of transfusion-transmissible infections were not taken into consideration either. Discussion First, the Authors promote the collection of epidemiological data on the incidence and prevalence of conditions in the general population and in blood and plasma donors which could pose a risk for transfused patients, in order to use these data as a basis for decision-making in donor-selection policies. Second, the Authors suggest including allowance for differential deferral criteria throughout Europe, based on factual risk levels. There should be an accepted balance between donor and patient welfare, and also between risk to transfusion safety and risk of

  13. Surface modification of tungsten carbide by electrical discharge coating (EDC) using a titanium powder suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janmanee, Pichai; Muttamara, Apiwat

    2012-07-01

    Surface modification by a titanium coating layer onto a tungsten carbide surface by electrical discharge coating (EDC) was studied by considering a titanium coating modification as well as the completeness of the tungsten carbide surface. This was carried out by electrical discharge machining (EDM). The tungsten carbide material was produced using a fluid dielectric oil, which was mixed with titanium powder. The current and duty cycles were varied resulting in a change in the titanium coating layer thickness. Also, an analysis of the chemical composition using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) revealed that a titanium coating layer was formed causing the hardness of the titanium surface to be close to that of tungsten carbide. The completeness of the surface was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a small number of microcracks were found on the surface since the microcracks were filled and substituted by titanium powder and carbon (a hydrocarbon) that decomposed from the dielectric that acted as a combiner (TiC). Also, the high concentration of carbon increased the amount of Ti and C combination and TiC was formed, which enhanced the surface hardness of the coated layer to 1750 HV. The surface roughness of the coated layer decreased and this reduced the formation of microcracks on the surface workpiece.

  14. O-Glycosyl Donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J. Cristóbal

    O-Glycosyl donors, despite being one of the last successful donors to appear, have developed themselves into a burgeoning class of glycosyl donors. They can be classified in two main types: O-alkyl and O-aryl (or hetaryl) glycosyl donors. They share, however, many characteristics, they can be (1) synthesized from aldoses, either by modified Fisher glycosidation (O-alkyl) or by nucleophilic aromatic substitution (O-aryl or O-hetaryl), (2) stable to diverse chemical manipulations, (3) directly used for saccharide coupling, and (4) chemoselectively activated. Among these, n-pentenyl glycosides stand apart. They were the first O-alkyl glycosyl donors to be described and have paved the way to many conceptual developments in oligosaccharide synthesis. The development of the chemoselectivity-based "armed-disarmed" approach for saccharide coupling, including its stereoelectronic or torsional variants, now extended to other kinds of glycosyl donors, was first recognized in n-pentenyl glycosides. The chemical manipulation of the anomeric substituent in the glycosyl donor to induce reactivity differences between related species (sidetracking) was also introduced in n-pentenyl glycosides. An evolution of this concept, the "latent-active" strategy for glycosyl couplings, first described in thioglycosyl donors (vide infra), has been elegantly applied to O-glycosyl donors. Thus, allyl and vinyl glycosides, 2-(benzyloxycarbonyl)benzyl (BCB) glycosides and 2'-carboxybenzyl (CB) glycosides are useful "latent-active" glycosyl pairs. Finally, unprotected 3-methoxy-2-pyridyl (MOP) glycosides have been used in glycosylation processes with moderate success.

  15. [Evaluation and follow-up of living kidney donors].

    PubMed

    Giessing, M; Schönberger, B; Fritsche, L; Budde, K

    2004-01-23

    An increase in waiting time for a cadaveric organs and a better graft-function, graft- and patient-survival with kidneys from a living donors have lead to an increase in living-donor renal transplantation in the therapy of end-stage renal disease. In Germany, with the implementation of a transplantation law in 1997 and due to improved surgical techniques (laparoscopy) the proportion of living renal donors has almost tripled during the last five years. The transplantation law also names the potential donors, including not only genetically related but also emotionally related donors. Inclusion criteria for living donation are age > 18 years, mental ability to give consent and an altruistic motivation (exclusion of financial benefits for the donor). If ABO blood group compatibility between donor and recipient is given and a cross match does not reveal immunologic obstacles a thorough medical and psychological examination must be performed with the potential donor. All risk factors for the donor beyond the actual operation must be excluded. Therefore all organ-systems have to be evaluated and risks for the donor as well as transferable pathologies and infections must be ruled out. International guidelines help to perform an efficient evaluation. Following organ donation the donor should be medically controlled as requested by law. Also, psychological counselling should be offered. The aim is to minimize risks for the single kidney and to recognize early potentially kidney damaging affections.

  16. Artificial intelligence techniques to optimize the EDC/NHS-mediated immobilization of cellulase on Eudragit L-100.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Xu, Jing-Liang; Yuan, Zhen-Hong; Qi, Wei; Liu, Yun-Yun; He, Min-Chao

    2012-01-01

    Two artificial intelligence techniques, namely artificial neural network (ANN) and genetic algorithm (GA) were combined to be used as a tool for optimizing the covalent immobilization of cellulase on a smart polymer, Eudragit L-100. 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethyllaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) concentration, N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) concentration and coupling time were taken as independent variables, and immobilization efficiency was taken as the response. The data of the central composite design were used to train ANN by back-propagation algorithm, and the result showed that the trained ANN fitted the data accurately (correlation coefficient R(2) = 0.99). Then a maximum immobilization efficiency of 88.76% was searched by genetic algorithm at a EDC concentration of 0.44%, NHS concentration of 0.37% and a coupling time of 2.22 h, where the experimental value was 87.97 ± 6.45%. The application of ANN based optimization by GA is quite successful.

  17. Donor Telomere Length SAA

    Cancer.gov

    A new NCI study has found that, among patients with severe aplastic anemia who received a hematopoietic cell transplant from an unrelated donor, those whose donor white blood cells had longer telomeres had higher survival rates five-years after transplant

  18. Rich Donors, Poor Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The shifting ideological winds of foreign aid donors have driven their policy towards governments in poor countries. Donors supported state-led development policies in poor countries from the 1940s to the 1970s; market and private-sector driven reforms during the 1980s and 1990s; and returned their attention to the state with an emphasis on…

  19. New technologies for infectious screening of organ donors.

    PubMed

    Fishman, J A

    2011-01-01

    Viral, bacterial, parasitic, prion, and fungal infections, although uncommon, have been transmitted via organ and tissue allografts. Improved screening techniques for infectious diseases in organ donors have helped to reduce disease transmission. Reports of clusters of donor-derived infections illustrate the need to improve the screening of tissue and organ donors. Available microbiologic assays, including molecular tests, are generally designed for use as diagnostic tools in individuals believed to have a specific infection based on clinical or epidemiological criteria. These assays are frequently unsuitable in the screening of deceased organ donors. Nucleic acid testing may reduce the risk of disease transmission by detecting early-stage infection, including those from human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus in the "window" period before antibody seroconversion can be documented. Screening of organ donors for potential pathogens cannot completely exclude the risk of disease transmission. The process of donor screening must continue to evolve with advances in diagnostic technologies for infectious diseases.

  20. Novel collagen scaffolds prepared by using unnatural D-amino acids assisted EDC/NHS crosslinking.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Ganesan; Sehgal, Praveen Kumar; Mandal, Asit Baran; Sadulla, Sayeed

    2013-01-01

    This work discusses the preparation and characterization of novel collagen scaffolds by using unnatural D-amino acids (Coll-D-AAs)-assisted 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC)/N-hydroxyl succinimide(NHS)-initiated crosslinking. The mechanical strength, hydrothermal and structural stability, resistance to biodegradation and the biocompatibility of Coll-D-AAs matrices were investigated. The results from Thermo mechanical analysis, Differential scanning calorimetric analysis and Thermo gravimetric analysis of the Coll-D-AAs matrices indicate a significant increase in the tensile strength (TS, 180±3), % elongation (% E, 80±9), elastic modulus (E, 170±4) denaturation temperature (T d, 108±4) and a significant decrease in decomposition rate (Tg, 64±6). Scanning electron microscopic and Atomic force microscopic analyses revealed a well-ordered with properly oriented and well-aligned structure of the Coll-D-AAs matrices. FT-IR results suggest that the incorporation of D-AAs favours the molecular stability of collagen matrix. The D-AAs stabilizing the collagen matrices against degradation by collagenase would have been brought about by protecting the active sites in collagen. The Coll-D-AAs matrices have good biocompatibility when compared with native collagen matrix. Molecular docking studies also indicate better understanding of bonding pattern of collagen with D-AAs. These Coll-D-AAs matrices have been produced in high mechanical strength, thermally and biologically stable, and highly biocompatible forms that can be further manipulated into the functional matrix suitable in designing scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medical applications.

  1. Superior Survival Using Living Donors and Donor-Recipient Matching Using a Novel Living Donor Risk Index

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, David S.; French, Benjamin; Abt, Peter L; Olthoff, Kim; Shaked, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    The deceased-donor organ supply in the U.S. has not been able to keep pace with the increasing demand for liver transplantation. We examined national OPTN/UNOS data from 2002–2012 to assess whether LDLT has surpassed deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) as a superior method of transplantation, and used donor and recipient characteristics to develop a risk score to optimize donor and recipient selection for LDLT. From 2002–2012, there were 2,103 LDLTs and 46,674 DDLTs that met the inclusion criteria. The unadjusted 3-year graft survival for DDLTs was 75.5% (95% CI: 75.1–76.0%) compared with 78.9% (95% CI: 76.9–80.8%; p<0.001) for LDLTs that were performed at experienced centers (>15 LDLTs), with substantial improvement in LDLT graft survival over time. In multivariable models, LDLT recipients transplanted at experienced centers with either autoimmune hepatitis or cholestatic liver disease had significantly lower risks of graft failure (HR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.37–0.84 and HR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.63–0.92, respectively). An LDLT risk score that included both donor and recipient variables facilitated stratification of LDLT recipients into high, intermediate, and low-risk groups, with predicted 3-year graft survival ranging from >87% in the lowest risk group to <74% in the highest risk group. Current post-transplant outcomes for LDLT are equivalent, if not superior to DDLT when performed at experienced centers. An LDLT risk score can be used to optimize LDLT outcomes and provides objective selection criteria for donor selection in LDLT. PMID:25042283

  2. Characterization of emissions of dioxins and furans from ethylene dichloride (EDC), vinyl chloride (VCM) and polyvinylchloride (PVC) facilities in the United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, W.F. Jr.; Borrelli, F.E.; Garrity, P.J.; Jacobs, R.A.; Lewis, J.W.; McCreedy, R.L.; Weston, A.F.; Ledvina, J.C.

    1997-12-31

    Members of The Vinyl Inst., under the auspices of its Dioxin Characterization Program have analyzed for potential dioxin/furan (PCDD/F) concentrations in polyvinylchloride (PVC) resins, treated wastewater effluent, ethylene dichloride (EDC) product and wastewater sludge at EDC, vinyl chloride (VCM) and PVC facilities. No 2,3,7,8-TCDD was detected in any sample analyzed under the program to date. Results from wastewater sludge analysis are pending. Trace concentrations (low pg/g) of PCDD/F were detected in only a few samples of PVC resins and ethylene dichloride (EDC) product. Treated wastewater contained low ppq concentrations of PCDD/F. All concentrations are expressed as Toxicity Equivalents (TEQ). Extrapolation of these data shows that the contribution of EDC/VCM/PVC manufacturing via these media constitutes less than 1 percent of the US annual dioxin emission to the environment.

  3. [Motivations of oocytes donors].

    PubMed

    Cauvin, P

    2009-01-01

    Oocyte donation is a complex situation that requires the applicant couple to deal with the presence of the donor in the history of the child conception. Accepting the eggs is not the same thing than accepting the donor. Her place in the child's life depends on how his parents will accept her phantasmal reality beyond her real person. Paying attention to the story told by the donors on their motivations may help parents internalize this conception to three. We show from two clinical observations, that the generosity of donors is connected to personal issues that do not relate to unborn child or its parents. If there are two mothers in oocyte donation, they are not really in competition because there are also two children: the child conceived through donation is that of the project of the couple, the child to which the donor thinks, is and will remain in phantasmal domain, i.e. linked to the personal history of the donor. We also show that the psychological interview fully responds to the donor expectations when it seeks to highlight her motives.

  4. Is the Kidney Donor Risk Index a step forward in the assessment of deceased donor kidney quality?

    PubMed

    Lee, Alison P K; Abramowicz, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    The allocation of deceased donor kidneys has become more complex because of the increasing spectrum of donors and recipients age and comorbidities. Several scoring systems have been proposed to evaluate the donor quality of deceased donor kidneys, based on clinical, pathological or combined parameters to predict the risk of renal allograft failure. Nonetheless, besides the dichotomous extended criteria donor (ECD) score, none of the others have been used in clinical practice because of numerous reasons, ranging from lack of robust validation to the technical challenges associated with the evaluation of donor biopsies. Recently, the Kidney Donor Risk Index (KDRI) and Profile Index (KDPI) were introduced in the USA as a refined version of the ECD score. This scoring system is based on 10 donor factors, therefore providing a finely granulated evaluation of donor quality without the need of a kidney biopsy.Here, we review the advantages and drawbacks of the main scoring systems, and we describe the components of the KDRI and KDPI. It is an easily accessible online tool, based solely on donor factors readily available at the moment of the donor offer. Importantly, the KDPI has also been made part of the 'longevity matching' allocation in the USA, where the best kidneys are allocated to the recipients with the longest predicted post-transplant survival. The KDRI should provide us with a robust qualitative evaluation of deceased donor quality, and therefore will probably play a role in deceased donor kidney allocation policies across Europe in the near future. Hopefully, the KDRI and the KDPI should help transplant programmes to better allocate the scarce resource of deceased donor kidneys.

  5. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Deger, S; Giessing, M; Roigas, J; Wille, A H; Lein, M; Schönberger, B; Loening, S A

    2005-01-01

    Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy (LDN) has removed disincentives of potential donors and may bear the potential to increase kidney donation. Multiple modifications have been made to abbreviate the learning curve while at the same time guarantee the highest possible level of medical quality for donor and recipient. We reviewed the literature for the evolution of the different LDN techniques and their impact on donor, graft and operating surgeon, including the subtleties of different surgical accesses, vessel handling and organ extraction. We performed a literature search (PubMed, DIMDI, medline) to evaluate the development of the LDN techniques from 1995 to 2003. Today more than 200 centres worldwide perform LDN. Hand-assistance has led to a spread of LDN. Studies comparing open and hand-assisted LDN show a reduction of operating and warm ischaemia times for the hand-assisted LDN. Different surgical access sites (trans- or retroperitoneal), different vessel dissection approaches, donor organ delivery techniques, delivery sites and variations of hand-assistance techniques reflect the evolution of LDN. Proper techniques and their combination for the consecutive surgical steps minimize both warm ischaemia time and operating time while offering the donor a safe minimally invasive laparoscopic procedure. LDN has breathed new life into the moribund field of living kidney donation. Within a few years LDN could become the standard approach in living kidney donation. Surgeons working in this field must be trained thoroughly and well acquainted with the subtleties of the different LDN techniques and their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  6. Detection of phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) from maternal blood plasma and amniotic fluid in Indian population.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, Sudhanshu; Sood, Surbhi; Showkat, Sadiya; Lite, Christy; Chandrasekhar, Anjalakshi; Vairamani, Mariappanadar; Barathi, S; Santosh, Winkins

    2017-01-15

    There is a widespread exposure of general population, including pregnant women and developing fetuses, to the endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These chemicals have been reported to be present in urine, blood serum, breast milk and amniotic fluid. We aimed to investigate the association between the maternal exposure and in utero fetal exposure levels of these chemicals to study their transfer from maternal to fetal unit indicating prenatal exposure. Samples of maternal blood and amniotic fluid were collected as set from 53 pregnant women at full term. Nine phenolic EDCs, methyl paraben (MP; 20.92ng/mL and 18.92ng/mL), ethyl paraben (EP; 1.97ng/ mL and 1.89ng/mL), propyl paraben (PP; 19.22ng/mL and 18.82ng/mL), butyl paraben (BP; 1.11ng/mL and 1.37ng/mL), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA; 29.99ng/mL and 26.15ng/mL), bisphenol A (BPA; 7.43ng/mL and 7.75ng/mL), triclosan (TCS; 7.17ng/mL and 7.04ng/mL), octyl phenol (OP; 5.46ng/mL and 5.72ng/mL) and nonyl phenol (NP; 9.38ng/mL and 8.44ng/mL), were simultaneously detected in samples of maternal blood plasma and amniotic fluid respectively using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Highest positive correlation was found for total concentration of 4-nonyl phenol, NP (r=0.575, p<0.001), whereas the lowest positive correlation was found for free form of bisphenol A, BPA (r=0.343, p<0.05), when compared between the two matrices. Our results suggest that maternal exposure to several EDCs is positively associated with in utero exposure to the developing fetus. Future studies should focus on collection of amniotic fluid at different trimesters and the corresponding maternal samples to better characterize the pharmacokinetics and the associated disease etiologies of these EDCs during fetal development.

  7. Donor human milk banking and the emergence of milk sharing.

    PubMed

    Landers, Susan; Hartmann, Ben T

    2013-02-01

    Donor human milk has emerged as the preferred substrate to feed extremely preterm infants, when mother's own milk is unavailable. This article summarizes the clinical data demonstrating the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of feeding donor human milk to premature babies. It describes the current state of milk banking in North America, as well as other parts of the world, and the differing criteria for donor selection, current pasteurization techniques, and quality control measures. A risk assessment methodology is proposed, which would allow milk banks globally to assess the safety of their process and respond appropriately to differing risk environments.

  8. Simultaneously photocatalytic treatment of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) using rotating reactor under solar irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngji; Joo, Hyunku; Her, Namguk; Yoon, Yeomin; Sohn, Jinsik; Kim, Sungpyo; Yoon, Jaekyung

    2015-05-15

    In this study, simultaneous treatments, reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and oxidation of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), such as bisphenol A (BPA), 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and 17β-estradiol (E2), were investigated with a rotating photocatalytic reactor including TiO₂ nanotubes formed on titanium mesh substrates under solar UV irradiation. In the laboratory tests with a rotating type I reactor, synergy effects of the simultaneous photocatalytic reduction and oxidation of inorganic (Cr(VI)) and organic (BPA) pollutants were achieved. Particularly, the concurrent photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) and oxidation of BPA was higher under acidic conditions. The enhanced reaction efficiency of both pollutants was attributed to a stronger charge interaction between TiO₂ nanotubes (positive charge) and the anionic form of Cr(VI) (negative charge), which are prevented recombination (electron-hole pair) by the hole scavenging effect of BPA. In the extended outdoor tests with a rotating type II reactor under solar irradiation, the experiment was extended to examine the simultaneous reduction of Cr(VI) in the presence of additional EDCs, such as EE2 and E2 as well as BPA. The findings showed that synergic effect of both photocatalytic reduction and oxidation was confirmed with single-component (Cr(VI) only), two-components (Cr(VI)/BPA, Cr(VI)/EE2, and Cr(VI)/E2), and four-components (Cr(VI)/BPA/EE2/E2) under various solar irradiation conditions.

  9. Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... instructions before and after surgery. • Have a compatible blood type. • Have an emotional tie with the recipient. • Not ... test is to find out if the donor's blood type matches the recipient’s blood type. Next, the transplant ...

  10. Dialing for Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    When times get tough, grown children often turn to their parents for help--for some extra cash, even somewhere to stay. For colleges and universities, that role is filled by alumni donors. In 2011, with education budgets slashed across the country, giving accounted for 6.5 percent of college expenditures, according to the Council for Aid to…

  11. Assessing elements of informed consent among living donors

    PubMed Central

    Valapour, M; Kahn, JP; Bailey, R; Matas, AJ

    2011-01-01

    Living organ donors – 50% of solid organ donors in the United States – represent a unique population who accept medical risk for the benefit of another. One of the main justifications for this practice has been respect for donor autonomy, as realized through informed consent. In this retrospective study of living donors, we investigate 2 key criteria of informed consent: (1) depth of understanding and (2) degree of voluntariness. In our survey of 262 living kidney donors 2 to 40 months post donation, we found that more than 90% understood the effects of living donation on recipient outcomes, the screening process, and the short-term medical risks of donation. In contrast, only 69% understood the psychological risks of donation; 52% the long-term medical risks of donation; and 32%, the financial risks of donation. Understanding the effects of living donation on recipient outcomes was the only factor that would affect donors' decision to donate again. 40% of donors reported feeling some pressure to donate. Donors who are related to the recipient were more likely to report feeling pressure to donate. We conclude that more studies of informed consent are needed to identify factors that may compromise the validity of informed consent. PMID:21158924

  12. Being a Living Donor: Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living Donation / Being a Living Donor / Risks Facts History Organs Frequently Asked Questions Discussing Living Donation Types Related Non-Related Non-Directed Paired Donation Blood Type Incompatible Positive Crossmatch Being a Living Donor ...

  13. Recruitment of prospective donors: what do they expect from a homepage of a blood transfusion service?

    PubMed

    Moog, R; Fourné, K

    2007-08-01

    In times of shrinking donor population, the recruitment of donors is of utmost importance. Recruitment can be done by personal communication, advertisement/information, classical mass media (newspaper, radio, TV) or new computerized media. The aim of this study was to gain information about the donors' demands of an Internet presentation of a blood transfusion service. Between October and December 2004 inclusive, prospective donors were asked to complete a survey about the impact of Internet information for blood donors. The survey contained questions measuring demographics, education and motivation for blood donation. In addition, the survey included questions that measured Internet access, duration of online time and donors' demands for an Internet presentation of a blood transfusion service. Donors were asked to tick a box with predefined answers. In cases where no options were applied, donors were requested to specify their answers. One hundred and fourteen prospective donors (71 female, 43 male) with a median age of 25 years (range 18-57 years) completed the survey. Most donors (57.9%) were 18-30 years old. Forty-two (36.8%) of the surveyed donors were repeat donors, whereas 72 (63.2%) were first-time donors. The majority of donors were informed about blood donation from relatives or friends (70.7% repeat donors and 67.7% first-time donors). Most of them had Internet access (85.7% repeat donors and 90.3% first-time donors). Exclusive use of private access was more often reported in repeat donors (77.8%), whereas both private and professional access was more frequently used in first-time donors (32.3%). Most donors used the Internet access daily, followed by weekly and monthly use. Multiple answers were given about the importance of desired information about the topic 'blood donation'. Both first-time and repeat donors wanted to be informed about organizational details of blood donation such as opening times, eligibility criteria, donation process and the kind

  14. The process of EDC-NHS cross-linking of reconstituted collagen fibres increases collagen fibrillar order and alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, D. V. Shepherd, J. H.; Cameron, R. E.; Best, S. M.; Ghose, S.; Kew, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the production of collagen fibre bundles through a multi-strand, semi-continuous extrusion process. Cross-linking using an EDC (1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide), NHS (N-hydroxysuccinimide) combination was considered. Atomic Force Microscopy and Raman spectroscopy focused on how cross-linking affected the collagen fibrillar structure. In the cross-linked fibres, a clear fibrillar structure comparable to native collagen was observed which was not observed in the non-cross-linked fibre. The amide III doublet in the Raman spectra provided additional evidence of alignment in the cross-linked fibres. Raman spectroscopy also indicated no residual polyethylene glycol (from the fibre forming buffer) or water in any of the fibres.

  15. Preparation of thin film nanofibrous composite NF membrane based on EDC/NHS modified PAN-AA nanofibrous substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Wang, X.; Hsiao, B. S.

    2016-07-01

    A novel kind of thin-film nanofibrous composite (TFNC) nanofiltration (NF) membranes consisting of a polyamide (PA) barrier layer were successfully fabricated by interfacial polymerization (IFP) based on electrospun double-layer nanofibrous substrates, which have an ultrathin poly (acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) (PAN-AA) nanofibrous layer as top layer and a thicker polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber layer as bottom porous support layer. Immersing PAN/PAN-AA nanofibrous substrates into 1-ethyl-(3-3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) aqueous solution and piperazine (PIP) aqueous solution (0.20 wt%) sequentially for a period of time, the carboxyl groups on PAN-AA nanofibers were activated by carbodiimide and then reacted with the amide groups. The as prepared composite membrane has an integrated structure with high rejection rate (98.0%); high permeate flux (40.4 L/m2h) for MgSO4 aqueous solution (2 g/L).

  16. National Marrow Donor Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-14

    Recipient Pair HLA typing project to characterize class I and class II alleles of donor/recipient paired samples from NMDP’s Repository was initiated...24 • Initiated investigation of the first class II non-ARS mismatch (DRB1*140101/1454) where both alleles have been seen in the same genotype... MHC Major Histocompatibility Complex B-LCLs B-Lymphocytic Cell Lines MICA MHC Class I-Like Molecule, Chain A BARDA Biomedical Advanced Research and

  17. Potential donor segregation to promote blood donation.

    PubMed

    Martín-Santana, Josefa D; Beerli-Palacio, Asunción

    2008-04-01

    This work is set in the field of social marketing and more specifically in the context of blood donation. Its principal objective focuses on segregating potential donors by using the inhibitors or barriers to a blood donation behaviour as criteria. Moreover, an analysis of the predisposition to donate blood, the intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for donating blood, and the incentives that may stimulate their donation conduct was conducted for each of the four identified groups. The results reveal that the four segments differ significantly in their predisposition to donate, in their motivations and in the incentives that encourage them to donate blood.

  18. Complications of donor apheresis.

    PubMed

    Winters, Jeffrey L

    2006-07-01

    A decreasing blood donor pool in the presence of increasing blood transfusion demands has resulted in the need to maximally utilize each blood donor. This has led to a trend in the increasing use of automated blood collections. While apheresis donation shares many reactions and injuries with whole blood donation, because of the differences, unique complications also exist. Overall, evidence in the literature suggests that the frequency of reactions to apheresis donation is less than that seen in whole blood donation, though the risk of reactions requiring hospitalization is substantially greater. The most common apheresis-specific reaction is hypocalcemia due to citrate anticoagulation, which, while usually mild, has the potential for severely injuring the donor. Other reactions to apheresis donation are uncommon (e.g., hypotension) or rare (e.g., air embolism). More worrisome, and in need of additional study, are the long-term effects of apheresis donation. Recent evidence suggests that repeated apheresis platelet donations may adversely effect thrombopoiesis as well as bone mineralization. Granulocyte donation has also been implicated in unexpected long-term consequences.

  19. Living kidney donor follow-up: state-of-the-art and future directions, conference summary and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Leichtman, Alan; Abecassis, Michael; Barr, Mark; Charlton, Marian; Cohen, David; Confer, Dennis; Cooper, Mathew; Danovitch, Gabriel; Davis, Connie; Delmonico, Francis; Dew, Mary Amanda; Garvey, Cathy; Gaston, Robert; Gill, John; Gillespie, Brenda; Ibrahim, Hassan; Jacobs, Cheryl; Kahn, Jeffery; Kasiske, Bert; Kim, Joseph; Lentine, Krista; Manyalich, Marti; Medina-Pestana, Jose; Merion, Robert; Moxey-Mims, Marva; Odim, Jonah; Opelz, Gerhard; Orlowski, Janice; Rizvi, Abid; Roberts, John; Segev, Dorry; Sledge, Tina; Steiner, Robert; Taler, Sandra; Textor, Steven; Thiel, Gil; Waterman, Amy; Williams, Errol; Wolfe, Robert; Wynn, James; Matas, Arthur J

    2011-12-01

    In light of continued uncertainty regarding postkidney donation medical, psychosocial and socioeconomic outcomes for traditional living donors and especially for donors meeting more relaxed acceptance criteria, a meeting was held in September 2010 to (1) review limitations of existing data on outcomes of living kidney donors; (2) assess and define the need for long-term follow-up of living kidney donors; (3) identify the potential system requirements, infrastructure and costs of long-term follow-up for living kidney donor outcomes in the United States and (4) explore practical options for future development and funding of United States living kidney donor data collection, metrics and endpoints. Conference participants included prior kidney donors, physicians, surgeons, medical ethicists, social scientists, donor coordinators, social workers, independent donor advocates and representatives of payer organizations and the federal government. The findings and recommendations generated at this meeting are presented.

  20. Identifying potential kidney donors using social networking web sites.

    PubMed

    Chang, Alexander; Anderson, Emily E; Turner, Hang T; Shoham, David; Hou, Susan H; Grams, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Social networking sites like Facebook may be a powerful tool for increasing rates of live kidney donation. They allow for wide dissemination of information and discussion and could lessen anxiety associated with a face-to-face request for donation. However, sparse data exist on the use of social media for this purpose. We searched Facebook, the most popular social networking site, for publicly available English-language pages seeking kidney donors for a specific individual, abstracting information on the potential recipient, characteristics of the page itself, and whether potential donors were tested. In the 91 pages meeting inclusion criteria, the mean age of potential recipients was 37 (range: 2-69); 88% were US residents. Other posted information included the individual's photograph (76%), blood type (64%), cause of kidney disease (43%), and location (71%). Thirty-two percent of pages reported having potential donors tested, and 10% reported receiving a live-donor kidney transplant. Those reporting donor testing shared more potential recipient characteristics, provided more information about transplantation, and had higher page traffic. Facebook is already being used to identify potential kidney donors. Future studies should focus on how to safely, ethically, and effectively use social networking sites to inform potential donors and potentially expand live kidney donation.

  1. USING 1H-NMR METABOLOMICS TO CHARACTERIZE ALTERED METABOLIC PROFILES IN ZEBRAFISH (DANIO RERIO) EXPOSED TO THE MODEL EDCS 17 ALPHA-ETHINYLESTRADIOL (EE2) AND FADROZOLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevated levels of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been reported in waterways worldwide and have been shown to affect numerous aspects of development, behavior, reproduction, and survival in various fish species. We have examined the effects of the synthetic steroid 17...

  2. 1H-NMR METABOLOMICS ANALYIS OF ZEBRAFISH (DANIO RERIO) EXPOSED TO THE ENVIRONMENTALLY-RELEVANT EDC 17 ALPHA-ETHINYLESTRADIOL (EE2)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevated levels of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been reported in waterways worldwide and have been shown to affect numerous aspects of development, behavior, reproduction, and survival in various fish species. We have examined the effects of the synthetic steroid 1...

  3. Possible strategies for EDC testing in the future: exploring roles of pathway-based in silico, in vitro and in vivo methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current methods for screening, testing and monitoring endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) rely relatively substantially upon moderate- to long-term assays that can, in some instances, require significant numbers of animals. Recent developments in the areas of in vitro testing...

  4. Construction of amphiphilic segments on polypropylene nonwoven surface and its application in removal of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kai; Wei, Junfu; Zhou, Xiangyu; Liu, Nana

    2015-05-01

    The amphiphilic segments on polypropylene nonwoven (PP nonwoven) surface were constructed using the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation graft polymerization for the removal of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) with different polarity from aqueous solution. The stearyl acrylate (SA) as hydrophobic functional monomer was introduced onto the surface of PP nonwoven fabric at first stage and then the hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) as hydrophilic functional monomer was introduced subsequently. The effect of functional monomer concentration and UV irradiation time on grafting ratio was studied and discussed. The novel amphiphilic structure was designed and constructed based on adsorption capacity for the target micropollutants. The structure and composition of the amphiphilic adsorption materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle (CA). The adsorption behaviors for EDCs of the amphiphilic adsorption materials were studied and the results indicated that the adsorption capacity and adsorption rate were superior to single SA grafted PP nonwoven (PP-g-SA) and single HEA grafted PP nonwoven (PP-g-HEA). The novel amphiphilic adsorption material was efficient for the removal of EDCs with different polarity and could be utilized as a potential adsorption material for removing EDCs from aqueous solution.

  5. Simultaneous determination of PPCPs, EDCs, and artificial sweeteners in environmental water samples using a single-step SPE coupled with HPLC-MS/MS and isotope dilution.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Hu, Jiangyong; Ong, Say Leong

    2013-09-15

    A high-throughput method for the simultaneous determination of 24 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and artificial sweeteners (ASs) was developed. The method was based on a single-step solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and isotope dilution. In this study, a single-step SPE procedure was optimized for simultaneous extraction of all target analytes. Good recoveries (≥ 70%) were observed for all target analytes when extraction was performed using Chromabond(®) HR-X (500 mg, 6 mL) cartridges under acidic condition (pH 2). HPLC-MS/MS parameters were optimized for the simultaneous analysis of 24 PPCPs, EDCs and ASs in a single injection. Quantification was performed by using 13 isotopically labeled internal standards (ILIS), which allows correcting efficiently the loss of the analytes during SPE procedure, matrix effects during HPLC-MS/MS and fluctuation in MS/MS signal intensity due to instrument. Method quantification limit (MQL) for most of the target analytes was below 10 ng/L in all water samples. The method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of PPCPs, EDCs and ASs in raw wastewater, surface water and groundwater samples collected in a local catchment area in Singapore. In conclusion, the developed method provided a valuable tool for investigating the occurrence, behavior, transport, and the fate of PPCPs, EDCs and ASs in the aquatic environment.

  6. The S. pombe mRNA decapping complex recruits cofactors and an Edc1-like activator through a single dynamic surface

    PubMed Central

    Wurm, Jan Philip; Overbeck, Jan; Sprangers, Remco

    2016-01-01

    The removal of the 5′ 7-methylguanosine mRNA cap structure (decapping) is a central step in the 5′–3′ mRNA degradation pathway and is performed by the Dcp1:Dcp2 decapping complex. The activity of this complex is tightly regulated to prevent premature degradation of the transcript. Here, we establish that the aromatic groove of the EVH1 domain of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Dcp1 can interact with proline-rich sequences in the exonuclease Xrn1, the scaffolding protein Pat1, the helicase Dhh1, and the C-terminal disordered region of Dcp2. We show that this region of Dcp1 can also recruit a previously unidentified enhancer of decapping protein (Edc1) and solved the crystal structure of the complex. NMR relaxation dispersion experiments reveal that the Dcp1 binding site can adopt multiple conformations, thus providing the plasticity that is required to accommodate different ligands. We show that the activator Edc1 makes additional contacts with the regulatory domain of Dcp2 and that an activation motif in Edc1 increases the RNA affinity of Dcp1:Dcp2. Our data support a model where Edc1 stabilizes the RNA in the active site, which results in enhanced decapping rates. In summary, we show that multiple decapping factors, including the Dcp2 C-terminal region, compete with Edc1 for Dcp1 binding. Our data thus reveal a network of interactions that can fine-tune the catalytic activity of the decapping complex. PMID:27354705

  7. Recommendations for use of marginal donors in heart transplantation: Brazilian Association of Organs Transplantation guideline.

    PubMed

    Fiorelli, A I; Stolf, N A G; Pego-Fernandes, P M; Oliveira Junior, J L; Santos, R H B; Contreras, C A M; Filho, D D L; Dinkhuysen, J J; Moreira, M C V; Mejia, J A C; Castro, M C R

    2011-01-01

    The high prevalence of heart failure has increased the candidate list for heart transplantation; however, there is a shortage of viable donated organs, which is responsible for the high mortality of patients awaiting a transplantation. Because the marginal donor presents additional risk factors, it is not considered to be an ideal donor. The use of a marginal donor is only justified in situations when the risk of patient death due to heart disease is greater than that offered by the donor. These recommendations sought to expand the supply of donors, consequently increasing the transplant rate. We selected articles based on robust evidence to provide a substratum to develop recommendations for donors who exceed the traditional acceptance criteria. Recipient survival in the immediate postoperative period is intimately linked to allograft quality. Primary allograft failure is responsible for 38% to 40% of immediate deaths after heart transplantation: therefore; marginal donor selection must be more rigorous to not increase the surgical risk. The main donor risk factors with the respective evidence levels are: cancer in the donor (B), female donor (B), donor death due to hemorrhagic stroke (B), donor age above 50 years (relative risk [RR] = 1.5) (B), weight mismatch between donor and recipient < 0.8 (RR = 1.3) (B), ischemia > 240 minutes (RR = 1.2) (B), left ventricular dysfunction with ejection fraction below 45% (B), and use of high doses of vasoactive drugs (dopamine > 15 mg/kg·min) (B). Factors that impact recipient mortality are: age over 50 years (RR = 1.5); allograft harvest at a distance; adult recipient weighing more than 20% of the donor; high doses of vasoactive drugs (dopamine greater than 15 mg/kg·min) and ischemic time >4 hours. The use of a marginal donor is only justified when it is able to increase life expectancy compared with clinical treatment, albeit the outcomes are interior to those using an ideal donor.

  8. Deceased donor kidney transplantation from donors with acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Mekeel, K L; Moss, A A; Mulligan, D C; Chakkera, H A; Hamawi, K; Mazur, M J; Heilman, R L; Reddy, K S

    2009-07-01

    With the current shortage of solid organs for transplant, the transplant community continues to look for ways to increase the number of organ donors, including extending the criteria for donation. In rhabdomyolysis, the byproducts of skeletal muscle breakdown leak into the circulation resulting in acute renal failure in up to 30% of patients. In nonbrain dead patients, this condition is reversible and most patients recover full renal function. Seven potential donors had rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure as evidenced by the presence of urine hemoglobin, plasma creatinine kinase levels of greater than five times the normal and elevated creatinine. One donor required dialysis. At our institution, 10 kidneys were transplanted from the seven donors. Two grafts had immediate function, five grafts experienced slow graft function and three grafts had delayed graft function requiring hemodialysis. At a mean of 8.7 months posttransplant (2.4-25.2 months), all patients have good graft function, are off dialysis and have a mean creatinine of 1.3 (0.7-1.8). In conclusion, our experience suggests that rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure should not be a contraindication for donation, although recipients may experience slow or delayed graft function.

  9. Preparation and properties of EDC/NHS mediated crosslinking poly (gamma-glutamic acid)/epsilon-polylysine hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Hua, Jiachuan; Li, Zheng; Xia, Wen; Yang, Ning; Gong, Jixian; Zhang, Jianfei; Qiao, Changsheng

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a novel pH-sensitive poly (amino acid) hydrogel based on poly γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) and ε-polylysine (ε-PL) was prepared by carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) mediated polymerization. The influence of PGA/PL molar ratio and EDC/NHS concentration on the structure and properties was studied. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) proved that hydrogels were crosslinked through amide bond linkage, and the conversion rate of a carboxyl group could reach 96%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed a regularly porous structure with 20 μm pore size in average. The gelation time in the crosslink process of PGA/PL hydrogels was within less than 5 min. PGA/PL hydrogels had excellent optical performance that was evaluated by a novel optotype method. Furthermore, PGA/PL hydrogels were found to be pH-sensitive, which could be adjusted to the pH of swelling media intelligently. The terminal pH of swelling medium could be controlled at 5 ± 1 after equilibrium when the initial pH was within 3-11. The swelling kinetics was found to follow a Voigt model in deionized water but a pseudo-second-order model in normal saline and phosphate buffer solution, respectively. The differential swelling degrees were attributed to the swelling theory based on the different ratio of -COOH/-NH2 and pore size in hydrogels. The results of mechanical property indicated that PGA/PL hydrogels were soft and elastic. Moreover, PGA/PL hydrogels exhibited excellent biocompatibility by cell proliferation experiment. PGA/PL hydrogels could be degraded in PBS solution and the degradation rate was decreased with the increase of the molar ratio of PL. Considering the simple preparation process and pH-sensitive property, these PGA/PL hydrogels might have high potential for use in medical and clinical fields.

  10. Chloride, nitrate and sulphate high resolution records for the last two glacial-interglacial cycles from EDC ice core.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliori, A.; Becagli, S.; Benassai, S.; Castellano, E.; Severi, M.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R.

    2003-04-01

    During the 2001/2002 Antarctic campaign, in field Fast Ion Chromatographic analysis was continued on the EPICA Dome C ice core (EDC) yielding chloride, nitrate and sulphate high-resolution records up to 2160 m depth. This depth interval is supposed to cover the last two glacial/interglacial cycles. Since EDC isotopic measurements are in progress at present, chemical profiles were compared with deuterium profile from Vostok ice core, aiming to study the relationship between climatic and environmental changes. All the components show lower and rather constant background levels over the two interglacial periods (Holocene and Eemian) with respect to glacial ones. Sulphate background profile, perturbed by a large number of volcanic spikes, shows a little sensitivity to glacial/interglacial climatic changes. Since the variations of the sulphate concentration are similar in extent to the estimated snow accumulation changes, this component does not seem to be affected by significant changes in source intensity and transport efficiency during the different climatic periods. Chloride and nitrate concentration profiles exhibit a higher variability along the ice core, with very low and stable interglacial values and high and noisy glacial levels. By comparing the Vostok deuterium profile in the last glacial period, where the temporal resolution of isotopic measurement is particularly high, a good correspondence between chloride maxima and deuterium minima can be observed, even for short-term variations. Both environmental variations and glaciological features can modulate the response of chloride to the temperature changes. Indeed, post-depositional effects through HCl re-emission into the atmosphere heavily affect chloride. Its persistence in the snow layers is therefore related to snow accumulation rate and snow acidity. In cold periods, despite the lower accumulation rate, the higher alkaline dust atmospheric load is able to fix higher chloride snow concentration preventing

  11. [Psychosomatic selection of living liver donors].

    PubMed

    Erim, Y; Senf, W

    2001-01-01

    In the Essen University Clinic for Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, between January and December 2000, 54 potential liver donors and 12 kidney donors were examined. All the kidney donors were found to be suitable; 7 potential liver donors were rejected on psychosomatic grounds. Reasons for the rejection were addiction (1 donor), suspected financial dependency of the donor on the recipient (1 donor) and, in the case of one donor not related to the recipient, the apparent lack of a special emotional attachment. During the actual evaluation interview, 4 potential donors reversed their original decision. Such a psychosomatic evaluation is a great help for donors in clarifying their motives and their decision.

  12. [Clinical evaluation of living donor].

    PubMed

    Scolari, Maria Piera; Comai, G; La Manna, G; Liviano D'Arcangelo, G; Monti, M; Feliciangeli, G; Stefoni, S

    2009-01-01

    When possible, living donor transplantation represents the best therapeutic strategy for patients suffering from chronic renal failure. Studying the donor allows a complete and thorough clinical, laboratory and instrumental assessment that guarantees good organ function whilst protecting the health of the donor. The main parameters considered within this framework are age, renal function, nephrological complications, comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, obesity, etc.), malignancies, and infection. Moreover, particular attention is paid to the sociopsychological aspects of the donation, particularly related to the donor, the recipient, and the entire family situation.

  13. Donor Deferral Characteristics for Plateletpheresis at a Tertiary Care Center in India- A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pujani, Mukta; Jyotsna, P Lalita; Pahuja, Sangeeta; Pathak, Chintamani; Jain, Manjula

    2014-01-01

    Background: The demand for plateletpheresis is increasing day by day due to its many merits over random donor platelets. However, in our country, there is a dearth of apheresis donors due to greater devotion and time required for the procedure and lack of awareness. Aim: The aim of the present study is to analyse the reasons for deferral of apheresis donors at a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: This retrospective analysis was conducted to study the causes, frequency and the type of plateletpheresis donor deferral at regional blood transfusion center, Lady Hardinge Medical College and associated Shrimati Sucheta Kriplani Hospital and Kalawati Saran Childrens’ Hospital. The study was undertaken over a period of two years (from January 2010 to December 2011. Results: Out of a total of 343 donors screened, 87 donors were deferred, the overall deferral rate being 25.36%. The most frequent cause of deferral was a low platelet count accounting for 43.5% of all the causes followed by a low hemoglobin level (27.05%). Among the donors deferred for anaemia, 15 out of 23 (65.2%) had hemoglobin in the range of 11.5-12.4gm%, representing 17.2% of all deferrals. Conclusion: Based on these findings and the scarcity of apheresis donors in our country, we are of the opinion that the selection criteria for plateletpheresis donors should be revised to accommodate more donors and reduce deferral rate without compromising on the health of the donors. PMID:25177566

  14. Artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID): heterogeneity in sperm banking facilities in a single country (Belgium)

    PubMed Central

    Thijssen, A.; Dhont, N.; Vandormael, E.; Cox, A.; Klerkx, E.; Creemers, E.; Ombelet, W.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the high inflow of foreign patients seeking cross-border reproductive care in Belgium and the increased number of lesbian couples and single women who call for artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID), Belgian sperm banks nowadays face a shortage in donor sperm. However, since there is no central registration system for sperm donors in Belgium, no figures are currently available supporting this statement. Therefore a study was performed to obtain a detailed overview of the sperm banking facilities in Belgium. Questionnaires were sent to all Belgian centres for assisted reproduction with laboratory facilities (n = 18) to report on their sperm banking methods. The results showed that 82% of the centres rely partially or completely on foreign donor sperm. Moreover, four of the thirteen centres that have their own sperm bank use imported donor sperm in > 95% AID cycles. Our results show that in 63% of the Belgian AID cycles imported Danish donor sperm is being used. Donor recruitment is mainly performed through the centre’s website (61%) or by distributing flyers in the centre (46%) and 9 to 180 potential donors have been recruited per centre in 2013. Eventually, 15 to 50% of these candidate donors were accepted. Different criteria for donor acceptance are handled by the centres: donor age limits range from 18-25 to 36-46 years old, and thresholds for sperm normality differ considerably. We can conclude that a wide variation in methods associated with sperm banking is observed in Belgian centres. PMID:25009728

  15. Rejection of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by low pressure reverse osmosis membranes.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, H; Ikejima, N; Shimizu, Y; Fukami, K; Taniguchi, S; Takanami, R; Giri, R R; Matsui, S

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to elucidate retention characteristics of some pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), by two polyamide low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO) membranes. Feed solution pH did not have an influence on rejections of undissociated solutes, which was most likely governed by adsorption, size exclusion and diffusion simultaneously. Size exclusion was presumably dominant, especially with tight membranes (UTC-70U). Rejections of the solutes with low dipole moment (<1.0 debye) decreased with increasing octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)). The solutes with large K(ow) values were most likely adsorbed on membrane and subsequently passed through it resulting in larger diffusion coefficient (D(p)). The rejections decreased with increasing D(p) values irrespective of their dipole moments. Rejections of solutes with comparatively larger dipole moments might be dominated by diffusion and/or convection rather than their hydrophobicity. However, rejections of solutes with hydroxyl and carboxyl functional groups by UTC-60 increased with solution pH. More than 80% rejections were obtained for degree of dissociation (alpha)>0.5. Electrostatic repulsion played a key role for rejection of dissociated solutes, especially by loose LPRO membranes. Therefore, assessing the dissociation degree at desired pH values can be a key step to obtain an insight of rejection mechanisms by polyamide membranes.

  16. Charlotte - EDC Evaluation and Demonstration (CEED) Human-in-the-Loop Results Briefing to ATD-2 FAA Partners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalley, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Charlotte EDC Evaluation and Demonstration (CEED) was the first Human-In-The-Loop experiment under the Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-2 (ATD-2) project. The purpose of the study was fourfold: 1) to establish a simulation environment (Charlotte) for airspace operations for ATD-2 technology, 2) to simulate current-day departures and arrival operations, 3) to assess the impact of current Traffic Management Initiatives (TMI) on Charlotte (CLT) departure flows and en route operations in Washington (ZDC) and Atlanta Centers (ZTL), and 4) to assess the impact of departure takeoff time compliance on airspace operations. The experimental design compared 3 TMIs and 2 compliance levels. Fourteen FAA retired controllers participated in the simulation. In addition, two Traffic Management Coordinators from ZTL and ZDC managed traffic flows. Surface and airborne delays, control efficiency, throughput, realism, workload, and acceptability were assessed and will be compared across the experimental conditions. Participants rated the simulation as very realistic. Results indicate that different TMIs have different impacts on surface and airspace delay. Departure compliance indicates partial benefits to sector complexity and controller workload. This simulation will provide an initial assessment of the tactical scheduling problems that the ATD-2 technology will address in the near term.

  17. [Deceased organ donors, legal regulations governing diagnosis of brain death, overview of donors and liver transplants in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Pokorná, E

    2013-08-01

    The key restriction of transplantation medicine globally, as well as in the Czech Republic, concerns the lack of organs. The number of deceased donors, and thus the availability of organ transplants, has been stagnating in our country. The paper describes current legal regulations governing the dia-gnosis of brain death and primary legal and medical criteria for the contraindication of the deceased for organ explantation, gives an overview of the number of liver transplants, age structure, and diagnosis resulting in brain death of the deceased liver donors in the Czech Republic.

  18. Shifting paradigms in eligibility criteria for live kidney donation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Ali R; Lafranca, Jeffrey A; Claessens, Laura A; Imamdi, Raoul M S; IJzermans, Jan N M; Betjes, Michiel G H; Dor, Frank J M F

    2015-01-01

    As the organ shortage increases, inherently the demand for donor kidneys continues to rise. Thus, live kidney donation is essential for increasing the donor pool. In order to create successful expansion, extended criteria live kidney donors should be considered. This review combines current guidelines with all available literature in this field, trying to seek and establish the optimal extended criteria. Comprehensive searches were carried out in major databases until November 2013 to search for articles regarding older age, overweight and obesity, hypertension, vascular anomalies/multiplicity, nulliparous women, and minors as donors. Of the 2079 articles found, 152 fell within the scope of the review. Five major guidelines were included and reviewed. Based on the literature search, live kidney donation in older donors (up to 70 years of age) seems to be safe as outcome is comparable to younger donors. Obese donors have comparable outcome to lean donors, in short- and mid-term follow-up. Since little literature is available proving the safety of donation of hypertensive donors, caution is advised. Vascular multiplicity poses no direct danger to the donor and women of childbearing age can be safely included as donors. Although outcome after donation in minors is shown to be comparable to adult donors, they should only be considered if no other options exist. We conclude that the analyzed factors above should not be considered as absolute contraindications for donation.

  19. Urinary biomarkers after donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Hoogendijk-van den Akker, Judith M; Warlé, Michiel C; van Zuilen, Arjan D; Kloke, Heinrich J; Wever, Kim E; d'Ancona, Frank C H; Ӧzdemir, Denise M D; Wetzels, Jack F M; Hoitsma, Andries J

    2015-05-01

    As the beginning of living-donor kidney transplantation, physicians have expressed concern about the possibility that unilateral nephrectomy can be harmful to a healthy individual. To investigate whether the elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy causes early damage to the remaining kidney, we evaluated urine biomarkers after laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. We measured albumin and alpha-1-microglobulin (α-1-MGB) in urine samples collected during and after open and laparoscopic donor nephrectomy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy and colectomy. Additionally, kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were measured in urine samples collected during and after laparoscopic donor nephrectomy and colectomy. The same biomarkers were studied in patients randomly assigned to standard or low IAP during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. We observed a peak in urinary albumin excretion during all procedures. Urine α-1-MGB rose in the postoperative period with a peak on the third postoperative day after donor nephrectomy. Urine α-1-MGB did not increase after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and colectomy. After laparoscopic nephrectomy, we observed slight increases in urine KIM-1 during surgery and in urine NGAL at day 2-3 after the procedure. After laparoscopic colectomy, both KIM-1 and NGAL were increased in the postoperative period. There were no differences between the high- and low-pressure procedure. Elevated urinary α-1-MGB suggests kidney damage after donor nephrectomy, occurring irrespective of IAP during the laparoscopic procedure.

  20. EDCs, estrogenicity and genotoxicity reduction in a mixed (domestic + textile) secondary effluent by means of ozonation: a full-scale experience.

    PubMed

    Bertanza, G; Papa, M; Pedrazzani, R; Repice, C; Mazzoleni, G; Steimberg, N; Feretti, D; Ceretti, E; Zerbini, I

    2013-08-01

    WWTP (wastewater treatment plant) effluents are considered to be a major source for the release in the aquatic environment of EDCs (Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds), a group of anthropogenic substances able to alter the normal function of the endocrine system. The application of conventional processes (e.g. activated sludge with biological nitrogen removal) does not provide complete elimination of all these micropollutants and, consequently, an advanced treatment should be implemented. This experimental work was conducted on the tertiary ozonation stage of a 140,000 p.e. activated sludge WWTP, treating a mixed domestic and textile wastewater: an integrated monitoring, including both chemical (nonylphenol, together with the parent compounds mono- and di-ethoxylated, and bisphenol A were chosen as model EDCs) and biological (estrogenic and genotoxic activities) analyses, was carried out. Removal efficiencies of measured EDCs varied from 20% to 70%, depending on flow conditions (ozone dosage being 0.5 gO3/gTOC). Biological tests, furthermore, displayed that the oxidation stage did not significantly reduce (only by 20%) the estrogenicity of the effluent and revealed the presence and/or formation of genotoxic compounds. These results highlight the importance of the application of an integrated (biological+chemical) analytical procedure for a global evaluation of treatment suitability; poor performances recorded in this study have been attributed to the presence of a significant industrial component in the influent wastewater.

  1. Mutations in DCPS and EDC3 in autosomal recessive intellectual disability indicate a crucial role for mRNA decapping in neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Iltaf; Buchert, Rebecca; Zhou, Mi; Jiao, Xinfu; Mittal, Kirti; Sheikh, Taimoor I; Scheller, Ute; Vasli, Nasim; Rafiq, Muhammad Arshad; Brohi, M Qasim; Mikhailov, Anna; Ayaz, Muhammad; Bhatti, Attya; Sticht, Heinrich; Nasr, Tanveer; Carter, Melissa T; Uebe, Steffen; Reis, André; Ayub, Muhammad; John, Peter; Kiledjian, Megerditch; Vincent, John B; Jamra, Rami Abou

    2015-06-01

    There are two known mRNA degradation pathways, 3' to 5' and 5' to 3'. We identified likely pathogenic variants in two genes involved in these two pathways in individuals with intellectual disability. In a large family with multiple branches, we identified biallelic variants in DCPS in three affected individuals; a splice site variant (c.636+1G>A) that results in an in-frame insertion of 45 nucleotides and a missense variant (c.947C>T; p.Thr316Met). DCPS decaps the cap structure generated by 3' to 5' exonucleolytic degradation of mRNA. In vitro decapping assays showed an ablation of decapping function for both variants in DCPS. In another family, we identified a homozygous mutation (c.161T>C; p.Phe54Ser) in EDC3 in two affected children. EDC3 stimulates DCP2, which decaps mRNAs at the beginning of the 5' to 3' degradation pathway. In vitro decapping assays showed that altered EDC3 is unable to enhance DCP2 decapping at low concentrations and even inhibits DCP2 decapping at high concentration. We show that individuals with biallelic mutations in these genes of seemingly central functions are viable and that these possibly lead to impairment of neurological functions linking mRNA decapping to normal cognition. Our results further affirm an emerging theme linking aberrant mRNA metabolism to neurological defects.

  2. Mutations in DCPS and EDC3 in autosomal recessive intellectual disability indicate a crucial role for mRNA decapping in neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Iltaf; Buchert, Rebecca; Zhou, Mi; Jiao, Xinfu; Mittal, Kirti; Sheikh, Taimoor I.; Scheller, Ute; Vasli, Nasim; Rafiq, Muhammad Arshad; Brohi, M. Qasim; Mikhailov, Anna; Ayaz, Muhammad; Bhatti, Attya; Sticht, Heinrich; Nasr, Tanveer; Carter, Melissa T.; Uebe, Steffen; Reis, André; Ayub, Muhammad; John, Peter; Kiledjian, Megerditch; Vincent, John B.; Jamra, Rami Abou

    2015-01-01

    There are two known mRNA degradation pathways, 3′ to 5′ and 5′ to 3′. We identified likely pathogenic variants in two genes involved in these two pathways in individuals with intellectual disability. In a large family with multiple branches, we identified biallelic variants in DCPS in three affected individuals; a splice site variant (c.636+1G>A) that results in an in-frame insertion of 45 nucleotides and a missense variant (c.947C>T; p.Thr316Met). DCPS decaps the cap structure generated by 3′ to 5′ exonucleolytic degradation of mRNA. In vitro decapping assays showed an ablation of decapping function for both variants in DCPS. In another family, we identified a homozygous mutation (c.161T>C; p.Phe54Ser) in EDC3 in two affected children. EDC3 stimulates DCP2, which decaps mRNAs at the beginning of the 5′ to 3′ degradation pathway. In vitro decapping assays showed that altered EDC3 is unable to enhance DCP2 decapping at low concentrations and even inhibits DCP2 decapping at high concentration. We show that individuals with biallelic mutations in these genes of seemingly central functions are viable and that these possibly lead to impairment of neurological functions linking mRNA decapping to normal cognition. Our results further affirm an emerging theme linking aberrant mRNA metabolism to neurological defects. PMID:25701870

  3. Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the aquatic environment: implications for the drinking water industry and global environmental health.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M F; Yanful, E K; Jasim, S Y

    2009-06-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are a group of chemical compounds with diverse physical and chemical properties. Recent studies have indicated undesired effects of EDCs and PPCPs at their reported trace concentrations (ng l(-1) to microg l(-1)). This paper reviews the current knowledge on the sources, properties, occurrence and health impacts of EDCs and PPCPs, and their removal from drinking water using ozonation and ozone/hydrogen peroxide-based advanced oxidation. The paper also examines the potential threats posed by these chemicals to drinking water and public health. While these compounds are known to have adverse effects on ecosystem health, notably in the fish population, a similar link is yet to be established between ingestion of these compounds through drinking water and human health. In addition, data on the effectiveness of existing methods for the removal of these compounds are not conclusive. Further studies are required to characterize risks, and also to evaluate and optimize existing removal processes. Also concerted international effort is urgent to cut down the risk of exposure and restrain the production and marketing of toxic chemicals.

  4. Family donors are critical and legitimate in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Allain, Jean-Pierre; Sibinga, Cees Th Smit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: For many years, family blood donors have been considered less safe than volunteer non-remunerated blood donors and actively discouraged by international organisations and affluent countries support agencies for developing countries. In addition to safety, pressure and coercion was considered unethical. However these assumptions were not supported by evidence. Aims of the study: To assemble recently collected evidence to reopen the assessment whether or not the ban of family blood donors is justified. Methods: Review of old and recent literature through Pubmed and references from identified articles. Results and Discussion: Viral marker data comparing confirmed seroprevalence in 1st time volunteer non-remunerated donors (VNRD) and family/replacement donors (FRD) corrected for gender and age, show no significant difference between the two groups. Evidence has been provided that for both VNRD and FAD benevolence is more appropriate than altruism. The two groups merge for psychological attitude to donation for which knowing someone needing transfusion is a powerful incentive to give blood. Excluding a life or death situation found in areas where severe blood shortage justifies replacement donation, pressures are exerted on both VNRD and FRD. There is no evidence of coercion of FRD. FRDs therefore meet all criteria for VNRD and are willing to become VNRD and to repeat donation. Ostracising FRD is illegitimate and damaging to the blood supply in resource poor areas. In some countries no difference is made between the two groups of donors representing similar populations asked to give blood in different circumstances. Conclusions: FRDs remain a critical source of volunteer, non-remunerated, blood meeting all classical criteria of VNRD that should be considered legitimate and indispensable at this point in time instead of discouraged. PMID:27011664

  5. Living kidney donors and ESRD.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2015-07-01

    There are more than 325 living kidney donors who have developed end-stage renal disease and have been listed on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN)/United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) deceased donor kidney wait list. The OPTN/UNOS database records where these kidney donors are listed and, if they donated after April 1994, where that donation occurred. These 2 locations are often not the same. In this commentary, I examine whether a national living donor registry should be created and whether transplantation centers should be notified when one of their living kidney donors develops end-stage renal disease. I consider and refute 5 potential objections to center notification. I explain that transplantation centers should look back at these cases and input data into a registry to attempt to identify patterns that could improve donor evaluation protocols. Creating a registry and mining the information it contains is, in my view, our moral and professional responsibility to future patients and the transplantation endeavor. As individuals and as a community, we need to acknowledge the many unknown risks of living kidney donation and take responsibility for identifying these risks. We then must share information about these risks, educate prospective donors about them, and attempt to minimize them.

  6. Cloning of circadian rhythmic pathway genes and perturbation of oscillation patterns in endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs)-exposed mangrove killifish Kryptolebias marmoratus.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Jae-Sung; Kim, Bo-Mi; Lee, Bo-Young; Hwang, Un-Ki; Lee, Yong Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the effect of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on the circadian rhythm pathway, we cloned clock and circadian rhythmic pathway-associated genes (e.g. Per2, Cry1, Cry2, and BMAL1) in the self-fertilizing mangrove killifish Kryptolebias marmoratus. The promoter region of Km-clock had 1 aryl hydrocarbon receptor element (AhRE, GTGCGTGACA) and 8 estrogen receptor (ER) half-sites, indicating that the AhRE and ER half sites would likely be associated with regulation of clock protein activity during EDCs-induced cellular stress. The Km-clock protein domains (bHLH, PAS1, PAS2) were highly conserved in five additional fish species (zebrafish, Japanese medaka, Southern platyfish, Nile tilapia, and spotted green pufferfish), suggesting that the fish clock protein may play an important role in controlling endogenous circadian rhythms. The promoter regions of Km-BMAL1, -Cry1, -Cry2, and -Per2 were found to contain several xenobiotic response elements (XREs), indicating that EDCs may be able to alter the expression of these genes. To analyze the endogenous circadian rhythm in K. marmoratus, we measured expression of Km-clock and other circadian rhythmic genes (e.g. Per2, Cry1, Cry2, and BMAL1) in different tissues, and found ubiquitous expression, although there were different patterns of transcript amplification during different developmental stages. In an estrogen (E2)-exposed group, Km-clock expression was down-regulated, however, a hydroxytamoxifen (TMX, nonsteroid estrogen antagonist)-exposed group showed an upregulated pattern of Km-clock expression, suggesting that the expression of Km-clock is closely associated with exposure to EDCs. In response to the exposure of bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-tert-octyphenol (OP), Km-clock expression was down-regulated in the pituitary/brain, muscle, and skin in both gender types (hermaphrodite and secondary male). In juvenile K. marmoratus liver tissue, expression of Km-clock and other circadian rhythmic pathway

  7. Expanding the pool of kidney donors: use of kidneys with acute renal dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    de Matos, Ana Cristina Carvalho; Requião-Moura, Lúcio Roberto; Clarizia, Gabriela; Durão, Marcelino de Souza; Tonato, Eduardo José; Chinen, Rogério; de Arruda, Érika Ferraz; Filiponi, Thiago Corsi; Pires, Luciana Mello de Mello Barros; Bertocchi, Ana Paula Fernandes; Pacheco-Silva, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Given the shortage of organs transplantation, some strategies have been adopted by the transplant community to increase the supply of organs. One strategy is the use of expanded criteria for donors, that is, donors aged >60 years or 50 and 59 years, and meeting two or more of the following criteria: history of hypertension, terminal serum creatinine >1.5mg/dL, and stroke as the donor´s cause of death. In this review, emphasis was placed on the use of donors with acute renal failure, a condition considered by many as a contraindication for organ acceptance and therefore one of the main causes for kidney discard. Since these are well-selected donors and with no chronic diseases, such as hypertension, renal disease, or diabetes, many studies showed that the use of donors with acute renal failure should be encouraged, because, in general, acute renal dysfunction is reversible. Although most studies demonstrated these grafts have more delayed function, the results of graft and patient survival after transplant are very similar to those with the use of standard donors. Clinical and morphological findings of donors, the use of machine perfusion, and analysis of its parameters, especially intrarenal resistance, are important tools to support decision-making when considering the supply of organs with renal dysfunction. PMID:26154553

  8. How to Motivate Whole Blood Donors to Become Plasma Donors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of interventions to recruit new plasma donors among whole blood donors. A sample of 924 donors was randomized to one of three conditions: control; information only by nurse; and information plus self-positive image message by nurse (SPI). Participants in the control condition only received a leaflet describing the plasma donation procedure. In the two experimental conditions the leaflet was explained face-to-face by a nurse. The dependent variables were the proportion of new plasma donors and the number of donations at six months. Overall, 141 (15.3%) new plasma donors were recruited at six months. There were higher proportions of new plasma donors in the two experimental conditions compared to the control condition (P < .001); the two experimental conditions did not differ. Also, compared to the control condition, those in the experimental conditions (all Ps < .001) gave plasma more often (information only by nurse:  d = .26; SPI: d = .32); the SPI intervention significantly outperformed (P < .05) the information only by nurse condition. The results suggest that references to feelings of SPI such as feeling good and being proud and that giving plasma is a rewarding personal experience favor a higher frequency of plasma donation. PMID:25530909

  9. How to motivate whole blood donors to become plasma donors.

    PubMed

    Godin, Gaston; Germain, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of interventions to recruit new plasma donors among whole blood donors. A sample of 924 donors was randomized to one of three conditions: control; information only by nurse; and information plus self-positive image message by nurse (SPI). Participants in the control condition only received a leaflet describing the plasma donation procedure. In the two experimental conditions the leaflet was explained face-to-face by a nurse. The dependent variables were the proportion of new plasma donors and the number of donations at six months. Overall, 141 (15.3%) new plasma donors were recruited at six months. There were higher proportions of new plasma donors in the two experimental conditions compared to the control condition (P < .001); the two experimental conditions did not differ. Also, compared to the control condition, those in the experimental conditions (all Ps < .001) gave plasma more often (information only by nurse:  d = .26; SPI: d = .32); the SPI intervention significantly outperformed (P < .05) the information only by nurse condition. The results suggest that references to feelings of SPI such as feeling good and being proud and that giving plasma is a rewarding personal experience favor a higher frequency of plasma donation.

  10. Donor states in inverse opals

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, G. D.

    2014-09-21

    We calculate the binding energy of an electron bound to a donor in a semiconductor inverse opal. Inverse opals have two kinds of cavities, which we call octahedral and tetrahedral, according to their group symmetry. We put the donor in the center of each of these two cavities and obtain the binding energy. The binding energies become very large when the inverse opal is made from templates with small spheres. For spheres less than 50 nm in diameter, the donor binding can increase to several times its unconfined value. Then electrons become tightly bound to the donor and are unlikely to be thermally activated to the semiconductor conduction band. This conclusion suggests that inverse opals will be poor conductors.

  11. Donor states in inverse opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, G. D.

    2014-09-01

    We calculate the binding energy of an electron bound to a donor in a semiconductor inverse opal. Inverse opals have two kinds of cavities, which we call octahedral and tetrahedral, according to their group symmetry. We put the donor in the center of each of these two cavities and obtain the binding energy. The binding energies become very large when the inverse opal is made from templates with small spheres. For spheres less than 50 nm in diameter, the donor binding can increase to several times its unconfined value. Then electrons become tightly bound to the donor and are unlikely to be thermally activated to the semiconductor conduction band. This conclusion suggests that inverse opals will be poor conductors.

  12. Ethical issues relating to renal transplantation from prediabetic living donor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Mexico, diabetes mellitus is the main cause of end − stage kidney disease, and some patients may be transplant candidates. Organ supply is limited because of cultural issues. And, there is a lack of standardized clinical guidelines regarding organ donation. These issues highlight the tension surrounding the fact that living donors are being selected despite being prediabetic. This article presents, examines and discusses using the principles of non-maleficience, autonomy, justice and the constitutionally guaranteed right to health, the ethical considerations that arise from considering a prediabetic person as a potential kidney donor. Discussion Diabetes is an absolute contraindication for donating a kidney. However, the transplant protocols most frequently used in Mexico do not consider prediabetes as exclusion criteria. In prediabetic persons there are well known metabolic alterations that may compromise the long − term outcomes of the transplant if such donors are accepted. Even so, many of them are finally included because there are not enough donor candidates. Both, families and hospitals face the need to rapidly accept prediabetic donors before the clinical conditions of the recipient and the evolution of the disease exclude him/her as a transplant candidate; however, when using a kidney potentially damaged by prediabetes, neither the donor’s nor the recipient’s long term health is usually considered. Considering the ethical implication as well as the clinical and epidemiological evidence, we conclude that prediabetic persons are not suitable candidates for kidney donation. This recommendation should be taken into consideration by Mexican health institutions who should rewrite their transplant protocols. Summary We argue that the decision to use a kidney from a living donor known to be pre-diabetic or from those persons with family history of T2DM, obesity, hypertension, or renal failure, should be considered unethical in Mexico

  13. Clinical outcome of pancreas transplantation from marginal donors in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tomimaru, Y; Ito, T; Kawamoto, K; Hama, N; Wada, H; Kobayashi, S; Eguchi, H; Tanemura, M; Mori, M; Doki, Y; Nagano, H

    2014-04-01

    In Japan, absolute shortage of donors still continues even after the law allowing organ transplantation from deceased donors came into force in 1997. With the passage of the waiting period after registration for pancreas transplantation (PTx), both deaths and serious cases of diabetic complications necessitating withdrawal of the registration have undoubtedly increased. Therefore, so-called "marginal donor" (MD) has been considered as a potential solution for shortage of donors in Japan. The aim of the present study is to evaluate feasibility of MD in terms of post-PTx outcomes using data from Japan Organ Transplantation Network. A total of 148 PTx were performed from deceased donors in Japan from 2000 to 2012. MD was defined as follows: (1) >45 years old; (2) hemodynamically unstable at harvest using a high-dose dopamine or more than 2 vasopressors; or (3) non-heart-beating status. Postoperative outcomes after PTx were compared between the MD group and the non-MD group. Among the 148 PTx donors, 108 donors (73.0%) satisfied the criteria of MD. Early graft loss of pancreas graft during 3 months post-transplant was observed in 15 patients (10.1%), and the marginality (MD vs non-MD) was not significantly correlated with the early loss of pancreas graft. The overall patient survival of the MD group (1, 3, 5 years: 94.7%, 94.7%, 94.7%) was not significantly different from that of the non-MD group (1, 3, 5 years: 95.0%, 95.0%, 95.0%). Pancreas graft survival in the MD group (1, 3, 5 years: 80.9%, 73.2%, 66.0%) seemed to be slightly lower than that in the non-MD group (1, 3, 5 years: 92.5%, 85.2%, 77.4%), but no statistically significant differences were found between the 2 groups. These results suggest the feasibility of the use of MD for PTx.

  14. Donor selection in heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Emani, Sitaramesh; Sai-Sudhakar, Chittoor B.; Higgins, Robert S. D.; Whitson, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    There is increased scrutiny on the quality in health care with particular emphasis on institutional heart transplant survival outcomes. An important aspect of successful transplantation is appropriate donor selection. We review the current guidelines as well as areas of controversy in the selection of appropriate hearts as donor organs to ensure optimal outcomes. This decision is paramount to the success of a transplant program as well as recipient survival and graft function post-transplant. PMID:25132976

  15. Motivations for Giving of Alumni Donors, Lapsed Donors and Non-Donors: Implications for Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugano, Emilio Kariuki

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive and causal comparative study sought to identify motivations for alumni donor acquisition and retention in Christian institutions of higher learning. To meet this objective, motivations for alumni donors, lapsed donors, and non-donors were analyzed and compared. Data was collected through an electronic survey of a stratified sample…

  16. Comparison of Two Questionnaires on Informed Consent in "Marginal" Donor Liver.

    PubMed

    Bruzzone, P; Balla, A; Quaresima, S; Seitaj, A; Intini, G; Giannarelli, D; Paganini, A M

    2016-03-01

    The necessity of liver donors has contributed to overcoming the traditional criteria and to propose new ones for the acceptance of livers for transplantation. For this reason expanded or extended criteria donation (ECD) or even overextended criteria for marginal or high-risk organ donors have been developed. Ethical, Legal and Psychological Aspects of Organ Transplantation (ELPAT) and European Liver and Intestine Transplant Association (ELITA) - European Liver Transplantation Registry (ELTR) coordinated the distribution of a previously reported questionnaire that was sent to 53 European liver transplant centers. Criteria were divided based on the response rate. Donor criteria such as steatosis and serum sodium >165 mmol/L, as well as recipient criteria such as previous history of cancer, were not considered contraindications to transplantation in more than 60% of cases. Criteria such as ICU (intensive care unit) stay, body mass index >30, serum bilirubin >3 mg/dL, and HIV infection or critical illness were not considered adequate for transplantation in 30% to 59% of cases. On the other hand, there was no agreement on other extended liver donor and recipient criteria, such as age up to 80 years, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase >90 U/L, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase >105 U/L, high-risk sex practices, drug users, patients older than 65 years, and patients younger than 65 years, respectively. Criteria such as serum sodium could not be considered ECD criteria. In conclusion, development of more studies and inclusion of more liver transplantation centers are required to confirm these data.

  17. Dengue antibodies in blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Ribas-Silva, Rejane Cristina; Eid, Andressa Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue is an urban arbovirus whose etiologic agent is a virus of the genus Flavorius with four distinct antigen serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4) that is transmitted to humans through the bite of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. The Campo Mourão region in Brazil is endemic for dengue fever. Obtective The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies specific to the four serotypes of dengue in donors of the blood donor service in the city of Campo Mourão. Methods Epidemiological records were evaluated and 4 mL of peripheral blood from 213 blood donors were collected in tubes without anticoagulant. Serum was then obtained and immunochromatographic tests were undertaken (Imuno-Rápido Dengue IgM/IgGTM). Individuals involved in the study answered a social and epidemiological questionnaire on data which included age, gender and diagnosis of dengue. Results Only three (1.4%) of the 213 blood tests were positive for IgG anti-dengue antibodies. No donors with IgM antibody, which identifies acute infection, were identified. Conclusions The results of the current analysis show that the introduction of quantitative or molecular serological methods to determine the presence of anti-dengue antibodies or the detection of the dengue virus in blood donors in endemic regions should be established so that the quality of blood transfusions is guaranteed. PMID:23049418

  18. Immobilization strategy for enhancing sensitivity of immunosensors: L-Asparagine-AuNPs as a promising alternative of EDC-NHS activated citrate-AuNPs for antibody immobilization.

    PubMed

    Raghav, Ragini; Srivastava, Sudha

    2016-04-15

    This paper addresses the question - Is EDC-NHS activated gold nanoparticles modified electrode surface the best available option for antibody immobilization for immunosensor fabrication? Is there any other alternative covalent immobilization strategy for orthogonal orientation of antibody, ensuring enhanced sensitivity of immunosensors? Does EDC-NHS activation of carboxyl functionalized nanoparticles surface really leads to orthogonal or directed immobilization of antibody? Gold nanoparticles synthesized using L-Asparagine as reducing and stabilization agent were employed for orthogonal immobilization of antibody for immunosensor fabrication. Anti-CA125 antibody was used as a model system for immunosensor fabrication. A comparative evaluation of immunosensors fabricated using L-Asparagine stabilized gold nanoparticles and citrate stabilized gold nanoparticles via different immobilization strategies/chemistries was done. The three strategies involved immobilization of Anti-CA125 antibody - (1) after EDC-NHS activation of citrate stabilized gold nanoparticles, (2) directly onto citrate stabilized gold nanoparticles and (3) directly onto L-Asparagine stabilized gold nanoparticles modified electrode surfaces. Comparative evaluation of Impedimetric response characteristics showed 2.5 times increase in sensitivity (349.36 Ω/(IU/mL)/cm(2)) in case of third strategy as compared to first (147.53 Ω/(IU/mL)/cm(2)) and twice that of second strategy (166.24 Ω/(IU/mL)/cm(2)). Additionally, an extended dynamic range of 0-750 IU/mL was observed while for others it was up to 500 IU/mL. Amino acid coated gold nanoparticles ensured orthogonal immobilization, lesser randomization, with 88% of active antibody available for antigen binding as opposed to other two strategies with less than 30% active antibody.

  19. APOL1 genotype and kidney transplantation outcomes from deceased African American donors

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Barry I.; Pastan, Stephen O.; Israni, Ajay K.; Schladt, David; Julian, Bruce A.; Gautreaux, Michael D.; Hauptfeld, Vera; Bray, Robert A.; Gebel, Howard M.; Kirk, Allan D.; Gaston, Robert S.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Farney, Alan C.; Orlando, Giuseppe; Stratta, Robert J.; Mohan, Sumit; Ma, Lijun; Langefeld, Carl D.; Bowden, Donald W.; Hicks, Pamela J.; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Palanisamy, Amudha; Reeves-Daniel, Amber M.; Brown, W. Mark; Divers, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    Background Two apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) renal-risk variants in donors and African American (AA) recipient race are associated with worse allograft survival in deceased-donor kidney transplantation (DDKT) from AA donors. To detect other factors impacting allograft survival from deceased AA kidney donors, APOL1 renal-risk variants were genotyped in additional AA kidney donors. Methods APOL1 genotypes were linked to outcomes in 478 newly analyzed DDKTs in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. Multivariate analyses accounting for recipient age, sex, race, panel reactive antibody level, HLA match, cold ischemia time, donor age, and expanded-criteria donation were performed. These 478 transplantations and 675 DDKTs from a prior report were jointly analyzed. Results Fully-adjusted analyses limited to the new 478 DDKTs replicated shorter renal allograft survival in recipients of APOL1-two-renal-risk-variant kidneys (HR 2.00; p=0.03). Combined analysis of 1153 DDKTs from AA donors revealed donor APOL1 high-risk genotype (HR 2.05; p=3×10−4), older donor age (HR 1.18; p=0.05), and younger recipient age (HR 0.70; p=0.001) adversely impacted allograft survival. Although prolonged allograft survival was seen in many recipients of APOL1-two-renal-risk-variant kidneys, follow-up serum creatinine concentrations were higher than in recipients of zero/one APOL1-renal-risk variant kidneys. A competing risk analysis revealed that APOL1 impacted renal allograft survival, but not recipient survival. Interactions between donor age and APOL1 genotype on renal allograft survival were non-significant. Conclusions Shorter renal allograft survival is reproducibly observed after DDKT from APOL1-two-renal-risk-variant donors. Younger recipient age and older donor age have independent adverse effects on renal allograft survival. PMID:26566060

  20. Differing Tales of Two Patients after Receiving a Kidney Transplant from a Donor with Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Kadambi, Pradeep V.; Gamilla-Crudo, Ann K.; Almiani, Mohammad; Josephson, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to decrease the time on the deceased donor kidney wait list and to have more organs available, criteria for acceptable organs for transplant could be made less stringent. There are reports of successful recipient outcomes using kidney donors presenting with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). We report a unique circumstance where two patients received kidneys from the same deceased donor who had DIC; one patient developed thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) while the other did not. This difference in outcome may indicate that both donor and recipient factors contribute to the development of posttransplant TMA. PMID:25061532

  1. The decapping activator Edc3 and the Q/N-rich domain of Lsm4 function together to enhance mRNA stability and alter mRNA decay pathway dependence in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Huch, Susanne; Müller, Maren; Muppavarapu, Mridula; Gommlich, Jessie; Balagopal, Vidya; Nissan, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The rate and regulation of mRNA decay are major elements in the proper control of gene expression. Edc3 and Lsm4 are two decapping activator proteins that have previously been shown to function in the assembly of RNA granules termed P bodies. Here, we show that deletion of edc3, when combined with a removal of the glutamine/asparagine rich region of Lsm4 (edc3Δ lsm4ΔC) reduces mRNA stability and alters pathways of mRNA degradation. Multiple tested mRNAs exhibited reduced stability in the edc3Δ lsm4ΔC mutant. The destabilization was linked to an increased dependence on Ccr4-mediated deadenylation and mRNA decapping. Unlike characterized mutations in decapping factors that either are neutral or are able to stabilize mRNA, the combined edc3Δ lsm4ΔC mutant reduced mRNA stability. We characterized the growth and activity of the major mRNA decay systems and translation in double mutant and wild-type yeast. In the edc3Δ lsm4ΔC mutant, we observed alterations in the levels of specific mRNA decay factors as well as nuclear accumulation of the catalytic subunit of the decapping enzyme Dcp2. Hence, we suggest that the effects on mRNA stability in the edc3Δ lsm4ΔC mutant may originate from mRNA decay protein abundance or changes in mRNPs, or alternatively may imply a role for P bodies in mRNA stabilization. PMID:27543059

  2. Living donor liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma achieves better outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Che

    2016-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital mainly relies on live donor LT (LDLT). Owing to taking the risk of LD, we are obligated to adopt strict selection criteria for HCC patients and optimize the pre-transplant conditions to ensure a high disease-free survival similar to those without HCC, even better than deceased donor LT (DDLT). Better outcomes are attributed to excellent surgical results and optimal patient selection. The hospital mortality of primary and salvage LDLT are lower than 2% in our center. Although Taiwan Health Insurance Policy extended the Milan to University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) criteria in 2006, selection criteria will not be consolidated to take into account only by the morphologic size/number of tumors but also by their biology. The criteria are divided into modifiable image morphology, alpha fetoprotein (AFP), and positron emission tomography (PET) scan with standard uptake value (SUV) and unmodifiable unfavorable pathology such as HCC combined with cholangiocarcinoma (CC), sarcomatoid type, and poor differentiation. Downstaging therapy is necessary for HCC patients beyond criteria to fit all modifiable standards. The upper limit of downstaging treatment seems to be extended by more effective drug eluting transarterial chemoembolization in cases without absolute contraindications. In contrast, the pitfall of unmodifiable tumor pathology should be excluded by the findings of pretransplant core biopsy/resection if possible. More recently, achieving complete tumor necrosis in explanted liver could almost predict no recurrence after transplant. Necrotizing therapy is advised if possible before transplant even the tumor status within criteria to minimize the possibility of tumor recurrence. LDLT with low surgical mortality in experienced centers provides the opportunities of optimizing the pre-transplant tumor conditions and timing of transplant to achieve better

  3. The use of neoplastic donors to increase the donor pool.

    PubMed

    Fiaschetti, P; Pretagostini, R; Stabile, D; Peritore, D; Oliveti, A; Gabbrielli, F; Cenci, S; Ricci, A; Vespasiano, F; Grigioni, W F

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the experience of the Centre-Sud Transplant Organization (OCST) area using cadaveric donor with neoplastic diseases to evaluate the possibility of transmission to recipients. From January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2010, the neoplastic risk has been reported to be 5.4% (377/4654 referred donors). In 2003, the number of donors with a tumor and their mean age were respectively: 60 (10.3%) and 59.6 ± 19.9; 2004: 33 (5.2%) and 61.4 ± 15.9; 2005: 32 (6%) and 62.8 ± 15.5; 2006: 46 (7%) and 60.7 ± 19.1; 2007: 51 (7%) and 58.9 ± 16; in 2008: 58 (7%) and 59.7 ± 19.6; 2009: 47 (7%) and 57 ± 26; 2010: 49 (7%) and 64 ± 16. The organ most affected by tumor has been the central nervous system (18%). The tumor was diagnosed before in 325 (86%) cases, versus during organ retrieval in 48 (12.7%) donor operations but before, which four cases (1%) occured after transplantation. According to the histological types and grades, 28 evaluated donors (8.2%) were suitable for transplantation. The histological types were: thyroid carcinoma (n = 3); prostate carcinoma (n = 8), renal clear cell carcinoma (n = 7), oncocytoma (n = 1), meningiomas (n = 2), dermofibrosarcoma (n = 1); verrucous carcinoma of the vulva (n = 1), colon adenocarcinoma (n = 1), grade II astrocytoma (n = 1), adrenal gland tumor (n = 1), gastric GIST (n = 1), oligodendroglioma (n = 1). Forty-five organs were retrieved (22 livers, 19 kidneys, 3 hearts, and 1 pancreas) and transplanted into 44 recipients with 1 liver-kidney combined transplantation. Four recipients died due to causes not related to the tumor. No donor-transmitted tumor was detected among the recipients. Donation is absolutely not indicated in cases of tumors with high metastatic potential and high grades. Performing an accurate evaluation of the donor, taking into account the histological grade, currently can allow, organ retrieval and transplantation with an acceptable risk.

  4. The living anonymous kidney donor: lunatic or saint?

    PubMed

    Henderson, Antonia J Z; Landolt, Monica A; McDonald, Michael F; Barrable, William M; Soos, John G; Gourlay, William; Allison, Colleen J; Landsberg, David N

    2003-02-01

    Studies indicate that 11% to 54% of individuals surveyed would consider donating a kidney, while alive, to a stranger. The idea of 'living anonymous donors' (LADs) as a donor source, however, has not been embraced by the medical community. Reservations focus on the belief that LADs might be psychologically unstable and thus unsuitable donors. Our goal was to inform policy development by exploring the psycho-social make up and motivations of the LAD. Ninety-three unsolicited individuals contacted our center expressing interest in living anonymous donation. Of these, 43 participated in our study, completing two extensive inventories of psychopathology and personality disorder and taking part in the Comprehensive Psycho-Social Interview (CPSI). From the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), the revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R), and the CPSI, coders assessed psychological health, psycho-social suitability, commitment, and motivations. Twenty-one participants passed the stringent criteria to be considered potential LADs. Content analysis of motivations showed that potential LADs were more likely than non-LADs (those who did not pass the criteria) to have a spiritual belief system and to be altruistic. Non-LADs were more likely than potential LADs to use donation to make a statement against their families. The authors conclude with a preliminary outline of eight policy recommendations.

  5. Transfusion safety in francophone African countries: an analysis of strategies for the medical selection of blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Tayou, Claude Tagny; Kouao, Maxime Diané; Touré, Hamane; Gargouri, Jalel; Fazul, Ahamada Said; Ouattara, Siaka; Anani, Ludovic; Othmani, Habiba; Feteke, Lochina; Dahourou, Honorine; Mbensa, Guy Olivier; Molé, Simplice; Nébié, Yacouba; Mbangue, Madeleine; Toukam, Michel; Boulahi, Mahommed Ould; Andriambelo, Lalatiana Valisoa; Rakoto, Olivat; Baby, Mounirou; Yahaya, Rakia; Bokilo, Amelia; Senyana, Florent; Mbanya, Dora; Shiboski, Caroline; Murphy, Edward L.; Lefrère, Jean Jacques

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The goal of selecting a healthy blood donor is to safeguard donors and reduce the risks of infections and immunologic complications for recipients. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS To evaluate the blood donor selection process, a survey was conducted in 28 blood transfusion centers located in 15 francophone African countries. Data collected included availability of blood products, risk factors for infection identified among blood donor candidates, the processing of the information collected before blood collection, the review process for the medical history of blood donor candidates, and deferral criteria for donor candidates. RESULTS During the year 2009, participating transfusion centers identified 366,924 blood donor candidates. A mean of 13% (range, 0%–36%) of the donor candidates were excluded based solely on their medical status. The main risk factors for blood-borne infections were having multiple sex partners, sexual intercourse with occasional partners, and religious scarification. Most transfusion centers collected this information verbally instead of having a written questionnaire. The topics least addressed were the possible complications relating to the donation, religious scarifications, and history of sickle cell anemia and hemorrhage. Only three centers recorded the temperature of the blood donors. The deferral criteria least reported were sickle cell anemia, piercing, scarification, and tattoo. CONCLUSIONS The medical selection process was not performed systemically and thoroughly enough, given the regional epidemiologic risks. It is essential to identify the risk factors specific to francophone African countries and modify the current medical history questionnaires to develop a more effective and relevant selection process. PMID:22014098

  6. The dead donor rule: can it withstand critical scrutiny?

    PubMed

    Miller, Franklin G; Truog, Robert D; Brock, Dan W

    2010-06-01

    Transplantation of vital organs has been premised ethically and legally on "the dead donor rule" (DDR)-the requirement that donors are determined to be dead before these organs are procured. Nevertheless, scholars have argued cogently that donors of vital organs, including those diagnosed as "brain dead" and those declared dead according to cardiopulmonary criteria, are not in fact dead at the time that vital organs are being procured. In this article, we challenge the normative rationale for the DDR by rejecting the underlying premise that it is necessarily wrong for physicians to cause the death of patients and the claim that abandoning this rule would exploit vulnerable patients. We contend that it is ethical to procure vital organs from living patients sustained on life support prior to treatment withdrawal, provided that there is valid consent for both withdrawing treatment and organ donation. However, the conservatism of medical ethics and practical concerns make it doubtful that the DDR will be abandoned in the near future. This leaves the current practice of organ transplantation based on the "moral fiction" that donors are dead when vital organs are procured.

  7. Identifying appropriate recipients for CDC infectious risk donor kidneys.

    PubMed

    Chow, E K H; Massie, A B; Muzaale, A D; Singer, A L; Kucirka, L M; Montgomery, R A; Lehmann, H P; Segev, D L

    2013-05-01

    Over 10% of deceased donors in 2011 met PHS/CDC criteria for infectious risk donor (IRD), and discard rates are significantly higher for kidneys from these donors. We hypothesized that patient phenotypes exist for whom the survival benefit outweighs the infectious risk associated with IRDs. A patient-oriented Markov decision process model was developed and validated, based on SRTR data and meta-analyses of window period risks among persons with IRD behaviors. The Markov model allows patients to see, for their phenotype, their estimated survival after accepting versus declining an IRD offer, graphed over a 5-year horizon. Estimated 5-year survival differences associated with accepting IRDs ranged from -6.4% to +67.3% for a variety of patient phenotypes. Factors most predictive of the survival difference with IRD transplantation were age, PRA, previous transplant, and the expected time until the next non-IRD deceased donor offer. This study suggests that survival benefit derived from IRD kidneys varies widely by patient phenotype. Furthermore, within the inherent limitations of model-based prediction, this study demonstrates that it is possible to identify those predicted to benefit from IRD kidneys, and illustrates how estimated survival curves based on a clinical decision can be presented to better inform patient and provider decision-making.

  8. The Assembly of EDC4 and Dcp1a into Processing Bodies Is Critical for the Translational Regulation of IL-6.

    PubMed

    Seto, Eri; Yoshida-Sugitani, Reiko; Kobayashi, Toshihiko; Toyama-Sorimachi, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages play critical roles in the onset of various diseases and in maintaining homeostasis. There are several functional subsets, of which M1 and M2 macrophages are of particular interest because they are differentially involved in inflammation and its resolution. Here, we investigated the differences in regulatory mechanisms between M1- and M2-polarized macrophages by examining mRNA metabolic machineries such as stress granules (SGs) and processing bodies (P-bodies). Human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells cultured under M1-polarizing conditions (M1-THPs) had less ability to assemble oxidative-stress-induced SGs than those cultured under M2-polarizing conditions (M2-THPs). In contrast, P-body assembly in response to oxidative stress or TLR4 stimulation was increased in M1-THPs as compared to M2-THPs. These results suggest that mRNA metabolism is controlled differently in M1-THPs and M2-THPs. Interestingly, knocking down EDC4 or Dcp1a, which are components of P-bodies, severely reduced the production of IL-6, but not TNF-α in M1-THPs without decreasing the amount of IL-6 mRNA. This is the first report to demonstrate that the assembly of EDC4 and Dcp1a into P-bodies is critical in the posttranscriptional regulation of IL-6. Thus, improving our understanding of the mechanisms governing mRNA metabolism by examining macrophage subtypes may lead to new therapeutic targets.

  9. The Assembly of EDC4 and Dcp1a into Processing Bodies Is Critical for the Translational Regulation of IL-6

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Toshihiko; Toyama-Sorimachi, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages play critical roles in the onset of various diseases and in maintaining homeostasis. There are several functional subsets, of which M1 and M2 macrophages are of particular interest because they are differentially involved in inflammation and its resolution. Here, we investigated the differences in regulatory mechanisms between M1- and M2-polarized macrophages by examining mRNA metabolic machineries such as stress granules (SGs) and processing bodies (P-bodies). Human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells cultured under M1-polarizing conditions (M1-THPs) had less ability to assemble oxidative-stress-induced SGs than those cultured under M2-polarizing conditions (M2-THPs). In contrast, P-body assembly in response to oxidative stress or TLR4 stimulation was increased in M1-THPs as compared to M2-THPs. These results suggest that mRNA metabolism is controlled differently in M1-THPs and M2-THPs. Interestingly, knocking down EDC4 or Dcp1a, which are components of P-bodies, severely reduced the production of IL-6, but not TNF-α in M1-THPs without decreasing the amount of IL-6 mRNA. This is the first report to demonstrate that the assembly of EDC4 and Dcp1a into P-bodies is critical in the posttranscriptional regulation of IL-6. Thus, improving our understanding of the mechanisms governing mRNA metabolism by examining macrophage subtypes may lead to new therapeutic targets. PMID:25970328

  10. Single-Donor Leukophoretic Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    Leukocyte separation-and-retrieval device utilizes granulocyte and monocyte property of leukoadhesion to glass surfaces as basis of their separation from whole blood. Device is used with single donor technique and has application in biological and chemical processing, veterinary research and clinical care.

  11. Patients benefit from the addition of KIR repertoire data to the donor selection procedure for unrelated haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, Jennifer; Rozemuller, Erik H; Petersen, Eefke J; van den Tweel, Jan G; Verdonck, Leo F; Tilanus, Marcel G J

    2008-02-01

    Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) expressed on donor natural killer (NK) cells are important for induction of NK cell alloreactivity in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Current criteria in the selection procedure of an unrelated donor do not account for this potential NK alloresponse. In this study the KIR gene repertoire of 21 HSCT patients and all their potential, unrelated donors (N=64) has been identified by the sequence-specific priming (SSP) procedure. KIR genotype characteristics are correlated with HLA and clinical data. These data show that for 16 cases an HLA compatible alternative donor was available. Among those 16 were 8 donors with a favourable predicted NK alloreactivity directed against the leukaemic cells. In conclusion, it is feasible and clinically relevant to add the KIR repertoire to the unrelated donor selection procedure.

  12. Donor hypernatremia before procurement and early outcomes following pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kaseje, Neema; McLin, Valerie; Toso, Christian; Poncet, Antoine; Wildhaber, Barbara E

    2015-08-01

    The demand for transplantable organs far outweighs the supply. Recently, efforts have been made to increase the donor pool by adopting extended criteria for livers, including those from hypernatremic donors. Currently, there is no clear evidence that the use of organs from hypernatremic donors has detrimental effects on pediatric liver transplantation (LT) recipients. Our aim was to use the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database to evaluate the effects of donor hypernatremia on 30-day outcomes in pediatric LT recipients. We performed an analysis of 2325 children who underwent whole or partial LT between 2005 and 2010. First, we sought to determine a donor sodium threshold for increased mortality following pediatric LT. Second, we examined rates of mortality and graft failure at 30 days after LT in patients receiving grafts from hypernatremic donors compared to patients receiving grafts from normonatremic donors. Hypernatremia was defined as a donor sodium level of ≥160 µmol/L. The primary outcome measure was mortality at 30 days after transplant. The secondary outcome measure was graft failure at 30 days after transplant. There was no threshold sodium level for increased 30-day mortality following pediatric LT. Mean recipient ages/weights, Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease/Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores, and mean cold and warm ischemia times were similar between the 2 study groups. There were no significant differences in mortality rates (3.9% versus 4.5%; P = 0.87) and graft failure rates (2.2% versus 1.9%; P = 1.00) in patients receiving grafts from hypernatremic donors compared to patients receiving grafts from normonatremic donors at 30 days after LT. In conclusion, donor hypernatremia just before procurement does not appear to have negative effects on mortality and graft failure rates at 30 days following pediatric LT.

  13. Donor characteristics can influence overall transplant activities: the Italian experience.

    PubMed

    Bertoni, E; Rosati, A; Zanazzi, M; Becherelli, P; Gallo, M; Salvadori, M

    2004-01-01

    The notable increase in organ donations and transplants in Italy in recent years has lead to the development of an atypical approach to kidney transplantation. All propitious considerations left aside regarding the organ donation rate which has placed Italy among the European leaders, a careful comparative evaluation of the data taken from Italian and international registries demonstrates that renal transplantations in Italy have not shared the same significant growth. The typology of the donors has influenced in a decisive way not only the number of renal transplantations, but also the access to transplant for some age groups and probably even the quality and cost. The overall view which emerges is complex and somewhat contradictory, but we believe that this perspective can furnish solid arguments for choices that need not to be delayed for the living donor transplant, the divulgence of a donation culture in the population, and the criteria for the allocation of the organs.

  14. Screening of deceased organ donors: no easy answers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Robert C; Fishman, Jay A

    2011-01-27

    Transmission of infection to recipients of solid organs is uncommon but well documented. Improved technologies for the diagnosis of infectious diseases suggest possible changes to paradigms used in the screening of organ donors to prevent disease transmission with transplantation. Available microbiologic assays, including molecular tests, are generally designed for use as diagnostic tools in individuals believed to have a specific infection based on clinical or epidemiological criteria. By contrast, these assays often lack the performance characteristics required for screening of deceased organ donors. This challenge is apparent with the analysis of assays for human T-cell lymphotropic virus-I and -II in low-risk populations. Changing epidemiologic patterns associated with the spread of novel pathogens or altered patterns of immigration will necessitate flexibility in the "list" of potential pathogens. Individual benefits from transplantation generally outweigh the risk of transmission of infection. However, this favorable experience will not obviate the need to continuously improve screening practices.

  15. Defining Language Ability: The Criteria for Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brindley, Geoff

    Problems associated with criterion-referenced language testing are discussed in the context of both standardized proficiency testing and classroom assessment. First, different interpretations of criterion-referencing are examined. A range of approaches for defining criteria and performance levels in second language assessment are outlined, and…

  16. A Retrospective Analysis of Apheresis Donor Deferral and Adverse Reactions at a Tertiary Care Centre in India

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Ketan; Kaushik, Ankit; Sharma, Richa; Rawat, DS; Mandal, AK

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With increasing demand of platelet component each day, blood bank plays a pivotal role in ensuring supply of safe blood as and when required. Plateletpheresis procedure is a relatively simple, safe and important adjunct to blood bank inventory. However, recruitment of healthy blood donors is a challenge that the health industry is facing today. Aim To determine the reasons and rates of apheresis donor deferral along with investigation of adverse reactions encountered during the procedure. Materials and Methods Records of single donor apheresis were retrospectively analysed from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2014. The study was carried out at Blood Bank, Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India. The donor details that were studied included – age, sex, type of donation (voluntary/replacement/ repeat), reason for donor deferral and type of adverse reaction, if encountered during the procedure. Results Among the 478 donors screened for plateletpheresis procedure during a study period of 5 years, 134 (28.03%) were deferred. Temporary deferrals accounted for majority (93.28%) of the deferrals. Low platelet count (50.75%) was the main reason of donor deferral followed by low haemoglobin (20.89%). Amongst the 344 selected donors, 15 (4.36%) had some type of adverse reaction associated with the procedure. Conclusion We suggest that the selection criteria for plateletpheresis donors should be revised to deal with shortage of apheresis donors. The criteria regarding minimum pre-procedure platelet count (above1.5 lac/μl) and haemoglobin (above 12.5 g/dl) need to be lowered so as to suit the Indian scenario. The lower adverse reaction rates, 14/344 (4.06%) associated with this procedure encourages safety of donors and is important in recruitment of new donors. PMID:28050376

  17. Live donor transplantation--the incompetent donor: comparative law.

    PubMed

    Wolfman, Samuel; Shaked, Tali

    2008-12-01

    Informed consent of the patient to medical treatment is an essential prerequisite for any invasive medical procedure. However in emergency cases, when the patient is unable to sign a consent form due to unconsciousness or to psychotic state, than the primary medical consideration shall take place. In such a case, in order to save life or even prevent a major medical hazard to the patient, doctors are allowed, in certain cases and in accordance with well accepted medical practice, to perform invasive procedures, major surgery or risky pharmacological treatment, without the explicit consent of the patient. All the above refers to the cases when avoidance of such non-consented treatment may harm severely the health and wellbeing of the patient and there is no doubt that such treatment is for the ultimate benefit of the patient. The question, however, shall arise when such a medical procedure is not necessarily for the benefit of the patient, but rather for the benefit of somebody else. Such is the case in the transplantation area and the question of living donor-donee relationship. This paper shall analyze the legal situation in cases of non competent donors whose consent cannot be considered legal consent given in full understanding and out of free will. It will also compare three legal systems, the Israeli, the American and the traditional Jewish law, with regard to the different approaches to this human problem, where the autonomy of the donor may be sacrificed for the purpose of saving life of another person.

  18. Competing risks and the development of adaptive management plans for water resources: Field reconnaissance investigation of risks to fishes and other aquatic biota exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (edcs) in lake mead, Nevada USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linder, G.; Little, E.E.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis and characterization of competing risks for water resources rely on a wide spectrum of tools to evaluate hazards and risks associated with their management. For example, waters of the lower Colorado River stored in reservoirs such as Lake Mead present a wide range of competing risks related to water quantity and water quality. These risks are often interdependent and complicated by competing uses of source waters for sustaining biological resources and for supporting a range of agricultural, municipal, recreational, and industrial uses. USGS is currently conducting a series of interdisciplinary case-studies on water quality of Lake Mead and its source waters. In this case-study we examine selected constituents potentially entering the Lake Mead system, particularly endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Worldwide, a number of environmental EDCs have been identified that affect reproduction, development, and adaptive behaviors in a wide range of organisms. Many EDCs are minimally affected by current treatment technologies and occur in treated sewage effluents. Several EDCs have been detected in Lake Mead, and several substances have been identified that are of concern because of potential impacts to the aquatic biota, including the sport fishery of Lake Mead and endangered razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus) that occur in the Colorado River system. For example, altered biomarkers relevant to reproduction and thyroid function in fishes have been observed and may be predictive of impaired metabolism and development. Few studies, however, have addressed whether such EDC-induced responses observed in the field have an ecologically significant effect on the reproductive success of fishes. To identify potential linkages between EDCs and species of management concern, the risk analysis and characterization in this reconnaissance study focused on effects (and attendant uncertainties) that might be expressed by exposed populations. In addition, risk reduction

  19. Plutonium storage criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, D.; Ascanio, X.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  20. Amphiphilic NO-donor antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Chegaev, Konstantin; Lazzarato, Loretta; Rolando, Barbara; Marini, Elisabetta; Lopez, Gloria V; Bertinaria, Massimo; Di Stilo, Antonella; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto

    2007-02-01

    Models of amphiphilic NO-donor antioxidants 24-26 were designed and synthesized. The products were obtained by linking a lipophilic tail (C(6), C(8), C(10)) with a polar head constituted by the 2,6-dimethoxyphenol antioxidant joined to the NO-donor 3-furoxancarboxamide substructure through a bridge containing a quaternary ammonium group. Compound 23, containing the shortest C(2)-alkyl chain, was also studied as a reference. The antioxidant properties (TBARS and LDL oxidation assays) and the vasodilator properties of the compounds were studied in vitro. The ability of these products to interact with phospholipid vesicles was also investigated by NMR techniques. The results indicate that both activities are modulated by the ability of the compounds to accumulate on phospholipid layers.

  1. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Donor notification. 630.6 Section 630.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor notification. (a) Notification of donors. You, an...

  2. Designing shallow donors in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    The production of n-type semiconducting diamond has been a long-standing experimental challenge. The first-principles simulation of shallow dopants in semiconductors has been a long-standing theoretical challenge. A desirable theoretical goal is to identify impurities that will act as shallow donors in diamond and assess their experimental viability. I will discuss this identification process for the LiN4 donor complex. It builds a scientific argument from several models and computational results in the absence of computational tools that are both trustworthy and computationally tractable for this task. I will compare the theoretical assessment of viability with recent experimental efforts to co-dope diamond with lithium and nitrogen. Finally, I discuss the computational tools needed to facilitate future work on this problem and some preliminary simulations of donors near diamond surfaces. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program lab managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. Realizing HOPE: The Ethics of Organ Transplantation from HIV infected Donors

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Christine M.; Segev, Dorry; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    The HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act now allows transplantation of organs from HIV infected (HIV+) living and deceased donors to HIV+ individuals with end-stage organ disease in the United States. Although clinical experience with such transplants is limited to a small number of HIV+ to HIV+ deceased donor kidney transplants in South Africa, unprecedented HIV+ to HIV+ liver transplants and living donor kidney transplants are also now on the horizon. Initially all HIV+ to HIV+ transplants will occur under research protocols with safeguards and criteria mandated by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Nevertheless, this historic change brings ethical opportunities and challenges. For HIV+ individuals in need of organ transplant, issues of access, risk, and consent must be considered. For potential HIV+ donors, there are additional ethical challenges of privacy, fairness and the right to donate. Careful consideration of the ethical issues involved are critical to the safe and appropriate evaluation of this novel approach to transplantation. PMID:27043422

  4. Interactions between science, government and media on selection and testing of donors.

    PubMed

    Sazama, K

    1998-01-01

    The international media attention to "bad blood" has fueled governmental action in countries around the world. Donor selection criteria continue to expand, focusing most recently on the possibility of exclusion due to intranasal cocaine use and, in the US, due to incarceration for more than 72 hours. As newer methods of testing evolve, more deferrals will occur due to improved testing. An emerging area of concern is the non-standardized notification of donors who are ineligible to donate and lack of a centralized listing of such deferred donors. Because of the consequences to recipients, improvements in both donor questioning and testing are necessary. Further studies are needed to understand and improve these processes.

  5. A review of life quality in living donors after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dong-Wei; Long, Xi-Dai; Xia, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has increasingly performed all around the world. However, LDLT donors achieve no medical benefits and are exposed to the risk of complications, and even death. The potential effects of LDLT on donor safety, donor recovery, and post-donation psychological impairment are essential to be better understood. We searched the MEDLINE database to identify articles about the quality of life (QOL) in adults after LDLT donation. Twenty-eight studies with a total of 1944 donors were included in the review. 14 of the 28 studies (50%) had a cross-sectional design, and the remaining half had a prospective design. The Physical Component Score (PCS) decreased immediately after the donation, then returned to the baseline within 6 to 12 months while the Mental Component Score (MCS) remains comparable to that of normative population throughout the procedure. Compared with the left graft (LG) donors, right graft (RG) donors were significantly older, had longer hospital stays and higher rates of postoperative complications, and a higher recipient mortality rate, while there were no difference in the PCS and MCS between the two groups. Our review clearly indicates that the LDLT donors can endure the donation procedure and return to their normal daily life without major problem in the short term. However, to improve the donor selection criteria and ensure the QOL in donors throughout donation procedure, more studies with longer follow up and larger samples are essential and predictors of poor QOL should be identified in study with sufficient response rate and ideal control groups. PMID:25784970

  6. Heteroaromatic donors in donor-acceptor-donor based fluorophores facilitate zinc ion sensing and cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Divya, Kizhumuri P; Jayamurthy, Purushothaman; Mathew, Jomon; Anupama, V N; Philips, Divya Susan; Anees, Palappuravan; Ajayaghosh, Ayyappanpillai

    2012-11-01

    The excited state intra molecular charge transfer (ICT) property of fluorophores has been extensively used for the design of fluorescent chemosensors. Herein, we report the synthesis and properties of three donor–π-acceptor–π-donor (D–π-A–π-D) based molecular probes BP, BT and BA. Two heteroaromatic rings, pyrrole (BP), and thiophene (BT) and a non-heteroaromatic ring N-alkoxy aniline (BA) were selected as donor moieties which were linked to a bipyridine binding site through a vinylic linkage. The heteroaromatic systems BP and BT perform selective and ratiometric emission signalling for zinc ions whereas the non-heteroaromatic probe BA does not. The advantages of the D–π-A–π-D design strategy in the design of ICT based probes for the selective fluorescent ratiometric signalling of zinc ions in biological media is discussed. Further, the use of BP, BT and BA for imaging Zn(2+) ions from MCF-7 cell lines is demonstrated.

  7. Artificial corneas versus donor corneas for repeat corneal transplants

    PubMed Central

    Akpek, Esen K; Alkharashi, Majed; Hwang, Frank S; Ng, Sueko M; Lindsley, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals who have failed one or more full thickness penetrating keratoplasties (PKs) may be offered repeat corneal surgery using an artificial or donor cornea. An artificial or prosthetic cornea is known as a keratoprosthesis. Both donor and artificial corneal transplantations involve removal of the diseased and opaque recipient cornea (or the previously failed cornea) and replacement with another donor or prosthetic cornea. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of artificial versus donor corneas in individuals who have had one or more failed donor corneal transplantations. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2013, Issue 10), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to November 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to November 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to November 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 27 November 2013. Selection criteria Two review authors independently assessed reports from the electronic searches to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials (CCTs). We resolved discrepancies by discussion or consultation with a third review author. Data collection and analysis For discussion purposes, we assessed findings from observational cohort studies and non-comparative case series. No data synthesis was performed. Main results We did not identify any RCTs or CCTs comparing artificial corneas with donor corneas for repeat corneal transplantations. Authors

  8. Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  9. Achieving Direct Closure of the Anterolateral Thigh Flap Donor Site—An Algorithmic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Pachón Suárez, Jaime Eduardo; Sadigh, Parviz Lionel; Shih, Hsiang-Shun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Background: Minimizing donor-site morbidity after free flap harvest is of paramount importance. In this article, we share our experience with achieving primary closure of 58 anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap donor sites using a simple algorithm in cases where primary closure would otherwise have not been possible. Methods: Between 2004 and 2010, 58 patients who underwent free ALT flap reconstruction were included in the study. The inclusion criteria were those who had flap width requirements that were wider than 16% of the thigh circumference and had achieved direct primary closure of the donor site by the use of our technique. Results: Primary closure of the donor sites was facilitated in all cases by the use of 3 distinct techniques. This included the use of the V-Y advancement technique in 13 patients, split skin paddle technique in 7 patients, and the tubed skin paddle design in 38 patients. No episodes of postoperative wound dehiscence at the donor site were encountered; however, 2 cases were complicated by superficial wound infections that settled with a course of antibiotics. Conclusions: Direct primary closure of the ALT donor site can be facilitated by the use of our simple algorithm. Certain strategies need to be adopted at the design stage; however, the techniques used are simple and reliable, produce superior cosmetic results at the donor site, save time, and spare the patient the morbidity associated with the harvest of a skin graft. PMID:25426349

  10. Living donor liver transplantation from an asymptomatic mother who was a carrier for ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Wakiya, T; Sanada, Y; Urahashi, T; Ihara, Y; Yamada, N; Okada, N; Egami, S; Sakamoto, K; Murayama, K; Hakamada, K; Yasuda, Y; Mizuta, K

    2012-09-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) has been adopted as a radical treatment for ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD), yielding favorable outcomes. Despite the fact that it is an inheritable disease, a blood relative who is heterozygous for the disorder must sometimes be used as a liver donor for living donor LT. There is ongoing discussion regarding the use of heterozygous donors, however, to our knowledge, no cases where donation was determined based on the Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) activity before LT have been reported. Between May 2001 and April 2011, 17 patients were indicated for living donor LT because of OTCD at our facility. There were three cases with heterozygous donor candidate (17.6%). All heterozygous candidates underwent a liver biopsy to measure their OTC activity before LT and made efforts to secure the safety of the both donor and recipient. Two of 3 candidates had headaches sometimes, and their activity was less than 40%, and thus they were not employed as the donor. One candidate with 104.4% activity was employed, yielding favorable outcomes. Our current experience supported the effectiveness of our donation criteria, however it is necessary to collect sufficient data on a large number of patients to confirm the safety of the procedure.

  11. [Serum ferritin in donors with regular plateletpheresis].

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun-Hui; Guo, Ru-Hua; Wu, Wei-Jian; Yan, Jun-Xiong; Yu, Jin-Lin; Zhu, Ye-Hua; He, Qi-Tong; Luo, Yi-Hong; Huang, Lu; Ye, Rui-Yun

    2011-04-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the impact of regular donating platelets on serum ferritin (SF) of donors. A total of 93 male blood donors including 24 initial plateletpheresis donors and 69 regular plateletpheresis donors were selected randomly. Their SF level was measured by ELISA. The results showed that the SF level of initial plateletpheresis donors and regular plateletpheresis donors were 91.08 ± 23.38 µg/L and 57.16 ± 35.48 µg/L respectively, and all were in normal levels, but there was significant difference between the 2 groups (p < 0.05). The SF level decreased when the donation frequency increased, there were no significant differences between the groups with different donation frequency. Correlation with lifetime donations of platelets was not found. It is concluded that regular plateletpheresis donors may have lower SF level.

  12. Simulation shows that HLA-matched stem cell donors can remain unidentified in donor searches

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Jürgen; Solloch, Ute V.; Giani, Anette S.; Hofmann, Jan A.; Schmidt, Alexander H.

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneous nature of HLA information in real-life stem cell donor registries may hamper unrelated donor searches. It is even possible that fully HLA-matched donors with incomplete HLA information are not identified. In our simulation study, we estimated the probability of these unnecessarily failed donor searches. For that purpose, we carried out donor searches in several virtual donor registries. The registries differed by size, composition with respect to HLA typing levels, and genetic diversity. When up to three virtual HLA typing requests were allowed within donor searches, the share of unnecessarily failed donor searches ranged from 1.19% to 4.13%, thus indicating that non-identification of completely HLA-matched stem cell donors is a problem of practical relevance. The following donor registry characteristics were positively correlated with the share of unnecessarily failed donor searches: large registry size, high genetic diversity, and, most strongly correlated, large fraction of registered donors with incomplete HLA typing. Increasing the number of virtual HLA typing requests within donor searches up to ten had a smaller effect. It follows that the problem of donor non-identification can be substantially reduced by complete high-resolution HLA typing of potential donors. PMID:26876789

  13. Water Quality Criteria

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA develops water quality criteria based on the latest scientific knowledge to protect human health and aquatic life. This information serves as guidance to states and tribes in adopting water quality standards.

  14. Stabilization of estimated glomerular filtration rate in kidney transplantation from deceased donors with acute kidney injuries

    PubMed Central

    Wiwattanathum, Punlop; Ingsathit, Atiporn; Kantachuvesiri, Surasak; Arpornsujaritkun, Nuttapon; Tirapanich, Wiwat; Sumethkul, Vasant

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate and compare the outcomes of kidney transplant (KT) from deceased donors among standard criteria, acute kidney injury (AKI) and expanded criteria donors (ECDs). METHODS This retrospective study included 111 deceased donor kidney transplant recipients (DDKT). Deceased donors were classified as standard criteria donor (SCD), AKI donor and ECD. AKI was diagnosed and classified based on change of serum Cr by acute kidney injury network (AKIN) criteria. Primary outcome was one-year estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated from Cr by CKD-EPI. Multivariate regression analysis was done by adjusting factors such as type of DDKT, %Panel-reactive antibodies, cold ischemic time, the presence of delayed graft function and the use of induction therapy. Significant factors that can affect the primary outcomes were then identified. RESULTS ECD group had a significantly lower eGFR at one year (33.9 ± 17.3 mL/min) when compared with AKI group (56.6 ± 23.9) and SCD group (63.6 ± 19.9) (P < 0.001). For AKI group, one-year eGFR was also indifferent among AKIN stage 1, 2 or 3. Patients with AKIN stage 3 had progressive increase of eGFR from 49.6 ± 27.2 at discharge to 61.9 ± 29.0 mL/min at one year. From Kaplan-Meier analysis, AKI donor showed better two-year graft survival than ECD (100% vs 88.5%, P = 0.006). Interestingly, AKI group had a stable eGFR at one and two year. The two-year eGFR of AKI group was not significantly different from SCD group (56.6 ± 24.5 mL/min vs 58.6 ± 23.2 mL/min, P = 0.65). CONCLUSION Kidney transplantations from deceased donors with variable stage of acute kidney injuries were associated with favorable two-year allograft function. The outcomes were comparable with KT from SCD. This information supports the option that deceased donors with AKI are an important source of organ for kidney transplantation even in the presence of stage 3 AKI. PMID:28058222

  15. Donor free radical explosive composition

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Franklin E. [15 Way Points Rd., Danville, CA 94526; Wasley, Richard J. [4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550

    1980-04-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising an organic compound or mixture of organic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive, or an inorganic compound or mixture of inorganic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and selected from ammonium or alkali metal persulfates.

  16. Training techniques in laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Raque, Jessica; Billeter, Adrian T; Lucich, Elizabeth; Marvin, Michael M; Sutton, Erica

    2015-10-01

    The learning curve to achieve competency in laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) is poorly outlined. Online databases were searched for training in LDN. Abstracts and manuscripts were excluded if they did not address introduction of a laparoscopic technique for donor nephrectomy. Relevant manuscripts were reviewed for surgical technique, use of animal models, co-surgeons, surgeon specialty and training, institution type/volume, and assessment of training method. Forty-four met inclusion criteria, with 75% describing the evolution from open to LDN. Eighty-two percent were from academic centers, and 36% were from centers performing <25 donor nephrectomies each year. The learner was an attending surgeon 80% of the time, mostly urologists with prior laparoscopy or open nephrectomy experience. The learning curve, defined by decreased operating time, averaged 35 cases. Improved intra-operative, patient, and recipient outcomes were observed for centers performing ≥50 LDNs annually. The United Network of Organ Sharing requires 15 cases as surgeon or assistant to be certified as the primary LDN surgeon. This falls below the described learning curve for LDN. The assessment of training and competency for LDN is heterogeneous, and objective learner-based metrics could help surgeons and institutions reach a quality standard for performing this operation.

  17. Kidney Transplantation From a Donor With Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Rossidis, A; Lim, M A; Palmer, M; Levine, M H; Naji, A; Bloom, R D; Abt, P L

    2017-02-01

    In the United States, >100 000 patients are waiting for a kidney transplant. Given the paucity of organs available for transplant, expansion of eligibility criteria for deceased donation is of substantial interest. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is viewed as a contraindication to kidney donation, perhaps because SCD substantially alters renal structure and function and thus has the potential to adversely affect multiple physiological processes of the kidney. To our knowledge, transplantation from a donor with SCD has never been described in the literature. In this paper, we report the successful transplantation of two kidneys from a 37-year-old woman with SCD who died from an intracranial hemorrhage. Nearly 4 mo after transplant, both recipients are doing well and are off dialysis. The extent to which kidneys from donors with SCD can be safely transplanted with acceptable outcomes is unknown; however, this report should provide support for the careful expansion of kidneys from donors with SCD without evidence of renal dysfunction and with normal tissue architecture on preimplantation biopsies.

  18. Risk of Window Period Hepatitis-C Infection in High Infectious Risk Donors: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kucirka, Lauren M.; Sarathy, Harini; Govindan, Priyanka; Wolf, Joshua H.; Ellison, Trevor A.; Hart, Leah J.; Montgomery, Robert A.; Ros, R. Lorie; Segev, Dorry L.

    2011-01-01

    The OPTN classifies high infectious risk donors (HRDs) based on criteria originally intended to identify people at risk for HIV infection. These donors are sometimes referred to as "CDC high risk donors" in reference to the CDC-published guidelines adopted by the OPTN. However, these guidelines are also being used to identify deceased donors at increased risk of window period (WP) hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, although not designed for this purpose. The actual risk of WP HCV infection in HRDs is unknown.We performed a systematic review of 3,476 abstracts and identified 37 eligible estimates of HCV incidence in HRD populations in the United States/Canada. Pooled HCV incidence was derived and used to estimate the risk of WP infection for each HRD category. Risks ranged from 0.26–300.6 per 10,000 donors based on WP for ELISA and 0.027–32.4 based on nucleic acid testing (NAT). Injection drug users were at highest risk (32.4 per 10,000 donors by NAT WP), followed by commercial sex workersand donors exhibiting high risk sexual behavior (12.3:10,000),men who have sex with men (3.5:10,000), incarcerated donors (0.8:10,000), donors exposed to HIV infected blood (0.4:10,000), and hemophiliacs (0.027:10,000). NAT reduced WP risk by approximately 10-fold in each category. PMID:21401874

  19. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy versus open donor nephrectomy: recipient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Jamale, Tukaram E; Hase, Niwrutti K; Iqbal, Anwar M

    2012-11-01

    Effects of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) on graft function, especially early post-transplant, have been controversial. To assess and compare early and late graft function in kidneys procured by open and laparoscopic methods, a retrospective observational study was carried out on 37 recipients-donors who underwent LDN after introduction of this technique in February 2007 at our center, a tertiary care nephrology referral center. Demographic, immunological and intraoperative variables as well as immunosuppressive protocols and number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatches were noted. Early graft function was assessed by serum creatinine on Days two, five, seven, 14 and 28 and at the time of discharge. Serum creatinine values at three months and at one year post-transplant were considered as the surrogates of late graft function. Data obtained were compared with the data from 33 randomly selected kidney transplants performed after January 2000 by the same surgical team, in whom open donor nephrectomy was used. Pearson's chi square test, Student's t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis. Early graft function (serum creatinine on Day five 2.15 mg/dL vs 1.49 mg/dL, P = 0.027) was poorer in the LDN group. Late graft function as assessed by serum creatinine at three months (1.45 mg/dL vs 1.31 mg/dL, P = 0.335) and one year (1.56 mg/dL vs 1.34 mg/dL, P = 0.275) was equivalent in the two groups. Episodes of early acute graft dysfunction due to acute tubular necrosis were significantly higher in the LDN group (37.8% vs 12.1%, Z score 2.457, P = 0.014). Warm ischemia time was significantly prolonged in the LDN group (255 s vs 132.5 s, P = 0.002). LDN is associated with slower recovery of graft function and higher incidence of early acute graft dysfunction due to acute tubular necrosis. Late graft function at one year is however comparable.

  20. Hydroperoxides as Hydrogen Bond Donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Møller, Kristian H.; Tram, Camilla M.; Hansen, Anne S.; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.

    2016-06-01

    Hydroperoxides are formed in the atmosphere following autooxidation of a wide variety of volatile organics emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources. This raises the question of whether they can form hydrogen bonds that facilitate aerosol formation and growth. Using a combination of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, FT-IR, and ab initio calculations, we have compared the gas phase hydrogen bonding ability of tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBuOOH) to that of tert-butanol (tBuOH) for a series of bimolecular complexes with different acceptors. The hydrogen bond acceptor atoms studied are nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulphur. Both in terms of calculated redshifts and binding energies (BE), our results suggest that hydroperoxides are better hydrogen bond donors than the corresponding alcohols. In terms of hydrogen bond acceptor ability, we find that nitrogen is a significantly better acceptor than the other three atoms, which are of similar strength. We observe a similar trend in hydrogen bond acceptor ability with other hydrogen bond donors including methanol and dimethylamine.

  1. [Clinical selection of blood donors].

    PubMed

    Danic, B

    2003-06-01

    For 20 years, the organization set up to insure the blood transfusion safety has never stopped strengthening. It is based on clinical and epidemiological selection of the blood donation candidates, biologic selection of blood donations and different physico-chemical techniques for pathogens reduction or inactivation in blood products. In France, this organization is optimized by the assertion of the voluntary and non-remunerated character of blood donation registered in the law of January 4th, 1993. The blood donors selection is structured in three successive stages. The first stage is the pre-donation information. The second stage begins with reading and filling out an info-questionnaire which prepare for an interview with a physician. This interview is specially directed to prevention of transfusion-transmitted infections and the prevention of adverse reactions after a 400 to 600 mL collection of whole blood or components. Finally, the third stage is the delivery of a post-donation information which invites the donor to contact the "établissement français du sang" (EFS) in case of a new event arisen after the donation or in case of reviewing of its own answers during the medical interview.

  2. Adverse events and retention of donors of double red cell units by apheresis

    PubMed Central

    Keshelashvili, Ketevan; O’Meara, Alix; Stern, Martin; Jirout, Zuzana; Pehlic, Vildana; Holbro, Andreas; Buser, Andreas; Sigle, Jörg; Infanti, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background Safety of double-erythrocyte (2RBC) collection and reasons for ceasing 2RBC donation were retrospectively analysed in the blood donor population of Basel, Switzerland. Methods Donors with at least 1 2RBC apheresis were included in the study. Minimal requirements were Hb ≥140 g/L and body weight ≥70 kg; serum ferritin (SF) values were measured routinely, but were not part of the selection criteria. 2RBC collections were performed with ALYX devices at 6-month intervals. Adverse events (AEs) were systematically recorded and classified according to the ISBT EHN 2008 criteria. Data of procedures were retrieved from the ALYX software. Demographics, apheresis data and AEs were analysed with descriptive statistics. Results Data of 4,377 2RBC aphereses performed in 793 donors (779 males) between 1st January 2003 and 31st May 2015 were evaluated. Mean donor age at first 2RBC donation was 44 years (standard deviation [SD] 21), median number of donations was 4 (interquartile range [IQR] 8); 32% of the donors underwent a single procedure. There were 161 AEs, mostly local haematomas (55%) and vasovagal reactions (20%); fatigue was reported in 6% of the cases and was more frequent than citrate toxicity. Two severe AEs were observed. The most frequent reasons for abandoning 2RBC donation were low SF levels and donor choice (both 11%), but most donors simply did not reply to invitations (16%). Overall, procedure-related causes (AEs, low SF levels, no time for apheresis, inadequate venous access) were observed in 14% of the cases. At the end of the observation period, 40% of the donors were still active blood donors, but only 20% were donating 2RBC. Discussion 2RBC donation is overall safe. Donor retention was low over a period of 11 years. An important reason for abandoning 2RBC was the detection of low SF levels. The impact of fatigue on donor retention and the course of iron stores after repeated 6-monthly 2RBC apheresis require further investigation. PMID:27136442

  3. Gamete donors' expectations and experiences of contact with their donor offspring

    PubMed Central

    Kirkman, Maggie; Bourne, Kate; Fisher, Jane; Johnson, Louise; Hammarberg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are the expectations and experiences of anonymous gamete donors about contact with their donor offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER Rather than consistently wanting to remain distant from their donor offspring, donors' expectations and experiences of contact with donor offspring ranged from none to a close personal relationship. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Donor conception is part of assisted reproduction in many countries, but little is known about its continuing influence on gamete donors' lives. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A qualitative research model appropriate for understanding participants' views was employed; semi-structured interviews were conducted during January–March 2013. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Before 1998, gamete donors in Victoria, Australia, were subject to evolving legislation that allowed them to remain anonymous or (from 1988) to consent to the release of identifying information. An opportunity to increase knowledge of donors' expectations and experiences of contact with their donor offspring recently arose in Victoria when a recommendation was made to introduce mandatory identification of donors on request from their donor offspring, with retrospective effect. Pre-1998 donors were invited through an advertising campaign to be interviewed about their views, experiences and expectations; 36 sperm donors and 6 egg donors participated. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE This research is unusual in achieving participation by donors who would not normally identify themselves to researchers or government inquiries. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed that most donors did not characterize themselves as parents of their donor offspring. Donors' expectations and experiences of contact with donor offspring ranged from none to a close personal relationship. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION It is not possible to establish whether participants were representative of all pre-1998 donors. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Anonymous

  4. Flight Termination Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haber, Jerold M.; Larson, Erik

    2013-09-01

    The first line of defense in protecting the public against the threat of injury from a failing space booster is the flight termination system. Consequently, these systems must be highly reliable and the criteria for flight termination must be carefully formulated. Criteria must be developed based on observable data that allows adequate time for the data to be assessed and a flight termination action to be triggered. Criteria should be set so that 1) the chance a good vehicle will be terminated is small, 2) the chance of failing to terminate an errant vehicle before it can hazard population centers or valuable assets is minimal, and 3) there is assurance that the combination of the planned trajectory and mission rules do not induce excessive risks to land based populations, air lanes, and shipping lanes should the vehicle need to be terminated [1].This paper provides an overview of the approaches to developing and implement flight termination criteria and a tool for understanding risk implications of proposed criteria.

  5. Adult to adult right lobe living donor liver transplantation: does biological relationship matter?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Tan, Yifei; Shen, Shu; Jiang, Li; Yan, Lunan; Yang, Jiayin; Li, Bo; Wen, Tianfu; Zeng, Yong; Wang, WenTao; Xu, Mingqing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The influence of the biological relationship between the donor and the recipient is rarely discussed in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), although it is believed to be an important risk factor in other types of organ transplantations. A total of 272 consecutive patients undergoing adult to adult right lobe LDLT were retrospectively analyzed and stratified into a nonbiologically related (NBR) group (69 patients) and a biologically related (BR) group (203 patients). The preoperative data and postoperative outcomes of both recipients and donors were evaluated. More than two-thirds of the recipients had histories of HBV infection, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was the main reason for the patients undergoing LDLT in both groups. The percentage of female donors in the NBR group was more than the percentage in the BR group (P = 0.000). There were no differences between the groups in postoperative laboratory testing or daily immunosuppression dose, and the complication rates in both the recipient and donor surgeries showed no significant differences. For patients with benign diseases, the cumulative 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year survival rate were 92.9% in the 4 periods in the NBR group and 89.1%, 87.6%, 83.7%, and 83.7%, respectively, in BR group, while for the patients diagnosed as HCC, if patients exceeding the Milan criteria were involved, the 5-year survival rate was 41.2%, compared to 82% for patients within the Milan criteria, which was nearly the same as for those with the benign disease. In conclusion, our findings suggested that the biological relationship between the donor and the recipient in adult to adult LDLT was not associated with the short- and long-term outcomes of recipients diagnosed with benign liver diseases and early stage HCC. Moreover, the criteria for patients diagnosed with HCC to undergo LDLT should be restrictively selected. PMID:28121912

  6. Lobar lung transplantation from deceased donors: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Eberlein, Michael; Reed, Robert M; Chahla, Mayy; Bolukbas, Servet; Blevins, Amy; Van Raemdonck, Dirk; Stanzi, Alessia; Inci, Ilhan; Marasco, Silvana; Shigemura, Norihisa; Aigner, Clemens; Deuse, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    AIM To systematically review reports on deceased-donor-lobar lung transplantation (ddLLTx) and uniformly describe size matching using the donor-to-recipient predicted-total lung-capacity (pTLC) ratio. METHODS We set out to systematically review reports on ddLLTx and uniformly describe size matching using the donor-to-recipient pTLC ratio and to summarize reported one-year survival data of ddLLTx and conventional-LTx. We searched in PubMed, CINAHL via EBSCO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews via Wiley (CDSR), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects via Wiley (DARE), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials via Wiley (CENTRAL), Scopus (which includes EMBASE abstracts), and Web of Science for original reports on ddLLTx. RESULTS Nine observational cohort studies reporting on 301 ddLLTx met our inclusion criteria for systematic review of size matching, and eight for describing one-year-survival. The ddLLTx-group was often characterized by high acuity; however there was heterogeneity in transplant indications and pre-operative characteristics between studies. Data to calculate the pTLC ratio was available for 242 ddLLTx (80%). The mean pTLCratio before lobar resection was 1.25 ± 0.3 and the transplanted pTLCratio after lobar resection was 0.76 ± 0.2. One-year survival in the ddLLTx-group ranged from 50%-100%, compared to 72%-88% in the conventional-LTx group. In the largest study ddLLTx (n = 138) was associated with a lower one-year-survival compared to conventional-LTx (n = 539) (65.1% vs 84.1%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION Further investigations of optimal donor-to-recipient size matching parameters for ddLLTx could improve outcomes of this important surgical option. PMID:28280698

  7. Nitrogen related shallow thermal donors in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, N.; Jones, R.; Öberg, S.; Briddon, P. R.

    2007-07-01

    In this letter, the authors investigate the electrical properties of nitrogen related shallow thermal donor (STD) candidates and their concentrations under different doping conditions by means of density functional theory. Experimentally, the existence of STDs containing one nitrogen atom and both even and odd numbers of oxygen atoms has been proposed. However, so far first principles studies have not presented a candidate for the latter. Here, they show that the NO defect possesses a shallow donor level. Adding one or two more oxygen atoms results in the donor level to become shallower. The fraction of shallow nitrogen related donors to N dimers increases in material with low concentration of nitrogen.

  8. Criteria for structural test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The results of a study to define criteria and techniques of design, analysis and test which permit the use of a single major structural test article for performing dynamic, fatigue, and static testing are presented. The criteria developed is applicable to both space vehicles and aircraft structures operating in the subsonic or supersonic regime. The feasibility of such an approach was demonstrated by defining test interactions, compatibilities and incompatibilities between the three different types of tests. The results of the study indicate that the single test article concept is feasible with a testing sequence of dynamic test followed by a fatigue and static test.

  9. Landscape of Deceased Donors Labeled Increased Risk for Disease Transmission Under New Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kucirka, L M; Bowring, M G; Massie, A B; Luo, X; Nicholas, L H; Segev, D L

    2015-12-01

    Deceased donors are labeled increased risk for disease transmission (IRD) if they meet certain criteria. New PHS guidelines were recently implemented; the impact of these changes remains unknown. We aimed to quantify the impact of the new guidelines on the proportion of deceased donors labeled IRD, as well as demographic and clinical characteristics. We used Poisson regression with an interaction term for era (new vs. old guidelines) to quantify changes. Under the new guidelines, 19.5% donors were labeled IRD, compared to 10.4%, 12.2%, and 12.3% in the 3 most recent years under the old guidelines (IRR = 1.45, p < 0.001). Increases were consistent across OPOs: 44/59 had an increase in the percent of donors labeled IRD, and 14 OPOs labeled 25% of their donors IRD under the new guidelines (vs. 5 OPOs under the old). African-Americans were 52% more likely to be labeled IRD under the new guidelines (RR = 1.52, p = 0.01). There has been a substantial increase in donors labeled IRD under the new PHS guidelines; it is important to understand the mechanism and consequences to ensure an optimal balance of patient safety and organ utilization is achieved.

  10. Limbal Stem Cells from Aged Donors Are a Suitable Source for Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Conesa, Eva M.

    2016-01-01

    Limbal stem cells (LSC) are the progenitor cells that maintain the transparency of the cornea. Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) leads to corneal opacity, inflammation, scarring, and blindness. A clinical approach to treat this condition consists in LSC transplantation (LSCT) after ex vivo expansion of LSC. In unilateral LSCD, an autologous transplant is possible, but cases of bilateral LSCD require allogenic LSCT. Cadaveric donors represent the most important source of LSC allografts for treatment of bilateral LSCD when living relative donors are not available. To evaluate the suitability of aged cadaveric donors for LSCT, we compared three pools of LSC from donors of different ages (<60 years, 60–75 years, and >75 years). We evaluated graft quality in terms of percent of p63-positive (p63+) cells by immunofluorescence, colony forming efficiency, and mRNA and protein expression of p63, PAX6, Wnt7a, E-cadherin, and cytokeratin (CK) 12, CK3, and CK19. The results showed that LSC cultures from aged donors can express ≥3% of p63+ cells—considered as the minimum value for predicting favorable clinical outcomes after LSCT—suggesting that these cells could be a suitable source of LSC for transplantation. Our results also indicate the need to evaluate LSC graft quality criteria for each donor. PMID:28042298

  11. Differences in social representation of blood donation between donors and non-donors: an empirical study

    PubMed Central

    Guarnaccia, Cinzia; Giannone, Francesca; Falgares, Giorgio; Caligaris, Aldo Ozino; Sales-Wuillemin, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Background Both donors and non-donors have a positive image of blood donation, so donors and non-donors do not differ regarding their views on donation but do differ in converting their opinion into an active deed of donation. Several studies have identified altruism and empathy as the main factors underlying blood donation. However, a mixture of various motivational factors mould the complex behaviour of donation. This paper presents an exploratory study on differences of social representations of blood donation between blood donors and non-donors, in order to understand the reasons that bring someone to take the decision to become a blood donor. Materials and methods Participants filled in the Adapted Self-Report Altruism Scale, Toronto Empathy Questionnaire and answered a test of verbal association. Descriptive and correlation analyses were carried out on quantitative data, while a prototypic analysis was used for qualitative data. Results The study was carried out on a convenience sample of 786 individuals, 583 donors (mean age: 35.40 years, SD: 13.01 years; 39.3% female) and 203 non-donors (mean age: 35.10 years, SD: 13.30 years; 67.5% female). Social representations of donors seem to be more complex and articulated than those of non-donors. The terms that appear to be central were more specific in donors (life, needle, blood, help, altruism were the words most associated by non-donors; life, aid, altruism, solidarity, health, love, gift, generosity, voluntary, control, needed, useful, needle were the words most associated by donors). Furthermore, non-donors associated a larger number of terms referring to negative aspects of blood donation. Discussion Aspects related to training and the accuracy of any information on blood donation seem to be important in the decision to become a donor and stabilise the behaviour of donation over time, thus ensuring the highest levels of quality and safety in blood establishments. PMID:26674814

  12. Revisiting Bioaccumulation Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of workgroup 5 was to revisit the B(ioaccumulation) criteria that are currently being used to identify POPs under the Stockholm Convention and PBTs under CEPA, TSCA, REACh and other programs. Despite the lack of a recognized definition for a B substance, we defined ...

  13. Does situs inversus totalis preclude liver donation in living donor liver transplantation? A series of 3 cases from single institution

    PubMed Central

    N., Selvakumar; Goyal, Neerav; Nayeem, Mohammed; Vohra, Sandeep; Gupta, Subash

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Liver transplantation (LT) is the gold standard for decompensated Chronic Liver Disease (CLD) in individuals satisfying the selection criteria. Organ scarcity is the rate limiting step in liver transplantation across the globe. Expanding the donor pool is practiced by transplant surgeons across the globe in view of perennial donor organ scarcity and ever increasing organ demand. Presentation of case We have presented series of 3 cases of liver transplantation (LT) with modified left lobe (conventional right) graft from a situs inversus donor and implanting it as a conventional right lobe with a modified technique. The grafts had Type 1, Type 2 and Type 3 biliary anatomies. One graft had inferior hepatic veins also. All three patients had uneventful recoveries. The follow up period range is 4 years to 8 months. Discussion There are multiple case reports in the literature involving situs inversus donors in liver transplantation. Various techniques have also been described. We describe simple and effective technique which has proved successful to our patients. Conclusion SIT donors can be safely accepted for living donor liver transplantation. It is a technically challenging procedure both for donor liver harvesting and implantation in recipient. This is the first case series of LT using modified left lobe graft (conventional right) from a SIT donor with 2 different techniques. Biliary anastomosis is the tricky part of the operation. PMID:26895114

  14. Impact of donor and recipient sex and parity on outcomes of HLA-identical sibling allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Loren, Alison W; Bunin, Greta R; Boudreau, Christian; Champlin, Richard E; Cnaan, Avital; Horowitz, Mary M; Loberiza, Fausto R; Porter, David L

    2006-07-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) may cure patients with hematologic malignancies, but it carries significant risks. Careful donor selection is an important component of the clinical transplantation decision-making process and includes evaluation of HLA typing and other criteria, the most controversial of which is parity. We examined the effect of donor sex and parity on outcomes of HLA-identical sibling SCT. Because the effect of recipient sex/parity has never been explicitly evaluated, we also analyzed the effect of recipient sex/parity on outcomes of transplantation. We found that (1) parous female donors result in an increased risk of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in all recipients, (2) the magnitude of this increased risk is similar in male and female recipients, and (3) nulliparous female donors increase the risk of chronic GVHD in male recipients to a degree comparable to that from parous donors. A decrease in the risk of relapse was not observed, and there was no effect on overall survival, acute GVHD, or transplant-related mortality. Recipient parity had no independent effect on any endpoint. Until the effects of pregnancy on the maternal immune system are better understood, it is appropriate whenever possible to avoid parous female donors and to choose male donors for male recipients in HLA-identical related donor SCT.

  15. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the reason for that decision; (ii) Where appropriate, the types of donation of blood or blood... GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor notification. (a) Notification of donors. You, an establishment that collects blood or blood components, must make...

  16. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the reason for that decision; (ii) Where appropriate, the types of donation of blood or blood... GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor notification. (a) Notification of donors. You, an establishment that collects blood or blood components, must make...

  17. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the reason for that decision; (ii) Where appropriate, the types of donation of blood or blood... GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor notification. (a) Notification of donors. You, an establishment that collects blood or blood components, must make...

  18. Fecal microbiota transplantation and donor standardization.

    PubMed

    Owens, Casey; Broussard, Elizabeth; Surawicz, Christina

    2013-09-01

    Clostridium difficile diarrhea is a common and severe infectious disease. Antibiotics, which are standard initial treatment, are less effective for treating refractory or recurrent infection. Fecal microbiota transplantation, where healthy donor stool is transplanted into a patient, is an alternative to antibiotic therapy that requires standardization for donors and patients.

  19. Payment for donor kidneys: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Friedman, E A; Friedman, A L

    2006-03-01

    Continuous growth of the end stage renal disease population treated by dialysis, outpaces deceased donor kidneys available, lengthens the waiting time for a deceased donor transplant. As estimated by the United States Department of Health & Human Services: '17 people die each day waiting for transplants that can't take place because of the shortage of donated organs.' Strategies to expand the donor pool--public relations campaigns and Drivers' license designation--have been mainly unsuccessful. Although illegal in most nations, and viewed as unethical by professional medical organizations, the voluntary sale of purchased donor kidneys now accounts for thousands of black market transplants. The case for legalizing kidney purchase hinges on the key premise that individuals are entitled to control of their body parts even to the point of inducing risk of life. One approach to expanding the pool of kidney donors is to legalize payment of a fair market price of about 40,000 dollars to donors. Establishing a federal agency to manage marketing and purchase of donor kidneys in collaboration with the United Network for Organ Sharing might be financially self-sustaining as reduction in costs of dialysis balances the expense of payment to donors.

  20. Negotiating boundaries: Accessing donor gametes in India

    PubMed Central

    Widge, A.; Cleland, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This paper documents how couples and providers access donor materials for conception in the Indian context and perceptions about using them. The objective is to facilitate understanding of critical issues and relevant concerns. Methods: A postal survey was conducted with a sample of 6000 gynaecologists and in-depth interviews were conducted with 39 gynaecologists in four cities. Results: Donor gametes are relatively more acceptable than a few years ago, especially if confidentiality can be maintained, though lack of availability of donor materials is sometimes an impediment to infertility treatment. Donor sperms are usually accessed from in-house or commercial sperm banks, pathology laboratories, IVF centres, professional donors, relatives or friends. There is scepticism about screening procedures of sperm banks. Donor eggs are usually accessed from voluntary donors, friends, relatives, egg sharing programmes, donation from other patients, advertising and commercial donors. There are several concerns regarding informed consent for using donated gametes, using relatives and friends gametes, the unregulated use of gametes and embryos, record keeping and documentation, unethical and corrupt practices and commercialisation. Conclusion: These issues need to be addressed by patients, providers and regulatory authorities by providing information, counselling, ensuring informed consent, addressing exploitation and commercialisation, ensuring monitoring, proper documentation and transparency. PMID:24753849

  1. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of donation of blood or blood components that the donor should not donate in the future; (3) Where... the reason for that decision; (ii) Where appropriate, the types of donation of blood or blood... GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor notification....

  2. 42 CFR 35.64 - Donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Donors. 35.64 Section 35.64 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.64 Donors. Authorized contributions...

  3. 42 CFR 35.64 - Donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Donors. 35.64 Section 35.64 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.64 Donors. Authorized contributions...

  4. 42 CFR 35.64 - Donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Donors. 35.64 Section 35.64 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.64 Donors. Authorized contributions...

  5. The Experience of Living Kidney Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judith Belle; Karley, Mary Lou; Boudville, Neil; Bullas, Ruth; Garg, Amit X.; Muirhead, Norman

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the experiences, feelings, and ideas of living kidney donors. Using a phenomenological, qualitative research approach, the authors interviewed 12 purposefully selected living kidney donors (eight men and four women), who were between four and 29 years since donation. Interviews were audiotaped, and transcribed verbatim, and…

  6. Organ donors: deceased or alive? Quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Rozental, R

    2006-01-01

    Irrespectively of universal shortage of donor organs there is a tendency of increasing the number of transplantations from living and deceased donors. Each of these two methods has positive and negative features. The main obstacles using living donors are health hazard, necessity to solve certain donor's social and psychological problems, possibility of organ trade and moving. The main problems connected with organ retrieval from deceased donors are possible conflicts with public opinion: difficulties in interpretation of brain death, legislation, obtaining of informed consent from donor's relatives, etc. Future progress in organ transplantation may take place through activation of organ retrieval from deceased donors. The most perspective ways are change to presumed consent in all countries, establishing of centralized system of donor detection and registration, intensification of transplant coordination, active contacts with mass-media, etc. It is necessary to increase (enhance) participation of the members of the public in organ donation process, to develop solidarity among the public members and to involve public authorities to deal with this problem. Bioethical standards should be put in accordance with common progress and some ethical traditions should be changed.

  7. Evaluation of blood donor deferral causes in the Trinidad and Tobago National Blood Transfusion Service.

    PubMed

    Charles, K S; Hughes, P; Gadd, R; Bodkyn, C J; Rodriguez, M

    2010-02-01

    The majority of blood donations in Trinidad and Tobago are made as replacement by family members or friends. National Blood Transfusion Policy was drafted in 2007 to promote voluntary, repeated donation. The objective of this study is to assess the current rate and reasons for donor deferral, and the aim is to guide the proposed donor education and recruitment programme. A retrospective study of pre-donation deferral of prospective blood donors at the National Blood Transfusion Centre, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, was conducted. Records of all pre-donation deferrals over a 12-month period were studied. As many as 11,346 pre-donation screening interviews were conducted. There were 4043 (35.6%) deferrals. The most common reasons for donor deferral were exposure to high-risk sexual activity (27.6%), low haemoglobin 22.2% and hypertension 17.5%. Other reasons such as medication, chronic medical illness, tattoos, travel history, recent pregnancy, surgery or presentation outside the accepted age limit caused 33.8% of all deferrals and the majority (34.7%) of male deferrals. Low haemoglobin (44.5%) was the most common reason among females. The rate of deferral of voluntary donors was not significantly different from that for replacement donors (31.7 vs. 35.4%, P = 0.25). This study exposed a lack of public awareness as the principal reason for an unacceptably high rate of donor deferral. Donor education about selection criteria needs to be urgently addressed as an objective of the National Policy. Monitoring and evaluation of deferral rates and reasons could be used as one indicator of the effectiveness of the Policy.

  8. Non Heart-Beating Donors in England

    PubMed Central

    Chaib, Eleazar

    2008-01-01

    When transplantation started all organs were retrieved from patients immediately after cardio-respiratory arrest, i.e. from non-heart-beating donors. After the recognition that death resulted from irreversible damage to the brainstem, organ retrieval rapidly switched to patients certified dead after brainstem testing. These heart-beating-donors have become the principal source of organs for transplantation for the last 30 years. The number of heart-beating-donors are declining and this is likely to continue, therefore cadaveric organs from non-heart-beating donor offers a large potential of resources for organ transplantation. The aim of this study is to examine clinical outcomes of non-heart-beating donors in the past 10 years in the UK as an way of decreasing pressure in the huge waiting list for organs transplantation. PMID:18297216

  9. Kinetics of thermal donor generation in silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, B.-Y.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    The generation kinetics of thermal donors at 450 C in Czochralski-grown silicon was found to be altered by high-temperature preannealing (e.g., 1100 C for 30 min). Thus, when compared with as-grown Si, high-temperature preannealed material exhibits a smaller concentration of generated thermal donors and a faster thermal donor saturation. A unified mechanism of nucleation and oxygen diffusion-controlled growth (based on solid-state plate transformation theory) is proposed to account for generation kinetics of thermal donors at 450 C, in as-grown and high-temperature preannealed Czochralski silicon crystals. This mechanism is consistent with the main features of the models which have been proposed to explain the formation of oxygen thermal donors in silicon.

  10. Establishing Criteria for Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Potency

    PubMed Central

    Samsonraj, Rebekah M.; Rai, Bina; Sathiyanathan, Padmapriya; Puan, Kia Joo; Rötzschke, Olaf; Hui, James H.; Raghunath, Michael; Stanton, Lawrence W.; Nurcombe, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study sought to identify critical determinants of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) potency using in vitro and in vivo attributes of cells isolated from the bone marrow of age‐ and sex‐matched donors. Adherence to plastic was not indicative of potency, yet capacity for long‐term expansion in vitro varied considerably between donors, allowing the grouping of MSCs from the donors into either those with high‐growth capacity or low‐growth capacity. Using this grouping strategy, high‐growth capacity MSCs were smaller in size, had greater colony‐forming efficiency, and had longer telomeres. Cell‐surface biomarker analysis revealed that the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) criteria did not distinguish between high‐growth capacity and low‐growth capacity MSCs, whereas STRO‐1 and platelet‐derived growth factor receptor alpha were preferentially expressed on high‐growth capacity MSCs. These cells also had the highest mean expression of the mRNA transcripts TWIST‐1 and DERMO‐1. Irrespective of these differences, both groups of donor MSCs produced similar levels of key growth factors and cytokines involved in tissue regeneration and were capable of multilineage differentiation. However, high‐growth capacity MSCs produced approximately double the volume of mineralized tissue compared to low‐growth capacity MSCs when assessed for ectopic bone‐forming ability. The additional phenotypic criteria presented in this study when combined with the existing ISCT minimum criteria and working proposal will permit an improved assessment of MSC potency and provide a basis for establishing the quality of MSCs prior to their therapeutic application. Stem Cells 2015;33:1878–1891 PMID:25752682

  11. Donor Conception and "Passing," or; Why Australian Parents of Donor-Conceived Children Want Donors Who Look Like Them.

    PubMed

    Wong, Karen-Anne

    2017-03-01

    This article explores the processes through which Australian recipients select unknown donors for use in assisted reproductive technologies and speculates on how those processes may affect the future life of the donor-conceived person. I will suggest that trust is an integral part of the exchange between donors, recipients, and gamete agencies in donor conception and heavily informs concepts of relatedness, race, ethnicity, kinship, class, and visibility. The decision to be transparent (or not) about a child's genetic parentage affects recipient parents' choices of donor, about who is allowed to "know" children's genetic backgrounds, and how important it is to be able to "pass" as an unassisted conception. In this way, recipients must trust the process, institutions, and individuals involved in their treatment, as well as place trust in the future they imagine for their child. The current market for donor gametes reproduces normative conceptions of the nuclear family, kinship, and relatedness by facilitating "matching" donors to recipients by phenotype and cultural affinities. Recipient parents who choose not to prioritize "matching," and actively disclose the process of children's conceptions, may embark on a project of queering heteronormative family structures and place great trust in both their own children and changing social attitudes to reduce stigma and generate acceptance for non-traditional families.

  12. Donor, dad, or…? Young adults with lesbian parents' experiences with known donors.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Allen, Katherine R

    2013-06-01

    In this exploratory qualitative study of 11 young adults, ages 19-29 years, we examine how young people who were raised by lesbian parents make meaning out of and construct their relationships with known donors. In-depth interviews were conducted to examine how participants defined their family composition, how they perceived the role of their donors in their lives, and how they negotiated their relationships with their donors. Findings indicate that mothers typically chose known donors who were family friends, that the majority of participants always knew who their donors were, and that their contact with donors ranged from minimal to involved. Further, participants perceived their donors in one of three ways: as strictly donors and not members of their family; as extended family members but not as parents; and as fathers. The more limited role of donors in participants' construction of family relationships sheds light on how children raised in lesbian, gay, and bisexual families are contributing to the redefinition and reconstruction of complex kinship arrangements. Our findings hold implications for clinicians who work with lesbian-mother families, and suggest that young adulthood is an important developmental phase during which interest in and contact with the donor may shift, warranting a transfer of responsibility from mother to offspring in terms of managing the donor-child relationship.

  13. Criteria for submitting photos.

    PubMed

    Vallarelli, Andrelou Fralete Ayres

    2011-01-01

    Dermatological photography is used as a supplement to dermatological examination with the function of providing additional knowledge and information. Its quality depends on the expertise of the photographer-dermatologist in recording the relevant elements present. Therefore, the dermatologist should know basic principles of photography and the journal editors should ensure that the articles have high-quality images. This article suggests criteria to improve the quality of photographs submitted to journals for publication.

  14. Space Tethers: Design Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlin, D. D.; Faile, G. C.; Hayashida, K. B.; Frost, C. L.; Wagner, C. Y.; Mitchell, M. L.; Vaughn, J. A.; Galuska, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    This document is prepared to provide a systematic process for the selection of tethers for space applications. Criteria arc provided for determining the strength requirement for tether missions and for mission success from tether severing due to micrometeoroids and orbital debris particle impacts. Background information of materials for use in space tethers is provided, including electricity-conducting tethers. Dynamic considerations for tether selection is also provided. Safety, quality, and reliability considerations are provided for a tether project.

  15. Improving the waiting list by using 75-year-old donors for recipients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cascales Campos, P A; Romero, P R; Gonzalez, R; Zambudio, A R; Martinez Frutos, I M; de la Peña, J; Bueno, F S; Robles Campos, R; Miras, M; Pons Miñano, J A; Sanmartin Monzo, A; Domingo, J; Bixquert Montagud, V; Parrilla Paricio, P

    2010-03-01

    The best treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with liver cirrhosis is liver transplantation and the best results are obtained when the tumors fulfill the Milan criteria. However, although the number of transplants is increasing, the organ deficit is growing, which lengthens time on the waiting list, increasing the risk of tumor progression of and exclusion from the list. The use of elderly donors is a valid option for patients on the transplant waiting list with HCC, reducing time on the waiting list. We report our experience with patients transplanted for HCC associated with hepatic cirrhosis using livers from donors >75 years of age. Our preliminary results supported the use of elderly suboptimal donors making it possible to give priority to these patients. All patients in the series achieved good graft function after a follow-up of 2 years with a 100% disease-free survival rate. More extensive long-term studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  16. Bright Solid-State Emission of Disilane-Bridged Donor-Acceptor-Donor and Acceptor-Donor-Acceptor Chromophores.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Masaki; Tsuchiya, Mizuho; Sakamoto, Ryota; Yamanoi, Yoshinori; Nishibori, Eiji; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Nishihara, Hiroshi

    2016-02-24

    The development of disilane-bridged donor-acceptor-donor (D-Si-Si-A-Si-Si-D) and acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-Si-Si-D-Si-Si-A) compounds is described. Both types of compound showed strong emission (λem =ca. 500 and ca. 400 nm, respectively) in the solid state with high quantum yields (Φ: up to 0.85). Compound 4 exhibited aggregation-induced emission enhancement in solution. X-ray diffraction revealed that the crystal structures of 2, 4, and 12 had no intermolecular π-π interactions to suppress the nonradiative transition in the solid state.

  17. Donor-estimated GFR as an appropriate criterion for allocation of ECD kidneys into single or dual kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Snanoudj, R; Rabant, M; Timsit, M O; Karras, A; Savoye, E; Tricot, L; Loupy, A; Hiesse, C; Zuber, J; Kreis, H; Martinez, F; Thervet, E; Méjean, A; Lebret, T; Legendre, C; Delahousse, M

    2009-11-01

    It has been suggested that dual kidney transplantation (DKT) improves outcomes for expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidneys. However, no criteria for allocation to single or dual transplantation have been assessed prospectively. The strategy of DKT remains underused and potentially eligible kidneys are frequently discarded. We prospectively compared 81 DKT and 70 single kidney transplant (SKT) receiving grafts from ECD donors aged >65 years, allocated according to donor estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): DKT if eGFR between 30 and 60 mL/min, SKT if eGFR greater than 60 mL/min. Patient and graft survival were similar in the two groups. In the DKT group, 13/81 patients lost one of their two kidneys due to hemorrhage, arterial or venous thrombosis. Mean eGFR at month 12 was similar in the DKT and SKT groups (47.8 mL/min and 46.4 mL/min, respectively). Simulated allocation of kidneys according to criteria based on day 0 donor parameters such as those described by Remuzzi et al., Andres et al. and UNOS, did not indicate an improvement in 12-month eGFR compared to our allocation based on donor eGFR.

  18. Direction of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network and United Network for Organ Sharing regarding the oversight of live donor transplantation and solicitation for organs.

    PubMed

    Delmonico, F L; Graham, W K

    2006-01-01

    The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) operated by United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) has taken recent steps to address public solicitation for organ donors and its oversight of live donor transplantation. This report provides the direction of the OPTN regarding deceased donor solicitation. The OPTN has authority under federal law to equitably allocate deceased donor organs within a single national network based upon medical criteria, not upon one's social or economic ability to utilize resources not available to all on the waiting list. The OPTN makes a distinction between solicitations for a live donor organ versus solicitations for directed donation of deceased organs. As to live donor solicitation, the OPTN cannot regulate or restrict ways relationships are developed in our society, nor does it seek to do so. OPTN members have a responsibility of helping protect potential recipients from hazards that can arise from public appeals for live donor organs. Oversight and support of the OPTN for live donor transplantation is now detailed by improving the reporting of live donor follow-up, by providing a mechanism for facilitating anonymous live kidney donation, and by providing information for potential live kidney donors via the UNOS Transplant Living website.

  19. The carboxyl modifier 1-ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide (EDC) inhibits half of the high-affinity Mn-binding site in photosystem II membrane fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, C.; Seibert, M. )

    1991-10-08

    The diphenylcarbazide (DPC)/Mn{sup 2+} assay was used to assess the amount of the high-affinity Mn-binding site in manganese-depleted photosystem II (PS II) membrane fragments from spinach and Scenedesmus obliquus. The assay mechanism at high DPC concentration was shown to involve noncompetitive inhibition of only half of the control level of DPC donation to PS II by micromolar concentrations of Mn at pH 6.5. At low DPC concentration both DPC and Mn{sup 2+} donate to PS II additively. Treatment with the carboxyl amino acid modifier 1-ethyl-3-(3(dimethylamino) propyl) carbodiimide (EDC) inhibited half of the high affinity Mn-binding site in spinach and Scenedesmus WT PS II membranes and all of the available site in Scenedesmus LF-1 mutant PS II membranes. A similar EDC concentration dependence was observed in all cases. This protection was specific for Mn{sup 2+}; six other divalent cations were ineffective. The authors conclude that EDC modifies that half of the high-affinity Mn-binding site that is insensitive to the histidine modifier diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC) and directly affects ligands that bind Mn. The effects of EDC and DEPC that influence the high-affinity site are mutually exclusive and are specific to the lumenal side of the PS II membrane. They suggest that carboxyl residues on reaction center proteins are associated with half of the high-affinity Mn-binding site in PS II and are involved along with histidine residues in binding Mn functional in the O{sub 2}-evolving process.

  20. Living donor liver transplantation in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Marwan, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15−59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt. PMID:27115003

  1. Living donor liver transplantation in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amer, Khaled E; Marwan, Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15-59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt.

  2. Utilization of the organ care system - a game-changer in combating donor organ shortage.

    PubMed

    Popov, Aron-Frederik; García Sáez, Diana; Sabashnikov, Anton; Patil, Nikhil P; Zeriouh, Mohamed; Mohite, Prashant N; Zych, Bartlomiej; Schmack, Bastian; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Kallenbach, Klaus; Dohmen, Pascal M; Karck, Matthias; Simon, Andre R; Weymann, Alexander

    2015-03-12

    For patients with end-stage heart failure, cardiac transplantation persists to be the gold standard. Nevertheless, the availability of organs remains a main constraint to the treatment. Through mounting usage of ex vivo heart perfusion an increase in organ availability was achieved by reconditioning of organs formerly not regarded as appropriate for transplantation. We propose the future standard application of this state-of-the-art technology to improve the pool of donor organs by evaluating hearts outside standard acceptability criteria.

  3. Interventional radiology in living donor liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Fan; Ou, Hsin-You; Yu, Chun-Yen; Tsang, Leo Leung-Chit; Huang, Tung-Liang; Chen, Tai-Yi; Hsu, Hsien-Wen; Concerjero, Allan M; Wang, Chih-Chi; Wang, Shih-Ho; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Yong, Chee-Chien; Lin, Yu-Hung; Lin, Chih-Che; Chiu, King-Wah; Jawan, Bruno; Eng, Hock-Liew; Chen, Chao-Long

    2014-05-28

    The shortage of deceased donor liver grafts led to the use of living donor liver transplant (LDLT). Patients who undergo LDLT have a higher risk of complications than those who undergo deceased donor liver transplantation (LT). Interventional radiology has acquired a key role in every LT program by treating the majority of vascular and non-vascular post-transplant complications, improving graft and patient survival and avoiding, in the majority of cases, surgical revision and/or re-transplant. The aim of this paper is to review indications, diagnostic modalities, technical considerations, achievements and potential complications of interventional radiology procedures after LDLT.

  4. Phonon induced spin relaxation times of single donors and donor clusters in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsueh, Yuling; Buch, Holger; Hollenberg, Lloyd; Simmons, Michelle; Klimeck, Gerhard; Rahman, Rajib

    2014-03-01

    The phonon induced relaxation times (T1) of electron spins bound to single phosphorous (P) donors and P donor clusters in silicon is computed using the atomistic tight-binding method. The electron-phonon Hamiltonian is directly computed from the strain dependent tight-binding Hamiltonian, and the relaxation time is computed from Fermi's Golden Rule using the donor states and the electron-phonon Hamiltonian. The self-consistent Hartree method is used to compute the multi-electron wavefunctions in donor clusters. The method takes into account the full band structure of silicon including the spin-orbit interaction, and captures both valley repopulation and single valley g-factor shifts in a unified framework. The single donor relaxation rate varies proportionally to B5, and is of the order of seconds at B =2T, both in good agreement with experimental single donor data (A. Morello et. al., Nature 467, 687 (2010)). T1 calculations in donor clusters show variations for different electron numbers and donor numbers and locations. The computed T1 in a 4P:5e donor cluster match well with a scanning tunneling microscope patterned P donor cluster (H. Buch et. al., Nature Communications 4, 2017 (2013)).

  5. Donor Retention in Online Crowdfunding Communities: A Case Study of DonorsChoose.org

    PubMed Central

    Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure

    2016-01-01

    Online crowdfunding platforms like DonorsChoose.org and Kick-starter allow specific projects to get funded by targeted contributions from a large number of people. Critical for the success of crowdfunding communities is recruitment and continued engagement of donors. With donor attrition rates above 70%, a significant challenge for online crowdfunding platforms as well as traditional offline non-profit organizations is the problem of donor retention. We present a large-scale study of millions of donors and donations on DonorsChoose.org, a crowdfunding platform for education projects. Studying an online crowdfunding platform allows for an unprecedented detailed view of how people direct their donations. We explore various factors impacting donor retention which allows us to identify different groups of donors and quantify their propensity to return for subsequent donations. We find that donors are more likely to return if they had a positive interaction with the receiver of the donation. We also show that this includes appropriate and timely recognition of their support as well as detailed communication of their impact. Finally, we discuss how our findings could inform steps to improve donor retention in crowdfunding communities and non-profit organizations. PMID:27077139

  6. Donor Retention in Online Crowdfunding Communities: A Case Study of DonorsChoose.org.

    PubMed

    Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure

    2015-05-01

    Online crowdfunding platforms like DonorsChoose.org and Kick-starter allow specific projects to get funded by targeted contributions from a large number of people. Critical for the success of crowdfunding communities is recruitment and continued engagement of donors. With donor attrition rates above 70%, a significant challenge for online crowdfunding platforms as well as traditional offline non-profit organizations is the problem of donor retention. We present a large-scale study of millions of donors and donations on DonorsChoose.org, a crowdfunding platform for education projects. Studying an online crowdfunding platform allows for an unprecedented detailed view of how people direct their donations. We explore various factors impacting donor retention which allows us to identify different groups of donors and quantify their propensity to return for subsequent donations. We find that donors are more likely to return if they had a positive interaction with the receiver of the donation. We also show that this includes appropriate and timely recognition of their support as well as detailed communication of their impact. Finally, we discuss how our findings could inform steps to improve donor retention in crowdfunding communities and non-profit organizations.

  7. The Kupffer Cell Number Affects the Outcome of Living Donor Liver Transplantation from Elderly Donors

    PubMed Central

    Hidaka, Masaaki; Eguchi, Susumu; Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Soyama, Akihiko; Ono, Shinichiro; Adachi, Tomohiko; Natsuda, Koji; Kugiyama, Tota; Hara, Takanobu; Okada, Satomi; Imamura, Hajime; Miuma, Satoshi; Miyaaki, Hisamitsu

    2016-01-01

    Background There have been no previous reports how Kupffer cells affect the outcome of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) with an elderly donor. The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of Kupffer cells on LDLT. Methods A total of 161 adult recipients underwent LDLT. The graft survival, prognostic factors for survival, and graft failure after LDLT were examined between cases with a young donor (<50, n = 112) and an elderly donor (≥50, N = 49). The Kupffer cells, represented by CD68-positive cell in the graft, were examined in the young and elderly donors. Results In a multivariable analysis, a donor older than 50 years, sepsis, and diabetes mellitus were significant predictors of graft failure after LDLT. The CD68 in younger donors was significantly more expressed than that in elderly donors. The group with a less number of CD68-positive cells in the graft had a significantly poor survival in the elderly donor group and prognostic factor for graft failure. Conclusions The worse outcome of LDLT with elderly donors might be related to the lower number of Kupffer cells in the graft, which can lead to impaired recovery of the liver function and may predispose patients to infectious diseases after LDLT. PMID:27819035

  8. The effect of donor characteristics on survival after unrelated donor transplantation for hematologic malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Kollman, Craig; Spellman, Stephen R.; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Hassebroek, Anna; Anasetti, Claudio; Antin, Joseph H.; Champlin, Richard E.; Confer, Dennis L.; DiPersio, John F.; Fernandez-Viña, Marcelo; Hartzman, Robert J.; Horowitz, Mary M.; Hurley, Carolyn K.; Karanes, Chatchada; Maiers, Martin; Mueller, Carlheinz R.; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Setterholm, Michelle; Woolfrey, Ann E.; Yu, Neng

    2016-01-01

    There are >24 million registered adult donors, and the numbers of unrelated donor transplantations are increasing. The optimal strategy for prioritizing among comparably HLA-matched potential donors has not been established. Therefore, the objective of the current analyses was to study the association between donor characteristics (age, sex, parity, cytomegalovirus serostatus, HLA match, and blood group ABO match) and survival after transplantation for hematologic malignancy. The association of donor characteristics with transplantation outcomes was examined using either logistic or Cox regression models, adjusting for patient disease and transplantation characteristics associated with outcomes in 2 independent datasets: 1988 to 2006 (N = 6349; training cohort) and 2007 to 2011 (N = 4690; validation cohort). All donor-recipient pairs had allele-level HLA typing at HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1, which is the current standard for selecting donors. Adjusting for patient disease and transplantation characteristics, survival was better after transplantation of grafts from young donors (aged 18-32 years) who were HLA matched to recipients (P < .001). These findings were validated for transplantations that occurred between 2007 and 2011. For every 10-year increment in donor age, there is a 5.5% increase in the hazard ratio for overall mortality. Increasing HLA disparity was also associated with worsening survival. Donor age and donor-recipient HLA match are important when selecting adult unrelated donors. Other donor characteristics such as sex, parity, and cytomegalovirus serostatus were not associated with survival. The effect of ABO matching on survival is modest and must be studied further before definitive recommendations can be offered. PMID:26527675

  9. On material fracture criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremnev, L. S.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the nonlinear mechanics of material fracture, a model of the fracture of materials with actual (discrete) structures has been constructed. The model is supported by proofs that crack resistance K 1 c and fracture toughness G 1 c obtained from the energy conservation law without using the assumptions adopted in the linear material fracture mechanics serve as the force and energy criteria in the nonlinear fracture mechanics. It has been shown that energy criterion G 1 c in the nonlinear mechanics is much greater than G 1 c in the linear fracture mechanics.

  10. New method and characterization of self-assembled gelatin-oleic nanoparticles using a desolvation method via carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) reaction.

    PubMed

    Park, Chulhun; Vo, Chau Le-Ngoc; Kang, Taehee; Oh, Euichaul; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated a new method for the preparation of gelatin-oleic conjugate (GOC) as an amphiphilic biomaterial to load model anti-cancer drugs into self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs). Oleic acid (OA) was covalently bound to gelatin via carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) reaction in water-ethanol cosolvent to form a GOC. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) clearly indicated the successful synthesis of GOC. The percentage of gelatin amino groups reacted with OA was up to 50% as determined using the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) method. Subsequently, gelatin-oleic nanoparticles (GONs) were prepared using a desolvation method with glutaraldehyde or genipin used as a crosslinker for comparison. Irinotecan hydrochloride (IRT) was used as a model drug to load into GONs using incubation or an in-process adding method for comparison. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data showed that the sizes of GONs and IRT-loaded GONs (IRT-GONs) were below 250 nm. The zeta potentials of the GONs and irinotecan-loaded IRT-GONs were below -20 mV, which was found to be stable in suspension against the aggregation process. The incubation method was more suitable for drug loading because it did not affect the process of GON formation and thus did not increase their size much compared to the change in size with the in-process adding method. The lipophilic property of the oleic moiety in the GOC increased the affinity between GOC molecules, thus reducing the amount of crosslinking agents needed to stabilize GONs compared to gelatin nanoparticles (GNs). As novel approaches for the synthesis of protein-fatty acid complexes, chemical reaction has been suggested for the synthesis of GOC. The above results show that GOC synthesized via new method is a promising biomaterial based upon preparation of nanoparticles.

  11. Admissions Criteria in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwanke, Dean

    1981-01-01

    A review of the literature on the topic of admissions criteria in teacher education is presented. Bibliographic annotations review surveys, studies, models, and guidelines on various aspects of admissions criteria, as well as attracting and retaining quality students. (JN)

  12. Nordic criteria for reproductive toxicity.

    PubMed

    Taskinen, H K

    1995-08-01

    Scientific criteria for assessment of the reproductive toxicity of chemicals have been proposed by a Nordic group of experts and regulatory representatives. The criteria take into account the results of clinical studies as well as of experimental research. The criteria should be useful in, for example, product control and labeling and planning of a safe work environment. The proposed Nordic criteria and examples of the assessment of the reproductive toxicity of some chemicals are presented.

  13. Does Lung Donation by Heart Donors Have an Impact on Survival in Heart Transplant Recipients?

    PubMed

    Xia, Y; Friedmann, P; Bello, R; Goldstein, D; D'Alessandro, D

    2017-02-01

    Lung procurement is increasing during multiorgan recovery and substantially alters the explant process. This study evaluated whether lung donation by a heart donor affects survival in heart transplant recipients. Retrospective analysis of United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) adult heart transplantation data from 1998 to 2012 was performed. Lung donors (LDs) were defined as those having at least one lung procured and transplanted. Non-LDs had neither lung transplanted. Heart transplant recipients who had previous transplants, who had heterotopic transplants, who were waitlisted for other organs or who were temporarily delisted were excluded from the analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression were performed. Of 23 590 heart transplant recipients meeting criteria during the study period, 8638 (36.6%) transplants were from LDs. Donors in the LD group had less history of cigarette use (15.5% vs. 29.5%, p < 0.001). On univariate analysis, LDs were associated with improved patient survival (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, LDs were not significantly associated with patient survival (adjusted hazard ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.94-1.03). Analysis of the UNOS registry suggested that donor pulmonary status and lung procurement had no detrimental effect on survival in heart transplant recipients, supporting the present practice of using donor lungs whenever possible.

  14. How I manage the adult potential organ donor: donation after cardiac death (part 2).

    PubMed

    Frontera, Jennifer A

    2010-02-01

    To address the gap between organs available for transplant and the number of patients on the transplant waiting list, the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, Institute of Medicine, United Network for Organ Sharing and the federal government have recommended the increased used of donation after cardiac death (DCD) (JCAHOnline http://www.jointcommission.org/Library/JCAHOnline/jo_06.06.htm ; UNOS, Highlights of the June Board Meeting, 2006). DCD is defined as organ donation once death is declared after irreversible cessation of circulatory and respiratory functions, as opposed to brain death (donation after neurological death). Though DCD is one of the fastest growing categories of organ donors, it comprises only 8% of all deceased donors (Steinbrook in N Engl J Med 357:209-213, 2007). Prior to 1968, when the Ad Hoc Committee of Harvard Medical School proposed a neurological definition of death based on brain-death criteria, organs from deceased donors came from patients who had suffered cardio-pulmonary demise (IOM, Non-heart-beating organ transplantation: practice and protocols, 2000). Early transplantation from DCD donors met with limited success and most transplant surgeons turned to brain-dead donors. Consequently, DCD fell out of vogue and, until recently, has not been the focus of transplant initiatives.

  15. Nucleic acid-amplification testing for hepatitis B in cornea donors.

    PubMed

    Fornés, Maria Gema; Jiménez, Maria Angustias; Eisman, Marcela; Gómez Villagrán, Jose Luis; Villalba, Rafael

    2016-06-01

    Careful donor selection and implementation of tests of appropriate sensitivity and specificity are of paramount importance for minimizing the risk of transmitting infectious diseases from donors to corneal allograft recipients. Reported cases of viral transmission with corneal grafts are very unusual. Nevertheless potential virus transmission through the engraftment cannot be ruled out. According to European Guideline 2006/17/EC, screening for antibodies for Hepatitis B core antigen (anti HBc) is mandatory, and when this test is positive, some criteria must be established before using corneas. Despite the continuous progress in screening tests, donors carrying an occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) can cause transplant-transmitted hepatitis B. To date, Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) is not an obligatory assay in corneal tissue setting neither in our country nor in the rest of European countries. Herein, we report three cornea donors that were rejected with the diagnosis of OBI through the testing of sensitive NAT and the serological profile of Hepatitis B virus. The aim of this report is to emphasize the need to include NAT in new reviews of EU Tissues and Cells Directives in order to increase level of security in tissue donation as well as not to reject a high number of donors with isolated profile of anti HBc in geographical areas with high prevalence of Hepatitis B, that could be rejected without a true criterion of Hepatitis B infection.

  16. Baseline donor chronic renal injury confers the same transplant survival disadvantage for DCD and DBD kidneys.

    PubMed

    Kosmoliaptsis, V; Salji, M; Bardsley, V; Chen, Y; Thiru, S; Griffiths, M H; Copley, H C; Saeb-Parsy, K; Bradley, J A; Torpey, N; Pettigrew, G J

    2015-03-01

    Histological assessment of baseline chronic kidney injury may discriminate kidneys that are suitable for transplantation, but has not been validated for appraisal of donation after circulatory death (DCD) kidneys. 'Time-zero' biopsies for 371 consecutive, solitary, deceased-donor kidneys transplanted at our center between 2006 and 2010 (65.5% DCD, 34.5% donation after brain death [DBD]) were reviewed and baseline chronic degenerative injury scored using Remuzzi's classification. High scores correlated with donor age and extended criteria donors (42% of donors), but the spectrum of scores was similar for DCD and DBD kidneys. Transplant outcomes for kidneys scoring from 0 to 4 were comparable (1 and 3 year graft survival 95% and 92%), but were much poorer for kidneys scoring ≥5, with 1 year graft survival only 73%, and 12.5% suffering primary nonfunction. Critically, high Remuzzi scores conferred the same survival disadvantage for DCD and DBD kidneys. On multi-variable regression analysis, time-zero biopsy score was the only independent predictor for graft survival, whereas one-year graft estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) correlated with donor age and biopsy score. In conclusion, the relationship between severity of chronic kidney injury and transplant outcome is similar for DCD and DBD kidneys. Kidneys with Remuzzi scores of ≤4 can be implanted singly with acceptable results.

  17. A Time for Flexible Donor Agreements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Gerald B.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses why volatile markets and new donor expectations make now a good time to rework payout rates and gift agreements to bolster financial and strategic performance. Suggests seven options for action. (EV)

  18. The dead donor rule: a defense.

    PubMed

    Birch, Samuel C M

    2013-08-01

    Miller, Truog, and Brock have recently argued that the "dead donor rule," the requirement that donors be determined to be dead before vital organs are procured for transplantation, cannot withstand ethical scrutiny. In their view, the dead donor rule is inconsistent with existing life-saving practices of organ transplantation, lacks a cogent ethical rationale, and is not necessary for maintenance of public trust in organ transplantation. In this paper, the second of these claims will be evaluated. (The first and third are not addressed.) The claim that the dead donor rule lacks a cogent ethical rationale will be shown to be an expression of the contemporary rejection of the moral significance of the traditional distinction between killing and allowing to die. The moral significance of this traditional distinction, and the associated norm that doctors should not kill their patients, will be defended, and this critique of it shown to be unsuccessful.

  19. Solicited kidney donors: Are they coerced?

    PubMed

    Serur, David; Bretzlaff, Gretchen; Christos, Paul; Desrosiers, Farrah; Charlton, Marian

    2015-12-01

    Most non-directed donors (NDDs) decide to donate on their own and contact the transplant centre directly. Some NDDs decide to donate in response to community solicitation such as newspaper ads or donor drives. We wished to explore whether subtle coercion might be occurring in such NDDs who are part of a larger community. One successful organization in a community in Brooklyn, NY, provides about 50 NDDs per year for recipients within that community. The donors answer ads in local papers and attend donor drives. Herein, we evaluated the physical and emotional outcomes of community-solicited NDDs in comparison to traditional NDDs who come from varied communities and are not responding to a specific call for donation. An assessment of coercion was used as well.

  20. Citrate anticoagulation: Are blood donors donating bone?

    PubMed

    Bialkowski, Walter; Bruhn, Roberta; Edgren, Gustaf; Papanek, Paula

    2016-10-01

    An estimated 2.4 million volunteer apheresis blood donation procedures were performed in the United States in 2010, and increases in the proportion of transfused blood products derived from apheresis blood collections have been consistently reported. Anticoagulation is required during apheresis and is achieved with citrate. Donor exposure to citrate causes an acute physiological response to maintain serum mineral homeostasis. Some data are available on the sequelae of this acute response in the days and weeks following exposure, raising questions about bone mineral density in regular apheresis donors. New research is emerging that addresses the potential long-term health outcomes of repeated citrate exposure. This article reviews the acute physiological response to citrate anticoagulation in volunteer blood donors, presents contrasting perspectives on the potential effects of citrate exposure on bone density, and identifies key knowledge gaps in our understanding of long-term health outcomes in apheresis donors. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:459-463, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show less ... views 10:58 Susan Solomon: The promise of research with stem cells - Duration: 14:59. TED 61, ...

  2. Solicited kidney donors: Are they coerced?

    PubMed Central

    SERUR, DAVID; BRETZLAFF, GRETCHEN; CHRISTOS, PAUL; DESROSIERS, FARRAH; CHARLTON, MARIAN

    2016-01-01

    Most non-directed donors (NDDs) decide to donate on their own and contact the transplant centre directly. Some NDDs decide to donate in response to community solicitation such as newspaper ads or donor drives. We wished to explore whether subtle coercion might be occurring in such NDDs who are part of a larger community. One successful organization in a community in Brooklyn, NY, provides about 50 NDDs per year for recipients within that community. The donors answer ads in local papers and attend donor drives. Herein, we evaluated the physical and emotional outcomes of community-solicited NDDs in comparison to traditional NDDs who come from varied communities and are not responding to a specific call for donation. An assessment of coercion was used as well. PMID:26511772

  3. Transplantation of Kidneys From Donors With Acute Kidney Injury: Friend or Foe?

    PubMed

    Boffa, C; van de Leemkolk, F; Curnow, E; Homan van der Heide, J; Gilbert, J; Sharples, E; Ploeg, R J

    2017-02-01

    The gap between supply and demand in kidney transplantation has led to increased use of marginal kidneys; however, kidneys with acute kidney injury are often declined/discarded. To determine whether this policy is justified, we analyzed outcomes of donor kidneys with acute kidney injury (AKI) in a large UK cohort. A retrospective analysis of the UK Transplant Registry evaluated deceased donors between 2003 and 2013. Donors were classified as no AKI, or AKI stage 1-3 according to Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. Relationship of AKI with delayed graft function/primary nonfunction (DGF/PNF), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and graft-survival at 90 days and 1 year was analyzed. There were 11 219 kidneys (1869 [17%] with AKI) included. Graft failure at 1 year is greater for donors with AKI than for those without (graft survival 89% vs. 91%, p = 0.02; odds ratio (OR) 1.20 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.41]). DGF rates increase with donor AKI stage (p < 0.005), and PNF rates are significantly higher for AKIN stage 3 kidneys (9% vs. 4%, p = 0.04) Analysis of association between AKI and recipient eGFR suggests a risk of inferior eGFR with AKI versus no AKI (p < 0.005; OR 1.25 [95% CI: 1.08-1.31]). We report a small reduction in 1-year graft-survival of kidneys from donors with AKI. We conclude that AKI stage 1 or 2 kidneys should be used; however, caution is advised for AKI stage 3 donors.

  4. Obesity increases the risk of end-stage renal disease among living kidney donors.

    PubMed

    Locke, Jayme E; Reed, Rhiannon D; Massie, Allan; MacLennan, Paul A; Sawinski, Deirdre; Kumar, Vineeta; Mehta, Shikha; Mannon, Roslyn B; Gaston, Robert; Lewis, Cora E; Segev, Dorry L

    2017-03-01

    Determining candidacy for live kidney donation among obese individuals remains challenging. Among healthy non-donors, body mass index (BMI) above 30 is associated with a 16% increase in risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, the impact on the ESRD risk attributable to donation and living with only one kidney remains unknown. Here we studied the risk of ESRD associated with obesity at the time of donation among 119 769 live kidney donors in the United States. Maximum follow-up was 20 years. Obese (BMI above 30) live kidney donors were more likely male, African American, and had higher blood pressure. Estimated risk of ESRD 20 years after donation was 93.9 per 10 000 for obese; significantly greater than the 39.7 per 10 000 for non-obese live kidney donors. Adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, blood pressure, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate, and relationship to recipient, obese live kidney donors had a significant 86% increased risk of ESRD compared to their non-obese counterparts (adjusted hazard ratio 1.86; 95% confidence interval 1.05-3.30). For each unit increase in BMI above 27 kg/m(2) there was an associated significant 7% increase in ESRD risk (1.07, 1.02-1.12). The impact of obesity on ESRD risk was similar for male and female donors, African American and Caucasian donors, and across the baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate spectrum. These findings may help to inform selection criteria and discussions with persons considering living kidney donation.

  5. Comprehensive banking of sibling donor cord blood for children with malignant and nonmalignant disease.

    PubMed

    Reed, William; Smith, Renée; Dekovic, Florinna; Lee, Joanna Y; Saba, Julie D; Trachtenberg, Elizabeth; Epstein, Joanna; Haaz, Steffany; Walters, Mark C; Lubin, Bertram H

    2003-01-01

    Banking of cord blood (CB) for unrelated hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is well established. However, directed-donor banking of CB for siblings in a current good tissue practices (cGTP) environment has not previously been investigated. Families were eligible for the present study if they were caring for a child with a disorder treatable by HSC transplantation and expecting the birth of a full sibling. We devised standard operating procedures and policies to address eligibility, donor recruitment, donor and recipient evaluation, CB collection, shipping, graft characterization, storage, and release of CB from quarantine. Many of these policies are distinctly different from those established for unrelated-donor CB banks. We enrolled 540 families from 42 states. Collections occurred at several hundred different hospitals. No family was deferred on the basis of health history or infectious disease testing, but departures from standard donor suitability criteria were documented. Disease categories for sibling recipients included malignancy, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia major, nonmalignant hematological conditions, and metabolic errors. Mean CB volume (including anticoagulant) was 103.1 mL; mean nucleated cell count was 8.9 x 10(8). Cell dose exceeded 1.5 x 10(7) nucleated cells per kilogram for 90% of banked units. Seventeen units (3.4%) have been transplanted. Sixteen of the 17 CB allograft recipients had stable engraftment of donor cells. Remote-site collection of sibling donor CB can be accomplished with a high success rate and in a cGTP-guided environment. The cellular products have been used successfully for transplantation; their number and characteristics should be adequate to support the first prospective clinical investigations of sibling CB transplantation.

  6. Donor-derived myeloid sarcoma in two kidney transplant recipients from a single donor.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Amudha; Persad, Paul; Koty, Patrick P; Douglas, Laurie L; Stratta, Robert J; Rogers, Jeffrey; Reeves-Daniel, Amber M; Orlando, Giuseppe; Farney, Alan C; Beaty, Michael W; Pettenati, Mark J; Iskandar, Samy S; Grier, David D; Kaczmorski, Scott A; Doares, William H; Gautreaux, Michael D; Freedman, Barry I; Powell, Bayard L

    2015-01-01

    We report the rare occurrence of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma in two kidney transplant patients who received organs from a single deceased donor. There was no evidence of preexisting hematologic malignancy in the donor at the time of organ recovery. Both recipients developed leukemic involvement that appeared to be limited to the transplanted organ. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and molecular genotyping analyses confirmed that the malignant cells were of donor origin in each patient. Allograft nephrectomy and immediate withdrawal of immunosuppression were performed in both cases; systemic chemotherapy was subsequently administered to one patient. Both recipients were in remission at least one year following the diagnosis of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma. These cases suggest that restoration of the immune system after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy and allograft nephrectomy may be sufficient to control HLA-mismatched donor-derived myeloid sarcoma without systemic involvement.

  7. Donor-Derived Myeloid Sarcoma in Two Kidney Transplant Recipients from a Single Donor

    PubMed Central

    Palanisamy, Amudha; Persad, Paul; Koty, Patrick P.; Douglas, Laurie L.; Stratta, Robert J.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Reeves-Daniel, Amber M.; Orlando, Giuseppe; Farney, Alan C.; Beaty, Michael W.; Pettenati, Mark J.; Iskandar, Samy S.; Grier, David D.; Kaczmorski, Scott A.; Doares, William H.; Gautreaux, Michael D.; Freedman, Barry I.; Powell, Bayard L.

    2015-01-01

    We report the rare occurrence of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma in two kidney transplant patients who received organs from a single deceased donor. There was no evidence of preexisting hematologic malignancy in the donor at the time of organ recovery. Both recipients developed leukemic involvement that appeared to be limited to the transplanted organ. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and molecular genotyping analyses confirmed that the malignant cells were of donor origin in each patient. Allograft nephrectomy and immediate withdrawal of immunosuppression were performed in both cases; systemic chemotherapy was subsequently administered to one patient. Both recipients were in remission at least one year following the diagnosis of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma. These cases suggest that restoration of the immune system after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy and allograft nephrectomy may be sufficient to control HLA-mismatched donor-derived myeloid sarcoma without systemic involvement. PMID:25977825

  8. The development of organic super electron donors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengze; Farwaha, Hardeep; Murphy, John A

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, a host of exceptionally strong organic electron donors has been designed and prepared; their redox potentials are more negative than any previous neutral organic donors and extend beyond E(1/2) = -1 V vs. the saturated calomel electrode (SCE). Their ability to reduce a wide range of organic functional groups has been demonstrated and this article provides an overview of the main advances in the area and the guiding principles for the design of these reagents.

  9. Donor identification 'kills gamete donation'? A response.

    PubMed

    Allan, Sonia

    2012-12-01

    Two Australian government inquiries have recently called for the release of information to donor-conceived people about their gamete donors. A national inquiry, recommended 'as a matter of priority' that uniform legislation to be passed nationwide. A state-based inquiry argued that all donor-conceived people should have access to information and called for the enactment of retrospective legislation that would override donor anonymity. This paper responds to an opinion piece published in Human Reproduction in October 2012 by Professor Pennings in which he criticized such recommendations and questioned the motives of people that advocate for information release. I answer the arguments of Pennings, and argue that all parties affected by donor conception should be considered, and a compromise reached. The contact veto system is one such compromise. I discuss the education and support services recommended by the Victorian government and question Pennings' assertions that legislation enabling information release will lead to a decrease in gamete donation. Finally, I rebut Pennings' assertion that there is a 'hidden agenda' behind the call for information release. There is no such agenda in my work. If there is from others, then it is their discriminatory views that need to be addressed, not the move toward openness and honesty or the call for information by donor-conceived people.

  10. Living unrelated donor kidney transplantation between spouses.

    PubMed

    Haberal, M; Gulay, H; Tokyay, R; Oner, Z; Enunlu, T; Bilgin, N

    1992-01-01

    From November 3, 1975 to November 3, 1990, 874 kidney transplants were performed at out centers. Of these, 675 (77.2%) were from living donors and 199 (22.8%) were from cadaver donors. Five hundred eighty (66.4%) of the living donors were first degree related while 99 (11.3%) were unrelated or second degree related donors, 29 of which were spouses. All donor recipient pairs were ABO-compatible, with the exception of one pair. Donor recipient relations were wife to husband in 25 cases and husband to wife in 4 cases. All were first grafts and started functioning during surgery. In this series, the follow-up for the recipients was 4 to 64 months (mean 33.5 +/- 4.5 months). One-year patient survival and graft survival rates were 92.4% and 81.9%, respectively. Two-year patient survival and graft survival rates were 92.4% and 78.2%, respectively. The single ABO-incompatible case is also doing well, 21 months postoperatively. This study demonstrates that the interspouse kidney transplantation may be used when cadaver organ shortage is a problem. While providing the couple with a better quality of life, interspouse kidney transplantation also enables the couple to share the joy of giving and receiving the "gift of life" from one another.

  11. Sperm donors describe the experience of contact with their donor-conceived offspring

    PubMed Central

    Hertz, R.; Nelson, M.K.; Kramer, W.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the attitudes and experiences of 57 sperm donors who responded to a survey posted online in the United States and indicated that they had had contact with their donor-conceived offspring or the parents of their donor-conceived offspring. On average, 18 years had elapsed since the respondents donated sperm. In the interim between donating and having contact with offspring, most had become curious about their offspring. Most made contact through a bank or online registry. Most respondents had communicated with at least one offspring at least once and most had exchanged photos with offspring. Approximately two-thirds had met in person once; the same proportion had communicated over email or text. Other forms of communication were less common. Almost half of the respondents now considered their donor-conceived offspring to be like a family member. At the same time, donors are respectful of the integrity of the family in which their offspring were raised. Donors with contact are open to having their partners and children know their donor-conceived offspring. Although contact is generally positive, donors report that establishing boundaries and defining the relationship can be very difficult. Some donors also urge those who are thinking of donating to consider the consequences and some suggest avoiding anonymity. There were no significant differences in attitudes and experiences between those who donated anonymously and those who had been identity-release for their offspring when they turned 18. PMID:26175887

  12. Outcomes of shipped live donor kidney transplants compared with traditional living donor kidney transplants.

    PubMed

    Treat, Eric G; Miller, Eric T; Kwan, Lorna; Connor, Sarah E; Maliski, Sally L; Hicks, Elisabeth M; Williams, Kristen C; Whitted, Lauren A; Gritsch, Hans A; McGuire, Suzanne M; Mone, Thomas D; Veale, Jeffrey L

    2014-11-01

    The disparity between kidney transplant candidates and donors necessitates innovations to increase organ availability. Transporting kidneys allows for living donors and recipients to undergo surgery with a familiar transplant team, city, friends, and family. The effect of shipping kidneys and prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) with living donor transplantation outcomes is not clearly known. This retrospective matched (age, gender, race, and year of procedure) cohort study compared allograft outcomes for shipped live donor kidney transplants and nonshipped living donor kidney transplants. Fifty-seven shipped live donor kidneys were transplanted from 31 institutions in 26 cities. The mean shipping distance was 1634 miles (range 123-2811) with mean CIT of 12.1 ± 2.8 h. The incidence of delayed graft function in the shipped cohort was 1.8% (1/57) compared to 0% (0/57) in the nonshipped cohort. The 1-year allograft survival was 98% in both cohorts. There were no significant differences between the mean serum creatinine values or the rates of serum creatinine decline in the immediate postoperative period even after adjusted for gender and differences in recipient and donor BMI. Despite prolonged CITs, outcomes for shipped live donor kidney transplants were similar when compared to matched nonshipped living donor kidney transplants.

  13. The national marrow donor program 20 years of unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ballen, Karen K; King, Roberta J; Chitphakdithai, Pintip; Bolan, Charles D; Agura, Edward; Hartzman, Robert J; Kernan, Nancy A

    2008-09-01

    In the 20 years since the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) facilitated the first unrelated donor transplant, the organization has grown to include almost 7 million donors, and has facilitated over 30,000 transplants on 6 continents. This remarkable accomplishment has been facilitated by the efforts of over 600 employees, and an extensive international network including 171 transplant centers, 73 donor centers, 24 cord blood banks, 97 bone marrow collection centers, 91 apheresis centers, 26 HLA typing laboratories, and 26 Cooperative Registries. In this article, we review the history of the NMDP, and cite the major trends in patient demographics, graft sources, and conditioning regimens over the last 20 years.

  14. Selecting suitable solid organ transplant donors: Reducing the risk of donor-transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Jr, Christopher S Kovacs; Koval, Christine E; van Duin, David; de Morais, Amanda Guedes; Gonzalez, Blanca E; Avery, Robin K; Mawhorter, Steven D; Brizendine, Kyle D; Cober, Eric D; Miranda, Cyndee; Shrestha, Rabin K; Teixeira, Lucileia; Mossad, Sherif B

    2014-06-24

    Selection of the appropriate donor is essential to a successful allograft recipient outcome for solid organ transplantation. Multiple infectious diseases have been transmitted from the donor to the recipient via transplantation. Donor-transmitted infections cause increased morbidity and mortality to the recipient. In recent years, a series of high-profile transmissions of infections have occurred in organ recipients prompting increased attention on the process of improving the selection of an appropriate donor that balances the shortage of needed allografts with an approach that mitigates the risk of donor-transmitted infection to the recipient. Important advances focused on improving donor screening diagnostics, using previously excluded high-risk donors, and individualizing the selection of allografts to recipients based on their prior infection history are serving to increase the donor pool and improve outcomes after transplant. This article serves to review the relevant literature surrounding this topic and to provide a suggested approach to the selection of an appropriate solid organ transplant donor.

  15. Selecting suitable solid organ transplant donors: Reducing the risk of donor-transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Jr, Christopher S Kovacs; Koval, Christine E; van Duin, David; de Morais, Amanda Guedes; Gonzalez, Blanca E; Avery, Robin K; Mawhorter, Steven D; Brizendine, Kyle D; Cober, Eric D; Miranda, Cyndee; Shrestha, Rabin K; Teixeira, Lucileia; Mossad, Sherif B

    2014-01-01

    Selection of the appropriate donor is essential to a successful allograft recipient outcome for solid organ transplantation. Multiple infectious diseases have been transmitted from the donor to the recipient via transplantation. Donor-transmitted infections cause increased morbidity and mortality to the recipient. In recent years, a series of high-profile transmissions of infections have occurred in organ recipients prompting increased attention on the process of improving the selection of an appropriate donor that balances the shortage of needed allografts with an approach that mitigates the risk of donor-transmitted infection to the recipient. Important advances focused on improving donor screening diagnostics, using previously excluded high-risk donors, and individualizing the selection of allografts to recipients based on their prior infection history are serving to increase the donor pool and improve outcomes after transplant. This article serves to review the relevant literature surrounding this topic and to provide a suggested approach to the selection of an appropriate solid organ transplant donor. PMID:25032095

  16. Expanding the live kidney donor pool: ethical considerations regarding altruistic donors, paired and pooled programs.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shaneel Rajendra; Chadha, Priyanka; Papalois, Vassilios

    2011-06-01

    In renal transplant, there is a well-known deficiency in organ supply relative to demand. Live donation provides superior results when compared with deceased donation including a better rate of graft success and fewer immunologic complications. This deficiency in organs leads to significant morbidity and mortality rates. Alternative avenues have been extensively explored that may expand the live donor pool. They include altruistic donation as well as paired and pooled exchange programs. Altruistic donation is a truly selfless act from a donor unknown to the recipient. Kidney paired donation involves 2 incompatible donor-recipient pairs swapping donors to produce compatibility. Pooled donation involves at least 2 pairs, and can take the form of domino chains in which altruistic input sets up a chain of transplants, in which each recipient's incompatible donor makes a donation for the next recipient. Despite application of these various methods, there lie extensive ethical issues surrounding them. Misconceptions frequently occur; for instance, the perceived benefit that donating an organ to a loved one is greater for a related donor than for an altruistic one. Additionally, it is frequently believed that immunologic incompatibility offers coerced donors liberation from surgery, and that overcoming these barriers by introducing exchange programs provides vulnerable donors less protection. This article explores these and other complex ethical issues surrounding the various methods of expanding the donor pool. The authors offer opinions that challenge the ethical issues and attempt to overcome those views that hinder progress in the field.

  17. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2005-02-11

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser safety audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe use of Lasers references this requirement in several sections: (1) Section 1.3.2 LSO Specific Responsibilities states under Hazard Evaluation, ''The LSO shall be responsible for hazards evaluation of laser work areas''; (2) Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''; and (3) Appendix D, under Survey and Inspections, it states, ''the LSO will survey by inspection, as considered necessary, all areas where laser equipment is used''. Therefore, for facilities using Class 3B and or Class 4 lasers, audits for laser safety compliance are expected to be conducted. The composition, frequency and rigueur of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms. In many institutions, a sole Laser Safety Officer (LSO) or a number of Deputy LSO's perform these audits. For that matter, there are institutions that request users to perform a self-assessment audit. Many items on the common audit list and the associated findings are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the LSO or auditor in particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage is an example; to one set of eyes a particular arrangement might be completely adequate, while to another the installation may be inadequate. In order to provide more consistency, the National Ignition Facility Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (NIF-LLNL) has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. These criteria are distributed to laser users, and they serve two broad purposes: first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor, and second, it is an

  18. Diagnostic criteria of antibody-mediated rejection in kidney transplants.

    PubMed

    Mosquera Reboredo, J M; Vázquez Martul, E

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of anti-donor antibody-mediated rejection or humoral rejection (ABMR) is one of the main discussions at the moment in kidney transplantation. The search for histopathological markers that help us to diagnose ABMR has been more problematic, in contrast to the histological expression of cellular or tubulointerstitial rejection. Although the relationship between post-transplant anti-donor antibodies and the allograft's prognosis has been a topic of discussion for a long time, led in the main by P.Terasaki, it was not until the beginning of 1990s when P. Halloran studied the humoral mechanisms of rejection in greater depth. Feutch described the importance of C4d deposits as a marker that shows a humoral mechanism of allograft rejection in 1993. As a result of many studies carried out, the Banff consensus group established some diagnostic histopathological criteria of acute (ABMR) in 2003. These have been modified slightly in later meetings of the group. Furthermore, in 2005 this same working group looked at the physiopathological mechanisms causing chronic allograft failure in more detail and established the criteria defining chronic humoral rejection. In this review, we are trying to update any useful histopathological criteria for diagnosing acute and chronic ABMR.

  19. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2005-06-13

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe Use of Lasers references this requirement through several sections. One such reference is Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''. The composition, frequency and rigor of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms It is common for audit findings from one inspector or inspection to the next to vary even when reviewing the same material. How often has one heard a comment, ''well this area has been inspected several times over the years and no one ever said this or that was a problem before''. A great number of audit items, and therefore findings, are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the auditor to particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage, to one set of eyes might be completely adequate, while to another, inadequate. In order to provide consistency, the Laser Safety Office of the National Ignition Facility Directorate has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. The criteria are distributed to laser users. It serves two broad purposes; first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor. Second, it is an opportunity to explain audit items to the laser user and thus the reasons for some of these items, such as labelling of beam blocks.

  20. Sample quality criteria.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Charles A; Wagner, Claas

    2015-01-01

    The concept of Sample Quality Criteria (SQC) is the initial step in the scientific approach to representative sampling. It includes the establishment of sampling objectives, Decision Unit (DU), and confidence. Once fully defined, these criteria serve as input, in addition to material properties, to the Theory of Sampling for developing a representative sampling protocol. The first component of the SQC establishes these questions: What is the analyte(s) of concern? What is the concentration level of interest of the analyte(s)? How will inference(s) be made from the analytical data to the DU? The second component of the SQC establishes the DU, i.e., the scale at which decisions are to be made. On a large scale, a DU could be a ship or rail car; examples for small-scale DUs are individual beans, seeds, or kernels. A well-defined DU is critical because it defines the spatial and temporal boundaries of sample collection. SQC are not limited to a single DU; they can also include multiple DUs. The third SQC component, the confidence, establishes the desired probability that a correct inference (decision) can be made. The confidence level should typically correlate to the potential consequences of an incorrect decision (e.g., health or economic). The magnitude of combined errors in the sampling, sample processing and analytical protocols determines the likelihood of an incorrect decision. Thus, controlling error to a greater extent increases the probability of a correct decision. The required confidence level directly affects the sampling effort and QC measures.

  1. Donor preoperative oxygen delivery and post-extubation hypoxia impact donation after circulatory death hypoxic cholangiopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chirichella, Thomas J; Dunham, C Michael; Zimmerman, Michael A; Phelan, Elise M; Mandell, M Susan; Conzen, Kendra D; Kelley, Stephen E; Nydam, Trevor L; Bak, Thomas E; Kam, Igal; Wachs, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    .10). HC was independently associated with age, multi-pressor/red-cell transfusion status, arterial oxygen content, hypoxia score, and mean arterial pressure (r2 = 0.6197). The transplantation rate was greater for the later period with more liberal donor selection [era 2 (7.1/year)], compared to our early experience [era 1 (2.5/year)]. HC occurred in 63.0% during era 2 and in 29.4% during era 1 (P = 0.03). Era 2 donors had longer times for extubation-to-asystole (14.4 ± 4.7 m vs 9.3 ± 4.5 m, P = 0.001), ischemia (13.9 ± 5.9 m vs 9.7 ± 5.6 m, P = 0.03), and hypoxemia (16.0 ± 5.1 m vs 11.1 ± 6.7 m, P = 0.013) and a higher hypoxia score > 2.0 rate (73.1% vs 28.6%, P = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Easily measured donor indices, including a hypoxia score, provide an objective measure of DCD liver transplantation risk for recipient HC. Donor selection criteria influence HC rates. PMID:27022221

  2. Donor-to-Donor vs Donor-to-Acceptor Interfacial Charge Transfer States in the Phthalocyanine-Fullerene Organic Photovoltaic System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong H; Dunietz, Barry D; Geva, Eitan

    2014-11-06

    Charge transfer (CT) states formed at the donor/acceptor heterointerface are key for photocurrent generation in organic photovoltaics (OPV). Our calculations show that interfacial donor-to-donor CT states in the phthalocyanine-fullerene OPV system may be more stable than donor-to-acceptor CT states and that they may rapidly recombine, thereby constituting a potentially critical and thus far overlooked loss mechanism. Our results provide new insight into processes that may compete with charge separation, and suggest that the efficiency for charge separation may be improved by destabilizing donor-to-donor CT states or decoupling them from other states.

  3. Effect of donor variables on yield in single donor plateletpheresis by continuous flow cell separator.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Rajendra; Das, Sudipta Sekhar; Khetan, Dheeraj; Sinha, Pratul

    2006-04-01

    The quality of single donor platelets (SDPs) in terms of yield influences platelet recovery in the recipient. Various donor factors such as pre-donation platelet count and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration affect the platelet yield. We studied the influence of pre-donation donor clinical and laboratory factors such as gender, age, weight of the donor, platelet count and Hb on the platelet yield. A total of 94 plateletpheresis procedures performed on continuous flow cell separator (CS3000, Baxter Healthcare, Round Lake, IL, USA) were evaluated for platelet yield. A relationship between pre-donation donor variables and yield of platelets was studied using the Pearson correlation. The mean platelet yield was 2.8+/-0.73x10(11). While a direct relationship was observed between pre-donation platelet count and yield (r=0.50, p<0.001), no such correlation was noticed with donor Hb concentration (r=-0.10, p>0.005). Similarly, no correlation was observed between gender (r=0.05), age (r=0.11) and weight (r=0.18) of the donor with yield. Optimization of platelet yield, which is influenced by pre-donation platelet count, is an emerging issue in blood transfusion services. Identification of such factors may help in selecting donors to obtain higher platelet yields and consequently better clinical outcome.

  4. Transmission of donor illness by stem cell transplantation: should screening be different in older donors?

    PubMed

    Niederwieser, D; Gentilini, C; Hegenbart, U; Lange, T; Moosmann, P; Pönisch, W; Al-Ali, H; Raida, M; Ljungman, P; Tyndall, A; Urbano-Ispizua, A; Lazarus, H M; Gratwohl, A

    2004-10-01

    With increasing donor age, the potential of transmitting diseases from donor to recipient reaches new dimensions. Potentially transmittable diseases from donors include infections, congenital disorders, and acquired illnesses like autoimmune diseases or malignancies of hematological or nonhematological origin. While established nonmalignant or malignant diseases might be easy to discover, early-stage hematological diseases like CML, light-chain multiple myelomas, aleukemic leukemias, occult myelodysplastic syndromes and other malignant and nonmalignant diseases might not be detectable by routine screening but only by invasive, new and/or expensive diagnostic tests. In the following article, we propose recommendations for donor work-up, taking into consideration the age of the donors. In contrast to blood transfusions, stem cells from donors with abnormal findings might still be acceptable for HCT, when no other options are available and life expectancy is limited. This issue is discussed in detail in relation to the available donor and stem cell source. Finally, the recommendations presented here aim at harmonized worldwide work-up for donors to insure high standard quality.

  5. Access to information about donors by donor-conceived individuals: a human rights analysis.

    PubMed

    Allan, Sonia

    2013-03-01

    While assisted reproductive treatment using donated gametes is widespread, and in many places, widely accepted, it has historically been shrouded in secrecy. Over time, however, there has been an increasing call from donor-conceived people, recipient parents and some donors to end the secrecy, and to release identifying information about donors to donor-conceived people. "Rights-based" arguments have at times been used to justify this call. This article examines whether a human rights framework supports the release of information and how such a framework might be applied when there are competing rights. It argues that the current balancing approach used to resolve such issues weighs in favour of release. Legal action has the potential to be legitimate and justifiable. A measure such as a contact veto system, which would serve to prevent unwanted contact with the person lodging the veto (either the donor or the donor-conceived person), would ensure proportionality. In this way, both donor-conceived people's rights to private life, identity and family, and donors' rights to privacy may be recognised and balanced.

  6. Psychosocial data of potential living donors before living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Walter, Marc; Bronner, Ekkehard; Steinmüller, Thomas; Klapp, Burghard F; Danzer, Gerhard

    2002-02-01

    In view of the scarcity of organ resources for transplantation, donation by living donors is assuming greater significance now that the technical-surgical problems involved have been solved. In the period between December 1999 and December 2000, 47 potential living liver donors were evaluated and a total of 27 hepatic lobes were transplanted at the Virchow-Klinikum of the Charité Hospital in Berlin. The close personal relationships between recipients and donors gives reason to anticipate high levels of psychosocial pressure during the pre-operative evaluation process; this process consists in part in looking into donor motivation, ambivalence and anxiety. The pre-operative psychometric evaluation of 40 potential living donors indicated that most of the potential donors see themselves as 'super-healthy' and tend to adapt to social expectations, while on the other hand those seven potential living donors not accepted for psychosocial reasons were marked by heightened values for anxious depression and pessimism. The results indicate in most cases a great willingness to donate and on the other hand a high level of obvious psychological pressure for a low number of potential donors. For the latter, both the clinical evaluation interview and the psychometric diagnostics used revealed clear-cut feelings of anxiety and ambivalence towards transplantation.

  7. Donor-substituted phosphanes - surprisingly weak Lewis donors for phosphenium cation stabilisation.

    PubMed

    Clark, Ewan R; Borys, Andryj M; Pearce, Kyle

    2016-10-18

    Paradoxically, N- and O-donor substituted tri-arylphosphanes are shown to be weaker donors than PPh3 when binding the soft Lewis acid moiety [PPh2](+). This arises from internal solvation and rehybridisation at phosphorus, precluding chelation and increasing steric demand, in direct contrast to coordination modes observed for metal complexes.

  8. Classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, A J

    1995-05-01

    The development of classification schemes for RA in the last 40 years has followed the increasingly precise understanding of the nature of the clinical disease and the recognition of the different requirements of classification methods in clinic and population settings. In published studies of RA in clinic patients the most widely used criteria sets have been the 1958 ARA (ACR) criteria and its 1961 adaptation (the Rome (active) criteria). These sets classified disease as 'classical', 'definite', 'probable' and 'possible' RA based on criteria comprising clinical, serological, radiological and histological features (the latter were dropped from the Rome criteria set because of their impracticality). More recently, a new criteria set (the 1987 ARA criteria) has been developed using statistical techniques. This set was derived using RA cases and controls attending hospital clinics. It is based on the earlier criteria sets but accommodates the characteristic pattern of joint involvement in RA more precisely. The criteria recognize only the single disease category of 'rheumatoid arthritis'. In validation studies, the 1987 criteria set has been found to have enhanced specificity over earlier schemes in clinic-based studies of RA. The sensitivity may, however, be reduced, in particular in studies of early disease. The application of classification criteria for case recognition in the population and family studies of RA has proved more problematic. In these settings, there is the additional requirement to recognize individuals with remitted and inactive disease as RA cases. The 1966 New York criteria were developed for this specific purpose, however their format proved cumbersome and they have not been widely adopted. The 1987 criteria set is insufficiently sensitive to recognize inactive disease if the criteria are applied exactly as they have been defined. The sensitivity of the 1987 criteria set is, however, substantially enhanced if the criteria are adapted to

  9. The Effect of Donor Age on Corneal Transplantation Outcome: Results of the Cornea Donor Study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether graft survival over a 5-year follow-up period using corneal tissue from donors older than 65 years of age is similar to graft survival using corneas from younger donors. Design Multi-center prospective, double-masked, controlled clinical trial Participants 1090 subjects undergoing corneal transplantation for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema); 11 subjects with ineligible diagnoses were not included Methods 43 participating eye banks provided corneas from donors in the age range of 12 to 75 with endothelial cell densities of 2300 to 3300 cells/mm2, using a random approach without respect to recipient factors. The 105 participating surgeons at 80 sites were masked to information about the donor cornea including donor age. Surgery and post-operative care were performed according to the surgeons’ usual routines. Subjects were followed for five years. Main Outcome Measures Graft failure, defined as a regraft or a cloudy cornea that was sufficiently opaque as to compromise vision for a minimum of three consecutive months. Results The 5-year cumulative probability of graft survival was 86% in both the <66.0 donor age group and the ≥66.0 donor age group (difference = 0%, upper limit of one-sided 95% confidence interval = 4%). In a statistical model with donor age as a continuous variable, there was not a significant relationship between donor age and outcome (P=0.11). Three graft failures were due to primary donor failure, 8 to uncorrectable refractive error, 48 to graft rejection, 46 to endothelial decompensation (23 of which had a prior, resolved episode of probable or definite graft rejection), and 30 to other causes. The distribution of the causes of graft failure did not differ between donor age groups. Conclusions Five-year graft survival for cornea transplants at moderate risk for failure is similar using corneas from donors ≥ 66.0 years and donors < 66.0 years. Surgeons and

  10. Impact of Donor Source on the Outcome of Live Donor Kidney Transplantation: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Matter, Yasser Elsayed; Nagib, Ayman M; Lotfy, Omar E; Alsayed, Ahmed Maher; Donia, Ahmed F; Refaie, Ayman F; Akl, Ahmed I; Abbas, Mohamed Hamed; Abuelmagd, Mohammed M; Shaeashaa, Hussein A; Shokeir, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    Background Renal transplantation is the ideal method for management of end-stage renal disease. The use of living donors for renal transplantation was critical for early development in the field and preceded the use of cadaveric donors. Most donors are related genetically to the recipients, like a parent, a child, or a sibling of the recipient, but there are an increasing percentage of cases where donors are genetically unrelated like spouses, friends, or altruistic individuals. Donor shortages constitute the major barrier for kidney transplantation, and much effort has been made to increase the supply of living donors. The impact of donor source on the outcome of renal transplantation is not adequately studied in our country. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of donor source on the outcome of live donor kidney transplantation. Patients and Methods From March 1976 to December 2013, the number of patients that underwent living renal transplantation sharing at least one HLA haplotype with their donors was 2,485. We divided these patients into two groups: (1) 2,075 kidney transplant recipients (1,554 or 74.9% male and 521 or 25.1% female) for whom the donors were living related, (2) 410 kidney transplant recipients (297 or 72.4% male and 113 or 27.6% female) for whom the donors were living unrelated. All patients received immunosuppressive therapy, consisting of a calcineurin inhibitor, mycophenolate mofetil, or azathioprine and prednisolone. We compared acute rejection and complication rates, as well as long-term graft and patient survival of both groups. Demographic characteristics were compared using the chi-square test. Graft survival and patient survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results The percentages of patients with acute vascular rejection were significantly higher in the unrelated group, while percentages of patients with no rejection were significantly higher in the related group, but there were no significant

  11. Ex-vivo partial nephrectomy after living donor nephrectomy: Surgical technique for expanding kidney donor pool

    PubMed Central

    Nyame, Yaw A.; Babbar, Paurush; Aboumohamed, Ahmed A.; Mori, Ryan L.; Flechner, Stuart M.; Modlin, Charles S.

    2017-01-01

    Renal transplantation has profound improvements in mortality, morbidity, and overall quality of life compared to renal replacement therapy. This report aims to illustrate the use of ex-vivo partial nephrectomy in a patient with a renal angiomyolipoma prior to living donor transplantation. The surgical outcomes of the donor nephrectomy and recipient transplantation are reported with 2 years of follow-up. Both the donor and recipient are healthy and without any significant comorbidities. In conclusion, urologic techniques such as partial nephrectomy can be used to expand the living donor pool in carefully selected and well informed transplant recipients. Our experience demonstrated a safe and positive outcome for both the recipient and donor, and is consistent with other reported outcomes in the literature. PMID:28216945

  12. CDTI target selection criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, C. L.; Davis, C. M.; Jackson, C. B.; Mcclellan, V. A.

    1984-01-01

    A Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) is a cockpit instrument which provides information to the aircrew on the relative location of aircraft traffic in the vicinity of their aircraft (township). In addition, the CDTI may provide information to assist in navigation and in aircraft control. It is usually anticipated that the CDTI will be integrated with a horizontal situation indicator used for navigational purposes and/or with a weather radar display. In this study, several sets of aircraft traffic data are analyzed to determine statistics on the number of targets that will be displayed on a CDTI using various target selection criteria. Traffic data were obtained from an Atlanta Terminal Area Simulation and from radar tapes recorded at the Atlanta and Miami terminal areas. Results are given in the form of plots showing the average percentage of time (or probability) that an aircraft equipped with a CDTI would observe from 0 to 10 other aircraft on the display for range settings on the CDTI up to 30 n. mi. and using various target discrimination techniques.

  13. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, George F; Holcomb, David Eugene; Cetiner, Sacit M

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC) - based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  14. Energy storage criteria handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, J. R.; Cole, R. L.; Hull, A. B.

    1982-10-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide information and criteria necessary for the selection and sizing of energy storage technologies for use at U.S. Naval facilities. The handbook gives Naval base personnel procedures and information to select the most viable energy storage options to provide the space conditioning (heating and cooling) and domestic hot water needs of their facility. The handbook may also be used by contractors, installers, designers, engineers, architects, and manufacturers who intend to enter the energy storage business. The handbook is organized into three major sections: a general section, a technical section, and an example section. While a technical background is assumed for the latter two sections, the general section is simply written and can serve as an introduction to the field of energy storage. The technical section examines the following energy storage technologies: sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, cold storage, thermochemical storage, mechanical storage, pumped hydro storage, and electrochemical storage. The example section is limited to thermal storage and includes examples for: water tank storage, rockbed storage, latent heat storage, and cold water storage.

  15. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Roth, Christopher J; Angevine, Peter D; Aulino, Joseph M; Berger, Kevin L; Choudhri, Asim F; Fries, Ian Blair; Holly, Langston T; Kendi, Ayse Tuba Karaqulle; Kessler, Marcus M; Kirsch, Claudia F; Luttrull, Michael D; Mechtler, Laszlo L; O'Toole, John E; Sharma, Aseem; Shetty, Vilaas S; West, O Clark; Cornelius, Rebecca S; Bykowski, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Patients presenting with myelopathic symptoms may have a number of causative intradural and extradural etiologies, including disc degenerative diseases, spinal masses, infectious or inflammatory processes, vascular compromise, and vertebral fracture. Patients may present acutely or insidiously and may progress toward long-term paralysis if not treated promptly and effectively. Noncontrast CT is the most appropriate first examination in acute trauma cases to diagnose vertebral fracture as the cause of acute myelopathy. In most nontraumatic cases, MRI is the modality of choice to evaluate the location, severity, and causative etiology of spinal cord myelopathy, and predicts which patients may benefit from surgery. Myelopathy from spinal stenosis and spinal osteoarthritis is best confirmed without MRI intravenous contrast. Many other myelopathic conditions are more easily visualized after contrast administration. Imaging performed should be limited to the appropriate spinal levels, based on history, physical examination, and clinical judgment. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals, and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

  16. ACR appropriateness criteria jaundice.

    PubMed

    Lalani, Tasneem; Couto, Corey A; Rosen, Max P; Baker, Mark E; Blake, Michael A; Cash, Brooks D; Fidler, Jeff L; Greene, Frederick L; Hindman, Nicole M; Katz, Douglas S; Kaur, Harmeet; Miller, Frank H; Qayyum, Aliya; Small, William C; Sudakoff, Gary S; Yaghmai, Vahid; Yarmish, Gail M; Yee, Judy

    2013-06-01

    A fundamental consideration in the workup of a jaundiced patient is the pretest probability of mechanical obstruction. Ultrasound is the first-line modality to exclude biliary tract obstruction. When mechanical obstruction is present, additional imaging with CT or MRI can clarify etiology, define level of obstruction, stage disease, and guide intervention. When mechanical obstruction is absent, additional imaging can evaluate liver parenchyma for fat and iron deposition and help direct biopsy in cases where underlying parenchymal disease or mass is found. Imaging techniques are reviewed for the following clinical scenarios: (1) the patient with painful jaundice, (2) the patient with painless jaundice, and (3) the patient with a nonmechanical cause for jaundice. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

  17. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, G.F.; Holcomb, D.E.; Cetiner, S.M.

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC)–based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  18. [BMW diagnostic criteria for IBS].

    PubMed

    Matsueda, Kei

    2006-08-01

    Rome I diagnostic criteria for IBS was published in 1992 and it became a global diagnostic criteria. However, the criteria was not practical and somewhat complicated. Moreover, its symptomatic duration was too long (defined as more than 3 months) to be introduced in clinical practice. Therefore, Japanese member of BMW(Bowel Motility Workshop) tried to develop a new diagnostic criteria for IBS and it was established in 1995 by way of the Delphi method. The criteria was named as BMW diagnostic criteria and it was shown below: BMW diagnostic criteria for IBS (1995) At least one month or more of repetitive symptoms of the following 1) and 2) and no evidence of organic disease that likely to explain the symptoms. 1) Existence of abdominal pain, abdominal discomfort or abdominal distension 2) Existence of abnormal bowel movement (diarrhea, constipation) Abnormal bowel movement includes at least one of the below; (1) Abnormal stool frequency (2) Abnormal stool form (lumpy/hard or loose/wartery stool) Moreover, the following test should be performed as a rule to exclude organic diseases. (1) Urinalysis, fecal occult blood testing, CBC, chemistry (2) Barium enema or colonofiberscopic examination The other diagnostic criteria for IBS was also reviewed and their characteristics were compared with BMW diagnostic criteria.

  19. The cytologic criteria of malignancy.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Andrew H; Zhao, Chengquan; Li, Qing Kay; Gustafson, Karen S; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin; Tambouret, Rosemary; Benstein, Barbara; Savaloja, Lynnette C; Kulesza, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Cytology and cell biology are two separate fields that share a focus on cancer. Cancer is still diagnosed based on morphology, and surprisingly little is known about the molecular basis of the defining structural features. Cytology uses the smallest possible biopsy for diagnosis by reducing morphologic "criteria of malignancy" to the smallest scale. To begin to develop common ground, members of the American Society of Cytopathology Cell Biology Liaison Working Group classify some of the "criteria of malignancy" and review their relation to current cell biology concepts. The criteria of malignancy are extremely varied, apparently reflecting many different pathophysiologies in specific microenvironments. Criteria in Group 1 comprise tissue-level alterations that appear to relate to resistance to anoikis, alterations in cell adhesion molecules, and loss of apical-basal polarity. Criteria in Group 2 reflect genetic instability, including chromosomal and possibly epigenetic instability. Criteria in Groups 3 are subcellular structural changes involving cytoplasmic components, nuclear lamina, chromatin and nucleoli that cannot be accounted for by genetic instability. Some distinct criteria in Group 3 are known to be induced by cancer genes, but their precise structural basis remains obscure. The criteria of malignancy are not closely related to the histogenetic classification of cancers, and they appear to provide an alternative, biologically relevant framework for establishing common ground between cytologists and cell biologists. To understand the criteria of malignancy at a molecular level would improve diagnosis, and likely point to novel cell physiologies that are not encompassed by current cell biology concepts.

  20. Antibody titers in Group O platelet donors

    PubMed Central

    Tendulkar, Anita Amar; Jain, Puneet Ashok; Velaye, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The occurrence of hemolysis due to transfusion of ABO plasma-incompatible platelets (PLTs) is challenging. There has been no consensus for critical antibody titers in the transfusion community. This study was conducted to understand the trends of anti-A and anti-B antibody titer levels in O group donors and to identify any specific patterns of distribution in relation to age and gender. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1635 Group O PLT donors were randomly selected for this prospective study. Serial 2-fold doubling dilutions were prepared for each sample to calculate the titer of anti-A and anti-B in a standard 96 well micro-plate. Tube technique was used for comparison with the microplate method for 100 samples. RESULTS: Out of 1635 donors, 1430 (87.46%) were males and 205 (12.54%) were females. The median titer for anti-A and anti-B was 128 with range from 4 to 2048. Spearman's correlation coefficient for microplate versus tube technique was estimated to be 0.803 (P < 0.01, two-tailed). 57.12% and 51.19% of all donors had titers ≥128 for anti-A and anti-B, respectively. The geometric mean of anti-A and anti-B was 155.7 and 137.28, respectively. The titers were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in female donors. An inverse relation between titer levels and age was seen. CONCLUSION: Microplate can be used to perform titers in resource-constrained settings. Screening for critical titers in O group donors is essential as they are more implicated in hemolytic transfusion reactions. In the absence of a global consensus on this topic, institutes may need to formulate their own guidelines on handling ABO plasma-incompatible PLT transfusions. PMID:28316436

  1. Liver regeneration after living donor transplantation: adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation cohort study.

    PubMed

    Olthoff, Kim M; Emond, Jean C; Shearon, Tempie H; Everson, Greg; Baker, Talia B; Fisher, Robert A; Freise, Chris E; Gillespie, Brenda W; Everhart, James E

    2015-01-01

    Adult-to-adult living donors and recipients were studied to characterize patterns of liver growth and identify associated factors in a multicenter study. Three hundred and fifty donors and 353 recipients in the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study (A2ALL) receiving transplants between March 2003 and February 2010 were included. Potential predictors of 3-month liver volume included total and standard liver volumes (TLV and SLV), Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score (in recipients), the remnant and graft size, remnant-to-donor and graft-to-recipient weight ratios (RDWR and GRWR), remnant/TLV, and graft/SLV. Among donors, 3-month absolute growth was 676 ± 251 g (mean ± SD), and percentage reconstitution was 80% ± 13%. Among recipients, GRWR was 1.3% ± 0.4% (8 < 0.8%). Graft weight was 60% ± 13% of SLV. Three-month absolute growth was 549 ± 267 g, and percentage reconstitution was 93% ± 18%. Predictors of greater 3-month liver volume included larger patient size (donors and recipients), larger graft volume (recipients), and larger TLV (donors). Donors with the smallest remnant/TLV ratios had larger than expected growth but also had higher postoperative bilirubin and international normalized ratio at 7 and 30 days. In a combined donor-recipient analysis, donors had smaller 3-month liver volumes than recipients adjusted for patient size, remnant or graft volume, and TLV or SLV (P = 0.004). Recipient graft failure in the first 90 days was predicted by poor graft function at day 7 (HR = 4.50, P = 0.001) but not by GRWR or graft fraction (P > 0.90 for each). Both donors and recipients had rapid yet incomplete restoration of tissue mass in the first 3 months, and this confirmed previous reports. Recipients achieved a greater percentage of expected total volume. Patient size and recipient graft volume significantly influenced 3-month volumes. Importantly, donor liver volume is a

  2. Risks for donors in uterus transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kisu, Iori; Mihara, Makoto; Banno, Kouji; Umene, Kiyoko; Araki, Jun; Hara, Hisako; Suganuma, Nobuhiko; Aoki, Daisuke

    2013-12-01

    Uterus transplantation (UTx) is an alternative to gestational surrogacy and adoption for patients with absolute uterine infertility. Studies have been conducted in animals, and UTx is now within the reach of clinical application in humans. Procedures in humans have been published, but many medical, ethical, and social problems and risks of UTx require discussion prior to widespread clinical application, from the perspectives of donors, recipients, families, and newborns. In this article, we summarize the burdens and risks of UTx, with a focus on donors who provide the uterus.

  3. Donor-related issues in hand transplantation.

    PubMed

    McDiarmid, Sue V; Azari, Kodi K

    2011-11-01

    The policies and procedures for solid-organ donation, under the auspices of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network, currently cannot be applied to hand donation, because a hand allograft is considered a tissue in the United States and is under the jurisdiction of the Food and Drug Administration. Hand transplant centers have developed their own protocols. This article discusses the unique elements of such protocols, including training and education, the consent process, the necessary recipient and donor data, donor management, and operating room procedures. Candidate listing, allocation, and oversight of hand donation in the future are also discussed.

  4. Living vs. deceased-donor liver transplantation for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Takada, Yasutsugu

    2016-01-01

    With the scarcity of deceased donor liver grafts, living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is gaining popularity as an alternative to deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, as the evidence of cases of LDLT accumulates, several authors have reported higher HCC recurrence rates after LDLT. The suggested reasons for the higher recurrence rates following LDLT are related to the small-for-size graft in LDLT, surgical procedures that are specific to LDLT, and the fast-track to LDLT. Fast-tracking to LDLT may not allow sufficient time for evaluation of the biological aggressiveness of tumors, which may result in high recurrence rates due to inclusion of patients with more inherently aggressive tumors. Actually, some studies that reported higher recurrence rates with LDLT included a larger number of cases of HCC with microvascular invasion or poorly differentiated HCC. In order to exclude biologically aggressive HCC preoperatively, selection criteria incorporating tumor markers, such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin (DCP), as well as morphological tumor number and size have been proposed. With more reliable selection criteria incorporating biological markers to eliminate biologically aggressive HCC, LDLT can be a viable treatment option for patients with HCC, providing similar recurrence rates as those achieved with DDLT. PMID:28138602

  5. Strategies to optimize the use of marginal donors in liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pezzati, Daniele; Ghinolfi, Davide; De Simone, Paolo; Balzano, Emanuele; Filipponi, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Liver transplantation is the treatment of choice for end stage liver disease, but availability of liver grafts is still the main limitation to its wider use. Extended criteria donors (ECD) are considered not ideal for several reasons but their use has dramatically grown in the last decades in order to augment the donor liver pool. Due to improvement in surgical and medical strategies, results using grafts from these donors have become acceptable in terms of survival and complications; nevertheless a big debate still exists regarding their selection, discharge criteria and allocation policies. Many studies analyzed the use of these grafts from many points of view producing different or contradictory results so that accepted guidelines do not exist and the use of these grafts is still related to non-standardized policies changing from center to center. The aim of this review is to analyze every step of the donation-transplantation process emphasizing all those strategies, both clinical and experimental, that can optimize results using ECD. PMID:26609341

  6. Predonation psychosocial evaluation of living kidney and liver donor candidates: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Duerinckx, Nathalie; Timmerman, Lotte; Van Gogh, Johan; van Busschbach, Jan; Ismail, Sohal Y; Massey, Emma K; Dobbels, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating a person's suitability for living organ donation is crucial, consisting not only of a medical but also of a thorough psychosocial screening. We performed a systematic literature review of guidelines, consensus statements, and protocols on the content and process of psychosocial screening of living kidney and liver donor candidates. We searched PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO until June 22, 2011, following the PRISMA guidelines, complemented by scrutinizing guidelines databases and references of identified publications. Thirty-four publications were identified, including seven guidelines, six consensus statements, and 21 protocols or programs. Guidelines and consensus statements were inconsistent and lacked concreteness for both their content and process, possibly explaining the observed variability in center-specific evaluation protocols and programs. Overall, recommended screening criteria are not evidence-based and an operational definition of the concept "psychosocial" is missing, causing heterogeneity in terminology. Variation also exists on methods used to psychosocially evaluate potential donors. The scientific basis of predonation psychosocial evaluation needs to be strengthened. There is a need for high-quality prospective psychosocial outcome studies in living donors, a uniform terminology to label psychosocial screening criteria, and validated instruments to identify risk factors.

  7. Kidney transplantation with organs from donors after circulatory death type 3: a prospective multicentric Spanish study (GEODAS 3).

    PubMed

    Portolés Pérez, J; Lafuente, O; Sánchez-Sobrino, B; Pérez Sáez, M J; Fernández García, A; Llamas, F; López-Sánchez, P; Rodriguez-Ferrero, M L; Zarraga, S; Ramos, A; Pascual, J

    2015-01-01

    To increase the number of kidney donors, new strategies are needed such as living donor programs, expanded criteria donors, or donors after circulatory death (DCD) kidney transplantation programs. The GEODAS group has started an observational, prospective, multicenter clinical study, collecting data from all DCD type-3 kidney transplantations performed in seven Spanish hospitals from January 2012 to January 2014. The preliminary results have shown a delayed graft function of 40.4% and graft survival of 93.7% with a nadir creatinine of 1.3 mg/dL. From all 33 potential donors included in the study, 32 were effective and 63 kidney grafts were transplanted with a utilization rate of 98.5%. Creatinine evolution (median [range]) was in the first month: 2.1 [0.6-5.6]; third month: 1.6 [0.8, 4.2]; first year: 1.6 [0.9-2.2]. These results are similar to kidney transplantation from donors after brain death as shown in the literature, especially in the graft and recipient survival rates. In addition, the controlled programs are easier and less expensive than uncontrolled DCD programs with a higher rate of graft use.

  8. Related hematopoietic cell donor care: is there a role for unrelated donor registries?

    PubMed

    Anthias, C; van Walraven, S M; Sørensen, B S; de Faveri, G N; Fechter, M; Cornish, J; Bacigalupo, A; Müller, C; Boo, M; Shaw, B E

    2015-05-01

    In almost half of allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) transplants, a related donor (RD) is used, yet a lack of standardized guidelines means that their care is heterogeneous. Changes to regulatory standards aim to improve uniformity, but adherence to these regulations can prove logistically difficult for the transplant centers (TCs) managing RDs. Discussion has ensued around possible alternative models of related donor care and a session at the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) annual meeting in 2013 debated the question of whether a role exists for unrelated donor registries in the management of 'related' donors. In this overview, we discuss the issues raised at this debate and the pros and cons of donor registry involvement in various aspects of RD management. By examining existing models of related donor care that have been adopted by members of the World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA), we look for ways to enhance and homogenize RD care, while also enabling transplant centers to meet standards required for mandatory accreditation.

  9. ALTERNATIVE DONORS EXTEND TRANSPLANTATION FOR PATIENTS WITH LYMPHOMA WHO LACK AN HLA MATCHED DONOR

    PubMed Central

    Bachanova, Veronika; Burns, Linda J.; Wang, Tao; Carreras, Jeanette; Gale, Robert Peter; Wiernik, Peter H.; Ballen, Karen K.; Wirk, Baldeep; Munker, Reinhold; Rizzieri, David A.; Chen, Yi-Bin; Gibson, John; Akpek, Görgün; Costa, Luciano J.; Kamble, Rammurti T.; Aljurf, Mahmoud D.; Hsu, Jack W.; Cairo, Mitchell S.; Schouten, Harry C.; Bacher, Ulrike; Savani, Bipin N.; Wingard, John R.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Laport, Ginna G.; Montoto, Silvia; Maloney, David G.; Smith, Sonali M.; Brunstein, Claudio; Saber, Wael

    2015-01-01

    Alternative donor transplantation is increasingly used for high risk lymphoma patients. We analyzed 1593 transplant recipients (2000 to 2010) and compared transplant outcomes in recipients of 8/8 allele human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, -B, -C, and DRB1 matched unrelated donors (MUD; n=1176), 7/8 allele HLA-matched unrelated donors (MMUD; n=275) and umbilical cord blood donors (1 or 2 units UCB; n=142). Adjusted 3-year non-relapse mortality of MMUD (44%) was higher as compared to MUD (35%; p=0.004), but similar to UCB recipients (37%; p=0.19), although UCB had lower rates of neutrophil and platelet recovery compared to unrelated donor groups. With a median follow-up of 55 months, 3-year adjusted cumulative incidence of relapse was lower after MMUD compared with MUD (25% vs 33%, p=0.003) but similar between UCB and MUD (30% vs 33%; p=0.48). In multivariate analysis UCB recipients had lower risks of acute and chronic graft versus host disease compared with adult donor groups (UCB vs MUD: HR=0.68, p=0.05; HR=0.35; p<0.001). Adjusted 3-year overall survival was comparable (43% MUD, 37% MMUD and 41% UCB). Data highlight that patients with lymphoma have acceptable survival after alternative donor transplantation. MMUD and UCB can expand the curative potential of allotransplant to patients who lack suitable HLA-matched sibling or MUD. PMID:25402415

  10. Tissue banking: relationship with blood donor and organ donor card status.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Kenneth D; Fitzpatrick, Patricia E; Sheehan, John D

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the relationships among altruistic health acts may serve to aid therapeutic research advances. In this paper, we report on the links between two such behaviours-donating blood and carrying an organ donor card-and willingness to donate urological tissue to a tissue bank. Reasons for the differential willingness to do so are examined in this paper. A systematic sample of 259 new and returning attendees at a tertiary urology referral clinic in Ireland completed a self-report questionnaire in an outpatient setting. In addition to demographic details, details of known diagnosis of malignancy and family history of cancer; attitudes to tissue donation for research purposes were gauged using a 5-point Likert scale. Both blood donors and organ donor card carriers were more likely to be willing to donate tissue for research purposes. Blood donors were more likely want to know their overall results in comparison to nonblood donors and want their samples to be used for nonprofit research. Our hypothesis that being a blood donor would be a better predictor to donate urological tissue than being an organ donor card carrier borne out by the trends reported above.

  11. Donor Hemodynamics as a Predictor of Outcomes After Kidney Transplantation From Donors After Cardiac Death.

    PubMed

    Allen, M B; Billig, E; Reese, P P; Shults, J; Hasz, R; West, S; Abt, P L

    2016-01-01

    Donation after cardiac death is an important source of transplantable organs, but evidence suggests donor warm ischemia contributes to inferior outcomes. Attempts to predict recipient outcome using donor hemodynamic measurements have not yielded statistically significant results. We evaluated novel measures of donor hemodynamics as predictors of delayed graft function and graft failure in a cohort of 1050 kidneys from 566 donors. Hemodynamics were described using regression line slopes, areas under the curve, and time beyond thresholds for systolic blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and shock index (heart rate divided by systolic blood pressure). A logistic generalized estimation equation model showed that area under the curve for systolic blood pressure was predictive of delayed graft function (above median: odds ratio 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.90). Multivariable Cox regression demonstrated that slope of oxygen saturation during the first 10 minutes after extubation was associated with graft failure (below median: hazard ratio 1.30, 95% CI 1.03-1.64), with 5-year graft survival of 70.0% (95%CI 64.5%-74.8%) for donors above the median versus 61.4% (95%CI 55.5%-66.7%) for those below the median. Among older donors, increased shock index slope was associated with increased hazard of graft failure. Validation of these findings is necessary to determine the utility of characterizing donor warm ischemia to predict recipient outcome.

  12. Mathematics Teachers' Criteria of Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ural, Alattin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine mathematics teachers' decisions about dimensions of the geometric figures, criteria of dimension and consistency of decision-criteria. The research is a qualitative research and the model applied in the study is descriptive method on the basis of general scanning model. 15 mathematics teachers attended the…

  13. Peer Assessment without Assessment Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Alcock, Lara

    2014-01-01

    Peer assessment typically requires students to judge peers' work against assessment criteria. We tested an alternative approach in which students judged pairs of scripts against one another in the absence of assessment criteria. First year mathematics undergraduates (N?=?194) sat a written test on conceptual understanding of multivariable…

  14. Compliance with donor age recommendations in oocyte donor recruitment advertisements in the USA.

    PubMed

    Alberta, Hillary B; Berry, Roberta M; Levine, Aaron D

    2013-04-01

    IVF using donated oocytes offers benefits to many infertile patients, yet the technique also raises a number of ethical concerns, including worries about potential physical and psychological risks to oocyte donors. In the USA, oversight of oocyte donation consists of a combination of federal and state regulations and self-regulatory guidelines promulgated by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. This study assesses compliance with one of these self-regulatory guidelines - specifically, ASRM's preferred minimum age for donors of 21. To assess compliance, 539 oocyte donor recruitment advertisements from two recruitment channels (Craigslist and college newspapers) were collected and evaluated. Of these, 61% in the Craigslist dataset and 43% in the college newspaper dataset listed minimum ages between 18 and 20, which is inconsistent with ASRM's preferred minimum age recommendation of 21. Advertisements placed by oocyte donor recruitment agencies were more likely than advertisements placed by clinics to specify minimum ages between 18 and 20. These results indicate that ASRM should evaluate and consider revising its donor age guidelines. IVF using donated human eggs can help many patients who have difficulty having children. However, the technique also raises ethical concerns, including concerns about potential physical and psychological harms to egg donors. In the USA, oversight of egg donation relies on a combination of federal and state regulation and professional self-regulation. Governmental regulations address only limited aspects of egg donation, such as the potential spread of infectious diseases and the reporting of success rates, leaving voluntary guidelines developed by an association of medical professionals to address most issues, including ethical concerns raised by the practice. One of these voluntary guidelines recommends that egg donors should be at least 21 years of age. In this article, we analysed 539 egg donor recruitment advertisements

  15. Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions. Final Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    2002-08-16

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions was held at Salve Regina University, Newport, Rhode Island, 8/11-16/02. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  16. Enzymatic Production of Universal Donor Erythrocytes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    strong activities of extracellular glycosidases that convert blood type A or B erythrocytes to universal donor blood type O erythrocytes; 2) to purify the... blood type B-degrading enzyme produced by a fecal strain of Ruminococcus AB; 3) to determine whether human type B red cells could be safety converted

  17. A Mobilization Guide for Blood Donor Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    PLATELETS ISOLATED FROM UNITS OF WHOLE BLOOD OR FROM DONORS BY APHERESIS PROCEDURES; FROZEN WITH 6% DMSO AND STORED AT -80 C; AND WASHED WITH SODIUM...8 Meal Pass .............................................. 8 Record of Donation ..................................... 9 UNIT PROCESSING...19 Cryoprecipitate ...................................... 20 Frozen Platelet Concentrates ........................ 20 Frozen Red Cells

  18. GFR Evaluation in Living Kidney Donor Candidates.

    PubMed

    Levey, Andrew S; Inker, Lesley A

    2017-04-01

    Evaluation of GFR, required in the evaluation of living kidney donor candidates, is now receiving increasing emphasis because recent data demonstrate increased risk of kidney disease after donation, including a small increase in the risk of kidney failure. The international guideline development group, Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes, recently published a comprehensive set of recommendations for living donor evaluation, with three recommendations regarding GFR. (1) Donor candidacy is evaluated in light of long-term risk, in which GFR is one of many factors. ESRD is considered a central outcome, and a method for estimating long-term risk of ESRD in donor candidates is described. (2) Two GFR thresholds are used for decision-making: a high threshold (≥90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) to accept and a low threshold (<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) to decline, with 60-89 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) as an intermediate range in which the decision to accept or decline is made on the basis of factors in addition to GFR. (3) GFR is evaluated using several methods available at the transplant center, including estimating equations and clearance measurements. We review the rationale for the guideline recommendations, principles of GFR measurement and estimation, and our suggestions for implementation.

  19. Selection against genetic defects in semen donors.

    PubMed

    Smith, P E

    1984-08-01

    Artificial insemination donor selection requires predicting which men are likely to beget the healthiest offspring. Methods are developed for calculating the "offspring excess recurrence risk", delta R, for an anomaly in the offspring of an afflicted father. Mainly from published family survey and population data delta R is computed for 38 disorders. From a small survey a value for the with-treatment "affliction burden", Bt, is assigned to each anomaly. For each disorder the "offspring excess burden expectation" is delta RBt. Defects such as cataract, hereditary Parkinson disease, psoriasis, seropositive rheumatoid arthritis, and schizophrenia have such a high delta RBt that they are individually sufficient cause for rejecting a donor candidate. A candidate may be rejected because of a combination of lesser defects with sigma delta RBt exceeding an acceptable limit. A limit should also be placed on Bt, because the affliction burden for Tay-Sachs disease or cystic fibrosis is intolerable, however infrequent. Most of the important hereditary defects are late onset, and for the older donor the opportunity to select more directly against late-onset disorders offsets the added risk of newly-arising gene mutations. The most careful donor selection cannot completely eliminate the risk of a child inheriting some disorder, but selection can reduce the average total burden by as much as 17%.

  20. Hydrogen-donor coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Jr., Edward L.; Mitchell, Willard N.

    1980-01-01

    Improved liquid yields are obtained during the hydrogen-donor solvent liquefaction of coal and similar carbonaceous solids by maintaining a higher concentration of material having hydrogenation catalytic activity in the downstream section of the liquefaction reactor system than in the upstream section of the system.

  1. [Presence of Australia antigen in blood donors].

    PubMed

    Gota, F

    1980-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of type A and B viral hepatitis is discussed and guidelines for the prevention of post-transfusional hospital hepatitis are proposed. Methods for the immunological demonstration of HBs antigen are illustrated, together with the respective positivity percentages in blood donors.

  2. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M. Luhman, D. R.; Lilly, M. P.; Pacheco, J. L.; Perry, D.; Garratt, E.; Ten Eyck, G.; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Bielejec, E.; Carroll, M. S.

    2016-02-08

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants.

  3. Panchromatic donor-acceptor-donor conjugated oligomers for dye-sensitized solar cell applications.

    PubMed

    Stalder, Romain; Xie, Dongping; Islam, Ashraful; Han, Liyuan; Reynolds, John R; Schanze, Kirk S

    2014-06-11

    We report on a sexithienyl and two donor-acceptor-donor oligothiophenes, employing benzothiadiazole and isoindigo as electron-acceptors, each functionalized with a phosphonic acid group for anchoring onto TiO2 substrates as light-harvesting molecules for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). These dyes absorb light to wavelengths as long as 700 nm, as their optical HOMO/LUMO energy gaps are reduced from 2.40 to 1.77 eV with increasing acceptor strength. The oligomers were adsorbed onto mesoporous TiO2 films on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO)/glass substrates and incorporated into DSSCs, which show AM1.5 power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) ranging between 2.6% and 6.4%. This work demonstrates that the donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) molecular structures coupled to phosphonic acid anchoring groups, which have not been used in DSSCs, can lead to high PCEs.

  4. 75 FR 58400 - Donor Management Research: Improvements in Clinical Management of Deceased Organ Donors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Director, Division of Transplantation, Healthcare Systems Bureau, Health Resources and Services...: James Bowman, MD, Medical Director at Division of Transplantation, Healthcare Systems Bureau, Health... circulatory death donors, the CIOP Program has not focused on specific research issues. Since the inception...

  5. Achieving donor repetition and motivation by block leaders among current blood donors.

    PubMed

    Martín-Santana, Josefa D; Beerli-Palacio, Asunción

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents an explicative model on the recommendation of donating blood made to relatives and friends by current donors. This model establishes satisfaction and intention to return as direct antecedents, and the quality perceived in the donation process and the existence of inhibitors as indirect antecedents. The results show that (1) the perceived quality has a positive influence on satisfaction and intention to return; (2) the intention to donate again depends positively on satisfaction, but negatively on the existence of internal and external inhibitors; and lastly (3) the recommendation to donate depends on donor satisfaction and their intention to return to donate, this being the most influential factor. At the same time, we contrasted how the model does not vary, whether it is a first-time donor or a repeat donor.

  6. Comparison of Accreditation Criteria: CBHDP, NLN, and COA Accreditation Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frels, Lois; Horton, Betty

    1991-01-01

    Presents a detailed comparison of similarities and differences in the accreditation criteria of two nursing accrediting agencies--the National League for Nursing and the Council on Accreditation--as they relate to nurse anesthesiology programs. (JOW)

  7. Gendering gametes: The unequal contributions of sperm and egg donors.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Rosanna; Nelson, Margaret K; Kramer, Wendy

    2015-12-01

    This paper compares three groups of gestational mothers who relied on gametes from donors they did not know. The three groups are women who have conceived with donor sperm and their own eggs, women who have conceived with donor eggs and a partner's sperm, and women who have conceived with embryos composed of both donor eggs and donor sperm. The paper explores three issues. First, it considers whether intending parents select sperm and egg donors for different attributes both when they are chosen as the only donor and when they are chosen as donors contributing to an entire embryo. Second, it examines how women imagine the donor. Finally, it looks at how women conceptualize the donor as an individual who contributes to their child's characteristics. Two significant findings emerged in this analysis of survey data. First, the data show that gametes are gendered with different attributes both when those gametes are separate and even more so when seen as complementary parts of a whole. Second, the data show that women minimize the impact of the egg donor (both when a sole contribution and especially when part of the complementary whole) and thus ignore the influence or impact of the egg donor relative to how they make sense of the influence or impact of the sperm donor. The data for this study comes from an online survey developed by the authors.

  8. Donor-based single electron pumps with tunable donor binding energy.

    PubMed

    Lansbergen, G P; Ono, Y; Fujiwara, A

    2012-02-08

    We report on single electron pumping via a tunable number of individual donors. We use a device that essentially consists of a silicon nanowire with local arsenic implantation between a set of fine gates. A temperature-dependent characterization of the pumped current allows us to extract the ionization energy of a single arsenic donor. We observe the ionization energy to be tunable by the gate electric field over a large range of energies.

  9. Hyperammonemia in ornithine transcarbamylase-deficient recipients following living donor liver transplantation from heterozygous carrier donors.

    PubMed

    Rahayatri, Tri Hening; Uchida, Hajime; Sasaki, Kengo; Shigeta, Takanobu; Hirata, Yoshihiro; Kanazawa, Hiroyuki; Mali, Vidyadhar; Fukuda, Akinari; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Kasahara, Mureo

    2017-02-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is a urea cycle disorder of X-linked inheritance, affecting the detoxification of excess nitrogen and leading to hyperammonemia (hyper-NH3 ). Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been applied for the treatment of OTCD. This case series retrospectively reviewed two OTCD patients who experienced hyper-NH3 following LDLT. The first case was a 5-year-old girl who had onset of OTCD at 2 years of age. Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) enzyme activity was 62% for the donor and 15% for the recipient. The patient suffered from recurrence of hyper-NH3 within 2 months following LDLT. The second case was a 5-year-old girl who had onset of OTCD at 3 years of age. OTC enzyme activity was 42.6% for the donor and 9.7% for the recipient. The patient suffered hyper-NH3 for 12 days starting on the date of surgery. Both of the patients transiently required continuous veno-venous hemodialysis; however, they are currently doing well without intensive medical treatment. The use of asymptomatic OTCD heterozygous donors in LDLT has been accepted with careful examination. However, an OTCD heterozygous carrier donor should be avoided if there is another donor candidate, due to the potentially fatal condition of hyper-NH3 following LDLT.

  10. Roller coaster marathon: being a live liver donor.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Charlotte C; Smolowitz, Janice

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the meaning of being a live liver donor. Six people between ages 27 and 53 years participated. A qualitative, in-depth, semistructured interview format was used to explore donors' thoughts and feelings about being an organ donor. Five themes were identified: (1) no turning back--how do I live without you? (2) roller coaster marathon, (3) donor network, (4) the scar, and (5) reflections--time to think. At the center of the experience was the donor's commitment to the recipient. Once donors began the process, they were determined to see it through. The process was complex, and donors received various levels of support from family, friends, health care professionals, and others. After donation, as donors recovered and were able to resume their usual daily responsibilities, they reflected on the impact of the experience and how it changed their view of life.

  11. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  12. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  13. National Marrow Donor Program and Be The Match Registry

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Marrow Donor Program and Be The Match Registry Past Issues / Summer 2011 Table of Contents Creating ... Donor Program (NMDP) and its Be The Match Registry are nonprofit organizations dedicated to creating an opportunity ...

  14. Living Kinship Trouble: Danish Sperm Donors' Narratives of Relatedness.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Danish sperm donors face a particular kind of kinship trouble: they find themselves in a cultural and organizational context that offers different and contrary ways of how to make connections to donor-conceived individuals meaningful. Whereas Danish sperm banks and Danish law want sperm donors to regard these connections as contractual issues, the dominant kinship narrative in Denmark asks sperm donors to also consider them as family and kinship relations. Based on interviews with Danish sperm donors and participant observation at Danish sperm banks, I argue that Danish sperm donors make sense of connections to donor-conceived individuals as a particular kind of relatedness that cannot be reduced to either contractual or kinship relations. Making sense of these connections, sperm donors negotiate their social significance and thereby participate in opening a space which offers avenues for new kinds of sociality.

  15. Used Safely, Donor Breast Milk Can Help Preemie Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... milk-sharing, or buying donor milk over the internet," Abrams said. Unpasteurized donor milk could expose babies ... Please don't buy [breast milk] over the internet," Trembath said. "Do it the safe way, through ...

  16. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  17. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  18. Computer algorithms in the search for unrelated stem cell donors.

    PubMed

    Steiner, David

    2012-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a medical procedure in the field of hematology and oncology, most often performed for patients with certain cancers of the blood or bone marrow. A lot of patients have no suitable HLA-matched donor within their family, so physicians must activate a "donor search process" by interacting with national and international donor registries who will search their databases for adult unrelated donors or cord blood units (CBU). Information and communication technologies play a key role in the donor search process in donor registries both nationally and internationaly. One of the major challenges for donor registry computer systems is the development of a reliable search algorithm. This work discusses the top-down design of such algorithms and current practice. Based on our experience with systems used by several stem cell donor registries, we highlight typical pitfalls in the implementation of an algorithm and underlying data structure.

  19. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  20. Kyoto islet isolation method: the optimized one for non-heart-beating donors with highly efficient islet retrieval.

    PubMed

    Okitsu, T; Matsumoto, S; Iwanaga, Y; Noguchi, H; Nagata, H; Yonekawa, Y; Maekawa, T; Tanaka, K

    2005-10-01

    The availability of pancreata for clinical cadaveric islet transplantation is restricted to non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) in Japan. This forced us to modify the current standard islet isolation protocol that was made up for brain-dead donors and make it suitable for NHBDs. The Kyoto islet isolation method is the one with induction of several steps based on the ideas both already reported literally and invented originally by ourselves. Using this islet isolation method, we isolated islets from 13 human pancreata of NHBDs and transplanted 11 preparations to six type-1 diabetic patients. The rate to meet release criteria of Edmonton protocol was 84.6%. Establishment of this method allowed us to begin a clinical islet transplantation program in Japan and to continue to perform the preparation of islets from NHBDs with high rate to meet the release criteria of the Edmonton protocol.

  1. Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Boeloeni, Ladislau

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed a software agent to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during Shuttle launch countdown. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream, automatically alerts system engineers when predefined criteria have been met, identifies limit warnings and violations of launch commit criteria, aids Shuttle engineers through troubleshooting procedures, and provides additional insight to verify appropriate troubleshooting of problems by contractors. The agent has successfully detected launch commit criteria warnings and violations on a simulated playback data stream. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation.

  2. Ethical perspectives on living donor organ transplantation in Asia.

    PubMed

    Concejero, Allan M; Chen, Chao-Long

    2009-12-01

    Live donors are a continuing source of organ grafts for solid organ transplantation in Asia. Ethical issues surrounding the development of living donor organ transplantation in Eastern countries are different from those in Western countries. Donor safety is still the paramount concern in any donor operation. Issues on organ trafficking remain societal concerns in low-income nations. Religion, cultural background, economic prerogatives, and timely legislation contribute to the social acceptance and maturation of organ donation.

  3. Temporal Changes in Deceased Kidney Donor Characteristics in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Samuel; Campbell, Scott B.; Clayton, Phillip A.; Mudge, David W.; Cho, Yeoungjee; Hawley, Carmel M.; Johnson, David W.; Francis, Ross S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Demand for deceased donor kidneys has exceeded supply in Australia over the past 2 decades. With a desire to use as many donor organs as possible, the health characteristics of accepted donors may have changed over time. Methods All deceased kidney donors actually transplanted in Australia between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2013, were retrospectively analyzed, using data from the Australian and New Zealand Organ Donor Registry. Results Of 4172 deceased donors, 57% were men. Mean donor age increased from 37.2 ± 16.8 years to 46.1 ± 17.7 years over time, and donor numbers increased from 162 in 1994 to 334 in 2013. As the primary cause of death, motor vehicle accidents decreased from 27% to 12%, whereas cerebral pathology persisted at 50%. There was an increase in the proportion of donors with hypertension (12% to 24%), diabetes (2% to 7%), and an increase in mean body mass index (24.4 ± 4.4 kg/m2 to 27.5 ± 6.3 kg/m2) between 1994 and 2013. These changes were reflected by an increase in the median kidney donor risk index from 1.08 (interquartile range, 0.85-1.25) to 1.32 (interquartile range, 0.95-1.53). The proportion of medically higher risk donors increased over time. Conclusions Because deceased kidney donor numbers have increased, the range of donor quality has broadened, with an increase in both the proportion and number of high-risk donors, as well as a decline in donor quality. These data highlight the need for kidney allocation algorithms to evolve to ensure appropriate allocation of deceased donor kidneys. PMID:27826605

  4. Living donor liver transplantation using grafts with hepatic cysts.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Seisuke; Nosaka, Shunsuke; Shigeta, Takanobu; Uchida, Hajime; Hamano, Ikumi; Karaki, Chiaki; Kanazawa, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Akinari; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Kasahara, Mureo

    2012-12-01

    Cystic lesions in the liver are often found through the evaluation of liver donors. Multiple cysts are worrisome, and donor candidates with multiple cysts may be unacceptable as liver donors, especially when their recipients have fibrocystic disease (FCD), which is an inherited disorder. This study reviewed 183 cases of living donor liver transplantation. We collected clinical and radiological data associated with donors with cystic lesions and with donors without cystic lesions, and we evaluated the outcomes of these donors and their recipients. As part of the preoperative radiological assessment of grafts, magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) was performed to evaluate the biliary anatomy of donor candidates with multiple cysts. Thirty-four donors (18.6%) had 1 or more cystic lesions in the liver, and 6 of these donors had multiple cysts (ie, >10). Donors with multiple cysts were older and heavier, and there was a significant relationship between these donors and recipients whose original disease was FCD. During the follow-up (median = 3.1 years), all donors with cystic lesions were found to be doing well without any major postoperative complications. Fifteen recipients who received grafts with cystic lesions (12 left-sided lobes and 3 right-sided lobes) had no complications related to the cystic lesions. In conclusion, donors with cystic lesions may be acceptable as liver donors, although our data are limited mostly to left-sided lobe donation with a short follow-up period. MRC should be preoperatively performed to rule out any biliary anomalies, especially in donor candidates whose recipients have FCD.

  5. Determination of criteria weights in solving multi-criteria problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasim, Maznah Mat

    2014-12-01

    A multi-criteria (MC) problem comprises of units to be analyzed under a set of evaluation criteria. Solving a MC problem is basically the process of finding the overall performance or overall quality of the units of analysis by using certain aggregation method. Based on these overall measures of each unit, a decision can be made whether to sort them, to select the best or to group them according to certain ranges. Prior to solving the MC problems, the weights of the related criteria have to be determined with the assumption that the weights represent the degree of importance or the degree of contribution towards the overall performance of the units. This paper presents two main approaches which are called as subjective and objective approaches, where the first one involves evaluator(s) while the latter approach depends on the intrinsic information contained in each criterion. The subjective and objective weights are defined if the criteria are assumed to be independent with each other, but if they are dependent, there is another type of weight, which is called as monotone measure weight or compound weights which represent degree of interaction among the criteria. The measure of individual weights or compound weights must be addressed in solving multi-criteria problems so that the solutions are more reliable since in the real world, evaluation criteria always come with different degree of importance or are dependent with each other. As the real MC problems have their own uniqueness, it is up to the decision maker(s) to decide which type of weights and which method are the most applicable ones for the problem under study.

  6. Criteria for phonological process analysis.

    PubMed

    McReynolds, L V; Elbert, M

    1981-05-01

    Investigators have proposed that children with functional articulation disorders should be relabelled phonologically disordered. To support this proposal, evidence has been presented in the literature demonstrating that children's error patterns reflect the operation of phonological processes. No quantitative or qualitative criteria have been offered to differentiate these processes from surface error patterns. The purpose of the present descriptive study was to determine if differences would be found when two kinds of process analyses were employed: a nonquantitative criteria analysis as conducted in the studies reported in the literature, and a quantitative criteria analysis. Speech samples were obtained from 13 children with functional articulation problems. Their errors were submitted to the two analysis procedures. Results indicated that the number of identified processes were reduced when minimum quantitative criteria were used from the number identified when no quantitative criteria were imposed. The decrease occurred in individual children's patterns as well as across the patterns of the 13 children. It is suggested that there is a need to establish reasonable quantitative and qualitative criteria for phonological process identification.

  7. [Kidney donation by living donors. Surgical procedure].

    PubMed

    Baier, P K; Pisarski, P; Wimmenauer, S; Kirste, G

    1999-01-01

    The living donation of kidneys is gaining importance as a possible way to give a transplant to patients with terminal renal insufficiency. However we do not yet have experience with all the possibilities arising from this method. In particular, there is caution caused by the risks of the donor operation. In this context, the method is discussed according to the literature and our own experience of 89 living kidney donations. In our own practice with living donations, we have a success rate with 96% after 4 years and 82% after 16 years. We observed complications including wound infections (10.7%), haemorrhage, hernia and neurological complications (each 2.7%). When performed by specialists, the donor operation is safe and is a responsible alternative to the transplantation of cadaver kidneys, which opens up new possibilities in these times of organ shortage.

  8. Living donor liver transplantation in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Capobianco, Ivan; Panaro, Fabrizio; Di Francesco, Fabrizio; Troisi, Roberto; Sainz-Barriga, Mauricio; Muiesan, Paolo; Königsrainer, Alfred; Testa, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) sparked significant interest in Europe when the first reports of its success from USA and Asia were made public. Many transplant programs initiated LDLT and some of them especially in Germany and Belgium became a point of reference for many patients and important contributors to the advancement of the field. After the initial enthusiasm, most of the European programs stopped performing LDLT and today the overall European activity is concentrated in a few centers and the number of living donor liver transplants is only a single digit fraction of the overall number of liver transplants performed. In this paper we analyse the present European activities and highlight the European contribution to the advancement of the field of LDLT. PMID:27115011

  9. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  10. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  11. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  12. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  13. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  14. [Towards the development of living donor kidney transplantation].

    PubMed

    Macher, Marie-Alice

    2016-12-01

    Living donor kidney transplantation has been increasing since 2008. Living donors represent a significant potential for organ transplants, in a context where the needs outstrip the availability of organs from deceased donors. However, patients are still poorly informed regarding the conditions in which these transplants are possible.

  15. Donors to Higher Education. A Statistical Profile of Individual Giving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balz, Frank

    Patterns of individual giving to higher education in 1984 are reported, along with the characteristics of donors. The study sample consisted of 66 private and 33 public colleges and universities. Information is presented on: the size of the gift; the income level of donors, by household adjusted gross income; level of giving of donors by whether…

  16. When disaster strikes: death of a living organ donor.

    PubMed

    Ratner, L E; Sandoval, P R

    2010-12-01

    Donor safety is of paramount importance in living donor transplantation. Yet, living donor deaths occur. We believe that problems exist in our system of live donor transplantation that can be summarized in a series of simple statements: (1) Donor mortality can never be completely eliminated; (2) Live donor risk has not been mitigated so that it is as low as possible; (3) After a donor death, systematic reviews are not routinely performed to identify correctable causes; (4) The lessons learned from any donor death are not adequately communicated to other programs and (5) The administrative mechanisms and resources are not universally available at all transplant centers to implement lessons learned. To rectify these problems, we propose the following: (1) A national living donor death task force be established with the purpose of performing systematic reviews of any donor death. (2) Findings of these reviews be disseminated to all institutions performing live donor transplants on a secure, password-protected website. (3) A no-fault donor death indemnity fund be established to provide a financial imperative for institutions to cooperate with this external peer-review. These measures will serve the best interests of the involved institutions, the transplant community, and most importantly, the patients and their families.

  17. Noneligible Donors as a Strategy to Decrease the Organ Shortage.

    PubMed

    Croome, K P; Lee, D D; Keaveny, A P; Taner, C B

    2016-12-15

    Organ procurement organization (OPO) performance is generally evaluated by the number of organ procurement procedures divided by the number of eligible deaths (donation after brain death [DBD] donors aged <70 years), whereas the number of noneligible deaths (including donation after cardiac death donors and DBD donors aged >70 years) is not tracked. The present study aimed to investigate the variability in the proportion of noneligible liver donors by the 58 donor service areas (DSAs). Patients undergoing liver transplant (LT) between 2011 and 2015 were obtained from the United Network for Organ Sharing Standard Transplant Analysis and Research file. LTs from noneligible and eligible donors were compared. The proportion of noneligible liver donors by DSA varied significantly, ranging from 0% to 19.6% of total liver grafts used. In transplant programs, the proportion of noneligible liver donors used ranged from 0% to 35.3%. On linear regression there was no correlation between match Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score for programs in a given DSA and proportion of noneligible donors used from the corresponding DSA (p = 0.14). Noneligible donors remain an underutilized resource in many OPOs. Policy changes to begin tracking noneligible donors and learning from OPOs that have high noneligible donor usage are potential strategies to increase awareness and pursuit of these organs.

  18. Selection of a right posterior sector graft for living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Ikegami, Toru; Kimura, Koichi; Uchiyama, Hideaki; Ikeda, Tetsuo; Shirabe, Ken; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2014-09-01

    Right posterior sector (RPS) grafts have been used to overcome graft size discrepancies, the major concern of living donor liver transplantation. Previous studies have reported the volumetry-based selection of RPS grafts without anatomical exclusion. We reviewed our data and established selection criteria for RPS grafts. The procurement of RPS grafts [conventional (n = 3) and extended (n = 5)] was performed for 8 of 429 recipients at our center. Extended RPS grafts contained the drainage area of the right hepatic vein. The mean graft weight (GW) according to 3-dimensional computed tomography volumetry was 488 g, and the GW/standard liver weight (SLW) ratio was 42.6%. The mean actual GW was 437 g, and the GW/SLW ratio was 38.4%. One donor exhibited standard bifurcation of the right portal vein (PV) and the left PV, and 2 donors exhibited trifurcation of the left PV, the right anterior portal vein (APV), and the posterior PV. The remaining 5 donors exhibited APV branching from the left PV, which is the most suitable anatomy for RPS grafts. Two recipients died of sepsis or small-for-size graft syndrome. One underwent retransplantation because of an intractable bile leak and fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. Intractable bile duct (BD) stenosis developed in 4 of the 6 survivors. In conclusion, with the significant complications and potential concerns associated with RPS grafts, these grafts should be used very rarely and with extreme caution. Donors with the standard bifurcation of the PV and the posterior BD running through the dorsal side of the posterior PV are not suitable candidates for RPS grafts. Extended RPS graft procurement is recommended for easier parenchymal transection.

  19. The Nature of the Donor Motif in Acceptor-Bridge-Donor Dyes as an Influence in the Electron Photo-Injection Mechanism in DSSCs.

    PubMed

    Zarate, Ximena; Schott-Verdugo, Stephan; Rodriguez-Serrano, Angela; Schott, Eduardo

    2016-03-10

    The combination and balance of acceptor(A)-bridge-donor(D) architecture of molecules confer suitable attributes and/or properties to act as efficient light-harvesting and sensitizers in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). An important process in a DSSC performance is the electron photoinjection (PI) mechanism which can take place either via type I (indirect), that consists in injecting from the excited state of the dye to the semiconductor, or type II (direct), where the PI is from the ground state of the dye to the semiconductor upon photoexcitation. Here, we present a computational study about the role of the donor motif in the PI mechanisms displayed from a family of 11 A-bridge-D structured dyes to a (TiO2)15 anatase cluster. To this end, different donor motifs (D1-D11) were evaluated while the A and bridge motifs remained the same. All the computations were carried out within the DFT framework, using the B3LYP, PW91, PBE, M06L and CAM-B3LYP functionals. The 6-31G(d) basis set was employed for nonmetallic atoms and the LANL2DZ pseudopotential for Ti atoms. The solvation effects were incorporated using the polarized continuum model (PCM) for acetonitrile. As benchmark systems, alizarin and naphthalenediol dyes were analyzed, as they are known to undergo Type I and Type II PI pathways in DSSCs, respectively. Donors in the studied family of dyes could influence to drive Type I or II PI since it was found that D2 could show some Type II PI route, showing a new absorption band, although with CAM-B3LYP this shows a very low oscillator strength, while the remaining dyes behave according to Type I photoinjectors. Finally, the photovoltaic parameters that govern the light absorption process were evaluated, as the use of these criteria could be applied to predict the efficiency of the studied dyes in DSSCs devices.

  20. Paucity of HLA-identical unrelated donors for African-Americans with hematologic malignancies: the need for new donor options.

    PubMed

    Dew, Alexander; Collins, Demetria; Artz, Andrew; Rich, Elizabeth; Stock, Wendy; Swanson, Kate; van Besien, Koen

    2008-08-01

    Identification of an HLA identical donor/recipient pair using high-resolution techniques at HLA A, B, C, and DRB1 optimizes survival after adult unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplant. It has been estimated that roughly 50% of African-Americans have suitable unrelated donors based on serologic typing, but there is little information on the likelihood of identifying an HLA-identical unrelated donor using molecular techniques. From February 2002 to May 2007, we performed 51 unrelated donor searches for African-American patients using the National Marrow Donor Program and found HLA identical unrelated donors for only 3. By contrast, 50 (98%) had at least 1, and often multiple, appropriately matched cord blood units available. Very few African-American recipients have HLA-identical unrelated donors. To allow more African-American patients to proceed to transplant, innovative donor strategies, including adult cord blood transplantation, haploidentical transplant, or the identification of permissive mismatches should be investigated.

  1. Living Donor Hepatectomy: Is it Safe?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Anna; Tapia, Viridiana; Parina, Ralitza; Berumen, Jennifer; Hemming, Alan; Mekeel, Kristin

    2015-10-01

    Living donor hepatectomy (LDH) is high risk to a healthy donor and remains controversial. Living donor nephrectomy (LDN), conversely, is a common practice. The objective is to examine the outcomes of LDH and compare this risk profile to LDN. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was queried for hepatectomies and nephrectomies from 1998 to 2011. LDH or LDN were identified by donor ICD-9 codes. Outcomes included in-hospital mortality and complications. Bivariate analysis compared nondonor hepatectomy or nondonor nephrectomy (NDN). Multivariate analyses adjusted for baseline organ disease, malignancy, or benign lesions. There were 430 LDH and 9211 nondonor hepatectomy. In-hospital mortality was 0 and 6 per cent, respectively (P < 0.001); complications 4 and 33 per cent (P < 0.001). LDH had fewer complications [odds ratio (OR) 0.15 (0.08-0.26)]. There were 15,631 LDN and 117,966 NDN. Mortality rates were 0.8 per cent LDN and 1.8 per cent NDN (P < 0.001). Complications were 1 and 21 per cent (P < 0.001). LDN had fewer complications [OR 0.06 (0.05-0.08)] and better survival [OR 0.32 (0.18-0.58)]. Complication rates were higher in LDH than LDN (4% vs 1%, P < 0.001), but survival was similar (0% vs 0.8% mortality, P = 0.06). In conclusion, morbidity and mortality rates of LDH are significantly lower than hepatectomy for other disease. This study suggests that the risk profile of LDH is comparable with the widely accepted LDN.

  2. "Brain Death" and dead donor rule. Discussion and proposals on the thesis of Truog.

    PubMed

    Bruzzone, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The introduction in 1968 by the "ad hoc" Harvard committee of the concept of "Brain Death" gave birth to the worldwide diffusion of organ transplantation. Recently "Total Brain Failure" has been proposed as preferred term, instead of "Brain Death", by the President's Council on Bioethics. The concepts of "brain death" and of "dead donor rule" remain the ethical and moral support of organ transplantation. However both criteria has been questioned , either separately or all together , by many authors and particularly by Dr. Robert D. Truog.

  3. Low-pressure pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy to optimize live donors' comfort.

    PubMed

    Warlé, M C; Berkers, A W; Langenhuijsen, J F; van der Jagt, M F; Dooper, Ph M; Kloke, H J; Pilzecker, D; Renes, S H; Wever, K E; Hoitsma, A J; van der Vliet, J A; D'Ancona, F C H

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) has become the gold standard to procure live donor kidneys. As the relationship between donor and recipient loosens, it becomes of even greater importance to optimize safety and comfort of the surgical procedure. Low-pressure pneumoperitoneum has been shown to reduce pain scores after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Live kidney donors may also benefit from the use of low pressure during LDN. To evaluate feasibility and efficacy to reduce post-operative pain, we performed a randomized blinded study. Twenty donors were randomly assigned to standard (14 mmHg) or low (7 mmHg) pressure during LDN. One conversion from low to standard pressure was indicated by protocol due to lack of progression. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that low pressure resulted in a significantly longer skin-to-skin time (149 ± 86 vs. 111 ± 19 min), higher urine output during pneumoperitoneum (23 ± 35 vs. 11 ± 20 mL/h), lower cumulative overall pain score after 72 h (9.4 ± 3.2 vs. 13.5 ± 4.5), lower deep intra-abdominal pain score (11 ± 3.3 vs. 7.5 ± 3.1), and a lower cumulative overall referred pain score (1.8 ± 1.9 vs. 4.2 ± 3). Donor serum creatinine levels, complications, and quality of life dimensions were not significantly different. Our data show that low-pressure pneumoperitoneum during LDN is feasible and may contribute to increase live donors' comfort during the early post-operative phase.

  4. Mechnical tuning of ionized donors in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, David P.; Hrubesch, Florian M.; Kuenzl, Markus; Itoh, Kohei M.; Hoehne, Felix; Dreher, Lukas; Brandt, Martin S.

    2015-03-01

    Ionized donors in silicon have been shown to have extraordinarily long coherence times, exceeding tens of minutes even at room temperature, which, combined with the very advanced state of silicon technology, makes them attractive candidates for the realization of solid state qubits. The corresponding near perfect isolation from their environment, however, renders the individual addressing and coupling of such qubits a major challenge on the way towards a spin quantum computer based on ionized donors. We show that the application of strain to the silicon host crystal leads to shifts of the nuclear spin resonance frequencies of 75As+ due to the nuclear quadrupole interaction with crystal fields. This shift can be larger than the resonance linewidth already for modest strains, as we demonstrate by electrically detected electron nuclear double resonance (ED ENDOR) measurements on arsenic donors in strained silicon. We discuss how quadrupole interactions could allow for the individual addressing of ionized nuclear spins by mechanical tuning of their resonance frequency and, possibly, permit the elastic coupling of nuclear spin qubits to a mechanical resonator.

  5. Nitric oxide donors for cardiovascular implant applications.

    PubMed

    Naghavi, Noora; de Mel, Achala; Alavijeh, Omid Sadeghi; Cousins, Brian G; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2013-01-14

    In an era of increased cardiovascular disease burden in the ageing population, there is great demand for devices that come in to contact with the blood such as heart valves, stents, and bypass grafts that offer life saving treatments. Nitric oxide (NO) elution from healthy endothelial tissue that lines the vessels maintains haemostasis throughout the vasculature. Surgical devices that release NO are desirable treatment options and N-diazeniumdiolates and S-nitrosothiols are recognized as preferred donor molecules. There is a keen interest to investigate newer methods by which NO donors can be retained within biomaterials so that their release and kinetic profiles can be optimized. A range of polymeric scaffolds incorporating microparticles and nanomaterials are presenting solutions to current challenges, and have been investigated in a range of clinical applications. This review outlines the application of NO donors for cardiovascular therapy using biomaterials that release NO locally to prevent thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia (IH) and enhance endothelialization in the fabrication of next generation cardiovascular device technology.

  6. [New possibilities in kidney transplantation from live unrelated donors].

    PubMed

    Bosković, S

    1990-01-01

    The kidney transplantation, as a method of medical treatment, could not be developed faster in our country for many years. A number of demands for transplantation grows much faster than our modest capability. The similar, but in a rather smaller degree, this problem occurs in some other countries in the world. The main cause is: the organization of corpse collecting and the conservatism of doctors. The latter problem, in the countries of western hemisphere, is surpassed more easily by a doctor codex and a legal obligation that involves doctors actively in this process, which is not the case in our country. The organization of corpse collecting in some states of the USA is highly developed, but however it does not give sufficient number of organs for the cadaveric transplantation. New, additional possibilities are found: the taking of even organs (kidneys) from alive unrelated donors, spouses, which excludes the possibility of greed and gives, only in the USA, about 1.500 additional alive transplantations per year. The complementary medical attitude towards the increasing of number of cadaveric transplantations is: considerably freely taking of kidneys from cadavers without tissue compatibility, only with the compatibility of blood groups of ABO system. Since the immunological criteria, in our country, are very intensified by the Zagreb immunology group, e.g. from 75-100% for alive transplantation, or the minimum of 50% tissue compatibility for cadaveric transplantation, this old-fashioned attitude has considerably lowered the number of transplantations in our country.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. A Lifetime of Allograft Function with Kidneys from Older Donors.

    PubMed

    Rose, Caren; Schaeffner, Elke; Frei, Ulrich; Gill, Jagbir; Gill, John S

    2015-10-01

    Strategies to increase expanded criteria donor (ECD) transplantation are needed. We quantified the extent to which ECD kidneys provide recipients with a lifetime of allograft function by determining the difference between patient survival and death-censored allograft survival (graft survival). Initial analyses compared 5-year outcomes in the Eurotransplant Senior Program (European) and the United States Renal Data System. Among European recipients ≥65 years, patient survival exceeded graft survival, and ECD recipients returned to dialysis for an average of 5.2 months after transplant failure. Among United States recipients ≥60 years, graft survival exceeded patient survival. Although patient survival in elderly recipients in the United States was low (49% at 5 years), the average difference in patient survival at 10 years in elderly recipients in the United States with an ECD versus non-ECD transplant was only 7 months. The probability of patient survival with a functioning allograft at 5 years was higher with ECD transplantation within 1 year after activation to the waiting list than with delayed non-ECD transplantation ≥3 years after activation to the waiting list. Subsequent analyses demonstrated that ECD transplants do not provide a lifetime of allograft function in recipients <50 years in the United States. These findings should encourage ECD transplantation in patients ≥60 years, demonstrate that rapid ECD transplantation is superior to delayed non-ECD transplantation, and challenge the policy in the United States of allowing patients <50 years to receive an ECD transplant.

  8. Hepatocellular carcinoma beyond Milan criteria: Management and transplant selection criteria

    PubMed Central

    Elshamy, Mohammed; Aucejo, Federico; Menon, K V Narayanan; Eghtesad, Bijan

    2016-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been established as a standard treatment in selected patients for the last two and a half decades. After initially dismal outcomes, the Milan criteria (MC) (single HCC ≤ 5 cm or up to 3 HCCs ≤ 3 cm) have been adopted worldwide to select HCC patients for LT, however cumulative experience has shown that MC can be too strict. This has led to the development of numerous expanded criteria worldwide. Morphometric expansions on MC as well as various criteria which incorporate biomarkers as surrogates of tumor biology have been described. HCC that presents beyond MC initially can be downstaged with locoregional therapy (LRT). Post-LRT monitoring aims to identify candidates with favorable tumor behavior. Similarly, tumor marker levels as response to LRT has been utilized as surrogate of tumor biology. Molecular signatures of HCC have also been correlated to outcomes; these have yet to be incorporated into HCC-LT selection criteria formally. The ongoing discrepancy between organ demand and supply makes patient selection the most challenging element of organ allocation. Further validation of extended HCC-LT criteria models and pre-LT treatment strategies are required. PMID:27478537

  9. 78 FR 66366 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Use of Donor Screening Tests To Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Use of Donor Screening Tests to Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/Ps) for Infection with Treponema pallidum (Syphilis),'' dated October 2013. The draft guidance document provides establishments that make donor eligibility......

  10. The donor, the father, and the imaginary constitution of the family: parents' constructions in the case of donor insemination.

    PubMed

    Grace, Victoria M; Daniels, Ken R; Gillett, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Current international policy trends in the field of medically assisted conception are moving towards increased openness of information regarding the nature of conception where donated gametes are involved. In the case of donor insemination this means that the donor is no longer anonymous, offspring have the right to access information about the donor's identity, and parents are encouraged to tell children the nature of their donor-assisted conception. Until recently, however, the practice of donor insemination has tended to create the conditions for ignoring, or erasing, the existence of the donor as the provider of the gametes. Changing policy creates numerous challenges to this erasure, and to traditional conceptualisations of the father. This research is based on analysis of the narratives of a group of 41 New Zealand couples who conceived children with the assistance of donor insemination 15-18 years prior. This article focuses on their talk about the donor. The parents' negation of the donor supports the normative formation of 'family', and is in turn supported by an instrumental and de-personalising discourse in relation to the donor. A tension is created within the parents' talk whereby donors are negated and yet simultaneously appear as persons. We explore this discursive construction, suggesting that a new framework for thinking about donated gametes and the role of the donor is influencing parents' narrations and understandings of family. We discuss these influences and examine their implications, particularly with respect to a separation of the bio-genetic from the social-environmental.

  11. [Five years of Fiom KID-DNA Databank: experiences in matching sperm donors and donor-conceived offspring].

    PubMed

    Postema, D; Maas, A J B M

    2016-01-01

    Before the introduction of the Dutch Human Fertilisation (Donor Information) Act (in Dutch: Wet Donorgegevens Kunstmatige Bevruchting) in 2004, approximately 40,000 donor-conceived offspring were born in the Netherlands. The majority is conceived by means of artificial insemination with anonymous donor sperm (in Dutch: kunstmatige inseminatie met anoniem donorzaad - KID). This means that they have little or no access to information about their genetic origins. Through the Fiom KID-DNA Databank, established in 2010 in association with the Canisius Wilhelmina Hospital, it is possible for these donor-conceived offspring and donors to search for one another. DNA profiles are used to match donor-conceived offspring, donors and half-siblings. It is expected that the number of donor-related searches will increase. The experiences with matching and counselling of donor-conceived offspring and donors presented in this paper will help donor-conceived offspring and donors who start a search in the future. Moreover, they provide guidance for forming a meaningful relationship between those involved.

  12. Donor kidney adapts to body dimensions of recipient: no influence of donor gender on renal function after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tent, H; Lely, A T; Toering, T J; San Giorgi, M R M; Rook, M; Lems, S P M; Hepkema, B G; Hofker, H S; Ploeg, R J; Homan van der Heide, J J; Navis, G J

    2011-10-01

    Female kidneys and kidneys from small donors have been suggested to perform worse after kidney transplantation. Here, we evaluate the impact of gender and body dimensions on posttransplantation GFR in living donor transplantation. Two hundred and ninety-three donor-recipient pairs, who were transplanted at our center were evaluated. All pairs had detailed renal function measurement ((125) I-iothalamate and (131) I-hippuran) 4 months predonation in the donor and 2.5 months posttransplantation in donor and recipient. For 88 pairs, 5 years of recipient follow-up was available. Delta GFR was calculated as (recipient GFR-donor single kidney GFR). Recipients of both male and female kidneys had similar renal function at early and long term after transplantation. Male recipients had higher ERPF, ΔGFR and ΔERPF at both time points. Kidneys of donors smaller than their recipient had higher ΔGFR and ΔERPF than kidneys of larger donors at both time points (p < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, ΔGFR was predicted by donor/recipient BSA-ratio together with transplantation related factors (R(2) 0.19), irrespective of donor and recipient gender. In conclusion, in living donor transplantation, female kidneys perform as well as male donor kidneys. Kidneys adapt to the recipient's body size and demands, independent of gender, without detrimental effects in renal function and outcome up to mid-long term.

  13. Guidelines for establishing a donor human milk depot.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Sheela R; List, Betsy A; Morrow, Georgia B

    2010-02-01

    Human milk is the preferred choice for infant feeding. When a sick or premature infant's own mother's milk is unavailable, donor human milk is becoming more widely used. Many potential milk donors do not live within close proximity to the 10 North American not-for-profit milk banks. Transporting milk via commercial carriers can be inconvenient and costly for recipient banks. A network of donor human milk depots is one practical way to increase the quantity of available donor human milk. This article provides guidelines and practical suggestions for establishing a donor human milk depot.

  14. Do affective attitudes predict organ donor registration? A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Lee; O'Carroll, Ronan E

    2014-10-01

    This study assessed whether people's affective attitudes predicted organ donor registration at a later time. People who were not registered as an organ donor prior to completing the study (N = 150) first rated their affective attitudes towards organ donation. We then measured whether they clicked on a hyperlink to register as an organ donor. Believing that the body should be kept whole for burial (bodily integrity) was the only affective attitude to predict this organ donation behaviour. Future campaigns should target this concern in order to increase organ donor registration and the availability of donor organs.

  15. Uncontrolled organ donation following prehospital cardiac arrest: a potential solution to the shortage of organ donors in the United Kingdom?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Keith J; Bramhall, Simon; Mayer, David; Muiesan, Paolo

    2011-05-01

    Uncontrolled donation after cardiac death (DCD) could increase the donor pool in the UK. Air ambulance (AA) teams may be well placed to recruit these donors. They cover large geographical areas, have short transfer times and tasked predominantly to life-threatening cases. The potential to recruit from this pool of donors was reviewed. Seventy-five month activity of an AA unit was analysed identifying patients who entered prehospital cardiac arrest (PHCA). Patients over 70 years of age were excluded as were those whose cardiac arrest was unwitnessed. A minimum potential donor pool was estimated based upon patients dying of medical causes. Rates of bystander resuscitation, mechanism of death and patient demographic data were observed. During 10,022 missions 534 patients entered PHCA. A total of 106 patients met inclusion criteria. There were 12 paediatric cases; 39 cases of 17-50 year olds and 55 cases of 50-70 year olds. Medical and traumatic causes of death accounted for 60 and 46 cases respectively. Bystander resuscitation efforts were provided in 47% of cases. A regional AA could contribute to a national uncontrolled DCD programme. Given that there are 31 AA's in England and Wales, we estimate that there could be a minimum of 300 additional potential donors annually.

  16. Disclosure of donor conception, age of disclosure and the well-being of donor offspring.

    PubMed

    Pennings, Guido

    2017-03-15

    The matter of disclosure of donor conception to donor offspring is a very contentious issue. A frequently mentioned argument is that disclosure is in the best interest of the child. The objectives of this paper are 2-fold: first, to find out whether there are any measureable, stable differences in the psychological well-being of donor offspring who are informed of the mode of their conception compared to those who are not, and second, to find out what is being done with the evidence. We found that there exists no empirical evidence of differences in psychological well-being of donor offspring in disclosing or nondisclosing families. Regarding the age of disclosure, the findings are inconclusive. Some studies indicate no difference and some show slight positive effects of early disclosure. We also found that authors tend to ignore their own findings when formulating recommendations and that the recommendations are based on implicit moral premises. We conclude that disclosure, and directive counseling towards disclosure, cannot be justified by the welfare of the donor offspring.

  17. Pediatric donor cell leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in AML patient from related donor.

    PubMed

    Bobadilla-Morales, Lucina; Pimentel-Gutiérrez, Helia J; Gallegos-Castorena, Sergio; Paniagua-Padilla, Jenny A; Ortega-de-la-Torre, Citlalli; Sánchez-Zubieta, Fernando; Silva-Cruz, Rocio; Corona-Rivera, Jorge R; Zepeda-Moreno, Abraham; González-Ramella, Oscar; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a male patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) initially diagnosed as M5 and with karyotype 46,XY. After induction therapy, he underwent a HLA-matched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and six years later he relapsed as AML M1 with an abnormal karyotype //47,XX,+10[2]/47,XX,+11[3]/48,XX,+10,+11[2]/46,XX[13]. Based on this, we tested the possibility of donor cell origin by FISH and molecular STR analysis. We found no evidence of Y chromosome presence by FISH and STR analysis consistent with the success of the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from the female donor. FISH studies confirmed trisomies and no evidence of MLL translocation either p53 or ATM deletion. Additionally 28 fusion common leukemia transcripts were evaluated by multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and were not rearranged. STR analysis showed a complete donor chimerism. Thus, donor cell leukemia (DCL) was concluded, being essential the use of cytological and molecular approaches. Pediatric DCL is uncommon, our patient seems to be the sixth case and additionally it presented a late donor cell leukemia appearance. Different extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms have been considered to explain this uncommon finding as well as the implications to the patient.

  18. HLA Matching Trumps Donor Age: Donor-Recipient Pairing Characteristics That Impact Long-Term Success in Living Donor Kidney Transplantation in the Era of Paired Kidney Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Milner, John; Melcher, Marc L.; Lee, Brian; Veale, Jeff; Ronin, Matthew; D'Alessandro, Tom; Hil, Garet; Fry, Phillip C.; Shannon, Patrick W.

    2016-01-01

    Background We sought to identify donor characteristics influencing long-term graft survival, expressed by a novel measure, kidney life years (KLYs), in living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT). Methods Cox and multiple regression analyses were applied to data from the Scientific Registry for Transplant Research from 1987 to 2015. Dependent variable was KLYs. Results Living donor kidney transplantation (129 273) were performed from 1987 to 2013 in the United States. To allow sufficient time to assess long-term results, outcomes of LDKTs between 1987 and 2001 were analyzed. After excluding cases where a patient died with a functioning graft (8301) or those missing HLA data (9), 40 371 cases were analyzed. Of 18 independent variables, the focus became the 4 variables that were the most statistically and clinically significant in that they are potentially modifiable in donor selection (P <0.0001; ie, HLA match points, donor sex, donor biological sibling and donor age). HLA match points had the strongest relationship with KLYs, was associated with the greatest tendency toward graft longevity on Cox regression, and had the largest increase in KLYs (2.0 year increase per 50 antigen Match Points) based on multiple regression. Conclusions In cases when a patient has multiple potential donors, such as through paired exchange, graft life might be extended when a donor with favorable matching characteristics is selected. PMID:27830179

  19. Is heart transplantation after circulatory death compatible with the dead donor rule?

    PubMed

    Nair-Collins, Michael; Miller, Franklin G

    2016-05-01

    Dalle Ave et al (2016) provide a valuable overview of several protocols for heart transplantation after circulatory death. However, their analysis of the compatibility of heart donation after circulatory death (DCD) with the dead donor rule (DDR) is flawed. Their permanence-based criteria for death, which depart substantially from established law and bioethics, are ad hoc and unfounded. Furthermore, their analysis is self-defeating, because it undercuts the central motivation for DDR as both a legal and a moral constraint, rendering the DDR vacuous and trivial. Rather than devise new and ad hoc criteria for death for the purpose of rendering DCD nominally consistent with DDR, we contend that the best approach is to explicitly abandon DDR.

  20. A complete treatment of adult living donor liver transplantation: a review of surgical technique and current challenges to expand indication of patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, S-G

    2015-01-01

    The growing disparity between the number of liver transplant candidates and the supply of deceased donor organs has motivated the development of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Over the last two decades, the operation has been markedly improved by innovations rendering modern results comparable with those of deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT). However, there remains room for further innovation, particularly in adult living donor liver transplantation (ALDLT). Unlike whole-size DDLT and pediatric LDLT, size-mismatching between ALDLT graft and recipient body weight and changing dynamics of posttransplant allograft regeneration have remained major challenges. A better understanding of the complex surgical anatomy and physiologic differences of ALDLT helps avoid small-for-size graft syndrome, graft congestion from outflow obstruction and graft hypoperfusion from portal flow steal. ALDLT for high-urgency patients (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score >30) can achieve results comparable to DDLT in high volume centers. Size limitations of partial grafts and donor safety issues can be overcome with dual grafts and modified right-lobe grafts that preserve the donor's middle hepatic vein trunk. Extended application of LDLT for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma above Milan criteria is an optional strategy at the cost of slightly compromised survival. ABO-blood group incompatibility obstacles have been broken down by introducing a paired donor exchange program and refined peri-operative management of ABO-incompatible ALDLT. This review focuses on recent innovations of surgical techniques, safe donor selection, current strategies to expand ALDLT with broadened patient selection criteria and important aspects of teamwork required for success.

  1. Computer applications in the search for unrelated stem cell donors.

    PubMed

    Müller, Carlheinz R

    2002-08-01

    The majority of patients which are eligible for a blood stem cell transplantation from an allogeneic donor do not have a suitable related donor so that an efficient unrelated donor search is a prerequisite for this treatment. Currently, there are over 7 million volunteer donors in the files of 50 registries in the world and in most countries the majority of transplants are performed from a foreign donor. Evidently, computer and communication technology must play a crucial role in the complex donor search process on the national and international level. This article describes the structural elements of the donor search process and discusses major systematic and technical issues to be addressed in the development and evolution of the supporting telematic systems. The theoretical considerations are complemented by a concise overview over the current state of the art which is given by describing the scope, relevance, interconnection and technical background of three major national and international computer appliances: The German Marrow Donor Information System (GERMIS) and the European Marrow Donor Information System (EMDIS) are interoperable business-to-business e-commerce systems and Bone Marrow Donors World Wide (BMDW) is the basic international donor information desk on the web.

  2. Quality criteria for water, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    Section 304(a) (1) of the Clean Water Act 33 U.S.C. 1314(a) (1) requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to publish and periodically update ambient water-quality criteria. These criteria are to accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge (a) on the kind and extent of all identifiable effects on health and welfare including, but not limited to, plankton, fish shellfish, wildlife, plant life, shorelines, beaches, aesthetics, and recreation that may be expected from the presence of pollutants in any body of water including ground water; (b) on the concentration and dispersal of pollutants, or their byproducts, through biological, physical, and chemical processes; and (c) on the effects of pollutants on biological community diversity, productivity, and stability, including information on the factors affecting rates of eutrophication and organic and inorganic sedimentation for varying types of receiving waters. In a continuing effort to provide those who use EPA's water-quality and human-health criteria with up-to-date criteria values and associated information, the document was assembled. The document includes summaries of all the contaminants for which EPA has developed criteria recommendations.

  3. Transplantation and differentiation of donor cells in the cloned pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Arata; Tomii, Ryo; Kano, Koichiro; Nagashima, Hiroshi . E-mail: hnagas@isc.meiji.ac.jp

    2006-06-02

    The application of nuclear transfer technology is an interesting approach to investigate stem and progenitor cell transplantation therapy. If stem cells are used as a nuclear donor, donor cells can engraft into cloned animals without histocompatible problems. However, it is still uncertain whether donor cells can engraft to cloned animal and differentiate in vivo. To address this problem, we transplanted donor cells to dermal tissues of cloned pigs developed by using preadipocytes as donor cells. Preadipocytes are adipocytic progenitor which can differentiate to mature adipocytes in vitro. We showed that the donor preadipocytes were successfully transplanted into the cloned pigs without immune rejection and they differentiated into mature adipocytes in vivo 3 weeks after transplantation. In contrast, allogenic control preadipocytes, which can differentiate in vitro, did not differentiate in vivo. These results indicate that donor progenitor cells can differentiate in cloned animal.

  4. 21 CFR 1271.50 - How do I determine whether a donor is eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.50 How do I... document the eligibility of a cell or tissue donor. (b) Eligible donor. A donor is eligible under...

  5. 76 FR 65735 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Implementation of Acceptable Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaire and Accompanying Materials for Use in Screening Frequent Donors of... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Implementation of Acceptable Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaire and.... The draft guidance document recognizes the abbreviated donor history questionnaire and...

  6. 21 CFR 1271.50 - How do I determine whether a donor is eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.50 How do I... document the eligibility of a cell or tissue donor. (b) Eligible donor. A donor is eligible under...

  7. 21 CFR 1271.50 - How do I determine whether a donor is eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.50 How do I... document the eligibility of a cell or tissue donor. (b) Eligible donor. A donor is eligible under...

  8. Intramolecular Charge-Transfer Interaction of Donor-Acceptor-Donor Arrays Based on Anthracene Bisimide.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Tetsuo; Ogawa, Marina; Yamauchi, Tomokazu; Toyota, Shinji

    2016-05-20

    We designed anthracene bisimide (ABI) derivatives having two triphenylamine (TPA) groups as donor units at the 9,10-positions to form a novel π-conjugated donor-acceptor system. These compounds and their analogues with ethynylene linkers were synthesized by Suzuki-Miyaura and Sonogashira coupling reactions, respectively. In UV-vis spectra, the linker-free derivatives showed broad absorption bands arising from intramolecular charge-transfer interactions. Introducing ethynylene linkers resulted in a considerable red shift of the absorption bands. In fluorescence spectra, the ethynylene derivatives showed intense emission bands at 600-650 nm. Their photophysical and electrochemical properties were compared with those of the corresponding mono TPA derivatives on the basis of theoretical calculations and cyclic voltammetry to evaluate the intramolecular electronic interactions between the donor and acceptor units.

  9. Microwave assisted synthesis of bithiophene based donor-acceptor-donor oligomers and their optoelectronic performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathula, Chinna; Buruga, Kezia; Lee, Sang Kyu; Khazi, Imtiyaz Ahmed M.; Kang, Youngjong

    2017-07-01

    In this article we present the synthesis of two novel bithiophene based symmetrical π conjugated oligomers with donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) structures by microwave assisted PdCl2(dppf) catalyzed Suzuki coupling reaction. These molecules contain electron rich bithiophene as a donor, dithienothiadiazole[3,4-c]pyridine and phthalic anhydride units as acceptors. The shorter reaction time, excellent yields and easy product isolation are the advantages of this method. The photophysical prerequisites for electronic application such as strong and broad optical absorption, thermal stability, and compatible energy levels were determined for synthesized oligomers. Optical band gap for the oligomers is found to be 1.72-1.90 eV. The results demonstrated the novel oligomers to be promising candidates in organic optoelectronic applications.

  10. Impact of ABO incompatible kidney transplantation on living donor transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background ABO incompatible kidney transplantation (ABOi-KT) is an important approach for overcoming donor shortages. We evaluated the effect of ABOi-KT on living donor KT. Methods Two nationwide transplantation databases were used. We evaluated the impact of ABOi-KT on overall living donor transplant activity and spousal donation as subgroup analysis. In addition, we compared the clinical outcome between ABOi-KT and ABO compatible KT (ABOc-KT) from spousal donor, and performed a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to define the risk factors affecting the allograft outcomes. Result The introduction of ABOi-KT increased overall living donor KT by 12.2% and its portion was increased from 0.3% to 21.7% during study period. The ABOi-KT in living unrelated KT was two times higher than that of living related donor KT (17.8 vs.9.8%). Spousal donor was a major portion of living unrelated KT (77.6%) and ABOi-KT increased spousal donation from 10% to 31.5% in living donor KT. In addition, increasing rate ABOi-KT from spousal donor was 10 times higher than that of living related donor. The clinical outcome (incidence of acute rejection, allograft function, and allograft and patient survival rates) of ABOi-KT from spousal donor was comparable to that of ABOc-KT. Neither ABO incompatibility nor spousal donor was associated with acute rejection or allograft failure on multivariate analysis. Conclusions ABOi-KT increased overall living donor KT, and ABOi-KT from spousal donor is rapidly increasing with favorable clinical outcomes. PMID:28323892

  11. Cancer of the colon in an egg donor: policy repercussions for donor recruitment.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, K K; Simons, E G

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the tragic case of a young woman who died of cancer of the colon after successfully donating eggs to her younger sister. Although there is no direct link between her operation and the subsequent development of bowel carcinoma, this case imparts a feeling of unease when seen in conjunction with other cases reported during the last few years. It is a reminder that little is known of the long-term consequences of some aspects of assisted conception. Women undergoing ovarian stimulation for themselves or a matched recipient have the right to be advised, in an agreed format, that there is some concern about unproven potential risks from the stimulatory drugs. The safety of egg donors must assume priority over all other considerations, including lack of donors or any moral position. The recent decision by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) to withdraw any form of payment or recompense to egg donors does not seem to us to be based on a balance of scientific advances, patient needs and the ethics of gamete supply. They state that the intention to withdraw payments was implicit in the 1990 Human Fertilisation and Embryology (HFE) Act. However the Act was based on the Warnock report made 6 years earlier. Even in 1990 ovum donation was uncommon and fertility drugs had not yet caused any unease. The Act provided the HFEA with discretionary powers to issue directions so that the future policies would be consistent with any emerging new medical evidence. It is imperative that the HFEA provide convincing evidence on how the current policy of payment to donors harms society, donors or recipients, and how in the UK the new policy will improve medical practice in assisted conception. Successful pilot studies must precede the implementation of any new policy. Failure to do this could cause irreversible harm to the practice of assisted conception using donor gametes, which will ultimately be against the basic aims of the 1990 HFE Act.

  12. Radiation design criteria handbook. [design criteria for electronic parts applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Douglas, S.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation design criteria for electronic parts applications in space environments are provided. The data were compiled from the Mariner/Jupiter Saturn 1977 electronic parts radiation test program. Radiation sensitive device types were exposed to radiation environments compatible with the MJS'77 requirements under suitable bias conditions. A total of 189 integrated circuits, transistors, and other semiconductor device types were tested.

  13. FFTF fuel systems design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Dutt, D.S.; Baars, R.E.; Jackson, R.J.; Weber, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to first enumerate the design considerations that were given to the fuel system, then secondly, show how these design allowances, methods, and criteria compare to the subsequent irradiation data. This comparison will show that decisions made by the design team were generally correct and, if in error, tended to be conservative. The FFTF driver fuel assemblies addressed by this paper are composed of the duct, a spacer system, and 217 fuel pins. Each of these subcomponents is described as the criteria are discussed and important parameters noted.

  14. Lymphocyte Changes in Normal Apheresis Donors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    SE -1 R I TY* -tL 1’Ct 4, T- T -J𔃾, A -ý r - H I- A IN 1* P 1, -c A REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE RA) INkr ,, fi;N ;5 E~R UdR2 GOVT ACCESO NO~ 3 ;PE,’>o...donors’ immune status. Furthermore, it is not known if there are cumulative effects resulting from multiple apheresis procedures. Of further concern is... multiple sclerosis, severe atopic eczema, infiammatory bowel disease and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. In contrast, excessive numbers of T8+ suppressor

  15. Organ Procurement in Forensic Deaths: Specific Features of Nonheart-Beating Donors.

    PubMed

    Delannoy, Yann; Jousset, Nathalie; Averland, Benoit; Hedouin, Valéry; Rougé-Maillart, Clotilde; Gosset, Didier

    2016-09-01

    The need for organs has increased in the recent years, and this shortage will only worsen. In addition to the organs procured from brain-dead donors, a procedure for non-heart-beating donors was therefore developed. When deaths involve legal proceedings, the medical examiner makes the decision of whether or not to remove organs. To assist medical examiner in their decision-making, a number of forensic scientific societies aimed to develop recommendations, and legal adjustments were adopted. Nevertheless, these do present certain limits in special cases of procurement: Maastricht class I and II non-heart-beating donors. The peculiarity of this procedure stems from the urgency of the process. Compliance with temporal criteria would require that the deceased subject be removed from the crime scene even before the arrival of the authorities. This is extremely problematic legally and technically because forensic teams must collect evidence at crime scenes. Developments will have to be made to further minimize the restrictions on donations in forensic deaths.

  16. Is there a right to donate blood? Patient rights; donor responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Ian M

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse and assess critically whether there is a right to donate blood in the UK. The aim was to provide a basis for blood services, in particular within the UK and European Union (EU), to address claims from deferred donors that there is a right to donate. Recent and ongoing campaigns to change the current life-long deferral from blood donation in the UK, Canada and USA of men who have/have had sex with men (MSM) have highlighted issues over whether individuals have a right to donate blood. The issue is complicated by allegations of discriminatory behaviour, and in some countries politicians have contributed to the argument. As anti-discrimination and equality legislation is strengthened in the UK, other groups in addition to MSM may wish to claim a right to donate blood. The methods adopted included discussions with colleagues in UK and European blood services and a review of the medical literature and wider sources using Internet search engines. No clear right to donate blood is apparent, although it is recommended that donor deferral criteria should have a sound basis of evidence. Potential donors have a right to expect a clear explanation of the reason(s) for refusing a donation. Legal safeguards for recipients to receive safe blood transfusions exist. It is concluded that blood recipients in the EU have a right to receive safe blood, and that this should be viewed as the overriding responsibility of blood services.

  17. Highly n -doped silicon: Deactivating defects of donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, D. Christoph; Fichtner, Wolfgang

    2004-12-01

    We report insight into the deactivation mechanisms of group V donors in heavily doped silicon. Based on our ab initio calculations, we suggest a three step model for the donor deactivation. In highly n -type Si grown at low temperatures, in the absence of excess native point defects, the intrinsic limit to ne seems to rise in part by means of donor deactivating distortions of the silicon lattice in the proximity of two or more donor atoms that share close sites. Also, donor dimers play an important part in the deactivation at high doping concentrations. While the dimers constitute a stable or metastable inactive donor configuration, the lattice distortions lower the donor levels gradually below the impurity band in degenerate silicon. On the other hand, we find that, in general, none of the earlier proposed deactivating donor pair defects is stable at any position of the Fermi level. The lattice distortions may be viewed as a precursor to Frenkel pair generation and donor-vacancy clustering process (step 2) that account for deactivation at elevated temperature and longer annealing times. Ultimately, and most prominently in the case of the large Sb atoms, precipitation of the donor atoms may set in as the last step of the deactivation process chain.

  18. Liver transplantation in children using organs from young paediatric donors.

    PubMed

    Herden, Uta; Ganschow, Rainer; Briem-Richter, Andrea; Helmke, Knut; Nashan, Bjoern; Fischer, Lutz

    2011-06-01

    Nowadays, most paediatric liver transplant recipients receive a split or other technical variant graft from adult deceased or live donors, because of a lack of available age- and size matched paediatric donors. Few data are available, especially for liver grafts obtained from very young children (<6 years). We analysed all paediatric liver transplantations between 1989 and 2009. Recipients were divided into five groups (1-5) depending on donor age (<1, ≥1 to <6, ≥6 to <16, ≥16 to <45, ≥45 years). Overall, 413 paediatric liver transplantations from deceased donors were performed; 1- and 5-year graft survival rates were 75%, 80%, 78%, 81%, 74% and 75%, 64%, 70%, 67%, 46%, and 1- and 5-year patient survival rates were 88%, 91%, 90%, 89%, 78% and 88%, 84%, 84%, 83%, 63% for groups 1-5, respectively, without significant difference. Eight children received organs from donors younger than 1 year and 45 children received organs from donors between 1 and 6 years of age. Overall, vascular complications occurred in 13.2% of patients receiving organs from donors younger than 6 years. Analysis of our data revealed that the usage of liver grafts from donors younger than 6 years is a safe procedure. The outcome was comparable with grafts from older donors with excellent graft and patient survival, even for donors younger than 1 year.

  19. Recovery of Platelet Count among Apheresis Platelet Donors

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnamoorthy; Anandan, Ashwin; Panicker, Vinod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increase in awareness regarding use of single donor platelets and the availability of technology has resulted in increased platelet pheresis procedures. The interval between two succesive plateletpheresis donations is much less compared to whole blood donations. Plateletpheresis procedures are associated with short term and long term adverse events. The effect of plateletpheresis on haematopoietic system remains significant. Aim To study the recovery of platelet count to baseline in plateletpheresis donors. Materials and Methods Fifty, first time apheresis donors were followed for platelet count recovery. Platelet count was measured before donation and at 30 minutes, 48 hours, 7th day and 14th day post-donation. Donor platelet count recovery to baseline was observed during the two week period. Results were analysed statistically, p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Platelet count recovered to baseline by 7th day post-donation in 50% of donors in groups I (Pre-donation platelet count 1.5 lacs/μl to 2.2 lacs/μl) and II (Donors with platelet count >2.2 lacs/μl to 2.75 lacs/μl), 30% of donors in group III (Donors with platelet count >2.75 lacs/μl to 3.5 lacs/μl) of the donors. Donor’s platelet count recovered to baseline in 85% of donors by day 14 in across the three groups. Recruitment of platelets from spleen was observed in donors with pre-donation platelet count on the lower limit of normal. Conclusion By day 7, donor’s platelet count recovered to baseline in majority of the donors. Allowing enough recovery periods for donor platelet count, the minimum interval between two apheresis donations can be 7 days till more prospective studies conclude on the frequency and minimum interval between plateletpheresis donations. PMID:28208861

  20. Iron Replacement Therapy in the Routine Management of Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Barbara J.; Yau, Yu Ying; Arceo, Sarah M.; Daniel-Johnson, Jennifer; Hopkins, Julie A.; Leitman, Susan F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron depletion/deficiency in blood donors frequently results in deferrals for low hemoglobin, yet blood centers remain reluctant to dispense iron replacement therapy to donors. Study Design and Methods During a 39-month period, 1236 blood donors deferred for hemoglobin <12.5 g/dL and 400 non-deferred control donors underwent health history screening and laboratory testing (CBC, iron studies). Iron depletion and deficiency were defined as ferritin of 9–19 mcg/L and <9 mcg/L in females and 18–29 mcg/L and <18 mcg/L in males. Deferred donors and iron-deficient control donors were given a 60-pack of ferrous sulfate 325 mg tablets, and instructed to take one tablet daily. Another 60-pack was dispensed at all subsequent visits. Results In the low hemoglobin group, 30% and 23% of females and 8% and 53% of males had iron depletion or deficiency, respectively, compared with 29% and 10% of females and 18% and 21% of males in the control group. Iron depleted/deficient donors taking iron showed normalization of iron-related laboratory parameters, even as they continued to donate. Compliance with oral iron was 68%. Adverse gastrointestinal effects occurred in 21% of donors. The study identified 13 donors with serious medical conditions, including eight with GI bleeding. No donors had malignancies or hemochromatosis. Conclusion Iron depletion or deficiency was found in 53% of female and 61% of male low hemoglobin donors, and in 39% of female and male control donors. Routine administration of iron replacement therapy is safe, effective, and prevents the development of iron depletion/deficiency in blood donors. PMID:22211316

  1. Aquatic Plant Water Quality Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA, as stated in the Clean Water Act, is tasked with developing numerical Aquatic Life Critiera for various pollutants found in the waters of the United States. These criteria serve as guidance for States and Tribes to use in developing their water quality standards. The G...

  2. THE CONTINUING SEARCH FOR CRITERIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROUDY, H.S.

    EDUCATIONAL CONTROL OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS RESTS ON THE ASSUMPTION THAT THERE IS A SUBSTANTIVE BODY OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT TEACHING FOR WHICH PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION IS NECESSARY. IF SO, THE TEACHER MUST BE EVALUATED NOT AS A PERSON BUT AS A FUNCTIONARY IN A SPECIAL SITUATION (THE CLASSROOM). FOR THAT PURPOSE, CRITERIA ARE NECESSARY. PERSONALITY…

  3. Aversive Stimulation -- Criteria for Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Patrick A.; Ohlson, Glenn A.

    Criteria for applying aversive stimulation with severely handicapped children are examined, and practical and ethical issues are considered. Factors seen to influence punishment outcomes include timing, intensity, and schedule of reinforcement. Suggested is the need for further research on the comparative effectiveness of positive and negative…

  4. Donor Motivations and Decision Making: Understanding the Major Gift Development Process from a Donor's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Anna Lee

    2015-01-01

    Higher education is faced with a challenge to its traditional funding structure. As a result, academic programs must seek alternative sources of support. Chief among these sources is philanthropy in the form of major gifts. Insight into donor motivations and decision making when approached to consider a major gift may help to maximize the success…

  5. The Willed Body Donor Interview Project: Medical Student and Donor Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohl, Michael; Holman, Alexis; Mueller, Dean A.; Gruppen, Larry D.; Hildebrandt, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    The Anatomical Donations Program at the University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) has begun a multiphase project wherein interviews of donors will be recorded and later shown to medical students who participate in the anatomical dissection course. The first phase of this project included surveys of both current UMMS medical students and donors…

  6. 7 CFR 1494.1101 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criteria. 1494.1101 Section 1494.1101 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Criteria § 1494.1101 Criteria. The criteria considered in evaluating and approving proposals for the...

  7. 46 CFR 385.51 - Criteria: Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Criteria: Projects. 385.51 Section 385.51 Shipping... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS Criteria for Award § 385.51 Criteria: Projects. The criteria to be used by MarAd in evaluating all projects prior to award of a grant or cooperative agreement are as follows:...

  8. 46 CFR 385.51 - Criteria: Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Criteria: Projects. 385.51 Section 385.51 Shipping... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS Criteria for Award § 385.51 Criteria: Projects. The criteria to be used by MarAd in evaluating all projects prior to award of a grant or cooperative agreement are as follows:...

  9. 46 CFR 385.51 - Criteria: Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Criteria: Projects. 385.51 Section 385.51 Shipping... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS Criteria for Award § 385.51 Criteria: Projects. The criteria to be used by MarAd in evaluating all projects prior to award of a grant or cooperative agreement are as follows:...

  10. 40 CFR 258.24 - Air criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air criteria. 258.24 Section 258.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.24 Air criteria. (a) Owners or operators of all...

  11. 42 CFR 505.5 - Loan criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loan criteria. 505.5 Section 505.5 Public Health... INFRASTRUCTURE IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM ESTABLISHMENT OF THE HEALTH CARE INFRASTRUCTURE IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM Loan Criteria § 505.5 Loan criteria. (a) Qualifying criteria. To qualify for the loan program, the...

  12. 42 CFR 505.5 - Loan criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Loan criteria. 505.5 Section 505.5 Public Health... INFRASTRUCTURE IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM ESTABLISHMENT OF THE HEALTH CARE INFRASTRUCTURE IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM Loan Criteria § 505.5 Loan criteria. (a) Qualifying criteria. To qualify for the loan program, the...

  13. 40 CFR 258.24 - Air criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Air criteria. 258.24 Section 258.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.24 Air criteria. (a) Owners or operators of all...

  14. 40 CFR 258.24 - Air criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air criteria. 258.24 Section 258.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.24 Air criteria. (a) Owners or operators of all...

  15. Seroprevalence and trends in transfusion transmitted infections among blood donors in a university hospital blood bank: a 5 year study.

    PubMed

    Pallavi, P; Ganesh, C K; Jayashree, K; Manjunath, G V

    2011-03-01

    Blood is life. Transfusion of blood and blood components, as a specialized modality of patient management saves millions of lives worldwide each year and reduce morbidity. It is well known that blood transfusion is associated with a large number of complications, some are only trivial and others are potentially life threatening, demanding for meticulous pretransfusion testing and screening particularly for transfusion transmissible infections (TTI). These TTI are a threat to blood safety. The priority objective of BTS is thus to ensure safety, adequacy, accessibility and efficiency of blood supply at all levels. The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence and trend of transfusion transmitted infections (TTI) among voluntary and replacement donors in the Department of Blood bank and transfusion Medicine of JSS College Hospital, a teaching hospital of Mysore during the period from 2004 to 2008. A retrospective review of donors record covering the period between 2004 and 2008 at the blood bank, JSS Hospital, Mysore was carried out. All samples were screened for HIV, HBsAg, HCV, syphilis and malaria. Of the 39,060, 25,303 (64.78%) were voluntary donors and the remaining 13,757 (35.22%) were replacement donors. The overall prevalence of HIV, HbsAg, HCV and syphilis were 0.44, 1.27, 0.23 and 0.28%, respectively. No blood donor tested showed positivity for malarial parasite. Majority were voluntary donors with male preponderance. In all the markers tested there was increased prevalence of TTI among the replacement donors as compared to voluntary donors. With the implementation of strict donor criteria and use of sensitive screening tests, it may be possible to reduce the incidence of TTI in the Indian scenario.

  16. Comparison between psychosocial long-term outcomes of recipients and donors after adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Noma, Shun'ichi; Hayashi, Akiko; Uehara, Minako; Uemoto, Shinji; Murai, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial states of recipients and donors several years after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to find out the pre-transplant predictors of desirable post-transplant psychosocial states. The recipients and donors of adult-to-adult LDLT at Kyoto University Hospital, Japan, from November 2001 through July 2003 were interviewed and examined by means of questionnaires about anxiety, depression, and quality of life (QOL), and the participants were evaluated by the same test batteries sent by mail three to five yr after LDLT. Twenty-seven pairs of recipients and donors, 13 recipients, and three donors participated in this study. The recipients and the donors had a decline in social QOL. The main predictor of psychosocial states of the recipients was the length of wait for LDLT, and the predictors of the donors were family or support system availability and recipients' depressive states at LDLT. The donors who were spouses of the recipients had better QOL than other donors. It might be better to perform LDLT as soon as possible once LDLT has been judged to be necessary, and the relative who is on close terms with the recipient should be selected as donor.

  17. Iron Deficiency in Blood Donors: The REDS-II Donor Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Cable, Ritchard G.; Glynn, Simone A.; Kiss, Joseph E.; Mast, Alan E.; Steele, Whitney R.; Murphy, Edward L.; Wright, David J.; Sacher, Ronald A.; Gottschall, Jerry L.; Tobler, Leslie H.; Simon, Toby L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Blood donors are at risk of iron deficiency. We evaluated the effects of blood donation intensity on iron and hemoglobin in a prospective study. Methods Four cohorts of frequent and first time or reactivated blood donors (no donation in 2 years), female and male, totaling 2425 were characterized and followed as they donated blood frequently. At enrollment and the final visit, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and hemoglobin were determined. Models to predict iron deficiency and hemoglobin deferral were developed. Iron depletion was defined at two levels: Iron Deficient Erythropoiesis (IDE) [log (soluble transferrin receptor/ferritin ≥ 2.07)] and Absent Iron Stores (AIS) (ferritin < 12 ng/mL). Results Among returning female first time/reactivated donors, 20% and 51% had AIS and IDE at their final visit, respectively; corresponding proportions for males were 8% and 20%. Among female frequent donors who returned, 27% and 62% had AIS and IDE, respectively, while corresponding proportions for males were 18% and 47%. Predictors of IDE and/or AIS included a higher frequency of blood donation in the last 2 years, a shorter interdonation interval, and being female and young; conversely, taking iron supplements reduced the risk of iron depletion. Predictors of hemoglobin deferral included female gender, Black race and a shorter interdonation interval. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of iron depletion in frequent blood donors. Increasing the interdonation interval would reduce the prevalence of iron depletion and hemoglobin deferral. Alternatively, replacement with iron supplements may allow frequent donation without the adverse outcome of iron depletion. PMID:22023513

  18. Clinical outcomes of and patient satisfaction with different incision methods for donor hepatectomy in living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Suh, Suk-Won; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Lee, Jeong-Moo; Choi, YoungRok; Yi, Nam-Joon; Suh, Kyung-Suk

    2015-01-01

    With the decrease in the average donor age and the increase in the proportion of female donors, both donor safety and cosmetic appearance are major concerns for some living donors in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) because a large abdominal incision is needed that may influence the donor's quality of life. In all, 429 donors who underwent donor hepatectomy for LDLT from April 2010 to February 2013 were included in the study. Donors were divided into 3 groups based on the type of incision: conventional inverted L incision (n = 268; the C group), upper midline incision (n = 147; the M group), and transverse incision with laparoscopy (n = 14; the T group). Demographics, perioperative outcomes, postoperative complications for donors and recipients, and questionnaire-derived donor satisfaction with cosmetic appearance were compared. The mean age was lower (P < 0.001), the female ratio was higher (P < 0.001), and the body mass index (BMI) was lower (P = 0.017) in the M and T groups versus the C group. The operation time (P < 0.001) and the hospital stay duration (P = 0.010) were lowest in the M group. The postoperative complications did not differ by the type of incision and also did not show any significant effect in a multivariate analysis (P = 0.867). In the assessment of questionnaire-derived donor satisfaction matched by age (±5 years), sex, graft, height, weight, and BMI, a more satisfactory cosmetic result and more self-confidence were noted in the M and T groups versus the C group. In conclusion, the use of a minimal incision is technically feasible for some donor hepatectomy cases with a favorable safety profile. The patient satisfaction levels were greater with improved cosmetic outcomes in cases of minimal incision versus cases of conventional incision.

  19. Improving Photoconductance of Fluorinated Donors with Fluorinated Acceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, Logan E.; Larson, Bryon; Oosterhout, Stefan; Owczarczyk, Zbyslaw; Olson, Dana C.; Kopidakis, Nikos; Boltalina, Olga V.; Strauss, Steven H.; Braunecker, Wade A.

    2016-11-21

    This work investigates the influence of fluorination of both donor and acceptor materials on the generation of free charge carriers in small molecule donor/fullerene acceptor BHJ OPV active layers. A fluorinated and non-fluorinated small molecule analogue were synthesized and their optoelectronic properties characterized. The intrinsic photoconductance of blends of these small molecule donors was investigated using time-resolved microwave conductivity. Blends of the two donor molecules with a traditional non-fluorinated fullerene (PC70BM) as well as a fluorinated fullerene (C60(CF3)2-1) were investigated using 5% and 50% fullerene loading. We demonstrate for the first time that photoconductance in a 50:50 donor:acceptor BHJ blend using a fluorinated fullerene can actually be improved relative to a traditional non-fluorinated fullerene by fluorinating the donor molecule as well.

  20. A brown dwarf mass donor in an accreting binary.

    PubMed

    Littlefair, S P; Dhillon, V S; Marsh, T R; Gänsicke, Boris T; Southworth, John; Watson, C A

    2006-12-08

    A long-standing and unverified prediction of binary star evolution theory is the existence of a population of white dwarfs accreting from substellar donor stars. Such systems ought to be common, but the difficulty of finding them, combined with the challenge of detecting the donor against the light from accretion, means that no donor star to date has a measured mass below the hydrogen burning limit. We applied a technique that allowed us to reliably measure the mass of the unseen donor star in eclipsing systems. We were able to identify a brown dwarf donor star, with a mass of 0.052 +/- 0.002 solar mass. The relatively high mass of the donor star for its orbital period suggests that current evolutionary models may underestimate the radii of brown dwarfs.

  1. Living donor liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma at the University of Tokyo Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Togashi, Junichi; Akamastu, Nobuhisa; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is an established treatment not only for those with end-stage liver disease but for those with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) developing in cirrhotic liver. The aim of this study was to present a single-center experience of LDLT for HCC at the University of Tokyo Hospital, Japan. Methods Among 573 liver transplant recipients from January 1996 until the end of 2015, 139 patients have been indicated LDLT for the treatment of HCC, and were the subjects of the present study. We use the expanded criteria for HCC as follows; the number of tumor should be five or less, and the maximum diameter of the tumor should be 5 cm or less, without the distant metastasis nor the vascular invasion (Tokyo criteria, 5-5 rule). We also focused on the identification of the incidental intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and combined hepatocellular carcinoma/cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CC) in liver explants. Results The overall 1-, 5-, and 10-year recurrence-free and patient survival rates were 95%, 91%, and 91%, 91%, and 80%, 78%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cumulative recurrence rate was 5%, 6%, and 6% for within Milan, 0%, 8%, and 8% for beyond Milan/within Tokyo, and 33%, 50%, and 50% for beyond Tokyo, respectively, demonstrating the significantly impaired outcome of those beyond Tokyo criteria (P<0.001). The high alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) value (≥400 ng/mL), the high des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) value (≥200 mAU/mL) and beyond the Tokyo criteria were proved to be significant predictors for the HCC recurrence, but the size or the type of the partial graft was not associated. Incidental ICC and cHCC-CC were found in one and two patients, respectively, with the size of less than 2 cm in all cases. ICC was not detected in preoperative evaluation but cHCC-CCs were misdiagnosed as HCC preoperatively. All three patients were alive without recurrence with a follow-up period of 2 to 14 years. Conclusions The present results

  2. Donor-associated malignancy in kidney transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Cai-Bin; Gerber, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Skin cancer cells with donor genotype have been identified in allogeneic transplant patients; however, the donor contribution to the recipient’s epithelial malignancy remains to be established. In this issue of the JCI, Verneuil et al. provide the first evidence for donor contribution to the malignant epithelium of skin squamous cell carcinoma in a kidney transplant recipient. This case report may have important implications for cancer research and clinical care of long-surviving kidney transplant patients. PMID:23979157

  3. [Volunteer blood donors--relation between gender and motivation].

    PubMed

    Andjelić, D

    1991-01-01

    The study included 1,825 persons, aged from 18 to 65 years. A representative sample was formed of 1,325 persons who donated blood for the first time, and of 500 persons who donated blood five or more times till the moment of investigation. Among blood donors in the Republic of Serbia, regardless the number of blood donations, the percentage of female donors is significantly lower compared to the percentage of male blood donors. The first time donor population consisted of 22.26% of female and 77.74% of male blood donors. The multiple blood donor population was composed of 15.8% of female and 84.2% of male blood donors. Motives for blood donation were studied in 500 persons who donated blood five or more times. The following motives were recorded: a) altruism in 85% of multiple donors; b) the other motives (habit, superiority and/or inferiority complex, self-punishment and benefit) were recorded in 8% of them; c) in 7% of donors the primary motive for blood donation could not be determined.

  4. Paid Living Donation and Growth of Deceased Donor Programs.

    PubMed

    Ghahramani, Nasrollah

    2016-06-01

    Limited organ availability in all countries has stimulated discussion about incentives to increase donation. Since 1988, Iran has operated the only government-sponsored paid living donor (LD) kidney transplant program. This article reviews aspects of the Living Unrelated Donor program and development of deceased donation in Iran. Available evidence indicates that in the partially regulated Iranian Model, the direct negotiation between donors and recipients fosters direct monetary relationship with no safeguards against mutual exploitation. Brokers, the black market and transplant tourism exist, and the waiting list has not been eliminated. Through comparison between the large deceased donor program in Shiraz and other centers in Iran, this article explores the association between paid donation and the development of a deceased donor program. Shiraz progressively eliminated paid donor transplants such that by 2011, 85% of kidney transplants in Shiraz compared with 27% across the rest of Iran's other centers were from deceased donors. Among 26 centers, Shiraz undertakes the largest number of deceased donor kidney transplants, most liver transplants, and all pancreas transplants. In conclusion, although many patients with end stage renal disease have received transplants through the paid living donation, the Iranian Model now has serious flaws and is potentially inhibiting substantial growth in deceased donor organ transplants in Iran.

  5. Emotional support to apheresis donors: effect and implication.

    PubMed

    Pagliariccio, Antonella; Vavic, Nataša; Bulajić, Milica; Marinozzi, Maria

    2013-06-01

    It is widely accepted that well-being and satisfaction are unavoidably interlinked requirements that predispose donors to become regular. Detecting in advance even the mildest symptoms of discomfort during first donation, that may simply be the result of an unknown experience, is useful in preventing more disturbing symptoms (mens sana in corpore sano). Being able to recognize any form of uneasiness, even when not immediately apparent, creates in donors the awareness that staff is professionally skilled and really interested in their safety and comfort. This reinforces the staff/donor relationship and gives donors the chance to keep their calm and to learn how to manage disturbing emotions. Emotional support given to first-time platelet familiar donors during donation prevented or mitigated the onset of vaso-vagal symptoms and also freed positive emotions that reinforced the desire to donate. As a result, 62% of these donors, informed about the shortage of voluntary platelet donors, spontaneously gave their address contact to be called also for non-familiar recipients. The application of the psychological approach in Italy increased the rate of donor return to 97% and its partial application in Serbia was useful in converting familiar donors into voluntary ones.

  6. Expanding the donor pool: donation after cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Elgharably, Haytham; Shafii, Alexis E; Mason, David P

    2015-01-01

    Lung transplantation (LTx) is the definitive treatment of patients with end-stage lung disease. Availability of donor lungs remains the primary limitation and leads to substantial wait-list mortality. Efforts to expand the donor pool have included a resurgence of interest in the use of donation after cardiac death (DCD) lungs. Unique in its physiology, lung viability seems more tolerant to the variable durations of ischemia that occur in DCD donors. Initial experience with DCD LTx is promising and, in combination with ex vivo lung perfusion systems, seems a valuable opportunity to expand the lung donor pool.

  7. Recruiting and retaining plasmapheresis donors: A critical belief analysis.

    PubMed

    Bagot, Kathleen L; Masser, Barbara M; White, Katherine M; Starfelt, Louise C

    2015-06-01

    This paper identifies critical beliefs underpinning intentions to commence and continue plasmapheresis donation. Whole blood (n = 624) and first-time plasmapheresis (n = 460) donors completed a cross-sectional survey assessing the belief-base of the theory of planned behaviour and rated their plasmapheresis donation intentions. While the idea of red blood cells being returned was a key deterrent for all donors, critical beliefs underlying commencement and continuation in the plasmapheresis donor panel differed and varied as a function of blood donation history. Findings will assist the development of targeted persuasion messages to optimise recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors in a non-remunerated context.

  8. Improving the organ donor card system in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David

    2013-08-22

    This paper analyses the current organ donor card system in Switzerland and identifies five problems that may be partially responsible for the country's low deceased organ donation rates. There are two minor issues concerning the process of obtaining a donor card: the Swisstransplant website understates the prospective benefits of donation, and the ease with which donor cards can be obtained raises questions regarding whether any consent to donation provided is truly informed. Furthermore, there are two major practical problems that might affect those who carry an organ donor card: the lack of a central donor registry increases the likelihood that donors' wishes will be "lost", and there is a high probability that family members will veto organ donation. The fact that these two practical problems are not mentioned to potential donors by Swisstransplant constitutes the fifth problem. Donation rates would probably improve if more accurate information about the benefits of donation were provided to potential donors, a central donor registry were created, and families were not permitted to veto donation from those on the registry.

  9. Strategies for evaluation of suitable donors: Italian experience.

    PubMed

    Venettoni, Sante; Emilio, Sergio Curtoni; Scalamogna, Mario; Grossi, Paolo; Gianelli, Andrea; Grigioni, Walter; Ciancio, Bruno Christian; Rossi, Massimo; Gabbrielli, Francesco; Rizzato, Lucia; Costa, Alessandro Nanni

    2004-01-01

    Italy was lacking standardised procedures for donor safety evaluation. We developed practice guidelines, while a panel of experts coordinated by the National Transplant Centre, is available 24 hours a day to support decisions in difficult cases. The guidelines identify five levels of risk and give recommendations for the utilization of donors with HBV and HCV infections as well as for malignancies with negligible or very low risk of transmission. In conclusion we aim to standardize the process of donor evaluation across Italy, to increase the pool of utilised donors and to reduce the risk of communicable disease transmission.

  10. On the effect of nuclear bridge modes on donor-acceptor electronic coupling in donor-bridge-acceptor molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Daly; Toroker, Maytal Caspary; Speiser, Shammai; Peskin, Uri

    2009-03-01

    We report a theoretical study of intra-molecular electronic coupling in a symmetric DBA (donor-bridge-acceptor) complex, in which a donor electronic site is coupled to an acceptor site by way of intervening orbitals of a molecular bridge unit. In the off-resonant (deep tunneling) regime of electronic transport, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (MO's) of the DBA system are split into distinguishable donor/acceptor and bridge orbitals. The effect of geometrical changes at the bridge on the donor/acceptor electronic energy manifold is studied for local stretching and bending modes. It is demonstrated that the energy splitting in the manifold of donor/acceptor unoccupied MOs changes in response to such changes, as assumed in simple McConnell-type models. Limitations of the simple models are revealed where the electronic charging of the bridge orbitals correlates with increasing donor/acceptor orbital energy splitting only for stretching but not for bending bridge modes.

  11. Reduced-intensity bone marrow transplantation from an alternative unrelated donor for myelodysplastic syndrome of first-donor origin.

    PubMed

    Komeno, Yukiko; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Kandabashi, Koji; Kawazu, Masahito; Goyama, Susumu; Takeshita, Masataka; Nannya, Yasuhito; Niino, Miyuki; Nakamoto, Tetsuya; Kurokawa, Mineo; Tsujino, Shiho; Ogawa, Seishi; Aoki, Katsunori; Chiba, Shigeru; Motokura, Toru; Hirai, Hisamaru

    2003-03-01

    A male patient had a relapse of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) 2 years after BMT from a female matched unrelated donor. Conventional cytogenetics, FISH, and short-tandem repeat chimerism analysis proved a relapse of donor origin. He underwent reduced-intensity BMT after a conditioning with fludarabine and busulfan, since he had impaired renal, liver, and pulmonary functions. Chimerism analysis on day 28 after the second BMT showed mixed chimerism of the first and the second donors, which later turned to full second-donor chimerism on day 60. He developed grade II acute GVHD of the skin and cytomegalovirus reactivation, but both were improved with methylprednisolone and ganciclovir, respectively. He remains in complete remission 6 months after the second BMT. Reduced-intensity second BMT from an alternative donor appeared to be a tolerable treatment option for donor-derived leukemia/MDS after the first conventional transplantation.

  12. Position paper: Seismic design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Farnworth, S.K.

    1995-05-22

    The purpose of this paper is to document the seismic design criteria to be used on the Title 11 design of the underground double-shell waste storage tanks and appurtenant facilities of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) project, and to provide the history and methodologies for determining the recommended Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) anchors for site-specific seismic response spectra curves. Response spectra curves for use in design are provided in Appendix A.

  13. Neutron Detector Gamma Insensitivity Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Stephens, Daniel L.

    2009-10-21

    The shortage of 3He has triggered the search for an effective alternative neutron detection technology for radiation portal monitor applications. Any new detection technology must satisfy two basic criteria: 1) it must meet the neutron detection efficiency requirement, and 2) it must be insensitive to gamma ray interference at a prescribed level, while still meeting the neutron detection requirement. It is the purpose of this document to define this latter criterion.

  14. Recent developments in nitric oxide donor drugs

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M R; Megson, I L

    2007-01-01

    During the 1980s, the free radical, nitric oxide (NO), was discovered to be a crucial signalling molecule, with wide-ranging functions in the cardiovascular, nervous and immune systems. Aside from providing a credible explanation for the actions of organic nitrates and sodium nitroprusside that have long been used in the treatment of angina and hypertensive crises respectively, the discovery generated great hopes for new NO-based treatments for a wide variety of ailments. Decades later, however, we are still awaiting novel licensed agents in this arena, despite an enormous research effort to this end. This review explores some of the most promising recent advances in NO donor drug development and addresses the challenges associated with NO as a therapeutic agent. PMID:17401442

  15. Donors' attitudes towards body donation for dissection.

    PubMed

    Richardson, R; Hurwitz, B

    1995-07-29

    We report a survey in the UK of potential whole-body donors for dissection. 218 people (age range 19-97 years) answered a postal questionnaire, giving information about themselves, their reasons for donation, attitudes towards the dead body, funeral preferences and medical giving and receiving. In addition to altruism, motives included the wish to avoid funeral ceremonies, to avoid waste, and in a few cases, to evade the expense of a funeral. 44% understood that their bodies would be used as teaching material, 42% for experiments. Whilst 69% believed in one or more supernatural phenomena, only 39% said they were religious. 69% requested cremation after dissection; 2% wanted to be buried. The notion of money incentives to promote donation was overwhelmingly rejected.

  16. Donor-derived tuberculosis (TB): isoniazid-resistant TB transmitted from a lung transplant donor with inadequately treated latent infection.

    PubMed

    Jensen, T O; Darley, D R; Goeman, E E; Shaw, K; Marriott, D J; Glanville, A R

    2016-10-01

    Donor-derived tuberculosis (TB) is an increasingly recognized complication of solid organ transplantation. We report a case of isoniazid-resistant pulmonary TB in a lung transplant recipient. The patient acquired the infection from the lung donor who was previously empirically treated with isoniazid for latent TB. The case highlights the caveat that, while adequate treatment of latent TB with isoniazid is presumed, meticulous screening of donors is required.

  17. Determination of Dornic Acidity as a Method to Select Donor Milk in a Milk Bank

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Lara, Nadia Raquel; Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Chaves-Sánchez, Fernando; De la Cruz-Bertolo, Javier; Pallas-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Dornic acidity may be an indirect measurement of milk's bacteria content and its quality. There are no uniform criteria among different human milk banks on milk acceptance criteria. The main aim of this study is to report the correlation between Dornic acidity and bacterial growth in donor milk in order to validate the Dornic acidity value as an adequate method to select milk prior to its pasteurization. Materials and Methods From 105 pools, 4-mL samples of human milk were collected. Dornic acidity measurement and culture in blood and McConkey's agar cultures were performed. Based on Dornic acidity degrees, we classified milk into three quality categories: top quality (acidity <4°D), intermediate (acidity between 4°D and 7°D), and milk unsuitable to be consumed (acidity ≥8°D). Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to perform statistical analysis. Results Seventy percent of the samples had Dornic acidity under 4°D, and 88% had a value under 8°D. A weak positive correlation was observed between the bacterial growth in milk and Dornic acidity. The overall discrimination performance of Dornic acidity was higher for predicting growth of Gram-negative organisms. In milk with Dornic acidity of ≥4°D, such a measurement has a sensitivity of 100% for detecting all the samples with bacterial growth with Gram-negative bacteria of over 105 colony-forming units/mL. Conclusions The correlation between Dornic acidity and bacterial growth in donor milk is weak but positive. The measurement of Dornic acidity could be considered as a simple and economical method to select milk to pasteurize in a human milk bank based in quality and safety criteria. PMID:23373435

  18. Pre-transplant Evaluation of Donor Urinary Biomarkers can Predict Reduced Graft Function After Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Tai Yeon; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Lee, Yonggu; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Lee, Kyoung-Bun; Lee, Sik; Park, Suk Joo; Park, Jae Berm; Han, Miyeon; Lim, Hye Jin; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several recipient biomarkers are reported to predict graft dysfunction, but these are not useful in decision making for the acceptance or allocation of deceased donor kidneys; thus, it is necessary to develop donor biomarkers predictive of graft dysfunction. To address this issue, we prospectively enrolled 94 deceased donors and their 109 recipients who underwent transplantation between 2010 and 2013 at 4 Korean transplantation centers. We investigated the predictive values of donor urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and L-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) for reduced graft function (RGF). We also developed a prediction model of RGF using these donor biomarkers. RGF was defined as delayed or slow graft function. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to generate a prediction model, which was internally validated using a bootstrapping method. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of biomarkers with 1-year graft function. Notably, donor urinary NGAL levels were associated with donor AKI (P = 0.014), and donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP were predictive for RGF, with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROC) of 0.758 and 0.704 for NGAL and L-FABP, respectively. The best-fit model including donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine conveyed a better predictive value for RGF than donor serum creatinine alone (P = 0.02). In addition, we generated a scoring method to predict RGF based on donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine levels. Diagnostic performance of the RGF prediction score (AUROC 0.808) was significantly better than that of the DGF calculator (AUROC 0.627) and the kidney donor profile index (AUROC 0.606). Donor urinary L-FABP levels were also predictive of 1-year graft function (P = 0.005). Collectively, these findings suggest donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP to be useful biomarkers for RGF, and support

  19. Utilization of elderly donors in living related kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sahin, S; Manga Sahin, G; Turkmen, A; Sever, M S

    2006-03-01

    Kidney transplantation has become the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease. However, its application is limited due to inadequate organ supply, mainly because many dialysis patients do not have suitable living donors. The increasing discrepancy between organ supply and demand has forced many transplant centers to consider using organs procured from marginal donors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether utilization of kidneys from living related elderly donors is safe for the recipients in the long term. We analyzed the clinical results of 296 consecutive recipients of living related renal transplants, among whom 44 recipients received kidneys from donors over 60 years of age. By the end of 12 months, the mean serum creatinine level of the recipients who were transplanted from the older donors was higher (1.55 +/- 0.45 mg/dL) than that from other donors (1.21 +/- 0.3 mg/dL), but the difference was not significant (P = .08). In the long term (60 months), the graft function was similar (1.88 +/- 0.55 vs 1.52 +/- 0.38) for both groups. The similarity in outcomes of ideal versus older donors as shown less in the present series has encouraged us to utilize elderly living donors. We concluded that transplantations performed from the elderly donors yielded similar results to those of conventional donors. The long waiting list for transplantation, the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, should encourage us to be more flexible about donor selection.

  20. Pilot feasibility research of Chinese version of kidney transplant questionnaire in recipients of living donor kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yujian; Zhang, Wenxin; Mao, Sha; Gao, Yanhong; Wang, Jianli; Li, Jun; Wang, Letian; Guan, Zhaojie; Shen, Zhongyang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of the Chinese version of Kidney Transplant Questionnaire (KTQ) by evaluating the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Chinese recipients of living donor kidney transplantation. Methods: The English version of KTQ was translated into Chinese and underwent cultural adaptation to obtain the Chinese version of KTQ. HRQoL of 136 Chinese recipients of living donor kidney transplantation that met the inclusion criteria were evaluated to assess the validity and reliability of the questionnaire. Results: One hundred and thirty-six recipients (98 males and 38 females) of living donor kidney transplantation were included. The mean age of the recipients was 43.91 years. For each dimension of the questionnaire, the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.7-0.9, test-retest reliability coefficient ≥0.7, goodness of fit index (GFI) >0.9, and comparative fitness index (CFI) >0.9. Conclusion: The validity and reliability of the Chinese version of KTQ is similar to the English version, suggesting that the Chinese version of KTQ could be applied as a disease-specific questionnaire to evaluate the HRQoL of the recipients of living donor kidney transplantation in China. PMID:26885244

  1. Results from a horizon scan on risks associated with transplantation of human organs, tissues and cells: from donor to patient.

    PubMed

    Herberts, C A; Park, M V D Z; Pot, J W G A; de Vries, C G J C A

    2015-03-01

    The successful transplantation of human materials such as organs, tissues and cells into patients does not only depend on the benefits, but also on the mitigation of risks. To gain insight into recent publications on risks associated with the process of transferring human materials from donor to recipient we performed a horizon scan by reviewing scientific literature and news websites of 2011 on this subject. We found there is ample information on how extended donor criteria, such as donor age, affect the survival rates of organs or patients. Interestingly, gender mismatch does not appear to be a major risk factor in organ rejection. Data on risks of donor tumor transmission was very scarce; however, risk categories for various tumor types have been suggested. In order to avoid rejection, a lot of research is directed towards engineering tissues from a patient's own tissues and cells. Some but not all of these developments have reached the clinic. Developments in the field of stem cell therapy are rapid. However, many hurdles are yet to be overcome before these cells can be applied on a large scale in the clinic. The processes leading to genetic abnormalities in cells differentiated from stem cells need to be identified in order to avoid transplantation of aberrant cells. New insights have been obtained on storage and preservation of human materials, a critical step for success of their clinical use. Likewise, quality management systems have been shown to improve the quality and safety of human materials used for transplantation.

  2. Solvent as electron donor: Donor/acceptor electronic coupling is a dynamical variable

    SciTech Connect

    Castner, E.W. Jr.; Kennedy, D.; Cave, R.J.

    2000-04-06

    The authors combine analysis of measurements by femtosecond optical spectroscopy, computer simulations, and the generalized Mulliken-Hush (GMH) theory in the study of electron-transfer reactions and electron donor-acceptor interactions. The study focus is on ultrafast photoinduced electron-transfer reactions from aromatic amine solvent donors to excited-state acceptors. The experimental results from femtosecond dynamical measurements fall into three categories: six coumarin acceptors reductively quenched by N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA), eight electron-donating amine solvents reductively quenching coumarin 152 (7-(dimethylamino)-4-(trifluoromethyl)-coumarin), and reductive quenching dynamics of two coumarins by DMA as a function of dilution in the nonreactive solvents toluene and chlorobenzene. Applying a combination of molecular dynamics trajectories, semiempirical quantum mechanical calculations (of the relevant adiabatic electronic states), and GMH theory to the C152/DMA photoreaction, the authors calculate the electron donor/acceptor interaction parameter H{sub DA} at various time frames, H{sub DA} is strongly modulated by both inner-sphere and outer-sphere nuclear dynamics, leading us to conclude that H{sub DA} must be considered as a dynamical variable.

  3. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  4. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors....

  5. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors....

  6. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  7. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors....

  8. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  9. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  10. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors....

  11. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors....

  12. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  13. Games Universities Play: And How Donors Can Avoid Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooster, Martin Morse

    2011-01-01

    What responsibilities do universities have to donors, many of whom are alumni? Presumably, one responsibility is to respect their wishes when they provide gifts with specific purposes. Yet Martin Morse Wooster shows in this report that universities often neglect the wishes of contributors. "Games Universities Play: And How Donors Can Avoid Them"…

  14. Fathers Anonymous: Beyond the Best Interests of the Sperm Donor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annas, George J.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the rationale for the practice of Artificial Insemination Donor (AID) practices, the manner whereby donors are selected, and how records are kept. The importance of developing standards which serve the best interests of the AID child is stressed. (Author/DB)

  15. Digging up Classroom Dollars on DonorsChoose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Back in 2000, Charles Best was teaching at Wings Academy, an alternative high school in the Bronx, when he got the idea for a Web site where teachers could solicit donations for class projects. With help from his students, DonorsChoose.org soon was born. Last year, the site won Amazon.com's Nonprofit Innovation Award. So far, DonorsChoose has…

  16. You...as Blood Donor: Teacher Strategies and Student Worksheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degroat, Diane Zagare; And Others

    This curriculum guide for teaching about blood donation was prepared to improve school-community participation in the New York City Blood Donor Program. It contains plans for five lessons on the following topics: (1) the nature of blood; (2) blood and technology--modern-day advances; (3) blood and your personal health; (4) the blood donor as good…

  17. Crowd Around: Expanding Your Donor Pool with Crowdfunding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrell, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    At most institutions, annual fund-giving is down. Crowdfunding sites allow people with a great idea or worthy cause to bypass traditional funding methods and take their case directly to web-savvy investors and donors. This article describes how higher education institutions are expanding their donor pool through such crowdfunding sites as USEED,…

  18. Potential use and perspectives of nitric oxide donors in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Marvasi, Massimiliano

    2017-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged in the last 30 years as a key molecule involved in many physiological processes in plants, animals and bacteria. Current research has shown that NO can be delivered via donor molecules. In such cases, the NO release rate is dependent on the chemical structure of the donor itself and on the chemical environment. Despite NO's powerful signaling effect in plants and animals, the application of NO donors in agriculture is currently not implemented and research remains mainly at the experimental level. Technological development in the field of NO donors is rapidly expanding in scope to include controlling seed germination, plant development, ripening and increasing shelf-life of produce. Potential applications in animal production have also been identified. This concise review focuses on the use of donors that have shown potential biotechnological applications in agriculture. Insights are provided into (i) the role of donors in plant production, (ii) the potential use of donors in animal production and (iii) future approaches to explore the use and applications of donors for the benefit of agriculture. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Settlement Ends Dispute between Princeton and Donors' Heirs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Kathryn; Gose, Ben

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that Princeton University has settled a long-running dispute with the heirs of a major donor by agreeing to pay $50-million to the heirs' foundation and approximately the same amount for their legal fees. The case has been closely watched as a test of how strictly institutions must adhere to donors' wishes. The settlement…

  20. Understanding Philanthropic Motivations of Northeast State Community College Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Heather J.

    2012-01-01

    At Northeast State Community College (NeSCC) nearly 70% of students need some form of financial aid to attend. State support is flattening or decreasing and the gap is filled by private donors' support (Northeast State Community College, 2011). Hundreds of donors have made significant contributions to aid in the education of those in the Northeast…

  1. Optical Control of Donor Spin Qubits in Silicon

    PubMed Central

    Gullans, M. J.; Taylor, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    We show how to achieve optical, spin-selective transitions from the ground state to excited orbital states of group-V donors (P, As, Sb, Bi) in silicon. We consider two approaches based on either resonant, far-infrared (IR) transitions of the neutral donor or resonant, near-IR excitonic transitions. For far-IR light, we calculate the dipole matrix elements between the valley-orbit and spin-orbit split states for all the goup-V donors using effective mass theory. We then calculate the maximum rate and amount of electron-nuclear spin-polarization achievable through optical pumping with circularly polarized light. We find this approach is most promising for Bi donors due to their large spin-orbit and valley-orbit interactions. Using near-IR light, spin-selective excitation is possible for all the donors by driving a two-photon Λ-transition from the ground state to higher orbitals with even parity. We show that externally applied electric fields or strain allow similar, spin-selective Λ-transition to odd-parity excited states. We anticipate these results will be useful for future spectroscopic investigations of donors, quantum control and state preparation of donor spin qubits, and for developing a coherent interface between donor spin qubits and single photons. PMID:28127227

  2. The History and Challenges of Blood Donor Screening in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Li, Ka Yi; Yan, Ke; Ou, Guojin; Li, Wenhui; Wang, Jue; Song, Ning; Tian, Li; Ji, Xin; Chen, Yongjun; Liang, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhong; Wu, Yanyun

    2017-04-01

    Since the establishment of People's Republic of China in 1949, the Chinese government has encountered several catastrophes related to transfusion transmitted diseases. The government's increasing attention to blood safety has prompted the initiation of a series of policies and measures that have enhanced the level of safety for the blood supply and met the basic clinical demands of blood for 1.3 billion people in the country. Blood donation screening strategies in China predominantly comprise donor screening and donor testing. Donor screening includes selection of low-risk blood donors by the use of a donor history questionnaire, predonation physical examination, and initial rapid donor testing. Donor testing includes direct pathogen detection and serology tests. The year 1998 marked the most transformative change in blood donor selection and screening policies in China. Before 1998, paid donation was the predominant mode of blood donation. Donor screening and donor testing were conducted before donation, and only those who were eligible were allowed to donate. To ensure the safety of blood, donor testing was performed again after donation. After the implementation of the Blood Donation Law in 1998, to promote voluntary and unpaid donation, predonation donor testing was eliminated to reduce the amount of waiting time and to provide a more convenient donation experience for blood donors. However, it is the national requirement that donated blood should undergo 2 rounds of testing using different equipment or reagents, conducted by different personnel. Donor selection has transitioned from paid donation and obligatory donation to voluntary donation with fixed volunteer groups, as the latter mode of donation provides the lowest risks. Donations are currently screened for syphilis, hepatitis C virus, HIV, and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Units, previously typed only for ABO, are now routinely tested for both ABO and Rh(D). Innovations in testing technologies and methods

  3. Silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Pacheco, Jose; Perry, Daniel; Wendt, Joel; Manginell, Ronald; Dominguez, Jason; Pluym, Tammy; Luhman, Dwight; Bielejec, Edward; Lilly, Michael; Carroll, Malcolm

    Antimony donor implants next to silicon quantum dots have been detected with integrated solid-state diode detectors with single ion precision. Devices with counted number of donors have been fabricated and low temperature transport measurements have been performed. Charge offsets, indicative of donor ionization and coupling to the quantum dot, have been detected in these devices. The number of offsets corresponds to 10-50% of the number of donors counted. We will report on tunneling time measurements and spin readout measurements on the donor offsets. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Donation after circulatory death: burying the dead donor rule.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arias, David; Smith, Maxwell J; Lazar, Neil M

    2011-08-01

    Despite continuing controversies regarding the vital status of both brain-dead donors and individuals who undergo donation after circulatory death (DCD), respecting the dead donor rule (DDR) remains the standard moral framework for organ procurement. The DDR increases organ supply without jeopardizing trust in transplantation systems, reassuring society that donors will not experience harm during organ procurement. While the assumption that individuals cannot be harmed once they are dead is reasonable in the case of brain-dead protocols, we argue that the DDR is not an acceptable strategy to protect donors from harm in DCD protocols. We propose a threefold alternative to justify organ procurement practices: (1) ensuring that donors are sufficiently protected from harm; (2) ensuring that they are respected through informed consent; and (3) ensuring that society is fully informed of the inherently debatable nature of any criterion to declare death.

  5. Surgical aspects of donor hand recovery for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Banegas, Rodrigo N; Moreno, Rodrigo; Duggal, Anil; Breidenbach, Warren C

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share our institution's experience in optimizing the suitability of composite donor tissue for use in hand transplantation. The centerpiece of this process includes procurement techniques, preservation and timing issues, and anatomical matching. Recovery of the donor hand must proceed in an efficient, organized, and expedient manner. Proper timing of the donor operation not only ensures the quality of donor tissue and outcome for the hand recipient, but also allows surgeons recovering other organs to obtain high quality tissue for those recipients. Timing remains a critical factor in preserving tissue after removal from the donor. We will also consider the factors of temperature and preservation solution during transport.

  6. Separate, dedicated care teams for living organ donors.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, Brenda; Gordon, Debra

    2003-06-01

    Living donation is an increasingly common option offered to patients in most transplant programs. Staff involved in the education, assessment, and care of this patient group is faced with increasingly complicated assessments both medically and psychologically. Supporting arguments for dedicated care teams for living organ donors include the large number of transplantations performed using living donors, the continued need to promote living organ donation, and the growing complexity of both medical and psychological factors in donor assessments. In addition, there is a need to implement the standards proposed by the 2000 Consensus Group, as well as to develop a body of evidence-based research related both to short- and long-term issues for this patient group. The ethical issues related to simultaneous involvement with both donors and recipients, and a need to ensure confidentiality are additional supporting arguments for the need to provide separate care providers for donors and recipients.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF MARINE WATER QUALITY CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protectional Agency has developed guidelines for deriving numerical national water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. These guidelines provide the method for deriving water quality criteria, including minimum data base...

  8. 15 CFR 768.6 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES AND CRITERIA § 768.6 Criteria. BIS will evaluate the evidence contained in a FAS or TAC... defined in § 768.1(d) of this part. In order to initiate an assessment, each FAS and TAC...

  9. The Unexamined Donor: For Better Planning and Greater Returns, Segment the Annual Fund by Giving Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardillo, Charlie

    2000-01-01

    Guidelines for conducting an annual fund at colleges and universities stress the importance of aggregate donor behavior and donor value, rather than solicitation technique, in driving strategic planning and goal-setting. Suggests fund raisers track three measures of donor participation: donor retention, lapsed donor reactivation, and new donor…

  10. 21 CFR 1271.50 - How do I determine whether a donor is eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... determine whether a donor is eligible? (a) Determination based on screening and testing. If you are the... eligible based upon the results of donor screening in accordance with § 1271.75 and donor testing in... provisions only if: (1) Donor screening in accordance with § 1271.75 indicates that the donor: (i) Is...

  11. 21 CFR 1271.50 - How do I determine whether a donor is eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... determine whether a donor is eligible? (a) Determination based on screening and testing. If you are the... eligible based upon the results of donor screening in accordance with § 1271.75 and donor testing in... provisions only if: (1) Donor screening in accordance with § 1271.75 indicates that the donor: (i) Is...

  12. Giant Platelets in Platelet Donors – A Blessing in Disguise?

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Nabajyoti; Ray, Deepanjan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Inherited thrombocytopenias, including inherited giant platelet disorders (IGPD) are relatively rare, but their prevalence is probably underestimated. Harris platelet syndrome, the most common IGPD reported from Indian subcontinent, mostly from eastern part, is characterised by a low platelet count, high mean platelet volume (MPV) and absence of bleeding. Aim A short study was conducted to assess the prevalence of giant platelets in voluntary donors of single donor platelets (SDP) and analyse the effect of transfusion of such SDPs in patients. Materials and Methods Voluntary donors of SDPs were screened as per standard guidelines prior to the procedure. A complete blood count (including MPV) along with a peripheral smear was done. A total of 45 donors were screened for plateletpheresis. Following plateletpheresis from these donors, a platelet count from the collection bag was done after one hour. The SDP was transfused as a single unit or divided into two and transfused to the same patient at two different occasions, as per clinical need. Platelet counts on pateints were done after one hour and the platelet recovery was noted. Results Out of the 45 donors who were screened, 30 (66.67%) were found to have giant platelets. It was observed that the pre procedure platelet counts in donors having giant platelets were relatively low (1.5 -1.7 lacs) and so also the platelet yield (2.7-3x1011) compared to donors who did not, but the post transfusion platelet recovery was greater. Conclusion Since presence of giant platelets has been seen to be common in the Eastern part of India, a peripheral smear examination should always be considered during screening of plateletpheresis donors to avoid rejecting donors with giant platelets whose platelet counts are given falsely low by autoanalysers. PMID:26266124

  13. The Significance of Evalution of Haematocrit in Plateletpheresis Donors

    PubMed Central

    Jagtap, Pratap Eknath; Nagane, Nitin Sopan; Dhonde, Sushma Prakash; Belwalkar, Gajanan J.; Mane, Vaibhav Pandurang

    2015-01-01

    Background: The collection of platelets by apheresis is considered as a very great progress in transfusion medicine. In present era, many automated cell separation are available each model has tried to improve productivity, quality of plateletpheresis. Further various studies have been done to correlate the quality of platelet concentrates. Also, various biochemical studies have been done on plateletpheresis donors. However, safety issue with regards to post procedure levels of biochemical parameters decreased in donors undergoing plateletpheresis have been only minimally explored. Objectives: Investigating Haematological and Biochemical parameters (Hematocrit value and Serum Calcium levels) pre and post in plateletpheresis donors. Materials and Methods: Sixty two healthy first time voluntary plateletpheresis donors at Apheresis unit in blood bank Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University Medical College & Hospital, Sangli, Maharashtra, India. Hematocrit value of plateletpheresis donors were analysed and based on mean value 43.2% considering this as standard in the present study. We categorized plateletpheresis donors in two groups (A) these having value less than 43.2% (n = 36) and Group (B) having haematocrit more than 43.3% (n = 26). Volume of ACD required for donors from both group were noted. Result: We observed mean of ACD infused in group A plateletpheresis donors was 347.7 ml ± 35.75 SD while group ‘B’ donors required mean volume ACD to be infused was 379.6 ml ± 46.24 S.D. was statistically significant (p <0.005). Conclusion: Plateletpheresis induces marked metabolic effects, with sustained changes in serum calcium and haematocrit after ACD infusion, the results show, before procedure (Plateletpheresis) one must consider the haematocrit value along with serum calcium levels in Plateletpheresis donor to avoid severe symptoms of hypocalcaemia. PMID:26023547

  14. Donor management in South-East Asia region (SEAR).

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Z S

    2005-01-01

    Quality management of a BTS starts with safe donor recruitment and donor care. In the South-East Asia region (SEAR) almost all countries except Thailand depend heavily on replacement of blood from relatives and friends. Most of these countries except Bangla Desh have ruled out the paid-donor system; however in the guise of replacement donation it still exists. Lack of resources, lack of professional management, myths and misconceptions arising from cultural and social differences form a barrier to blood donation. Most of the countries still do not have a National Blood Policy and/or a well planned blood programme. Besides recruitment, the donor screening and donor management are also not well addressed. The donors are mainly males of 20-35 years who come from the middle class of the society. Only 3-6 % of females donate blood. Most of the donors donate once in a lifetime as there is no emphasis on retention programmes. Only 5-10 % are repeat donors. The autologous transfusions are not widely practised. However, insistence on directed donors has increased. The prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections in the region is variable; HIV 0-1.6 %, HBV 0.06-8.5 %, HCV 1.2-3 %. Training of staff and volunteers involved in the programme has started. Countries such as India and Sri Lanka are introducing NBP and moving towards reorganisation of their blood programme. All countries have now realised a need for regulation and implementation of a quality system as well as increased their efforts towards donor recruitment and retention. To improve the safety of blood supply, all are trying to phase out the replacement system and move towards 100 % voluntary non- remunerated regular blood donation. The aim of the presentation is to highlight the problems encountered as well as strategies used in making adequate and safe blood available.

  15. Corneal Donor Tissue Preparation for Endothelial Keratoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Maria A.; Titus, Michael; Mavin, Kyle; Shtein, Roni M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past ten years, corneal transplantation surgical techniques have undergone revolutionary changes1,2. Since its inception, traditional full thickness corneal transplantation has been the treatment to restore sight in those limited by corneal disease. Some disadvantages to this approach include a high degree of post-operative astigmatism, lack of predictable refractive outcome, and disturbance to the ocular surface. The development of Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK), transplanting only the posterior corneal stroma, Descemet's membrane, and endothelium, has dramatically changed treatment of corneal endothelial disease. DSEK is performed through a smaller incision; this technique avoids 'open sky' surgery with its risk of hemorrhage or expulsion, decreases the incidence of postoperative wound dehiscence, reduces unpredictable refractive outcomes, and may decrease the rate of transplant rejection3-6. Initially, cornea donor posterior lamellar dissection for DSEK was performed manually1 resulting in variable graft thickness and damage to the delicate corneal endothelial tissue during tissue processing. Automated lamellar dissection (Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty, DSAEK) was developed to address these issues. Automated dissection utilizes the same technology as LASIK corneal flap creation with a mechanical microkeratome blade that helps to create uniform and thin tissue grafts for DSAEK surgery with minimal corneal endothelial cell loss in tissue processing. Eye banks have been providing full thickness corneas for surgical transplantation for many years. In 2006, eye banks began to develop methodologies for supplying precut corneal tissue for endothelial keratoplasty. With the input of corneal surgeons, eye banks have developed thorough protocols to safely and effectively prepare posterior lamellar tissue for DSAEK surgery. This can be performed preoperatively at the eye bank. Research shows no significant difference

  16. 42 CFR 421.120 - Performance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Performance criteria. 421.120 Section 421.120... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE CONTRACTING Intermediaries § 421.120 Performance criteria. (a) Application of performance criteria. As part of the intermediary evaluations authorized by section 1816(f)...

  17. 42 CFR 421.120 - Performance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance criteria. 421.120 Section 421.120... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE CONTRACTING Intermediaries § 421.120 Performance criteria. (a) Application of performance criteria. As part of the intermediary evaluations authorized by section 1816(f)...

  18. 40 CFR 258.24 - Air criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air criteria. 258.24 Section 258.24... SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.24 Air criteria. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLFs... Implementation Plan (SIP) approved or promulgated by the Administrator pursuant to section 110 of the Clean...

  19. 7 CFR 658.5 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... site assessment criteria are: (1) How much land is in nonurban use within a radius of 1.0 mile from... criteria required by section 1541(a) of the Act, 7 U.S.C. 4202(a). The criteria were developed by the... as follows: (a) Land Evaluation Criterion—Relative Value. The land evaluation criterion is based...

  20. 10 CFR 905.36 - Marketing criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marketing criteria. 905.36 Section 905.36 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.36 Marketing criteria. Western shall retain applicable provisions of existing marketing criteria for projects...

  1. 10 CFR 905.36 - Marketing criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marketing criteria. 905.36 Section 905.36 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.36 Marketing criteria. Western shall retain applicable provisions of existing marketing criteria for projects...

  2. 10 CFR 905.36 - Marketing criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marketing criteria. 905.36 Section 905.36 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.36 Marketing criteria. Western shall retain applicable provisions of existing marketing criteria for projects...

  3. 10 CFR 905.36 - Marketing criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marketing criteria. 905.36 Section 905.36 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.36 Marketing criteria. Western shall retain applicable provisions of existing marketing criteria for projects...

  4. 10 CFR 905.36 - Marketing criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing criteria. 905.36 Section 905.36 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.36 Marketing criteria. Western shall retain applicable provisions of existing marketing criteria for projects...

  5. 7 CFR 1494.1101 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria. 1494.1101 Section 1494.1101 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS EXPORT BONUS PROGRAMS Dairy Export Incentive Program Criteria § 1494.1101 Criteria. The...

  6. Monitoring Reading Behavior: Criteria for Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, William R.

    Effective use of the informal reading inventory (IRI) depends upon the criteria used in determining the functional reading levels and more specifically the word recognition criteria employed in describing acceptable limits of oral reading behavior. The author of this paper looks at the diverse sets of criteria commonly used, the problems…

  7. 40 CFR 258.24 - Air criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.24 Air criteria. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLFs... Act, as amended. (b) Open burning of solid waste, except for the infrequent burning of...

  8. 40 CFR 258.40 - Design criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Design Criteria § 258.40 Design criteria. (a) New MSWLF units and lateral... specified by the Director of an approved State shall be no more than 150 meters from the waste...

  9. 40 CFR 131.11 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS Establishment of Water Quality Standards § 131.11 Criteria. (a) Inclusion of pollutants: (1) States must adopt those water quality criteria that protect the designated use. Such criteria must be based on...

  10. 40 CFR 131.11 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS Establishment of Water Quality Standards § 131.11 Criteria. (a) Inclusion of pollutants: (1) States must adopt those water quality criteria that protect the designated use. Such criteria must be based on...

  11. 40 CFR 131.11 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS Establishment of Water Quality Standards § 131.11 Criteria. (a) Inclusion of pollutants: (1) States must adopt those water quality criteria that protect the designated use. Such criteria must be based on...

  12. 40 CFR 131.11 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS Establishment of Water Quality Standards § 131.11 Criteria. (a) Inclusion of pollutants: (1) States must adopt those water quality criteria that protect the designated use. Such criteria must be based on...

  13. 40 CFR 131.11 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS Establishment of Water Quality Standards § 131.11 Criteria. (a) Inclusion of pollutants: (1) States must adopt those water quality criteria that protect the designated use. Such criteria must be based on...

  14. 46 CFR 170.170 - Weather criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weather criteria. 170.170 Section 170.170 Shipping COAST... ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Intact Stability Criteria § 170.170 Weather criteria. (a) Each vessel must be... weather deck or abnormal sheer. (c) When doing the calculations required by paragraph (a) of this...

  15. 46 CFR 170.170 - Weather criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weather criteria. 170.170 Section 170.170 Shipping COAST... ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Intact Stability Criteria § 170.170 Weather criteria. (a) Each vessel must be... weather deck or abnormal sheer. (c) When doing the calculations required by paragraph (a) of this...

  16. 46 CFR 170.170 - Weather criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Weather criteria. 170.170 Section 170.170 Shipping COAST... ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Intact Stability Criteria § 170.170 Weather criteria. (a) Each vessel must be... weather deck or abnormal sheer. (c) When doing the calculations required by paragraph (a) of this...

  17. 46 CFR 170.170 - Weather criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Weather criteria. 170.170 Section 170.170 Shipping COAST... ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Intact Stability Criteria § 170.170 Weather criteria. (a) Each vessel must be... weather deck or abnormal sheer. (c) When doing the calculations required by paragraph (a) of this...

  18. 49 CFR 80.15 - Selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection criteria. 80.15 Section 80.15 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation CREDIT ASSISTANCE FOR SURFACE TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS § 80.15 Selection criteria. (a) The Secretary shall assign weights as indicated to the following eight selection criteria in evaluating and...

  19. 49 CFR 80.15 - Selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selection criteria. 80.15 Section 80.15 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation CREDIT ASSISTANCE FOR SURFACE TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS § 80.15 Selection criteria. (a) The Secretary shall assign weights as indicated to the following eight selection criteria in evaluating and...

  20. 49 CFR 80.15 - Selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Selection criteria. 80.15 Section 80.15 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation CREDIT ASSISTANCE FOR SURFACE TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS § 80.15 Selection criteria. (a) The Secretary shall assign weights as indicated to the following eight selection criteria in evaluating and...