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Sample records for doped gaas schottky

  1. The influence of a doping profile on the characteristics of an ion-implanted GaAs field-effect transistor with a Schottky barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Shestakov, A. K. Zhuravlev, K. S.

    2011-12-15

    A GaAs field-effect ion-implanted transistor with a Schottky barrier is simulated. The doping profile obtained when doping through an insulator mask is determined and the dependences of the static transistor characteristics on the parameters of the doping profile are calculated and analyzed. The physical processes controlling the transistor characteristics in the case of a variation in the parameters of its doping profile and the coefficient of compensation of the substrate are studied. Based on calculations, the optimal doping-profile parameters ensuring the best characteristics for transistors are predicted.

  2. GaAs High Breakdown Voltage Front and Back Side Processed Schottky Detectors for X-Ray Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    currently available SI GaAs materials. This work deals with the fabrication of SI GaAs wafers with front and back end processing for Schottky and...GaAs High Breakdown Voltage Front and Back Side Processed Schottky Detectors for X-ray Detection by Fred Semendy, Satpal Singh, Mark Litz...originator. Army Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 ARL-TR-4308 November 2007 GaAs High Breakdown Voltage Front and Back

  3. Carbon doping of GaAs NWs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehzadeh Einabad, Omid

    Nanowires (NWs) have been proposed and demonstrated as the building blocks for nanoscale electronic and photonic devices such as NW field effect transistors and NW solar cells which rely on doping and trap-free carrier transport. Controlled doping of NWs and a high degree of structure and morphology control are required for device applications. However, doping of III-V nanowires such as GaAs nanowires has not been reported extensively in the literature. Carbon is a well known p-type dopant in planar GaAs due to its low diffusivity and high solubility in bulk GaAs; however its use as an intentional dopant in NW growth has not yet been investigated. In this work we studied the carbon doping of GaAs nanowires using CBr4 as the dopant source. Gold nanoparticles (NP) at the tip ofthe NWs have been used to drive the NW growth. We show that carbon doping suppresses the migration ofthe gold NPs from the tip of the NWs. In addition, we show that the carbon doping of GaAs NWs is accompanied by an increase of the axial growth rate and decrease of the lateral growth rate ofthe NWs. Carbon-doped GaAs NWs, unlike the undoped ones which are highly tapered, are rod-like. The origin of the observed morphological changes is attributed to the carbon adsorbates on the sidewalls ofthe nanowires which suppress the lateral growth of the nanowires and increase the diffusion length of the gallium adatoms on the sidewalls. Stacking fault formation consisting of alternating regIOns of zincblende and wurtzite structures has been commonly observed in NWs grown along the (111) direction. In this work, based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, we show that carbon doping ofGaAs NWs eliminates the stacking fault formation. Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the effects of carbon doping on the vibrational properties of the carbon-doped GaAs nanowires. Carbon doping shows a strong impact on the intrinsic longitudinal and transverse optical (La and TO) modes of the GaAs

  4. Schottky barrier amorphous silicon solar cell with thin doped region adjacent metal Schottky barrier

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, David E.; Wronski, Christopher R.

    1979-01-01

    A Schottky barrier amorphous silicon solar cell incorporating a thin highly doped p-type region of hydrogenated amorphous silicon disposed between a Schottky barrier high work function metal and the intrinsic region of hydrogenated amorphous silicon wherein said high work function metal and said thin highly doped p-type region forms a surface barrier junction with the intrinsic amorphous silicon layer. The thickness and concentration of p-type dopants in said p-type region are selected so that said p-type region is fully ionized by the Schottky barrier high work function metal. The thin highly doped p-type region has been found to increase the open circuit voltage and current of the photovoltaic device.

  5. Photoluminescence of Mn+ doped GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huiying; Qu, Shengchun; Liao, Shuzhi; Zhang, Fasheng; Liu, Junpeng; Wang, Zhanguo

    2010-10-01

    Photoluminescence is one of the most useful techniques to obtain information about optoelectronic properties and defect structures of materials. In this work, the room-temperature and low temperature photoluminescence of Mn-doped GaAs were investigated, respectively. Mn-doped GaAs structure materials were prepared by Mn+ ion implantation at room temperature into GaAs. The implanted samples were subsequently annealed at various temperatures under N2 atmosphere to recrystallize the samples and remove implant damage. A strong peak was found for the sample annealed at 950 °C for 5 s. Transitions near 0.989 eV (1254 nm), 1.155 eV (1074 nm) and 1.329 eV (933 nm) were identified and formation of these emissions was analyzed for all prepared samples. This structure material could have myriad applications, including information storage, magnet-optical properties and energy level engineering.

  6. Interfacial microstructure of tungsten silicide Schottky contacts to n-type GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Y.; Callegari, A.; Murakami, M.; Wilkie, E.L.; Hovel, H.J.; Parks, C.C.; Childs, K.D.

    1988-08-15

    To investigate the effects of microstructure of the Schottky characteristics of WSi/sub x/ contacts to n-type GaAs, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and secondary-ion mass spectrometry have been used to study the interfacial and bulk film microstructures. The barrier heights and ideality factors of WSi/sub 0.1/ and WSi/sub 0.6/ contacts were obtained by forward current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements. These Schottky characteristics were found to be unrelated to the bulk film microstructure, but closely related to the interfacial microstructure at the WSi/sub x//GaAs interfaces. Both the WSi/sub 0.1//GaAs and WSi/sub 0.6//GaAs interface morphologies were observed to be stable and remain smooth during annealing at 800 /sup 0/C for 10 min, while a rough interface with W protrusions and Ga and As out-diffusion was observed in two-layer W/WSi/sub 0.6/ contacts. The stability of the WSi/sub x/ interfacial microstructure is suggested to depend on both the chemical stability of the WSi/sub x/ films with GaAs and the intervening oxides between WSi/sub x/ and GaAs. Nontrivial amounts of W and Si were observed to diffuse from the WSi/sub 0.1/ film into the GaAs substrate during annealing at 800 /sup 0/C for 10 min. Although these in-diffused impurities in the GaAs substrate do not seem to affect the Schottky characteristics after the 800 /sup 0/C annealing, they could be a potential problem in long-term stability. Of the three WSi/sub x/ film compositions, the single-layer WSi/sub 0.6/ films were found to have the least W and Si in-diffusion and thus the best thermal stability.

  7. Circuit Compatible Model for Electrostatic Doped Schottky Barrier CNTFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Amandeep; Khosla, Mamta; Raj, Balwinder

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes a circuit compatible model for electrostatic doped Schottky barrier carbon nanotube field effect transistor (ED-SBCNTFET). The proposed model is an extension of the Schottky barrier carbon nanotube field effect transistor (SBCNTFET) to ED-SBCNTFET by adding polarity gates, which are used to create electrostatic doping. In ED-SBCNTFET, electrostatic doping is responsible for a fermi level shift of source and drain regions. A mathematical relation has been developed between fermi level shift and polarity gate bias. Both current-voltage ( I- V) and capacitance-voltage ( C- V) characteristics have been efficiently modeled. The results are compared with the reported semi-classical model and simulations from NanoTCAD ViDES for validation. The proposed model is much faster than numerical models as it denies self consistent equations. Finally, circuit application is demonstrated by simulating inverter using the proposed model in HSPICE.

  8. GaAs detectors with an ultra-thin Schottky contact for spectrometry of charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernykh, S. V.; Chernykh, A. V.; Didenko, S. I.; Baryshnikov, F. M.; Burtebayev, N.; Britvich, G. I.; Chubenko, A. P.; Guly, V. G.; Glybin, Yu. N.; Zholdybayev, T. K.; Burtebayeva, J. T.; Nassurlla, M.

    2017-02-01

    For the first time, samples of particle detectors based on high-purity GaAs epilayers with an active area of 25 and 80 mm2 and an ultra-thin Pt Schottky barrier were fabricated for use in the spectrometry of charged particles and their operating characteristics were studied. The obtained FWHM of 14.2 (for 25 mm2 detector) and 15.5 keV (for 80 mm2 detector) on the 5.499 MeV line of 238Pu is at the level of silicon spectrometric detectors. It was found that the main component that determines the energy resolution of the detector is a fluctuation in the number of collected electron-hole pairs. This allows us to state that the obtained energy resolution is close to the limit for VPE GaAs.

  9. Drain current drift by holes trapped in Schottky contact in WSi gate GaAs MESFeTs

    SciTech Connect

    Shiga, T.; Hattori, R.; Kunii, T.

    1995-12-31

    Hysteretic drain current (Id) drift phenomena observed in the high power operation of WSi gate GaAs MESFETs were studied. The existence of a thin insulating layer at WSi/GaAs interface originated by the native oxide on GaAs surface was revealed by XPS and X-ray reflection. Id drift phenomena can be explained as the effect of holes being trapped in the insulating layer at the WSi/GaAs Schottky contact interface.

  10. GaAs MESFET with lateral non-uniform doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y. C.; Bahrami, M.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical model of the GaAs MESFET with arbitrary non-uniform doping is presented. Numerical results for linear lateral doping profile are given as a special case. Theoretical considerations predict that better device linearity and improved F(T) can be obtained by using linear lateral doping when doping density increases from source to drain.

  11. Large area, low capacitance, GaAs nanowire photodetector with a transparent Schottky collecting junction

    SciTech Connect

    Seyedi, M. A. Yao, M.; O'Brien, J.; Dapkus, P. D.; Wang, S. Y.

    2013-12-16

    We present experimental results on a GaAs/Indium-Tin-Oxide Schottky-like heterojunction photodetector based on a nanowire device geometry. By distributing the active detecting area over an array of nanowires, it is possible to achieve large area detection with low capacitance. Devices with bare GaAs and passivated AlGaAs/GaAs nanowires are fabricated to compare the responsivity with and without surface passivation. We are able to achieve responsivity of >0.5A/W and Signal-Noise-Ratio in excess of 7 dB for 2 V applied reverse bias with passivated nanowire devices. Capacitance-voltage measurement yields <5 nF/cm{sup 2}, which shows a strong possibility for high-speed applications with a broad area device.

  12. Hole Injection from Schottky Gate in Ion-Implanted GaAs Integrated Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulman, Dima D.; Young, Lawrence

    1992-05-01

    Measurements of currents for a GaAs metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MESFET) when a negative bias was applied to a nearby ohmic contact (sidegate) showed that significant hole injection from the gate occurs for large negative sidegate voltages. This is in agreement with a proposed model, in which the presence of an inversion layer under the Schottky gate due to the pinning of the Fermi level at the channel surface causes hole injection into the channel when the gate is positively biased with respect to the sidegate. Upon increasing negative sidegate voltage the substrate-channel depletion region is expanded, and consequently, the neutral region of the channel is shrunk. This results in more holes being injected into the substrate from the gate.

  13. DC- and IF-noise performance optimization of GaAs Schottky diodes for THz applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cojocari, O.; Biber, S.; Mottet, B.; Rodriguez-Girones, M.; Hartnagel, H. L.; Schmidt, L.-P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents results which originated from a long-term systematic optimization of surface processing prior to anode formation of THz Schottky-based components. Particularly, four most promising surface-processing approaches are carefully investigated separately and in combination in order to understand the chemical and physical processes occurring on a GaAs surface. A reliable technological approach for anode formation is identified, which exhibits optimal diode characteristics and production repeatability. A model is proposed for the influence of each process on the subsequent one in the fabrication process sequence. DC- and IF-noise measurements are performed using an automated measurement system providing statistically significant data. Very good dc-parameters such as a series resistance of Rs = 15 Ω, an ideality factor N = 1.168, a reverse current Is = 0.024 fA and an IF-noise temperature of 257 K at 1 mA current bias with a good uniformity are achieved for non-cooled Schottky diodes with an anode diameter of 1 µm. The best noise figure is measured to be as low as 220 K at 3.8 GHz and 1 mA current bias.

  14. Interface states of Ag/(110)GaAs Schottky diodes without and with interfacial layers

    SciTech Connect

    Platen, W.; Schmutzler, H.; Kohl, D.; Brauchle, K.; Wolter, K.

    1988-07-01

    GaAs(110) faces with different preparations: ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) cleaved, polished and etched, polished and sputtered: are prepared as Schottky diodes by the deposition of Ag. Diodes based on UHV-cleaved faces do show homogeneously distributed EL2 and EL5 states in deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). On polished and etched samples an additional interface state (IS) distribution with a density of 9 x 10/sup 11/ eV/sup -1/ cm/sup -2/ at the DLTS maximum appears. These states can be caused by defects at the oxidic interfacial layer. Polishing and sputtering also evokes the IS distribution. The absence of a DLTS signal from metal-induced gap states (MIGS) which pin the Fermi level at 0.49 eV above the valence-band maximum is related to the absence of an interfacial layer in the UHV prepared Schottky diodes. The sputter process increases the electron density in a thin layer below the interface by an As excess. The corresponding smaller extent of the barrier causes an additional electron emission via tunneling processes from the IS distribution. Furthermore, a near-interface state, EL6 (V/sub Ga/-V/sub As/), shows up. Its concentration at the interface attains N/sub EL6/ = 2.5 x 10/sup 16/ cm/sup -3/ comparable to the shallow donor concentration.

  15. Amorphous silicon Schottky barrier solar cells incorporating a thin insulating layer and a thin doped layer

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, David E.

    1980-01-01

    Amorphous silicon Schottky barrier solar cells which incorporate a thin insulating layer and a thin doped layer adjacent to the junction forming metal layer exhibit increased open circuit voltages compared to standard rectifying junction metal devices, i.e., Schottky barrier devices, and rectifying junction metal insulating silicon devices, i.e., MIS devices.

  16. Doping-Spike PtSi Schottky Infrared Detectors with Extended Cutoff Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. L.; Park, J. S.; Gunapala, S. D.; Jones, E. W.; Castillo, H. M. Del

    1994-01-01

    A technique incorporating a p+ doping spike at the silicide/Si interface to reduce the effective Schottky barrier of the silicide infrared detectors and thus extend the cutoff wavelength has been developed.

  17. Transport and performance of a zero-Schottky barrier and doped contacts graphene nanoribbon transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Khairul

    2009-01-01

    The transport physics and performance of a top gate graphene nanoribbon (GNR) on an insulator transistor are studied for both the MOSFET like doped source-drain and the zero-Schottky barrier source-drain contacts. A voltage controlled tunnel barrier is the device transport physics. The doped source-drain contact device has a higher gate capacitance, higher transconductance, higher on/off current ratio and higher on-state current. The higher on-state current results in a lower switching delay of 17 fs, and the higher transconductance results in a higher intrinsic cut-off frequency of 27 THz in the doped source-drain contact device. The gate voltage, beyond the source-channel flat band condition, modulates both the tunnel and the thermal barrier in the doped source-drain contact devices and the tunnel barrier only in the Schottky contact devices. This limits the on-state current of Schottky contact devices.

  18. Dependence of barrier height on energy gap in Au n-type GaAs/1-x/P/x/ Schottky diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    Data are presented which show that the Schottky barrier height for gold on the ternary compound GaAs(1-x)P(x) follows the commonly assumed two-thirds of the band gap relationship. An explanation is given for the reason that previously published data did not exhibit this behavior.

  19. Evaluation of GaAs Schottky gate bipolar transistor (SGBT) by electrothermal simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossin, M.; Johnson, C. M.; Wright, N. G.; O'Neill, A. G.

    2000-01-01

    A GaAs alternative to the Si IGBT, employing an implanted lateral channel in place of the usual MOSFET inversion channel, is proposed. A simplified analytical model shows that the relatively high ratio of electron to hole mobility in GaAs allows much lower anode emitter injection efficiencies to be used without compromising conductivity modulation of the base region. This, in turn, means that a higher proportion of the total device current is carried by electrons. Design strategies for the GaAs SGBT are investigated and applied in the design of an optimised unit cell. The optimised structure is compared with an equivalent Si IGBT structure by means of electrothermal and transient simulation. Electrothermal simulation shows the GaAs device to have useable performance at junction temperatures in excess of 300°C, a feature which is consistent with the wide band-gap of GaAs. Transient simulations show reduced minority carrier tailing effects at both turn-on and turn-off, with initial turn-off tail currents being reduced by a factor of 5 compared to the Si IGBT. The resulting reduction in turn-off loss allows switching frequencies to be increased by a factor of 4 for the same total losses. The excellent switching performance derives from the relatively low proportion of hole current needed to ensure effective conductivity modulation of the structure.

  20. GaAs Schottky barrier photo-responsive device and method of fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alcorn, G. E.; Leinkram, C. Z.; Okunola, O. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A gallium arsenide photo-responsive device is provided with an intermediate, transparent layer of a refractory metal or alkaline earth metal forming a tenacious bond between a non-hydroscopic oxide layer and a noble metal Schottky barrier layer. The device has a gallium arsenide substrate with a predetermined type conductivity and a gallium arsenide epitaxial layer with the same type conductivity but a lower charge carrier concentration grown on the substrate. The oxide layer is formed to cover the epitaxial layer, and the transparent metal layer followed by the noble metal layer are deposited upon the oxide layer. An interdigitated ohmic contact is then formed upon the noble metal layer.

  1. Optimum doping achieves high quantum yields in GaAs photoemitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenberg, H.

    1971-01-01

    Experimental data indicate that optimum doping exists. Measured quantum yield curves indicate optimum overall response is obtained in GaAs emitters with doping in high 10 to the 18th power per cu cm range. Doping for optimum response is not necessarily in this range.

  2. Doping incorporation paths in catalyst-free Be-doped GaAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casadei, Alberto; Krogstrup, Peter; Heiss, Martin; Röhr, Jason A.; Colombo, Carlo; Ruelle, Thibaud; Upadhyay, Shivendra; Sørensen, Claus B.; Nygârd, Jesper; Fontcuberta i Morral, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The incorporation paths of Be in GaAs nanowires grown by the Ga-assisted method in molecular beam epitaxy have been investigated by electrical measurements of nanowires with different doping profiles. We find that Be atoms incorporate preferentially via the nanowire side facets, while the incorporation path through the Ga droplet is negligible. We also show that Be can diffuse into the volume of the nanowire giving an alternative incorporation path. This work is an important step towards controlled doping of nanowires and will serve as a help for designing future devices based on nanowires.

  3. Doping incorporation paths in catalyst-free Be-doped GaAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Casadei, Alberto; Heiss, Martin; Colombo, Carlo; Ruelle, Thibaud; Fontcuberta i Morral, Anna; Krogstrup, Peter; Roehr, Jason A.; Upadhyay, Shivendra; Sorensen, Claus B.; Nygard, Jesper

    2013-01-07

    The incorporation paths of Be in GaAs nanowires grown by the Ga-assisted method in molecular beam epitaxy have been investigated by electrical measurements of nanowires with different doping profiles. We find that Be atoms incorporate preferentially via the nanowire side facets, while the incorporation path through the Ga droplet is negligible. We also show that Be can diffuse into the volume of the nanowire giving an alternative incorporation path. This work is an important step towards controlled doping of nanowires and will serve as a help for designing future devices based on nanowires.

  4. Effect of Ion Sputtering on Interface Chemistry and Electrical Properties of an Gaas (100) Schottky Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y. X.; Holloway, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    Auger and electron photoelectron spectroscopy were used to measure the extent of As depletion during 1 keV to 5 keV argon sputtering of GaAs surfaces. This depletion was correlated with a general decrease in the barrier height of the rectifying Au contact deposited in situ. However, nondestructive angle resolved XPS measurements showed As was depleted at the outer surface more by 1 keV than 3 keV argon. These effects are explained based on a combined work effective work function model and creation of a donor like surface damage layer. The donor layer was correlated with As depletion by sputtering. Deep level trap formation and annealing of sputtering effects were studied.

  5. Spectrally dependent photovoltages in Schottky photodiode based on (100) B-doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Čermák, Jan Rezek, Bohuslav; Koide, Yasuo; Takeuchi, Daisuke

    2014-02-07

    Spectrally and spatially resolved photovoltages were measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) on a Schottky photo-diode made of a 4 nm thin tungsten-carbide (WC) layer on a 500 nm oxygen-terminated boron-doped diamond epitaxial layer (O-BDD) that was grown on a Ib (100) diamond substrate. The diode was grounded by the sideways ohmic contact (Ti/WC), and the semitransparent Schottky contact was let unconnected. The electrical potentials across the device were measured in dark (only 650 nm LED of KPFM being on), under broad-band white light (halogen lamp), UV (365 nm diode), and deep ultraviolet (deuterium lamp) illumination. Illumination induced shift of the electrical potential remains within 210 mV. We propose that the photovoltage actually corresponds to a shift of Fermi level inside the BDD channel and thereby explains orders of magnitude changes in photocurrent.

  6. Multiple Schottky Barrier-Limited Field-Effect Transistors on a Single Silicon Nanowire with an Intrinsic Doping Gradient.

    PubMed

    Barreda, Jorge L; Keiper, Timothy D; Zhang, Mei; Xiong, Peng

    2017-04-05

    In comparison to conventional (channel-limited) field-effect transistors (FETs), Schottky barrier-limited FETs possess some unique characteristics which make them attractive candidates for some electronic and sensing applications. Consequently, modulation of the nano Schottky barrier at a metal-semiconductor interface promises higher performance for chemical and biomolecular sensor applications when compared to conventional FETs with ohmic contacts. However, the fabrication and optimization of devices with a combination of ideal ohmic and Schottky contacts as the source and drain, respectively, present many challenges. We address this issue by utilizing Si nanowires (NWs) synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition process which yields a pronounced doping gradient along the length of the NWs. Devices with a series of metal contacts on a single Si NW are fabricated in a single lithography and metallization process. The graded doping profile of the NW is manifested in monotonic increases in the channel and junction resistances and variation of the nature of the contacts from ohmic to Schottky of increasing effective barrier height along the NW. Hence multiple single Schottky junction-limited FETs with extreme asymmetry and high reproducibility are obtained on an individual NW. A definitive correlation between increasing Schottky barrier height and enhanced gate modulation is revealed. Having access to systematically varying Schottky barrier contacts on the same NW device provides an ideal platform for identifying optimal device characteristics for sensing and electronic applications.

  7. A novel ultra steep dynamically reconfigurable electrostatically doped silicon nanowire Schottky Barrier FET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sangeeta; Sinha, Ruchir; Kondekar, P. N.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an ultra steep, symmetric and dynamically configurable, electrostatically doped silicon nanowire Schottky FET (E-SiNW-SB-FET) based on dopant-free technology is investigated. It achieves the ultra steep sub-threshold slope (SS) due to the cumulative effect of weak impact-ionization induced positive feedback and electrostatic modulation of Schottky barrier heights at both source and drain terminals. It consists of axial nanowire heterostructure (silicide-intrinsic silicon-silicide) with three independent all-around gates, two gates are polarity control gates for dynamically reconfiguring the device polarity by modulating the effective Schottky barrier heights and a control gate switches the device ON and OFF. The most interesting features of the proposed structure are simplified fabrication process as the state-of-the-art for ion implantation and high thermal budget no more required for annealing. It is highly immune to process variations, doping control issues and random dopant fluctuations (RDF) and there are no mobility degradation issues related to high doping. A calibrated 3-D TCAD simulation results exhibit the SS of 2 mV/dec for n-type E-SiNW-SB-FET and 9 mV/dec for p-type E-SiNW-SB-FET for about five decades of current. Further, it resolves all the reliability related issues of IMOS as hot electron effects are no more limiting our device performance. It offers significant drive current of the order of 10-5-10-4 A and magnificently high ION/IOFF ratio of ∼108 along with the inherent advantages of symmetric device structure for its circuit realization.

  8. Design Considerations for Heavily-Doped Cryogenic Schottky Diode Varactor Multipliers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlecht, E.; Maiwald, F.; Chattopadhyay, G.; Martin, S.; Mehdi, I.

    2001-01-01

    Diode modeling for Schottky varactor frequency multipliers above 500 GHz is presented with special emphasis placed on simple models and fitted equations for rapid circuit design. Temperature- and doping-dependent mobility, resistivity, and avalanche current multiplication and breakdown are presented. Next is a discussion of static junction current, including the effects of tunneling as well as thermionic emission. These results have been compared to detailed measurements made down to 80 K on diodes fabricated at JPL, followed by a discussion of the effect on multiplier efficiency. Finally, a simple model of current saturation in the undepleted active layer suitable for inclusion in harmonic balance simulators is derived.

  9. n-Type Doping of Vapor-Liquid-Solid Grown GaAs Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Gutsche, Christoph; Lysov, Andrey; Regolin, Ingo; Blekker, Kai; Prost, Werner; Tegude, Franz-Josef

    2011-12-01

    In this letter, n-type doping of GaAs nanowires grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy in the vapor-liquid-solid growth mode on (111)B GaAs substrates is reported. A low growth temperature of 400°C is adjusted in order to exclude shell growth. The impact of doping precursors on the morphology of GaAs nanowires was investigated. Tetraethyl tin as doping precursor enables heavily n-type doped GaAs nanowires in a relatively small process window while no doping effect could be found for ditertiarybutylsilane. Electrical measurements carried out on single nanowires reveal an axially non-uniform doping profile. Within a number of wires from the same run, the donor concentrations ND of GaAs nanowires are found to vary from 7 × 10(17) cm(-3) to 2 × 10(18) cm(-3). The n-type conductivity is proven by the transfer characteristics of fabricated nanowire metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor devices.

  10. Microscopic identification of native donor Ga-vacancy complexes in Te-doped GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebauer, J.; Lausmann, M.; Staab, T. E. M.; Krause-Rehberg, R.; Hakala, M.; Puska, M. J.

    1999-07-01

    Native vacancies in Te-doped (5×1016-5×1018 cm-3) GaAs were investigated by means of positron lifetime and Doppler-broadening coincidence spectroscopy. The experimental data were related to theoretical calculations of the positron lifetime and the annihilation momentum distribution. Monovacancies were observed in all Te-doped GaAs samples under study. It will be shown that they can directly be identified to be Ga-vacancy-TeAs-donor complexes. These complexes are the dominating type of vacancy defects in the doping range under observation.

  11. Dopant mapping of Be δ-doped layers in GaAs tailored by counterdoping using scanning tunneling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Ph.; Landrock, S.; Chiu, Y. P.; Breuer, U.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.

    2012-11-01

    The effect of counterdoping on the Be dopant distribution in delta (δ)-doped layers embedded in Si-doped and intrinsic GaAs is investigated by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy. δ-doped layers in intrinsic GaAs exhibit a large spreading, whereas those surrounded by Si-doped GaAs remain spatially localized. The different spreading is explained by the Fermi-level pinning at the growth surface, which leads to an increased Ga vacancies concentration with increasing Si counterdoping. The Ga vacancies act as sinks for the diffusing Be dopant atoms, hence retarding the spreading.

  12. Determination of the charge carrier compensation mechanism in Te-doped GaAs by scanning tunneling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebauer, J.; Weber, E. R.; Jäger, N. D.; Urban, K.; Ebert, Ph.

    2003-03-01

    We identified the charge carrier compensation mechanism in Te-doped GaAs with atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy. Three types of defects were found: tellurium donors (TeAs), Ga vacancies (VGa), and Ga vacancy-donor complexes (VGa-TeAs). We show quantitatively that the compensation in Te-doped bulk GaAs is exclusively caused by vacancy-donor complexes in contrast to Si-doped GaAs. This is explained with the Fermi-level effect as the universal mechanism leading to Ga vacancy formation in n-doped GaAs, and a Coulomb interaction leading to the formation of the complexes. The quantification of the carrier compensation yields a -3e charge state of VGa in bulk GaAs.

  13. Te-doping of self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Suomalainen, S. Hakkarainen, T. V.; Salminen, T.; Koskinen, R.; Guina, Mircea; Honkanen, M.; Luna, E.

    2015-07-06

    Tellurium (Te)-doping of self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires (NWs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy is reported. The effect of Te-doping on the morphological and crystal structure of the NWs is investigated by scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The study reveals that the lateral growth rate increases and axial growth rate decreases with increasing Te doping level. The changes in the NW morphology can be reverted to some extent by changing the growth temperature. At high doping levels, formation of twinning superlattice is observed alongside with the (111)-facetted sidewalls. Finally, the incorporation of Te is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy.

  14. An Integrated 520-600 GHz Sub-Harmonic Mixer and Tripler Combination Based on GaAs MMIC Membrane Planar Schottky Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, B.; Gill, J.; Maestrini, A.; Lee, C.; Lin, R.; Sin, S.; Peralta, A.; Mehdi, I.

    2011-01-01

    We present here the design, development and test of an integrated sub-millimeter front-end featuring a 520-600 GHz sub-harmonic mixer and a 260-300 GHz frequency tripler in a single cavity. Both devices used GaAs MMIC membrane planar Schottky diode technology. The sub-harmonic mixer/tripler circuit has been tested using conventional machined as well as silicon micro-machined blocks. Measurement results on the metal block give best DSB mixer noise temperature of 2360 K and conversion losses of 7.7 dB at 520 GHz. Preliminary results on the silicon micro-machined blocks give a DSB mixer noise temperature of 4860 K and conversion losses of 12.16 dB at 540 GHz. The LO input power required to pump the integrated tripler/sub-harmonic mixer for both packages is between 30 and 50 mW

  15. An Integrated 520-600 GHz Sub-Harmonic Mixer and Tripler Combination Based on GaAs MMIC Membrane Planar Schottky Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, B.; Gill, J.; Maestrini, A.; Lee, C.; Lin, R.; Sin, S.; Peralta, A.; Mehdi, I.

    2010-01-01

    We present here the design, development and test of an integrated sub-millimeter front-end featuring a 520-600 GHz sub-harmonic mixer and a 260-300 GHz frequency tripler in a single cavity. Both devices used GaAs MMIC membrane planar Schottky diode technology. The sub-harmonic mixer/tripler circuit has been tested using conventional machined as well as silicon micro-machined blocks. Measurement results on the metal block give best DSB mixer noise temperature of 2360 K and conversion losses of 7.7 dB at 520 GHz. Preliminary results on the silicon micro-machined blocks give a DSB mixer noise temperature of 4860 K and conversion losses of 12.16 dB at 540 GHz. The LO input power required to pump the integrated tripler/sub-harmonic mixer for both packages is between 30 and 50 mW.

  16. Towards low-dimensional hole systems in Be-doped GaAs nanowires.

    PubMed

    Ullah, A R; Gluschke, J G; Krogstrup, P; Sørensen, C B; Nygård, J; Micolich, A P

    2017-03-01

    GaAs was central to the development of quantum devices but is rarely used for nanowire-based quantum devices with InAs, InSb and SiGe instead taking the leading role. p-type GaAs nanowires offer a path to studying strongly confined 0D and 1D hole systems with strong spin-orbit effects, motivating our development of nanowire transistors featuring Be-doped p-type GaAs nanowires, AuBe alloy contacts and patterned local gate electrodes towards making nanowire-based quantum hole devices. We report on nanowire transistors with traditional substrate back-gates and EBL-defined metal/oxide top-gates produced using GaAs nanowires with three different Be-doping densities and various AuBe contact processing recipes. We show that contact annealing only brings small improvements for the moderately doped devices under conditions of lower anneal temperature and short anneal time. We only obtain good transistor performance for moderate doping, with conduction freezing out at low temperature for lowly doped nanowires and inability to reach a clear off-state under gating for the highly doped nanowires. Our best devices give on-state conductivity 95 nS, off-state conductivity 2 pS, on-off ratio [Formula: see text], and sub-threshold slope 50 mV/dec at [Formula: see text] K. Lastly, we made a device featuring a moderately doped nanowire with annealed contacts and multiple top-gates. Top-gate sweeps show a plateau in the sub-threshold region that is reproducible in separate cool-downs and indicative of possible conductance quantisation highlighting the potential for future quantum device studies in this material system.

  17. Towards low-dimensional hole systems in Be-doped GaAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, A. R.; Gluschke, J. G.; Krogstrup, P.; Sørensen, C. B.; Nygård, J.; Micolich, A. P.

    2017-03-01

    GaAs was central to the development of quantum devices but is rarely used for nanowire-based quantum devices with InAs, InSb and SiGe instead taking the leading role. p-type GaAs nanowires offer a path to studying strongly confined 0D and 1D hole systems with strong spin–orbit effects, motivating our development of nanowire transistors featuring Be-doped p-type GaAs nanowires, AuBe alloy contacts and patterned local gate electrodes towards making nanowire-based quantum hole devices. We report on nanowire transistors with traditional substrate back-gates and EBL-defined metal/oxide top-gates produced using GaAs nanowires with three different Be-doping densities and various AuBe contact processing recipes. We show that contact annealing only brings small improvements for the moderately doped devices under conditions of lower anneal temperature and short anneal time. We only obtain good transistor performance for moderate doping, with conduction freezing out at low temperature for lowly doped nanowires and inability to reach a clear off-state under gating for the highly doped nanowires. Our best devices give on-state conductivity 95 nS, off-state conductivity 2 pS, on-off ratio ∼ {10}4, and sub-threshold slope 50 mV/dec at T=4 K. Lastly, we made a device featuring a moderately doped nanowire with annealed contacts and multiple top-gates. Top-gate sweeps show a plateau in the sub-threshold region that is reproducible in separate cool-downs and indicative of possible conductance quantisation highlighting the potential for future quantum device studies in this material system.

  18. Diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GGG laser with a Bi-doped GaAs semiconductor saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Wen; Li, Dechun; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Li, Xiangyang; Qiao, Hui; Liu, Ji

    2014-12-01

    Passive Q-switching of a diode-pumped Nd:GGG laser is demonstrated using Bi-doped GaAs as saturable absorber. The Bi-doped GaAs wafer is fabricated by ion implantation and subsequent annealing. Compared with the Q-switched laser by undoped GaAs semiconductor saturable absorber, the laser with Bi-doped GaAs as saturable absorber can produce higher output power, shorter pulses, higher single pulse energies and higher peak powers. These results suggest that Bi-doped GaAs can be a promising new candidate of semiconductor saturable absorber in Q-switched laser.

  19. Passively Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:GGG laser with a Bi-doped GaAs saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wen; Li, Dechun; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Li, Xiangyang; Qiao, Hui; Liu, Ji

    2014-06-16

    A simultaneously passively Q-switched and mode-locked (QML) Nd:GGG laser using a Bi-doped GaAs wafer as saturable absorber is accomplished for the first time. The Bi-doped GaAs wafer is fabricated by ion implantation and subsequent annealing. In comparison to the passively QML laser with GaAs, the QML laser with Bi-doped GaAs can generate more stable pulses with 99% modulation depth. The experiment results indicate that the Bi-doped GaAs could be an excellent saturable absorber for diode-pumped QML lasers.

  20. Increased Photoconductivity Lifetime in GaAs Nanowires by Controlled n-Type and p-Type Doping.

    PubMed

    Boland, Jessica L; Casadei, Alberto; Tütüncüoglu, Gözde; Matteini, Federico; Davies, Christopher L; Jabeen, Fauzia; Joyce, Hannah J; Herz, Laura M; Fontcuberta I Morral, Anna; Johnston, Michael B

    2016-04-26

    Controlled doping of GaAs nanowires is crucial for the development of nanowire-based electronic and optoelectronic devices. Here, we present a noncontact method based on time-resolved terahertz photoconductivity for assessing n- and p-type doping efficiency in nanowires. Using this technique, we measure extrinsic electron and hole concentrations in excess of 10(18) cm(-3) for GaAs nanowires with n-type and p-type doped shells. Furthermore, we show that controlled doping can significantly increase the photoconductivity lifetime of GaAs nanowires by over an order of magnitude: from 0.13 ns in undoped nanowires to 3.8 and 2.5 ns in n-doped and p-doped nanowires, respectively. Thus, controlled doping can be used to reduce the effects of parasitic surface recombination in optoelectronic nanowire devices, which is promising for nanowire devices, such as solar cells and nanowire lasers.

  1. Heterodimensional Schottky contacts to modulation-doped heterojunction with application to photodetection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddik, Amro Anwar

    The growing technological demand for high speed and compact integrated electronics and Optics is a pressing challenge. Speed and compactness necessitate low power consumption semiconductors with high transport mobility carriers, with potential of ultra large-scale integration of electronic and Optoelectronics circuitry. One avenue to fulfill these requirements is to utilize reduced dimensionality where carriers are spatially confined to less than three-dimensions, causing their energy levels to become quantized and their transport favorably affected. With recent progress in semiconductor growth and processing technologies low dimensionality has become practically realizable, this makes the study of contact properties to these systems increasingly important. In this work we study the contact between a low- dimensional semiconductor structure and a three- dimensional metal and the application of such a contact in photodetection. We theoretically derive the thermionic emission current for Schottky contact to two-dimensional and one-dimensional structures. The derivation underscores the discrete nature of low-dimensional structures and shows that the thermionic emission current is reduced by a factor exponentially proportional to the first quantized energy level. We also propose and formulate, for the first time, a physical phenomenon in two-dimensional structures created by modulation doping of a heterojunction, which is the effect of the cloud of electrons in the small bandgap material on the thermionic emission current. We have named this the electron- electron cloud effect; we show that this interaction increases the effective Schottky barrier height in a fashion counter to the image force lowering mechanism. In order to realize Schottky contact to low-dimensional structures, we have fabricated a novel Heterojunction Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (HMSM) photodetector. Experimental characterization and the general trends of the behavior of the HMSM devices are presented

  2. Carbon doping in GaAs grown by MOVPE with trimethylgallium and triethylarsenic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Kangsa; Ashizuka, Kazuaki; Fukazawa, Hidetaka; Yamashita, Seiji; Takano, Yasushi; Yonezu, Hiroo

    1990-12-01

    Heavily carbon doped GaAs epitaxial layers were grown by low-pressure MOVPE using TMGa and TEAs as the source materials. GaAs epitaxial layers with hole concentrations up to 2.4×10 20 cm -3 were obtained. The hole concentrations of the films increased as the growth temperature (500-600°C) and/or the growth pressure (10-100 Torr) decreased, and were less dependent on V/III molar ratio (10-30). The uniform incorporation of carbon atoms during the growth was confirmed from SIMS measurements.

  3. Electric field breakdown of lateral-type Schottky diodes formed on lightly doped homoepitaxial diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teraji, Tokuyuki; Koizumi, Satoshi; Koide, Yasuo; Ito, Toshimichi

    2008-07-01

    The reverse current of lateral-type Schottky diodes fabricated on p-type homoepitaxial diamond was analyzed by changing the distance between Schottky and Ohmic electrodes and the metal materials in the Schottky electrodes. The maximum electric field at breakdown was 0.56 MV cm -1 for the Au Schottky contact and less than 0.26 MV cm -1 for the Al Schottky contact. The breakdown voltage depended on the electrode distance when the diamond surface was revealed in vacuum, whereas the Schottky diodes sustained the applied voltage of 500 V, corresponding to 0.69 MV cm -1, after covering of the diamond surface with an insulating liquid. Diamond surface protection is an indispensable technique for fabrication of high-voltage Schottky diodes based on diamond.

  4. Theoretical Investigation of Large-Signal Noise in Nanometric Schottky-Barrier Diodes Operating in External Resonant Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiktorov, P.; Starikov, E.; Gružinskis, V.; Varani, L.; Vaissière, J. C.; Reggiani, L.; Pérez, S.; González, T.

    2005-02-01

    We report Monte Carlo simulations of electronic noise in heavily doped nanometric GaAs Schottky-barrier diodes operating in series with a parallel resonant circuit when a high-frequency large-signal voltage is applied to the whole system. Significant modifications of the noise spectrum with respect to the unloaded diode are found to occur in the THz-region.

  5. Doping concentration dependence of the photoluminescence spectra of n-type GaAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arab, Shermin; Yao, Maoqing; Zhou, Chongwu; Daniel Dapkus, P.; Cronin, Stephen B.

    2016-05-01

    In this letter, the photoluminescence spectra of n-type doped GaAs nanowires, grown by the metal organic chemical vapor deposition method, are measured at 4 K and 77 K. Our measurements indicate that an increase in carrier concentration leads to an increase in the complexity of the doping mechanism, which we attribute to the formation of different recombination centers. At high carrier concentrations, we observe a blueshift of the effective band gap energies by up to 25 meV due to the Burstein-Moss shift. Based on the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the photoluminescence peaks, we estimate the carrier concentrations for these nanowires, which varies from 6 × 1017 cm-3 (lightly doped), to 1.5 × 1018 cm-3 (moderately doped), to 3.5 × 1018 cm-3 (heavily doped) as the partial pressure of the disilane is varied from 0.01 sccm to 1 sccm during the growth process. We find that the growth temperature variation does not affect the radiative recombination mechanism; however, it does lead to a slight enhancement in the optical emission intensities. For GaAs nanowire arrays measured at room temperature, we observe the same general dependence of band gap, FWHM, and carrier concentration on doping.

  6. Optical and Surface Characteristics of Mg-Doped GaAs Nanocrystalline Thin Film Deposited by Thermionic Vacuum Arc Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pat, Suat; Özen, Soner; Şenay, Volkan; Korkmaz, Şadan

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is the most promising p-type dopant for gallium arsenide (GaAs) semiconductor technology. Mg-doped GaAs nanocrystalline thin film has been deposited at room temperature by the thermionic vacuum arc technique, a rapid deposition method for production of doped GaAs material. The microstructure and surface and optical properties of the deposited sample were investigated by x-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, and interferometry. The crystalline direction of the deposited sample was determined to be (220) plane and (331) plane at 44.53° and 72.30°, respectively. The Mg-doped GaAs nanocrystalline sample showed high transmittance.

  7. Design considerations for a GaAs nipi doping superlattice solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Ralph; Goradia, Chandra; Brinker, David

    1987-01-01

    A new GaAs nipi doping superlattice solar cell structure is presented, which holds promise for high efficiency coupled with very high radiation tolerance. The structure has all contacts on the unilluminated side. Design constraints are presented which this structure must satisfy in order to exhibit high efficiency and high radiation tolerance. The results of self-consistent quantum mechanical calculations are presented which show that a viable design of this cell would include relatively thick n and p layers which are fairly heavily doped.

  8. Divacancy complexes induced by Cu diffusion in Zn-doped GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsayed, M.; Krause-Rehberg, R.; Korff, B.; Ratschinski, I.; Leipner, H. S.

    2013-08-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy was applied to investigate the nature and thermal behavior of defects induced by Cu diffusion in Zn-doped p-type GaAs crystals. Cu atoms were intentionally introduced in the GaAs lattice through thermally activated diffusion from a thin Cu capping layer at 1100 °C under defined arsenic vapor pressure. During isochronal annealing of the obtained Cu-diffused GaAs in the temperature range of 450-850 K, vacancy clusters were found to form, grow and finally disappear. We found that annealing at 650 K triggers the formation of divacancies, whereas further increasing in the annealing temperature up to 750 K leads to the formation of divacancy-copper complexes. The observations suggest that the formation of these vacancy-like defects in GaAs is related to the out-diffusion of Cu. Two kinds of acceptors are detected with a concentration of about 1016 - 1017 cm-3, negative ions and arsenic vacancy copper complexes. Transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of voids and Cu precipitates which are not observed by positron measurements. The positron binding energy to shallow traps is estimated using the positron trapping model. Coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy showed the presence of Cu in the immediate vicinity of the detected vacancies. Theoretical calculations suggested that the detected defect is VGaVAs-2CuGa.

  9. Doped Contacts for High-Longevity Optically Activated, High Gain GaAs Photoconductive Semiconductor Switches

    SciTech Connect

    MAR,ALAN; LOUBRIEL,GUILLERMO M.; ZUTAVERN,FRED J.; O'MALLEY,MARTIN W.; HELGESON,WESLEY D.; BROWN,DARWIN JAMES; HJALMARSON,HAROLD P.; BACA,ALBERT G.; THORNTON,R.L.; DONALDSON,R.D.

    1999-12-17

    The longevity of high gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) has been extended to over 100 million pulses. This was achieved by improving the ohmic contacts through the incorporation of a doped layer that is very effective in the suppression of filament formation, alleviating current crowding. Damage-free operation is now possible with virtually infinite expected lifetime at much higher current levels than before. The inherent damage-free current capacity of the bulk GaAs itself depends on the thickness of the doped layers and is at least 100A for a dopant diffusion depth of 4pm. The contact metal has a different damage mechanism and the threshold for damage ({approx}40A) is not further improved beyond a dopant diffusion depth of about 2{micro}m. In a diffusion-doped contact switch, the switching performance is not degraded when contact metal erosion occurs, unlike a switch with conventional contacts. This paper will compare thermal diffusion and epitaxial growth as approaches to doping the contacts. These techniques will be contrasted in terms of the fabrication issues and device characteristics.

  10. Carbon doping in molecular beam epitaxy of GaAs from a heated graphite filament

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, R. J.; Nottenberg, R. N.; Schubert, E. F.; Walker, J. F.; Ryan, R. W.

    1988-01-01

    Carbon doping of GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy has been obtained for the first time by use of a heated graphite filament. Controlled carbon acceptor concentrations over the range of 10 to the 17th-10 to the 20th/cu cm were achieved by resistively heating a graphite filament with a direct current power supply. Capacitance-voltage, p/n junction and secondary-ion mass spectrometry measurements indicate that there is negligible diffusion of carbon during growth and with postgrowth rapid thermal annealing. Carbon was used for p-type doping in the base of Npn AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors. Current gains greater than 100 and near-ideal emitter heterojunctions were obtained in transistors with a carbon base doping of 1 x 10 to the 19th/cu cm. These preliminary results indicate that carbon doping from a solid graphite source may be an attractive substitute for beryllium, which is known to have a relatively high diffusion coefficient in GaAs.

  11. Optical properties of heavily doped GaAs nanowires and electroluminescent nanowire structures.

    PubMed

    Lysov, A; Offer, M; Gutsche, C; Regolin, I; Topaloglu, S; Geller, M; Prost, W; Tegude, F-J

    2011-02-25

    We present GaAs electroluminescent nanowire structures fabricated by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. Electroluminescent structures were realized in both axial pn-junctions in single GaAs nanowires and free-standing nanowire arrays with a pn-junction formed between nanowires and substrate, respectively. The electroluminescence emission peak from single nanowire pn-junctions at 10 K was registered at an energy of around 1.32 eV and shifted to 1.4 eV with an increasing current. The line is attributed to the recombination in the compensated region present in the nanowire due to the memory effect of the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism. Arrayed nanowire electroluminescent structures with a pn-junction formed between nanowires and substrate demonstrated at 5 K a strong electroluminescence peak at 1.488 eV and two shoulder peaks at 1.455 and 1.519 eV. The main emission line was attributed to the recombination in the p-doped GaAs. The other two lines correspond to the tunneling-assisted photon emission and band-edge recombination in the abrupt junction, respectively. Electroluminescence spectra are compared with the micro-photoluminescence spectra taken along the single p-, n- and single nanowire pn-junctions to find the origin of the electroluminescence peaks, the distribution of doping species and the sharpness of the junctions.

  12. Passive Q-switching with GaAs or Bi-doped GaAs saturable absorber in Tm:LuAG laser operating at 2μm wavelength.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lin; Li, Dechun; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Li, Xiangyang; Wang, Reng; Liu, Ji

    2015-06-15

    We report the first demonstration of a diode pumped passively Q-switched Tm:LuAG laser near 2μm wavelength with Bi-doped or undoped GaAs wafer as saturable absorber. For Bi-doped GaAs saturable absorber, stable Q-switched pulses with duration of 63.3ns under a repetition rate of 132.7 kHz and pulse energy of 5.51μJ are generated. In comparison to the passively Q-switched laser with undoped GaAs saturable absorber, the laser with Bi-doped GaAs can produce shorter pulses and higher peak power at almost the same incident pump power. The results suggest that Bi-doped GaAs can be an attractive candidate of saturable absorber for Q-switched laser near 2μm wavelength.

  13. EL2 distributions in doped and undoped liquid encapsulated Czochralski GaAs. [deep donor concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, D. E.; Chen, R. T.; Yang, J.

    1983-01-01

    The longitudinal and radial distributions of EL2 in undoped semi-insulating and intentionally doped n-type GaAs crystals grown by the liquid encapsulated Czochralski technique are compared. Longitudinal profiles in undoped crystals are controlled by changes in melt stoichiometry as the crystal is pulled from the melt. EL2 profiles along crystals doped above about 1 x 10 to the 17th/cu cm, on the other hand, are controlled primarily by the carrier concentration as a result of the suppression of EL2 by free electrons. Radial EL2 profiles are typically W shaped and M shaped in undoped and doped (above threshold) crystals, respectively. The origin of these radial profiles is discussed in terms of residual stress, melt stoichiometry, and the suppresion of EL2 by electrons. The results are also discussed in the light of the antisite model for EL2.

  14. Effects of gold diffusion on n-type doping of GaAs nanowires.

    PubMed

    Tambe, Michael J; Ren, Shenqiang; Gradecak, Silvija

    2010-11-10

    The deposition of n-GaAs shells is explored as a method of n-type doping in GaAs nanowires grown by the Au-mediated metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Core-shell GaAs/n-GaAs nanowires exhibit an unintended rectifying behavior that is attributed to the Au diffusion during the shell deposition based on studies using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, current-voltage, capacitance-voltage, and Kelvin probe force measurements. Removing the gold prior to n-type shell deposition results in the realization of n-type GaAs nanowires without rectification. We directly correlate the presence of gold impurities to nanowire electrical properties and provide an insight into the role of seed particles on the properties of nanowires and nanowire heterostructures.

  15. Long-lived electron spins in a modulation doped (100) GaAs quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colton, John; Meyer, David; Clark, Ken; Craft, Daniel; Tanner, Jane; Park, Tyler; White, Phil

    2013-03-01

    We have measured T1 spin lifetimes of a 14 nm modulation-doped (100) GaAs quantum well using a time-resolved pump-probe Kerr rotation technique. The quantum well was selected by tuning the wavelength of the probe laser. T1 lifetimes in excess of 1 microsecond were measured at 1.5 K and 5.5 T, exceeding the typical T2* lifetimes that have been measured in GaAs and II-VI quantum wells by orders of magnitude. We observed effects from nuclear polarization, which were largely removable by simultaneous nuclear magnetic resonance, along with two distinct lifetimes under some conditions that likely result from probing two differently-localized subsets of electrons.

  16. Long-lived electron spins in a modulation doped (100) GaAs quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colton, J. S.; Meyer, D.; Clark, K.; Craft, D.; Cutler, J.; Park, T.; White, P.

    2012-10-01

    We have measured T1 spin lifetimes of a 14 nm modulation-doped (100) GaAs quantum well using a time-resolved pump-probe Kerr rotation technique. The quantum well was selected by tuning the wavelength of the probe laser. T1 lifetimes in excess of 1 μs were measured at 1.5 K and 5.5 T, exceeding the typical T2* lifetimes that have been measured in GaAs and II-VI quantum wells by orders of magnitude. We observed effects from nuclear polarization, which were largely removable by simultaneous nuclear magnetic resonance, along with two distinct lifetimes under some conditions that likely result from probing two differently localized subsets of electrons.

  17. Dependences of the electrical properties on the diameter and the doping concentration of the Si nanowire field effect transistors with a Schottky metal-semiconductor contact.

    PubMed

    You, Joo Hyung; Lee, Se Han; You, Chan Ho; Yu, Yun Seop; Kim, Tae Whan

    2010-05-01

    A compact model of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics for the Si nanowire field effect transistor (FET) taking into account dependence of the analytical electrical properties on the diameter and the concentration of the Si nanowire of the FETs with a Schottky metal-semiconductor contact has been proposed. I-V characteristics of the nanowire FETs were analytically calculated by using a quantum drift-diffusion current transport model taking into account an equivalent circuit together with the quantum effect of the Si nanowires and a Schottky model at Schottky barriers. The material parameters dependent on different diameters and concentrations of the Si nanowire were numerically estimated from the physical properties of the Si nanowire. The threshold voltage, the mobility, and the doping density of the Si nanowire and the Schottky barrier height at a metal-Si nanowire heterointerface in the nanowire FET were estimated by using the theoretical model.

  18. Photoluminescence of individual doped GaAs /AlGaAs nanofabricated quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalliakos, Sokratis; García, César Pascual; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Zamfirescu, Marian; Cavigli, Lucia; Gurioli, Massimo; Vinattieri, Anna; Pinczuk, Aron; Dennis, Brian S.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; West, Ken W.

    2007-04-01

    Dilute arrays of GaAs /AlGaAs modulation-doped quantum dots with same sizes fabricated by electron beam lithography and low impact reactive ion etching exhibit highly uniform luminescence lines. Single quantum dots display spectral emission with peak energies and linewidths linked largely to the geometrical diameter of the dot and to the built-in electron population. Multicharged excitonic and biexcitonic emission intensities have activation energy of about 2meV. These results highlight the potential of high quality nanofabricated quantum dots for applications in areas that require fine control of optical emission.

  19. Interdigital Schottky barrier capacitor apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierig

    1985-05-01

    The present invention relates broadly to Schottky barrier capacitors, and in particular to an interdigital Schottky barrier capacitor apparatus. In the prior art, the Schottky barrier diode is rather well known. In general, a Schottky barrier device comprises a semiconductor substrate layer that is formed by a first layer of heavily doped materials and a second layer of lightly doped materials upon which a layer of barrier metal is deposited thereon. The maximum reverse bias voltage which can be appplied to the Schottky barrier device is determined by the thickness of the lightly doped layer of semiconductive material which is deposited upon the substrate layer. This is only one of the factors that determined the reverse bias voltage, When a guardring is diffused into the lightly doped layer of semiconductive substrate material, the thickness of the layer is reduced, and therefore, the reverse bias voltage that can be applied to the Schottky device is reduced.

  20. The current–voltage and capacitance–voltage characteristics at high temperatures of Au Schottky contact to n-type GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Özerli, Halil; Karteri, İbrahim; Karataş, Şükrü; Altindal, Şemsettin

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The electronic parameters of the diode under temperature were investigated. • The barrier heights have a Gaussian distribution. • Au/n-GaAs diode exhibits a rectification behavior. - Abstract: We have investigated the temperature-dependent current–voltage (I–V) and capacitance–voltage (C–V) characteristics of Au/n-GaAs Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) in the temperature range of 280–415 K. The barrier height for the Au/n-type GaAs SBDs from the I–V and C–V characteristics have varied from 0.901 eV to 0.963 eV (I–V) and 1.234 eV to 0.967 eV (C–V), and the ideality factor (n) from 1.45 to 1.69 in the temperature range 280–415 K. The conventional Richardson plots are found to be linear in the temperature range measured. Both the ln(I{sub 0}/T{sup 2}) versus (kT){sup −1} and ln(I{sub 0}/T{sup 2}) versus (nkT){sup −1} plots gives a straight line corresponding to activation energies 0.773 eV and 0.870 eV, respectively. A Φ{sub b0} versus 1/T plot was drawn to obtain evidence of a Gaussian distribution of the BHs, and values of Φ{sup ¯}{sub b0} = 1.071 eV and σ{sub 0} = 0.094 V for the mean BH and zero-bias standard deviation have been obtained from this plot.

  1. Nonvolatile multibit Schottky memory based on single n-type Ga doped CdSe nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Jiang, Yang; Yu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yugang; Li, Guohua; Zhu, Zhifeng; Wu, Chunyan; Wang, Li; Luo, Linbao; Jie, Jiansheng

    2012-12-07

    Nonvolatile resistive switching has been observed for the first time in CdSe nanowire (NW)/Au Schottky barrier diodes, where a Schottky contact electrode and an Ohmic contact electrode were formed at the Au/CdSe NW and CdSe NW/In interfaces, respectively. The CdSe NWs Schottky devices were found to possess multibit storage ability in an individual nanowire, and exhibited excellent memory characteristics, with a resistance on/off ratio exceeding four orders of magnitude, a long retention time of over 10(4) s and a lower operating voltage of 2 V. By replacing the SiO(2)/Si substrate with a poly ethylene terephthalate substrate, flexible and transparent memory devices with superior stability under strain were realized. The resistive switching of CdSe NW/Au Schottky devices is understood by electron trapping and detrapping in the interfacial oxide layer. Our findings provide a viable way to create new functional high-density nonvolatile multibit memory devices compatible with simple processing techniques for normal one-dimensional nanomaterials.

  2. Nonvolatile multibit Schottky memory based on single n-type Ga doped CdSe nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Jiang, Yang; Yu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yugang; Li, Guohua; Zhu, Zhifeng; Wu, Chunyan; Wang, Li; Luo, Linbao; Jie, Jiansheng

    2012-12-01

    Nonvolatile resistive switching has been observed for the first time in CdSe nanowire (NW)/Au Schottky barrier diodes, where a Schottky contact electrode and an Ohmic contact electrode were formed at the Au/CdSe NW and CdSe NW/In interfaces, respectively. The CdSe NWs Schottky devices were found to possess multibit storage ability in an individual nanowire, and exhibited excellent memory characteristics, with a resistance on/off ratio exceeding four orders of magnitude, a long retention time of over 104 s and a lower operating voltage of 2 V. By replacing the SiO2/Si substrate with a poly ethylene terephthalate substrate, flexible and transparent memory devices with superior stability under strain were realized. The resistive switching of CdSe NW/Au Schottky devices is understood by electron trapping and detrapping in the interfacial oxide layer. Our findings provide a viable way to create new functional high-density nonvolatile multibit memory devices compatible with simple processing techniques for normal one-dimensional nanomaterials.

  3. Improved short-channel GaAs MESFET's by use of higher doping concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daembkes, H.; Brockerhoff, W.; Heime, K.; Cappy, A.

    1984-08-01

    GaAs MESFET's with highly doped channels up to 5 x 10 to the 18th per cu cm and with both micrometer and submicrometer gates were fabricated and evaluated. FET's with 1.2 micron gates show an extrinsic transconductance of more than 250 mS/mm, cutoff frequencies around 20 GHz, and a noise figure of 2 dB at 8 GHz with 9-dB associated gain. Breakdown voltage is higher than 6 V. FET's with 1.2- and 0.4-micron gates were simultaneously fabricated on the same wafer to investigate short-channel effects. The short-channel devices show a good saturation behavior and no shift in the threshold voltage compared to the long-channel devices thus demonstrating a pronounced alleviation of short-channel effects as experienced for 1 x 10 to the 17th per cu cm doping levels. The influence of doping concentration on the performance of devices with micrometer and submicrometer gates upon doping concentration is investigated by detailed computer simulations. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is obtained. From these results improved technological approaches are pointed out.

  4. Doped Contacts for High-Longevity Optically Activated, High Gain GaAs Photoconductive Semiconductor Switches

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Brown, D.J.; Donaldson, R.D.; Helgeson, W.D.; Hjalmarson, H.P.; Loubriel, G.M.; Mar, A.; O'Malley, M.W.; Thornton, R.L.; Zutavern, F.J.

    1999-08-05

    The longevity of high gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) has been extended to over 50 million pulses. This was achieved by improving the ohmic contacts through the incorporation of a doped layer beneath the PCSS contacts which is very effective in the suppression of filament formation and alleviating current crowding to improve the longevity of PCSS. Virtually indefinite, damage-free operation is now possible at much higher current levels than before. The inherent damage-free current capacity of the switch depends on the thickness of the doped layers and is at least 100A for a dopant diffusion depth of 4pm. The contact metal has a different damage mechanism and the threshold for damage ({approximately}40A) is not further improved beyond a dopant diffusion depth of about 2{micro}m. In a diffusion-doped contact switch, the switching performance is not degraded when contact metal erosion occurs. This paper will compare thermal diffusion and epitaxial growth as approaches to doping the contacts. These techniques will be contrasted in terms of the fabrication issues and device characteristics.

  5. GaAs microcrystals selectively grown on silicon: Intrinsic carbon doping during chemical beam epitaxy with trimethylgallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molière, T.; Jaffré, A.; Alvarez, J.; Mencaraglia, D.; Connolly, J. P.; Vincent, L.; Hallais, G.; Mangelinck, D.; Descoins, M.; Bouchier, D.; Renard, C.

    2017-01-01

    The monolithic integration of III-V semiconductors on silicon and particularly of GaAs has aroused great interest since the 1980s. Potential applications are legion, ranging from photovoltaics to high mobility channel transistors. By using a novel integration method, we have shown that it is possible to achieve heteroepitaxial integration of GaAs crystals (typical size 1 μ m) on silicon without any structural defect such as antiphase domains, dislocations, or stress, usually reported for direct GaAs heteroepitaxy on silicon. However, concerning their electronic properties, conventional free carrier characterization methods are impractical due to the micrometric size of GaAs crystals. In order to evaluate the GaAs material quality for optoelectronic applications, a series of indirect analyses such as atom probe tomography, Raman spectroscopy, and micro-photoluminescence as a function of temperature were performed. These revealed a high content of partially electrically active carbon originating from the trimethylgallium used as the Ga precursor. Nevertheless, the very good homogeneity observed by this doping mechanism and the attractive properties of carbon as a dopant once controlled to a sufficient degree are a promising route to device doping.

  6. Depth uniformity of electrical properties and doping limitation in neutron-transmutation-doped semi-insulating GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, M.; Kuriyama, K. ); Kawakubo, T. )

    1990-04-01

    Depth uniformity of electrical properties has been evaluated for neutron-transmutation-doped (NTD), semi-insulating GaAs irradiated with thermal neutrons of 1.5{times}10{sup 18} cm{sup {minus}2} by the van der Pauw method combined with iterative etching of the surface. In NTD-GaAs wafers (thickness {similar to}410 {mu}m) annealed for 30 min at 700 {degree}C, the depth profiles of the resistivity, the carrier concentration, and the Hall mobility show constant values of 1{times}10{sup {minus}2} {Omega} cm, 2.0{times}10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}3}, and 3100 cm{sup 2}/V s, respectively, within an experimental error of 5%. In an annealing process, the redistribution and/or the segregation of NTD impurities is not observed. We also discuss the limitations of low-level NTD in semi-insulating GaAs. It is suggested that the activation of the NTD-impurities below {similar to}1{times}10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}3} is mainly restricted by the presence of the midgap electron trap (EL2).

  7. Electrical spin injection in modulation-doped GaAs from an in situ grown Fe/MgO layer

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, Seong Hoon; Kim, Hyung-jun; Koo, Hyun Cheol; Lee, Yun-Hi; Chang, Joonyeon

    2015-09-07

    We study spin accumulation in n-doped GaAs that were electrically injected from Fe via MgO using three-terminal Hanle measurement. The Fe/MgO/GaAs structures were prepared in a cluster molecular beam epitaxy that did not require the breaking of the vacuum. We found the crystal orientation relationship of epitaxial structures Fe[100]//MgO[110]//GaAs[110] without evident defects at the interface. Control of depletion width and interface resistance by means of modulation doping improves spin injection, leading to enhanced spin voltage (ΔV) of 6.3 mV at 10 K and 0.8 mV even at 400 K. The extracted spin lifetime and spin diffusion length of GaAs are 220 ps and 0.77 μm, respectively, at 200 K. MgO tunnel barrier grown in situ with modulation doping at the interface appears to be promising for spin injection into GaAs.

  8. Influence of stoichiometry and doping on vacancies in n-type GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebauer, J.; Lausmann, M.; Redmann, F.; Krause-Rehberg, R.

    1999-12-01

    Native vacancies in n-type, Te-doped GaAs (n=5×1016-5×1018 cm-3) were studied by means of positron annihilation. We investigated the influence of doping, thermal treatment, and stoichiometry adjusted by changing the As pressure during annealing. Negatively charged monovacancies were found in all Te-doped samples under investigation. By using positron lifetime spectroscopy in conjunction with measurements of the annihilation momentum distribution and theoretical calculations, they can directly be identified to be VGa-TeAs complexes. After thermal treatment at 1100°C the density of the vacancies cv increases with the As pressure (pAs) like cv=0.1cdp1/4As where cd is the donor concentration. For such a treatment, cv depends only on pAs but not on the thermal history. The vacancy concentration was found to increase slightly with decreasing annealing temperature at a given pAs. This can be explained by the so-called Fermi level effect, i.e. the dependence of the equilibrium concentration of charged point defects on the position of the Fermi level.

  9. Doping-enhanced radiative efficiency enables lasing in unpassivated GaAs nanowires.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Tim; Saxena, Dhruv; Mokkapati, Sudha; Li, Zhe; Hall, Christopher R; Davis, Jeffrey A; Wang, Yuda; Smith, Leigh M; Fu, Lan; Caroff, Philippe; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2016-06-17

    Nanolasers hold promise for applications including integrated photonics, on-chip optical interconnects and optical sensing. Key to the realization of current cavity designs is the use of nanomaterials combining high gain with high radiative efficiency. Until now, efforts to enhance the performance of semiconductor nanomaterials have focused on reducing the rate of non-radiative recombination through improvements to material quality and complex passivation schemes. Here we employ controlled impurity doping to increase the rate of radiative recombination. This unique approach enables us to improve the radiative efficiency of unpassivated GaAs nanowires by a factor of several hundred times while also increasing differential gain and reducing the transparency carrier density. In this way, we demonstrate lasing from a nanomaterial that combines high radiative efficiency with a picosecond carrier lifetime ready for high speed applications.

  10. Doping-enhanced radiative efficiency enables lasing in unpassivated GaAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Tim; Saxena, Dhruv; Mokkapati, Sudha; Li, Zhe; Hall, Christopher R.; Davis, Jeffrey A.; Wang, Yuda; Smith, Leigh M.; Fu, Lan; Caroff, Philippe; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2016-06-01

    Nanolasers hold promise for applications including integrated photonics, on-chip optical interconnects and optical sensing. Key to the realization of current cavity designs is the use of nanomaterials combining high gain with high radiative efficiency. Until now, efforts to enhance the performance of semiconductor nanomaterials have focused on reducing the rate of non-radiative recombination through improvements to material quality and complex passivation schemes. Here we employ controlled impurity doping to increase the rate of radiative recombination. This unique approach enables us to improve the radiative efficiency of unpassivated GaAs nanowires by a factor of several hundred times while also increasing differential gain and reducing the transparency carrier density. In this way, we demonstrate lasing from a nanomaterial that combines high radiative efficiency with a picosecond carrier lifetime ready for high speed applications.

  11. Optical absorption by free holes in heavily doped GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huberman, M. L.; Ksendzov, A.; Larsson, A.; Terhune, R.; Maserjian, J.

    1991-01-01

    Optical absorption in p-type GaAs with hole concentrations between 10 exp 19 and 10 exp 20/cu cm has been measured for wavelengths between 2 and 20 microns and compared with results of theoretical calculations. In contrast to previous measurements at lower doping levels, the occupied hole states are far from the zone center, where the heavy- and light-hole bands become parallel. This gives rise to a large joint density of states for optical transitions. It is found that the overall magnitude of the observed absorption is explained correctly by the theory, with both the free-carrier (indirect) and the inter-valence-band (direct) transitions contributing significantly to the total absorption. The strength of the absorption (a about 20,000/cm for N(A) = 5 x 10 exp 19/cu cm) is attractive for long-wavelength infrared-detector applications.

  12. Influence of photoexcitation on hopping conduction in neutron-transmutation-doped GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, M.; Kawahara, H.; Kuriyama, K.; Kawakubo, T.; Yoneda, K.; Kimura, I.

    1988-02-15

    The nature of the tunneling-assisted hopping conduction in neutron-transmutation-doped GaAs has been studied under photoexcitation with a photon energy of 1.32 eV. It is found that the dopants activated by annealing around 400 /sup 0/C provide the electrons to the defect levels originating the hopping conduction even when under photoexcitation. The hopping conduction under photoexcitation is affected by quenching in photoconductance below 120 K concerned with the main electron trap (EL2) and/or the As antisite defect (As/sub Ga/) induced by the neutron irradiation. The photoconductance of the samples with a lower radiation damage, As/sub Ga/less than or equal to1 x 10/sup 18/ cm/sup -3/, consists of the coexistence of the hopping and band conductions.

  13. Doping-enhanced radiative efficiency enables lasing in unpassivated GaAs nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Tim; Saxena, Dhruv; Mokkapati, Sudha; Li, Zhe; Hall, Christopher R.; Davis, Jeffrey A.; Wang, Yuda; Smith, Leigh M.; Fu, Lan; Caroff, Philippe; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2016-01-01

    Nanolasers hold promise for applications including integrated photonics, on-chip optical interconnects and optical sensing. Key to the realization of current cavity designs is the use of nanomaterials combining high gain with high radiative efficiency. Until now, efforts to enhance the performance of semiconductor nanomaterials have focused on reducing the rate of non-radiative recombination through improvements to material quality and complex passivation schemes. Here we employ controlled impurity doping to increase the rate of radiative recombination. This unique approach enables us to improve the radiative efficiency of unpassivated GaAs nanowires by a factor of several hundred times while also increasing differential gain and reducing the transparency carrier density. In this way, we demonstrate lasing from a nanomaterial that combines high radiative efficiency with a picosecond carrier lifetime ready for high speed applications. PMID:27311597

  14. Enhanced efficiency of graphene-silicon Schottky junction solar cells by doping with Au nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.; Zhang, X. W. Yin, Z. G.; Meng, J. H.; Gao, H. L.; Zhang, L. Q.; Zhao, Y. J.; Wang, H. L.

    2014-11-03

    We have reported a method to enhance the performance of graphene-Si (Gr/Si) Schottky junction solar cells by introducing Au nanoparticles (NPs) onto the monolayer graphene and few-layer graphene. The electron transfer between Au NPs and graphene leads to the increased work function and enhanced electrical conductivity of graphene, resulting in a remarkable improvement of device efficiency. By optimizing the initial thickness of Au layers, the power conversion efficiency of Gr/Si solar cells can be increased by more than three times, with a maximum value of 7.34%. These results show a route for fabricating efficient and stable Gr/Si solar cells.

  15. High-Performance GaAs Nanowire Solar Cells for Flexible and Transparent Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Han, Ning; Yang, Zai-xing; Wang, Fengyun; Dong, Guofa; Yip, SenPo; Liang, Xiaoguang; Hung, Tak Fu; Chen, Yunfa; Ho, Johnny C

    2015-09-16

    Among many available photovoltaic technologies at present, gallium arsenide (GaAs) is one of the recognized leaders for performance and reliability; however, it is still a great challenge to achieve cost-effective GaAs solar cells for smart systems such as transparent and flexible photovoltaics. In this study, highly crystalline long GaAs nanowires (NWs) with minimal crystal defects are synthesized economically by chemical vapor deposition and configured into novel Schottky photovoltaic structures by simply using asymmetric Au-Al contacts. Without any doping profiles such as p-n junction and complicated coaxial junction structures, the single NW Schottky device shows a record high apparent energy conversion efficiency of 16% under air mass 1.5 global illumination by normalizing to the projection area of the NW. The corresponding photovoltaic output can be further enhanced by connecting individual cells in series and in parallel as well as by fabricating NW array solar cells via contact printing showing an overall efficiency of 1.6%. Importantly, these Schottky cells can be easily integrated on the glass and plastic substrates for transparent and flexible photovoltaics, which explicitly demonstrate the outstanding versatility and promising perspective of these GaAs NW Schottky photovoltaics for next-generation smart solar energy harvesting devices.

  16. Optical and surface properties of the in doped GaAs layer deposition using thermionic vacuum arc method.

    PubMed

    Pat, Suat; Özen, Soner; Şenay, Volkan; Korkmaz, Şadan; Şimşek, Veli

    2016-07-01

    A broadband optical transparent InGaAs semiconductor layer production of micron thicknesses was produced in only 75 s by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) method at the first time. The optical and surface properties of the produced layers have been investigated. InGaAs structure is using in electronics and optoelectronics devices. The main advantage of TVA method is its fast deposition rate, without any loss in the quality of the films. Doping is a very simple and fast according to common production methods. InGaAs is an alloy of indium arsenide (InAs) and gallium arsenide (GaAs). InAs with (220) crystallographic direction and GaAs with (024)/(022) crystallographic directions were detected using by XRD analysis. GaAs and InAs are in the cubic and zinc blende crystal system, respectively. According to the transmittance spectra, sample has a broadband transparency in the range of 1000-3300 nm. According to results, defined TVA method for In doping to GaAs is proper fast and friendly method. SCANNING 38:297-302, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Two acceptor levels and hopping conduction in Mn-doped GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajikawa, Yasutomo

    2017-01-01

    By analysing the experimental data of the temperature-dependent Hall-effect measurements, an additional acceptor level has been confirmed to exist in Mn-doped p-GaAs besides the isolated substitutional Mn acceptor level. It is found that, in most of the investigated samples, the room-temperature hole concentration is governed by the additional acceptor level rather than the isolated substitutional Mn acceptor level. The concentration of the additional acceptor level is found to increase almost in proportion to the square of the concentration of the isolated substitutional Mn acceptors, suggesting that the additional acceptor level is related to Mn dimers. This suggests that the ferromagnetism observed in more heavily Mn-doped GaAs may be attributed to Mn clusters. For some of the samples in which the characteristic of nearest-neighbour hopping conduction in the substitutional Mn acceptor impurity band is evident, the hopping activation energy is deduced and is proved to increase in proportion to the cube root of the concentration of the substitutional Mn acceptors.

  18. Crossover from negative to positive magnetoresistance in a Si delta-doped GaAs single quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Shun-Tsung; Chen, Kuang Yao; Su, Yi-Chun; Liang, C.-T.; Chang, Y. H.; Kim, Gil-Ho; Wu, J.-Y.; Lin, Sheng-Di

    2010-07-01

    We have performed magnetoresistance measurements on a Si delta-doped GaAs single quantum well. With increasing temperature T, a crossover from negative magnetoresistance (NMR) to positive magnetoresistance (PMR) can be observed. Our experimental results suggest that such a crossover corresponds to a transition from variable range hopping regime to activated electron transport. This is also consistent with the measured non-monotonic carrier density dependence on T.

  19. Low Dose Gamma Radiation Monitoring Through TiO{sub 2} Doped Lead Phthalocyanine (Pb-Pc) Based Schottky Device

    SciTech Connect

    Janu, Yojana; Gautam, Anil; Kumar, Manish; Prasad, Narottam; Deol, Y. S.; Roy, M. S.

    2008-04-23

    The concept of Organic thin film based solid-state dosimeters is relatively new and more effective. The organic conductor based solid-state dosimeter provides a mean for low cost, ease to fabricate and sensitive radiation sensor which can be employed as pocket dosimeter for army personals getting exposed to nuclear radiation while working in the radioactive environment This concept is being utilized here for monitoring the effect of nuclear radiation on our organic material based sandwiched devices. In the present communication, lead Phthalocyanine (PbPc) doped with TiO{sub 2} (5% by weight) is developed into the form of thin film structure. The developed ITO/PbPc: TiO{sub 2}/Ag Schottky device structure was characterized in terms of change in its electrical and optical properties before and after exposure to radiation Exposure to radiation imparts an accelerated decrease in forward bias current and capacitance characteristics reveal a linear relationship between dose v/s current behavior which supports its suitability as pocket dosimeter for the dose ranging from 50 mR to 800 mR.

  20. Observations of exciton and carrier spin relaxation in Be doped p-type GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Asaka, Naohiro; Harasawa, Ryo; Tackeuchi, Atsushi; Lu, Shulong; Dai, Pan

    2014-03-17

    We have investigated the exciton and carrier spin relaxation in Be-doped p-type GaAs. Time-resolved spin-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements revealed spin relaxation behaviors between 10 and 100 K. Two PL peaks were observed at 1.511 eV (peak 1) and 1.497 eV (peak 2) at 10 K, and are attributed to the recombination of excitons bound to neutral Be acceptors (peak 1) and the band-to-acceptor transition (peak 2). The spin relaxation times of both PL peaks were measured to be 1.3–3.1 ns at 10–100 K, and found to originate from common electron spin relaxation. The observed existence of a carrier density dependence of the spin relaxation time at 10–77 K indicates that the Bir-Aronov-Pikus process is the dominant spin relaxation mechanism.

  1. Excitation and de-excitation mechanisms of Er-doped GaAs and AlGaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsaesser, David W.

    1992-12-01

    Electrical and optical characterization have been performed on GaAs and Al(x)Ga(1-x)As samples doped with Er either by ion implantation or during Molecular Beam Epitaxial (MBE) growth. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) and Temperature-Dependent Hall Effect (TDH) measurements indicated the presence of two hole traps in Er-doped GaAs, at 35 and 360 meV above the valence band maximum. The former (shallower) center was thought to be due to Er substituting for a Ga atom (ErGa) and giving rise to an isoelectronic impurity potential. The second center was attributed to an Er atom occupying an interstitial position (Er(i)). Annealing studies performed on Er-implanted GaAs indicated that the ErGa center preferentially formed at higher annealing temperatures (greater than 850 C), with the Er(i) reaching a maximum concentration at an annealing temperature of around 750 C. Optical characterization performed by Photoluminescence (PL) measurements showed that the Er(i) center gave a much stronger Er-related intra-4f shell emission. Mechanisms for the excitation of the 4f shells of these two centers are discussed. Similar optically active Eri centers may be forming in AlGaAs.

  2. Growth of n-doped GaAs nanowires by Au-assisted metalorganic chemical vapor deposition: effect of flux rates of n-type dopants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jingwei; Huang, Hui; Liu, Minjia; Ren, Xiaomin; Cai, Shiwei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Qi; Huang, Yongqing; Zhang, Xia

    2010-12-01

    N-doped GaAs nanowires (NWs) were grown on GaAs (111) B substrate by means of vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism in a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. Two flux rates of n-type dopants used for GaAs NWs growth were researched. For comparison, undoped GaAs NWs were grown at the same conditions. It is found that all NWs are vertical to the substrate and no lateral growth occurs. The growth rate is proportional the flux rates of n dopant. It is observed that there is Gibbs-Thomson effect in doped NWs. Pure zinc blende structures without any stacking faults from bottom to top for all three samples were achieved.

  3. Enhancement of intensity-dependent absorption in InP and GaAs at 1.9 microns by doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, N.-L.; Bass, M.; Swimm, R.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the study of intensity-dependent absorption (IDA) in general, and two-photon absorption (TPA), in particular, has suffered from experimental difficulties and inadequate theoretical models. Bass et al. (1979) could improve the experimental situation by making use of laser calorimetry to obtain directly the TPA coefficient of a medium with a high degree of sensitivity. In the present investigation, the employed technique has been used to study the effect of deep level dopants on IDA in InP and GaAs. It is found that the coefficient for IDA is strongly dependent on the presence of Fe in InP and Cr in GaAs. The conducted investigation had the objective to examine the effect of deep level impurities on IDA processes in InP and GaAs. Fe-doped InP and Cr-doped GaAs were compared with undoped crystals.

  4. Carbon doping for the GaAs base layer of Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors in a production scale MOVPE reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, F.; Bergunde, T.; Richter, E.; Kurpas, P.; Achouche, M.; Maaßdorf, A.; Würfl, J.; Weyers, M.

    2000-12-01

    In this work different approaches for carbon doping of GaAs in MOVPE are compared with respect to their growth- and device-related material properties. Doping levels up to 6×10 19 cm -3 and smooth surface morphologies are achieved with either intrinsically (TMG and AsH 3 or TMAs) or extrinsically (CBr 4) doped layers. Despite comparable structural and majority carrier properties differences in GaInP/GaAs-HBT device performance depending on base doping conditions are obtained. Devices with an intrinsically doped base layer (TMG+AsH 3) show superior transistor performance with a current gain to base sheet resistance ratio ( β/ Rsb) exceeding 0.5 for base thicknesses as large as 120 nm. The use of either CBr 4 or TMAs as base growth precursors results in reduced current gains ( β/ Rsb⩽0.3). It is shown that the achieved HBT current gain is directly related to recombination centers in the heavily doped base layer depending on doping method.

  5. Self-consistent calculations and design considerations for a GaAs nipi doping superlattice solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Ralph O.; Goradia, Chandra; Brinker, David

    1987-01-01

    The authors present design constraints which show that a previously proposed GaAs nipi doping superlattice solar cell structure would not work as an efficient space solar cell. A structure based on the CLEFT process, which shows promise of being an efficient cell with very high radiation tolerance, is proposed. In order to test theoretically its viability and to optimize its design, self-consistent quantum mechanical calculations were made for a number of thicknesses of the n, i, and p layers and the dopings in the n and p layers. These results show that: 1) an i layer is not necessary; in fact, its presence makes it difficult to satisfy one of the key constraints; 2) a near-optimum design with 750-A thick n and p layers with dopings of 2.5E18/cu cm and a selective contact separation of 20 microns would yield both high efficiency and very high radiation tolerance.

  6. Surface passivation of tellurium-doped GaAs nanowires by GaP: Effect on electrical conduction

    SciTech Connect

    Darbandi, A.; Salehzadeh, O.; Watkins, S. P.; Kuyanov, P.; LaPierre, R. R.

    2014-06-21

    We report on the surface passivation of Au-assisted Te-doped GaAs nanowires (NWs) grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. The electrical properties of individual free standing NWs were assessed using a tungsten nano-probe inside a scanning electron microscope. The diameter independent apparent resistivity of both strained and relaxed passivated NWs suggests the unpinning of the Fermi level and reduction of sidewalls surface states density. Similar current-voltage properties were observed for partially axially relaxed GaAs/GaP NWs. This indicates a negligible contribution of misfit dislocations in the charge transport properties of the NWs. Low temperature micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) measurements were also carried out for both uncapped and passivated GaAs NWs. The improvement of the integrated (μ-PL) intensity for GaAs/GaP NWs further confirms the effect of passivation.

  7. Optical power-driven electron spin relaxation regime crossover in Mn-doped bulk GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münzhuber, F.; Kiessling, T.; Ossau, W.; Molenkamp, L. W.; Astakhov, G. V.

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate tunability of the electron spin lifetime in Mn-doped GaAs by purely optical means. The observed behavior stems from a crossover of the electron spin relaxation rate with increasing excitation density, first decreasing due to the exchange interaction of Mn bound holes with Mn ions, and then increasing again as the valence band is populated and Bir-Aranov-Pikus relaxation sets in. On this account, we explain the complex spatial spin polarization profiles emerging from inhomogeneous optical excitation, which are the result of the combined action of this nonmonotonic spin relaxation characteristics and the intricate photocarrier decay dynamics.

  8. Excitation and De-Excitation Mechanisms of Er-Doped GaAs and A1GaAs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    laser, which operates on internal transitions in the unfilled 4f shell of the RE ion neodymium (Nd 3 +) in yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG = Y3Ah5O 1 2... operation , as well as a much smaller shift in the mode wavelength with temperature (,,hAPC) as compared to laser structures without Er-doping (,,5 APC...Techniques ......................................... 18 3.1. Hall Effect Measurements ................................... 18 3.1.1. Temperature

  9. Effect of Sb composition on the conduction type and photoluminescence of heavily Sn-doped GaAs1-xSbx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, T.; Jinbo, Y.; Uchitomi, N.

    2006-09-01

    Heavily Sn-doped GaAs1-xSbx epitaxial films were grown on SI-GaAs (001) substrates by solid source molecular beam epitaxy. A 5 nm-thick AlSb buffer layer was employed to relax the lattice mismatch between the epilayer and the substrate. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Hall effect measurements and photoluminescence measurements were performed to characterize the epitaxial films. The heavily Sn-doped GaAs1-xSbx / AlSb films with x 0.24 indicated n-type conduction while the epitaxial films with x 0.43 indicated p-type conduction.

  10. Photoluminescence study on heavily donor and acceptor impurity doped GaAs layers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, A. Z. M. Touhidul; Jung, D. W.; Noh, J. P.; Otsuka, N.

    2009-05-01

    Gallium arsenide layers doped with high concentrations of Be and Si by molecular-beam epitaxy are studied by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. PL peaks from doped layers are observed at energies significantly lower than the band-gap of GaAs. The growth and doping conditions suggest that the origin of these peaks is different from that of low energy PL peaks, which were observed in earlier studies and attributed to impurity-vacancy complexes. The dependence of the peak energy on the temperature and the annealing is found to differ from that of the peaks attributed to impurity-vacancy complexes. On the basis of these observations, it is suggested that the low energy peaks are attributed to short range ordered arrangements of impurity ions. This possibility is examined by calculations of the PL spectra with models of pairs of acceptor and donor delta-doped layers and PL experiments of a superlattice of pairs of Be and Si delta-doped layers.

  11. The effect of doping on low temperature growth of high quality GaAs nanowires on polycrystalline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeJarld, Matt; Teran, Alan; Luengo-Kovac, Marta; Yan, Lifan; Moon, Eun Seong; Beck, Sara; Guillen, Cristina; Sih, Vanessa; Phillips, Jamie; Mirecki Milunchick, Joanna

    2016-12-01

    The increasing demand for miniature autonomous sensors requires low cost integration methods, but to date, material limitations have prevented the direct growth of optically active III-V materials on CMOS devices. We report on the deposition of GaAs nanowires on polycrystalline conductive films to allow for direct integration of optoelectronic devices on dissimilar materials. Undoped, Si-doped, and Be-doped nanowires were grown at Ts = 400 °C on oxide (indium tin oxide) and metallic (platinum and titanium) films. Be-doping is shown to significantly reduce the nanowire diameter and improve the nanowire aspect ratio to 50:1. Photoluminescence measurements of Be-doped nanowires are 1-2 orders of magnitude stronger than undoped and Si-doped nanowires and have a thermal activation energy of 14 meV, which is comparable to nanowires grown on crystalline substrates. Electrical measurements confirm that the metal-semiconductor junction is Ohmic. These results demonstrate the feasibility of integrating nanowire-based optoelectronic devices directly on CMOS chips.

  12. The effect of doping on low temperature growth of high quality GaAs nanowires on polycrystalline films.

    PubMed

    DeJarld, Matt; Teran, Alan; Luengo-Kovac, Marta; Yan, Lifan; Moon, Eun Seong; Beck, Sara; Guillen, Cristina; Sih, Vanessa; Phillips, Jamie; Milunchick, Joanna Mirecki

    2016-12-09

    The increasing demand for miniature autonomous sensors requires low cost integration methods, but to date, material limitations have prevented the direct growth of optically active III-V materials on CMOS devices. We report on the deposition of GaAs nanowires on polycrystalline conductive films to allow for direct integration of optoelectronic devices on dissimilar materials. Undoped, Si-doped, and Be-doped nanowires were grown at Ts  = 400 °C on oxide (indium tin oxide) and metallic (platinum and titanium) films. Be-doping is shown to significantly reduce the nanowire diameter and improve the nanowire aspect ratio to 50:1. Photoluminescence measurements of Be-doped nanowires are 1-2 orders of magnitude stronger than undoped and Si-doped nanowires and have a thermal activation energy of 14 meV, which is comparable to nanowires grown on crystalline substrates. Electrical measurements confirm that the metal-semiconductor junction is Ohmic. These results demonstrate the feasibility of integrating nanowire-based optoelectronic devices directly on CMOS chips.

  13. Physical property analysis of C-doped GaAs as function of the carrier concentration grown by MOCVD using elemental arsenic as precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Reyes, J.; Avendaño, M. A.; Galván-Arellano, M.; Peña-Sierra, R.

    2006-03-01

    This work presents the characterization of GaAs layers grown in a metallic-arsenic-based-MOCVD system. The gallium precursor was the compound trimethylgallium (TMG) and elemental arsenic as precursor of arsenic. The most important parameters of the growth process include the substrate temperature and the composition of the carrier gas; an N2+H2 gas mixture. The influence of carbon doping on the optical and electrical properties of GaAs layers have been studied by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, Photoreflectance (PR) and Hall Effect measurements. To carry out doping with carbon in the range of around 1016 to 1020 cm-3, it was necessary to modifying the hydrogen activity in the reacting atmosphere with the control of the N{2}+H{2}, mixture which was used as carrier gas. The PL response of the samples is strongly dependent on the growth temperature and showed mainly two radiative transitions, band-to-band and band-to C-acceptor. PR spectra present transitions associated to GaAs. Besides, short period oscillations near the GaAs band-gap energy are observed, interpreted as Franz-Keldysh oscillations associated to the hole-ionized acceptor (h-A-) pair modulations. For investigating the chemical bonds of impurity-related species in the GaAs layers optical absorption was measured using a FT-IR spectrometer. Device quality GaAs layers have been grown in a broad range of growth temperatures.

  14. Increased effective barrier heights in Schottky diodes by molecular-beam epitaxy of CoSi2 and Ga-doped Si on Si(111)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, R. W.; Lin, T. L.; Grunthaner, P. J.; Andersson, P. O.; Iannelli, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    Increasing the effective Schottky-barrier height of epitaxial CoSi2/Si(111) diodes by the use of thin, highly doped Si layers in close proximity to the metal-semiconductor interface has been studied. Intrinsic Si, Si doped by coevaporation of Ga, and epitaxial CoSi2 layers have all been grown in the same molecular-beam epitaxy system. Current-voltage and photoresponse characterization yield barrier heights ranging from 0.61 eV for a sample with no p(+) layer to 0.89 eV for a sample with a 20-nm-thick p(+) layer. These results are compared to theoretical values based on a one-dimensional solution of Poisson's equation under the depletion approximation.

  15. Study and Analysis of AlGaAs/GaAs Modulation Doped Field-Effect Transistors Incorporating P-Type Schottky Gate Barriers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    Doped Structures (Al Ga As/GaAs) and Correlation x -x with Monte Carlo Calculations (GaAs)," Applied Physics Letters 41(3):277 (1 August 1982). 12...Transistors," Applied Physics Letters 40:879-881 (15 May 1982). 13. Drummond, T., W. Kopp, M. Keever, H. Morkoc, and A. Cho. "Electron Mobility in...34Mobility of the Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in GaAs-AlGaAs Heterostructures," Applied Physics Letters 45:695-697, (15 Sep 1984). 37. Linh, N., P

  16. GaInP/GaAs tandem solar cells with highly Te- and Mg-doped GaAs tunnel junctions grown by MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xin-He; Liu, San-Jie; Xia, Yu; Gan, Xing-Yuan; Wang, Hai-Xiao; Wang, Nai-Ming; Yang, Hui

    2015-10-01

    We report a GaInP/GaAs tandem solar cell with a novel GaAs tunnel junction (TJ) with using tellurium (Te) and magnesium (Mg) as n- and p-type dopants via dual-filament low temperature effusion cells grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at low temperature. The test Te/Mg-doped GaAs TJ shows a peak current density of 21 A/cm2. The tandem solar cell by the Te/Mg TJ shows a short-circuit current density of 12 mA/cm2, but a low open-circuit voltage range of 1.4 V˜1.71 V under AM1.5 illumination. The secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis reveals that the Te doping is unexpectedly high and its doping profile extends to the Mg doping region, thus possibly resulting in a less abrupt junction with no tunneling carriers effectively. Furthermore, the tunneling interface shifts from the intended GaAs n++/p++ junction to the AlGaInP/GaAs junction with a higher bandgap AlGaInP tunneling layers, thereby reducing the tunneling peak. The Te concentration of ˜ 2.5 × 1020 in GaAs could cause a lattice strain of 10-3 in magnitude and thus a surface roughening, which also negatively influences the subsequent growth of the top subcell and the GaAs contacting layers. The doping features of Te and Mg are discussed to understand the photovoltaic response of the studied tandem cell. Project supported by the SINANO-SONY Joint Program (Grant No. Y1AAQ11001), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61274134), the USCB Start-up Program (Grant No. 06105033), and the International Cooperation Projects of Suzhou City, China (Grant No. SH201215).

  17. Doping and electronic properties of GaAs grown by close-spaced vapor transport from powder sources for scalable III–V photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Ritenour, Andrew J.; Boucher, Jason W.; DeLancey, Robert; Greenaway, Ann L.; Aloni, Shaul; Boettcher, Shannon W.

    2014-09-01

    We report the use of a simple close-spaced vapor transport technique for the growth of high-quality epitaxial GaAs films using potentially inexpensive GaAs powders as precursors. The free carrier type and density (1016 to 1019 cm–3) of the films were adjusted by addition of Te or Zn powder to the GaAs source powder. We show using photoelectrochemical and electron beam-induced current analyses that the minority carrier diffusion lengths of the n- and p-GaAs films reached ~3 μm and ~8 μm, respectively. Hall mobilities approach those achieved for GaAs grown by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition, 1000–4200 cm2 V–1 s–1 for n-GaAs and 50–240 cm V–1 s–1 for p-GaAs depending on doping level. We conclude that the electronic quality of GaAs grown by close-spaced vapor transport is similar to that of GaAs made using conventional techniques and is thus sufficient for high-performance photovoltaic applications.

  18. Doping and electronic properties of GaAs grown by close-spaced vapor transport from powder sources for scalable III–V photovoltaics

    DOE PAGES

    Ritenour, Andrew J.; Boucher, Jason W.; DeLancey, Robert; ...

    2014-09-01

    We report the use of a simple close-spaced vapor transport technique for the growth of high-quality epitaxial GaAs films using potentially inexpensive GaAs powders as precursors. The free carrier type and density (1016 to 1019 cm–3) of the films were adjusted by addition of Te or Zn powder to the GaAs source powder. We show using photoelectrochemical and electron beam-induced current analyses that the minority carrier diffusion lengths of the n- and p-GaAs films reached ~3 μm and ~8 μm, respectively. Hall mobilities approach those achieved for GaAs grown by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition, 1000–4200 cm2 V–1 s–1 for n-GaAsmore » and 50–240 cm V–1 s–1 for p-GaAs depending on doping level. We conclude that the electronic quality of GaAs grown by close-spaced vapor transport is similar to that of GaAs made using conventional techniques and is thus sufficient for high-performance photovoltaic applications.« less

  19. Persistent photoconductivity in uniforndy and selectively silicon doped AlAs / GaAs short period superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanjean, P.; Sicart, J.; Robert, J. L.; Mollot, F.; Planel, R.

    1991-04-01

    Hall and photo-Hall measurements have been carried out between 4 K et 400 K on MBE deposited AlAs / GaAs superiattices (SPS) with short period (25 Å < P < 50 Å) SPSs were uniformly or selectively doped with silicon. Galvanomagnetic measurements show that SPSs exhibited an electrical behaviour similar to that of AlxGal{1-x}As : Si alloy (0.32 < x < 0.35). The Hall mobility was increased under illumination and persistent photoconductivity (PPC) was observed at low temperature (DX center). Ibermal annealing of PPC was performed by increasing the measurement temperature. Two plateaus are observed in the n_H(T) curves in uniformly doped SPSs whereas only one plateau was present in selectively doped SPSs. These experimental results are interpreted in terms of the multibarrier model of the DX center recently proposed in AIxGal{1-x}As: Si. Nous présentons des résultats de mesures d'effet Hall et photo-Hall obtenus entre 4 K et 400 K dans des superréseaux AlAs / GaAs de courtes périodes (25 Å < P < 50 Å) déposées par MBE et dopées au silicium de manière uniforme ou sélectivement dans GaAs. Les mesures de concentration de porteurs et de mobilité par effet Hall à l'obscurité montrent que ce type de SPS (short period superiattice) présente un comportement électrique voisin de l'alliage AIxGal{1-x}As: Si de teneur en aluminium équivalente (0.32 < x < 0.35). Les mesures de photo-Hall à basse température montrent que ces SPS présentent également une photeconductivité persistente (PPC) et une augmentation de mobilité sous éclairement. La présence d'un plateau de PPC à basse temperature (T< 90 K) est caractéristique du centre métastable DX dans tous les cas. Des mesures de décroissance du nombre de porteurs mesurés à l'obscurité aprés éclairement quand la température augmente (capture thermique), mettent en évidence la présence de deux plateaux correspondant à deux barrières thermiques de l'état métastable du centre DX dans les SPS

  20. Factors influencing doping control and abrupt metallurgical transitions during atmospheric pressure MOVPE growth of AlGaAs and GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J. S.; Mason, N. J.; Robinson, M.

    1984-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure MOVPE of GaAs and AlGaAs has been investigated using two gas handling systems and a conventional horizontal reactor. Initially a simple source/carrier gas manifold design was assessed but severe retention of reagents in the pipework resulted in poor control of doping and interface abruptness. However, integration of the reagent and carrier gas in a pressure balanced vent/run configuration gave a significant improvement. AlGaAs/GaAs multilayers and n +/n - GaAs transitions have been used to assess the performance of both systems. Abrupt p-type doping transitions using bis-cyclopentadienylmagnesium proved unsuccessful as long doping tails were observed.

  1. Thermal annealing behavior of deep levels in Rh-doped n-type MOVPE GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, Nazir A.; Qurashi, Umar S.; Zafar Iqbal, M.

    2009-12-01

    We report the results of isochronal annealing study of deep levels in Rh-doped n-type GaAs grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) technique has been employed to study the effects of annealing on deep levels in Rh-doped p+nn+ junction samples. A majority-carrier emitting band of deep levels along with a high temperature peak (RhE1), corresponding to deep level energy position Ec-0.92 eV and a minority-carrier emitting band of deep levels are identified with Rh-impurity prior to thermal annealing of our samples. In addition to these Rh-related deep levels, the well-known native defect EL2 at Ec-0.79 eV is observed in majority-carrier emission spectra and two inadvertent deep-level defects, H1 at Ev+0.09 eV and H3 at Ev+0.93 eV, usually observed in reference (without Rh) samples, are also detected in the minority-carrier emission spectra of Rh-doped samples. At least one level is found to be introduced at Ec-0.13 eV in Rh-doped samples at about the same temperature position as the level E(A)1, observed in reference samples, as a result of isochronal annealing, while the other two levels observed in reference samples could not be seen in annealed Rh-doped samples. Data on the annealing behavior and other characteristics of both Rh-related bands of deep levels observed in majority- and minority-carrier emission DLTS spectra, as well as for the high temperature Rh-related electron-emission peak, are presented. Possible interpretations of these results for the nature and structure of the different deep-level defects are discussed.

  2. Comparison of OARE Accelerometer Data with Dopant Distribution in Se-Doped GaAs Crystals Grown During USML-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskowitz, Milton E.; Bly, Jennifer M.; Matthiesen, David H.

    1997-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in the crystal growth furnace (CGF) during the first United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1), the STS-50 flight of the Space Shuttle Columbia, to determine the segregation behavior of selenium in bulk GaAs in a microgravity environment. After the flight, the selenium-doped GaAs crystals were sectioned, polished, and analyzed to determine the free carrier concentration as a function of position, One of the two crystals initially exhibited an axial concentration profile indicative of diffusion controlled growth, but this profile then changed to that predicted for a complete mixing type growth. An analytical model, proposed by Naumann [R.J. Naumann, J. Crystal Growth 142 (1994) 253], was utilized to predict the maximum allowable microgravity disturbances transverse to the growth direction during the two different translation rates used for each of the experiments. The predicted allowable acceleration levels were 4.86 microgram for the 2.5 micrometers/s furnace translation rate and 38.9 microgram for the 5.0 micrometers/s rate. These predicted values were compared to the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) accelerometer data recorded during the crystal growth periods for these experiments. Based on the analysis of the OARE acceleration data and utilizing the predictions from the analytical model, it is concluded that the change in segregation behavior was not caused by any acceleration events in the microgravity environment.

  3. First Principles Electronic Structure of Mn doped GaAs, GaP, and GaN Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Schulthess, Thomas C; Temmerman, Walter M; Szotek, Zdzislawa; Svane, Axel; Petit, Leon

    2007-01-01

    We present first-principles electronic structure calculations of Mn doped III-V semiconductors based on the local spin-density approximation (LSDA) as well as the self-interaction corrected local spin density method (SIC-LSD). We find that it is crucial to use a self-interaction free approach to properly describe the electronic ground state. The SIC-LSD calculations predict the proper electronic ground state configuration for Mn in GaAs, GaP, and GaN. Excellent quantitative agreement with experiment is found for magnetic moment and p-d exchange in (GaMn)As. These results allow us to validate commonly used models for magnetic semiconductors. Furthermore, we discuss the delicate problem of extracting binding energies of localized levels from density functional theory calculations. We propose three approaches to take into account final state effects to estimate the binding energies of the Mn-d levels in GaAs. We find good agreement between computed values and estimates from photoemisison experiments.

  4. First-principles electronic structure of Mn-doped GaAs, GaP, and GaN semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulthess, T. C.; Temmerman, W. M.; Szotek, Z.; Svane, A.; Petit, L.

    2007-04-01

    We present first-principles electronic structure calculations of Mn-doped III-V semiconductors based on the local spin-density approximation (LSDA) as well as the self-interaction corrected local spin-density method (SIC-LSD). We find that it is crucial to use a self-interaction free approach to properly describe the electronic ground state. The SIC-LSD calculations predict the proper electronic ground state configuration for Mn in GaAs, GaP, and GaN. Excellent quantitative agreement with experiment is found for the magnetic moment and p-d exchange in (GaMn)As. These results allow us to validate commonly used models for magnetic semiconductors. Furthermore, we discuss the delicate problem of extracting binding energies of localized levels from density functional theory calculations. We propose three approaches to take into account final state effects to estimate the binding energies of the Mn d levels in GaAs. We find good agreement between computed values and estimates from photoemission experiments.

  5. High-field electroluminescence in semiconductor tunnel junctions with a Mn-doped GaAs layer

    SciTech Connect

    Hai, Pham Nam; Yatsui, Takashi; Ohtsu, Motoichi; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2014-09-21

    We investigated high-field electroluminescence (EL) in semiconductor tunnel junctions with a Mn-doped GaAs layer (here, referred to as GaAs:Mn). Besides the band-gap emission of GaAs, the EL spectra show visible light emissions with two peaks at 1.94 eV and 2.19 eV, which are caused by d-d transitions of the Mn atoms excited by hot electrons. The threshold voltages for band-gap and visible light EL in the tunnel junctions with a GaAs:Mn electrode are 1.3 V higher than those of GaAs:Mn excited by hot holes in reserve biased p⁺-n junctions, which is consistent with the hot carrier transport in the band profiles of these structures. Our EL results at room temperature show that the electron temperature in GaAs:Mn can be as high as ~700 K for a low input electrical power density of 0.4 W/cm², while the lattice temperature of the GaAs:Mn layer can be kept at 340 K.

  6. Evaluation of modulating field of photoreflectance of surface-intrinsic-n+ type doped GaAs by using photoinduced voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. Y.; Chien, J. Y.; Wang, D. P.; Huang, K. F.; Huang, T. C.

    2002-04-01

    Photoreflectance (PR) of surface-intrinsic-n+ type doped GaAs has been measured for various power densities of pump laser. The spectra exhibited many Franz-Keldysh oscillations, whereby the strength of electric field F in the undoped layer can be determined. The thus obtained Fs are subject to photovoltaic effect and are less than built-in field Fbi. In the previous work we have obtained the relation F≈Fbi-δF/2 when δF≪Fbi by using electroreflectance to simulate PR, where δF is the modulating field of the pump beam. In this work a method was devised to evaluate δF by using photoinduced voltages Vs and, hence, the relation can be verified by PR itself. The δFs obtained by Vs are also consistent with those of using imaginary part of fast Fourier transform of PR spectra.

  7. Critical metal-insulator transition due to nuclear quantum effects in Mn-doped GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Soungmin; Raebiger, Hannes

    2016-12-01

    Mn-doped GaAs exhibits a critical metal-insulator transition at the Mn concentration of xcrit≈1 % . Our self-interaction corrected first principles calculation shows that for Mn concentrations x ≳1 % , hole carriers are delocalized in host valence states, and for x ≲1 % , holes tend to be trapped in impurity-band-like states. We further show that for a finite range of concentrations around xcrit the system exhibits a nonadiabatic superposition of these states, i.e., a mixing of electronic and nuclear wave functions. This means that the phase transition is continuous, and its criticality is caused by quantum effects of the atomic nuclei. In other words, the apparently electronic phase transition from the insulator to metal state cannot be described by electronic effects alone.

  8. Ultraviolet band-pass Schottky barrier photodetectors formed by Al-doped ZnO contacts to n-GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Sheu, J.K.; Lee, M.L.; Tun, C.J.; Lin, S.W.

    2006-01-23

    This work prepared Al-doped ZnO(AZO) films using dc sputtering to form Schottky contacts onto GaN films with low-temperature-grown GaN cap layer. Application of ultraviolet photodetector showed that spectral responsivity exhibits a narrow bandpass characteristic ranging from 345 to 375 nm. Moreover, unbiased peak responsivity was estimated to be around 0.12 A/W at 365 nm, which corresponds to a quantum efficiency of around 40%. In our study, relatively low responsivity can be explained by the marked absorption of the AZO contact layer. When the reverse biases were below 5 V, the study revealed that dark currents were well below 5x10{sup -12} A even though the samples were annealed at increased temperatures.

  9. Selfsimilar and fractal analysis of n-type delta-doped quasiregular GaAs quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    García-Cervantes, H.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.

    2014-05-15

    We study the electronic structure of n-type delta-doped quantum wells in GaAs in which the multiple well system is built according to the Fibonacci sequence. The building blocks A and B correspond to delta-doped wells with impurities densities n{sub 2DA} and n{sub 2DB}, and the same well width. The Thomas-Fermi approximation, the semi-empirical sp{sub 3}s* tight-binding model including spin, the Surface Green Function Matching method and the Transfer Matrix approach were implemented to obtain the confining potential, the electronic structure and the selfsimilarity of the spectrum. The fragmentation of the electronic spectra is observed whenever the building blocks A and B interact and it increases as the difference of impurities density between A and B increases as well. The wave function of the first sate of the fragmented bands presents critical characteristics, this is, it is not a localized state nor a extended one as well as it has selfsimilar features. So, the quasiregular characteristics are preserved irrespective of the complexity of the system and can affect the performance of devices based on these structures.

  10. Structural and magnetic characteristics of MnAs nanoclusters embedded in Be-doped GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rench, D. W.; Schiffer, P.; Samarth, N.

    2011-09-01

    We describe a systematic study of the synthesis, microstructure, and magnetization of hybrid ferromagnet-semiconductor nanomaterials comprised of MnAs nanoclusters embedded in a p-doped GaAs matrix. These samples are created during the in situ annealing of Be-doped (Ga,Mn)As heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Transmission electron microscopy and magnetometry studies reveal two distinct classes of nanoclustered samples whose structural and magnetic properties depend on the Mn content of the initial (Ga,Mn)As layer. For Mn content in the range 5-7.5%, annealing creates a superparamagnetic material with a uniform distribution of small clusters (diameter ˜6 nm) and with a low blocking temperature (TB˜10 K). While transmission electron microscopy cannot definitively identify the composition and crystalline phase of these small clusters, our experimental data suggest that they may be comprised of either zinc-blende MnAs or Mn-rich regions of (Ga,Mn)As. At higher Mn content (≳8%), we find that annealing results in an inhomogeneous distribution of both small clusters as well as much larger NiAs-phase MnAs clusters (diameter ˜25 nm). These samples also exhibit supermagnetism, albeit with substantially larger magnetic moments and coercive fields, and blocking temperatures well above room temperature.

  11. Selfsimilar and fractal analysis of n-type delta-doped quasiregular GaAs quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Cervantes, H.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.

    2014-05-01

    We study the electronic structure of n-type delta-doped quantum wells in GaAs in which the multiple well system is built according to the Fibonacci sequence. The building blocks A and B correspond to delta-doped wells with impurities densities n2DA and n2DB, and the same well width. The Thomas-Fermi approximation, the semi-empirical sp3s* tight-binding model including spin, the Surface Green Function Matching method and the Transfer Matrix approach were implemented to obtain the confining potential, the electronic structure and the selfsimilarity of the spectrum. The fragmentation of the electronic spectra is observed whenever the building blocks A and B interact and it increases as the difference of impurities density between A and B increases as well. The wave function of the first sate of the fragmented bands presents critical characteristics, this is, it is not a localized state nor a extended one as well as it has selfsimilar features. So, the quasiregular characteristics are preserved irrespective of the complexity of the system and can affect the performance of devices based on these structures.

  12. The influence of Sb doping on the growth and electronic properties of GaAs(100) and AlGaAs(100)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamison, K. D.; Chen, H. C.; Bensaoula, A.; Lim, W.; Trombetta, L.

    1989-01-01

    Isoelectronic doping using antimony has been shown to reduce traps and improve material properties during epitaxial growth of Si doped GaAs(100) and AlGaAs(100). In this study, the effect of the antimony dopant on the optimal growth temperature is examined with the aim of producing high-quality heterostructures at lower temperatues. High-quality films of GaAs and AlGaAs have been grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at the normal growth temperatures of 610 and 700 C, respectively, and 50-100 C below this temperature using varying small amounts of Sb as a dopant. Electrical properties of the films were then examined using Hall mobility measurements and deep-level transient spectroscopy.

  13. Thermally stimulated current spectroscopy on silicon planar-doped GaAs samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinger, R. M.; Bezerra, J. C.; Chagas, E. F.; González, J. C.; Rodrigues, W. N.; Ribeiro, G. M.; Moreira, M. V. B.; de Oliveira, A. G.

    1998-10-01

    Using thermally stimulated current (TSC) spectroscopy we have identified the presence of several deep traps in low temperature grown (LTG) nonintentionally doped bulk molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)-GaAs and silicon planar-doped MBE-GaAs samples. The experiments of TSC spectroscopy were carried out on a LTG MBE-GaAs epilayer grown at 300 °C and the planar-doped layer with a nominal silicon concentration of 3.4×1012cm-2. The LTG nonintentionally doped bulk MBE-GaAs sample shows three peaks in the TSC spectra but the planar-doped MBE-GaAs sample shows spectra similar to those of bulk samples grown by the liquid-encapsulated Czochralski and vertical gradient freeze methods. The main achievement is the experimental evidence that the potential well present in the planar-doped sample is effective in detecting the presence of different deep traps previously not seen in LTG bulk MBE-GaAs epilayers due to a shorter carrier lifetime (about 10-12 s) in the conduction band which occurs due to EL2-like deep traps recombination. This fact is evidenced by a strong hopping conduction in LTG bulk MBE-GaAs samples at temperatures lower than 300 K, but not in planar-doped MBE-GaAs samples because the two-dimensional electron gas has a higher mobility than lateral LTG bulk MBE-GaAs epilayers.

  14. Low defect densities in molecular beam epitaxial GaAs achieved by isoelectronic In doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharya, P. K.; Dhar, S.; Berger, P.; Juang, F.-Y.

    1986-01-01

    A study has been made of the effects of adding small amounts of In (0.2-1.2 pct) to GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The density of four electron traps decreases in concentration by an order of magnitude, and the peak intensities of prominent emissions in the excitonic spectra are reduced with increase in In content. Based on the higher surface migration rate of In, compared to Ga, at the growth temperatures it is apparent that the traps and the excitonic transitions are related to point defects. This agrees with earlier observations by Briones and Collins (1982) and Skromme et al. (1985).

  15. Femtosecond energy relaxation of nonthermal electrons injected in p-doped GaAs base of a heterojunction bipolar transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, S. S.; Vengurlekar, A. S.

    2001-07-01

    We study femtosecond relaxation of minority carriers (electrons) injected into a heavily p-doped base of a heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT). Here, we consider the case of p-doped GaAs, to be specific. The electrons are assumed to have a peaked energy distribution at t=0, with kinetic energies a few hundred meV above the conduction band threshold. We solve the time dependent Boltzmann equation governing the dynamics of these electrons. The main feature of this work is a detailed calculation of the time dependent nonthermal, nonequilibrium electron energy distribution, that relaxes due to single particle excitations via electron-hole scattering and interaction with coupled optical phonon-hole plasmon modes in the sub and picosecond time domains. We highlight the significant role that the electron-hole scattering plays in this relaxation. The majority carriers (holes) are assumed to remain in quasiequilibrium with the lattice, taken to be at room temperature (or at 77 K). We present calculations of electron energy relaxation with the hole density varied from 1×1018 to 1×1020cm-3. In the initial, subpicosecond stages of the relaxation, the energy distribution evolves into two major components: a quasiballistic but broad component, at energies near the injection energy, and an energy relaxed component near E=0. The latter becomes dominant in a picosecond or so. The electrons with an initial mean velocity of ˜1.5×108cm/s attain a cooler distribution with a mean velocity of ˜4×107 cm/s within about 1 ps for p doping in excess of 1×1019 cm-3. The temporal evolution of average velocity of the electrons should be useful in obtaining values of the base width suitable for effective operation of HBTs.

  16. Analysis of Hyperabrupt and Uniform Junctions in GaAs for the Application of Varactor Diode.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jun-Woo; Hong, Sejun; Choi, Seok-Gyu; Kim, Hyun-Seok

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we present a GaAs varactor diode with a hyperabrupt junction for the enhancement of breakdown voltage and capacitance variation in a reverse bias state. The hyperabrupt doping profile in the n-type active layer is prepared in a controlled nonlinear manner, with the density of the dopants increasing towards the Schottky junction. The hyperabrupt GaAs varactor diode is fabricated and characterized for breakdown voltage and capacitance over the electric field, induced by an applied reverse bias voltage. A reduced value of the electric field is observed owing to the nonlinear behavior of the electric field at the hyperabrupt junction, although the device has a larger doping density at the Schottky junction. Furthermore, the capacitance ratio of the hyperabrupt junction diode is also improved. Variation in the device capacitance is affected by variation in the depletion region across the junction. Technology CAD is used to understand the experimental phenomena by considering the magnitude of charge density as a function of the doping profile. A higher breakdown voltage and greater capacitance modulation are shown in the hyperabrupt junction diode compared to the uniform junction diode.

  17. Effect of the V{sub As}V{sub Ga} complex defect doping on properties of the semi-insulating GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Deming Qiao, Hongbo; Shi, Wei; Li, Enling

    2014-04-21

    The different position V{sub As}V{sub Ga} cluster defect doping in semi-insulating (SI) GaAs has been studied by first-principles calculation based on hybrid density functional theory. Our calculated results show that EL6 level is formed due to the V{sub As}V{sub Ga} complex defect, which is very close to the experimental result. It provides the explanation of the absorption of laser with the wavelength beyond in semi-insulating GaAs. The formation energy of V{sub As}V{sub Ga} complex defect is found to decrease from surface to interior gradually. The conduction band minima and valence band maxima of GaAs (001) surface with the V{sub As}V{sub Ga} complex defect are all located at Γ point, and some defect levels are produced in the forbidden band. In contrast, the conduction band minima and valence band maxima of GaAs with the interior V{sub As}V{sub Ga} complex defect are not located at the same k-point, so it might involve the change of momentum in the electron transition process. The research will help strengthen the understanding of photoelectronic properties and effectively guide the preparation of the SI-GaAs materials.

  18. Ga self-diffusion in isotopically enriched GaAs heterostructures doped with Si and Zn

    SciTech Connect

    Norseng, Marshall Stephen

    1999-12-01

    This study attempts to advance the modeling of AlGaAs/GaAs/AlAs diffusion by experimental investigation of Ga self-diffusion in undoped, as-grown doped and Zinc diffused structures. We utilize novel, isotopically enriched superlattice and heterostructure samples to provide direct observation and accurate measurement of diffusion with a precision not possible using conventional techniques.

  19. Intermediate Band Performance of GaSb Type-II Quantum Dots Located in n-Doped Region of GaAs Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kechiantz, Ara; Afanasev, Andrei

    2013-03-01

    The intermediate band (IB) electronic states assist sub-bandgap photons in generation of additional photocurrent in single-junction solar cells. Such non-linear effect of resonant two-photon absorption of concentrated sunlight attracts much attention because it promises up to 63% conversion efficiency in IB solar cells. The main obstacle to achieving high performance is involvement of IB-states in electron-hole recombination that is drastically increasing the dark current and reducing the open circuit voltage of IB solar cells. The IB-states can be composed of quantum dots (QDs). Concentration of sunlight limits recombination through type-II QD IB-states located outside of the depletion region. In this work we model GaAs solar cell with strained GaSb type-II QDs separated from the depletion region. The focus is on type-II QDs located in n-doped region of p-n-junction. Our calculation shows that photovoltaic performance can be essentially improved by concentration of sunlight, and that this improvement is highly sensitive to the doping of materials and the shape of potential barriers surrounding type-II QDs. For instance, strained GaSb type-II QDs may increase the performance of GaAs solar cell by 20% compared to the reference GaAs solar cell without QDs.

  20. Heat load of a P-doped GaAs photocathode in SRF electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, E.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Kewisch, J.; Burrill, A.; Rao, T.; Wu, Q.; Jain, A.; Gupta, R.; Holmes, D.

    2010-05-23

    Many efforts were made over the last decades to develop a better polarized electron source for the high energy physics. Several laboratories operate DC guns with the Gallium-Arsenide photo-cathode, which yield a highly polarized electron beam. However, the beam's emittance might well be improved using a Superconducting RF electron gun, which delivers beams of higher brightness than DC guns does, because the field gradient at the cathode is higher. SRF guns with metal cathodes and CsTe cathodes have been tested successfully. To produce polarized electrons, a Gallium-Arsenide photo-cathode must be used: an experiment to do so in a superconducting RF gun is under way at BNL. Since the cathode will be normal conducting, the problem about the heat load stemming from the cathode arises. We present our measurements of the electrical resistance of GaAs at cryogenic temperatures, a prediction of the heat load and the verification by measuring the quality factor of the gun with and without cathode.

  1. Femtosecond energy relaxation of nonthermal electrons injected in p-doped GaAs base of a heterojunction bipolar transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhu, S. S.; Vengurlekar, A. S.

    2001-07-01

    We study femtosecond relaxation of minority carriers (electrons) injected into a heavily p-doped base of a heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT). Here, we consider the case of p-doped GaAs, to be specific. The electrons are assumed to have a peaked energy distribution at t=0, with kinetic energies a few hundred meV above the conduction band threshold. We solve the time dependent Boltzmann equation governing the dynamics of these electrons. The main feature of this work is a detailed calculation of the time dependent nonthermal, nonequilibrium electron energy distribution, that relaxes due to single particle excitations via electron{endash}hole scattering and interaction with coupled optical phonon-hole plasmon modes in the sub and picosecond time domains. We highlight the significant role that the electron-hole scattering plays in this relaxation. The majority carriers (holes) are assumed to remain in quasiequilibrium with the lattice, taken to be at room temperature (or at 77 K). We present calculations of electron energy relaxation with the hole density varied from 1{times}10{sup 18} to 1{times}10{sup 20}cm{sup {minus}3}. In the initial, subpicosecond stages of the relaxation, the energy distribution evolves into two major components: a quasiballistic but broad component, at energies near the injection energy, and an energy relaxed component near E=0. The latter becomes dominant in a picosecond or so. The electrons with an initial mean velocity of {similar_to}1.5{times}10{sup 8}cm/s attain a cooler distribution with a mean velocity of {similar_to}4{times}10{sup 7}cm/s within about 1 ps for p doping in excess of 1{times}10{sup 19}cm{sup {minus}3}. The temporal evolution of average velocity {l_angle}v{r_angle} of the electrons should be useful in obtaining values of the base width suitable for effective operation of HBTs. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Light Intensity Influence on the Effective Schottky Barrier Height in Extraordinary Optoconductance (EOC) Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, F. M.; Tran, L. C.; Solin, S. A.

    2013-03-01

    Novel micro to nanoscale metal-semiconductor-hybrid (MSH) structures capable of room temperature light detection have been previously reported and classified as Extraordinary Optoconductance (EOC) devices. The devices are square stacked structures, with a Au-Ti shunt forming a Schottky-Interface with an n-doped Ga-As mesa. Resistance measurements were taken by a 4-point van-der Pauw method to remove contact and lead resistance and eliminate DC offsets. The device's resistance changes as light incident on the surface of the structure modifies the charge density within the body of the device. The change in charge density changes the effective Schottky Barrier height and shifts the measured 4 point resistance of the heterogeneous structure. We investigate the dependence of the effective Schottky Barrier height on the incident intensity of light by measuring the open circuit voltage under various intensities of optical perturbation at room temperature. The barrier height is negligible and the interface ohmic under HeNe laser 632.8 nm illumination at a power density of 636 mW/cm2, allowing the flow of current through the shunt. This device performance will be contrasted with that of an FET, where current does not propagate through the gate. SAS has a financial interest in PixelEXX, a start-up company whose mission is to market imaging arrays.

  3. Growth studies of erbium-doped GaAs deposited by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy using noval cyclopentadienyl-based erbium sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redwing, J. M.; Kuech, T. F.; Gordon, D. C.; Vaartstra, B. A.; Lau, S. S.

    1994-01-01

    Erbium-doped GaAS layers were grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy using two new sources, bis(i-propylcyclopentadienyl)cyclopentadienyl erbium and tris(t-butylcyclopentadienyl) erbium. Controlled Er doping in the range of 10(exp 17) - 10(exp 18)/cu cm was achieved using a relatively low source temperature of 90 C. The doping exhibits a second-order dependence on inlet source partial pressure, similar to behavior obtained with cyclopentadienyl Mg dopant sources. Equivalent amounts of oxygen and Er are present in 'as-grown' films indicating that the majority of Er dopants probably exist as Er-O complexes in the material. Er(+3) luminescence at 1.54 micrometers was measured from the as-grown films, but ion implantation of additional oxygen decreases the emission intensity. Electrical compensation of n-type GaAs layers codoped with Er and Si is directly correlated to the Er concentration is proposed to arise from the deep centers associated with Er which are responsible for a broad emission band near 0.90 micrometers present in the photoluminescence spectra of GaAs:Si, Er films.

  4. Cooperative transition of electronic states of antisite As defects in Be-doped low-temperature-grown GaAs layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambri Mohamed, Mohd; Tien Lam, Pham; Bae, K. W.; Otsuka, N.

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic properties resulting from localized spins associated with antisite arsenic ions AsGa+ in Be-doped low-temperature-grown GaAs (LT-GaAs) layers were studied by measuring the magnetization of lift-off samples. With fast cooling, the magnetization of samples at 1.8 K becomes significantly lower than that expected from Curie-type paramagnetism in the range of the applied field to 7 T, and a transition from low magnetization to the magnetization of paramagnetism occurs upon the heating of samples to 4.5 K. With slow cooling, on the other hand, samples have a paramagnetic temperature dependence throughout the measurement-temperature range. The magnetization was found to decrease monotonically when a sample was kept at a fixed low temperature. These observations are explained by the cooperative transition of electron states of AsGa defects, which is closely related to the normal-metastable state transition of EL2 defects in semi-insulating GaAs. The results of the magnetization measurements in the present study suggest that AsGa+ ions are spontaneously displaced at low temperature without photoexcitation in Be-doped LT-GaAs. The similarity of the transition observed in this system to the normal-metastable state transition of the EL2 defect was also suggested by first-principle calculations of the electron state of an AsGa defect with a doped Be atom.

  5. Investigation of the optical properties of GaAs with δ-Si doping grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrukhin, D. V. Yachmenev, A. E.; Bugaev, A. S.; Galiev, G. B.; Klimov, E. A.; Khabibullin, R. A.; Ponomarev, D. S.; Maltsev, P. P.

    2015-07-15

    Molecular-beam epitaxy is used for the preparation of structures based on “low-temperature” grown GaAs with introduced d-Si doping. Specific features in the photon-energy range of 1.28–1.48 eV are observed in the photoluminescence spectrum after structures annealing at temperatures of 520 and 580°C; these features are related to the formation of point defects and their complexes. The “pump–probe” light transmission measurements reveal that the characteristic lifetimes of nonequilibrium carriers in the fabricated structures amount to T{sup c} ≈ 1.2–1.5 ps.

  6. Magnesium doping of efficient GaAs and Ga(0.75)In(0.25)As solar cells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, C. R.; Ford, C. W.; Werthen, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Magnesium has been substituted for zinc in GaAs and Ga(0.75)In(0.25)As solar cells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Bis(cyclopentadienyl)magnesium (Cp2Mg) is used as the MOCVD transport agent for Mg. Full retention of excellent material quality and efficient cell performance results. The substitution of Mg for Zn would enhance the abruptness and reproducibility of doping profiles, and facilitate high temperature processing and operation, due to the much lower diffusion coefficient of Mg, relative to Zn, in these materials.

  7. Schottky barrier solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.; Yeh, Y. C. M. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A method of fabricating a Schottky barrier solar cell is described. The cell consists of a thin substrate of low cost material with at least the top surface of the substrate being electrically conductive. A thin layer of heavily doped n-type polycrystalling germanium is deposited on the substrate after a passivation layer is deposited to prevent migration of impurities into the polycrystalline germanium. The polycrystalline germanium is recrystallized to increase the crystal sizes to serve as a base layer on which a thin layer of gallium arsenide is vapor-epitaxilly grown followed by a thermally-grown oxide layer. A metal layer is deposited on the oxide layer and a grid electrode is deposited to be in electrical contact with the top surface of the metal layer.

  8. Characterization of epitaxial GaAs MOS capacitors using atomic layer-deposited TiO2/Al2O3 gate stack: study of Ge auto-doping and p-type Zn doping

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Electrical and physical properties of a metal-oxide-semiconductor [MOS] structure using atomic layer-deposited high-k dielectrics (TiO2/Al2O3) and epitaxial GaAs [epi-GaAs] grown on Ge(100) substrates have been investigated. The epi-GaAs, either undoped or Zn-doped, was grown using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition method at 620°C to 650°C. The diffusion of Ge atoms into epi-GaAs resulted in auto-doping, and therefore, an n-MOS behavior was observed for undoped and Zn-doped epi-GaAs with the doping concentration up to approximately 1017 cm-3. This is attributed to the diffusion of a significant amount of Ge atoms from the Ge substrate as confirmed by the simulation using SILVACO software and also from the secondary ion mass spectrometry analyses. The Zn-doped epi-GaAs with a doping concentration of approximately 1018 cm-3 converts the epi-GaAs layer into p-type since the Zn doping is relatively higher than the out-diffused Ge concentration. The capacitance-voltage characteristics show similar frequency dispersion and leakage current for n-type and p-type epi-GaAs layers with very low hysteresis voltage (approximately 10 mV). PACS: 81.15.Gh. PMID:22297193

  9. Selective-area growth of heavily n-doped GaAs nanostubs on Si(001) by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yoon Jung; Simmonds, Paul J.; Beekley, Brett; Goorsky, Mark S.; Woo, Jason C. S.

    2016-04-01

    Using an aspect ratio trapping technique, we demonstrate molecular beam epitaxy of GaAs nanostubs on Si(001) substrates. Nanoholes in a SiO2 mask act as a template for GaAs-on-Si selective-area growth (SAG) of nanostubs 120 nm tall and ≤100 nm in diameter. We investigate the influence of growth parameters including substrate temperature and growth rate on SAG. Optimizing these parameters results in complete selectivity with GaAs growth only on the exposed Si(001). Due to the confined-geometry, strain and defects in the GaAs nanostubs are restricted in lateral dimensions, and surface energy is further minimized. We assess the electrical properties of the selectively grown GaAs nanostubs by fabricating heterogeneous p+-Si/n+-GaAs p-n diodes.

  10. Low temperature tunneling transport in van der Waals contacted superconductor/semiconductor Schottky barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ang; Hebard, Arthur

    We present a comparative study over a large temperature range (2.5-300K) of Schottky barriers formed either by evaporation of normal metals (Au, Al) or by van der Waals contact of mechanically exfoliated under-doped high-Tc Bi-2212 flakes onto moderately doped n-type GaAs and p-type Si semiconductor substrates. Our modified barrier-inhomogeneity model applied to the thermionic emission equation gives a good description of the temperature evolution of barrier parameters, such as the zero-bias Schottky barrier height ΦSB0 (T) , the ideality factor η (T) and the flat band barrier height, as the temperature is lowered from high temperatures where thermionic emission dominates to lower temperatures where thermal field emission and field emission (direct tunneling) dominate. At low temperatures for all barriers studied, both ΦSB0 (T) and η-1 (T) are linear in temperature with zero intercepts. Direct tunneling is verified in the Bi-2212/n-GaAs barriers by the appearance of superconducting density of states curves along with an energy gap 2 Δ = 65 meV in good agreement with ARPES and scanning tunneling microscope results by other investigators. Work supported by NSF DMR #1305783.

  11. Theoretical investigation of Schottky-barrier diode noise performance in external resonant circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiktorov, P.; Starikov, E.; Gruzinskis, V.; Pérez, S.; González, T.; Reggiani, L.; Varani, L.; Vaissière, J. C.

    2006-04-01

    We report Monte Carlo simulations of electronic noise in heavily doped nanometric GaAs Schottky-barrier diodes (SBDs) recently proposed as promising devices for THz applications. We consider a SBD operating in series with a parallel output resonant circuit when a high-frequency large-signal voltage is applied to the whole system. Significant modifications of the noise spectrum with respect to the diode subjected to a constant applied voltage are found to occur in the THz-region. To interpret such behaviour, we have developed a simple analytical approach based on the static I-V and C-V relations as well as on the series resistance of the SBD.

  12. IBIC analysis of gallium arsenide Schottky diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittone, E.; Fizzotti, F.; Mirri, K.; Gargioni, E.; Polesello, P.; LoGiudice, A.; Manfredotti, C.; Galassini, S.; Rossi, P.; Vanni, P.; Nava, F.

    1999-10-01

    Semi-insulating (SI) gallium arsenide (GaAs) devices operating as a reverse biased Schottky diode offer an attractive choice as radiation detector at room temperature both in high energy physics experiments and as X-ray image sensors. However, SI GaAs devices contain a high concentration of traps, which decreases the charge collection efficiency (cce), and affects the energy resolution of such detectors working as nuclear spectrometers. In this paper we present a detailed investigation of the spatial uniformity of the cce carried out by analysing ion beam induced charge (IBIC) space maps obtained by scanning a focused 2 MeV proton microbeam on a SI n-GaAs Schottky diode. The microbeam irradiated both the front (Schottky) and back (ohmic) contacts in order to evaluate the transport properties of both electrons and holes generated by ionisation. The IBIC space maps show a clear non-uniformity of the cce. The poor energy resolution previously observed in such detectors working as alpha particle spectrometers is ascribed to the presence of two different "phases" in the material, which produce two distinct collection efficiency spectra. Such "phases" show different behaviour as a function of the applied bias voltage which is most likely due to the different electric field dependence of the relevant capture cross sections of the trapping centres for both charge carriers.

  13. Alloy formation during molecular beam epitaxy growth of Si-doped InAs nanowires on GaAs[111]B.

    PubMed

    Davydok, Anton; Rieger, Torsten; Biermanns, Andreas; Saqib, Muhammad; Grap, Thomas; Lepsa, Mihail Ion; Pietsch, Ullrich

    2013-08-01

    Vertically aligned InAs nanowires (NWs) doped with Si were grown self-assisted by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs[111]B substrates covered with a thin SiO x layer. Using out-of-plane X-ray diffraction, the influence of Si supply on the growth process and nanostructure formation was studied. It was found that the number of parasitic crystallites grown between the NWs increases with increasing Si flux. In addition, the formation of a Ga0.2In0.8As alloy was observed if the growth was performed on samples covered by a defective oxide layer. This alloy formation is observed within the crystallites and not within the nanowires. The Ga concentration is determined from the lattice mismatch of the crystallites relative to the InAs nanowires. No alloy formation is found for samples with faultless oxide layers.

  14. Electrical properties of Mg-doped GaAs and AlxGa1-xAs (x<=0.36)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csontos, L.; Podor, Balint; Somogyi, K.; Andor, L.

    1992-08-01

    Mg-doped GaAs and AlxGa1-xAs (x

  15. Direct identification of interstitial Mn in heavily p-type doped GaAs and evidence of its high thermal stability

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, L. M. C.; Wahl, U.; Correia, J. G.; Decoster, S.; Vantomme, A.; Silva, M. R. da; Araujo, J. P.

    2011-05-16

    We report on the lattice location of Mn in heavily p-type doped GaAs by means of {beta}{sup -} emission channeling from the decay of {sup 56}Mn. The majority of the Mn atoms substitute for Ga and up to 31% occupy the tetrahedral interstitial site with As nearest neighbors. Contrary to the general belief, we find that interstitial Mn is immobile up to 400 deg. C, with an activation energy for diffusion of 1.7-2.3 eV. Such high thermal stability of interstitial Mn has significant implications on the strategies and prospects for achieving room temperature ferromagnetism in Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As.

  16. Alloy formation during molecular beam epitaxy growth of Si-doped InAs nanowires on GaAs[111]B

    PubMed Central

    Davydok, Anton; Rieger, Torsten; Biermanns, Andreas; Saqib, Muhammad; Grap, Thomas; Lepsa, Mihail Ion; Pietsch, Ullrich

    2013-01-01

    Vertically aligned InAs nanowires (NWs) doped with Si were grown self-assisted by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs[111]B substrates covered with a thin SiOx layer. Using out-of-plane X-ray diffraction, the influence of Si supply on the growth process and nanostructure formation was studied. It was found that the number of parasitic crystallites grown between the NWs increases with increasing Si flux. In addition, the formation of a Ga0.2In0.8As alloy was observed if the growth was performed on samples covered by a defective oxide layer. This alloy formation is observed within the crystallites and not within the nanowires. The Ga concentration is determined from the lattice mismatch of the crystallites relative to the InAs nanowires. No alloy formation is found for samples with faultless oxide layers. PMID:24046494

  17. Consideration of velocity saturation in the design of GaAs varactor diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, Thomas W.; Peatman, William C. B.; Zimmermann, Ruediger; Zimmermann, Ralph

    1993-01-01

    The design of GaAs Schottky barrier varactor diodes is reconsidered in light of the recent discovery of velocity saturation effects in these devices. Experimental data is presented which confirms that improved multiplier performance can be achieved.

  18. Fundamental studies of graphene/graphite and graphene-based Schottky photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Xiaochang

    In the carbon allotropes family, graphene is one of the most versatile members and has been extensively studied since 2004. The goal of this dissertation is not only to investigate the novel fundamental science of graphene and its three-dimensional sibling, graphite, but also to explore graphene's promising potential in modern electronic and optoelectronic devices. The first two chapters provide a concise introduction to the fundamental solid state physics of graphene (as well as graphite) and the physics at the metal/semiconductor interfaces. In the third chapter, we demonstrate the formation of Schottky junctions at the interfaces of graphene (semimetal) and various inorganic semiconductors that play dominating roles in today's semiconductor technology, such as Si, SiC, GaAs and GaN. As shown from their current-voltage (I -V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics, the interface physics can be well described within the framework of the Schottky-Mott model. The results are also well consist with that from our previous studies on graphite based Schottky diodes. In the fourth chapter, as an extension of graphene based Schottky work, we investigate the photovoltaic (PV) effect of graphene/Si junctions after chemically doped with an organic polymer (TFSA). The power conversion efficiency of the solar cell improves from 1.9% to 8.6% after TFSA doping, which is the record in all graphene based PVs. The I -V, C-V and external quantum efficiency measurements suggest 12 that such a significant enhancement in the device performance can be attributed to a doping-induced decrease in the series resistance and a simultaneous increase in the built-in potential. In the fifth chapter, we investigate for the first time the effect of uniaxial strains on magneto-transport properties of graphene. We find that low-temperature weak localization effect in monolayer graphene is gradually suppressed under increasing strains, which is due to a strain-induced decreased intervalley

  19. Quantitative analysis of the effects of vertical magnetic fields on microsegregation in Te-doped LEC GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, D. J.; Witt, A. F.

    1992-01-01

    Using near-IR transmission microscopy with computational absorption analysis, the effects of axial magnetic fields on micro- and macrosegregation during LP-LEC growth of GaAs were quantitatively investigated with a spatial resolution approaching 2 microns. Segregation inhomogeneities exceeding one order of magnitude are found to be related to fluid dynamics of the melt. The applicability of the BPS theory as well as the nonapplicability of the Cochran analysis are established.

  20. Cathodoluminescence Characterization of Ion Implanted GaAs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    into GaAs. In their experi- ment, GaAs thin films were grown on MgA12 4 spinel substrates. When the electrons had sufficient energy they caused the...sections. Growing The epi-layers were grown on a chromium doped GaAs substrate using a vapor phase epitaxial growth technique. They were grown by G

  1. Development of bulk GaAs room temperature radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    McGregor, D.S.; Knoll, G.F. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Eisen, Y. . Soreq Nuclear Research Center); Brake, R. )

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports on GaAs, a wide band gap semiconductor with potential use as a room temperature radiation detector. Various configurations of Schottky diode detectors were fabricated with bulk crystals of liquid encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) semi-insulating undoped GaAs material. Basic detector construction utilized one Ti/Au Schottky contact and one Au/Ge/Ni alloyed ohmic contact. Pulsed X-ray analysis indicated pulse decay times dependent on bias voltage. Pulse height analysis disclosed non-uniform electric field distributions across the detectors tentatively explained as a consequence of native deep level donors (EL2) in the crystal.

  2. The Automated DC Parameter Testing of GaAs MESFETs Using the Singer Automatic Integrated Circuit Test System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    Equivalent GaAs MESFET Circuit Model 37 11 Hower’s Equivalent GaAs MESFET Circuit Model 38 12 Modified DC Equivalent Circuit Model of...I Truth Table for the GaAs MESFET Logic Gate of Figure 1 29 II Equivalent - Circuit Parameters of a GaAs MESFET with a 1 micron x 500 micron Gate 39...using Schottky diodes in the output buffer circuit . The number of diodes required is determined by the pinchoff voltage of the

  3. Schottky barrier MOSFET systems and fabrication thereof

    DOEpatents

    Welch, J.D.

    1997-09-02

    (MOS) device systems-utilizing Schottky barrier source and drain to channel region junctions are disclosed. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate operation of fabricated N-channel and P-channel Schottky barrier (MOSFET) devices, and of fabricated single devices with operational characteristics similar to (CMOS) and to a non-latching (SRC) are reported. Use of essentially non-rectifying Schottky barriers in (MOS) structures involving highly doped and the like and intrinsic semiconductor to allow non-rectifying interconnection of, and electrical accessing of device regions is also disclosed. Insulator effected low leakage current device geometries and fabrication procedures therefore are taught. Selective electrical interconnection of drain to drain, source to drain, or source to source, of N-channel and/or P-channel Schottky barrier (MOSFET) devices formed on P-type, N-type and Intrinsic semiconductor allows realization of Schottky Barrier (CMOS), (MOSFET) with (MOSFET) load, balanced differential (MOSFET) device systems and inverting and non-inverting single devices with operating characteristics similar to (CMOS), which devices can be utilized in modulation, as well as in voltage controlled switching and effecting a direction of rectification. 89 figs.

  4. Schottky barrier MOSFET systems and fabrication thereof

    DOEpatents

    Welch, James D.

    1997-01-01

    (MOS) device systems-utilizing Schottky barrier source and drain to channel region junctions are disclosed. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate operation of fabricated N-channel and P-channel Schottky barrier (MOSFET) devices, and of fabricated single devices with operational characteristics similar to (CMOS) and to a non-latching (SRC) are reported. Use of essentially non-rectifying Schottky barriers in (MOS) structures involving highly doped and the like and intrinsic semiconductor to allow non-rectifying interconnection of, and electrical accessing of device regions is also disclosed. Insulator effected low leakage current device geometries and fabrication procedures therefore are taught. Selective electrical interconnection of drain to drain, source to drain, or source to source, of N-channel and/or P-channel Schottky barrier (MOSFET) devices formed on P-type, N-type and Intrinsic semiconductor allows realization of Schottky Barrier (CMOS), (MOSFET) with (MOSFET) load, balanced differential (MOSFET) device systems and inverting and non-inverting single devices with operating characteristics similar to (CMOS), which devices can be utilized in modulation, as well as in voltage controled switching and effecting a direction of rectification.

  5. Structural properties of pressure-induced structural phase transition of Si-doped GaAs by angular-dispersive X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kung-Liang; Lin, Chih-Ming; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Jian, Sheng-Rui; Liao, Yen-Fa; Chuang, Yu-Chun; Wang, Chuan-Sheng; Juang, Jenh-Yih

    2016-02-01

    Pressure-induced phase transitions in n-type silicon-doped gallium arsenide (GaAs:Si ) at ambient temperature were investigated by using angular-dispersive X-ray diffraction (ADXRD) under high pressure up to around 18.6 (1) GPa, with a 4:1 (in volume ratio) methanol-ethanol mixture as the pressure-transmitting medium. In situ ADXRD measurements revealed that n-type GaAs:Si starts to transform from zinc- blende structure to an orthorhombic structure [GaAs-II phase], space group Pmm2, at 16.4 (1) GPa. In contrast to previous studies of pure GaAs under pressure, our results show no evidence of structural transition to Fmmm or Cmcm phase. The fitting of volume compression data to the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state yielded that the zero-pressure isothermal bulk moduli and the first-pressure derivatives were 75 (3) GPa and 6.4 (9) for the B3 phase, respectively. After decompressing to the ambient pressure, the GaAs:Si appears to revert to the B3 phase completely. By fitting to the empirical relations, the Knoop microhardness numbers are between H PK = 6.21 and H A = 5.85, respectively, which are substantially smaller than the values of 7-7.5 for pure GaAs reported previously. A discontinuous drop in the pressure-dependent lattice parameter, N- N distances, and V/ V 0 was observed at a pressure of 11.5 (1) GPa, which was tentatively attributed to the pressure-induced dislocation activities in the crystal grown by vertical gradient freeze method.

  6. Terahertz Sub-harmonic Mixer Using Discrete Schottky Diode for Planetary Science and Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, F.; Meng, H. F.; Duo, W. B.; Sun, Z. L.

    2017-01-01

    Sub-harmonic mixers are the core element of terahertz room temperature, high spectral resolution heterodyne receivers for planetary science, and remote sensing. Here, terahertz sub-harmonic mixer up to 400 GHz using discrete Schottky diode is presented. Measured performance is in agreement with results from the linear and nonlinear co-simulations, and this methodology shows its practicability for the discrete planar GaAs Schottky diode-based terahertz core circuit design.

  7. GaAs thin film epitaxy and x-ray detector development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynne, Dawnelle I.; Cardozo, B.; Haller, Eugene E.

    1999-10-01

    We report on the growth of high purity n-GaAs using Liquid Phase Epitaxy and on the fabrication of Schottky barrier diodes for use as x-ray detectors using these layers. Our epilayers are grown form an ultra-pure Ga solvent in a graphite boat in a hydrogen atmosphere. Growth is started at a temperature of approximately 800 degrees C; the temperature is ramped down at 2 degrees C/min. to room temperature. Our best epilayers show a net-residual-donor concentration of approximately 2 X 1012 cm-3, measured by Hall effect. Electron mobilities as high as 150,000 cm2 V-1 s-1 at 77K have been obtained. The residual donors have been analyzed by far IR photothermal ionization spectroscopy and found to be sulfur and silicon. Up to approximately 200 micrometers of epitaxial GaAs have been deposited using several sequential growth runs on semi-insulating and n+-doped substrates. Schottky barrier diodes have been fabricated using this epitaxial material and have been electrically characterized by current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements. The Schottky barriers are formed by electron beam evaporation of Pt films. The ohmic contacts are made by electron beam evaporated and alloyed Ni-Ge-Au films on the backside of the substrate. Several of our diodes exhibit dark currents of the order of 0.3-3.3 nA/mm2 at reverse biases depleting approximately 50 micrometers of the epilayer. Electrical characteristics and preliminary performance results of our Schottky diodes using 109Cd and 241Am gamma and x- ray radiation will be discussed.

  8. Effect of defects due to lattice mismatch between GaAs and InP materials on gate-leakage current and microwave noise of GaAs MESFETS on InP substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertouk, Mourad; Boudiaf, A.; Azoulay, Rozette; Clei, A.

    1993-11-01

    The effect of traps due to lattice mismatch between GaAs and InP materials on the reverse current of Schottky diodes is demonstrated by the temperature dependence of the current, which exhibits a S.R.H. component at low reverse bias (also present in GaAs/GaAs with activation energy 0.125 eV) and a trap assisted tunneling one at high reverse bias (not observed in GaAs/GaAs). A model is developed which takes into account the temperature and channel doping level dependence. Application of this model to 0.25 micrometers gate GaAs MESFETs gives a good agreement with gate leakage current behavior as a function of drain and gate bias, for 6 X 1017 cm-3 and 1018 cm-3 channel doping. The excess gate-drain assisted tunneling current in 1018 cm-3 doped channel does not affect the MESFETs dc and microwave performances. However, the microwave noise (Fmin) is increased.

  9. The effects of the magnitude of the modulation field on electroreflectance spectroscopy of undoped-n+ type doped GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D. P.; Huang, K. M.; Shen, T. L.; Huang, K. F.; Huang, T. C.

    1998-01-01

    The electroreflectance (ER) spectra of an undoped-n+ type doped GaAs has been measured at various amplitudes of modulating fields (δF). Many Franz-Keldysh oscillations were observed above the band gap energy, thus enabling the electric field (F) in the undoped layer to be determined. The F is obtained by applying fast Fourier transformation to the ER spectra. When δF is small, the power spectrum can be clearly resolved into two peaks, which corresponds to heavy- and light-hole transitions. When δF is less than ˜1/8 of the built-in field (Fbi˜77 420 V/cm), the F deduced from the ER is almost independent of δF. However, when larger than this, F is increased with δF. Also, when δF is increased to larger than ˜1/8 of Fbi, a shoulder appears on the right side of the heavy-hole peak of the power spectrum. The separation between the main peak and the shoulder of the heavy-hole peak becomes wider as δF becomes larger.

  10. Effect of quantum dot position and background doping on the performance of quantum dot enhanced GaAs solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, Kristina Bennett, Mitchell F.; Polly, Stephen J.; Forbes, David V.; Hubbard, Seth M.

    2014-01-13

    The effect of the position of InAs quantum dots (QD) within the intrinsic region of pin-GaAs solar cells is reported. Simulations suggest placing the QDs in regions of reduced recombination enables a recovery of open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}). Devices with the QDs placed in the center and near the doped regions of a pin-GaAs solar cell were experimentally investigated. While the V{sub OC} of the emitter-shifted device was degraded, the center and base-shifted devices exhibited V{sub OC} comparable to the baseline structure. This asymmetry is attributed to background doping which modifies the recombination profile and must be considered when optimizing QD placement.

  11. High Energy Neutron Irradiation Effects in GaAs Modulation-Doped Field Effect Transistors (MODFETS): Threshold Voltage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-15

    PREFACE We would like to thank B. K. Janousek, W. E. Yamada, and L. W. Aukerman for their technical assistance in this study. Aceession For [iTIS CRA...Doped GaAs-(AlGa)As Heterostructures," Surface Science, 132, 519-526, (1983). 8. L. W. Aukerman , "Radiation-Produced Energy Levels in Compound Semi...conductors," J. Appl. Phys. LO, 1239-1243, (Aug. 1959). 9. L. W. Aukerman , "Radiation Effects," in Semiconductors and Semimetals: Physics of III-V

  12. Photo-carrier and Electronic Studies of Silicon-Doped GaAs Grown by MBE Using PCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villada, J. A.; Jiménez-Sandoval, S.; López-López, M.; Mendoza, J.; Espinosa-Arbeláez, D. G.; Rodríguez-García, M. E.

    2010-05-01

    Photo-carrier radiometry (PCR) has been used to study the distribution of impurities and the lattice damage in silicon-doped gallium arsenide in a noncontact way. The results from the PCR study are correlated with Hall effect measurements. Samples for this study were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Of all possible parameters that can be manipulated, the silicon effusion cell temperature was the only one that was varied, in order to obtain samples with different silicon concentrations. The distribution of impurities was obtained by scanning the surface of each sample. The PCR amplitude and phase images were obtained as a function of the x- y position. According to the PCR images, it is evident that the impurities are not uniformly distributed across the sample. From these images, the average value of the amplitude and phase data across the surface was obtained for each sample in order to study the PCR signal behavior as a function of the silicon effusion cell temperature.

  13. Silicon Carbide Schottky Barrier Diode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Jian H.; Sheng, Kuang; Lebron-Velilla, Ramon C.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter reviews the status of SiC Schottky barrier diode development. The fundamental of Schottky barrier diodes is first provided, followed by the review of high-voltage SiC Schottky barrier diodes, junction-barrier Schottky diodes, and merged-pin-Schottky diodes. The development history is reviewed ad the key performance parameters are discussed. Applications of SiC SBDs in power electronic circuits as well as other areas such as gas sensors, microwave and UV detections are also presented, followed by discussion of remaining challenges.

  14. Photonic crystal cavities with metallic Schottky contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Quiring, W.; Al-Hmoud, M.; Reuter, D.; Zrenner, A.; Rai, A.; Wieck, A. D.

    2015-07-27

    We report about the fabrication and analysis of high Q photonic crystal cavities with metallic Schottky-contacts. The structures are based on GaAs n-i membranes with an InGaAs quantum well in the i-region and nanostructured low ohmic metal top-gates. They are designed for photocurrent readout within the cavity and fast electric manipulations. The cavity structures are characterized by photoluminescence and photocurrent spectroscopy under resonant excitation. We find strong cavity resonances in the photocurrent spectra and surprisingly high Q-factors up to 6500. Temperature dependent photocurrent measurements in the region between 4.5 K and 310 K show an exponential enhancement of the photocurrent signal and an external quantum efficiency up to 0.26.

  15. Coherent dynamics of Landau-Levels in modulation doped GaAs quantum wells at high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cunming; Paul, Jagannath; Reno, John; McGill, Stephen; Hilton, David; Karaiskaj, Denis

    By using two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy, we investigate the dynamics of Landau-Levels formed in modulation doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells of 18 nm thickness at high magnetic fields and low temperature. The measurements show interesting dephasing dynamics and linewidth dependency as a function of the magnetic field. The work at USF and UAB was supported by the National Science Foundation under grant number DMR-1409473. The work at NHMFL, FSU was supported by the National Science Foundation under grant numbers DMR-1157490 and DMR-1229217. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  16. Multiple Applications of GaAs semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Jenrené; Wonka, Willy

    2003-03-01

    The object of this discussion will be to explore the many facets of Gallium Arsenide(GaAs) semiconductors. The session will begin with a brief overview of the basic properties of semiconductors in general(band gap, doping, charge mobility etc.). It will then follow with a closer look at the properties of GaAs and how these properties could potentially translate into some very exciting applications. Furthermore, current applications of GaAs semiconductors will be dicussed and analyzed. Finally, physical limits and advantages/disadvantages of GaAs will be considered.

  17. Infrared absorption properties of the EL2 and the isolated As/sub Ga/ defects in neutron-transmutation-doped GaAs: Generation of an EL2-like defect

    SciTech Connect

    Manasreh, M.O.; Fischer, D.W.

    1989-02-15

    The EL2 and the isolated As/sub Ga/ antisite defects in neutron-transmutation-doped (NTD) GaAs were studied by using the infrared (ir) absorption technique concurrent with thermal annealing. The results show that irradiation with low thermal-neutron doses partially decomposes the EL2 complex in semi-insulating (si) GaAs grown by the liquid-encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) growth technique. On the other hand, a small amount of EL2 is generated in as-grown Ga-rich undoped p-type LEC GaAs. The EL2 defect in low-dose thermal-neutron-irradiated samples (both si and p-type) was found to be stable up to 850 /sup 0/C. High neutron-irradiation doses, however, completely annihilate EL2 but generate a different EL2-like defect (DL2). The DL2 defect is observed after annealing the high-dose NTD samples for 6 min at 600 /sup 0/C. The DL2 concentration is observed to be larger than that of EL2 in as-grown LEC si GaAs by a factor of 2.3 or higher. The photoquenching and thermal recovery properties of DL2 and EL2 defects are identical. However, the DL2 defect does not exhibit the same thermal stability or the zero-phonon line of the EL2 defect. Thermal annealing kinetics shows that DL2 is composed of three point defects. The residual absorption (unquenchable component) after photoquenching the EL2 (DL2) defect is interpreted as the photoionization of the isolated As/sub Ga/ antisite.

  18. Spatial inhomogeneous barrier heights at graphene/semiconductor Schottky junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomer, Dushyant

    Graphene, a semimetal with linear energy dispersion, forms Schottky junction when interfaced with a semiconductor. This dissertation presents temperature dependent current-voltage and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S) measurements performed on graphene Schottky junctions formed with both three and two dimensional semiconductors. To fabricate Schottky junctions, we transfer chemical vapor deposited monolayer graphene onto Si- and C-face SiC, Si, GaAs and MoS2 semiconducting substrates using polymer assisted chemical method. We observe three main type of intrinsic spatial inhomogeneities, graphene ripples, ridges and semiconductor steps in STM imaging that can exist at graphene/semiconductor junctions. Tunneling spectroscopy measurements reveal fluctuations in graphene Dirac point position, which is directly related to the Schottky barrier height. We find a direct correlation of Dirac point variation with the topographic undulations of graphene ripples at the graphene/SiC junction. However, no such correlation is established at graphene/Si and Graphene/GaAs junctions and Dirac point variations are attributed to surface states and trapped charges at the interface. In addition to graphene ripples and ridges, we also observe atomic scale moire patterns at graphene/MoS2 junction due to van der Waals interaction at the interface. Periodic topographic modulations due to moire pattern do not lead to local variation in graphene Dirac point, indicating that moire pattern does not contribute to fluctuations in electronic properties of the heterojunction. We perform temperature dependent current-voltage measurements to investigate the impact of topographic inhomogeneities on electrical properties of the Schottky junctions. We observe temperature dependence in junction parameters, such as Schottky barrier height and ideality factor, for all types of Schottky junctions in forward bias measurements. Standard thermionic emission theory which assumes a perfect

  19. InGaAs/InP heteroepitaxial Schottky barrier diodes for terahertz applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhapkar, Udayan V.; Li, Yongjun; Mattauch, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the feasibility of planar, sub-harmonically pumped, anti-parallel InGaAs/InP heteroepitaxial Schottky diodes for terahertz applications. We present calculations of the (I-V) characteristics of such diodes using a numerical model that considers tunneling. We also present noise and conversion loss predictions of diode mixers operated at 500 GHz, and obtained from a multi-port mixer analysis, using the I-V characteristics predicted by our model. Our calculations indicate that InGaAs/InP heteroepitaxial Schottky barrier diodes are expected to have an I-V characteristic with an ideality factor comparable to that of GaAs Schottky diodes. However, the reverse saturation current of InGaAs/InP diodes is expected to be much greater than that of GaAs diodes. These predictions are confirmed by experiment. The mixer analyses predict that sub-harmonically pumped anti-parallel InGaAs/InP diode mixers are expected to offer a 2 dB greater conversion loss and a somewhat higher single sideband noise temperature than their GaAs counterparts. More importantly, the InGaAs/InP devices are predicted to require only one-tenth of the local oscillator power required by similar GaAs diodes.

  20. A wide-band 760-GHz planar integrated Schottky receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gearhart, Steven S.; Hesler, Jeffrey; Bishop, William L.; Crowe, Thomas W.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    1993-01-01

    A wideband planar integrated heterodyne receiver has been developed for use at submillimeter-wave to FIR frequencies. The receiver consists of a log-periodic antenna integrated with a planar 0.8-micron GaAs Schottky diode. The monolithic receiver is placed on a silicon lens and has a measured room temperature double side-band conversion loss and noise temperature of 14.9 +/- 1.0 dB and 8900 +/- 500 K, respectively, at 761 GHz. These results represent the best performance to date for room temperature integrated receivers at this frequency.

  1. Possibility of incongruous interface behavior of In on GaAs(110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, K. K.; Lindau, I.

    1985-11-01

    Photoemission spectroscopy has been used to study the Schottky-barrier formation of In on n- and p-type GaAs(110) interfaces. Our result is different from that reported by R. R. Daniels et al. [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2(2), 831 (1984)]. It is suggested that this incongruous behavior of In on GaAs(110) is due to the kinetics of interface defect formation. Various experimental details which may affect the kinetics are also discussed.

  2. High efficiency thin-film GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Several oxidation techniques are discussed which have been found to increase the open circuit (V sub oc) of metal-GaAs Schottky barrier solar cells, the oxide chemistry, attempts to measure surface state parameters, the evolving characteristics of the solar cell as background contamination (has been decreased, but not eliminated), results of focused Nd/YAG laser beam recrystallization of Ge films evaporated onto tungsten, and studies of AMOS solar cells fabricated on sliced polycrystalline GaAs wafers. Also discussed are projected materials availability and costs for GaAs thin-film solar cells.

  3. Schottky barrier formation and band bending revealed by first- principles calculations

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yang; Hellman, Anders; Fang, Yurui; Gao, Shiwu; Käll, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    The formation of a Schottky barrier at the metal-semiconductor interface is widely utilised in semiconductor devices. With the emerging of novel Schottky barrier based nanoelectronics, a further microscopic understanding of this interface is in high demand. Here we provide an atomistic insight into potential barrier formation and band bending by ab initio simulations and model analysis of a prototype Schottky diode, i.e., niobium doped rutile titania in contact with gold (Au/Nb:TiO2). The local Schottky barrier height is found to vary between 0 and 1.26 eV depending on the position of the dopant. The band bending is caused by a dopant induced dipole field between the interface and the dopant site, whereas the pristine Au/TiO2 interface does not show any band bending. These findings open the possibility for atomic scale optimisation of the Schottky barrier and light harvesting in metal-semiconductor nanostructures. PMID:26065401

  4. Schottky barrier formation and band bending revealed by first- principles calculations.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yang; Hellman, Anders; Fang, Yurui; Gao, Shiwu; Käll, Mikael

    2015-06-12

    The formation of a Schottky barrier at the metal-semiconductor interface is widely utilised in semiconductor devices. With the emerging of novel Schottky barrier based nanoelectronics, a further microscopic understanding of this interface is in high demand. Here we provide an atomistic insight into potential barrier formation and band bending by ab initio simulations and model analysis of a prototype Schottky diode, i.e., niobium doped rutile titania in contact with gold (Au/Nb:TiO2). The local Schottky barrier height is found to vary between 0 and 1.26 eV depending on the position of the dopant. The band bending is caused by a dopant induced dipole field between the interface and the dopant site, whereas the pristine Au/TiO2 interface does not show any band bending. These findings open the possibility for atomic scale optimisation of the Schottky barrier and light harvesting in metal-semiconductor nanostructures.

  5. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SEMICONDUCTOR INJECTION LASERS SELCO-87: Doping inhomogeneities and behavior of compensation of n-type GaAs and InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wruck, D.; Knauer, A.

    1988-11-01

    A comparison was made of the distributions of Sn and of the chalcogens S and Se in InP and GaAs, determined from infrared absorption and the Hall effect. An analysis was made of the possible cause of the difference between the values of the degree of compensation determined by the two methods.

  6. Application of a Resistance Heater to the MOCVD (Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition) Growth of Undoped and Se-Doped GaAS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-08

    concentration and mobilities of the epitaxial layers were determined at room temperature and liquid-nitrogen temperature (77 K) by the van der Pauw technique’ for...mobility versus total impurity concentration for bulk GaAs (Ref. 7). 13 REFERENCES 1. van der Pauw , L. J., PhlisRes ep. 13, 1 (1958). 2. Binet, M., Electron

  7. The Effect of Chemical Reactivity and Charge Transfer on Gallium-Arsenide (110) Schottky Barrier Formation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Michael Duryea

    Transition and near noble metals have been deposited in sequential steps on atomically clean cleaved Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) surfaces under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Soft X-ray and ultra-violet photoemission spectroscopies were used to elucidate the room temperature (RT) chemistry and Fermi level pinning behaviors of these systems. The results show that the nature or degree of the chemical reaction has little effect on the Schottky barrier (SB) height of the metal-semiconductor contact. Silver (Ag), Gold (Au), Copper (Cu) and Palladium (Pd) for example, exhibit a range of chemical reactivities with the substrate going from non-reactive in the case of Ag to very reactive for Pd. These all have a SB height of 0.9 electron volts (eV) for n-type GaAs. Nickel (Ni), Chromium (Cr) and Titanium (Ti), on the other hand, also react strongly but have a SB height of 0.7 eV. The pinning position of the Fermi level at the interface for the established barrier (with the exception of the Ag contact) is also found to be independent of whether the substrate is doped n or p-type. An examination of trends in charge transfer parameters between the metal overlayer and the substrate has led to a strong correlation between the electronegativity (Pauling's scale) of the metal and the observed SB height. It is suggested that the formation of a dipole at the interface effects a charge transfer between the adatom induced defect levels and the metal overlayer consistent with charge neutrality. As a test, two additional sets of experiments were performed. The first is a study of Ytterbium (Yb) on the GaAs suabstrate. The unique chemistry of the rare earth metal provides further proof that the SB height is independent of chemistry. The second set of experiments is a kinetic study of the development of the Aluminum (Al)/GaAs SB. The RT and low temperature ((LESSTHEQ)-50(DEGREES)C) substrates show a significant variation in the pinning behavior of the interfacial Fermi level with coverage. The

  8. LEC GaAs for integrated circuit applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, C. G.; Chen, R. T.; Homes, D. E.; Asbeck, P. M.; Elliott, K. R.; Fairman, R. D.; Oliver, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Recent developments in liquid encapsulated Czochralski techniques for the growth of semiinsulating GaAs for integrated circuit applications have resulted in significant improvements in the quality and quantity of GaAs material suitable for device processing. The emergence of high performance GaAs integrated circuit technologies has accelerated the demand for high quality, large diameter semiinsulating GaAs substrates. The new device technologies, including digital integrated circuits, monolithic microwave integrated circuits and charge coupled devices have largely adopted direct ion implantation for the formation of doped layers. Ion implantation lends itself to good uniformity and reproducibility, high yield and low cost; however, this technique also places stringent demands on the quality of the semiinsulating GaAs substrates. Although significant progress was made in developing a viable planar ion implantation technology, the variability and poor quality of GaAs substrates have hindered progress in process development.

  9. Fullerene-based Schottky-junction organic solar cells: a brief review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutty, Sibi; Williams, Graeme; Aziz, Hany

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in fullerene-based Schottky organic solar cells (OSCs) are presented, with a focus on the current understanding of device physics. Fullerene-based Schottky OSCs attain high open-circuit voltages due to the n-type Schottky junction formed between fullerene and an adjacent high work function anode. Small concentrations of donor material doped into the fullerene matrix serve as efficient exciton dissociation and hole transport agents that can substantially bolster short-circuit currents and fill factors. As a consequence, fullerene-based Schottky OSCs have been demonstrated to provide some of the highest-performance vacuum-deposited small molecule OSCs, with power conversion efficiencies up to 8.1%. Fullerene-based Schottky OSCs constructed using different donor materials and varying cathode buffer layers, as studied by a number of different research groups, are presented. To elucidate the differences between Schottky OSCs and more traditional bulk-heterojunction OSCs, we discuss the photophysics of fullerenes, the role of the donor material, and charge transport in low donor concentration active layers. Fullerene-based Schottky OSCs possess considerable advantages because they can reach high efficiencies with a simple structure using readily available and cost-effective materials. The impact and applicability of the Schottky device architecture on the field of organic photovoltaics at large are discussed.

  10. Evidence for field enhanced electron capture by EL2 centers in semi-insulating GaAs and the effect on GaAs radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    McGregor, D.S.; Rojeski, R.A.; Knoll, G.F. ); Terry, F.L. Jr.; East, J. ); Eisen, Y. )

    1994-06-15

    The performance of Schottky contact semiconductor radiation detectors fabricated from semi-insulating GaAs is highly sensitive to charged impurities and defects in the material. The observed behavior of semi-insulating GaAs Schottky barrier alpha particle detectors does not match well with models that treat the semi-insulating material as either perfectly intrinsic or as material with deep donors (EL2) of constant capture cross section compensated with shallow acceptors. We propose an explanation for the discrepancy based on enhanced capture of electrons by EL2 centers at high electric fields and the resulting formation of a quasineutral region in the GaAs. Presented is a simple model including field enhanced electron capture which shows good agreement with experimental alpha particle pulse height measurements.

  11. Role of electrode metallization in performance of semi-insulating GaAs radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubecký, František; Boháček, Pavol; Sekáčová, Mária; Zaťko, Bohumír; Lalinský, Tibor; Linhart, Vladimír; Šagátová-Perd'ochová, Andrea; Mudroň, Ján; Pospíšil, Stanislav

    2007-06-01

    In the present work, a comparative study of semi-insulating (SI) GaAs radiation detectors with different blocking (Schottky) and ohmic contact metallization is presented. The detectors fabricated from "detector-grade" bulk SI GaAs are characterized by current-voltage measurements and their detection performance is evaluated from pulse-height spectra of 241Am and 57Co γ-sources. Observed results are evaluated and discussed. Importance of the optimized electrodes technology of SI GaAs detector with good performance is demonstrated.

  12. Cryogenic operation of GaAs based multiplier chains to 400 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrini, A.; Pukala, D.; Maiwald, F.; Schlecht, E.; Chattopadhyay, G.; Mehdi, I.

    2000-01-01

    The FIRST/HIFI mission allows for the local oscillator frequency multiplier chains to be cooled to 120 - 150 K in order to increase available output power. This paper will discuss the implication of cooling on GaAs based planar Schottky diode varactors for flight applications.

  13. An integrated membrane sub-harmonic Schottky diode mixers at 340GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junlong; Yang, Dabao; Xing, Dong; Liang, Shixiong; Zhang, Lisen; Zhao, Xiangyang; Feng, Zhihong

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a sub-harmonic mixer operating over the spectral band 332-348 GHz. The mixers employ integrated GaAs membrane Schottky diode technology. The simulated results show that the conversion loss of the mixer is below dB in the band from 333 GHz to 347 GHz with a local oscillator power requirement of 5mW.The minimum is 8.2dB at 344GHz.

  14. Piezoelectric Response to Coherent Longitudinal and Transverse Acoustic Phonons in a Semiconductor Schottky Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikanthreddy, D.; Glavin, B. A.; Poyser, C. L.; Henini, M.; Lehmann, D.; Jasiukiewicz, Cz.; Akimov, A. V.; Kent, A. J.

    2017-02-01

    We study the generation of microwave electronic signals by pumping a (311) GaAs Schottky diode with compressive and shear acoustic phonons, generated by the femtosecond optical excitation of an Al film transducer and mode conversion at the Al-GaAs interface. They propagate through the substrate and arrive at the Schottky device on the opposite surface, where they induce a microwave electronic signal. The arrival time, the amplitude, and the polarity of the signals depend on the phonon mode. A theoretical analysis is made of the polarity of the experimental signals. This analysis includes the piezoelectric and deformation potential mechanisms of electron-phonon interaction in a Schottky contact and shows that the piezoelectric mechanism is dominant for both transverse and longitudinal modes with frequencies below 250 and 70 GHz, respectively.

  15. Carbon-Nanotube Schottky Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish; Wong, Eric; Schlecht, Erich; Hunt, Brian; Siegel, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Schottky diodes based on semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes are being developed as essential components of the next generation of submillimeter-wave sensors and sources. Initial performance predictions have shown that the performance characteristics of these devices can exceed those of the state-of-the-art solid-state Schottky diodes that have been the components of choice for room-temperature submillimeter-wave sensors for more than 50 years. For state-of-the-art Schottky diodes used as detectors at frequencies above a few hundred gigahertz, the inherent parasitic capacitances associated with their semiconductor junction areas and the resistances associated with low electron mobilities limit achievable sensitivity. The performance of such a detector falls off approximately exponentially with frequency above 500 GHz. Moreover, when used as frequency multipliers for generating signals, state-of-the-art solid-state Schottky diodes exhibit extremely low efficiencies, generally putting out only micro-watts of power at frequencies up to 1.5 THz. The shortcomings of the state-of-the-art solid-state Schottky diodes can be overcome by exploiting the unique electronic properties of semiconducting carbon nanotubes. A single-walled carbon nanotube can be metallic or semiconducting, depending on its chirality, and exhibits high electron mobility (recently reported to be approx.= 2x10(exp 5)sq cm/V-s) and low parasitic capacitance. Because of the narrowness of nanotubes, Schottky diodes based on carbon nanotubes have ultra-small junction areas (of the order of a few square nanometers) and consequent junction capacitances of the order of 10(exp -18) F, which translates to cutoff frequency >5 THz. Because the turn-on power levels of these devices are very low (of the order of nano-watts), the input power levels needed for pumping local oscillators containing these devices should be lower than those needed for local oscillators containing state-of-the-art solid

  16. Tuning the Schottky barrier in the arsenene/graphene van der Waals heterostructures by electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Tian-Xing; Dai, Xian-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Long; Ma, Ya-Qiang; Chang, Shan-Shan; Tang, Ya-Nan

    2017-04-01

    Using density functional theory calculations, we investigate the electronic properties of arsenene/graphene van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures by applying external electric field perpendicular to the layers. It is demonstrated that weak vdW interactions dominate between arsenene and graphene with their intrinsic electronic properties preserved. We find that an n-type Schottky contact is formed at the arsenene/graphene interface with a Schottky barrier of 0.54 eV. Moreover, the vertical electric field can not only control the Schottky barrier height but also the Schottky contacts (n-type and p-type) and Ohmic contacts (n-type) at the interface. Tunable p-type doping in graphene is achieved under the negative electric field because electrons can transfer from the Dirac point of graphene to the conduction band of arsenene. The present study would open a new avenue for application of ultrathin arsenene/graphene heterostructures in future nano- and optoelectronics.

  17. Schottky bipolar I-MOS: An I-MOS with Schottky electrodes and an open-base BJT configuration for reduced operating voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, N.; Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a novel impact ionization MOS (I-MOS) structure, called the Schottky bipolar I-MOS, with Schottky source and drain electrodes and utilizing the open-base bipolar junction transistor (BJT) configuration for achieving reduction in the operating voltage of the I-MOS transistor. We report, using 2-D simulations, a low operating voltage (∼1.1 V) and a low subthreshold swing (∼3.6 mV/Decade). For the corresponding p-i-n I-MOS, the operating voltage is ∼5.5 V. The operating voltage of the Schottky bipolar I-MOS is the lowest reported operating voltage for silicon based I-MOS transistors. The nearly 80% reduction in the operating voltage of the Schottky bipolar I-MOS makes it suitable for applications requiring low operating voltages. The Schottky bipolar I-MOS is also expected to have an improved reliability over the p-i-n I-MOS since high energy carriers, induced by impact ionization near the drain, do not have to pass under the gate region in the channel. The use of Schottky contacts instead of heavily doped source and drain regions and the low channel doping level reduces the required thermal budget for device fabrication. The low operating voltage, low subthreshold swing and possibly improved reliability of the Schottky bipolar I-MOS, makes it a potential solution for applications where steep subthreshold slope transistors are being explored as alternative to the conventional MOS transistor.

  18. GaAs core--shell nanowires for photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Czaban, Josef A; Thompson, David A; LaPierre, Ray R

    2009-01-01

    We report the use of Te as an n-type dopant in GaAs core-shell p-n junction nanowires for use in photovoltaic devices. Te produced significant change in the morphology of GaAs nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid process in a molecular beam epitaxy system. The increase in radial growth of nanowires due to the surfactant effect of Te had a significant impact on the operating characteristics of photovoltaic devices. A decrease in solar cell efficiency occurred when the Te-doped GaAs growth duration was increased.

  19. The effect of the intense laser field on the electronic states and optical properties of n-type double δ-doped GaAs quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasapoglu, E.; Yesilgul, U.; Ungan, F.; Sökmen, I.; Sari, H.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, within the effective mass approximation we have performed a theoretical study of electronic states, the intersubband-related optical absorption coefficient and relative refractive index change properties in the GaAs-based double δ-doped quantum well under non-resonant intense laser field. By solving the Schrödinger equation in the laser-dressed confinement potential, we calculated eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions as an intense laser parameter. We concluded that the separation between ground and first excited energy levels in the double δ-doped quantum well increases in energy by the increase of the laser field intensity and this effect leads to an optical blue-shift in intersubband transitions. Therefore a significant tunability of the optical transitions in double δ-doped quantum well can be achieved by modulating the intensity of the intense laser field.

  20. Temperature dependent simulation of diamond depleted Schottky PIN diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathwar, Raghuraj; Dutta, Maitreya; Koeck, Franz A. M.; Nemanich, Robert J.; Chowdhury, Srabanti; Goodnick, Stephen M.

    2016-06-01

    Diamond is considered as an ideal material for high field and high power devices due to its high breakdown field, high lightly doped carrier mobility, and high thermal conductivity. The modeling and simulation of diamond devices are therefore important to predict the performances of diamond based devices. In this context, we use Silvaco® Atlas, a drift-diffusion based commercial software, to model diamond based power devices. The models used in Atlas were modified to account for both variable range and nearest neighbor hopping transport in the impurity bands associated with high activation energies for boron doped and phosphorus doped diamond. The models were fit to experimentally reported resistivity data over a wide range of doping concentrations and temperatures. We compare to recent data on depleted diamond Schottky PIN diodes demonstrating low turn-on voltages and high reverse breakdown voltages, which could be useful for high power rectifying applications due to the low turn-on voltage enabling high forward current densities. Three dimensional simulations of the depleted Schottky PIN diamond devices were performed and the results are verified with experimental data at different operating temperatures

  1. Photoluminescence properties of modulation-doped In{sub x}Al{sub 1–x}As/In{sub y}Ga{sub 1–y}As/In{sub x}Al{sub 1–x}As structures with strained inas and gaas nanoinserts in the quantum well

    SciTech Connect

    Galiev, G. B.; Vasil’evskii, I. S.; Klimov, E. A.; Klochkov, A. N.; Lavruhin, D. V.; Pushkarev, S. S.; Maltsev, P. P.

    2015-09-15

    The photoluminescence spectra of modulation-doped InAlAs/InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructures with quantum wells containing thin strained InAs and GaAs inserts are investigated. It is established that the insertion of pair InAs layers and/ or a GaAs transition barriers with a thickness of 1 nm into a quantum well leads to a change in the form and energy position of the photoluminescence spectra as compared with a uniform In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As quantum well. Simulation of the band structure shows that this change is caused by a variation in the energy and wave functions of holes. It is demonstrated that the use of InAs inserts leads to the localization of heavy holes near the InAs layers and reduces the energy of optical transitions, while the use of GaAs transition barriers can lead to inversion of the positions of the light- and heavy-hole subbands in the quantum well. A technique for separately controlling the light- and heavy-hole states by varying the thickness and position of the GaAs and InAs inserts in the quantum well is suggested.

  2. Plastic Schottky barrier solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Waldrop, James R.; Cohen, Marshall J.

    1984-01-24

    A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped, intrinsically p-type organic semiconductor comprising polyacetylene. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a magnesium electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates the magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film.

  3. Isoelectronic co-doping

    DOEpatents

    Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2004-11-09

    Isoelectronic co-doping of semiconductor compounds and alloys with deep acceptors and deep donors is used to decrease bandgap, to increase concentration of the dopant constituents in the resulting alloys, and to increase carrier mobilities lifetimes. Group III-V compounds and alloys, such as GaAs and GaP, are isoelectronically co-doped with, for example, N and Bi, to customize solar cells, thermal voltaic cells, light emitting diodes, photodetectors, and lasers on GaP, InP, GaAs, Ge, and Si substrates. Isoelectronically co-doped Group II-VI compounds and alloys are also included.

  4. 670-GHz Schottky Diode-Based Subharmonic Mixer with CPW Circuits and 70-GHz IF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Schlecht, Erich T.; Lee, Choonsup; Lin, Robert H.; Gill, John J.; Mehdi, Imran; Sin, Seth; Deal, William; Loi, Kwok K.; Nam, Peta; Rodriguez, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    GaAs-based, sub-harmonically pumped Schottky diode mixers offer a number of advantages for array implementation in a heterodyne receiver system. Since the radio frequency (RF) and local oscillator (LO) signals are far apart, system design becomes much simpler. A proprietary planar GaAs Schottky diode process was developed that results in very low parasitic anodes that have cutoff frequencies in the tens of terahertz. This technology enables robust implementation of monolithic mixer and frequency multiplier circuits well into the terahertz frequency range. Using optical and e-beam lithography, and conventional epitaxial layer design with innovative usage of GaAs membranes and metal beam leads, high-performance terahertz circuits can be designed with high fidelity. All of these mixers use metal waveguide structures for housing. Metal machined structures for RF and LO coupling hamper these mixers to be integrated in multi-pixel heterodyne array receivers for spectroscopic and imaging applications. Moreover, the recent developments of terahertz transistors on InP substrate provide an opportunity, for the first time, to have integrated amplifiers followed by Schottky diode mixers in a heterodyne receiver at these frequencies. Since the amplifiers are developed on a planar architecture to facilitate multi-pixel array implementation, it is quite important to find alternative architecture to waveguide-based mixers.

  5. Measurements of Effective Schottky Barrier in Inverse Extraordinary Optoconductance Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, L. C.; Werner, F. M.; Solin, S. A.; Gilbertson, Adam; Cohen, L. F.

    2013-03-01

    Individually addressable optical sensors with dimensions as low as 250nm, fabricated from metal semiconductor hybrid structures (MSH) of AuTi-GaAs Schottky interfaces, display a transition from resistance decreasing with intensity in micron-scale sensors (Extraordinary Optoconductance, EOC) to resistance increasing with intensity in nano-scale sensors (Inverse Extraordinary Optoconductance I-EOC). I-EOC is attributed to a ballistic to diffusive crossover with the introduction of photo-induced carriers and gives rise to resistance changes of up to 9462% in 250nm devices. We characterize the photo-dependence of the effective Schottky barrier in EOC/I-EOC structures by the open circuit voltage and reverse bias resistance. Under illumination by a 5 mW, 632.8 nm HeNe laser, the barrier is negligible and the Ti-GaAs interface becomes Ohmic. Comparing the behavior of two devices, one with leads exposed, another with leads covered by an opaque epoxy, the variation in Voc with the position of the laser can be attributed to a photovoltaic effect of the lead metal and bulk GaAs. The resistance is unaffected by the photovoltaic offset of the leads, as indicated by the radial symmetry of 2-D resistance maps obtained by rastering a laser across EOC/IEOC devices. SAS has a financial interest in PixelEXX, a start-up company whose mission is to market imaging arrays.

  6. Fabrication and Characterization of n-AlGaAs/GaAs Schottky Diode for Rectenna Device Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parimon, Norfarariyanti; Mustafa, Farahiyah; Manaf Hashim, Abdul; Fadzli Abd Rahman, Shaharin; Rahman, Abdul Rahim Abdul; Nizam Osman, Mohd

    2011-02-01

    Schottky diode was designed and fabricated on n-AlGaAs/GaAs high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structure for rectenna device application. Rectenna is one of the most potential devices to form the wireless power supply which is really good at converting microwaves to DC. The processing steps used in the fabrication of Schottky diode were the conventional steps used in standard GaAs processing. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements showed that the device had rectifying properties with a barrier height of 0.5468 eV for Ni/Au metallization. The fabricated Schottky diode detected RF signals and the cut-off frequency up to 20 GHz was estimated in direct injection experiments. These preliminary results will provide a breakthrough for the direct integration with antenna towards realization of rectenna device application.

  7. Intense laser field effects on the intersubband optical absorption and refractive index change in the δ -doped GaAs quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, H.; Yesilgul, U.; Ungan, F.; Sakiroglu, S.; Kasapoglu, E.; Sökmen, I.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the effects of the non-resonant intense laser field on the electronic and optical properties such as linear, nonlinear and the total optical absorption coefficient and refractive index change for transitions between two lower-lying electronic states in the GaAs-based δ -doped quantum well. Within the effective mass approximation, we calculated the eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions as a function of the intense laser parameter by solving the Schrödinger equation in the laser-dressed confinement potential. The analytical expressions of the linear and third-order non-linear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes are obtained by using the compact-density matrix formalism. The obtained results show that the separation between ground and first excited energy levels in the δ -doped quantum well decreases in energy by the increase of the laser field intensity and this effect leads to an optical red-shift in the intersubband transitions. This behavior gives us a new degree of freedom in tunability of different device applications based on the optical transitions.

  8. Electronic structure computation and differential capacitance profile in δ-doped FET as a function of hydrostatic pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos-Pinedo, C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.

    2014-05-15

    In this work we present the results obtained from the calculation of the level structure of a n-type delta-doped well Field Effect Transistor when is subjected to hydrostatic pressure. We study the energy level structure as a function of hydrostatic pressure within the range of 0 to 6 kbar for different Schottky barrier height (SBH). We use an analytical expression for the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the SBH and the pressure dependence of the basic parameters of the system as the effective mass m(P) and the dielectric constant ε(P) of GaAs. We found that due to the effects of hydrostatic pressure, in addition to electronic level structure alteration, the profile of the differential capacitance per unit area C{sup −2} is affected.

  9. Electrodeposition of Metal on GaAs Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Einabad, Omid; Watkins, Simon; Kavanagh, Karen

    2010-10-01

    Copper (Cu) electrical contacts to freestanding gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowires have been fabricated via electrodeposition. The nanowires are zincblende (111) oriented grown epitaxially on n-type Si-doped GaAs (111)B substrates by gold-catalyzed Vapor Liquid Solid (VLS) growth in a metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor. The epitaxial electrodeposition process, based on previous work with bulk GaAs substrates, consists of a substrate oxide pre-etch in dilute ammonium-hydroxide carried out prior to galvanostatic electrodeposition in a pure Cu sulphate aqueous electrolyte at 20-60^oC. For GaAs nanowires, we find that Cu or Fe has a preference for growth on the gold catalyst avoiding the sidewalls. After removing gold, both metals still prefer to grow only on top of the nanowire, which has the largest potential field.

  10. Phthalocyanine based Schottky solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, Chung Yin; Djurisic, Aleksandra B.; Lam, Lillian S. M.; Chan, Wai Kin

    2003-02-01

    Phthalocyanine (Pc) materials are commonly used in organic solar cells. Four different phthalocyanines, nickel phthalocyanine (NiPc), copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), iron phthalocyanine (FePc), and cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) have been investigated for organic solar cell applications. The devices consisted of indium tin oxide (ITO) coated lass substrate, Pc layer, and aluminum (al) electrode. It has been found that ITO/CuPc/Al Schottky cell exhibits the best performance. To investigate the influence of the active layer thickness on the cell performance, cells with several different thicknesses were fabricated and optimal value was found. Schottky cell exhibits optimal performance with one ohmic and one barrier contact. However, it is suspected that ITO/CuPc contact is not ohmic. Therefore, we have investigated various ITO surface treatments for improving the performance of CuPc based Schottky solar cell. We have found that cell on ITO treated with HCl and UV-ozone exhibits the best performance. AM1 power conversion efficiency can be improved by 30% compared to cell made with untreated ITO substrate. To improve power conversion efficiency, double or multiplayer structure are required, and it is expected that suitable ITO treatments for those devices will further improve their performance by improving the contact between ITO and phthalocyanine layer.

  11. Delta-doping of Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, E. F.

    2005-08-01

    Part I: 1. Introduction E. F. Schubert; Part II: 2. Electronic structure of delta-doped semiconductors C. R. Proetto; Part III: 3. Recent progress in delta-like confinement of impurities in GaAs K. H. Ploog; 4. Flow-rate modulation epitaxy (FME) of III-V semiconductors T. Makimoto and Y. Horikoshi; 5. Gas source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) of delta-doped III-V semiconductors D. Ritter; 6. Solid phase epitaxy for delta-doping in silicon I. Eisele; 7. Low temperature MBE of silicon H.-J. Gossmann; Part IV: 8. Secondary ion mass spectrometry of delta-doped semiconductors H. S. Luftmann; 9. Capacitance-voltage profiling E. F. Schubert; 10. Redistribution of impurities in III-V semiconductors E. F. Schubert; 11. Dopant diffusion and segregation in delta-doped silicon films H.-J. Gossmann; 12. Characterisation of silicon and delta-doped structures in GaAs R. C. Newman; 13. The DX-center in silicon delta-doped GaAs and AlxGa1-xAs P. M. Koenraad; Part V: 14. Luminescence and ellipsometry spectroscopy H. Yao and E. F. Schubert; 15. Photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy of single delta-doped III-V semiconductor heterostructures J. Wagner and D. Richards; 16. Electron transport in delta-doped quantum wells W. T. Masselink; 17. Electron mobility in delta-doped layers P. M. Koenraad; 18. Hot electrons in delta-doped GaAs M. Asche; 19. Ordered delta-doping R. L. Headrick, L. C. Feldman and B. E. Weir; Part IV: 20. Delta-doped channel III-V field effect transistors (FETs) W.-P. Hong; 21. Selectively doped heterostructure devices E. F. Schubert; 22. Silicon atomic layer doping FET K. Nakagawa and K. Yamaguchi; 23. Planar doped barrier devices R. J. Malik; 24. Silicon interband and intersubband photodetectors I. Eisele; 25. Doping superlattice devices E. F. Schubert.

  12. Development and characterization of zone melt growth GaAs for gamma-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect

    King, S.E.; Dietrich, H.B.; Henry, R.L.; Katzer, D.S.; Moore, W.J.; Phillips, G.W.; Mania, R.C.

    1996-06-01

    GaAs is a potentially attractive material for room temperature x-ray and {gamma}-ray spectrometers. To date, the only high resolution GaAs devices were produced by epitaxial growth. The usefulness of detectors made from bulk grown semi-insulating (SI) GaAs has been limited by low charge collection efficiency caused, it is believed, by the high density of EL2 deep donor defects. Vertical zone melt (VZM) growth of GaAs has recently been developed at the Naval Research Laboratory. Zone refining and zone leveling techniques were used with VZM to reduce the level of impurities and the EL2 defects in bulk SI-GaAs. Schottky barrier and PIN diodes have been fabricated from the newly grown material. These devices were characterized using {alpha} particles and {gamma}-rays. In this paper, the measurements and analysis of the first VZM GaAs devices are presented and compared with commercially available GaAs. The intent is to test the hypothesis that high purity, low defect GaAs material growth could lead to improved radiation detectors.

  13. New approach to the design of Schottky barrier diodes for THz mixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jelenski, A.; Grueb, A.; Krozer, V.; Hartnagel, H. L.

    1992-01-01

    Near-ideal GaAs Schottky barrier diodes especially designed for mixing applications in the THz frequency range are presented. A diode fabrication process for submicron diodes with near-ideal electrical and noise characteristics is described. This process is based on the electrolytic pulse etching of GaAs in combination with an in-situ platinum plating for the formation of the Schottky contacts. Schottky barrier diodes with a diameter of 1 micron fabricated by the process have already shown excellent results in a 650 GHz waveguide mixer at room temperature. A conversion loss of 7.5 dB and a mixer noise temperature of less than 2000 K have been obtained at an intermediate frequency of 4 GHz. The optimization of the diode structure and the technology was possible due to the development of a generalized Schottky barrier diode model which is valid also at high current densities. The common diode design and optimization is discussed on the basis of the classical theory. However, the conventional fomulas are valid only in a limited forward bias range corresponding to currents much smaller than the operating currents under submillimeter mixing conditions. The generalized new model takes into account not only the phenomena occurring at the junction such as current dependent recombination and drift/diffusion velocities, but also mobility and electron temperature variations in the undepleted epi-layer. Calculated diode I/V and noise characteristics are in excellent agreement with the measured values. Thus, the model offers the possibility of optimizing the diode structure and predicting the diode performance under mixing conditions at THz frequencies.

  14. Energy harvesting efficiency in GaN nanowire-based nanogenerators: the critical influence of the Schottky nanocontact.

    PubMed

    Jamond, Nicolas; Chrétien, Pascal; Gatilova, Lina; Galopin, Elisabeth; Travers, Laurent; Harmand, Jean-Christophe; Glas, Frank; Houzé, Frédéric; Gogneau, Noëlle

    2017-03-30

    The performances of 1D-nanostructure based nanogenerators are governed by the ability of nanostructures to efficiently convert mechanical deformation into electrical energy, and by the efficiency with which this piezo-generated energy is harvested. In this paper, we highlight the crucial influence of the GaN nanowire-metal Schottky nanocontact on the energy harvesting efficiency. Three different metals, p-type doped diamond, PtSi and Pt/Ir, have been investigated. By using an atomic force microscope equipped with a Resiscope module, we demonstrate that the harvesting of piezo-generated energy is up to 2.4 times more efficient using a platinum-based Schottky nanocontact compared to a doped diamond-based nanocontact. In light of Schottky contact characteristics, we evidence that the conventional description of the Schottky diode cannot be applied. The contact is governed by its nanometer size. This specific behaviour induces notably a lowering of the Schottky barrier height, which gives rise to an enhanced conduction. We especially demonstrate that this effective thinning is directly correlated with the improvement of the energy harvesting efficiency, which is much pronounced for Pt-based Schottky diodes. These results constitute a building block to the overall improvement of NW-based nanogenerator devices.

  15. InP and GaAs characterization with variable stoichiometry obtained by molecular spray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massies, J.; Linh, N. T.; Olivier, J.; Faulconnier, P.; Poirier, R.

    1979-01-01

    Both InP and GaAs surfaces were studied in parallel. A molecular spray technique was used to obtain two semiconductor surfaces with different superficial compositions. The structures of these surfaces were examined by electron diffraction. Electron energy loss was measured spectroscopically in order to determine surface electrical characteristics. The results are used to support conclusions relative to the role of surface composition in establishing a Schottky barrier effect in semiconductor devices.

  16. 670 GHz Schottky Diode Based Subharmonic Mixer with CPW Circuits and 70 GHz IF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Schlecht, Erich T. (Inventor); Lee, Choonsup (Inventor); Lin, Robert H. (Inventor); Gill, John J. (Inventor); Sin, Seth (Inventor); Mehdi, Imran (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A coplanar waveguide (CPW) based subharmonic mixer working at 670 GHz using GaAs Schottky diodes. One example of the mixer has a LO input, an RF input and an IF output. Another possible mixer has a LO input, and IF input and an RF output. Each input or output is connected to a coplanar waveguide with a matching network. A pair of antiparallel diodes provides a signal at twice the LO frequency, which is then mixed with a second signal to provide signals having sum and difference frequencies. The output signal of interest is received after passing through a bandpass filter tuned to the frequency range of interest.

  17. The role of Schottky barrier in the resistive switching of SrTiO3: direct experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xue-Bing; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Guo, Xin

    2015-01-07

    Single crystalline SrTiO3 doped with 0.1 wt% Nb was used as a model system to evaluate the role of the Schottky barrier in the resistive switching of perovskites. The Ti bottom electrode formed an ohmic contact in the Ni/Nb:SrTiO3/Ti stack, whereas the Ni top electrode created a strong Schottky barrier, which was reflected in a huge semi-circle in the impedance spectrum of the stack. Bipolar switching was achieved in the voltage range of -4 to 4 V for the stack, two clear resistance states were created by electric pulses, and the Schottky barrier heights corresponding to the high/low resistance states were experimentally determined. A direct relationship between the resistance state and the Schottky barrier height was thus established.

  18. Zr/oxidized diamond interface for high power Schottky diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Traoré, A. Muret, P.; Fiori, A.; Eon, D.; Gheeraert, E.; Pernot, J.

    2014-02-03

    High forward current density of 10{sup 3} A/cm{sup 2} (at 6 V) and a breakdown field larger than 7.7 MV/cm for diamond diodes with a pseudo-vertical architecture, are demonstrated. The power figure of merit is above 244 MW/cm{sup 2} and the relative standard deviation of the reverse current density over 83 diodes is 10% with a mean value of 10{sup −9} A/cm{sup 2}. These results are obtained with zirconium as Schottky contacts on the oxygenated (100) oriented surface of a stack comprising an optimized lightly boron doped diamond layer on a heavily boron doped one, epitaxially grown on a Ib substrate. The origin of such performances are discussed.

  19. First principles study of bismuth alloying effects in GaAs saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Li, Dechun; Yang, Ming; Zhao, Shengzhi; Cai, Yongqing; Feng, Yuanping

    2012-05-07

    First principles hybrid functional calculations have been carried out to study electronic properties of GaAs with Bi alloying effects. It is found that the doping of Bi into GaAs reduces the bandgap due to the intraband level repulsions between Bi induced states and host states, and the Bi-related impurity states originate from the hybridization of Bi-6p and its nearest As-4p orbitals. With the increase of Bi concentration in GaAs, the bandgap decreases monotonously. The calculated optical properties of the undoped and Bi-doped GaAs are similar except the shift toward lower energy of absorption edge and main absorption peaks with Bi doping. These results suggest a promising application of GaBi(x)As(1-x) alloy as semiconductor saturable absorber in Q-switched or mode-locked laser.

  20. Ti/Pd/Ag Contacts to n-Type GaAs for High Current Density Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Pengyun; Rey-Stolle, Ignacio

    2016-06-01

    The metallization stack Ti/Pd/Ag on n-type Si has been readily used in solar cells due to its low metal/semiconductor specific contact resistance, very high sheet conductance, bondability, long-term durability, and cost-effectiveness. In this study, the use of Ti/Pd/Ag metallization on n-type GaAs is examined, targeting electronic devices that need to handle high current densities and with grid-like contacts with limited surface coverage (i.e., solar cells, lasers, or light emitting diodes). Ti/Pd/Ag (50 nm/50 nm/1000 nm) metal layers were deposited on n-type GaAs by electron beam evaporation and the contact quality was assessed for different doping levels (from 1.3 × 1018 cm-3 to 1.6 × 1019 cm-3) and annealing temperatures (from 300°C to 750°C). The metal/semiconductor specific contact resistance, metal resistivity, and the morphology of the contacts were studied. The results show that samples doped in the range of 1018 cm-3 had Schottky-like I- V characteristics and only samples doped 1.6 × 1019 cm-3 exhibited ohmic behavior even before annealing. For the ohmic contacts, increasing annealing temperature causes a decrease in the specific contact resistance ( ρ c,Ti/Pd/Ag ~ 5 × 10-4 Ω cm2). In regard to the metal resistivity, Ti/Pd/Ag metallization presents a very good metal conductivity for samples treated below 500°C ( ρ M,Ti/Pd/Ag ~ 2.3 × 10-6 Ω cm); however, for samples treated at 750°C, metal resistivity is strongly degraded due to morphological degradation and contamination in the silver overlayer. As compared to the classic AuGe/Ni/Au metal system, the Ti/Pd/Ag system shows higher metal/semiconductor specific contact resistance and one order of magnitude lower metal resistivity.

  1. Analysing black phosphorus transistors using an analytic Schottky barrier MOSFET model

    PubMed Central

    Penumatcha, Ashish V.; Salazar, Ramon B.; Appenzeller, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the difficulties associated with substitutional doping of low-dimensional nanomaterials, most field-effect transistors built from carbon nanotubes, two-dimensional crystals and other low-dimensional channels are Schottky barrier MOSFETs (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors). The transmission through a Schottky barrier-MOSFET is dominated by the gate-dependent transmission through the Schottky barriers at the metal-to-channel interfaces. This makes the use of conventional transistor models highly inappropriate and has lead researchers in the past frequently to extract incorrect intrinsic properties, for example, mobility, for many novel nanomaterials. Here we propose a simple modelling approach to quantitatively describe the transfer characteristics of Schottky barrier-MOSFETs from ultra-thin body materials accurately in the device off-state. In particular, after validating the model through the analysis of a set of ultra-thin silicon field-effect transistor data, we have successfully applied our approach to extract Schottky barrier heights for electrons and holes in black phosphorus devices for a large range of body thicknesses. PMID:26563458

  2. Analysing black phosphorus transistors using an analytic Schottky barrier MOSFET model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penumatcha, Ashish V.; Salazar, Ramon B.; Appenzeller, Joerg

    2015-11-01

    Owing to the difficulties associated with substitutional doping of low-dimensional nanomaterials, most field-effect transistors built from carbon nanotubes, two-dimensional crystals and other low-dimensional channels are Schottky barrier MOSFETs (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors). The transmission through a Schottky barrier-MOSFET is dominated by the gate-dependent transmission through the Schottky barriers at the metal-to-channel interfaces. This makes the use of conventional transistor models highly inappropriate and has lead researchers in the past frequently to extract incorrect intrinsic properties, for example, mobility, for many novel nanomaterials. Here we propose a simple modelling approach to quantitatively describe the transfer characteristics of Schottky barrier-MOSFETs from ultra-thin body materials accurately in the device off-state. In particular, after validating the model through the analysis of a set of ultra-thin silicon field-effect transistor data, we have successfully applied our approach to extract Schottky barrier heights for electrons and holes in black phosphorus devices for a large range of body thicknesses.

  3. Planar GaAs diodes for THz frequency mixing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, William L.; Crowe, Thomas W.; Mattauch, Robert J.; Dossal, Hasan

    1992-01-01

    Schottky barrier diodes for terahertz applications are typically fabricated as a micron to sub-micron circular anode metallization on GaAs which is contacted with a sharp wire (whisker). This structure has the benefits of the simplicity of the fabrication of the diode chip, the minimal shunt capacitance of the whisker contact and the ability of the whisker wire to couple energy to the diode. However, whisker-contacted diodes are costly to assembly and difficult to qualify for space applications. Also, complex receiver systems which require many diodes are difficult to assemble. The objective of this paper is to discuss the advantages of planar Schottky diodes for high frequency receiver applications and to summarize the problems of advancing the planar technology to the terahertz frequency range. Section 2 will discuss the structure, fabrication and performance of state-of-the-art planar Schottky diodes. In Section 3 the problems of designing and fabricating planar diodes for terahertz frequency operation are discussed along with a number of viable solutions. Section 4 summarizes the need for further research and cooperation between diode designers and RF engineers.

  4. Graphitized carbon on GaAs(100) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.; Simmonds, P. J.; Lee, M. L.; Woodall, J. M.

    2011-02-14

    We report on the formation of graphitized carbon on GaAs(100) surfaces by molecular beam epitaxy. We grew highly carbon-doped GaAs on AlAs, which was then thermally etched in situ leaving behind carbon atoms on the surface. After thermal etching, Raman spectra revealed characteristic phonon modes for sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon, consistent with the formation of graphitic crystallites. We estimate that the graphitic crystallites are 1.5-3 nm in size and demonstrate that crystallite domain size can be increased through the use of higher etch temperatures.

  5. Method of Making Self-Aligned GAAS/ALGAAS FET’s.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    having a predetermined crystalline structure is obtained having a heavily doped top GaAs layer, having a heavily doped AlGaAs layer under the top layer...recess is wider at the base of the recess than at the top of the recess because of the predetermined crystalline structure and the orientation-dependent

  6. Electrical and structural characterization of GaAs on InP grown by OMCVD; application to GaAs MESFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azoulay, R.; Clei, A.; Dugrand, L.; Draïdia, auN.; Leroux, G.; Biblemont, S.

    1991-01-01

    The growth of GaAs on InP has attracted considerable interest recently because of the possibility of integration of GaAs electronic devices and 1.3 μm optical devices on the same wafer. In this work, we have investigated the growth of GaAs MESFETs and doped channel MIS-like FETs on InP by atmospheric pressure OMCVD. Because of the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of GaAs and InP, the layers are under biaxial strain. The lowest FWHM of the (004) reflection curve of the double crystal X-ray diffraction spectra is 110 arc sec for a 12 μm thick layer. We have investigated the influence of the substrate temperature and of the arsine molar fraction on the residual carrier concentration of layers grown side by side on GaAs and on InP. The GaAs layers grown on InP are much more compensated than the layers grown on GaAs, indicating a higher incorporation of impurities. On MESFETs grown on InP, gm = 200mS/mm with Fmax higher than 30 GHz. On doped-channel MIS-like FETs on InP, we have measured gm = 145mS/mm.

  7. Contact mechanisms and design principles for Schottky contacts to group-III nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, S. Noor

    2005-03-01

    Contact mechanisms and design principles for Schottky contacts to group-III nitrides have been studied. These contacts, made generally by using simple principles and past experiences, suffer from serious drawbacks. The importance of various parameters such as surface morphology, surface treatment, metal/semiconductor interactions at the interface, thermal stability, minimization of doping by metal deposition and etching, elimination of edge electric field, etc., for them has been thoroughly investigated. Several design principles have been proposed. Both theoretical and experimental data have been presented to justify the validity of the proposed contact mechanisms and design principles. While theoretical calculations provide fundamental physics underlying heavy doping, leakage, etc., the experimental data provide verification of the contact mechanisms and design principles. The proposed principles are general enough to be applicable to most, if not all, Schottky contacts.

  8. Formation of Schottky-type metal/SrTiO3 junctions and their resistive properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöcker, Hartmut; Zschornak, Matthias; Seibt, Juliane; Hanzig, Florian; Wintz, Susi; Abendroth, Barbara; Kortus, Jens; Meyer, Dirk C.

    2010-08-01

    Motivated by the successful use of strontium titanate with different doping metals for memory cells on the basis of resistive switching and the recent findings on the major importance of oxygen vacancy redistribution in this compound, the present work shows the possibility of a non-volatile resistance change memory based on vacancy-doped SrTiO3. The formation of corresponding metal/SrTiO3- δ junctions ( δ>0) in an electric field will be discussed as well as the switching between ohmic and Schottky-type contact behavior. A notable hysteresis in the current-voltage characteristics is used to carry out Write, Read, and Erase operations exemplifying the memory cell properties of such junctions. But whereas the electric field-induced formation of Schottky-type junctions is explainable by oxygen vacancy redistribution, the resistive switching needs to be discussed in terms of vacancies serving as electron trap states at the metal/oxide interface.

  9. Thickness Dependence of Current Conduction and Carrier Distribution of GaAsN Grown on GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jenn-Fang; Hsiao, Ru-Shang; Hsieh, Ming-Ta; Huang, Wen-Di; Guo, P. S.; Lee, Wei-I; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Chi-Ling

    2005-10-01

    Thickness dependence of the properties of GaAsN grown on GaAs was investigated by characterizing GaAs/GaAs0.982N0.018/GaAs Schottky diodes by current-voltage (I-V), capacitance-voltage (C-V) profiling and deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). I-V characteristics show a considerable increase in the saturation current when the GaAsN thickness is increased from 60 to 250 Å. As GaAsN thickness is increased further, the I-V characteristic deviates from that of a normal Schottky diode with a large series resistance. These I-V characteristics correlate well with carrier distribution. In thick GaAsN samples, C-V profiling shows carrier depletion in the top GaAs layer and frequency-dispersion accumulation in the GaAsN layer. DLTS spectra show that the carrier depletion in the top GaAs layer is due to an EL2 trap and the frequency-dispersion accumulation is due to the removal of electrons from a trap at 0.35 eV in the GaAsN layer. Increasing the GaAsN thickness markedly increases the magnitude of both traps. The large series resistance in thick GaAsN samples is due to EL2 that markedly depletes the top GaAs layer.

  10. Schottky Noise and Beam Transfer Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2016-12-01

    Beam transfer functions (BTF)s encapsulate the stability properties of charged particle beams. In general one excites the beam with a sinusoidal signal and measures the amplitude and phase of the beam response. Most systems are very nearly linear and one can use various Fourier techniques to reduce the number of measurements and/or simulations needed to fully characterize the response. Schottky noise is associated with the finite number of particles in the beam. This signal is always present. Since the Schottky current drives wakefields, the measured Schottky signal is influenced by parasitic impedances.

  11. Monte Carlo simulation of electron drift velocity in low-temperature-grown gallium arsenide in a Schottky-barrier model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arifin, P.; Goldys, E.; Tansley, T. L.

    1995-08-01

    We present a method of simulating the electron transport in low-temperature-grown GaAs by the Monte Carlo method. Low-temperature-grown GaAs contains microscopic inclusions of As and these inhomogeneities render impossible the standard Monte Carlo mobility simulations. Our method overcomes this difficulty and allows the quantitative prediction of electron transport on the basis of principal microscopic material parameters, including the impurity and the precipitate concentrations and the precipitate size. The adopted approach involves simulations of a single electron trajectory in real space, while the influence of As precipitates on the GaAs matrix is treated in the framework of a Schottky-barrier model. The validity of this approach is verified by evaluation of the drift velocity in homogeneous GaAs where excellent agreement with other workers' results is reached. The drift velocity as a function of electric field in low-temperature-grown GaAs is calculated for a range of As precipitate concentrations. Effect of compensation ratio on drift velocity characteristics is also investigated. It is found that the drift velocity is reduced and the electric field at which the onset of the negative differential mobility occurs increases as the precipitate concentration increases. Both these effects are related to the reduced electron mean free path in the presence of precipitates. Additionally, comparatively high low-field electron mobilities in this material are theoretically explained.

  12. Direct probing of Schottky barriers in Si nanowire Schottky barrier field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Martin, Dominik; Heinzig, Andre; Grube, Matthias; Geelhaar, Lutz; Mikolajick, Thomas; Riechert, Henning; Weber, Walter M

    2011-11-18

    This work elucidates the role of the Schottky junction in the electronic transport of nanometer-scale transistors. In the example of Schottky barrier silicon nanowire field effect transistors, an electrical scanning probe technique is applied to examine the charge transport effects of a nanometer-scale local top gate during operation. The results prove experimentally that Schottky barriers control the charge carrier transport in these devices. In addition, a proof of concept for a reprogrammable nonvolatile memory device based on band bending at the Schottky barriers will be shown.

  13. Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy (BEEM) of Au/Al/GaAs Schottky barriers under Ultra High Vacuum conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, R. G.; Narayanamurti, V.

    2000-03-01

    BEEM investigations of the Au/GaAs system have reported substantial redirection of the ballistic current into the L-valley of GaAs, based on a study of the I-V spectroscopic measurement. The result has been attributed to the absence of conservation of interface parallel wave-vector in the non-epitaxial Au/GaAs system. Theory has modeled the effect and it suggests an interesting scenario based on a progressive redistribution of the ballistic current between the relevant bands as a function of scattering strength at the interface. Experiments reported here attempt to investigate this regime by examining BEEM in Au/Al/GaAs Schottky barrier devices that preserve the topographic image of Au at the metal surface, while changing the metal semiconductor interface by placing Al between the surface Au surface layer and the GaAs substrate. As aluminum has been reported to grow epitaxially on GaAs, this approach has been pursued here in the hopes of realizing a metal-semiconductor device with varying degree of interfacial order depending upon growth conditions. Thus, we have fabricated Au/Al/GaAs Schottky barrier devices in a three chamber UHV system and subsequently carried out BEEM measurements between 90 K and 300 K. Collector current images and spectroscopic results obtained in such specimens will be compared with expectations based on relevant theory in order to obtain possible new insight into interface scattering in metal semiconductor structures.

  14. Interface demarcation in GaAs by current pulsing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthiesen, D. H.; Kafalas, J. A.; Duchene, G. A.; Bellows, A. H.

    1990-01-01

    GTE Laboratories is currently conducting a program to investigate the effect of convection in the melt on the properties of bulk grown gallium arsenide (GaAs). In addition to extensive ground based experimentation, a Get Away Special growth system has been developed to grow two GaAs crystals aboard the Space Shuttle, each with a one inch diameter. In order to perform a complete segregation analysis of the crystals grown in space, it is necessary to measure the interface shape and growth rate as well as the spatial distribution of the selenium dopant. The techniques for interface demarcation in selenium doped GaAs by current pulsing have been developed at GTE Laboratories and successful interface demarcation has been achieved for current pulses ranging from 20 to 90 amps, in both single crystal and polycrystalline regions.

  15. Gate tunable graphene-silicon Ohmic/Schottky contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Chung; Chang, Chia-Chi; Li, Zhen; Levi, A. F. J.; Cronin, Stephen B.

    2012-11-01

    We show that the I-V characteristics of graphene-silicon junctions can be actively tuned from rectifying to Ohmic behavior by electrostatically doping the graphene with a polymer electrolyte gate. Under zero applied gate voltage, we observe rectifying I-V characteristics, demonstrating the formation of a Schottky junction at the graphene-silicon interface. Through appropriate gating, the Fermi energy of the graphene can be varied to match the conduction or valence band of silicon, thus forming Ohmic contacts with both n- and p-type silicon. Over the applied gate voltage range, the low bias conductance can be varied by more than three orders of magnitude. By varying the top gate voltage from -4 to +4 V, the Fermi energy of the graphene is shifted between -3.78 and -5.47 eV; a shift of ±0.85 eV from the charge neutrality point. Since the conduction and valence bands of the underlying silicon substrate lie within this range, at -4.01 and -5.13 eV, the Schottky barrier height and depletion width can be decreased to zero for both n- and p-type silicon under the appropriate top gating conditions. I-V characteristics taken under illumination show that the photo-induced current can be increased or decreased based on the graphene-silicon work function difference.

  16. Investigation of ZnSe-coated silicon substrates for GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Daniel A.; Olsen, Larry C.; Dunham, Glen; Addis, F. William

    1993-01-01

    Studies are being carried out to determine the feasibility of using ZnSe as a buffer layer for GaAs solar cells grown on silicon. This study was motivated by reports in the literature indicating ZnSe films had been grown by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) onto silicon with EPD values of 2 x 10(exp 5) cm(sup -2), even though the lattice mismatch between silicon and ZnSe is 4.16 percent. These results combined with the fact that ZnSe and GaAs are lattice matched to within 0.24 percent suggest that the prospects for growing high efficiency GaAs solar cells onto ZnSe-coated silicon are very good. Work to date has emphasized development of procedures for MOCVD growth of (100) ZnSe onto (100) silicon wafers, and subsequent growth of GaAs films on ZnSe/Si substrates. In order to grow high quality single crystal GaAs with a (100) orientation, which is desirable for solar cells, one must grow single crystal (100) ZnSe onto silicon substrates. A process for growth of (100) ZnSe was developed involving a two-step growth procedure at 450 C. Single crystal, (100) GaAs films were grown onto the (100) ZnSe/Si substrates at 610 C that are adherent and specular. Minority carrier diffusion lengths for the GaAs films grown on ZnSe/Si substrates were determined from photoresponse properties of Al/GaAs Schottky barriers. Diffusion lengths for n-type GaAs films are currently on the order of 0.3 microns compared to 2.0 microns for films grown simultaneously by homoepitaxy.

  17. Ferromagnetic GaAs structures with single Mn delta-layer fabricated using laser deposition.

    PubMed

    Danilov, Yuri A; Vikhrova, Olga V; Kudrin, Alexey V; Zvonkov, Boris N

    2012-06-01

    The new technique combining metal-organic chemical vapor epitaxy with laser ablation of solid targets was used for fabrication of ferromagnetic GaAs structures with single Mn delta-doped layer. The structures demonstrated anomalous Hall effect, planar Hall effect, negative and anisotropic magnetoresistance in temperature range of 10-35 K. In GaAs structures with only single Mn delta-layer (without additional 2D hole gas channel or quantum well) ferromagnetism was observed for the first time.

  18. A 492 GHz cooled Schottky receiver for radio-astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernichel, J.; Schieder, R.; Stutzki, J.; Vowinkel, B.; Winnewisser, G.; Zimmermann, Peter

    1992-01-01

    We developed a 492 GHz cooled GaAs Schottky receiver driven by a solid state local oscillator with a DSB noise temperature of 550 K measured at the telescope. The receiver-bandwidth is approx. equal to 1.0 GHz. Quasi-optical mirrors focus the sky and local oscillator radiation into the mixer. Stability analysis via the Allan variance method shows that the total system including a 1 GHz bandwidth acousto-optical spectrometer built in Cologne allows integration times up to 100 sec per half switching cycle. We successfully used the receiver at the KOSMA 3 m telescope on Gornergrat (3150m) located in the central Swiss Alps near Zermatt during January-February 1992 for observations of the 492 GHz, (CI) (3)P1 to (3)P0 fine structure line in several galactic sources. These observations confirm that Gornergrat is an excellent winter submillimeter site in accordance with previous predictions based on the atmospheric opacity from KOSMA 345 GHz measurements.

  19. Graphene-Based Reversible Nano-Switch/Sensor Schottky Diode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.; Meador, Michael A.; Theofylaktos, Onoufrios; Pinto, Nicholas J.; Mueller, Carl H.; Santos-Perez, Javier

    2010-01-01

    This proof-of-concept device consists of a thin film of graphene deposited on an electrodized doped silicon wafer. The graphene film acts as a conductive path between a gold electrode deposited on top of a silicon dioxide layer and the reversible side of the silicon wafer, so as to form a Schottky diode. By virtue of the two-dimensional nature of graphene, this device has extreme sensitivity to different gaseous species, thereby serving as a building block for a volatile species sensor, with the attribute of having reversibility properties. That is, the sensor cycles between active and passive sensing states in response to the presence or absence of the gaseous species.

  20. Photosensitive hole transport in Schottky-contacted Si nanomembranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ping; Wu, Guodong; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Mei, Yongfeng

    2014-09-01

    When Schottky-contacted Si nanomembranes (SiNMs; 27 nm in thickness) are exposed to light it is mainly the hole transport responding sensitively to the illumination. The electron transport on the contrary remains rather unaffected by the exposure, which cannot be explained by a simple creation of electron-hole pairs. We attribute this effect to the holes activated from SiNM surfaces, which strongly supports the existence of surface doping in SiNMs [P. P. Zhang, E. Tevaarwerk, B. N. Park, D. E. Savage, G. K. Celler, I. Knezevic, P. G. Evans, M. A. Eriksson, and M. G. Lagally, Nature 439, 703-706 (2006)]. Our work suggests that the surfaces play a decisive role when creating and designing optoelectronic devices based on SiNMs.

  1. Thermally Stable Silver Nanowires-Embedding Metal Oxide for Schottky Junction Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong-Sik; Patel, Malkeshkumar; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Ray, Abhijit; Jeong, Chaehwan; Kim, Joondong

    2016-04-06

    Thermally stable silver nanowires (AgNWs)-embedding metal oxide was applied for Schottky junction solar cells without an intentional doping process in Si. A large scale (100 mm(2)) Schottky solar cell showed a power conversion efficiency of 6.1% under standard illumination, and 8.3% under diffused illumination conditions which is the highest efficiency for AgNWs-involved Schottky junction Si solar cells. Indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-capped AgNWs showed excellent thermal stability with no deformation at 500 °C. The top ITO layer grew in a cylindrical shape along the AgNWs, forming a teardrop shape. The design of ITO/AgNWs/ITO layers is optically beneficial because the AgNWs generate plasmonic photons, due to the AgNWs. Electrical investigations were performed by Mott-Schottky and impedance spectroscopy to reveal the formation of a single space charge region at the interface between Si and AgNWs-embedding ITO layer. We propose a route to design the thermally stable AgNWs for photoelectric device applications with investigation of the optical and electrical aspects.

  2. Incorporation of the dopants Si and Be into GaAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilse, M.; Ramsteiner, M.; Breuer, S.; Geelhaar, L.; Riechert, H.

    2010-05-01

    We studied the doping with Si and Be of GaAs nanowires (NWRs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Regarding the NW morphology, no influence was observed for Si doping but high Be doping concentrations cause a kinking and tapering of the NWRs. We investigated local vibrational modes by means of resonant Raman scattering to determine the incorporation sites of the dopant atoms. For Si doping, both donors on Ga sites and acceptors on As sites have been observed. Be was found to be incorporated as an acceptor on Ga sites. However, at high doping concentration, Be is also incorporated on interstitial sites.

  3. Vacancy-associated Te sites in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuyts, K.; Langouche, G.; van Rossum, M.; Silverans, R. E.

    1992-03-01

    Defect structures, observed by 129I Mössbauer spectroscopy in high-dose Te-doped GaAs, are identified by a reference study of the semiconducting compound Ga2Te3. The formation of TeAs-VGa complexes (tellurium atoms quasisubstitutional on an As site with a gallium vacancy in the first-neighbor shell) is proposed, in agreement with theoretical predictions. The relevance of this assignment in relation to the earlier proposed Te DX configuration is also discussed.

  4. Localized corrosion of GaAs surfaces and formation of porous GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Schmuki, P.; Vitus, C.M.; Isaacs, H.S.; Fraser, J.; Graham, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    The present work deals with pitting corrosion of p- and n-type GaAs (100). Pit growth can be electrochemically initiated on both conduction types in chloride-containing solutions and leads after extended periods of time to the formation of a porous GaAs structure. In the case of p-type material, localized corrosion is only observed if a passivating film is present on the surface, otherwise -- e.g. in acidic solutions -- the material suffers from a uniform attack (electropolishing) which is independent of the anion present. In contrast, pitting corrosion of n-type material can be triggered independent of the presence of an oxide film. This is explained in terms of the different current limiting factor for the differently doped materials (oxide film in the case of the p- and a space charge layer in the case of the n-GaAs). The porous structure was characterized by SEM, EDX and AES, and consists mainly of GaAs. From scratch experiments it is clear that the pit initiation process is strongly influenced by surface defects. For n-type material, AFM investigations show that light induced roughening of the order of several hundred nm occurs under non-passivating conditions. This nm- scale roughening however does not affect the pitting process.

  5. Heterostructure design optimization for laser cooling of GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imangholi, B.; Wang, C.; Soto, E.; Sheik-Bahae, M.; Stintz, A.; Malloy, K.; Nuntawong, N.; Epstein, R.

    2007-02-01

    Doping of the clad layers in thin GaAs/GaInP heterostructures, displaces the band energy discontinuity, modifies the carrier concentration in the active GaAs region and changes the quality of the hetero-interfaces. As a result, internal and consequently external quantum efficiencies in the double heterostructure are affected. In this paper, the interfacial quality of GaAs/GaInP heterostructure is systematically investigated by adjusting the doping level and type (n or p) of the cladding layer. An optimum structure for laser cooling applications is proposed.

  6. Quantum efficiency of the photocurrent in Schottky barrier structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonov, S. S.; Kafedzhiiska, E. I.; Gerasimov, A. L.

    1987-03-01

    Expressions for the concentration of minority and majority carriers in the illuminated space charge layer of Schottky barrier structures are obtained. The dark current and the photocurrent are determined from the minority and majority carrier concentration at the metal-semiconductor boundary of Schottky barrier structures. A correction to the Gartner expression for the quantum efficiency of the Schottky barrier structures is given. A qualitative estimation of a short-wavelength decrease in the quantum efficiency of Schottky barrier structures is proposed.

  7. Schottky barrier diode and method thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, Shahid (Inventor); Franz, David (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Pt/n.sup.-GaN Schottky barrier diodes are disclosed that are particularly suited to serve as ultra-violet sensors operating at wavelengths below 200 nm. The Pt/n.sup.-GaN Schottky barrier diodes have very large active areas, up to 1 cm.sup.2, which exhibit extremely low leakage current at low reverse biases. Very large area Pt/n.sup.-GaN Schottky diodes of sizes 0.25 cm.sup.2 and 1 cm.sup.2 have been fabricated from n.sup.-/n.sup.+ GaN epitaxial layers grown by vapor phase epitaxy on single crystal c-plane sapphire, which showed leakage currents of 14 pA and 2.7 nA, respectively for the 0.25 cm.sup.2 and 1 cm.sup.2 diodes both configured at a 0.5V reverse bias.

  8. Schottky contact on ultra-thin silicon nanomembranes under light illumination.

    PubMed

    Song, Enming; Si, Wenping; Cao, Ronggen; Feng, Ping; Mönch, Ingolf; Huang, Gaoshan; Di, Zengfeng; Schmidt, Oliver G; Mei, Yongfeng

    2014-12-05

    By repeating oxidation and subsequent wet chemical etching, we produced ultra-thin silicon nanomembranes down to 10 nm based on silicon-on-insulator structures in a controllable way. The electrical property of such silicon nanomembranes is highly influenced by their contacts with metal electrodes, in which Schottky barriers (SBs) can be tuned by light illumination due to the surface doping. Thermionic emission theory of carriers is applied to estimate the SB at the interface between metal electrodes and Si nanomembranes. Our work reveals that the Schottky contacts with Si nanomembranes can be influenced by external stimuli (like light luminescence or surface state) more heavily compared to those in the thicker ones, which implies that such ultra-thin-film devices could be of potential use in optical detectors.

  9. Understanding Mott-Schottky Measurements under Illumination in Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonno, Irene; Martinez-Otero, Alberto; Hebig, Jan-Christoph; Kirchartz, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    The Mott-Schottky analysis in the dark is a frequently used method to determine the doping concentration of semiconductors from capacitance-voltage measurements, even for such complex systems as polymer:fullerene blends used for organic solar cells. While the analysis of capacitance-voltage measurements in the dark is relatively well established, the analysis of data taken under illumination is currently not fully understood. Here, we present experiments and simulations to show which physical mechanisms affect the Mott-Schottky analysis under illumination. We show that the mobility of the blend has a major influence on the shape of the capacitance-voltage curve and can be obtained from data taken under reverse bias. In addition, we show that the apparent shift of the built-in voltage observed previously can be explained by a shift of the onset of space-charge-limited collection with illumination intensity.

  10. Schottky solar cells based on CsSnI3 thin-films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhuo; Wang, Jian J.; Ren, Yuhang; Yu, Chonglong; Shum, Kai

    2012-08-01

    We describe a Schottky solar cell based on the perovskite semiconductor CsSnI3 thin-film. The cell consists of a simple layer structure of indium-tin-oxide/CsSnI3/Au/Ti on glass substrate. The measured power conversion efficiency is 0.9%, which is limited by the series and shunt resistance. The influence of light intensity on open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current supports the Schottky solar cell model. Additionally, the spectrally resolved short-circuit current was measured, confirming the unintentionally doped CsSnI3 is of p-type characteristics. The CsSnI3 thin-film was synthesized by alternately depositing layers of SnCl2 and CsI on glass substrate followed by a thermal annealing process.

  11. Schottky Barrier Thin Film Transistor (SB-TFT) on low-temperature polycrystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Iacovo, A.; Ferrone, A.; Colace, L.; Minotti, A.; Maiolo, L.; Pecora, A.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of Schottky barrier transistors on polycrystalline silicon. The transistors were realized exploiting Cr-Si and Ti-Si Schottky barrier with a low thermal budget process, compatible with polymeric, ultraflexible substrates. We obtained devices with threshold voltages as low as 1.7 V (for n channel) and 4 V (for p channel) with channel lengths ranging from 2 to 40 μm. Resulting on/off ratios are as high as 5 · 103. The devices showed threshold voltages and subthreshold slopes comparable with already published N- and P-MOS devices realized with the same process on polyimide substrates thus representing a cheaper and scalable alternative to ultraflexible transistors with doped source and drain.

  12. Tunable Schottky contacts in the antimonene/graphene van der Waals heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Xinlian; Dai, Xianqi

    2017-03-01

    Electronic structures modulation in the antimonene/graphene van der Waals(vdW) heterostructure with an external electric field(Eext) are investigated by density functional theory calculations. It is demonstrated that weak vdW interactions dominate between antimonene and graphene with their intrinsic electronic properties preserved. Furthermore, the vertical Eext can control not only the Schottky barrier but also the Schottky contacts (n-type and p-type) and Ohmic contacts (n-type) at the antimonene/graphene interface. Meanwhile, the negative Eext can shifts the Dirac point of graphene above the Fermi level, resulting in p-type doping in graphene because electrons can easily transfer from the Dirac point of graphene to the conduction band of antimonene. The present study would open a new avenue for application of ultrathin antimonene/graphene heterostructures in future nano- and optoelectronics.

  13. Ultrafast terahertz emission properties in GaAs semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Aihua; Shi, Yulei; Zhou, Qingli

    2015-08-01

    Ultrafast carrier dynamics in Schottky barriers is an extremely active area of research in recent years. The observation of the generation of terahertz pulses from metal/semiconductor interfaces provides a technique to characterize electronic properties of these materials. However, a detailed analysis of these phenomena has not been performed satisfactorily. In this work, the measurements of optically generated terahertz emission from Au/GaAs interfaces are investigated in detail. We observe that, under high laser power excitation, terahertz signals from bare GaAs wafers and Au/GaAs samples exhibit an opposite polarity. The polarity-flip behaviors in the terahertz beams are also observed in the temperature-dependent measurements and the femtosecond pump-generation studies of the Au/GaAs interfaces. These effects can be fully explained in terms of the dynamics of carrier transfer in the Au/GaAs Schottky barriers, which involves the internal photoelectric emission and the electron tunneling effect, and picosecond time constants are found for these processes.

  14. Simulation and comparative study of tunneling field effect transistors with dopant-segregated Schottky source/drain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi Bo; Sun, Lei; Xu, Hao; Han, Jing Wen

    2016-04-01

    Dopant-segregated Schottky source/drain tunneling field effect transistors (STFET) are investigated in this paper. The working mechanisms of STFET and the influence of device parameters are studied with Synopsys Sentaurus. Schottky source/drain MOSFETs possess several advantages over conventional MOSFETs, and dopant segregation can be feasibly achieved within current silicidation process. With dopant segregation, highly doped regions can be obtained after silicidation, which is necessary for band-to-band tunneling. With proper parameter setting, STFET can achieve comparable performance as TFET. High segregation doping for STFET is required to increase band-to-band tunneling probability and suppress bipolar behaviors. Increasing the electron barrier height at source side helps to provide larger drive current and higher on/off ratio. It is also found that STFET’s on-state performance is irrelevant to the segregation length when the segregation length is larger than a certain value. Furthermore, STFET is also insensitive to the Schottky barrier at drain side when the Schottky barrier at source side is fixed, which would relax the requirement for source/drain fabrication.

  15. Reliability of Cascaded THz Frequency Chains with Planar GaAs Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiwald, Frank; Schlecht, Erich; Lin, Robert; Ward, John; Pearson, John; Siegel, Peter; Mehdi, Imran

    2004-01-01

    Planar GaAs Schottky diodes will be utilized for all of the LO chains on the HIPI instrument for the Herschel Space Observatory. A better understanding of device degradation mechanisms is desirable in order to specify environmental and operational conditions that do not reduce device life times. Failures and degradation associated with ESD (Electrostatic Discharge), high temperatures, DC currents and RF induced current and heating have been investigated. The goal is to establish a procedure to obtain the safe operating range for a given frequency multiplier.

  16. The nature of electrical interaction of Schottky contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Torkhov, N. A.

    2011-08-15

    Electrical interaction between metal-semiconductor contacts combined in a diode matrix with a Schottky barrier manifests itself in an appreciable variation in their surface potentials and static current-volt-characteristics. The necessary condition for appearance of electrical interaction between such contacts consists in the presence of a peripheral electric field (a halo) around them; this field propagates to a fairly large distances (<30 {mu}m). The sufficient condition is the presence of regions where the above halos overlap. It has been shown that variation in the surface potential and the current-voltage characteristics of contacts occurs under the effect of the intrinsic electric field of the contact's periphery and also under the effect of an electric field at matrix periphery; the latter field is formed as a result of superposition of electric fields of halos which form its contacts. The degree of the corresponding effect is governed by the distance between contacts and by the total charge of the space charge regions for all contacts of the matrix: their number, sizes (diameter D{sub i,j}), concentration of doping impurities in the semiconductor N{sub D}, and physical nature of a metal-semiconductor system with a Schottky barrier (with the barrier height {phi}{sub b}). It is established that bringing the contacts closer leads to a relative decrease in the threshold value of the 'dead' zone in the forward current-voltage characteristics, an increase in the effective height of the barrier, and an insignificant increase in the nonideality factor. An increase in the total area of contacts (a total electric charge in the space charge region) in the matrix brings about an increase in the threshold value of the 'dead' zone, a relative decrease in the effective barrier height, and an insignificant increase in the ideality factor.

  17. Identification of As/sub Ga/ antisites in plastically deformed GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, E.R.; Ennen, H.; Kaufmann, U.; Windscheif, J.; Schneider, J.; Wosinski, T.

    1982-09-01

    As/sub Ga/ antisite defects formed during plastic deformation of GaAs are identified by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements. From photo-EPR results it can be concluded that the two levels of this double donor are located near E/sub c/ -0.75 eV and E/sub v/ +0.5 eV. These values are coincident with the Fermi level pinning energies at Schottky barriers. The upper level can be related to the ''main electron trap'' EL2 in GaAs. Photoluminescence experiments before and after thermal annealing suggest that As/sub Ga/ defects reduce the near band edge luminescence efficiency. A dislocation climb model is presented which is able to explain As/sub Ga/ formation during dislocation movement. The production of As/sub Ga/ antisites during dislocation motion under injection conditions in light emitting devices may thus be connected with degradation of the light output.

  18. Stochastic Cooling with Schottky Band Overlap

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Valeri

    2006-03-20

    Optimal use of stochastic cooling is essential to maximize the antiproton stacking rate for Tevatron Run II. Good understanding and characterization of the cooling is important for the optimization. The paper is devoted to derivation of the Fokker-Plank equations justified in the case of near or full Schottky base overlap for both longitudinal and transverse coolings.

  19. Stochastic Cooling with Schottky Band Overlap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Valeri

    2006-03-01

    Optimal use of stochastic cooling is essential to maximize the antiproton stacking rate for Tevatron Run II. Good understanding and characterization of the cooling is important for the optimization. The paper is devoted to derivation of the Fokker-Plank equations justified in the case of near or full Schottky base overlap for both longitudinal and transverse coolings.

  20. Sidewall GaAs tunnel junctions fabricated using molecular layer epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Takeo; Oyama, Yutaka

    2012-02-01

    In this article we review the fundamental properties and applications of sidewall GaAs tunnel junctions. Heavily impurity-doped GaAs epitaxial layers were prepared using molecular layer epitaxy (MLE), in which intermittent injections of precursors in ultrahigh vacuum were applied, and sidewall tunnel junctions were fabricated using a combination of device mesa wet etching of the GaAs MLE layer and low-temperature area-selective regrowth. The fabricated tunnel junctions on the GaAs sidewall with normal mesa orientation showed a record peak current density of 35 000 A cm(-2). They can potentially be used as terahertz devices such as a tunnel injection transit time effect diode or an ideal static induction transistor.

  1. Sidewall GaAs tunnel junctions fabricated using molecular layer epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Takeo; Oyama, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    In this article we review the fundamental properties and applications of sidewall GaAs tunnel junctions. Heavily impurity-doped GaAs epitaxial layers were prepared using molecular layer epitaxy (MLE), in which intermittent injections of precursors in ultrahigh vacuum were applied, and sidewall tunnel junctions were fabricated using a combination of device mesa wet etching of the GaAs MLE layer and low-temperature area-selective regrowth. The fabricated tunnel junctions on the GaAs sidewall with normal mesa orientation showed a record peak current density of 35 000 A cm-2. They can potentially be used as terahertz devices such as a tunnel injection transit time effect diode or an ideal static induction transistor. PMID:27877466

  2. Using Atom-Probe Tomography to Understand Zn O ∶Al /SiO 2/Si Schottky Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo, R.; Youssef, Amanda; Akey, Austin; Schoofs, Frank; Ramanathan, Shriram; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2016-09-01

    We use electronic transport and atom-probe tomography to study Zn O ∶Al /SiO 2/Si Schottky diodes on lightly doped n - and p -type Si. We vary the carrier concentration in the ZnO ∶Al films by 2 orders of magnitude, but the Schottky barrier height remains nearly constant. Atom-probe tomography shows that Al segregates to the interface, so that the ZnO ∶Al at the junction is likely to be metallic even when the bulk of the ZnO ∶Al film is semiconducting. We hypothesize that the observed Fermi-level pinning is connected to the insulator-metal transition in doped ZnO. This implies that tuning the band alignment at oxide/Si interfaces may be achieved by controlling the transition between localized and extended states in the oxide, thereby changing the orbital hybridization across the interface.

  3. Experimental studies of the charge limit phenomenon in NEA GaAs photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, H.; Alley, R.K.; Aoyagi, H.; Clendenin, J.E.; Frisch, J.C.; Mulhollan, G.A.; Saez, P.J.; Schultz, D.C.; Turner, J.L.

    1994-06-01

    Negative electron affinity GaAs photocathodes have been in continuous use at SLAC for generating polarized electron beams since early 1992. If the quantum efficiency of a GaAs cathode is below a critical value, the maximum photoemitted charge with photons of energies close to the band gap in a 2-ns pulse is found to be limited by the intrinsic properties of the cathode instead of by the space charge limit. We have studied this novel charge limit phenomenon in a variety of GaAs photocathodes of different structures and doping densities. We find that the charge limit is strongly dependent on the cathode`s quantum efficiency and the extraction electric field, and to a lesser degree on the excitation laser wavelength. In addition, we show that the temporal behavior of the charge limit depends critically on the doping density.

  4. The Study of 0.34 THz Monolithically Integrated Fourth Subharmonic Mixer Using Planar Schottky Barrier Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Xiaodong; Li, Qian; An, Ning; Wang, Wenjie; Deng, Xiaodong; Zhang, Liang; Liu, Haitao; Zeng, Jianping; Li, Zhiqiang; Tang, Hailing; Xiong, Yong-Zhong

    2015-11-01

    A planar Schottky barrier diode with the designed Schottky contact area of approximately 3 μm2 is developed on gallium arsenide (GaAs) material. The measurements of the developed planar Schottky barrier diode indicate that the zero-biased junction capacitance Cj0 is 11.0 fF, the parasitic series resistance RS is 3.0 Ω, and the cut off frequency fT is 4.8 THz. A monolithically integrated fourth subharmonic mixer with this diode operating at the radio frequency (RF) signal frequency of 0.34 THz with the chip area of 0.6 mm2 is implemented. The intermediate frequency (IF) bandwidth is from DC to 40 GHz. The local oscillator (LO) bandwidth is 37 GHz from 60 to 97 GHz. The RF bandwidth is determined by the bandwidth of the on chip antenna, which is 28 GHz from 322 to 350 GHz. The measurements of the mixer demonstrated a conversion loss of approximately 51 dB.

  5. Enhanced Thermionic Emission and Low 1/f Noise in Exfoliated Graphene/GaN Schottky Barrier Diode.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Kashid, Ranjit; Ghosh, Arindam; Kumar, Vikram; Singh, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    Temperature-dependent electrical transport characteristics of exfoliated graphene/GaN Schottky diodes are investigated and compared with conventional Ni/GaN Schottky diodes. The ideality factor of graphene/GaN and Ni/GaN diodes are measured to be 1.33 and 1.51, respectively, which is suggestive of comparatively higher thermionic emission current in graphene/GaN diode. The barrier height values for graphene/GaN diode obtained using thermionic emission model and Richardson plots are found to be 0.60 and 0.72 eV, respectively, which are higher than predicted barrier height ∼0.40 eV as per the Schottky-Mott model. The higher barrier height is attributed to hole doping of graphene due to graphene-Au interaction which shifts the Fermi level in graphene by ∼0.3 eV. The magnitude of flicker noise of graphene/GaN Schottky diode increases up to 175 K followed by its decrease at higher temperatures. This indicates that diffusion currents and barrier inhomogeneities dominate the electronic transport at lower and higher temperatures, respectively. The exfoliated graphene/GaN diode is found to have lower level of barrier inhomogeneities than conventional Ni/GaN diode, as well as earlier reported graphene/GaN diode fabricated using chemical vapor deposited graphene. The lesser barrier inhomogeneities in graphene/GaN diode results in lower flicker noise by 2 orders of magnitude as compared to Ni/GaN diode. Enhanced thermionic emission current, lower level of inhomogeneities, and reduced flicker noise suggests that graphene-GaN Schottky diodes may have the underlying trend for replacing metal-GaN Schottky diodes.

  6. Extreme ultraviolet detection using AlGaN-on-Si inverted Schottky photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, Pawel E.; Duboz, Jean-Yves; De Moor, Piet; Minoglou, Kyriaki; John, Joachim; Horcajo, Sara Martin; Semond, Fabrice; Frayssinet, Eric; Verhoeve, Peter; Esposito, Marco; Giordanengo, Boris; BenMoussa, Ali; Mertens, Robert; Van Hoof, Chris

    2011-04-01

    We report on the fabrication of aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) Schottky diodes for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) detection. AlGaN layers were grown on silicon wafers by molecular beam epitaxy with the conventional and inverted Schottky structure, where the undoped, active layer was grown before or after the n-doped layer, respectively. Different current mechanisms were observed in the two structures. The inverted Schottky diode was designed for the optimized backside sensitivity in the hybrid imagers. A cut-off wavelength of 280 nm was observed with three orders of magnitude intrinsic rejection ratio of the visible radiation. Furthermore, the inverted structure was characterized using a EUV source based on helium discharge and an open electrode design was used to improve the sensitivity. The characteristic He I and He II emission lines were observed at the wavelengths of 58.4 nm and 30.4 nm, respectively, proving the feasibility of using the inverted layer stack for EUV detection.

  7. Controllable resistive switching in Au/Nb:SrTiO3 microscopic Schottky junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuhang; Shi, Xiaolan; Zhao, Kehan; Xie, Guanlin; Huang, Siyu; Zhang, Liuwan

    2016-02-01

    The reversible resistive switching effect at oxide interface shows promising applications in information storage and artificial intelligence. However, the microscopic switching mechanism is still elusive due to the difficulty of direct observation of the electrical and chemical behavior at the buried interface, which becomes a major barrier to design reliable, scalable, and reproducible devices. Here we used a gold-coated AFM tip as a removable electrode to investigate the resistive switching effect in a microscopic Au/Nb:SrTiO3 Schottky junction. We found that unlike the inhomogeneous random resistive switching in the macroscopic Schottky junctions, the high and low resistance states can be reversibly switched in a controllable way on the Nb-doped SrTiO3 surface by the conductive tip. The switching between the high and low resistance states in vacuum is accompanied by the reversible shift of the surface Fermi level. We indicate that the transfer of the interface oxygen ion in a double-well potential is responsible for the resistive switching in both macroscopic and microscopic Schottky junctions. Our findings provide a guide to optimize the key performance parameters of a resistive switching device such as operation voltage, switching speed, on/off ratio, and state retention time by proper electrode selection and fabrication strategy.

  8. Schottky diodes from 2D germanane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Esteves, Richard J.; Punetha, Vinay Deep; Pestov, Dmitry; Arachchige, Indika U.; McLeskey, James T.

    2016-07-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a Schottky diode made using 2D germanane (hydrogenated germanene). When compared to germanium, the 2D structure has higher electron mobility, an optimal band-gap, and exceptional stability making germanane an outstanding candidate for a variety of opto-electronic devices. One-atom-thick sheets of hydrogenated puckered germanium atoms have been synthesized from a CaGe2 framework via intercalation and characterized by XRD, Raman, and FTIR techniques. The material was then used to fabricate Schottky diodes by suspending the germanane in benzonitrile and drop-casting it onto interdigitated metal electrodes. The devices demonstrate significant rectifying behavior and the outstanding potential of this material.

  9. Liquid junction schottky barrier solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Richard

    1980-01-01

    A mixture of ceric ions (Ce.sup.+4) and cerous ions (Ce.sup.+3) in an aqueous electrolyte solution forms a Schottky barrier at the interface between an active region of silicon and the electrolyte solution. The barrier height obtained for hydrogenated amorphous silicon using the Ce.sup.+4 /Ce.sup.+3 redox couple is about 1.7 eV.

  10. Plastic Schottky-barrier solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Waldrop, J.R.; Cohen, M.J.

    1981-12-30

    A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped polyacetylene, organic semiconductor. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a metallic area electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates a magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film. With the proper selection and location of elements a photovoltaic cell structure and solar cell are obtained.

  11. Control of GaAs Microwave Schottky Diode Electrical Characteristics by Contact Geometry: The Gap Diode.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    profile. After construction, the system was dismantled, the quartz and Pyrex parts cleaned thoroughly in aqua regia and rinsed in deionized water...field is reversed . In practice, the semiconductor can be made degenerate which results in an ohmic contact. 1.3.2.1 Alloying [10,11,12] A simple way to...relate the forward carrier flux Jf and reverse carrier flux Jr by if = Jr exp (a") (2.3) where ir =A* T2 exp ( ) (2.4) * Here, A is the Richardson

  12. Growth and Photovoltaic Properties of High-Quality GaAs Nanowires Prepared by the Two-Source CVD Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Zaixing; Wu, Xiaofeng; Han, Ning; Liu, Hanyu; Wang, Shuobo; Li, Jun; Tse, WaiMan; Yip, SenPo; Chen, Yunfa; Ho, Johnny C.

    2016-04-01

    Growing high-quality and low-cost GaAs nanowires (NWs) as well as fabricating high-performance NW solar cells by facile means is an important development towards the cost-effective next-generation photovoltaics. In this work, highly crystalline, dense, and long GaAs NWs are successfully synthesized using a two-source method on non-crystalline SiO2 substrates by a simple solid-source chemical vapor deposition method. The high V/III ratio and precursor concentration enabled by this two-source configuration can significantly benefit the NW growth and suppress the crystal defect formation as compared with the conventional one-source system. Since less NW crystal defects would contribute fewer electrons being trapped by the surface oxides, the p-type conductivity is then greatly enhanced as revealed by the electrical characterization of fabricated NW devices. Furthermore, the individual single NW and high-density NW parallel arrays achieved by contact printing can be effectively fabricated into Schottky barrier solar cells simply by employing asymmetric Ni-Al contacts, along with an open circuit voltage of ~0.3 V. All these results indicate the technological promise of these high-quality two-source grown GaAs NWs, especially for the realization of facile Schottky solar cells utilizing the asymmetric Ni-Al contact.

  13. Growth and Photovoltaic Properties of High-Quality GaAs Nanowires Prepared by the Two-Source CVD Method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Zaixing; Wu, Xiaofeng; Han, Ning; Liu, Hanyu; Wang, Shuobo; Li, Jun; Tse, WaiMan; Yip, SenPo; Chen, Yunfa; Ho, Johnny C

    2016-12-01

    Growing high-quality and low-cost GaAs nanowires (NWs) as well as fabricating high-performance NW solar cells by facile means is an important development towards the cost-effective next-generation photovoltaics. In this work, highly crystalline, dense, and long GaAs NWs are successfully synthesized using a two-source method on non-crystalline SiO2 substrates by a simple solid-source chemical vapor deposition method. The high V/III ratio and precursor concentration enabled by this two-source configuration can significantly benefit the NW growth and suppress the crystal defect formation as compared with the conventional one-source system. Since less NW crystal defects would contribute fewer electrons being trapped by the surface oxides, the p-type conductivity is then greatly enhanced as revealed by the electrical characterization of fabricated NW devices. Furthermore, the individual single NW and high-density NW parallel arrays achieved by contact printing can be effectively fabricated into Schottky barrier solar cells simply by employing asymmetric Ni-Al contacts, along with an open circuit voltage of ~0.3 V. All these results indicate the technological promise of these high-quality two-source grown GaAs NWs, especially for the realization of facile Schottky solar cells utilizing the asymmetric Ni-Al contact.

  14. A 1.2 THz Planar Tripler Using GaAs Membrane Based Chips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruston, J.; Maestrini, A.; Pukala, D.; Martin, S.; Nakamura, B.; Mehdi, I.

    2001-01-01

    Fabrication technology for submillimeter-wave monolithic circuits has made tremendous progress in recent years and it is now possible to fabricate sub-micron GaAs Schottky devices on a number of substrate types, such as membranes, frame-less membranes or substrateless circuits. These new technologies allow designers to implement very high frequency circuits, either Schottky mixers or multipliers, in a radically new manner. This paper will address the design, fabrication, and preliminary results of a 1.2 THz planar tripler fabricated on a GaAs frame-less membrane, the concept of which was described previously. The tripler uses a diode pair in an antiparallel configuration similar to designs used at lower frequency. To date, this tripler has produced a peak output power of 80 microW with 0.9% efficiency at room temperature (at 1126 GHz). The measured fix-tuned 3 dB bandwidth is about 3.5%. When cooled, the output power reached a peak of 195 microW at 120 K and 250 microW at 50 K. The ease with which this circuit was implemented along with the superb achieved performance indicates that properly designed planar devices such as this tripler can now usher in a new era of practical very high frequency multipliers.

  15. Electrical analysis of low-energy argon-ion-bombarded GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.D.

    1988-01-01

    An electrical analysis was done on Al and Au Schottky diodes fabricated on n-type (100) GaAs which had been bombarded with low-energy Ar ions. The purpose of this study was to quantify electrically damage caused by the Ion Beam Etching (IBE) as functions of energy and fluence. Electrical studies included Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS), Current-Voltage (I-V), Capacitance-Voltage (C-V), Conductance-Voltage (G-V), Capacitance-Temperature (C-T), and Activation Energy Analysis. These electrical measurements were carried out on GaAs exposed to a variety of treatments after IBE (such as chemical etch removal) to determine damage depth. At the lowest energy studied, 0.5 keV, Schottky reverse saturation currents increased by over 4 orders of magnitude from the virgin case. The ideality factor, n, increased slightly while the breakdown voltage decreased. The most prominent changes occurred in the DLTS spectrum where it was observed that the native arsenic defect EL2 peak disappeared completely after ion etching. Concurrently, a sharp increase in the diode conductivity with temperature was seen. Increasing ion-bombardment energy showed a steady degradation in diode ideality factors.

  16. Enhanced solar energy harvesting using top n-contact GaAs solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, N. C.

    2015-05-01

    We fabricated single-junction solar cell on molecular beam epitaxially grown p-n junction on n-type gallium arsenide (GaAs) substrate. We used a germanium (Ge)/gold (Au)/nickel (Ni)/Au metal contact from the top side on a highly doped n+ epitaxial layer as well as the bottom side on an n-type GaAs substrate. We observed 10-15% increase in solar cell power when the top contact is used for the n+ GaAs epi layer compared to the bottom side n-type GaAs substrate. Solar cell fill factor, sheet, and shunt resistances are same for both the top and bottom contact type devices. We also observed higher external quantum efficiency (EQE) for top contact devices compared to bottom contact devices. We conclude that to achieve higher power, it is advantageous to use an n-type contact from a highly doped top n+ epitaxial layer rather than a bottom n-type GaAs substrate.

  17. GaAs Blocked-Impurity-Band Detectors for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Cardozo, Benjamin Lewin

    2004-01-01

    High-purity and doped GaAs films have been grown by Liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) for development of a blocked impurity band (BIB) detector for far-infrared radiation. The film growth process developed has resulted in the capability to grow GaAs with a net active impurity concentration below 1 x 1013 cm-3, ideal for the blocking layer of the BIB detector. The growth of n-type LPE GaAs films with donor concentrations below the metal-insulator transition, as required for the absorbing layer of a BIB detector, has been achieved. The control of the donor concentration, however, was found to be insufficient for detector production. The growth by LPE of a high-purity film onto a commercially grown vapor-phase epitaxial (VPE) n-type GaAs doped absorbing layer resulted in a BIB device that showed a significant reduction in the low-temperature dark current compared to the absorbing layer only. Extended optical response was not detected, most likely due to the high compensation of the commercially grown GaAs absorbing layer, which restricts the depletion width of the device.

  18. Deforming super Riemann surfaces with gravitinos and super Schottky groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Playle, Sam

    2016-12-01

    The (super) Schottky uniformization of compact (super) Riemann surfaces is briefly reviewed. Deformations of super Riemann surface by gravitinos and Beltrami parameters are recast in terms of super Schottky group cohomology. It is checked that the super Schottky group formula for the period matrix of a non-split surface matches its expression in terms of a gravitino and Beltrami parameter on a split surface. The relationship between (super) Schottky groups and the construction of surfaces by gluing pairs of punctures is discussed in an appendix.

  19. Differences in stability and repeatability between GaAs and GaAlAs photocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuan; Zhang, Yijun; Feng, Cheng; Shi, Feng; Zou, Jijun; Chen, Xinlong; Chang, Benkang

    2016-12-01

    For the applications in vacuum photodetectors and photoinjectors, a crucial limiting factor for conventional GaAs photocathodes is the limited lifetime, depending on the Cs-O activation layer vulnerable to the harmful residual gases. In order to develop a type of GaAs-based photocathode with good stability and repeatability, Cs/O activation and multiple recesiation experiments under the same preparation condition were performed on reflection-mode exponential-doped GaAs and GaAlAs photocathodes grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy, and quantum efficiency and photocurrent decay were measured after activation and recesiation. The experimental results show that the photoemission characteristics on cathode degradation and repeatability are different between GaAs and GaAlAs photocathodes. In an unsatisfactory vacuum system, the operational lifetime for GaAlAs photocathode is nearly twice longer than that for GaAs photocathode after Cs/O activation under a high intensity illumination. After multiple recesiations, the quantum efficiency and operational lifetime for GaAlAs photocathode remain nearly unchanged, while those for GaAs photocathode become lower and lower with the increase of recesiation cycles, which reflects the superiority in stability and repeatability for GaAlAs photocathode in contrast to GaAs photocathode operating in the poor vacuum environment.

  20. Epitaxial two-dimensional nitrogen atomic sheet in GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Yukihiro Yamamoto, Masuki; Baba, Takeshi; Kita, Takashi

    2014-01-27

    We have grown an epitaxial two-dimensional nitrogen (N) atomic sheet in GaAs by using the site-controlled N δ-doping technique. We observed a change of the electronic states in N δ-doped GaAs from the isolated impurity centers to the delocalized impurity band at 1.49 eV with increasing N-doping density. According to the excitation-power- and temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectra, the emission related to localized levels below the impurity band edge was dominant at low excitation power and temperature, whereas the effects of the localized levels can be neglected by increasing the excitation power and temperature. Furthermore, a clear Landau shift of the PL-peak energy was observed at several Tesla in the Faraday configuration, in contrast to the case in the impurity limit.

  1. Epitaxial two-dimensional nitrogen atomic sheet in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Yukihiro; Yamamoto, Masuki; Baba, Takeshi; Kita, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We have grown an epitaxial two-dimensional nitrogen (N) atomic sheet in GaAs by using the site-controlled N δ-doping technique. We observed a change of the electronic states in N δ-doped GaAs from the isolated impurity centers to the delocalized impurity band at 1.49 eV with increasing N-doping density. According to the excitation-power- and temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectra, the emission related to localized levels below the impurity band edge was dominant at low excitation power and temperature, whereas the effects of the localized levels can be neglected by increasing the excitation power and temperature. Furthermore, a clear Landau shift of the PL-peak energy was observed at several Tesla in the Faraday configuration, in contrast to the case in the impurity limit.

  2. Multipath-switching device utilizing a GaAs-based multiterminal nanowire junction with size-controlled dual Schottky wrap gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, Seiya; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Shiratori, Yuta

    2007-05-01

    A multipath-switching device using a multiterminal nanowire junction with size-controlled dual gates is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. The device switches a number of output terminals according to multiple-valued input voltages for electrons entering from a root terminal. The switching function is implemented by dual gating on multiple nanowires with different threshold voltages Vth. Systematic Vth shift is made by changing gate lengths in nanometer scale. A triple-path-switching device is fabricated using AlGaAs /GaAs etched nanowires and nanometer-scale Schottky wrap gates. Its correct operation is confirmed at room temperature. Obtained results are explained by a simple analytical model.

  3. Nitride chemical passivation of a GaAs (100) Surface: Effect on the electrical characteristics of Au/GaAs surface-barrier structures

    SciTech Connect

    Berkovits, V. L. L'vova, T. V.; Ulin, V. P.

    2011-12-15

    The effect of chemical nitridation of GaAs substrates in a hydrazine-sulfide solution on the electrical characteristics of Au/GaAs Schottky structures has been studied. In nitridation of this kind, a solid passivating gallium nitride film with a monolayer thickness is formed on the surface of GaAs, providing almost direct contact between the semiconductor and the metal deposited on its surface. Au/GaAs structures fabricated on nitride substrates have ideality factors close to unity and are characterized by a narrow scatter of potential barrier heights. Prolonged heating of these structures at 350 Degree-Sign C does not change these parameters. The data obtained show that the nitride monolayer formed on the GaAs surface upon treatment in hydrazidesulfide solutions effectively hinders atomic migration across the metal-semiconductor phase boundary.

  4. 1-kV vertical Ga2O3 field-plated Schottky barrier diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, Keita; Goto, Ken; Murakami, Hisashi; Kumagai, Yoshinao; Kuramata, Akito; Yamakoshi, Shigenobu; Higashiwaki, Masataka

    2017-03-01

    Ga2O3 field-plated Schottky barrier diodes (FP-SBDs) were fabricated on a Si-doped n--Ga2O3 drift layer grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy on a Sn-doped n+-Ga2O3 (001) substrate. The specific on-resistance of the Ga2O3 FP-SBD was estimated to be 5.1 mΩ.cm2. Successful field-plate engineering resulted in a high breakdown voltage of 1076 V. A larger-than-expected effective barrier height of 1.46 eV, which was extracted from the temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics, could be caused by the effect of fluorine atoms delivered in a hydrofluoric acid solution process.

  5. Lifetime measurements by open circuit voltage decay in GaAs and InP diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhimnathwala, H. G.; Tyagi, S. D.; Bothra, S.; Ghandhi, S. K.; Borrego, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Minority carrier lifetimes in the base of solar cells made on GaAs and InP were measured by the open-circuit voltage decay method. The measurement technique and the conditions under which the minority carrier lifetimes can be measured are described. Minority carrier lifetimes ranging from 1.6 to 34 ns in InP of different doping concentrations were measured. A minority carrier lifetime of 6 ns was measured in n-type GaAs, which agrees well with the lifetime of 5.7 ns measured by transient microwave reflection.

  6. Fabrication of Schottky Junction Between Au and SrTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Akira; Izumisawa, Kei; Uwe, Hiromoto

    2001-05-01

    A Schottky junction with a high rectification ratio between Au and La-doped SrTiO3 has been fabricated using a simple surface treatment. Highly La-doped (5%) SrTiO3 single crystals are annealed in O2 atmosphere at about 1000°C for 1 h and etched in HNO3 for more than five min. The HNO3 etching is performed in a globe box containing N2 to prevent pollution from the air. After the treatment, Au is deposited on the SrTiO3 surface in a vacuum (˜ 10-7 Torr) with an e-gun evaporator. The current voltage characteristics of the junction have shown excellent rectification properties, although junctions using neither annealed nor etched SrTiO3 exhibit high leak current in reverse voltage. The rectification ratio of the junction at 1 V is more than six orders of magnitude and there is no hysteresis in the current voltage spectra. The logarithm of the current is linear with the forward bias voltage. The ideal factor of the junction is estimated to be about 1.68. These results suggest that, if prevented from being pollution by the air, a good Schottky junction can be obtained by easy processes such as annealing in oxygen atmosphere and surface etching with acid.

  7. Influence of arsenic flow on the crystal structure of epitaxial GaAs grown at low temperatures on GaAs (100) and (111) A substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiev, G. B.; Klimov, E. A.; Vasiliev, A. L.; Imamov, R. M.; Pushkarev, S. S.; Trunkin, I. N.; Maltsev, P. P.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of arsenic flow in a growth chamber on the crystal structure of GaAs grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at a temperature of 240°C on GaAs (100) and (111) A substrates has been investigated. The flow ratio γ of arsenic As4 and gallium was varied in the range from 16 to 50. GaAs films were either undoped, or homogeneously doped with silicon, or contained three equidistantly spaced silicon δ-layers. The structural quality of the annealed samples has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. It is established for the first time that silicon δ-layers in "low-temperature" GaAs serve as formation centers of arsenic precipitates. Their average size, concentration, and spatial distribution are estimated. The dependence of the film structural quality on γ is analyzed. Regions 100-150 nm in size have been revealed in some samples and identified (by X-ray microanalysis) as pores. It is found that, in the entire range of γ under consideration, GaAs films on (111) A substrates have a poorer structural quality and become polycrystalline beginning with a thickness of 150-200 nm.

  8. Red Light Emitting Schottky Diodes on p-TYPE GaN/AlN/Si(111) Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuah, L. S.; Hassan, Z.; Abu Hassan, H.

    High quality GaN layers doped with Mg were grown on Si(111) substrates using high temperature AlN as buffer layer by radio-frequency molecular beam epitaxy. From the Hall measurements, fairly uniform high hole concentration as high as (4-5) × 1020 cm-3 throughout the GaN was achieved. The fabrication of the device is very simple. Nickel ohmic contacts and Schottky contacts using indium were fabricated on Mg-doped p-GaN films. The light emission has been obtained from these thin film electroluminescent devices. Thin film electroluminescent devices were operated under direct current bias. Schottky and ohmic contacts used as cathode and anode were employed in these investigations. Alternatively, two Schottky contacts could be probed as cathode and anode. Thin film electroluminescent devices were able to emit light. However, electrical and optical differences could be observed from the two different probing methods. The red light color could be observed when the potential between the electrodes was increased gradually under forward bias of 8 V at room temperature. Electrical properties of these thin film electroluminescent devices were characterized by current-voltage (I-V) system, the heights of barriers determined from the I-V measurements were found to be related to the electroluminescence.

  9. Schottky barrier height of Ni to β-(AlxGa1‑x)2O3 with different compositions grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Elaheh; Oshima, Yuichi; Wu, Feng; Speck, James S.

    2017-03-01

    Coherent β-(AlxGa1‑x)2O3 films (x = 0, 0.038, 0.084, 0.164) were grown successfully on a Sn-doped β-Ga2O3 (010) substrate using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Atom probe tomography, transmission electron microscopy, and high resolution x-ray diffraction were used to verify the alloy composition and high quality of the films. Schottky diodes were then fabricated using Ni as the Schottky metal. Capacitance–voltage measurements revealed a very low (<7 × 1015 cm‑3) free charge density in the nominally undoped films. The barrier height and ideality factor were estimated by current–voltage (I–V) measurements performed at temperatures varying from 300 K to 500 K on the Schottky diodes. These measurements revealed that the apparent Schottky barrier height could have similar values for different compositions of β-(AlxGa1‑x)2O3. We believe this is attributed to the lateral fluctuation in the alloy’s composition. This results in a lateral variation in the barrier height. Therefore, the average Schottky barrier height extracted from I–V measurements could be similar for β-(AlxGa1‑x)2O3 films with different compositions.

  10. a Study of the Nature of the Schottky Barrier during Ultralow Coverage Stages of GALLIUM-ARSENIDE(110)/ALUMINUM and GALLIUM-ARSENIDE(110)/INDIUM Interface Formation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Robert Richard

    We present a study of the GaAs(110)/Al and GaAs(110)/In interface formation from submonolayer to bulk metallic coverages using synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy. The experiments monitored changes in the surface and bulk core level binding energies and valence electronic state densities resulting from the deposition of aluminum or indium. These spectroscopic changes indicate the occurrence of specific chemical processes during the formation of the interface. This represents the first study of ultralow metal coverages (< 1/20 monolayer) on a semiconductor using this approach. Our results emphasize the critical importance of characterizing this regime in order to understand the metal-semiconductor interface. Extreme differences in the electronic properties are observed between these two interfaces and can be understood in terms of the different chemical processes. In particular, our results indicate the predominance of the aluminum or indium adatom-adatom bonding (cluster formation) over the metal-semiconductor bonding at the interface; we demonstrate that this is the key factor in determining such properties as the Schottky barrier height and coverage stabilization of the barrier. The relevance of current models of metal -semiconductor interfaces to GaAs(110)/Al and GaAs(110)/In is discussed in terms of metallic cluster formation. In particular, the influence of semiconductor surface defect states and metal induced gap states is examined.

  11. Gate Modulation of Graphene-ZnO Nanowire Schottky Diode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ren; You, Xu-Chen; Fu, Xue-Wen; Lin, Fang; Meng, Jie; Yu, Da-Peng; Liao, Zhi-Min

    2015-05-06

    Graphene-semiconductor interface is important for the applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices. Here we report the modulation of the electric transport properties of graphene/ZnO nanowire Schottky diode by gate voltage (Vg). The ideality factor of the graphene/ZnO nanowire Schottky diode is ~1.7, and the Schottky barrier height is ~0.28 eV without external Vg. The Schottky barrier height is sensitive to Vg due to the variation of Fermi level of graphene. The barrier height increases quickly with sweeping Vg towards the negative value, while decreases slowly towards the positive Vg. Our results are helpful to understand the fundamental mechanism of the electric transport in graphene-semiconductor Schottky diode.

  12. Transient Velocity Assessment in Gallium Arsenide, and of Other GaAs Characteristics Related to Device Functions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-29

    GaAs, two-terminal devices such as N+N-N+ diodes, and three-terminal devices (such as MESFETs and bipolar transistors ) are treated. We have chosen...Cornell group is no longer working on the standard MESFET. Their planar-doped barrier transistor is a vertically oriented device that uses a barrier...made a few hundred angstroms thick. Figure 7 shows an energy diagram of the planar doped barrier transistor mentioned above. A second possibility

  13. Influence of SiCl sub 4 reactive ion etching on the electrical characteristics of GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Lootens, D. , Laboratorium voor Elektromagnetisme en Acoustica , Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Gent ); Clauws, P. ); Van Daele, P.; Demeester, P. , Laboratorium voor Elektromagnetisme en Acoustica , Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Gent )

    1991-05-05

    SiCl{sub 4}-RIE causes electrical damage to GaAs strongly related to doping type and level. Changes in C-V and DLTS-measurements can be related to EL2-defects. Explanations for observed differences in n-type and p-type material will be presented.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of Au/p-ZnO Schottky contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Tripathi, Shweta

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports the electrical characteristics of gold contacts on p-type ZnO thin films synthesized by spin coating the sol containing zinc acetate and bismuth nitrate as main precursors. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the deposited thin film have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Ellipsometry, respectively. Further, hot probe measurement has been used to ascertain the type of deposited film and it was observed that films doped with the concentration of 10 mol% Bi shows p-type nature that was found to be stable over the period of five months. Moreover, reflectance of the Bi doped ZnO with varying Bi concentrations, have also been calculated over the wavelength range of 300-800 nm. The optical band gap of Bi doped ZnO films have also been determined for different concentrations of Bi using the data taken by ellipsometer. The gold (Au) contacts have been deposited on the p-ZnO thin films using low cost thermal evaporation method. Electrical parameters such as the reverse saturation current, barrier height and ideality factor have also been determined for Au/p-ZnO thin film based Schottky contact using conventional thermionic emission model and Cheung's method. The conventional thermionic emission model yields barrier height ∼0.681 eV and ideality factor ∼2.3 however Cheung method gives barrier height ∼0.556 eV, ideality factor ∼2.186 and series resistance ∼923 Ω. The present study establishes the fact that Cheung's method can be the best and most realistic method for approximating the diode parameters including the effect of series resistance of the Au/p-ZnO Schottky diode under consideration.

  15. Spectroscopic constants and potential energy curves of GaAs, GaAs +, and GaAs -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, K.

    1990-02-01

    Twenty electronic states of GaAs, 12 electronic states of GaAs +, and 13 electronic states of GaAs - are investigated using relativistic ab initio complete active space MCSCF (CASSCF) followed by large-scale configuration interaction calculations which included up to 700 000 configurations. Potential energy curves and spectroscopic constants of all these states of three radicals are obtained. Spectroscopic constants of low-lying states of GaAs are in very good agreement with both experiment and all-electron results. Two nearly-degenerate states of 2Σ +, 2Π ( 2Σ + lower) symmetries are found as candidates for the ground state of GaAs -. The GaAs - negative ion is found to be more stable compared to the neutral GaAs ( De(GaAs -) = 3 eV). The electron affinity of GaAs is computed as 0.89 and 1.3 eV at the FOCI and SOCI levels of theory, respectively. Calculated potential energy curves of GaAs are in accord with the experimentally observed predissociation in the 3Π( III) - X3Σ- system.

  16. A strained silicon cold electron bolometer using Schottky contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Brien, T. L. R. Ade, P. A. R.; Barry, P. S.; Dunscombe, C.; Morozov, D. V.; Sudiwala, R. V.; Leadley, D. R.; Myronov, M.; Parker, E. H. C.; Prest, M. J.; Whall, T. E.; Prunnila, M.; Mauskopf, P. D.

    2014-07-28

    We describe optical characterisation of a strained silicon cold electron bolometer (CEB), operating on a 350 mK stage, designed for absorption of millimetre-wave radiation. The silicon cold electron bolometer utilises Schottky contacts between a superconductor and an n{sup ++} doped silicon island to detect changes in the temperature of the charge carriers in the silicon, due to variations in absorbed radiation. By using strained silicon as the absorber, we decrease the electron-phonon coupling in the device and increase the responsivity to incoming power. The strained silicon absorber is coupled to a planar aluminium twin-slot antenna designed to couple to 160 GHz and that serves as the superconducting contacts. From the measured optical responsivity and spectral response, we calculate a maximum optical efficiency of 50% for radiation coupled into the device by the planar antenna and an overall noise equivalent power, referred to absorbed optical power, of 1.1×10{sup −16} W Hz{sup −1/2} when the detector is observing a 300 K source through a 4 K throughput limiting aperture. Even though this optical system is not optimized, we measure a system noise equivalent temperature difference of 6 mK Hz{sup −1/2}. We measure the noise of the device using a cross-correlation of time stream data, measured simultaneously with two junction field-effect transistor amplifiers, with a base correlated noise level of 300 pV Hz{sup −1/2} and find that the total noise is consistent with a combination of photon noise, current shot noise, and electron-phonon thermal noise.

  17. Solution-Processed Germanium Nanowire-Positioned Schottky Solar Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    available soon. Solution-processed germanium nanowire-positioned Schottky solar cells Nanoscale Research Letters 2011, 6:287 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-287 Ju...DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Solution-processed germanium nanowire-positioned Schottky solar cells 5a. CONTRACT...nanowire (GeNW)-positioned Schottky solar cell was fabricated by a solution process. A GeNW-containing solution was spread out onto asymmetric metal

  18. Schottky diode silicon liquid-crystal light valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayyah, Keyvan; Efron, Uzi; Forber, Richard A.; Goodwin, Norman W.; Reif, Philip G.

    1991-06-01

    The authors report the operation of the Hughes Schottky diode-based silicon liquid crystal light valve (SLV) using readout light in the visible region. Limiting resolutions of 28 lp/mm limited by the Schottky diode periodicity, contrast ratios of >100:1, visible input light sensitivities of better than 50 (mu) W/cm2, and response times as fast as 5 ms have been measured. Both standard twisted nematic and homeotropically-aligned liquid crystal configurations have been utilized. The main parameter of this device is the leakage current of the Schottky diodes.

  19. Schottky barrier parameters and low frequency noise characteristics of graphene-germanium Schottky barrier diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurelbaatar, Zagarzusem; Kil, Yeon-Ho; Shim, Kyu-Hwan; Cho, Hyunjin; Kim, Myung-Jong; Lee, Sung-Nam; Jeong, Jae-chan; Hong, Hyobong; Choi, Chel-Jong

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the electrical properties of chemical vapor deposition-grown monolayer graphene/n-type germanium (Ge) Schottky barrier diodes (SBD) using current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and low frequency noise measurements. The Schottky barrier parameters of graphene/n-type Ge SBDs, such as Schottky barrier height (VB), ideality factor (n), and series resistance (Rs), were extracted using the forward I-V and Cheung's methods. The VB and n extracted from the forward ln(I)-V plot were found to be 0.63 eV and 1.78, respectively. In contrast, from Cheung method, the VB and n were calculated to be 0.53 eV and 1.76, respectively. Such a discrepancy between the values of VB calculated from the forward I-V and Cheung's methods indicated a deviation from the ideal thermionic emission of graphene/n-type Ge SBD associated with the voltage drop across graphene. The low frequency noise measurements performed at the frequencies in the range of 10 Hz-1 kHz showed that the graphene/n-type Ge SBD had 1/f γ frequency dependence, with γ ranging from 1.09 to 1.12, regardless of applied forward biases. Similar to forward-biased SBDs operating in the thermionic emission mode, the current noise power spectral density of graphene/n-type Ge SBD was linearly proportional to the forward current.

  20. Pt/ZnO nanowire Schottky diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Heo, Y.W.; Tien, L.C.; Norton, D.P.; Pearton, S.J.; Kang, B.S.; Ren, F.; LaRoche, J.R.

    2004-10-11

    Pt Schottky diodes were formed on single ZnO nanowires grown by site-selective molecular-beam epitaxy and then transferred to SiO{sub 2}-coated Si substrates. The diodes exhibit excellent ideality factors of 1.1 at 25 deg. C and very low (1.5x10{sup -10} A, equivalent to 2.35 A cm{sup -2}, at -10 V) reverse currents. The nanowire diodes show a strong photoresponse, with the current-voltage characteristics becoming ohmic under ultraviolet illumination (366 nm light). The on-off current ratio of the diodes at 0.15/-5 V was {approx}6. These results show the ability to manipulate the electron transport in nanoscale ZnO devices.

  1. Characterization of vertical Au/β-Ga2O3 single-crystal Schottky photodiodes with MBE-grown high-resistivity epitaxial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    X, Z. Liu; C, Yue; C, T. Xia; W, L. Zhang

    2016-01-01

    High-resistivity β-Ga2O3 thin films were grown on Si-doped n-type conductive β-Ga2O3 single crystals by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Vertical-type Schottky diodes were fabricated, and the electrical properties of the Schottky diodes were studied in this letter. The ideality factor and the series resistance of the Schottky diodes were estimated to be about 1.4 and 4.6× 106 Ω. The ionized donor concentration and the spreading voltage in the Schottky diodes region are about 4 × 1018 cm-3 and 7.6 V, respectively. The ultra-violet (UV) photo-sensitivity of the Schottky diodes was demonstrated by a low-pressure mercury lamp illumination. A photoresponsivity of 1.8 A/W and an external quantum efficiency of 8.7 × 102% were observed at forward bias voltage of 3.8 V, the proper driving voltage of read-out integrated circuit for UV camera. The gain of the Schottky diode was attributed to the existence of a potential barrier in the i-n junction between the MBE-grown highly resistive β-Ga2O3 thin films and the n-type conductive β-Ga2O3 single-crystal substrate. Project supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61223002) the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality, China (Grant No. 13111103700), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 2012018530003).

  2. Deep level transient spectroscopy study of electron traps in n-type GaAs after pulsed electron beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Marrakchi, G.; Barbier, D.; Guillot, G.; Nouailhat, A.

    1987-10-01

    Electrical and deep level transient spectroscopy measurements on Schottky barriers were performed in order to characterize electrically active defects in n-type GaAs (Bridgman substrates or liquid-phase epitaxial layers) after pulsed electron beam annealing. Both surface damage and bulk defects were observed in the Bridgman substrates depending on the pulse energy density. No electron traps were detected in the liquid-phase epitaxial layers before and after annealing for an energy density of 0.4 J/cm/sup 2/. The existence of an interfacial insulating layer at the metal-semiconductor interface, associated with As out-diffusion during the pulsed electron irradiation, was revealed by the abnormally high values of the Schottky barrier diffusion potential. Moreover, two new electron traps with activation energy of 0.35 and 0.43 eV, called EP1 and EP2, were introduced in the Bridgman substrates after pulsed electron beam annealing. The presence of these traps, related to the As evaporation, was tentatively attributed to the decrease of the EL2 electron trap signal after 0.4-J/cm/sup 2/ annealing. It is proposed that these new defects states are due to the decomposition of the As/sub Ga/-As/sub i/ complex recently considered as the most probable defect configuration for the dominant EL2 electron trap usually detected in as-grown GaAs substrates.

  3. Development and fabrication of improved Schottky power diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordes, L. F.; Garfinkel, M.; Taft, E. A.

    1975-01-01

    Reproducible methods for the fabrication of silicon Schottky diodes have been developed for tungsten, aluminum, conventional platinum silicide, and low temperature platinum silicide. Barrier heights and barrier lowering under reverse bias have been measured, permitting the accurate prediction of forward and reverse diode characteristics. Processing procedures have been developed that permit the fabrication of large area (about 1 sq cm) mesageometry power Schottky diodes with forward and reverse characteristics that approach theoretical values. A theoretical analysis of the operation of bridge rectifier circuits has been performed, which indicates the ranges of frequency and voltage for which Schottky rectifiers are preferred to p-n junctions. Power Schottky rectifiers have been fabricated and tested for voltage ratings up to 140 volts.

  4. Study of Reduced Graphene Oxide for Trench Schottky Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samihah Khairir, Nur; Rofei Mat Hussin, Mohd; Nasir, Iskhandar Md; Mukhter Uz-Zaman, A. S. M.; Fazlida Hanim Abdullah, Wan; Sabirin Zoolfakar, Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the study of reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO) for trench Schottky diode by replacing conventional metal layer that forms schottky contact with a nanostructured carbon thin film via Reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO) technique. The RGO was synthesis by chemical exfoliation in which modified Hummer's method was approached. It was then deposited on the trench schottky pattern substrate by pressurized spray coating. The sample was then characterized by FESEM, Raman Spectroscopy and I-V test. The results of FESEM and Raman showed good characteristics and well deposited nanostructures of RGO flakes. The two-point I-V test showed that the samples have a low turn-on voltage and a higher break-down voltage, which is better than the conventional schottky diode used in the market.

  5. Destructive Single-Event Failures in Schottky Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, Megan C.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Gigliuto, Robert A.; Wilcox, Edward P.; Phan, Anthony M.; Kim, Hak; Chen, Dakai; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation contains test results for destructive failures in DC-DC converters. We have shown that Schottky diodes are susceptible to destructive single-event effects. Future work will be completed to identify parameter that determines diode susceptibility.

  6. Two-dimensional ferromagnet/semiconductor transition metal dichalcogenide contacts: p-type Schottky barrier and spin-injection control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Li-Yong; Zhang, Qingyun; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2013-12-01

    We study the ferromagnet/semiconductor contacts formed by transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers, focusing on semiconducting MoS2 and WS2 and ferromagnetic VS2. We investigate the degree of p-type doping and demonstrate tuning of the Schottky barrier height by vertical compressive pressure. An analytical model is presented for the barrier heights that accurately describes the numerical findings and is expected to be of general validity for all transition metal dichalcogenide metal/semiconductor contacts. Furthermore, magnetic proximity effects induce a 100% spin polarization at the Fermi level in the semiconductor where the spin splitting increases up to 0.70 eV for increasing pressure.

  7. New type of Schottky diode-based Cu-Al-Mn-Cr shape memory material films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksu Canbay, C.; Dere, A.; Mensah-Darkwa, Kwadwo; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed; Karagoz Genç, Z.; Gupta, R. K.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2016-07-01

    Cr-doped CuAlMn shape memory alloys were produced by arc melting method. The effects of Cr content on microstructure and transformation parameters of were investigated. The alloys were characterized by X-ray analysis, optical microscope observations and differential scanning calorimetry measurements. The grain size of the alloys was decreased by the addition of Cr into CuAlMn alloy system. The martensite transformation temperature was shifted both the lower temperature and higher temperature with the addition of chromium. This change was explained on the basis of the change in the thermodynamics such as enthalpy, entropy and activation energy values. The obtained results indicate that the phase transformation temperatures of the CuAlMn alloy system can be controlled by addition of Cr. We fabricated a Schottky barrier diode and observed that ideality factor and barrier height increase with increasing temperature. The diodes exhibited a thermal sensor behavior. This indicates that Schottky diode-based Cu-Al-Mn-Cr shape memory material films can be used as a sensor in high-temperature measurement applications.

  8. Hot carrier multiplication on graphene/TiO2 Schottky nanodiodes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Keun; Choi, Hongkyw; Lee, Hyunsoo; Lee, Changhwan; Choi, Jin Sik; Choi, Choon-Gi; Hwang, Euyheon; Park, Jeong Young

    2016-01-01

    Carrier multiplication (i.e. generation of multiple electron–hole pairs from a single high-energy electron, CM) in graphene has been extensively studied both theoretically and experimentally, but direct application of hot carrier multiplication in graphene has not been reported. Here, taking advantage of efficient CM in graphene, we fabricated graphene/TiO2 Schottky nanodiodes and found CM-driven enhancement of quantum efficiency. The unusual photocurrent behavior was observed and directly compared with Fowler’s law for photoemission on metals. The Fowler’s law exponent for the graphene-based nanodiode is almost twice that of a thin gold film based diode; the graphene-based nanodiode also has a weak dependence on light intensity—both are significant evidence for CM in graphene. Furthermore, doping in graphene significantly modifies the quantum efficiency by changing the Schottky barrier. The CM phenomenon observed on the graphene/TiO2 nanodiodes can lead to intriguing applications of viable graphene-based light harvesting. PMID:27271245

  9. Chip-integrated plasmonic Schottky photodetection based on hybrid silicon waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hua; Gu, Min

    2017-03-01

    We numerically and theoretically investigate the plasmonic Schottky photodetection in a novel hybrid silicon-on-insulator waveguide system, which consists of the silicon waveguides and detection area with the metal stripes and doped silicon film on the silicon dioxide substrate. The results illustrate that the fundamental TE mode in the silicon waveguide can be effectively coupled into the metal/silicon waveguide with the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). The coupling is suppressed for the TM mode due to the mismatch between the electric field distributions of the TM and SPP modes. It is found that the coupling efficiency from the TE to SPP mode is dependent on the width and height of the silicon waveguide and can significantly approach 36.1%. The ultracompact configuration yields a high responsivity of 21.7 mA/W and low dark current of 0.45 μA for the photodetection at the communication wavelength. The plasmonic Schottky photodetector could find favorable applications in the chip-integrated optical interconnects and signal processing.

  10. Hot carrier multiplication on graphene/TiO2 Schottky nanodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young Keun; Choi, Hongkyw; Lee, Hyunsoo; Lee, Changhwan; Choi, Jin Sik; Choi, Choon-Gi; Hwang, Euyheon; Park, Jeong Young

    2016-06-01

    Carrier multiplication (i.e. generation of multiple electron–hole pairs from a single high-energy electron, CM) in graphene has been extensively studied both theoretically and experimentally, but direct application of hot carrier multiplication in graphene has not been reported. Here, taking advantage of efficient CM in graphene, we fabricated graphene/TiO2 Schottky nanodiodes and found CM-driven enhancement of quantum efficiency. The unusual photocurrent behavior was observed and directly compared with Fowler’s law for photoemission on metals. The Fowler’s law exponent for the graphene-based nanodiode is almost twice that of a thin gold film based diode; the graphene-based nanodiode also has a weak dependence on light intensity—both are significant evidence for CM in graphene. Furthermore, doping in graphene significantly modifies the quantum efficiency by changing the Schottky barrier. The CM phenomenon observed on the graphene/TiO2 nanodiodes can lead to intriguing applications of viable graphene-based light harvesting.

  11. Effect of Post Deposition Annealing Treatments on Properties of AZO Thin Films for Schottky Diode Applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shaivalini; Park, Si-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    High-quality aluminum (Al) doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were deposited on silicon substrates by RF sputtering at room temperature. The deposited films were annealed from the temperatures 350 °C to 650 °C in pure nitrogen (N₂) ambient. The effects of annealing on the microstructural, optical and electrical properties of the AZO films were investigated. A detailed analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Four Probe and Hall measurements was performed to study the properties of these AZO thin films. It was observed that all of the as-deposited and annealed AZO films have homogenous surfaces and hexagonal wurtzite structures with good crystalline quality. The study also suggested that there was an intermediate post annealing temperature (450 °C) at which the deposited ZnO film exhibit best surface characteristics. Pd/AZO Schottky devices were fabricated with 450 °C annealed AZO thin films and the parameters of Schottky devices were extracted from I-V characteristics. These results indicated that the Pd/AZO films were very much suitable for various optoelectronics applications particularly for metal semiconductor metal based UV detector application.

  12. A novel double gate metal source/drain Schottky MOSFET as an inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loan, Sajad A.; Kumar, Sunil; Alamoud, Abdulrahman M.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we propose and simulate a novel structure of a double gate metal source/drain (MSD) Schottky MOSFET. The novelty of the proposed device is that it realizes a complete CMOS inverter action, which is actually being realized by the combination of two n and p type MOS transistors in the conventional CMOS technology. Therefore, the use of this device will significantly reduce the transistor count in implementing combinational and sequential circuits. Further, there is a significant reduction in the number of junctions and regions in the proposed device in comparison to the conventional CMOS inverter. Therefore, the proposed device is compact and can consume less power. The proposed device has been named as Sajad-Sunil-Schottky (SSS) device. The mixed mode circuit analysis of the proposed SSS device has shown that a CMOS inverter action with high logic level (VOH) and low logic level (VOL) as ∼VDD and ∼ground respectively. A two dimensional calibrated simulation study using the experimental data has revealed that the proposed SSS device in n and p type modes have subthreshold slopes (S) of 130 mV/decade and 85 mV/decade respectively and have reasonable high ION and ION/IOFF ratio's. Furthermore, it has been proved that such a device action cannot be realised by folding the conventional doped n and p MOS transistors.

  13. Effect of radiation-induced emission of Schottky defects on the formation of colloids in alkali halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinko, V. I.; Vainshtein, D. I.; den Hartog, H. W.

    2003-10-01

    Formation of vacancy clusters in irradiated crystals is considered taking into account radiation-induced Schottky defect emission (RSDE) from extended defects. RSDE acts in the opposite direction compared with Frenkel pair production, and it results in the radiation-induced recovery processes. In the case of alkali halides, Schottky defects can be produced as a result of the interaction of extended defects with excitons , as has been suggested by Seitz in 1954. We consider a model that takes into account excitonic mechanisms for the creation of both Frenkel and Schottky defects, and which shows that although the contribution of the latter mechanism to the production of primary defects may be small, its role in the radiation-induced evolution of microstructure can be very significant. The model is applied to describe the evolution of sodium colloids and the formation of voids in NaCl, which is followed by a sudden fracture of the material, presenting a potential problem in rock salt-based nuclear waste repositories. The temperature, dose rate and dose dependence of colloid growth in NaCl doped with different types of impurities is analyzed. We have found that colloid growth may become negative below a threshold temperature (or above a threshold dose rate), or below a certain impurity concentration , which is determined by the RSDE, that depends strongly on the type and concentration of the impurities. The results obtained with the model are compared with experimental observations.

  14. Identification of oxygen-related midgap level in GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagowski, J.; Lin, D. G.; Gatos, H. C.; Aoyama, T.

    1984-01-01

    An oxygen-related deep level ELO was identified in GaAs employing Bridgman-grown crystals with controlled oxygen doping. The activation energy of ELO is almost the same as that of the dominant midgap level: EL2. This fact impedes the identification of ELO by standard deep level transient spectroscopy. However, it was found that the electron capture cross section of ELO is about four times greater than that of EL2. This characteristic served as the basis for the separation and quantitative investigation of ELO employing detailed capacitance transient measurements in conjunction with reference measurements on crystals grown without oxygen doping and containing only EL2.

  15. Determination of carrier concentration and compensation microprofiles in GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jastrzebski, L.; Lagowski, J.; Walukiewicz, W.; Gatos, H. C.

    1980-01-01

    Simultaneous microprofiling of semiconductor free carrier, donor, and acceptor concentrations was achieved for the first time from the absolute value of the free carrier absorption coefficient and its wavelength dependence determined by IR absorption in a scanning mode. Employing Ge- and Si-doped melt-grown GaAs, striking differences were found between the variations of electron concentration and those of ionized impurity concentrations. These results showed clearly that the electronic characteristics of this material are controlled by amphoteric doping and deviations from stoichiometry rather than by impurity segregation.

  16. Comparison of degradation and recaesiation between GaAs and AlGaAs photocathodes in an unbaked vacuum system.

    PubMed

    Feng, Cheng; Zhang, Yijun; Shi, Feng; Qian, Yunsheng; Cheng, Hongchang; Zhang, Junju; Liu, Xinxin; Zhang, Xiang

    2017-03-20

    The lifetime and reliability of a photocathode during operation are always raised problems and the photocathode performance depends on the vacuum condition. With the purpose of investigating the stability and reliability of a GaAs-based photocathode in a harsher vacuum environment, reflection-mode exponential-doped GaAs and AlGaAs photocathodes are metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxial grown and then (Cs, O) activated inside an unbaked vacuum chamber. The degraded photocurrents are compared after activation and recaesiations between GaAs and AlGaAs photocathdoes under illumination with an equal initial photocurrent and an equal optical flux, respectively. It is found that the performance on degradation and recaesiations between GaAs and AlGaAs photocathodes are different. In the unbaked vacuum system, the stability of an AlGaAs photocathode after (Cs, O) activation is always better than that of a GaAs photocathode. After multiple recaesiations, the photocurrent decay curves of the AlGaAs photocathode are nearly coincident, which means a nearly constant operational lifetime. Moreover, operational lifetime of an AlGaAs photocathode is longer than that of a GaAs photocathode, which further illuminates that AlGaAs photocathodes are superior to GaAs photocathodes in stability and repeatability under markedly harsher vacuum conditions.

  17. An 86-106 GHz quasi-integrated low noise Schottky receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Ahmad, Walid Y.; Bishop, William L.; Crowe, Thomas W.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    1993-04-01

    An integrated planar receiver was developed and tested over the 82-112 GHz bandwidth. The quasi-integrated antenna used in the receiver has a high gain, a high Gaussian coupling efficiency, and a wide bandwidth. The novel mixer design consists of a planar GaAs Schottky diode placed at the feed of a dipole-probe suspended inside an integrated horn antenna. The diode uses an etched surface channel and a planar air bridge for reduced parasitic capacitance. At 92 GHz, the room-temperature antenna-mixer exhibits a double sideband conversion loss and noise temperature of 5.5 +/- 0.5 dB and 770 K +/- 50 K, respectively. The measured DSB conversion loss and noise temperature over a 20 GHz bandwidth (86 GHz-106 GHz) remain less than 6.2 dB +/- 0.5 dB and 1000 K +/- 50 K, respectively. The low cost of fabrication and simplicity of the design makes it ideal for millimeter- and submillimeter-wave receivers.

  18. Nanocrystalline diamond films as UV-semitransparent Schottky contacts to 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadjer, Marko J.; Hobart, Karl D.; Caldwell, Joshua D.; Butler, James E.; Liu, Kendrick X.; Eddy, Charles R.; Gaskill, D. Kurt; Lew, K. K.; VanMil, Brenda L.; Myers-Ward, Rachael L.; Ancona, Mario G.; Kub, Fritz J.; Feygelson, Tatyana I.

    2007-10-01

    A heterojunction between thin films of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) and 4H-SiC has been developed. Undoped and B-doped NCDs were deposited on both n- and p- SiC epilayers. I-V measurements on p + NCD /n- SiC indicated Schottky rectifying behavior with a turn-on voltage of around 0.2V. The current increased over eight orders of magnitude with an ideality factor of 1.17 at 30°C. Ideal energy-band diagrams suggested a possible conduction mechanism for electron transport from the SiC conduction band to either the valence band or acceptor level of the NCD film. Applications as an UV semitransparent electrical contact to 4H-SiC are discussed.

  19. PtSi/Si LWIR Detectors Made With p+ Doping Spikes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, True-Lon; Park, Jin S.; George, Thomas; Fathauer, Robert W.; Jones, Eric W.; Maserjian, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    PtSi/Si Schottky-barrier devices detecting long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) photons demonstrated. Essential feature of one of these devices is p+ "doping spike"; layer of Si about 10 Angstrom thick, located at PtSi/Si interface, and doped with electron acceptors (boron atoms) at concentration between 5 x 10(19) and 2 x 10(20) cm(-3). Doping spikes extend cutoff wavelengths of devices to greater values than otherwise possible.

  20. GaAs solar cell development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knechtli, R. C.; Kamath, S.; Loo, R.

    1977-01-01

    The motivation for developing GaAs solar cells is based on their superior efficiency when compared to silicon cells, their lower degradation with increasing temperature, and the expectation for better resistance to space radiation damage. The AMO efficiency of GaAs solar cells was calculated. A key consideration in the HRL technology is the production of GaAs cells of large area (greater than 4 sg cm) at a reasonable cost without sacrificing efficiency. An essential requirement for the successful fabrication of such cells is the ability to grow epitaxially a uniform layer of high quality GaAs (buffer layer) on state-of-the-art GaAs substrates, and to grow on this buffer layer the required than layer of (AlGa)As. A modified infinite melt liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) growth technique is detailed.

  1. Electron-hole transport and photovoltaic effect in gated MoS2 Schottky junctions

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Marcio; Deppe, Tristan; Boyd, Anthony K.; Rinzan, Mohamed; Liu, Amy Y.; Paranjape, Makarand; Barbara, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Semiconducting molybdenum disulfphide has emerged as an attractive material for novel nanoscale optoelectronic devices due to its reduced dimensionality and large direct bandgap. Since optoelectronic devices require electron-hole generation/recombination, it is important to be able to fabricate ambipolar transistors to investigate charge transport both in the conduction band and in the valence band. Although n-type transistor operation for single-layer and few-layer MoS2 with gold source and drain contacts was recently demonstrated, transport in the valence band has been elusive for solid-state devices. Here we show that a multi-layer MoS2 channel can be hole-doped by palladium contacts, yielding MoS2 p-type transistors. When two different materials are used for the source and drain contacts, for example hole-doping Pd and electron-doping Au, the Schottky junctions formed at the MoS2 contacts produce a clear photovoltaic effect. PMID:23567328

  2. Growth and characterization of Czochralski-grown n and p-type GaAs for space solar cell substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, R. T.

    1983-01-01

    Progress in LEC (liquid encapsulated Czochralski) crystal growth techniques for producing high-quality, 3-inch-diameter, n- and p-type GaAs crystals suitable for solar cell applications is described. The LEC crystals with low dislocation densities and background impurities, high electrical mobilities, good dopant uniformity, and long diffusion lengths were reproducibly grown through control of the material synthesis, growth and doping conditions. The capability for producing these large-area, high-quality substrates should positively impact the manufacturability of highly efficiency, low cost, radiation-hard GaAs solar cells.

  3. GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, E. J.

    1982-01-01

    The major thrusts proposed for GaAs were increased efficiency and improved radiation damage data. Current laboratory production cells consistently achieve 16 percent AMO one-Sun efficiency. The user community wants 18-percent efficient cells as soon as possible, and such a goal is though to be achievable in 2 years with sufficient research funds. A 20-percent research cell is considered the efficiency limit with current technology, and such a cell seems realizable in approximately 4 years. Future efficiency improvements await improved substrates and materials. For still higher efficiencies, concentrator cells and multijunction cells are proposed as near-term directions.

  4. Large barrier, highly uniform and reproducible Ni-Si/4H-SiC forward Schottky diode characteristics: testing the limits of Tung's model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Sabih U.; Sudarshan, Tangali S.; Rana, Tawhid A.; Song, Haizheng; Chandrashekhar, M. V. S.

    2014-07-01

    We report highly ideal (n < 1.1), uniform nickel silicide (Ni-Si)/SiC Schottky barrier (1.60-1.67 eV with a standard deviation <2.8%) diodes, fabricated on 4H-SiC epitaxial layers grown by chemical vapour deposition. The barrier height was constant over a wide epilayer doping range of 1014-1016 cm-3, apart from a slight decrease consistent with image force lowering. This remarkable uniformity was achieved by careful optimization of the annealing of the Schottky interface to minimize non-idealities that could lead to inhomogeneity. Tung's barrier inhomogeneity model was used to quantify the level of inhomogeneity in the optimized annealed diodes. The estimated ‘bulk’ barrier height (1.75 eV) was consistent with the Shockley-Mott limit for the Ni-Si/4H-SiC interface, implying an unpinned Fermi level. But the model was not useful to explain the poor ideality in unoptimized, as-deposited Schottky contacts (n = 1.6 - 2.5). We show analytically and numerically that only idealities n < 1.21 can be explained using Tung's model, irrespective of material system, indicating that the barrier height inhomogeneity is not the only cause of poor ideality in Schottky diodes. For explaining this highly non-ideal behaviour, other factors (e.g. interface traps, morphological defects, extrinsic impurities, etc) need to be considered.

  5. Rectification and Photoconduction Mapping of Axial Metal-Semiconductor Interfaces Embedded in GaAs Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orrù, Marta; Piazza, Vincenzo; Rubini, Silvia; Roddaro, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    Semiconductor nanowires have emerged as an important enabling technology and are today used in many advanced device architectures, with an impact both for what concerns fundamental science and in view of future applications. One of the key challenges in the development of nanowire-based devices is the fabrication of reliable nanoscale contacts. Recent developments in the creation of metal-semiconductor junctions by thermal annealing of metallic electrodes offer promising perspectives. Here, we analyze the optoelectronic properties of nano-Schottky barriers obtained thanks to the controlled formation of metallic AuGa regions in GaAs nanowire. The junctions display a rectifying behavior and their transport characteristics are analyzed to extract the average ideality factor and barrier height in the current architecture. The presence, location, and properties of the Schottky junctions are cross-correlated with spatially resolved photocurrent measurements. Broadband light emission is reported in the reverse breakdown regime; this observation, combined with the absence of electroluminescence at forward bias, is consistent with the device unipolar nature.

  6. Characterization of as-grown and annealed GaAs: Structural defects and electrical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.T.

    1988-07-01

    Structural defects in GaAs related to excess As were characterized and their behavior upon heat treatments studied. The observed defects included precipitates and dislocations. Results showed most of the precipitates in As-rich GaAs to the rhombohedral arsenic. Two exceptions were observed in an In-doped LEC (liguid encapsulated Czochralski) GaAs, which were As-rich but could not be further identified. Some of the observed As precipitates showed a simple orientation relationship with the matrix which yields structural coherence between As precipitates and GaAs matrix. Other As precipitates showed less coherent orientation. The dislocation loops in As-rich GaAs consisted a faulted loop with Shockley type Burgers vector and a perfect loop associated with an extra /l brace/111/r brace/ plane. It was proposed that these loops were formed as a result of dual condensation of both excess As interstitials and Ga vacancies, followed by generation and movement of Shockley partial dislocations. These precipitates and dislocation loops disappear after annealing, indicating a solvus temperature between 600--700/degree/C. The EL2 concentration increased as the defects dissolved, showing the defects to be the source of the excess As required to form EL2. The implication is that the As interstitial and Ga vacancies coexist in GaAs at high temperatures, which indicates that these point defects are responsible for the formation of arsenic antisites by direct combination. During the cooling period, they freeze into the matrix as point defects during a rapid cooling and condense as dislocation loops and precipitates during very slow cooling, in the dislocation-free region of the crystals. Around dislocations, the excess As precipitates heterogeneously even during rapid cooling. 217 refs.

  7. Schottky Heterodyne Receivers With Full Waveguide Bandwidth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesler, Jeffrey; Crowe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Compact THz receivers with broad bandwidth and low noise have been developed for the frequency range from 100 GHz to 1 THz. These receivers meet the requirements for high-resolution spectroscopic studies of planetary atmospheres (including the Earth s) from spacecraft, as well as airborne and balloon platforms. The ongoing research is significant not only for the development of Schottky mixers, but also for the creation of a receiver system, including the LO chain. The new receivers meet the goals of high sensitivity, compact size, low total power requirement, and operation across complete waveguide bands. The exceptional performance makes these receivers ideal for the broader range of scientific and commercial applications. These include the extension of sophisticated test and measurement equipment to 1 THz and the development of low-cost imaging systems for security applications and industrial process monitoring. As a particular example, a WR-1.9SHM (400-600 GHz) has been developed (see Figure 1), with state-of-the-art noise temperature ranging from 1,000-1,800 K (DSB) over the full waveguide band. Also, a Vector Network Analyzer extender has been developed (see Figure 2) for the WR1.5 waveguide band (500 750 GHz) with 100-dB dynamic range.

  8. Dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terje A.

    1978-01-01

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent.

  9. Radiation effects in GaAs AMOS solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, B. K.; Stirn, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The results of radiation damage produced in AMOS (Antireflecting-Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) cells with Sb2O3 interfacial oxide layers by 1-MeV electrons are presented. The degradation properties of the cells as a function of irradiation fluences were correlated with the changes in their spectral response, C-V, dark forward, and light I-V characteristics. The active n-type GaAs layers were grown by the OM-CVD technique, using sulfur doping in the range between 3 x 10 to the 15th power and 7 x 10 to the 16th power/cu cm. At a fluence of 10 to the 16th power e/sq cm, the low-doped samples showed I sub sc degradation of 8% and V sub oc degradation of 8%. The high-doped samples showed I sub sc and V sub oc degradation of 32% and 1%, respectively, while the fill factor remained relatively unchanged for both. AMOS cells with water vapor-grown interfacial layers showed no significant change in V sub oc.

  10. Sn nanothreads in GaAs: experiment and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenikhin, I.; Vyurkov, V.; Bugaev, A.; Khabibullin, R.; Ponomarev, D.; Yachmenev, A.; Maltsev, P.; Ryzhii, M.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, V.

    2016-12-01

    The gated GaAs structures like the field-effect transistor with the array of the Sn nanothreads was fabricated via delta-doping of vicinal GaAs surface by Sn atoms with a subsequent regrowth. That results in the formation of the chains of Sn atoms at the terrace edges. Two device models were developed. The quantum model accounts for the quantization of the electron energy spectrum in the self-consistent two-dimensional electric potential, herewith the electron density distribution in nanothread arrays for different gate voltages is calculated. The classical model ignores the quantization and electrons are distributed in space according to 3D density of states and Fermi-Dirac statistics. It turned out that qualitatively both models demonstrate similar behavior, nevertheless, the classical one is in better quantitative agreement with experimental data. Plausibly, the quantization could be ignored because Sn atoms are randomly placed along the thread axis. The terahertz hot-electron bolometers (HEBs) could be based on the structure under consideration.

  11. Bismuth alloying properties in GaAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Lu; Lu, Pengfei; Cao, Huawei; Cai, Ningning; Yu, Zhongyuan; Gao, Tao; Wang, Shumin

    2013-09-15

    First-principles calculations have been performed to investigate the structural, electronic and optical properties of bismuth alloying in GaAs nanowires. A typical model of Ga{sub 31}As{sub 31} nanowires is introduced for its reasonable band gap. The band gap of GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} shrinks clearly with the increasing Bi concentration and the band edge shifts when spin–orbit coupling (SOC) is considered. The insertion of Bi atom leads to hybridization of Ga/As/Bi p states which contributes a lot around Fermi level. Scissor effect is involved. The optical properties are presented, including dielectric function, optical absorption spectra and reflectivity, which are also varied with the increasing of Bi concentrations. - Graphical abstract: Top view of Bi-doped GaAs nanowires. Ga, As, and Bi atoms are denoted with grey, purple and red balls, respectively. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A typical model of Ga{sub 31}As{sub 31} nanowires is introduced for its reasonable band gap. • The band gap of GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} shrinks clearly with the increasing Bi concentration. • The band edge shifts when spin–orbit coupling (SOC) is considered. • The insertion of Bi atom leads to hybridization of Ga/As/Bi p states.

  12. Anisotropic transport in modulation doped quantum well structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radulescu, D. C.; Wicks, G. W.; Schaff, W. J.; Calawa, A. R.; Eastman, L. F.

    1987-01-01

    The degree of anisotropy in the anisotropic electron transport that has been observed in GaAs modulation-doped quantum wells grown by MBE on Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)As is related to the thickness and growth parameters of this substrate, which is grown just prior to the inverted interface. It is presently observed that the inverted interface has an anisotropic roughness which affects the 77 K low field electron transport parallel to the interface, and gives rise to anisotropic electron scattering in the GaAs modulation-doped quantum well.

  13. Patterned radial GaAs nanopillar solar cells.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Giacomo; Wong, Ping-Show; Katzenmeyer, Aaron M; Léonard, Francois; Shapiro, Joshua; Huffaker, Diana L

    2011-06-08

    Photovoltaic devices using GaAs nanopillar radial p-n junctions are demonstrated by means of catalyst-free selective-area metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Dense, large-area, lithographically defined vertical arrays of nanowires with uniform spacing and dimensions allow for power conversion efficiencies for this material system of 2.54% (AM 1.5 G) and high rectification ratio of 213 (at ±1 V). The absence of metal catalyst contamination results in leakage currents of ∼236 nA at -1 V. High-resolution scanning photocurrent microscopy measurements reveal the independent functioning of each nanowire in the array with an individual peak photocurrent of ∼1 nA at 544 nm. External quantum efficiency shows that the photocarrier extraction highly depends on the degenerately doped transparent contact oxide. Two different top electrode schemes are adopted and characterized in terms of Hall, sheet resistance, and optical transmittance measurements.

  14. High resolution three-dimensional doping profiler

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    A semiconductor doping profiler provides a Schottky contact at one surface and an ohmic contact at the other. While the two contacts are coupled to a power source, thereby establishing an electrical bias in the semiconductor, a localized light source illuminates the semiconductor to induce a photocurrent. The photocurrent changes in accordance with the doping characteristics of the semiconductor in the illuminated region. By changing the voltage of the power source the depth of the depletion layer can be varied to provide a three dimensional view of the local properties of the semiconductor.

  15. Half-metallicity at the Heusler alloy Co(2)Cr(0.5)Fe(0.5)Al(001) surface and its interface with GaAs(001).

    PubMed

    Zarei, Sareh; Javad Hashemifar, S; Akbarzadeh, Hadi; Hafari, Zohre

    2009-02-04

    Electronic and magnetic properties of the Heusler alloy Co(2)Cr(0.5)Fe(0.5)Al(001) surfaces and its interfaces with GaAs(001) are studied within the framework of density functional theory by using the plane-wave pseudopotential approach. The phase diagram obtained by ab initio atomistic thermodynamics shows that the CrAl surface is the most stable (001) termination of this Heusler alloy. We discuss that, at the ideal surfaces and interfaces with GaAs, half-metallicity of the alloy is lost, although the CrAl surface keeps high spin polarization. The energy band profile of the stable interface is investigated and a negative p Schottky barrier of -0.78 eV is obtained for this system.

  16. Ab Initio Investigation of the Structural, Electronic and Optical Properties of Cubic GaAs1- x P x Ternary Alloys Under Hydrostatic Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, R.; Abdiche, A.; Abbar, B.; Guemou, M.; Riane, R.; Murtaza, G.; Omran, SAAD Bin; Khenata, R.; Soyalp, F.

    2015-12-01

    The structural, electronic and optical properties of the GaAs1- x P x ternary alloys together with their binary GaP and GaAs compounds were investigated in the zinc-blende (ZB) phase using the density functional theory. The lattice constant of the GaAs compound decreases while its bulk modulus increases when the doping concentration of the P dopant is increased. In addition, both parameters (lattice constant and bulk modulus) show small deviations from the linear concentration dependence. The energy band gap of the GaAs compound is of the direct nature, which increases with the increase in the P dopant concentration, whereas at higher P dopant concentration, the band gap shifts from direct to indirect character. On the other hand, the hydrostatic pressure has a significant effect on the band structure of the investigated compounds where the binary GaAs compound changes from a direct band gap semiconductor to an indirect band gap semiconductor at P ≥ 5 GPa. Furthermore, the pressure-dependence of the optical properties of the GaAs, GaP and GaAs0.75P0.25 alloy were also investigated, where the calculated zero frequency refractive index and the dielectric function are also compared with the experimental results as well as with different empirical models.

  17. Simulation of quantum dots size and spacing effect for intermediate band solar cell application based on InAs quantum dots arrangement in GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Hendra, P. I. B. Rahayu, F. Darma, Y.

    2014-03-24

    Intermediate band solar cell (IBSC) has become a promising technology in increasing solar cell efficiency. In this work we compare absorption coefficient profile between InAs quantum dots with GaAs bulk. We calculate the efficiency of GaAs bulk and GaAs doped with 2, 5, and 10 nm InAs quantum dot. Effective distances in quantum dot arrangement based on electron tunneling consideration were also calculated. We presented a simple calculation method with low computing power demand. Results showed that arrangement of quantum dot InAs in GaAs can increase solar cell efficiency from 23.9 % initially up to 60.4%. The effective distance between two quantum dots was found 2 nm in order to give adequate distance to prevent electron tunneling and wave functions overlap.

  18. Effect of rapid thermal annealing on the noise properties of InAs /GaAs quantum dot structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arpatzanis, N.; Tsormpatzoglou, A.; Dimitriadis, C. A.; Song, J. D.; Choi, W. J.; Lee, J. I.; Charitidis, C.

    2007-09-01

    Self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on n+-GaAs substrates, capped between 0.4μm thick n-type GaAs layers with electron concentration of 1×1016cm-3. The effect of rapid thermal annealing at 700°C for 60s on the noise properties of the structure has been investigated using Au /n-GaAs Schottky diodes as test devices. In the reference sample without containing QDs, the noise spectra show a generation-recombination (g-r) noise behavior due to a discrete energy level located about 0.51eV below the conduction band edge. This trap is ascribed to the M4 (or EL3) trap in GaAs MBE layers, related to a chemical impurity-native defect complex. In the structure with embedded QDs, the observed g-r noise spectra are due to a midgap trap level ascribed to the EL2 trap in GaAs, which is related to the InAs QDs dissolution due to the thermal treatment.

  19. Role of GaAs surface clearing in plasma deposition of silicon nitride films for encapsulated annealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valco, G. J.; Kapoor, V. J.

    1985-01-01

    The role of GaAs surface cleaning and plasma reactor cleaning prior to deposition of silicon nitride films for encapsulated annealing has been investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was employed to determine the surface characteristics of GaAs treated with HCl, HF, and NH4OH solutions preceded by a degreasing procedure. The HCl clean left the least amount of oxygen on the surface. Fluorine contamination resulting from the CF4 plasma used to clean the reactor was found to be located at the film-substrate interface by Auger electron spectroscopy with argon-ion sputtering. A modified deposition procedure was developed to eliminate the fluorine contamination. Plasma deposition of silicon nitride encapsulating films was found to modify the I-V characteristics of Schottky diodes subsequently formed on GaAs surface. The reverse current of the diodes was slightly reduced. Substrates implanted with Si at 100 keV and a dose of 5 x 10 to the 12th/sq cm showed a peak electron concentration of 1.7 x 10 to the 17th/cu cm at a depth of 0.1-micron with 60 percent activation after encapsulation and annealing at 800 C for 7 min.

  20. Optoelectronic gain control of a microwave single stage GaAs MESFET amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.

    1988-01-01

    Gain control of a single stage GaAs MESFET amplifier is demonstrated by the use of optical illumination of photon energy greater than the GaAs bandgap. The optical illumination is supplied by a semiconductor laser diode and is coupled to the Schottky gate of the MESFET by an optical fiber. The increase in gain is observed to be as much as 5.15 dB when the MESFET is biased close to pinchoff, that is, V(sub gs) equals -1.5 V and with optical illumination of 1.5 mW. The computed maximum available gain (MAG) and current gain (bar h sub 21 bar) from the de-embedded s-parameters show that MAG is unaffected by optical illumination, however, bar h(sub 21)bar increases by more than 2 dB under optical illumination of 1.5 mW. The maximum frequency of oscillation (F sub max) and the unity current gain cut-off frequency (F sub t) obtained by extrapolating the MAG and bar h(sub 21)bar curves, respectively, show that the F(sub max) is insensitive to optical illumination but F(sub t) increases by 5 GHz.

  1. I-V characteristics simulation of silicon carbide Ti/4H-SiC Schottky diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchenko, P.; Rybalka, S.; Malakhanov, A.; Krayushkina, E.; Radkov, A.

    2016-12-01

    The simulation of current-voltage characteristics for 4H-SiC Schottky diode with Ti Schottky contact has been carried out with used of TCAD program. Obtained current-voltage characteristics has been analyzed and compared with theoretical and experimental results. It is established that the Schottky diode parameters (forward current, ideality coefficient, Schottky barrier height, breakdown voltage) obtained in proposed model are good agreement with data for such type diodes.

  2. High-performance single CdS nanowire (nanobelt) Schottky junction solar cells with Au/graphene Schottky electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yu; Dai, Yu; Dai, Lun; Shi, Zujin; Liu, Nan; Wang, Fei; Fu, Lei; Peng, Ruomin; Wen, Xiaonan; Chen, Zhijian; Liu, Zhongfan; Qin, Guogang

    2010-12-01

    High-performance single CdS nanowire (NW) as well as nanobelt (NB) Schottky junction solar cells were fabricated. Au (5 nm)/graphene combined layers were used as the Schottky contact electrodes to the NWs (NBs). Typical as-fabricated NW solar cell shows excellent photovoltaic behavior with an open circuit voltage of ∼0.15 V, a short circuit current of ∼275.0 pA, and an energy conversion efficiency of up to ∼1.65%. The physical mechanism of the combined Schottky electrode was discussed. We attribute the prominent capability of the devices to the high-performance Schottky combined electrode, which has the merits of low series resistance, high transparency, and good Schottky contact to the CdS NW (NB). Besides, a promising site-controllable patterned graphene transfer method, which has the advantages of economizing graphene material and free from additional etching process, was demonstrated in this work. Our results suggest that semiconductor NWs (NBs) are promising materials for novel solar cells, which have potential application in integrated nano-optoelectronic systems.

  3. High-efficiency, radiation-resistant GaAs space cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertness, K. A.; Ristow, M. Ladle; Grounner, M.; Kuryla, M. S.; Werthen, J. G.

    1991-01-01

    Although many GaAs solar cells are intended for space applicatons, few measurements of cell degradation after radiation are available, particularly for cells with efficiencies exceeding 20 percent (one-sun, AMO). Often the cell performance is optimized for the highest beginning-of-life (BOL) efficiency, despite the unknown effect of such design on end-of-life (EOL) efficiencies. The results of a study of the radiation effects on p-n GaAs cells are presented. The EOL efficiency of GaAs space cell can be increased by adjusting materials growth parameters, resulting in a demonstration of 16 percent EOL efficiency at one-sun, AMO. Reducing base doping levels to below 3 x 10(exp 17)/cu m and decreasing emitter thickness to 0.3 to 0.5 micron for p-n cells led to significant improvements in radiation hardness as measured by EOL/BOL efficiency ratios for irradiation of 10(exp -15)/sq cm electrons at 1 MeV. BOL efficiency was not affected by changes in emitter thickness but did improve with lower base doping.

  4. Crystal Orientation Controlled Photovoltaic Properties of Multilayer GaAs Nanowire Arrays.

    PubMed

    Han, Ning; Yang, Zai-Xing; Wang, Fengyun; Yip, SenPo; Li, Dapan; Hung, Tak Fu; Chen, Yunfa; Ho, Johnny C

    2016-06-28

    In recent years, despite significant progress in the synthesis, characterization, and integration of various nanowire (NW) material systems, crystal orientation controlled NW growth as well as real-time assessment of their growth-structure-property relationships still presents one of the major challenges in deploying NWs for practical large-scale applications. In this study, we propose, design, and develop a multilayer NW printing scheme for the determination of crystal orientation controlled photovoltaic properties of parallel GaAs NW arrays. By tuning the catalyst thickness and nucleation and growth temperatures in the two-step chemical vapor deposition, crystalline GaAs NWs with uniform, pure ⟨110⟩ and ⟨111⟩ orientations and other mixture ratios can be successfully prepared. Employing lift-off resists, three-layer NW parallel arrays can be easily attained for X-ray diffraction in order to evaluate their growth orientation along with the fabrication of NW parallel array based Schottky photovoltaic devices for the subsequent performance assessment. Notably, the open-circuit voltage of purely ⟨111⟩-oriented NW arrayed cells is far higher than that of ⟨110⟩-oriented NW arrayed counterparts, which can be interpreted by the different surface Fermi level pinning that exists on various NW crystal surface planes due to the different As dangling bond densities. All this indicates the profound effect of NW crystal orientation on physical and chemical properties of GaAs NWs, suggesting the careful NW design considerations for achieving optimal photovoltaic performances. The approach presented here could also serve as a versatile and powerful platform for in situ characterization of other NW materials.

  5. Long-wavelength PtSi infrared detectors fabricated by incorporating a p(+) doping spike grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. L.; Park, J. S.; George, T.; Jones, E. W.; Fathauer, R. W.; Maserjian, J.

    1993-01-01

    By incorporating a 1-nm-thick p(+) doping spike at the PtSi/Si interface, we have successfully demonstrated extended cutoff wavelengths of PtSi Schottky infrared detectors in the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) regime for the first time. The extended cutoff wavelengths resulted from the combined effects of an increased electric field near the silicide/Si interface due to the p(+) doping spike and the Schottky image force. The p(+) doping spikes were grown by molecular beam epitaxy at 450 C, using elemental boron as the dopant source, with doping concentrations ranging from 5 x 10 exp 19 to 2 x 10 exp 20/cu cm. Transmission electron microscopy indicated good crystalline quality of the doping spikes. The cutoff wavelengths were shown to increase with increasing doping concentrations of the p(+) spikes. Thermionic emission dark current characteristics were observed and photoresponses in the LWIR regime were demonstrated.

  6. Pulse transformer for GaAs laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutz, E. M.

    1976-01-01

    High-radiance gallium arsenide (GaAs) laser operating at room temperature is utilized in optical navigation system. For efficient transformer-to-laser impedance match, laser should be connected directly to pulse transformer secondary winding.

  7. Growth of InSe:Mn semiconductor crystals by Bridgman-Stockbarger technique and analysis of electron irradiation effects on Sn/InSe:Mn Schottky diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çınar Demir, K.; Tekle, T.; Gurbulak, B.; Aydoğan, Ş.; Coşkun, C.; Ekinci, D.

    2016-05-01

    Mn-doped p-InSe semiconductor crystals were grown by Bridgman -Stockbarger technique. The crystals were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fabricated Sn/InSe:Mn Schottky diodes. The current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of diodes were investigated to determine the response of devices to electron irradiation with 9 MeV energy and 1.2 × 1010 e- cm-2 dose. After irradiation, the ideality factor and barrier height of the Sn/InSe:Mn Schottky diode were determined as 1.66 and 0.85 eV, respectively. Before irradiation, they were determined as 1.37 and 0.90 eV, respectively. It has been concluded that the radiation with high energy may contribute to form defects at the interface of the Sn/InSe:Mn device.

  8. Electromechanical resistive switching via back-to-back Schottky junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lijie

    2015-09-15

    The physics of the electromechanical resistive switching is uncovered using the theory of back-to-back Schottky junctions combined with the quantum domain space charge transport. A theoretical model of the basic element of resistive switching devices realized by the metal-ZnO nanowires-metal structure has been created and analyzed. Simulation results show that the reverse biased Schottky junction and the air gap impedance dominate the current-voltage relation at higher external voltages; thereby electromechanically varying the air gap thickness causes the device exhibit resistive tuning characteristics. As the device dimension is in nanometre scale, investigation of the model based on quantum mechanics has also been conducted.

  9. High voltage, high current Schottky barrier solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A Schottky barrier solar cell was described, which consists of a layer of wide band gap semiconductor material on which a very thin film of semitransparent metal was deposited to form a Schottky barrier. The layer of the wide band gap semiconductor material is on top of a layer of narrower band gap semiconductor material, to which one of the cell's contacts may be attached directly or through a substrate. The cell's other contact is a grid structure which is deposited on the thin metal film.

  10. Photo effects at the Schottky interface in extraordinary optoconductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, L. C.; Werner, F. M.; Newaz, A. K. M.; Solin, S. A.

    2013-10-01

    Non-uniform optical illuminations near the Schottky interface of Ti/GaAs metal-semiconductor hybrid (MSH) structures induce local photovoltages transverse and lateral to the interface. In these VLSI-compatible, room temperature optical sensors, the optical response of the MSH resistance is directly linked to the Schottky barrier behavior. In order to correlate the interface behavior with the overall heterostructure behavior, quantities such as transverse photovoltage, lateral photovoltage, and resistance are all recorded as a function of laser spot location. The interface's photovoltaic dependence on intensity is consistent with a MSH in which quantum efficiency is independent of optical intensity.

  11. GaAs homojunction solar cell development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The Lincoln Laboratory n(+)/p/p(+) GaAs shallow homojunction cell structure was successfully demonstrated on 2 by 2 cm GaAs substrates. Air mass zero efficiencies of the seven cells produced to date range from 13.6 to 15.6 percent. Current voltage (I-V) characteristics, spectral response, and measurements were made on all seven cells. Preliminary analysis of 1 MeV electron radiation damage data indicate excellent radiation resistance for these cells.

  12. Ohmic contact to GaAs semiconductor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovel, H. J.; Woodall, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Multimetallic layers produce stable, low-resistance contacts for p-type GaAs and p-type GaAlAs devices. Contacts present no leakage problems, and their series resistance is too small to measure at 1 Sun intensity. Ohmic contacts are stable and should meet 20-year-life requirement at 150 C for GaAs combined photothermal/photovoltaic concentrators.

  13. Laser Annealing of GaAs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    annealing implanted layers. Sheet resistance measurements made on the irradiated semi- insulating GaAs samples indicate no significant change in the... sheet resistance after laser irradiation (typical decrease in the sheet resistance after laser irradiation was found to be less than a factor of two...OF THE SHEET - RESISTANCE (P ) THE EFFECTIVE SHEET ELECTRON CONCENTRATION (N ), AND THE EFFECTIVE MOBILITY _u)FOR SEMIb- INSULATING GaAs IMPLANTED WITH

  14. Carbon nanotube Schottky diodes using Ti-Schottky and Pt-ohmic contacts for high frequency applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish M.; Wong, Eric W.; Schlecht, Erich; Hunt, Brian D.; Siegel, Peter H.

    2005-01-01

    We have demonstrated Schottky diodes using semiconducting single-walled nanotubes (s-SWNTs) with titanium Schottky and platinum Ohmic contacts for high-frequency applications. The diodes are fabricated using angled evaporation of dissimilar metal contacts over an s-SWNT. The devices demonstrate rectifying behavior with large reverse bias breakdown voltages of greater than 15 V. To decrease the series resistance, multiple SWNTs are grown in parallel in a single device, and the metallic tubes are burnt-out selectively. At low biases these diodes showed ideality factors in the range of 1.5 to 1.9. Modeling of these diodes as direct detectors at room temperature at 2.5 terahertz (THz) frequency indicates noise equivalent powers (NEP) potentially comparable to that of the state-of-the-art gallium arsenide solid-state Schottky diodes, in the range of 10-13 W(square root)xHz.

  15. Direct-bonded four-junction GaAs solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jingman, Shen; Lijie, Sun; Kaijian, Chen; Wei, Zhang; Xunchun, Wang

    2015-06-01

    Direct wafer bonding technology is able to integrate two smooth wafers and thus can be used in fabricating III-V multijunction solar cells with lattice mismatch. In order to monolithically interconnect between the GaInP/GaAs and InGaAsP/InGaAs subcells, the bonded GaAs/InP heterojunction must be a highly conductive ohmic junction or a tunnel junction. Three types of bonding interfaces were designed by tuning the conduction type and doping elements of GaAs and InP. The electrical properties of p-GaAs (Zn doped)/n-InP (Si doped), p-GaAs (C doped)/n-InP (Si doped) and n-GaAs (Si doped)/n-InP (Si doped) bonded heterojunctions were analyzed from the I-V characteristics. The wafer bonding process was investigated by improving the quality of the sample surface and optimizing the bonding parameters such as bonding temperature, bonding pressure, bonding time and so on. Finally, GaInP/GaAs/InGaAsP/InGaAs 4-junction solar cells have been prepared by a direct wafer bonding technique with the high efficiency of 34.14% at the AM0 condition (1 Sun). Project supported by the Shanghai Rising-Star Program (No. 14QB1402800).

  16. Sulfur passivation and contact methods for GaAs nanowire solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tajik, N; Peng, Z; Kuyanov, P; LaPierre, R R

    2011-06-03

    The effect of sulfur passivation on core-shell p-n junction GaAs nanowire (NW) solar cells has been investigated. Devices of two types were investigated, consisting of indium tin oxide contact dots or opaque Au finger electrodes. Lateral carrier transport from the NWs to the contact fingers was achieved via a p-doped GaAs surface conduction layer. NWs between the opaque contact fingers had sidewall surfaces exposed for passivation by sulfur. The relative cell efficiency increased by 19% upon passivation. The contribution of the thin film grown between the NWs to the total cell efficiency was estimated by removing the NWs using a sonication procedure. Mechanisms of carrier transport and photovoltaic effects are discussed on the basis of spatially resolved laser scanning measurements.

  17. High-efficiency thin-film GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    GaAs chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth on single-crystal GaAs substrates was investigated over a temperature range of 600 to 750 C, As/GA mole-ratio range of 3 to 11, and gas molefraction range 5 x 10 to the minus 9th power to 7x 10 to the minus 7th power for H2S doping. GasAs CVD growth on recrystallized Ge films was investigated for a temperature range of 550 to 700 C, an As/GA mole ratio of 5, and for various H2S mole fraction. The highest efficiency cell observed on these films with 2 mm dots was 4.8% (8% when AR-coated). Improvements in fill factor and opencircuit voltage by about 40% each are required in order to obtain efficiencies of 15% or greater.

  18. Spatial distribution of carbon and native defects in large-diameter bulk grown GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Walukiewicz, W.; Bourret, E.; Yau, W.F.; Mc Murray, R.E. Jr.; Haller, E.E.; Bliss, D.

    1987-04-01

    Different spectroscopic techniques have been combined to measure concentrations of carbon on arsenic sites and of neutral EL2. Utilizing the recently found dependence of the high resolution local vibrational mode spectrum on the charge state of the carbon acceptors we have been able to separately determine concentrations of neutral and ionized carbon after EL2 has been optically quenched. The concentration of ionized carbon shows a very distinct W-shaped variation across the wafer whereas the total carbon concentration is close to constant. The variations are caused by the nonuniform distribution of donors which are shallower than EL2. The account for the commonly observed variations of the near infrared absorption. Radiotracer experiments with GaAs crystals intentionally doped with /sup 14/C showed that carbon is very homogeneously distributed in GaAs grown by horizontal Bridgman method. No correlation between the distribution of carbon and dislocations has been found. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Studies of Nonradiative Recombination Centers in GaAs and InP*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuzemen, S.; Liang, Difei; Ucer, K. B.; Williams, R. T.

    2001-03-01

    The "reverse contrast" recombination center in semi-insulating GaAs, so named because of its anti-correlation with EL2 defects in spatial mapping, has been attributed to As-vacancy centers.^1 Several details of the nature of its optical transitions and of its spatial distribution are among questions open to experimental investigation. We report experiments on spectroscopy and spatial mapping of defects in semi-insulating GaAs and Fe-doped InP. *ST acknowledges the CIES for support as a Fulbright Scholar at WFU. The research at WFU is supported by NSF grant DMR-9732023. Confocal microscopy in cooperation with K. Grant and the MicroMed Facility of WFU. 1. C. Le Berre, C. Corbel, R. Mih, M. R. Brozel, S. Tüzemen, S. Kuisma, K. Saarinen, P. Hautojarvi, and R. Fornari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2354 (1995).

  20. A Generalized Theory of Electrical Characteristics of Schottky Barriers for Amorphous Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, H. M.

    1997-12-01

    In the present paper, we discuss a generalized theory of electrical characteristics for amorphous semiconductor (or insulator) Schottky barriers, considering: (i) surface states, (ii) doping impurity states at a single energy level and (iii) energetically distributed bulk impurity states. We also consider a thin oxide layer (10 Å) between metal and semiconductor. We develop current versus applied potential characteristics considering the variation of the Fermi level very close to contact inside the semiconductor and decrease in barrier height due to the image force effect as well as potential fall on the oxide layer. Finally, we discuss the importance of each parameter, i.e. surface states, distributed impurity states, doping impurity states, thickness of oxide layer etc. on the log I versus applied potential characteristics. The present theory is also applicable for intimate contact, i.e. metal-semiconductor contact, crystalline material structures or for Schottky barriers in insulators or polymers. Dans cet article nous proposons une théorie géneralisée pour les charactéristiques éléctriques de barrière Schottky en semiconducteurs amorphes (ou isolants), tout en considérant: (i) des états de surface, (ii) des états d'impuretés dopées dans un seul niveau d'énergie, (iii) des états d'impuretés massives distribuées en énergie. Nous considérons aussi une fine couche d'oxide (10 Å) entre le métal et le semiconducteur. Nous développons les charactéristiques du courrant versus potentiel appliquée tout en considérant des variations du niveau de Fermi très proche du contact à l'intérieur du semiconducteur et une décroissance de l'hauteur de la barrière dûe aux effects de la force d'image ainsi qu'au chute de potentiel dans la couche d'oxide. Finalement nous discutons l'importance de chaque paramètre, i.e. états de surface, états d'impuretés distribuées, états d'impuretés dopées, épaisseur de la couche d'oxide, etc. sur les charact

  1. GALLIUM ARSENIDE (GaAs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinshtein, M. E.; Rumyantsev, S. L.

    The following sections are included: * Basic Parameters at 300 K * Band Structure and Carrier Concentration * Temperature Dependences * Dependences on Hydrostatic Pressure * Energy Gap Narrowing at High Doping Levels * Effective Masses * Donors and Acceptors * Electrical Properties * Mobility and Hall Effect * Transport Properties in High Electric Field * Impact Ionization * Recombination Parameters * Optical Properties * Thermal Properties * Mechanical Properties, Elastic Constants, Lattice Vibrations, Other Properties * References

  2. Charge Transport at Ti-Doped Hematite (001)/Aqueous Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chatman, Shawn ME; Pearce, Carolyn I.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2015-03-10

    Solid-state transport and electrochemical properties of Ti-doped hematite (001) epitaxial thin films (6.0, 8.3, and 16.6 at% Ti) were probed to achieve a better understanding of doped hematite for photoelectrochemical (PEC) applications. Room temperature resistivity measurements predict a resistivity minimum near 10 at% Ti doping, which can be rationalized as maximizing charge compensating Fe2+ concentration and Fe3+ electron accepting percolation pathways simultaneously. Temperature dependent resistivity data are consistent with small polaron hopping, revealing an activation energy that is Ti concentration dependent and commensurate with previously reported values (≈ 0.11 eV). In contact with inert electrolyte, linear Mott-Schottky data at various pH values indicate that there is predominantly a single donor for Ti-doped hematite at 6.0 at% Ti and 16.6 at% Ti concentrations. Two slope Mott-Schottky data at pH extremes indicate the presence of a second donor or surface state in the 8.3 at% Ti-doped film, with an energy level ≈ 0.7 eV below the Fermi level. Mott-Schottky plots indicate pH and Ti concentration dependent flatband potentials of -0.4 to -1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl, commensurate with previously reported data. Flatband potentials exhibited super-Nernstian pH dependence ranging from -69.1 to -101.0 mV/pH. Carrier concentration data indicate that the Fermi energy of the Ti-doped system is Ti concentration dependent, with a minimum of 0.15 eV near 10 at% Ti. These energy level data allow us to construct an energy band diagram for Ti-doped hematite electrode/electrolyte interfaces, and to determine a Ti-doping concentration t

  3. Silicon Schottky photovoltaic diodes for solar energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    Various factors in Schottky barrier solar cell fabrication are evaluated in order to improve understanding of the current flow mechanism and to isolate processing variables that improve efficiency. Results of finger design, substrate resistivity, surface finishing and activation energy studies are detailed. An increased fill factor was obtained by baking of the vacuum system to remove moisture.

  4. Controllable Schottky Barriers between MoS2 and Permalloy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiyi; Liu, Yanwen; Tang, Lei; Jin, Yibo; Zhao, Tongtong; Xiu, Faxian

    2014-01-01

    MoS2 is a layered two-dimensional material with strong spin-orbit coupling and long spin lifetime, which is promising for electronic and spintronic applications. However, because of its large band gap and small electron affinity, a considerable Schottky barrier exists between MoS2 and contact metal, hindering the further study of spin transport and spin injection in MoS2. Although substantial progress has been made in improving device performance, the existence of metal-semiconductor Schottky barrier has not yet been fully understood. Here, we investigate permalloy (Py) contacts to both multilayer and monolayer MoS2. Ohmic contact is developed between multilayer MoS2 and Py electrodes with a negative Schottky barrier, which yields a high field-effect mobility exceeding 55 cm2V−1s−1 at low temperature. Further, by applying back gate voltage and inserting different thickness of Al2O3 layer between the metal and monolayer MoS2, we have achieved a good tunability of the Schottky barrier height (down to zero). These results are important in improving the performance of MoS2 transistor devices; and it may pave the way to realize spin transport and spin injection in MoS2. PMID:25370911

  5. A Study of the Parasitic Properties of the Schottky Barrier Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Tianhao; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Shuang; Guo, Fangzhou; Jin, Zhi; Zhou, Jingtao; Yang, Chengyue

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we present a newly designed parameter extraction method of the Schottky barrier diode (SBD) with the purpose of measuring and studying its parasitic properties. This method includes three kinds of auxiliary configurations and is named as three-configuration parameter extraction method (TPEM). TPEM has such features as simplicity of operation, self-consistence, and accuracy. With TPEM, the accurate parasitic parameters of the diode can be easily obtained. Taking a GaAs SBD as an example, the pad-to-pad capacitance is 7 fF, the air-bridge finger self-inductance 11 pH, the air-bridge finger self-resistance 0.6 Ω, and the finger-to-pad capacitance 2.1 fF. A more accurate approach to finding the value of the series resistant of the SBD is also proposed, and then a complete SBD model is built. The evaluation of the modeling technology, as well as TPEM, is implemented by comparing the simulated and measured I-V curves and the S-parameters. And good agreements are observed. By using TPEM, the influence of the variation of the geometric parameters is studied, and several ways to reduce the parasitic effect are presented. The results show that the width of the air-bridge finger and the length of the channel are the two largest influencing parameters, with the normalized impact factors 0.56 and 0.29, respectively. By using TPEM and the modeling technology presented in this paper, a design process of the SBD is proposed. As an example, a type of SBD suitable for 500-600 GHz zero-biased detection is designed, and the agreement between the simulated and measured results has been improved. SBDs for other applications could be designed in a similar way.

  6. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1979-01-01

    The optimization of space processing of GaAs is described. The detailed compositional, structural, and electronic characterization of GaAs on a macro- and microscale and the relationships between growth parameters and the properties of GaAs are among the factors discussed. The key parameters limiting device performance are assessed.

  7. Investigation of Schottky Barrier on GaAs and InP Using a Multi-Disciplined Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-29

    Press, NY and London, 1989. 27. V. Heine, Phys. Rev. A 13M 1689 (1965); G. Louie and M. L. Cohen, Phys. Rev. B 112461 (1976); C. Tejedor , F . Flores, and...8217 3 6 / 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT12.CM Approved or public release: F E S 15 199U 1 3. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200...changes in barrier height were obtained by thermal annealing. Results are 2 f t indicated in Figures 1 and 2. In order to reduce the number of variables

  8. Ultrafast properties of femtosecond-laser-ablated GaAs and its application to terahertz optoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Madéo, Julien; Margiolakis, Athanasios; Zhao, Zhen-Yu; Hale, Peter J; Man, Michael K L; Zhao, Quan-Zhong; Peng, Wei; Shi, Wang-Zhou; Dani, Keshav M

    2015-07-15

    We report on the first terahertz (THz) emitter based on femtosecond-laser-ablated gallium arsenide (GaAs), demonstrating a 65% enhancement in THz emission at high optical power compared to the nonablated device. Counter-intuitively, the ablated device shows significantly lower photocurrent and carrier mobility. We understand this behavior in terms of n-doping, shorter carrier lifetime, and enhanced photoabsorption arising from the ablation process. Our results show that laser ablation allows for efficient and cost-effective optoelectronic THz devices via the manipulation of fundamental properties of materials.

  9. Above bandgap luminescence of p-type GaAs epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapriel, J.; Chavignon, J.; Alexandre, F.; Azoulay, R.; Sermage, B.; Rao, K.; Voos, M.

    1991-08-01

    New photoluminescence bands are observed in p-type GaAs epitaxial layers at 300 and 80 K, above the bandgap. These bands are independent of the nature of the dopant (Zn, Be, C) and of the growth technique (MBE or MOCVD). Their intensities increase as a function of the p doping (1 × 10 17 < p < 2 × 10 20cm-3) and peak at energies which correspond to transitions between the Γ 6, L 6 and X 6 minima of the conduction band and the Γ 8 and Γ 7 maxima of the valence band.

  10. Temperature and intensity dependence of photorefractive effect in GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Partovi, Afshin

    1986-01-01

    The photorefractive effect in semi-insulating Cr-doped GaAs as measured by the beam coupling technique was investigated as functions of temperature (295-386 K) and intensity (0.15-98 mW/sq cm of 1.15-micron light beams from a He-Ne laser). Results show that the photorefractive effect deteriorates rapidly over a narrow range of temperature as temperature rises, and that this characteristic temperature increases with the logarithm of beam intensity. The observed phenomenon is attributed to the competing effects of the dark- and light-induced conductivities.

  11. GaAs Solar Cell Radiation Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.

    1996-01-01

    The handbook discusses the history of GaAs solar cell development, presents equations useful for working with GaAs solar cells, describes commonly used instrumentation techniques for assessing radiation effects in solar cells and fundamental processes occurring in solar cells exposed to ionizing radiation, and explains why radiation decreases the electrical performance of solar cells. Three basic elements required to perform solar array degradation calculations: degradation data for GaAs solar cells after irradiation with 1 MeV electrons at normal incidence; relative damage coefficients for omnidirectional electron and proton exposure; and the definition of the space radiation environment for the orbit of interest, are developed and used to perform a solar array degradation calculation.

  12. GaAs solar cell test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, M.; Hosoda, Y.; Suzawa, C.; Shimada, T.; Motoyoshi, K.; Sasatani, Y.

    1982-01-01

    A hybrid type (electricity and heat) GaAs solar cell test facility has been made to evaluate total characteristics of GaAs cell and to study the energy conversion system. The size of a solar collector is 3.4 m x 2.1 m and 60 GaAs cells with Fresnel lenses are attached on it. The solar collector is controlled by a microcomputer to track the sun. Electric energy produced by the cells is stored in a lead-acid battery and then supplied to the load through a DC-AC inverter. The microcomputer also controls the data acquisition in parallel with tracking. This paper presents an overview of the facility and the experimental results of power generation obtained to date.

  13. Nanoscale resistive switching Schottky contacts on self-assembled Pt nanodots on SrTiO(3).

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunsoo; Kim, Haeri; Van, Trong Nghia; Kim, Dong-Wook; Park, Jeong Young

    2013-11-27

    A nanoscale Schottky diode using Pt nanodisks on a Nb-doped SrTiO3 (Nb:STO) single crystal was fabricated, and resistive switching (RS) was demonstrated with conductive atomic force microscopy at ultrahigh vacuum. Pt disks with diameters on the order of 10 nm were formed using colloidal self-assembled patterns of silica nanospheres, followed by evaporation of the Pt layers on the Nb:STO single crystal. Here we show that the reproducible bipolar RS behavior of the nanoscale Pt/Nb:STO Schottky junction was achieved by utilizing local current-voltage spectroscopy. The conductance images, obtained simultaneously with topographic images, show the homogeneous current distribution of selected triangular-shaped Pt nanodisks during repetitive resistive switching between the high-resistance state (HRS) and low-resistance state (LRS). The endurance characteristics of the Pt/Nb:STO junction exhibit reliable switching behavior. These results suggest that the rectifying and resistive Pt/Nb:STO junction can be scaled down to the 10 nm range and their position can be controlled.

  14. Composite Transparent Electrode of Graphene Nanowalls and Silver Nanowires on Micropyramidal Si for High-Efficiency Schottky Junction Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Tianpeng; Liu, Jian; Wei, Dapeng; Feng, Yanhui; Song, Xuefen; Shi, Haofei; Jia, Shuming; Sun, Wentao; Du, Chunlei

    2015-09-16

    The conventional graphene-silicon Schottky junction solar cell inevitably involves the graphene growth and transfer process, which results in complicated technology, loss of quality of the graphene, extra cost, and environmental unfriendliness. Moreover, the conventional transfer method is not well suited to conformationally coat graphene on a three-dimensional (3D) silicon surface. Thus, worse interfacial conditions are inevitable. In this work, we directly grow graphene nanowalls (GNWs) onto the micropyramidal silicon (MP) by the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method. By controlling growth time, the cell exhibits optimal pristine photovoltaic performance of 3.8%. Furthermore, we improve the conductivity of the GNW electrode by introducing the silver nanowire (AgNW) network, which could achieve lower sheet resistance. An efficiency of 6.6% has been obtained for the AgNWs-GNWs-MP solar cell without any chemical doping. Meanwhile, the cell exhibits excellent stability exposed to air. Our studies show a promising way to develop simple-technology, low-cost, high-efficiency, and stable Schottky junction solar cells.

  15. Method of Fabricating Schottky Barrier solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.; Yeh, Y. C. M. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    On a thin substrate of low cost material with at least the top surface of the substrate being electrically conductive is deposited a thin layer of heavily doped n-type polycrystalline germanium, with crystalline sizes in the submicron range. A passivation layer may be deposited on the substrate to prevent migration of impurities into the polycrystalline germanium. The polycrystalline germanium is recrystallized to increase the crystal sizes in the germanium layer to not less than 5 micros to serve as a base layer on which a thin layer of gallium arsenide is vapor epitaxially grown to a selected thickness. A thermally-grown oxide layer of a thickness of several tens of angstroms is formed on the gallium arsenide layer. A metal layer, of not more about 100 angstroms thick, is deposited on the oxide layer, and a grid electrode is deposited to be in electrical contact with the top surface of the metal layer. An antireflection coating may be deposited on the exposed top surface of the metal layer.

  16. GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch

    DOEpatents

    Loubriel, G.M.; Baca, A.G.; Zutavern, F.J.

    1998-09-08

    A high gain, optically triggered, photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) implemented in GaAs as a reverse-biased pin structure with a passivation layer above the intrinsic GaAs substrate in the gap between the two electrodes of the device is disclosed. The reverse-biased configuration in combination with the addition of the passivation layer greatly reduces surface current leakage that has been a problem for prior PCSS devices and enables employment of the much less expensive and more reliable DC charging systems instead of the pulsed charging systems that needed to be used with prior PCSS devices. 5 figs.

  17. GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch

    DOEpatents

    Loubriel, Guillermo M.; Baca, Albert G.; Zutavern, Fred J.

    1998-01-01

    A high gain, optically triggered, photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) implemented in GaAs as a reverse-biased pin structure with a passivation layer above the intrinsic GaAs substrate in the gap between the two electrodes of the device. The reverse-biased configuration in combination with the addition of the passivation layer greatly reduces surface current leakage that has been a problem for prior PCSS devices and enables employment of the much less expensive and more reliable DC charging systems instead of the pulsed charging systems that needed to be used with prior PCSS devices.

  18. Can a Black Phosphorus Schottky Barrier Transistor Be Good Enough?

    PubMed

    Quhe, Ruge; Peng, Xiyou; Pan, Yuanyuan; Ye, Meng; Wang, Yangyang; Zhang, Han; Feng, Shenyan; Zhang, Qiaoxuan; Shi, Junjie; Yang, Jinbo; Yu, Dapeng; Lei, Ming; Lu, Jing

    2017-02-01

    Experimental two-dimensional (2D) black phosphorus (BP) transistors typically appear in the form of Schottky barrier field effect transistors (SBFETs), but their performance limit remains open. We investigate the performance limit of monolayer BP SBFETs in the sub-10 nm scale by using ab initio quantum transport simulations. The devices with 2D graphene electrodes are apparently superior to those with bulk Ti electrodes due to their smaller and tunable Schottky barrier heights and the absence of metal induced gap states in the channels. With graphene electrodes, the performance limit of the sub-10 nm monolayer BP SBFETs outperforms the monolayer MoS2, carbon nanotube, and advanced silicon transistors and even can meet the requirements of both high performance and low power logic applications of the next decade in the latest International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. It appears that the ML BP SBFETs have the best intrinsic device performance among the reported sub-10 nm 2D material SBFETs.

  19. Schottky Barrier Inhomogeneities in Nickel Silicide Transrotational Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Alessandra; Roccaforte, Fabrizio; Libertino, Sebania; Bongiorno, Corrado; La Magna, Antonino

    2011-11-01

    Ni-silicide/silicon Schottky contacts have been realised by promoting low-temperature Ni-Si interdiffusion during deposition (˜50 °C) and reaction (450 °C) on an oxygen-free [001] silicon surface. A 14 nm transrotational NiSi layer was produced made of extremely flat pseudo-epitaxial domains (˜200 nm in diameter). The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics (340-80 K) have indicated the presence of structural inhomogeneities which lower the Schottky barrier by Δ≈0.1 eV. They have been associated with the core regions of the trans-domains (wherein the silicide lattice is epitaxially aligned to that of Si) since their density (˜2.5×109 cm-2) and dimension (˜10 nm) fit the I-V curves vs temperature following the Tung's approach.

  20. Diamond Schottky diodes with ideality factors close to 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fiori, A. Teraji, T. Koide, Y.

    2014-09-29

    The stabilization by vacuum annealing of tungsten carbide/p-diamond Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) has been investigated. The Schottky barrier height (ϕ{sub B}) and ideality factor (n), at high temperature, were consistently estimated by employing a vertical SBD structure. An exponential drop of ϕ{sub B} in time at 600 K and its stabilization at 1.46 eV after 90 min were reported. The lowest n among SBDs examined was close to 1.0 at 600 K. A linear relation between ϕ{sub B} and n in a statistical electrical characterization suggests a ϕ{sub B} inhomogeneity.

  1. Oxidation of hydrogen on palladium: Chemicurrents in the Schottky nanodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grankin, D. V.; Styrov, V. V.; Simchenko, S. V.; Grankin, V. P.; Gural'nik, O. A.

    2017-02-01

    The oxidation of hydrogen on palladium was studied by the chemicurrents method using the nanosized catalytic Pd/ n-Si Schottky diode. The chemicurrent was found to be generated when the reactions H2+O2 and H + O + H2 + O2 occurred on the palladium surface, occasionally in the auto-oscillation mode. A model was created that describes the complex kinetic behavior of the reaction. Mathematical modeling was performed and showed the possibility of complex auto-oscillations of chemicurrent similar to those obtained in experiments. The catalytic Schottky nanodiode method was shown to be effective for reaction visualization and can be used as a new physical method for investigating the chemical processes on the catalyst surface.

  2. Ion Implanted GaAs I.C. Process Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    in ion implantation in GaAs, coupled with better control of the substrate material. 1 Once ion implantation became a reliable processing technology it... Processing Technology for Planar GaAs Integrated Circuits," GaAs IC Symposium, Lake Tahoe, CA., Sept. 1979. 20. R.C. Eden, "GaAs Integrated Circuit Device...1980. 25. B.M. Welch, "Advances in GaAs LSI!VLSI Processing Technology ," Sol. St. Tech., Feb. 1980, pp. 95-101. 27. R. Zucca, B.M. Welch, P.M

  3. Method for measuring the drift mobility in doped semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Crandall, Richard S.

    1982-01-01

    A method for measuring the drift mobility of majority carriers in semiconductors consists of measuring the current transient in a Schottky-barrier device following the termination of a forward bias pulse. An example is given using an amorphous silicon hydrogenated material doped with 0.2% phosphorous. The method is particularly useful with material in which the dielectric relaxation time is shorter than the carrier transit time. It is particularly useful in material useful in solar cells.

  4. Method for measuring the drift mobility in doped semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Crandall, R.S.

    1982-03-09

    A method for measuring the drift mobility of majority carriers in semiconductors consists of measuring the current transient in a Schottky-barrier device following the termination of a forward bias pulse. An example is given using an amorphous silicon hydrogenated material doped with 0.2% phosphorus. The method is particularly useful with material in which the dielectric relaxation time is shorter than the carrier transit time. It is particularly useful in material useful in solar cells. 10 figs.

  5. A new viewpoint on the ambipolar diffusion Schottky theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kurbatov, P. F.

    2013-04-15

    A modern modification of the Schottky theory is proposed. It enables overcoming some of the difficulties and contradictions of the old theory and extends its capabilities in the analysis of radial distributions of ionized species. This allows us to consider the distributions of positive column plasma in noble gas d.c. discharges within a proper universal framework. The radial distributions of plasma species are basically similar in their nature and are independent of the character and features of plasma reactions.

  6. Base Intrusion Schottky Barrier IR Assessment Camera Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    detection line sensors. The program includes coverage studies to determine requirements for array size and camera complexity to provide cost-effective...addition, hardware studies are being conducted to determine design requirements and specifications for development and for future field testing of an...Since the early 1970s, RCA has been actively engaged in the development of IRI Schottky barrier line and area FPAs for the Air Force RADC Deputy for

  7. Adapting Schottky Diode Detector Technology to a Space Platform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-10

    consists of a front end set of digital electronics that interfaces to an existing IRIG wideband analog recorder. Incoming digital data is converted...section, at the end of the design study. Schottky diode detector operation is based on the potential barrier created when a metal and a semiconductor are...out at the end of the staring time using a network of CCD shift registers and is a measure of the infrared signal. The detector schematic in Figure 3.1

  8. GaAs nanowire array solar cells with axial p-i-n junctions.

    PubMed

    Yao, Maoqing; Huang, Ningfeng; Cong, Sen; Chi, Chun-Yung; Seyedi, M Ashkan; Lin, Yen-Ting; Cao, Yu; Povinelli, Michelle L; Dapkus, P Daniel; Zhou, Chongwu

    2014-06-11

    Because of unique structural, optical, and electrical properties, solar cells based on semiconductor nanowires are a rapidly evolving scientific enterprise. Various approaches employing III-V nanowires have emerged, among which GaAs, especially, is under intense research and development. Most reported GaAs nanowire solar cells form p-n junctions in the radial direction; however, nanowires using axial junction may enable the attainment of high open circuit voltage (Voc) and integration into multijunction solar cells. Here, we report GaAs nanowire solar cells with axial p-i-n junctions that achieve 7.58% efficiency. Simulations show that axial junctions are more tolerant to doping variation than radial junctions and lead to higher Voc under certain conditions. We further study the effect of wire diameter and junction depth using electrical characterization and cathodoluminescence. The results show that large diameter and shallow junctions are essential for a high extraction efficiency. Our approach opens up great opportunity for future low-cost, high-efficiency photovoltaics.

  9. The Current-Voltage Characteristics of the Au/MBEn-GaAs Schottky Diodes in a Wide Temperature Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    EfeoǦLU, Hasan; Turut, Abdulmecit

    2013-07-01

    The Au/MBEn-GaAs Schottky diodes have been fabricated by us. The slope of the conventional ln(I0/T2) versus (kT)-1 plotted in the temperature range of 120-350 K has given a Richardson constant (RC) of 7.69 A (cmK)-2 which is in close agreement with the value of 8.16 A/cm2K2 known for n-type GaAs. The barrier height (BH) value in 40-160 K range has decreased obeying to Gaussian distribution (GD) model of the BH based on thermionic emission current theory. The modified RC plot according to the GD model has given a RC value of 2.45 A (cmK)-2 or a value of 2.38 A (cmK)-2 by taking into account the temperature dependence of the standard deviation. Therefore, we have modified the Richardson's plot using the temperature dependent values of the effective area of the patches introduced by lateral inhomogeneity of the BHs and we have obtained a RC value of 8.10 A (cmK)-2.

  10. Defect studies in low-temperature-grown GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, D.E.

    1992-11-01

    High content of excess As is incorporated in GaAs grown by low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy (LTMBE). The excess As exists primarily as As antisite defects AsGa and a lesser extent of gallium vacancies V{sub Ga}. The neutral AsGa-related defects were measured by infrared absorption at 1{mu}m. Gallium vacancies, V{sub Ga}, was investigated by slow positron annihilation. Dependence of defect contents on doping was studied by Si and Be dopants. No free carriers are generated by n-type or p-type doping up to 10{sup 19} cm{sup {minus}3} Si or Be. Raman data indicate Be occupies Ga substitutional sites but Si atom is not substitutional. Si induces more As{sub Ga} in the layer. As As{sub Ga} increases, photoquenchable As{sub Ga} decreases. Fraction of photoquenchable defects correlates to defects within 3 nearest neighbor separations disrupting the metastability. Annealing reduces neutral As{sub Ga} content around 500C, similar to irradiation damaged and plastically deformed Ga{sub As}, as opposed to bulk grown GaAs in which As{sub Ga}-related defects are stable up to 1100C. The lower temperature defect removal is due to V{sub Ga} enhanced diffusion of As{sub Ga} to As precipitates. The supersaturated V{sub GA} and also decreases during annealing. Annealing kinetics for As{sub Ga}-related defects gives 2.0 {plus_minus} 0.3 eV and 1.5 {plus_minus} 0.3 eV migration enthalpies for the As{sub Ga} and V{sub Ga}. This represents the difference between Ga and As atoms hopping into the vacancy. The non-photoquenchable As{sub Ga}-related defects anneal with an activation energy of 1.1 {plus_minus} 0.3eV. Be acceptors can be activated by 800C annealing. Temperature difference between defect annealing and Be activation formation of As{sub Ga}-Be{sub Ga} pairs. Si donors can only be partially activated.

  11. Defect studies in low-temperature-grown GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, D.E.

    1992-11-01

    High content of excess As is incorporated in GaAs grown by low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy (LTMBE). The excess As exists primarily as As antisite defects AsGa and a lesser extent of gallium vacancies V[sub Ga]. The neutral AsGa-related defects were measured by infrared absorption at 1[mu]m. Gallium vacancies, V[sub Ga], was investigated by slow positron annihilation. Dependence of defect contents on doping was studied by Si and Be dopants. No free carriers are generated by n-type or p-type doping up to 10[sup 19] cm[sup [minus]3] Si or Be. Raman data indicate Be occupies Ga substitutional sites but Si atom is not substitutional. Si induces more As[sub Ga] in the layer. As As[sub Ga] increases, photoquenchable As[sub Ga] decreases. Fraction of photoquenchable defects correlates to defects within 3 nearest neighbor separations disrupting the metastability. Annealing reduces neutral As[sub Ga] content around 500C, similar to irradiation damaged and plastically deformed Ga[sub As], as opposed to bulk grown GaAs in which As[sub Ga]-related defects are stable up to 1100C. The lower temperature defect removal is due to V[sub Ga] enhanced diffusion of As[sub Ga] to As precipitates. The supersaturated V[sub GA] and also decreases during annealing. Annealing kinetics for As[sub Ga]-related defects gives 2.0 [plus minus] 0.3 eV and 1.5 [plus minus] 0.3 eV migration enthalpies for the As[sub Ga] and V[sub Ga]. This represents the difference between Ga and As atoms hopping into the vacancy. The non-photoquenchable As[sub Ga]-related defects anneal with an activation energy of 1.1 [plus minus] 0.3eV. Be acceptors can be activated by 800C annealing. Temperature difference between defect annealing and Be activation formation of As[sub Ga]-Be[sub Ga] pairs. Si donors can only be partially activated.

  12. GaAs Substrates for High-Power Diode Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Georg; Berwian, Patrick; Buhrig, Eberhard; Weinert, Berndt

    GaAs substrate crystals with low dislocation density (Etch-Pit Density (EPD) < 500,^-2) and Si-doping ( ~10^18,^-3) are required for the epitaxial production of high-power diode-lasers. Large-size wafers (= 3 mathrm{in} -> >=3,) are needed for reducing the manufacturing costs. These requirements can be fulfilled by the Vertical Bridgman (VB) and Vertical Gradient Freeze (VGF) techniques. For that purpose we have developed proper VB/VGF furnaces and optimized the thermal as well as the physico-chemical process conditions. This was strongly supported by extensive numerical process simulation. The modeling of the VGF furnaces and processes was made by using a new computer code called CrysVUN++, which was recently developed in the Crystal Growth Laboratory in Erlangen.GaAs crystals with diameters of 2 and 3in were grown in pyrolytic Boron Nitride (pBN) crucibles having a small-diameter seed section and a conical part. Boric oxide was used to fully encapsulate the crystal and the melt. An initial silicon content in the GaAs melt of c (melt) = 3 x10^19,^-3 has to be used in order to achieve a carrier concentration of n = (0.8- 2) x10^18,^-3, which is the substrate specification of the device manufacturer of the diode-laser. The EPD could be reduced to values between 500,^-2 and 50,^-2 with a Si-doping level of 8 x10^17 to 1 x10^18,^-3. Even the 3in wafers have rather large dislocation-free areas. The lowest EPDs ( <100,^-2) are achieved for long seed wells of the crucible.

  13. Schottky photodetector with tapered thin metal strip on silicon waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jingshu; Wu, Zhiwei; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Yanli

    2016-01-01

    We propose a Schottky photodetector with tapered thin metal strip on SOI platform. Schottky photodetector can detect photons below the semiconductor bandgap energy by exploiting the internal photoemission. In the internal photoemission process, the hot carriers generate in the tapered thin metal strip where light absorption occurs, and part of these carriers can be emitted over the Schottky barrier and collected as photocurrent. The small thickness of the tapered metal strip contributes to a high internal quantum efficiency of 11.25%. This metal-semiconductor structure acts as a photonics-plasmonics mode convertor. According to 3D-FDTD simulation, about 95.8% of the incident optical power can be absorbed in the absorption area within 4.5μm at wavelength of 1550 nm. The responsivity is estimated to be 0.135A/W at 1550 nm. This compact design with a low dark current has a minimum detectable power of -23.15 dβm. We argue that this design can promote the progress of all-Si photo-detection in near-infrared communication band.

  14. Process for preparing schottky diode contacts with predetermined barrier heights

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Y. Austin; Jan, Chia-Hong; Chen, Chia-Ping

    1996-01-01

    A process is provided for producing a Schottky diode having a preselected barrier height .phi..sub.Bn. The substrate is preferably n-GaAs, the metallic contact is derived from a starting alloy of the Formula [.SIGMA.M.sub..delta. ](Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x) wherein: .SIGMA.M is a moiety which consists of at least one M, and when more than one M is present, each M is different, M is a Group VIII metal selected from the group consisting of nickel, cobalt, ruthenium, rhodium, indium and platinum, .delta. is a stoichiometric coefficient whose total value in any given .SIGMA.M moiety is 1, and x is a positive number between 0 and 1 (that is, x ranges from greater than 0 to less than 1). Also, the starting alloy is capable of forming with the substrate a two phase equilibrium reciprocal system of the binary alloy mixture [.SIGMA.M.sub..delta. ]Ga-[.SIGMA.M.sub..delta. ]Al-AlAs-GaAs. When members of an alloy subclass within this Formula are each preliminarily correlated with the barrier height .phi..sub.Bn of a contact producable therewith, then Schottky diodes of predetermined barrier heights are producable by sputtering and annealing. Further provided are the product Schottky diodes that are produced according to this process.

  15. Nanoscale mapping of the W/Si(001) Schottky barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Durcan, Chris A.; Balsano, Robert; LaBella, Vincent P.

    2014-07-14

    The W/Si(001) Schottky barrier was spatially mapped with nanoscale resolution using ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM) and ballistic hole emission microscopy (BHEM) using n-type and p-type silicon substrates. The formation of an interfacial tungsten silicide is observed utilizing transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The BEEM and BHEM spectra are fit utilizing a linearization method based on the power law BEEM model using the Prietsch Ludeke fitting exponent. The aggregate of the Schottky barrier heights from n-type (0.71 eV) and p-type (0.47 eV) silicon agrees with the silicon band gap at 80 K. Spatially resolved maps of the Schottky barrier are generated from grids of 7225 spectra taken over a 1 μm × 1 μm area and provide insight into its homogeneity. Histograms of the barrier heights have a Gaussian component consistent with an interface dipole model and show deviations that are localized in the spatial maps and are attributed to compositional fluctuations, nanoscale defects, and foreign materials.

  16. Silver nanowires-templated metal oxide for broadband Schottky photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Malkeshkumar; Kim, Hong-Sik; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kim, Joondong

    2016-04-01

    Silver nanowires (AgNWs)-templated transparent metal oxide layer was applied for Si Schottky junction device, which remarked the record fastest photoresponse of 3.4 μs. Self-operating AgNWs-templated Schottky photodetector showed broad wavelength photodetection with high responsivity (42.4 A W-1) and detectivity (2.75 × 1015 Jones). AgNWs-templated indium-tin-oxide (ITO) showed band-to-band excitation due to the internal photoemission, resulting in significant carrier collection performances. Functional metal oxide layer was formed by AgNWs-templated from ITO structure. The grown ITO above AgNWs has a cylindrical shape and acts as a thermal protector of AgNWs for high temperature environment without any deformation. We developed thermal stable AgNWs-templated transparent oxide devices and demonstrated the working mechanism of AgNWs-templated Schottky devices. We may propose the high potential of hybrid transparent layer design for various photoelectric applications, including solar cells.

  17. Silicide Schottky Contacts to Silicon: Screened Pinning at Defect Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Drummond, T.J.

    1999-03-11

    Silicide Schottky contacts can be as large as 0.955 eV (E{sub v} + 0.165 eV) on n-type silicon and as large as 1.05 eV (E{sub c} {minus} 0.07 eV) on p-type silicon. Current models of Schottky barrier formation do not provide a satisfactory explanation of occurrence of this wide variation. A model for understanding Schottky contacts via screened pinning at defect levels is presented. In the present paper it is shown that most transition metal silicides are pinned approximately 0.48 eV above the valence band by interstitial Si clusters. Rare earth disilicides pin close to the divacancy acceptor level 0.41 eV below the conduction band edge while high work function silicides of Ir and Pt pin close to the divacancy donor level 0.21 eV above the valence band edge. Selection of a particular defect pinning level depends strongly on the relative positions of the silicide work function and the defect energy level on an absolute energy scale.

  18. Successful observation of Schottky signals at the Tevatron collider

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, D.A.; Lambertson, G.R.

    1989-08-01

    We have constructed a Schottky detector for the Tevatron collider in the form of a high-Q ({approx}5000) cavity which operates at roughly 2 GHz, well above the frequency at which the Tevatron's single-bunch frequency spectrum begins to roll off. Initial spectra obtained from the detector show clearly observable Schottky betatron lines, free of coherent contaminants; also seen are the common-mode'' longitudinal signals due to the offset of the beam from the detector center. The latter signals indicate that at 2 GHz, the coherent single-bunch spectrum from the detector is reduced by >80 dB; therefore, in normal collider operation, the Schottky betatron lines are >40 dB greater than their coherent counterparts. We describe how the data we have obtained give information on transverse and longitudinal emittances, synchrotron frequency, and betatron tunes, as well as reveal what may be previously unobserved phenomena. Space limitations restrict us to presenting only as much data as should be necessary to convince even the skeptical reader of the validity of the claim made in the paper's title. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Au impact on GaAs epitaxial growth on GaAs (111)B substrates in molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Zhi-Gang; Lu, Zhen-Yu; Xu, Hong-Yi; Guo, Ya-Nan; Sun, Wen; Zhang, Zhi; Yang, Lei; Chen, Ping-Ping; Lu, Wei; Zou, Jin

    2013-02-01

    GaAs growth behaviour under the presence of Au nanoparticles on GaAs {111}B substrate is investigated using electron microscopy. It has been found that, during annealing, enhanced Ga surface diffusion towards Au nanoparticles leads to the GaAs epitaxial growth into {113}B faceted triangular pyramids under Au nanoparticles, governed by the thermodynamic growth, while during conventional GaAs growth, growth kinetics dominates, resulting in the flatted triangular pyramids at high temperature and the epitaxial nanowires growth at relatively low temperature. This study provides an insight of Au nanoparticle impact on GaAs growth, which is critical for understanding the formation mechanisms of semiconductor nanowires.

  20. P-doping mechanisms in catalyst-free gallium arsenide nanowires.

    PubMed

    Dufouleur, Joseph; Colombo, Carlo; Garma, Tonko; Ketterer, Bernt; Uccelli, Emanuele; Nicotra, Marco; Fontcuberta i Morral, Anna

    2010-05-12

    Doped catalyst-free GaAs nanowires have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy with the gallium-assisted method. The spatial dependence of the dopant concentration and resistivity have been measured by Raman spectroscopy and four point electrical measurements. Along with theoretical considerations, the doping mechanisms have been revealed. Two competing mechanisms have been revealed: dopant incorporation from the side facets and from the gallium droplet. In the latter incorporation path, doping compensation seems to play an important role in the effective dopant concentration. Hole concentrations of at least 2.4 x 10(18) cm(-3) have been achieved, which to our knowledge is the largest p doping range obtained up to date. This work opens the avenue for the use of doped GaAs nanowires in advanced applications and in mesoscopic physics experiments.

  1. GaAs Solar Cell Radiation Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.

    1996-01-01

    History of GaAs solar cell development is provided. Photovoltaic equations are described along with instrumentation techniques for measuring solar cells. Radiation effects in solar cells, electrical performance, and spacecraft flight data for solar cells are discussed. The space radiation environment and solar array degradation calculations are addressed.

  2. GaAs optoelectronic neuron arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Steven; Grot, Annette; Luo, Jiafu; Psaltis, Demetri

    1993-01-01

    A simple optoelectronic circuit integrated monolithically in GaAs to implement sigmoidal neuron responses is presented. The circuit integrates a light-emitting diode with one or two transistors and one or two photodetectors. The design considerations for building arrays with densities of up to 10,000/sq cm are discussed.

  3. Image transfer in photorefractive GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Gheen, Gregory; Rau, Mann-Fu; Wang, Faa-Ching

    1987-01-01

    Image transfer from one beam to the other using counterpropagation beam coupling in GaAs was demonstrated. Good image quality was achieved. The results also reveal that local birefringence due to the residual stress/strain field in the crystal can degrade the image quality.

  4. A Schottky/2-DEG varactor diode for millimeter and submillimeter wave multiplier applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peatman, W. C. B.; Crowe, Thomas W.; Shur, M.; Gelmont, B.

    1992-01-01

    A new Schottky diode is investigated for use as a multiplier element in the millimeter and submillimeter wavelength regions. The new diode is based on the Schottky contact at the edge of a 2-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG). As a negative voltage is applied to the Schottky contact, the depletion layer between the Schottky contact and the 2-DEG expands and the junction capacitance decreases, resulting in a nonlinear capacitance-voltage characteristic. In this paper, we outline the theory, design, fabrication, and evaluation of the new device. Recent results include devices having cutoff frequencies of 1 THz and above. Preliminary multiplier results are also presented.

  5. Generation and control of polarization-entangled photons from GaAs island quantum dots by an electric field.

    PubMed

    Ghali, Mohsen; Ohtani, Keita; Ohno, Yuzo; Ohno, Hideo

    2012-02-07

    Semiconductor quantum dots are potential sources for generating polarization-entangled photons efficiently. The main prerequisite for such generation based on biexciton-exciton cascaded emission is to control the exciton fine-structure splitting. Among various techniques investigated for this purpose, an electric field is a promising means to facilitate the integration into optoelectronic devices. Here we demonstrate the generation of polarization-entangled photons from single GaAs quantum dots by an electric field. In contrast to previous studies, which were limited to In(Ga)As quantum dots, GaAs island quantum dots formed by a thickness fluctuation were used because they exhibit a larger oscillator strength and emit light with a shorter wavelength. A forward voltage was applied to a Schottky diode to control the fine-structure splitting. We observed a decrease and suppression in the fine-structure splitting of the studied single quantum dot with the field, which enabled us to generate polarization-entangled photons with a high fidelity of 0.72 ± 0.05.

  6. Semi-insulating GaAs based detector of fast neutrons produced by D-T nuclear reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šagátová, A.; Kubanda, D.; Zat'ko, B.; Sedlačková, K.; Nečas, V.; Solar, M.; Granja, C.

    2016-12-01

    We have examined semi-insulating (SI) GaAs detectors with high density polyethylene (HDPE) conversion layer by a mono-energetic neutrons with kinetic energy of 16.755 MeV generated by a deuterium—tritium nuclear reaction. First, the influence of HDPE layer thickness on the relative detection efficiency of fast neutrons was studied. The MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-particle eXtended) code has been used to support the analysis of the experiment. The theoretical optimum thickness of the conversion layer was determined to 1.9 mm using the MCNPX code. The HDPE conversion layers of various thicknesses, in the range from 50 μ m to 3200 μ m, were glued on the top Schottky contact of SI GaAs detector in the experiment. The neutron detection efficiency was evaluated from measured spectra and compared to results from simulations. The experimental data showed very good agreement with simulation results. Then the effect of active detector thickness modified by detector reverse bias on neutron detection efficiency was studied. Finally, the effect of the angle of irradiation on neutron detection efficiency was evaluated exhibiting decreasing tendency with increasing deviation from perpendicular direction of impinging neutrons.

  7. Generation and control of polarization-entangled photons from GaAs island quantum dots by an electric field

    PubMed Central

    Ghali, Mohsen; Ohtani, Keita; Ohno, Yuzo; Ohno, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are potential sources for generating polarization-entangled photons efficiently. The main prerequisite for such generation based on biexciton–exciton cascaded emission is to control the exciton fine-structure splitting. Among various techniques investigated for this purpose, an electric field is a promising means to facilitate the integration into optoelectronic devices. Here we demonstrate the generation of polarization-entangled photons from single GaAs quantum dots by an electric field. In contrast to previous studies, which were limited to In(Ga)As quantum dots, GaAs island quantum dots formed by a thickness fluctuation were used because they exhibit a larger oscillator strength and emit light with a shorter wavelength. A forward voltage was applied to a Schottky diode to control the fine-structure splitting. We observed a decrease and suppression in the fine-structure splitting of the studied single quantum dot with the field, which enabled us to generate polarization-entangled photons with a high fidelity of 0.72±0.05. PMID:22314357

  8. Homojunction GaAs solar cells grown by close space vapor transport

    SciTech Connect

    Boucher, Jason W.; Ritenour, Andrew J.; Greenaway, Ann L.; Aloni, Shaul; Boettcher, Shannon W.

    2014-06-08

    We report on the first pn junction solar cells grown by homoepitaxy of GaAs using close space vapor transport (CSVT). Cells were grown both on commercial wafer substrates and on a CSVT absorber film, and had efficiencies reaching 8.1%, open circuit voltages reaching 909 mV, and internal quantum efficiency of 90%. The performance of these cells is partly limited by the electron diffusion lengths in the wafer substrates, as evidenced by the improved peak internal quantum efficiency in devices fabricated on a CSVT absorber film. Unoptimized highly-doped n-type emitters also limit the photocurrent, indicating that thinner emitters with reduced doping, and ultimately wider band gap window or surface passivation layers, are required to increase the efficiency.

  9. Dilute nitride and GaAs n-i-p-i solar cells.

    PubMed

    Mazzucato, Simone; Royall, Benjamin; Ketlhwaafetse, Richard; Balkan, Naci; Salmi, Joel; Puustinen, Janne; Guina, Mircea; Smith, Andy; Gwilliam, Russell

    2012-11-20

    We demonstrate for the first time the operation of GaInNAs and GaAs n-i-p-i doping solar cells with ion-implanted selective contacts. Multiple layers of alternate doping are grown by molecular beam epitaxy to form the n-i-p-i structure. After growth, vertical selective contacts are fabricated by Mg and Si ion implantation, followed by rapid thermal annealing treatment and fabrication into circular mesa cells. As means of characterisation, spectral response and illuminated current-voltage (I-V) were measured on the samples. The spectral response suggests that all horizontal layers are able to contribute to the photocurrent. Performance of the devices is discussed with interest in the n-i-p-i structure as a possible design for the GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAs tandem solar cell.

  10. Dilute nitride and GaAs n-i-p-i solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time the operation of GaInNAs and GaAs n-i-p-i doping solar cells with ion-implanted selective contacts. Multiple layers of alternate doping are grown by molecular beam epitaxy to form the n-i-p-i structure. After growth, vertical selective contacts are fabricated by Mg and Si ion implantation, followed by rapid thermal annealing treatment and fabrication into circular mesa cells. As means of characterisation, spectral response and illuminated current–voltage (I-V) were measured on the samples. The spectral response suggests that all horizontal layers are able to contribute to the photocurrent. Performance of the devices is discussed with interest in the n-i-p-i structure as a possible design for the GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAs tandem solar cell. PMID:23167964

  11. Pt silicide/poly-Si Schottky diodes as temperature sensors for bolometers

    SciTech Connect

    Yuryev, V. A. Chizh, K. V.; Chapnin, V. A.; Mironov, S. A.; Dubkov, V. P.; Uvarov, O. V.; Kalinushkin, V. P.; Senkov, V. M.; Nalivaiko, O. Y.; Novikau, A. G.; Gaiduk, P. I.

    2015-05-28

    Platinum silicide Schottky diodes formed on films of polycrystalline Si doped by phosphorus are demonstrated to be efficient and manufacturable CMOS-compatible temperature sensors for microbolometer detectors of radiation. Thin-film platinum silicide/poly-Si diodes have been produced by a CMOS-compatible process on artificial Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) substrates simulating the bolometer cells. Layer structure and phase composition of the original Pt/poly-Si films and the Pt silicide/poly-Si films synthesized by a low-temperature process have been studied by means of the scanning transmission electron microscopy; they have also been explored by means of the two-wavelength X-ray structural phase analysis and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Temperature coefficient of voltage for the forward current of a single diode is shown to reach the value of about −2%/ °C in the temperature interval from 25 to 50 °C.

  12. Interface Induced Gap State Models and ZnO Schottky Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, Steven; Allen, Martin

    2010-03-01

    Practical aspects of fabricating Schottky contacts, such as lateral inhomogeneity, contaminants, and defects, can complicate the comparison of experimentally obtained barrier heights to theoretical predictions. The diode ideality factor η (which should approach unity for laterally homogeneous interfaces, after accounting for image force effects) is also strongly affected by the same issues, and correlations can be observed between barrier height and η when measuring large numbers of devices. ZnO could prove to be an interesting test case for evaluating various theoretical models, as it is significantly more ionic than most semiconductors, resulting in weaker Fermi pinning due to interface states. ZnO also does not require the removal of a native oxide layer for device processing, thereby avoiding often aggressive cleaning procedures. We have fabricated arrays of rectifying metal-ZnO contacts using bulk wafers and a wide variety of metals, using a technique which results in large barrier heights (typically > 0.8 eV) and low η (approaching the image force limit). Using the electrical characteristics of these diodes, we evaluate both Tung's chemical bonding and M"onch's metal induced gap states + electronegativity models. The lack of agreement with either of these popular models raises several questions, including whether predictions for the branch point energy in ZnO --- a parameter relevant to discussions of heterointerfaces as well as doping ability --- are accurate.

  13. Ion Implanted Gaas Integrated Optics Fabrication Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentzer, M. A.; Hunsperger, R. G.; Bartko, J.; Zavada, J. M.; Jenkinson, H. A.

    1985-01-01

    Ion implantation of semiconductor materials is a fabrication technique that offers a number of distinct advantages for the formation of guided-wave components and microelectronic devices. Implanted damage and dopants produce optical and electronic changes that can be utilized for sensing and signal processing applications. GaAs is a very attractive material for optical fabrication since it is transparent out to the far infrared. It can be used to fabricate optical waveguides, directional couplers, EO modulators, and detectors, as well as other guided wave structures. The presence of free carriers in GaAs lowers the refractive index from that of the pure semiconductor material. This depression of the refractive index is primarily due to the negative contribution of the free carrier plasma to the dielectric constant of the semiconductor. Bombardment of n-type GaAs by protons creates damage sites near the surface of the crystal structure where free carriers are trapped. This "free carrier compensated" region in the GaAs has a higher refractive index than the bulk region. If the compensated region is sufficiently thick and has a refractive index which is sufficiently larger than that of the bulk n-type region, an optical waveguide is formed. In this paper, a description of ion implantation techniques for the fabrication of both planar and channel integrated optical structures in GaAs is presented, and is related to the selection of ion species, implant energy and fluence, and to the physical processes involved. Lithographic technology and masking techniques are discussed for achieving a particular desired implant profile. Finally, the results of a set of ion implantation experiments are presented.

  14. Contact properties to CVD-graphene on GaAs substrates for optoelectronic applications.

    PubMed

    Babichev, A V; Gasumyants, V E; Egorov, A Yu; Vitusevich, S; Tchernycheva, M

    2014-08-22

    The optimization of contacts between graphene and metals is important for many optoelectronic applications. In this work, we evaluate the contact resistance and sheet resistance of monolayer and few-layered graphene with different metallizations using the transfer length method (TLM). Graphene was obtained by the chemical vapor deposition technique (CVD-graphene) and transferred onto GaAs and Si/SiO₂ substrates. To account for the quality of large-area contacts used in a number of practical applications, a millimeter-wide TLM pattern was used for transport measurements. Different metals--namely, Ag, Pt, Cr, Au, Ni, and Ti--have been tested. The minimal contact resistance Rc obtained in this work is 11.3 kΩ μm for monolayer CVD-graphene, and 6.3 kΩ μm for a few-layered graphene. Annealing allows us to decrease the contact resistance Rc and achieve 1.7 kΩm μm for few-layered graphene on GaAs substrate with Au contacts. The minimal sheet resistance Rsh of few-layered graphene transferred to GaAs and Si/SiO₂ substrates are 0.28 kΩ/□ and 0.27 kΩ/□. The Rsh value of monolayer graphene on the GaAs substrate is 8 times higher (2.3 kΩ/□), but it reduces for the monolayer graphene on Si/SiO₂ (1.4 kΩ/□). For distances between the contacts below 5 μm, a considerable reduction in the resistance per unit length was observed, which is explained by the changes in doping level caused by graphene suspension at small distances between contact pads.

  15. Zn diffusion in Al/0.7/Ga/0.3/As compared with that in GaAs. [solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flat, A.; Milnes, A. G.; Feucht, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    Zinc was diffused into 4 times 10 to the 17th per cu cm n-type Al(0.7)Ga(0.3)As grown by liquid-phase epitaxy and also into n-type 2 times 10 to the 17th per cu cm doped GaAs slices at 600, 650, and 750 C. The Zn diffusion coefficient in the Al(0.7)Ga(0.3)As was about one order of magnitude larger than in GaAs. The significance of this fact is that diffusion of Zn through a 0.5 micron Al(0.7)Ga(0.3)As layer appears to be possible with adequate control of the junction depth in the underlying GaAs.

  16. Simulation study of a new InGaN p-layer free Schottky based solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adaine, Abdoulwahab; Ould Saad Hamady, Sidi; Fressengeas, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    On the road towards next generation high efficiency solar cells, the ternary Indium Gallium Nitride (InGaN) alloy is a good passenger since it allows to cover the whole solar spectrum through the change in its Indium composition. The choice of the main structure of the InGaN solar cell is however crucial. Obtaining a high efficiency requires to improve the light absorption and the photogenerated carriers collection that depend on the layers parameters, including the Indium composition, p- and n-doping, device geometry … Unfortunately, one of the main drawbacks of InGaN is linked to its p-type doping, which is very difficult to realize since it involves complex technological processes that are difficult to master and that highly impact the layer quality. In this paper, the InGaN p-n junction (PN) and p-i-n junction (PIN) based solar cells are numerically studied using the most realistic models, and optimized through mathematically rigorous multivariate optimization approaches. This analysis evidences optimal efficiencies of 17.8% and 19.0% for the PN and PIN structures. It also leads to propose, analyze and optimize p-layer free InGaN Schottky-Based Solar Cells (SBSC): the Schottky structure and a new MIN structure for which the optimal efficiencies are shown to be a little higher than for the conventional structures: respectively 18.2% and 19.8%. The tolerance that is allowed on each parameter for each of the proposed cells has been studied. The new MIN structure is shown to exhibit the widest tolerances on the layers thicknesses and dopings. In addition to its being p-layer free, this is another advantage of the MIN structure since it implies its better reliability. Therefore, these new InGaN SBSC are shown to be alternatives to the conventional structures that allow removing the p-type doping of InGaN while giving photovoltaic (PV) performances at least comparable to the standard multilayers PN or PIN structures.

  17. Variation of spectral response curves of GaAs photocathodes in activation chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jijun; Chang, Benkang; Yang, Zhi; Wang, Hui; Gao, Pin

    2006-09-01

    The spectral response curves of reflection-mode GaAs (100) photocathodes are measured in activation chamber by multi-information measurement system at RT, and by applying quantum efficiency formula, the variation of spectral response curves have been studied. Reflection-mode GaAs photocathodes materials are grown over GaAs wafer (100) by MBE with p-type beryllium doping, doping concentration is 1×10 19 cm -3 and the active layer thickness is 1.6μm. During the high-temperature activation process, the spectral response curves varied with activation time are measured. After the low-temperature activation, the photocathode is illuminated by a white light source, and the spectral response curves varied with illumination time are measured every other hour. Experimental results of both high-temperature and low-temperature activations show that the spectral response curve shape of photocathodes is a function of time. We use traditional quantum efficiency formulas of photocathodes, in which only the Γ photoemission is considered, to fit experimental spectral response curves, and find the theoretical curves are not in agreement with the experimental curves, the reason is other valley and hot-electron yields are necessary to be included in yields of reflection-mode photocathodes. Based on the two-minima diffusion model and the fit of escape probability, we modified the quantum efficiency formula of reflection-mode photocathodes, the modified formula can be used to explain the variation of yield curves of reflection-mode photocathodes very well.

  18. Te incorporation in GaAs1-xSbx nanowires and p-i-n axial structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Estiak; Kasanaboina, P. K.; Karim, M. R.; Sharma, M.; Reynolds, C. L.; Liu, Y.; Iyer, S.

    2016-12-01

    We report on in situ Te-doping in GaAs1-xSbx nanowires (NWs) grown via self-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Enhanced Te incorporation in the NW at higher Te cell temperature was attested by the broadening of the x-ray diffraction peak and the presence of a strong coupled-LO phonon mode in the Raman spectra. Te-doping was estimated from the shift in the coupled-LO phonon mode to be ˜2.0 × 1018/cm3. The surfactant nature of the Te modulated the growth kinetics, which was manifested in an enhanced radial growth rate with improved photoluminescence (PL) characteristics at both room temperature (RT) and 4 K. No noticeable planar defects were observed as ascertained from the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images and selected-area electron diffraction patterns. Finally, we demonstrate the experimental realization of a GaAs1-xSbx axial p-type/intrinsic/n-type (p-i-n) structure on a Si substrate with Te as the n-type dopant. The GaAs1-xSbx p-i-n NW structures exhibited rectifying current-voltage (I-V) behavior. The dopant concentration and the transport parameters estimated from the PL spectra and I-V curve were found to be in good agreement.

  19. Longevity improvement of optically activated, high gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches

    SciTech Connect

    MAR,ALAN; LOUBRIEL,GUILLERMO M.; ZUTAVERN,FRED J.; O'MALLEY,MARTIN W.; HELGESON,WESLEY D.; BROWN,DARWIN JAMES; HJALMARSON,HAROLD P.; BACA,ALBERT G.

    2000-03-02

    The longevity of high gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) has been extended to over 100 million pulses at 23A, and over 100 pulses at 1kA. This is achieved by improving the ohmic contacts by doping the semi-insulating GaAs underneath the metal, and by achieving a more uniform distribution of contact wear across the entire switch by distributing the trigger light to form multiple filaments. This paper will compare various approaches to doping the contacts, including ion implantation, thermal diffusion, and epitaxial growth. The device characterization also includes examination of the filament behavior using open-shutter, infra-red imaging during high gain switching. These techniques provide information on the filament carrier densities as well as the influence that the different contact structures and trigger light distributions have on the distribution of the current in the devices. This information is guiding the continuing refinement of contact structures and geometries for further improvements in switch longevity.

  20. Growth of GaAs in a rotating disk MOCVD reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. G.; Sundaram, V. S.; Girard, G. R.; Fraas, L. M.

    1989-04-01

    We report the growth of GaAs homoepitaxial films from trimethylgallium and arsine in a multi-wafer rotating disk reactor. In this configuration the substrates are mounted on a disk that is spun at high speed (> 1000 rpm) in a sub-atmospheric (<100 Torr) environment. The spinning disk pumps the reactant and carrier gases radially outwards; under optimum conditions, convective recirculating cells are avoided, thus facilitating rapid transitions in doping and composition in the grown layers. In this paper we look at the morphology, growth rate and electrical properties of the GaAs epitaxial layers as a function of substrate temperature, V/III ratio, dopant type, spin speed and hydrogen carrier flow conditions. These results are compared with those obtained in conventional MOCVD reactors. Silicon and tellurium doping over a wide range of carrier concentrations has been achieved with excellent mobilities and uniformity across the wafers. Preliminary results on MESFET's fabricated from n +/n/buffer structures show good device characteristics.

  1. Synthesis solute diffusion growth of bulk GaAs: Effects of growth temperature and stoichiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, A. V.; Biberin, V. I.; Polyakov, A. Y.; Smirnov, N. B.; Govorkov, A. V.; Gavrin, V. N.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Kozlova, J. P.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Bowles, T. J.

    2007-07-01

    Bulk GaAs crystals were grown by synthesis solute diffusion (SSD) technique in a wide range of growth temperatures between 990 and 1150 °C. Electrical properties of these crystals were studied by means of van der Pauw, admittance spectroscopy, deep levels transient spectroscopy and photoinduced current spectroscopy techniques. It was shown that the main defects determining the properties were the GaAs antisites acceptors and the A center acceptors with the levels, respectively, Ev +0.078 eV and Ev +0.43 eV. The conductivity of the grown crystals was p-type and showed a pronounced maximum at a level of 10 4-10 5 Ω cm for growth temperatures between 1020 and 1080 °C. If the crystals were additionally compensated either by unintentional Si donors contamination from quartz crucibles or by intentional light Te doping one could get semi-insulating material with the room temperature resistivity higher than 10 6 Ω cm. The Fermi level in such crystals was pinned near Ec -0.8 eV, i.e. close to the EL2 donors. Measurements by deep levels transient spectroscopy on n-type doped crystals or by low frequency capacitance-voltage on semi-insulating crystals showed that the density of EL2 in these samples was in the low 10 14 cm -3 and that thus the EL2 donors were not the main compensating agents.

  2. High-voltage 4H-SiC trench MOS barrier Schottky rectifier with low forward voltage drop using enhanced sidewall layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Doohyung; Sim, Seulgi; Park, Kunsik; Won, Jongil; Kim, Sanggi; Kim, Kwangsoo

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a 4H-SiC trench MOS barrier Schottky (TMBS) rectifier with an enhanced sidewall layer (ESL) is proposed. The proposed structure has a high doping concentration at the trench sidewall. This high doping concentration improves both the reverse blocking and forward characteristics of the structure. The ESL-TMBS rectifier has a 7.4% lower forward voltage drop and a 24% higher breakdown voltage. However, this structure has a reverse leakage current that is approximately three times higher than that of a conventional TMBS rectifier owing to the reduction in energy barrier height. This problem is solved when ESL is used partially, since its use provides a reverse leakage current that is comparable to that of a conventional TMBS rectifier. Thus, the forward voltage drop and breakdown voltage improve without any loss in static and dynamic characteristics in the ESL-TMBS rectifier compared with the performance of a conventional TMBS rectifier.

  3. Schottky and ohmic contacts to silicon carbide with device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckowski, Eric David

    Fabrication and electrical characterization of Schottky and ohmic contacts to silicon carbide (SiC) are examined in this work. Silicon carbide exhibits improved performance over silicon in high power, high frequency, high temperature, and radiation intensive applications. Unlike silicon, however, the quality of commercially available SiC has improved dramatically in the last decade. Therefore, initial analysis identifies a wide range of electrical behavior in Schottky diodes. The Schottky barrier height was measured using four distinct techniques: the standard thermionic emission I-V method the Norde plot method, the activation energy method, and from the temperature dependence of reverse characteristics. Thermionic emission theory predicts reverse leakage currents that are incommensurate with measured values at room temperature, but in closer agreement at higher temperatures. The technique of plotting the ideality factor as a function of forward voltage (ideality profiling) is used to identify possible current mechanisms responsible for the range of behavior in the electrical characteristics. Non-ideal behavior could be identified in the ideality proNe by the presence of peaks, which became dimini hed at increasing temperatures, indicating that non-thermionic conduction dominates reverse leakage currents at room temperature. These peaks were also observed ta diminish by Ar implantation of material surrounding the contacts. This method of implantation is also employed in a study of the thermal stability of the Ni-SiC contact. Reverse leakage current, Schottky barrier height and physical stability were examined for long-term anneals at 300sp° C. Electrical behavior of ideal contacts and physical analysis demonstrate good stability for 9000 hours of thermal stressing. Argon implantation appears to improve the reliability of this contact. Ohmic contacts on n-type SiC were produced using nickel silicide, with both Ni and nichrome as starting materials. Test structures

  4. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive flexible metal substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, P. Rathi, M.; Gao, Y.; Yao, Y.; Selvamanickam, V.; Zheng, N.; Ahrenkiel, P.; Martinez, J.

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate heteroepitaxial growth of single-crystalline-like n and p-type doped GaAs thin films on inexpensive, flexible, and light-weight metal foils by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Single-crystalline-like Ge thin film on biaxially textured templates made by ion beam assisted deposition on metal foil served as the epitaxy enabling substrate for GaAs growth. The GaAs films exhibited strong (004) preferred orientation, sharp in-plane texture, low grain misorientation, strong photoluminescence, and a defect density of ∼10{sup 7 }cm{sup −2}. Furthermore, the GaAs films exhibited hole and electron mobilities as high as 66 and 300 cm{sup 2}/V-s, respectively. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive metal substrates can pave the path for roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible III-V solar cells for the mainstream photovoltaics market.

  5. Experimental and theoretical study of passively Q-switched Yb:YAG laser with GaAs saturable absorber near 1050 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Hongwei; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Li, Yuefei; Li, Dechun; Li, Guiqiu; Zhao, Jia; Qiao, Wenchao; Xu, Xiaodong; Di, Juqing; Zheng, Lihe; Xu, Jun

    2014-03-01

    A diode-end-pumped passively Q-switched ytterbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Yb:YAG) laser with gallium arsenide (GaAs) wafer as saturable absorber has been realized. In the experiment, two pieces of GaAs wafers with respective thicknesses of 400 and 700 μm were used respectively. The output laser characteristics such as the pulse duration, single pulse energy and peak power, have been measured. By using thicker GaAs wafer as saturable absorber, a minimum pulse duration of 3.5 ns was obtained with an average output power of 361 mW and a pulse repetition rate (PRR) of 25 kHz, corresponding to a single pulse energy of 19.6 μJ and a peak power of 5.7 kW. With a 400 μm-thick GaAs wafer as saturable absorber, a maximum output power of 469 mW was achieved. The central wavelength of the laser was measured to be 1050.4 nm at pump power of 7.8 W and dual wavelength operation peaked at 1049.3 nm and 1051.6 nm was observed at a high pump power of 10 W. By considering Gaussian spatial distribution and the thermal effects in the gain medium, the coupled rate equations for passively Q-switched Yb:YAG laser with GaAs saturable absorber were given.

  6. Characteristics of cylindrical surrounding-gate GaAs x Sb1-x /In y Ga1-y As heterojunction tunneling field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yun-He; Li, Zun-Chao; Luo, Dong-Xu; Meng, Qing-Zhi; Zhang, Ye-Fei

    2016-10-01

    A III-V heterojunction tunneling field-effect transistor (TFET) can enhance the on-state current effectively, and GaAs x Sb1-x /In y Ga1-y As heterojunction exhibits better performance with the adjustable band alignment by modulating the alloy composition. In this paper, the performance of the cylindrical surrounding-gate GaAs x Sb1-x /In y Ga1-y As heterojunction TFET with gate-drain underlap is investigated by numerical simulation. We validate that reducing drain doping concentration and increasing gate-drain underlap could be effective ways to reduce the off-state current and subthreshold swing (SS), while increasing source doping concentration and adjusting the composition of GaAs x Sb1-x /In y Ga1-y As can improve the on-state current. In addition, the resonant TFET based on GaAs x Sb1-x /In y Ga1-y As is also studied, and the result shows that the minimum and average of SS reach 11 mV/decade and 20 mV/decade for five decades of drain current, respectively, and is much superior to the conventional TFET. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61176038 and 61474093), the Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2015A010103002), and the Technology Development Program of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2016GY-075).

  7. GaAs shallow-homojunction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, J. C. C.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating space resistant, high efficiency, light weight, low cost GaAs shallow homojunction solar cells for space application is investigated. The material preparation of ultrathin GaAs single crystal layers, and the fabrication of efficient GaAs solar cells on bulk GaAs substrates are discussed. Considerable progress was made in both areas, and conversion efficiency about 16% AMO was obtained using anodic oxide as a single layer antireflection coating. A computer design shows that even better cells can be obtained with double layer antireflection coating. Ultrathin, high efficiency solar cells were obtained from GaAs films prepared by the CLEFT process, with conversion efficiency as high as 17% at AMI from a 10 micrometers thick GaAs film. A organometallic CVD was designed and constructed.

  8. Metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors and Schottky diodes studied with scanning microwave microscopy at 18 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, M.; Gramse, G.; Hoffmann, J.; Gaquiere, C.; Feger, R.; Stelzer, A.; Smoliner, J.; Kienberger, F.

    2014-11-01

    We measured the DC and RF impedance characteristics of micrometric metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors and Schottky diodes using scanning microwave microscopy (SMM). The SMM consisting of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) interfaced with a vector network analyser (VNA) was used to measure the reflection S11 coefficient of the metallic MOS and Schottky contact pads at 18 GHz as a function of the tip bias voltage. By controlling the SMM biasing conditions, the AFM tip was used to bias the Schottky contacts between reverse and forward mode. In reverse bias direction, the Schottky contacts showed mostly a change in the imaginary part of the admittance while in forward bias direction the change was mostly in the real part of the admittance. Reference MOS capacitors which are next to the Schottky diodes on the same sample were used to calibrate the SMM S11 data and convert it into capacitance values. Calibrated capacitance between 1-10 fF and 1/C2 spectroscopy curves were acquired on the different Schottky diodes as a function of the DC bias voltage following a linear behavior. Additionally, measurements were done directly with the AFM-tip in contact with the silicon substrate forming a nanoscale Schottky contact. Similar capacitance-voltage curves were obtained but with smaller values (30-300 aF) due to the corresponding smaller AFM-tip diameter. Calibrated capacitance images of both the MOS and Schottky contacts were acquired with nanoscale resolution at different tip-bias voltages.

  9. High Growth Rate Metal-Organic Molecular Beam Epitaxy for the Fabrication of GaAs Space Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freundlich, A.; Newman, F.; Monier, C.; Street, S.; Dargan, P.; Levy, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this work it is shown that high quality GaAs photovoltaic devices can be produced by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) with growth rates comparable to metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) through the subsitution of group III solid sources by metal-organic compounds. The influence the III/V flux-ratio and growth temperatures in maintaining a two dimensional layer by layer growth mode and achieving high growth rates with low residual background impurities is investigated. Finally subsequent to the study of the optimization of n- and p doping of such high growth rate epilayers, results from a preliminary attempt in the fabrication of GaAs photovoltaic devices such as tunnel diodes and solar cells using the proposed high growth rate approach are reported.

  10. Excitons Bound to Nitrogen Pairs in GaAs as Seen by Photoluminescence of High Spectral and Spatial Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Karaiskaj, D.; Mascarenhas, A.; Klem, J. F.; Volz, K.; Stolz, W.; Adamcyk, M.; Tiedje, T.

    2007-01-01

    High resolution photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was performed on high quality bulk GaAs, lightly doped with the nitrogen isoelectronic impurity. The shallowest nitrogen pair bound exciton center labeled as X{sub 1} revealed a total of six transitions. The photoluminescence lines from a small ensemble of nitrogen centers showed polarization dependent intensity. High spectral resolution PL spectroscopy was combined with confocal spectroscopy experiments performed on a GaAs:N/AlGaAs heterostructure. The high spatial resolution achieved by this technique enables us to localize and examine individual nitrogen bound excitons. Similar spectral structure and polarization dependence was observed for individual N-pair centers in GaAs. Both techniques support the C{sub 2v} symmetry of such isoelectronic impurity centers. The comparison between the PL spectra from an ensemble of nitrogen pairs and individual centers demonstrate the ability of the single impurity technique to lift the orientational degeneracy.

  11. High-Temperature In situ Deformation of GaAs Micro-pillars: Lithography Versus FIB Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Wehrs, J.; Michler, J.; Wheeler, J. M.

    2016-11-01

    The plasticity of silicon-doped GaAs was investigated between 25°C and 400°C using microcompression to prevent premature failure by cracking. Micropillars with diameters of 2.5 μm were fabricated on a < 100rangle -oriented GaAs single crystal by means of both conventional lithographic etching techniques and focused ion beam machining and then compressed in situ in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). A transition in deformation mechanisms from partial dislocations to perfect dislocations was found at around 100°C. At lower temperatures, the residual surface layer from lithographic processing was found to provide sufficient constraint to prevent crack opening, which resulted in a significant increase in ductility over FIB-machined pillars. Measured apparent activation energies were found to be significantly lower than previous bulk measurements, which is mostly attributed to the silicon dopant and to a lesser extent to the size effect.

  12. Rapid thermal annealing of Be, Si, and Zn implanted GaAs using an ultrahigh power argon arc lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaie-Alavi, K.; Masum Choudhury, A. N. M.; Fonstad, C. G.; Gelpey, J. C.

    1983-09-01

    The use of a 100-kW water-walled dc argon lamp to anneal ion-implanted GaAs is reported. Annealing cycles of 3 and 10 s and peak temperatures from 950 to 1200 C have been used to anneal Be, Si, and Zn implanted following representative implant schedules of technological importance. It is demonstrated that this technique is superior to conventional furnace anneal techniques in terms of the doping profiles, peak carrier concentrations, activation efficiencies (particularly at high doses), and mobilities achieved. The annealing technique should be applicable to large volume GaAs integrated circuit production and 100-mm-diam wafers can be annealed in a single exposure with better than 2 percent temperature uniformity (Si data).

  13. Carbon Doping of Compound Semiconductor Epitaxial Layers Grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition Using Carbon Tetrachloride.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Brian Thomas

    1990-01-01

    A dilute mixture of CCl_4 in high purity H_2 has been used as a carbon dopant source for rm Al_ {x}Ga_{1-x}As grown by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). To understand the mechanism for carbon incorporation from CCl_4 doping and to provide experimental parameters for the growth of carbon doped device structures, the effects of various crystal growth parameters on CCl _4 doping have been studied, including growth temperature, growth rate, V/III ratio, Al composition, and CCl_4 flow rate. Although CCl _4 is an effective p-type dopant for MOCVD rm Al_{x}Ga_ {1-x}As, injection of CCl_4 into the reactor during growth of InP resulted in no change in the carrier concentration or carbon concentration. Abrupt, heavy carbon doping spikes in GaAs have been obtained using CCl_4 without a dopant memory effect. By annealing samples with carbon doping spikes grown within undoped, n-type, and p-type GaAs, the carbon diffusion coefficient in GaAs at 825 ^circC has been estimated and has been found to depend strongly on the GaAs background doping. Heavily carbon doped rm Al_{x}Ga _{1-x}As/GaAs superlattices have been found to be more stable against impurity induced layer disordering (IILD) than Mg or Zn doped superlattices, indicating that the low carbon diffusion coefficient limits the IILD process. Carbon doping has been used in the base region on an Npn AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT). Transistors with 3 x 10 μm self-aligned emitter fingers have been fabricated which exhibit a current gain cutoff frequency of f_ {rm t} = 26 GHz.

  14. Radiation hardness of n-GaN schottky diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, A. A. Belov, S. V.; Mynbaeva, M. G.; Strel’chuk, A. M.; Bogdanova, E. V.; Makarov, Yu. N.; Usikov, A. S.; Kurin, S. Yu.; Barash, I. S.; Roenkov, A. D.; Kozlovski, V. V.

    2015-10-15

    Schottky-barrier diodes with a diameter of ∼10 µm are fabricated on n-GaN epitaxial films grown by hydride vapor-phase epitaxy (HVPE) on sapphire substrates. The changes in the parameters of the diodes under irradiation with 15 MeV protons are studied. The carrier removal rate was found to be 130–145 cm{sup –1}. The linear nature of the dependence N = f(D) (N is the carrier concentration, and D, the irradiation dose) shows that compensation of the material is associated with transitions of electrons from shallow donors to deep acceptor levels which are related to primary radiation defects.

  15. Eight-Bit-Slice GaAs General Processor Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, John; Gauthier, Robert V.

    1989-01-01

    Novel GaAs 8-bit slice enables quick and efficient implementation of variety of fast GaAs digital systems ranging from central processing units of computers to special-purpose processors for communications and signal-processing applications. With GaAs 8-bit slice, designers quickly configure and test hearts of many digital systems that demand fast complex arithmetic, fast and sufficient register storage, efficient multiplexing and routing of data words, and ease of control.

  16. LSI/VLSI Ion Implanted GaAs IC Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-10

    insulating High Speed Logic Ion Implantation GaAs IC FET Integrated Circuits MESFET 20. ABSTRACT (Coalki. on.. roersie if oookay and IdoeI by WOOe tw**, This...The goal of this program is to realize the full potential of GaAs digital integrated circuits employing depletion mode MESFETs by developing the...Processing. The main objective of this program is to realize the full potential of GaAs digital integrated circuits by expanding and improving

  17. Passivation of GaAs Surfaces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-15

    hour at indicated temperatures. Each symbol indicates one of four pieces of the same starting crystal . Three of the pieces were treated four times. The...Each symbol indicates one of four pieces of the same starting crystal . Three of the pieces were treated three times ................................ 9... crystal 11 11. Luminescence intensity of GaAs treated in ammonia plasma at 575*C as a function of treatment time. Each symbol represents one of five

  18. High efficiency, low cost thin GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, J. C. C.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating space-resistant, high efficiency, light-weight, low-cost GaAs shallow-homojunction solar cells for space application is demonstrated. This program addressed the optimal preparation of ultrathin GaAs single-crystal layers by AsCl3-GaAs-H2 and OMCVD process. Considerable progress has been made in both areas. Detailed studies on the AsCl3 process showed high-quality GaAs thin layers can be routinely grown. Later overgrowth of GaAs by OMCVD has been also observed and thin FaAs films were obtained from this process.

  19. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1984-01-01

    The crystal growth, device processing and device related properties and phenomena of GaAs are investigated. Our GaAs research evolves about these key thrust areas. The overall program combines: (1) studies of crystal growth on novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor materials (i.e., GaAs and related compounds); (2) investigation and correlation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro- and microscale; (3) investigation of electronic properties and phenomena controlling device applications and device performance. The ground based program is developed which would insure successful experimentation with and eventually processing of GaAs in a near zero gravity environment.

  20. Carbon doping of III-V compound semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Moll, Amy Jo

    1994-09-01

    Focus of the study is C acceptor doping of GaAs, since C diffusion coefficient is at least one order of magnitude lower than that of other common p-type dopants in GaAs. C ion implantation results in a concentration of free holes in the valence band < 10% of that of the implanted C atoms for doses > 1014/cm2. Rutherford backscattering, electrical measurements, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were amonth the techniques used. Ga co-implantation increased the C activation in two steps: first, the additional radiation damage creates vacant As sites that the implanted C can occupy, and second, it maintains the stoichiometry of the implanted layer, reducing the number of compensating native defects. In InP, the behavior of C was different from that in GaAs. C acts as n-type dopant in the In site; however, its incorporation by implantation was difficult to control; experiments using P co-implants were inconsistent. The lattice position of inactive C in GaAs in implanted and epitaxial layers is discussed; evidence for formation of C precipitates in GaAs and InP was found. Correlation of the results with literature on C doping in III-V semiconductors led to a phenomenological description of C in III-V compounds (particularly GaAs): The behavior of C is controlled by the chemical nature of C and the instrinsic Fermi level stabilization energy of the material.

  1. Effect of variations in the doping profiles on the properties of doped multiple quantum well avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menkara, H. M.; Wagner, B. K.; Summers, C. J.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use both theoretical and experimental evidence to determine the impact of doping imbalance and symmetry on the physical and electrical characteristics of doped multiple quantum well avalanche photodiodes (APD). Theoretical models have been developed to calculate the electric field valence and conduction bands, capacitance-voltage (CV), and carrier concentration versus depletion depth profiles. The models showed a strong correlation between the p- and n-doping balance inside the GaAs wells and the number of depleted stages and breakdown voltage of the APD. A periodic doping imbalance in the wells has been shown to result in a gradual increase (or decrease) in the electric field profile throughout the device which gave rise to partially depleted devices at low bias. The MQW APD structures that we modeled consisted of a 1 micron top p(+)-doped (3 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3)) GaAs layer followed by a 1 micron region of alternating layers of GaAs (500 A) and Al(0.42)Ga(0.58)As (500 A), and a 1 micron n(+) back layer (3 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3)). The GaAs wells were doped with p-i-n layers placed at the center of each well. The simulation results showed that in an APD with nine doped wells, and where the 50 A p-doped layer is off by 10% (p = 1.65 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3), n = 1.5 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3)), almost half of the MQW stages were shown to be undepleted at low bias which was a result of a reduction in the electric field near the p(+) cap layer by over 50% from its value in the balanced structure. Experimental CV and IV data on similar MBE grown MQW structures have shown very similar depletion and breakdown characteristics. The models have enabled us to better interpret our experimental data and to determine both the extent of the doping imbalances in the devices as well as the overall p- or n-type doping characteristics of the structures.

  2. All-back-Schottky-contact thin-film photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardone, Marco

    2016-02-01

    The concept of All-Back-Schottky-Contact (ABSC) thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) devices is introduced and evaluated using 2D numerical simulation. Reach-through Schottky junctions due to two metals of different work functions in an alternating, side-by-side pattern along the non-illuminated side generate the requisite built-in field. It is shown that our simulation method quantitatively describes existing data for a recently demonstrated heterojunction thin-film cell with interdigitated back contacts (IBCs) of one metal type. That model is extended to investigate the performance of ABSC devices with bimetallic IBCs within a pertinent parameter space. Our calculations indicate that 20% efficiency is achievable with micron-scale features and sufficient surface passivation. Bimetallic, micron-scale IBCs are readily fabricated using photo-lithographic techniques and the ABSC design allows for optically transparent surface passivation layers that need not be electrically conductive. The key advantages of the ABSC-TFPV architecture are that window layers, buffer layers, heterojunctions, and module scribing are not required because both contacts are located on the back of the device.

  3. Metal silicide/poly-Si Schottky diodes for uncooled microbolometers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Nickel silicide Schottky diodes formed on polycrystalline Si 〈P〉 films are proposed as temperature sensors of monolithic uncooled microbolometer infrared focal plane arrays. The structure and composition of nickel silicide/polycrystalline silicon films synthesized in a low-temperature process are examined by means of transmission electron microscopy. The Ni silicide is identified as a multi-phase compound composed of 20% to 40% of Ni3Si, 30% to 60% of Ni2Si, and 10% to 30% of NiSi with probable minor content of NiSi2 at the silicide/poly-Si interface. Rectification ratios of the Schottky diodes vary from about 100 to about 20 for the temperature increasing from 22℃ to 70℃; they exceed 1,000 at 80 K. A barrier of around 0.95 eV is found to control the photovoltage spectra at room temperature. A set of barriers is observed in photo-electromotive force spectra at 80 K and attributed to the Ni silicide/poly-Si interface. Absolute values of temperature coefficients of voltage and current are found to vary from 0.3%℃ to 0.6%/℃ for forward bias and around 2.5%/℃ for reverse bias of the diodes. PMID:23594606

  4. Influence of the nonlinear bias dependence of the barrier height on measured Schottky-barrier contact parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhkov, V. G.; Shmargunov, A. V.

    2011-06-01

    A numerical investigation of current-voltage characteristics (IVCs) of the ideal metal-semiconductor Schottky-barrier contact (SBC) metal-n-GaAs in the wide range of temperatures, contact diameters and doping levels considering the influence of image force and tunneling effects is presented. The analysis is carried out on the basis of model, taking into account the nonlinear bias dependence of the barrier height (generally, effective one) and assuming that the SBC parameters are determined at constant (specified) current value in the temperature or contact diameter ranges, which corresponds practically to experimental conditions of measurement of SBC parameters. It is shown that such SBCs have behavior peculiarities typical for most real contacts: the "low temperature anomaly" (the ideality factor n increase and the barrier height ϕbm (measured by the saturation current) decrease with temperature decrease), edge effects (increase of n and decrease of ϕbm with contact diameter decrease), the inverse connection between ϕbm and n, when the growth of one of them is followed by the decrease of the other. A simple and very precise analytic representation of the IVC is given for the SBC in wide temperature and doping level ranges. This representation agrees closely with known experimental results. The high-accuracy method of the barrier height determining is proposed on this basis.

  5. Ruthenium related deep-level defects in n-type GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, Nazir A.; Qurashi, Umar S.; Majid, A.; Zafar Iqbal, M.

    2009-12-01

    Deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) has been used to investigate deep levels in n-type Ru-doped GaAs grown by low-pressure metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD). DLTS scans over a wide temperature range (12-470 K) reveal two prominent deep-level peaks associated with Ru, when compared with control samples with no deliberate Ru-doping. The well-known mid-gap defect EL2 is also observed in these scans. The Ru-related deep levels, Ru1 and Ru2, correspond to energy positions Ec-0.46 eV and Ec-0.57 eV in the upper-half-bandgap of GaAs. No prominent deep levels associated with Ru are observed in the lower half-bandgap in the injection DLTS spectra; only the three inadvertent levels already present in the as-grown, control material are observed in these spectra. Although a possible Ru-related peak may be present with a rather small concentration in these injection DLTS spectra, it is difficult to clearly identify this peak also present in the control (as-grown, without Ru) samples at a closely similar position. Interestingly, doping with Ru reveals an interesting significant suppression of the pre-existing deep levels, including EL2. Detailed emission rate signatures are presented for the Ru-related deep levels and analyzed to obtain the relevant deep-level characteristics. Both Ru1 and Ru2 are found to show strong dependence on electric field, as demonstrated by the shift in the corresponding DLTS peak positions with the applied reverse bias during electron emission.

  6. Electronically transparent graphene barriers against unwanted doping of silicon.

    PubMed

    Wong, Calvin Pei Yu; Koek, Terence Jun Hui; Liu, Yanpeng; Loh, Kian Ping; Goh, Kuan Eng Johnson; Troadec, Cedric; Nijhuis, Christian A

    2014-11-26

    Diffusion barriers prevent materials from intermixing (e.g., undesired doping) in electronic devices. Most diffusion barrier materials are often very specific for a certain combination of materials and/or change the energetics of the interface because they are insulating or add to the contact resistances. This paper presents graphene (Gr) as an electronically transparent, without adding significant resistance to the interface, diffusion barrier in metal/semiconductor devices, where Gr prevents Au and Cu from diffusion into the Si, and unintentionally dope the Si. We studied the electronic properties of the n-Si(111)/Gr/M Schottky barriers (with and without Gr and M=Au or Cu) by I(V) measurements and at the nanoscale by ballistic electron emission spectroscopy (BEEM). The layer of Gr does not change the Schottky barrier of these junctions. The Gr barrier was stable at 300 °C for 1 h and prevented the diffusion of Cu into n-Si(111) and the formation of Cu3Si. Thus, we conclude that the Gr is mechanically and chemically stable enough to withstand the harsh fabrication methods typically encountered in clean room processes (e.g., deposition of metals in high vacuum conditions at high temperatures), it is electronically transparent (it does not change the energetics of the Si/Au or Si/Cu Schottky barriers), and effectively prevented diffusion of the Cu or Au into the Si at elevated temperatures and vice versa.

  7. P-doping-free III-nitride high electron mobility light-emitting diodes and transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Baikui; Tang, Xi; Chen, Kevin J.; Wang, Jiannong

    2014-07-21

    We report that a simple metal-AlGaN/GaN Schottky diode is capable of producing GaN band-edge ultraviolet emission at 3.4 eV at a small forward bias larger than ∼2 V at room temperature. Based on the surface states distribution of AlGaN, a mature impact-ionization-induced Fermi-level de-pinning model is proposed to explain the underlying mechanism of the electroluminescence (EL) process. By experimenting with different Schottky metals, Ni/Au and Pt/Au, we demonstrated that this EL phenomenon is a “universal” property of metal-AlGaN/GaN Schottky diodes. Since this light-emitting Schottky diode shares the same active structure and fabrication processes as the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors, straight-forward and seamless integration of photonic and electronic functional devices has been demonstrated on doping-free III-nitride heterostructures. Using a semitransparent Schottky drain electrode, an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility light-emitting transistor is demonstrated.

  8. Tuning on-off current ratio and field-effect mobility in a MoS(2)-graphene heterostructure via Schottky barrier modulation.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chih-Jen; Wang, Qing Hua; Son, Youngwoo; Jin, Zhong; Blankschtein, Daniel; Strano, Michael S

    2014-06-24

    Field-effect transistor (FET) devices composed of a MoS2-graphene heterostructure can combine the advantages of high carrier mobility in graphene with the permanent band gap of MoS2 for digital applications. Herein, we investigate the electron transfer, photoluminescence, and gate-controlled carrier transport in such a heterostructure. We show that the junction is a Schottky barrier, whose height can be artificially controlled by gating or doping graphene. When the applied gate voltage (or the doping level) is zero, the photoexcited electron-hole pairs in monolayer MoS2 can be split by the heterojunction, significantly reducing the photoluminescence. By applying negative gate voltage (or p-doping) in graphene, the interlayer impedance formed between MoS2 and graphene exhibits an 100-fold increase. For the first time, we show that the gate-controlled interlayer Schottky impedance can be utilized to modulate carrier transport in graphene, significantly depleting the hole transport, but preserving the electron transport. Accordingly, we demonstrate a new type of FET device, which enables a controllable transition from NMOS digital to bipolar characteristics. In the NMOS digital regime, we report a very high room temperature on/off current ratio (ION/IOFF ∼ 36) in comparison to graphene-based FET devices without sacrificing the field-effect electron mobilities in graphene. By engineering the source/drain contact area, we further estimate that a higher value of ION/IOFF up to 100 can be obtained in the device architecture considered. The device architecture presented here may enable semiconducting behavior in graphene for digital and analogue electronics.

  9. GaAs IMPATT diodes for microstrip circuit applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisseman, W. R.; Tserng, H. Q.; Shaw, D. W.; Mcquiddy, D. N.

    1972-01-01

    GaAs IMPATT diodes with plated heat sinks are shown to be particularly well suited for microstrip circuit applications. Details of materials growth and device fabrication procedures are given, and experimental results are presented for a GaAs IMPATT microstrip oscillator operating at X band.

  10. Panel fabrication utilizing GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the GaAs solar cells for space applications is described. The activities in the fabrication of GaAs solar panels are outlined. Panels were fabricated while introducing improved quality control, soldering laydown and testing procedures. These panels include LIPS II, San Marco Satellite, and a low concentration panel for Rockwells' evaluation. The panels and their present status are discussed.

  11. Peeled film GaAs solar cell development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, D. M.; Thomas, R. D.; Bailey, S. G.; Brinker, D. J.; Deangelo, F. L.

    1990-01-01

    Thin-film, single-crystal gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells could exhibit a specific power approaching 700 W/kg including coverglass. A simple process has been described whereby epitaxial GaAs layers are peeled from a reusable substrate. This process takes advantage of the extreme selectivity of the etching rate of aluminum arsenide (AlAs) over GaAs in dilute hydrofluoric acid. The feasibility of using the peeled film technique to fabricate high-efficiency, low-mass GaAs solar cells is presently demonstrated. A peeled film GaAs solar cell was successfully produced. The device, although fractured and missing the aluminum gallium arsenide window and antireflective coating, had a Voc of 874 mV and a fill factor of 68 percent under AM0 illumination.

  12. Interlayer coupling effects on Schottky barrier in the arsenene-graphene van der Waals heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Congxin Xue, Bin; Wang, Tianxing; Peng, Yuting; Jia, Yu

    2015-11-09

    The electronic characteristics of arsenene-graphene van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures are studied by using first-principles methods. The results show that a linear Dirac-like dispersion relation around the Fermi level can be quite well preserved in the vdW heterostructures. Moreover, the p-type Schottky barrier (0.18 eV) to n-type Schottky barrier (0.31 eV) transition occurs when the interlayer distance increases from 2.8 to 4.5 Å, which indicates that the Schottky barrier can be tuned effectively by the interlayer distance in the vdW heterostructures.

  13. Temperature dependent I-V characteristics of an Au/n-GaAs Schottky diode analyzed using Tung’s model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korucu, Demet; Turut, Abdulmecit; Efeoglu, Hasan

    2013-04-01

    The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Au/n-GaAs contacts prepared with photolithography technique have been measured in the temperature range of 80-320 K. The ideality factor and barrier height (BH) values have remained almost unchanged between 1.04 and 1.10 and at a value of about 0.79 eV at temperatures above 200 K, respectively. Therefore, the ideality factor values near unity say that the experimental I-V data are almost independent of the sample temperature, that is, contacts have shown excellent Schottky diode behavior above 200 K. An abnormal decrease in the experimental BH Φb and an increase in the ideality factor with a decrease in temperature have been observed below 200 K. This behavior has been attributed to the barrier inhomogeneity by assuming a Gaussian distribution of nanometer-sized patches with low BH at the metal-semiconductor interface. The barrier inhomogeneity assumption is also confirmed by the linear relationship between the BH and the ideality factor. According to Tung’s barrier inhomogeneity model, it has been seen that the value of σT=7.41×10-5 cm2/3 V1/3from ideality factor versus (kT)-1 curve is in close agreement with σT=7.95×10-5 cm2/3 V1/3 value from the Φeff versus (2kT)-1 curve in the range of 80-200 K. The modified Richardson ln(J0/T2)-(qσT)2(Vb/η)2/3/[2(kT)2] versus (kT)-1 plot, from Tung’s Model, has given a Richardson constant value of 8.47 A cm-2 K-2which is in very close agreement with the known value of 8.16 A cm-2 K-2 for n-type GaAs; considering the effective patch area which is significantly lower than the entire geometric area of the Schottky contact, in temperature range of 80-200 K. Thus, it has been concluded that the use of Tung’s lateral inhomogeneity model is more appropriate to interpret the temperature-dependent I-V characteristics in the Schottky contacts.

  14. Polarization and charge limit studies of strained GaAs photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Saez, P.J.

    1997-03-01

    This thesis presents studies on the polarization and charge limit behavior of electron beams produced by strained GaAs photocathodes. These photocathodes are the source of high-intensity, high-polarization electron beams used for a variety of high-energy physics experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Recent developments on P-type, biaxially-strained GaAs photocathodes have produced longitudinal polarization in excess of 80% while yielding beam intensities of {approximately} 2.5 A/cm{sup 2} at an operating voltage of 120 kV. The SLAC Gun Test Laboratory, which has a replica of the SLAC injector, was upgraded with a Mott polarimeter to study the polarization properties of photocathodes operating in a high-voltage DC gun. Both the maximum beam polarization and the maximum charge obtainable from these photocathodes have shown a strong dependence on the wavelength of illumination, on the doping concentration, and on the negative electron affinity levels. The experiments performed for this thesis included studying the effects of temperature, cesiation, quantum efficiency, and laser intensity on the polarization of high-intensity beams. It was found that, although low temperatures have been shown to reduce the spin relaxation rate in bulk semiconductors, they don`t have a large impact on the polarization of thin photocathodes. It seems that the short active region in thin photocathodes does not allow spin relaxation mechanisms enough time to cause depolarization. Previous observations that lower QE areas on the photocathode yield higher polarization beams were confirmed. In addition, high-intensity, small-area laser pulses were shown to produce lower polarization beams. Based on these results, together with some findings in the existing literature, a new proposal for a high-intensity, high-polarization photocathode is given. It is hoped that the results of this thesis will promote further investigation on the properties of GaAs photocathodes.

  15. Electrical characterization of MEH-PPV based Schottky diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimith, K. M.; Satyanarayan, M. N.; Umesh, G.

    2016-05-01

    MEH-PPV Schottky diodes with and without Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) have been fabricated and characterized. The highlight of this work is that all the fabrication and characterization steps had been carried out in the ambient conditions and the device fabrication was done without any UV-Ozone surface treatment of ITO anodes. Current Density-Voltage characteristics shows that the addition of hole injection layer (HIL) enhances the charge injection into the polymer layer by reducing the energy barrier across the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)-Organic interface. The rectification ratio increases to 2.21 from 0.76 at 5V for multilayer devices compared to single layer devices. Further we investigated the effect of an alkali metal fluoride (LiF) by inserting a thin layer in between the organic layer and Aluminum (Al) cathode. The results of these investigations will be discussed in detail.

  16. The physics and chemistry of the Schottky barrier height

    SciTech Connect

    Tung, Raymond T.

    2014-03-15

    The formation of the Schottky barrier height (SBH) is a complex problem because of the dependence of the SBH on the atomic structure of the metal-semiconductor (MS) interface. Existing models of the SBH are too simple to realistically treat the chemistry exhibited at MS interfaces. This article points out, through examination of available experimental and theoretical results, that a comprehensive, quantum-mechanics-based picture of SBH formation can already be constructed, although no simple equations can emerge, which are applicable for all MS interfaces. Important concepts and principles in physics and chemistry that govern the formation of the SBH are described in detail, from which the experimental and theoretical results for individual MS interfaces can be understood. Strategies used and results obtained from recent investigations to systematically modify the SBH are also examined from the perspective of the physical and chemical principles of the MS interface.

  17. Self assembled silicon nanowire Schottky junction assisted by collagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stievenard, Didier; Sahli, Billel; Coffinier, Yannick; Boukherroub, Rabah; Melnyk, Oleg

    2008-03-01

    We present results on self assembled silicon nanowire Schottky junction assisted by collagen fibrous. The collagen is the principle protein of connective human tissues. It presents the double interest to be a low cost biological material with the possibility to be combed as the DNA molecule. First, the collagen was combed on OTS modified surface with gold electrodes. Second, silicon nanowires were grown on silicon substrate by CVD of silane gas (SiH4) at high temperature (500 C) using a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process and gold particles as catalysts. In order to increase electrostatic interaction between the collagen and the nanowires, these latters were chemically modified by mercaptopropylmethoxysilane (MPTS), then chemically oxidized. Therefore, the nanowires were transferred from their substrate into water and a drop of it deposited on the surface. Nanowires are only bound to collagen and in particular, in electrode gaps. The formation of spontaneous Schotkty junction is demonstrated by current-voltage characteristics.

  18. Semi-insulating GaAs detectors with HDPE layer for detection of fast neutrons from D-T nuclear reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagatova, Andrea; Zatko, Bohumir; Sedlackova, Katarina; Pavlovic, Marius; Necas, Vladimir; Fulop, Marko; Solar, Michael; Granja, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Bulk semi-insulating (SI) GaAs detectors optimized for fast-neutron detection were examined using mono-energetic neutrons. The detectors have an active area of 7.36 mm2 defined by a multi-pixel structure of a AuZn Schottky contact allowing a relatively high breakdown voltage (300 V) sufficient for full depletion of the detector structure. The Schottky contact is covered by a HDPE (high density polyethylene) conversion layer, where neutrons transfer their kinetic energy to hydrogen atoms through elastic nuclear collisions. The detectors were exposed to mono-energetic neutrons generated by a deuterium (D)-tritium (T) nuclear reaction at a Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons reached a kinetic energy of 16.8 MeV when deuterons were accelerated by 1 MV potential. The influence of the HDPE layer thickness on the detection efficiency of the fast neutrons was studied. The thickness of the conversion layer varied from 50 μm to 1300 μm. The increase of the HDPE layer thickness led to a higher detection efficiency due to higher conversion efficiency of the HDPE layer. The effect of the active detector thickness modified by the detector reverse bias voltage on the detection efficiency was also evaluated. By increasing the detector reverse voltage, the detector active volume expands to the depth and also to the sides, slightly increasing the neutron detection efficiency.

  19. Modelling the inhomogeneous SiC Schottky interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammon, P. M.; Pérez-Tomás, A.; Shah, V. A.; Vavasour, O.; Donchev, E.; Pang, J. S.; Myronov, M.; Fisher, C. A.; Jennings, M. R.; Leadley, D. R.; Mawby, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    For the first time, the I-V-T dataset of a Schottky diode has been accurately modelled, parameterised, and fully fit, incorporating the effects of interface inhomogeneity, patch pinch-off and resistance, and ideality factors that are both heavily temperature and voltage dependent. A Ni/SiC Schottky diode is characterised at 2 K intervals from 20 to 320 K, which, at room temperature, displays low ideality factors (n < 1.01) that suggest that these diodes may be homogeneous. However, at cryogenic temperatures, excessively high (n > 8), voltage dependent ideality factors and evidence of the so-called "thermionic field emission effect" within a T0-plot, suggest significant inhomogeneity. Two models are used, each derived from Tung's original interactive parallel conduction treatment of barrier height inhomogeneity that can reproduce these commonly seen effects in single temperature I-V traces. The first model incorporates patch pinch-off effects and produces accurate and reliable fits above around 150 K, and at current densities lower than 10-5 A cm-2. Outside this region, we show that resistive effects within a given patch are responsible for the excessive ideality factors, and a second simplified model incorporating these resistive effects as well as pinch-off accurately reproduces the entire temperature range. Analysis of these fitting parameters reduces confidence in those fits above 230 K, and questions are raised about the physical interpretation of the fitting parameters. Despite this, both methods used are shown to be useful tools for accurately reproducing I-V-T data over a large temperature range.

  20. Au impact on GaAs epitaxial growth on GaAs (111){sub B} substrates in molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Zhi-Gang; Xu, Hong-Yi; Guo, Ya-Nan; Sun, Wen; Zhang, Zhi; Yang, Lei; Lu, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Ping-Ping; Lu, Wei; Zou, Jin

    2013-02-11

    GaAs growth behaviour under the presence of Au nanoparticles on GaAs {l_brace}111{r_brace}{sub B} substrate is investigated using electron microscopy. It has been found that, during annealing, enhanced Ga surface diffusion towards Au nanoparticles leads to the GaAs epitaxial growth into {l_brace}113{r_brace}{sub B} faceted triangular pyramids under Au nanoparticles, governed by the thermodynamic growth, while during conventional GaAs growth, growth kinetics dominates, resulting in the flatted triangular pyramids at high temperature and the epitaxial nanowires growth at relatively low temperature. This study provides an insight of Au nanoparticle impact on GaAs growth, which is critical for understanding the formation mechanisms of semiconductor nanowires.

  1. Hole-Impeded-Doping-Superlattice LWIR Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Hole-Impeded-Doping-Superlattice (HIDS) InAs devices proposed for use as photoconductive or photovoltaic detectors of radiation in long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) range of 8 to 17 micrometers. Array of HIDS devices fabricated on substrates GaAs or Si. Radiation incident on black surface, metal contacts for picture elements serve as reactors, effectively doubling optical path and thereby increasing absorption of photons. Photoconductive detector offers advantages of high gain and high impedance; photovoltaic detector offers lower noise and better interface to multiplexer readouts.

  2. Effects of surface reconstruction on the epitaxial growth of III-Sb on GaAs using interfacial misfit array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Bo Wen; Tan, Kian Hua; Loke, Wan Khai; Wicaksono, Satrio; Yoon, Soon Fatt

    2017-03-01

    The effects of pre-growth Sb reconstruction on a GaAs surface on the epitaxial growth of III-Sb (GaSb and InSb) on a (100) GaAs substrate using interfacial misfit array were investigated. All samples exhibited smooth surface with a root mean square (r.m.s.) roughness below 1.5 nm and nearly 100% relaxation. Modeling indicated that the distribution and types of misfit dislocations can be evaluated using a reciprocal space map (RSM) of the x-ray measurements. The interfacial misfit (IMF) arrays in III-Sb/GaAs samples were characterized by RSMs of high-resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The RSM results suggest that all samples exhibited highly uniformly distributed misfit dislocations, and pre-growth (2 × 8) Sb surface reconstruction promoted the formation of 90° dislocations in an IMF array. Hall measurements of unintentionally doped GaSb and InSb layers also suggested that the highest motilities at both 77 K and 300 K were achieved at the samples grown on GaAs with pre-growth (2 × 8) Sb reconstruction.

  3. Airplane dopes and doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W H

    1919-01-01

    Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate are the important constituents of airplane dopes in use at the present time, but planes were treated with other materials in the experimental stages of flying. The above compounds belong to the class of colloids and are of value because they produce a shrinking action on the fabric when drying out of solution, rendering it drum tight. Other colloids possessing the same property have been proposed and tried. In the first stages of the development of dope, however, shrinkage was not considered. The fabric was treated merely to render it waterproof. The first airplanes constructed were covered with cotton fabric stretched as tightly as possible over the winds, fuselage, etc., and flying was possible only in fine weather. The necessity of an airplane which would fly under all weather conditions at once became apparent. Then followed experiments with rubberized fabrics, fabrics treated with glue rendered insoluble by formaldehyde or bichromate, fabrics treated with drying and nondrying oils, shellac, casein, etc. It was found that fabrics treated as above lost their tension in damp weather, and the oil from the motor penetrated the proofing material and weakened the fabric. For the most part the film of material lacked durability. Cellulose nitrate lacquers, however were found to be more satisfactory under varying weather conditions, added less weight to the planes, and were easily applied. On the other hand, they were highly inflammable, and oil from the motor penetrated the film of cellulose nitrate, causing the tension of the fabric to be relaxed.

  4. Dyakonov-Perel Effect on Spin Dephasing in n-Type GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ning, C. Z.; Wu, M. W.

    2003-01-01

    A paper presents a study of the contribution of the Dyakonov-Perel (DP) effect to spin dephasing in electron-donor-doped bulk GaAs in the presence of an applied steady, moderate magnetic field perpendicular to the growth axis of the GaAs crystal. (The DP effect is an electron-wave-vector-dependent spin-state splitting of the conduction band, caused by a spin/orbit interaction in a crystal without an inversion center.) The applicable Bloch equations of kinetics were constructed to include terms accounting for longitudinal optical and acoustic phonon scattering as well as impurity scattering. The contributions of the aforementioned scattering mechanisms to spin-dephasing time in the presence of DP effect were examined by solving the equations numerically. Spin-dephasing time was obtained from the temporal evolution of the incoherently summed spin coherence. Effects of temperature, impurity level, magnetic field, and electron density on spin-dephasing time were investigated. Spin-dephasing time was found to increase with increasing magnetic field. Contrary to predictions of previous simplified treatments of the DP effect, spin-dephasing time was found to increase with temperature in the presence of impurity scattering. These results were found to agree qualitatively with results of recent experiments.

  5. Electronic Characteristics of Rare Earth Doped GaN Schottky Diodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-21

    at each temperature. We therefore can use Equations (4, 5 and 7) to give a new relationship ( ) ( )minmin 22 1 2 ln 2 ln ** 1 b b nIF n n AA k TT φ...into the left side of Equation (10), ( ) ( )minmin 22 1 2 ln 2 ln ** 1 b b nIF n n AA k TT φ           + − = − + + . Figure 34

  6. GaAs VLSI for aerospace electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larue, G.; Chan, P.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced aerospace electronics systems require high-speed, low-power, radiation-hard, digital components for signal processing, control, and communication applications. GaAs VLSI devices provide a number of advantages over silicon devices including higher carrier velocities, ability to integrate with high performance optical devices, and high-resistivity substrates that provide very short gate delays, good isolation, and tolerance to many forms of radiation. However, III-V technologies also have disadvantages, such as lower yield compared to silicon MOS technology. Achieving very large scale integration (VLSI) is particularly important for fast complex systems. At very short gate delays (less than 100 ps), chip-to-chip interconnects severely degrade circuit clock rates. Complex systems, therefore, benefit greatly when as many gates as possible are placed on a single chip. To fully exploit the advantages of GaAs circuits, attention must be focused on achieving high integration levels by reducing power dissipation, reducing the number of devices per logic function, and providing circuit designs that are more tolerant to process and environmental variations. In addition, adequate noise margin must be maintained to ensure a practical yield.

  7. Non-classical logic inverter coupling a ZnO nanowire-based Schottky barrier transistor and adjacent Schottky diode.

    PubMed

    Hosseini Shokouh, Seyed Hossein; Raza, Syed Raza Ali; Lee, Hee Sung; Im, Seongil

    2014-08-21

    On a single ZnO nanowire (NW), we fabricated an inverter-type device comprising a Schottky diode (SD) and field-effect transistor (FET), aiming at 1-dimensional (1D) electronic circuits with low power consumption. The SD and adjacent FET worked respectively as the load and driver, so that voltage signals could be easily extracted as the output. In addition, NW FET with a transparent conducting oxide as top gate turned out to be very photosensitive, although ZnO NW SD was blind to visible light. Based on this, we could achieve an array of photo-inverter cells on one NW. Our non-classical inverter is regarded as quite practical for both logic and photo-sensing due to its performance as well as simple device configuration.

  8. Tension assisted metal transfer of graphene for Schottky diodes onto wafer scale substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jooho; Lee, Su Chan; Kim, Yongsung; Heo, Jinseong; Lee, Kiyoung; Lee, Dongwook; Kim, Jaekwan; Lee, Sunghee; Lee, Chang Seung; Nam, Min Sik; Jun, Seong Chan

    2016-02-01

    We developed an effective graphene transfer method for graphene/silicon Schottky diodes on a wafer as large as 6 inches. Graphene grown on a large scale substrate was passivated and sealed with a gold layer, protecting graphene from any possible contaminant and keeping good electrical contact. The Au/graphene was transferred by the tension-assisted transfer process without polymer residues. The gold film itself was used directly as the electrodes of a Schottky diode. We demonstrated wafer-scale integration of graphene/silicon Schottky diode using the proposed transfer process. The transmission electron microscopy analysis and relatively low ideality factor of the diodes indicated fewer defects on the interface than those obtained using the conventional poly(methyl methacrylate)-assisted transfer method. We further demonstrated gas sensors as an application of graphene Schottky diodes.

  9. Development and fabrication of improved Schottky power diodes, phases I and II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordes, L. F.; Garfinkle, M.; Taft, E. A.

    1974-01-01

    Reproducible methods for the fabrication of silicon Schottky diodes were developed for the metals tungsten, aluminum, conventional platinum silicide and low temperature platinum silicide. Barrier heights and barrier lowering were measured permitting the accurate prediction of ideal forward and reverse diode performance. Processing procedures were developed which permit the fabrication of large area (approximately 1 sqcm) mesa-geometry power Schottky diodes with forward and reverse characteristics that approach theoretical values.

  10. Thermal-resistant TiB{sub x}-n-GaP Schottky diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, A. E.; Boltovets, N. S. Ivanov, V. N.; Kamalov, A. B.; Kapitanchuk, L. M.; Konakova, R. V. Kudryk, Ya. Ya.; Lytvyn, O. S.; Milenin, V. V.; Nasyrov, M. U.

    2008-04-15

    The effect of rapid thermal annealing on the parameters of TiB{sub x}-n-GaP Schottky barriers and interphase interactions at the TiB{sub x}-GaP interface are studied. It is shown that the contact TiB{sub x}-n-GaP system features an increased thermal stability without varying the electrical parameters of the Schottky barrier at temperatures as high as 600 deg. C.

  11. Resistance of 4H-SiC Schottky barriers at high forward-current densities

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, P. A. Samsonova, T. P.; Il’inskaya, N. D.; Serebrennikova, O. Yu.; Kon’kov, O. I.; Potapov, A. S.

    2015-07-15

    The resistance of Schottky barriers based on 4H-SiC is experimentally determined at high forward-current densities. The measured resistance is found to be significantly higher than the resistance predicted by classical mechanisms of electron transport in Schottky contacts. An assumption concerning the crucial contribution of the tunnel-transparent intermediate oxide layer between the metal and semiconductor to the barrier resistance is proposed and partially justified.

  12. Barrier height enhancement of Ni/GaN Schottky diode using Ru based passivation scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Ashish Kumar, Mukesh; Singh, R.; Kaur, Riajeet; Joshi, Amish G.; Vinayak, Seema

    2014-03-31

    Wet chemical passivation of n-GaN surface using Ru based solution has been reported. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization of the GaN surface revealed removal of surface oxides by the introduction of Ru complex species. Ni/n-GaN Schottky barrier diodes were fabricated on passivated GaN and a remarkable improvement in Schottky barrier height from 0.76 eV to 0.92 eV was observed.

  13. Metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaAs on patterned GaAs substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, D.; Asahi, H.; Liu, X. F.; Okuno, Y.; Inoue, K.; Gonda, S.; Shimomura, S.; Hiyamizu, S.

    1994-03-01

    GaAs layers were grown on etch-patterned (100) GaAs substrates by MOMBE (metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy) using TEGa (triethylgallium) and thermally cracked TEAs (triethylarsine). Morphology and orientation dependencies of the grown facets on the growth temperature (400-630°C) and V/III ratio (2-4) are investigated. Good morphology of grown layers was obtained on (111)A side facets at a low V/III ratio of 3 and low growth temperatures of 450-500°C. We also found strong evidence that the formation of facets is not only governed by the migration of Ga precursors and/or Ga atoms, but also by a preferential catalytic decomposition of Ga precursors on the facet edges.

  14. Measuring the magnetic-field-dependent chemical potential of a low-density three-dimensional electron gas in n -GaAs and extracting its magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy Choudhury, Aditya N.; Venkataraman, V.

    2016-01-01

    We report the magnetic-field-dependent shift of the electron chemical potential in bulk, n -type GaAs at room temperature. A transient voltage of ˜100 μ V was measured across a Au-Al2O3 -GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor in a pulsed magnetic field of ˜6 T . Several spurious voltages larger than the signal that had plagued earlier researchers performing similar experiments were carefully eliminated. The itinerant magnetic susceptibility of GaAs is extracted from the experimentally measured data for four different doping densities, including one as low as 5 ×1015cm-3 . Though the susceptibility in GaAs is dominated by Landau-Peierls diamagnetism, the experimental technique demonstrated can be a powerful tool for extracting the total free carrier magnetization of any electron system. The method is also virtually independent of the carrier concentration and is expected to work better in the nondegenerate limit. Such experiments had been successfully performed in two-dimensional electron gases at cryogenic temperatures. However, an unambiguous report on having observed this effect in any three-dimensional electron gas has been lacking. We highlight the 50 year old literature of various trials and discuss the key details of our experiment that were essential for its success. The technique can be used to unambiguously yield only the itinerant part of the magnetic susceptibility of complex materials such as magnetic semiconductors and hexaborides, and thus shed light on the origin of ferromagnetism in such systems.

  15. Towards low-cost high-efficiency GaAs photovoltaics and photoelectrodes grown via vapor transport from a solid source

    SciTech Connect

    Boucher, Jason; Ritenour, Andrew; Boettcher, Shannon W.

    2013-04-29

    Towards low-cost high-efficiency GaAs photovoltaics and photoelectrodes grown via vapor transport from a solid source GaAs is an attractive material for thin-film photovoltaic applications, but is not widely used for terrestrial power generation due to the high cost of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) techniques typically used for growth. Close space vapor transport is an alternative that allows for rapid growth rates of III-V materials, and does not rely on the toxic and pyrophoric precursors used in MOCVD. We characterize CSVT films of GaAs using photoelectrochemical current-voltage and quantum efficiency measurements. Hole diffusion lengths which exceed 1.5 um are extracted from internal quantum efficiency measurements using the Gartner model. Device physics simulations suggest that solar cells based on these films could reach efficiencies exceeding 24 %. To reach this goal, a more complete understanding of the electrical properties and characterization of defects will be necessary, including measurements on complete solid-state devices. Doping of films is achieved by using source material containing the desired impurity (e.g., Te or Zn). We discuss strategies for growing III-V materials on inexpensive substrates that are not lattice-matched to GaAs.

  16. GaAs Surface Passivation for Device Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    Protective Layers AlAs GaAs InAs As III-V AlSb GaSb InSb Sb AIP GaP InP P ZnS CdS HgS S II-Vi ZnSe CdSe HgSe Se ZnTe CdTe HgTe Te Ternaries and Quaternaries...D 4- 4- C 0331 IUMe ’xO. C .- 0. Z 00 919 . 23 3. Bulk GaAs Samples Several Bridgman grown bulk GaAs (100) samples were utilized for MIS and XPS

  17. Adding GaAs Monolayers to InAs Quantum-Dot Lasers on (001) InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Yueming; Chacon, Rebecca; Uhl, David; Yang, Rui

    2005-01-01

    In a modification of the basic configuration of InAs quantum-dot semiconductor lasers on (001)lnP substrate, a thin layer (typically 1 to 2 monolayer thick) of GaAs is incorporated into the active region. This modification enhances laser performance: In particular, whereas it has been necessary to cool the unmodified devices to temperatures of about 80 K in order to obtain lasing at long wavelengths, the modified devices can lase at wavelengths of about 1.7 microns or more near room temperature. InAs quantum dots self-assemble, as a consequence of the lattice mismatch, during epitaxial deposition of InAs on ln0.53Ga0.47As/lnP. In the unmodified devices, the quantum dots as thus formed are typically nonuniform in size. Strainenergy relaxation in very large quantum dots can lead to poor laser performance, especially at wavelengths near 2 microns, for which large quantum dots are needed. In the modified devices, the thin layers of GaAs added to the active regions constitute potential-energy barriers that electrons can only penetrate by quantum tunneling and thus reduce the hot carrier effects. Also, the insertion of thin GaAs layer is shown to reduce the degree of nonuniformity of sizes of the quantum dots. In the fabrication of a batch of modified InAs quantum-dot lasers, the thin additional layer of GaAs is deposited as an interfacial layer in an InGaAs quantum well on (001) InP substrate. The device as described thus far is sandwiched between InGaAsPy waveguide layers, then further sandwiched between InP cladding layers, then further sandwiched between heavily Zn-doped (p-type) InGaAs contact layer.

  18. Atomic nature of the Schottky barrier height formation of the Ag/GaAs(001)-2 × 4 interface: An in-situ synchrotron radiation photoemission study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chiu-Ping; Chen, Wan-Sin; Lin, Keng-Yung; Wei, Guo-Jhen; Cheng, Yi-Ting; Lin, Yen-Hsun; Wan, Hsien-Wen; Pi, Tun-Wen; Tung, Raymond T.; Kwo, Jueinai; Hong, Minghwei

    2017-01-01

    The Interface of Ag with p-type α2 GaAs(001)-2 × 4 has been studied to further understand the formation mechanism of the Schottky barrier height (SBH). In the initial phase of Ag deposition, high-resolution core-level data show that Ag adatoms effectively passivate the surface As-As dimers without breaking them apart. The Ag(+)-As(-) dipoles are thus generated with a maximal potential energy of 0.26 eV; a SBH of 0.38 eV was measured. Greater Ag coverage causes elemental segregation of As/Ga atoms, reversing the direction of the net dipole. The band bending effect near the interface shows a downward shift of 0.08 eV, and the final SBH is similar to the value as measured at the initial Ag deposition. Both parameters are secured at 0.25 Å of Ag thickness prior to the observation of metallic behavior of Ag. Inadequacy of the metal-induced gap-state model for explaining SBH is evident.

  19. Annealing temperature influence on the degree of inhomogeneity of the Schottky barrier in Ti/4H—SiC contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Lin-Chao; Shen, Hua-Jun; Liu, Ke-An; Wang, Yi-Yu; Tang, Yi-Dan; Bai, Yun; Xu, Heng-Yu; Wu, Yu-Dong; Liu, Xin-Yu

    2014-12-01

    Tung's model was used to analyze anomalies observed in Ti/SiC Schottky contacts. The degree of the inhomogeneous Schottky barrier after annealing at different temperatures is characterized by the ‘T0 anomaly’ and the difference (△Φ) between the uniformly high barrier height (ΦB0) and the effective barrier height (ΦBeff). Those two parameters of Ti Schottky contacts on 4H—SiC were deduced from I-V measurements in the temperature range of 298 K-503 K. The increase in Schottky barrier (SB) height (ΦB) and decrease in the ideality factor (n) with an increase measurement temperature indicate the presence of an inhomogeneous SB. The degree of inhomogeneity of the Schottky barrier depends on the annealing temperature, and it is at its lowest for 500-°C thermal treatment. The degree of inhomogeneity of the SB could reveal effects of thermal treatments on Schottky contacts in other aspects.

  20. Temperature dependence of Schottky diode characteristics prepared with photolithography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korucu, Demet; Turut, Abdulmecit

    2014-11-01

    A Richardson constant (RC) of 8.92 Acm-2K-2 from the conventional Richardson plot has been obtained because the current-voltage data of the device quite well obey the thermionic emission (TE) model in 190-320 K range. The experimental nT versus T plot of the device has given a value of T0 = 7.40 K in temperature range of 160-320 K. The deviations from the TE current mechanism at temperatures below 190 K have been ascribed to the patches introduced by lateral inhomogeneity of the barrier heights. Therefore, an experimental RC value of 7.49 A(cmK)-2 has been obtained by considering Tung's patch model in the temperature range of 80-190 K. This value is in very close agreement with the known value of 8.16 Acm-2K-2 for n-type GaAs.

  1. Millimeter and Submillimeter-Wave Integrated Horn Antenna Schottky Receivers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Ahmad, Walid Youssef

    1993-01-01

    Fundamental Schottky-diode mixers are currently used in most millimeter-wave receivers above 100GHz. The mixers use either a whisker-contacted diode or a planar Schottky diode suspended in a machined waveguide with an appropriate RF matching network. However, waveguide mounts are very expensive to machine for frequencies above 200GHz. Also, the whisker-contacted structure is not compatible with integrated mixers which represent the leading technology used for millimeter- and submillimeter-wave applications such as plasma diagnostics imaging arrays, radiometers, and anti-collision radars. In this work, a novel quasi-integrated horn antenna has been used for the receiver antenna. This antenna has a high gain and a high Gaussian coupling efficiency (97%), similar to machined scalar feed horns, but with the advantage of being easily fabricated up to at least 1.5THz. The quasi-integrated horn antenna is based on the integrated horn antenna structure. The integrated horn antenna consists of a pyramidal cavity with a 70^circ flare angle etched anisotropically in silicon. The cavity focuses the incoming energy on dipole-probe suspended on a membrane inside the horn. The integrated horn antenna does not suffer from dielectric losses or substrate mode losses since the feeding dipole antenna is integrated on a very thin dielectric layer. The mixer circuit, along with the feed dipole, are both integrated on the membrane wafer. The mixer diode is the University of Virginia surface channel planar diode which has a low parasitic capacitance. The diode is epoxied directly at the dipole apex without the need for an RF matching network, and with no mixer tuning required. At 92GHz,the DSB antenna-mixer conversion loss and noise temperature are 5.5dB and 770K, respectively. This represents the best reported results to this date for a quasi-optical mixer with a planar diode, at room temperature. At 335GHz, the DSB antenna-mixer noise temperature is 1750K and it is within 1dB of the

  2. Rapid thermal anneal in InP, GaAs and GaAs/GaAlAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descouts, B.; Duhamel, N.; Godefroy, S.; Krauz, P.

    Ion implantation in semiconductors provides a doping technique with several advantages over more conventional doping methods and is now extensively used for device applications, e.g. field effect transistors (MESFET GaAs, MIS (InP), GaAs/GaAlAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBT). Because of the lattice disorder produced by the implantation, the dopant must be made electrically active by a postimplant anneal. As the device performances are very dependent on its electrical characteristics, the anneal is a very important stage of the process. Rapid anneal is known to provide less exodiffusion and less induffusion of impurities compared to conventional furnace anneal, so this technique has been used in this work to activate an n-type dopant (Si) in InP and a p-type dopant (Mg) in GaAs and GaAs/GaAIAs. These two ions have been chosen to realize implanted MIS InP and the base contacts for GaAs/GaAlAs HBTs. The experimental conditions to obtain the maximum electrical activity in these two cases will be detailed. For example, although we have not been able to obtain a flat profile in Mg + implanted GaAs/GaAlAs heterostructure by conventional thermal anneal, rapid thermal anneal gives a flat hole profile over a depth of 0.5 μm with a concentration of 1 x 10 19 cm -3.

  3. Manipulable wave-vector filtering in a δ-doped magnetic-barrier nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Lan-Lan; Lu, Mao-Wang; Zhou, Yong-Long; Li, Fei

    2017-03-01

    We theoretically explore the control of the wave-vector filtering (WVF) effect in a realistic magnetic-barrier nanostructure with a δ -doping, which can be experimentally realized by depositing a ferromagnetic stripe on the top of a GaAs /AlxGa1-x As heterostructure. It is shown that an obvious WVF effect still exists when a δ-doping is introduced into the device. It is also shown that the degree of the WVF effect can be controlled by tuning the weight and/or the position of the δ-doping.

  4. Development of GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnally, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    Calculations of GaAs solar cell output parameters were refined and a computer model was developed for parameter optimization. The results were analyzed to determine the material characteristics required for a high efficiency solar cell. Calculated efficiencies for a P/N cell polarity are higher than an N/P cell. Both cell polarities show efficiency to have a larger dependence on short circuit current than an open circuit voltage under nearly all conditions considered. The tolerances and requirements of a cell fabrication process are more critical for an N/P type than for a P/N type cell. Several solar cell fabrication considerations relative to junction formation using ion implantation are also discussed.

  5. Nitrogen-concentration control in GaNAs/AlGaAs quantum wells using nitrogen δ-doping technique

    SciTech Connect

    Mano, Takaaki; Jo, Masafumi; Kuroda, Takashi; Noda, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Yoshimasa; Sakuma, Yoshiki; Elborg, Martin; Sakoda, Kazuaki

    2014-05-15

    GaNAs/Al{sub 0.35}Ga{sub 0.65}As multiple quantum wells (MQWs) with nitrogen δ-doping were fabricated on GaAs (100) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High controllability of nitrogen-concentrations in the MQWs was achieved by tuning nitrogen δ-doping time. The maximum nitrogen concentration in the MQWs was 2.8%. The MQWs exhibit intense, narrow photoluminescence emission.

  6. Multibias and thermal behavior of microwave GaN and GaAs based HEMTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alim, Mohammad A.; Rezazadeh, Ali A.; Gaquiere, Christophe

    2016-12-01

    Multibias and thermal characterizations on 0.25 μm × (2 × 100) μm AlGaN/GaN/SiC HEMT and 0.5 μm × (2 × 100) μm AlGaAs/InGaAs pseudomorphic HEMT have carried out for the first time. Two competitive device technologies are investigated with the variations of bias and temperature in order to afford a detailed realization of their potentialities. The main finding includes the self heating effect in the GaN device, zero temperature coefficient points at the drain current and transconductance in the GaAs device. The thermal resistance RTH of 7.1, 8.2 and 9.4 °C mm/W for the GaN device was estimated at 25, 75 and 150 °C respectively which are consistent with those found in the open literature. The temperature trend of the threshold voltage VT, Schottky barrier height ϕb, sheet charge densities of two dimensional electron gas ns, and capacitance under the gate Cg are exactly opposite in the two devices; whereas the knee voltage Vk, on resistance Ron, and series resistance Rseries are shows similar trend. The multi-bias and thermal behavior of the output current Ids, output conductance gds, transconductance gm, cut-off frequency ft, maximum frequency fmax, effective velocity of electron, veff and field dependent mobility, μ demonstrates a great potential of GaN device. These results provide some valuable insights for technology of preference for future and current applications.

  7. GaAs monolithic RF modules for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauley, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Monolithic GaAs UHF components for use in SARSAT Emergency Distress beacons are under development by Microwave Monolithics, Inc., Simi Valley, CA. The components include a bi-phase modulator, driver amplifier, and a 5 watt power amplifier.

  8. More About V-Grooved GaAs Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, S. G.; Wilt, D. M.; Landis, G. A.; Thomas, R. D.; Fatemi, N.

    1993-01-01

    NASA technical memorandum presents additional information about experimental devices described in "V-Grooved GaAs Solar Cell" (LEW-14954). Experimental V-groove cells exhibited improved optical coupling and greater short-circuit current.

  9. Interfacial Ga-As suboxide: Structural and electronic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Colleoni, Davide Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2015-07-20

    The structural and electronic properties of Ga-As suboxide representative of the transition region at the GaAs/oxide interface are studied through density functional calculations. Two amorphous models generated by quenches from the melt are taken under consideration. The absence of As–O bonds indicates that the structure is a mixture of GaAs and Ga-oxide, in accordance with photoemission experiments. The band edges of the models are found to be closely aligned to those of GaAs. The simulation of charging and discharging processes leads to the identification of an As-related defect with an energy level at ∼0.7 eV above the GaAs valence band maximum, in good agreement with the experimental density of interface states.

  10. Enhanced annealing of GaAs solar cell radiation damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loo, R.; Knechtli, R. C.; Kamath, G. S.

    1981-01-01

    Solar cells are degraded by radiation damage in space. Investigations have been conducted concerning possibilities for annealing this radiation damage in GaAs solar cells, taking into account the conditions favoring such annealing. It has been found that continuous annealing as well as the combination of injection annealing with thermal annealing can lead to recovery from radiation damage under particularly favorable conditions in GaAs solar cells. The damage caused by both electrons and protons in GaAs solar cells can be substantially reduced by annealing at temperatures as low as 150 C, under appropriate conditions. This possibility makes the GaAs solar cells especially attractive for long space missions, or for missions in severe radiation environments. Attention is given to results concerning periodic thermal annealing, continuous annealing, and injection annealing combined with thermal annealing.

  11. GaAs Films Prepared by RF-Magnetron Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    L.H. Ouyang; D.L. Rode; T. Zulkifli; B. Abraham-Shrauner; N. Lewis; M.R. Freeman

    2001-08-01

    The authors reported on the optical absorption, adhesion, and microstructure of RF-magnetron sputtered films of hydrogenated amorphous and microcrystalline GaAs films for the 1 to 25 {micro}m infrared wavelength rate. Sputtering parameters which were varied include sputtering power, temperature and pressure, and hydrogen sputtering-gas concentration. TEM results show a sharp transition from purely amorphous GaAs to a mixture of microcrystalline GaAs in an amorphous matrix at 34 {+-} 2 C. By optimizing the sputtering parameters, the optical absorption coefficient can be decreased below 100 cm{sup -1} for wavelengths greater than about 1.25 {micro}m. These results represent the lowest reported values of optical absorption for sputtered films of GaAs directly measured by spectrophotometry for the near-infrared wavelength region.

  12. Characteristics of GaAs with inverted thermal conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, C. H.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1987-01-01

    GaAs crystals exhibiting inverted thermal conversion (ITC) of resistivity were investigated in conjunction with standard semiinsulating (SI) GaAs regarding characteristics important in device processing. It was established that dislocation density and Si implant activation are unaffected by transformation to the ITC state. However, in ITC GaAs the controlled increase of the EL2 (native midgap donor) concentration during annealing makes it possible to attain resistivities one order of magnitude greater (e.g., about 10 to the 9th ohm cm of 300 K) than those attained in standard SI GaAs (e.g., 10 to the 7th-10 to the 8th ohm cm).

  13. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1983-01-01

    GaAs device technology has recently reached a new phase of rapid advancement, made possible by the improvement of the quality of GaAs bulk crystals. At the same time, the transition to the next generation of GaAs integrated circuits and optoelectronic systems for commercial and government applications hinges on new quantum steps in three interrelated areas: crystal growth, device processing and device-related properties and phenomena. Special emphasis is placed on the establishment of quantitative relationships among crystal growth parameters-material properties-electronic properties and device applications. The overall program combines studies of crystal growth on novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor material (i.e., GaAs and related compounds); investigation and correlation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro- and microscale; and investigation of electronic properties and phenomena controlling device applications and device performance.

  14. Crystal Growth of Device Quality Gaas in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    The GaAs research evolves about these key thrust areas. The overall program combines: (1) studies of crystal growth on novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor material (i.e., GaAs and related compounds); (2) investigation and correlation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro- and microscale; and (3) investigation of electronic properties and phenomena controlling device applications and device performance. This effort is aimed at the essential ground-based program which would insure successful experimentation with and eventually processing of GaAs in near zero gravity environment. It is believed that this program addresses in a unique way materials engineering aspects which bear directly on the future exploitation of the potential of GaAs and related materials in device and systems applications.

  15. Preparation of GaAs photocathodes at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Mulhollan, G.; Clendenin, J.; Tang, H.

    1996-10-01

    The preparation of an atomically clean surface is a necessary step in the formation of negative electron affinity (NEA) GaAs. Traditional methods to this end include cleaving, heat cleaning and epitaxial growth. Cleaving has the advantage of yielding a fresh surface after each cleave, but is limited to small areas and is not suitable for specialized structures. Heat cleaning is both simple and highly successful, so it is used as a preparation method in virtually all laboratories employing a NEA source on a regular basis. Due to its high cost and complexity, epitaxial growth of GaAs with subsequent in vacuo transfer is not a practical solution for most end users of GaAs as a NEA electron source. While simple, the heating cleaning process has a number of disadvantages. Here, a variety of cleaning techniques related to preparation of an atomically clean GaAs surface without heating to 600 C are discussed and evaluated.

  16. Spatial Modulation Of Light In GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Gheen, Gregory; Partovi, Afshin

    1989-01-01

    Spatial modulation of light in gallium arsenide demonstrated by transferring image from one of two coherent, crossing beams of light to other one. Technique relies on cross-polarization beam coupling, product of photorefractive effect in GaAs crystal.

  17. New GaN Schottky barrier diode employing a trench on AlGaN/GaN heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Min-Woo; Lee, Seung-Chul; Choi, Young-Hwan; Kim, Soo-Seong; Yun, Chong-Man; Han, Min-Koo

    2006-10-01

    A new GaN Schottky barrier diode employing a trench structure, which is proposed and fabricated, successfully decreases a forward voltage drop without sacrificing any other electric characteristics. The trench is located in the middle of Schottky contact during a mesa etch. The Schottky metal of Pt/Mo/Ti/Au is e-gun evaporated on the 300 nm-deep trench as well as the surface of the proposed GaN Schottky barrier diode. The trench forms the vertical Au Schottky contact and lateral Pt Schottky contact due to the evaporation sequence of Schottky metal. The forward voltage drops of the proposed diode and conventional one are 0.73 V and 1.25 V respectively because the metal work function (5.15 eV) of the vertical Au Schottky contact is considerably less than that of the lateral Pt Schottky contact (5.65 eV). The proposed diode exhibits the low on-resistance of 1.58 mΩ cm 2 while the conventional one exhibits 8.20 mΩ cm 2 due to the decrease of a forward voltage drop.

  18. Air Force development of thin GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masloski, K.

    1982-01-01

    The advantages of gallium arsenide (GaAs) over silicon (Si) type solar cells are well documented. However, two major disadvantages are weight and cost. Several ideas have recently surfaced that, if successful, will diminish these disadvantages. The CLEFT peeled film technique and the galicon cell are two of the more promising approaches. Low weight, low cost, high efficiency GaAs solar cell research is summarized.

  19. Preparation of Large-Diameter GaAs Crystals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-18

    implantation as a reliable, cost-effective fabrication technology for high-performance GaAs MESFET and integrated circuits . To address these problems, the...have been prepared by in-situ synthesis and pulled from pyrolytic boron nitride (PBN) crucibles, and improved FET channels by direct ion-implantation of...viii SUMMARY Significant progress has been made toward developing large- diai.3ter, semi-insulating GaAs crystals of improved quality by LEC growth for

  20. Characterisation of semi-insulating GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walukiewicz, W.; Pawlowicz, L.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    Hole and electron mobilities as functions of temperature and ionised impurity concentration are calculated for GaAs. It is shown that these calculations, when used to analyse electrical properties of semi-insulating GaAs, enable an assessment of the Fermi energy position and ionised impurity concentration to be made. In contrast to previous work, the analysis does not require any phenomenological assumptions.

  1. Evaluation of Schottky barrier height on 4H-SiC m-face \\{ 1\\bar{1}00\\} for Schottky barrier diode wall integrated trench MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yusuke; Ishimori, Hiroshi; Kinoshita, Akimasa; Kojima, Takahito; Takei, Manabu; Kimura, Hiroshi; Harada, Shinsuke

    2017-04-01

    We proposed an Schottky barrier diode wall integrated trench MOSFET (SWITCH-MOS) for the purposes of shrinking the cell pitch and suppressing the forward degradation of the body diode. A trench Schottky barrier diode (SBD) was integrated into a trench gate MOSFET with a wide shielding p+ region that protected the trench bottoms of both the SBD and the MOS gate from high electrical fields in the off state. The SBD was placed on the trench sidewall of the \\{ 1\\bar{1}00\\} plane (m-face). Static and transient simulations revealed that SWITCH-MOS sufficiently suppressed the bipolar current that induced forward degradation, and we determined that the optimum Schottky barrier height (SBH) was from 0.8 to 2.0 eV. The SBH depends on the crystal planes in 4H-SiC, but the SBH of the m-face was unclear. We fabricated a planar m-face SBD for the first time, and we obtained SBHs from 1.4 to 1.8 eV experimentally with titanium or nickel as a Schottky metal.

  2. Electrical properties of Ni/n-GaN Schottky diodes on freestanding m-plane GaN substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hisashi; Chonan, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Tokio; Shimizu, Mitsuaki

    2017-04-01

    The electrical properties of m-plane Ni/n-GaN Schottky diodes grown via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition were investigated. Under growth at 1,120 °C with a V/III ratio of 1,000 (growth rate of 100 nm/min), the residual Si, O, and C impurity concentrations in the m-plane GaN layer were below the secondary-ion mass spectroscopy detection limit. The surface of the Si-doped n-GaN epitaxial layer on the 5°-off m-plane GaN substrate consisted of steps and terraces. A linear correlation between the carrier concentration and the Si atomic concentration was clearly observed from 1 × 1017 to 5 × 1015 cm‑3. The reverse current–voltage curves were fitted using the thermionic field-emission model at the measured carrier concentration and qϕB. The leakage current of the diodes under a reverse bias was effectively suppressed at a low carrier concentration of 4.6 × 1015 cm‑3.

  3. Schottky Diode Applications of the Fast Green FCF Organic Material and the Analyze of Solar Cell Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çaldiran, Z.; Aydoğan, Ş.; İncekara, Ü.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a device applications of organic material Fast Green FCF (C37H34N2Na2O10S3Na2) has been investigated. After chemical cleaning process of boron doped H-Si crystals, Al metal was coated on the one surface of crystals by thermal evaporation and fast green organic materials were coated on other surface of crystals with spin coating method (coating parameters; 800 rpm for 60 s). Finally, Ni metal was coated on Fast Green by sputtering and we obtained the Ni/Fast Green FCF/n-Si/Al Schottky type diode. And then we calculated the basic diode parameters of device with current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance- voltage (C-V) measurements at the room temperature. We calculated the ideality factory (n), barrier height (Φb) of rectifing contact from I-V measurements using thermionic emission methods. Furthermore, we calculated ideality factory (n), barrier height (Φb) and series resistance (Rs) of device using Cheung and Norde functions too. The diffusion potential, barrier height, Fermi energy level and donor concentration have been determined from the linear 1/C2-V curves at reverse bias, at room temperature and various frequencies. Besides we measured the current-voltage (I-V) at under light and analyzed the characteristics of the solar cell device.

  4. Additional electric field in real trench MOS barrier Schottky diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamedov, R. K.; Aslanova, A. R.

    2016-04-01

    In real trench MOS barrier Schottky diode (TMBS diode) additional electric field (AEF) the whole is formed in the near contact region of the semiconductor and its propagation space is limited with the barrier metal and the metallic electrodes of MOS structures. Effective potential barrier height TMBS diode is formed via resulting electric field of superposition AEF and electric field of space charge region (SCR) semiconductor. The dependence of the resulting electric field intensity of the distance towards the inside the semiconductor is nonlinear and characterized by a peak at a certain distance from the interface. The thickness of the SCR in TMBS diode becomes equal to the trench depth. Force and energy parameters of the AEF, and thus resulting electric field in the SCR region, become dependent on the geometric design parameters TMBS diode. The forward I-V characteristic TMBS diode is described by the thermionic emission theory as in conventional flat Scottky diode, and in the reverse bias, current is virtually absent at initial voltage, appears abruptly at a certain critical voltage.

  5. Theoretical and experimental investigations of nano-Schottky contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezeq, Moh'd.; Eledlebi, Khouloud; Ismail, Mohammed; Dey, Ripon Kumar; Cui, Bo

    2016-07-01

    Formation of metal-semiconductor (M-S) contacts at sub-20 nanometer range is a key requirement for down-scaling of semiconductor devices. However, electrical measurements of M-S contacts at this scale have exhibited dramatic change in the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics compared to that of conventional (or planar) Schottky contacts. This change is actually attributed to the limited metal contact region where the transferred charge from the semiconductor into the metal is confined to a small surface area, which in turn results in an enhanced electric field at the nano-M-S interface. We here present detailed theoretical models to analyze the nano-M-S junctions at 10 nm contact range and then implement this analysis on the experimental data we conducted under these conditions. Both theoretical and experimental results demonstrate a significant effect of the contact size on the electronic structure of the M-S junctions and thus on the I-V characteristics. This effect is rather prominent when the size of the metal contact is substantially smaller than the width of conventional depletion region of the relevant planar M-S contacts.

  6. Black Phosphorus Transistors with Near Band Edge Contact Schottky Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Zhi-Peng; Sakar, Soumya; Mathew, Sinu; Zhu, Jun-Tao; Gopinadhan, K.; Venkatesan, T.; Ang, Kah-Wee

    2015-12-01

    Black phosphorus (BP) is a new class of 2D material which holds promise for next generation transistor applications owing to its intrinsically superior carrier mobility properties. Among other issues, achieving good ohmic contacts with low source-drain parasitic resistance in BP field-effect transistors (FET) remains a challenge. For the first time, we report a new contact technology that employs the use of high work function nickel (Ni) and thermal anneal to produce a metal alloy that effectively reduces the contact Schottky barrier height (ΦB) in a BP FET. When annealed at 300 °C, the Ni electrode was found to react with the underlying BP crystal and resulted in the formation of nickel-phosphide (Ni2P) alloy. This serves to de-pin the metal Fermi level close to the valence band edge and realizes a record low hole ΦB of merely ~12 meV. The ΦB at the valence band has also been shown to be thickness-dependent, wherein increasing BP multi-layers results in a smaller ΦB due to bandgap energy shrinkage. The integration of hafnium-dioxide high-k gate dielectric additionally enables a significantly improved subthreshold swing (SS ~ 200 mV/dec), surpassing previously reported BP FETs with conventional SiO2 gate dielectric (SS > 1 V/dec).

  7. Black Phosphorus Transistors with Near Band Edge Contact Schottky Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Zhi-Peng; Sakar, Soumya; Mathew, Sinu; Zhu, Jun-Tao; Gopinadhan, K.; Venkatesan, T.; Ang, Kah-Wee

    2015-01-01

    Black phosphorus (BP) is a new class of 2D material which holds promise for next generation transistor applications owing to its intrinsically superior carrier mobility properties. Among other issues, achieving good ohmic contacts with low source-drain parasitic resistance in BP field-effect transistors (FET) remains a challenge. For the first time, we report a new contact technology that employs the use of high work function nickel (Ni) and thermal anneal to produce a metal alloy that effectively reduces the contact Schottky barrier height (ΦB) in a BP FET. When annealed at 300 °C, the Ni electrode was found to react with the underlying BP crystal and resulted in the formation of nickel-phosphide (Ni2P) alloy. This serves to de-pin the metal Fermi level close to the valence band edge and realizes a record low hole ΦB of merely ~12 meV. The ΦB at the valence band has also been shown to be thickness-dependent, wherein increasing BP multi-layers results in a smaller ΦB due to bandgap energy shrinkage. The integration of hafnium-dioxide high-k gate dielectric additionally enables a significantly improved subthreshold swing (SS ~ 200 mV/dec), surpassing previously reported BP FETs with conventional SiO2 gate dielectric (SS > 1 V/dec). PMID:26667402

  8. Analytical modeling of trilayer graphene nanoribbon Schottky-barrier FET for high-speed switching applications.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Meisam; Ahmadi, Mohammad Taghi; Abadi, Hediyeh Karimi Feiz; Saeidmanesh, Mehdi; Akbari, Elnaz; Ismail, Razali

    2013-01-30

    Recent development of trilayer graphene nanoribbon Schottky-barrier field-effect transistors (FETs) will be governed by transistor electrostatics and quantum effects that impose scaling limits like those of Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The current-voltage characteristic of a Schottky-barrier FET has been studied as a function of physical parameters such as effective mass, graphene nanoribbon length, gate insulator thickness, and electrical parameters such as Schottky barrier height and applied bias voltage. In this paper, the scaling behaviors of a Schottky-barrier FET using trilayer graphene nanoribbon are studied and analytically modeled. A novel analytical method is also presented for describing a switch in a Schottky-contact double-gate trilayer graphene nanoribbon FET. In the proposed model, different stacking arrangements of trilayer graphene nanoribbon are assumed as metal and semiconductor contacts to form a Schottky transistor. Based on this assumption, an analytical model and numerical solution of the junction current-voltage are presented in which the applied bias voltage and channel length dependence characteristics are highlighted. The model is then compared with other types of transistors. The developed model can assist in comprehending experiments involving graphene nanoribbon Schottky-barrier FETs. It is demonstrated that the proposed structure exhibits negligible short-channel effects, an improved on-current, realistic threshold voltage, and opposite subthreshold slope and meets the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors near-term guidelines. Finally, the results showed that there is a fast transient between on-off states. In other words, the suggested model can be used as a high-speed switch where the value of subthreshold slope is small and thus leads to less power consumption.

  9. Anisotropic transport in modulation-doped quantum-well structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radulescu, D. C.; Wicks, G. W.; Schaff, W. J.; Calawa, A.R.; Eastman, L. F.

    1987-01-01

    Anisotropic electron transport has been observed in GaAs modulation-doped quantum wells grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on a thick (001) Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)As buffer grown at 620 C. Thicker quantum wells (150, 200, and 300 A) show progressively less anisotropy, which vanishes for a 300-A quantum well. The degree of anisotropy is also reduced or eliminated by suspending growth of the Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)As for a period of 300 s prior to growing the GaAs quantum well. Growing the Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)As buffer at higher temperatures (680 C) also reduces the degree of anisotropy. Higher two-dimensional electron gas sheet densities result in less anisotropy.The anisotropy is eliminated by replacing the thick Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)As buffer with a periodic multilayer structure comprising 15 A of GaAs and 200 A of Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)As. The degree of anisotropy is related to the thickness and growth parameters of the Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)As layer grown just prior to the growth of the GaAs.

  10. Damage effect and mechanism of the GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor induced by the electromagnetic pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao-Wen, Xi; Chang-Chun, Chai; Gang, Zhao; Yin-Tang, Yang; Xin-Hai, Yu; Yang, Liu

    2016-04-01

    The damage effect and mechanism of the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on the GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (PHEMT) are investigated in this paper. By using the device simulation software, the distributions and variations of the electric field, the current density and the temperature are analyzed. The simulation results show that there are three physical effects, i.e., the forward-biased effect of the gate Schottky junction, the avalanche breakdown, and the thermal breakdown of the barrier layer, which influence the device current in the damage process. It is found that the damage position of the device changes with the amplitude of the step voltage pulse. The damage appears under the gate near the drain when the amplitude of the pulse is low, and it also occurs under the gate near the source when the amplitude is sufficiently high, which is consistent with the experimental results. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2014CB339900), and the Open Fund of Key Laboratory of Complex Electromagnetic Environment Science and Technology, China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP) (Grant No. 2015-0214.XY.K).

  11. Research on the electrical characteristics of the Pt/CdS Schottky diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jia-xin; Zhang, Xiang-feng; Yao, Guansheng

    2013-08-01

    With the development of technology, the demand for semiconductor ultraviolet detector is increasing day by day. Compared with the traditional infrared detector in missile guidance, ultraviolet/infrared dual-color detection can significantly improve the anti-interference ability of the missile. According to the need of missile guidance and other areas of the application of ultraviolet detector, the paper introduces a manufacture of the CdS Schottky barrier ultraviolet detector. By using the radio frequency magnetron sputtering technology, a Pt thin film layer is sputtered on CdS basement to form a Schottky contact firstly. Then the indium ohmic contact electrode is fabricated by thermal evaporation method, and eventually a Pt/CdS/In Schottky diode is formed. The I-V characteristic of the device was tested at room temperature, its zero bias current and open circuit voltage is -0.578nA and 130mV, respectively. Test results show that the the Schottky contact has been formed between Pt and CdS. The device has good rectifying characteristics. According to the thermionic emission theory, the I-V curve fitting analysis of the device was studied under the condition of small voltage. The ideality factor and Schottky barrier height is 1.89 and 0.61eV, respectively. The normalized spectral responsivity at zero bias has been tested. The device has peak responsivity at 500nm, and it cutoff at 510nm.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of graphene/AlGaN/GaN ultraviolet Schottky photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M.; Jeong, H.; Polat, K.; Okyay, A. K.; Lee, D.

    2016-07-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a Schottky ultraviolet graphene/AlGaN/GaN photodetector (PD). The fabricated device clearly exhibits rectification behaviour, indicating that the Schottky barrier is formed between the AlGaN and the mechanically transferred graphene. The Schottky parameters are evaluated using an equivalent circuit with two diodes connected back-to-back in series. The PD shows a low dark current of 4.77  ×  10-12 A at a bias voltage of  -2.5 V. The room temperature current-voltage (I-V) measurements of the graphene/AlGaN/GaN Schottky PD exhibit a large photo-to-dark contrast ratio of more than four orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the device shows peak responsivity at a wavelength of 350 nm, corresponding to GaN band edge and a small hump at 300 nm associated to the AlGaN band edge. In addition, we examine the behaviour of Schottky PDs with responsivities of 0.56 and 0.079 A W-1 at 300 and 350 nm, respectively, at room temperature.

  13. Investigation of significantly high barrier height in Cu/GaN Schottky diode

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, Manjari Kumar, Ashutosh; Singh, R.; Nagarajan, S.; Sopanen, M.

    2016-01-15

    Current-voltage (I-V) measurements combined with analytical calculations have been used to explain mechanisms for forward-bias current flow in Copper (Cu) Schottky diodes fabricated on Gallium Nitride (GaN) epitaxial films. An ideality factor of 1.7 was found at room temperature (RT), which indicated deviation from thermionic emission (TE) mechanism for current flow in the Schottky diode. Instead the current transport was better explained using the thermionic field-emission (TFE) mechanism. A high barrier height of 1.19 eV was obtained at room temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to investigate the plausible reason for observing Schottky barrier height (SBH) that is significantly higher than as predicted by the Schottky-Mott model for Cu/GaN diodes. XPS measurements revealed the presence of an ultrathin cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) layer at the interface between Cu and GaN. With Cu{sub 2}O acting as a degenerate p-type semiconductor with high work function of 5.36 eV, a high barrier height of 1.19 eV is obtained for the Cu/Cu{sub 2}O/GaN Schottky diode. Moreover, the ideality factor and barrier height were found to be temperature dependent, implying spatial inhomogeneity of barrier height at the metal semiconductor interface.

  14. Design and optimization of very high power density monochromatic GaAs photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Algora, C.; Diaz, V.

    1998-09-01

    This paper deals with the structure optimization of very high power density monochromatic GaAs photovoltaic cells and the theoretical prediction of their performance at irradiances ranging from 0.1 to 100 W/cm{sup 2}. A multifaceted optimum design including the front metal grid, device size and the semiconductor layer structure is presented. The variation in efficiency depending on emitter thickness, base thickness, emitter doping and base doping is also addressed. The objective of this being the configuration of a structure suitable for working up to 100 W/cm{sup 2} without the detrimental influence of series resistance. For this, a detailed analysis of the effect of series resistance and the quantitative determination of its different components is carried out. The optimum wavelength is 830 nm at 300 K for all the analyzed light intensities, in which a 63% peak efficiency under an irradiance of 100 W/cm{sup 2} for a p/n structure is obtained. The temperature effect on device performance in the 273--350 K range is also studied. Finally, the influence of device processing is analyzed.

  15. InAs/GaAs and InAs doping superlattices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunthaner, Frank J.; Hancock, Bruce R.; Maserjian, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The extension of the optical response of narrow band gap III-V semiconductors into the long wavelength infrared radiation (LWIR) regime for high sensitivity sensor applications is a challenging problem. Recent advances in nipi doped GaAs superlattices, lattice mismatched epitaxy and the heteroepitaxial growth of III-V compound semiconductors on silicon substrates offer a number of opportunities. Researchers describe two different device approaches based on the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of superlattice materials which are directed to LWIR focal plane array technology. The first of these uses nipi superlattices fabricated in bulk InAs which has been grown on either GaAs or Si substrates. The second is based on the growth of a new pseudomorphic tetragonal phase of InAs on GaAs to create a semimetal/semiconductor superlattice material.

  16. THz frequency multiplier chains base on planar Schottky diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiwald, F.; Schlecht, E.; Maestrini, A.; Chattopadhyay, G.; Pearson, J.; Pukala, D.; Mehdi, I.

    2002-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory (HSO), an ESA cornerstone mission with NASA contribution, will enable a comprehensive study of the galactic as well as the extra galactic universe. At the heart of this exploration are ultra sensitive coherent detectors that can allow for high-resolution spectroscopy. Successful operation of these receivers is predicated on providing a sufficiently powerful local oscillator (LO) source. Historically, a versatile space qualified LO source for frequencies beyond 500 GHz has been difficult if not impossible. This paper will focus on the effort under way to develop, build, characterize and qualify a LO chain to 1200 GHz (Band 5 on HSO) that is based on planar GaAs diodes mounted in waveguide circuits. State-of-the-art performance has been obtained from a three-stage ( x2 x 2 x 3 ) multiplier chain that can provide a peak output power of 120 uW (1178 GHz) at room temperature and a peak output power of 190 uW at 1183 GHz when cooled to 113 K. Implementation of this LO source for the Heterodyne Instrument for Far Infrared (HIFI) on HSO will be discussed in detail.

  17. On-Chip Power-Combining for High-Power Schottky Diode Based Frequency Multipliers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siles Perez, Jose Vicente (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Lee, Choonsup (Inventor); Schlecht, Erich T. (Inventor); Jung-Kubiak, Cecile D. (Inventor); Mehdi, Imran (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A novel MMIC on-chip power-combined frequency multiplier device and a method of fabricating the same, comprising two or more multiplying structures integrated on a single chip, wherein each of the integrated multiplying structures are electrically identical and each of the multiplying structures include one input antenna (E-probe) for receiving an input signal in the millimeter-wave, submillimeter-wave or terahertz frequency range inputted on the chip, a stripline based input matching network electrically connecting the input antennas to two or more Schottky diodes in a balanced configuration, two or more Schottky diodes that are used as nonlinear semiconductor devices to generate harmonics out of the input signal and produce the multiplied output signal, stripline based output matching networks for transmitting the output signal from the Schottky diodes to an output antenna, and an output antenna (E-probe) for transmitting the output signal off the chip into the output waveguide transmission line.

  18. Photosensitivity spectra of Schottky barriers in the region of strong absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkovskaia, O. Iu.; Dmitruk, N. L.; Ziuganov, A. N.

    Spectral characteristics of the photocurrent of metal-semiconductor contacts with a Schottky barrier are calculated for analytically determined boundary conditions. The expression obtained for the photocurrent of a quasi-monopolar semiconductor is shown to reduce, in the limiting cases, to the known formulas of Gartner (1959), Caywood-Mead (1969), and Gutkin-Sedov (1975). On the basis of generalized formulas for the photocurrent spectra and relative sensitivity, a method is proposed for determining the surface recombination velocities and transport velocities of holes and electrons for Schottky barriers. The predictions of the theory developed here are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results for Au-GaAs Schottky barriers.

  19. Modulation of WNx/Ge Schottky barrier height by varying N composition of tungsten nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jiang-Bin; Chi, Xiao-Wei; Lu, Chao; Wang, Chen; Lin, Guang-Yang; Wu, Huan-Da; Huang, Wei; Li, Cheng; Chen, Song-Yan; Liu, Chun-Li

    2015-07-01

    Modulation of the Schottky barrier heights was successfully demonstrated for WNx/p-Ge and WNx/n-Ge contacts by increasing the nitrogen component in the WNx films. The WN0.38/p-Ge contact exhibits rectifying characteristic and an apparent Schottky barrier of 0.49 eV while the WN0.38/n-Ge Schottky contact exhibits quasi-Ohmic current-voltage characteristics. Dipoles formed at the contact interface by the difference of the Pauling electronegativities of Ge and N are confirmed to alleviate the Fermi-level pinning effect. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61176092 and 61474094), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2012CB933503 and 2013CB632103), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China-National Research Foundation of Korea Joint Research Project (Grant No. 11311140251).

  20. ON current enhancement of nanowire Schottky barrier tunnel field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Kohei; Hashimoto, Shuichiro; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Xu; Asada, Shuhei; Xu, Taiyu; Matsukawa, Takashi; Masahara, Meishoku; Watanabe, Takanobu

    2016-04-01

    Silicon nanowire Schottky barrier tunnel field effect transistors (NW-SBTFETs) are promising structures for high performance devices. In this study, we fabricated NW-SBTFETs to investigate the effect of nanowire structure on the device characteristics. The NW-SBTFETs were operated with a backgate bias, and the experimental results demonstrate that the ON current density is enhanced by narrowing the width of the nanowire. We confirmed using the Fowler-Nordheim plot that the drain current in the ON state mainly comprises the quantum tunneling component through the Schottky barrier. Comparison with a technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulation revealed that the enhancement is attributed to the electric field concentration at the corners of cross-section of the NW. The study findings suggest an effective approach to securing the ON current by Schottky barrier width modulation.