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Sample records for donor criteria edc

  1. Expanded criteria donors.

    PubMed

    Feng, Sandy; Lai, Jennifer C

    2014-08-01

    The greatest challenge facing liver transplantation today is the shortage of donor livers. Demand far exceeds supply, and this deficit has driven expansion of what is considered an acceptable organ. The evolving standard has not come without costs, however, as each new frontier of expanded donor quality (i.e., advancing donor age, donation after cardiac death, and split liver) may have traded wait-list for post-transplant morbidity and mortality. This article delineates the nature and severity of risk associated with specific deceased donor liver characteristics and recommends strategies to maximally mitigate these risks. PMID:25017080

  2. Donor criteria in hepatic transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jonas, S; Bechstein, W O; Keck, H; Lemmens, H P; Blumhardt, G; Neuhaus, P

    1994-01-01

    The early outcome of 201 liver grafts transplanted consecutively between September 1988 and November 1991 was investigated retrospectively. Donors were categorized according to their hospitalization periods in an intensive care unit (ICU) prior to harvesting, their causes of death, and the variables generally believed to be critical in liver donation, such as arterial hypotension (n = 69; 34.3%), cardiopulmonary resuscitation (n = 20; 9.9%), elevated serum-aminotransferases (s-AT) (n = 11; 5.5%), or an age over 50 years (n = 16; 8.0%). Ninety-one donors (45.3%) spent less than 24 h in an ICU; 29 donors (14.4%) and 14 donors (7.0%) had hospitalization periods generally considered critical of 4-6 days and more than 6 days, respectively. The most common causes of death were subarachnoidal bleeding (n = 70; 34.8%), isolated head injuries (n = 68; 33.8%), and polytraumata (n = 33; 16.4%). The postischemic hepatocellular damage was evaluated comparing peak post-transplant s-AT, which did not differ significantly between groups; nor did donor and recipient ages or cold ischemia times. Fourteen grafts (7.0%) showed a reversible preservation injury presenting with post-transplant s-AT elevated above 2000 IU/l. Five cases (2.5%) of a primary non-functioning graft (PNF) underwent early retransplantation successfully. Serum-aminotransferases (AST: 4944 +/- 2280 IU/l; ATL: 3186 +/- 1918 IU/l) were significantly (P < 0.01) elevated as compared to primary functioning grafts (AST: 699 +/- 935 IU/l; ALT: 620 +/- 701 IU/l). The donor structure of both groups reflected the distribution of variables in the entire collective. No significant overrepresentations were observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Living donor transplant: wider selection criteria.

    PubMed

    Splendiani, G; Cipriani, S; Valeri, M; Torlone, N; Vega, A; Tullio, T; Condò, S; Dominijanni, S; Casciani, C U

    2004-04-01

    The availability of cadaveric donor organs is insufficient for actual needs. The organ demand increases by 20% per year. Living donor transplant (LDT) may be a valid therapeutical alternative provided one uses proper criteria. LDT provides many advantages, like improved patient and organ survival, short waiting time, and the possibility to carefully plan the procedure. Potential risks include perioperative mortality and renal dysfunction in the kidney donor. At present, kidney LDTs in Italy represent 8% of the total, with an organ survival rate of 97% after 1 year (vs 93% for cadaveric transplants) and donors mortality rate of almost null. Most LDTs are performed from kinsmen. Presently, law no. 458, 26 June 1967, is in force in Italy for kidney LDT and law no. 453, 16 December 1999, for liver LDT. The foundations of LDT are, of course, the recipient's condition, the donor's motivation, and the altruism of the donation. It is desirable that in the future an increasing number of LDT be performed, supported by a careful, widespread health education regarding organ donation from living subjects and by the possibility to obtain insurance for the donor, which has been considered but never provided by actual laws. PMID:15110560

  4. Selection of donor and organ viability criteria: expanding donation criteria.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, E; Andrés, A

    2007-01-01

    Donation criteria have been becoming more flexible over the years. Currently, the only absolute exclusion criteria are human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV), uncontrolled tumor disease and bacterial or viral infections. ClinicaL. conditions dictate organ viability criteria: biochemical, morphological and functional, that must be fulfilled by the donors and their organs in order to focus the decision on which donor organs can be used. These criteria attempt to assure that the transplanted organs function after the extraction, transformation, implantation and reperfusion process without transmitting any infectious or tumour disease. In recent years, the gross and microscopic appearance has become one of the fundamental criteria for selection of potentially viable organs. At present, there is no age limit for hepatic and renal donation; the principal contra-indication is chronic organ damage. The use of each organ must be decided individually after a profound analysis of all the viability criteria, weighing the advantages and disadvantages of the implant of a certain organ for the recipient. PMID:17702512

  5. Overextended Criteria Donors: Experience of an Italian Transplantation Center.

    PubMed

    Nure, E; Lirosi, M C; Frongillo, F; Bianco, G; Silvestrini, N; Fiorillo, C; Sganga, G; Agnes, S

    2015-09-01

    The increasing gap between the number of patients who could benefit from liver transplantation and the number of available donors has fueled efforts to maximize the donor pool using marginal grafts that usually were discarded for transplantation. This study included data of all patients who received decreased donor liver grafts between January 2004 and January 2013 (n = 218) with the use of a prospectively collected database. Patients with acute liver failure, retransplantation, pediatric transplantation, and split liver transplantation were excluded. Donors were classified as standard donor (SD), extended criteria donor (ECD), and overextended criteria donor (OECD). The primary endpoints of the study were early allograft primary dysfunction (PDF), primary nonfunction (PNF), and patient survival (PS), whereas incidence of major postoperative complications was the secondary endpoint. In our series we demonstrated that OECD have similar outcome in terms of survival and incidence of complication after liver transplantation as ideal grafts. PMID:26361653

  6. Changing Pattern of Donor Selection Criteria in Deceased Donor Liver Transplant: A Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Routh, Dronacharya; Naidu, Sudeep; Sharma, Sanjay; Ranjan, Priya; Godara, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    During the last couple of decades, with standardization and progress in surgical techniques, immunosuppression and post liver transplantation patient care, the outcome of liver transplantation has been optimized. However, the principal limitation of transplantation remains access to an allograft. The number of patients who could derive benefit from liver transplantation markedly exceeds the number of available deceased donors. The large gap between the growing list of patients waiting for liver transplantation and the scarcity of donor organs has fueled efforts to maximize existing donor pool and identify new avenues. This article reviews the changing pattern of donor for liver transplantation using grafts from extended criteria donors (elderly donors, steatotic donors, donors with malignancies, donors with viral hepatitis), donation after cardiac death, use of partial grafts (split liver grafts) and other suboptimal donors (hypernatremia, infections, hypotension and inotropic support). PMID:25755521

  7. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pesticides (use to kill insect pests) —methoxychlor, chlorpyrifos, DDT Fungicides (used to kill fungus) —vinclozolin Herbicides (used ... similar effects in humans. Some EDCs such as DDT, BPA, phthalates, and PCBs can mimic or block ...

  8. Extended-criteria donors in liver transplantation Part II: reviewing the impact of extended-criteria donors on the complications and outcomes of liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nemes, Balázs; Gámán, György; Polak, Wojciech G; Gelley, Fanni; Hara, Takanobu; Ono, Shinichiro; Baimakhanov, Zhassulan; Piros, Laszlo; Eguchi, Susumu

    2016-07-01

    Extended-criteria donors (ECDs) have an impact on early allograft dysfunction (EAD), biliary complications, relapse of hepatitis C virus (HCV), and survivals. Early allograft dysfunction was frequently seen in grafts with moderate and severe steatosis. Donors after cardiac death (DCD) have been associated with higher rates of graft failure and biliary complications compared to donors after brain death. Extended warm ischemia, reperfusion injury and endothelial activation trigger a cascade, leading to microvascular thrombosis, resulting in biliary necrosis, cholangitis, and graft failure. The risk of HCV recurrence increased by donor age, and associated with using moderately and severely steatotic grafts. With the administration of protease inhibitors sustained virological response was achieved in majority of the patients. Donor risk index and EC donor scores (DS) are reported to be useful, to assess the outcome. The 1-year survival rates were 87% and 40% respectively, for donors with a DS of 0 and 3. Graft survival was excellent up to a DS of 2, however a DS >2 should be avoided in higher-risk recipients. The 1, 3 and 5-year survival of DCD recipients was comparable to optimal donors. However ECDs had minor survival means of 85%, 78.6%, and 72.3%. The graft survival of split liver transplantation (SLT) was comparable to that of whole liver orthotopic liver transplantation. SLT was not regarded as an ECD factor in the MELD era any more. Full-right-full-left split liver transplantation has a significant advantage to extend the high quality donor pool. Hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion can be applied clinically in DCD liver grafts. Feasibility and safety were confirmed. Reperfusion injury was also rare in machine perfused DCD livers. PMID:26831547

  9. Efficient utilization of the expanded criteria donor (ECD) deceased donor kidney pool: an analysis of the effect of labeling.

    PubMed

    Hirth, R A; Pan, Q; Schaubel, D E; Merion, R M

    2010-02-01

    We investigated the effect of the expanded criteria donor (ECD) label on (i) recovery of kidneys and (ii) acceptance for transplantation given recovery. An ECD is age > or = 60, or age 50-59 with > or = 2 of 3 specified comorbidities. Using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients from 1999 to 2005, we modeled recovery rates through linear regression and transplantation probabilities via logistic regression, focusing on organs from donors just-younger versus just-older than the ECD age thresholds. We split the sample at July 1, 2002 to determine how decisions changed at the approximate time of implementation of the ECD definition. Before July 2002, the number of recovered kidneys with 0-1 comorbidities dropped at age 60, but transplantation probabilities given recovery did not. After July 2002, the number of recovered kidneys with 0-1 comorbidities rose at age 60, but transplantation probabilities contingent on recovery declined. No similar trends were observed at donor age 50 among donors with > or = 2 comorbidities. Overall, implementation of the ECD definition coincided with a reversal of an apparent reluctance to recover kidneys from donors over age 59, but increased selectiveness on the part of surgeons/centers with respect to these kidneys. PMID:20055795

  10. Update on donor assessment, resuscitation, and acceptance criteria, including novel techniques--non-heart-beating donor lung retrieval and ex vivo donor lung perfusion.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Jonathan C; Cypel, Marcelo; Waddell, Thomas K; van Raemdonck, Dirk; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2009-05-01

    The shortage of adequate organ donors remains a great challenge in clinical lung transplantation. With increasing experience in the medical management and surgical technique of lung transplantation, gradual expansion of the criteria for lung donor selection has occurred with beneficial effects on the donor pool. Interest in donation after cardiac death also is increasing as the gap increases between donors and the needs of listed patients. Successful use of these new sources of lungs depends on the accurate assessment and prediction of transplanted lung function. Promising techniques for lung assessment and diagnostics include investigating key genes associated with graft failure or good graft performance using molecular approaches, and ex vivo evaluation. Further studies are needed to answer remaining questions about the best technique and solution to reperfuse human lungs for several hours without edema formation. As the predictive ability to discern good from injured donor lungs improves, strategies to repair donor lungs become increasingly important. Prolonged normothermic EVLP seems to be a platform on which many reparative strategies can be realized. With these new methods for assessing and resuscitating lungs accurately, it is hoped that inroads will be made toward providing every listed patient a chance for successful lung transplantation. PMID:19662970

  11. Suitability Criteria for Adult Related Donors: A Consensus Statement from the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Standing Committee on Donor Issues.

    PubMed

    Worel, Nina; Buser, Andreas; Greinix, Hildegard T; Hägglund, Hans; Navarro, Willis; Pulsipher, Michael A; Nicoloso de Faveri, Grazia; Bengtsson, Mats; Billen, Annelies; Espino, German; Fechter, Mirjam; Giudice, Valeria; Hölig, Kristina; Kanamori, Heiwa; Kodera, Yoshihisa; Leitner, Gerda; Netelenbos, Tanja; Niederwieser, Dietger; van Walraven, Suzanna M; Rocha, Vanderson; Torosian, Tigran; Vergueiro, Carmen; Weisdorf, Daniel; Yabe, Hiromasa; Halter, Jörg P

    2015-12-01

    The number of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplants performed globally each year continues to increase. Advances in HLA typing, better supportive care, and administration of reduced-intensity conditioning regimens allow treatment of older patients with older sibling donors. Pretransplant donor assessment and testing are very important processes affecting the quality and safety of donation. For unrelated HSC donors detailed recommendations for health assessment have been published, allowing donation only if they are unrestrictedly healthy. Eligibility criteria for related donors are less strict and vary significantly between centers. In situations where a family donor does not meet the suitability criteria for unrelated donors, involved physicians often struggle with the decision whether the matched relative is suitable for donation or not. On behalf of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Standing Committee on Donor Issues, we intended to develop a consensus document with recommendations for donor workup and final clearance of family donors who would not be able to serve as unrelated donors because of their age or pre-existing diseases. This article covers different topics intending to support decision-making, with the goal of minimizing medical risk to the donor and protection of the recipient from transmissible diseases.

  12. Donor selection criteria for liver transplantation in Argentina: are current standards too rigorous?

    PubMed

    Dirchwolf, Melisa; Ruf, Andrés E; Biggins, Scott W; Bisigniano, Liliana; Hansen Krogh, Daniela; Villamil, Federico G

    2015-02-01

    Organ shortage is the major limitation for the growth of deceased donor liver transplant worldwide. One strategy to ameliorate this problem is to maximize the liver utilization rate. To assess predictors of liver utilization in Argentina. The national database was used to analyze transplant activity in 2010. Donor, recipient, and transplant variables were evaluated as predictors of graft utilization of number of rejected donor offers before grafting and with the occurrence of primary nonfunction (PNF) or early post-transplant mortality (EM). Of the 582 deceased donors, 293 (50.3%) were recovered for liver transplant. Variables associated with the nonrecovery of the liver were age ≥46 years, umbilical perimeter ≥92 cm, organ procurement outside Gran Buenos Aires, AST ≥42 U/l and ALT ≥29 U/l. The median number of rejected offers before grafting was 4, and in 71 patients (25%), there were ≥13. The only independent predictor for the occurrence of PNF (3.4%) or EM (5.2%) was the recipient's emergency status. During 2010 in Argentina, the liver was recovered in only half of donors. The low incidence of PNF and EM and the characteristics of the nonrecovered liver donors suggest that organ acceptance criteria should be less rigorous.

  13. Extended criteria donors in liver transplantation Part I: reviewing the impact of determining factors.

    PubMed

    Nemes, Balázs; Gámán, György; Polak, Wojciech G; Gelley, Fanni; Hara, Takanobu; Ono, Shinichiro; Baimakhanov, Zhassulan; Piros, Laszlo; Eguchi, Susumu

    2016-07-01

    The definition and factors of extended criteria donors have already been set; however, details of the various opinions still differ in many respects. In this review, we summarize the impact of these factors and their clinical relevance. Elderly livers must not be allocated for hepatitis C virus (HCV) positives, or patients with acute liver failure. In cases of markedly increased serum transaminases, donor hemodynamics is an essential consideration. A prolonged hypotension of the donor does not always lead to an increase in post-transplantation graft loss if post-OLT care is proper. Hypernatremia of less than 160 mEq/L is not an absolute contraindication to accept a liver graft per se. The presence of steatosis is an independent and determinant risk factor for the outcome. The gold standard of the diagnosis is the biopsy. This is recommended in all doubtful cases. The use of HCV+ grafts for HCV+ recipients is comparable in outcome. The leading risk factor for HCV recurrence is the actual RNA positivity of the donor. The presence of a proper anti-HBs level seems to protect from de novo HBV infection. A favourable outcome can be expected if a donation after cardiac death liver is transplanted in a favourable condition, meaning, a warm ischemia time < 30 minutes, cold ischemia time < 8-10 hours, and donor age 50-60 years. The pathway of organ quality assessment is to obtain the most relevant information (e.g. biopsy), consider the co-existing donor risk factors and the reserve capacity of the recipient, and avoid further technical issues. PMID:26838962

  14. Who should donate blood? Policy decisions on donor deferral criteria should protect recipients and be fair to donors.

    PubMed

    Brailsford, S R; Kelly, D; Kohli, H; Slowther, A; Watkins, N A

    2015-08-01

    An important element in the development of voluntary blood donation schemes throughout the world has been the attention given to minimising the risk to recipients of donated blood, primarily the risk of transfusion transmitted infections. In response to the appearance of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the 1980s a range of national policies emerged that excluded populations at high risk of contracting HIV from donating blood, with a particular focus on men who have sex with men (MSM), the primary reason being the protection of recipients of donated blood. Recently some countries, including the UK, have revised their policies, informed by advances in screening tests, epidemiological evidence of transmission rates and an increasing concern about unfair discrimination of specific groups in society. Policy makers face a difficult task of balancing safety of recipients; an adequate blood supply for those who require transfusion; and societal/legal obligations to treat everyone fairly. Given that no transfusion is risk free, the question is what degree of risk is acceptable in order to meet the needs of recipients and society. Decisions about acceptance of risk are complex and policy makers who set acceptable risk levels must provide ethically justifiable reasons for their decisions. We suggest it is possible to provide a set of reasons that stakeholders could agree are relevant based on careful evaluation of the evidence of all relevant risks and explicit acknowledgement of other morally relevant values. We describe using such a process in the Safety of Blood Tissue and Organs (SaBTO) review of donor deferral criteria related to sexual behaviour. PMID:26190553

  15. Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities in the Allocation of Expanded Criteria Donor Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Michael J.; Cook, Robert L.; Lamb, Kenneth E.; Wen, Xuerong; Segal, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives In carefully selected individuals, receiving expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidneys confer a survival advantage over remaining on dialysis. However, wait lists for ECD kidneys often include a significant proportion of young patients, who have no predictable survival benefit from ECD kidneys. This study hypothesized that educational and socioeconomic factors might influence a younger patient’s decision to accept an ECD kidney. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study was a retrospective analysis of all first single-kidney transplants in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database from 2000 to 2009 in patients aged 18–40 years and waitlisted <3 years. The primary outcome measured was the odds of receiving an ECD kidney compared with an standard criteria donor kidney in different demographic subgroups. Race, income, and education were analyzed in main-effect and two-way interaction models, corrected for candidate panel reactive antibodies and sex. Results Of 13,615 ECD transplants, 591 kidneys (4.3%) went to recipients aged between 18 and 40 years who were waitlisted <3 years. African Americans (odds ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.26 to 2.33) or those with low education (odds ratio, 2.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.38 to 3.89) were more likely to receive an ECD kidney than Caucasians or those with a college degree, respectively. However, African Americans with higher education levels did not have significantly higher odds of receiving an ECD kidney than Caucasians with a college degree. Conclusions In patients aged <40 years and waitlisted <3 years, African Americans and those with lower educational status and low income are more likely to receive an ECD kidney than Caucasians or those with higher education. It is important that health care providers and patients understand such disparities to facilitate a more rational use of ECD kidneys. PMID:24115196

  16. Assessment of the Ecological Risks of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs): Derivation of WQC and Consideration of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations as a Source

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment has been associated with impacts on fish. Hence, there is a need for numerical water quality criteria (WQC) for the protection of aquatic life from adverse effects of EDCs. However, EDCs have some unique...

  17. Long-term exposure to belatacept in recipients of extended criteria donor kidneys.

    PubMed

    Charpentier, B; Medina Pestana, J O; Del C Rial, M; Rostaing, L; Grinyó, J; Vanrenterghem, Y; Matas, A; Zhang, R; Mühlbacher, F; Pupim, L; Florman, S

    2013-11-01

    Patients in the BENEFIT-EXT study received extended criteria donor kidneys and a more intensive (MI) or less intensive (LI) belatacept immunosuppression regimen, or cyclosporine A (CsA). Patients who remained on assigned therapy through year 3 were eligible to enter a long-term extension (LTE) study. Three hundred four patients entered the LTE (n = 104 MI; n = 113 LI; n = 87 CsA), and 260 continued treatment through year 5 (n = 91 MI; n = 100 LI; n = 69 CsA). Twenty patients died during the LTE (n = 5 MI; n = 9 LI; n = 6 CsA), and eight experienced graft loss (n = 2 MI; n = 1 LI; n = 5 CsA). Three patients experienced an acute rejection episode (n = 2 MI; n = 1 LI). The incidence rate of serious adverse events, viral infections and fungal infections was similar across groups during the LTE. There were four cases of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) from the beginning of the LTE to year 5 (n = 3 LI; n = 1 CsA); two of three PTLD cases in the LI group were in patients who were seronegative for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV(-)) at transplantation. Mean ± SD calculated GFR at year 5 was 55.9 ± 17.5 (MI), 59.0 ± 29.1 (LI) and 44.6 ± 16.4 (CsA) mL/min/1.73 m(2) . Continued treatment with belatacept was associated with a consistent safety profile and sustained improvement in renal function versus CsA over time.

  18. Risk Assessment and Management for Medically Complex Potential Living Kidney Donors: A Few Deontological Criteria and Ethical Values

    PubMed Central

    Petrini, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    A sound evaluation of every bioethical problem should be predicated on a careful analysis of at least two basic elements: (i) reliable scientific information and (ii) the ethical principles and values at stake. A thorough evaluation of both elements also calls for a careful examination of statements by authoritative institutions. Unfortunately, in the case of medically complex living donors neither element gives clear-cut answers to the ethical problems raised. Likewise, institutionary documents frequently offer only general criteria, which are not very helpful when making practical choices. This paper first introduces a brief overview of scientific information, ethical values, and institutionary documents; the notions of “acceptable risk” and “minimal risk” are then briefly examined, with reference to the problem of medically complex living donors. The so-called precautionary principle and the value of solidarity are then discussed as offering a possible approach to the ethical problem of medically complex living donors. PMID:22174982

  19. Dual Kidney Allocation Score: A Novel Algorithm Utilizing Expanded Donor Criteria for the Allocation of Dual Kidneys in Adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Adam P; Price, Thea P; Lieby, Benjamin; Doria, Cataldo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dual kidney transplantation (DKT) of expanded-criteria donors is a cost-intensive procedure that aims to increase the pool of available deceased organ donors and has demonstrated equivalent outcomes to expanded-criteria single kidney transplantation (eSKT). The objective of this study was to develop an allocation score based on predicted graft survival from historical dual and single kidney donors. MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) data for 1547 DKT and 26 381 eSKT performed between January 1994 and September 2013. We utilized multivariable Cox regression to identify variables independently associated with graft survival in dual and single kidney transplantations. We then derived a weighted multivariable product score from calculated hazard ratios to model the benefit of transplantation as dual kidneys. RESULTS Of 36 donor variables known at the time of listing, 13 were significantly associated with graft survival. The derived dual allocation score demonstrated good internal validity with strong correlation to improved survival in dual kidney transplants. Donors with scores less than 2.1 transplanted as dual kidneys had a worsened median survival of 594 days (24%, p-value 0.031) and donors with scores greater than 3.9 had improved median survival of 1107 days (71%, p-value 0.002). There were 17 733 eSKT (67%) and 1051 DKT (67%) with scores in between these values and no differences in survival (p-values 0.676 and 0.185). CONCLUSIONS We have derived a dual kidney allocation score (DKAS) with good internal validity. Future prospective studies will be required to demonstrate external validity, but this score may help to standardize organ allocation for dual kidney transplantation.

  20. Dual Kidney Allocation Score: A Novel Algorithm Utilizing Expanded Donor Criteria for the Allocation of Dual Kidneys in Adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Adam P; Price, Thea P; Lieby, Benjamin; Doria, Cataldo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dual kidney transplantation (DKT) of expanded-criteria donors is a cost-intensive procedure that aims to increase the pool of available deceased organ donors and has demonstrated equivalent outcomes to expanded-criteria single kidney transplantation (eSKT). The objective of this study was to develop an allocation score based on predicted graft survival from historical dual and single kidney donors. MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) data for 1547 DKT and 26 381 eSKT performed between January 1994 and September 2013. We utilized multivariable Cox regression to identify variables independently associated with graft survival in dual and single kidney transplantations. We then derived a weighted multivariable product score from calculated hazard ratios to model the benefit of transplantation as dual kidneys. RESULTS Of 36 donor variables known at the time of listing, 13 were significantly associated with graft survival. The derived dual allocation score demonstrated good internal validity with strong correlation to improved survival in dual kidney transplants. Donors with scores less than 2.1 transplanted as dual kidneys had a worsened median survival of 594 days (24%, p-value 0.031) and donors with scores greater than 3.9 had improved median survival of 1107 days (71%, p-value 0.002). There were 17 733 eSKT (67%) and 1051 DKT (67%) with scores in between these values and no differences in survival (p-values 0.676 and 0.185). CONCLUSIONS We have derived a dual kidney allocation score (DKAS) with good internal validity. Future prospective studies will be required to demonstrate external validity, but this score may help to standardize organ allocation for dual kidney transplantation. PMID:27605410

  1. Results of the TOP Study: Prospectively Randomized Multicenter Trial of an Ex Vivo Tacrolimus Rinse Before Transplantation in EDC Livers

    PubMed Central

    Pratschke, Sebastian; Arnold, Hannah; Zollner, Alfred; Heise, Michael; Pascher, Andreas; Schemmer, Peter; Scherer, Marcus N.; Bauer, Andreas; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Werner, Jens; Guba, Markus; Angele, Martin K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Organ shortage results in the transplantation of extended donor criteria (EDC) livers which is associated with increased ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Experimental studies indicate that an organ rinse with the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus before implantation protects against IRI. The tacrolimus organ perfusion study was initiated to examine the effects of ex vivo tacrolimus perfusion on IRI in transplantation of EDC livers. Methods A prospective randomized multicenter trial comparing ex vivo perfusion of marginal liver grafts (≥2 EDC according to Eurotransplant manual) with tacrolimus (20 ng/mL) or histidine-tryptophane-ketoglutarate solution (control) was carried out at 5 German liver transplant centers (Munich Ludwig-Maximilians University, Berlin, Heidelberg, Mainz, Regensburg) between October 2011 and July 2013. Primary endpoint was the maximum alanine transaminase (ALT) level within 48 hours after transplantation. Secondary endpoints were aspartate transaminase (AST), prothrombine ratio, and graft-patient survival within an observation period of 1 week. After an interim analysis, the study was terminated by the scientific committee after the treatment of 24 patients (tacrolimus n = 11, Control n = 13). Results Tacrolimus rinse did not reduce postoperative ALT peaks compared with control (P = 0.207; tacrolimus: median, 812; range, 362-3403 vs control: median, 652; range, 147-2034). Moreover, ALT (P = 0.100), prothrombine ratio (P = 0.553), and bilirubin (P = 0.815) did not differ between the groups. AST was higher in patients treated with tacrolimus (P = 0.011). Survival was comparable in both groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions Contrary to experimental findings, tacrolimus rinse failed to improve the primary endpoint of the study (ALT). Because 1 secondary endpoint (AST) was even higher in the intervention group, the study was terminated prematurely. Thus, tacrolimus rinse cannot be recommended in transplantation of EDC livers. PMID:27500266

  2. Structural Design Criteria for Anion Hosts: Strategies for Achieving Anion Shape Recognition through the Complementary Placement of Urea Donor Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, Benjamin P.; Firman, Timothy K.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2005-02-16

    The arrangement of urea ligands about different shaped anions has been evaluated with electronic structure calculations. Geometries and binding energies are reported for urea complexes with Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, and ClO{sub 4}{sup -}. The results yield new insight into the nature of urea-anion interactions and provide structural criteria for the deliberate design of anion selective receptors containing two or more urea donor groups.

  3. Expanding living kidney donor criteria with ex-vivo surgery for renal anomalies

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Thomas B.; Rampersad, Christie; Patel, Premal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Renal transplantation remains the gold standard treatment for end-stage renal disease, with living donor kidneys providing the best outcomes in terms of allograft survival. As the number of patients on the waitlist continues to grow, solutions to expand the donor pool are ongoing. A paradigm shift in the eligibility of donors with renal anomalies has been looked at as a potential source to expand the living donor pool. We sought to determine how many patients presented with anatomic renal anomalies at our transplant centre and describe the ex-vivo surgical techniques used to render these kidneys suitable for transplantation. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all patients referred for surgical suitability to undergo laparoscopic donor nephrectomy between January 2011 and January 2015. Patient charts were analyzed for demographic information, perioperative variables, urological histories, and postoperative outcomes. Results: 96 referrals were identified, of which 81 patients underwent laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. Of these patients, 11 (13.6%) were identified as having a renal anomaly that could potentially exclude them from the donation process. These anomalies included five patients with unilateral nephrolithiasis, four patients with large renal cysts (>4 cm diameter), one patient with an angiomyolipoma (AML) and one patient with a calyceal diverticulum filled with stones. A description of the ex-vivo surgical techniques used to correct these renal anomalies is provided. Conclusions: We have shown here that ex-vivo surgical techniques can safely and effectively help correct some of these renal anomalies to render these kidneys transplantable, helping to expand the living donor pool. PMID:27800047

  4. Quantification of degree of steatosis in extended criteria donor grafts with standardized histologic techniques: implications for graft survival.

    PubMed

    Frongillo, F; Avolio, A W; Nure, E; Mulè, A; Pepe, G; Magalini, S C; Agnes, S

    2009-05-01

    The gap between the availability of livers from organ donors and the increased demand has led many centers to apply strategies to reduce this deficit. Splitting of cadaveric organs for use in 2 recipients; domino transplantation; and organs from living donors, non-heart-beating donors, and extended-criteria donors (ECDs) are all currently used in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Fatty changes in the donor liver are a risk factor for poor function after OLT; however, the presence of steatosis, frequently present in livers from ECDs, does not exclude the use of these organs. Since January 2000 at our institution, we observed 39 steatotic grafts that were stratified istologically as follows: low steatosis, 5% to 15%; mild steatosis, 16% to 30%; moderate steatosis, 31% to 60%; and severe steatosis (>60%). Histologic techniques can enable identification of the type of fatty change as macrovesicular and microvesicular. These alterations have different effects on primary nonfunction and primary dysfunction. Fifteen grafts, all with severe or moderate, macrovesicular changes were discarded. Twenty-four fatty grafts with low to moderate steatosis were utilized for transplant. Sections from 2 liver biopsies (1 wedge in the left lobe and 1 needle in the right lobe) were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Masson trichrome, Gomori reticulin, and oil red O. The OLT was performed only in patients with a MELD (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease) score lower than 27. The rate of primary dysfunction was 12.5%, and of primary nonfunction 8.4%. The 6-month graft survival for all fatty livers was 80%. We encourage the careful use of grafts with low to moderate steatosis in recipients without additional risks.

  5. A comparison of two questionnaires on Informed Consent for extended criteria liver donors.

    PubMed

    Bruzzone, Paolo; Giannarelli, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Un questionario riguardante il consenso informato del ricevente per i cosiddetti donatori marginali di fegato (“extended criteria donors”-ECD) è stato inviato, previa approvazione del Comitato Etico, via e-mail ai membri di 2 società scientifiche, ELPAT(Ethical,Legal and Psychologic Aspects of Organ Transplantation) ed ELITA (European Liver and Intestine Transplant Association)-ELTR(European Liver Transplant Registry). I risultati sono stati pubblicati in diversi lavori apparsi su Transplantation Proceedings. Analizzando statisticamente le tabelle negli articoli 2011 ELPAT e 2013 ELITA, nel lavoro più recente meno Centri Trapianto di fegato (LTC) hanno considerato l’età fino a 80 anni (p<.002) e SGOT>90 IU (p<.02), o tutti i criteri insieme (p<.0001), come indicatori di donatore marginale. Ciò potrebbe riflettere il fatto che nel tempo i LTC sono divenuti meno selettivi, a causa della crescente mortalità dei pazienti in lista di attesa. Considerando che in tutti i nostri studi abbiamo riscontrato un notevole ricorso agli ECD, è necessario che i pazienti ricevano tutte le informazioni che vogliano richiedere sia al momento dell’iscrizione in lista di attesa, sia quando il fegato di un donatore venga effettivamente loro proposto. E’ anche possibile creare una lista di attesa separata, per pazienti che non accettano ECD: tale scelta però ritarda in modo inevitabile il trapianto e quindi, potenzialmente, aumenta la mortalità in lista di attesa.

  6. Proposal of new expanded selection criteria using total tumor size and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose - positron emission tomography/computed tomography for living donor liver transplantation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: The National Cancer Center Korea criteria

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Duk; Lee, Bora; Kim, Seong Hoon; Joo, Jungnam; Kim, Seok-Ki; Kim, Young-Kyu; Park, Sang-Jae

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To expand the living donor liver transplantation (LT) pool of eligible patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using new morphological and biological criteria. METHODS: Patients with HCC who underwent living donor LT (LDLT) from March 2005 to May 2013 at the National Cancer Center Korea (NCCK) were enrolled. We performed the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) before LDLT. Overall and disease-free survival analysis was done in patients to evaluate the usefulness of new NCCK criteria using PET/CT and total tumor size (10 cm). RESULTS: We enrolled a total of 280 patients who pathologically confirmed to have HCC and performed the PET/CT before transplantation. Among them, 164 (58.6%) patients fulfilled the NCCK criteria and 132 patients (47.1%) met the Milan criteria. Five-year overall and disease-free survival rates for patients who fulfilled the NCCK criteria showed 85.2% and 84.0%, respectively, and were significantly higher than those beyond the NCCK criteria (60.2% and 44.4%, respectively; P < 0.001). The correlation analysis between preoperative imaging tests and pathologic reports using Cohen’s Kappa demonstrated the better results in the NCCK criteria than those in the Milan criteria (0.850 vs 0.583). The comparison of disease-free analysis among the NCCK, Milan, and University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) criteria using the receiver operating characteristics curves revealed the similar area under the curve value criteria (NCCK vs Milan, P = 0.484; NCCK vs UCSF, P = 0.189 at 5-years). CONCLUSION: The NCCK criteria using hybrid concept of both morphological and biological parameters showed an excellent agreement between preoperative imaging and pathological results, and favorable survival outcomes. These new criteria might select the optimal patients with HCC waiting LDLT and expand the selection pool. PMID:27358787

  7. EDC RESEARCH AT EPA ATLANTIC ECOLOGY DIVISION: DO ENVIRONMENTAL EDCS IMPACT FISH POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Atlantic Ecology Division, Office of Research and Development, EP A is a marine laboratory situated on Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. Researchers at AED are investigating the effects endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the aquatic environment might have on reproductive ...

  8. Added-value from a multi-criteria selection of donor catchments in the prediction of continuous streamflow series at ungauged pollution control-sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drogue, Gilles; Ben Khediri, Wiem; Conan, Céline

    2016-05-01

    We explore the potential of a multi-criteria selection of donor catchments in the prediction of continuous streamflow series by the spatial proximity method. Three criteria have been used: (1) spatial proximity; (2) physical similarity; (3) stream gauging network topology. An extensive assessment of our spatial proximity method variant is made on a 149 catchment-data set located in the Rhine-Meuse catchment. The competitiveness of the method is evaluated against spatial interpolation of catchment model parameters with ordinary kriging. We found that the spatial proximity approach is more efficient than ordinary kriging. When distance to upstream/downstream stream gauge stations is considered as a second order criterion in the selection of donor catchments, an unprecedented level of efficiency is reached for nested catchments. Nevertheless, the spatial proximity method does not take advantage from physical similarity between donor catchments and receiver catchments because catchments that are the most hydrologically similar to each catchment poorly match with the catchments that are the most physically similar to each catchment.

  9. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and female cancer: Informing the patients.

    PubMed

    Rachoń, Dominik

    2015-12-01

    Breast and uterine cancer are the most frequent female gender related neoplasms whose growth is mostly estrogen dependent. Therefore, any EDC exhibiting estrogenic effects may increase the risk of these two malignancies. This review focuses on the potential role of EDCs with estrogenic potential on the risk of breast and uterine neoplasms but also points to the possible role of the exposure to EDCs in the pathogenesis of ovarian and cervical cancer. It also underlines the necessity of informing the public about the presence of EDCs in common consumer products, their detrimental health effects and methods of reducing the exposure risk.

  10. EDC-37 Deflagration Rates at Elevated Pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Maienschein, J L; Koerner, J G

    2008-01-31

    We report deflagration rates on EDC-37 at high pressures. Experiments are conducted using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory High Pressure Strand Burner (HPSB) apparatus. The HPSB contains a deflagrating sample in a small volume, high pressure chamber. The sample consists of nine, 6.35 mm diameter, 6.35 mm length cylinders stacked on end, with burn wires placed between cylinders. Sample deflagration is limited to the cross-sectional surface of the cylinder by coating the cylindrical surface of the tower with Halthane 88-2 epoxy. Sample deflagration is initiated on one end of the tower by a B/KNO{sub 3} and HNS igniter train. Simultaneous temporal pressure history and burn front time of arrival measurements yield the laminar deflagration rate for a range of pressures and provide insight into deflagration uniformity. These measurements are one indicator of overall thermal explosion violence. Specific details of the experiment and the apparatus can be found in the literature.

  11. Pre-Transplant CDKN2A Expression in Kidney Biopsies Predicts Renal Function and Is a Future Component of Donor Scoring Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Gingell-Littlejohn, Marc; McGuinness, Dagmara; McGlynn, Liane M.; Kingsmore, David; Stevenson, Karen S.; Koppelstaetter, Christian; Clancy, Marc J.; Shiels, Paul G.

    2013-01-01

    CDKN2A is a proven and validated biomarker of ageing which acts as an off switch for cell proliferation. We have demonstrated previously that CDKN2A is the most robust and the strongest pre-transplant predictor of post- transplant serum creatinine when compared to “Gold Standard” clinical factors, such as cold ischaemic time and donor chronological age. This report shows that CDKN2A is better than telomere length, the most celebrated biomarker of ageing, as a predictor of post-transplant renal function. It also shows that CDKN2A is as strong a determinant of post-transplant organ function when compared to extended criteria (ECD) kidneys. A multivariate analysis model was able to predict up to 27.1% of eGFR at one year post-transplant (p = 0.008). Significantly, CDKN2A was also able to strongly predict delayed graft function. A pre-transplant donor risk classification system based on CDKN2A and ECD criteria is shown to be feasible and commendable for implementation in the near future. PMID:23861858

  12. Evaluation of surfactant flushing for remediating EDC-tar contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chenju; Hsieh, Cheng-Lin

    2015-06-01

    Ethylene dichloride tar (EDC-tar) is a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) waste originated from the process of vinyl chloride production, with major constituents including chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. This study investigated the feasibility of Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation (SEAR) for treating EDC-tar contaminated aquifers. Initial experiments explored the potential to enhance the apparent solubility of EDC-tar using single or mixed surfactants. The results showed that an aqueous solution mixed anionic and non-ionic surfactants (i.e., SDS/Tween 80) exhibited higher EDC-tar apparent solubility and lower surface tension than other surfactant systems tested. Additionally, alkaline pH aids in increasing the EDC-tar apparent solubility. In column flushing experiments, it was seen that the alkaline mixed SDS/Tween 80 solution showed better removal of pure EDC-tar from silica sand porous media. Furthermore, separation of EDC-tar in the surfactant solution was conducted employing a salting-out effect. Significant separation of DNAPL was observed when 13 wt.% or more NaCl was added to the solution. Overall, this study evaluates the feasibility of using SEAR for remediating EDC-tar contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater.

  13. Evaluation of surfactant flushing for remediating EDC-tar contamination.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chenju; Hsieh, Cheng-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene dichloride tar (EDC-tar) is a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) waste originated from the process of vinyl chloride production, with major constituents including chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. This study investigated the feasibility of Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation (SEAR) for treating EDC-tar contaminated aquifers. Initial experiments explored the potential to enhance the apparent solubility of EDC-tar using single or mixed surfactants. The results showed that an aqueous solution mixed anionic and non-ionic surfactants (i.e., SDS/Tween 80) exhibited higher EDC-tar apparent solubility and lower surface tension than other surfactant systems tested. Additionally, alkaline pH aids in increasing the EDC-tar apparent solubility. In column flushing experiments, it was seen that the alkaline mixed SDS/Tween 80 solution showed better removal of pure EDC-tar from silica sand porous media. Furthermore, separation of EDC-tar in the surfactant solution was conducted employing a salting-out effect. Significant separation of DNAPL was observed when 13 wt.% or more NaCl was added to the solution. Overall, this study evaluates the feasibility of using SEAR for remediating EDC-tar contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater.

  14. The classic EDCs, phthalate esters and organochlorines, in relation to abnormal sperm quality: a systematic review with meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Yang, Lu; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Zhan; Yu, Yongquan; Wang, Meilin; Cromie, Meghan; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The association between endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and human sperm quality is controversial due to the inconsistent literature findings, therefore, a systematic review with meta-analysis was performed. Through the literature search and selection based on inclusion criteria, a total of 9 studies (7 cross-sectional, 1 case-control, and 1 pilot study) were analyzed for classic EDCs (5 studies for phthalate esters and 4 studies for organochlorines). Funnel plots revealed a symmetrical distribution with no evidence of publication bias (Begg’s test: intercept = 0.40 p = 0.692). The summary odds ratios (OR) of human sperm quality associated with the classic EDCs was 1.67 (95% CI: 1.31–2.02). After stratification by specific chemical class, consistent increases in the risk of abnormal sperm quality were found in phthalate ester group (OR = 1.52 95% CI: 1.09–1.95) and organochlorine group (OR = 1.98 95% CI: 1.34–2.62). Additionally, identification of official data, and a comprehensive review of the mechanisms were performed, and better elucidated the increased risk of these classic EDCs on abnormal sperm quality. The present systematic review and meta-analysis helps to identify the impact of classic EDCs on human sperm quality. However, it still highlights the need for additional epidemiological studies in a larger variety of geographic locations.

  15. The classic EDCs, phthalate esters and organochlorines, in relation to abnormal sperm quality: a systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Yang, Lu; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Zhan; Yu, Yongquan; Wang, Meilin; Cromie, Meghan; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The association between endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and human sperm quality is controversial due to the inconsistent literature findings, therefore, a systematic review with meta-analysis was performed. Through the literature search and selection based on inclusion criteria, a total of 9 studies (7 cross-sectional, 1 case-control, and 1 pilot study) were analyzed for classic EDCs (5 studies for phthalate esters and 4 studies for organochlorines). Funnel plots revealed a symmetrical distribution with no evidence of publication bias (Begg’s test: intercept = 0.40; p = 0.692). The summary odds ratios (OR) of human sperm quality associated with the classic EDCs was 1.67 (95% CI: 1.31–2.02). After stratification by specific chemical class, consistent increases in the risk of abnormal sperm quality were found in phthalate ester group (OR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.09–1.95) and organochlorine group (OR = 1.98; 95% CI: 1.34–2.62). Additionally, identification of official data, and a comprehensive review of the mechanisms were performed, and better elucidated the increased risk of these classic EDCs on abnormal sperm quality. The present systematic review and meta-analysis helps to identify the impact of classic EDCs on human sperm quality. However, it still highlights the need for additional epidemiological studies in a larger variety of geographic locations. PMID:26804707

  16. The classic EDCs, phthalate esters and organochlorines, in relation to abnormal sperm quality: a systematic review with meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Yang, Lu; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Zhan; Yu, Yongquan; Wang, Meilin; Cromie, Meghan; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The association between endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and human sperm quality is controversial due to the inconsistent literature findings, therefore, a systematic review with meta-analysis was performed. Through the literature search and selection based on inclusion criteria, a total of 9 studies (7 cross-sectional, 1 case-control, and 1 pilot study) were analyzed for classic EDCs (5 studies for phthalate esters and 4 studies for organochlorines). Funnel plots revealed a symmetrical distribution with no evidence of publication bias (Begg’s test: intercept = 0.40 p = 0.692). The summary odds ratios (OR) of human sperm quality associated with the classic EDCs was 1.67 (95% CI: 1.31-2.02). After stratification by specific chemical class, consistent increases in the risk of abnormal sperm quality were found in phthalate ester group (OR = 1.52 95% CI: 1.09-1.95) and organochlorine group (OR = 1.98 95% CI: 1.34-2.62). Additionally, identification of official data, and a comprehensive review of the mechanisms were performed, and better elucidated the increased risk of these classic EDCs on abnormal sperm quality. The present systematic review and meta-analysis helps to identify the impact of classic EDCs on human sperm quality. However, it still highlights the need for additional epidemiological studies in a larger variety of geographic locations.

  17. Cadaveric donor selection and management.

    PubMed

    Studer, Sean M; Orens, Jonathan B

    2006-10-01

    While there is little doubt that proper donor selection is extremely important to achieve good outcomes from transplantation, there are only limited data regarding the current criteria utilized to select the "ideal donor". Importantly, there are not enough donor lungs available for all of those in need. Until an adequate supply of donor organs exists, lives will be lost on the transplant waiting list. While efforts have been made to increase donor awareness, additional transplants can be realized by improving donor utilization. This can be achieved by active participation of transplant teams in donor management and by utilizing "extended criteria" organs. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of using "extended criteria" donors, as this practice could result in increased posttransplant morbidity and mortality. This article summarizes the approach to identification of potential lung donors, optimal donor management, and the clinical importance of various donor factors upon recipient outcomes.

  18. EDC-2: The Endocrine Society's Second Scientific Statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Gore, A C; Chappell, V A; Fenton, S E; Flaws, J A; Nadal, A; Prins, G S; Toppari, J; Zoeller, R T

    2015-12-01

    The Endocrine Society's first Scientific Statement in 2009 provided a wake-up call to the scientific community about how environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) affect health and disease. Five years later, a substantially larger body of literature has solidified our understanding of plausible mechanisms underlying EDC actions and how exposures in animals and humans-especially during development-may lay the foundations for disease later in life. At this point in history, we have much stronger knowledge about how EDCs alter gene-environment interactions via physiological, cellular, molecular, and epigenetic changes, thereby producing effects in exposed individuals as well as their descendants. Causal links between exposure and manifestation of disease are substantiated by experimental animal models and are consistent with correlative epidemiological data in humans. There are several caveats because differences in how experimental animal work is conducted can lead to difficulties in drawing broad conclusions, and we must continue to be cautious about inferring causality in humans. In this second Scientific Statement, we reviewed the literature on a subset of topics for which the translational evidence is strongest: 1) obesity and diabetes; 2) female reproduction; 3) male reproduction; 4) hormone-sensitive cancers in females; 5) prostate; 6) thyroid; and 7) neurodevelopment and neuroendocrine systems. Our inclusion criteria for studies were those conducted predominantly in the past 5 years deemed to be of high quality based on appropriate negative and positive control groups or populations, adequate sample size and experimental design, and mammalian animal studies with exposure levels in a range that was relevant to humans. We also focused on studies using the developmental origins of health and disease model. No report was excluded based on a positive or negative effect of the EDC exposure. The bulk of the results across the board strengthen the evidence

  19. EDC-2: The Endocrine Society's Second Scientific Statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Gore, A C; Chappell, V A; Fenton, S E; Flaws, J A; Nadal, A; Prins, G S; Toppari, J; Zoeller, R T

    2015-12-01

    The Endocrine Society's first Scientific Statement in 2009 provided a wake-up call to the scientific community about how environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) affect health and disease. Five years later, a substantially larger body of literature has solidified our understanding of plausible mechanisms underlying EDC actions and how exposures in animals and humans-especially during development-may lay the foundations for disease later in life. At this point in history, we have much stronger knowledge about how EDCs alter gene-environment interactions via physiological, cellular, molecular, and epigenetic changes, thereby producing effects in exposed individuals as well as their descendants. Causal links between exposure and manifestation of disease are substantiated by experimental animal models and are consistent with correlative epidemiological data in humans. There are several caveats because differences in how experimental animal work is conducted can lead to difficulties in drawing broad conclusions, and we must continue to be cautious about inferring causality in humans. In this second Scientific Statement, we reviewed the literature on a subset of topics for which the translational evidence is strongest: 1) obesity and diabetes; 2) female reproduction; 3) male reproduction; 4) hormone-sensitive cancers in females; 5) prostate; 6) thyroid; and 7) neurodevelopment and neuroendocrine systems. Our inclusion criteria for studies were those conducted predominantly in the past 5 years deemed to be of high quality based on appropriate negative and positive control groups or populations, adequate sample size and experimental design, and mammalian animal studies with exposure levels in a range that was relevant to humans. We also focused on studies using the developmental origins of health and disease model. No report was excluded based on a positive or negative effect of the EDC exposure. The bulk of the results across the board strengthen the evidence

  20. SMALL-SCALE IMPACT SENSITIVITY TESTING ON EDC37

    SciTech Connect

    HSU, P C; HUST, G; MAIENSCHEIN, J L

    2008-04-28

    EDC37 was tested at LLNL to determine its impact sensitivity in the LLNL's drop hammer system. The results showed that impact sensitivities of the samples were between 86 cm and 156 cm, depending on test methods. EDC37 is a plastic bonded explosive consisting of 90% HMX, 1% nitrocellulose and binder. We recently conducted impact sensitivity testing in our drop hammer system and the results are presented in this report.

  1. Effect of an Early Switch to Belatacept Among Calcineurin Inhibitor-Intolerant Graft Recipients of Kidneys From Extended-Criteria Donors.

    PubMed

    Le Meur, Y; Aulagnon, F; Bertrand, D; Heng, A E; Lavaud, S; Caillard, S; Longuet, H; Sberro-Soussan, R; Doucet, L; Grall, A; Legendre, C

    2016-07-01

    Transplant recipients receiving a kidney from an extended-criteria donor (ECD) are exposed to calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) nephrotoxicity, as demonstrated by severe delayed graft function and/or a low GFR. Belatacept is a nonnephrotoxic drug that is indicated as an alternative to CNIs. We reported 25 cases of conversion from a CNI to belatacept due to CNI intolerance within the first 6 mo after transplantation. The mean age of the recipients was 59 years, and 24 of 25 patients received ECD kidneys. At the date of the medication switch, 12 of 25 patients displayed a calculated GFR (cGFR) <15 mL/min, six patients remained on dialysis, and the biopsies showed evidence of acute tubular damage associated with severe vascular or tubulointerstitial chronic lesions. Three patients did not recover renal function, and three patients died during the follow-up period. Among the remaining patients, renal function improved: The cGFR was 18.28 ± 12.3 mL/min before the medication switch compared with 34.9 ± 14.5 mL/min at 1 year after conversion to belatacept (p = 0.002). Tolerance of and compliance with belatacept were good, and only one patient experienced acute rejection. Belatacept is an effective therapy that preserves renal function in kidney transplant patients who are intolerant of CNIs. PMID:26718625

  2. Biomagnification of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by Pleuronectes yokohamae: Does P. yokohamae accumulate dietary EDCs?

    PubMed

    Nurulnadia, Mohd Yusoff; Koyama, Jiro; Uno, Seiichi; Amano, Haruna

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated the potential for biomagnification of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), bisphenol A (BP), and natural estrogens such as estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2) in a benthic fish, Pleuronectes yokohamae. The assimilation efficiencies (AE) of most EDCs ranged from 88 to 96% suggesting that they were efficiently incorporated and assimilated into P. yokohamae, except for NP (50%). However, the biomagnification factor (BMF) values were <1.0 suggesting that the compounds were not biomagnifying. Additionally, three of the target EDCs were not detected (BP, E1 and E2). Glucuronidation activity towards BP (11.44 ± 2.5 nmol/mg protein/min) and E2 (12.41 ± 3.2 nmol/mg protein/min) was high in the intestine suggesting that EDCs were glucuronidated prior to excretion into bile. Thus, we conclude that biomagnification of dietary EDCs is reduced in P. yokohamae because of effective glucuronidation. PMID:26363319

  3. Biomagnification of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by Pleuronectes yokohamae: Does P. yokohamae accumulate dietary EDCs?

    PubMed

    Nurulnadia, Mohd Yusoff; Koyama, Jiro; Uno, Seiichi; Amano, Haruna

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated the potential for biomagnification of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), bisphenol A (BP), and natural estrogens such as estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2) in a benthic fish, Pleuronectes yokohamae. The assimilation efficiencies (AE) of most EDCs ranged from 88 to 96% suggesting that they were efficiently incorporated and assimilated into P. yokohamae, except for NP (50%). However, the biomagnification factor (BMF) values were <1.0 suggesting that the compounds were not biomagnifying. Additionally, three of the target EDCs were not detected (BP, E1 and E2). Glucuronidation activity towards BP (11.44 ± 2.5 nmol/mg protein/min) and E2 (12.41 ± 3.2 nmol/mg protein/min) was high in the intestine suggesting that EDCs were glucuronidated prior to excretion into bile. Thus, we conclude that biomagnification of dietary EDCs is reduced in P. yokohamae because of effective glucuronidation.

  4. Changing blood donor screening criteria from permanent deferral for men who have sex with men to individual sexual risk assessment: no evidence of a significant impact on the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Suligoi, Barbara; Pupella, Simonetta; Regine, Vincenza; Raimondo, Mariangela; Velati, Claudio; Grazzini, Giuliano

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2001, the criteria for blood donor eligibility in Italy were modified by a ministerial decree from a permanent deferral for "men who have sex with men" to an individual risk assessment of sexual behaviours. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this change in donor screening criteria on the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic among blood donors in Italy. Materials and methods We used the data obtained from the Italian blood donor epidemiological surveillance system. We compared data collected in 2009 and 2010, when the individual risk assessment policy was applied, with data collected in 1999 when permanent deferral was applied for men who have sex with men based on a declaration of sexual orientation. We evaluated the change over time in the relative proportion of HIV antibody-positive donors who likely acquired the infection from men who have sex with men vs heterosexual sexual exposure; the relative risk was calculated using 1999 as the reference year. Results In all 3 years, the majority of HIV antibody-positive donors reported sexual exposure as a risk factor for HIV infection; this proportion increased over time, although not statistically significantly. Heterosexuals always accounted for at least 40% of all HIV antibody-positive cases. The rate of HIV antibody-positive donors increased similarly in men who have sex with men and heterosexuals; specifically, the rate of HIV antibody-positive cases per 100,000 donors was more than 2-fold higher among men who have sex with men in 2009–2010 than in 1999 (2009–2010 vs 1999, RR =2.8; P =0.06), and that among heterosexuals was 1.5 fold higher (P =0.18). Discussion When comparing the period before (1999) and after (2009–2010), the implementation of the individual risk assesment policy in 2001, no significant increase in the proportion of men who have sex with men compared to heterosexuals was observed among HIV antibody-positive blood donors, suggesting that the change in donor

  5. Assessing EDCs in the Field: Challenges and New Approaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing the occurrence and effects of EDCs in the environment can be challenging from a number of perspectives. For example, conventional analytical approaches and/or toxicity tests may not be appropriate to detecting very potent chemicals that impact specific pathways, and oft...

  6. EVALUATION OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR REMOVAL OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS (EDCS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of the chemicals identified as potential EDCs have been observed in surface and ground waters leading to concern over the possible presence of EDCs in finished drinking waters. Although there has not yet been a determination of risks posed by EDCs in finished waters, it ...

  7. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs).

    PubMed

    Palioura, Eleni; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder of unclear etiopathogenesis that is likely to involve genetic and environmental components synergistically contributing to its phenotypic expression. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and in particular Bisphenol A (BPA) represent a group of widespread pollutants intensively investigated as possible environmental contributors to PCOS pathogenesis. Substantial evidence from in vitro and animal studies incriminates endocrine disruptors in the induction of reproductive and metabolic aberrations resembling PCOS characteristics. In humans, elevated BPA concentrations are observed in adolescents and adult PCOS women compared to reproductively healthy ones and are positively correlated with hyperandrogenemia, implying a potential role of the chemical in PCOS pathophysiology, although a causal interference cannot yet be established. It is plausible that developmental exposure to specific EDCs could permanently alter neuroendocrine, reproductive and metabolic regulation favoring PCOS development in genetically predisposed individuals or it could accelerate and/or exacerbate the natural course of the syndrome throughout life cycle exposure.

  8. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs).

    PubMed

    Palioura, Eleni; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder of unclear etiopathogenesis that is likely to involve genetic and environmental components synergistically contributing to its phenotypic expression. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and in particular Bisphenol A (BPA) represent a group of widespread pollutants intensively investigated as possible environmental contributors to PCOS pathogenesis. Substantial evidence from in vitro and animal studies incriminates endocrine disruptors in the induction of reproductive and metabolic aberrations resembling PCOS characteristics. In humans, elevated BPA concentrations are observed in adolescents and adult PCOS women compared to reproductively healthy ones and are positively correlated with hyperandrogenemia, implying a potential role of the chemical in PCOS pathophysiology, although a causal interference cannot yet be established. It is plausible that developmental exposure to specific EDCs could permanently alter neuroendocrine, reproductive and metabolic regulation favoring PCOS development in genetically predisposed individuals or it could accelerate and/or exacerbate the natural course of the syndrome throughout life cycle exposure. PMID:26825073

  9. A review of the genotoxicity of 1,2-dichloroethane (EDC).

    PubMed

    Gwinn, Maureen R; Johns, Douglas O; Bateson, Thomas F; Guyton, Kathryn Z

    2011-01-01

    1,2-Dichloroethane (EDC, CAS#107-06-2) is a high production volume halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbon that is used mainly in the manufacture of vinyl chloride. EDC has been found in ambient and residential air samples, as well as in groundwater, surface water and drinking water. EDC has been well-studied in a variety of genotoxicity assays, and appears to involve the metabolic activation of the parent compound. We critically evaluated the genotoxicity data of EDC and its metabolites as part of an evaluation of carcinogenic mechanisms of action of EDC. EDC is genotoxic in multiple test systems via multiple routes of exposure. EDC has been shown to induce DNA adduct formation, gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations in the presence of key activation enzymes (including CYP450s and/or GSTs) in laboratory animal and in vitro studies. EDC was negative for clastogenesis as measured by the micronucleus assay in mice. In general, an increased level of DNA damage is observed related to the GSH-dependent bioactivation of EDC. Increased chromosomal aberrations with increased CYP450 expression were suggestive of a role for the oxidative metabolites of EDC in inducing chromosomal damage. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that EDC exposure, in the presence of key enzymes (including CYP450s and/or GSTs), leads to DNA adduct formation, gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations.

  10. Blood Donor Management in China

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ling; Wang, Jingxing; Liu, Zhong; Stevens, Lori; Sadler, Andrew; Ness, Paul; Shan, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Summary Despite a steady increase in total blood collections and voluntary non-remunerated blood donors, China continues to have many challenges with its blood donation system. The country's donation rate remains low at 9%o, with over 60% of donors being first-time donors. Generally there is a lack of adequate public awareness about blood donation. The conservative donor selection criteria, the relatively long donation interval, and the small donation volume have further limited blood supply. To ensure a sufficient and safe blood supply that meets the increasing clinical need for blood products, there is an urgent need to strengthen the country's blood donor management. This comprehensive effort should include educating and motivating more individuals especially from the rural areas to be involved in blood donation, developing rational and evidence-based selection criteria for donor eligibility, designing a donor follow-up mechanism to encourage more future donations, assessing the current donor testing strategy, improving donor service and care, building regional and national shared donor deferral database, and enhancing the transparency of the blood donation system to gain more trust from the general public. The purpose of the review is to provide an overview of the key process of and challenges with the blood donor management system in China. PMID:25254023

  11. The egg-sharing model for human therapeutic cloning research: managing donor selection criteria, the proportion of shared oocytes allocated to research, and amount of financial subsidy given to the donor.

    PubMed

    Heng, Boon Chin; Tong, Guo Qing; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in human therapeutic cloning made by Hwang and colleagues have opened up new avenues of therapy for various human diseases. However, the major bottleneck of this new technology is the severe shortage of human donor oocytes. Egg-sharing in return for subsidized fertility treatment has been suggested as an ethically justifiable and practical solution to overcome the shortage of donor oocytes for therapeutic cloning. Because the utilization of shared oocytes in therapeutic cloning research does not result in any therapeutic benefit to a second party, this would necessitate a different management strategy compared to their use for the assisted conception of infertile women who are unable to produce any oocytes of their own. It is proposed that the pool of prospective egg-sharers in therapeutic cloning research be limited only to younger women (below 30 years of age) with indications for either male partner sub-fertility or tubal blockage. With regards to the proportion of the shared gametes being allocated to research, a threshold number of retrieved oocytes should be set that if not exceeded, would result in the patient being automatically removed from the egg-sharing scheme. Any excess supernumerary oocyte above this threshold number can be contributed to science, and allocation should be done in a randomized manner. Perhaps, a total of 10 retrieved oocytes from the patient may be considered a suitable threshold, since the chances of conception are unlikely to be impaired. With regards to the amount of subsidy being given to the patient, it is suggested that the proportion of financial subsidy should be equal to the proportion of the patient's oocytes being allocated to research. No doubt, the promise of future therapeutic benefit may be offered to the patient instead of financial subsidy. However, this is ethically controversial because therapeutic cloning has not yet been demonstrated to be a viable model of clinical therapy and any promises made to

  12. Performance of Electrostatic Dust Collectors (EDCs) for Endotoxin Assessment in Homes: Effect of Mailing, Placement, Heating and Electrostatic Charge

    PubMed Central

    Kilburg-Basnyat, Brita; Metwali, Nervana; Thorne, Peter S.

    2016-01-01

    Electrostatic Dust Collectors (EDCs) are in use for passive sampling of bioaerosols, but particular aspects of their performance have not yet been evaluated. This study investigated the effect of mailing EDCs on endotoxin loading and the effect of EDC deployment in front of and away from heated ventilation on endotoxin sampling. Endotoxin sampling efficiency of heated and unheated EDC cloths was also evaluated. Cross-country express mailing of dust-spiked EDCs yielded no significant changes in endotoxin concentrations compared to dust-only samples for both high spiked-EDCs (p=0.30) and low spiked-EDCs (p=0.36). EDCs were also deployed in 20 identical apartments with one EDC placed in front of the univent heater in each apartment and contemporaneous EDC placed on the built-in bookshelf in each apartment. The endotoxin concentrations were significantly different (p=0.049) indicating that the placement of EDC does impact endotoxin sampling. Heated and unheated EDCs were deployed for 7 days in pairs in farm homes. There was a significant difference between endotoxin concentrations (p=0.027) indicating that heating EDCs may diminish their electrostatic capabilities and impact endotoxin sampling. The last study investigated the electrostatic charge of 12 heated and 12 unheated EDC cloths. There was a significant difference in charge (p=0.009) which suggests that heating EDC cloths may make them less effective for sampling. In conclusion, EDCs can be mailed to and from deployment sites, EDC placement in relationship to ventilation is crucial, and heating EDCs reduces their electrostatic charge which may diminish their endotoxin sampling capabilities. PMID:26325020

  13. Performance of electrostatic dust collectors (EDCs) for endotoxin assessment in homes: Effect of mailing, placement, heating, and electrostatic charge.

    PubMed

    Kilburg-Basnyat, Brita; Metwali, Nervana; Thorne, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Electrostatic Dust Collectors (EDCs) are in use for passive sampling of bioaerosols, but particular aspects of their performance have not yet been evaluated. This study investigated the effect of mailing EDCs on endotoxin loading and the effect of EDC deployment in front of, and away from, heated ventilation on endotoxin sampling. Endotoxin sampling efficiency of heated and unheated EDC cloths was also evaluated. Cross-country express mailing of dust-spiked EDCs yielded no significant changes in endotoxin concentrations compared to dust-only samples for both high-spiked EDCs (p = 0.30) and low-spiked EDCs (p = 0.36). EDCs were also deployed in 20 identical apartments with one EDC placed in front of the univent heater in each apartment and contemporaneous EDC placed on the built-in bookshelf in each apartment. The endotoxin concentrations were significantly different (p = 0.049) indicating that the placement of EDC does impact endotoxin sampling. Heated and unheated EDCs were deployed for 7 days in pairs in farm homes. There was a significant difference between endotoxin concentrations (p = 0.027) indicating that heating EDCs may diminish their electrostatic capabilities and impact endotoxin sampling. The last study investigated the electrostatic charge of 12 heated and 12 unheated EDC cloths. There was a significant difference in charge (p = 0.009) which suggests that heating EDC cloths may make them less effective for sampling. In conclusion, EDCs can be mailed to and from deployment sites, EDC placement in relationship to ventilation is crucial, and heating EDCs reduces their electrostatic charge which may diminish their endotoxin sampling capabilities.

  14. EFFECTS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS (EDCS) ON FETAL TESTES HORMONE PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) on Fetal Testes Hormone Production
    CS Lambright, VS Wilson, JR Furr, CJ Wolf, N Noriega, LE Gray, Jr
    US EPA, ORD/NHEERL/RTD, RTP, NC 27711

    Exposure to EDCs during critical periods of fetal sexual development can have...

  15. Analytic study of the chain dark decomposition reaction of iodides - atomic iodine donors - in the active medium of a pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser: 1. Criteria for the development of the branching chain dark decomposition reaction of iodides

    SciTech Connect

    Andreeva, Tamara L; Kuznetsova, S V; Maslov, Aleksandr I; Sorokin, Vadim N

    2009-02-28

    The scheme of chemical processes proceeding in the active medium of a pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) is analysed. Based on the analysis performed, the complete system of differential equations corresponding to this scheme is replaced by a simplified system of equations describing in dimensionless variables the chain dark decomposition of iodides - atomic iodine donors, in the COIL active medium. The procedure solving this system is described, the basic parameters determining the development of the chain reaction are found and its specific time intervals are determined. The initial stage of the reaction is analysed and criteria for the development of the branching chain decomposition reaction of iodide in the COIL active medium are determined. (active media)

  16. The Measured Temperature and Pressure of EDC37 detonation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, James; Richley, James; Ota, Tom; Sutton, Ben; Price, Ed

    2015-06-01

    We present the experimentally determined temperature and pressure of the detonation products of EDC37; a HMX based conventional high explosive. These measurements were performed on a series of cylinder tests. The temperature measurements were performed at the end of the cylinder with optical fibres observing the bare explosive through a LiF window. The temperature of the products was measured for 2 microseconds using single colour pyrometry, multicolour pyrometry and spectroscopy with the results from all three methods being consistent. The peak temperature was found to be ~ 3600 K dropping to ~ 2400 K at the end of the measurement window. The spectroscopy was time integrated and showed that the emission spectra can be approximated using a grey body curve with no other emission or absorption lines being present. The pressure was obtained using an analytical method which used the velocity of the expanding cylinder wall, measured using heterodyne velocimetry (HetV), and the velocity of detonation, measured with chirped fibre Bragg gratings. The pressure drops from an initial CJ value of ~38 GPa to ~4 GPa at the end of the 2 microsecond temperature measurement window.

  17. The methods of identification, analysis, and removal of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in water.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hyun-Shik; Choo, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Byungwhan; Choi, Sang-June

    2009-12-15

    The information regarding endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) was reviewed, including the definition and characteristics, the recent research trends concerning identification and analytical methods, and the applicable removal processes. EDCs include various types of natural and synthetic chemical compounds presenting the mimicking or inhibition of the reproductive action of the endocrine system in animals and humans. The ubiquitous presence with trace level concentrations and the wide diversity are the reported characteristics of EDCs. Biologically based assays seem to be a promising method for the identification of EDCs. On the other hand, mass-based analytical methods show excellent sensitivity and precision for their quantification. Several extraction techniques for the instrumental analysis have been developed since they are crucial in determining overall analytical performances. Conventional treatment techniques, including coagulation, precipitation, and activated sludge processes, may not be highly effective in removing EDCs, while the advanced treatment options, such as granular activated carbon (GAC), membrane, and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), have shown satisfactory results. The oxidative degradation of some EDCs was associated with aromatic moieties in their structure. Further studies on EDCs need to be conducted, such as source reduction, limiting exposure to vulnerable populations, treatment or remediation of contaminated sites, and the detailed understanding of transport mechanisms in the environment. PMID:19632774

  18. EDCs DataBank: 3D-Structure database of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Montes-Grajales, Diana; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are a group of compounds that affect the endocrine system, frequently found in everyday products and epidemiologically associated with several diseases. The purpose of this work was to develop EDCs DataBank, the only database of EDCs with three-dimensional structures. This database was built on MySQL using the EU list of potential endocrine disruptors and TEDX list. It contains the three-dimensional structures available on PubChem, as well as a wide variety of information from different databases and text mining tools, useful for almost any kind of research regarding EDCs. The web platform was developed employing HTML, CSS and PHP languages, with dynamic contents in a graphic environment, facilitating information analysis. Currently EDCs DataBank has 615 molecules, including pesticides, natural and industrial products, cosmetics, drugs and food additives, among other low molecular weight xenobiotics. Therefore, this database can be used to study the toxicological effects of these molecules, or to develop pharmaceuticals targeting hormone receptors, through docking studies, high-throughput virtual screening and ligand-protein interaction analysis. EDCs DataBank is totally user-friendly and the 3D-structures of the molecules can be downloaded in several formats. This database is freely available at http://edcs.unicartagena.edu.co.

  19. Roles of Edc3 in the oxidative stress response and CaMCA1-encoded metacaspase expression in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Jinmi

    2014-11-01

    The Edc3 protein is an enhancer of mRNA decapping, and acts as a scaffold protein for the mRNA granules that are known as processing bodies in yeast. In the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, various stresses, such as glucose depletion, oxidative stress, and filamentation defects, induce the accumulation of processing bodies. Here, we report that the edc3/edc3 deletion strain showed increased resistance to various stresses, including hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid, and high temperature. Oxidative stress is known to induce the intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic cell death in C. albicans. We found that the ROS level was lower in edc3/edc3 cells than in wild-type cells following oxidative stress. We also observed that expression of the metacaspase gene CaMCA1 was decreased in edc3/edc3 cells. Overexpression of CaMCA1 suppressed the decreased accumulation of ROS and the increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide in edc3/edc3 cells. The catalase Cat1 and the superoxide dismutase Sod1 were upregulated in edc3/edc3 cells as compared with wild-type cells. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that EDC3 plays a critical role in the expression of CaMCA1 and the oxidative stress response in C. albicans. PMID:25158786

  20. Effects of carbon-based nanoparticles (CNPs) on the fate of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in different agricultural soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumpe, Britta; Wolski, Sabrina; Marschner, Bernd

    2013-04-01

    Nanotechnology is a major innovative scientific and economic growth area. To date there is a lack about possible adverse effects that may be associated with manufactured nanomaterial in terrestrial environments. Since it is known that on the one hand carbon-based nanoparticles (CNPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) strongly interact in wastewater and that on the other hand CNPs and EDCs are released together via wastewater irrigation to agricultural soils, knowledge of CNP effects on the EDC fate in the soil environment is needed for further risk assessments. The overall goal of this project is to gain a better understanding of interaction of CNPs with EDCs within the soil system. Three different soil samples were applied with different CNPs, EDCs and CNP-EDC complexes and incubated over a period of 6 weeks. The EDC mineralization as well as their uptake by soil microorganisms was monitored to describe impacts of the nanomaterial on the EDC fate. As quality control for the biological soil activity soil respiration, enzyme activities and the soil microbial biomass were monitored in all incubated soil samples. Clearly, EDCs bound in CNP complexes showed a decrease in mineralization. While the free EDCs showed a total mineralization of 34 to 45 %, the nano complexed EDCs were only mineralized to 12 to 15 %. Since no effects of the nanomaterial on the biological soil activity were observed, we conclude that the reduced EDC mineralization is directly linked to their interaction with the CNPs. Since additionally the EDC adsorption to CNPs reduced the EDC uptake by soil microorganism, we assume that CNPs generally form more or less recalcitrant aggregates which likely protect the associated EDCs from degradation.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF CHEMICAL METHODS TO CHARACTERIZE EXPOSURE TO EDCS IN THE NEUSE RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    To develop a quantitative health and environmental risk assessment of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), information on exposures is essential. A full exposure assessment has complex requirements that require preliminary information to direct further research in this area....

  2. Effect of transpiration on plant accumulation and translocation of PPCP/EDCs.

    PubMed

    Dodgen, Laurel K; Ueda, Aiko; Wu, Xiaoqin; Parker, David R; Gan, Jay

    2015-03-01

    The reuse of treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation in arid and hot climates where plant transpiration is high may affect plant accumulation of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study, carrot, lettuce, and tomato plants were grown in solution containing 16 PPCP/EDCs in either a cool-humid or a warm-dry environment. Leaf bioconcentration factors (BCF) were positively correlated with transpiration for chemical groups of different ionized states (p < 0.05). However, root BCFs were correlated with transpiration only for neutral PPCP/EDCs (p < 0.05). Neutral and cationic PPCP/EDCs showed similar accumulation, while anionic PPCP/EDCs had significantly higher accumulation in roots and significantly lower accumulation in leaves (p < 0.05). Results show that plant transpiration may play a significant role in the uptake and translocation of PPCP/EDCs, which may have a pronounced effect in arid and hot climates where irrigation with treated wastewater is common.

  3. Effect of Transpiration on Plant Accumulation and Translocation of PPCP/EDCs

    PubMed Central

    Dodgen, Laurel K; Ueda, Aiko; Wu, Xiaoqin; Parker, David R; Gan, Jay

    2015-01-01

    The reuse of treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation in arid and hot climates where plant transpiration is high may affect plant accumulation of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study, carrot, lettuce, and tomato plants were grown in solution containing 16 PPCP/EDCs in either a cool-humid or a warm-dry environment. Leaf bioconcentration factors (BCF) were positively correlated with transpiration for chemical groups of different ionized states (p < 0.05). However, root BCFs were correlated with transpiration only for neutral PPCP/EDCs (p < 0.05). Neutral and cationic PPCP/EDCs showed similar accumulation, while anionic PPCP/EDCs had significantly higher accumulation in roots and significantly lower accumulation in leaves (p < 0.05). Results show that plant transpiration may play a significant role in the uptake and translocation of PPCP/EDCs, which may have a pronounced effect in arid and hot climates where irrigation with treated wastewater is common. PMID:25594843

  4. Effect of transpiration on plant accumulation and translocation of PPCP/EDCs.

    PubMed

    Dodgen, Laurel K; Ueda, Aiko; Wu, Xiaoqin; Parker, David R; Gan, Jay

    2015-03-01

    The reuse of treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation in arid and hot climates where plant transpiration is high may affect plant accumulation of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study, carrot, lettuce, and tomato plants were grown in solution containing 16 PPCP/EDCs in either a cool-humid or a warm-dry environment. Leaf bioconcentration factors (BCF) were positively correlated with transpiration for chemical groups of different ionized states (p < 0.05). However, root BCFs were correlated with transpiration only for neutral PPCP/EDCs (p < 0.05). Neutral and cationic PPCP/EDCs showed similar accumulation, while anionic PPCP/EDCs had significantly higher accumulation in roots and significantly lower accumulation in leaves (p < 0.05). Results show that plant transpiration may play a significant role in the uptake and translocation of PPCP/EDCs, which may have a pronounced effect in arid and hot climates where irrigation with treated wastewater is common. PMID:25594843

  5. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  6. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  7. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  8. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  9. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  10. QSAR classification of estrogen receptor binders and pre-screening of potential pleiotropic EDCs.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Gramatica, P

    2010-10-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are suspected of posing serious threats to human and wildlife health through a variety of mechanisms, these being mainly receptor-mediated modes of action. It is reported that some EDCs exhibit dual activities as estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) binders. Indeed, such compounds can affect the normal endocrine system through a dual complex mechanism, so steps should be taken not only to identify them a priori from their chemical structure, but also to prioritize them for experimental tests in order to reduce and even forbid their usage. To date, very few EDCs with dual activities have been identified. The present research uses QSARs, to investigate what, so far, is the largest and most heterogeneous ER binder data set (combined METI and EDKB databases). New predictive classification models were derived using different modelling methods and a consensus approach, and these were used to virtually screen a large AR binder data set after strict validation. As a result, 46 AR antagonists were predicted from their chemical structure to also have potential ER binding activities, i.e. pleiotropic EDCs. In addition, 48 not yet recognized ER binders were in silico identified, which increases the number of potential EDCs that are substances of very high concern (SVHC) in REACH. Thus, the proposed screening models, based only on structure information, have the main aim to prioritize experimental tests for the highlighted compounds with potential estrogenic activities and also to design safer alternatives.

  11. Uptake and accumulation of four PPCP/EDCs in two leafy vegetables.

    PubMed

    Dodgen, L K; Li, J; Parker, D; Gan, J J

    2013-11-01

    Many pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are present in reclaimed water, leading to concerns of human health risks from the consumption of food crops irrigated with reclaimed water. This study evaluated the potential for plant uptake and accumulation of four commonly occurring PPCP/EDCs, i.e., bisphenol A (BPA), diclofenac sodium (DCL), naproxen (NPX), and 4-nonylphenol (NP), by lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and collards (Brassica oleracea) in hydroponic culture, using (14)C-labeled compounds. In both plant species, plant accumulation followed the order of BPA > NP > DCL > NPX and accumulation in roots was much greater than in leaves and stems. Concentrations of (14)C-PPCP/EDCs in plant tissues ranged from 0.22 ± 0.03 to 927 ± 213 ng/g, but nearly all (14)C-residue was non-extractable. PPCP/EDCs, particularly BPA and NP, were also extensively transformed in the nutrient solution. Dietary uptake of these PPCP/EDCs by humans was predicted to be negligible. PMID:23911624

  12. Uptake and Accumulation of Four PPCP/EDCs in Two Leafy Vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Dodgen, LK; Li, J; Parker, D; Gan, JJ

    2013-01-01

    Many pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are present in reclaimed water, leading to concerns of human health risks from the consumption of food crops irrigated with reclaimed water. This study evaluated the potential for plant uptake and accumulation of four commonly occurring PPCP/EDCs, i.e., bisphenol A (BPA), diclofenac sodium (DCL), naproxen (NPX), and 4-nonylphenol (NP), by lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and collards (Brassica oleracea) in hydroponic culture, using 14C-labeled compounds. In both plant species, plant accumulation followed the order of BPA > NP > DCL > NPX and accumulation in roots was much greater than in leaves and stems. Concentrations of 14C-PPCP/EDCs in plant tissues ranged from 0.22±0.03 to 927± 213 ng/g, but nearly all 14C-residue was non-extractable. PPCP/EDCs, particularly BPA and NP, were also extensively transformed in the nutrient solution. Dietary uptake of these PPCP/EDCs by humans was predicted to be negligible. PMID:23911624

  13. Polish Society of Endocrinology Position statement on endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs).

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, Aleksandra; Rachoń, Dominik; Milewicz, Andrzej; Ruchała, Marek; Bolanowski, Marek; Jędrzejuk, Diana; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Górska, Maria; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Kos-Kudła, Beata; Lewiński, Andrzej; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    With the reference to the position statements of the Endocrine Society, the Paediatric Endocrine Society, and the European Society of Paediatric Endocrinology, the Polish Society of Endocrinology points out the adverse health effects caused by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) commonly used in daily life as components of plastics, food containers, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. The statement is based on the alarming data about the increase of the prevalence of many endocrine disorders such as: cryptorchidism, precocious puberty in girls and boys, and hormone-dependent cancers (endometrium, breast, prostate). In our opinion, it is of human benefit to conduct epidemiological studies that will enable the estimation of the risk factors of exposure to EDCs and the probability of endocrine disorders. Increasing consumerism and the industrial boom has led to severe pollution of the environment with a corresponding negative impact on human health; thus, there is great necessity for the biomonitoring of EDCs in Poland.

  14. Polish Society of Endocrinology Position statement on endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs).

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, Aleksandra; Rachoń, Dominik; Milewicz, Andrzej; Ruchała, Marek; Bolanowski, Marek; Jędrzejuk, Diana; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Górska, Maria; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Kos-Kudła, Beata; Lewiński, Andrzej; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    With the reference to the position statements of the Endocrine Society, the Paediatric Endocrine Society, and the European Society of Paediatric Endocrinology, the Polish Society of Endocrinology points out the adverse health effects caused by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) commonly used in daily life as components of plastics, food containers, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. The statement is based on the alarming data about the increase of the prevalence of many endocrine disorders such as: cryptorchidism, precocious puberty in girls and boys, and hormone-dependent cancers (endometrium, breast, prostate). In our opinion, it is of human benefit to conduct epidemiological studies that will enable the estimation of the risk factors of exposure to EDCs and the probability of endocrine disorders. Increasing consumerism and the industrial boom has led to severe pollution of the environment with a corresponding negative impact on human health; thus, there is great necessity for the biomonitoring of EDCs in Poland. PMID:26136137

  15. NMR-based Metabolomics for Studying Toxicity, Compensation, and Recovery in Small Fish Exposed to EDCs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining the impact(s) on fish and other aquatic organisms of exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) is critical for determining the risks that these chemicals pose. However, to accurately evaluate these risks, beyond simply measuring a “before and after exposure” ...

  16. Executive Summary to EDC-2: The Endocrine Society's Second Scientific Statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Gore, A C; Chappell, V A; Fenton, S E; Flaws, J A; Nadal, A; Prins, G S; Toppari, J; Zoeller, R T

    2015-12-01

    This Executive Summary to the Endocrine Society's second Scientific Statement on environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) provides a synthesis of the key points of the complete statement. The full Scientific Statement represents a comprehensive review of the literature on seven topics for which there is strong mechanistic, experimental, animal, and epidemiological evidence for endocrine disruption, namely: obesity and diabetes, female reproduction, male reproduction, hormone-sensitive cancers in females, prostate cancer, thyroid, and neurodevelopment and neuroendocrine systems. EDCs such as bisphenol A, phthalates, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diethyl ethers, and dioxins were emphasized because these chemicals had the greatest depth and breadth of available information. The Statement also included thorough coverage of studies of developmental exposures to EDCs, especially in the fetus and infant, because these are critical life stages during which perturbations of hormones can increase the probability of a disease or dysfunction later in life. A conclusion of the Statement is that publications over the past 5 years have led to a much fuller understanding of the endocrine principles by which EDCs act, including nonmonotonic dose-responses, low-dose effects, and developmental vulnerability. These findings will prove useful to researchers, physicians, and other healthcare providers in translating the science of endocrine disruption to improved public health. PMID:26414233

  17. Distribution and estrogenic potential of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in estuarine sediments from Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, M; Sahu, S K; Pandit, G G

    2016-09-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are responsible for inappropriate development and they alter the hormonal and homeostatic systems of organism. Phthalates (PAEs), bisphenol A (BPA) and other EDCs were monitored in surface sediments at different stations across Thane Creek, India. Analysis of PAEs was carried out using GC-MS technique, while BPA and other EDCs were analyzing on UPLC-PDA instrument. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) had the highest concentration among all fourteen analyzed phthalates ranges between 0.13 and 0.4 mg kg(-1); and was detectable in all sediment samples. Strong correlation (r = 0.95, p < 0.01) was observed between total organic carbon (TOC, %) and total PAEs. BPA was also detected in all samples; average BPA concentration varies from 16.3 to 35.79 μg kg(-1) with mean value 25.15 μg kg(-1) dry weight of sediment. Synthetic EDCs such as 4-para-nonylphenol (NP) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) were also analyzed; and their average concentrations were founds to be 356.5 and 176 μg kg(-1), respectively. Estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were the main contributors to the overall estradiol equivalent concentration (EEQs) in sediment, their average total percentage contributions is more than 90 %. PMID:27316650

  18. BIODEGRADABILITY OF SELECTED EDCS UNDER REDOX CONDITIONS TYPICAL OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of emerging chemicals being detected in the environment are now gaining attention for having possible endocrine disrupting capabilities. These endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been shown to have adverse affects on the endocrine system of fish and wildlife. But ...

  19. Executive Summary to EDC-2: The Endocrine Society's Second Scientific Statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Gore, A C; Chappell, V A; Fenton, S E; Flaws, J A; Nadal, A; Prins, G S; Toppari, J; Zoeller, R T

    2015-12-01

    This Executive Summary to the Endocrine Society's second Scientific Statement on environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) provides a synthesis of the key points of the complete statement. The full Scientific Statement represents a comprehensive review of the literature on seven topics for which there is strong mechanistic, experimental, animal, and epidemiological evidence for endocrine disruption, namely: obesity and diabetes, female reproduction, male reproduction, hormone-sensitive cancers in females, prostate cancer, thyroid, and neurodevelopment and neuroendocrine systems. EDCs such as bisphenol A, phthalates, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diethyl ethers, and dioxins were emphasized because these chemicals had the greatest depth and breadth of available information. The Statement also included thorough coverage of studies of developmental exposures to EDCs, especially in the fetus and infant, because these are critical life stages during which perturbations of hormones can increase the probability of a disease or dysfunction later in life. A conclusion of the Statement is that publications over the past 5 years have led to a much fuller understanding of the endocrine principles by which EDCs act, including nonmonotonic dose-responses, low-dose effects, and developmental vulnerability. These findings will prove useful to researchers, physicians, and other healthcare providers in translating the science of endocrine disruption to improved public health.

  20. INFLUENCE OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS (EDCS) ON MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT AND TUMOR SUSCEPTIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Influence of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs) on Mammary Gland Development and Tumor Susceptibility.

    Suzanne E. Fenton1, and Jennifer Rayner1,2

    1 Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL/ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, and 2 Department of Environmen...

  1. Transformation and removal pathways of four common PPCP/EDCs in soil.

    PubMed

    Dodgen, L K; Li, J; Wu, X; Lu, Z; Gan, J J

    2014-10-01

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) enter the soil environment via irrigation with treated wastewater, groundwater recharge, and land application of biosolids. The transformation and fate of PPCP/EDCs in soil affects their potential for plant uptake and groundwater pollution. This study examined four PPCP/EDCs (bisphenol A, diclofenac, naproxen, and 4-nonylphenol) in soil by using (14)C-labeling and analyzing mineralization, extractable residue, bound residue, and formation of transformation products. At the end of 112 d of incubation, the majority of (14)C-naproxen and (14)C-diclofenac was mineralized to (14)CO2, while a majority of (14)C-bisphenol A and (14)Cnonylphenol was converted to bound residue. After 112 d, the estimated half-lives of the parent compounds were only 1.4-5.4 d. However a variety of transformation products were found and several for bisphenol A and diclofenac were identified, suggesting the need to consider degradation intermediates in soils impacted by PPCP/EDCs.

  2. [The safety of blood donors].

    PubMed

    Courchelle, J; Baudry, C; Bourboul, M-C; Coudurier, N

    2011-04-01

    For a long time, safety has been patient-centred and taken for granted. Indeed, it needed a dramatic accident and the study of post-donation information for the question to be looked into again. However, under various statutory, organizational aspects and the professionalization of the staffs, safety has always accompanied the donor throughout its course of donation. Self-sufficiency is, certainly, the first mission of the Établissement Français du Sang: while we have to supply patients with sufficient blood products complying with quality criteria, we must not however forget the essential respect for the safety of the donor.

  3. Imaging in Lung Transplantation: Surgical Considerations of Donor and Recipient.

    PubMed

    Backhus, Leah M; Mulligan, Michael S; Ha, Richard; Shriki, Jabi E; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H

    2016-03-01

    Modifications in recipient and donor criteria and innovations in donor management hold promise for increasing rates of lung transplantation, yet availability of donors remains a limiting resource. Imaging is critical in the work-up of donor and recipient including identification of conditions that may portend to poor posttransplant outcomes or necessitate modifications in surgical technique. This article describes the radiologic principles that guide selection of patients and surgical procedures in lung transplantation.

  4. Attaining specific donor management goals increases number of organs transplanted per donor: a quality improvement project.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Michael E; McClean, Daniel; Falcone, Cassandra A; Arrington, Jeffrey; Matthews, Donna; Summe, Carrie

    2009-09-01

    Most organ procurement organization professionals and transplant surgeons intuitively know that meeting donor management goals improves organ allocation and transplant outcomes. In this era of evidence-based medicine, it is important to know whether the data support this assumption. All 6 organ procurement organizations in the United Network for Organ Sharing's region 10 agreed on 6 specific donor management goals. The organ procurement organizations then compared the number of organs transplanted per donor when goals were met with the number when goals were not met. Results were broken down by donor type: standard-criteria donation, expanded-criteria donation, and donation after cardiac death. For all 6 organ procurement organizations combined, the data for all of 2008 show a substantial and statistically significant improvement in number of organs transplanted per donor for standard criteria donation and total donors when goals are met, with a smaller degree of improvement (although not statistically significant) in the number of organs transplanted per donor for expanded-criteria donation and donation after cardiac death when goals are met.

  5. CHANGES IN GENE AND PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN ZEBRAFISH (DANIO RERIO) FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTALLY-RELEVANT ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS (EDCS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are increasingly being reported in waterways worldwide and have been shown to affect fish species by disrupting numerous aspects of development, behavior, reproduction, and survival. Furthermore, new data have suggested that the reduced repr...

  6. Living-donor liver transplantation: current perspective.

    PubMed

    Lobritto, Steven; Kato, Tomoaki; Emond, Jean

    2012-11-01

    The disparity between the number of available deceased liver donors and the number of patients awaiting transplantation continues to be an ongoing issue predisposing to death on the liver transplant waiting list. Deceased donor shortage strategies including the use of extended donor-criteria deceased donor grafts, split liver transplants, and organs harvested after cardiac death have fallen short of organ demand. Efforts to raise donor awareness are ongoing, but the course has been arduous to date. Living donor transplantation is a means to access an unlimited donor organ supply and offers potential advantages to deceased donation. Donor safety remains paramount demanding improvements and innovations in both the donor and recipient operations to ensure superior outcomes. The specialty operation is best preformed at centers with specific expertise and shuttling of select patients to these centers supported by third party payers is critical. Training future surgeons at centers with this specific experience can help disseminate this technology to improve local availability. Ongoing research in immunosuppression minimization, withdrawal and tolerance induction may make living donation a desired first-line operation rather than a necessary albeit less-desirable option. This chapter summarizes the progress of living liver donation and its potential applications. PMID:23397534

  7. [Living donor liver transplantation in adults].

    PubMed

    Neumann, U P; Neuhaus, P; Schmeding, M

    2010-09-01

    The worldwide shortage of adequate donor organs implies that living donor liver transplantation represents a valuable alternative to cadaveric transplantation. In addition to the complex surgical procedure the correct identification of eligible donors and recipients plays a decisive role in living donor liver transplantation. Donor safety must be of ultimate priority and overrules all other aspects involved. In contrast to the slightly receding numbers in Europe and North America, in recent years Asian programs have enjoyed constantly increasing living donor activity. The experience of the past 15 years has clearly demonstrated that technical challenges of both bile duct anastomosis and venous outflow of the graft significantly influence postoperative outcome. While short-term in-hospital morbidity remains increased compared to cadaveric transplantation, long-term survival of both graft and patient are comparable or even better than in deceased donor transplantation. Especially for patients expecting long waiting times under the MELD allocation system, living donor liver transplantation offers an excellent therapeutic alternative. Expanding the so-called "Milan criteria" for HCC patients with the option for living donor liver transplantation is currently being controversially debated.

  8. One-dimensional plate impact experiments on the cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX) based explosive EDC32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Malcolm J.; Gustavsen, Richard L.; Bartram, Brian D.

    2012-09-01

    Eight one-dimensional plate impact experiments have been performed to study both the Shock to Detonation Transition and Hugoniot state in the cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX) based explosive EDC32. The experiments covered shock pressures ranging from 0.59 to 7.5 GPa with sustained shocks, double shocks, and short pulse shocks. Experiments were instrumented with embedded magnetic particle velocity gauges. Results include; (1) wave profiles of particle velocity vs. time vs. depth in the explosive, (2) time-distance coordinates for onset of detonation vs. initial shock pressure (aka the Pop-plot), (3) a reactants Hugoniot, and (4) measurement of the Hugoniot Elastic Limit of 0.22.GPa.

  9. Criteria for Developing Criteria Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James L.

    Criteria sets are a necessary step in the systematic development of evaluation in education. Evaluation results from the combination of criteria and evidence. There is a need to develop explicit tools for evaluating criteria, similar to those used in evaluating evidence. The formulation of such criteria depends on distinguishing between terms…

  10. Removal of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) using low pressure reverse osmosis membrane (LPROM).

    PubMed

    Razak, A R A; Ujang, Z; Ozaki, H

    2007-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are the focus of current environmental issues, as they can cause adverse health effects to animals and human, subsequent to endocrine function. The objective of this study was to remove a specific compound of EDCs (i.e. pentachlorophenol, C(6)OCL(5)Na, molecular weight of 288 g/mol) using low pressure reverse osmosis membrane (LPROM). A cross flow module of LPROM was used to observe the effects of operating parameters, i.e. pH, operating pressure and temperature. The design of the experiment was based on MINITAB(TM) software, and the analysis of results was conducted by factorial analysis. It was found that the rejection of pentachlorophenol was higher than 80% at a recovery rate of 60 to 70%. The rejection was subjected to increase with the increase of pH. The flux was observed to be increased with the increase of operating pressure and temperature. This study also investigated the interaction effects between operating parameters involved.

  11. Considerations in the Derivation of Water Quality Criteria for Endocrine-disrupting Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    When the USEPA’s 1985 guidelines for deriving numerical water quality criteria (WQC) for the protection of aquatic life were developed there was little anticipation that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) would be come a widespread environmental issue. While the basic guidelin...

  12. A Divergent Sm Fold in EDC3 Proteins Mediates DCP1 Binding and P-Body Targeting▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Tritschler, Felix; Eulalio, Ana; Truffault, Vincent; Hartmann, Marcus D.; Helms, Sigrun; Schmidt, Steffen; Coles, Murray; Izaurralde, Elisa; Weichenrieder, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Members of the (L)Sm (Sm and Sm-like) protein family are found across all kingdoms of life and play crucial roles in RNA metabolism. The P-body component EDC3 (enhancer of decapping 3) is a divergent member of this family that functions in mRNA decapping. EDC3 is composed of a N-terminal LSm domain, a central FDF domain, and a C-terminal YjeF-N domain. We show that this modular architecture enables EDC3 to interact with multiple components of the decapping machinery, including DCP1, DCP2, and Me31B. The LSm domain mediates DCP1 binding and P-body localization. We determined the three-dimensional structures of the LSm domains of Drosophila melanogaster and human EDC3 and show that the domain adopts a divergent Sm fold that lacks the characteristic N-terminal α-helix and has a disrupted β4-strand. This domain remains monomeric in solution and lacks several features that canonical (L)Sm domains require for binding RNA. The structures also revealed a conserved patch of surface residues that are required for the interaction with DCP1 but not for P-body localization. The conservation of surface and of critical structural residues indicates that LSm domains in EDC3 proteins adopt a similar fold that has separable novel functions that are absent in canonical (L)Sm proteins. PMID:17923697

  13. Can carbon monoxide-poisoned victims be organ donors?

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Noritomo; Nakao, Atsunori; Osako, Takaaki; Nishimura, Takeshi; Yamada, Taihei; Kohama, Keisuke; Sakata, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa-Aoyama, Michiko; Kotani, Joji

    2014-01-01

    The increasing demand for organ allografts to treat end-stage organ failure has driven changes in traditional donor criteria. Patients who have succumbed to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, a common cause of toxicological mortality, are usually rejected as organ donors. To fulfill the increasing demand, selection criteria must be expanded to include CO-poisoned donors. However, the use of allografts exposed to high CO concentrations is still under debate. Basic research and literature review data suggest that patients with brain death caused by CO poisoning should be considered appropriate organ donors. Accepting organs from CO-poisoned victims could increase the number of potential donors and lower the death rate of patients on the waiting lists. This review and reported cases may increase awareness among emergency department physicians, as well as transplant teams, that patients dying of CO exposure may be acceptable organ donors.

  14. Becoming a Donor

    MedlinePlus

    ... by Organ and Gender. > U.S. Waiting List Candidate Data HOW TO BECOME A DONOR The most important thing to do is to sign up as an organ and tissue donor in your state's donor registry. To cover all bases, it's also helpful to: Designate your decision on ...

  15. 21 CFR 640.51 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.51 Section 640.51 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS...) Whole blood donors shall meet the criteria for suitability prescribed in § 640.3. (b)...

  16. 21 CFR 640.51 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suitability of donors. 640.51 Section 640.51 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS...) Whole blood donors shall meet the criteria for suitability prescribed in § 640.3. (b)...

  17. Bioavailability of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs): Liposome-water partitioning and lipid membrane permeation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    The bioavailability of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is a function of a number of parameters including the ability of the chemical to partition into organic tissue and reach receptor sites within an organism. In this dissertation, equilibrium partition coefficients between water and lipid membrane vesicles and artificial lipid membrane permeability were investigated for evaluating bioavailability of aqueous pollutants. Structurally diverse endocrine disrupting chemicals were chosen as model compounds for partitioning experiments and simple hydrophobic organic chemicals were used for the evaluation of a parallel artificial membrane device developed to mimic bioconcentration rates in fish. Hydrophobic interactions represented by octanol/water partition coefficients (KOWs) were not appropriate for estimating lipid membrane/water partition coefficients (Klipws) for the selected EDCs having a relatively large molar liquid volume (MLV) and containing polar functional groups. Correlations that include MLV and polar surface area (PSA) reduce the predicted value of log K lipw, suggesting that lipid membranes are less favorable than 1-octanol for a hydrophobic solute because of the changes in membrane fluidity and the amount of cholesterol in the lipid bilayers. These results suggested that KOW alone has limited potential for estimating K lipw, and MLV or PSA may be used as additional descriptors for developing quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). The poor correlations between KOW and Klipw observed in this research may be due to the highly organized structure of lipid bilayers. Measured thermodynamic constants demonstrated that the entropy contribution becomes more dominant for more organized liposomes having saturated lipid tails. This implies that entropy-driven partitioning process makes Klipw different from KOW especially for more saturated lipid bilayer membranes. In the parallel artificial membrane system developed, a membrane filter

  18. Living donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, S C; Flowers, J L; Dunkin, B; Sklar, G N; Cho, E

    1999-03-01

    The need for more organs for kidney transplantation is increasing. Cadaver sources for these organs are stable, therefore living donation must increase if the need is to be met. Less perfect kidneys are now being transplanted. The pool of potential donors is being expanded. The process of kidney donation is being made easier in an effort to increase the number of donors. The donor work-up is being streamlined. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has been introduced, and appears to be promising as a technique of lessening donor pain and suffering, while maintaining excellent graft results.

  19. Assessing dose-response relationships for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs): a focus on non-monotonicity.

    PubMed

    Zoeller, R Thomas; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental principle in regulatory toxicology is that all chemicals are toxic and that the severity of effect is proportional to the exposure level. An ancillary assumption is that there are no effects at exposures below the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL), either because no effects exist or because they are not statistically resolvable, implying that they would not be adverse. Chemicals that interfere with hormones violate these principles in two important ways: dose-response relationships can be non-monotonic, which have been reported in hundreds of studies of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs); and effects are often observed below the LOAEL, including all environmental epidemiological studies examining EDCs. In recognition of the importance of this issue, Lagarde et al. have published the first proposal to qualitatively assess non-monotonic dose response (NMDR) relationships for use in risk assessments. Their proposal represents a significant step forward in the evaluation of complex datasets for use in risk assessments. Here, we comment on three elements of the Lagarde proposal that we feel need to be assessed more critically and present our arguments: 1) the use of Klimisch scores to evaluate study quality, 2) the concept of evaluating study quality without topical experts' knowledge and opinions, and 3) the requirement of establishing the biological plausibility of an NMDR before consideration for use in risk assessment. We present evidence-based logical arguments that 1) the use of the Klimisch score should be abandoned for assessing study quality; 2) evaluating study quality requires experts in the specific field; and 3) an understanding of mechanisms should not be required to accept observable, statistically valid phenomena. It is our hope to contribute to the important and ongoing debate about the impact of NMDRs on risk assessment with positive suggestions. PMID:25971795

  20. CCHCR1 interacts with EDC4, suggesting its localization in P-bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Y.H.; Wong, C.C.; Li, K.W.; Chan, K.M.; Boukamp, P.; Liu, W.K.

    2014-09-10

    Coiled‐coil alpha‐helical rod protein 1 (CCHCR1) is suggested as a candidate biomarker for psoriasis for more than a decade but its function remains poorly understood because of the inconsistent findings in the literature. CCHCR1 protein is suggested to be localized in the cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondria, or centrosome and to regulate various cellular functions, including steroidogenesis, proliferation, differentiation, and cytoskeleton organization. In this study, we attempted to find a consensus between these findings by identifying the interaction partners of CCHCR1 using co-immunoprecipiation with a stable cell line expressing EGFP-tagged CCHCR1. Out of more than 100 co-immunoprecipitants identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), the enhancer of mRNA-decapping protein 4 (EDC4), which is a processing body (P-body) component, was particularly found to be the major interacting partner of CCHCR1. Confocal imaging confirmed the localization of CCHCR1 in P-bodies and its N-terminus is required for this subcellular localization, suggesting that CCHCR1 is a novel P-body component. As P-bodies are the site for mRNA metabolism, our findings provide a molecular basis for the function of CCHCR1, any disruption of which may affect the transcriptome of the cell, and causing abnormal cell functions. - Highlights: • We identified CCHCR1 as a novel P-body component. • We identified EDC4 as the major interacting partner of CCHCR1. • N-terminus of CCHCR1 protein is required for its P-bodies localization.

  1. Blood donor selection in European Union directives: room for improvement

    PubMed Central

    de Kort, Wim; Mayr, Wolfgang; Jungbauer, Christof; Vuk, Tomislav; Kullaste, Riin; Seifried, Erhard; Grazzini, Giuliano; de Wit, Jeroen; Folléa, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Background Transfusion-transmissible infections have made both blood bankers and health authorities overly cautious. The general public expects and hence reinforces this policy. To obtain a high level of blood product safety, blood and plasma donors have to meet increasingly stringent eligibility criteria; however, it is not known whether this policy translates into improved outcomes for patients. There is a risk that the management of donors does not match the ambition of greater safety for patients. European directives related to the collection process and donor selection will probably be reconsidered in the next few years. Material and methods The development of European directives on donor selection and their basis in the literature were reviewed with an emphasis on the background and considerations for eligibility criteria to be included in the directives. Results The precautionary principle appears to be the predominant reason behind the set of eligibility criteria. However, the formal eligibility criteria, put into force in 2004, do not balance with the developments of the past decade in laboratory tests and measures that have substantially reduced actual infection risks. In no cases were the effects of eligibility criteria on the donor pool and donor well-being quantified. Regional differences in the epidemiology of transfusion-transmissible infections were not taken into consideration either. Discussion First, the Authors promote the collection of epidemiological data on the incidence and prevalence of conditions in the general population and in blood and plasma donors which could pose a risk for transfused patients, in order to use these data as a basis for decision-making in donor-selection policies. Second, the Authors suggest including allowance for differential deferral criteria throughout Europe, based on factual risk levels. There should be an accepted balance between donor and patient welfare, and also between risk to transfusion safety and risk of

  2. METABOLOMICS AS A TOOL FOR DISCRIMINATING AMONG ADAPTIVE, COMPENSATORY, AND TOXIC RESPONSES UPON EXPOSURE OF SMALL FISH TO EDCS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining the impact(s) of exposure on aquatic organisms by endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) is essential for determining the risks that these chemicals pose. However, to accurately evaluate these risks, beyond simply measuring a before and after exposure snapshot, resear...

  3. Developing Alliances to Improve Health and Education: Reflections of Leaders from EDC's Health and Human Development Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the division of Health and Human Development Programs at Education Development Center, Inc. (HHD/EDC), has often played a catalytic and facilitative role to create and manage alliances, which address particular challenges, such as improving the health of students and school staff, protecting worker safety, or promoting…

  4. TRANSGENERATIONAL (IN UTERO/LACTATIONAL) EXPOSURE PROTOCOL TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECTS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS (EDCS) IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This protocol is designed to evaluate the effects of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs) through fetal (transplacental) and/or neonatal (via the dam's milk) exposure during the critical periods of reproductive organogenesis in the rat. Continued direct exposure to the F1 pups...

  5. Identification of the Rps28 binding motif from yeast Edc3 involved in the autoregulatory feedback loop controlling RPS28B mRNA decay

    PubMed Central

    Kolesnikova, Olga; Back, Régis; Graille, Marc; Séraphin, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Edc3 protein was previously reported to participate in the auto-regulatory feedback loop controlling the level of the RPS28B messenger RNA (mRNA). We show here that Edc3 binds directly and tightly to the globular core of Rps28 ribosomal protein. This binding occurs through a motif that is present exclusively in Edc3 proteins from yeast belonging to the Saccharomycetaceae phylum. Functional analyses indicate that the ability of Edc3 to interact with Rps28 is not required for its general function and for its role in the regulation of the YRA1 pre-mRNA decay. In contrast, this interaction appears to be exclusively required for the auto-regulatory mechanism controlling the RPS28B mRNA decay. These observations suggest a plausible model for the evolutionary appearance of a Rps28 binding motif in Edc3. PMID:23956223

  6. Time-scale synchronization among EDC, EDML and TD ice cores (Antarctica) by volcanic stratigraphies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severi, Mirko; Becagli, Silvia; Castellano, Emiliano; Manganelli, Desirè; Traversi, Rita; Udisti, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    In the framework of the TALDICE project (TALos Dome Ice CorE), a deep ice core has been drilled on a peripheral dome of East Antarctica. The perforation at Talos Dome (159°11' E 72°49'S 2315 m a.s.l.) reached 1620 m during the 2007-2008 austral summer, covering a period of about 250 kyr. A reliable high-resolution synchronisation of the TD volcanic stratigraphy with the well dated EPICA DC and EPICA DML ice cores is a basic tool for the construction of a reliable timescale and will be a powerful tool to discover whether related climatic events in different sectors of the Antarctic continent occurred at the same time or if there was an offset for the same event in different sites. In this optic, a FIC (Fast Ion Chromatography) system (coupled to a CFA - Continuous Flow Analysis setup) was used to reconstruct the paleo-volcanic record at this site as was already done for the two EPICA cores with very high resolution (ranging from less than 1 to about 3.5 cm per sample). Here we report the results of the synchronisation among the TD and the EDC and EDML ice-cores via individuation of synchronous volcanic events for the last 40 kyr. Several isochronous volcanic events were identified by the comparison of the volcanic stratigraphies and these signatures will be an helpful tool in carrying on a fine-tuning of the pure glaciological model of the TD timescale. Low resolution accumulation rates at TD site for the last deglaciation were then derived from the comparison of couples of volcanic events using the EDC3 agescale. These accumulation rates were then compared to those derived via glaciological modelling showing a very good agreement. This kind of volcanic synchronisation was already carried out for the two EPICA ice cores and for the Vostok and EPICA-DC cores. Once this comparison will be fully available, it will be possible to synchronize these 4 archives and to extend the peak to peak comparison to other Antarctic ice cores. Furthermore the comparison of several

  7. Donor Telomere Length SAA

    Cancer.gov

    A new NCI study has found that, among patients with severe aplastic anemia who received a hematopoietic cell transplant from an unrelated donor, those whose donor white blood cells had longer telomeres had higher survival rates five-years after transplant

  8. Rich Donors, Poor Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The shifting ideological winds of foreign aid donors have driven their policy towards governments in poor countries. Donors supported state-led development policies in poor countries from the 1940s to the 1970s; market and private-sector driven reforms during the 1980s and 1990s; and returned their attention to the state with an emphasis on…

  9. Dealing with Donor Anger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Mike

    1995-01-01

    Techniques that reduce donors' resistance to college fund-raising requests, either direct mail or telephone solicitations, are offered. These include: respecting the prospects' concerns about privacy; offering nonintrusive giving options; honesty and clarity of communication; reinforcing donor sense of control; connecting with prospects'…

  10. Artificial intelligence techniques to optimize the EDC/NHS-mediated immobilization of cellulase on Eudragit L-100.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Xu, Jing-Liang; Yuan, Zhen-Hong; Qi, Wei; Liu, Yun-Yun; He, Min-Chao

    2012-01-01

    Two artificial intelligence techniques, namely artificial neural network (ANN) and genetic algorithm (GA) were combined to be used as a tool for optimizing the covalent immobilization of cellulase on a smart polymer, Eudragit L-100. 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethyllaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) concentration, N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) concentration and coupling time were taken as independent variables, and immobilization efficiency was taken as the response. The data of the central composite design were used to train ANN by back-propagation algorithm, and the result showed that the trained ANN fitted the data accurately (correlation coefficient R(2) = 0.99). Then a maximum immobilization efficiency of 88.76% was searched by genetic algorithm at a EDC concentration of 0.44%, NHS concentration of 0.37% and a coupling time of 2.22 h, where the experimental value was 87.97 ± 6.45%. The application of ANN based optimization by GA is quite successful.

  11. Artificial Intelligence Techniques to Optimize the EDC/NHS-Mediated Immobilization of Cellulase on Eudragit L-100

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Xu, Jing-Liang; Yuan, Zhen-Hong; Qi, Wei; Liu, Yun-Yun; He, Min-Chao

    2012-01-01

    Two artificial intelligence techniques, namely artificial neural network (ANN) and genetic algorithm (GA) were combined to be used as a tool for optimizing the covalent immobilization of cellulase on a smart polymer, Eudragit L-100. 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethyllaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) concentration, N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) concentration and coupling time were taken as independent variables, and immobilization efficiency was taken as the response. The data of the central composite design were used to train ANN by back-propagation algorithm, and the result showed that the trained ANN fitted the data accurately (correlation coefficient R2 = 0.99). Then a maximum immobilization efficiency of 88.76% was searched by genetic algorithm at a EDC concentration of 0.44%, NHS concentration of 0.37% and a coupling time of 2.22 h, where the experimental value was 87.97 ± 6.45%. The application of ANN based optimization by GA is quite successful. PMID:22942683

  12. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Deger, S; Giessing, M; Roigas, J; Wille, A H; Lein, M; Schönberger, B; Loening, S A

    2005-01-01

    Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy (LDN) has removed disincentives of potential donors and may bear the potential to increase kidney donation. Multiple modifications have been made to abbreviate the learning curve while at the same time guarantee the highest possible level of medical quality for donor and recipient. We reviewed the literature for the evolution of the different LDN techniques and their impact on donor, graft and operating surgeon, including the subtleties of different surgical accesses, vessel handling and organ extraction. We performed a literature search (PubMed, DIMDI, medline) to evaluate the development of the LDN techniques from 1995 to 2003. Today more than 200 centres worldwide perform LDN. Hand-assistance has led to a spread of LDN. Studies comparing open and hand-assisted LDN show a reduction of operating and warm ischaemia times for the hand-assisted LDN. Different surgical access sites (trans- or retroperitoneal), different vessel dissection approaches, donor organ delivery techniques, delivery sites and variations of hand-assistance techniques reflect the evolution of LDN. Proper techniques and their combination for the consecutive surgical steps minimize both warm ischaemia time and operating time while offering the donor a safe minimally invasive laparoscopic procedure. LDN has breathed new life into the moribund field of living kidney donation. Within a few years LDN could become the standard approach in living kidney donation. Surgeons working in this field must be trained thoroughly and well acquainted with the subtleties of the different LDN techniques and their respective advantages and disadvantages. PMID:16754618

  13. Characterization of emissions of dioxins and furans from ethylene dichloride (EDC), vinyl chloride (VCM) and polyvinylchloride (PVC) facilities in the United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, W.F. Jr.; Borrelli, F.E.; Garrity, P.J.; Jacobs, R.A.; Lewis, J.W.; McCreedy, R.L.; Weston, A.F.; Ledvina, J.C.

    1997-12-31

    Members of The Vinyl Inst., under the auspices of its Dioxin Characterization Program have analyzed for potential dioxin/furan (PCDD/F) concentrations in polyvinylchloride (PVC) resins, treated wastewater effluent, ethylene dichloride (EDC) product and wastewater sludge at EDC, vinyl chloride (VCM) and PVC facilities. No 2,3,7,8-TCDD was detected in any sample analyzed under the program to date. Results from wastewater sludge analysis are pending. Trace concentrations (low pg/g) of PCDD/F were detected in only a few samples of PVC resins and ethylene dichloride (EDC) product. Treated wastewater contained low ppq concentrations of PCDD/F. All concentrations are expressed as Toxicity Equivalents (TEQ). Extrapolation of these data shows that the contribution of EDC/VCM/PVC manufacturing via these media constitutes less than 1 percent of the US annual dioxin emission to the environment.

  14. Distinctive Characteristics of Educational Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Russell N., III.

    2008-01-01

    Examining the charitable behavior of 56,663 US households, this paper evaluates the distinctive characteristics of educational donors as compared with donors to noneducational charitable organizations and with nondonors. In general, educational donors had significantly greater income, wealth, and education than other donors. Educational donors…

  15. Donor exclusion in the National Blood Service Tissue Services living bone donor programme.

    PubMed

    Pink, F; Warwick, R M; Purkis, J; Pearson, J

    2006-01-01

    delays in forwarding blood samples to the microbiological laboratory for testing, resulting in deterioration of the sample quality. Training to ensure that standards are complied with and a firm evidence base for exclusion criteria, applied uniformly, will help focus donor identification efforts on individuals meeting rational criteria so that fewer potential donations are lost. PMID:16511660

  16. Donor exclusion in the National Blood Service Tissue Services living bone donor programme.

    PubMed

    Pink, F; Warwick, R M; Purkis, J; Pearson, J

    2006-01-01

    delays in forwarding blood samples to the microbiological laboratory for testing, resulting in deterioration of the sample quality. Training to ensure that standards are complied with and a firm evidence base for exclusion criteria, applied uniformly, will help focus donor identification efforts on individuals meeting rational criteria so that fewer potential donations are lost.

  17. Psychosocial impact of pediatric living-donor kidney and liver transplantation on recipients, donors, and the family: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Thys, Kristof; Schwering, Karl-Leo; Siebelink, Marion; Dobbels, Fabienne; Borry, Pascal; Schotsmans, Paul; Aujoulat, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    Living-donor kidney and liver transplantation intend to improve pediatric recipients' psychosocial well-being, but psychosocial impact in recipients strongly depends upon the impact on the donor and the quality of family relations. We systematically reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies addressing the psychosocial impact of pediatric living-donor kidney and liver transplantation in recipients, donors, and the family. In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, we systematically searched the databases Medline, Web of Knowledge, Cinahl, Embase, ERIC, and Google Scholar. We identified 23 studies that satisfied our inclusion criteria. Recipients had improved coping skills and satisfactory peer relationships, but also reported anxiety and depressive symptoms, worried about the future, and had a negative body image. Similarly, donors experienced increased self-esteem, empowerment, and community awareness, but also complained of postoperative pain and a lack of emotional support. With respect to family impact, transplantation generated a special bond between the donor and the recipient, characterized by gratitude and admiration, but also raised new expectations concerning the recipient's lifestyle. As psychological problems in recipients were sometimes induced by feelings of guilt and indebtedness toward the donor, we recommend more research on how gift exchange dynamics function within donor-recipient relationships, enrolling donors and recipients within the same study.

  18. Donor human milk banking and the emergence of milk sharing.

    PubMed

    Landers, Susan; Hartmann, Ben T

    2013-02-01

    Donor human milk has emerged as the preferred substrate to feed extremely preterm infants, when mother's own milk is unavailable. This article summarizes the clinical data demonstrating the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of feeding donor human milk to premature babies. It describes the current state of milk banking in North America, as well as other parts of the world, and the differing criteria for donor selection, current pasteurization techniques, and quality control measures. A risk assessment methodology is proposed, which would allow milk banks globally to assess the safety of their process and respond appropriately to differing risk environments. PMID:23178068

  19. Donor human milk banking and the emergence of milk sharing.

    PubMed

    Landers, Susan; Hartmann, Ben T

    2013-02-01

    Donor human milk has emerged as the preferred substrate to feed extremely preterm infants, when mother's own milk is unavailable. This article summarizes the clinical data demonstrating the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of feeding donor human milk to premature babies. It describes the current state of milk banking in North America, as well as other parts of the world, and the differing criteria for donor selection, current pasteurization techniques, and quality control measures. A risk assessment methodology is proposed, which would allow milk banks globally to assess the safety of their process and respond appropriately to differing risk environments.

  20. Evaluation of 100 patients for living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Trotter, J F; Wachs, M; Trouillot, T; Steinberg, T; Bak, T; Everson, G T; Kam, I

    2000-05-01

    The initial success of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in the United States has resulted in a growing interest in this procedure. The impact of LDLT on liver transplantation will depend in part on the proportion of patients considered medically suitable for LDLT and the identification of suitable donors. We report the outcome of our evaluation of the first 100 potential transplant recipients for LDLT at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center (Denver, CO). All patients considered for LDLT had first been approved for conventional liver transplantation by the Liver Transplant Selection Committee and met the listing criteria of United Network for Organ Sharing status 1, 2A, or 2B. Once listed, those patients deemed suitable for LDLT were given the option to consider LDLT and approach potential donors. Donors were evaluated with a preliminary screening questionnaire, followed by formal evaluation. Of the 100 potential transplant recipients evaluated, 51 were initially rejected based on recipient characteristics that included imminent cadaveric transplantation (8 patients), refusal of evaluation (4 patients), lack of financial approval (6 patients), and medical, psychosocial, or surgical problems (33 patients). Of the remaining 49 patients, considered ideal candidates for LDLT, 24 patients were unable to identify a suitable donor for evaluation. Twenty-six donors were evaluated for the remaining 25 potential transplant recipients. Eleven donors were rejected: 9 donors for medical reasons and 2 donors who refused donation after being medically approved. The remaining 15 donor-recipient pairs underwent LDLT. Using our criteria for the selection of recipients and donors for LDLT gave the following results: (1) 51 of 100 potential transplant recipients (51%) were rejected for recipient issues, (2) only 15 of the remaining 49 potential transplant recipients (30%) were able to identify an acceptable donor, and (3) 15 of 100 potential living donor

  1. Independent donor ethical assessment: aiming to standardize donor advocacy.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Devasmita; Jotterand, Fabrice; Casenave, Gerald; Smith-Morris, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    Living organ donation has become more common across the world. To ensure an informed consent process, given the complex issues involved with organ donation, independent donor advocacy is required. The choice of how donor advocacy is administered is left up to each transplant center. This article presents the experience and process of donor advocacy at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center administered by a multidisciplinary team consisting of physicians, surgeons, psychologists, medical ethicists and anthropologists, lawyers, a chaplain, a living kidney donor, and a kidney transplant recipient. To ensure that advocacy remains fair and consistent for all donors being considered, the donor advocacy team at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center developed the Independent Donor Ethical Assessment, a tool that may be useful to others in rendering donor advocacy. In addition, the tool may be modified as circumstances arise to improve donor advocacy and maintain uniformity in decision making.

  2. Independent donor ethical assessment: aiming to standardize donor advocacy.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Devasmita; Jotterand, Fabrice; Casenave, Gerald; Smith-Morris, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    Living organ donation has become more common across the world. To ensure an informed consent process, given the complex issues involved with organ donation, independent donor advocacy is required. The choice of how donor advocacy is administered is left up to each transplant center. This article presents the experience and process of donor advocacy at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center administered by a multidisciplinary team consisting of physicians, surgeons, psychologists, medical ethicists and anthropologists, lawyers, a chaplain, a living kidney donor, and a kidney transplant recipient. To ensure that advocacy remains fair and consistent for all donors being considered, the donor advocacy team at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center developed the Independent Donor Ethical Assessment, a tool that may be useful to others in rendering donor advocacy. In addition, the tool may be modified as circumstances arise to improve donor advocacy and maintain uniformity in decision making. PMID:24919733

  3. Impact of donor age in liver transplantation from donation after circulatory death donors: A decade of experience at Cleveland Clinic.

    PubMed

    Firl, Daniel J; Hashimoto, Koji; O'Rourke, Colin; Diago-Uso, Teresa; Fujiki, Masato; Aucejo, Federico N; Quintini, Cristiano; Kelly, Dympna M; Miller, Charles M; Fung, John J; Eghtesad, Bijan

    2015-12-01

    The use of liver grafts from donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors remains controversial, particularly with donors of advanced age. This retrospective study investigated the impact of donor age in DCD liver transplantation. We examined 92 recipients who received DCD grafts and 92 matched recipients who received donation after brain death (DBD) grafts at Cleveland Clinic from January 2005 to June 2014. DCD grafts met stringent criteria to minimize risk factors in both donors and recipients. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year graft survival in DCD recipients was significantly inferior to that in DBD recipients (82%, 71%, 66% versus 92%, 87%, 85%, respectively; P = 0.03). Six DCD recipients (7%), but no DBD recipients, experienced ischemic-type biliary stricture (P = 0.01). However, the incidence of biliary stricture was not associated with donor age (P = 0.57). Interestingly, recipients receiving DCD grafts from donors who were <45 years of age (n = 55) showed similar graft survival rates compared to those receiving DCD grafts from donors who were ≥45 years of age (n = 37; 80%, 69%, 66% versus 83%, 72%, 66%, respectively; P = 0.67). Cox proportional hazards modeling in all study populations (n = 184) revealed advanced donor age (P = 0.05) and the use of a DCD graft (P = 0.03) as unfavorable factors for graft survival. Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of DBD graft failure increased with increasing age, but the risk of DCD graft failure did not increase with increasing age (P = 0.13). In conclusion, these data suggest that stringent donor and recipient selection may ameliorate the negative impact of donor age in DCD liver transplantation. DCD grafts should not be discarded because of donor age, per se, and could help expand the donor pool for liver transplantation.

  4. Allergen Quantification by Use of Electrostatic Dust Collectors (EDCs): Influence of Deployment Time, Extraction Buffer, and Storage Conditions on the Results.

    PubMed

    Sander, Ingrid; Lotz, Anne; Zahradnik, Eva; Raulf, Monika

    2016-08-01

    Sampling of endotoxin, beta-glucan, or allergens on electrostatic dust collectors (EDCs) is a convenient method for exposure assessment. However, especially for allergens few experiments on validation of this method concerning deployment time or storage and extraction procedure have been performed. The aim of study was to optimize the EDC procedure for sampling of allergens in indoor environments. EDCs were placed in households or day-care centers and after extraction, allergens were quantified by six immunoassays detecting mite antigens (Domestic mites DM, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Dp, Tyrophagus putrescentiae Tp) or the main allergens from cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and mouse (Mus m 1). For 20 EDC holders, deployment times of cloths were varied between 7 and 28 days, 36 EDCs were used to test reproducibility, and for 28 EDCs extraction buffers were varied (with or without 0.05% Tween 20, borate, or phosphate buffer). The influence of storage of cloths at room temperature (2-629 days) or extracts at -80°C (7-639 days), and variation of extract storage temperature (-20°C and -80°C) for long time storage (1.5 years) on the outcome of allergen quantification were tested for about 150 EDCs. The allergens on EDC cloths increased proportionally with deployment time, and allergen loads on parallel sampled tissues were significantly correlated (P < 0.0001, Pearson of log-transformed values 0.91-0.99). Extraction without Tween reduced all results (P < 0.0001, -51% DM, -85% Dp, -60% Tp, -99% Fel d 1, -86% Can f 1, -52% Mus m 1), and borate buffer resulted in lower yields of Mus m 1 (-53%), DP (-45%), and Tp (-27%) than phosphate buffer. Storage of cloths at room temperature significantly decreased Can f 1 levels (P < 0.0001, -4.8% loss for every 30 days), whereas storage of extracts at -80°C decreased DM results (P < 0.0001, -1.2% loss for every 30 days). Extracts stored at -20°C gave at mean 12% higher DM results compared to extracts stored at -80°C for 1

  5. Allergen Quantification by Use of Electrostatic Dust Collectors (EDCs): Influence of Deployment Time, Extraction Buffer, and Storage Conditions on the Results.

    PubMed

    Sander, Ingrid; Lotz, Anne; Zahradnik, Eva; Raulf, Monika

    2016-08-01

    Sampling of endotoxin, beta-glucan, or allergens on electrostatic dust collectors (EDCs) is a convenient method for exposure assessment. However, especially for allergens few experiments on validation of this method concerning deployment time or storage and extraction procedure have been performed. The aim of study was to optimize the EDC procedure for sampling of allergens in indoor environments. EDCs were placed in households or day-care centers and after extraction, allergens were quantified by six immunoassays detecting mite antigens (Domestic mites DM, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Dp, Tyrophagus putrescentiae Tp) or the main allergens from cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and mouse (Mus m 1). For 20 EDC holders, deployment times of cloths were varied between 7 and 28 days, 36 EDCs were used to test reproducibility, and for 28 EDCs extraction buffers were varied (with or without 0.05% Tween 20, borate, or phosphate buffer). The influence of storage of cloths at room temperature (2-629 days) or extracts at -80°C (7-639 days), and variation of extract storage temperature (-20°C and -80°C) for long time storage (1.5 years) on the outcome of allergen quantification were tested for about 150 EDCs. The allergens on EDC cloths increased proportionally with deployment time, and allergen loads on parallel sampled tissues were significantly correlated (P < 0.0001, Pearson of log-transformed values 0.91-0.99). Extraction without Tween reduced all results (P < 0.0001, -51% DM, -85% Dp, -60% Tp, -99% Fel d 1, -86% Can f 1, -52% Mus m 1), and borate buffer resulted in lower yields of Mus m 1 (-53%), DP (-45%), and Tp (-27%) than phosphate buffer. Storage of cloths at room temperature significantly decreased Can f 1 levels (P < 0.0001, -4.8% loss for every 30 days), whereas storage of extracts at -80°C decreased DM results (P < 0.0001, -1.2% loss for every 30 days). Extracts stored at -20°C gave at mean 12% higher DM results compared to extracts stored at -80°C for 1

  6. [Liver transplants from living donors].

    PubMed

    Rogiers, X; Danninger, F; Malagó, M; Knoefel, W T; Gundlach, M; Bassas, A; Burdelski, M; Broelsch, C E

    1996-03-01

    In this article the authors discuss the advantages of Living Related Liver Transplantation (LRLT), criteria for the selection of donors and the standard operation technique. Among a total of 241 liver transplantation (LTx), 42 LRLT were performed at the University of Hamburg between October 1, 1991 and December 19, 1994. The body weight of recipients for LRLT ranged from 4,6 to 39 kg, with 64,2% having less than 10 kg. The volume of the donor left lateral liver lobe ranged from 100 cc to 350 cc. The average one year survival rate among electively operated patients-status 3-4 (UNOS 1995 classification) was 86.7%, two year survival rate 83.3%. The main advantages of LRLT are consired the following: 1. Absence of mortality on the waiting list, 2. Optimal timing of the transplantation (elective procedure, patient in a good condition), 3. Excellent organ (no primary non function), 4. A possible immunologic advantage, 5. Relief of the waiting list for cadaveric organs, 6. Psychological benefit for the family, 7. Cost effectiveness. Potential candidates for living donation with more than one cardiovascular risk factors were excluded. Social and psychological reasons leading to rejection of candidates were as follows: unstable family structure, expected professional or financial difficulties after living donation or withdrawal from consent. LRLT gives parents of a child with TLD a chance to avoid the risk of death on the waiting list or primary non function of the graft. LRLT has therefore established an important place in pediatric liver transplantation. PMID:8768973

  7. Optimized donor management and organ preservation before kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mundt, Heiko M; Yard, Benito A; Krämer, Bernhard K; Benck, Urs; Schnülle, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Kidney transplantation is a major medical improvement for patients with end-stage renal disease, but organ shortage limits its widespread use. As a consequence, the proportion of grafts procured from extended criteria donors (ECD) has increased considerably, but this comes along with increased rates of delayed graft function (DGF) and a higher incidence of immune-mediated rejection that limits organ and patient survival. Furthermore, most grafts are derived from brain dead organ donors, but the unphysiological state of brain death is associated with significant metabolic, hemodynamic, and pro-inflammatory changes, which further compromise patient and graft survival. Thus, donor interventions to preserve graft quality are fundamental to improve long-term transplantation outcome, but interventions must not harm other potentially transplantable grafts. Several donor pretreatment strategies have provided encouraging results in animal models, but evidence from human studies is sparse, as most clinical evidence is derived from single-center or nonrandomized trials. Furthermore, ethical matters have to be considered especially concerning consent from donors, donor families, and transplant recipients to research in the field of donor treatment. This review provides an overview of clinically proven and promising preclinical strategies of donor treatment to optimize long-term results after kidney transplantation.

  8. Interactions of fish gelatin and chitosan in uncrosslinked and crosslinked with EDC films: FT-IR study.

    PubMed

    Staroszczyk, Hanna; Sztuka, Katarzyna; Wolska, Julia; Wojtasz-Pająk, Anna; Kołodziejska, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Films based on fish gelatin, chitosan and blend of fish gelatin and chitosan before and after cross-linking with EDC have been characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. The FT-IR spectrum of fish gelatin film showed the characteristic amide I, amide II and amide III bands, and the FT-IR spectrum of chitosan film confirmed that the polymer was only a partially deacetylated product, and included CH3-C=O and NH2 groups, the latter both in their free -NH2 and protonated -NH3(+) form. Analysis of FT-IR spectra of two-component, fish gelatin-chitosan film revealed the formation not only of hydrogen bonds within and between chains of polymers, but also of electrostatic interactions between -COO(-) of gelatin and -NH3(+) of chitosan. Modification with EDC provided cross-linking of composites of the film. New iso-peptide bonds formed between activated carboxylic acid groups of glutamic or aspartic acid residue of gelatin and amine groups of gelatin or/and chitosan.

  9. Interactions of fish gelatin and chitosan in uncrosslinked and crosslinked with EDC films: FT-IR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staroszczyk, Hanna; Sztuka, Katarzyna; Wolska, Julia; Wojtasz-Pająk, Anna; Kołodziejska, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Films based on fish gelatin, chitosan and blend of fish gelatin and chitosan before and after cross-linking with EDC have been characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. The FT-IR spectrum of fish gelatin film showed the characteristic amide I, amide II and amide III bands, and the FT-IR spectrum of chitosan film confirmed that the polymer was only a partially deacetylated product, and included CH3sbnd Cdbnd O and NH2 groups, the latter both in their free -NH2 and protonated -NH3+ form. Analysis of FT-IR spectra of two-component, fish gelatin-chitosan film revealed the formation not only of hydrogen bonds within and between chains of polymers, but also of electrostatic interactions between -COO- of gelatin and -NH3+ of chitosan. Modification with EDC provided cross-linking of composites of the film. New iso-peptide bonds formed between activated carboxylic acid groups of glutamic or aspartic acid residue of gelatin and amine groups of gelatin or/and chitosan.

  10. Simultaneously photocatalytic treatment of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) using rotating reactor under solar irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngji; Joo, Hyunku; Her, Namguk; Yoon, Yeomin; Sohn, Jinsik; Kim, Sungpyo; Yoon, Jaekyung

    2015-05-15

    In this study, simultaneous treatments, reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and oxidation of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), such as bisphenol A (BPA), 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and 17β-estradiol (E2), were investigated with a rotating photocatalytic reactor including TiO₂ nanotubes formed on titanium mesh substrates under solar UV irradiation. In the laboratory tests with a rotating type I reactor, synergy effects of the simultaneous photocatalytic reduction and oxidation of inorganic (Cr(VI)) and organic (BPA) pollutants were achieved. Particularly, the concurrent photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) and oxidation of BPA was higher under acidic conditions. The enhanced reaction efficiency of both pollutants was attributed to a stronger charge interaction between TiO₂ nanotubes (positive charge) and the anionic form of Cr(VI) (negative charge), which are prevented recombination (electron-hole pair) by the hole scavenging effect of BPA. In the extended outdoor tests with a rotating type II reactor under solar irradiation, the experiment was extended to examine the simultaneous reduction of Cr(VI) in the presence of additional EDCs, such as EE2 and E2 as well as BPA. The findings showed that synergic effect of both photocatalytic reduction and oxidation was confirmed with single-component (Cr(VI) only), two-components (Cr(VI)/BPA, Cr(VI)/EE2, and Cr(VI)/E2), and four-components (Cr(VI)/BPA/EE2/E2) under various solar irradiation conditions.

  11. Recruitment of prospective donors: what do they expect from a homepage of a blood transfusion service?

    PubMed

    Moog, R; Fourné, K

    2007-08-01

    In times of shrinking donor population, the recruitment of donors is of utmost importance. Recruitment can be done by personal communication, advertisement/information, classical mass media (newspaper, radio, TV) or new computerized media. The aim of this study was to gain information about the donors' demands of an Internet presentation of a blood transfusion service. Between October and December 2004 inclusive, prospective donors were asked to complete a survey about the impact of Internet information for blood donors. The survey contained questions measuring demographics, education and motivation for blood donation. In addition, the survey included questions that measured Internet access, duration of online time and donors' demands for an Internet presentation of a blood transfusion service. Donors were asked to tick a box with predefined answers. In cases where no options were applied, donors were requested to specify their answers. One hundred and fourteen prospective donors (71 female, 43 male) with a median age of 25 years (range 18-57 years) completed the survey. Most donors (57.9%) were 18-30 years old. Forty-two (36.8%) of the surveyed donors were repeat donors, whereas 72 (63.2%) were first-time donors. The majority of donors were informed about blood donation from relatives or friends (70.7% repeat donors and 67.7% first-time donors). Most of them had Internet access (85.7% repeat donors and 90.3% first-time donors). Exclusive use of private access was more often reported in repeat donors (77.8%), whereas both private and professional access was more frequently used in first-time donors (32.3%). Most donors used the Internet access daily, followed by weekly and monthly use. Multiple answers were given about the importance of desired information about the topic 'blood donation'. Both first-time and repeat donors wanted to be informed about organizational details of blood donation such as opening times, eligibility criteria, donation process and the kind

  12. Why Minority Donors Are Needed

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Search Register with your state as an Organ Donor Home Why Donate Becoming a Donor About Donation & ... Why Donate RELATED INFORMATION Minority Focused Grantee Publications Organ Donation Process Enrolling as a Donor Trying to Save a Life Testing for Brain ...

  13. Potential donor segregation to promote blood donation.

    PubMed

    Martín-Santana, Josefa D; Beerli-Palacio, Asunción

    2008-04-01

    This work is set in the field of social marketing and more specifically in the context of blood donation. Its principal objective focuses on segregating potential donors by using the inhibitors or barriers to a blood donation behaviour as criteria. Moreover, an analysis of the predisposition to donate blood, the intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for donating blood, and the incentives that may stimulate their donation conduct was conducted for each of the four identified groups. The results reveal that the four segments differ significantly in their predisposition to donate, in their motivations and in the incentives that encourage them to donate blood. PMID:18343199

  14. 42 CFR 482.90 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... must use written donor selection criteria in determining the suitability of candidates for donation. (a... distribution of organs. (1) Prior to placement on the center's waiting list, a prospective transplant candidate... medical and psychosocial evaluation prior to donation, (2) Document in the living donor's medical...

  15. 42 CFR 482.90 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... must use written donor selection criteria in determining the suitability of candidates for donation. (a... distribution of organs. (1) Prior to placement on the center's waiting list, a prospective transplant candidate... medical and psychosocial evaluation prior to donation, (2) Document in the living donor's medical...

  16. 42 CFR 482.90 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... must use written donor selection criteria in determining the suitability of candidates for donation. (a... distribution of organs. (1) Prior to placement on the center's waiting list, a prospective transplant candidate... medical and psychosocial evaluation prior to donation, (2) Document in the living donor's medical...

  17. The medical evaluation of living kidney donors: a survey of US transplant centers.

    PubMed

    Mandelbrot, D A; Pavlakis, M; Danovitch, G M; Johnson, S R; Karp, S J; Khwaja, K; Hanto, D W; Rodrigue, J R

    2007-10-01

    The use of living donors for kidney transplantation in the United States is common, and long-term studies have demonstrated the safety of donation by young, healthy individuals. However, transplant programs have little data to guide them in deciding which donors are unacceptable, and which characteristics are associated with kidney disease or poor psychosocial outcomes after donation. To document current practices in evaluating potential donors, we surveyed all US kidney transplant programs. Compared to a survey 12 years ago, medical criteria for donation are more inclusive in several areas. All responding programs now accept living unrelated donors. Most programs no longer have an upper age limit to be eligible. Programs are now more likely to accept donors with treated hypertension, or a history of kidney stones, provided that certain additional criteria are met. In contrast, medical criteria for donation are more restrictive in other areas, such as younger donor age and low creatinine clearance. Overall, significant variability remains among transplant programs in the criteria used to evaluate donors. These findings highlight the need for more data on long-term outcomes in various types of donors with potential morbidities related to donation.

  18. Transmission of sexually transmitted diseases by donor semen.

    PubMed

    Shanis, B S; Check, J H; Baker, A F

    1989-01-01

    Therapeutic insemination by donor (TID) is being used with increasing frequency. Because many diseases, some of which are lethal, can be transmitted through semen, the American Fertility Society established guidelines for use of donor sperm. They limit TID to cases of male infertility or hereditary/genetic disorders. Donor selection requires good health and absence of genetic abnormalities; criteria for semen including normal sperm motility, concentration, and normal morphology, and blood screening for infectious agents. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing should be performed initially in donors for fresh semen inseminations. If positive, the assay is verified with a Western blot test; if negative, the donor should be screened at 6-month intervals. Frozen samples should not be used until the 180 day reevaluation of the donor. Many studies show higher pregnancy rates using fresh rather than frozen semen samples for insemination. New methods of cryopreservation minimize the deleterious effects of freezing. If these effects, namely decreased sperm motility and impaired penetration ability, are eliminated, pregnancy rates can be expected to rise. Frozen semen is preferable because it allows time for sexually transmitted diseases to manifest themselves and for specimens from those donors to be rejected prior to use. PMID:2619413

  19. Site-directed immobilization of antibody using EDC-NHS-activated protein A on a bimetallic-based surface plasmon resonance chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Young-Soo; Lee, Yeon Kyung

    2014-05-01

    The characteristics of a waveguide-coupled bimetallic surface plasmon resonance (WcBiM SPR) sensor using (3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide(EDC)-N-hydroxysuccinimide(NHS)-activated protein A was investigated, and the detection of IgG using the EDC-NHS-activated protein A was studied in comparison with protein A and a self-assembled monolayer (SAM). The WcBiM sensor, which has a narrower full width at half maximum (FWHM) and a steeper slope, was selected since it leads to a larger change in the reflectance in the intensity detection mode. A preparation of the EDC-NHS-activated protein A for site-directed immobilization of antibodies was relative easily compared to the engineered protein G and A. In antigen-antibody interactions, the response to IgG at the concentrations of 50, 100, and 150 ng/ml was investigated. The results showed that the sensitivity of the WcBiM sensor using the EDC-NHS-activated protein A, protein A, and SAM was 0.0185 [%/(ng/ml)], 0.0065 [%/(ng/ml)], and 0.0101 [%/(ng/ml)], respectively. The lowest detectable concentrations of IgG with the EDC-NHS-activated protein A, protein A, and SAM were 4.27, 12.83, and 8.24 ng/ml, respectively. Therefore, the increased sensitivity and lower detection capability of the WcBiM SPR chip with the EDC-NHS-activated protein A suggests that it could be used in early diagnosis where the trace level concentrations of biomolecules should be detected.

  20. The process of EDC-NHS Cross-linking of reconstituted collagen fibres increases collagen fibrillar order and alignment

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, D.V.; Shepherd, J.H.; Ghose, S.; Kew, S.J.; Cameron, R.E.; Best, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the production of collagen fibre bundles through a multi-strand, semi-continuous extrusion process. Cross-linking using an EDC (1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide), NHS (N-hydroxysuccinimide) combination was considered. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy focused on how cross-linking affected the collagen fibrillar structure. In the cross-linked fibres, a clear fibrillar structure comparable to native collagen was observed which was not observed in the non-cross-linked fibre. The amide III doublet in the Raman spectra provided additional evidence of alignment in the cross-linked fibres. Raman spectroscopy also indicated no residual polyethylene glycol (from the fibre forming buffer) or water in any of the fibres. PMID:25506518

  1. The process of EDC-NHS cross-linking of reconstituted collagen fibres increases collagen fibrillar order and alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, D. V. Shepherd, J. H.; Cameron, R. E.; Best, S. M.; Ghose, S.; Kew, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the production of collagen fibre bundles through a multi-strand, semi-continuous extrusion process. Cross-linking using an EDC (1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide), NHS (N-hydroxysuccinimide) combination was considered. Atomic Force Microscopy and Raman spectroscopy focused on how cross-linking affected the collagen fibrillar structure. In the cross-linked fibres, a clear fibrillar structure comparable to native collagen was observed which was not observed in the non-cross-linked fibre. The amide III doublet in the Raman spectra provided additional evidence of alignment in the cross-linked fibres. Raman spectroscopy also indicated no residual polyethylene glycol (from the fibre forming buffer) or water in any of the fibres.

  2. Preparation of thin film nanofibrous composite NF membrane based on EDC/NHS modified PAN-AA nanofibrous substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Wang, X.; Hsiao, B. S.

    2016-07-01

    A novel kind of thin-film nanofibrous composite (TFNC) nanofiltration (NF) membranes consisting of a polyamide (PA) barrier layer were successfully fabricated by interfacial polymerization (IFP) based on electrospun double-layer nanofibrous substrates, which have an ultrathin poly (acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) (PAN-AA) nanofibrous layer as top layer and a thicker polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber layer as bottom porous support layer. Immersing PAN/PAN-AA nanofibrous substrates into 1-ethyl-(3-3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) aqueous solution and piperazine (PIP) aqueous solution (0.20 wt%) sequentially for a period of time, the carboxyl groups on PAN-AA nanofibers were activated by carbodiimide and then reacted with the amide groups. The as prepared composite membrane has an integrated structure with high rejection rate (98.0%); high permeate flux (40.4 L/m2h) for MgSO4 aqueous solution (2 g/L).

  3. Construction of amphiphilic segments on polypropylene nonwoven surface and its application in removal of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kai; Wei, Junfu; Zhou, Xiangyu; Liu, Nana

    2015-05-01

    The amphiphilic segments on polypropylene nonwoven (PP nonwoven) surface were constructed using the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation graft polymerization for the removal of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) with different polarity from aqueous solution. The stearyl acrylate (SA) as hydrophobic functional monomer was introduced onto the surface of PP nonwoven fabric at first stage and then the hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) as hydrophilic functional monomer was introduced subsequently. The effect of functional monomer concentration and UV irradiation time on grafting ratio was studied and discussed. The novel amphiphilic structure was designed and constructed based on adsorption capacity for the target micropollutants. The structure and composition of the amphiphilic adsorption materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle (CA). The adsorption behaviors for EDCs of the amphiphilic adsorption materials were studied and the results indicated that the adsorption capacity and adsorption rate were superior to single SA grafted PP nonwoven (PP-g-SA) and single HEA grafted PP nonwoven (PP-g-HEA). The novel amphiphilic adsorption material was efficient for the removal of EDCs with different polarity and could be utilized as a potential adsorption material for removing EDCs from aqueous solution.

  4. Possible strategies for EDC testing in the future: exploring roles of pathway-based in silico, in vitro and in vivo methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current methods for screening, testing and monitoring endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) rely relatively substantially upon moderate- to long-term assays that can, in some instances, require significant numbers of animals. Recent developments in the areas of in vitro testing...

  5. 1H-NMR METABOLOMICS ANALYIS OF ZEBRAFISH (DANIO RERIO) EXPOSED TO THE ENVIRONMENTALLY-RELEVANT EDC 17 ALPHA-ETHINYLESTRADIOL (EE2)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevated levels of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been reported in waterways worldwide and have been shown to affect numerous aspects of development, behavior, reproduction, and survival in various fish species. We have examined the effects of the synthetic steroid 1...

  6. USING 1H-NMR METABOLOMICS TO CHARACTERIZE ALTERED METABOLIC PROFILES IN ZEBRAFISH (DANIO RERIO) EXPOSED TO THE MODEL EDCS 17 ALPHA-ETHINYLESTRADIOL (EE2) AND FADROZOLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevated levels of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been reported in waterways worldwide and have been shown to affect numerous aspects of development, behavior, reproduction, and survival in various fish species. We have examined the effects of the synthetic steroid 17...

  7. Characterization of human milk donors.

    PubMed

    Osbaldiston, Richard; Mingle, Leigh A

    2007-11-01

    The primary objective of this research was to create a detailed characterization of human milk donors, including descriptive information about demographics and lifestyle, involvement with the milk bank, reasons for donating, problems encountered while breastfeeding and pumping milk, barriers to donating milk, affective experiences, and personal values. Data were collected via telephone interview of 87 donors and 19 nondonor controls. Few relationships were found between the descriptive information and amount of milk donated. Donors reported fewer problems pumping milk than nondonors. Strategies for recruiting new donors and strategies for increasing donation amounts are presented.

  8. Association of metabolic syndrome with kidney function and histology in living kidney donors.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Y; Thomas, G; Nurko, S; Stephany, B; Fatica, R; Chiesa, A; Rule, A D; Srinivas, T; Schold, J D; Navaneethan, S D; Poggio, E D

    2013-09-01

    The selection of living kidney donors is based on a formal evaluation of the state of health. However, this spectrum of health includes subtle metabolic derangements that can cluster as metabolic syndrome. We studied the association of metabolic syndrome with kidney function and histology in 410 donors from 2005 to 2012, of whom 178 donors were systematically followed after donation since 2009. Metabolic syndrome was defined as per the NCEP ATPIII criteria, but using a BMI > 25 kg/m(2) instead of waist circumference. Following donation, donors received counseling on lifestyle modification. Metabolic syndrome was present in 50 (12.2%) donors. Donors with metabolic syndrome were more likely to have chronic histological changes on implant biopsies than donors with no metabolic syndrome (29.0% vs. 9.3%, p < 0.001). This finding was associated with impaired kidney function recovery following donation. At last follow-up, reversal of metabolic syndrome was observed in 57.1% of donors with predonation metabolic syndrome, while only 10.8% of donors developed de novo metabolic syndrome (p < 0.001). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome in donors is associated with chronic histological changes, and nephrectomy in these donors was associated with subsequent protracted recovery of kidney function. Importantly, weight loss led to improvement of most abnormalities that define metabolic syndrome.

  9. Artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID): heterogeneity in sperm banking facilities in a single country (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Thijssen, A; Dhont, N; Vandormael, E; Cox, A; Klerkx, E; Creemers, E; Ombelet, W

    2014-01-01

    Due to the high inflow of foreign patients seeking cross-border reproductive care in Belgium and the increased number of lesbian couples and single women who call for artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID), Belgian sperm banks nowadays face a shortage in donor sperm. However, since there is no central registration system for sperm donors in Belgium, no figures are currently available supporting this statement. Therefore a study was performed to obtain a detailed overview of the sperm banking facilities in Belgium. Questionnaires were sent to all Belgian centres for assisted reproduction with laboratory facilities (n = 18) to report on their sperm banking methods. The results showed that 82% of the centres rely partially or completely on foreign donor sperm. Moreover, four of the thirteen centres that have their own sperm bank use imported donor sperm in > 95% AID cycles. Our results show that in 63% of the Belgian AID cycles imported Danish donor sperm is being used. Donor recruitment is mainly performed through the centre's website (61%) or by distributing flyers in the centre (46%) and 9 to 180 potential donors have been recruited per centre in 2013. Eventually, 15 to 50% of these candidate donors were accepted. Different criteria for donor acceptance are handled by the centres: donor age limits range from 18-25 to 36-46 years old, and thresholds for sperm normality differ considerably. We can conclude that a wide variation in methods associated with sperm banking is observed in Belgian centres.

  10. Organ Donor FAQ's: Who Can Be a Donor

    MedlinePlus

    ... citizens have been organ donors. Can non-resident aliens donate and receive organs? Non-resident aliens can both donate and receive organs in the ... the 12,375 organ donors were non-resident aliens. In this same year, 259 (1%) of the ...

  11. [Use of related live donors in renal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Broyer, M

    1996-06-01

    Collecting pertinent information is first step in assessing the use of living-related kidneys for transplantation. Current bioethics legislation in France limits kidney donation to first-degree family members and spouses in emergency situations. Severe penalties are inflicted for use of other donors or sale of organs. Further valuable information can be obtained from reports in the literature on complications in donors and on the advantages of living donor organs. The proportion of live donors in France is small (3.5% from 1984 through 1993) indicating that transplantation teams prefer cadaver organs except in pediatric cases. The proportion of live donor organs transplanted in northern Europe and North America is much higher. A quick survey of French teams show that opinions and practices vary. Questions still under debate include how to guarantee freedom to refuse or accept, a freedom directly related to correct information. Several propositions have been made in an attempt to harmonize management. First, an information sheet could be distributed during the early discussions, outlining the advantages and disadvantages of live organ donation. A list of complementary examinations could also be established to identify possible contraindications for nephrectomy and define exclusion criteria. A similar procedure adopted by all transplantation teams could be based on these propositions presented in the appendix. Potential donors could then benefit from uniform protection. PMID:8685149

  12. A review of current status of living donor liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gil-Chun; Song, Gi-Won; Moon, Deok-Bog

    2016-01-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has become an inevitable procedure in Asia due to its shortage of deceased donor under the influence of the religion and native cultures. Through a broad variety of experience, LDLT has been evolved and extended its indication. Although there have been many surgical and ethical efforts to prevent donor risk, concerns of donor’s safety still are remaining questions due to its strict selection criteria. Therefore, dual grafts LDLT or ABO incompatible (ABO-I) LDLT may be effective means in its application and safety aspect. Many Asian LDLT centers have pointed out the useful extended criteria of LDLT for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the applicability of extended criteria should be validated and standardized by worldwide prospective studies based on the Milan criteria. Recent struggling efforts have been reported to surmount extensive portal vein thrombosis and Budd-Chiari syndrome which were previously contraindicated to LDLT. There is no doubt that LDLT is a surely complicated therapy to be performed successfully and requires devoted efforts by surgeons and co-workers. Nonetheless, comprehensive increasing understandings of partial graft LT and improvements of surgical techniques with challenges to obstacles in LDLT will make its prosperity with satisfactory outcomes. PMID:27115004

  13. The S. pombe mRNA decapping complex recruits cofactors and an Edc1-like activator through a single dynamic surface

    PubMed Central

    Wurm, Jan Philip; Overbeck, Jan; Sprangers, Remco

    2016-01-01

    The removal of the 5′ 7-methylguanosine mRNA cap structure (decapping) is a central step in the 5′–3′ mRNA degradation pathway and is performed by the Dcp1:Dcp2 decapping complex. The activity of this complex is tightly regulated to prevent premature degradation of the transcript. Here, we establish that the aromatic groove of the EVH1 domain of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Dcp1 can interact with proline-rich sequences in the exonuclease Xrn1, the scaffolding protein Pat1, the helicase Dhh1, and the C-terminal disordered region of Dcp2. We show that this region of Dcp1 can also recruit a previously unidentified enhancer of decapping protein (Edc1) and solved the crystal structure of the complex. NMR relaxation dispersion experiments reveal that the Dcp1 binding site can adopt multiple conformations, thus providing the plasticity that is required to accommodate different ligands. We show that the activator Edc1 makes additional contacts with the regulatory domain of Dcp2 and that an activation motif in Edc1 increases the RNA affinity of Dcp1:Dcp2. Our data support a model where Edc1 stabilizes the RNA in the active site, which results in enhanced decapping rates. In summary, we show that multiple decapping factors, including the Dcp2 C-terminal region, compete with Edc1 for Dcp1 binding. Our data thus reveal a network of interactions that can fine-tune the catalytic activity of the decapping complex. PMID:27354705

  14. [Deceased organ donors, legal regulations governing diagnosis of brain death, overview of donors and liver transplants in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Pokorná, E

    2013-08-01

    The key restriction of transplantation medicine globally, as well as in the Czech Republic, concerns the lack of organs. The number of deceased donors, and thus the availability of organ transplants, has been stagnating in our country. The paper describes current legal regulations governing the dia-gnosis of brain death and primary legal and medical criteria for the contraindication of the deceased for organ explantation, gives an overview of the number of liver transplants, age structure, and diagnosis resulting in brain death of the deceased liver donors in the Czech Republic.

  15. [Deceased organ donors, legal regulations governing diagnosis of brain death, overview of donors and liver transplants in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Pokorná, E

    2013-08-01

    The key restriction of transplantation medicine globally, as well as in the Czech Republic, concerns the lack of organs. The number of deceased donors, and thus the availability of organ transplants, has been stagnating in our country. The paper describes current legal regulations governing the dia-gnosis of brain death and primary legal and medical criteria for the contraindication of the deceased for organ explantation, gives an overview of the number of liver transplants, age structure, and diagnosis resulting in brain death of the deceased liver donors in the Czech Republic. PMID:24007222

  16. Strategies to increase the donor pool and access to kidney transplantation: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Maggiore, Umberto; Oberbauer, Rainer; Pascual, Julio; Viklicky, Ondrej; Dudley, Chris; Budde, Klemens; Sorensen, Soren Schwartz; Hazzan, Marc; Klinger, Marian; Abramowicz, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    In this position article, DESCARTES (Developing Education Science and Care for Renal Transplantation in European States) board members describe the current strategies aimed at expanding living and deceased donor kidney pools. The article focuses on the recent progress in desensitization and kidney paired exchange programmes and on the expanded criteria for the use of donor kidneys and organs from donors after circulatory death. It also highlights differences in policies and practices across different regions with special regard to European Union countries. Living donor kidney paired exchange, the deceased donor Acceptable Mismatch Programme and kidneys from donors after circulatory death are probably the most promising innovations for expanding kidney transplantation in Europe over the coming decade. To maximize success, an effort is needed to standardize transplant strategies, policies and legislation across European countries. PMID:24907023

  17. Preparation and properties of EDC/NHS mediated crosslinking poly (gamma-glutamic acid)/epsilon-polylysine hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Hua, Jiachuan; Li, Zheng; Xia, Wen; Yang, Ning; Gong, Jixian; Zhang, Jianfei; Qiao, Changsheng

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a novel pH-sensitive poly (amino acid) hydrogel based on poly γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) and ε-polylysine (ε-PL) was prepared by carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) mediated polymerization. The influence of PGA/PL molar ratio and EDC/NHS concentration on the structure and properties was studied. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) proved that hydrogels were crosslinked through amide bond linkage, and the conversion rate of a carboxyl group could reach 96%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed a regularly porous structure with 20 μm pore size in average. The gelation time in the crosslink process of PGA/PL hydrogels was within less than 5 min. PGA/PL hydrogels had excellent optical performance that was evaluated by a novel optotype method. Furthermore, PGA/PL hydrogels were found to be pH-sensitive, which could be adjusted to the pH of swelling media intelligently. The terminal pH of swelling medium could be controlled at 5 ± 1 after equilibrium when the initial pH was within 3-11. The swelling kinetics was found to follow a Voigt model in deionized water but a pseudo-second-order model in normal saline and phosphate buffer solution, respectively. The differential swelling degrees were attributed to the swelling theory based on the different ratio of -COOH/-NH2 and pore size in hydrogels. The results of mechanical property indicated that PGA/PL hydrogels were soft and elastic. Moreover, PGA/PL hydrogels exhibited excellent biocompatibility by cell proliferation experiment. PGA/PL hydrogels could be degraded in PBS solution and the degradation rate was decreased with the increase of the molar ratio of PL. Considering the simple preparation process and pH-sensitive property, these PGA/PL hydrogels might have high potential for use in medical and clinical fields.

  18. The Lombardy Rare Donor Programme

    PubMed Central

    Revelli, Nicoletta; Villa, Maria Antonietta; Paccapelo, Cinzia; Manera, Maria Cristina; Rebulla, Paolo; Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Marconi, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2005, the government of Lombardy, an Italian region with an ethnically varied population of approximately 9.8 million inhabitants including 250,000 blood donors, founded the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme, a regional network of 15 blood transfusion departments coordinated by the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory of the Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico in Milan. During 2005 to 2012, Lombardy funded LORD-P with 14.1 million euros. Materials and methods During 2005–2012 the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme members developed a registry of blood donors and a bank of red blood cell units with either rare blood group phenotypes or IgA deficiency. To do this, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory performed extensive serological and molecular red blood cell typing in 59,738 group O or A, Rh CCDee, ccdee, ccDEE, ccDee, K− or k− donors aged 18–55 with a record of two or more blood donations, including both Caucasians and ethnic minorities. In parallel, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory implemented a 24/7 service of consultation, testing and distribution of rare units for anticipated or emergent transfusion needs in patients developing complex red blood cell alloimmunisation and lacking local compatible red blood cell or showing IgA deficiency. Results Red blood cell typing identified 8,747, 538 and 33 donors rare for a combination of common antigens, negative for high-frequency antigens and with a rare Rh phenotype, respectively. In June 2012, the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme frozen inventory included 1,157 red blood cell units. From March 2010 to June 2012 one IgA-deficient donor was detected among 1,941 screened donors and IgA deficiency was confirmed in four previously identified donors. From 2005 to June 2012, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory provided 281 complex red blood cell alloimmunisation consultations and distributed 8,008 Lombardy Rare Donor Programme red blood cell units within and outside the region

  19. [Altruism and the donor].

    PubMed

    Langlois, A

    1991-08-01

    On December 20, 1988, the government of France passed a law to protect people who voluntarily participate in biomedical research. This article makes extensive reference to a major study, titled From Biology to Ethics, by Jean Bernard, a well-respected authority in the field of bioethics. The author looks at models proposed by Bernard, as examples for health volunteers, in particular, the blood donor and the self-experimenter. To set the tone of the article, she recalls the concept of altruism, as first proposed by Auguste Comte, then makes a linkage between his philosophy and Bernard's point of view. By trial and error, in their discussions, various ethics committees and the French State Council have agreed upon what constitutes fair compensation under the law. Unlike their Canadian counterparts, medical researchers in France have free access to volunteers who are not in perfect health--e.g., the elderly, people suffering from kidney deficiency, cirrhosis of the liver, etc.--but these "experimental subjects" receive no monetary compensation. Thus, healthy and less-than-healthy volunteers do not receive equal treatment under the law. This inequity, added to the fear of what amounts to a tax on the human body and the difficulty of ensuring just compensation, is giving rise to a great deal of uncertainty.

  20. [Altruism and the donor].

    PubMed

    Langlois, A

    1991-08-01

    On December 20, 1988, the government of France passed a law to protect people who voluntarily participate in biomedical research. This article makes extensive reference to a major study, titled From Biology to Ethics, by Jean Bernard, a well-respected authority in the field of bioethics. The author looks at models proposed by Bernard, as examples for health volunteers, in particular, the blood donor and the self-experimenter. To set the tone of the article, she recalls the concept of altruism, as first proposed by Auguste Comte, then makes a linkage between his philosophy and Bernard's point of view. By trial and error, in their discussions, various ethics committees and the French State Council have agreed upon what constitutes fair compensation under the law. Unlike their Canadian counterparts, medical researchers in France have free access to volunteers who are not in perfect health--e.g., the elderly, people suffering from kidney deficiency, cirrhosis of the liver, etc.--but these "experimental subjects" receive no monetary compensation. Thus, healthy and less-than-healthy volunteers do not receive equal treatment under the law. This inequity, added to the fear of what amounts to a tax on the human body and the difficulty of ensuring just compensation, is giving rise to a great deal of uncertainty. PMID:1878857

  1. Family donors are critical and legitimate in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Allain, Jean-Pierre; Sibinga, Cees Th Smit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: For many years, family blood donors have been considered less safe than volunteer non-remunerated blood donors and actively discouraged by international organisations and affluent countries support agencies for developing countries. In addition to safety, pressure and coercion was considered unethical. However these assumptions were not supported by evidence. Aims of the study: To assemble recently collected evidence to reopen the assessment whether or not the ban of family blood donors is justified. Methods: Review of old and recent literature through Pubmed and references from identified articles. Results and Discussion: Viral marker data comparing confirmed seroprevalence in 1st time volunteer non-remunerated donors (VNRD) and family/replacement donors (FRD) corrected for gender and age, show no significant difference between the two groups. Evidence has been provided that for both VNRD and FAD benevolence is more appropriate than altruism. The two groups merge for psychological attitude to donation for which knowing someone needing transfusion is a powerful incentive to give blood. Excluding a life or death situation found in areas where severe blood shortage justifies replacement donation, pressures are exerted on both VNRD and FRD. There is no evidence of coercion of FRD. FRDs therefore meet all criteria for VNRD and are willing to become VNRD and to repeat donation. Ostracising FRD is illegitimate and damaging to the blood supply in resource poor areas. In some countries no difference is made between the two groups of donors representing similar populations asked to give blood in different circumstances. Conclusions: FRDs remain a critical source of volunteer, non-remunerated, blood meeting all classical criteria of VNRD that should be considered legitimate and indispensable at this point in time instead of discouraged. PMID:27011664

  2. Living kidney donors and ESRD.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2015-07-01

    There are more than 325 living kidney donors who have developed end-stage renal disease and have been listed on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN)/United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) deceased donor kidney wait list. The OPTN/UNOS database records where these kidney donors are listed and, if they donated after April 1994, where that donation occurred. These 2 locations are often not the same. In this commentary, I examine whether a national living donor registry should be created and whether transplantation centers should be notified when one of their living kidney donors develops end-stage renal disease. I consider and refute 5 potential objections to center notification. I explain that transplantation centers should look back at these cases and input data into a registry to attempt to identify patterns that could improve donor evaluation protocols. Creating a registry and mining the information it contains is, in my view, our moral and professional responsibility to future patients and the transplantation endeavor. As individuals and as a community, we need to acknowledge the many unknown risks of living kidney donation and take responsibility for identifying these risks. We then must share information about these risks, educate prospective donors about them, and attempt to minimize them.

  3. Expanding the pool of kidney donors: use of kidneys with acute renal dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    de Matos, Ana Cristina Carvalho; Requião-Moura, Lúcio Roberto; Clarizia, Gabriela; Durão, Marcelino de Souza; Tonato, Eduardo José; Chinen, Rogério; de Arruda, Érika Ferraz; Filiponi, Thiago Corsi; Pires, Luciana Mello de Mello Barros; Bertocchi, Ana Paula Fernandes; Pacheco-Silva, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Given the shortage of organs transplantation, some strategies have been adopted by the transplant community to increase the supply of organs. One strategy is the use of expanded criteria for donors, that is, donors aged >60 years or 50 and 59 years, and meeting two or more of the following criteria: history of hypertension, terminal serum creatinine >1.5mg/dL, and stroke as the donor´s cause of death. In this review, emphasis was placed on the use of donors with acute renal failure, a condition considered by many as a contraindication for organ acceptance and therefore one of the main causes for kidney discard. Since these are well-selected donors and with no chronic diseases, such as hypertension, renal disease, or diabetes, many studies showed that the use of donors with acute renal failure should be encouraged, because, in general, acute renal dysfunction is reversible. Although most studies demonstrated these grafts have more delayed function, the results of graft and patient survival after transplant are very similar to those with the use of standard donors. Clinical and morphological findings of donors, the use of machine perfusion, and analysis of its parameters, especially intrarenal resistance, are important tools to support decision-making when considering the supply of organs with renal dysfunction. PMID:26154553

  4. Expanding the pool of kidney donors: use of kidneys with acute renal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Matos, Ana Cristina Carvalho de; Requião-Moura, Lúcio Roberto; Clarizia, Gabriela; Durão Junior, Marcelino de Souza; Tonato, Eduardo José; Chinen, Rogério; Arruda, Érika Ferraz de; Filiponi, Thiago Corsi; Pires, Luciana Mello de Mello Barros; Bertocchi, Ana Paula Fernandes; Pacheco-Silva, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Given the shortage of organs transplantation, some strategies have been adopted by the transplant community to increase the supply of organs. One strategy is the use of expanded criteria for donors, that is, donors aged >60 years or 50 and 59 years, and meeting two or more of the following criteria: history of hypertension, terminal serum creatinine >1.5mg/dL, and stroke as the donor´s cause of death. In this review, emphasis was placed on the use of donors with acute renal failure, a condition considered by many as a contraindication for organ acceptance and therefore one of the main causes for kidney discard. Since these are well-selected donors and with no chronic diseases, such as hypertension, renal disease, or diabetes, many studies showed that the use of donors with acute renal failure should be encouraged, because, in general, acute renal dysfunction is reversible. Although most studies demonstrated these grafts have more delayed function, the results of graft and patient survival after transplant are very similar to those with the use of standard donors. Clinical and morphological findings of donors, the use of machine perfusion, and analysis of its parameters, especially intrarenal resistance, are important tools to support decision-making when considering the supply of organs with renal dysfunction.

  5. [Non-heart-beating donors are ineligible].

    PubMed

    Heide, W

    2016-02-01

    The death of the donor is a mandatory prerequisite for organ transplantation (dead donor rule) worldwide. It is a medical, legal and ethical consensus to accept the concept of brain death, as first proposed in 1968 by the ad hoc committee of the Harvard Medical School, as a certain criterion of death. In isolated cases where the diagnosis of brain death was claimed to be wrong, it could be demonstrated that the diagnostic procedure for brain death had not been correctly performed. In March 2014 a joint statement by the German neuromedical societies emphasized that 1) the diagnosis of brain death is one of the safest diagnoses in medicine if performed according to accepted medical standards and criteria and 2) the concept of non-heart-beating donors (NHBD, i. e. organ donation after an arbitrarily defined duration of circulatory and cardiac arrest) practiced in some European countries must be absolutely rejected because it implicates a high risk of diagnostic error. According to the current literature it is unclear at what time cardiac and circulatory arrest is irreversible and leads to irreversible cessation of all functions of the entire brain including the brainstem, even though clinical signs of cessation of brain functions are always found after 10 min. Furthermore, is it often an arbitrary decision to exactly define the duration of cardiac arrest if continuous echocardiographic monitoring has not been carried out from the very beginning. Last but not least there are ethical concerns against the concept of NHBD because it might influence therapeutic efforts to resuscitate a patient with cardiac arrest. Therefore, the German Medical Council (BÄK) has repeatedly rejected the concept of NHBD for organ transplantation since 1995. PMID:26830897

  6. Sexual risk behaviour and donor deferral in Europe.

    PubMed

    Offergeld, R; Kamp, C; Heiden, M; Norda, R; Behr-Gross, M-E

    2014-11-01

    One of the most controversial policies in blood transfusion worldwide is the permanent deferral from donating blood of men with sexual contacts to other men (MSM). This policy was implemented for safety reasons as sex between men is known to be a high risk factor for acquiring severe infectious diseases transmissible by blood transfusion. Sexual contacts among heterosexual persons may hold similar risks but a clear-cut discrimination between different individual risks is impossible. Nevertheless, the current blood donor deferral periods defined by European Union (EU) legislation depend on a distinction of different grades of risk with respect to sexual behaviour. Under the aegis of the Steering Committee on Blood Transfusion (CD-P-TS) of the Council of Europe (CoE), an international working group evaluated epidemiological and behavioural data, modelling studies on residual risk and spread of infections, and studies on adherence to donor selection criteria. The aim was to distinguish sexual behaviour of different risk categories. It was concluded, that existing data confirm that MSM and commercial sex workers (CSW) are groups at high risk. Any further grading lacks a scientific data base. Modelling studies indicate that adherence to deferral policies is of major relevance suggesting that good donor adherence may outweigh the small negative effects on blood safety postulated for changing from permanent to temporary deferral periods for high risk sexual behaviours. The fact that a considerable percentage of donors are MSM - despite the permanent deferral policy - demonstrates the need to increase donor understanding and adherence.

  7. Integrated testing of an electrochemical depolarized CO2 concentrator /EDC/ and a Bosch CO2 reduction subsystem /BRS/. [in spaceborne oxygen reclamation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Clark, D. C.; Quattrone, P. D.

    1976-01-01

    An oxygen reclamation system (ORS) in a spacecraft has the task to revitalize the spacecraft atmosphere by recovering the elementary oxygen from metabolically produced carbon dioxide and water vapor. Life support subsystems which can form such an ORS are an electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator (EDC), a Bosch carbon dioxide reduction subsystem (BRS), and an oxygen generation subsystem (OGS). A total recovery of the oxygen from metabolically generated carbon dioxide can be obtained with the aid of system composed of the considered three subsystems. Attention is given to the control concept which assures an integrated operation of the EDC, BRS, and OGS. A description is presented of the test results obtained during 86 days of testing.

  8. Donor states in inverse opals

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, G. D.

    2014-09-21

    We calculate the binding energy of an electron bound to a donor in a semiconductor inverse opal. Inverse opals have two kinds of cavities, which we call octahedral and tetrahedral, according to their group symmetry. We put the donor in the center of each of these two cavities and obtain the binding energy. The binding energies become very large when the inverse opal is made from templates with small spheres. For spheres less than 50 nm in diameter, the donor binding can increase to several times its unconfined value. Then electrons become tightly bound to the donor and are unlikely to be thermally activated to the semiconductor conduction band. This conclusion suggests that inverse opals will be poor conductors.

  9. Being a Living Donor: Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... for blood transfusions side effects associated with allergic reactions to the anesthesia death The best source of information about risks and expected donor outcomes is your transplant team. In addition, it’s important to take an active role in ...

  10. Donor states in inverse opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, G. D.

    2014-09-01

    We calculate the binding energy of an electron bound to a donor in a semiconductor inverse opal. Inverse opals have two kinds of cavities, which we call octahedral and tetrahedral, according to their group symmetry. We put the donor in the center of each of these two cavities and obtain the binding energy. The binding energies become very large when the inverse opal is made from templates with small spheres. For spheres less than 50 nm in diameter, the donor binding can increase to several times its unconfined value. Then electrons become tightly bound to the donor and are unlikely to be thermally activated to the semiconductor conduction band. This conclusion suggests that inverse opals will be poor conductors.

  11. Ethical issues relating to renal transplantation from prediabetic living donor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Mexico, diabetes mellitus is the main cause of end − stage kidney disease, and some patients may be transplant candidates. Organ supply is limited because of cultural issues. And, there is a lack of standardized clinical guidelines regarding organ donation. These issues highlight the tension surrounding the fact that living donors are being selected despite being prediabetic. This article presents, examines and discusses using the principles of non-maleficience, autonomy, justice and the constitutionally guaranteed right to health, the ethical considerations that arise from considering a prediabetic person as a potential kidney donor. Discussion Diabetes is an absolute contraindication for donating a kidney. However, the transplant protocols most frequently used in Mexico do not consider prediabetes as exclusion criteria. In prediabetic persons there are well known metabolic alterations that may compromise the long − term outcomes of the transplant if such donors are accepted. Even so, many of them are finally included because there are not enough donor candidates. Both, families and hospitals face the need to rapidly accept prediabetic donors before the clinical conditions of the recipient and the evolution of the disease exclude him/her as a transplant candidate; however, when using a kidney potentially damaged by prediabetes, neither the donor’s nor the recipient’s long term health is usually considered. Considering the ethical implication as well as the clinical and epidemiological evidence, we conclude that prediabetic persons are not suitable candidates for kidney donation. This recommendation should be taken into consideration by Mexican health institutions who should rewrite their transplant protocols. Summary We argue that the decision to use a kidney from a living donor known to be pre-diabetic or from those persons with family history of T2DM, obesity, hypertension, or renal failure, should be considered unethical in Mexico

  12. Melatonin-Mediated Intracellular Insulin during 2-Deoxy-d-glucose Treatment Is Reduced through Autophagy and EDC3 Protein in Insulinoma INS-1E Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han Sung; Han, Tae-Young

    2016-01-01

    2-DG triggers glucose deprivation without altering other nutrients or metabolic pathways and then activates autophagy via activation of AMPK and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We investigated whether 2-DG reduced intracellular insulin increased by melatonin via autophagy/EDC3 in insulinoma INS-1E cells. p-AMPK and GRP78/BiP level were significantly increased by 2-DG in the presence/absence of melatonin, but IRE1α level was reduced in 2-DG treatment. Levels of p85α, p110, p-Akt (Ser473, Thr308), and p-mTOR (Ser2481) were also significantly reduced by 2-DG in the presence/absence of melatonin. Mn-SOD increased with 2-DG plus melatonin compared to groups treated with/without melatonin alone. Bcl-2 was decreased and Bax increased with 2-DG plus melatonin. LC3II level increased with 2-DG treatment in the presence/absence of melatonin. Intracellular insulin production increased in melatonin plus 2-DG but reduced in treatment with 2-DG with/without melatonin. EDC3 was increased by 2-DG in the presence/absence of melatonin. Rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, increased GRP78/BiP and EDC3 levels in a dose-dependent manner and subsequently resulted in a decrease in intracellular production of insulin. These results suggest that melatonin-mediated insulin synthesis during 2-DG treatment involves autophagy and EDC3 protein in rat insulinoma INS-1E cells and subsequently results in a decrease in intracellular production of insulin. PMID:27493704

  13. Melatonin-Mediated Intracellular Insulin during 2-Deoxy-d-glucose Treatment Is Reduced through Autophagy and EDC3 Protein in Insulinoma INS-1E Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Sung; Han, Tae-Young; Yoo, Yeong-Min

    2016-01-01

    2-DG triggers glucose deprivation without altering other nutrients or metabolic pathways and then activates autophagy via activation of AMPK and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We investigated whether 2-DG reduced intracellular insulin increased by melatonin via autophagy/EDC3 in insulinoma INS-1E cells. p-AMPK and GRP78/BiP level were significantly increased by 2-DG in the presence/absence of melatonin, but IRE1α level was reduced in 2-DG treatment. Levels of p85α, p110, p-Akt (Ser473, Thr308), and p-mTOR (Ser2481) were also significantly reduced by 2-DG in the presence/absence of melatonin. Mn-SOD increased with 2-DG plus melatonin compared to groups treated with/without melatonin alone. Bcl-2 was decreased and Bax increased with 2-DG plus melatonin. LC3II level increased with 2-DG treatment in the presence/absence of melatonin. Intracellular insulin production increased in melatonin plus 2-DG but reduced in treatment with 2-DG with/without melatonin. EDC3 was increased by 2-DG in the presence/absence of melatonin. Rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, increased GRP78/BiP and EDC3 levels in a dose-dependent manner and subsequently resulted in a decrease in intracellular production of insulin. These results suggest that melatonin-mediated insulin synthesis during 2-DG treatment involves autophagy and EDC3 protein in rat insulinoma INS-1E cells and subsequently results in a decrease in intracellular production of insulin. PMID:27493704

  14. Donor selection in heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Emani, Sitaramesh; Sai-Sudhakar, Chittoor B.; Higgins, Robert S. D.; Whitson, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    There is increased scrutiny on the quality in health care with particular emphasis on institutional heart transplant survival outcomes. An important aspect of successful transplantation is appropriate donor selection. We review the current guidelines as well as areas of controversy in the selection of appropriate hearts as donor organs to ensure optimal outcomes. This decision is paramount to the success of a transplant program as well as recipient survival and graft function post-transplant. PMID:25132976

  15. Mutations in DCPS and EDC3 in autosomal recessive intellectual disability indicate a crucial role for mRNA decapping in neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Iltaf; Buchert, Rebecca; Zhou, Mi; Jiao, Xinfu; Mittal, Kirti; Sheikh, Taimoor I.; Scheller, Ute; Vasli, Nasim; Rafiq, Muhammad Arshad; Brohi, M. Qasim; Mikhailov, Anna; Ayaz, Muhammad; Bhatti, Attya; Sticht, Heinrich; Nasr, Tanveer; Carter, Melissa T.; Uebe, Steffen; Reis, André; Ayub, Muhammad; John, Peter; Kiledjian, Megerditch; Vincent, John B.; Jamra, Rami Abou

    2015-01-01

    There are two known mRNA degradation pathways, 3′ to 5′ and 5′ to 3′. We identified likely pathogenic variants in two genes involved in these two pathways in individuals with intellectual disability. In a large family with multiple branches, we identified biallelic variants in DCPS in three affected individuals; a splice site variant (c.636+1G>A) that results in an in-frame insertion of 45 nucleotides and a missense variant (c.947C>T; p.Thr316Met). DCPS decaps the cap structure generated by 3′ to 5′ exonucleolytic degradation of mRNA. In vitro decapping assays showed an ablation of decapping function for both variants in DCPS. In another family, we identified a homozygous mutation (c.161T>C; p.Phe54Ser) in EDC3 in two affected children. EDC3 stimulates DCP2, which decaps mRNAs at the beginning of the 5′ to 3′ degradation pathway. In vitro decapping assays showed that altered EDC3 is unable to enhance DCP2 decapping at low concentrations and even inhibits DCP2 decapping at high concentration. We show that individuals with biallelic mutations in these genes of seemingly central functions are viable and that these possibly lead to impairment of neurological functions linking mRNA decapping to normal cognition. Our results further affirm an emerging theme linking aberrant mRNA metabolism to neurological defects. PMID:25701870

  16. Removal of selected endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) during ferrate(VI) treatment of secondary wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Liu, Shan; Zhou, Li-Jun; Chen, Feng

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the removal efficiencies of 68 selected endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) spiked in a wastewater matrix by ferrate (Fe(VI)) and further evaluated the degradation of these micropollutants present in secondary effluents of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) by applying Fe(VI) treatment technology. Fe(VI)treatment resulted in selective oxidation of electron-rich organic moieties of these target compounds, such as phenol, olefin, amine and aniline moieties. But Fe(VI) failed to react with triclocarban, 3 androgens, 7 acidic pharmaceuticals, 2 neutral pharmaceuticals and erythromycin-H(2)O.Thirty-one target EDCs and PPCPs were detected in the effluents of the two WWTPs with concentrations ranging from 0.2 ± 0.1 ng L(-1) to 1156 ± 182 ng L(-1).Fe(VI) treatment resulted in further elimination of the detected EDCs and PPCPs during Fe(VI) treatment of the secondary wastewater effluents. The results from this study clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of Fe(VI) treatment as a tertiary treatment technology for a broad spectrum of micropollutants in wastewater. PMID:22342241

  17. EDCs, estrogenicity and genotoxicity reduction in a mixed (domestic + textile) secondary effluent by means of ozonation: a full-scale experience.

    PubMed

    Bertanza, G; Papa, M; Pedrazzani, R; Repice, C; Mazzoleni, G; Steimberg, N; Feretti, D; Ceretti, E; Zerbini, I

    2013-08-01

    WWTP (wastewater treatment plant) effluents are considered to be a major source for the release in the aquatic environment of EDCs (Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds), a group of anthropogenic substances able to alter the normal function of the endocrine system. The application of conventional processes (e.g. activated sludge with biological nitrogen removal) does not provide complete elimination of all these micropollutants and, consequently, an advanced treatment should be implemented. This experimental work was conducted on the tertiary ozonation stage of a 140,000 p.e. activated sludge WWTP, treating a mixed domestic and textile wastewater: an integrated monitoring, including both chemical (nonylphenol, together with the parent compounds mono- and di-ethoxylated, and bisphenol A were chosen as model EDCs) and biological (estrogenic and genotoxic activities) analyses, was carried out. Removal efficiencies of measured EDCs varied from 20% to 70%, depending on flow conditions (ozone dosage being 0.5 gO3/gTOC). Biological tests, furthermore, displayed that the oxidation stage did not significantly reduce (only by 20%) the estrogenicity of the effluent and revealed the presence and/or formation of genotoxic compounds. These results highlight the importance of the application of an integrated (biological+chemical) analytical procedure for a global evaluation of treatment suitability; poor performances recorded in this study have been attributed to the presence of a significant industrial component in the influent wastewater. PMID:23648445

  18. Motivations for Giving of Alumni Donors, Lapsed Donors and Non-Donors: Implications for Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugano, Emilio Kariuki

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive and causal comparative study sought to identify motivations for alumni donor acquisition and retention in Christian institutions of higher learning. To meet this objective, motivations for alumni donors, lapsed donors, and non-donors were analyzed and compared. Data was collected through an electronic survey of a stratified sample…

  19. Cloning of circadian rhythmic pathway genes and perturbation of oscillation patterns in endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs)-exposed mangrove killifish Kryptolebias marmoratus.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Jae-Sung; Kim, Bo-Mi; Lee, Bo-Young; Hwang, Un-Ki; Lee, Yong Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the effect of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on the circadian rhythm pathway, we cloned clock and circadian rhythmic pathway-associated genes (e.g. Per2, Cry1, Cry2, and BMAL1) in the self-fertilizing mangrove killifish Kryptolebias marmoratus. The promoter region of Km-clock had 1 aryl hydrocarbon receptor element (AhRE, GTGCGTGACA) and 8 estrogen receptor (ER) half-sites, indicating that the AhRE and ER half sites would likely be associated with regulation of clock protein activity during EDCs-induced cellular stress. The Km-clock protein domains (bHLH, PAS1, PAS2) were highly conserved in five additional fish species (zebrafish, Japanese medaka, Southern platyfish, Nile tilapia, and spotted green pufferfish), suggesting that the fish clock protein may play an important role in controlling endogenous circadian rhythms. The promoter regions of Km-BMAL1, -Cry1, -Cry2, and -Per2 were found to contain several xenobiotic response elements (XREs), indicating that EDCs may be able to alter the expression of these genes. To analyze the endogenous circadian rhythm in K. marmoratus, we measured expression of Km-clock and other circadian rhythmic genes (e.g. Per2, Cry1, Cry2, and BMAL1) in different tissues, and found ubiquitous expression, although there were different patterns of transcript amplification during different developmental stages. In an estrogen (E2)-exposed group, Km-clock expression was down-regulated, however, a hydroxytamoxifen (TMX, nonsteroid estrogen antagonist)-exposed group showed an upregulated pattern of Km-clock expression, suggesting that the expression of Km-clock is closely associated with exposure to EDCs. In response to the exposure of bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-tert-octyphenol (OP), Km-clock expression was down-regulated in the pituitary/brain, muscle, and skin in both gender types (hermaphrodite and secondary male). In juvenile K. marmoratus liver tissue, expression of Km-clock and other circadian rhythmic pathway

  20. Blood Donation by Elderly Repeat Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Zeiler, Thomas; Lander-Kox, Jutta; Alt, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Upper age limits for blood donors are intended to protect elderly blood donors from donor reactions. However, due to a lack of data about adverse reactions in elderly blood donors, upper age limits are arbitrary and vary considerably between different countries. Methods Here we present data from 171,231 voluntary repeat whole blood donors beyond the age of 68 years. Results Blood donations from repeat blood donors beyond the age of 68 years increased from 2,114 in 2005 to 38,432 in 2012 (from 0,2% to 4.2% of all whole blood donations). Adverse donor reactions in repeat donors decreased with age and were lower than in the whole group (0.26%), even in donors older than 71 years (0.16%). However, from the age of 68 years, the time to complete recovery after donor reactions increased. Donor deferrals were highest in young blood donors (21.4%), but increased again in elderly blood donors beyond 71 years (12.6%). Conclusion Blood donation by regular repeat blood donors older than 71 years may be safely continued. However, due to a lack of data for donors older than 75 years, blood donation in these donors should be handled with great caution. PMID:25254019

  1. Characterization of emissions of dioxins and furans from ethylene dichloride (EDC), vinyl chloride (VCM) and polyvinylchloride (PVC) manufacturing facilities in the United States. I. Resin, treated wastewater, and ethylene dichloride.

    PubMed

    Carroll, W F; Berger, T C; Borrelli, F E; Garrity, P J; Jacobs, R A; Lewis, J W; McCreedy, R L; Tuhovak, D R; Weston, A F

    1998-01-01

    Under the auspices of its Dioxin Characterization Program, members of The Vinyl Institute (VI), have analyzed for potential polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/furan (PCDD/F) concentrations in polyvinylchloride (PVC) resins, treated wastewater effluent and ethylene dichloride (EDC) product at EDC, vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) and PVC manufacturing facilities in the U.S. and Canada. No 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) was detected in any sample analyzed under the program to date. Trace concentrations (low pg/g) of PCDD/F were detected in only a few samples of PVC resins and EDC product. Treated wastewater contained low ppq concentrations of PCDD/F. All concentrations are expressed as Toxic Equivalents (TEQ). Extrapolation of these data shows that the contribution of EDC/VCM/PVC manufacturing via these media constitutes substantially less than 1 percent of the estimated annual U.S. dioxin releases to the environment.

  2. Who is the best alternative allotransplant donor?

    PubMed Central

    Gale, RP; Eapen, M

    2015-01-01

    Assuming that most physicians will chose an HLA-identical sibling as the best allotransplant donor, the question arises who is the best alternative donor when an HLA-identical sibling is unavailable? The most commonly used alternative donors are HLA-identical or -mismatched unrelated donors, HLA-matched or -mismatched umbilical cord blood donor or a related, HLA-haplotype-matched related donors. Each alternative donor option has advantages and disadvantages. We discuss selected aspects of these issues based on data from randomized clinical trials and observational databases. However, because there are limited data to address specific clinical settings, quantification of expert opinion is sometimes needed. PMID:26039206

  3. Donor substrate regulation of transketolase.

    PubMed

    Esakova, Olga A; Meshalkina, Ludmilla E; Golbik, Ralph; Hübner, Gerhard; Kochetov, German A

    2004-11-01

    The influence of substrates on the interaction of apotransketolase with thiamin diphosphate was investigated in the presence of magnesium ions. It was shown that the donor substrates, but not the acceptor substrates, enhance the affinity of the coenzyme either to only one active center of transketolase or to both active centers, but to different degrees in each, resulting in a negative cooperativity for coenzyme binding. In the absence of donor substrate, negative cooperativity is not observed. The donor substrate did not affect the interaction of the apoenzyme with the inactive coenzyme analogue, N3'-pyridyl-thiamin diphosphate. The influence of the donor substrate on the coenzyme-apotransketolase interaction was predicted as a result of formation of the transketolase reaction intermediate 2-(alpha,beta-dihydroxyethyl)-thiamin diphosphate, which exhibited a higher affinity to the enzyme than thiamin diphosphate. The enhancement of thiamin diphosphate's affinity to apotransketolase in the presence of donor substrate is probably one of the mechanisms underlying the substrate-affected transketolase regulation at low coenzyme concentrations.

  4. [Living donor transplantation. Surgical complications].

    PubMed

    Karam, Georges

    2008-02-01

    Although nephrectomy by open surgery is the most used technique for the extraction of kidney transplants in the living donor, nephrectomy under laparaoscopy is increasingly practiced. Laparoscopic nephrectomy is less invasive and performed under videoscopy control, after insufflation of the peritoneal cavity. Three to four incisions are done in order to enter the surgical instruments. The kidney is extracted through a horizontal sus-pubic incision. The exposition is either exclusively transperitoneal, retroperitoneal or hand assisted. The advantages of laparoscopy are esthetical, financial due to a shorter hospitalisation and a quicker recovery, as well a confort for the donor. The disadvantages are a longer warm ischemia time and possibly a higher risk of delayed graft function. Randomised studies having compared laparoscopy and open surgery in the living donor have not find any significant difference regarding the per- and perioperative in the complications.

  5. [Living donor transplantation. Surgical complications].

    PubMed

    Karam, Georges

    2008-02-01

    Although nephrectomy by open surgery is the most used technique for the extraction of kidney transplants in the living donor, nephrectomy under laparaoscopy is increasingly practiced. Laparoscopic nephrectomy is less invasive and performed under videoscopy control, after insufflation of the peritoneal cavity. Three to four incisions are done in order to enter the surgical instruments. The kidney is extracted through a horizontal sus-pubic incision. The exposition is either exclusively transperitoneal, retroperitoneal or hand assisted. The advantages of laparoscopy are esthetical, financial due to a shorter hospitalisation and a quicker recovery, as well a confort for the donor. The disadvantages are a longer warm ischemia time and possibly a higher risk of delayed graft function. Randomised studies having compared laparoscopy and open surgery in the living donor have not find any significant difference regarding the per- and perioperative in the complications. PMID:18160357

  6. Pediatric deceased donor renal transplantation: An approach to decision making II. Acceptability of a deceased donor kidney for a child, a snap decision at 3 AM.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Abanti; Gallo, Amy; Grimm, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Allocation of deceased donor kidneys is based on several criteria; however, the final decision to accept or reject the offered kidney is made by the potential recipient's transplant team (surgeon/nephrologist). Several considerations including assessment of the donor quality, the HLA match between the donor and the recipient, several recipient factors, the geographical location of the recipient, and the organ all affect the decision of whether or not to finally accept the organ for a particular recipient. This decision needs to be made quickly, often on the spot. Maximizing the benefit from this scarce resource raises difficult ethical issues. The philosophies of equity and utility are often competing. This article will discuss the several considerations for the pediatric nephrologist while accepting a deceased donor kidney for a particular pediatric patient. PMID:26426405

  7. Acute kidney injury after orthotopic liver transplantation using living donor versus deceased donor grafts: A propensity score-matched analysis.

    PubMed

    Hilmi, Ibtesam A; Damian, Daniela; Al-Khafaji, Ali; Sakai, Tetsuro; Donaldson, Joseph; Winger, Daniel G; Kellum, John A

    2015-09-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication after liver transplantation (LT). Few studies investigating the incidence and risk factors for AKI after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) have been published. LDLT recipients have a lower risk for post-LT AKI than deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) recipients because of higher quality liver grafts. We retrospectively reviewed LDLTs and DDLTs performed at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center between January 2006 and December 2011. AKI was defined as a 50% increase in serum creatinine (SCr) from baseline (preoperative) values within 48 hours. One hundred LDLT and 424 DDLT recipients were included in the propensity score matching logistic model on the basis of age, sex, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, Child-Pugh score, pretransplant SCr, and preexisting diabetes mellitus. Eighty-six pairs were created after 1-to-1 propensity matching. The binary outcome of AKI was analyzed using mixed effects logistic regression, incorporating the main exposure of interest (LDLT versus DDLT) with the aforementioned matching criteria and postreperfusion syndrome, number of units of packed red blood cells, and donor age as fixed effects. In the corresponding matched data set, the incidence of AKI at 72 hours was 23.3% in the LDLT group, significantly lower than the 44.2% in the DDLT group (P = 0.004). Multivariate mixed effects logistic regression showed that living donor liver allografts were significantly associated with reduced odds of AKI at 72 hours after LT (P = 0.047; odds ratio, 0.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.096-0.984). The matched patients had lower body weights, better preserved liver functions, and more stable intraoperative hemodynamic parameters. The donors were also younger for the matched patients than for the unmatched patients. In conclusion, receiving a graft from a living donor has a protective effect against early post-LT AKI. PMID:25980614

  8. Evidence for a need to mandate kidney transplant living donor registries.

    PubMed

    Emara, Mahmoud; Ragheb, Ahmed; Hassan, Abubaker; Shoker, Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Kidney disease is a global public health problem of growing proportions. Currently the best treatment for end-stage renal failure is transplantation. Living organ donation remains a complex ethical, moral and medical issue. It is based on a premise that kidney donation is associated with short-term minimal risks to harm the donor, and is outweighed by the definite advantages to the recipient. A growing number of patients with end-stage renal disease and shortage of kidney donors poses a pressing need to expand the criteria needed to accept kidney donors. The current donor registries are structured and are driven to expand donor pool. As living kidney donation is not without risks, more attention should be given to protect the donor health. After kidney donation, mild to moderate renal insufficiency may occur. Renal insufficiency, even mild, is associated with increased risks of hypertension, proteinuria and cardiovascular morbidity. We, therefore, foresee a need to mandate the establishment of renal transplant donor registries at all transplanting programs as a prerequisite to protect the long-term well being of kidney donors. These registries can collect the database necessary to develop standards of practice and guidelines for future kidney donation. PMID:18549448

  9. Deferrals of volunteer stem cell donors referred for evaluation for matched-unrelated stem cell donation.

    PubMed

    Bräuninger, S; Thorausch, K; Luxembourg, B; Schulz, M; Chow, K U; Seifried, E; Bonig, H

    2014-11-01

    To minimize donor risk and maintain public support, volunteer donor stem cell donation, whether by mobilized leukapheresis or marrow aspiration, requires careful donor eligibility assessment. Many contraindications to stem cell donation exist, yet analyses of donor deferral rates are not available. In a 36-month series encompassing 2493 potential stem cell donors, we analyzed frequencies and reasons for deferrals. All were presumed eligible by their registries because of previously submitted structured health questionnaire and formal telephone interviews. After assessment by our center's physicians, 3.3% of donors proved ineligible, but 5.6% more were eligible for only one of the collection methods. Higher deferral rates were associated with female sex, increasing age and mobilized stem cell donation vs marrow. Exclusion criteria were identified with approximately similar frequency by medical history, physical examination and laboratory testing. Reasons for deferrals almost exclusively served to protect donor safety; the rare recipient-directed safety concerns could be, and often were, overridden in agreement with the transplant center. As formal analyses have shown, with careful assessment, stem cell donation is acceptably safe, but the plethora of deferral reasons mandate that only physicians with specific experience should evaluate stem cell donors, that is, this task should not be delegated to paramedical personnel. PMID:25089595

  10. Single-Donor Leukophoretic Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    Leukocyte separation-and-retrieval device utilizes granulocyte and monocyte property of leukoadhesion to glass surfaces as basis of their separation from whole blood. Device is used with single donor technique and has application in biological and chemical processing, veterinary research and clinical care.

  11. Immobilization strategy for enhancing sensitivity of immunosensors: L-Asparagine-AuNPs as a promising alternative of EDC-NHS activated citrate-AuNPs for antibody immobilization.

    PubMed

    Raghav, Ragini; Srivastava, Sudha

    2016-04-15

    This paper addresses the question - Is EDC-NHS activated gold nanoparticles modified electrode surface the best available option for antibody immobilization for immunosensor fabrication? Is there any other alternative covalent immobilization strategy for orthogonal orientation of antibody, ensuring enhanced sensitivity of immunosensors? Does EDC-NHS activation of carboxyl functionalized nanoparticles surface really leads to orthogonal or directed immobilization of antibody? Gold nanoparticles synthesized using L-Asparagine as reducing and stabilization agent were employed for orthogonal immobilization of antibody for immunosensor fabrication. Anti-CA125 antibody was used as a model system for immunosensor fabrication. A comparative evaluation of immunosensors fabricated using L-Asparagine stabilized gold nanoparticles and citrate stabilized gold nanoparticles via different immobilization strategies/chemistries was done. The three strategies involved immobilization of Anti-CA125 antibody - (1) after EDC-NHS activation of citrate stabilized gold nanoparticles, (2) directly onto citrate stabilized gold nanoparticles and (3) directly onto L-Asparagine stabilized gold nanoparticles modified electrode surfaces. Comparative evaluation of Impedimetric response characteristics showed 2.5 times increase in sensitivity (349.36 Ω/(IU/mL)/cm(2)) in case of third strategy as compared to first (147.53 Ω/(IU/mL)/cm(2)) and twice that of second strategy (166.24 Ω/(IU/mL)/cm(2)). Additionally, an extended dynamic range of 0-750 IU/mL was observed while for others it was up to 500 IU/mL. Amino acid coated gold nanoparticles ensured orthogonal immobilization, lesser randomization, with 88% of active antibody available for antigen binding as opposed to other two strategies with less than 30% active antibody.

  12. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in stormwater canals and Bayou St. John in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Glen R; Palmeri, Jordan M; Zhang, Shaoyuan; Grimm, Deborah A

    2004-10-15

    Samples were collected from two stormwater canals and a recreational urban waterway known as Bayou St. John in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA and analyzed for a range of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Concentrations of 7 PPCPs and EDCs were measured by a method that provides for simultaneous extraction and quantification of the following compounds: clofibric acid, naproxen, ibuprofen, fluoxetine, clorophene, triclosan, bisphenol A. The method also was used as an indicator of the occurrence of estrogenic compounds by targeting estrone and 17beta-estradiol. The two canals (Orleans and London) are used to drain a portion of the city's stormwater directly into the Mississippi River or Lake Pontchartrain. Bayou St. John is located between the two canals and supplied with water from Lake Pontchartrain. Results from the 6-month sampling period indicated the following concentration ranges for the two stormwater canals: naproxen (ND - 145 ng/l), ibuprofen (ND - 674 ng/l), triclosan (ND - 29 ng/l) and bisphenol A (1.9-158 ng/l). Concentrations of these target analytes increased with cumulative rainfall. For bayou waters, only naproxen (2.1-4.8 ng/l) and bisphenol A (0.9-44 ng/l) were detected. Estrone was detected but determined non-quantifiable for multiple sampling events at the 3 sites. None of the other target analytes (clofibric acid, fluoxetine, clorophene, and 17beta-estradiol) were detected above their method detection levels. Results of this study demonstrate the occurrence of PPCPs and EDCs in New Orleans stormwater canals and Bayou St. John. Results also demonstrate the use of this analytical technique as an indicator of non-point source sewage contamination in New Orleans stormwater canals.

  13. The decapping activator Edc3 and the Q/N-rich domain of Lsm4 function together to enhance mRNA stability and alter mRNA decay pathway dependence in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Huch, Susanne; Müller, Maren; Muppavarapu, Mridula; Gommlich, Jessie; Balagopal, Vidya; Nissan, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The rate and regulation of mRNA decay are major elements in the proper control of gene expression. Edc3 and Lsm4 are two decapping activator proteins that have previously been shown to function in the assembly of RNA granules termed P bodies. Here, we show that deletion of edc3, when combined with a removal of the glutamine/asparagine rich region of Lsm4 (edc3Δ lsm4ΔC) reduces mRNA stability and alters pathways of mRNA degradation. Multiple tested mRNAs exhibited reduced stability in the edc3Δ lsm4ΔC mutant. The destabilization was linked to an increased dependence on Ccr4-mediated deadenylation and mRNA decapping. Unlike characterized mutations in decapping factors that either are neutral or are able to stabilize mRNA, the combined edc3Δ lsm4ΔC mutant reduced mRNA stability. We characterized the growth and activity of the major mRNA decay systems and translation in double mutant and wild-type yeast. In the edc3Δ lsm4ΔC mutant, we observed alterations in the levels of specific mRNA decay factors as well as nuclear accumulation of the catalytic subunit of the decapping enzyme Dcp2. Hence, we suggest that the effects on mRNA stability in the edc3Δ lsm4ΔC mutant may originate from mRNA decay protein abundance or changes in mRNPs, or alternatively may imply a role for P bodies in mRNA stabilization. PMID:27543059

  14. Blood donor selection and deferral pattern as an important tool for blood safety in a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Manisha; Shah, Nehal; Navaid, Seema; Agarwal, Kalpana; Sharma, Gourav

    2016-01-01

    Context: Blood donor selection criteria based on science and regulatory rules influence donor as well recipient safety and demographics. Aim: To evaluate and analyze the blood donor deferral pattern and its causes among blood donors in a tertiary care hospital blood bank and to review its influence on blood safety. Settings and Design: Hospital based blood bank, retrospective analysis. Subjects and Methods: The data available as donor deferral record over a period of 13 years from 2001 to 2013 was analyzed. Results: The blood donor deferral rate was 11.5%, the deferral rate in various categories was 4.8%, 4.7%, 1.6%, and 0.3% in Category 1, Category 2, Category 3, and Category 4, respectively. The majority of deferrals were temporary deferrals (62.8%) of young donors. The maximum number of donors deferred (28.2%) due to a history of jaundice (permanent) followed by 19.4% due to low hemoglobin (temporary). History of malaria, intake of medicines, infections, underweight, last blood donation within 3 months (temporary deferral), and history of heart and lung diseases, diabetes, and with suspicious identity (permanent deferral) were other major causes identified. Conclusion: The pattern of donor deferral identified is an important tool for blood safety and also provides key areas to focus on a region or policy formulation nationally for donor selection as well ensure donor safety. The value of determining donor deferral pattern by the categories described is in calling back donors deferred due to temporary reasons and can help retain pool of motivated blood donors. PMID:27605848

  15. Blood donor selection and deferral pattern as an important tool for blood safety in a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Manisha; Shah, Nehal; Navaid, Seema; Agarwal, Kalpana; Sharma, Gourav

    2016-01-01

    Context: Blood donor selection criteria based on science and regulatory rules influence donor as well recipient safety and demographics. Aim: To evaluate and analyze the blood donor deferral pattern and its causes among blood donors in a tertiary care hospital blood bank and to review its influence on blood safety. Settings and Design: Hospital based blood bank, retrospective analysis. Subjects and Methods: The data available as donor deferral record over a period of 13 years from 2001 to 2013 was analyzed. Results: The blood donor deferral rate was 11.5%, the deferral rate in various categories was 4.8%, 4.7%, 1.6%, and 0.3% in Category 1, Category 2, Category 3, and Category 4, respectively. The majority of deferrals were temporary deferrals (62.8%) of young donors. The maximum number of donors deferred (28.2%) due to a history of jaundice (permanent) followed by 19.4% due to low hemoglobin (temporary). History of malaria, intake of medicines, infections, underweight, last blood donation within 3 months (temporary deferral), and history of heart and lung diseases, diabetes, and with suspicious identity (permanent deferral) were other major causes identified. Conclusion: The pattern of donor deferral identified is an important tool for blood safety and also provides key areas to focus on a region or policy formulation nationally for donor selection as well ensure donor safety. The value of determining donor deferral pattern by the categories described is in calling back donors deferred due to temporary reasons and can help retain pool of motivated blood donors.

  16. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    MedlinePlus

    ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 359 359 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  17. QSAR-like models: a potential tool for the selection of PhACs and EDCs for monitoring purposes in drinking water treatment systems--a review.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Luis F; Charles, Philippe; Glucina, Karl; Morlay, Catherine

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of trace-level pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in a number of finished drinking waters (DWs). Since there is sparse knowledge currently available on the potential effects on human health associated with the chronic exposure to trace levels of these Emerging Contaminants (ECs) through routes such as DW, it is suggested that the most appropriate criterion is a treatment criterion in order to prioritize ECs to be monitored during DW preparation. Hence, only the few ECs showing the lowest removals towards a given DW Treatment (DWT) process would serve as indicators of the overall efficiency of this process and would be relevant for DW quality monitoring. In addition, models should be developed for estimating the removal of ECs in DWT processes, thereby overcoming the practical difficulties of experimentally assessing each compound. Therefore, the present review has two objectives: (1) to provide an overview of the recent scientific surveys on the occurrence of PhACs and EDCs in finished DWs; and (2) to propose the potential of Quantitative-Structure-Activity-Relationship-(QSAR)-like models to rank ECs found in environmental waters, including parent compounds, metabolites and transformation products, in order to select the most relevant compounds to be considered as indicators for monitoring purposes in DWT systems.

  18. Plutonium storage criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, D.; Ascanio, X.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  19. Designing shallow donors in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    The production of n-type semiconducting diamond has been a long-standing experimental challenge. The first-principles simulation of shallow dopants in semiconductors has been a long-standing theoretical challenge. A desirable theoretical goal is to identify impurities that will act as shallow donors in diamond and assess their experimental viability. I will discuss this identification process for the LiN4 donor complex. It builds a scientific argument from several models and computational results in the absence of computational tools that are both trustworthy and computationally tractable for this task. I will compare the theoretical assessment of viability with recent experimental efforts to co-dope diamond with lithium and nitrogen. Finally, I discuss the computational tools needed to facilitate future work on this problem and some preliminary simulations of donors near diamond surfaces. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program lab managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. Deceased Donor Uterine Transplantation: Innovation and Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Flyckt, Rebecca L; Farrell, Ruth M; Perni, Uma C; Tzakis, Andreas G; Falcone, Tommaso

    2016-10-01

    This commentary endeavors to share our practical experience in developing and implementing the first uterine transplant clinical trial in the United States. Uterine transplant is a promising novel treatment for uterine factor infertility. After reported successful live births after uterine transplant in Sweden, research teams around the world are either embarking on or are considering the development of uterine transplant protocols. Our observations on the applied rather than theoretical aspects of uterine transplantation research in human subjects are detailed in this article. Important among these considerations are composing a broad and experienced multidisciplinary team as well as performing adequate preclinical preparations, including ideally animal studies and practice organ procurements. Ethical preparation is tantamount to clinical preparation for the complexities inherent in uterine transplant, and our suggestions for updating the current ethical criteria for uterine transplant are outlined here. We also describe our perspectives on the strengths and weaknesses of living compared with deceased donor models. Finally, we describe how a strong program can recover and adapt in the face of setbacks to continue a path toward innovation. PMID:27607877

  1. Interactions between science, government and media on selection and testing of donors.

    PubMed

    Sazama, K

    1998-01-01

    The international media attention to "bad blood" has fueled governmental action in countries around the world. Donor selection criteria continue to expand, focusing most recently on the possibility of exclusion due to intranasal cocaine use and, in the US, due to incarceration for more than 72 hours. As newer methods of testing evolve, more deferrals will occur due to improved testing. An emerging area of concern is the non-standardized notification of donors who are ineligible to donate and lack of a centralized listing of such deferred donors. Because of the consequences to recipients, improvements in both donor questioning and testing are necessary. Further studies are needed to understand and improve these processes. PMID:9704490

  2. Management of the feline blood donor.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, P M

    1992-12-01

    The feline blood donor should be considered a valuable asset to the veterinary clinic. As public awareness increases, so will the demand for high-quality blood products. Meeting this demand will require planning and a blood donor management program tailored to the clinic's needs. Consideration should be given to the areas of blood value, donor selection, blood collection, and maintaining donor health when developing a donor management program. Suggestions for reducing the stress and aggravation often associated with feline blood collection are provided.

  3. The probability of finding suitable directed donors.

    PubMed

    Kanter, M; Selvin, S; Myhre, B A

    1989-02-01

    A series of tables based on mathematical calculations is given as guidelines for the number of directed donors needed by members of various ethnic/racial groups to provide a desired number of units of blood with a selected probability of achieving this result. From these tables, certain conclusions can be drawn. Unrelated donors who do not know their blood type are an inefficient source of directed donors. Rh-negative patients are unlikely to obtain enough directed-donor units from either related or unrelated donors with confidence unless these donors known their blood type. In general, siblings, parents, and offspring are the most efficient directed donors from the standpoint of compatibility. Cousins, uncles, aunts, nieces, and nephews are not much more likely to be compatible than unrelated donors are. It is easier to obtain suitable directed-donor units among Hispanics than among whites, blacks, or Asians, due to their skewed blood group frequencies. In general, using O-negative directed donors for Rh-positive recipients does not significantly increase the likelihood of finding suitable donors.

  4. Distributive justice in the allocation of donor oocytes.

    PubMed

    Pennings, G

    2001-02-01

    Due to the shortage of oocyte donors, the waiting lists are lengthening. This raises the ethical question of how the available oocytes should be distributed among candidate recipients. The paper clarifies the ethical structure of the allocation process to find a set of rules that generates decisions that are acceptable for all people involved. The selection includes two steps: admission to the waiting list and ranking of those on the list. The following criteria can be used to decide about the admission of candidates: success rate, health risks, age, parental competence, nationality, primary versus secondary infertility, and capacity to pay. Four criteria may function to rank recipients who should have first priority for receiving oocytes: waiting time, medical urgency, phenotypic matching, and synchronization. The introduction of a point system is defended because it allows balancing of the different ethical principles involved and because it installs an objective system of operating rules which avoid favoritism and personal biases. PMID:11285981

  5. The identification of potential cadaveric organ donors.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J F; McCosker, C J; Hibberd, A D; Chapman, J R; Compton, J S; Mahony, J F; Mohacsi, P J; MacDonald, G J; Spratt, P M

    1995-02-01

    Most Australian transplantation programs are severely restricted in their activities by a limited availability of cadaveric donor organs. To investigate possible reasons for this problem, an audit was undertaken over three 12-month periods of all deaths in 13 hospitals in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. From 7406 deaths, 271 patients were classified as having been realistic, medically suitable potential donors. Of these, only 60 (22%) became actual donors. In the other 211 patients, donation did not occur because of unsuccessful resuscitation (30%), permission refusal by relatives (34%), and failure to identify or support the potential donors (36%). If the impediments to organ donation which were identified in this study could be overcome, allowing a greater number of potential donors to become actual donors, the chronic shortage of cadaveric donor organs for transplantation could be at least partly relieved.

  6. Simulation shows that HLA-matched stem cell donors can remain unidentified in donor searches.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Jürgen; Solloch, Ute V; Giani, Anette S; Hofmann, Jan A; Schmidt, Alexander H

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneous nature of HLA information in real-life stem cell donor registries may hamper unrelated donor searches. It is even possible that fully HLA-matched donors with incomplete HLA information are not identified. In our simulation study, we estimated the probability of these unnecessarily failed donor searches. For that purpose, we carried out donor searches in several virtual donor registries. The registries differed by size, composition with respect to HLA typing levels, and genetic diversity. When up to three virtual HLA typing requests were allowed within donor searches, the share of unnecessarily failed donor searches ranged from 1.19% to 4.13%, thus indicating that non-identification of completely HLA-matched stem cell donors is a problem of practical relevance. The following donor registry characteristics were positively correlated with the share of unnecessarily failed donor searches: large registry size, high genetic diversity, and, most strongly correlated, large fraction of registered donors with incomplete HLA typing. Increasing the number of virtual HLA typing requests within donor searches up to ten had a smaller effect. It follows that the problem of donor non-identification can be substantially reduced by complete high-resolution HLA typing of potential donors.

  7. Simulation shows that HLA-matched stem cell donors can remain unidentified in donor searches

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Jürgen; Solloch, Ute V.; Giani, Anette S.; Hofmann, Jan A.; Schmidt, Alexander H.

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneous nature of HLA information in real-life stem cell donor registries may hamper unrelated donor searches. It is even possible that fully HLA-matched donors with incomplete HLA information are not identified. In our simulation study, we estimated the probability of these unnecessarily failed donor searches. For that purpose, we carried out donor searches in several virtual donor registries. The registries differed by size, composition with respect to HLA typing levels, and genetic diversity. When up to three virtual HLA typing requests were allowed within donor searches, the share of unnecessarily failed donor searches ranged from 1.19% to 4.13%, thus indicating that non-identification of completely HLA-matched stem cell donors is a problem of practical relevance. The following donor registry characteristics were positively correlated with the share of unnecessarily failed donor searches: large registry size, high genetic diversity, and, most strongly correlated, large fraction of registered donors with incomplete HLA typing. Increasing the number of virtual HLA typing requests within donor searches up to ten had a smaller effect. It follows that the problem of donor non-identification can be substantially reduced by complete high-resolution HLA typing of potential donors. PMID:26876789

  8. Informed consent and decision-making about adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation: a systematic review of empirical research.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Elisa J; Daud, Amna; Caicedo, Juan Carlos; Cameron, Kenzie A; Jay, Colleen; Fryer, Jonathan; Beauvais, Nicole; Skaro, Anton; Baker, Talia

    2011-12-27

    Adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is a complex procedure that poses serious health risks to and provides no direct health benefit for the donor. Because of this uneven risk-benefit ratio, ensuring donor autonomy through informed consent is critical. To assess the current knowledge pertaining to informed consent for LDLT, we conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on donors' decision-making process, comprehension about risks and outcomes, and information needs for LDLT. Of the 1423 identified articles, 24 met final review criteria, representing the perspective of approximately 2789 potential and actual donors. As donors' decisions to donate often occur before evaluation, they often make uninformed decisions. The review found that 88% to 95% of donors reported understanding information clinicians disclosed about risks and benefits. However, donors reported unmet information needs, knowledge gaps regarding risks, and unanticipated complications. Few donors reported feeling pressure to donate. Most studies were limited by cultural differences, small sample sizes, inconsistent measures, and poor methodological approaches. This systematic review suggests that informed consent for LDLT is sub-optimal as donors do not adequately appreciate disclosed information during the informed consent process, despite United Network for Organ Sharing/CMS regulations requiring formal psychological evaluation of donor candidates. Interventions are needed to improve donor-clinician communication during the LDLT informed consent process such as through the use of comprehension assessment tools and e-health educational tools that leverage adult learning theory to effectively convey LDLT outcome data. PMID:22143436

  9. Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  10. Competing risks and the development of adaptive management plans for water resources: Field reconnaissance investigation of risks to fishes and other aquatic biota exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (edcs) in lake mead, Nevada USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linder, G.; Little, E.E.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis and characterization of competing risks for water resources rely on a wide spectrum of tools to evaluate hazards and risks associated with their management. For example, waters of the lower Colorado River stored in reservoirs such as Lake Mead present a wide range of competing risks related to water quantity and water quality. These risks are often interdependent and complicated by competing uses of source waters for sustaining biological resources and for supporting a range of agricultural, municipal, recreational, and industrial uses. USGS is currently conducting a series of interdisciplinary case-studies on water quality of Lake Mead and its source waters. In this case-study we examine selected constituents potentially entering the Lake Mead system, particularly endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Worldwide, a number of environmental EDCs have been identified that affect reproduction, development, and adaptive behaviors in a wide range of organisms. Many EDCs are minimally affected by current treatment technologies and occur in treated sewage effluents. Several EDCs have been detected in Lake Mead, and several substances have been identified that are of concern because of potential impacts to the aquatic biota, including the sport fishery of Lake Mead and endangered razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus) that occur in the Colorado River system. For example, altered biomarkers relevant to reproduction and thyroid function in fishes have been observed and may be predictive of impaired metabolism and development. Few studies, however, have addressed whether such EDC-induced responses observed in the field have an ecologically significant effect on the reproductive success of fishes. To identify potential linkages between EDCs and species of management concern, the risk analysis and characterization in this reconnaissance study focused on effects (and attendant uncertainties) that might be expressed by exposed populations. In addition, risk reduction

  11. Risk of Window Period Hepatitis-C Infection in High Infectious Risk Donors: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kucirka, Lauren M.; Sarathy, Harini; Govindan, Priyanka; Wolf, Joshua H.; Ellison, Trevor A.; Hart, Leah J.; Montgomery, Robert A.; Ros, R. Lorie; Segev, Dorry L.

    2011-01-01

    The OPTN classifies high infectious risk donors (HRDs) based on criteria originally intended to identify people at risk for HIV infection. These donors are sometimes referred to as "CDC high risk donors" in reference to the CDC-published guidelines adopted by the OPTN. However, these guidelines are also being used to identify deceased donors at increased risk of window period (WP) hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, although not designed for this purpose. The actual risk of WP HCV infection in HRDs is unknown.We performed a systematic review of 3,476 abstracts and identified 37 eligible estimates of HCV incidence in HRD populations in the United States/Canada. Pooled HCV incidence was derived and used to estimate the risk of WP infection for each HRD category. Risks ranged from 0.26–300.6 per 10,000 donors based on WP for ELISA and 0.027–32.4 based on nucleic acid testing (NAT). Injection drug users were at highest risk (32.4 per 10,000 donors by NAT WP), followed by commercial sex workersand donors exhibiting high risk sexual behavior (12.3:10,000),men who have sex with men (3.5:10,000), incarcerated donors (0.8:10,000), donors exposed to HIV infected blood (0.4:10,000), and hemophiliacs (0.027:10,000). NAT reduced WP risk by approximately 10-fold in each category. PMID:21401874

  12. Training techniques in laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Raque, Jessica; Billeter, Adrian T; Lucich, Elizabeth; Marvin, Michael M; Sutton, Erica

    2015-10-01

    The learning curve to achieve competency in laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) is poorly outlined. Online databases were searched for training in LDN. Abstracts and manuscripts were excluded if they did not address introduction of a laparoscopic technique for donor nephrectomy. Relevant manuscripts were reviewed for surgical technique, use of animal models, co-surgeons, surgeon specialty and training, institution type/volume, and assessment of training method. Forty-four met inclusion criteria, with 75% describing the evolution from open to LDN. Eighty-two percent were from academic centers, and 36% were from centers performing <25 donor nephrectomies each year. The learner was an attending surgeon 80% of the time, mostly urologists with prior laparoscopy or open nephrectomy experience. The learning curve, defined by decreased operating time, averaged 35 cases. Improved intra-operative, patient, and recipient outcomes were observed for centers performing ≥50 LDNs annually. The United Network of Organ Sharing requires 15 cases as surgeon or assistant to be certified as the primary LDN surgeon. This falls below the described learning curve for LDN. The assessment of training and competency for LDN is heterogeneous, and objective learner-based metrics could help surgeons and institutions reach a quality standard for performing this operation. PMID:26179472

  13. Donor free radical explosive composition

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Franklin E. [15 Way Points Rd., Danville, CA 94526; Wasley, Richard J. [4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550

    1980-04-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising an organic compound or mixture of organic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive, or an inorganic compound or mixture of inorganic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and selected from ammonium or alkali metal persulfates.

  14. Correlation between donor age and the pattern of liver graft recovery after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yersiz, H; Shaked, A; Olthoff, K; Imagawa, D; Shackleton, C; Martin, P; Busuttil, R W

    1995-10-27

    We have observed an increased rate of delayed nonfunction (DNF) of liver grafts procured from older donors. The aim of this study was to correlate donor age and the patterns of graft failure after transplantation. Pattern of liver injury, synthetic function, and graft survival in recipients receiving liver grafts from donor older than age 50 (group I, n = 95) were compared with matched cohort of recipients transplanted with grafts from donors age 20-30 (group III, n = 50). Primary nonfunction (PNF) of the graft was defined as non-recoverable hepatocellular function necessitating emergency retransplantation within 72 hr. DNF was defined as marginal graft function necessitating retransplantation within one month. Recipient characteristics, including age and preoperative UNOS status, were similar between groups. Ischemic/reperfusion injury, reflected by SGOT and SGPT was more severe in older donors. PNF occurred at similar frequencies for all groups (7%). Normal liver function was regained in 76% of recipients in group I, and in 92% in group II. However, cholestatic pattern was observed in recipient of grafts from group I donors. Rapid rise in bilirubin, despite normalization of prothrombin time and liver transaminases, was the hallmark of DNF. DNF resulted in higher retransplantation rate in group I (24% vs. 8% in group II). Donor age did not affect patient survival. Liberalizing criteria for donor selection, and acceptance of older donors is a calculated risk. Over 75% of the recipients will regain normal liver function. However, a higher number of these grafts will exhibit slow recovery after transplantation, and a significant rate of DNF. Recognition of such pattern and early retransplantation should decrease mortality.

  15. Adverse events and retention of donors of double red cell units by apheresis

    PubMed Central

    Keshelashvili, Ketevan; O’Meara, Alix; Stern, Martin; Jirout, Zuzana; Pehlic, Vildana; Holbro, Andreas; Buser, Andreas; Sigle, Jörg; Infanti, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background Safety of double-erythrocyte (2RBC) collection and reasons for ceasing 2RBC donation were retrospectively analysed in the blood donor population of Basel, Switzerland. Methods Donors with at least 1 2RBC apheresis were included in the study. Minimal requirements were Hb ≥140 g/L and body weight ≥70 kg; serum ferritin (SF) values were measured routinely, but were not part of the selection criteria. 2RBC collections were performed with ALYX devices at 6-month intervals. Adverse events (AEs) were systematically recorded and classified according to the ISBT EHN 2008 criteria. Data of procedures were retrieved from the ALYX software. Demographics, apheresis data and AEs were analysed with descriptive statistics. Results Data of 4,377 2RBC aphereses performed in 793 donors (779 males) between 1st January 2003 and 31st May 2015 were evaluated. Mean donor age at first 2RBC donation was 44 years (standard deviation [SD] 21), median number of donations was 4 (interquartile range [IQR] 8); 32% of the donors underwent a single procedure. There were 161 AEs, mostly local haematomas (55%) and vasovagal reactions (20%); fatigue was reported in 6% of the cases and was more frequent than citrate toxicity. Two severe AEs were observed. The most frequent reasons for abandoning 2RBC donation were low SF levels and donor choice (both 11%), but most donors simply did not reply to invitations (16%). Overall, procedure-related causes (AEs, low SF levels, no time for apheresis, inadequate venous access) were observed in 14% of the cases. At the end of the observation period, 40% of the donors were still active blood donors, but only 20% were donating 2RBC. Discussion 2RBC donation is overall safe. Donor retention was low over a period of 11 years. An important reason for abandoning 2RBC was the detection of low SF levels. The impact of fatigue on donor retention and the course of iron stores after repeated 6-monthly 2RBC apheresis require further investigation. PMID:27136442

  16. Glomerular volume and renal histology in obese and non-obese living kidney donors.

    PubMed

    Rea, D J; Heimbach, J K; Grande, J P; Textor, S C; Taler, S J; Prieto, M; Larson, T S; Cosio, F G; Stegall, M D

    2006-11-01

    The link between obesity and renal disease is unclear, and there is no consensus as to whether obese individuals are at increased risk for kidney disease after living kidney donation if they otherwise meet acceptance criteria. We retrospectively studied time-zero (implantation) biopsies in 49 obese (body mass index (BMI) > or = 30 kg/m2) and 41 non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m2) renal donors that met acceptance criteria. We found that our obese donor population had higher systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001 vs non-obese) and higher absolute iothalamate clearance (P = 0.001 vs non-obese) before donation. The obese donors had larger glomerular planar surface area compared to non-obese controls (P = 0.017), and this parameter correlated with patient weight and urinary microalbumin excretion. Detailed examination of the biopsies revealed that although most histologic findings were similar between groups, the obese donors had more tubular dilation (P = 0.01), but less tubular vacuolization (P = 0.02) than the non-obese controls. There was also a trend toward more arterial hyalinosis in the obese patients than controls (P = 0.08). From these data, our studies detected subtle differences in donor organs obtained from obese compared to non-obese individuals. Further studies should be carried out to quantify the long-term impact of these findings.

  17. Gamete donors' expectations and experiences of contact with their donor offspring

    PubMed Central

    Kirkman, Maggie; Bourne, Kate; Fisher, Jane; Johnson, Louise; Hammarberg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are the expectations and experiences of anonymous gamete donors about contact with their donor offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER Rather than consistently wanting to remain distant from their donor offspring, donors' expectations and experiences of contact with donor offspring ranged from none to a close personal relationship. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Donor conception is part of assisted reproduction in many countries, but little is known about its continuing influence on gamete donors' lives. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A qualitative research model appropriate for understanding participants' views was employed; semi-structured interviews were conducted during January–March 2013. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Before 1998, gamete donors in Victoria, Australia, were subject to evolving legislation that allowed them to remain anonymous or (from 1988) to consent to the release of identifying information. An opportunity to increase knowledge of donors' expectations and experiences of contact with their donor offspring recently arose in Victoria when a recommendation was made to introduce mandatory identification of donors on request from their donor offspring, with retrospective effect. Pre-1998 donors were invited through an advertising campaign to be interviewed about their views, experiences and expectations; 36 sperm donors and 6 egg donors participated. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE This research is unusual in achieving participation by donors who would not normally identify themselves to researchers or government inquiries. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed that most donors did not characterize themselves as parents of their donor offspring. Donors' expectations and experiences of contact with donor offspring ranged from none to a close personal relationship. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION It is not possible to establish whether participants were representative of all pre-1998 donors. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Anonymous

  18. Hydroperoxides as Hydrogen Bond Donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Møller, Kristian H.; Tram, Camilla M.; Hansen, Anne S.; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.

    2016-06-01

    Hydroperoxides are formed in the atmosphere following autooxidation of a wide variety of volatile organics emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources. This raises the question of whether they can form hydrogen bonds that facilitate aerosol formation and growth. Using a combination of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, FT-IR, and ab initio calculations, we have compared the gas phase hydrogen bonding ability of tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBuOOH) to that of tert-butanol (tBuOH) for a series of bimolecular complexes with different acceptors. The hydrogen bond acceptor atoms studied are nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulphur. Both in terms of calculated redshifts and binding energies (BE), our results suggest that hydroperoxides are better hydrogen bond donors than the corresponding alcohols. In terms of hydrogen bond acceptor ability, we find that nitrogen is a significantly better acceptor than the other three atoms, which are of similar strength. We observe a similar trend in hydrogen bond acceptor ability with other hydrogen bond donors including methanol and dimethylamine.

  19. Machine perfusion: not just for marginal kidney donors.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Robert M; Brock, Guy N; Garrison, R Neal; Marvin, Michael R; Franklin, Glen A; Davis, Eric G

    2015-06-01

    Interest in machine perfusion (MP) for donated kidneys has markedly increased in the past decade as a means to improve graft function, although the donor populations in which it should be applied have not yet been resolved. All adults undergoing de-novo isolated kidney transplantation from standard-criteria donors in the UNOS database 2005 to 2011 were reviewed with the primary endpoint of delayed graft function (DGF), defined as dialysis within seven days of transplantation, in those who received kidneys that underwent MP versus cold storage (CS) alone. Three methods were used to control for differences between groups. Multivariable logistic regression was performed, adjusting for donor and recipient characteristics significantly associated with DGF. Rates were also compared in a cohort of propensity-matched MP vs CS recipients. Finally, a paired-kidney study was performed, where one kidney underwent MP and the contralateral underwent CS. There were 36,323 patients, with unadjusted DGF rates of 18.6 per cent (n = 1830/9882) and 22.4 per cent (n = 5931/26,441; P < 0.001) in the MP vs CS groups, respectively. After multivariable analysis, the odds ratio for DGF in the MP group was 0.59 (P < 0.001) versus CS. In the propensity-matched cohort, there were 8929 patients each in the MP and CS groups. DGF occurred in 16.8 per cent of the MP group vs 25.3 per cent with CS (P < 0.001, OR 0.59). In the paired-kidney study, rates of DGF were 16.7 per cent vs 24.3 per cent (P < 0.001) in the 1665 recipients each in the MP versus CS groups (OR 0.6). In conclusion, machine perfusion is beneficial in reducing DGF even when standard donors are utilized, and thus should not be limited to marginal kidneys.

  20. Gamete donation: ethical implications for donors.

    PubMed

    Shenfield, Francoise

    1999-01-01

    The interests of gamete donors have only recently been recognized in assisted reproduction; traditionally, the interests of the patients (typically a couple) and the prospective child are paramount. However, assisted reproduction would not be possible without donors, and the simple utilitarian view would be to place their interests first to maximize the availability of the practice. There are several ethical issues on both sides of the donor--recipient equation, some of which are mutual and others are in conflict. For example, the word 'donation' implies there is no payment. Informed consent for donation is essential if the autonomy of the donor is to be respected, and includes information about the results of screening. This is a sensitive issue, especially when pathology is found in a donor who is not being screened for his or her own immediate benefit. Counselling may result in donors refusing to take part, but may also lead to selection by the person recruiting the donors, sometimes as a consequence of examining the motivation of the donor. In this case, the main problem is the ethical basis of the selection process. Other aspects of gamete donation may lead to a conflict of interests between the donor, the recipients and even the prospective child, particularly in terms of anonymity and the information that is made available about the specific circumstances of donation. Implications and support counselling are essential tools in achieving an acceptable balance for all parties involved.

  1. Whether or not to accept a deceased donor kidney offer for a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Abanti; James, Gerri; Grimm, Paul

    2015-09-01

    The expansion of the number of children on the deceased donor renal transplant waitlist has far outstripped the supply of organs in most countries, leading to numerous adjustments to increase supply and to maximize the utility of donor organs. The system for organ allocation varies by country based on local laws, priorities, and resources. Adjustments are made to optimize allocation, enhance post-transplant survival benefit, decrease unequal transplant access, and optimize utilization of donated kidneys. Allocation of deceased donor kidneys is based on several criteria; however, the final decision to accept or reject the offered kidney is made by the potential recipient's transplant team (surgeon/nephrologist). Several considerations including assessment of the donor quality, the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) match between the donor and the recipient, numerous recipient factors, the geographical location of the recipient, and the organ all affect the decision to accept the organ or not for a particular recipient. This decision must be made quickly, often on the spot. Maximizing the benefit from this scarce resource raises difficult ethical issues. The philosophies of equity and utility are often competing. In this manuscript, we highlight a representative case that helps to focus on important issues for the pediatric nephrologist to consider while making the decision to accept a deceased donor kidney offer for a particular pediatric patient. PMID:26130248

  2. DGTI Register of Rare Donors

    PubMed Central

    Hustinx, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Summary For patients with antibodies against the most common blood groups a rapid and efficient supply of compatible erythrocyte concentrates is self-evident. But typically we have to make the greatest effort providing blood for these patients, which have made antibodies against common blood groups. There are however patients with antibodies against rare blood group antigens that need special blood. The supply of such blood can be very difficult and mostly time-consuming. For this reason we set up a database of blood donors with rare blood groups. Since 2005 the BTS SRC Berne Ltd. has run this database on behalf of the Swiss BTS SRC. After a reorganization and extension of the database, conducted during 2011/2012, the data file was renamed ‘DGTI Register of Rare Donors’ and is now run under the patronage of the German Society for Transfusion Medicine and Immunohematology (DGTI). PMID:25538534

  3. Deceased donor multidrug resistance protein 1 and caveolin 1 gene variants may influence allograft survival in kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jun; Divers, Jasmin; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Julian, Bruce A.; Israni, Ajay K.; Schladt, David; Pastan, Stephen O.; Chattrabhuti, Kryt; Gautreaux, Michael D.; Hauptfeld, Vera; Bray, Robert A.; Kirk, Allan D.; Brown, W. Mark; Gaston, Robert S.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Farney, Alan C.; Orlando, Giuseppe; Stratta, Robert J.; Guan, Meijian; Palanisamy, Amudha; Reeves-Daniel, Amber M.; Bowden, Donald W.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Hicks, Pamela J.; Ma, Lijun; Freedman, Barry I.

    2015-01-01

    Variants in donor multidrug resistance protein 1 (ABCB1) and caveolin 1 (CAV1) genes are associated with renal allograft failure after transplantation in Europeans. Here we assessed transplantation outcomes of kidneys from 368 African American (AA) and 314 European American (EA) deceased donors based on 38 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning ABCB1 and 16 SNPs spanning CAV1, including previously associated index and haplotype-tagging SNPs. Tests for association with time to allograft failure were performed for the 1,233 resultant kidney transplantations, adjusting for recipient age, sex, ethnicity, cold ischemia time, PRA, HLA match, expanded-criteria donation, and APOL1- nephropathy variants in AA donors. Interaction analyses between APOL1 with ABCB1 and CAV1 were performed. In a meta-analysis of all transplantations, ABCB1 index SNP rs1045642 was associated with time to allograft failure and other ABCB1 SNPs were nominally associated, but not CAV1 SNPs. ABCB1 SNP rs1045642 showed consistent effects with the 558 transplantations from EA donors, but not with the 675 transplantations from AA donors. ABCB1 SNP rs956825 and CAV1 SNP rs6466583 interacted with APOL1 in transplants from AA donors. Thus, the T allele at ABCB1 rs1045642 is associated with shorter renal allograft survival for kidneys from American donors. Interactions between ABCB1 and CAV1 with APOL1 may influence allograft failure for transplanted kidneys from AA donors. PMID:25853335

  4. Influence of the kidney histology at the time of donation on long term kidney function in living kidney donors.

    PubMed

    Goecke, H; Ortiz, A M; Troncoso, P; Martinez, L; Jara, A; Valdes, G; Rosenberg, H

    2005-10-01

    Living donation is the best choice for kidney transplantation, obtaining long-lasting good results for the recipient. Some concern still remains regarding the donor's long-term health. Kidney biopsy was routinely performed in our donor population at the time of donation many years ago. We found the existence of morphological kidney disease in those samples, in spite of normal clinical evaluations before donation. We attempted to correlate those abnormalities with long-term clinical outcomes. Donors were at least 10 years after surgery. A medical interview, including the SF-36 Health Survey, laboratory evaluation, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed on 27 donors meeting the inclusion criteria. Two donors had died after donation from unrelated causes with no known nephropathy. Histological analysis showed abnormalities in 16 of 29 donors. We found an increased prevalence of hypertension compared to the general population. Interestingly, there was no proteinuria in the donor population, and none developed clinical nephropathy. All subjects felt emotionally rewarded with donation, stating that their lives had no limitations. Our results suggest that kidney biopsy is neither necessary nor useful prior to donation because, although many donors had morphological kidney disease, none developed clinical nephropathy in the long term.

  5. Laboratory Equipment Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. Construction Fund, Albany, NY.

    Requirements for planning, designing, constructing and installing laboratory furniture are given in conjunction with establishing facility criteria for housing laboratory equipment. Furniture and equipment described include--(1) center tables, (2) reagent racks, (3) laboratory benches and their mechanical fixtures, (4) sink and work counters, (5)…

  6. Revisiting Bioaccumulation Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of workgroup 5 was to revisit the B(ioaccumulation) criteria that are currently being used to identify POPs under the Stockholm Convention and PBTs under CEPA, TSCA, REACh and other programs. Despite the lack of a recognized definition for a B substance, we defined ...

  7. The value of living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoli; Gong, Junhua; Gong, JianPing

    2012-12-31

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is a very successful procedure that develops liver resources in case of worldwide shortages. As the technology has developed so much in the past 2 decades, LDLT has the same good prognosis as DDLT. However, LDLT still has lots of ethical & technical problems. It causes great psychiatric, physical and psychosocial harm to donors. Also, it has some negative effects on society by providing a platform for organ trade. Therefore, there is much controversy about the social value of LDLT. After review of recent papers, we find much progress can be made in inspiring the public to become organ donors and creating donation model new to improve the consent rate for solid organ donation from deceased donors. That is the key strategy for increasing the liver supply. With this serious shortage of organs, liver donor transplantation still has its advantages, but we should not place all our hopes on LDLT to increase the liver supply. We all need to try our best to increase donor awareness and promote organ donor registration--when cadaver organs could meet the needs for liver transplantation, living donor liver transplants would not be necessary. PMID:23274332

  8. 42 CFR 35.64 - Donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Donors. 35.64 Section 35.64 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.64 Donors. Authorized contributions...

  9. The Experience of Living Kidney Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judith Belle; Karley, Mary Lou; Boudville, Neil; Bullas, Ruth; Garg, Amit X.; Muirhead, Norman

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the experiences, feelings, and ideas of living kidney donors. Using a phenomenological, qualitative research approach, the authors interviewed 12 purposefully selected living kidney donors (eight men and four women), who were between four and 29 years since donation. Interviews were audiotaped, and transcribed verbatim, and…

  10. 21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Testing Requirements for Communicable Disease Agents § 610.41 Donor... testing reactive by a screening test for evidence of infection due to a communicable disease agent(s... infection due to a communicable disease agent(s) listed in § 610.40(a) may serve as a donor for blood...

  11. 21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Testing Requirements for Communicable Disease Agents § 610.41 Donor... testing reactive by a screening test for evidence of infection due to a communicable disease agent(s... infection due to a communicable disease agent(s) listed in § 610.40(a) may serve as a donor for blood...

  12. 21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Testing Requirements for Communicable Disease Agents § 610.41 Donor... testing reactive by a screening test for evidence of infection due to a communicable disease agent(s... infection due to a communicable disease agent(s) listed in § 610.40(a) may serve as a donor for blood...

  13. 21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Testing Requirements for Communicable Disease Agents § 610.41 Donor... testing reactive by a screening test for evidence of infection due to a communicable disease agent(s... infection due to a communicable disease agent(s) listed in § 610.40(a) may serve as a donor for blood...

  14. 21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Testing Requirements for Communicable Disease Agents § 610.41 Donor... testing reactive by a screening test for evidence of infection due to a communicable disease agent(s... infection due to a communicable disease agent(s) listed in § 610.40(a) may serve as a donor for blood...

  15. Recipients' views on payment of sperm donors.

    PubMed

    Ravelingien, An; Provoost, Veerle; Wyverkens, Elia; Buysse, Ann; De Sutter, Petra; Pennings, Guido

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore how recipients viewed payment of sperm donors. The study was conducted in Belgium, where, as in many countries, sperm donors receive recompense for their time and expenses. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 heterosexual and lesbian couples who, at the time of data collection, had at least one donor-conceived child aged 7-10 years or who were undergoing donor conception treatment. Although participants commonly described the issue of financial compensation as something that did not really concern them, all supported the idea that some level of payment was acceptable or even necessary. The participants also identified several ways in which donor payment offered advantages to their own position as (future) parents. Although the idea is commonly rehearsed that sperm donation is a gift and that monetary transaction for conception is demeaning, the participants of this study did not generally share this view. To them, a small financial return served as a symbolic acknowledgement of the donor's contribution and helped secure the type of relationship they expected from their donor. There was clearly concern, however, over high payments and the risk of attracting the wrong kind of donor. PMID:26099446

  16. Payment for donor kidneys: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Friedman, E A; Friedman, A L

    2006-03-01

    Continuous growth of the end stage renal disease population treated by dialysis, outpaces deceased donor kidneys available, lengthens the waiting time for a deceased donor transplant. As estimated by the United States Department of Health & Human Services: '17 people die each day waiting for transplants that can't take place because of the shortage of donated organs.' Strategies to expand the donor pool--public relations campaigns and Drivers' license designation--have been mainly unsuccessful. Although illegal in most nations, and viewed as unethical by professional medical organizations, the voluntary sale of purchased donor kidneys now accounts for thousands of black market transplants. The case for legalizing kidney purchase hinges on the key premise that individuals are entitled to control of their body parts even to the point of inducing risk of life. One approach to expanding the pool of kidney donors is to legalize payment of a fair market price of about 40,000 dollars to donors. Establishing a federal agency to manage marketing and purchase of donor kidneys in collaboration with the United Network for Organ Sharing might be financially self-sustaining as reduction in costs of dialysis balances the expense of payment to donors. PMID:16482095

  17. The value of living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoli; Gong, Junhua; Gong, JianPing

    2012-12-31

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is a very successful procedure that develops liver resources in case of worldwide shortages. As the technology has developed so much in the past 2 decades, LDLT has the same good prognosis as DDLT. However, LDLT still has lots of ethical & technical problems. It causes great psychiatric, physical and psychosocial harm to donors. Also, it has some negative effects on society by providing a platform for organ trade. Therefore, there is much controversy about the social value of LDLT. After review of recent papers, we find much progress can be made in inspiring the public to become organ donors and creating donation model new to improve the consent rate for solid organ donation from deceased donors. That is the key strategy for increasing the liver supply. With this serious shortage of organs, liver donor transplantation still has its advantages, but we should not place all our hopes on LDLT to increase the liver supply. We all need to try our best to increase donor awareness and promote organ donor registration--when cadaver organs could meet the needs for liver transplantation, living donor liver transplants would not be necessary.

  18. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the reason for that decision; (ii) Where appropriate, the types of donation of blood or blood... GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor notification. (a) Notification of donors. You, an establishment that collects blood or blood components, must make...

  19. Evaluation of blood donor deferral causes in the Trinidad and Tobago National Blood Transfusion Service.

    PubMed

    Charles, K S; Hughes, P; Gadd, R; Bodkyn, C J; Rodriguez, M

    2010-02-01

    The majority of blood donations in Trinidad and Tobago are made as replacement by family members or friends. National Blood Transfusion Policy was drafted in 2007 to promote voluntary, repeated donation. The objective of this study is to assess the current rate and reasons for donor deferral, and the aim is to guide the proposed donor education and recruitment programme. A retrospective study of pre-donation deferral of prospective blood donors at the National Blood Transfusion Centre, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, was conducted. Records of all pre-donation deferrals over a 12-month period were studied. As many as 11,346 pre-donation screening interviews were conducted. There were 4043 (35.6%) deferrals. The most common reasons for donor deferral were exposure to high-risk sexual activity (27.6%), low haemoglobin 22.2% and hypertension 17.5%. Other reasons such as medication, chronic medical illness, tattoos, travel history, recent pregnancy, surgery or presentation outside the accepted age limit caused 33.8% of all deferrals and the majority (34.7%) of male deferrals. Low haemoglobin (44.5%) was the most common reason among females. The rate of deferral of voluntary donors was not significantly different from that for replacement donors (31.7 vs. 35.4%, P = 0.25). This study exposed a lack of public awareness as the principal reason for an unacceptably high rate of donor deferral. Donor education about selection criteria needs to be urgently addressed as an objective of the National Policy. Monitoring and evaluation of deferral rates and reasons could be used as one indicator of the effectiveness of the Policy. PMID:19788640

  20. Delayed Graft Function in Living-Donor Kidney Transplant: A Middle Eastern Perspective.

    PubMed

    Al Otaibi, Torki; Ahmadpoor, Pedram; Allawi, Ali Abdulmajid Dyab; Habhab, Wael Taher; Khatami, Mohammad Reza; Nafar, Mohsen; Glotz, Denis

    2016-02-01

    With an increased incidence of living-donor kidney transplants, in response to increasing unmet needs for renal transplant, a clear understanding of determinants of posttransplant outcomes is essential. The importance of delayed graft function in deceased-donor kidney transplant is now part of conventional medical wisdom, due to the large amount of evidence focused on this aspect. However, the same is not true for living-donor kidney transplant, partly due to lack of evidence on this crucial clinical question and partly due to lack of awareness about this issue. The current review aims to highlight the importance of delayed graft function as a crucial determinant of outcomes in living-donor kidney transplant. An exhaustive search of online medical databases was performed with appropriate search criteria to collect evidence about delayed graft function after living-donor kidney transplant, with a special focus on studies from the Middle East. Data on incidence, impact, risk factors, and possible prevention modalities of delayed graft function in patients undergoing living-donor kidney transplant are presented. A key finding of this review is that contemporary incidence rates reported from the Middle East are comparatively higher than those reported from outside the region. Although in absolute terms the incidence is lower than deceased donor kidney transplant, the effects of delayed graft function on graft rejection and graft and patient survival are sufficiently large to warrant the formulation of specific treatment protocols. Key to formulating prevention and treatment strategies is identifying discrete risk factors for delayed graft function. Although this evidence is scant, an overview has been provided. Further studies examining different aspects of delayed graft function incidence after living-donor kidney transplant are urgently needed to address a so far little known clinical question.

  1. Chylous ascites secondary to laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Shafizadeh, Stephen F; Daily, Patrick P; Baliga, Prabhakar; Rogers, Jeffrey; Baillie, G Mark; Rajagopolan, P R; Chavin, Kenneth D

    2002-08-01

    Live donor renal transplantation offers many significant advantages over cadaveric donor transplantation. Yet living donation continues to be underused, accounting for less than 30% of all donor renal transplants. In an attempt to remove the disincentives to live donation, Ratner et al. developed laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN). LDN is gaining acceptance in the transplant community. The overriding concern must always be the safety and welfare of the donor. To this end, potential complications of LDN must be identified and discussed. We present a patient who developed the complication of chylous ascites from LDN. To improve the laparoscopic technique further, a discussion of its successes and complications needs to be encouraged. To this end, we present chylous ascites as a potential complication after LDN. We also offer suggestions to minimize the likelihood of this complication. PMID:12137847

  2. Kinetics of thermal donor generation in silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, B.-Y.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    The generation kinetics of thermal donors at 450 C in Czochralski-grown silicon was found to be altered by high-temperature preannealing (e.g., 1100 C for 30 min). Thus, when compared with as-grown Si, high-temperature preannealed material exhibits a smaller concentration of generated thermal donors and a faster thermal donor saturation. A unified mechanism of nucleation and oxygen diffusion-controlled growth (based on solid-state plate transformation theory) is proposed to account for generation kinetics of thermal donors at 450 C, in as-grown and high-temperature preannealed Czochralski silicon crystals. This mechanism is consistent with the main features of the models which have been proposed to explain the formation of oxygen thermal donors in silicon.

  3. Correlation between donor age and organs transplanted per donor: our experience in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ashikari, J; Omiya, K; Konaka, S; Nomoto, K

    2014-05-01

    The shortage of available organs for transplantation is a worldwide issue. To maximize the number of transplantations, increasing the number of organs transplanted per donor (OTPD) is widely recognized as an important factor for improving the shortage. In Japan, we have had 211 donors, 1112 organs transplanted, and 924 recipients receiving the transplants, resulting in 4.4 ± 1.4 recipients receiving transplants per donor and 5.3 ± 1.6 OTPD as of February 2013. Because donor age is a well-recognized factor of donor suitability, we analyzed the correlation between donor age group and OTPD. Only the age group 60 to 69 years and the age group 70 to 79 years were significantly different (P < .05) from adjacent age groups. We estimate that a donor under age 70 years has the potential to donate 4.6 to 6.7 organs.

  4. Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion – State of the Art in Lung Donor Pool Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Popov, Aron-Frederik; Sabashnikov, Anton; Patil, Nikhil P.; Zeriouh, Mohamed; Mohite, Prashant N.; Zych, Bartlomiej; Saez, Diana Garcia; Schmack, Bastian; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Dohmen, Pascal M.; Karck, Matthias; Simon, Andre R.; Weymann, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Lung transplantation remains the gold standard for patients with end-stage lung disease. Nevertheless, the number of suitable donor lungs for the increasing number of patients on the waiting list necessitates alternative tools to expand the lung donor pool. Modern preservation and lung assessment techniques could contribute to improved function in previously rejected lungs. Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) already demonstrated its value in identification of transplantable grafts from the higher risk donor pool. Moreover, lungs from EVLP did not show significantly different postoperative results compared to standard criteria lungs. This could be explained by the reduction of the ischemia-reperfusion injury through EVLP application. The aim of this article is to review technical characteristics and the growing clinical EVLP experience with special attention to EVLP application for donation after cardiac death (DCD) lungs. PMID:25644463

  5. When Operating on Dead People Saves Lives: Benefits of Surgical Organ Donor Intensivists.

    PubMed

    Long, Kristin; Talley, Cynthia; Yarrison, Rebecca B; Bernard, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation has emerged as a life-saving treatment for many patients suffering from end-stage organ failure. Organs have been successfully recovered after a variety of aggressive interventions. We propose that decompressive laparotomy, when clinically indicated, should be considered in the aggressive resuscitation of potential organ donors. A thorough literature review examining aggressive interventions on potential organ donors was conducted after experience with a unique case at this institution. Articles were reviewed for the types of interventions performed as well as the time frame in relation to organ donation. In our case, several ethical issues were raised when considering decompressive laparotomy in a patient pronounced dead by neurologic criteria. We propose that having a surgical intensivist involved in the management of potential donors will further increase the salvage rate, as more invasive resuscitation options are possible. PMID:26078909

  6. Oocyte cryopreservation for donor egg banking.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Ana; Remohí, José; Chang, Ching-Chien; Nagy, Zsolt Peter

    2011-09-01

    Oocyte donation is an efficient alternative to using own oocytes in IVF treatment for different indications. Unfortunately, 'traditional' (fresh) egg donations are challenged with inefficiency, difficulties of synchronization, very long waiting periods and lack of quarantine measures. Given the recent improvements in the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation, it is reasonable to examine if egg donation through oocyte cryopreservation has merits. The objective of the current manuscript is to review existing literature on this topic and to report on the most recent outcomes from two established donor cryobank centres. Reports on egg donation using slow freezing are scarce and though results are encouraging, outcomes are not yet comparable to a fresh egg donation treatment. Vitrification on the other hand appears to provide high survival rates (90%) of donor oocytes and comparable fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates to traditional (fresh) egg donation. Besides the excellent outcomes, the ease of use for both donors and recipients, higher efficiency, lower cost and avoiding the problem of synchronization are all features associated with the benefit of a donor egg cryobank and makes it likely that this approach becomes the future standard of care. Oocyte donation is one of the last resorts in IVF treatment for couples challenged with infertility problems. However, traditional (fresh) egg donation, as it is performed today, is not very efficient, as typically all eggs from one donor are given to only one recipient, it is arduous as it requires an excellent synchronization between the donor and recipient and there are months or years of waiting time. Because of the development of an efficient oocyte cryopreservation technique, it is now possible to cryo-store donor (as well as non-donor) eggs, maintaining their viability and allowing their use whenever there is demand. Therefore, creating a donor oocyte cryobank would carry many advantages

  7. Oocyte cryopreservation for donor egg banking.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Ana; Remohí, José; Chang, Ching-Chien; Nagy, Zsolt Peter

    2011-09-01

    Oocyte donation is an efficient alternative to using own oocytes in IVF treatment for different indications. Unfortunately, 'traditional' (fresh) egg donations are challenged with inefficiency, difficulties of synchronization, very long waiting periods and lack of quarantine measures. Given the recent improvements in the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation, it is reasonable to examine if egg donation through oocyte cryopreservation has merits. The objective of the current manuscript is to review existing literature on this topic and to report on the most recent outcomes from two established donor cryobank centres. Reports on egg donation using slow freezing are scarce and though results are encouraging, outcomes are not yet comparable to a fresh egg donation treatment. Vitrification on the other hand appears to provide high survival rates (90%) of donor oocytes and comparable fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates to traditional (fresh) egg donation. Besides the excellent outcomes, the ease of use for both donors and recipients, higher efficiency, lower cost and avoiding the problem of synchronization are all features associated with the benefit of a donor egg cryobank and makes it likely that this approach becomes the future standard of care. Oocyte donation is one of the last resorts in IVF treatment for couples challenged with infertility problems. However, traditional (fresh) egg donation, as it is performed today, is not very efficient, as typically all eggs from one donor are given to only one recipient, it is arduous as it requires an excellent synchronization between the donor and recipient and there are months or years of waiting time. Because of the development of an efficient oocyte cryopreservation technique, it is now possible to cryo-store donor (as well as non-donor) eggs, maintaining their viability and allowing their use whenever there is demand. Therefore, creating a donor oocyte cryobank would carry many advantages

  8. Liver regeneration after living donor transplant

    PubMed Central

    Olthoff, Kim M.; Emond, Jean C.; Shearon, Tempie H.; Everson, Greg; Baker, Talia B.; Fisher, Robert A.; Freise, Chris E.; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Everhart, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Adult-to-adult living donors and recipients were studied to characterize patterns of liver growth and identify associated factors in a multicenter study. Methods 350 donors and 353 recipients in A2ALL (Adult to Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study) transplanted between March 2003 and February 2010 were included. Potential predictors of 3-month liver volume included total and standard liver volumes (TLV, SLV), the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score (in recipients), remnant and graft size, remnant to donor and graft to recipient weight ratio (RDWR, GRWR), remnant/TLV, and graft/SLV. Results Among donors, 3-month absolute growth was 676±251g (mean± SD) and percent reconstitution was 80%±13%. Among recipients, GRWR was 1.3%±0.4% (8<0.8%). Graft weight was 60%±13% of SLV. Three-month absolute growth was 549±267g and percent reconstitution was 93%±18%. Predictors of greater 3-month liver volume included larger patient size (donors, recipients), larger graft volume (recipients), and larger TLV (donors). Donors with the smallest remnant/TLV ratios had larger than expected growth, but also had higher postoperative bilirubin and international normalized ratio at 7 and 30 days. In a combined donor-recipient analysis, donors had smaller 3-month liver volumes than recipients adjusted for patient size, remnant or graft volume, and TLV or SLV (p=0.004). Recipient graft failure in the first 90 days was predicted by poor graft function at day 7 (HR=4.50, p=0.001), but not by GRWR or graft fraction (p>0.90 for each). Conclusions Both donors and recipients had rapid yet incomplete restoration of tissue mass in the first 3 months, confirming previous reports. Recipients achieved a greater percentage of expected total volume. Patient size and recipient graft volume significantly influenced 3 month volumes. Importantly, donor liver volume is a critical predictor of the rate of regeneration, and donor remnant fraction impacts post

  9. Bright Solid-State Emission of Disilane-Bridged Donor-Acceptor-Donor and Acceptor-Donor-Acceptor Chromophores.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Masaki; Tsuchiya, Mizuho; Sakamoto, Ryota; Yamanoi, Yoshinori; Nishibori, Eiji; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Nishihara, Hiroshi

    2016-02-24

    The development of disilane-bridged donor-acceptor-donor (D-Si-Si-A-Si-Si-D) and acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-Si-Si-D-Si-Si-A) compounds is described. Both types of compound showed strong emission (λem =ca. 500 and ca. 400 nm, respectively) in the solid state with high quantum yields (Φ: up to 0.85). Compound 4 exhibited aggregation-induced emission enhancement in solution. X-ray diffraction revealed that the crystal structures of 2, 4, and 12 had no intermolecular π-π interactions to suppress the nonradiative transition in the solid state.

  10. Unified nonclassicality criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryl, S.; Sperling, J.; Agudelo, E.; Mraz, M.; Köhnke, S.; Hage, B.; Vogel, W.

    2015-07-01

    In this work we generalize the Bochner criterion addressing the characteristic function, i.e., the Fourier transform, of the Glauber-Sudarshan phase-space function. For this purpose we extend the Bochner theorem by including derivatives of the characteristic function. The resulting necessary and sufficient nonclassicality criteria unify previously known moment-based criteria with those based on the characteristic function. For applications of the generalized nonclassicality probes, we provide direct sampling formulas for balanced homodyne detection. A squeezed vacuum state is experimentally realized and characterized with our method. This complete framework—theoretical unification, sampling approach, and experimental implementation—presents an efficient toolbox to characterize quantum states of light for applications in quantum technology.

  11. Direction of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network and United Network for Organ Sharing regarding the oversight of live donor transplantation and solicitation for organs.

    PubMed

    Delmonico, F L; Graham, W K

    2006-01-01

    The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) operated by United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) has taken recent steps to address public solicitation for organ donors and its oversight of live donor transplantation. This report provides the direction of the OPTN regarding deceased donor solicitation. The OPTN has authority under federal law to equitably allocate deceased donor organs within a single national network based upon medical criteria, not upon one's social or economic ability to utilize resources not available to all on the waiting list. The OPTN makes a distinction between solicitations for a live donor organ versus solicitations for directed donation of deceased organs. As to live donor solicitation, the OPTN cannot regulate or restrict ways relationships are developed in our society, nor does it seek to do so. OPTN members have a responsibility of helping protect potential recipients from hazards that can arise from public appeals for live donor organs. Oversight and support of the OPTN for live donor transplantation is now detailed by improving the reporting of live donor follow-up, by providing a mechanism for facilitating anonymous live kidney donation, and by providing information for potential live kidney donors via the UNOS Transplant Living website. PMID:16433754

  12. Space Tethers: Design Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlin, D. D.; Faile, G. C.; Hayashida, K. B.; Frost, C. L.; Wagner, C. Y.; Mitchell, M. L.; Vaughn, J. A.; Galuska, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    This document is prepared to provide a systematic process for the selection of tethers for space applications. Criteria arc provided for determining the strength requirement for tether missions and for mission success from tether severing due to micrometeoroids and orbital debris particle impacts. Background information of materials for use in space tethers is provided, including electricity-conducting tethers. Dynamic considerations for tether selection is also provided. Safety, quality, and reliability considerations are provided for a tether project.

  13. Donor deactivation in silicon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björk, Mikael T.; Schmid, Heinz; Knoch, Joachim; Riel, Heike; Riess, Walter

    2009-02-01

    The operation of electronic devices relies on the density of free charge carriers available in the semiconductor; in most semiconductor devices this density is controlled by the addition of doping atoms. As dimensions are scaled down to achieve economic and performance benefits, the presence of interfaces and materials adjacent to the semiconductor will become more important and will eventually completely determine the electronic properties of the device. To sustain further improvements in performance, novel field-effect transistor architectures, such as FinFETs and nanowire field-effect transistors, have been proposed as replacements for the planar devices used today, and also for applications in biosensing and power generation. The successful operation of such devices will depend on our ability to precisely control the location and number of active impurity atoms in the host semiconductor during the fabrication process. Here, we demonstrate that the free carrier density in semiconductor nanowires is dependent on the size of the nanowires. By measuring the electrical conduction of doped silicon nanowires as a function of nanowire radius, temperature and dielectric surrounding, we show that the donor ionization energy increases with decreasing nanowire radius, and that it profoundly modifies the attainable free carrier density at values of the radius much larger than those at which quantum and dopant surface segregation effects set in. At a nanowire radius of 15 nm the carrier density is already 50% lower than in bulk silicon due to the dielectric mismatch between the conducting channel and its surroundings.

  14. Hemochromatosis: the new blood donor.

    PubMed

    Leitman, Susan F

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) due to homozygosity for the C282Y mutation in the HFE gene is a common inherited iron overload disorder in whites of northern European descent. Hepcidin deficiency, the hallmark of the disorder, leads to dysregulated intestinal iron absorption and progressive iron deposition in the liver, heart, skin, endocrine glands, and joints. Survival is normal if organ damage is prevented by early institution of phlebotomy therapy. HH arthropathy is the symptom most affecting quality of life and can be debilitating. Genotype screening in large population studies has shown that the clinical penetrance of C282Y homozygosity is highly variable and can be very low, with up to 50% of women and 20% of men showing a silent phenotype. Targeted population screening for the HFE C282Y mutation is not recommended at present, but might be reconsidered as a cost-effective approach to management if counseling and care were better organized and standardized. Referral of patients to the blood center for phlebotomy therapy and use of HH donor blood for transfusion standardizes treatment, minimizes treatment costs, and may benefit society as a whole. Physician practices should be amended such that HH subjects are more frequently referred to the blood center for therapy.

  15. PML diagnostic criteria

    PubMed Central

    Aksamit, Allen J.; Clifford, David B.; Davis, Larry; Koralnik, Igor J.; Sejvar, James J.; Bartt, Russell; Major, Eugene O.; Nath, Avindra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish criteria for the diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Methods: We reviewed available literature to identify various diagnostic criteria employed. Several search strategies employing the terms “progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy” with or without “JC virus” were performed with PubMed, SCOPUS, and EMBASE search engines. The articles were reviewed by a committee of individuals with expertise in the disorder in order to determine the most useful applicable criteria. Results: A consensus statement was developed employing clinical, imaging, pathologic, and virologic evidence in support of the diagnosis of PML. Two separate pathways, histopathologic and clinical, for PML diagnosis are proposed. Diagnostic classification includes certain, probable, possible, and not PML. Conclusion: Definitive diagnosis of PML requires neuropathologic demonstration of the typical histopathologic triad (demyelination, bizarre astrocytes, and enlarged oligodendroglial nuclei) coupled with the techniques to show the presence of JC virus. The presence of clinical and imaging manifestations consistent with the diagnosis and not better explained by other disorders coupled with the demonstration of JC virus by PCR in CSF is also considered diagnostic. Algorithms for establishing the diagnosis have been recommended. PMID:23568998

  16. Donor research in australia: challenges and promise.

    PubMed

    Masser, Barbara; Smith, Geoff; Williams, Lisa A

    2014-07-01

    Donors are the key to the core business of Blood Collection Agencies (BCAs). However, historically, they have not been a focus of research undertaken by these organizations. This model is now changing, with significant donor research groups established in a number of countries, including Australia. Donor research in the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) is concentrated in the Donor and Community Research (DCR) team. Cognizant of the complex and ever-changing landscape with regard to optimal donor management, the DCR team collaborates with academics located at universities around Australia to coordinate a broad program of research that addresses both short- and-long term challenges to the blood supply. This type of collaboration is not, however, without challenges. Two major collaborative programs of the Blood Service's research, focusing on i) the recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors and ii) the role of the emotion pride in donor motivation and return, are showcased to elucidate how the challenges of conducting collaborative BCA research can be met. In so doing, these and the other research programs described herein demonstrate how the Blood Service supports and contributes to research that not only revises operational procedures but also contributes to advances in basic science. PMID:25254025

  17. Donor Research in Australia: Challenges and Promise

    PubMed Central

    Masser, Barbara; Smith, Geoff; Williams, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Donors are the key to the core business of Blood Collection Agencies (BCAs). However, historically, they have not been a focus of research undertaken by these organizations. This model is now changing, with significant donor research groups established in a number of countries, including Australia. Donor research in the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) is concentrated in the Donor and Community Research (DCR) team. Cognizant of the complex and ever-changing landscape with regard to optimal donor management, the DCR team collaborates with academics located at universities around Australia to coordinate a broad program of research that addresses both short- and-long term challenges to the blood supply. This type of collaboration is not, however, without challenges. Two major collaborative programs of the Blood Service's research, focusing on i) the recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors and ii) the role of the emotion pride in donor motivation and return, are showcased to elucidate how the challenges of conducting collaborative BCA research can be met. In so doing, these and the other research programs described herein demonstrate how the Blood Service supports and contributes to research that not only revises operational procedures but also contributes to advances in basic science. PMID:25254025

  18. Outcomes of kidney transplants and risk of infection transmission from increased infectious risk donors.

    PubMed

    Limkemann, Ashley J; Wolfe, Luke; Sharma, Amit; King, Anne L; Behnke, Martha; Shah, Mili Jay; Posner, Marc P; Cotterell, Adrian H; Bhati, Chandra S; Gupta, Ankur; Kumar, Dhiren; Gupta, Gaurav

    2016-08-01

    Concern over transmission of viral infections has been reported to result in higher discard rates of high infectious risk kidneys (HIR) although data on actual viral transmission rates are lacking. At our center, we performed 89 HIR and 533 non-HIR kidney transplants (KTs) between 2004 and 2011. Follow-up screening labs in recipients of HIR kidneys tested for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus did not reveal any cases of viral transmission over median follow-up of 4.3 years. Patient and graft outcomes were similar at 5 years between HIR and non-HIR KTs. An updated analysis of the Organ Procurement and Transplant Network (OPTN) registry of deceased-donor kidney transplants between 2008 and 2012 included 57 526 transplants was performed. Retrospective calculation of KDRI (kidney donor risk index) differed (P<.001) between all groups with median KDRI of 0.99 for HIR kidneys, 1.07 for non-HIR standard criteria donor kidneys, and 1.81 for non-HIR expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidneys. This was reflected in the significantly improved 5-year graft survival for HIR KTs when compared with non-HIR ECD KTs (84% vs 78%; P<.001). Our data can guide counseling of KT candidates about the safety and benefits of HIR kidneys.

  19. Living donor liver transplantation in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Marwan, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15−59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt. PMID:27115003

  20. Donor-acceptor heteroleptic open sandwiches.

    PubMed

    Merino, Gabriel; Beltrán, Hiram I; Vela, Alberto

    2006-02-01

    A series of donor-acceptor heteroleptic open sandwiches with formula CpM-M'Pyl (M = B, Al, Ga; M' = Li, Na; Cp = cyclopentadienyl; Pyl = pentadienyl) has been designed in silico using density functional theory. The most stable complexes are those containing boron as a donor atom. A molecular orbital analysis shows that the s character of the lone pair located at the group 13 element is mainly responsible for the complex stabilization. It is also found that the surrounding medium has a similar effect on these sandwiches such as in the "classical" donor-acceptor complexes, showing a decrement in the group 13 element-alkaline metal bond lengths.

  1. Interventional radiology in living donor liver transplant

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yu-Fan; Ou, Hsin-You; Yu, Chun-Yen; Tsang, Leo Leung-Chit; Huang, Tung-Liang; Chen, Tai-Yi; Hsu, Hsien-Wen; Concerjero, Allan M; Wang, Chih-Chi; Wang, Shih-Ho; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Yong, Chee-Chien; Lin, Yu-Hung; Lin, Chih-Che; Chiu, King-Wah; Jawan, Bruno; Eng, Hock-Liew; Chen, Chao-Long

    2014-01-01

    The shortage of deceased donor liver grafts led to the use of living donor liver transplant (LDLT). Patients who undergo LDLT have a higher risk of complications than those who undergo deceased donor liver transplantation (LT). Interventional radiology has acquired a key role in every LT program by treating the majority of vascular and non-vascular post-transplant complications, improving graft and patient survival and avoiding, in the majority of cases, surgical revision and/or re-transplant. The aim of this paper is to review indications, diagnostic modalities, technical considerations, achievements and potential complications of interventional radiology procedures after LDLT. PMID:24876742

  2. Reassessing Medical Risk in Living Kidney Donors

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vineeta; Matas, Arthur J.

    2015-01-01

    The short- and long-term effects of unilateral nephrectomy on living donors have been important considerations for 60 years. Short-term risk is well established (0.03% mortality and <1% risk of major morbidity), but characterization of long-term risk is evolving. Relative to the general population, risk of mortality, ESRD, hypertension, proteinuria, and cardiovascular disease is comparable or lower. However, new studies comparing previous donors with equally healthy controls indicate increased risk of metabolic derangements (particularly involving calcium homeostasis), renal failure, and possibly, mortality. We discuss how these results should be interpreted and their influence on the practice of living donor kidney transplantation. PMID:25255922

  3. Remuneration of hematopoietic stem cell donors: principles and perspective of the World Marrow Donor Association.

    PubMed

    Boo, Michael; van Walraven, Suzanna M; Chapman, Jeremy; Lindberg, Brian; Schmidt, Alexander H; Shaw, Bronwen E; Switzer, Galen E; Yang, Edward; Egeland, Torstein

    2011-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a curative procedure for life-threatening hematologic diseases. Donation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from an unrelated donor, frequently residing in another country, may be the only option for 70% of those in need of unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To maximize the opportunity to find the best available donor, individual donor registries collaborate internationally. To provide homogeneity of practice among registries, the World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA) sets standards against which registries are accredited and provides guidance and regulations about unrelated donor safety and care. A basic tenet of the donor registries is that unrelated HSC donation is an altruistic act; nonpayment of donors is entrenched in the WMDA standards and in international practice. In the United States, the prohibition against remuneration of donors has recently been challenged. Here, we describe the reasons that the WMDA continues to believe that HSC donors should not be paid because of ethical concerns raised by remuneration, potential to damage the public will to act altruistically, the potential for coercion and exploitation of donors, increased risk to patients, harm to local transplantation programs and international stem cell exchange, and the possibility of benefiting some patients while disadvantaging others.

  4. Directed blood donor program decreases donor exposure for children with sickle cell disease requiring chronic transfusion.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D O; Covert, B; Lindsey, T; Edwards, V; McLaughlin, L; Theus, J; Wray, R J; Jupka, K; Baker, D; Robbins, M; DeBaun, M R

    2012-01-01

    In children with sickle cell disease (SCD), primary and secondary prevention of strokes require indefinite regular blood transfusion therapy. The risks associated with repeated transfusions include alloimmunization and increased donor exposure. The Charles Drew Program is a directed blood donor program designed to lower donor exposure, decreasing the associated complications of transfusion; however, no evidence exists demonstrating the magnitude of the benefit to the recipient. Further, the use of extended red blood cell (RBC) antigen matching for C, E, and K has been well documented in a clinical trial setting but not extensively evaluated in a standard care setting. The goal of this study is to assess the effectiveness in reducing alloimmunization when matching for C, E, and K and the magnitude of the decrease in donor exposure in a directed blood donor program. The rate of alloimmunization and reduction of donor exposure were determined during the course of 1 year in a cohort of children with SCD who received regular directed donor blood transfusions. A total of 24 recipients were in the program, 16 females and 8 males, 4 to 20 years of age. During 2008, alloimmunization was 0 percent and donor exposure was reduced by 20 percent, compared with usual care. Extended RBC antigen matching has the same benefit as in a clinical trial setting for patients with SCD receiving blood transfusion therapy. Despite significant effort, we only achieved a modest decrease in donor exposure and cannot determine the immediate benefit of a directed blood donor program.

  5. The Kupffer Cell Number Affects the Outcome of Living Donor Liver Transplantation from Elderly Donors

    PubMed Central

    Hidaka, Masaaki; Eguchi, Susumu; Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Soyama, Akihiko; Ono, Shinichiro; Adachi, Tomohiko; Natsuda, Koji; Kugiyama, Tota; Hara, Takanobu; Okada, Satomi; Imamura, Hajime; Miuma, Satoshi; Miyaaki, Hisamitsu

    2016-01-01

    Background There have been no previous reports how Kupffer cells affect the outcome of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) with an elderly donor. The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of Kupffer cells on LDLT. Methods A total of 161 adult recipients underwent LDLT. The graft survival, prognostic factors for survival, and graft failure after LDLT were examined between cases with a young donor (<50, n = 112) and an elderly donor (≥50, N = 49). The Kupffer cells, represented by CD68-positive cell in the graft, were examined in the young and elderly donors. Results In a multivariable analysis, a donor older than 50 years, sepsis, and diabetes mellitus were significant predictors of graft failure after LDLT. The CD68 in younger donors was significantly more expressed than that in elderly donors. The group with a less number of CD68-positive cells in the graft had a significantly poor survival in the elderly donor group and prognostic factor for graft failure. Conclusions The worse outcome of LDLT with elderly donors might be related to the lower number of Kupffer cells in the graft, which can lead to impaired recovery of the liver function and may predispose patients to infectious diseases after LDLT.

  6. Donor Retention in Online Crowdfunding Communities: A Case Study of DonorsChoose.org

    PubMed Central

    Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure

    2016-01-01

    Online crowdfunding platforms like DonorsChoose.org and Kick-starter allow specific projects to get funded by targeted contributions from a large number of people. Critical for the success of crowdfunding communities is recruitment and continued engagement of donors. With donor attrition rates above 70%, a significant challenge for online crowdfunding platforms as well as traditional offline non-profit organizations is the problem of donor retention. We present a large-scale study of millions of donors and donations on DonorsChoose.org, a crowdfunding platform for education projects. Studying an online crowdfunding platform allows for an unprecedented detailed view of how people direct their donations. We explore various factors impacting donor retention which allows us to identify different groups of donors and quantify their propensity to return for subsequent donations. We find that donors are more likely to return if they had a positive interaction with the receiver of the donation. We also show that this includes appropriate and timely recognition of their support as well as detailed communication of their impact. Finally, we discuss how our findings could inform steps to improve donor retention in crowdfunding communities and non-profit organizations. PMID:27077139

  7. Responses to recipient and donor B cells by genetically donor T cells from human haploidentical chimeras

    SciTech Connect

    Schiff, S.; Sampson, H.; Buckley, R.

    1986-03-01

    Following administration of haploidentical stem cells to infants with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), mature T cells of donor karyotype appear later in the recipient without causing graft-versus-host disease. To investigate the effect of the host environment on the responsiveness of these genetically donor T cells, blood B and T lymphocytes from 6 SCID recipients, their parental donors and unrelated controls were purified by double SRBC rosetting. T cells were stimulated by irradiated B cells at a 1:1 ratio in 6 day cultures. Engrafted T cells of donor karyotype gave much smaller responses to irradiated genetically recipient B cells than did fresh donor T cells. Moreover, engrafted T cells of donor karyotype from two of the three SCIDs who are longest post-transplantation responded more vigorously (14,685 and 31,623 cpm) than fresh donor T cells (5141 and 22,709 cpm) to donor B cells. These data indicate that T lymphocytes which have matured from donor stem cells in the recipient microenvironment behave differently from those that have matured in the donor.

  8. Donor conceived offspring conceive of the donor: the relevance of age, awareness, and family form.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Rosanna; Nelson, Margaret K; Kramer, Wendy

    2013-06-01

    Rarely have donor conceived offspring been studied. Recently, it has become more common for parents to disclose the nature of conception to their offspring. This new development raises questions about the donor's place in the offspring's life and identity. Using surveys collected by the Donor Sibling Registry, the largest U.S. web-based registry, during a 15 week period from October 2009 to January 2010, we found that donor offspring view the donor as a whole person, rather than as simple genetic material (he can know you; he has looks; he can teach you about yourself); they also believe that the donor should act on his humanity (he should know about you and not remain an anonymous genetic contributor). Other new issues that emerge from this research include the findings that offspring may want to control the decision about contacting their sperm donor in order to facilitate a bond between themselves and the donor that is separate from their relationship with their parents. They also wish to assure their parents that their natal families are primary and will not be disrupted. We discuss how the age at which offspring learned about their donor conception and their current age each make a difference in their responses to what they want from contact with their donor. Family form (heterosexual two-parent families and lesbian two-parent families) also affects donor terminology. The role of the genetic father is reconsidered in both types of families. Donor conceived offspring raised in heterosexual families discover that their natal father no longer carries biological information and he is relegated to being "only" a social father. Offspring raised by lesbian couples experience a dissipation of the family narrative that they have no father. The donor, an imagined father, offers clues to the offspring's personal identity. The natal family is no longer the sole keeper of identity or ancestry.

  9. A prospective quality evaluation of single donor platelets (SDP) - an experience of a tertiary healthcare center in India.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Prashant; Tiwari, Aseem Kumar; Sharma, Jyoti; Singh, Mukesh Bikram; Dixit, Surbhi; Raina, Vimarsh

    2012-04-01

    Quality assurance of single donor platelets (SDP) is incomplete unless clinical response to platelet transfusion is measured. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the quality of SDP derived from plateletpheresis procedures and to evaluate the response to platelet transfusion. Procedures were performed on 2287 accepted donors while 271 donors were deferred. Platelet count <1.5 lac/μl and hemoglobin <12.5 g/dl were the leading cause of deferral. The median platelet yield in a SDP bag was found to be 3.1×10(11). The median corrected count increment (CCI) and post-transfusion platelet recovery (PPR) were found to be 10110×m(2)/μl and 24.5%, respectively. In India, the criteria for the selection of plateletpheresis donors should be revisited. Based on quality parameters, the Fresenius COM.TEC cell separator is comparable to other cell separators.

  10. Nucleic acid-amplification testing for hepatitis B in cornea donors.

    PubMed

    Fornés, Maria Gema; Jiménez, Maria Angustias; Eisman, Marcela; Gómez Villagrán, Jose Luis; Villalba, Rafael

    2016-06-01

    Careful donor selection and implementation of tests of appropriate sensitivity and specificity are of paramount importance for minimizing the risk of transmitting infectious diseases from donors to corneal allograft recipients. Reported cases of viral transmission with corneal grafts are very unusual. Nevertheless potential virus transmission through the engraftment cannot be ruled out. According to European Guideline 2006/17/EC, screening for antibodies for Hepatitis B core antigen (anti HBc) is mandatory, and when this test is positive, some criteria must be established before using corneas. Despite the continuous progress in screening tests, donors carrying an occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) can cause transplant-transmitted hepatitis B. To date, Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) is not an obligatory assay in corneal tissue setting neither in our country nor in the rest of European countries. Herein, we report three cornea donors that were rejected with the diagnosis of OBI through the testing of sensitive NAT and the serological profile of Hepatitis B virus. The aim of this report is to emphasize the need to include NAT in new reviews of EU Tissues and Cells Directives in order to increase level of security in tissue donation as well as not to reject a high number of donors with isolated profile of anti HBc in geographical areas with high prevalence of Hepatitis B, that could be rejected without a true criterion of Hepatitis B infection. PMID:26685699

  11. Meta-Analysis of Laparoscopic versus Open Hepatectomy for Live Liver Donors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mang-Li; Ye, Song; Zheng, Shu-Sen; Wang, Wei-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To document the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic living donor hepatectomy in comparison with open liver resection for living donor liver transplantation. Methods Medline database, EMASE and Cochrane library were searched for original studies comparing laparoscopic living donor hepatectomy (LLDH) and open living donor hepatectomy (OLDH) by January 2015. Meta-analysis was performed to evaluate donors’ perioperative outcomes. Results Nine studies met selection criteria, involving 1346 donors of whom 318 underwent LLDH and 1028 underwent OLDH. The Meta analysis demonstrated that LLDH group had less operative blood loss [patients 1346; WMD: -56.09 mL; 95%CI: -100.28-(-11.90) mL; P = 0.01], shorter hospital stay [patients 737; WMD: -1.75 d; 95%CI: -3.01-(-0.48) d; P = 0.007] but longer operative time (patients 1346; WMD: 41.05 min; 95%CI: 1.91–80.19 min; P = 0.04), compared with OLDH group. There were no significant difference in other outcomes between LLDH and OLDH groups, including overall complication, bile leakage, postoperative bleeding, pulmonary complication, wound complication, time to dietary intake and period of analgesic use. Conclusions LLDH appears to be a safe and effective option for LDLT. It improves donors’ perioperative outcomes as compared with OLDH. PMID:27788201

  12. Magnetic criteria of aromaticity.

    PubMed

    Gershoni-Poranne, Renana; Stanger, Amnon

    2015-09-21

    This review describes the current state of magnetic criteria of aromaticity. The introduction contains the fundamentals of ring currents in aromatic and antiaromatic systems, followed by a brief description of experimental and computational tools: NMR, diamagnetic susceptibility exaltation, current density analyses (CDA) and nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS). This is followed by more comprehensive chapters: NMR - focusing on the work of R. Mitchell - NICS and CDA - describing the progress and development of the methods to their current state and presenting some examples of representative work. PMID:26035305

  13. Magnetic criteria of aromaticity.

    PubMed

    Gershoni-Poranne, Renana; Stanger, Amnon

    2015-09-21

    This review describes the current state of magnetic criteria of aromaticity. The introduction contains the fundamentals of ring currents in aromatic and antiaromatic systems, followed by a brief description of experimental and computational tools: NMR, diamagnetic susceptibility exaltation, current density analyses (CDA) and nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS). This is followed by more comprehensive chapters: NMR - focusing on the work of R. Mitchell - NICS and CDA - describing the progress and development of the methods to their current state and presenting some examples of representative work.

  14. Solicited kidney donors: Are they coerced?

    PubMed

    Serur, David; Bretzlaff, Gretchen; Christos, Paul; Desrosiers, Farrah; Charlton, Marian

    2015-12-01

    Most non-directed donors (NDDs) decide to donate on their own and contact the transplant centre directly. Some NDDs decide to donate in response to community solicitation such as newspaper ads or donor drives. We wished to explore whether subtle coercion might be occurring in such NDDs who are part of a larger community. One successful organization in a community in Brooklyn, NY, provides about 50 NDDs per year for recipients within that community. The donors answer ads in local papers and attend donor drives. Herein, we evaluated the physical and emotional outcomes of community-solicited NDDs in comparison to traditional NDDs who come from varied communities and are not responding to a specific call for donation. An assessment of coercion was used as well. PMID:26511772

  15. Living donor liver transplantation in the USA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Peter T W; Testa, Giuliano

    2016-04-01

    Living donor liver transplant (LDLT) accounts for a small volume of the transplants in the USA. Due to the current liver allocation system based on the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), LDLT has a unique role in providing life-saving transplantation for patients with low MELD scores and significant complications from portal hypertension, as well as select patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Donor safety is paramount and has been a topic of much discussion in the transplant community as well as the general media. The donor risk appears to be low overall, with a favorable long-term quality of life. The latest trend has been a gradual shift from right-lobe grafts to left-lobe grafts to reduce donor risk, provided that the left lobe can provide adequate liver volume for the recipient. PMID:27115007

  16. Alginate dressing as a donor site haemostat.

    PubMed Central

    Groves, A. R.; Lawrence, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    An alginate fibre dressing has been used to reduce blood loss from skin graft donor sites. Significant haemostasis has been achieved in the immediate post surgery phase and no adverse reactions observed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3511833

  17. Solicited kidney donors: Are they coerced?

    PubMed Central

    SERUR, DAVID; BRETZLAFF, GRETCHEN; CHRISTOS, PAUL; DESROSIERS, FARRAH; CHARLTON, MARIAN

    2016-01-01

    Most non-directed donors (NDDs) decide to donate on their own and contact the transplant centre directly. Some NDDs decide to donate in response to community solicitation such as newspaper ads or donor drives. We wished to explore whether subtle coercion might be occurring in such NDDs who are part of a larger community. One successful organization in a community in Brooklyn, NY, provides about 50 NDDs per year for recipients within that community. The donors answer ads in local papers and attend donor drives. Herein, we evaluated the physical and emotional outcomes of community-solicited NDDs in comparison to traditional NDDs who come from varied communities and are not responding to a specific call for donation. An assessment of coercion was used as well. PMID:26511772

  18. Management of the multiple organ donor.

    PubMed

    Grebenik, C R; Hinds, C J

    1987-07-01

    The need for cadaveric organs for transplantation is increasing. This article provides guidelines for the identification of potential organ donors and suggests suitable principles of management. The physiological changes after brain death are briefly reviewed.

  19. Solicited kidney donors: Are they coerced?

    PubMed

    Serur, David; Bretzlaff, Gretchen; Christos, Paul; Desrosiers, Farrah; Charlton, Marian

    2015-12-01

    Most non-directed donors (NDDs) decide to donate on their own and contact the transplant centre directly. Some NDDs decide to donate in response to community solicitation such as newspaper ads or donor drives. We wished to explore whether subtle coercion might be occurring in such NDDs who are part of a larger community. One successful organization in a community in Brooklyn, NY, provides about 50 NDDs per year for recipients within that community. The donors answer ads in local papers and attend donor drives. Herein, we evaluated the physical and emotional outcomes of community-solicited NDDs in comparison to traditional NDDs who come from varied communities and are not responding to a specific call for donation. An assessment of coercion was used as well.

  20. Donor-Derived Myeloid Sarcoma in Two Kidney Transplant Recipients from a Single Donor

    PubMed Central

    Palanisamy, Amudha; Persad, Paul; Koty, Patrick P.; Douglas, Laurie L.; Stratta, Robert J.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Reeves-Daniel, Amber M.; Orlando, Giuseppe; Farney, Alan C.; Beaty, Michael W.; Pettenati, Mark J.; Iskandar, Samy S.; Grier, David D.; Kaczmorski, Scott A.; Doares, William H.; Gautreaux, Michael D.; Freedman, Barry I.; Powell, Bayard L.

    2015-01-01

    We report the rare occurrence of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma in two kidney transplant patients who received organs from a single deceased donor. There was no evidence of preexisting hematologic malignancy in the donor at the time of organ recovery. Both recipients developed leukemic involvement that appeared to be limited to the transplanted organ. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and molecular genotyping analyses confirmed that the malignant cells were of donor origin in each patient. Allograft nephrectomy and immediate withdrawal of immunosuppression were performed in both cases; systemic chemotherapy was subsequently administered to one patient. Both recipients were in remission at least one year following the diagnosis of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma. These cases suggest that restoration of the immune system after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy and allograft nephrectomy may be sufficient to control HLA-mismatched donor-derived myeloid sarcoma without systemic involvement. PMID:25977825

  1. Donor transmission of melanoma following renal transplant.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kathryn T; Olszanski, Anthony; Farma, Jeffrey M

    2012-01-01

    Donor transmission of melanoma is one of the more common and lethal of recipient malignancies, often presenting with systemic disease. Although some patients may receive durable remission of melanoma following explantation of the allograft and withdrawal of immunosuppression, donor transmission of melanoma is fatal in most patients. Here we present a case of a 44-year-old male who developed metastatic melanoma following renal transplant.

  2. Performance Criteria and Evaluation System

    1992-06-18

    The Performance Criteria and Evaluation System (PCES) was developed in order to make a data base of criteria accessible to radiation safety staff. The criteria included in the package are applicable to occupational radiation safety at DOE reactor and nonreactor nuclear facilities, but any data base of criteria may be created using the Criterion Data Base Utiliity (CDU). PCES assists personnel in carrying out oversight, line, and support activities.

  3. Curved Oligophenylenes as Donors in Shape-Persistent Donor-Acceptor Macrocycles with Solvatofluorochromic Properties.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Takuya; Orii, Jun; Segawa, Yasutomo; Itami, Kenichiro

    2015-08-10

    Many optoelectronic organic materials are based on donor-acceptor (D-A) systems with heteroatom-containing electron donors. Herein, we introduce a new molecular design for all-carbon curved oligoparaphenylenes as donors, which results in the generation of unique shape-persistent D-A macrocycles. Two types of acceptor-inserted cycloparaphenylenes were synthesized. These macrocycles display positive solvatofluorochromic properties owing to their D-A characteristics, which were confirmed by theoretical and electrochemical studies. PMID:26140706

  4. Predictors of donor follow-up after living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert S; Smith, Abigail R; Dew, Mary Amanda; Gillespie, Brenda W; Hill-Callahan, Peg; Ladner, Daniela P

    2014-08-01

    Donor safety in living liver donation is of paramount importance; however, information on long-term outcomes is limited by incomplete follow-up. We sought to ascertain factors that predicted postdonation follow-up in 456 living liver donors in the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study. Completed donor follow-up was defined as physical, phone, or laboratory contact at a given time point. Univariate and multivariate mixed effects logistic regression models, using donor and recipient demographic and clinical data and donor quality-of-life data, were developed to predict completed follow-up. Ninety percent of the donors completed their follow-up in the first 3 months, and 83% completed their follow-up at year 1; rates of completed follow-up ranged from 57% to 72% in years 2 to 7 and from 41% to 56% in years 8 to 10. The probability of completed follow-up in the first year was higher for white donors [odds ratio (OR) = 3.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25-8.58] but lower for donors whose recipients had hepatitis C virus or hepatocellular carcinoma (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.17-0.69). After the first year, an older age at donation predicted more complete follow-up. There were significant center differences at all time points (OR range = 0.29-10.11), with center variability in both returns for in-center visits and the use of phone/long-distance visits. Donor follow-up in the first year after donation was excellent but decreased with time. Predictors of follow-up varied with the time since donation. In conclusion, adapting best center practices (enhanced through the use of telephones and social media) to maintain contact with donors represents a significant opportunity to gain valuable information about long-term donor outcomes. PMID:24824858

  5. Molecular characterization of GYPB and RH in donors in the American Rare Donor Program.

    PubMed

    Vege, S; Westhoff, C M

    2006-01-01

    Transfusion of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) has been a challenge in clinical transfusion medicine, especially when the required donor RBCs must be U- and negative for high-prevalence Rh phenotypes (hr(B), hr(S)). It is now possible to genotype donors to identify or confirm Uvar and U- phenotypes, as well as Rh hr(B)- and hrS- phenotypes, and to characterize the different RH backgrounds found in these donors. In a preliminary study of donors registered in the American Rare Donor Program, twelve different RH backgrounds were identified in eighteen hr(B)- or hr(S)- donors. These results, summarized in the current report, confirm the heterogeneous nature of these phenotypes and are relevant for selection of donor units for patients with antibodies to high-prevalence Rh antigens. Not all phenotypically similar units will be compatible, and matching the Rh genotype of the donor to the patient is important to prevent further Rh sensitization. Most donors referred were hr(B)- and carry at least one hybrid RHD-CE(3-7)-D gene that encodes a variant C antigen linked to RHCE*ceS that encodes the VS+V- phenotype. Surprisingly, the majority of donors were heterozygous, some even carrying conventional alleles, suggesting that the loss of expression of the hr(B) epitopes on RBCs is a dominant phenotype. Although antigen-matching of patients with SCD with donors for C, E, and K antigens has decreased the incidence of alloimmunization, some patients still become immunized to Rh antigens, indicating the units were not truly matched. RH genotyping can identify those patients with SCD who carry RH alleles that encode altered C, e, or D who are at risk for production of "apparent auto" and alloantibodies to Rh antigens. RH genotyping of alloimmunized patients with SCD, partnered with genotyping of donors, can identify compatible units that would also eliminate the risk of further Rh alloimmunization. PMID:17105364

  6. Recent advance in living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hashikura, Yasuhiko; Kawasaki, Seiji; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Terada, Masaru; Ikegami, Toshihiko; Nakazawa, Yuichi; Urata, Koichi; Chisuwa, Hisanao; Ogino, Shiro; Makuuchi, Masatoshi

    2002-02-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT)has been performed in more than 2000 cases around the world. This procedure is considered to have certain advantages over cadaveric liver transplantation, because detailed preoperative evaluation of the donor liver is possible and superior graft quality is available. The indication has recently been widened to include adult patients. The results of LDLT have been reported to be very good. In this article,several considerations on LDLT,including living donor selection and application to adult patients, are discussed. Between June 1990 and March 2001, 143 patients underwent LDLT at Shinshu University Hospital. During this period, 160 patients were determined to be candidates for liver transplantation in our institution, and 185 candidates were evaluated as potential donors for these patients. Thirty-eight of 185 donor candidates were excluded for reasons including liver dysfunction and withdrawal of consent. The recipients included 60 adults, 50 (83%) of whom are currently alive. Taking into account the worldwide shortage of cadaveric organ donation,the importance of LDLT will probably never diminish. This procedure should be established on the basis of profound consideration of donor safety as well as accumulated expertise of hepatobiliary surgery. PMID:11865355

  7. Quartic Rotation Criteria and Algorithms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Douglas B.; Jennrich, Robert I.

    1988-01-01

    Most of the current analytic rotation criteria for simple structure in factor analysis are summarized and identified as members of a general symmetric family of quartic criteria. A unified development of algorithms for orthogonal and direct oblique rotation using arbitrary criteria from this family is presented. (Author/TJH)

  8. Criteria for Restructuring Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Sheila

    1995-01-01

    Criteria most often used by higher education administrators in restructuring higher education in the 1980s and 1990s are outlined. A distinction is made between retrenchment and restructuring. Criteria recommended in the literature are compared with criteria actually used, and the results. Some alternatives are suggested. (MSE)

  9. Sperm donors describe the experience of contact with their donor-conceived offspring.

    PubMed

    Hertz, R; Nelson, M K; Kramer, W

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the attitudes and experiences of 57 sperm donors who responded to a survey posted online in the United States and indicated that they had had contact with their donor-conceived offspring or the parents of their donor-conceived offspring. On average, 18 years had elapsed since the respondents donated sperm. In the interim between donating and having contact with offspring, most had become curious about their offspring. Most made contact through a bank or online registry. Most respondents had communicated with at least one offspring at least once and most had exchanged photos with offspring. Approximately two-thirds had met in person once; the same proportion had communicated over email or text. Other forms of communication were less common. Almost half of the respondents now considered their donor-conceived offspring to be like a family member. At the same time, donors are respectful of the integrity of the family in which their offspring were raised. Donors with contact are open to having their partners and children know their donor-conceived offspring. Although contact is generally positive, donors report that establishing boundaries and defining the relationship can be very difficult. Some donors also urge those who are thinking of donating to consider the consequences and some suggest avoiding anonymity. There were no significant differences in attitudes and experiences between those who donated anonymously and those who had been identity-release for their offspring when they turned 18. PMID:26175887

  10. Sperm donors describe the experience of contact with their donor-conceived offspring

    PubMed Central

    Hertz, R.; Nelson, M.K.; Kramer, W.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the attitudes and experiences of 57 sperm donors who responded to a survey posted online in the United States and indicated that they had had contact with their donor-conceived offspring or the parents of their donor-conceived offspring. On average, 18 years had elapsed since the respondents donated sperm. In the interim between donating and having contact with offspring, most had become curious about their offspring. Most made contact through a bank or online registry. Most respondents had communicated with at least one offspring at least once and most had exchanged photos with offspring. Approximately two-thirds had met in person once; the same proportion had communicated over email or text. Other forms of communication were less common. Almost half of the respondents now considered their donor-conceived offspring to be like a family member. At the same time, donors are respectful of the integrity of the family in which their offspring were raised. Donors with contact are open to having their partners and children know their donor-conceived offspring. Although contact is generally positive, donors report that establishing boundaries and defining the relationship can be very difficult. Some donors also urge those who are thinking of donating to consider the consequences and some suggest avoiding anonymity. There were no significant differences in attitudes and experiences between those who donated anonymously and those who had been identity-release for their offspring when they turned 18. PMID:26175887

  11. Expanding the live kidney donor pool: ethical considerations regarding altruistic donors, paired and pooled programs.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shaneel Rajendra; Chadha, Priyanka; Papalois, Vassilios

    2011-06-01

    In renal transplant, there is a well-known deficiency in organ supply relative to demand. Live donation provides superior results when compared with deceased donation including a better rate of graft success and fewer immunologic complications. This deficiency in organs leads to significant morbidity and mortality rates. Alternative avenues have been extensively explored that may expand the live donor pool. They include altruistic donation as well as paired and pooled exchange programs. Altruistic donation is a truly selfless act from a donor unknown to the recipient. Kidney paired donation involves 2 incompatible donor-recipient pairs swapping donors to produce compatibility. Pooled donation involves at least 2 pairs, and can take the form of domino chains in which altruistic input sets up a chain of transplants, in which each recipient's incompatible donor makes a donation for the next recipient. Despite application of these various methods, there lie extensive ethical issues surrounding them. Misconceptions frequently occur; for instance, the perceived benefit that donating an organ to a loved one is greater for a related donor than for an altruistic one. Additionally, it is frequently believed that immunologic incompatibility offers coerced donors liberation from surgery, and that overcoming these barriers by introducing exchange programs provides vulnerable donors less protection. This article explores these and other complex ethical issues surrounding the various methods of expanding the donor pool. The authors offer opinions that challenge the ethical issues and attempt to overcome those views that hinder progress in the field. PMID:21649566

  12. Selecting suitable solid organ transplant donors: Reducing the risk of donor-transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Jr, Christopher S Kovacs; Koval, Christine E; van Duin, David; de Morais, Amanda Guedes; Gonzalez, Blanca E; Avery, Robin K; Mawhorter, Steven D; Brizendine, Kyle D; Cober, Eric D; Miranda, Cyndee; Shrestha, Rabin K; Teixeira, Lucileia; Mossad, Sherif B

    2014-06-24

    Selection of the appropriate donor is essential to a successful allograft recipient outcome for solid organ transplantation. Multiple infectious diseases have been transmitted from the donor to the recipient via transplantation. Donor-transmitted infections cause increased morbidity and mortality to the recipient. In recent years, a series of high-profile transmissions of infections have occurred in organ recipients prompting increased attention on the process of improving the selection of an appropriate donor that balances the shortage of needed allografts with an approach that mitigates the risk of donor-transmitted infection to the recipient. Important advances focused on improving donor screening diagnostics, using previously excluded high-risk donors, and individualizing the selection of allografts to recipients based on their prior infection history are serving to increase the donor pool and improve outcomes after transplant. This article serves to review the relevant literature surrounding this topic and to provide a suggested approach to the selection of an appropriate solid organ transplant donor. PMID:25032095

  13. Outcomes of shipped live donor kidney transplants compared with traditional living donor kidney transplants.

    PubMed

    Treat, Eric G; Miller, Eric T; Kwan, Lorna; Connor, Sarah E; Maliski, Sally L; Hicks, Elisabeth M; Williams, Kristen C; Whitted, Lauren A; Gritsch, Hans A; McGuire, Suzanne M; Mone, Thomas D; Veale, Jeffrey L

    2014-11-01

    The disparity between kidney transplant candidates and donors necessitates innovations to increase organ availability. Transporting kidneys allows for living donors and recipients to undergo surgery with a familiar transplant team, city, friends, and family. The effect of shipping kidneys and prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) with living donor transplantation outcomes is not clearly known. This retrospective matched (age, gender, race, and year of procedure) cohort study compared allograft outcomes for shipped live donor kidney transplants and nonshipped living donor kidney transplants. Fifty-seven shipped live donor kidneys were transplanted from 31 institutions in 26 cities. The mean shipping distance was 1634 miles (range 123-2811) with mean CIT of 12.1 ± 2.8 h. The incidence of delayed graft function in the shipped cohort was 1.8% (1/57) compared to 0% (0/57) in the nonshipped cohort. The 1-year allograft survival was 98% in both cohorts. There were no significant differences between the mean serum creatinine values or the rates of serum creatinine decline in the immediate postoperative period even after adjusted for gender and differences in recipient and donor BMI. Despite prolonged CITs, outcomes for shipped live donor kidney transplants were similar when compared to matched nonshipped living donor kidney transplants.

  14. Selecting suitable solid organ transplant donors: Reducing the risk of donor-transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Jr, Christopher S Kovacs; Koval, Christine E; van Duin, David; de Morais, Amanda Guedes; Gonzalez, Blanca E; Avery, Robin K; Mawhorter, Steven D; Brizendine, Kyle D; Cober, Eric D; Miranda, Cyndee; Shrestha, Rabin K; Teixeira, Lucileia; Mossad, Sherif B

    2014-01-01

    Selection of the appropriate donor is essential to a successful allograft recipient outcome for solid organ transplantation. Multiple infectious diseases have been transmitted from the donor to the recipient via transplantation. Donor-transmitted infections cause increased morbidity and mortality to the recipient. In recent years, a series of high-profile transmissions of infections have occurred in organ recipients prompting increased attention on the process of improving the selection of an appropriate donor that balances the shortage of needed allografts with an approach that mitigates the risk of donor-transmitted infection to the recipient. Important advances focused on improving donor screening diagnostics, using previously excluded high-risk donors, and individualizing the selection of allografts to recipients based on their prior infection history are serving to increase the donor pool and improve outcomes after transplant. This article serves to review the relevant literature surrounding this topic and to provide a suggested approach to the selection of an appropriate solid organ transplant donor. PMID:25032095

  15. The carboxyl modifier 1-ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide (EDC) inhibits half of the high-affinity Mn-binding site in photosystem II membrane fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, C.; Seibert, M. )

    1991-10-08

    The diphenylcarbazide (DPC)/Mn{sup 2+} assay was used to assess the amount of the high-affinity Mn-binding site in manganese-depleted photosystem II (PS II) membrane fragments from spinach and Scenedesmus obliquus. The assay mechanism at high DPC concentration was shown to involve noncompetitive inhibition of only half of the control level of DPC donation to PS II by micromolar concentrations of Mn at pH 6.5. At low DPC concentration both DPC and Mn{sup 2+} donate to PS II additively. Treatment with the carboxyl amino acid modifier 1-ethyl-3-(3(dimethylamino) propyl) carbodiimide (EDC) inhibited half of the high affinity Mn-binding site in spinach and Scenedesmus WT PS II membranes and all of the available site in Scenedesmus LF-1 mutant PS II membranes. A similar EDC concentration dependence was observed in all cases. This protection was specific for Mn{sup 2+}; six other divalent cations were ineffective. The authors conclude that EDC modifies that half of the high-affinity Mn-binding site that is insensitive to the histidine modifier diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC) and directly affects ligands that bind Mn. The effects of EDC and DEPC that influence the high-affinity site are mutually exclusive and are specific to the lumenal side of the PS II membrane. They suggest that carboxyl residues on reaction center proteins are associated with half of the high-affinity Mn-binding site in PS II and are involved along with histidine residues in binding Mn functional in the O{sub 2}-evolving process.

  16. Diagnostic criteria of antibody-mediated rejection in kidney transplants.

    PubMed

    Mosquera Reboredo, J M; Vázquez Martul, E

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of anti-donor antibody-mediated rejection or humoral rejection (ABMR) is one of the main discussions at the moment in kidney transplantation. The search for histopathological markers that help us to diagnose ABMR has been more problematic, in contrast to the histological expression of cellular or tubulointerstitial rejection. Although the relationship between post-transplant anti-donor antibodies and the allograft's prognosis has been a topic of discussion for a long time, led in the main by P.Terasaki, it was not until the beginning of 1990s when P. Halloran studied the humoral mechanisms of rejection in greater depth. Feutch described the importance of C4d deposits as a marker that shows a humoral mechanism of allograft rejection in 1993. As a result of many studies carried out, the Banff consensus group established some diagnostic histopathological criteria of acute (ABMR) in 2003. These have been modified slightly in later meetings of the group. Furthermore, in 2005 this same working group looked at the physiopathological mechanisms causing chronic allograft failure in more detail and established the criteria defining chronic humoral rejection. In this review, we are trying to update any useful histopathological criteria for diagnosing acute and chronic ABMR.

  17. True HIV seroprevalence in Indian blood donors.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, N; Ayagiri, A; Ray, V L

    2000-03-01

    The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), the apex body for controlling AIDS in India, projected that HIV seroprevalence would increase from 7/1000 in 1995 to 21.2/1000 in 1997. A high incidence (8.2%) of HIV was observed in blood donors. This study was carried out to find out the true HIV positivity in Indian blood donors. Blood donors from our centre were followed for more than 5 years to determine the true HIV seroprevalence and our result was compared with similar studies from India. Voluntary and relative blood donors who visited the SGPGIMS, Lucknow, since 1993 to June 1998 were included. They were screened for HIV 1/2 by ELISA kits (WHO approved). First-time HIV-positive samples were preserved frozen for further study (stage-I). They were repeated in duplicate and retested with other kits. If found positive, the sample was labelled as ELISA positive (stage-II). ELISA-positive samples were confirmed by Western Blot (WB) at stage-III. A total of 65 288 donors were included and 834 (12.8/1000) were reactive at stage-I. But 1.1/1000 donors were found to be ELISA positive at stage-II, and 0.28/1000 donors were positive by WB at stage-III. The 'seropositivity' rate from the NACO was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than our study. There were five similar Indian studies and seropositivity rate varied from 0.72/1000 (using ELISA and WB) to 5.5/1000 (using ELISA alone). The 'seropositivity' rate from the NACO was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than all these studies. HIV seroprevalence in the present study is lower (P < 0.001) than other Indian figures. The present and other studies confirmed that the projected HIV seroprevalence (82/1000) in Indian blood donors was high. The NACO result was based on one-time ELISA screening reports from zonal blood testing centres which also receive samples from paid donors donating in commercial blood banks. The HIV prevalence of blood donors (and national prevalence) is to be reassessed.

  18. [Markers of viral hepatitis B and D and levels of alanine aminotransferase in military blood donors: a profile of 30,000 blood donations in 1989].

    PubMed

    Boulesteix, G; Bourin, P; Fabre, G; Blanchard de Vaucouleurs, A; Molinié, C; Denee, J M; Buisson, Y; Schill, H; Joussemet, M

    1990-01-01

    Serologic data for B and D viral hepatitis are studied on 30,000 military blood donors. Because of legal norms of blood products for transfusion 761 donations (2.53% have been destroyed). Exclusion criteria for viral B hepatitis and ALT are independent. In this study the prevalency of HBV infections is significantly lower than for other blood centers: probably in account of the young age of military blood donors.

  19. Donor preoperative oxygen delivery and post-extubation hypoxia impact donation after circulatory death hypoxic cholangiopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chirichella, Thomas J; Dunham, C Michael; Zimmerman, Michael A; Phelan, Elise M; Mandell, M Susan; Conzen, Kendra D; Kelley, Stephen E; Nydam, Trevor L; Bak, Thomas E; Kam, Igal; Wachs, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    .10). HC was independently associated with age, multi-pressor/red-cell transfusion status, arterial oxygen content, hypoxia score, and mean arterial pressure (r2 = 0.6197). The transplantation rate was greater for the later period with more liberal donor selection [era 2 (7.1/year)], compared to our early experience [era 1 (2.5/year)]. HC occurred in 63.0% during era 2 and in 29.4% during era 1 (P = 0.03). Era 2 donors had longer times for extubation-to-asystole (14.4 ± 4.7 m vs 9.3 ± 4.5 m, P = 0.001), ischemia (13.9 ± 5.9 m vs 9.7 ± 5.6 m, P = 0.03), and hypoxemia (16.0 ± 5.1 m vs 11.1 ± 6.7 m, P = 0.013) and a higher hypoxia score > 2.0 rate (73.1% vs 28.6%, P = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Easily measured donor indices, including a hypoxia score, provide an objective measure of DCD liver transplantation risk for recipient HC. Donor selection criteria influence HC rates. PMID:27022221

  20. Building Better Donors: A Well-Informed Donor is an Asset to Any Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Billionaire philanthropists compare notes in private with their peers. Whether experienced philanthropists or first-time donors, they all want their gifts to make a difference, and they are hungry for knowledge about how to be effective donors. They want to be educated about philanthropy. Educational institutions are experts at making the case for…

  1. Fear, fascination and the sperm donor as 'abjection' in interviews with heterosexual recipients of donor insemination.

    PubMed

    Burr, Jennifer

    2009-07-01

    The background to this article is the medical regulation of sperm donation in the UK and the recent policy change so that children born from sperm, eggs or embryos donated after April 2005 have the right to know their donor's identity. I draw upon data from interviews with ten women and seven joint interviews with couples who received donor insemination from an anonymous sperm donor and were the parents of donor insemination children. I explore the symbolic presence of the donor and his potential to disrupt social and physical boundaries using the theoretical conceptions of boundaries and pollution as articulated by Mary Douglas and Julia Kristeva. I present data to argue that the anonymous donor manifests in various figures; the shadowy and ambiguous figure of 'another man'; the intelligent medical student; the donor as a family man, with children of his own who wants to help infertile men father children. In addition participants perceive the donor's physical characteristics, but also see their husband's physical characteristics, in their children. In conclusion I argue that anonymisation preserves features of conventional family life, maintains the idea of exclusivity within the heterosexual relationship and affirms the legal father's insecurity about his infertility.

  2. Donor-transmitted, donor-derived, and de novo cancer after liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Jeremy R; Lynch, Stephen V

    2014-03-01

    Cancer is the third most common cause of death (after cardiovascular disease and infection) for patients who have a functioning kidney allograft. Kidney and liver transplant recipients have similar cancer risks because of immunosuppression but different risks because of differences in primary diseases that cause renal and hepatic failure and the inherent behavior of cancers in the liver. There are 4 types of cancer that may develop in liver allograft recipients: (1) recurrent cancer, (2) donor-transmitted cancer, (3) donor-derived cancer, and (4) de novo cancer. Identification of potential donor cancer transmission may occur at postmortem examination of a deceased donor or when a probable donor-transmitted cancer is identified in another recipient. Donor-transmitted cancer after liver transplant is rare in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Aging of the donor pool may increase the risk of subclinical cancer in donors. Liver transplant recipients have a greater risk of de novo cancer than the general population, and risk factors for de novo cancer in liver transplant recipients include primary sclerosing cholangitis, alcoholic liver disease, smoking, and increased age. Liver transplant recipients may benefit from cancer screening because they have a high risk, are clearly identifiable, and are under continuous medical supervision.

  3. The Effect of Donor Age on Corneal Transplantation Outcome: Results of the Cornea Donor Study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether graft survival over a 5-year follow-up period using corneal tissue from donors older than 65 years of age is similar to graft survival using corneas from younger donors. Design Multi-center prospective, double-masked, controlled clinical trial Participants 1090 subjects undergoing corneal transplantation for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema); 11 subjects with ineligible diagnoses were not included Methods 43 participating eye banks provided corneas from donors in the age range of 12 to 75 with endothelial cell densities of 2300 to 3300 cells/mm2, using a random approach without respect to recipient factors. The 105 participating surgeons at 80 sites were masked to information about the donor cornea including donor age. Surgery and post-operative care were performed according to the surgeons’ usual routines. Subjects were followed for five years. Main Outcome Measures Graft failure, defined as a regraft or a cloudy cornea that was sufficiently opaque as to compromise vision for a minimum of three consecutive months. Results The 5-year cumulative probability of graft survival was 86% in both the <66.0 donor age group and the ≥66.0 donor age group (difference = 0%, upper limit of one-sided 95% confidence interval = 4%). In a statistical model with donor age as a continuous variable, there was not a significant relationship between donor age and outcome (P=0.11). Three graft failures were due to primary donor failure, 8 to uncorrectable refractive error, 48 to graft rejection, 46 to endothelial decompensation (23 of which had a prior, resolved episode of probable or definite graft rejection), and 30 to other causes. The distribution of the causes of graft failure did not differ between donor age groups. Conclusions Five-year graft survival for cornea transplants at moderate risk for failure is similar using corneas from donors ≥ 66.0 years and donors < 66.0 years. Surgeons and

  4. When donor families and organ recipients meet.

    PubMed

    Clayville, L

    1999-06-01

    Medical decisions about organ donation and transplantation are considered by a growing number of individuals. The complex issue of whether and to what extent organ recipients and donor families should interact or communicate has gained increasing public awareness, thereby creating an area of major ethical and legal concern for the transplant community. Communication issues have traditionally been decided by transplant coordinators and guided by personal beliefs, agency guidelines, and organizational policies. Organizations are often inconsistent in their practices, and this in turn causes frustration and confusion for both donor families and transplant recipients. This study explored how the experience of meeting the recipient(s) of a loved one's organ affected the grieving process of donor families and altered their lives. The information from this study might be useful to transplant professionals to develop guidelines and policies that lessen the confusion and frustration felt by those involved with the transplant process.

  5. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, G.F.; Holcomb, D.E.; Cetiner, S.M.

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC)–based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  6. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, George F; Holcomb, David Eugene; Cetiner, Sacit M

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC) - based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  7. Response criteria for glioma.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, A Gregory; Batchelor, Tracy T; Wen, Patrick Y; Zhang, Wei-Ting; Jain, Rakesh K

    2008-11-01

    The current method for assessing the response to therapy of glial tumors was described by Macdonald et al. in 1990. Under this paradigm, response categorization is determined on the basis of changes in the cross-sectional area of a tumor on neuroimaging, coupled with clinical assessment of neurological status and corticosteroid utilization. These categories of response have certain limitations; for example, cross-sectional assessment is not as accurate as volumetric assessment, which is now feasible. Disentangling antitumor effects of therapies from their effects on blood-brain barrier permeability can be challenging. The use of insufficient response criteria might be overestimating the true benefits of drugs in early-stage studies, and, therefore, such therapies could mistakenly move forward into later phases, only to result in disappointment when overall survival is measured. We propose that studies report both radiographic and clinical response rates, use volumetric rather than cross-sectional area to measure lesion size, and incorporate findings from mechanistic imaging and blood biomarker studies more frequently, and also suggest that investigators recognize the limitations of imaging biomarkers as surrogate end points.

  8. Phosphorus donors in highly strained silicon.

    PubMed

    Huebl, Hans; Stegner, Andre R; Stutzmann, Martin; Brandt, Martin S; Vogg, Guenther; Bensch, Frank; Rauls, Eva; Gerstmann, Uwe

    2006-10-20

    The hyperfine interaction of phosphorus donors in fully strained Si thin films grown on virtual Si(1-x)Ge(x) substrates with x< or =0.3 is determined via electrically detected magnetic resonance. For highly strained epilayers, hyperfine interactions as low as 0.8 mT are observed, significantly below the limit predicted by valley repopulation. Within a Green's function approach, density functional theory shows that the additional reduction is caused by the volume increase of the unit cell and a relaxation of the Si ligands of the donor.

  9. Choosing the Order of Deceased Donor and Living Donor Kidney Transplantation in Pediatric Recipients: A Markov Decision Process Model

    PubMed Central

    Van Arendonk, Kyle J.; Chow, Eric K.H.; James, Nathan T.; Orandi, Babak J.; Ellison, Trevor A.; Smith, Jodi M.; Colombani, Paul M.; Segev, Dorry L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Most pediatric kidney transplant recipients eventually require retransplantation, and the most advantageous timing strategy regarding deceased and living donor transplantation in candidates with only one living donor remains unclear. Methods A patient-oriented Markov decision process model was designed to compare, for a given patient with one living donor, living-donor-first followed if necessary by deceased donor retransplantation versus deceased-donor-first followed if necessary by living donor (if still able to donate) or deceased donor (if not) retransplantation. Based on Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data, the model was designed to account for waitlist, graft, and patient survival, sensitization, increased risk of graft failure seen during late adolescence, and differential deceased donor waiting times based upon pediatric-priority allocation policies. Based on national cohort data, the model was also designed to account for aging or disease development leading to ineligibility of the living donor over time. Results Given a set of candidate and living donor characteristics, the Markov model provides the expected patient survival over a time horizon of 20 years. For the most highly sensitized patients (PRA>80%), a deceased-donor-first strategy was advantageous, but for all other patients (PRA<80%), a living-donor-first strategy was recommended. Conclusions This Markov model illustrates how patients, families, and providers can be provided information and predictions regarding the most advantageous use of deceased donor versus living donor transplantation for pediatric recipients. PMID:25594552

  10. Reimbursing Live Organ Donors for Incurred Non-Medical Expenses: A Global Perspective on Policies and Programs

    PubMed Central

    Sickand, M.; Cuerden, M. S.; Klarenbach, S. W.; Ojo, A. O.; Parikh, C. R.; Boudville, N.; Garg, A. X.

    2015-01-01

    Methods to reimburse living organ donors for the non-medical expenses they incur have been implemented in some jurisdictions and are being considered in others. A global understanding of existing legislation and programs would help decision makers implement and optimize policies and programs. We searched for and collected data from countries that practice living organ donation. We examined legislation and programs that facilitate reimbursement, focusing on policy mechanisms, eligibility criteria, program duration and types of expenses reimbursed. Of 40 countries, reimbursement is expressly legal in 16, unclear in 18, unspecified in 6 and expressly prohibited in 1. Donor reimbursement programs exist in 21 countries; 6 have been enacted in the last 5 years. Lost income is reimbursed in 17 countries, while travel, accommodation, meal and childcare costs are reimbursed in 12 to 19 countries. Ten countries have comprehensive programs, where all major cost categories are reimbursed to some extent. Out-of-country donors are reimbursed in 10 jurisdictions. Reimbursement is conditional on donor income in 7 countries, and recipient income in 2 countries. Many nations have programs that help living donors with their financial costs. These programs differ in operation and scope. Donors in other regions of the world are without support. PMID:19788503

  11. Predonation psychosocial evaluation of living kidney and liver donor candidates: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Duerinckx, Nathalie; Timmerman, Lotte; Van Gogh, Johan; van Busschbach, Jan; Ismail, Sohal Y; Massey, Emma K; Dobbels, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating a person's suitability for living organ donation is crucial, consisting not only of a medical but also of a thorough psychosocial screening. We performed a systematic literature review of guidelines, consensus statements, and protocols on the content and process of psychosocial screening of living kidney and liver donor candidates. We searched PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO until June 22, 2011, following the PRISMA guidelines, complemented by scrutinizing guidelines databases and references of identified publications. Thirty-four publications were identified, including seven guidelines, six consensus statements, and 21 protocols or programs. Guidelines and consensus statements were inconsistent and lacked concreteness for both their content and process, possibly explaining the observed variability in center-specific evaluation protocols and programs. Overall, recommended screening criteria are not evidence-based and an operational definition of the concept "psychosocial" is missing, causing heterogeneity in terminology. Variation also exists on methods used to psychosocially evaluate potential donors. The scientific basis of predonation psychosocial evaluation needs to be strengthened. There is a need for high-quality prospective psychosocial outcome studies in living donors, a uniform terminology to label psychosocial screening criteria, and validated instruments to identify risk factors. PMID:23889287

  12. Strategies to optimize the use of marginal donors in liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pezzati, Daniele; Ghinolfi, Davide; De Simone, Paolo; Balzano, Emanuele; Filipponi, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Liver transplantation is the treatment of choice for end stage liver disease, but availability of liver grafts is still the main limitation to its wider use. Extended criteria donors (ECD) are considered not ideal for several reasons but their use has dramatically grown in the last decades in order to augment the donor liver pool. Due to improvement in surgical and medical strategies, results using grafts from these donors have become acceptable in terms of survival and complications; nevertheless a big debate still exists regarding their selection, discharge criteria and allocation policies. Many studies analyzed the use of these grafts from many points of view producing different or contradictory results so that accepted guidelines do not exist and the use of these grafts is still related to non-standardized policies changing from center to center. The aim of this review is to analyze every step of the donation-transplantation process emphasizing all those strategies, both clinical and experimental, that can optimize results using ECD. PMID:26609341

  13. Predonation psychosocial evaluation of living kidney and liver donor candidates: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Duerinckx, Nathalie; Timmerman, Lotte; Van Gogh, Johan; van Busschbach, Jan; Ismail, Sohal Y; Massey, Emma K; Dobbels, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating a person's suitability for living organ donation is crucial, consisting not only of a medical but also of a thorough psychosocial screening. We performed a systematic literature review of guidelines, consensus statements, and protocols on the content and process of psychosocial screening of living kidney and liver donor candidates. We searched PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO until June 22, 2011, following the PRISMA guidelines, complemented by scrutinizing guidelines databases and references of identified publications. Thirty-four publications were identified, including seven guidelines, six consensus statements, and 21 protocols or programs. Guidelines and consensus statements were inconsistent and lacked concreteness for both their content and process, possibly explaining the observed variability in center-specific evaluation protocols and programs. Overall, recommended screening criteria are not evidence-based and an operational definition of the concept "psychosocial" is missing, causing heterogeneity in terminology. Variation also exists on methods used to psychosocially evaluate potential donors. The scientific basis of predonation psychosocial evaluation needs to be strengthened. There is a need for high-quality prospective psychosocial outcome studies in living donors, a uniform terminology to label psychosocial screening criteria, and validated instruments to identify risk factors.

  14. 2509 living donor nephrectomies, morbidity and mortality, including the UK introduction of laparoscopic donor surgery.

    PubMed

    Hadjianastassiou, V G; Johnson, R J; Rudge, C J; Mamode, N

    2007-11-01

    The worldwide expansion of laparoscopic, at the expense of open, donor nephrectomy (DN) has been driven on the basis of faster convalescence for the donor. However, concerns have been expressed over the safety of the laparoscopic procedure. The UK Transplant National Registry collecting mandatory information on all living kidney donations in the country was analyzed for donations between November 2000 (start of living donor follow-up data reporting) to June 2006 to assess the safety of living DN, after the recent introduction of the laparoscopic procedure in the United Kingdom. Twenty-four transplant units reported data on 2509 donors (601 laparoscopic, 1800 open and 108 [4.3%] unspecified); 46.5% male; mean donor age: 46 years. There was one death 3 months postdischarge and a further five deaths beyond 1 year postdischarge. The mean length of stay was 1.5 days less for the laparoscopic procedure (p < 0.001). The risk of major morbidity for all donors was 4.9% (laparoscopic = 4.5%, open = 5.1%, p = 0.549). The overall rate of any morbidity was 14.3% (laparoscopic = 10.3%, open = 15.7%, p = 0.001). Living donation has remained a safe procedure in the UK during the learning curve of introduction of the laparoscopic procedure. The latter offers measurable advantages to the donor in terms of reduced length of stay and morbidity. PMID:17868058

  15. ALTERNATIVE DONORS EXTEND TRANSPLANTATION FOR PATIENTS WITH LYMPHOMA WHO LACK AN HLA MATCHED DONOR

    PubMed Central

    Bachanova, Veronika; Burns, Linda J.; Wang, Tao; Carreras, Jeanette; Gale, Robert Peter; Wiernik, Peter H.; Ballen, Karen K.; Wirk, Baldeep; Munker, Reinhold; Rizzieri, David A.; Chen, Yi-Bin; Gibson, John; Akpek, Görgün; Costa, Luciano J.; Kamble, Rammurti T.; Aljurf, Mahmoud D.; Hsu, Jack W.; Cairo, Mitchell S.; Schouten, Harry C.; Bacher, Ulrike; Savani, Bipin N.; Wingard, John R.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Laport, Ginna G.; Montoto, Silvia; Maloney, David G.; Smith, Sonali M.; Brunstein, Claudio; Saber, Wael

    2015-01-01

    Alternative donor transplantation is increasingly used for high risk lymphoma patients. We analyzed 1593 transplant recipients (2000 to 2010) and compared transplant outcomes in recipients of 8/8 allele human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, -B, -C, and DRB1 matched unrelated donors (MUD; n=1176), 7/8 allele HLA-matched unrelated donors (MMUD; n=275) and umbilical cord blood donors (1 or 2 units UCB; n=142). Adjusted 3-year non-relapse mortality of MMUD (44%) was higher as compared to MUD (35%; p=0.004), but similar to UCB recipients (37%; p=0.19), although UCB had lower rates of neutrophil and platelet recovery compared to unrelated donor groups. With a median follow-up of 55 months, 3-year adjusted cumulative incidence of relapse was lower after MMUD compared with MUD (25% vs 33%, p=0.003) but similar between UCB and MUD (30% vs 33%; p=0.48). In multivariate analysis UCB recipients had lower risks of acute and chronic graft versus host disease compared with adult donor groups (UCB vs MUD: HR=0.68, p=0.05; HR=0.35; p<0.001). Adjusted 3-year overall survival was comparable (43% MUD, 37% MMUD and 41% UCB). Data highlight that patients with lymphoma have acceptable survival after alternative donor transplantation. MMUD and UCB can expand the curative potential of allotransplant to patients who lack suitable HLA-matched sibling or MUD. PMID:25402415

  16. Donor-conceived children looking for their sperm donor: what do they want to know?

    PubMed Central

    Ravelingien, A.; Provoost, V.; Pennings, G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This paper aims to gain in-depth understanding of why some donor-conceived offspring want to know the identity of their sperm donor. Methods: Step-by-step inductive thematic analysis was performed on first-hand quotes from donor-conceived offspring selected from a wide range of sources (including empirical studies and donor conception networks, registries and support groups). Results: We found that at least 7 different objectives can underlie the wish to know one’s donor: to avoid medical risks and consanguineous relationships; to connect with one’s roots; to complete one’s life (hi-)story; to understand where one’s traits come from; to discover or assess one’s defining characteristics and capabilities; to rectify a wrong-doing, and to map out one’s ancestral history. Conclusion: The analysis shows that there is great variance among identity-seekers in the weight they attribute to wanting to know their donor. It is also clear that they have very different assumptions about the role and importance of genetics in terms of establishing ‘who they are’ or ‘can become’, including deterministic misconceptions. Rather than treat all donor-conceived offspring’s needs as of equal concern, this analysis should help distinguish between and assess the relevance of the various motivations. PMID:24753953

  17. Related hematopoietic cell donor care: is there a role for unrelated donor registries?

    PubMed

    Anthias, C; van Walraven, S M; Sørensen, B S; de Faveri, G N; Fechter, M; Cornish, J; Bacigalupo, A; Müller, C; Boo, M; Shaw, B E

    2015-05-01

    In almost half of allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) transplants, a related donor (RD) is used, yet a lack of standardized guidelines means that their care is heterogeneous. Changes to regulatory standards aim to improve uniformity, but adherence to these regulations can prove logistically difficult for the transplant centers (TCs) managing RDs. Discussion has ensued around possible alternative models of related donor care and a session at the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) annual meeting in 2013 debated the question of whether a role exists for unrelated donor registries in the management of 'related' donors. In this overview, we discuss the issues raised at this debate and the pros and cons of donor registry involvement in various aspects of RD management. By examining existing models of related donor care that have been adopted by members of the World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA), we look for ways to enhance and homogenize RD care, while also enabling transplant centers to meet standards required for mandatory accreditation.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of organ donation: evaluating investment into donor action and other donor initiatives.

    PubMed

    Whiting, James F; Kiberd, Bryce; Kalo, Zoltan; Keown, Paul; Roels, Leo; Kjerulf, Maria

    2004-04-01

    Initiatives aimed at increasing organ donation can be considered health care interventions, and will compete with other health care interventions for limited resources. We have developed a model capable of calculating the cost-utility of organ donor initiatives and applied it to Donor Action, a successful international program designed to optimize donor practices. The perspective of the payer in the Canadian health care system was chosen. A Markov model was developed to estimate the net present value incremental lifetime direct medical costs and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) as a consequence of increased kidney transplantation rates. Cost-saving and cost-effectiveness thresholds were calculated. The effects of changing the success rate and time frame of the intervention was examined as a sensitivity analysis. Transplantation results in a gain of 1.99 QALYs and a cost savings of Can$104,000 over the 20-year time frame compared with waiting on dialysis. Implementation of an intervention such as Donor Action, which produced as few as three extra donors per million population, would be cost-effective at a cost of Can$1.0 million per million population. The cost-effectiveness of Donor Action and other organ donor initiatives compare favorably to other health care interventions. Organ donation may be underfunded in North America.

  19. A multidisciplinary program to educate and advocate for living donors.

    PubMed

    Sites, Anita K; Freeman, Jason R; Harper, Michael R; Waters, David B; Pruett, Timothy L

    2008-12-01

    Education is critical in decision making and the informed consent process in prospective living donors. Little has been written about how and what living donors should be taught. This article describes a multidisciplinary program for living donor education at the University of Virginia. The goals of the program are to impart information needed for prospective donors to make an informed decision and to independently evaluate donors' medical and psychosocial suitability. A partnership between the transplant department and an independent donor advocacy team establishes an environment conducive to education. By embracing independence, transparency, partnership, and advocacy, our program permits bidirectional education. This partnership facilitates unbiased understanding and appreciation of this education and considers each individual's unique circumstances when making informed decisions. Likewise, prospective donors educate the team about their circumstances, which helps the team safeguard the prospective donor and may enhance the safety of prospective donors and the perceived integrity of living organ donation. PMID:19186581

  20. Common genomic HLA haplotypes contributing to successful donor search in unrelated hematopoietic transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pedron, B; Duval, M; Elbou, O M; Moskwa, M; Jambou, M; Vilmer, E; Sterkers, G

    2003-03-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the most frequent HLA haplotypes in order to optimize donor searches in unrelated hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation. Pediatric patients from the north of France who underwent initial HLA typing for donor search in our center were included. Patients and family members were broadly typed for HLA class I and II. Patients were further DNA typed at the sequence level for HLA-A, -B, -Cw, -DRB1, and -DQB1 alleles. In 200 of 207 patients HLA haplotypes were assigned by the mode of inheritance. The most common haplotypes were defined based on frequencies over 0.75%. Searches for unrelated donors were completed for 86 patients lacking a family donor. Matching criteria were either the optimal level of 10 alleles or a one-HLA class I mismatch as a second choice. Rates of successful search reach 85% for patients (n=20) who express at least one common five-allele (HLA-A/B/Cw/DRB1/DQB1) haplotype, but also 77% for more patients (n=53) who express at least one of the 20 most frequent three-allele (HLA-A/B/Cw) haplotypes. Success rates are clearly less (39%) in patients lacking these haplotypes. The use of these data to delineate search strategies is discussed.

  1. Realizing HOPE: The Ethics of Organ Transplantation From HIV-Positive Donors.

    PubMed

    Durand, Christine M; Segev, Dorry; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2016-07-19

    The HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act now allows transplantation of organs from HIV-positive living and deceased donors to HIV-positive individuals with end-stage organ disease in the United States. Although clinical experience with such transplants is limited to a small number of deceased-donor kidney transplants from HIV-positive to HIV-positive persons in South Africa, unprecedented HIV-positive-to-HIV-positive liver transplantations and living-donor kidney transplantations are also now on the horizon. Initially, all HIV-positive-to-HIV-positive transplantations will occur under research protocols with safeguards and criteria mandated by the National Institutes of Health. Nevertheless, this historic change brings ethical opportunities and challenges. For HIV-positive individuals needing an organ transplant, issues of access, risk, and consent must be considered. For potential HIV-positive donors, there are additional ethical challenges of privacy, fairness, and the right to donate. Careful consideration of the ethical issues involved is critical to the safe and appropriate evaluation of this novel approach to transplantation. PMID:27043422

  2. Realizing HOPE: The Ethics of Organ Transplantation From HIV-Positive Donors.

    PubMed

    Durand, Christine M; Segev, Dorry; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2016-07-19

    The HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act now allows transplantation of organs from HIV-positive living and deceased donors to HIV-positive individuals with end-stage organ disease in the United States. Although clinical experience with such transplants is limited to a small number of deceased-donor kidney transplants from HIV-positive to HIV-positive persons in South Africa, unprecedented HIV-positive-to-HIV-positive liver transplantations and living-donor kidney transplantations are also now on the horizon. Initially, all HIV-positive-to-HIV-positive transplantations will occur under research protocols with safeguards and criteria mandated by the National Institutes of Health. Nevertheless, this historic change brings ethical opportunities and challenges. For HIV-positive individuals needing an organ transplant, issues of access, risk, and consent must be considered. For potential HIV-positive donors, there are additional ethical challenges of privacy, fairness, and the right to donate. Careful consideration of the ethical issues involved is critical to the safe and appropriate evaluation of this novel approach to transplantation.

  3. Compliance with donor age recommendations in oocyte donor recruitment advertisements in the USA.

    PubMed

    Alberta, Hillary B; Berry, Roberta M; Levine, Aaron D

    2013-04-01

    IVF using donated oocytes offers benefits to many infertile patients, yet the technique also raises a number of ethical concerns, including worries about potential physical and psychological risks to oocyte donors. In the USA, oversight of oocyte donation consists of a combination of federal and state regulations and self-regulatory guidelines promulgated by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. This study assesses compliance with one of these self-regulatory guidelines - specifically, ASRM's preferred minimum age for donors of 21. To assess compliance, 539 oocyte donor recruitment advertisements from two recruitment channels (Craigslist and college newspapers) were collected and evaluated. Of these, 61% in the Craigslist dataset and 43% in the college newspaper dataset listed minimum ages between 18 and 20, which is inconsistent with ASRM's preferred minimum age recommendation of 21. Advertisements placed by oocyte donor recruitment agencies were more likely than advertisements placed by clinics to specify minimum ages between 18 and 20. These results indicate that ASRM should evaluate and consider revising its donor age guidelines. IVF using donated human eggs can help many patients who have difficulty having children. However, the technique also raises ethical concerns, including concerns about potential physical and psychological harms to egg donors. In the USA, oversight of egg donation relies on a combination of federal and state regulation and professional self-regulation. Governmental regulations address only limited aspects of egg donation, such as the potential spread of infectious diseases and the reporting of success rates, leaving voluntary guidelines developed by an association of medical professionals to address most issues, including ethical concerns raised by the practice. One of these voluntary guidelines recommends that egg donors should be at least 21 years of age. In this article, we analysed 539 egg donor recruitment advertisements

  4. Compliance with donor age recommendations in oocyte donor recruitment advertisements in the USA.

    PubMed

    Alberta, Hillary B; Berry, Roberta M; Levine, Aaron D

    2013-04-01

    IVF using donated oocytes offers benefits to many infertile patients, yet the technique also raises a number of ethical concerns, including worries about potential physical and psychological risks to oocyte donors. In the USA, oversight of oocyte donation consists of a combination of federal and state regulations and self-regulatory guidelines promulgated by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. This study assesses compliance with one of these self-regulatory guidelines - specifically, ASRM's preferred minimum age for donors of 21. To assess compliance, 539 oocyte donor recruitment advertisements from two recruitment channels (Craigslist and college newspapers) were collected and evaluated. Of these, 61% in the Craigslist dataset and 43% in the college newspaper dataset listed minimum ages between 18 and 20, which is inconsistent with ASRM's preferred minimum age recommendation of 21. Advertisements placed by oocyte donor recruitment agencies were more likely than advertisements placed by clinics to specify minimum ages between 18 and 20. These results indicate that ASRM should evaluate and consider revising its donor age guidelines. IVF using donated human eggs can help many patients who have difficulty having children. However, the technique also raises ethical concerns, including concerns about potential physical and psychological harms to egg donors. In the USA, oversight of egg donation relies on a combination of federal and state regulation and professional self-regulation. Governmental regulations address only limited aspects of egg donation, such as the potential spread of infectious diseases and the reporting of success rates, leaving voluntary guidelines developed by an association of medical professionals to address most issues, including ethical concerns raised by the practice. One of these voluntary guidelines recommends that egg donors should be at least 21 years of age. In this article, we analysed 539 egg donor recruitment advertisements

  5. Peer Assessment without Assessment Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Alcock, Lara

    2014-01-01

    Peer assessment typically requires students to judge peers' work against assessment criteria. We tested an alternative approach in which students judged pairs of scripts against one another in the absence of assessment criteria. First year mathematics undergraduates (N?=?194) sat a written test on conceptual understanding of multivariable…

  6. Performance Criteria: Concrete, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallenbeck, Roger F.; And Others

    The State University Construction Fund provides guidance and direction to professionals participating in its program by issuing performance criteria that set forth owner or user requirements. This document provides guidelines in the form of performance criteria, testing procedures, and instructions to achieve an acceptable level of performance in…

  7. Criteria for Evaluating Advancement Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heemann, Warren, Ed.

    Criteria for evaluating college and university advancement programs are presented, based on the efforts of professional area trustees and advisory committees of the Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE). The criteria can be useful in three ways: as the basis of internal audits of advancement programs or program components; as the…

  8. Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions. Final Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    2002-08-16

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions was held at Salve Regina University, Newport, Rhode Island, 8/11-16/02. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  9. Alternative donors: cord blood for adults.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Annalisa

    2016-04-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative treatment for patients with hematological diseases. The probability of finding a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)- identical donor among family members is around 25% and 30% that of having a full matched unrelated donor in the registry. Patients in need may also benefit of a HLA-mismatched HSCT either from an haploidentical donors or from umbilical cord blood (UCB). Much has been learned about UCB transplant (UCBT) since the first human UCBT was performed back in 1988. Cord blood banks have been established worldwide for the collection, cryopreservation, and distribution of UCB for HSCT. Today, a global network of cord blood banks and transplant centers has been established with a large common inventory of more than 650,000 UCB units available, allowing for more than 40,000 UCBT worldwide in children and adults with severe hematological diseases. Several studies have been published on UCBT, assessing risk factors such as cell dose and HLA mismatch. Outcomes of several retrospective comparative studies showed similar results using other stem cell sources both in pediatric and adult setting. New strategies are ongoing to facilitate engraftment and reduce transplant-related mortality. In this issue, we review the current results of UCBT in adults with hematological malignancies and the clinical studies comparing UCBT with other transplant strategies. We provide guidelines for donor algorithm selection in UCBT setting.

  10. [Presence of Australia antigen in blood donors].

    PubMed

    Gota, F

    1980-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of type A and B viral hepatitis is discussed and guidelines for the prevention of post-transfusional hospital hepatitis are proposed. Methods for the immunological demonstration of HBs antigen are illustrated, together with the respective positivity percentages in blood donors.

  11. Benzyne arylation of oxathiane glycosyl donors.

    PubMed

    Fascione, Martin A; Turnbull, W Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The arylation of bicyclic oxathiane glycosyl donors has been achieved using benzyne generated in situ from 1-aminobenzotriazole (1-ABT) and lead tetraacetate. Following sulfur arylation, glycosylation of acetate ions proceeded with high levels of stereoselectivity to afford α -glycosyl acetates in a 'one-pot' reaction, even in the presence of alternative acceptor alcohols.

  12. Hydrogen-donor coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Jr., Edward L.; Mitchell, Willard N.

    1980-01-01

    Improved liquid yields are obtained during the hydrogen-donor solvent liquefaction of coal and similar carbonaceous solids by maintaining a higher concentration of material having hydrogenation catalytic activity in the downstream section of the liquefaction reactor system than in the upstream section of the system.

  13. Analysis of SERF in Thai blood donors.

    PubMed

    Palacajornsuk, P; Hue-Roye, K; Nathalang, O; Tantimavanich, S; Bejrachandra, S; Reid, M E

    2005-01-01

    The Cromer blood group system consists of nine high-prevalence and three low-prevalence antigens carried on decay-accelerating factor (DAF). We recently described one of these Cromer highprevalence antigens,SERF, the absence of which was found in a Thai woman. The lack of SERF antigen in this proband was associated with a substitution of nucleotide 647C>T in exon 5 of DAF, which is predicted to be a change of proline to leucine at amino acid position 182 in short consensus repeat (SCR) 3 of DAF. This study reports on PCR-RFLP analysis of the SERF allele with BstNI restriction endonuclease on more than one thousand Thai blood donor samples. One new donor homozygous (647T) and 21 donors heterozygous (647C/T) for the SERF allele were found. Among this cohort of random Thai blood donors, the SERF allele frequency was 1.1 percent. Thus, like other alleles in the Cromer blood group system, SERF is found in a certain ethnic group.

  14. [Diagnostic criteria in acute neuromyelitis].

    PubMed

    Panea, Cristina; Petrescu, Simona; Monica, Pop; Voinea, Liliana; Dascălu, Ana-Maria; Nicolae, Miruna; Ungureanu, E; Panca, Aida; Grădinaru, Sânziana

    2007-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica, also known as Devic disease, was identified in the 19th century, is one of the inflammatory idiopathic demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system, often mistaken for severe multiple sclerosis. In 1999 it had been proposed diagnostic criteria for neuromyelitis optica, but in 2006 these criteria were revised by Dean Wingerchuck. These criteria are 99% sensitive and 90% specific for differentiating neuromyelitis optica from multiple sclerosis that present with optic neuritis or a myelitis syndrome. In the following article we present clinical, spinal and cerebral MR imaging, serological and aspects of cerebrospinal fluid examination features of neuromyelitis optica and the revised criteria of neuromyelitis optica established in 2006. The recently identified serum antibody biomarker: neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G (NMO Ig G), which target aquaporin 4 water channel, distinguish neuromyelitis optica from multiple sclerosis, is one of the revised criteria of neuromyelitis optica. PMID:18543687

  15. Rate of seroconversion in repeat blood donors at the national blood centre, kuala lumpur.

    PubMed

    Nafishah, A; Asiah, M Nor; Syimah, A T Nur; Mohd Zahari, T H; Yasmin, A; Normi, M; Anza, E; Shahnaz, M; Narazah, M Y

    2014-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommend that all donated blood are to be screened for at least three viral infections [human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV)]. The National Blood Centre, Kuala Lumpur (NBCKL) aims to reduce transfusion transmitted infections (TTI) as it still remains as one of the major risk for blood transfusion. A cross sectional study was conducted at the National Blood Centre, Kuala Lumpur from 1st January 2009 to 31st June 2010. Data from 581,020 donors were analyzed from year 2004 to 2008. All data were retrieved from NBCKL Blood Bank Information System (BBIS). A total of 201 repeat donors were included in the study based on the inclusion criteria but only 132 repeat donors agreed to participate. Information on sociodemographic, risk factors, knowledge of donors and high risk behavior were extracted from standardize questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 14.0. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of the seropositive infectivity among repeat blood donors at the NBCKL. The results showed Syphilis accounts for the highest and increasing seroconversion rate among other infections from 20.83 % in year 2004 to 44.6 % in year in year 2008. HIV and HCV infection also showed increasing seroconversion rate in 5 years' time from 6.41 % in year 2004 to 17.54 % in year 2008 and 4.8 % in year 2004 to 5.94 % in year 2008 respectively. However, HBV infection alone showed a decreasing seroconversion rate from 20.83 % in year 2004 to 10.4 % in year 2008. Level of donors' awareness regarding high risk factors (activities or behaviour) can lead to higher risk of TTI with significant p value in this predictors model(p < 0.05). Repeat blood donors with high risk activities are more likely to have seropositive results for HBV, HIV and Syphilis. This study found that the frequency of HCV seropositivity is higher among lapsed donor. Socio demographic factors such as male and

  16. Attitudes regarding utilization of artificial insemination by donor in Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    McCormack, M K; Leiblum, S; Lazzarini, A

    1983-01-01

    We report on a study of attitudes toward artificial insemination by donor (AID) of persons at risk for Huntington disease (HD). The subjects of the study were 91 at risk persons and 68 matched controls. Both groups were divided by sex and age (45 yr less than or equal to vs greater than or equal to 46 yr). Demographic data included age, occupation, marital status, religion, education, ethnic background, and family size. We recorded 1) attitudes toward reproduction, 2) nature of contact with affected family member(s), 3) effects of HD on family planning, 4) attitudes toward AID, and 5) concern about donor selection criteria. Results suggest that 1) men and women differ in several ways with regard to their views about AID, and 2) that more vigorous educational programs might increase utilization of AID for the prevention of not only HD, but other human genetic diseases as well. PMID:6219582

  17. Hepatitis C virus infection in the asymptomatic British blood donor.

    PubMed

    Mutimer, D J; Harrison, R F; O'Donnell, K B; Shaw, J; Martin, B A; Atrah, H; Ala, F A; Skidmore, S; Hubscher, S G; Neuberger, J M

    1995-01-01

    Blood donor screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies is now routine. Most blood transfusion services recommend that seropositive donors are referred for further investigation. Southern European studies suggest that many asymptomatic seropositive donors have clinically significant liver disease. Seropositive donors in areas of high prevalence may not, however, be representative of British donors. We have prospectively examined the prevalence and severity of HCV infection in a British volunteer blood donor population. During a 14 month period, only 0.35% (999/287,332) of all donors in the West Midlands were anti-HCV (screening assay) positive. Only 5% (52/999) of these were confirmed true seropositive. Nearly 80% (41/52) of seropositive donors were referred to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Liver Unit for further investigation. Most underwent complete investigation, including liver biopsy. Forty of forty-one donors had biochemical, histological, or virological evidence of persistent viral infection. Histological changes were generally mild and none was cirrhotic. Covertly infected patients had less severe disease than those with an overt risk factor for HCV exposure. In the British Midlands, the prevalence of blood donor seropositivity is low. In contrast with seropositive Southern European donors, the British donor is more likely to belong to an at-risk group for parenteral exposure and is less likely to have severe histological changes. This study highlights the importance of developing locally relevant guidelines for the counselling and investigation of anti-HCV-positive blood donors. PMID:7493294

  18. Gendering gametes: The unequal contributions of sperm and egg donors.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Rosanna; Nelson, Margaret K; Kramer, Wendy

    2015-12-01

    This paper compares three groups of gestational mothers who relied on gametes from donors they did not know. The three groups are women who have conceived with donor sperm and their own eggs, women who have conceived with donor eggs and a partner's sperm, and women who have conceived with embryos composed of both donor eggs and donor sperm. The paper explores three issues. First, it considers whether intending parents select sperm and egg donors for different attributes both when they are chosen as the only donor and when they are chosen as donors contributing to an entire embryo. Second, it examines how women imagine the donor. Finally, it looks at how women conceptualize the donor as an individual who contributes to their child's characteristics. Two significant findings emerged in this analysis of survey data. First, the data show that gametes are gendered with different attributes both when those gametes are separate and even more so when seen as complementary parts of a whole. Second, the data show that women minimize the impact of the egg donor (both when a sole contribution and especially when part of the complementary whole) and thus ignore the influence or impact of the egg donor relative to how they make sense of the influence or impact of the sperm donor. The data for this study comes from an online survey developed by the authors. PMID:26520059

  19. Gendering gametes: The unequal contributions of sperm and egg donors.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Rosanna; Nelson, Margaret K; Kramer, Wendy

    2015-12-01

    This paper compares three groups of gestational mothers who relied on gametes from donors they did not know. The three groups are women who have conceived with donor sperm and their own eggs, women who have conceived with donor eggs and a partner's sperm, and women who have conceived with embryos composed of both donor eggs and donor sperm. The paper explores three issues. First, it considers whether intending parents select sperm and egg donors for different attributes both when they are chosen as the only donor and when they are chosen as donors contributing to an entire embryo. Second, it examines how women imagine the donor. Finally, it looks at how women conceptualize the donor as an individual who contributes to their child's characteristics. Two significant findings emerged in this analysis of survey data. First, the data show that gametes are gendered with different attributes both when those gametes are separate and even more so when seen as complementary parts of a whole. Second, the data show that women minimize the impact of the egg donor (both when a sole contribution and especially when part of the complementary whole) and thus ignore the influence or impact of the egg donor relative to how they make sense of the influence or impact of the sperm donor. The data for this study comes from an online survey developed by the authors.

  20. Achieving donor repetition and motivation by block leaders among current blood donors.

    PubMed

    Martín-Santana, Josefa D; Beerli-Palacio, Asunción

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents an explicative model on the recommendation of donating blood made to relatives and friends by current donors. This model establishes satisfaction and intention to return as direct antecedents, and the quality perceived in the donation process and the existence of inhibitors as indirect antecedents. The results show that (1) the perceived quality has a positive influence on satisfaction and intention to return; (2) the intention to donate again depends positively on satisfaction, but negatively on the existence of internal and external inhibitors; and lastly (3) the recommendation to donate depends on donor satisfaction and their intention to return to donate, this being the most influential factor. At the same time, we contrasted how the model does not vary, whether it is a first-time donor or a repeat donor. PMID:22683233

  1. Achieving donor repetition and motivation by block leaders among current blood donors.

    PubMed

    Martín-Santana, Josefa D; Beerli-Palacio, Asunción

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents an explicative model on the recommendation of donating blood made to relatives and friends by current donors. This model establishes satisfaction and intention to return as direct antecedents, and the quality perceived in the donation process and the existence of inhibitors as indirect antecedents. The results show that (1) the perceived quality has a positive influence on satisfaction and intention to return; (2) the intention to donate again depends positively on satisfaction, but negatively on the existence of internal and external inhibitors; and lastly (3) the recommendation to donate depends on donor satisfaction and their intention to return to donate, this being the most influential factor. At the same time, we contrasted how the model does not vary, whether it is a first-time donor or a repeat donor.

  2. 75 FR 58400 - Donor Management Research: Improvements in Clinical Management of Deceased Organ Donors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Director, Division of Transplantation, Healthcare Systems Bureau, Health Resources and Services...: James Bowman, MD, Medical Director at Division of Transplantation, Healthcare Systems Bureau, Health... circulatory death donors, the CIOP Program has not focused on specific research issues. Since the inception...

  3. Molecular assembly of amino acid interlinked, topologically symmetric, π-complementary donor-acceptor-donor triads.

    PubMed

    Avinash, M B; Sandeepa, K V; Govindaraju, T

    2013-01-01

    Amino acid interlinked pyrene and naphthalenediimide (NDI) based novel donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) triads are designed to exploit their topological symmetry and complementary π-character for facile charge-transfer complexation. Consequently, free-floating high-aspect-ratio supercoiled nanofibres and hierarchical helical bundles of triads are realized by modulating the chemical functionality of interlinking amino acids. PMID:23946856

  4. Comparison of Accreditation Criteria: CBHDP, NLN, and COA Accreditation Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frels, Lois; Horton, Betty

    1991-01-01

    Presents a detailed comparison of similarities and differences in the accreditation criteria of two nursing accrediting agencies--the National League for Nursing and the Council on Accreditation--as they relate to nurse anesthesiology programs. (JOW)

  5. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  6. Easy come, easy go. Retention of blood donors.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, A

    2015-08-01

    Retention of blood donors has benefits over recruitment of new blood donors. Retention is defined as preventing donors from lapsing and eventually becoming inactive. This review paper discusses literature on the importance of efforts to retain donors, specifically new donors, since lapsing is most common before the fifth donation. Studies have found that intention to donate, attitudes towards blood donation and self-efficacy (does one feel capable of donating blood) are predictors of blood donation. Feelings of 'warm glow' predict donation behaviour better than altruism. The existing literature further suggests that first time donors can be retained by paying extra attention to adverse events (vasovagal reactions and fatigue). These events could be reduced by drinking water and muscle tension exercises. Feelings of anxiety (in regular donors) and stress can further prevent donors from returning. Planning donations amongst busy lives can help retention, and suggestions are given on which interventions might be helpful. PMID:26399971

  7. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  8. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  9. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  10. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  11. Alternative donor transplant of benign primary hematologic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tolar, J; Sodani, P; Symons, H

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic SCT is currently the only curative therapy for a range of benign inherited and acquired primary hematologic disorders in children, including BM failure syndromes and hemoglobinopathies. The preferred HLA-matched sibling donor is available for only about 25% of such children. However, there has been substantial progress over the last four decades in the use of alternative donors for those without a matched sibling—including HLA-matched unrelated donors, HLA-haploidentical related donors and unrelated-donor umbilical cord blood—so that it is now possible to find a donor for almost every child requiring an allograft. Below, we summarize the relative merits and limitations of the different alternative donors for benign hematologic conditions, first generally, and then in relation to specific disorders, and suggest recommendations for selecting such an alternative donor. PMID:25665040

  12. Hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy as an alternative to traditional laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Buell, Joseph F; Hanaway, Michael J; Potter, Steven R; Cronin, David C; Yoshida, Atsushi; Munda, Rino; Alexander, J Wesley; Newell, Kenneth A; Bruce, David S; Woodle, E Steve

    2002-11-01

    The benefits of laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy (LDN) are well described, while similar data on hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy (HALDN) are lacking. We compare hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy with open donor nephrectomy. One hundred consecutive hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy (10/98-8/01) donor/recipient pairs were compared to 50 open donor nephrectomy pairs (8/97-1/00). Mean donor weights were similar (179.6 +/- 40.8 vs. 167.4 +/- 30.3 lb; p = NS), while donor age was greater among hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy (38.2 +/- 9.5 vs. 31.2 +/- 7.8 year; p < 0.01). Right nephrectomies was fewer in hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy [17/100 (17%) vs. 22/50 (44%); p < 0.05]. Operative time for hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy (3.9 +/- 0.7 vs. 2.9 +/- 0.5 h; p < 0.01) was longer; however, return to diet (6.9 +/- 2.8 vs. 25.6 +/- 6.1 h; p < 0.01), narcotics requirement (17.9 +/- 6.3 vs. 56.3 +/- 6.4h; p < 0.01) and length of stay (51.7 +/- 22.2 vs. 129.6 +/- 65.7 h; p < 0.01) were less than open donor nephrectomy. Costs were similar ($11072 vs. 10840). Graft function and 1-week Cr of 1.4 +/- 0.9 vs. 1.6 +/- 1.1 g/dL (p = NS) were similar. With the introduction of HALDN, our laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy program has increased by 20%. Thus, similar to traditional laparoscopic donor nephrectomy, hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy provides advantages over open donor nephrectomy without increasing costs. PMID:12482153

  13. GNS-12 Packaging design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, E.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-24

    The purpose of this Packaging Design Criteria (PDC) is to provide criteria for the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP)(Onsite). The SARP provides the evaluation to demonstrate that the onsite transportation safety criteria are met for the transport and storage of the 324 Building vitrified encapsulated material in the GNS-12 cask. In this application, the approved PDC provides a formal set of standards for the payload requirements, and guidance for the current cask transport configuration and a revised storage seal and primary lid modification design.

  14. Kyoto islet isolation method: the optimized one for non-heart-beating donors with highly efficient islet retrieval.

    PubMed

    Okitsu, T; Matsumoto, S; Iwanaga, Y; Noguchi, H; Nagata, H; Yonekawa, Y; Maekawa, T; Tanaka, K

    2005-10-01

    The availability of pancreata for clinical cadaveric islet transplantation is restricted to non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) in Japan. This forced us to modify the current standard islet isolation protocol that was made up for brain-dead donors and make it suitable for NHBDs. The Kyoto islet isolation method is the one with induction of several steps based on the ideas both already reported literally and invented originally by ourselves. Using this islet isolation method, we isolated islets from 13 human pancreata of NHBDs and transplanted 11 preparations to six type-1 diabetic patients. The rate to meet release criteria of Edmonton protocol was 84.6%. Establishment of this method allowed us to begin a clinical islet transplantation program in Japan and to continue to perform the preparation of islets from NHBDs with high rate to meet the release criteria of the Edmonton protocol.

  15. Ethical perspectives on living donor organ transplantation in Asia.

    PubMed

    Concejero, Allan M; Chen, Chao-Long

    2009-12-01

    Live donors are a continuing source of organ grafts for solid organ transplantation in Asia. Ethical issues surrounding the development of living donor organ transplantation in Eastern countries are different from those in Western countries. Donor safety is still the paramount concern in any donor operation. Issues on organ trafficking remain societal concerns in low-income nations. Religion, cultural background, economic prerogatives, and timely legislation contribute to the social acceptance and maturation of organ donation. PMID:19938130

  16. Transvaginal Route for Kidney Extraction in Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Berber, Ibrahim; Cakir, Ulkem; Gurkan, Alihan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of this retrospective study was to compare conventional laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy with transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery–assisted living-donor nephrectomy in terms of feasibility and reproducibility. Methods: A total of 115 consecutive female patients who underwent laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy (n = 70) or transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery–assisted living-donor nephrectomy (n = 45) were included and compared in terms of operative characteristics, as well as donor and recipient outcomes. Results: No significant difference was observed between the laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy and transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery–assisted living-donor nephrectomy groups in terms of mean duration of warm and cold ischemia, operation time, length of hospital stay, arterial anastomoses, visual analog scale pain scores, serum creatinine levels, and receiver outcomes, whereas a significantly higher number of venous anastomoses was noted in the laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy group than in the transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery–assisted living-donor nephrectomy group (P = .029). Conclusions: Transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery–assisted living-donor nephrectomy seems to be a feasible and reproducible alternative to conventional laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy in female donors provided the viability of the vagina as an organ retrieval route. PMID:25419107

  17. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  18. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  19. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  20. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  1. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  2. The Nature of the Donor Motif in Acceptor-Bridge-Donor Dyes as an Influence in the Electron Photo-Injection Mechanism in DSSCs.

    PubMed

    Zarate, Ximena; Schott-Verdugo, Stephan; Rodriguez-Serrano, Angela; Schott, Eduardo

    2016-03-10

    The combination and balance of acceptor(A)-bridge-donor(D) architecture of molecules confer suitable attributes and/or properties to act as efficient light-harvesting and sensitizers in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). An important process in a DSSC performance is the electron photoinjection (PI) mechanism which can take place either via type I (indirect), that consists in injecting from the excited state of the dye to the semiconductor, or type II (direct), where the PI is from the ground state of the dye to the semiconductor upon photoexcitation. Here, we present a computational study about the role of the donor motif in the PI mechanisms displayed from a family of 11 A-bridge-D structured dyes to a (TiO2)15 anatase cluster. To this end, different donor motifs (D1-D11) were evaluated while the A and bridge motifs remained the same. All the computations were carried out within the DFT framework, using the B3LYP, PW91, PBE, M06L and CAM-B3LYP functionals. The 6-31G(d) basis set was employed for nonmetallic atoms and the LANL2DZ pseudopotential for Ti atoms. The solvation effects were incorporated using the polarized continuum model (PCM) for acetonitrile. As benchmark systems, alizarin and naphthalenediol dyes were analyzed, as they are known to undergo Type I and Type II PI pathways in DSSCs, respectively. Donors in the studied family of dyes could influence to drive Type I or II PI since it was found that D2 could show some Type II PI route, showing a new absorption band, although with CAM-B3LYP this shows a very low oscillator strength, while the remaining dyes behave according to Type I photoinjectors. Finally, the photovoltaic parameters that govern the light absorption process were evaluated, as the use of these criteria could be applied to predict the efficiency of the studied dyes in DSSCs devices. PMID:26900717

  3. Design criteria for maglev structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg, H.R.; Williams, J.R.

    1997-05-01

    Maglev systems represent an entirely new concept in transportation. They will not operate on nor share the right-of-way with any other system. It is important, therefore, that the guideways be designed and constructed so as to be economical, constructable, durable, adaptable, reliable, and readily maintained. Comparisons should be made with the current transportation systems, especially highways and railroads. Since most of the guideway will be elevated, the comparison should be with the bridges. The object of the comparisons should be to avoid the shortcomings of the other systems while building on their strengths. This paper develops in some detail design and construction criteria that will ensure a good, long-lived performance of the maglev guideway. The importance of beauty should have a low priority in comparison to the other design criteria. Clean, simple details meeting other criteria will ensure an acceptable appearance. These criteria were used in evaluating the four maglev concepts developed for the National Maglev Initiative.

  4. Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Boeloeni, Ladislau

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed a software agent to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during Shuttle launch countdown. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream, automatically alerts system engineers when predefined criteria have been met, identifies limit warnings and violations of launch commit criteria, aids Shuttle engineers through troubleshooting procedures, and provides additional insight to verify appropriate troubleshooting of problems by contractors. The agent has successfully detected launch commit criteria warnings and violations on a simulated playback data stream. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation.

  5. [Glomerular disease and living donor kidney transplantation].

    PubMed

    Guerra, Rita; Rodríguez, Alejandra; Campistol, Josep M

    2005-01-01

    Glomerular diseases are an important and frequent cause of renal transplant graft loss in the mid-long term, mainly due to primary renal disease recurrence. Glomerular diseases have particular connotations in living donor kidney transplantation, due to the risk of primary disease recurrence and subsequent graft loss, and also the risk of development of glomerular disease related donors have for their genetic similitude. The incidence of glomerular disease recurrence after transplantation varies with type, being especially frequent in IgA nephropathy and type II membranous proliferative glomerulopathy. The difference between histological and clinical recurrence should always be established, being much more frequent the first. Renal biopsy is the essential diagnostic test to detect and confirm the existence of glomerular disease after transplant, with immunofluorescence study being necessary to determine the type of glomerular disease.

  6. Psychiatric Aspects of Artificial Insemination (Donor)

    PubMed Central

    Watters, W. W.; Sousa-Poza, J.

    1966-01-01

    Artificial insemination (donor) [A.I.D.] in humans is a medical procedure that has been carried out for roughly 50 years. Its legal status has not yet been established; its moral implications are still hotly contested, and its psychological and psychiatric implications are only now coming under scientific scrutiny. The use of this procedure in couples who are psychologically unsuited for it can have unfortunate consequences. The obstetrician should seek the assistance of a dynamically oriented psychiatrist in screening couples who ask for artificial insemination (donor). Parenthood, in line with psychoanalytic ego psychology, is seen as a phase of ego development. The potential for mothering and fathering children is a later stage in growth than the capacity to conceive and sire them. It is the psychiatrist's role to assess the couple's motivation for A.I.D. in the light of the extent to which they have achieved this degree of ego development. PMID:20328602

  7. [Management of the potential organ donor].

    PubMed

    Bugedo, Guillermo; Bravo, Sebastián; Romero, Carlos; Castro, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    Solid organ transplantation is limited by donor availability. The loss of brain function produces hemodynamic, respiratory, hormonal and metabolic changes that lead to hypotension and organ dysfunction. Management of a potential donor is similar to any critically ill patient. Cardiovascular stability and protective ventilatory support must be pursued, aimed at minimizing the local and systemic inflammatory response that is triggered by brain death. There is no consensus on protocols for hormonal supplementation. The administration of vasopressin analogues and steroids may be beneficial under certain conditions. Appropriate medical management helps to optimize the function of different organs prior to transplantation. This may increase the number of harvested organs and improve their functional outcome in the recipient.

  8. Living donor liver transplantation in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Capobianco, Ivan; Panaro, Fabrizio; Di Francesco, Fabrizio; Troisi, Roberto; Sainz-Barriga, Mauricio; Muiesan, Paolo; Königsrainer, Alfred; Testa, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) sparked significant interest in Europe when the first reports of its success from USA and Asia were made public. Many transplant programs initiated LDLT and some of them especially in Germany and Belgium became a point of reference for many patients and important contributors to the advancement of the field. After the initial enthusiasm, most of the European programs stopped performing LDLT and today the overall European activity is concentrated in a few centers and the number of living donor liver transplants is only a single digit fraction of the overall number of liver transplants performed. In this paper we analyse the present European activities and highlight the European contribution to the advancement of the field of LDLT. PMID:27115011

  9. Correctness criteria for process migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Chin; Liu, J. W. S.

    1987-01-01

    Two correctness criteria, the state consistency criterion and the property consistency criterion for process migration are discussed. The state machine approach is used to model the interactions between a user process and its environment. These criteria are defined in terms of the model. The idea of environment view was introduced to distinguish what a user process observes about its environment from what its environment state really is and argue that a consistent view of the environment must be maintained for every migrating process.

  10. Living Donor Hepatectomy: Is it Safe?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Anna; Tapia, Viridiana; Parina, Ralitza; Berumen, Jennifer; Hemming, Alan; Mekeel, Kristin

    2015-10-01

    Living donor hepatectomy (LDH) is high risk to a healthy donor and remains controversial. Living donor nephrectomy (LDN), conversely, is a common practice. The objective is to examine the outcomes of LDH and compare this risk profile to LDN. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was queried for hepatectomies and nephrectomies from 1998 to 2011. LDH or LDN were identified by donor ICD-9 codes. Outcomes included in-hospital mortality and complications. Bivariate analysis compared nondonor hepatectomy or nondonor nephrectomy (NDN). Multivariate analyses adjusted for baseline organ disease, malignancy, or benign lesions. There were 430 LDH and 9211 nondonor hepatectomy. In-hospital mortality was 0 and 6 per cent, respectively (P < 0.001); complications 4 and 33 per cent (P < 0.001). LDH had fewer complications [odds ratio (OR) 0.15 (0.08-0.26)]. There were 15,631 LDN and 117,966 NDN. Mortality rates were 0.8 per cent LDN and 1.8 per cent NDN (P < 0.001). Complications were 1 and 21 per cent (P < 0.001). LDN had fewer complications [OR 0.06 (0.05-0.08)] and better survival [OR 0.32 (0.18-0.58)]. Complication rates were higher in LDH than LDN (4% vs 1%, P < 0.001), but survival was similar (0% vs 0.8% mortality, P = 0.06). In conclusion, morbidity and mortality rates of LDH are significantly lower than hepatectomy for other disease. This study suggests that the risk profile of LDH is comparable with the widely accepted LDN. PMID:26463316

  11. Utilization of the Organ Care System – A Game-Changer in Combating Donor Organ Shortage

    PubMed Central

    Popov, Aron-Frederik; Sáez, Diana García; Sabashnikov, Anton; Patil, Nikhil P.; Zeriouh, Mohamed; Mohite, Prashant N.; Zych, Bartlomiej; Schmack, Bastian; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Kallenbach, Klaus; Dohmen, Pascal M.; Karck, Matthias; Simon, Andre R.; Weymann, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    For patients with end-stage heart failure, cardiac transplantation persists to be the gold standard. Nevertheless, the availability of organs remains a main constraint to the treatment. Through mounting usage of ex vivo heart perfusion an increase in organ availability was achieved by reconditioning of organs formerly not regarded as appropriate for transplantation. We propose the future standard application of this state-of-the-art technology to improve the pool of donor organs by evaluating hearts outside standard acceptability criteria. PMID:25761708

  12. "Brain Death" and dead donor rule. Discussion and proposals on the thesis of Truog.

    PubMed

    Bruzzone, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The introduction in 1968 by the "ad hoc" Harvard committee of the concept of "Brain Death" gave birth to the worldwide diffusion of organ transplantation. Recently "Total Brain Failure" has been proposed as preferred term, instead of "Brain Death", by the President's Council on Bioethics. The concepts of "brain death" and of "dead donor rule" remain the ethical and moral support of organ transplantation. However both criteria has been questioned , either separately or all together , by many authors and particularly by Dr. Robert D. Truog.

  13. Determination of criteria weights in solving multi-criteria problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasim, Maznah Mat

    2014-12-01

    A multi-criteria (MC) problem comprises of units to be analyzed under a set of evaluation criteria. Solving a MC problem is basically the process of finding the overall performance or overall quality of the units of analysis by using certain aggregation method. Based on these overall measures of each unit, a decision can be made whether to sort them, to select the best or to group them according to certain ranges. Prior to solving the MC problems, the weights of the related criteria have to be determined with the assumption that the weights represent the degree of importance or the degree of contribution towards the overall performance of the units. This paper presents two main approaches which are called as subjective and objective approaches, where the first one involves evaluator(s) while the latter approach depends on the intrinsic information contained in each criterion. The subjective and objective weights are defined if the criteria are assumed to be independent with each other, but if they are dependent, there is another type of weight, which is called as monotone measure weight or compound weights which represent degree of interaction among the criteria. The measure of individual weights or compound weights must be addressed in solving multi-criteria problems so that the solutions are more reliable since in the real world, evaluation criteria always come with different degree of importance or are dependent with each other. As the real MC problems have their own uniqueness, it is up to the decision maker(s) to decide which type of weights and which method are the most applicable ones for the problem under study.

  14. Living-donor kidney transplantation: a review of the current practices for the live donor.

    PubMed

    Davis, Connie L; Delmonico, Francis L

    2005-07-01

    The first successful living-donor kidney transplant was performed 50 yr ago. Since then, in a relatively brief period of medical history, living kidney transplantation has become the preferred treatment for those with ESRD. Organ replacement from either a live or a deceased donor is preferable to dialysis therapy because transplantation provides a better quality of life and improved survival. The advantages of live versus deceased donor transplantation now are readily apparent as it affords earlier transplantation and the best long-term survival. Live kidney donation has also been fostered by the technical advance of laparoscopic nephrectomy and immunologic maneuvers that can overcome biologic obstacles such as HLA disparity and ABO or cross-match incompatibility. Congressional legislation has provided an important model to remove financial disincentives to being a live donor. Federal employees now are afforded paid leave and coverage for travel expenses. Candidates for renal transplantation are aware of these developments, and they have become less hesitant to ask family members, spouses, or friends to become live kidney donors. Living donation as practiced for the past 50 yr has been safe with minimal immediate and long-term risk for the donor. However, the future experience may not be the same as our society is becoming increasingly obese and developing associated health problems. In this environment, predicting medical futures is less precise than in the past. Even so, isolated abnormalities such as obesity and in some instances hypertension are no longer considered absolute contraindications to donation. These and other medical risks bring additional responsibility in such circumstances to track the unknown consequences of a live-donor nephrectomy. PMID:15930096

  15. Taking a Step Forward in Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy: Transvaginal Retrieval of Donor's Kidney.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ying Hao; Lim, Yu Ming Joel; Ng, Ying Woo; Tiong, Ho Yee

    2016-09-01

    Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has been broadly recognized as the gold standard for kidney procurement used in kidney transplantation where it is not uncommon for donors to experience discomfort and aesthetic dissatisfaction over larger incision site. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery is a surgical approach that allows scarless intraabdominal operations through natural orifices, such as the vagina. In this case report, we describe the first case of transvaginal retrieval of donor's kidney at the National University Hospital, Singapore. A 51-year-old Malay lady with no significant medical history volunteered to a living-related kidney donor. Perioperative antibiotics were administered. A 12 mm Excel port was placed over the left iliac fossa with camera insertion. Two additional ports were inserted over the left rectus sheath edge and left costal margin under direct vision. An additional 5 mm port at the left loin was placed for lateral retraction. A vaginal probe was then inserted to facilitate posterior colpotomy and transection of the left uterosacral ligament. Pneumoperitoneum was subsequently maintained with a LiNA McCartney(®) Tube. A 15 mm Endocatch(®) bag was inserted for retrieval of the kidney. The left kidney was placed in the Endocatch bag after transection of the hilar vessels where the kidney was retrieved vaginally with ease. Colpotomy was closed vaginally using Vicryl-0 continuous suture. Total blood loss was noted as 50 mL with warm ischemia time being 7 minutes and the entire retrieval taking totally 20 minutes. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and the donor was discharged stable 3 days postoperation. The transplanted kidney retained normal graft function. Colpotomy retrieval for donor nephrectomy presents an innovative method for specimen retrieval with minimal disruption of donor anatomy. Doing away with laparotomy for kidney retrieval has indeed shown a reduction in recovery time, reduced postoperative pain, and

  16. Desensitization and crossmatch conversion in deceased donor kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bartel, G; Böhmig, G A

    2011-03-01

    Recipient allosensitization represents a major barrier to transplantation. Sensitized patients awaiting a deceased donor kidney transplant often face unacceptably long waiting times and are more prone to rejection, even in the absence of a positive crossmatch (XM). Two major strategies have been shown to facilitate the access to transplantation: specific allocation programs designed to enhance the availability of a well-matched allograft; and recipient desensitization to decrease levels of humoral alloreactivity. Over the last two to three decades, a variety of desensitization strategies have been published. Such protocols are based on the use of apheresis for direct alloantibody removal from the circulation, or high dose intravenous immunoglobulin and/or CD20 antibody rituximab for modulation of B cell immunity. An attractive approach may be the application of apheresis for rapid desensitization, with or without XM conversion, immediately before transplantation, a particular challenge because of the short interval between the transplant offer and surgery. It was shown that with currently available treatment strategies many high risk patients can be successfully transplanted within an acceptable time period. However, there is still a need for further improvement, as rejection and graft loss rates may be considerably higher than those documented for non-sensitized patients. Future studies will have to establish more precise diagnostic criteria to optimize treatment allocation and monitoring. Moreover, systematic trials are needed to assess the efficiency of innovative treatment concepts, such as the use of agents that directly affect alloantibody-producing plasma cells.

  17. Hepatocellular carcinoma beyond Milan criteria: Management and transplant selection criteria.

    PubMed

    Elshamy, Mohammed; Aucejo, Federico; Menon, K V Narayanan; Eghtesad, Bijan

    2016-07-28

    Liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been established as a standard treatment in selected patients for the last two and a half decades. After initially dismal outcomes, the Milan criteria (MC) (single HCC ≤ 5 cm or up to 3 HCCs ≤ 3 cm) have been adopted worldwide to select HCC patients for LT, however cumulative experience has shown that MC can be too strict. This has led to the development of numerous expanded criteria worldwide. Morphometric expansions on MC as well as various criteria which incorporate biomarkers as surrogates of tumor biology have been described. HCC that presents beyond MC initially can be downstaged with locoregional therapy (LRT). Post-LRT monitoring aims to identify candidates with favorable tumor behavior. Similarly, tumor marker levels as response to LRT has been utilized as surrogate of tumor biology. Molecular signatures of HCC have also been correlated to outcomes; these have yet to be incorporated into HCC-LT selection criteria formally. The ongoing discrepancy between organ demand and supply makes patient selection the most challenging element of organ allocation. Further validation of extended HCC-LT criteria models and pre-LT treatment strategies are required. PMID:27478537

  18. Hepatocellular carcinoma beyond Milan criteria: Management and transplant selection criteria

    PubMed Central

    Elshamy, Mohammed; Aucejo, Federico; Menon, K V Narayanan; Eghtesad, Bijan

    2016-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been established as a standard treatment in selected patients for the last two and a half decades. After initially dismal outcomes, the Milan criteria (MC) (single HCC ≤ 5 cm or up to 3 HCCs ≤ 3 cm) have been adopted worldwide to select HCC patients for LT, however cumulative experience has shown that MC can be too strict. This has led to the development of numerous expanded criteria worldwide. Morphometric expansions on MC as well as various criteria which incorporate biomarkers as surrogates of tumor biology have been described. HCC that presents beyond MC initially can be downstaged with locoregional therapy (LRT). Post-LRT monitoring aims to identify candidates with favorable tumor behavior. Similarly, tumor marker levels as response to LRT has been utilized as surrogate of tumor biology. Molecular signatures of HCC have also been correlated to outcomes; these have yet to be incorporated into HCC-LT selection criteria formally. The ongoing discrepancy between organ demand and supply makes patient selection the most challenging element of organ allocation. Further validation of extended HCC-LT criteria models and pre-LT treatment strategies are required. PMID:27478537

  19. First documented case of successful kidney transplantation from a donor with acute renal failure treated with dialysis.

    PubMed

    Bacak-Kocman, Iva; Peric, Mladen; Kastelan, Zeljko; Kes, Petar; Mesar, Ines; Basic-Jukic, Nikolina

    2013-10-01

    There is a widening gap between the needs and possibilities of kidney transplantation. In order to solve the problem of organ shortage, the selection criteria for kidney donors have been less stringent over the last years. Favorable outcome of renal transplantation from deceased donors with acute renal failure requiring dialysis may have an important role in expanding the pool of donors. We present the case of two renal transplantations from a polytraumatized 20-years old donor with acute renal failure requiring dialysis. One recipient established good diuresis from the first post-transplant day and did not require hemodialysis. The second recipient had delayed graft function and was treated with 8 hemodialysis sessions. The patient was discharged with good diuresis and normal serum creatinine. After two years of follow-up, both recipients have normal graft function. According to our experience, kidneys from deceased young donors with acute renal failure requiring dialysis may be transplanted, in order to decrease the number of patients on transplantation waiting lists.

  20. Making the case for directed organ donation to registered donors in Israel

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The number of deceased donor organ donations in Israel is lower than average when compared to other Western World countries. To address the organ gap, the 2008 Organ Transplantation Law provides new interventions, including important incentives to donors (and their families). The most notable of these was granting priority to registered donors (i.e., people on the waiting list who signed a donor card). The current study presents the normative arguments as well as the first documentation of public attitudes in Israel towards another possible incentive – allowing individuals to influence the allocation of their organs by permitting them to designate, to direct their donated organs [DD] to other registered donors, instead of the current allocation based primarily on medical criteria. Methods A structured phone survey of 695 Israelis was conducted during Feb-March 2012. The sample is representative of the Israeli society in terms of age mix and gender, with adequate representation of the Arab and ultra-orthodox Jewish subgroups. Results Among all Israelis, 68% stated a willingness to donate their organs, but only 16% reported to have already signed a donor card. 85% stated their interest in receiving an organ if the need arises. Overall, 64% of respondents felt that DD to a group of others who have registered as donors is justified, and the rate was remarkably higher in the Arab group (84%), and lower in the religious and ultraorthodox Jewish groups (52% and 50% respectively). Conclusions The majority of the Israeli public supports organ donation and its proven benefits. Thus, organ recovery policy should be grounded in a strong communitarian strategy as we all stand to benefit from cooperation. However, current legislation and practices are modeled on individual disposition based on an opt-in legal framework. DD allows personal choices of to-be donors that might interfere with social interests, principles, and values such as equal access to care (i

  1. Managing multiple masculinities in donor insemination: doctors configuring infertile men and sperm donors in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Ling

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates how doctors configured infertile men and sperm donors in the development of donor insemination (DI) in Taiwan. In the initial stage (1950s-1970s) doctors adjusted clinical procedures to repair the deformed gender identities of infertile men. To expand DI in the late 1970s and early 1980s, doctors stressed the positive eugenics of DI by spotlighting the high intelligence of donors, playing down biological patrilineage and re-emphasising the contribution of men of higher rank in society. In the mid-1980s, when donors came to be seen as potential carriers of fatal diseases like acquired immune deficiency syndrome, doctors managed to associate risky donors with socially stigmatised men, and therefore perpetuate the conventional hierarchy of masculinities. As the intracytoplasmic sperm injection emerged in the early 1990s doctors quickly presented infertile men as universally longing for biological fatherhood and hence devalued DI in an attempt to augment paternal masculinity. These diverse configuration activities come together to create a socio-technical network of DI that most of the time perpetuates the reigning gender order, rather than destabilising it. I argue the importance of incorporating various types of participants in analysis to understand the changing dynamics of multiple masculinities along with the development of DI.

  2. Pediatric donor cell leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in AML patient from related donor.

    PubMed

    Bobadilla-Morales, Lucina; Pimentel-Gutiérrez, Helia J; Gallegos-Castorena, Sergio; Paniagua-Padilla, Jenny A; Ortega-de-la-Torre, Citlalli; Sánchez-Zubieta, Fernando; Silva-Cruz, Rocio; Corona-Rivera, Jorge R; Zepeda-Moreno, Abraham; González-Ramella, Oscar; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a male patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) initially diagnosed as M5 and with karyotype 46,XY. After induction therapy, he underwent a HLA-matched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and six years later he relapsed as AML M1 with an abnormal karyotype //47,XX,+10[2]/47,XX,+11[3]/48,XX,+10,+11[2]/46,XX[13]. Based on this, we tested the possibility of donor cell origin by FISH and molecular STR analysis. We found no evidence of Y chromosome presence by FISH and STR analysis consistent with the success of the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from the female donor. FISH studies confirmed trisomies and no evidence of MLL translocation either p53 or ATM deletion. Additionally 28 fusion common leukemia transcripts were evaluated by multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and were not rearranged. STR analysis showed a complete donor chimerism. Thus, donor cell leukemia (DCL) was concluded, being essential the use of cytological and molecular approaches. Pediatric DCL is uncommon, our patient seems to be the sixth case and additionally it presented a late donor cell leukemia appearance. Different extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms have been considered to explain this uncommon finding as well as the implications to the patient. PMID:25674158

  3. Pediatric donor cell leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in AML patient from related donor.

    PubMed

    Bobadilla-Morales, Lucina; Pimentel-Gutiérrez, Helia J; Gallegos-Castorena, Sergio; Paniagua-Padilla, Jenny A; Ortega-de-la-Torre, Citlalli; Sánchez-Zubieta, Fernando; Silva-Cruz, Rocio; Corona-Rivera, Jorge R; Zepeda-Moreno, Abraham; González-Ramella, Oscar; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a male patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) initially diagnosed as M5 and with karyotype 46,XY. After induction therapy, he underwent a HLA-matched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and six years later he relapsed as AML M1 with an abnormal karyotype //47,XX,+10[2]/47,XX,+11[3]/48,XX,+10,+11[2]/46,XX[13]. Based on this, we tested the possibility of donor cell origin by FISH and molecular STR analysis. We found no evidence of Y chromosome presence by FISH and STR analysis consistent with the success of the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from the female donor. FISH studies confirmed trisomies and no evidence of MLL translocation either p53 or ATM deletion. Additionally 28 fusion common leukemia transcripts were evaluated by multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and were not rearranged. STR analysis showed a complete donor chimerism. Thus, donor cell leukemia (DCL) was concluded, being essential the use of cytological and molecular approaches. Pediatric DCL is uncommon, our patient seems to be the sixth case and additionally it presented a late donor cell leukemia appearance. Different extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms have been considered to explain this uncommon finding as well as the implications to the patient.

  4. A systematic review of sperm donors: demographic characteristics, attitudes, motives and experiences of the process of sperm donation.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, U; Vandermeeren, M; Vanderschueren, D; Enzlin, P; Demyttenaere, K; D'Hooghe, T

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND This systematic review aimed first to integrate the current body of knowledge on the demographic, institutional and psychosocial information on sperm donors, and second to provide insight into the actual experiences of men who donate and the attitudes towards potential donation. METHODS Electronic databases (PUBMED, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase and Web of Science) were searched with no date restriction using a specific search strategy followed by a snowball strategy. English language peer-reviewed abstracts and full texts were screened for eligibility and the risk of bias was assessed with 15 criteria. Eligibility, quality assessments and data extraction were performed by two independent researchers, resolving disagreement by discussion. RESULTS The initial search retrieved 857 studies and after quality assessment, 29 studies were retained for data extraction. Data from nine countries were obtained. The review synthesis revealed differences and similarities between actual and potential sperm donors on demographic characteristics, financial compensation and attitudes towards anonymity, disclosure and providing information to potential offspring. A number of methodological shortcomings have been identified in the studies investigating sperm donors. CONCLUSIONS Institutional factors (such as recruitment procedures, altruism versus compensation of sperm donors, anonymity versus open-identity donation) and the impact of changing legislation have largely dominated the studies on sperm donation. Furthermore, studies from countries with a bias towards white Western ideology and interpretation were over-represented. This has resulted in a profile of potential and actual sperm donors in terms of demographics, recruitment strategies, motivation for donation and attitudes regarding anonymity, disclosure, recipients and offspring. However, the psychosocial needs and experiences of the donor, and their follow-up and counselling are largely neglected. This review has

  5. Up-to-seven criteria for hepatocellular carcinoma liver transplantation: A single center analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Jian-Yong; Wang, Wen-Tao; Yan, Lu-Nan

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To detect whether the up-to-seven should be used as inclusion criteria for liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: Between April 2002 and July 2008, 220 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who were diagnosed with HCC and underwent liver transplantation (LT) at our liver transplantation center were included. These patients were divided into three groups according to the characteristics of their tumors (tumor diameter, tumor number): the Milan criteria group (Group 1), the in up-to-seven group (Group 2) and the out up-to-seven group (Group 3). Then, we compared long-term survival and tumor recurrence of these three groups. RESULTS: The baseline characteristics of transplant recipients were comparable among these three groups, except for the type of liver graft (deceased donor liver transplant or live donor liver transplantation). There were also no significant differences in the pre-operative α-fetoprotein level. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival and tumor-free survival rate for the Milan criteria group were 94.8%, 91.4%, 89.7% and 91.4%, 86.2%, and 86.2% respectively; in the up-to-seven criteria group, these rates were 87.8%, 77.8%, and 76.6% and 85.6%, 75.6%, and 75.6% respectively (P < 0.05). However, the advanced HCC patients’ (in the group out of up-to-seven criteria) overall and tumor-free survival rates were much lower, at 75%, 53.3%, and 50% and 65.8%, 42.5%, and 41.7%, respectively (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Considering that patients in the up-to-seven criteria group exhibited a considerable but lower survival rate compared with the Milan criteria group, the up-to-seven criteria should be used carefully and selectively. PMID:24106409

  6. 21 CFR 1271.50 - How do I determine whether a donor is eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.50 How do I... document the eligibility of a cell or tissue donor. (b) Eligible donor. A donor is eligible under...

  7. 21 CFR 1271.50 - How do I determine whether a donor is eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.50 How do I... document the eligibility of a cell or tissue donor. (b) Eligible donor. A donor is eligible under...

  8. 21 CFR 1271.50 - How do I determine whether a donor is eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.50 How do I... document the eligibility of a cell or tissue donor. (b) Eligible donor. A donor is eligible under...

  9. 21 CFR 1271.50 - How do I determine whether a donor is eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.50 How do I... document the eligibility of a cell or tissue donor. (b) Eligible donor. A donor is eligible under...

  10. Computer applications in the search for unrelated stem cell donors.

    PubMed

    Müller, Carlheinz R

    2002-08-01

    The majority of patients which are eligible for a blood stem cell transplantation from an allogeneic donor do not have a suitable related donor so that an efficient unrelated donor search is a prerequisite for this treatment. Currently, there are over 7 million volunteer donors in the files of 50 registries in the world and in most countries the majority of transplants are performed from a foreign donor. Evidently, computer and communication technology must play a crucial role in the complex donor search process on the national and international level. This article describes the structural elements of the donor search process and discusses major systematic and technical issues to be addressed in the development and evolution of the supporting telematic systems. The theoretical considerations are complemented by a concise overview over the current state of the art which is given by describing the scope, relevance, interconnection and technical background of three major national and international computer appliances: The German Marrow Donor Information System (GERMIS) and the European Marrow Donor Information System (EMDIS) are interoperable business-to-business e-commerce systems and Bone Marrow Donors World Wide (BMDW) is the basic international donor information desk on the web. PMID:12216954

  11. Insurability of living organ donors: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Yang, R C; Thiessen-Philbrook, H; Klarenbach, S; Vlaicu, S; Garg, A X

    2007-06-01

    Being an organ donor may affect one's ability to obtain life, disability and health insurance. We conducted a systematic review to determine if insurability is affected by living organ donation, and if concern about insurability affects donor decision making. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCI, EconLit and Cochrane databases for articles in any language, and reviewed reference lists from 1966 until June 2006. All studies discussing the insurability of living organ donors or its impact on donor decision making were included. Data were independently abstracted by two authors, and the methodological quality appraised. Twenty-three studies, from 1972 to 2006, provided data on 2067 living organ donors, 385 potential donors and 239 responses from insurance companies. Almost all companies would provide life and health insurance to living organ donors, usually with no higher premiums. However, concern about insurability was still expressed by 2%-14% of living organ donors in follow-up studies, and 3%-11% of donors actually encountered difficulties with their insurance. In one study, donors whose insurance premiums increased were less likely to reaffirm their decision to donate. Based on available evidence, some living organ donors had difficulties with insurance despite companies reporting otherwise. If better understood, this potential barrier to donation could be corrected through fair health and underwriting policies.

  12. Computer applications in the search for unrelated stem cell donors.

    PubMed

    Müller, Carlheinz R

    2002-08-01

    The majority of patients which are eligible for a blood stem cell transplantation from an allogeneic donor do not have a suitable related donor so that an efficient unrelated donor search is a prerequisite for this treatment. Currently, there are over 7 million volunteer donors in the files of 50 registries in the world and in most countries the majority of transplants are performed from a foreign donor. Evidently, computer and communication technology must play a crucial role in the complex donor search process on the national and international level. This article describes the structural elements of the donor search process and discusses major systematic and technical issues to be addressed in the development and evolution of the supporting telematic systems. The theoretical considerations are complemented by a concise overview over the current state of the art which is given by describing the scope, relevance, interconnection and technical background of three major national and international computer appliances: The German Marrow Donor Information System (GERMIS) and the European Marrow Donor Information System (EMDIS) are interoperable business-to-business e-commerce systems and Bone Marrow Donors World Wide (BMDW) is the basic international donor information desk on the web.

  13. Is heart transplantation after circulatory death compatible with the dead donor rule?

    PubMed

    Nair-Collins, Michael; Miller, Franklin G

    2016-05-01

    Dalle Ave et al (2016) provide a valuable overview of several protocols for heart transplantation after circulatory death. However, their analysis of the compatibility of heart donation after circulatory death (DCD) with the dead donor rule (DDR) is flawed. Their permanence-based criteria for death, which depart substantially from established law and bioethics, are ad hoc and unfounded. Furthermore, their analysis is self-defeating, because it undercuts the central motivation for DDR as both a legal and a moral constraint, rendering the DDR vacuous and trivial. Rather than devise new and ad hoc criteria for death for the purpose of rendering DCD nominally consistent with DDR, we contend that the best approach is to explicitly abandon DDR. PMID:26984898

  14. Optimizing aesthetic and functional outcomes at donor sites.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Seng-Feng; Tan, Ngian-Chye

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest by reconstructive surgeons in improving the aesthetic and functional outcomes of donor sites. As the success rate of free tissue transfers has exceeded more than 95% in most microsurgical centers, more emphasis can be shifted to the donor site. However, morbidities of donor sites can occur not only in free tissue transfers, but in locoregional flaps as well. In reconstructive procedures, the main principle is to mobilize normal tissue and utilize it to reconstruct an area of defect. The donor site, of course has no pathology, but is a previously healthy area. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to not only minimize postoperative complications at recipient sites, but also pay attention to donor sites. Just as in organ transplantation where efforts are made to ensure the safety and a good outcome for a donor patient, outcomes should be improved and morbidity reduced at donor sites in reconstructive surgery.

  15. Biliary complications in right lobe living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chok, Kenneth S H; Lo, Chung Mau

    2016-07-01

    Living donor liver transplantation is an alternative to deceased donor liver transplantation in the face of insufficient deceased donor liver grafts. Unfortunately, the incidence of biliary complication after living donor liver transplantation is significantly higher than that after deceased donor liver transplantation using grafts from non-cardiac-death donations. The two most common biliary complications after living donor liver transplantation are bile leakage and biliary anastomotic stricture. Early treatment with endoscopic and interventional radiological approaches can achieve satisfactory outcomes. If treatment with these approaches fails, the salvage measure for prompt rectification will be surgical revision, which is now seldom performed. This paper also discusses risk factors in donor biliary anatomy that can affect recipients. PMID:26932842

  16. Transplantation and differentiation of donor cells in the cloned pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Arata; Tomii, Ryo; Kano, Koichiro; Nagashima, Hiroshi . E-mail: hnagas@isc.meiji.ac.jp

    2006-06-02

    The application of nuclear transfer technology is an interesting approach to investigate stem and progenitor cell transplantation therapy. If stem cells are used as a nuclear donor, donor cells can engraft into cloned animals without histocompatible problems. However, it is still uncertain whether donor cells can engraft to cloned animal and differentiate in vivo. To address this problem, we transplanted donor cells to dermal tissues of cloned pigs developed by using preadipocytes as donor cells. Preadipocytes are adipocytic progenitor which can differentiate to mature adipocytes in vitro. We showed that the donor preadipocytes were successfully transplanted into the cloned pigs without immune rejection and they differentiated into mature adipocytes in vivo 3 weeks after transplantation. In contrast, allogenic control preadipocytes, which can differentiate in vitro, did not differentiate in vivo. These results indicate that donor progenitor cells can differentiate in cloned animal.

  17. Attitudes towards disclosure and relationship to donor offspring among a national cohort of identity-release oocyte and sperm donors

    PubMed Central

    Lampic, C.; Skoog Svanberg, A.; Sydsjö, G.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are oocyte donors and sperm donors' attitudes towards disclosure and relationship to donor offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER Oocyte and sperm donors in an identity-release donor programme support disclosure to donor offspring and have overall positive or neutral attitudes towards future contact with offspring. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY There is a global trend towards open-identity gamete donation with an increasing number of countries introducing legislation allowing only identifiable donors. While women and men who enrol in identity-release donor programmes accept that they may be contacted by donor offspring, there is limited knowledge of their attitudes towards disclosure to donor offspring and how they perceive their relationship to potential donor offspring. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION The present study is part of the ‘Swedish study on gamete donation’, a prospective cohort study including donors at all fertility clinics performing donation treatment in Sweden. During a 3-year period (2005–2008), donors were recruited consecutively and a total of 157 oocyte donors and 113 sperm donors (who did not donate to a specific ‘known’ couple) were included prior to donation. Participants in the present study include 125 female (80%) and 80 male donors (71%) that completed two follow-up assessments. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTINGS AND METHODS Participants completed two postal questionnaires 2 months after donation and 14 months after donation. Attitudes towards disclosure to donor offspring were assessed with an established instrument. Perceptions of involvement with donor offspring and need for counselling was assessed with study-specific instruments. Statistical analyses were performed with non-parametric tests. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE A majority of oocyte and sperm donors supported disclosure to donor offspring (71–91%) and had positive or neutral attitudes towards future contact with offspring (80–87%). Sperm donors reported a

  18. Discontinuation of Living Donor Liver Transplantation due to Donor's Intraoperative Latex-Induced Anaphylactic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Shinoda, Masahiro; Tanabe, Minoru; Nagao, Keisuke; Kitago, Minoru; Fujisaki, Hiroto; Odaira, Masanori; Kawachi, Shigeyuki; Itano, Osamu; Obara, Hideaki; Matsubara, Kentaro; Shimojima, Naoki; Fuchimoto, Yasushi; Hoshino, Ken; Amagai, Masayuki; Kuroda, Tatsuo; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2012-01-01

    We report on a 33-year-old female liver donor candidate who developed intraoperative latex-induced anaphylactic shock during surgery for living donor transplantation. She was the mother of the organ recipient, who was a 9-year-old boy with biliary atresia. We planned extended lateral segmentectomy for her. Although we dissected the ligament around the left lobe, the systolic blood pressure suddenly dropped and her body became flushed and warm. We administered transfusion and an ephedrine injection to recover the blood pressure. Because she recovered after the treatment, we restarted the procedure. However, she went into shock again within a few minutes. We decided to discontinue the operation. Postoperative blood tests revealed an increase in IgE-RAST and basophil activation, suggesting that the anaphylactic shock was induced by latex. Because latex allergy has become a public health problem, this allergy should be kept in mind as a potential donor operation risk. PMID:23294079

  19. Donor-acceptor-donor tetrazines containing a ferrocene unit: synthesis, electrochemical and spectroscopic properties.

    PubMed

    Janowska, Izabela; Miomandre, Fabien; Clavier, Gilles; Audebert, Pierre; Zakrzewski, Janusz; Thi, Khuyen Hoang; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle

    2006-11-30

    Donor-acceptor-donor tetrazines containing ferrocene moieties and phenyl unit as a pi-bridge have been synthesized and characterized. UV-vis spectroscopic and cyclic voltamperometric results indicate sizable intramolecular charge transfer interactions in the ground state when the ferrocene is directly bound to the tetrazine. On the other hand, the results show reduction of the electron-donor strength of ferrocene moieties when there is a phenyl linkage. Both tetrazines display a high reduction potential. The role of ferrocenyl groups appear to be detrimental to maximize the cubic hyperpolarizability gamma of tetrazines, as compared to purely organic groups such as thiophene. A possible explanation for this behavior may originate from metal-to-ligand charge transfer processes.

  20. Intramolecular Charge-Transfer Interaction of Donor-Acceptor-Donor Arrays Based on Anthracene Bisimide.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Tetsuo; Ogawa, Marina; Yamauchi, Tomokazu; Toyota, Shinji

    2016-05-20

    We designed anthracene bisimide (ABI) derivatives having two triphenylamine (TPA) groups as donor units at the 9,10-positions to form a novel π-conjugated donor-acceptor system. These compounds and their analogues with ethynylene linkers were synthesized by Suzuki-Miyaura and Sonogashira coupling reactions, respectively. In UV-vis spectra, the linker-free derivatives showed broad absorption bands arising from intramolecular charge-transfer interactions. Introducing ethynylene linkers resulted in a considerable red shift of the absorption bands. In fluorescence spectra, the ethynylene derivatives showed intense emission bands at 600-650 nm. Their photophysical and electrochemical properties were compared with those of the corresponding mono TPA derivatives on the basis of theoretical calculations and cyclic voltammetry to evaluate the intramolecular electronic interactions between the donor and acceptor units.

  1. Quality criteria for water, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    Section 304(a) (1) of the Clean Water Act 33 U.S.C. 1314(a) (1) requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to publish and periodically update ambient water-quality criteria. These criteria are to accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge (a) on the kind and extent of all identifiable effects on health and welfare including, but not limited to, plankton, fish shellfish, wildlife, plant life, shorelines, beaches, aesthetics, and recreation that may be expected from the presence of pollutants in any body of water including ground water; (b) on the concentration and dispersal of pollutants, or their byproducts, through biological, physical, and chemical processes; and (c) on the effects of pollutants on biological community diversity, productivity, and stability, including information on the factors affecting rates of eutrophication and organic and inorganic sedimentation for varying types of receiving waters. In a continuing effort to provide those who use EPA's water-quality and human-health criteria with up-to-date criteria values and associated information, the document was assembled. The document includes summaries of all the contaminants for which EPA has developed criteria recommendations.

  2. Cancer of the colon in an egg donor: policy repercussions for donor recruitment.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, K K; Simons, E G

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the tragic case of a young woman who died of cancer of the colon after successfully donating eggs to her younger sister. Although there is no direct link between her operation and the subsequent development of bowel carcinoma, this case imparts a feeling of unease when seen in conjunction with other cases reported during the last few years. It is a reminder that little is known of the long-term consequences of some aspects of assisted conception. Women undergoing ovarian stimulation for themselves or a matched recipient have the right to be advised, in an agreed format, that there is some concern about unproven potential risks from the stimulatory drugs. The safety of egg donors must assume priority over all other considerations, including lack of donors or any moral position. The recent decision by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) to withdraw any form of payment or recompense to egg donors does not seem to us to be based on a balance of scientific advances, patient needs and the ethics of gamete supply. They state that the intention to withdraw payments was implicit in the 1990 Human Fertilisation and Embryology (HFE) Act. However the Act was based on the Warnock report made 6 years earlier. Even in 1990 ovum donation was uncommon and fertility drugs had not yet caused any unease. The Act provided the HFEA with discretionary powers to issue directions so that the future policies would be consistent with any emerging new medical evidence. It is imperative that the HFEA provide convincing evidence on how the current policy of payment to donors harms society, donors or recipients, and how in the UK the new policy will improve medical practice in assisted conception. Successful pilot studies must precede the implementation of any new policy. Failure to do this could cause irreversible harm to the practice of assisted conception using donor gametes, which will ultimately be against the basic aims of the 1990 HFE Act.

  3. Blood donors on teratogenic drugs and donor deferral periods in a clinical situation.

    PubMed

    Shin, S Y; Shin, Y H; Lee, S W; Shin, J Y; Kim, C H

    2012-05-01

    Deferral of blood donors taking teratogenic drugs is critical. From March 2008 to January 2009, we analysed stored blood specimens from donors who had taken teratogenic drugs and whose blood was transfused to women of childbearing age to determine the plasma concentration at the time of donation using high-performance liquid chromatography. In total, 167 specimens were examined. The numbers of specimens exceeding the quantification limit were 7, 39, 4, 2 and 1 for finasteride, isotretinoin, acitretin, etretinate and dutasteride, respectively. Finasteride was beyond the recommended drug deferral period in one specimen. These results may help create practical deferral policies. PMID:22211799

  4. Thermoelectric Performance of Donor-Acceptor-Donor Conjugated Polymers Based on Benzothiadiazole Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Shouli; Zhen, Shijie; Lin, Kaiwen; Zhao, Li; Xu, Jingkun; Lu, Baoyang; Wang, Liangying; Xiong, Jinhua; Zhu, Zhengzhou

    2015-06-01

    Donor-acceptor-donor conjugated polymers are superior to other thermoelectric organic materials because it is much easier to modify their structure to reduce the bandgap between the conduction and valence bands, which is desirable for thermoelectric materials with high Seebeck coefficients. Despite this, studies of the thermoelectric performance of donor-acceptor-donor conjugated polymers are rare. In this study, four low-bandgap donor-acceptor-donor conjugated polymers, poly(4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4- b][1,4] dioxin-5-yl)benzo[ c][1,2,5]thiadiazole) (PEBTE), poly(4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4- b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)benzo[ c][1,2,5]selenadiazole) (PEBSeE), poly (4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4- b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo [3,4- c] pyridine) (PEPTE), and poly(4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4- b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)-[1,2,5]selenadiazolo[3,4- c]pyridine) (PEPSeE), were deposited by electrochemical polymerization of 4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (EBTE), 4,7-bis(2,3-dihydro-thieno[3,4-b][1,4] dioxin-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]selenadiazole (EBSeE), 4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno [3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[3,4-c] pyridine (EPTE) and 4,7-bis (2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)-[1,2,5] selenadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine (EPSeE), respectively and their thermoelectric performance was investi- gated. Compared with polyselenophenes, PEBTE and PEBSeE in pressed pellets had higher electrical conductivity (10-1-101 S cm-1) but lower Seebeck coefficient (14.0 μV K-1) at room temperature. Future work may focus on treatment of these donor-acceptor-donor polymers to improve their electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient, and further investigation of their thermoelectric performance.

  5. Criteria for Authorship in Bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Master, Zubin

    2011-01-01

    Multiple authorship is becoming increasingly common in bioethics research. There are well-established criteria for authorship in empirical bioethics research but not for conceptual research. It is important to develop criteria for authorship in conceptual publications to prevent undeserved authorship and uphold standards of fairness and accountability. This article explores the issue of multiple authorship in bioethics and develops criteria for determining who should be an author on a conceptual publication in bioethics. Authorship in conceptual research should be based on contributing substantially to: (1) identifying a topic, problem, or issue to study; (2) reviewing and interpreting the relevant literature; (3) formulating, analyzing, and evaluating arguments that support one or more theses; (4) responding to objections and counterarguments; and (5) drafting the manuscript and approving the final version. Authors of conceptual publications should participate substantially in at least two of areas (1)–(5). PMID:21943265

  6. Common criteria for usability review.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The propose of this paper is to present a literature review, in a grouping of common criteria for usability approaches of Bastien and Scapin (1993), Nielsen (1994), Shnneiderman(1998), Dix et al (1998), Preece et al (2005) and ISO 9241-110 (2006). After establishment of prerequisites for knowledge of the general characteristics of the users who will use the system, are defined and explained the criteria in common: consistency, user control, ease of learning, flexibility, errors management, reduction of excess and visibility system status. Although there is no determination as to which criteria should be considered when developing an interface and each author presents some specificity in their approach, it is observed that there is equivalence in the measures adopted usability. PMID:22316859

  7. Radiation design criteria handbook. [design criteria for electronic parts applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Douglas, S.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation design criteria for electronic parts applications in space environments are provided. The data were compiled from the Mariner/Jupiter Saturn 1977 electronic parts radiation test program. Radiation sensitive device types were exposed to radiation environments compatible with the MJS'77 requirements under suitable bias conditions. A total of 189 integrated circuits, transistors, and other semiconductor device types were tested.

  8. Liver grafts from hepatitis B surface antigen-positive donors: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Loggi, Elisabetta; Conti, Fabio; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Ercolani, Giorgio; Pinna, Antonio Daniele; Andreone, Pietro

    2016-09-21

    The scarcity of available organs and the gap between supply and demand continue to be the main limitations of liver transplantation. To relieve the organ shortage, current transplant strategies have implemented extended criteria, which include the use of liver from patients with signs of past or present hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. While the use of liver grafts from donors with evidence of past HBV infection is quite limited, some data have been collected regarding the feasibility of transplanting a liver graft from a hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive donor. The aim of the present work was to review the literature regarding liver transplants from HBsAg-positive donors. A total of 17 studies were identified by a search in Medline. To date, HBsAg positive grafts have preferentially been allocated to HBsAg positive recipients. The large majority of these patients continue to be HBsAg positive despite the use of immunoglobulin, and infection prevention can only be guaranteed by using antiviral prophylaxis. Although serological persistence is evident, no significant HBV-related disease has been observed, except in patients coinfected with delta virus. Consistently less data are available for HBsAg negative recipients, although they are mostly promising. HBsAg-positive grafts could be an additional organ source for liver transplantation, provided that the risk of reinfection/reactivation is properly prevented. PMID:27672295

  9. Liver grafts from hepatitis B surface antigen-positive donors: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Loggi, Elisabetta; Conti, Fabio; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Ercolani, Giorgio; Pinna, Antonio Daniele; Andreone, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The scarcity of available organs and the gap between supply and demand continue to be the main limitations of liver transplantation. To relieve the organ shortage, current transplant strategies have implemented extended criteria, which include the use of liver from patients with signs of past or present hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. While the use of liver grafts from donors with evidence of past HBV infection is quite limited, some data have been collected regarding the feasibility of transplanting a liver graft from a hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive donor. The aim of the present work was to review the literature regarding liver transplants from HBsAg-positive donors. A total of 17 studies were identified by a search in Medline. To date, HBsAg positive grafts have preferentially been allocated to HBsAg positive recipients. The large majority of these patients continue to be HBsAg positive despite the use of immunoglobulin, and infection prevention can only be guaranteed by using antiviral prophylaxis. Although serological persistence is evident, no significant HBV-related disease has been observed, except in patients coinfected with delta virus. Consistently less data are available for HBsAg negative recipients, although they are mostly promising. HBsAg-positive grafts could be an additional organ source for liver transplantation, provided that the risk of reinfection/reactivation is properly prevented.

  10. Liver grafts from hepatitis B surface antigen-positive donors: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Loggi, Elisabetta; Conti, Fabio; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Ercolani, Giorgio; Pinna, Antonio Daniele; Andreone, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The scarcity of available organs and the gap between supply and demand continue to be the main limitations of liver transplantation. To relieve the organ shortage, current transplant strategies have implemented extended criteria, which include the use of liver from patients with signs of past or present hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. While the use of liver grafts from donors with evidence of past HBV infection is quite limited, some data have been collected regarding the feasibility of transplanting a liver graft from a hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive donor. The aim of the present work was to review the literature regarding liver transplants from HBsAg-positive donors. A total of 17 studies were identified by a search in Medline. To date, HBsAg positive grafts have preferentially been allocated to HBsAg positive recipients. The large majority of these patients continue to be HBsAg positive despite the use of immunoglobulin, and infection prevention can only be guaranteed by using antiviral prophylaxis. Although serological persistence is evident, no significant HBV-related disease has been observed, except in patients coinfected with delta virus. Consistently less data are available for HBsAg negative recipients, although they are mostly promising. HBsAg-positive grafts could be an additional organ source for liver transplantation, provided that the risk of reinfection/reactivation is properly prevented. PMID:27672295

  11. Embryo Transfer (Techniques, Donors, and Recipients).

    PubMed

    Phillips, Patrick E; Jahnke, Marianna M

    2016-07-01

    Commercial embryo transfer has evolved as an art and as a science since the early 1970s. Today's multiple ovulation embryo transfer is a widely used reproductive tool on many farms and is performed by veterinarians throughout the world. Propagation of the female genomes of select donors, through embryo transfer, has allowed a rapid progression of genetic gain in many breeds, much like what happened with artificial insemination since the 1940s. Advancement of this technology is migrating to in vitro fertilization technology today, allowing a higher volume of offspring to be produced with sex selection in the laboratory. PMID:27140299

  12. Polymerization Initiated by Organic Electron Donors.

    PubMed

    Broggi, Julie; Rollet, Marion; Clément, Jean-Louis; Canard, Gabriel; Terme, Thierry; Gigmes, Didier; Vanelle, Patrice

    2016-05-10

    Polymerization reactions with organic electron donors (OED) as initiators are presented herein. The metal-free polymerization of various activated alkene and cyclic ester monomers was performed in short reaction times, under mild conditions, with small amounts of organic reducing agents, and without the need for co-initiators or activation by photochemical, electrochemical, or other methods. Hence, OED initiators enabled the development of an efficient, rapid, room-temperature process that meets the technical standards expected for industrial processes, such as energy savings, cost-effectiveness and safety. Mechanistic investigations support an electron-transfer initiation pathway that leads to the reduction of the monomer. PMID:27061743

  13. Exclusion of deceased donors post-procurement of tissues.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekar, Akila; Warwick, Ruth M; Clarkson, Anthony

    2011-08-01

    The EU Tissues and Cells Directive (2004/23/EC, 2006/17/EC, 2006/86/EC) (EUTCD) provides standards for quality and safety for all aspects of banking of tissues and cells for clinical applications. Commission Directive 2006/17/EC stipulates that the complete donor record with all the medical information is assessed for suitability before releasing tissues for clinical use. The aim of this study was to investigate the medical reasons for post-procurement donor exclusion, to identify the various potential sources for gathering information about donors' medical and behavioural history and to evaluate their contribution to maximising the safety of donations. Information was collected from the Tissue Services (TS) records of 1000 consecutive deceased donors submitted to National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) medical officers for authorisation for release for subsequent tissue processing and then for transplantation. Of the 1000 donors 60 (6%) were excluded because they did not fulfil the donor selection requirements of the EUTCD and NHSBT donor selection guidelines. The main reasons for medical exclusion were the presence of significant local or systemic infection in 32 donors (53% of those excluded for medical reasons) and a history of past or occult malignancy in 9 donors (15% of those excluded for medical reasons) which was not identified prior to procurement. The information leading to post-procurement exclusion was obtained from autopsy reports in 35 of the 60 excluded donors for medical reasons (58%) and from the general practitioner for 10 donors (17% of those excluded for medical reasons). In summary, careful evaluation of complete donor records reduces the potential risk of disease transmission by tissue allografts and ensures compliance with regulations and guidelines. The findings may lead to changes in donor selection policies with the aim of improving efficiency without compromising safety. PMID:20505995

  14. Exclusion of deceased donors post-procurement of tissues.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekar, Akila; Warwick, Ruth M; Clarkson, Anthony

    2011-08-01

    The EU Tissues and Cells Directive (2004/23/EC, 2006/17/EC, 2006/86/EC) (EUTCD) provides standards for quality and safety for all aspects of banking of tissues and cells for clinical applications. Commission Directive 2006/17/EC stipulates that the complete donor record with all the medical information is assessed for suitability before releasing tissues for clinical use. The aim of this study was to investigate the medical reasons for post-procurement donor exclusion, to identify the various potential sources for gathering information about donors' medical and behavioural history and to evaluate their contribution to maximising the safety of donations. Information was collected from the Tissue Services (TS) records of 1000 consecutive deceased donors submitted to National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) medical officers for authorisation for release for subsequent tissue processing and then for transplantation. Of the 1000 donors 60 (6%) were excluded because they did not fulfil the donor selection requirements of the EUTCD and NHSBT donor selection guidelines. The main reasons for medical exclusion were the presence of significant local or systemic infection in 32 donors (53% of those excluded for medical reasons) and a history of past or occult malignancy in 9 donors (15% of those excluded for medical reasons) which was not identified prior to procurement. The information leading to post-procurement exclusion was obtained from autopsy reports in 35 of the 60 excluded donors for medical reasons (58%) and from the general practitioner for 10 donors (17% of those excluded for medical reasons). In summary, careful evaluation of complete donor records reduces the potential risk of disease transmission by tissue allografts and ensures compliance with regulations and guidelines. The findings may lead to changes in donor selection policies with the aim of improving efficiency without compromising safety.

  15. The Willed Body Donor Interview Project: Medical Student and Donor Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohl, Michael; Holman, Alexis; Mueller, Dean A.; Gruppen, Larry D.; Hildebrandt, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    The Anatomical Donations Program at the University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) has begun a multiphase project wherein interviews of donors will be recorded and later shown to medical students who participate in the anatomical dissection course. The first phase of this project included surveys of both current UMMS medical students and donors…

  16. Donor Motivations and Decision Making: Understanding the Major Gift Development Process from a Donor's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Anna Lee

    2015-01-01

    Higher education is faced with a challenge to its traditional funding structure. As a result, academic programs must seek alternative sources of support. Chief among these sources is philanthropy in the form of major gifts. Insight into donor motivations and decision making when approached to consider a major gift may help to maximize the success…

  17. Diagnosis and management of tuberculosis in transplant donors: a donor-derived infections consensus conference report.

    PubMed

    Morris, M I; Daly, J S; Blumberg, E; Kumar, D; Sester, M; Schluger, N; Kim, S-H; Schwartz, B S; Ison, M G; Humar, A; Singh, N; Michaels, M; Orlowski, J P; Delmonico, F; Pruett, T; John, G T; Kotton, C N

    2012-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a ubiquitous organism that infects one-third of the world's population. In previous decades, access to organ transplantation was restricted to academic medical centers in more developed, low tuberculosis (TB) incidence countries. Globalization, changing immigration patterns, and the expansion of sophisticated medical procedures to medium and high TB incidence countries have made tuberculosis an increasingly important posttransplant infectious disease. Tuberculosis is now one of the most common bacterial causes of solid-organ transplant donor-derived infection reported in transplant recipients in the United States. Recognition of latent or undiagnosed active TB in the potential organ donor is critical to prevent emergence of disease in the recipient posttransplant. Donor-derived tuberculosis after transplantation is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, which can best be prevented through careful screening and targeted treatment. To address this growing challenge and provide recommendations, an expert international working group was assembled including specialists in transplant infectious diseases, transplant surgery, organ procurement and TB epidemiology, diagnostics and management. This working group reviewed the currently available data to formulate consensus recommendations for screening and management of TB in organ donors. PMID:22883346

  18. Tuning the Rainbow: Systematic Modulation of Donor-Acceptor Systems through Donor Substituents and Solvent.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Christopher B; van der Salm, Holly; Shillito, Georgina E; Lucas, Nigel T; Gordon, Keith C

    2016-09-01

    A series of donor-acceptor compounds is reported in which the energy of the triarylamine donor is systematically tuned through para substitution with electron-donating methoxy and electron-withdrawing cyano groups. The acceptor units investigated are benzothiadiazole (btd), dipyridophenazine (dppz), and its [ReCl(CO)3(dppz)] complex. The effect of modulating donor energy on the electronic and photophysical properties is investigated using (1)H NMR spectroscopy, DFT calculations, electrochemistry, electronic absorption and emission spectroscopies, ground state and resonance Raman spectroscopy, and transient absorption spectroscopy. Qualitative correlations between the donor energy and the properties of interest are obtained using Hammett σ(+) constants. Methoxy and cyano groups are shown to destabilize and stabilize, respectively, the frontier molecular orbitals, with the HOMO affected more significantly than the LUMO, narrowing the HOMO-LUMO band gap as the substituent becomes more electron-donating-observable as a bathochromic shift in low-energy charge-transfer absorption bands. Charge-transfer emission bands are also dependent on the electron-donating/withdrawing nature of the substituent, and in combination with the highly solvatochromic nature of charge-transfer states, emission can be tuned to span the entire visible region. PMID:27500590

  19. Site Products. Performance Criteria, Interim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. Construction Fund, Albany, NY.

    Performance criteria for the physical facilities of universities are reviewed to establish an understanding of the principles, policies and requirements that form the basis for an organized approach to building and site planning, development, design and construction. Guidelines are given emphasizing the designer's responsibility to analyze the…

  20. Aquatic Plant Water Quality Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA, as stated in the Clean Water Act, is tasked with developing numerical Aquatic Life Critiera for various pollutants found in the waters of the United States. These criteria serve as guidance for States and Tribes to use in developing their water quality standards. The G...

  1. THE CONTINUING SEARCH FOR CRITERIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROUDY, H.S.

    EDUCATIONAL CONTROL OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS RESTS ON THE ASSUMPTION THAT THERE IS A SUBSTANTIVE BODY OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT TEACHING FOR WHICH PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION IS NECESSARY. IF SO, THE TEACHER MUST BE EVALUATED NOT AS A PERSON BUT AS A FUNCTIONARY IN A SPECIAL SITUATION (THE CLASSROOM). FOR THAT PURPOSE, CRITERIA ARE NECESSARY. PERSONALITY…

  2. Aversive Stimulation -- Criteria for Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Patrick A.; Ohlson, Glenn A.

    Criteria for applying aversive stimulation with severely handicapped children are examined, and practical and ethical issues are considered. Factors seen to influence punishment outcomes include timing, intensity, and schedule of reinforcement. Suggested is the need for further research on the comparative effectiveness of positive and negative…

  3. Criteria for a Learning College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakauer, Renate

    This document contains a self-assessment tool allowing colleges to measure themselves against the criteria for an ideal learning college and identify where to focus their efforts for improvement. The tool consists of nine sections, each outlining a different area crucial to the functioning of learning colleges. Section 1 focuses on the learning…

  4. Counted Sb donors in Si quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Pacheco, Jose; Bielejec, Edward; Perry, Daniel; Ten Eyck, Gregory; Bishop, Nathaniel; Wendt, Joel; Luhman, Dwight; Carroll, Malcolm; Lilly, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is critical for donor spin qubits in semiconductor based quantum computing. We have developed techniques using a focused ion beam and a diode detector integrated next to a silicon MOS single electron transistor to gain such control. With the diode detector operating in linear mode, the numbers of ions implanted have been counted and single ion implants have been detected. Poisson statistics in the number of ions implanted have been observed. Transport measurements performed on samples with counted number of implants have been performed and regular coulomb blockade and charge offsets observed. The capacitances to various gates are found to be in agreement with QCAD simulations for an electrostatically defined dot. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Optimizing utilization of kidneys from deceased donors over 60 years: five-year outcomes after implementation of a combined clinical and histological allocation algorithm.

    PubMed

    Pierobon, Elisa Sefora; Sefora, Pierobon Elisa; Sandrini, Silvio; Silvio, Sandrini; De Fazio, Nicola; Nicola, De Fazio; Rossini, Giuseppe; Giuseppe, Rossini; Fontana, Iris; Iris, Fontana; Boschiero, Luigino; Luigino, Boschiero; Gropuzzo, Maria; Maria, Gropuzzo; Gotti, Eliana; Eliana, Gotti; Donati, Donato; Donato, Donati; Minetti, Enrico; Enrico, Minetti; Gandolfo, Maria Teresa; Teresa, Gandolfo Maria; Brunello, Anna; Anna, Brunello; Libetta, Carmelo; Carmelo, Libetta; Secchi, Antonio; Antonio, Secchi; Chiaramonte, Stefano; Stefano, Chiaramonte; Rigotti, Paolo; Paolo, Rigotti

    2013-08-01

    This 5 year observational multicentre study conducted in the Nord Italian Transplant programme area evaluated outcomes in patients receiving kidneys from donors over 60 years allocated according to a combined clinical and histological algorithm. Low-risk donors 60-69 years without risk factors were allocated to single kidney transplant (LR-SKT) based on clinical criteria. Biopsy was performed in donors over 70 years or 60-69 years with risk factors, allocated to Single (HR-SKT) or Dual kidney transplant (HR-DKT) according to the severity of histological damage. Forty HR-DKTs, 41 HR-SKTs and 234 LR-SKTs were evaluated. Baseline differences generally reflected stratification and allocation criteria. Patient and graft (death censored) survival were 90% and 92% for HR-DKT, 85% and 89% for HR-SKT, 88% and 87% for LR-SKT. The algorithm appeared user-friendly in daily practice and was safe and efficient, as demonstrated by satisfactory outcomes in all groups at 5 years. Clinical criteria performed well in low-risk donors. The excellent outcomes observed in DKTs call for fine-tuning of cut-off scores for allocation to DKT or SKT in high-risk patients.

  6. Liver transplantation from living donors with Gilbert's syndrome is a safe procedure for both donors and recipients.

    PubMed

    Tanoglu, Alpaslan; Artis, Tarik; Donmez, Ramazan; Kargi, Ahmet; Sit, Mustafa; Aslan, Serdar; Yazar, Serafettin; Beyazit, Yavuz; Polat, Kamil Yalcin

    2015-11-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) has become a favorable therapeutic option for patients with end-stage liver diseases. Gilbert's syndrome (GS) is a benign condition characterized by intermittent mild jaundice due to unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. It is not obvious whether living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) from a donor with GS could result in a normal outcome for both the recipient and the donor. We aimed to determine whether right lobe hepatectomy is a safe procedure for living donors with GS and LT recipients. Between September 2011 and March 2015, 305 LDLT procedures using right lobe grafts were performed at Atasehir Memorial Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. Nineteen of 305 LT candidates who had been diagnosed with GS were included in the current study. After a 12-h overnight fast, total and indirect bilirubin levels of donors and recipients were measured. The median follow-up after transplant was 16 months (range 3-36 months). The median age of donors was 25 (range 20-55 yr). Four donors (21%) were female, and 15 donors (89%) were male. The median age of donors was 51 (range 23-68 yr). Eleven recipients (57%) were female, and 8 (43%) were male. The median preoperative total bilirubin level of donors was 1.69 mg/dL (range 1.26-2.43 mg/dL) (normal range <1.2 mg/dL). The median total bilirubin level of donors on postoperative day 7 was 1.04 mg/dL (range 0.71-3.23 mg/dL). As our study has included a large number of donors with GS, it produced reliable evidence that right lobe hepatectomy is a safe procedure for living donors with GS and LT recipients. PMID:26271485

  7. Evaluating Dependence Criteria for Caffeine.

    PubMed

    Striley, Catherine L W; Griffiths, Roland R; Cottler, Linda B

    2011-12-01

    Background: Although caffeine is the most widely used mood-altering drug in the world, few studies have operationalized and characterized Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) substance dependence criteria applied to caffeine. Methods: As a part of a nosological study of substance use disorders funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, we assessed caffeine use and dependence symptoms among high school and college students, drug treatment patients, and pain clinic patients who reported caffeine use in the last 7 days and also reported use of alcohol, nicotine, or illicit drugs within the past year (n=167). Results: Thirty-five percent met the criteria for dependence when all seven of the adopted DSM dependence criteria were used. Rates of endorsement of several of the most applicable diagnostic criteria were as follows: 26% withdrawal, 23% desire to cut down or control use, and 44% continued use despite harm. In addition, 34% endorsed craving, 26% said they needed caffeine to function, and 10% indicated that they talked to a physician or counselor about problems experienced with caffeine. There was a trend towards increased caffeine dependence among those dependent on nicotine or alcohol. Within a subgroup that had used caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine in the past year, 28% fulfilled criteria for caffeine dependence compared to 50% for alcohol and 80% for nicotine. Conclusion: The present study adds to a growing literature suggesting the reliability, validity, and clinical utility of the caffeine dependence diagnosis. Recognition of caffeine dependence in the DSM-V may be clinically useful. PMID:24761264

  8. 46 CFR 385.51 - Criteria: Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Criteria: Projects. 385.51 Section 385.51 Shipping... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS Criteria for Award § 385.51 Criteria: Projects. The criteria to be used by MarAd in evaluating all projects prior to award of a grant or cooperative agreement are as follows:...

  9. 46 CFR 385.51 - Criteria: Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Criteria: Projects. 385.51 Section 385.51 Shipping... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS Criteria for Award § 385.51 Criteria: Projects. The criteria to be used by MarAd in evaluating all projects prior to award of a grant or cooperative agreement are as follows:...

  10. 46 CFR 385.51 - Criteria: Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Criteria: Projects. 385.51 Section 385.51 Shipping... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS Criteria for Award § 385.51 Criteria: Projects. The criteria to be used by MarAd in evaluating all projects prior to award of a grant or cooperative agreement are as follows:...

  11. 46 CFR 385.51 - Criteria: Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Criteria: Projects. 385.51 Section 385.51 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MISCELLANEOUS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT GRANT AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS Criteria for Award § 385.51 Criteria: Projects. The criteria to be used...

  12. 46 CFR 385.51 - Criteria: Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria: Projects. 385.51 Section 385.51 Shipping... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS Criteria for Award § 385.51 Criteria: Projects. The criteria to be used by MarAd in evaluating all projects prior to award of a grant or cooperative agreement are as follows:...

  13. 40 CFR 258.24 - Air criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air criteria. 258.24 Section 258.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.24 Air criteria. (a) Owners or operators of all...

  14. 40 CFR 258.24 - Air criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Air criteria. 258.24 Section 258.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.24 Air criteria. (a) Owners or operators of all...

  15. 7 CFR 3430.34 - Evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evaluation criteria. 3430.34 Section 3430.34... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Pre-award: Application Review and Evaluation § 3430.34 Evaluation criteria. (a) General... evaluation criteria, and only those criteria, to judge the merit of the proposals they review....

  16. 36 CFR 401.9 - Evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evaluation criteria. 401.9... MEMORIALS § 401.9 Evaluation criteria. Commission consideration of a request to approve a memorial will include, but not be limited to, evaluation of following criteria: Criteria Discussion (a) How long has...

  17. 7 CFR 3430.34 - Evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evaluation criteria. 3430.34 Section 3430.34... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Pre-award: Application Review and Evaluation § 3430.34 Evaluation criteria. (a) General... evaluation criteria, and only those criteria, to judge the merit of the proposals they review....

  18. 36 CFR 401.9 - Evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evaluation criteria. 401.9... MEMORIALS § 401.9 Evaluation criteria. Commission consideration of a request to approve a memorial will include, but not be limited to, evaluation of following criteria: Criteria Discussion (a) How long has...

  19. 7 CFR 2500.024 - Evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evaluation criteria. 2500.024 Section 2500.024... Pre-Award: Proposal Review and Evaluation § 2500.024 Evaluation criteria. (a) General. To ensure any... Leader of the review criteria. Reviewers are instructed to use those same evaluation criteria, and...

  20. 36 CFR 401.9 - Evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evaluation criteria. 401.9... MEMORIALS § 401.9 Evaluation criteria. Commission consideration of a request to approve a memorial will include, but not be limited to, evaluation of following criteria: Criteria Discussion (a) How long has...

  1. 10 CFR 420.36 - Evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaluation criteria. 420.36 Section 420.36 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION STATE ENERGY PROGRAM Implementation of Special Projects Financial Assistance § 420.36 Evaluation criteria. The evaluation criteria, including program activity-specific criteria, will be set forth in the...

  2. Adequacy of the ELISA test for screening corneal transplant donors.

    PubMed

    Goode, S M; Hertzmark, E; Steinert, R F

    1988-10-15

    Using a simple mathematical model, we calculated the risk for a patient undergoing penetrating keratoplasty to receive a cornea from a human immunodeficiency virus-infected donor despite negative results on serologic testing of donor serum. This error in serologic testing occurred when false-negative results were obtained from the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay used to screen donor corneas for human immunodeficiency virus exposure. The average risk of transplanting an infected cornea was low, 0.03%, but increased by a factor of ten when donor tissue from donors at high risk for AIDS was used. Current screening procedures are probably adequate to prevent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, but increased vigilance for high-risk donor populations may be appropriate.

  3. Consequences of dietary methyl donor supplements: Is more always better?

    PubMed

    Shorter, Kimberly R; Felder, Michael R; Vrana, Paul B

    2015-07-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are now recognized to play roles in disease etiology. Several diseases increasing in frequency are associated with altered DNA methylation. DNA methylation is accomplished through metabolism of methyl donors such as folate, vitamin B12, methionine, betaine (trimethylglycine), and choline. Increased intake of these compounds correlates with decreased neural tube defects, although this mechanism is not well understood. Consumption of these methyl donor pathway components has increased in recent years due to fortification of grains and high supplemental levels of these compounds (e.g. vitamins, energy drinks). Additionally, people with mutations in one of the enzymes that assists in the methyl donor pathway (5-MTHFR) are directed to consume higher amounts of methyl donors to compensate. Recent evidence suggests that high levels of methyl donor intake may also have detrimental effects. Individualized medicine may be necessary to determine the appropriate amounts of methyl donors to be consumed, particularly in women of child bearing age.

  4. A brown dwarf mass donor in an accreting binary.

    PubMed

    Littlefair, S P; Dhillon, V S; Marsh, T R; Gänsicke, Boris T; Southworth, John; Watson, C A

    2006-12-01

    A long-standing and unverified prediction of binary star evolution theory is the existence of a population of white dwarfs accreting from substellar donor stars. Such systems ought to be common, but the difficulty of finding them, combined with the challenge of detecting the donor against the light from accretion, means that no donor star to date has a measured mass below the hydrogen burning limit. We applied a technique that allowed us to reliably measure the mass of the unseen donor star in eclipsing systems. We were able to identify a brown dwarf donor star, with a mass of 0.052 +/- 0.002 solar mass. The relatively high mass of the donor star for its orbital period suggests that current evolutionary models may underestimate the radii of brown dwarfs. PMID:17158322

  5. Renal transplantation between HIV-positive donors and recipients justified.

    PubMed

    Muller, Elmi; Barday, Zunaid; Mendelson, Marc; Kahn, Delawir

    2012-03-02

    HIV infection was previously an absolute contraindication to renal transplantation. However, with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), renal transplantation using HIV-negative donor kidneys has successfully been employed for HIV-infected patients with end-stage renal failure. In resource-limited countries, places on dialysis programmes are severely restricted; HIV-infected patients, like many others with co-morbidity, are often denied treatment. Kidneys (and other organs) from HIV-infected deceased donors are discarded. The transplantation of HIV-positive donor kidneys to HIV-infected recipients is now a viable alternative to chronic dialysis or transplantation of HIV-negative donor kidneys. This significantly increases the pool of donor kidneys to the advantage of HIV-positive and -negative patients. Arguments are presented that led to our initiation of renal transplantation from HIV-positive deceased donors to HIV-positive recipients at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town.

  6. A brown dwarf mass donor in an accreting binary.

    PubMed

    Littlefair, S P; Dhillon, V S; Marsh, T R; Gänsicke, Boris T; Southworth, John; Watson, C A

    2006-12-01

    A long-standing and unverified prediction of binary star evolution theory is the existence of a population of white dwarfs accreting from substellar donor stars. Such systems ought to be common, but the difficulty of finding them, combined with the challenge of detecting the donor against the light from accretion, means that no donor star to date has a measured mass below the hydrogen burning limit. We applied a technique that allowed us to reliably measure the mass of the unseen donor star in eclipsing systems. We were able to identify a brown dwarf donor star, with a mass of 0.052 +/- 0.002 solar mass. The relatively high mass of the donor star for its orbital period suggests that current evolutionary models may underestimate the radii of brown dwarfs.

  7. Piezospectroscopy of isolated lithium donors and lithium-oxygen donor complexes in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagannath, C.; Ramdas, A. K.

    1981-05-01

    The effect of uniaxial stress on the excitation spectra of interstitial lithium donors (Li) and of lithium-oxygen donor complexes (Li-O) in silicon is studied under a high resolution. For a compressive force, F-->, along [001], each 1s-->np transition in Si(Li) splits into three components, the central component occurring at the zero-stress position even at 2 kbar, the highest stress used. The intensity of the high-energy component decreases dramatically while that of the low-energy component increases. At the highest stress only the central and the low-energy components survive and the position of the low-energy component reaches a constant value as the stress increases. Interstitial lithium donors have an anomalous, "inverted" ground state with the fivefold 1s(E+T2) state close to the effective-mass position, its site symmetry being Td; the totally symmetric 1s(A1) state lies 6Δc=1.76+/-0.04 meV above it. The inverted ground state, the small value of 6Δc, the stress dependence of the ground-state wave functions, and a shear-deformation-potential constant Ξu of 8.77 +/- 0.07 eV characterizing both the ground and the excited states account for its striking piezospectroscopic behavior. Our studies in Li-O donor centers show that they have a group-V-like ground state with 1s(A1) lying below 1s(E) and 1s(T2). One of the donor species has a symmetry lower than Td with a symmetry axis along <100>, showing the effects of orientational degeneracy in its piezospectroscopic behavior.

  8. Infusion of donor spleen cells and rejection in liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Scornik, J C; Lauwers, G Y; Reed, A I; Howard, R J; Dickson, R C; Rosen, C B

    2000-02-01

    Intact or inactivated donor lymphoid cells have been found to downregulate the alloimmune response in a number of experimental models. We conducted a randomized, prospective, double blind, and placebo-controlled trial to determine whether heat-treated donor spleen cells would affect early rejection after liver transplantation. Donor spleen was obtained during organ procurement for 40 patients undergoing liver transplantation. All patients were treated with cyclosporine, azathioprine and steroids. The patients were randomized after surgery to receive either heat-treated (45 degrees C for 1 h) spleen cells or placebo. Patients underwent protocol biopsies at 1 wk, 4 and 12 months, or as needed. Biopsies were reviewed in a blind fashion and scored according to the Banff consensus criteria. Randomization resulted in 19 patients in the spleen cell group and 21 in the placebo group. One-yr graft survival was 94 and 100%, respectively. Early rejection was more frequent in the spleen cell group (61 vs. 35%, p, not significant). The histopathological rejection activity index at 7 d was also higher for the patients in the spleen cell group: 39% of spleen cell treated patients had a score of 4 or higher as opposed to 5% in the placebo group (p < 0.01). The mean score was 2.9 +/- 2.8 for the spleen cell group versus 1.3 + 1.7 for the placebo group (p = 0.034). It is concluded that heat-treated donor spleen cells given within 24 h after liver transplantation were not clinically beneficial and increased the intensity of rejection in 7-d protocol liver biopsies.

  9. FDA seeks temporary blood donor changes. Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    1997-02-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has requested that blood collection agencies exclude donors at risk of Group O HIV, following two cases identified in 1996. Group O is very rare in the United States. Blood donors would be excluded if they were born or lived in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Niger or Nigeria since 1977, or had sexual conduct with anyone traveling to those areas. The number of excluded donors would be minute.

  10. Medicine. Consent from donors for embryo and stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Lo, Bernard; Chou, Vicki; Cedars, Marcelle I; Gates, Elena; Taylor, Robert N; Wagner, Richard M; Wolf, Leslie; Yamamoto, Keith R

    2003-08-15

    As research with human embryos and embryonic stem cells proceeds, the authors of this Policy Forum argue that all donors of biological materials should give informed consent, including oocyte and sperm donors. Informed consent is particularly important because of the diverse opinions and strong emotions that surround such research. Some gamete donors who are willing to help women and couples bear children may object to the use of their genetic materials for certain types of research.

  11. Selection of patients of hepatocellular carcinoma beyond the Milan criteria for liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chan, See Ching; Fan, Sheung Tat

    2013-04-01

    The Milan criteria have been proven to be reliable and easily applicable in selection of patients with small unresectable hepatocellular carcinomas for liver transplantation. It has been repeatedly shown that patients who met these criteria had a 5-year survival of over 70% after transplantation. Such a result is remarkably good for an otherwise incurable malignancy. The main disadvantage of this set of criteria is that it is rather restrictive. Following it religiously denies transplantation to many patients who have tumor stage slightly more advanced. There have been many attempts to extend the criteria to include tumors with larger sizes (as in the UCSF criteria) or with a larger number (as in the Kyoto criteria). Alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II, two biological markers in more aggressive tumors, have also been employed in the selection of patients, and biopsies have been used by the University of Toronto to determine tumor aggressiveness before deciding on transplantation. Patients with tumors beyond the Milan criteria yet not of a high grade have been accepted for transplantation and their survival is comparable to that of transplant recipients who were within the Milan criteria. Preoperative dual-tracer ((11)C-acetate and FDG) positron emission tomography has been used to determine tumor grade, and transarterial chemoembolization has been used to downstage tumors, rendering them meeting the Milan criteria. Patients with downstaged tumors have excellent survival after transplantation. Partial response to chemical treatment is a reflection of less aggressive tumor behavior. Careful selection of patients beyond the Milan criteria with the aid of serum tumor marker assay, positron emission tomography or tumor biopsy allows transplanting more patients without compromising survival. The use of liver grafts either from the deceased or from living donors could thus be justified. PMID:24570921

  12. Stranger donors: a key link in transplant chains.

    PubMed

    Veys, Christopher G; Bramstedt, Katrina A

    2010-12-01

    Living donation to strangers is a complex issue that has caused some transplant centers to ban the practice altogether. Most prominent of the troublesome issues is the common source of these donors; namely, the Internet. These "stranger donors," however, are critical to both paired kidney transplants and chain kidney transplants. This article presents the ethical complexities of donors in these transplant arrangements and offers 2 case examples from our facility. Rigorous donor screening and informed consent processes are crucial, and together they help make transplant pairs and chains ethically feasible. PMID:21265290

  13. Paid Living Donation and Growth of Deceased Donor Programs.

    PubMed

    Ghahramani, Nasrollah

    2016-06-01

    Limited organ availability in all countries has stimulated discussion about incentives to increase donation. Since 1988, Iran has operated the only government-sponsored paid living donor (LD) kidney transplant program. This article reviews aspects of the Living Unrelated Donor program and development of deceased donation in Iran. Available evidence indicates that in the partially regulated Iranian Model, the direct negotiation between donors and recipients fosters direct monetary relationship with no safeguards against mutual exploitation. Brokers, the black market and transplant tourism exist, and the waiting list has not been eliminated. Through comparison between the large deceased donor program in Shiraz and other centers in Iran, this article explores the association between paid donation and the development of a deceased donor program. Shiraz progressively eliminated paid donor transplants such that by 2011, 85% of kidney transplants in Shiraz compared with 27% across the rest of Iran's other centers were from deceased donors. Among 26 centers, Shiraz undertakes the largest number of deceased donor kidney transplants, most liver transplants, and all pancreas transplants. In conclusion, although many patients with end stage renal disease have received transplants through the paid living donation, the Iranian Model now has serious flaws and is potentially inhibiting substantial growth in deceased donor organ transplants in Iran. PMID:27203584

  14. A Study of Donor Area in Follicular Unit Hair Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Nirmal, Balakrishnan; Somiah, Savitha; Sacchidanand, Sarvajnamurthy A

    2013-01-01

    Background: The advent of follicular unit transplantation (FUT) has given a natural appearance in the recipient area in the past two decades, but has left behind an unsightly scar in the donor area. A study of donor area and techniques to make it cosmetically acceptable is lacking. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the donor area after follicular unit hair transplantation and to show a few techniques to make the donor scar aesthetically pleasing. Materials and Methods: The donor area was examined for scar width and patient satisfaction scores of donor area in 30 consecutive patients from March 2012 to February 2013 retrospectively after a minimum of 3 months after the procedure. Complications such as effluvium along suture line, wound infection, dehiscence, necrosis, folliculitis, keloids and wide scars were also noted. Results: Scar width increased with increase in width of the donor strip. Patient satisfaction scores declined with larger strip widths. The most common complication seen was folliculitis-like lesions. Double trichophytic closure yielded the most aesthetically acceptable scar. Conclusion: FUT produces a linear scar in the donor area, which can be a significant concern in patients wishing to cut their hair short. Restricting the width of the donor strip and trichophytic closure has greatly improved the appearance of the scar. PMID:24470718

  15. Disposition of sperm donors with resultant abnormal pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Kuller, J A; Meyer, W R; Traynor, K D; Hartmann, K E

    2001-08-01

    We wished to determine how clinicians manage sperm donors whose offspring have chromosomal or structural abnormalities. A directed, multiple-choice survey was given to reproductive endocrinologists and obstetrical geneticists to assess management of sperm donors whose offspring have chromosomal or structural abnormalities. The questionnaire was completed by 66 reproductive endocrinologists and obstetrical geneticists. Abnormalities and the most common inheritance modes included: Trisomy 21 (aneuploidy, maternal origin), Turner syndrome (aneuploidy, paternal origin), cleft lip/palate (multifactorial), VATER sequence (vertebral defects, imperforate anus, tracheo-esophageal fistula, radial and renal dysplasia, sporadic inheritance), and Hurler syndrome (autosomal recessive). Response choices were: (i) remove donor from programme, (ii) inform potential recipients of prior pregnancy outcomes and continue to use donor, or (iii) further study donor to assess karyotype/mutations. Inheritance mode appeared to influence decisions to remove donors from sperm banks; however, no clear consensus was noted. Guidelines exist for screening potential gamete donors, but not for managing donors whose offspring has a chromosomal or structural abnormality. Guidelines must be developed to manage sperm donors with untoward pregnancy outcomes. PMID:11473942

  16. Paid Living Donation and Growth of Deceased Donor Programs.

    PubMed

    Ghahramani, Nasrollah

    2016-06-01

    Limited organ availability in all countries has stimulated discussion about incentives to increase donation. Since 1988, Iran has operated the only government-sponsored paid living donor (LD) kidney transplant program. This article reviews aspects of the Living Unrelated Donor program and development of deceased donation in Iran. Available evidence indicates that in the partially regulated Iranian Model, the direct negotiation between donors and recipients fosters direct monetary relationship with no safeguards against mutual exploitation. Brokers, the black market and transplant tourism exist, and the waiting list has not been eliminated. Through comparison between the large deceased donor program in Shiraz and other centers in Iran, this article explores the association between paid donation and the development of a deceased donor program. Shiraz progressively eliminated paid donor transplants such that by 2011, 85% of kidney transplants in Shiraz compared with 27% across the rest of Iran's other centers were from deceased donors. Among 26 centers, Shiraz undertakes the largest number of deceased donor kidney transplants, most liver transplants, and all pancreas transplants. In conclusion, although many patients with end stage renal disease have received transplants through the paid living donation, the Iranian Model now has serious flaws and is potentially inhibiting substantial growth in deceased donor organ transplants in Iran.

  17. Adoptive T-cell immunotherapy from third-party donors: characterization of donors and set up of a T-cell donor registry

    PubMed Central

    Eiz-Vesper, Britta; Maecker-Kolhoff, Britta; Blasczyk, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Infection with and reactivation of human cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and adenovirus (ADV) are frequent and severe complications in immunocompromised recipients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or solid organ transplantation (SOT). These serious adverse events are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs) are often used to treat both viral infections and leukemia relapses after transplantation but are associated with potentially life-threatening graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Adoptive immunotherapy with virus-specific cytotoxic effector T cells (CTLs) derived from seropositive donors can rapidly reconstitute antiviral immunity after HSCT and organ transplantation. Therefore, it can effectively prevent the clinical manifestation of these viruses with no significant acute toxicity or increased risk of GvHD. In conditions, where patients receiving an allogeneic cord blood (CB) transplant or a transplant from a virus-seronegative donor and since donor blood is generally not available for solid organ recipients, allogeneic third party T-cell donors would offer an alternative option. Recent studies showed that during granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilization, the functional activity of antiviral memory T cells is impaired for a long period. This finding suggests that even stem cell donors may not be the best source of T cells. Under these circumstances, partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched virus-specific CTLs from healthy seropositive individuals may be a promising option. Therefore, frequency assessments of virus-specific memory T cells in HLA-typed healthy donors as well as in HSCT/SOT donors using a high throughput T-cell assay were performed over a period of 4 years at Hannover Medical School. This chapter will address the relevance and potential of a third-party T-cell donor registry and will discuss its clinical implication for adoptive T

  18. [HTLV-I/II seroprevalence and risk factors associated with infection in a blood donor population in Córdoba, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Gallego, S; Maturano, E; Recalde, A; Gastaldello, R; Sileoni, S; Bepre, H; Medeot, S

    2001-01-01

    In this study we have determined the seroprevalence of infections by HTLV-I/II in the blood donor population from the city of Córdoba. A total of 5476 blood donor sera were screened for HTLV-I/II antibodies by particle agglutination assay (PA) (SERODIA HTLV-I, Fujirebio INC, Tokyo, Japan). The reactive sera samples were confirmed by an "in house" indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). 14 out of 5476 blood donors studied were PA reactive and were confirmed positive by IFA, showing a prevalence of 0.26% (95% confidence interval: 0.126%-0.394%). All the positive samples, except one, met the criteria for HTLV-I. Although one HTLV-I infected donor was an intravenous drug abuser and two donors were born in highly endemic areas for HTLV-I, no specific risk factors were identified among the others. The demonstration that HTLV-I circulates in blood donor population of Córdoba, points out that the systematic screening of blood for HTLV-I/II antibodies must be implemented in the blood banks, in an attempt to prevent the spread of infections with this oncogenic virus in Argentina.

  19. New facility shield design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, W.P.

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of the criteria presented here is to provide standard guidance for the design of nuclear radiation shields thoughout new facilities. These criteria are required to assure a consistent and integrated design that can be operated safely and economically within the DOE standards. The scope of this report is confined to the consideration of radiation shielding for contained sources. The whole body dose limit established by the DOE applies to all doses which are generally distributed throughout the trunk of the body. Therefore, where the whole body is the critical organ for an internally deposited radionuclide, the whole body dose limit applies to the sum of doses received must assure control of the concentration of radionuclides in the building atmosphere and thereby limit the dose from internal sources.

  20. Criteria for saturated magnetization loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harres, A.; Mikhov, M.; Skumryev, V.; Andrade, A. M. H. de; Schmidt, J. E.; Geshev, J.

    2016-03-01

    Proper estimation of magnetization curve parameters is vital in studying magnetic systems. In the present article, criteria for discrimination non-saturated (minor) from saturated (major) hysteresis loops are proposed. These employ the analysis of (i) derivatives of both ascending and descending branches of the loop, (ii) remanent magnetization curves, and (iii) thermomagnetic curves. Computational simulations are used in order to demonstrate their validity. Examples illustrating the applicability of these criteria to well-known real systems, namely Fe3O4 and Ni fine particles, are provided. We demonstrate that the anisotropy-field value estimated from a visual examination of an only apparently major hysteresis loop could be more than two times lower than the real one.

  1. Determination of Dornic Acidity as a Method to Select Donor Milk in a Milk Bank

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Lara, Nadia Raquel; Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Chaves-Sánchez, Fernando; De la Cruz-Bertolo, Javier; Pallas-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Dornic acidity may be an indirect measurement of milk's bacteria content and its quality. There are no uniform criteria among different human milk banks on milk acceptance criteria. The main aim of this study is to report the correlation between Dornic acidity and bacterial growth in donor milk in order to validate the Dornic acidity value as an adequate method to select milk prior to its pasteurization. Materials and Methods From 105 pools, 4-mL samples of human milk were collected. Dornic acidity measurement and culture in blood and McConkey's agar cultures were performed. Based on Dornic acidity degrees, we classified milk into three quality categories: top quality (acidity <4°D), intermediate (acidity between 4°D and 7°D), and milk unsuitable to be consumed (acidity ≥8°D). Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to perform statistical analysis. Results Seventy percent of the samples had Dornic acidity under 4°D, and 88% had a value under 8°D. A weak positive correlation was observed between the bacterial growth in milk and Dornic acidity. The overall discrimination performance of Dornic acidity was higher for predicting growth of Gram-negative organisms. In milk with Dornic acidity of ≥4°D, such a measurement has a sensitivity of 100% for detecting all the samples with bacterial growth with Gram-negative bacteria of over 105 colony-forming units/mL. Conclusions The correlation between Dornic acidity and bacterial growth in donor milk is weak but positive. The measurement of Dornic acidity could be considered as a simple and economical method to select milk to pasteurize in a human milk bank based in quality and safety criteria. PMID:23373435

  2. Quantum cryptography: Security criteria reexamined

    SciTech Connect

    Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Liang, Y.C.; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Gopinathan, Ajay; Kwek, L.C.

    2004-09-01

    We find that the generally accepted security criteria are flawed for a whole class of protocols for quantum cryptography. This is so because a standard assumption of the security analysis, namely that the so-called square-root measurement is optimal for eavesdropping purposes, is not true in general. There are rather large parameter regimes in which the optimal measurement extracts substantially more information than the square-root measurement.

  3. Position paper: Seismic design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Farnworth, S.K.

    1995-05-22

    The purpose of this paper is to document the seismic design criteria to be used on the Title 11 design of the underground double-shell waste storage tanks and appurtenant facilities of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) project, and to provide the history and methodologies for determining the recommended Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) anchors for site-specific seismic response spectra curves. Response spectra curves for use in design are provided in Appendix A.

  4. Donor KIR B Genotype Improves Progression Free Survival of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Patients Receiving Unrelated Donor Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bachanova, Veronika; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Wang, Tao; Marsh, Steven G.E.; Trachtenberg, Elizabeth; Haagenson, Michael D; Spellman, Stephen R.; Ladner, Martha; Guethlein, Lisbeth A.; Parham, Peter; Miller, Jeffrey S.; Cooley, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Donor killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genotypes associate with relapse protection and survival after allotransplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia. We examined the possibility of a similar effect in a cohort of 614 non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients receiving unrelated donor (URD) T-cell replete marrow or peripheral blood grafts. Sixty four percent (n=396) of donor-recipient pairs were 10/10 allele HLA-matched; 26% were 9/10 allele matched. Seventy percent of donors had KIR B/x genotype; the others had KIR A/A genotype. NHL patients receiving 10/10 HLA-matched URD grafts with KIR B/x donors experienced significantly lower relapse at 5 years (26%; CI 21–32% vs. 37%; CI 27–46%, p=0.05) compared with KIR A/A donors, resulting in improved 5 year progression-free survival (PFS) (35%; CI 26–44% vs. 22%; CI 11–35%; p=0.007). In multivariate analysis, use of KIR B/x donors associated with significantly reduced relapse risk (RR 0.63, p=0.02) and improved PFS (RR 0.71, p=0.008). The relapse protection afforded by KIR B/x donors was not observed in HLA-mismatched transplants, and was not specific to any particular KIR-B gene. Selecting 10/10 HLA-matched and KIR B/x donors should benefit patients with NHL receiving URD allogeneic transplantation. PMID:27220262

  5. Pre-transplant Evaluation of Donor Urinary Biomarkers can Predict Reduced Graft Function After Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Koo, Tai Yeon; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Lee, Yonggu; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Lee, Kyoung-Bun; Lee, Sik; Park, Suk Joo; Park, Jae Berm; Han, Miyeon; Lim, Hye Jin; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2016-03-01

    Several recipient biomarkers are reported to predict graft dysfunction, but these are not useful in decision making for the acceptance or allocation of deceased donor kidneys; thus, it is necessary to develop donor biomarkers predictive of graft dysfunction. To address this issue, we prospectively enrolled 94 deceased donors and their 109 recipients who underwent transplantation between 2010 and 2013 at 4 Korean transplantation centers. We investigated the predictive values of donor urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and L-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) for reduced graft function (RGF). We also developed a prediction model of RGF using these donor biomarkers. RGF was defined as delayed or slow graft function. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to generate a prediction model, which was internally validated using a bootstrapping method. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of biomarkers with 1-year graft function. Notably, donor urinary NGAL levels were associated with donor AKI (P = 0.014), and donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP were predictive for RGF, with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROC) of 0.758 and 0.704 for NGAL and L-FABP, respectively. The best-fit model including donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine conveyed a better predictive value for RGF than donor serum creatinine alone (P = 0.02). In addition, we generated a scoring method to predict RGF based on donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine levels. Diagnostic performance of the RGF prediction score (AUROC 0.808) was significantly better than that of the DGF calculator (AUROC 0.627) and the kidney donor profile index (AUROC 0.606). Donor urinary L-FABP levels were also predictive of 1-year graft function (P = 0.005). Collectively, these findings suggest donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP to be useful biomarkers for RGF, and support the use of

  6. Pre-transplant Evaluation of Donor Urinary Biomarkers can Predict Reduced Graft Function After Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Koo, Tai Yeon; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Lee, Yonggu; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Lee, Kyoung-Bun; Lee, Sik; Park, Suk Joo; Park, Jae Berm; Han, Miyeon; Lim, Hye Jin; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2016-03-01

    Several recipient biomarkers are reported to predict graft dysfunction, but these are not useful in decision making for the acceptance or allocation of deceased donor kidneys; thus, it is necessary to develop donor biomarkers predictive of graft dysfunction. To address this issue, we prospectively enrolled 94 deceased donors and their 109 recipients who underwent transplantation between 2010 and 2013 at 4 Korean transplantation centers. We investigated the predictive values of donor urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and L-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) for reduced graft function (RGF). We also developed a prediction model of RGF using these donor biomarkers. RGF was defined as delayed or slow graft function. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to generate a prediction model, which was internally validated using a bootstrapping method. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of biomarkers with 1-year graft function. Notably, donor urinary NGAL levels were associated with donor AKI (P = 0.014), and donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP were predictive for RGF, with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROC) of 0.758 and 0.704 for NGAL and L-FABP, respectively. The best-fit model including donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine conveyed a better predictive value for RGF than donor serum creatinine alone (P = 0.02). In addition, we generated a scoring method to predict RGF based on donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine levels. Diagnostic performance of the RGF prediction score (AUROC 0.808) was significantly better than that of the DGF calculator (AUROC 0.627) and the kidney donor profile index (AUROC 0.606). Donor urinary L-FABP levels were also predictive of 1-year graft function (P = 0.005). Collectively, these findings suggest donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP to be useful biomarkers for RGF, and support the use of

  7. Pre-transplant Evaluation of Donor Urinary Biomarkers can Predict Reduced Graft Function After Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Tai Yeon; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Lee, Yonggu; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Lee, Kyoung-Bun; Lee, Sik; Park, Suk Joo; Park, Jae Berm; Han, Miyeon; Lim, Hye Jin; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several recipient biomarkers are reported to predict graft dysfunction, but these are not useful in decision making for the acceptance or allocation of deceased donor kidneys; thus, it is necessary to develop donor biomarkers predictive of graft dysfunction. To address this issue, we prospectively enrolled 94 deceased donors and their 109 recipients who underwent transplantation between 2010 and 2013 at 4 Korean transplantation centers. We investigated the predictive values of donor urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and L-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) for reduced graft function (RGF). We also developed a prediction model of RGF using these donor biomarkers. RGF was defined as delayed or slow graft function. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to generate a prediction model, which was internally validated using a bootstrapping method. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of biomarkers with 1-year graft function. Notably, donor urinary NGAL levels were associated with donor AKI (P = 0.014), and donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP were predictive for RGF, with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROC) of 0.758 and 0.704 for NGAL and L-FABP, respectively. The best-fit model including donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine conveyed a better predictive value for RGF than donor serum creatinine alone (P = 0.02). In addition, we generated a scoring method to predict RGF based on donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine levels. Diagnostic performance of the RGF prediction score (AUROC 0.808) was significantly better than that of the DGF calculator (AUROC 0.627) and the kidney donor profile index (AUROC 0.606). Donor urinary L-FABP levels were also predictive of 1-year graft function (P = 0.005). Collectively, these findings suggest donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP to be useful biomarkers for RGF, and support

  8. Stability criteria for complex ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Allesina, Stefano; Tang, Si

    2012-03-01

    Forty years ago, May proved that sufficiently large or complex ecological networks have a probability of persisting that is close to zero, contrary to previous expectations. May analysed large networks in which species interact at random. However, in natural systems pairs of species have well-defined interactions (for example predator-prey, mutualistic or competitive). Here we extend May's results to these relationships and find remarkable differences between predator-prey interactions, which are stabilizing, and mutualistic and competitive interactions, which are destabilizing. We provide analytic stability criteria for all cases. We use the criteria to prove that, counterintuitively, the probability of stability for predator-prey networks decreases when a realistic food web structure is imposed or if there is a large preponderance of weak interactions. Similarly, stability is negatively affected by nestedness in bipartite mutualistic networks. These results are found by separating the contribution of network structure and interaction strengths to stability. Stable predator-prey networks can be arbitrarily large and complex, provided that predator-prey pairs are tightly coupled. The stability criteria are widely applicable, because they hold for any system of differential equations.

  9. Platelet donation drives: a novel initiative to recruit platelet donors.

    PubMed

    Tendulkar, Anita; Shah, Sneha; Patil, Dipali; Tambe, Manisha

    2014-06-01

    The most important strategy to ensure a safe and an adequate supply of blood and blood products is motivation, recruitment, selection and retention of voluntary non remunerated blood donors. With a view of the increased platelet necessity in our oncology setup, the first platelet donation drive in the city and to the best of our knowledge, in India was conducted by our hospital in November 2009. The aim was to identify target groups and expand our donor database. It was also essential that the donor's contribution is acknowledged and appropriately felicitated. A campaign called "Save a Life" was initiated and publicized locally. A core team consisting of Transfusion Medicine specialists, clinicians and an NGO (nongovernment organization) was formed. The best suitable date and venue were finalized for the platelet camp. The audience was addressed and willing donors were registered as volunteer platelet donors with our institute. In a span of 40 months, 15 platelet camps were organized in colleges, social organizations, and corporate offices. A total of 1035 donors were registered out of which, 382 (37%) donated platelets in our hospital. 125/382 (33.2%) donated Single Donor Platelets (SDP) more than once. The largest number of platelet donations by a single camp donor was 24 times. Due to multiple donations from donors, the SDP number was enhanced considerably and lead to addition of 699 SDP units to our inventory. The annual indoor and camp voluntary platelet donor numbers increased from 142 in 2006 to 631 in 2012 due to platelet drives. All platelet donations were altruistic as no incentives were offered to the donors. Ready availability of platelets and planning SDP inventory as per patient blood group requirements had a positive impact on clinical services.

  10. Results from a horizon scan on risks associated with transplantation of human organs, tissues and cells: from donor to patient.

    PubMed

    Herberts, C A; Park, M V D Z; Pot, J W G A; de Vries, C G J C A

    2015-03-01

    The successful transplantation of human materials such as organs, tissues and cells into patients does not only depend on the benefits, but also on the mitigation of risks. To gain insight into recent publications on risks associated with the process of transferring human materials from donor to recipient we performed a horizon scan by reviewing scientific literature and news websites of 2011 on this subject. We found there is ample information on how extended donor criteria, such as donor age, affect the survival rates of organs or patients. Interestingly, gender mismatch does not appear to be a major risk factor in organ rejection. Data on risks of donor tumor transmission was very scarce; however, risk categories for various tumor types have been suggested. In order to avoid rejection, a lot of research is directed towards engineering tissues from a patient's own tissues and cells. Some but not all of these developments have reached the clinic. Developments in the field of stem cell therapy are rapid. However, many hurdles are yet to be overcome before these cells can be applied on a large scale in the clinic. The processes leading to genetic abnormalities in cells differentiated from stem cells need to be identified in order to avoid transplantation of aberrant cells. New insights have been obtained on storage and preservation of human materials, a critical step for success of their clinical use. Likewise, quality management systems have been shown to improve the quality and safety of human materials used for transplantation.

  11. The degree of safety of family replacement donors versus voluntary non-remunerated donors in an Egyptian population: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Messih, Ibrahim Y.; Ismail, Mona A.; Saad, Abeer A.; Azer, Mary R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Screening donated blood for transfusion-transmissible infections is considered an important strategy for maximising the safety of blood transfusions. Materials and methods A total of 17,118 donors, classified into two groups - family replacement donors and voluntary non-remunerated donors - were investigated for hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen and antibodies against hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Treponema pallidum. In addition cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibodies were searched for in 160 donors (80 from each group). All the laboratory tests were done using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results Of the total cohort of donors, 87.7% were family donors and 12.3% were voluntary non-remunerated donors. There was a highly significant difference in age and gender between the two types of donors with voluntary donors being much younger and including a much higher proportion of male donors than female donors. The prevalences of HBV, HCV and CMV IgG were much higher in family donors than in voluntary donors, with the differences being highly statistically significant. There was also a significantly higher prevalence of syphilis among family replacement donors. As regards HIV and CMV IgM, significant differences were not detected between the two groups. Discussion The results of our study clearly showed that the prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections is much higher among family replacement donors than among voluntary donors, and that voluntary donors are the best way of achieving safer blood. PMID:23245714

  12. Donor-Appended N,C-Chelate Organoboron Compounds: Influence of Donor Strength on Photochromic Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mellerup, Soren K; Yuan, Kang; Nguyen, Carmen; Lu, Zheng-Hong; Wang, Suning

    2016-08-22

    Recently, four-coordinated N,C-chelate organoboron compounds have been found to show many interesting photochemical transformations depending on the nature of their chelating framework. As such, the effect of substitution on the chelate ligand has been well-established and understood, but the impact of the aryl groups attached to the boron atom remains less clear. To investigate the effect of enhanced charge-transfer character, a series of new N,C-chelate organoboron compounds with donor-functionalized aryl groups have been synthesized and characterized using NMR, UV/Vis, and electrochemical methods. These compounds were found to possess bright and tunable charge-transfer luminescence which is dependent on the donor strength of the amino substituent. In addition, some of these compounds undergo photochromic switching, producing dark isomers of various colors. This work establishes that donor-functionalization of the aryl groups in N,C-chelate boron compounds is an effective strategy for tuning both the photophysical and photochemical properties of such systems. The new findings also help elucidate the influence of electronic structure on the photoreactivity of N,C-chelate organoboron compounds which appears to be as important as steric crowding around the boron atom.

  13. Crowd Around: Expanding Your Donor Pool with Crowdfunding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrell, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    At most institutions, annual fund-giving is down. Crowdfunding sites allow people with a great idea or worthy cause to bypass traditional funding methods and take their case directly to web-savvy investors and donors. This article describes how higher education institutions are expanding their donor pool through such crowdfunding sites as USEED,…

  14. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  15. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors....

  16. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors....

  17. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  19. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors....

  20. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors....

  1. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors....

  4. Multivalley effective mass theory simulation of donors in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamble, John King; Jacobson, N. Tobias; Nielsen, Erik; Baczewski, Andrew D.; Moussa, Jonathan E.; Montaño, Inès; Muller, Richard P.

    2015-06-01

    Last year, Salfi et al. made the first direct measurements of a donor wave function and found extremely good theoretical agreement with atomistic tight-binding theory results [Salfi et al., Nat. Mater. 13, 605 (2014), 10.1038/nmat3941]. Here, we show that multivalley effective mass theory, applied properly, does achieve close agreement with tight-binding results and hence gives reliable predictions. To demonstrate this, we variationally solve the coupled six-valley Shindo-Nara equations, including silicon's full Bloch functions. Surprisingly, we find that including the full Bloch functions necessitates a tetrahedral, rather than spherical, donor central cell correction to accurately reproduce the experimental energy spectrum of a phosphorus impurity in silicon. We cross-validate this method against atomistic tight-binding calculations, showing that the two theories agree well for the calculation of donor-donor tunnel coupling. Further, we benchmark our results by performing a statistical uncertainty analysis, confirming that derived quantities such as the wave function profile and tunnel couplings are robust with respect to variational energy fluctuations. Finally, we apply this method to exhaustively enumerate the tunnel coupling for all donor-donor configurations within a large search volume, demonstrating conclusively that the tunnel coupling has no spatially stable regions. Although this instability is problematic for reliably coupling donor pairs for two-qubit operations, we identify specific target locations where donor qubits can be placed with scanning tunneling microscopy technology to achieve reliably large tunnel couplings.

  5. Management of the difficult split-thickness donor site.

    PubMed

    Wood, R J; Peltier, G L; Twomey, J A

    1989-01-01

    Split-thickness skin graft donor sites are often areas of significant morbidity in the elderly, in immunocompromised patients, and in steroid-dependent patients. We found that managing these donor sites with split-thickness skin and transparent dressings greatly increases the rate of healing and diminishes morbidity.

  6. Understanding Philanthropic Motivations of Northeast State Community College Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Heather J.

    2012-01-01

    At Northeast State Community College (NeSCC) nearly 70% of students need some form of financial aid to attend. State support is flattening or decreasing and the gap is filled by private donors' support (Northeast State Community College, 2011). Hundreds of donors have made significant contributions to aid in the education of those in the…

  7. Fathers Anonymous: Beyond the Best Interests of the Sperm Donor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annas, George J.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the rationale for the practice of Artificial Insemination Donor (AID) practices, the manner whereby donors are selected, and how records are kept. The importance of developing standards which serve the best interests of the AID child is stressed. (Author/DB)

  8. 21 CFR 640.21 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.21 Section 640.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.21 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  9. 21 CFR 640.21 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.21 Section 640.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.21 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  10. 21 CFR 640.21 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.21 Section 640.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.21 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  11. 21 CFR 640.21 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suitability of donors. 640.21 Section 640.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.21 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  12. 21 CFR 640.21 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.21 Section 640.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.21 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  13. Digging up Classroom Dollars on DonorsChoose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Back in 2000, Charles Best was teaching at Wings Academy, an alternative high school in the Bronx, when he got the idea for a Web site where teachers could solicit donations for class projects. With help from his students, DonorsChoose.org soon was born. Last year, the site won Amazon.com's Nonprofit Innovation Award. So far, DonorsChoose has…

  14. Blood Test May Rule Out Too Many Donor Hearts

    MedlinePlus

    ... finding ways to sign up more people as organ donors, but there is also a problem in that ... based solely on elevated troponin I if the organ is otherwise suitable. At our institution it has already changed how we evaluate donors, and I think this data will lead to ...

  15. Aromatic donor-acceptor interactions in non-polar environments.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Giles M; Pascu, Sofia I; Filip, Sorin V; West, Kevin R; Pantoş, G Dan

    2015-05-14

    We have evaluated the strength of aromatic donor-acceptor interactions between dialkyl naphthalenediimide and dialkoxynaphthalene in non-polar environments. (1)H NMR, UV-vis spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry were used to characterise this interaction. We concluded that the strength of donor-acceptor interactions in heptane is sufficient to drive supramolecular assemblies in this and other aliphatic solvents. PMID:25875729

  16. Psychological screening and the success of donor insemination.

    PubMed

    Schover, L R; Greenhalgh, L F; Richards, S I; Collins, R L

    1994-01-01

    In a previous case series, a psychologist's rating of couples' emotional adjustment and readiness for donor insemination was predictive of pregnancy rates. We attempted to replicate this finding with an extended series of 120 consecutive couples in which each spouse filled out questionnaires when evaluated for donor insemination. The Stress and Infertility Questionnaire measured specific attitudes and anxieties about donor insemination. The Brief Symptom Inventory assessed psychological distress. The Dyadic Adjustment Scale measured marital happiness. A psychologist used these questionnaires to rate the couple's overall adjustment in regard to donor insemination. Those couples rated as distressed had a session of psychological counselling. Outcome was reviewed at a mean of 20 months after evaluation, with categories of pregnancy, continuing donor insemination, failure to begin the programme, or dropped out. For the 120 couples overall, psychological factors did not predict pregnancy outcome. Younger age of the wife did predict higher pregnancy rates.

  17. Blood Donor Locator Service--Social Security Administration. Final rules.

    PubMed

    1991-12-24

    We are issuing these final regulations to govern the Blood Donor Locator Service, which we will establish and conduct, as required by section 8008 of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-647). Under these regulations, we will furnish to participating States at their request the last known personal mailing address (residence or post office box) of blood donors whose blood donation shows that they are or may be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome, if the State or an authorized blood donation facility has been unable to locate the donors. If our records or those of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) contain an adequate personal mailing address for the donor, we will provide it to the State so that the State or the blood donation facility can inform the donor that he or she may need medical care and treatment. PMID:10116070

  18. Successful organ transplantation from donors poisoned with a carbamate insecticide.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J H; Coelho, G R; Marques, G A; Gadelha, J B; Vasconcelos, J B; Valença, J T; Esmeraldo, R M; Meija, J A; Leite, C A; Almeida, E R

    2010-06-01

    Currently, liver transplantation is the only option for patients with end-stage liver disease. In Brazil, the mortality rate on the waiting list is about 25%. Multiple strategies to expand the donor pool are being pursed, however, grafts from poisoned donors are rarely used. This report documents successful liver, kidney and heart transplantations from four female donors who suffered brain death by hypoxia despite cardiopulmonary resuscitation following Aldicarb exposure ([2-methyl-2-(methylthio)propionaldehyde O-(methylcarbamoyl)-oxime]). The success rate of 12 grafts from four donors poisoned by Aldicarb was 91% 6 months after transplantation. Poisoned patients are another pool of organ donors who at present are probably underused by transplantation services. More studies are necessary to confirm the safety for the recipients.

  19. Silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Pacheco, Jose; Perry, Daniel; Wendt, Joel; Manginell, Ronald; Dominguez, Jason; Pluym, Tammy; Luhman, Dwight; Bielejec, Edward; Lilly, Michael; Carroll, Malcolm

    Antimony donor implants next to silicon quantum dots have been detected with integrated solid-state diode detectors with single ion precision. Devices with counted number of donors have been fabricated and low temperature transport measurements have been performed. Charge offsets, indicative of donor ionization and coupling to the quantum dot, have been detected in these devices. The number of offsets corresponds to 10-50% of the number of donors counted. We will report on tunneling time measurements and spin readout measurements on the donor offsets. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. Searching for Enduring Donor Relationships: Evidence for Factors and Strategies in a Donor/Organization Integration Model for Fund Raising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung-Hoon, Tanise L.; Hite, Julie M.; Hite, Steven J.

    2005-01-01

    Higher education relies upon private philanthropy as a significant source of outside revenue, yet competition for donor resources escalates annually. Competency for building enduring donor relationships may positively influence institutional fund-raising outcomes by addressing this problem. Qualitative data are presented examining the utility of…