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Sample records for doped layer final

  1. Silver doped metal layers for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocourek, T.; Jelínek, M.; Mikšovský, J.; Jurek, K.; Weiserová, M.

    2014-04-01

    Biological, physical and mechanical properties of silver-doped layers of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and 316L steel prepared by pulsed laser deposition were studied. Metallic silver-doped coatings could be a new route for antibacterial protection in medicine. Thin films of silver and silver-doped materials were synthesized using KrF excimer laser deposition. The materials were ablated from two targets, which were composed either from titanium alloy with silver segments or from steel with silver segments. The concentration of silver ranged from 1.54 at% to 4.32 at% for steel and from 3.04 at% to 13.05 at% for titanium alloy. The layer properties such as silver content, structure, adhesion, surface wettability, and antibacterial efficacy (evaluated by Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis bacteria) were measured. Film adhesion was studied using scratch test. The antibacterial efficacy changed with silver doping up to 99.9 %. Our investigation was focused on minimum Ag concentration needed to reach high antibacterial efficiency, high film adhesion, and hardness.

  2. Calcium-doped ceria/titanate tabular functional nanocomposite by layer-by-layer coating method

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiang W.; Devaraju, M.K.; Yin, Shu; Sato, Tsugio

    2010-07-15

    Ca-doped ceria (CDC)/tabular titanate (K{sub 0.8}Li{sub 0.27}Ti{sub 1.73}O{sub 4}, TT) UV-shielding functional nanocomposite with fairly uniform CDC coating layers was prepared through a polyelectrolyte-associated layer-by-layer (LbL) coating method. TT with lepidocrocite-like layered structure was used as the substrate, poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) was used as a coupling agent, CDC nanoparticles were used as the main UV-shielding component. CDC/TT nanocomposites with various coating layers of CDC were obtained through a multistep coating process. The phases were studied by X-ray diffraction. The morphology and coating quality were studied by scanning electron microscopy and element mapping of energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The oxidation catalytic activity, UV-shielding ability and using comfort were characterized by Rancimat test, UV-vis spectra and dynamic friction test, respectively. CDC/TT nanocomposites with low oxidation catalytic activity, high UV-shielding ability and good using comfort were finally obtained. - Graphical abstract: Through the control of surface charge of particles calcium-doped ceria/titanate composites with low oxidation catalytic activity, higher UV-shielding ability and excellent comfort was obtained by a facile layer-by-layer coating method.

  3. Superlattice doped layers for amorphous silicon photovoltaic cells

    DOEpatents

    Arya, Rajeewa R.

    1988-01-12

    Superlattice doped layers for amorphous silicon photovoltaic cells comprise a plurality of first and second lattices of amorphous silicon alternatingly formed on one another. Each of the first lattices has a first optical bandgap and each of the second lattices has a second optical bandgap different from the first optical bandgap. A method of fabricating the superlattice doped layers also is disclosed.

  4. Doped LZO buffer layers for laminated conductors

    DOEpatents

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W [Framingham, MA

    2010-03-23

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising LZO and a dopant for mitigating metal diffusion through the LZO, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  5. Nanoscale imaging of freestanding nitrogen doped single layer graphene.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Ganjigunte R S; Wang, Jian; Wells, Garth; Bradley, Michael P; Borondics, Ferenc

    2015-02-14

    Graphene can be p-type or n-type doped by introduction of specific species. Doping can modulate the electronic properties of graphene, but opening a sizable-well-tuned bandgap is essential for graphene-based tunable electronic devices. N-doped graphene is widely used for device applications and is mostly achieved by introducing ammonia into the synthesis gas during the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Post synthesis treatment studies to fine-tune the electron hole doping in graphene are limited. In this work realization of N-doping in large area freestanding single layer graphene (LFG) is achieved by post treatment in nitrogen plasma. The changes in the chemical and electronic properties of graphene are followed with Raman microscopy and mapped via synchrotron based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the nanoscale.

  6. Amorphous silicon Schottky barrier solar cells incorporating a thin insulating layer and a thin doped layer

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, David E.

    1980-01-01

    Amorphous silicon Schottky barrier solar cells which incorporate a thin insulating layer and a thin doped layer adjacent to the junction forming metal layer exhibit increased open circuit voltages compared to standard rectifying junction metal devices, i.e., Schottky barrier devices, and rectifying junction metal insulating silicon devices, i.e., MIS devices.

  7. Verification of electron doping in single-layer graphene due to H2 exposure with thermoelectric power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sung Ju; Park, Min; Kang, Hojin; Lee, Minwoo; Soler-Delgado, David; Shin, Dong Seok; Kim, Kyung Ho; Kubatkin, Sergey; Jeong, Dae Hong; Park, Yung Woo; Kim, Byung Hoon

    2015-04-01

    We report the electron doping of single-layer graphene (SLG) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) by means of dissociative hydrogen adsorption. The transfer characteristic showed n-type doping behavior similar to that of mechanically exfoliated graphene. Furthermore, we studied the thermoelectric power (TEP) of CVD-grown SLG before and after exposure to high-pressure H2 molecules. From the TEP results, which indicate the intrinsic electrical properties, we observed that the CVD-grown SLG is n-type doped without degradation of the quality after hydrogen adsorption. Finally, the electron doping was also verified by Raman spectroscopy.

  8. Verification of electron doping in single-layer graphene due to H{sub 2} exposure with thermoelectric power

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Sung Ju; Kang, Hojin; Soler-Delgado, David; Kim, Kyung Ho; Park, Yung Woo E-mail: kbh37@incheon.ac.kr; Park, Min; Lee, Minwoo; Jeong, Dae Hong; Shin, Dong Seok; Kim, Byung Hoon E-mail: kbh37@incheon.ac.kr; Kubatkin, Sergey

    2015-04-06

    We report the electron doping of single-layer graphene (SLG) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) by means of dissociative hydrogen adsorption. The transfer characteristic showed n-type doping behavior similar to that of mechanically exfoliated graphene. Furthermore, we studied the thermoelectric power (TEP) of CVD-grown SLG before and after exposure to high-pressure H{sub 2} molecules. From the TEP results, which indicate the intrinsic electrical properties, we observed that the CVD-grown SLG is n-type doped without degradation of the quality after hydrogen adsorption. Finally, the electron doping was also verified by Raman spectroscopy.

  9. Unexpected strong magnetism of Cu doped single-layer MoS₂ and its origin.

    PubMed

    Yun, Won Seok; Lee, J D

    2014-05-21

    The magnetism of the 3d transition-metal (TM) doped single-layer (1L) MoS2, where the Mo atom is partially replaced by the 3d TM atom, is investigated using the first-principles density functional calculations. In a series of 3d TM doped 1L-MoS2's, the induced spin polarizations are negligible for Sc, Ti, and Cr dopings, while the induced spin polarizations are confirmed for V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn dopings and the systems become magnetic. Especially, the Cu doped system shows unexpectedly strong magnetism although Cu is nonmagnetic in its bulk state. The driving force is found to be a strong hybridization between Cu 3d states and 3p states of neighboring S, which results in an extreme unbalanced spin-population in the spin-split impurity bands near the Fermi level. Finally, we also discuss further issues of the Cu induced magnetism of 1L-MoS2 such as investigation of additional charge states, the Cu doping at the S site instead of the Mo site, and the Cu adatom on the layer (i.e., 1L-MoS2).

  10. Silver-doped metal layers for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocourek, T.; Jelínek, M.; Mikšovský, J.; Jurek, K.; Weiserová, M.

    2014-08-01

    Biological, physical and mechanical properties of silver-doped layers of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and 316 L steel prepared by pulsed laser deposition were studied. Metallic silver-doped coatings could be a new route for antibacterial protection in medicine. Thin films of silver and silver-doped materials were synthesized using KrF excimer laser deposition. The materials were ablated from two targets, which were composed either from titanium alloy with silver segments or from steel with silver segments. The concentration of silver ranged from 1.54 to 4.32 at% for steel and from 3.04 to 13.05 at% for titanium alloy. The layer properties such as silver content, structure, adhesion, surface wettability, and antibacterial efficiency (evaluated by Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis bacteria) were measured. Film adhesion was studied using a scratch test. The antibacterial efficiency changed with silver doping up to 99.9 %. Our investigation was focused on the minimum Ag concentration needed to reach high antibacterial efficiency, high film adhesion, and hardness.

  11. Antimicrobial Activity Evaluation on Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite/Polydimethylsiloxane Composite Layer

    PubMed Central

    Ciobanu, C. S.; Groza, A.; Iconaru, S. L.; Popa, C. L.; Chapon, P.; Chifiriuc, M. C.; Hristu, R.; Stanciu, G. A.; Negrila, C. C.; Ghita, R. V.; Ganciu, M.; Predoi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was the preparation, physicochemical characterization, and microbiological evaluation of novel hydroxyapatite doped with silver/polydimethylsiloxane (Ag:HAp-PDMS) composite layers. In the first stage, the deposition of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer layer on commercially pure Si disks has been produced in atmospheric pressure corona discharges. Finally, the new silver doped hydroxyapatite/polydimethylsiloxane composite layer has been obtained by the thermal evaporation technique. The Ag:HAp-PDMS composite layers were characterized by various techniques, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GDOES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The antimicrobial activity of the Ag:HAp-PDMS composite layer was assessed against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 (ATCC—American Type Culture Collection) by culture based and confirmed by SEM and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) methods. This is the first study reporting the antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp-PDMS composite layer, which proved to be active against Candida albicans biofilm embedded cells. PMID:26504849

  12. Antimicrobial Activity Evaluation on Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite/Polydimethylsiloxane Composite Layer.

    PubMed

    Ciobanu, C S; Groza, A; Iconaru, S L; Popa, C L; Chapon, P; Chifiriuc, M C; Hristu, R; Stanciu, G A; Negrila, C C; Ghita, R V; Ganciu, M; Predoi, D

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was the preparation, physicochemical characterization, and microbiological evaluation of novel hydroxyapatite doped with silver/polydimethylsiloxane (Ag:HAp-PDMS) composite layers. In the first stage, the deposition of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer layer on commercially pure Si disks has been produced in atmospheric pressure corona discharges. Finally, the new silver doped hydroxyapatite/polydimethylsiloxane composite layer has been obtained by the thermal evaporation technique. The Ag:HAp-PDMS composite layers were characterized by various techniques, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GDOES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The antimicrobial activity of the Ag:HAp-PDMS composite layer was assessed against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 (ATCC-American Type Culture Collection) by culture based and confirmed by SEM and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) methods. This is the first study reporting the antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp-PDMS composite layer, which proved to be active against Candida albicans biofilm embedded cells.

  13. Unintentional doping effects in black phosphorus by native vacancies in h-BN supporting layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiaduo; Zhang, Jincheng; Xu, Shengrui; Hao, Yue

    2017-04-01

    Ab initio calculations are used to study the indirect doping effect in black phosphorus (BP) from defects in h-BN support layer. We find defects in substrate can strongly introduce doping to the BP layer by weak van der Waals effect. With considering various native vacancies in h-BN, we find that indirect n-type doping of BP only manifests under case of isolated nitrogen vacancy. P-type doping is presented in most cases including different divacancies, which is in consistent with published experimental reports. Besides, we find presence of BP upon h-BN can also alter the intrinsic magnetic properties of defective h-BN layer.

  14. Minority Carrier Lifetime in Beryllium-Doped InAs/InAsSb Strained Layer Superlattices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-03

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Minority carrier lifetimes in undoped and Beryllium -doped Type-2 Ga-free, InAs/InAsSb strained layer superlattices (SLS) with...is unlimited. Minority Carrier Lifetime in Beryllium -Doped InAs/InAsSb Strained Layer Superlattices The views, opinions and/or findings contained in...Brook University W-5510 Melville Library West Sayville, NY 11796 -3362 1 ABSTRACT Minority Carrier Lifetime in Beryllium -Doped InAs/InAsSb Strained

  15. Dielectric function for doped graphene layer with barium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Ramos, Manuel; Garces Garcia, Eric; Magana, Fernado; Vazquez Fonseca, Gerardo Jorge

    2015-03-01

    The aim of our study is to calculate the dielectric function for a system formed with a graphene layer doped with barium titanate. Density functional theory, within the local density approximation, plane-waves and pseudopotentials scheme as implemented in Quantum Espresso suite of programs was used. We considered 128 carbon atoms with a barium titanate cluster of 11 molecules as unit cell with periodic conditions. The geometry optimization is achieved. Optimization of structural configuration is performed by relaxation of all atomic positions to minimize their total energies. Band structure, density of states and linear optical response (the imaginary part of dielectric tensor) were calculated. We thank Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, partial financial support by Grant IN-106514 and we also thank Miztli Super-Computing center the technical assistance.

  16. [Investigation of the layers doped with rare earth elements in Si substrate and it's key problems].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guo-an

    2005-03-01

    The photoluminescence properties of rare earth doped silicon were investigated with ion beam technique. The photoluminescence spectra in the layers doped with ions of La, Ce and Nd were obtained at room temperature. At the same time, the up-conversion luminescence in the doped layers was observed. The intensities of both the luminescence and the up-conversion luminescence increased with increasing the doping dose and the treatment temperature. However, the intensities of the luminescence decreased with increasing the exciting wavelength between 220 nm and 300 nm; the intensities of the up-conversion luminescence increased with increasing the exciting wavelength between 600 nm and 800 nm. It was indicated that the luminescence and the up-conversion luminescence in the layers doped with ions of La, Ce and Nd depended on the doping dose, the heat treatment temperature and the exciting wavelength.

  17. Lag and light-transfer characteristics of amorphous selenium photoconductive film with tellurium-doped layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Wug-Dong; Tanioka, Kenkichi

    2016-07-01

    Amorphous selenium (a-Se) high-gain avalanche rushing amorphous photoconductor (HARP) films have been used for highly sensitive imaging devices. To study a-Se HARP films for a solid-state image sensor, current-voltage, lag, spectral response, and light-transfer characteristics of 0.4-µm-thick a-Se HARP films are investigated. Also, to clarify a suitable Te-doped a-Se layer thickness in the a-Se photoconductor, we considered the effects of Te-doped layer thickness on the lag, spectral response, and light-transfer characteristics of 0.4-µm-thick a-Se HARP films. The threshold field, at which avalanche multiplication occurs in the a-Se HARP targets, decreases when the Te-doped layer thickness increases. The lag of 0.4-µm-thick a-Se HARP targets with Te-doped layers is higher than that of the target without Te doping. The lag of the targets with Te-doped layers is caused by the electrons trapped in the Te-doped layers within the 0.4-µm-thick a-Se HARP films. From the results of the spectral response measurement of about 15 min, the 0.4-µm-thick a-Se HARP targets with Te-doped layers of 90 and 120 nm are observed to be unstable owing to the electrons trapped in the Te-doped a-Se layer. From the light-transfer characteristics of 0.4-µm-thick a-Se HARP targets, as the slope at the operating point of signal current-voltage characteristics in the avalanche mode increases, the γ of the a-Se HARP targets decreases. Considering the effects of dark current on the lag and spectral response characteristics, a Te-doped layer of 60 nm is suitable for 0.4-µm-thick a-Se HARP films.

  18. Charge storage in polymer acid-doped polyaniline-based layer-by-layer electrodes.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ju-Won; O'Neal, Josh; Shao, Lin; Lutkenhaus, Jodie L

    2013-10-23

    Polymeric electrodes that can achieve high doping levels and store charge reversibly are desired for electrochemical energy storage because they can potentially achieve high specific capacities and energies. One such candidate is the polyaniline:poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid) (PANI:PAAMPSA) complex, a water-processable complex obtained via template polymerization that is known to reversibly achieve high doping levels at potentials of up to 4.5 V versus Li/Li+. Here, for the first time, PANI:PAAMPSA is successfully incorporated into layer-by-layer (LbL) electrodes. This processing technique is chosen for its ability to blend species on a molecular level and its ability to conformally coat a substrate. Three different polyaniline-based LbL electrodes comprised of PANI/PAAMPSA, PANI/PANI:PAAMPSA, and linear poly(ethylenimine)/PANI:PAAMPSA are compared in terms of film growth, charge storage, and reversibility. We found that the reversibility of PANI:PAAMPSA is retained within the LbL electrodes and that the PANI/PANI:PAAMPSA electrode exhibits the best performance in terms of capacity and cycle life. These results provide general guidelines for the assembly of PANI:PAAMPSA in LbL films and also demonstrate their potential as electrochemically active components in electrodes.

  19. Graphene coated with controllable N-doped carbon layer by molecular layer deposition as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yao; Gao, Zhe; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Shichao; Qin, Yong

    2016-05-01

    In this work, graphene is coated with nitrogen-doped carbon layer, which is produced by a carbonization process of aromatic polyimide (PI) films deposited on the surfaces of graphene by molecular layer deposition (MLD). The utilization of MLD not only allows uniform coating of PI layers on the surfaces of pristine graphene without any surface treatment, but also enables homogenous dispersion of doped nitrogen atoms in the carbonized products. The as-prepared N-doped carbon layer coated graphene (NC-G) exhibited remarkable capacitance performance as electrode materials for supercapacitor, showing a high specific capacitance of 290.2 F g-1 at current density of 1 A g-1 in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte, meanwhile maintaining good rate performance and stable cycle capability. The NC-G synthesized by this way represents an alternative promising candidate as electrode material for supercapacitors.

  20. Effect of Mo-doping concentration on the physical behaviour of sprayed ZnO layers

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, T. Sreenivasulu; Reddy, M. Vasudeva; Reddy, K. T. Ramakrishna

    2015-06-24

    Mo-doped zinc oxide layers (MZO) have been prepared on cleaned glass substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis technique by varying Mo-doping concentration in the range, 0 – 5 at. %. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed that all the as prepared layers were polycrystalline in nature and exhibited wurtzite structure. The layers prepared with lower Mo-doping concentration (<2 at. %) were preferably oriented along the (100) plane, whereas in the case of higher Mo-doping concentration (>2 at. %), the films showed the (002) plane as the dominant peak. The optical analysis indicated that all the layers had an average optical transmittance of 80% in the visible region and the evaluated band gap varied in the range, 3.28 - 3.50 eV.

  1. Method and closing pores in a thermally sprayed doped lanthanum chromite interconnection layer

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Prabhakar; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1995-01-01

    A dense, substantially gas-tight electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an air electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by (A) providing an air electrode surface; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, a layer of doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles doped with an element or elements selected from Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Co, Ni, Al and mixtures thereof by thermal spraying doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles, either by plasma arc spraying or flame spraying; (C) depositing a mixture of CaO and Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3 on the surface of the thermally sprayed layer; and (D) heating the doped LaCrO.sub.3 layer coated with CaO and Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3 surface deposit at from about 1000.degree. C. to 1200.degree. C. to substantially close the pores, at least at a surface, of the thermally sprayed doped LaCrO.sub.3 layer. The result is a dense, substantially gas-tight, highly doped, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode surface. A solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the nonselected portion of the air electrode. A fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to form an electrochemical cell, for example for generation of electrical power.

  2. Method and closing pores in a thermally sprayed doped lanthanum chromite interconnection layer

    DOEpatents

    Singh, P.; Ruka, R.J.

    1995-02-14

    A dense, substantially gas-tight electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an air electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by (A) providing an air electrode surface; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, a layer of doped LaCrO{sub 3} particles doped with an element or elements selected from Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Co, Ni, Al and mixtures thereof by thermal spraying doped LaCrO{sub 3} particles, either by plasma arc spraying or flame spraying; (C) depositing a mixture of CaO and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the surface of the thermally sprayed layer; and (D) heating the doped LaCrO{sub 3} layer coated with CaO and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface deposit at from about 1,000 C to 1,200 C to substantially close the pores, at least at a surface, of the thermally sprayed doped LaCrO{sub 3} layer. The result is a dense, substantially gas-tight, highly doped, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode surface. A solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the nonselected portion of the air electrode. A fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to form an electrochemical cell, for example for generation of electrical power. 5 figs.

  3. Atomic layer deposition of Al-doped ZnO thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Tynell, Tommi; Yamauchi, Hisao; Karppinen, Maarit; Okazaki, Ryuji; Terasaki, Ichiro

    2013-01-15

    Atomic layer deposition has been used to fabricate thin films of aluminum-doped ZnO by depositing interspersed layers of ZnO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on borosilicate glass substrates. The growth characteristics of the films have been investigated through x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflection, and x-ray fluorescence measurements, and the efficacy of the Al doping has been evaluated through optical reflectivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements. The Al doping is found to affect the carrier density of ZnO up to a nominal Al dopant content of 5 at. %. At nominal Al doping levels of 10 at. % and higher, the structure of the films is found to be strongly affected by the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase and no further carrier doping of ZnO is observed.

  4. Metallic conduction induced by direct anion site doping in layered SnSe2

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Il; Hwang, Sungwoo; Kim, Se Yun; Lee, Woo-Jin; Jung, Doh Won; Moon, Kyoung-Seok; Park, Hee Jung; Cho, Young-Jin; Cho, Yong-Hee; Kim, Jung-Hwa; Yun, Dong-Jin; Lee, Kyu Hyoung; Han, In-taek; Lee, Kimoon; Sohn, Yoonchul

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of metallic conduction in layered dichalcogenide semiconductor materials by chemical doping is one of key issues for two-dimensional (2D) materials engineering. At present, doping methods for layered dichalcogenide materials have been limited to an ion intercalation between layer units or electrostatic carrier doping by electrical bias owing to the absence of appropriate substitutional dopant for increasing the carrier concentration. Here, we report the occurrence of metallic conduction in the layered dichalcogenide of SnSe2 by the direct Se-site doping with Cl as a shallow electron donor. The total carrier concentration up to ~1020 cm−3 is achieved by Cl substitutional doping, resulting in the improved conductivity value of ~170 S·cm−1 from ~1.7 S·cm−1 for non-doped SnSe2. When the carrier concentration exceeds ~1019 cm−3, the conduction mechanism is changed from hopping to degenerate conduction, exhibiting metal-insulator transition behavior. Detailed band structure calculation reveals that the hybridized s-p orbital from Sn 5s and Se 4p states is responsible for the degenerate metallic conduction in electron-doped SnSe2. PMID:26792630

  5. Simulation study on single event burnout in linear doping buffer layer engineered power VDMOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunpeng, Jia; Hongyuan, Su; Rui, Jin; Dongqing, Hu; Yu, Wu

    2016-02-01

    The addition of a buffer layer can improve the device's secondary breakdown voltage, thus, improving the single event burnout (SEB) threshold voltage. In this paper, an N type linear doping buffer layer is proposed. According to quasi-stationary avalanche simulation and heavy ion beam simulation, the results show that an optimized linear doping buffer layer is critical. As SEB is induced by heavy ions impacting, the electric field of an optimized linear doping buffer device is much lower than that with an optimized constant doping buffer layer at a given buffer layer thickness and the same biasing voltages. Secondary breakdown voltage and the parasitic bipolar turn-on current are much higher than those with the optimized constant doping buffer layer. So the linear buffer layer is more advantageous to improving the device's SEB performance. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61176071), the Doctoral Fund of Ministry of Education of China (No. 20111103120016), and the Science and Technology Program of State Grid Corporation of China (No. SGRI-WD-71-13-006).

  6. Boron- and phosphorus-doped polycrystalline silicon thin films prepared by silver-induced layer exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Antesberger, T.; Wassner, T. A.; Jaeger, C.; Algasinger, M.; Kashani, M.; Scholz, M.; Matich, S.; Stutzmann, M.

    2013-05-27

    Intentional boron and phosphorus doping of polycrystalline silicon thin films on glass prepared by the silver-induced layer exchange is presented. A silver/(titanium) oxide/amorphous silicon stack is annealed at temperatures below the eutectic temperature of the Ag/Si system, leading to a complete layer exchange and simultaneous crystallization of the amorphous silicon. Intentional doping of the amorphous silicon prior to the exchange process results in boron- or phosphorus-doped polycrystalline silicon. Hall effect measurements show carrier concentrations between 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} and 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} for phosphorus and 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} for boron-doped layers, with carrier mobilities up to 90 cm{sup 2}/V s.

  7. Improved conversion efficiency of GaN-based solar cells with Mn-doped absorption layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, Jinn-Kong; Huang, Feng-Wen; Lee, Chia-Hui; Lee, Ming-Lun; Yeh, Yu-Hsiang; Chen, Po-Cheng; Lai, Wei-Chih

    2013-08-01

    GaN-based solar cells with Mn-doped absorption layer grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy were investigated. The transmittance spectrum and the spectral response showed the presence of an Mn-related band absorption property. Power-dependent, dual-light excitation, and lock-in amplifier techniques were performed to confirm if the two-photon absorption process occurred in the solar cells with Mn-doped GaN absorption layer. Although a slight decrease in an open circuit voltage was observed, a prominent increase in the short circuit current density resulted in a significant enhancement of the overall conversion efficiency. Under one-sun air mass 1.5 G standard testing condition, the conversion efficiency of Mn-doped solar cells can be enhanced by a magnitude of 5 times compared with the cells without Mn-doped absorption layer.

  8. Comparison of dye doping and ultrathin emissive layer in white organic light-emitting devices with dual emissive layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu; Qi, Yige; Yu, Junsheng

    2014-09-01

    White organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs) with combined doping emissive layer (EML) and ultrathin EML have been fabricated to investigate the effect of each EML on the electroluminescent (EL) performance of the WOLEDs. Through tailoring doping concentration of bis[(4,6-difluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N,C2'](picolinate) iridium(III) (FIrpic) and thickness of ultrathin bis[2-(4-tertbutylphenyl)benzothiazolato-N,C2'] iridium (acetylacetonate) [(tbt)2Ir(acac)] EML, it is found that the change in the doping ratio of FIrpic significantly influenced the EL efficiencies and spectra, while the alteration of ultrathin EML thickness had much milder effect on the EL performance. The results indicated that ultrathin EML is in favor of reproducibility in mass production compared with doping method.

  9. Surface recombination velocity and diffusion length of minority carriers in heavily doped silicon layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Watanabe, M.; Actor, G.

    1977-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of the electron beam-induced current and the dependence of the effective diffusion length of the minority carriers on the penetration depth of the electron beam were employed for the analysis of the carrier recombination characteristics in heavily doped silicon layers. The analysis is based on the concept of the effective excitation strength of the carriers which takes into consideration all possible recombination sources. Two dimensional mapping of the surface recombination velocity of P-diffused Si layers will be presented together with a three dimensional mapping of minority carrier lifetime in ion implanted Si. Layers heavily doped with As exhibit improved recombination characteristics as compared to those of the layers doped with P.

  10. Photovoltaic Device Including A Boron Doping Profile In An I-Type Layer

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Liyou

    1993-10-26

    A photovoltaic cell for use in a single junction or multijunction photovoltaic device, which includes a p-type layer of a semiconductor compound including silicon, an i-type layer of an amorphous semiconductor compound including silicon, and an n-type layer of a semiconductor compound including silicon formed on the i-type layer. The i-type layer including an undoped first sublayer formed on the p-type layer, and a boron-doped second sublayer formed on the first sublayer.

  11. Single crystal diamond boron 'delta doped' nanometric layers for 2D electronic devices (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, James

    2016-10-01

    Use of diamond as a semiconductor material suffers from the high activation energy of all known impurity dopants (0.37 eV for Boron, 0.6 eV for Phosphorous). To achieve the simultaneous carrier concentration and mobility desired for devices operating at room temperature, growth of a nanometric thick `delta' layer doped to above the metal insulator transition adjacent to high mobility intrinsic material can provide a 2D high mobility conduction layer. Critical to obtaining the enhanced mobility of the carriers in the layer next to the `delta' doped layer is the abruptness of the doping interface. Single and multiple nanometer thick epitaxial layers of heavily boron `delta' doped diamond have been grown on high quality, intrinsic lab grown diamond single crystals. These layers were grown in a custom microwave plasma activated chemical vapor deposition reactor based on a rapid reactant switching technique. Characterization of the `delta' layers by various analytical techniques will be presented. Electrical measurements demonstrating enhanced hole mobility (100 to 800 cm2/V sec) as well as other electrical characterizations will be presented.

  12. Band Gap Engineering and Layer-by-Layer Band Gap Mapping of Selenium-doped Molybdenum Disulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Yongji; Liu, Zheng; Lupini, Andrew R; Lin, Junhao; Pantelides, Sokrates T; Pennycook, Stephen J; Zhou, Wu; Ajayan, Pullikel M

    2014-01-01

    Ternary two-dimensional dichalcogenide alloys exhibit compositionally modulated electronic structure and hence, control of dopant concentration within each layer of these layered compounds provides a powerful way to modify their properties. The challenge then becomes quantifying and locating the dopant atoms within each layer in order to better understand and fine-tune the desired properties. Here we report the synthesis of selenium substitutionally doped molybdenum disulfide atomic layers, with a broad range of selenium concentrations, resulting in band gap modulations of over 0.2 eV. Atomic scale chemical analysis using Z-contrast imaging provides direct maps of the dopant atom distribution in individual MoS2 layers and hence a measure of the local band gaps. Furthermore, in a bilayer structure, the dopant distribution of each layer is imaged independently. We demonstrate that each layer in the bilayer contains similar doping levels, randomly distributed, providing new insights into the growth mechanism and alloying behavior in two-dimensional dichalcogenide atomic layers. The results show that growth of uniform, ternary, two-dimensional dichalcogenide alloy films with tunable electronic properties is feasible.

  13. Layer-by-layer assembled heteroatom-doped graphene films with ultrahigh volumetric capacitance and rate capability for micro-supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhong-Shuai; Parvez, Khaled; Winter, Andreas; Vieker, Henning; Liu, Xianjie; Han, Sheng; Turchanin, Andrey; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus

    2014-07-09

    Highly uniform, ultrathin, layer-by-layer heteroatom (N, B) co-doped graphene films are fabricated for high-performance on-chip planar micro-supercapacitors with an ultrahigh volumetric capacitance of ∼488 F cm(-3) and excellent rate capability due to the synergistic effect of nitrogen and boron co-doping.

  14. Atomic-Layer-Confined Doping for Atomic-Level Insights into Visible-Light Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Lei, Fengcai; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Yongfu; Liang, Liang; Liu, Katong; Xu, Jiaqi; Zhang, Qun; Pan, Bicai; Luo, Yi; Xie, Yi

    2015-08-03

    A model of doping confined in atomic layers is proposed for atomic-level insights into the effect of doping on photocatalysis. Co doping confined in three atomic layers of In2S3 was implemented with a lamellar hybrid intermediate strategy. Density functional calculations reveal that the introduction of Co ions brings about several new energy levels and increased density of states at the conduction band minimum, leading to sharply increased visible-light absorption and three times higher carrier concentration. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy reveals that the electron transfer time of about 1.6 ps from the valence band to newly formed localized states is due to Co doping. The 25-fold increase in average recovery lifetime is believed to be responsible for the increased of electron-hole separation. The synthesized Co-doped In2S3 (three atomic layers) yield a photocurrent of 1.17 mA cm(-2) at 1.5 V vs. RHE, nearly 10 and 17 times higher than that of the perfect In2S3 (three atomic layers) and the bulk counterpart, respectively.

  15. Electronic structure evolution in doping of fullerene (C60) by ultra-thin layer molybdenum trioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chenggong; Liu, Xiaoliang; Wang, Congcong; Kauppi, John; Gao, Yongli

    2015-08-01

    Ultra-thin layer molybdenum oxide doping of fullerene has been investigated using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) can be observed directly with UPS. It is observed that the Fermi level position in fullerene is modified by ultra-thin-layer molybdenum oxide doping, and the HOMO onset is shifted to less than 1.3 eV below the Fermi level. The XPS results indicate that charge transfer was observed from the C60 to MoOx and Mo6+ oxides is the basis as hole dopants.

  16. Characterization of ALD Processed Gallium Doped TiO2 Hole Blocking Layer in an Inverted Organic Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Ryu, Sang Ouk

    2017-02-01

    To improve power conversion efficiency (PCE) of inverted structure organic solar cells a buffer layer, a hole blocking layer (HBL) was introduced between cathode and active photovoltaic layer. Gallium (Ga) doped TiO2 as a HBL was fabricated by means of atomic layer deposition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed the highest Ga-Ti complex binding characteristics was achieved at 5% doping concentration. Gallium doped TiO2 layer exhibited over 94% of optical transmittance at the process temperature of 200°C. The resulting PCE of inverted structure organic solar cell having 5% doping in the hole block layer was 2.7%. The PCE was improved 35% compared to the cell without gallium doping.

  17. Free-carrier absorption from Fibonacci sequences of. delta. -doped layers in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Sernelius, B.E. Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, University of Linkoping, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden)

    1989-09-15

    Theoretical results are reported for the dynamical resistivity and free-carrier absorption from Fibonacci sequences of {delta}-doped layers in silicon. Distinct peaks develop, with increasing generation number, in the region of plasmon excitations and the spectra show self-similarity properties. Numerical results are presented for sequences with generation numbers 5, 10, and 15, corresponding to a total number of layers approximately equal to 10, 100, and 1000, respectively.

  18. Carbon Doping of Compound Semiconductor Epitaxial Layers Grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition Using Carbon Tetrachloride.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Brian Thomas

    1990-01-01

    A dilute mixture of CCl_4 in high purity H_2 has been used as a carbon dopant source for rm Al_ {x}Ga_{1-x}As grown by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). To understand the mechanism for carbon incorporation from CCl_4 doping and to provide experimental parameters for the growth of carbon doped device structures, the effects of various crystal growth parameters on CCl _4 doping have been studied, including growth temperature, growth rate, V/III ratio, Al composition, and CCl_4 flow rate. Although CCl _4 is an effective p-type dopant for MOCVD rm Al_{x}Ga_ {1-x}As, injection of CCl_4 into the reactor during growth of InP resulted in no change in the carrier concentration or carbon concentration. Abrupt, heavy carbon doping spikes in GaAs have been obtained using CCl_4 without a dopant memory effect. By annealing samples with carbon doping spikes grown within undoped, n-type, and p-type GaAs, the carbon diffusion coefficient in GaAs at 825 ^circC has been estimated and has been found to depend strongly on the GaAs background doping. Heavily carbon doped rm Al_{x}Ga _{1-x}As/GaAs superlattices have been found to be more stable against impurity induced layer disordering (IILD) than Mg or Zn doped superlattices, indicating that the low carbon diffusion coefficient limits the IILD process. Carbon doping has been used in the base region on an Npn AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT). Transistors with 3 x 10 μm self-aligned emitter fingers have been fabricated which exhibit a current gain cutoff frequency of f_ {rm t} = 26 GHz.

  19. Efficiency Enhancement of Inverted Structure Perovskite Solar Cells via Oleamide Doping of PCBM Electron Transport Layer.

    PubMed

    Xia, Fei; Wu, Qiliang; Zhou, Pengcheng; Li, Yi; Chen, Xiang; Liu, Qing; Zhu, Jun; Dai, Songyuan; Lu, Yalin; Yang, Shangfeng

    2015-06-24

    An amphiphilic surfactant, oleamide, was applied to dope the PCBM electron transport layer (ETL) of inverted structure perovskite solar cells (ISPSCs), resulting in a dramatic efficiency enhancement. Under the optimized oleamide doping ratio of 5.0 wt %, the power conversion efficiency of the CH3NH3PbIxCl(3-x) perovskite-based ISPSC device is enhanced from 10.05% to 12.69%, and this is primarily due to the increases of both fill factor and short-circuit current. According to the surface morphology study of the perovskite/PCBM bilayer film, oleamide doping improves the coverage of PCBM ETL onto the perovskite layer, and this is beneficial for the interfacial contact between the perovskite layer and the Ag cathode and consequently the electron transport from perovskite to the Ag cathode. Such an improved electron transport induced by oleamide doping is further evidenced by the impedance spectroscopic study, revealing the prohibited electron-hole recombination at the interface between the perovskite layer and the Ag cathode.

  20. Onset of two-dimensional superconductivity in space charge doped few-layer molybdenum disulfide

    PubMed Central

    Biscaras, Johan; Chen, Zhesheng; Paradisi, Andrea; Shukla, Abhay

    2015-01-01

    Atomically thin films of layered materials such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) are of growing interest for the study of phase transitions in two-dimensions through electrostatic doping. Electrostatic doping techniques giving access to high carrier densities are needed to achieve such phase transitions. Here we develop a method of electrostatic doping which allows us to reach a maximum n-doping density of 4 × 1014 cm−2 in few-layer MoS2 on glass substrates. With increasing carrier density we first induce an insulator to metal transition and subsequently an incomplete metal to superconductor transition in MoS2 with critical temperature ≈10 K. Contrary to earlier reports, after the onset of superconductivity, the superconducting transition temperature does not depend on the carrier density. Our doping method and the results we obtain in MoS2 for samples as thin as bilayers indicates the potential of this approach. PMID:26525386

  1. As- or P-Doped Si Layers Grown by RPCVD for Emitter Application in SiGeC HBTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suvar, Erdal; Haralson, Erik; Hållstedt, Julius; Radamson, Henry H.; Östling, Mikael

    2004-01-01

    A new module for the emitter formation in a bipolar transistor is presented. Arsenic- or phosphorus-doped polycrystalline silicon layer for the emitter formation is deposited in a reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor using silane as the silicon source gas. Characteristics such as the carrier concentration, conductivity, surface morphology, and thermal stability of the polycrystalline-silicon layer as well as the influence this layer has on a SiGeC transistor structure during the drive-in step area studied. The active carrier concentration of the as-grown sample is strongly dependent on the deposition temperature, especially arsenic doped layers which exhibit more than one order of magnitude difference. However, the carrier concentration for the As- or P-doped layer were comparable to that of a standard in-situ doped poly-crystalline layer after a dopant activation at 925°C for 10s.

  2. Mitigating voltage and capacity fading of lithium-rich layered cathodes by lanthanum doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ruizhi; Wang, Gang; Liu, Meihong; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Xianyou; Shu, Hongbo; Yang, Xiukang; Huang, Weihua

    2016-12-01

    La-doped lithium-rich layered oxide material Li1.2Mn0.54-xNi0.13Co0.13LaxO2 (x = 0.01, 0.02, 0.03) is firstly synthesized via a solvothermal method and subsequent high-temperature calcination technique. The effects of La substitution for partial Mn on the structure and electrochemical performance of materials are systematically studied by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical measurement. The results reveal that La is effectively and homogenously doped into the materials, which can expand pathway for intercalation/deintercalation of Li+ ions. In addition, owing to La doping, the Li1.2Mn0.52Ni0.13Co0.13La0.02O2 sample exhibits 93.2% capacity retention after 100 cycles at 1 C. More importantly, this doping can effectively restrain the decrease of average discharge voltage upon cycling, which is one of the longstanding fatal drawbacks for lithium-rich layered oxide material. Moreover, La doping can stabilize the layered framework upon long term cycling and suppress voltage fading, and thus resulting in the better cycling performance. Additionally, the rate capability is also improved by La doping due to the higher diffusion velocity of Li+ ions.

  3. Dopant mapping of Be δ-doped layers in GaAs tailored by counterdoping using scanning tunneling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Ph.; Landrock, S.; Chiu, Y. P.; Breuer, U.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.

    2012-11-01

    The effect of counterdoping on the Be dopant distribution in delta (δ)-doped layers embedded in Si-doped and intrinsic GaAs is investigated by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy. δ-doped layers in intrinsic GaAs exhibit a large spreading, whereas those surrounded by Si-doped GaAs remain spatially localized. The different spreading is explained by the Fermi-level pinning at the growth surface, which leads to an increased Ga vacancies concentration with increasing Si counterdoping. The Ga vacancies act as sinks for the diffusing Be dopant atoms, hence retarding the spreading.

  4. Characterization of nitrogen doped silicon-carbon multi-layer nanostructures obtained by TVA method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciupina, Victor; Vasile, Eugeniu; Porosnicu, Corneliu; Prodan, Gabriel C.; Lungu, Cristian P.; Vladoiu, Rodica; Jepu, Ionut; Mandes, Aurelia; Dinca, Virginia; Caraiane, Aureliana; Nicolescu, Virginia; Dinca, Paul; Zaharia, Agripina

    2016-09-01

    Ionized nitrogen doped Si-C multi-layer thin films used to increase the oxidation resistance of carbon have been obtained by Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) method. The 100 nm thickness carbon thin films were deposed on silicon or glass substrates and then seven N doped Si-C successively layers on carbon were deposed. To characterize the microstructure, tribological and electrical properties of as prepared N-SiC multi-layer films, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, STEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDXS), electrical and tribological techniques were achieved. Samples containing multi-layer N doped Si-C coating on carbon were investigated up to 1000°C. Oxidation protection is based on the reaction between SiC and elemental oxygen, resulting SiO2 and CO2, and also on the reaction involving N, O and Si-C, resulting silicon oxynitride (SiNxOy) with a continuously vary composition, and because nitrogen can acts as a trapping barrier for oxygen. The tribological properties of structures were studied using a tribometer with ball-on-disk configuration from CSM device with sapphire ball. The measurements show that the friction coefficient on the N-SiC is smaller than friction coefficient on uncoated carbon layer. Electrical conductivity at different temperatures was measured in constant current mode. The results confirm the fact that conductivity is greater when nitrogen content is greater. To justify the temperature dependence of conductivity we assume a thermally activated electrical transport mechanism.

  5. A study of capping layers for sulfur monolayer doping on III-V junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yum, J. H.; Shin, H. S.; Hill, R.; Oh, J.; Lee, H. D.; Mushinski, Ryan M.; Hudnall, Todd W.; Bielawski, C. W.; Banerjee, S. K.; Loh, W. Y.; Wang, Wei-E.; Kirsch, Paul

    2012-12-01

    Recently, high dosage doping on Si multi-gate field effect transistors and III-V planar structures using a self-limiting monolayer doping technique was reported to overcome challenges in scaling nano-sized transistors. The stoichiometry or composition of the capping layer was found to affect the diffusion efficiency of this process. In this work, we study the effect of a capping layer in sulfur monolayer doping on III-V junctions. Various capping temperatures and growth methods were compared. Based on the theoretical and experimental results, we suggest an optimized scheme consisting of a bi-layer capping structure. From Hall measurements and secondary ion mass spectrometry, a SiNx/BeO bi-layer capping, compared to single layer cap, exhibited the best results with a surface sheet resistance of 232 Ω/sq, junction depth of 11 nm, dopant profile abruptness of 3.5 nm/dec, electrically active S concentration of 4.9 × 1019/cm3 (=1.34 × 1013/cm2), and 3 times higher activation efficiency without significant transient-enhanced dopant diffusion.

  6. Effect of a delta-doping green emitting layer in white organic light-emitting device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Juan; Yu, Junsheng; Jiang, Yadong

    2012-10-01

    White organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs) based on a double-emitting layer (EML) structure were fabricated, while phosphorescent blue and yellow emitters were employed. An ultra-thin layer of non-doped green tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium [Ir(ppy)3], which was considered as delta-doping layer, was inserted between the two EMLs for optimization. Furthermore, effect of adjusting thickness of this thin layer on device performance was studied. The results showed that the optimized WOLED consisting of 1-nm Ir(ppy)3 EML achieved a maximum luminance of 29,100 cd/m2, maximum external quantum efficiency of 7%, maximum current efficiency of 25.3 cd/A and maximum power efficiency of 7.8 lm/W, together with low efficiency roll-off over a wide luminance range. Meanwhile, the white emission with Commission Internationale del'Eclariage (CIE) coordinates of (0.382,0.446) at a driving voltage of 10 V were observed. The performance enhancement is ascribed to improved charge carrier balance through introduction the highly efficient Ir(ppy)3 as the thin delta-doping layer.

  7. Biophotonic low-coherence sensors with boron-doped diamond thin layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milewska, D.; Karpienko, K.; Sobaszek, M.; Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, M.

    2016-03-01

    Low-coherence sensors using Fabry-Perot interferometers are finding new applications in biophotonic sensing, especially due to the rapid technological advances in the development of new materials. In this paper we discuss the possibility of using boron-doped nanodiamond layers to protect mirror in a Fabry-Perot interferometer. A low-coherence sensor using Fabry-Perot interferometer with a boron-doped nanodiamond (B-NCD) thin protective layer has been developed. B-NCD layers with different boron doping level were investigated. The boron level, expressed as the boron to carbon (/[C]) ratio in the gas phase, was: 0, 2000, 5000 or 10000 ppm. B-NCD layers were grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The sensing Fabry-Perot interferometer, working in the reflective mode, was connected to the source and to the optical processor by single-mode fibers. Superluminescent diodes with Gaussian spectral density were used as sources, while an optical spectrum analyzer was used as an optical processor. The design of the sensing interferometer was optimized to attain the maximum interference contrast. The experiment has shown that B-NCD thin layers can be successfully used in biophotonic sensors.

  8. Bipolar doping of double-layer graphene vertical heterostructures with hydrogenated boron nitride.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhun; Wang, Ru-Zhi; Liu, Li-Min; Lau, Woon-Ming; Yan, Hui

    2015-05-07

    Using first-principles calculations, we examined the bipolar doping of double-layer graphene vertical heterostructures, which are constructed by hydrogenated boron nitride (BN) sheets sandwiched into two parallel graphene monolayers. The built-in potential difference in hydrogenated BN breaks the interlayer symmetry, resulting in the p- and n-type doping of two graphene layers at 0.83 and -0.8 eV, respectively. By tuning the interlayer spacing between the graphene and hydrogenated BN, the interfacial dipole and screening charge distribution can be significantly affected, which produces large modulations in band alignments, doping levels and tunnel barriers. Furthermore, we present an analytical model to predicate the doping level as a function of the average interlayer spacing. With large interlayer spacings, the "pillow effect" (Pauli repulsion at the highly charge overlapped interface) is diminished and the calculated Dirac point shifts are in good accordance with our prediction models. Our investigations suggest that this double-layer graphene heterostructures constructed using two-dimensional Janus anisotropic materials offer exciting opportunities for developing novel nanoscale optoelectronic and electronic devices.

  9. (abstract) All Epitaxial Edge-geometry SNS Devices with Doped PBCO and YBCO Normal Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barner, J. B.; Hunt, B. D.; Foote, M. C.

    1995-01-01

    We will present our results on tapered-edge-geometry SNS weak link fabricated from c-axis oriented base-, counterelectrode and normal layers using a variety of processing conditions. To date, we have employed a variety of different normal materials (Co-doped YBCO, Y-doped PBCO, Ca-doped PBCO). We have been examining the junction fabrication process in detail and we will present our methods. In particular, we have been examining both epitaxial and non-epitaxial milling mask overlayers and we will present a comparison of both methods. These devices behave similar to the expectations of the resisively shunted junction model and conventional SNS proximity effect models but with some differences which will be discussed. We will present the detailed systematics of our junctions including device parameters versus temperature, rf and dc magnetic response for the various processing conditions.

  10. Controlled growth of antimony-doped tin dioxide thin films by atomic layer epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viirola, H.; Niinistoe, L.

    1994-11-01

    Antimony-doped tin dioxide thin films were deposited on glass substrates by atomic layer epitaxy using SnCl4, SbCl5 and H2O as reactants. The growth experiments were carried out at 500 C. The effect of Sb doping on the growth rate, crystal texture and electrical and optical properties was studied. Spectrophotometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, as well as sheet resistance and Hall measurements were used to characterize the films. The films were highly uniform with only small thickness and sheet resistance variations. The films were polycrystalline with their crystallites having a preferred orientation, which depended on the Sb doping level and film thickness.

  11. Graphene/ferroelectrics/graphene hybrid structure: Asymmetric doping of graphene layers

    SciTech Connect

    Duong, Dinh Loc; Lee, Si Young; Kim, Seong Kyu; Lee, Young Hee

    2015-06-15

    We report graphene/ferroelectric/graphene hybrid structure to demonstrate an asymmetrical doping in two graphene layers, one side with electrons and another side with holes. Two ferroelectrics, a poly(vinylidenefluoride) (PVDF) and a hydrofluorinated graphene, were used to demonstrate the concept with density functional calculations, revealing the Fermi level shift of 0.35 and 0.75 eV, respectively. This concept was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy using graphene/poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE))/graphene hybrid, which can easily form β-phase close to our simulation model. G-band peak position was downshifted for electron doping and upshifted for hole doping. This hybrid structure opens an opportunity to study bilayer graphene system with a controllable thickness for a wide range of high carrier concentration.

  12. Transparent layered YAG ceramics with structured Yb doping produced via tape casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostaša, Jan; Piancastelli, Andreana; Toci, Guido; Vannini, Matteo; Biasini, Valentina

    2017-03-01

    The flexibility of the ceramic production process, in particular in terms of shaping and spatial control of distribution of active ions, is one of the strong points in favor of transparent ceramics. In high power lasers in particular, where thermal management is a critical issue, the finely controlled design of spatial distribution of the doping ions within the laser gain media can reduce undesired thermally induced effects and large temperature gradients, and thus enhance the efficiency and laser beam quality especially under increased thermal load. In the present work transparent structured YAG ceramics with Yb doping were produced by tape casting followed by thermal compression of assembled tapes and sintered under high vacuum. The thermal compression of variously doped tape cast layers is a very promising method because it allows a high precision and good control over dopant distribution in the sintered material. After sintering, the distribution of Yb across the layers was characterized by SEM-EDX and the thickness of Yb diffusion zones between the layers with different Yb content was measured. Optical homogeneity was assessed by means of optical transmittance mapping of the samples and by 2D scanning of laser output. The effect of structured dopant distribution on laser performance was measured in quasi-CW and CW regime with different duty factors. Slope efficiency values higher than 50% were measured both in quasi-CW and in CW lasing conditions. The results are in good agreement with previously calculated predictions, confirming the beneficial effect of structured doping on laser performances and enlightening the impact of the residual scattering losses. Compared to other processing methods, such as the pressing of granulated powders, tape casting followed by thermal compression leads to straight and narrow interfaces between layers with different composition and allows to build structures composed of extremely thin layers with defined dopant content.

  13. Titanium doped silicon layers with very high concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Olea, J.; Toledano-Luque, M.; Pastor, D.; Gonzalez-Diaz, G.; Martil, I.

    2008-07-01

    Ion implantation of Ti into Si at high doses has been performed. After laser annealing the maximum average of substitutional Ti atoms is about 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. Hall effect measurements show n-type samples with mobility values of about 400 cm{sup 2}/V s at room temperature. These results clearly indicate that Ti solid solubility limit in Si has been exceeded by far without the formation of a titanium silicide layer. This is a promising result toward obtaining of an intermediate band into Si that allows the design of a new generation of high efficiency solar cell using Ti implanted Si wafers.

  14. Self-Doping, O2-Stable, n-Type Interfacial Layer for Organic Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, T. H. III; Hains, A. W.; Chen, H. Y.; Gregg, B. A.

    2012-04-01

    Solid films of a water-soluble dicationic perylene diimide salt, perylene bis(2-ethyltrimethylammonium hydroxide imide), Petma{sup +}OH{sup -}, are strongly doped n-type by dehydration and reversibly de-doped by hydration. The hydrated films consist almost entirely of the neutral perylene diimide, PDI, while the dehydrated films contain {approx}50% PDI anions. The conductivity increases by five orders of magnitude upon dehydration, probably limited by film roughness, while the work function decreases by 0.74 V, consistent with an n-type doping density increase of {approx}12 orders of magnitude. Remarkably, the PDI anions are stable in dry air up to 120 C. The work function of the doped film, {phi} (3.96 V vs. vacuum), is unusually negative for an O{sub 2}-stable contact. Petma{sup +} OH{sup -} is also characterized as an interfacial layer, IFL, in two different types of organic photovoltaic cells. Results are comparable to state of the art cesium carbonate IFLs, but may improve if film morphology can be better controlled. The films are stable and reversible over many months in air and light. The mechanism of this unusual self-doping process may involve the change in relative potentials of the ions in the film caused by their deshielding and compaction as water is removed, leading to charge transfer when dry.

  15. Doped hole transport layer for efficiency enhancement in planar heterojunction organolead trihalide perovskite solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Qi; Bi, Cheng; Huang, Jinsong

    2015-05-06

    We demonstrated the efficiency of a solution-processed planar heterojunction organometallic trihalide perovskite solar cell can be increased to 17.5% through doping the hole transporting layer for reducing the resistivity. Doped Poly(triaryl amine) (PTAA) by 2,3,5,6-Tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-Tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) reduced device series resistance by three-folds, increasing the device fill factor to 74%, open circuit voltage to 1.09 V without sacrificing the short circuit current. As a result, this study reveals that the high resistivity of currently broadly applied polymer hole transport layer limits the device efficiency, and points a new direction to improve the device efficiency.

  16. Impact of the modulation doping layer on the ν = 5/2 anisotropy

    DOE PAGES

    Shi, X.; Pan, W.; Baldwin, K. W.; ...

    2015-03-30

    We have carried out a systematic study of the tilted magnetic field induced anisotropy at the Landau level filling factor ν = 5/2 in a series of high quality GaAs quantum wells, where the setback distance (d) between the modulation doping layer and the GaAs quantum well is varied from 33 to 164 nm. We have observed that in the sample of the smallest d, electronic transport is anisotropic when the in-plane magnetic field (Bip) is parallel to the [1–10] crystallographic direction, but remains more or less isotropic when Bip // [110]. In contrast, in the sample of largest d,more » electronic transport is anisotropic in both crystallographic directions. Lastly, our results clearly show that the modulation doping layer plays an important role in the tilted field induced ν = 5/2 anisotropy.« less

  17. Growth of delta-doped layers on silicon CCD/S for enhanced ultraviolet response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor); Grunthaner, Paula J. (Inventor); Grunthaner, Frank J. (Inventor); Terhune, Robert W. (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The backside surface potential well of a backside-illuminated CCD is confined to within about half a nanometer of the surface by using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) to grow a delta-doped silicon layer on the back surface. Delta-doping in an MBE process is achieved by temporarily interrupting the evaporated silicon source during MBE growth without interrupting the evaporated p+ dopant source (e.g., boron). This produces an extremely sharp dopant profile in which the dopant is confined to only a few atomic layers, creating an electric field high enough to confine the backside surface potential well to within half a nanometer of the surface. Because the probability of UV-generated electrons being trapped by such a narrow potential well is low, the internal quantum efficiency of the CCD is nearly 100% throughout the UV wavelength range. Furthermore, the quantum efficiency is quite stable.

  18. Impact of the modulation doping layer on the ν = 5/2 anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, X.; Pan, W.; Baldwin, K. W.; West, K. W.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; Tsui, D. C.

    2015-03-30

    We have carried out a systematic study of the tilted magnetic field induced anisotropy at the Landau level filling factor ν = 5/2 in a series of high quality GaAs quantum wells, where the setback distance (d) between the modulation doping layer and the GaAs quantum well is varied from 33 to 164 nm. We have observed that in the sample of the smallest d, electronic transport is anisotropic when the in-plane magnetic field (Bip) is parallel to the [1–10] crystallographic direction, but remains more or less isotropic when Bip // [110]. In contrast, in the sample of largest d, electronic transport is anisotropic in both crystallographic directions. Lastly, our results clearly show that the modulation doping layer plays an important role in the tilted field induced ν = 5/2 anisotropy.

  19. Optical anisotropy of tungsten-doped ReS2 layered crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, H. P.; Lin, K. H.; Huang, Y. S.

    2016-12-01

    The optical anisotropy of tungsten-doped rhenium disulfide (ReS2:W) layered crystals have been studied by polarization and temperature dependent piezoreflectance (PzR) spectroscopy from 25 to 300 K. The direct band edge excitonic transitions E1ex feature at E∥b polarization and E2ex feature at E⊥b polarization of tungsten-doped ReS2 layered crystals were determined from a detailed line-shape fit of the PzR spectra. The PzR spectra reveal a slightly blue shifted of excitonic transition with the tungsten incorporation. The angular dependence of the excitonic feature amplitudes agrees with Malus' rule. The parameters that describe the temperature variation of the energies and broadening function of the excitonic transitions are determined and discussed.

  20. Atomic Layer-Deposited Titanium-Doped Vanadium Oxide Thin Films and Their Thermistor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuyu; Yu, Shifeng; Lu, Ming; Liu, Mingzhao; Zuo, Lei

    2017-04-01

    Here we report the enhancement in the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of atomic layer-deposited vanadium oxide thin films through the doping of titanium oxide. The Hall effect measurement provides a potential explanation for the phenomenon. The composition and morphology of the thin films are investigated by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The high TCR, good uniformity, and low processing temperature of the material make it a good candidate for thermistor application.

  1. MOCVD Grown Si-Doped n+ InP Layers for the Subcollector Region in HBTs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    with growth Experimental rates -4 A/sec. The dopant gas was 0.5 % silane in hydrogen (concentration - 3.3 x 10-6 m.f. per sccm). To explore the...proportional contact layer we have chosen to show the electrical data as (Constant silane flow) the conductivity, a, and the Hall effect free carrier...charge and pi the electron Silane flow Linearly proportional mobility). Trimethylindium flow Inversely proportional Figure 1 shows the effect of Si-doping

  2. Formation of manganese {delta}-doped atomic layer in wurtzite GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Meng; Chinchore, Abhijit; Wang Kangkang; Mandru, Andrada-Oana; Liu Yinghao; Smith, Arthur R.

    2012-09-01

    We describe the formation of a {delta}-doped manganese layer embedded within c-plane wurtzite gallium nitride using a special molecular beam epitaxy growth process. Manganese is first deposited on the gallium-poor GaN (0001) surface, forming a {radical}(3) Multiplication-Sign {radical}(3)-R30 Degree-Sign reconstructed phase. This well-defined surface reconstruction is then nitrided using plasma nitridation, and gallium nitride is overgrown. The manganese content of the {radical}(3) Multiplication-Sign {radical}(3)-R30 Degree-Sign phase, namely one Mn per each {radical}(3) Multiplication-Sign {radical}(3)-R30 Degree-Sign unit cell, implies that the MnGaN alloy layer has a Mn concentration of up to 33%. The structure and chemical content of the surface are monitored beginning from the initial growth stage up through the overgrowth of 20 additional monolayers (MLs) of GaN. An exponential-like drop-off of the Mn signal with increasing GaN monolayers, as measured by Auger electron spectroscopy, indicates that the highly concentrated Mn layer remains at the {delta}-doped interface. A model of the resultant {delta}-doped structure is formulated based on the experimental data, and implications for possible spintronic applications are discussed.

  3. Density of states determination in organic donor-acceptor blend layers enabled by molecular doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Janine; Ray, Debdutta; Kleemann, Hans; Pahner, Paul; Schwarze, Martin; Koerner, Christian; Vandewal, Koen; Leo, Karl

    2015-06-01

    Charge carrier transport is a key parameter determining the efficiency of organic solar cells, and is closely related to the density of free and trapped states. For trap characterization, impedance spectroscopy is a suitable, non-invasive method, applicable to complete organic semiconductor devices. In order to contribute to the capacitive signal, the traps must be filled with charge carriers. Typically, trap filling is achieved by illuminating the device or by injecting charge carriers through application of a forward bias voltage. However, in both cases, the exact number of charge carriers in the device is not known and depends strongly on the measurement conditions. Here, hole trap states of the model blend layer ZnPc:C60 are filled by weak p-doping, enabling trap characterization in a blend layer at a controlled hole density. We evaluate impedance spectra at different temperatures in order to determine the density of occupied states (DOOS) directly from the capacitance-frequency spectra by assuming a simple energy diagram. The reconstructed DOOS distribution is analyzed at different doping concentrations and device thicknesses and compared to thermally stimulated current measurements performed on the same devices. In both methods, a pronounced Gaussian peak at about 0.4 eV below the transport level is found as well as deep, exponential tail states, providing a deeper insight into the density of states distribution of this donor-acceptor blend layer. Additionally, the effect of doping-induced trap filling on the solar cell characteristics is studied in these devices.

  4. Crystal Lattice Defects in MBE Grown Si Layers Heavily Doped with Er

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, N. D.; Werner, P.; Vdovin, V. I.; Denisov, D. V.; Sobolev, N. A.; Gösele, U.

    The main types of crystal structure defects in [Er]>2×1019 doped layers are: (i) spherical Er and (ii) ellipsoidal ErSi precipitates, as well as (iii) ErSi2 platelets on {111} planes. In the sample with [Er]=4x1019, small complexes consisting of tiny Er precipitates and four petals of ErSi2 platelets have been found additionally. The layer with [Er]= 8×1018 cm-3 was defect free. The formation of silicides from a supersaturated solid solution and Er precipitates is accompanied by the emission of vacancies V resulting in the formation of pores, V-V and V-Er complexes.

  5. Fabrication and characterization of perovskite-type solar cells with Nb-doped TiO2 layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Jo; Oku, Takeo; Suzuki, Atsushi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid heterojunction solar cells containing perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 using Nb-doped TiO2 as an electron-transporting layer were fabricated and characterized. Nb-doped TiO2 layer showed an improvement of the short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency using Ti0.95Nb0.05O2.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of perovskite-type solar cells with Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} layers

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Jo; Oku, Takeo Suzuki, Atsushi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid heterojunction solar cells containing perovskite CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} using Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} as an electron-transporting layer were fabricated and characterized. Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} layer showed an improvement of the short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency using Ti{sub 0.95}Nb{sub 0.05}O{sub 2}.

  7. Electrical conductivity of reconstructed Si(111) surface with sodium-doped C{sub 60} layers

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukanov, D. A. Saranin, A. A.; Ryzhkova, M. V.; Borisenko, E. A.; Zotov, A. V.

    2015-01-05

    Electrical conductance of sodium-doped C{sub 60} ultra-thin layers (1–6 monolayers) grown on the Na-adsorbed Si(111)√3 × √3-Au surface has been studied in situ by four-point probe technique, combined with low-energy electron diffraction observations. Evidence of conductance channel formation through the C{sub 60} ultrathin layer is demonstrated as a result of Na dosing of 3 and 6 monolayers thick C{sub 60} layers. The observed changes in surface conductivity can be attributed to the formation of fulleride-like NaC{sub 60} and Na{sub 2}C{sub 60} compound layers.

  8. Electric double layer capacitors employing nitrogen and sulfur co-doped, hierarchically porous graphene electrodes with synergistically enhanced performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Aravindaraj G.; Samuthirapandian, Amaresh; Kim, Dong-Won

    2017-01-01

    Hierarchically porous graphene nanosheets co-doped with nitrogen and sulfur are synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method, followed by a pore activation step. Pore architectures are controlled by varying the ratio of chemical activation agents to graphene, and its influence on the capacitive performance is evaluated. The electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) assembled with optimized dual-doped graphene delivers a high specific capacitance of 146.6 F g-1 at a current density of 0.8 A g-1, which is higher than that of cells with un-doped and single-heteroatom doped graphene. The EDLC with dual-doped graphene electrodes exhibits stable cycling performance with a capacitance retention of 94.5% after 25,000 cycles at a current density of 3.2 A g-1. Such a good performance can be attributed to synergistic effects due to co-doping of the graphene nanosheets and the presence of hierarchical porous structures.

  9. Surface transfer doping induced effective modulation on ambipolar characteristics of few-layer black phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Du; Han, Cheng; Wu, Jing; Zhong, Shu; Liu, Yiyang; Lin, Jiadan; Zhang, Xue-Ao; Ping Hu, Wen; Özyilmaz, Barbaros; Neto, A H Castro; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen; Chen, Wei

    2015-03-12

    Black phosphorus, a fast emerging two-dimensional material, has been configured as field effect transistors, showing a hole-transport-dominated ambipolar characteristic. Here we report an effective modulation on ambipolar characteristics of few-layer black phosphorus transistors through in situ surface functionalization with caesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3), respectively. Cs2CO3 is found to strongly electron dope black phosphorus. The electron mobility of black phosphorus is significantly enhanced to ~27 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) after 10 nm Cs2CO3 modification, indicating a greatly improved electron-transport behaviour. In contrast, MoO3 decoration demonstrates a giant hole-doping effect. In situ photoelectron spectroscopy characterization reveals significant surface charge transfer occurring at the dopants/black phosphorus interfaces. Moreover, the surface-doped black phosphorus devices exhibit a largely enhanced photodetection behaviour. Our findings coupled with the tunable nature of the surface transfer doping scheme ensure black phosphorus as a promising candidate for further complementary logic electronics.

  10. Single layer graphene band hybridization with silver nanoplates: Interplay between doping and plasmonic enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, Salmaan R.; Lim, Guh-Hwan; Flanders, Stuart J.; Taylor, Adam B.; Lim, Byungkwon; Chon, James W. M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we report single layer graphene (SLG) hybridized with silver nanoplates, in which nanoplates act as either a charge doping or a field enhancement source for the SLG Raman spectrum. Surprisingly, the stiffening of both G and 2D peaks of more than 10 cm-1 was observed with no plasmonic enhancement of peaks, indicating that p-doping from nanoplates on SLG is occurring. Such observation is explained in terms of the contact separation distance between the graphene and the silver nanoplates being enough (˜4 Å) to cause a Fermi level shift in graphene to allow p-doping. When nanoplates were modified in shape with laser irradiation by either photothermal plasmon printing or laser induced ablation, the charge doping was lifted and the strong plasmonic enhancement of Raman signals was observed, indicating that the separation distance is increased. Further, when the nanoplates are oxidized, the two effects on the Raman bands of SLG are turned off, returning the Raman signals back to the original SLG state.

  11. Surface transfer doping induced effective modulation on ambipolar characteristics of few-layer black phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Du; Han, Cheng; Wu, Jing; Zhong, Shu; Liu, Yiyang; Lin, Jiadan; Zhang, Xue-Ao; Ping Hu, Wen; Özyilmaz, Barbaros; Neto, A. H. Castro; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen; Chen, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Black phosphorus, a fast emerging two-dimensional material, has been configured as field effect transistors, showing a hole-transport-dominated ambipolar characteristic. Here we report an effective modulation on ambipolar characteristics of few-layer black phosphorus transistors through in situ surface functionalization with caesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3), respectively. Cs2CO3 is found to strongly electron dope black phosphorus. The electron mobility of black phosphorus is significantly enhanced to ~27 cm2 V-1 s-1 after 10 nm Cs2CO3 modification, indicating a greatly improved electron-transport behaviour. In contrast, MoO3 decoration demonstrates a giant hole-doping effect. In situ photoelectron spectroscopy characterization reveals significant surface charge transfer occurring at the dopants/black phosphorus interfaces. Moreover, the surface-doped black phosphorus devices exhibit a largely enhanced photodetection behaviour. Our findings coupled with the tunable nature of the surface transfer doping scheme ensure black phosphorus as a promising candidate for further complementary logic electronics.

  12. Low-frequency dielectric properties of intrinsic and Al-doped rutile TiO2 thin films grown by the atomic layer deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassmi, M.; Pointet, J.; Gonon, P.; Bsiesy, A.; Vallée, C.; Jomni, F.

    2016-06-01

    Dielectric spectroscopy is carried out for intrinsic and aluminum-doped TiO2 rutile films which are deposited on RuO2 by the atomic layer deposition technique. Capacitance and conductance are measured in the 0.1 Hz-100 kHz range, for ac electric fields up to 1 MVrms/cm. Intrinsic films have a much lower dielectric constant than rutile crystals. This is ascribed to the presence of oxygen vacancies which depress polarizability. When Al is substituted for Ti, the dielectric constant further decreases. By considering Al-induced modification of polarizability, a theoretical relationship between the dielectric constant and the Al concentration is proposed. Al doping drastically decreases the loss in the very low frequency part of the spectrum. However, Al doping has almost no effect on the loss at high frequencies. The effect of Al doping on loss is discussed through models of hopping transport implying intrinsic oxygen vacancies and Al related centers. When increasing the ac electric field in the MVrms/cm range, strong voltage non-linearities are evidenced in undoped films. The conductance increases exponentially with the ac field and the capacitance displays negative values (inductive behavior). Hopping barrier lowering is proposed to explain high-field effects. Finally, it is shown that Al doping strongly improves the high-field dielectric behavior.

  13. Enhancement of carrier mobility in thin Ge layer by Sn co-doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prucnal, S.; Liu, F.; Berencén, Y.; Vines, L.; Bischoff, L.; Grenzer, J.; Andric, S.; Tiagulskyi, S.; Pyszniak, K.; Turek, M.; Drozdziel, A.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.; Skorupa, W.

    2016-10-01

    We present the development, optimization and fabrication of high carrier mobility materials based on GeOI wafers co-doped with Sn and P. The Ge thin films were fabricated using plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition followed by ion implantation and explosive solid phase epitaxy, which is induced by millisecond flash lamp annealing. The influence of the recrystallization mechanism and co-doping of Sn on the carrier distribution and carrier mobility both in n-type and p-type GeOI wafers is discussed in detail. This finding significantly contributes to the state-of-the-art of high carrier mobility-GeOI wafers since the results are comparable with GeOI commercial wafers fabricated by epitaxial layer transfer or SmartCut technology.

  14. Manufacture of silicon-based devices having disordered sulfur-doped surface layers

    DOEpatents

    Carey, III, James Edward; Mazur, Eric

    2008-04-08

    The present invention provides methods of fabricating a radiation-absorbing semiconductor wafer by irradiating at least one surface location of a silicon substrate, e.g., an n-doped crystalline silicon, by a plurality of temporally short laser pulses, e.g., femtosecond pulses, while exposing that location to a substance, e.g., SF.sub.6, having an electron-donating constituent so as to generate a substantially disordered surface layer (i.e., a microstructured layer) that incorporates a concentration of that electron-donating constituent, e.g., sulfur. The substrate is also annealed at an elevated temperature and for a duration selected to enhance the charge carrier density in the surface layer. For example, the substrate can be annealed at a temperature in a range of about 700 K to about 900 K.

  15. The effects of layering in ferroelectric Si-doped HfO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomenzo, Patrick D.; Takmeel, Qanit; Zhou, Chuanzhen; Liu, Yang; Fancher, Chris M.; Jones, Jacob L.; Moghaddam, Saeed; Nishida, Toshikazu

    2014-08-01

    Atomic layer deposited Si-doped HfO2 thin films approximately 10 nm thick are deposited with various Si-dopant concentrations and distributions. The ferroelectric behavior of the HfO2 thin films are shown to be dependent on both the Si mol. % and the distribution of Si-dopants. Metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor capacitors are shown to exhibit a tunable remanent polarization through the adjustment of the Si-dopant distribution at a constant Si concentration. Inhomogeneous layering of Si-dopants within the thin films effectively lowers the remanent polarization. A pinched hysteresis loop is observed for higher Si-dopant concentrations and found to be dependent on the Si layering distribution.

  16. Improving the performance of perovskite solar cells with glycerol-doped PEDOT:PSS buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian-Feng, Li; Chuang, Zhao; Heng, Zhang; Jun-Feng, Tong; Peng, Zhang; Chun-Yan, Yang; Yang-Jun, Xia; Duo-Wang, Fan

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effects of glycerol doping on transmittance, conductivity and surface morphology of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate)) (PEDOT:PSS) and its influence on the performance of perovskite solar cells. . The conductivity of PEDOT:PSS is improved obviously by doping glycerol. The maximum of the conductivity is 0.89 S/cm when the doping concentration reaches 6 wt%, which increases about 127 times compared with undoped. The perovskite solar cells are fabricated with a configuration of indium tin oxide (ITO)/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbI3/PC61BM/Al, where PEDOT:PSS and PC61BM are used as hole and electron transport layers, respectively. The results show an improvement of hole charge transport as well as an increase of short-circuit current density and a reduction of series resistance, owing to the higher conductivity of the doped PEDOT:PSS. Consequently, it improves the whole performance of perovskite solar cell. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the device is improved from 8.57% to 11.03% under AM 1.5 G (100 mW/cm2 illumination) after the buffer layer has been modified. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61264002, 61166002, 91333206, and 51463011), the Natural Science Foundation of Gansu Province, China (Grant No. 1308RJZA159), the New Century Excellent Talents in University of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. NCET-13-0840), the Research Project of Graduate Teacher of Gansu Province, China (Grant No. 2014A-0042), and the Postdoctoral Science Foundation from Lanzhou Jiaotong University, China.

  17. Plasma enhanced atomic layer batch processing of aluminum doped titanium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lehnert, Wolfgang; Ruhl, Guenther; Gschwandtner, Alexander

    2012-01-15

    Among many promising high-k dielectrics, TiO{sub 2} is an interesting candidate because of its relatively high k value of over 40 and its easy integration into existing semiconductor manufacturing schemes. The most critical issues of TiO{sub 2} are its low electrical stability and its high leakage current density. However, doping TiO{sub 2} with Al has shown to yield significant improvement of layer quality on Ru electrodes [S. K. Kim et al., Adv. Mater. 20, 1429 (2008)]. In this work we investigated if atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al doped TiO{sub 2} is feasible in a batch system. Electrical characterizations were done using common electrode materials like TiN, TaN, or W. Additionally, the effect of plasma enhanced processing in this reactor was studied. For this investigation a production batch ALD furnace has been retrofitted with a plasma source which can be used for post deposition anneals with oxygen radicals as well as for directly plasma enhanced ALD. After evaluation of several Ti precursors a deposition process for AlTiO{sub x} with excellent film thickness and composition uniformity was developed. The effects of post deposition anneals, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interlayers between electrode and TiO{sub 2}, Al doping concentration, plasma enhanced deposition and electrode material type on leakage current density are shown. An optimized AlTiO{sub x} deposition process on TaN electrodes yields to leakage current density of 5 x 10{sup -7} A/cm{sup 2} at 2 V and k values of about 35. Thus, it could be demonstrated that a plasma enhanced batch ALD process for Al doped TiO{sub 2} is feasible with acceptable leakage current density on a standard electrode material.

  18. Enhancement of Perovskite Solar Cells Efficiency using N-Doped TiO2 Nanorod Arrays as Electron Transfer Layer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen-Long; Li, Jun-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Li; Qin, Jian-Qiang; Shi, Wen-Jia; Liu, Yue-Feng; Gao, Hui-Ping; Mao, Yan-Li

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, N-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) nanorod arrays were synthesized with hydrothermal method, and perovskite solar cells were fabricated using them as electron transfer layer. The solar cell performance was optimized by changing the N doping contents. The power conversion efficiency of solar cells based on N-TiO2 with the N doping content of 1% (N/Ti, atomic ratio) has been achieved 11.1%, which was 14.7% higher than that of solar cells based on un-doped TiO2. To get an insight into the improvement, some investigations were performed. The structure was examined with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and Tauc plot spectra indicated the incorporation of N in TiO2 nanorods. Absorption spectra showed higher absorption of visible light for N-TiO2 than un-doped TiO2. The N doping reduced the energy band gap from 3.03 to 2.74 eV. The photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectra displayed the faster electron transfer from perovskite layer to N-TiO2 than to un-doped TiO2. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed the smaller resistance of device based on N-TiO2 than that on un-doped TiO2.

  19. Enhancement of Perovskite Solar Cells Efficiency using N-Doped TiO2 Nanorod Arrays as Electron Transfer Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen-Long; Li, Jun-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Li; Qin, Jian-Qiang; Shi, Wen-Jia; Liu, Yue-Feng; Gao, Hui-Ping; Mao, Yan-Li

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, N-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) nanorod arrays were synthesized with hydrothermal method, and perovskite solar cells were fabricated using them as electron transfer layer. The solar cell performance was optimized by changing the N doping contents. The power conversion efficiency of solar cells based on N-TiO2 with the N doping content of 1% (N/Ti, atomic ratio) has been achieved 11.1%, which was 14.7% higher than that of solar cells based on un-doped TiO2. To get an insight into the improvement, some investigations were performed. The structure was examined with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and Tauc plot spectra indicated the incorporation of N in TiO2 nanorods. Absorption spectra showed higher absorption of visible light for N-TiO2 than un-doped TiO2. The N doping reduced the energy band gap from 3.03 to 2.74 eV. The photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectra displayed the faster electron transfer from perovskite layer to N-TiO2 than to un-doped TiO2. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed the smaller resistance of device based on N-TiO2 than that on un-doped TiO2.

  20. Few-Layer MoS₂ p-Type Devices Enabled by Selective Doping Using Low Energy Phosphorus Implantation.

    PubMed

    Nipane, Ankur; Karmakar, Debjani; Kaushik, Naveen; Karande, Shruti; Lodha, Saurabh

    2016-02-23

    P-type doping of MoS2 has proved to be a significant bottleneck in the realization of fundamental devices such as p-n junction diodes and p-type transistors due to its intrinsic n-type behavior. We report a CMOS compatible, controllable and area selective phosphorus plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) process for p-type doping of MoS2. Physical characterization using SIMS, AFM, XRD and Raman techniques was used to identify process conditions with reduced lattice defects as well as low surface damage and etching, 4X lower than previous plasma based doping reports for MoS2. A wide range of nondegenerate to degenerate p-type doping is demonstrated in MoS2 field effect transistors exhibiting dominant hole transport. Nearly ideal and air stable, lateral homogeneous p-n junction diodes with a gate-tunable rectification ratio as high as 2 × 10(4) are demonstrated using area selective doping. Comparison of XPS data from unimplanted and implanted MoS2 layers shows a shift of 0.67 eV toward lower binding energies for Mo and S peaks indicating p-type doping. First-principles calculations using density functional theory techniques confirm p-type doping due to charge transfer originating from substitutional as well as physisorbed phosphorus in top few layers of MoS2. Pre-existing sulfur vacancies are shown to enhance the doping level significantly.

  1. Carbon doping for the GaAs base layer of Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors in a production scale MOVPE reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, F.; Bergunde, T.; Richter, E.; Kurpas, P.; Achouche, M.; Maaßdorf, A.; Würfl, J.; Weyers, M.

    2000-12-01

    In this work different approaches for carbon doping of GaAs in MOVPE are compared with respect to their growth- and device-related material properties. Doping levels up to 6×10 19 cm -3 and smooth surface morphologies are achieved with either intrinsically (TMG and AsH 3 or TMAs) or extrinsically (CBr 4) doped layers. Despite comparable structural and majority carrier properties differences in GaInP/GaAs-HBT device performance depending on base doping conditions are obtained. Devices with an intrinsically doped base layer (TMG+AsH 3) show superior transistor performance with a current gain to base sheet resistance ratio ( β/ Rsb) exceeding 0.5 for base thicknesses as large as 120 nm. The use of either CBr 4 or TMAs as base growth precursors results in reduced current gains ( β/ Rsb⩽0.3). It is shown that the achieved HBT current gain is directly related to recombination centers in the heavily doped base layer depending on doping method.

  2. Carbon doped GaN buffer layer using propane for high electron mobility transistor applications: Growth and device results

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.; Nilsson, D.; Danielsson, Ö.; Pedersen, H.; Janzén, E.; Forsberg, U.; Bergsten, J.; Rorsman, N.

    2015-12-28

    The creation of a semi insulating (SI) buffer layer in AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) devices is crucial for preventing a current path beneath the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). In this investigation, we evaluate the use of a gaseous carbon gas precursor, propane, for creating a SI GaN buffer layer in a HEMT structure. The carbon doped profile, using propane gas, is a two stepped profile with a high carbon doping (1.5 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}) epitaxial layer closest to the substrate and a lower doped layer (3 × 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −3}) closest to the 2DEG channel. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry measurement shows a uniform incorporation versus depth, and no memory effect from carbon doping can be seen. The high carbon doping (1.5 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}) does not influence the surface morphology, and a roughness root-mean-square value of 0.43 nm is obtained from Atomic Force Microscopy. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements show very sharp peaks and no structural degradation can be seen related to the heavy carbon doped layer. HEMTs are fabricated and show an extremely low drain induced barrier lowering value of 0.1 mV/V, demonstrating an excellent buffer isolation. The carbon doped GaN buffer layer using propane gas is compared to samples using carbon from the trimethylgallium molecule, showing equally low leakage currents, demonstrating the capability of growing highly resistive buffer layers using a gaseous carbon source.

  3. Carbon doped GaN buffer layer using propane for high electron mobility transistor applications: Growth and device results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Bergsten, J.; Nilsson, D.; Danielsson, Ö.; Pedersen, H.; Rorsman, N.; Janzén, E.; Forsberg, U.

    2015-12-01

    The creation of a semi insulating (SI) buffer layer in AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) devices is crucial for preventing a current path beneath the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). In this investigation, we evaluate the use of a gaseous carbon gas precursor, propane, for creating a SI GaN buffer layer in a HEMT structure. The carbon doped profile, using propane gas, is a two stepped profile with a high carbon doping (1.5 × 1018 cm-3) epitaxial layer closest to the substrate and a lower doped layer (3 × 1016 cm-3) closest to the 2DEG channel. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry measurement shows a uniform incorporation versus depth, and no memory effect from carbon doping can be seen. The high carbon doping (1.5 × 1018 cm-3) does not influence the surface morphology, and a roughness root-mean-square value of 0.43 nm is obtained from Atomic Force Microscopy. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements show very sharp peaks and no structural degradation can be seen related to the heavy carbon doped layer. HEMTs are fabricated and show an extremely low drain induced barrier lowering value of 0.1 mV/V, demonstrating an excellent buffer isolation. The carbon doped GaN buffer layer using propane gas is compared to samples using carbon from the trimethylgallium molecule, showing equally low leakage currents, demonstrating the capability of growing highly resistive buffer layers using a gaseous carbon source.

  4. Design of multi-porous layer for dye-sensitized solar cells by doping with TiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Tung-Li; Chu, Ann-Kuo; Huang, Wen-Yao

    2013-01-01

    We propose a multi-layer dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Conventional DSSC components use a singular TiO2 particle size and a mono-layer active layer, but we demonstrate a multi-layer and multi-scale TiO2 particle based DSSC. Doping with large TiO2 particles can produce light scattering inside the DSSC component. Light scattering effects reduce TiO2 absorption at wavelengths of 200-300 nm. The unabsorbed light zig-zags between the Pt back electrode layer and the substrate, and enhances the Ru-dye absorption. To enhance the scattering, we doped the active layer with 20 wt% of large diameter TiO2. The multi-layer DSSC increases efficiency by about 15% compared with standard DSSCs.

  5. Stable Boundary Layer Education (STABLE) Final Campaign Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, David D.

    2016-03-01

    The properties of, and the processes that occur in, the nocturnal stable boundary layer are not well understood, making it difficult to represent adequately in numerical models. The nocturnal boundary layer often is characterized by a temperature inversion and, in the Southern Great Plains region, a low-level jet. To advance our understanding of the nocturnal stable boundary layer, high temporal and vertical resolution data on the temperature and wind properties are needed, along with both large-eddy simulation and cloud-resolving modeling.

  6. Nitrogen-doped amorphous oxide semiconductor thin film transistors with double-stacked channel layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Haiting; Wu, Qi; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Guochao; Dong, Chengyuan

    2016-11-01

    The amorphous oxide semiconductor (AOS) thin film transistors (TFTs) with the double-stacked channel layers (DSCL) combing the amorphous InZnO (a-IZO) films and the nitrogen-doped amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO:N) films were proposed and fabricated, which showed the excellent performance with the field-effect mobility of 49.6 cm2 V-1 s-1 and the subthreshold swing of 0.5 V/dec. More interestingly, very stable properties were observed in the bias stress and light illumination tests for these a-IZO/a-IGZO:N TFTs, as seemed to be the evident improvements over the prior arts. The improved performance and stability might be mainly due to the hetero-junctions in the channel layers and less interface/bulk trap density from the in situ nitrogen doping process in the a-IGZO layers. In addition, the passivation effect of the a-IGZO:N films also made some contributions to the stable properties exhibited in these novel DSCL TFTs.

  7. Manganese oxide nanowires wrapped with nitrogen doped carbon layers for high performance supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Mei, Yuan; Zhang, Lin-Qun; Wang, Jian-Hai; Liu, An-Ran; Zhang, Yuan-Jian; Liu, Song-Qin

    2015-10-01

    In this study, manganese oxide nanowires wrapped by nitrogen-doped carbon layers (MnO(x)@NCs) were prepared by carbonization of poly(o-phenylenediamine) layer coated onto MnO2 nanowires for high performance supercapacitors. The component and structure of the MnO(x)@NCs were controlled through carbonization procedure under different temperatures. Results demonstrated that this composite combined the high conductivity and high specific surface area of nitrogen-doped carbon layers with the high pseudo-capacitance of manganese oxide nanowires. The as-prepared MnO(x)@NCs exhibited superior capacitive properties in 1 M Na2SO4 aqueous solution, such as high conductivity (4.167×10(-3) S cm(-1)), high specific capacitance (269 F g(-1) at 10 mV s(-1)) and long cycle life (134 F g(-1) after 1200 cycles at a scan rate of 50 mV s(-1)). It is reckoned that the present novel hybrid nanowires can serve as a promising electrode material for supercapacitors and other electrochemical devices.

  8. Heavily boron-doped Si layers grown below 700 C by molecular beam epitaxy using a HBO2 source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. L.; Fathauer, R. W.; Grunthaner, P. J.

    1989-01-01

    Boron doping in Si layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at 500-700 C using an HBO2 source has been studied. The maximum boron concentration without detectable oxygen incorporation for a given substrate temperature and Si growth rate has been determined using secondary-ion mass spectrometry analysis. Boron present in the Si MBE layers grown at 550-700 C was found to be electrically active, independent of the amount of oxygen incorporation. By reducing the Si growth rate, highly boron-doped layers have been grown at 600 C without detectable oxygen incorporation.

  9. Electrical and optical properties of Ti doped ZnO films grown on glass substrate by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Zhixin; Kwack, Won-Sub; Lee, Woo-Jae; Jang, Seung-II; Kim, Hye-Ri; Kim, Jin-Woong; Jung, Kang-Won; Min, Won-Ja; Yu, Kyu-Sang; Park, Sung-Hun; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Jin-Hyock; Kwon, Se-Hun

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Ti doped ZnO films were prepared on Corning XG glass substrate by ALD. • The electrical properties and optical properties were systematically investigated. • An optimized Ti doped ZnO films had low resistivity and excellent optical transmittance. - Abstract: Titanium doped zinc oxide (Ti doped ZnO) films were prepared by atomic layer deposition methods at a deposition temperature of 200 °C. The Ti content in Ti doped ZnO films was varied from 5.08 at.% to 15.02 at.%. X-ray diffraction results indicated that the crystallinity of the Ti doped ZnO films had degraded with increasing Ti content. Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the microstructural evolution of the Ti doped ZnO films, showing that both the grain size and crystallinity reduced with increasing Ti content. The electrical resistivity of the Ti doped ZnO films showed a minimum value of 1.6 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm with the Ti content of 6.20 at.%. Furthermore, the Ti doped ZnO films exhibited excellent transmittance.

  10. Efficient Nitrogen Doping of Single-Layer Graphene Accompanied by Negligible Defect Generation for Integration into Hybrid Semiconductor Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Sarau, George; Heilmann, Martin; Bashouti, Muhammad; Latzel, Michael; Tessarek, Christian; Christiansen, Silke

    2017-03-22

    While doping enables application-specific tailoring of graphene properties, it can also produce high defect densities that degrade the beneficial features. In this work, we report efficient nitrogen doping of ∼11 atom % without virtually inducing new structural defects in the initial, large-area, low defect, and transferred single-layer graphene. To shed light on this remarkable high-doping-low-disorder relationship, a unique experimental strategy consisting of analyzing the changes in doping, strain, and defect density after each important step during the doping procedure was employed. Complementary micro-Raman mapping, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and optical microscopy revealed that effective cleaning of the graphene surface assists efficient nitrogen incorporation accompanied by mild compressive strain resulting in negligible defect formation in the doped graphene lattice. These original results are achieved by separating the growth of graphene from its doping. Moreover, the high doping level occurred simultaneously with the epitaxial growth of n-GaN micro- and nanorods on top of graphene, leading to the flow of higher currents through the graphene/n-GaN rod interface. Our approach can be extended toward integrating graphene into other technologically relevant hybrid semiconductor heterostructures and obtaining an ohmic contact at their interfaces by adjusting the doping level in graphene.

  11. Fluorine contamination in yttrium-doped barium zirconate film deposited by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    An Jihwan; Beom Kim, Young; Sun Park, Joong; Hyung Shim, Joon; Guer, Turgut M.; Prinz, Fritz B.

    2012-01-15

    The authors have investigated the change of chemical composition, crystallinity, and ionic conductivity in fluorine contaminated yttrium-doped barium zirconate (BYZ) fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD). It has been identified that fluorine contamination can significantly affect the conductivity of the ALD BYZ. The authors have also successfully established the relationship between process temperature and contamination and the source of fluorine contamination, which was the perfluoroelastomer O-ring used for vacuum sealing. The total removal of fluorine contamination was achieved by using all-metal sealed chamber instead of O-ring seals.

  12. On the radiation resistance of planar Gunn diodes with δ-doped layers

    SciTech Connect

    Obolenskaya, E. S. Churin, A. Yu.; Obolensky, S. V.; Murel, A. V.; Shashkin, V. I.

    2015-11-15

    The radiation resistance of planar Gunn diodes is investigated. Based on the results of measurements of the pulsed current–voltage characteristics and computer simulations it is shown that the use of δ layers of doping impurities contributes to the higher radiation resistance of planar diodes by an order of magnitude compared to conventional Gunn diodes. The results of this study make it possible to formulate methodical guidelines to reduce the amount of computational and experimental studies without a considerable decrease in their informativity.

  13. Ultrafast Nonlinear Response of Bulk Plasmons in Highly Doped ZnO Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyborski, Tobias; Kalusniak, Sascha; Sadofev, Sergey; Henneberger, Fritz; Woerner, Michael; Elsaesser, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Longitudinal bulk plasmons in an n -doped ZnO layer system are studied by two-color femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy in the midinfrared. The optical bulk plasmon resonance identified in linear reflectivity spectra undergoes a strong redshift and a limited broadening upon intraband excitation of electrons. The nonlinear changes of plasmon absorption decay on a time scale of 2 ps and originate from the intraband redistribution of electrons. Theoretical calculations explain the plasmon redshift by the transient increase of the ensemble-averaged electron mass and the concomitantly reduced plasma frequency in the hot electron plasma. The observed bulk plasmon nonlinearity holds strong potential for applications in plasmonics.

  14. Final Technical Report: Grain Boundary Complexions and Transitions in Doped Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Jian Luo

    2012-10-15

    This four-year research project has advanced the fundamental knowledge of grain boundary (GB) complexions (i.e., "two-dimensional interfacial phases") and associated GB "phase" transitions in several grounds. First, a bilayer interfacial phase, which had been directly observed by microscopy only in complex ceramic systems in prior studies, has been identified in simpler systems such as Au-doped Si and Bi-doped Ni in this study, where the interpretations of the their formation mechanisms and microscopic images are less equivocal. Second, convincing evidence for the existence of a first-order GB transition from a nominally "clean" GB to a bilayer adsorption interfacial phase has been revealed for Au-doped Si; the confirmation of the first-order nature of interfacial transitions at GBs, which was rare in prior studies, is scientifically significant and technologically important. Third, the bilayer interfacial phase discovered in Bi-doped Ni has been found to be the cause of the mysterious liquid metal embrittlement phenomenon in this system; the exact atomic level mechanism of this phenomenon has puzzled the materials and physics communities for over a century. Finally, significant advancements have been made to establish phenomenological thermodynamic models for GB complexions and transitions. Since GB complexions can control the transport, mechanical and physical properties of a broad range of metallic and ceramic materials, the fundamental knowledge generated by this project can have broad impacts on materials design in general. In this regard, understanding and controlling GB phase behaviors (complexions and transitions) can be an important component for the "Materials Genome" project.

  15. Effects of Al Doping on the Properties of ZnO Thin Films Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Chen-Hui; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Chen, Xin; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Song-You; Liu, Juan; Dai, Ning; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2016-09-01

    The tuning of structural, optical, and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films deposited by atomic layer deposition technique is reported in this work. With the increasing Al doping level, the evolution from (002) to (100) diffraction peaks indicates the change in growth mode of ZnO films. Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been applied to study the thickness, optical constants, and band gap of AZO films. Due to the increasing carrier concentration after Al doping, a blue shift of band gap and absorption edge can be observed, which can be interpreted by Burstein-Moss effect. The carrier concentration and resistivity are found to vary significantly among different doping concentration, and the optimum value is also discussed. The modulations and improvements of properties are important for Al-doped ZnO films to apply as transparent conductor in various applications.

  16. Effects of Al Doping on the Properties of ZnO Thin Films Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Chen-Hui; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Chen, Xin; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Song-You; Liu, Juan; Dai, Ning; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2016-12-01

    The tuning of structural, optical, and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films deposited by atomic layer deposition technique is reported in this work. With the increasing Al doping level, the evolution from (002) to (100) diffraction peaks indicates the change in growth mode of ZnO films. Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been applied to study the thickness, optical constants, and band gap of AZO films. Due to the increasing carrier concentration after Al doping, a blue shift of band gap and absorption edge can be observed, which can be interpreted by Burstein-Moss effect. The carrier concentration and resistivity are found to vary significantly among different doping concentration, and the optimum value is also discussed. The modulations and improvements of properties are important for Al-doped ZnO films to apply as transparent conductor in various applications.

  17. Dysprosium oxide and dysprosium-oxide-doped titanium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Tamm, Aile Kozlova, Jekaterina; Aarik, Lauri; Aarik, Jaan; Kukli, Kaupo; Link, Joosep; Stern, Raivo

    2015-01-15

    Dysprosium oxide and dysprosium-oxide-doped titanium oxide thin films were grown by atomic layer deposition on silicon substrates. For depositing dysprosium and titanium oxides Dy(thd){sub 3}-O{sub 3} and TiCl{sub 4}-O{sub 3} were used as precursors combinations. Appropriate parameters for Dy(thd){sub 3}-O{sub 3} growth process were obtained by using a quartz crystal microbalance system. The Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were deposited on planar substrates and on three-dimensional substrates with aspect ratio 1:20. The Dy/Ti ratio of Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped TiO{sub 2} films deposited on a planar silicon substrate ranged from 0.04 to 0.06. Magnetometry studies revealed that saturation of magnetization could not be observed in planar Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} films, but it was observable in Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} films on 3D substrates and in doped TiO{sub 2} films with a Dy/Ti atomic ratio of 0.06. The latter films exhibited saturation magnetization 10{sup −6} A cm{sup 2} and coercivity 11 kA/m at room temperature.

  18. Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, P; Bonin, TA; Newman, JF; Turner, DD; Chilson, P; Blumberg, WG; Mishra, S; Wainwright, CE; Carney, M; Jacobsen, EP; Wharton, S

    2015-11-01

    The Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) included two measurement campaigns conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains site in Oklahoma during 2012 and 2013. LABLE was designed as a multi-phase, low-cost collaboration among the University of Oklahoma, the National Severe Storms Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the ARM program. A unique aspect was the role of graduate students in LABLE. They served as principal investigators and took the lead in designing and conducting experiments using different sampling strategies to best resolve boundary-layer phenomena.

  19. Influence of layer doping and thickness on predicted performance of NPN AlGaN/GaN HBTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. P.; Dabiran, A.; Chow, P. P.; Pearton, S. J.; Ren, F.

    2003-06-01

    The effects of base doping and thickness on dc current gain, collector-emitter saturation voltage, saturation current and collector-emitter breakdown voltage of GaN/AlGaN heterojunction bipolar transistors were investigated using a drift-diffusion transport model. Given the low ionization efficiency of Mg acceptors in the base, it is important to design structures that avoid depletion of the base layer. The presence of a resistive base causes current to flow directly to the collector, severely reducing gain. The effect of emitter doping on current gain and of collector doping on the breakdown voltage of the C-E junction were also investigated.

  20. Zinc-doped dentin adhesive for collagen protection at the hybrid layer.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Raquel; Yamauti, Monica; Osorio, Estrella; Román, Julio S; Toledano, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to ascertain whether the addition of zinc to adhesives may decrease metalloproteinase-mediated collagen degradation without affecting bonding efficacy. Human dentin beams were treated with phosphoric acid, with Clearfil SE Bond Primer or with Clearfil SE Bond Primer plus ZnCl(2) (2 wt%). Acid-etched dentin was infiltrated with Single Bond, Single Bond plus ZnCl(2) (2 wt%), or Single Bond plus ZnO nanoparticles (10 wt%), and Clearfil SE Bond-primed dentin was infiltrated with Clearfil SE Bonding resin, Clearfil SE-Bonding resin with ZnCl(2) (2 wt%), or Clearfil SE-Bonding resin with ZnO nanoparticles (10 wt%). The C-terminal telopeptide concentrations were determined 24 h, and 1 and 4 wk after treatment. Microtensile bond strength to dentin was determined for the tested adhesives. Matrix metalloproteinases-mediated collagen degradation occurred in acid-etched and SE-primed dentin. Resin infiltration decreased collagen degradation. Lower collagen degradation was found for SE Bond than for Single Bond. Zinc-doped Single Bond resin always reduced collagen degradation, the ZnO particles being more effective than ZnCl(2) . Zinc-doped SE Bond reduced the liberation of C-terminal telopeptide only at 24 h. Bond strength to dentin was not decreased when Zn-doped resins were employed, except when ZnCl(2) was added to SE Primer. Zinc-doped resin reduced collagen degradation in Single Bond hybrid layers, but did not affect bond strength. The addition of zinc to SE Bond had no beneficial effects.

  1. Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide as Highly Stable Electron Collection Layer for Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xingyue; Shen, Heping; Zhang, Ye; Li, Xin; Zhao, Xiaochong; Tai, Meiqian; Li, Jingfeng; Li, Jianbao; Li, Xin; Lin, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Although low-temperature, solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) has been widely adopted as the electron collection layer (ECL) in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) because of its simple synthesis and excellent electrical properties such as high charge mobility, the thermal stability of the perovskite films deposited atop ZnO layer remains as a major issue. Herein, we addressed this problem by employing aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) as the ECL and obtained extraordinarily thermally stable perovskite layers. The improvement of the thermal stability was ascribed to diminish of the Lewis acid-base chemical reaction between perovskite and ECL. Notably, the outstanding transmittance and conductivity also render AZO layer as an ideal candidate for transparent conductive electrodes, which enables a simplified cell structure featuring glass/AZO/perovskite/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au. Optimization of the perovskite layer leads to an excellent and repeatable photovoltaic performance, with the champion cell exhibiting an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.94 V, a short-circuit current (Jsc) of 20.2 mA cm(-2), a fill factor (FF) of 0.67, and an overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.6% under standard 1 sun illumination. It was also revealed by steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence that the AZO/perovskite interface resulted in less quenching than that between perovskite and hole transport material.

  2. Simulation of hole-mobility in doped relaxed and strained Ge layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watling, Jeremy R.; Riddet, Craig; Chan, Morgan Kah H.; Asenov, Asen

    2010-11-01

    As silicon based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are reaching the limits of their performance with scaling, alternative channel materials are being considered to maintain performance in future complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology generations. Thus there is renewed interest in employing Ge as a channel material in p-MOSFETs, due to the significant improvement in hole mobility as compared to Si. Here we employ full-band Monte Carlo to study hole transport properties in Ge. We present mobility and velocity-field characteristics for different transport directions in p-doped relaxed and strained Ge layers. The simulations are based on a method for over-coming the potentially large dynamic range of scattering rates, which results from the long-range nature of the unscreened Coulombic interaction. Our model for ionized impurity scattering includes the affects of dynamic Lindhard screening, coupled with phase-shift, and multi-ion corrections along with plasmon scattering. We show that all these effects play a role in determining the hole carrier transport in doped Ge layers and cannot be neglected.

  3. Strain and defects in Si-doped (Al)GaN epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forghani, Kamran; Schade, Lukas; Schwarz, Ulrich T.; Lipski, Frank; Klein, Oliver; Kaiser, Ute; Scholz, Ferdinand

    2012-11-01

    Si is the most common dopant in (Al)GaN based devices acting as a donor. It has been observed that Si induces tensile strain in (Al)GaN films, which leads to an increasing tendency for cracking of such films with the increase of Si content and/or the increase of Al content. Based on x-ray investigations, the Si-doped films have a larger in-plane lattice constant than their undoped buffer layers, indicating involvement of a mechanism other than the change of lattice constants expected from an alloying effect. In this work, we present a model about Si dislocation interaction while debating other proposed models in the literature. According to our model, Si atoms are attracted to the strain dipole of edge-type dislocations in (Al)GaN films. It is expected that Si is more incorporated on that side of the dislocation, which is under compression leading to the formation of off-balanced dipoles with reduced compressive component. In response to such off-balanced dipoles—appearing as tensile dominant strain dipoles—the dislocation lines climb in order to accommodate the excess tensile strain. However, this dislocation climb mechanism is hindered by forces exerted by vacancies created due to the climb process. Accordingly, we have observed a lower strain level in our Si doped layers when they contain fewer dislocations. These findings were further supported by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and micro-photoluminescence investigations.

  4. Highly Stable and Effective Doping of Graphene by Selective Atomic Layer Deposition of Ruthenium.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsu; Kim, Ki-Ju; Lee, Seung-Joon; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Cho, Seong-Yong; Kim, Min-Sik; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Bum

    2017-01-11

    The sheet resistance of graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition is found to be significantly reduced by the selective atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Ru onto defect sites such as wrinkles and grain boundaries. With 200 ALD cycles, the sheet resistance is reduced from ∼500 to <50 Ω/sq, and the p-type carrier density is drastically increased from 10(13) to 10(15) cm(-2). At the same time, the carrier mobility is reduced from ∼670 to less than 100 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). This doping of graphene proved to be very stable, with the electrical properties remaining unchanged over eight weeks of measurement. Selective deposition of Ru on defect sites also makes it possible to obtain a graphene film that is both highly transparent and electrically conductive (e.g., a sheet resistance of 125 Ω/sq with 92% optical transmittance at 550 nm). Highly doped graphene layers achieved by Ru ALD are therefore expected to provide a viable basis for transparent conducting electrodes.

  5. Characterization of the dark current of a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) with selectively doped barrier layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Yasuhito; Nishino, Hironori; Matsukura, Yusuke; Miyatake, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Kousaku; Fujii, Toshio

    2002-08-01

    We investigated the behavior of the dark current (Id) in quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) in which the barrier layers were selectively doped instead of the well layers. Because the selective doping bends the conduction band (CB) edge in the portion of the barrier near the interface, the mechanism by which carriers in the wells can be emitted over the barriers, i.e. thermal emission and tunneling through this portion of the barrier, could be emphasized. We first confirmed that selectively doping the barrier layers clearly affects the Id-V characteristics. Then, by evaluating the activation energy obtained from the temperature dependence of Id, we found that the Poole-Frenkel emission (PFE) mechanism and the thermal-assisted tunneling (TAT)-like mechanism are dominant in the lower bias and higher bias regions, respectively.

  6. Photoluminescence study on heavily donor and acceptor impurity doped GaAs layers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, A. Z. M. Touhidul; Jung, D. W.; Noh, J. P.; Otsuka, N.

    2009-05-01

    Gallium arsenide layers doped with high concentrations of Be and Si by molecular-beam epitaxy are studied by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. PL peaks from doped layers are observed at energies significantly lower than the band-gap of GaAs. The growth and doping conditions suggest that the origin of these peaks is different from that of low energy PL peaks, which were observed in earlier studies and attributed to impurity-vacancy complexes. The dependence of the peak energy on the temperature and the annealing is found to differ from that of the peaks attributed to impurity-vacancy complexes. On the basis of these observations, it is suggested that the low energy peaks are attributed to short range ordered arrangements of impurity ions. This possibility is examined by calculations of the PL spectra with models of pairs of acceptor and donor delta-doped layers and PL experiments of a superlattice of pairs of Be and Si delta-doped layers.

  7. Tuning the Fermi-level of TiO2 mesoporous layer by lanthanum doping towards efficient perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiao-Xin; Ge, Qian-Qing; Xue, Ding-Jiang; Ding, Jie; Ma, Jing-Yuan; Chen, Yao-Xuan; Zhang, Bao; Feng, Yaqing; Wan, Li-Jun; Hu, Jin-Song

    2016-09-29

    Tuning the band alignment is proved to be an effective way to facilitate carrier transportation and thus enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of solar cells. Doping the compact layer with metal ions or modifying the interfaces among functional layers in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) can appreciably improve the PCE of PSCs. Inspired by the rare earth elemental doping of TiO2, which has witnessed the success in photocatalysis and dye-sensitized solar cells, we firstly demonstrated here that La(3+) doping in the mesoporous TiO2 layer of a mesostructured PSC can tune its Fermi level and thus significantly enhance the device PCE. Systematic analysis reveals that doping La(3+) into TiO2 raises the Fermi level of TiO2 through scavenging oxygen and inducing vacancies, which subsequently increases the open circuit voltage and the fill factor while reducing the series resistance of the PSC using La(3+)-doped TiO2 as a mesoporous layer. As a result, a PCE of 15.42% is achieved, which is appreciably higher than the PCE of a device with undoped TiO2 (12.11%).

  8. Electronic structure evolution in doping of fullerene (C{sub 60}) by ultra-thin layer molybdenum trioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chenggong; Wang, Congcong; Kauppi, John; Liu, Xiaoliang; Gao, Yongli

    2015-08-28

    Ultra-thin layer molybdenum oxide doping of fullerene has been investigated using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) can be observed directly with UPS. It is observed that the Fermi level position in fullerene is modified by ultra-thin-layer molybdenum oxide doping, and the HOMO onset is shifted to less than 1.3 eV below the Fermi level. The XPS results indicate that charge transfer was observed from the C{sub 60} to MoO{sub x} and Mo{sup 6+} oxides is the basis as hole dopants.

  9. The Radar Effects of Perchlorate-Doped Ice in the Martian Polar Layered Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillman, D.; Winebrenner, D. P.; Grimm, R. E.; Pathare, A.

    2010-12-01

    The presence of perchlorate in soil at near-polar latitudes on Mars suggests that dust in the ice of the North Polar Layered Deposits (NPLD) may introduce perchlorate impurities to that ice. Because eutectic temperatures of perchlorate salts range as low as 206 K (for magnesium perchlorate), perchlorate doping of NPLD ice may result in grain-scale liquid veins and softening of ice rheology at temperatures comparable to those computed for the base of the NPLD in the present climate. Any such softening would be important for understanding how processes including ice flow have shaped the NPLD. Observable consequences of such softening, or of the combination of perchlorate doping and temperatures that could cause softening, are thus similarly important. In particular, the dielectric properties of perchlorate-laden ice in a temperature gradient will change relatively rapidly at the point in the gradient near the eutectic temperature. Here we investigate the radar reflectivity of such a eutectic transition in ice with a model in which perchlorate concentration is constant and temperature varies linearly with depth in the ice. We have conducted measurements of the complex permittivity of Mg and Na perchlorate-doped ice over a range of temperatures (183 - 273 K) and concentrations. Below the eutectic temperature, the perchlorate-doped ice has electrical properties similar to that of choride-doped ice. However, above the eutectic temperature, some of the ice melts forming liquid at triple junctions. At concentrations above 3 mM, the liquid at triple junctions become connected forming brine channels, which greatly increase the dc conductivity and radar attenuation. At concentrations below 3 mM, the liquid at triple junctions are not connected and do not affect the dc conductivity. However, the liquid H2O molecules are able to rotate their permanent dipole at radar frequencies, thus causing an increase in radar attenuation. The MARSIS and SHARAD attenuation rates increase

  10. Carbon transport in the bottom boundary layer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lohrenz, S.E.; Asper, V.L.

    1997-09-01

    The authors objective was to characterize distributions of chloropigment fluorescence in relation to physical processes in the benthic boundary layer in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) Ocean Margins Program`s (OMP) goal of quantifying carbon transport across the continental shelf. Their approach involved participation in the Ocean Margins Program (OMP) field experiment on the continental shelf off Cape Hatteras by conducting multi-sensor fluorescence measurements of photosynthetic pigments. Specific tasks included (1) pre- and post-deployment calibration of multiple fluorescence sensors in conjunction with Woods Hole personnel; (2) collection and analysis of photosynthetic pigment concentrations and total particulate carbon in water column samples to aid in interpretation of the fluorescence time-series during the field experiment; (3) collaboration in the analysis and interpretation of 1994 and 1996 time-series data in support of efforts to quantify pigment and particulate organic carbon transport on the continental shelf off Cape Hatteras. This third component included analysis of data obtained with a multi-sensor fiber-optic fluorometer in the benthic boundary layer of the inner shelf off Cape Hatteras during summer 1994.

  11. Radionuclide separations using pillared layered materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Clearfield, A.

    1995-08-31

    The objective of this project is to prepare an all inorganic strontium specific sorbent or ion exchanger for the removal of highly alkaline nuclear waste solutions. A series of clays and layered titanates were pillared and calcined to convert their essentially two dimensional structure to three dimensional porous structures with high surface areas. The pillaring agents were alumina, zirconia, chromia and silica based. The pillared clays, particularly those containing Zr pillars, achieved moderate (Kd as high at 13,700 ml/g with V:m = 28) selectivities for Sr{sup 2+}. In contrast, the silica pillared titanates showed exceptional affinities for Sr{sup 2+} with Kd values in excess of 100,000 ml/g in 5M NaNO{sup 3} + 1M NaOH. These latter results suggest a more detailed study of the pillared titanates in the presence of simulants closely resembling real waste solutions.

  12. Fabrication of a nanometer thick nitrogen delta doped layer at the sub-surface region of (100) diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, Maneesh; Michaelson, Shaul; Saguy, Cecile; Hoffman, Alon

    2016-11-01

    In this letter, we report on the proof of a concept of an innovative delta doping technique to fabricate an ensemble of nitrogen vacancy centers at shallow depths in (100) diamond. A nitrogen delta doped layer with a concentration of ˜1.8 × 1020 cm-3 and a thickness of a few nanometers was produced using this method. Nitrogen delta doping was realized by producing a stable nitrogen terminated (N-terminated) diamond surface using the RF nitridation process and subsequently depositing a thin layer of diamond on the N-terminated diamond surface. The concentration of nitrogen on the N-terminated diamond surface and its stability upon exposure to chemical vapor deposition conditions are determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The SIMS profile exhibits a positive concentration gradient of 1.9 nm/decade and a negative gradient of 4.2 nm/decade. The proposed method offers a finer control on the thickness of the delta doped layer than the currently used ion implantation and delta doping techniques.

  13. Improving rate capability and decelerating voltage decay of Li-rich layered oxide cathodes via selenium doping to stabilize oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Quanxin; Li, Ruhong; Zheng, Rujuan; Liu, Yuanlong; Huo, Hua; Dai, Changsong

    2016-11-01

    To improve the rate performance and decelerate the voltage decay of Li-rich layered oxide cathode materials, a series of cathode materials Li1.2[Mn0.7Ni0.2Co0.1]0.8-xSexO2 (x = 0, 0.07, 0.14 and 0.21) was synthesized via co-precipitation. Based on the characterization results, it can be concluded that uniform Se6+ doping can improve the degree of crystallinity of Li2MnO3, resulting in a better ordering of atoms in the transition metal layer of this type of cathode materials. In the electrochemical experiments, compared to un-doped samples, one of the Se doped samples (LLMO-Se0.14) exhibited a longer sloping region and shorter potential plateau in the initial charge curves, a larger first coulombic efficiency (ca. 77%), better rate capability (178 mAhm g-1 at 10 C) and higher mid-point voltage (MPV) retention (ca. 95%) after 100 cycles. These results prove that Se doping can effectively improve the rate capability and decelerate the voltage decay process of these cathode materials during cycling via suppressing the oxidation process of O2- to O2 and curbing a layered-to-spinel phase transformation. The above-mentioned functions of Se doping are probably due to the higher bonding energy of Sesbnd O than that of Mnsbnd O.

  14. Photorefractive Effect of a Liquid Crystal Cell with a ZnO Nanorod Doped in Only One PVA Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yu-Bing; Chen, Yong-Hai; Xiang, Ying; Qu, Sheng-Chun; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2011-09-01

    We observe obviously different diffraction efficiencies with forward and reverse dc voltages in a forced-light-scattering (FLS) experiment for a cell with ZnO nanorod doped in only one poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) layer. When a dc voltage with a positive pole on the ZnO nanorod doped side is applied, the excited charge carriers primarily move along the transverse direction, which results in a higher diffraction efficiency. Conversely, when the dc voltage with a negative pole on the ZnO nanorod doped side is applied, the excited charge carriers primarily move along the longitudinal direction, which leads to a lower diffraction efficiency. A largest diffraction efficiency of about 9% is achieved in the ZnO nanorod doped liquid crystal cell.

  15. Suppression of surface segregation of the phosphorous δ-doping layer by insertion of an ultra-thin silicon layer for ultra-shallow Ohmic contacts on n-type germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Michihiro; Uematsu, Masashi; Itoh, Kohei M.; Sawano, Kentarou

    2015-09-28

    We demonstrate the formation of abrupt phosphorus (P) δ-doping profiles in germanium (Ge) by the insertion of ultra-thin silicon (Si) layers. The Si layers at the δ-doping region significantly suppress the surface segregation of P during the molecular beam epitaxial growth of Ge and high-concentration active P donors are confined within a few nm of the initial doping position. The current-voltage characteristics of the P δ-doped layers with Si insertion show excellent Ohmic behaviors with low enough resistivity for ultra-shallow Ohmic contacts on n-type Ge.

  16. Final report for CCS cross-layer reliability visioning study

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Heather M; Dehon, Andre; Carter, Nicj

    2010-12-20

    The geometric rate of improvement of transistor size and integrated circuit performance known as Moore's Law has been an engine of growth for our economy, enabling new products and services, creating new value and wealth, increasing safety, and removing menial tasks from our daily lives. Affordable, highly integrated components have enabled both life-saving technologies and rich entertainment applications. Anti-lock brakes, insulin monitors, and GPS-enabled emergency response systems save lives. Cell phones, internet appliances, virtual worlds, realistic video games, and mp3 players enrich our lives and connect us together. Over the past 40 years of silicon scaling, the increasing capabilities of inexpensive computation have transformed our society through automation and ubiquitous communications. Looking forward, increasing unpredictability threatens our ability to continue scaling integrated circuits at Moore's Law rates. As the transistors and wires that make up integrated circuits become smaller, they display both greater differences in behavior among devices designed to be identical and greater vulnerability to transient and permanent faults. Conventional design techniques expend energy to tolerate this unpredictability by adding safety margins to a circuit's operating voltage, clock frequency or charge stored per bit. However, the rising energy costs needed to compensate for increasing unpredictability are rapidly becoming unacceptable in today's environment where power consumption is often the limiting factor on integrated circuit performance and energy efficiency is a national concern. Reliability and energy consumption are both reaching key inflection points that, together, threaten to reduce or end the benefits of feature size reduction. To continue beneficial scaling, we must use a cross-layer, Jull-system-design approach to reliability. Unlike current systems, which charge every device a substantial energy tax in order to guarantee correct operation in

  17. Thin transparent W-doped indium-zinc oxide (WIZO) layer on glass.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Jun; Lim, Byung-Wook; Kim, Joo-Hyung; Kim, Tae-Won; Oh, Byeong-Yun; Heo, Gi-Seok; Kim, Kwang-Young

    2012-07-01

    Annealing effect on structural and electrical properties of W-doped IZO (WIZO) films for thin film transistors (TFT) was studied under different process conditions. Thin WIZO films were deposited on glass substrates by RF magnetron co-sputtering technique using indium zinc oxide (10 wt.% ZnO-doped In2O3) and WO3 targets in room temperature. The post annealing temperature was executed from 200 degrees C to 500 degrees C under various O2/Ar ratios. We could not find any big difference from the surface observation of as grown films while it was found that the carrier density and sheet resistance of WIZO films were controlled by O2/Ar ratio and post annealing temperature. Furthermore, the crystallinity of WIZO film was changed as annealing temperature increased, resulting in amorphous structure at the annealing temperature of 200 degrees C, while clear In2O3 peak was observed for the annealed over 300 degrees C. The transmittance of as-grown films over 89% in visible range was obtained. As an active channel layer for TFT, it was found that the variation of resistivity, carrier density and mobility concentration of WIZO film decreased by annealing process.

  18. Structural, electrical, and optical properties of atomic layer deposition Al-doped ZnO films

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, P; Lee, W. J.; Bae, K. R.; Lee, Sang Bok; Rubloff, Gary W

    2010-01-01

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films of ~100nm thickness with various Aldoping were prepared at 150°C by atomic layer deposition on quartz substrates. At low Aldoping, the films were strongly textured along the [100] direction, while at higher Aldoping the films remained amorphous. Atomic force microscopy results showed that Al–O cycles when inserted in a ZnOfilm, corresponding to a few atomic percent Al, could remarkably reduce the surface roughness of the films. Hall measurements revealed a maximum mobility of 17.7cm{sup 2} /Vs . Film resistivity reached a minima of 4.4×10{sup -3} Ωcm whereas the carrier concentration reached a maxima of 1.7×10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} , at 3 at.% Al. The band gap of AZO films varied from 3.23 eV for undoped ZnOfilms to 3.73 eV for AZO films with 24.6 at.% Al. Optical transmittance over 80% was obtained in the visible region. The detrimental impact of increased Al resulting in decreased conductivity due to doping past 3.0 at.% is evident in the x-ray diffraction data, as an abrupt increase in the optical band gap and as a deviation from the Burstein–Moss effect.

  19. Calculation of the superconducting transition temperature of a graphene layer doped with titanium and palladium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, Gerardo; Magana, Fernando; Salas-Torres, Osiris

    We explore the structural interactions between graphene and transition metals such as palladium (Pd) and titanium (Ti) and the possibility of inducing superconductivity in a graphene sheet in two cases, one by doping its surface with palladium atoms sit on the center of the hexagons of the graphene layer and other by covering the graphene layer with two layers of titanium metal atoms. The results here were obtained from first-principles density functional theory in the local density approximation. The Quantum-Espresso package was used with norm conserving pseudopotentials. All of the structures considered were relaxed to their minimum energy configuration. Phonon frequencies were calculated using the linear-response technique on several phonon wave-vector mesh. The electron-phonon coupling parameter was calculated with several electron momentum k-mesh. The superconducting critical temperature was estimated using the Allen-Dynes formula with μ* = 0.1 - 0.15. We note that palladium and titanium are good candidate materials to show a metal-to-superconductor transition. We thank Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, partial financial support by Grant IN-106514 and we also thank Miztli Super-Computing center the technical assistance.

  20. Use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to determine double-layer capacitance in doped nonpolar liquids.

    PubMed

    Yezer, Benjamin A; Khair, Aditya S; Sides, Paul J; Prieve, Dennis C

    2015-07-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in a thin cell (10 μm) was used to infer conductivity, permittivity and the differential double-layer capacitance of solutions of dodecane doped with OLOA 11000 [poly(isobutylene) succinimide] for concentrations of dopant between 0.1% and 10% by weight. All spectra (frequencies between 1 Hz and 100 kHz) were well fit by an equivalent circuit having four elements including a constant-phase element representing the double-layer capacitance. Using Gouy-Chapman theory for small zeta potentials and assuming univalent charge carriers, the double-layer capacitances were converted into charge carrier concentration which was found to be directly proportional to the weight percent of dopant with a 1 wt% solution having 87 carriers/μm(3) (the concentration of either positive or negative charges). This is only 17 ppm of the total monomer concentration calculated from the average molecule weight of the dopant. Dividing the measured conductivities by the charge carrier concentration, we inferred the mobility and hydrodynamic diameters for the charged micelles. The hydrodynamic diameters of carriers were significantly larger than the average diameter of all micelles measured independently by dynamic light scattering. This suggests that only large micelles become charged.

  1. Highly efficient blue fluorescent OLEDs with doped double emitting layers based on p—n heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yue-Ju; Wu, Xiao-Ming; Hua, Yu-Lin; Shen, Li-Ying; Jiao, Zhi-Qiang; Dong, Mu-Sen; Yin, Shou-Gen

    2012-05-01

    We fabricate a kind of novel efficient blue fluorescent organic light emitting device (OLED) based on p-n hetero-junctions composed of hole transporting layer (HTL) N, N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N, N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (NPB) and electron transporting layer (ETL) 4,7-diphnenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen), into which a new blue material, DNCA (a derivation of N6, N6, N12, N12-tetrap-tolylchrysene-6,12-diamine), is partially doped simultaneously, and double emitting layers are configured. With a turn-on voltage of 2.6 V at 1 cd/m2, this type of OLED presents a maximum luminance efficiency (ηmax) of 8.83 cd/A at 5.818 mA/cm2 and a maximum luminance of over 40000 cd/m2. Meanwhile, the Commission Internationale De L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of this device change slightly from (0.13, 0.27) to (0.13, 0.23) as the driving voltage increases from 3 V to 11 V. This improvement in the electroluminescent characteristics is attributed mainly to the ideal p—n heterojunction which can confine and distribute excitons evenly on two sides of the heterojunction interface so as to improve the carrier combination rate and expand the light-emitting region.

  2. Fabrication of Beryllium Capsules with Copper-Doped Layers for NIF Targets: A Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    McElfresh, M; Gunther, J; Alford, C; Fought, E; Cook, R; Nikroo, A; Xu, H; Cooley, J C; Field, R D; Hackenberg, R E; Nobile, A

    2005-08-12

    The sputtering of beryllium (Be) has been used at LLNL for nearly 30 years in the fabrication of laser targets. Several years ago the prospect of using sputtering to fabricate spherical Be capsules for National Ignition Facility (NIF) targets began to be explored and a basic strategy was developed that involved sputtering down onto plastic mandrels bouncing in a pan. While this appears to be very straightforward in principle, in practice sputtering has been used almost exclusively to make thin films (< 1 micron) on flat substrates. Thick films pose a significant challenge for sputtering while materials on spherical substrates are essentially unexplored. More recently, based on computational results, the point design for the first NIF ignition target capsule was specified as a Be capsule with Cu-doped layers of specific thickness, each layer with a different concentration of copper. While the work described here was motivated by the need to make the layered capsules, the primary progress on Be capsules has been the development of a more complete metallurgical understanding of the materials that are fabricated and the beginning of the exploration of the relationship between the sputter processing and microstructure of these spherical samples. At least two barriers to growth to full thickness (i.e. 170 microns) have been identified and efforts to overcome these barriers are underway.

  3. The preparation of a Eu3+-doped ZnO bi-functional layer and its application in organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Na; Luo, Qun; Qiao, Xvsheng; Ma, Chang-Qi

    2015-12-01

    Recently, spectra conversion has been used to minimize energy loss in photovoltaic devices. In this work, we explore the development of a novel Eu3+-doped ZnO bi-functional layer for use in organic solar cells. The bi-functional layer acts as both a spectra conversion and an electron transporting layer. Compared to conventional spectra conversion layers, it has a simpler device structure, is easier to fabricate, and has a wider spectrum-sensitized region. A series of Eu3+-doped ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized using the simple solution route. X-ray powder diffraction patterns (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-visible absorbance spectra were used to characterize the obtained ZnO nanocrystals. The results reveal that the size and bandgap of ZnO nanocrystals can be controlled through regulation of the doping concentration of Eu3+ ions. The energy transfer of ZnO → Eu3+ is observed by photoluminescence (PL) spectra. At a bandgap excitation of around 300-400 nm, a typical emission band from the Eu3+ is obtained. By employing the Eu3+- doped ZnO nanocrystals as a buffer layer in a P3HT:PC61BM bulk heterojunction device, the obtained performance is similar to the undoped ZnO device, indicating that the electrical properties of ZnO are not affected by Eu3+ doping. Due to the down-conversion energy transfer between ZnO and Eu3+, the external quantum efficiency of the ZnO:Eu3+ device at 300-400 nm is higher than that of the pure ZnO device, which subsequently leads to an increase in short circuit current density (J SC). This work proves that it is possible to improve the solar spectrum response in the ultraviolet region of organic solar cells effectively by incorporating the bi-functional layer.

  4. Multifunctional Nitrogen-Doped Loofah Sponge Carbon Blocking Layer for High-Performance Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xingxing; Tong, Chuan-Jia; Rehman, Sarish; Liu, Li-Min; Hou, Yanglong; Zhang, Shanqing

    2016-06-29

    Low-cost, long-life, and high-performance lithium batteries not only provide an economically viable power source to electric vehicles and smart electricity grids but also address the issues of the energy shortage and environmental sustainability. Herein, low-cost, hierarchically porous, and nitrogen-doped loofah sponge carbon (N-LSC) derived from the loofah sponge has been synthesized via a simple calcining process and then applied as a multifunctional blocking layer for Li-S, Li-Se, and Li-I2 batteries. As a result of the ultrahigh specific area (2551.06 m(2) g(-1)), high porosity (1.75 cm(3) g(-1)), high conductivity (1170 S m(-1)), and heteroatoms doping of N-LSC, the resultant Li-S, Li-Se, and Li-I2 batteries with the N-LSC-900 membrane deliver outstanding electrochemical performance stability in all cases, i.e., high reversible capacities of 623.6 mA h g(-1) at 1675 mA g(-1) after 500 cycles, 350 mA h g(-1) at 1356 mA g(-1) after 1000 cycles, and 150 mA h g(-1) at 10550 mA g(-1) after 5000 cycles, respectively. The successful application to Li-S, Li-Se, and Li-I2 batteries suggests that loofa sponge carbon could play a vital role in modern rechargeable battery industries as a universal, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and high-performance blocking layer.

  5. Biomimetic layer-by-layer deposition assisted synthesis of Cu, N co-doped TiO2 nanosheets with enhanced visible light photocatalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobo; Yan, Yong; Hao, Bo; Chen, Ge

    2014-10-07

    In this paper, a Cu, N co-doped TiO2 nanosheet with increased visible light photocatalytic activity was successfully synthesized using a biomimetic layer-by-layer deposition process. The polymer, branched-polyethyleneimine (b-PEI) was used as an induction agent for the hydrolysis of titanium bis(ammonium lactato)-dihydroxide (Ti-BALDH) as well as for a nitrogen resource, and the graphene oxide (GO) was used as a two-dimensional nano-template. The positively charged b-PEI will bind to the negatively charged GO and titania. In a typical layer-by-layer deposition process, GO nanosheets are exposed in an alternating fashion to aqueous b-PEI, CuCl2 and Ti-BALDH solutions, thus, making the layer-by-layer deposition of a conformal b-PEI/Cu-Ti-O coating on the GO. Subsequent b-PEI and GO pyrolysis at 550 °C under air yielded Cu, N co-doped TiO2 nanosheets. The materials obtained were comprehensively investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectra, photoluminescence spectra and electron paramagnetic resonance. The Cu, N co-doped TiO2 nanosheets showed obviously enhanced photocatalytic activity which was evaluated by degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. This research might provide some new insights for the "green synthesis" of the simultaneous doping of two kinds of foreign atoms into TiO2 with controlled morphology and photocatalytic properties.

  6. Doping of a dielectric layer as a new alternative for increasing sensitivity of the contactless conductivity detection in microchips.

    PubMed

    Lima, Renato Sousa; Segato, Thiago Pinotti; Gobbi, Angelo Luiz; Coltro, Wendell Karlos Tomazelli; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2011-12-21

    This communication describes a new procedure to increase the sensitivity of C(4)D in PDMS/glass microchips. The method consists in doping the insulating layer (PDMS) over the electrodes with nanoparticles of TiO(2), increasing thus its dielectric constant. The experimental protocol is simple, inexpensive, and fast.

  7. Improved performance of polymer solar cells by using inorganic, organic, and doped cathode buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taohong, Wang; Changbo, Chen; Kunping, Guo; Guo, Chen; Tao, Xu; Bin, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The interface between the active layer and the electrode is one of the most critical factors that could affect the device performance of polymer solar cells. In this work, based on the typical poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) polymer solar cell, we studied the effect of the cathode buffer layer (CBL) between the top metal electrode and the active layer on the device performance. Several inorganic and organic materials commonly used as the electron injection layer in an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) were employed as the CBL in the P3HT:PCBM polymer solar cells. Our results demonstrate that the inorganic and organic materials like Cs2CO3, bathophenanthroline (Bphen), and 8-hydroxyquinolatolithium (Liq) can be used as CBL to efficiently improve the device performance of the P3HT:PCBM polymer solar cells. The P3HT:PCBM devices employed various CBLs possess power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 3.0%-3.3%, which are ca. 50% improved compared to that of the device without CBL. Furthermore, by using the doped organic materials Bphen:Cs2CO3 and Bphen:Liq as the CBL, the PCE of the P3HT:PCBM device will be further improved to 3.5%, which is ca. 70% higher than that of the device without a CBL and ca. 10% increased compared with that of the devices with a neat inorganic or organic CBL. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61204014), the “Chenguang” Project (13CG42) supported by Shanghai Municipal Education Commission and Shanghai Education Development Foundation, China, and the Shanghai University Young Teacher Training Program of Shanghai Municipality, China.

  8. Pulsed laser annealing of highly doped Ge:Sb layers deposited on different substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalov, R. I.; Bayazitov, R. M.; Faizrakhmanov, I. A.; Lyadov, N. M.; Shustov, V. A.; Ivlev, G. D.

    2016-10-01

    Germanium (Ge) is a promising material for micro- and optoelectronics to produce high speed field-effect transistors, photodetectors, light-emitting diodes and lasers. For such applications tensile-strained and/or highly n-doped Ge layers are needed. The authors have performed the formation of such layers by ion-beam sputtering of composite Sb/Ge target, deposition of thin amorphous Ge:Sb films (~200 nm thick) on different substrates (c-Si, c-Al2O3, α-SiO2) followed by pulsed laser annealing (PLA) for their crystallization and Sb dopant activation. Structural, electrical and optical characterization of Ge:Sb films was carried out using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry methods and by measuring sheet resistance, carrier concentration and photoluminescence. The obtained polycrystalline n-Ge:Sb layers (N Sb ~ 1 at.%) are characterized by increased values of tensile strain (up to 1%) and homogenious Sb dopant distribution within layer thickness. The electrical measurements at 300 K revealed the low sheet resistance (up to 40 Ω/□) and extremely high electron concentration (up to 5.5  ×  1020 cm-3) in Ge:Sb/SiO2 samples that indicated full electrical activation of Sb dopant on SiO2 substrate. The increased values of tensile strain and electron concentration of Ge:Sb films on α-SiO2 are explained by low values of thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficients of quartz substrate.

  9. Photoluminescence on cerium-doped ZnO nanorods produced under sequential atomic layer deposition-hydrothermal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes-López, J. L.; Rangel, R.; Espino, J.; Martínez, E.; García-Gutiérrez, R.; Bartolo-Pérez, P.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Contreras, O. E.

    2017-01-01

    Doped and undoped ZnO nanorod arrays were produced combining atomic layer deposition and hydrothermal processes. First, a ZnO layer with preferential orientation normal to the c-axis was grown on the substrate by means of the decomposition of diethylzinc; subsequently, the nanorod arrays were produced through solvothermal process using a solution of Zn(NO3)2 as precursor. Doped ZnO nanorods were produced using Ce(C2H3O2)3·H2O as dopant agent precursor. Undoped and Ce-doped ZnO nanorod arrays showed high-intensity photoluminescence. The doping concentration of x = 0.04 (Zn1- x Ce x O) displayed the highest photoluminescence. Undoped ZnO showed an intense UV peak centered at 382 nm with a narrow full wide half maximum of 33 nm. Ce-doped ZnO PL spectra contain three bands, one signal in the UV region centered at 382 nm, other centered at 467 nm in the near-green region and other one emission centered at 560 nm. The results herein exposed demonstrate the capability to produce high-quality ZnO and Zn1- x Ce x O films.

  10. Band offset of vanadium-doped molybdenum oxide hole transport layer in organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Feng-Kuei; Huang, Yi-Chi; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Chen, Jen-Sue

    2016-08-01

    Solution-processed vanadium-doped molybdenum oxide films (V)MoOx films with mole ratios of Mo:V = 1:0, 1:0.05, 1:0.2, 1:0.5, 0:1, are fabricated as hole transport layer (HTL) in organic photovoltaics with active layer blend comprising poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The device structure is ITO/(V)MoOx/P3HT:PCBM/ZnO NP/Al, and the working area is 0.16 cm2. The result shows that the device using V0.05MoOx HTL has the best performance, including power conversion efficiency of 2.16%, Voc of 0.6 V, Jsc of 6.93 mA/cm2, and FF of 51.9%. Using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), we can define the energy levels of valence band edge and Fermi level of (V)MoOx films. UPS analysis indicates that V0.05MoOx has the smallest energy band offset between its valence band edge to the HOMO of P3HT, which is advantageous for hole transporting from P3HT to ITO anode via the V0.05MoOx HTL. In addition, V0.05MoOx film shows the lowest electrical resistivity among all (V)MoOx films, which is further beneficial for hole transportation.

  11. The application of highly doped single-layer graphene as the top electrodes of semitransparent organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhike; Li, Jinhua; Sun, Zhen-Hua; Tai, Guoan; Lau, Shu-Ping; Yan, Feng

    2012-01-24

    A single-layer graphene film with high conductance and transparency was realized by effective chemical doping. The conductance of single-layer graphene was increased for more than 400% when it was doped with Au nanoparticles and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonic acid). Then semitransparent organic solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were fabricated with single-layer graphene and indium tin oxide (ITO) as the top and bottom electrodes, respectively. The performance of the devices was optimized by tuning the active layer thickness and doping the single-layer graphene electrodes. The maximum efficiency of 2.7% was observed in the devices with the area of 20 mm(2) illuminated from graphene electrode under the AM1.5 solar simulator. It is notable that all of the devices showed higher efficiency from the graphene than ITO side, which was attributed to the better transmittance of the graphene electrodes. In addition, the influence of the active area of the organic solar cell on its photovoltaic performance was studied. We found that, when the active areas increased from 6 to 50 mm(2), the power conversion efficiencies decreased from 3% to 2.3% because of the increased series resistances and the decreased edge effect of the devices.

  12. Improve efficiency of perovskite solar cells by using Magnesium doped ZnO and TiO2 compact layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baktash, Ardeshir; Amiri, Omid; Sasani, Alireza

    2016-05-01

    Here the effect of Magnesium doped TiO2 and ZnO as hole blocking layers (HBLs) are investigated by using solar cell capacitance simulator (SCAPS). The Impact of Magnesium concentration into the TiO2 and ZnO and effect of operating temperature on the performance of the perovskite solar cell are investigated. Best cell performance for both TiO2 and ZnO HBLs (with cell efficiencies of 19.86% and 19.57% respectively) are concluded for the doping level of 10% of Mg into the structure of HBLs. Increase in operating temperature from 300 K to 400 K are decreased the performance of the perovskite solar cell with both pure and Mg-doped HBLs. However, the cells with pure ZnO layer and with Zn0.9 Mg0.1O layer show the highest (with a decline of 8.88% in efficiency) and the lowest stability (with a decline of 50.49% in efficiency) at higher temperatures respectively. Moreover, the cell with Ti0.9 Mg0.1O2 layer shows better stability (with 21.85% reduction in efficiency) than the cell with pure TiO2 compact layer (with 23.28% reduction in efficiency) at higher operating temperatures.

  13. Elemental boron-doped p(+)-SiGe layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy for infrared detector applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. L.; George, T.; Jones, E. W.; Ksendzov, A.; Huberman, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    SiGe/Si heterojunction internal photoemission (HIP) detectors have been fabricated utilizing molecular beam epitaxy of p(+)-SiGe layers on p(-)-Si substrates. Elemental boron from a high-temperature effusion cell was used as the dopant source during MBE growth, and high doping concentrations have been achieved. Strong infrared absorption, mainly by free-carrier absorption, was observed for the degenerately doped SiGe layers. The use of elemental boron as the dopant source allows a low MBE growth temperature, resulting in improved crystalline quality and smooth surface morphology of the Si(0.7)Ge(0.3) layers. Nearly ideal thermionic emission dark current characteristics have been obtained. Photoresponse of the HIP detectors in the long-wavelength infrared regime has been demonstrated.

  14. Structural phase states in nickel-titanium surface layers doped with silicon by plasma immersion ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashin, Oleg A.; Lotkov, Aleksandr I.; Kudryashov, Andrey N.; Krukovsky, Konstantin V.; Ostapenko, Marina G.; Neiman, Alexey A.; Borisov, Dmitry P.

    2015-10-01

    The paper reports on a study of NiTi-based alloys used for manufacturing self-expanding intravascular stents to elucidate how the technological modes of plasma immersion ion implantation with silicon influence the chemical and phase composition of their surface layers. It is shown that two types of surface structure can be obtained depending on the mode of plasma immersion implantation: quasi-amorphous Si coating and Si-doped surface layer. The Si-doped surface layer contains new phases: a phase structured as the main B2 phase of NiTi but with a lower lattice parameter, R phase, and phase of highly dispersed SiO2 precipitates.

  15. Investigations of segregation phenomena in highly strained Mn-doped Ge wetting layers and Ge quantum dots embedded in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Prestat, E. Porret, C.; Favre-Nicolin, V.; Tainoff, D.; Boukhari, M.; Bayle-Guillemaud, P.; Jamet, M.; Barski, A.

    2014-03-10

    In this Letter, we investigate manganese diffusion and the formation of Mn precipitates in highly strained, few monolayer thick, Mn-doped Ge wetting layers and nanometric size Ge quantum dot heterostructures embedded in silicon. We show that in this Ge(Mn)/Si system manganese always precipitates and that the size and the position of Mn clusters (precipitates) depend on the growth temperature. At high growth temperature, manganese strongly diffuses from germanium to silicon, whereas decreasing the growth temperature reduces the manganese diffusion. In the germanium quantum dots layers, Mn precipitates are detected, not only in partially relaxed quantum dots but also in fully strained germanium wetting layers between the dots.

  16. Tape method of forming a thin layer of doped lanthanum chromite particles and of bonding such on an electrode

    DOEpatents

    Richards, Von L.; Singhal, Subhash C.; Pal, Uday B.

    1992-01-01

    A combustible polymer film, useful for application of an interconnection on an electrode is made by: (1) providing doped LaCro.sub.3 particles; (2) dispersing doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles in a solvent, to provide a dispersion; (3) screening the dispersion to provide particles in the range of from 30 micrometers to 80 micrometers; (4) admixing a fugitive polymer with the particles; (5) casting the dispersion to provide a film; (6) drying the film; and (7) stripping the film. The film can then be applied to a porous, preheated electrode top surface, and then electrochemical vapor depositing a dense skeletal LaCrO.sub.3 structure, between and around the doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles. Additional solid oxide electrolyte and fuel electrode layers can then be added to provide a fuel cell.

  17. Tape method of forming a thin layer of doped lanthanum chromite particles and of bonding such on an electrode

    DOEpatents

    Richards, V.L.; Singhal, S.C.; Pal, U.B.

    1992-07-21

    A combustible polymer film, useful for application of an interconnection on an electrode is made by: (1) providing doped LaCro[sub 3] particles; (2) dispersing doped LaCrO[sub 3] particles in a solvent, to provide a dispersion; (3) screening the dispersion to provide particles in the range of from 30 micrometers to 80 micrometers; (4) admixing a fugitive polymer with the particles; (5) casting the dispersion to provide a film; (6) drying the film; and (7) stripping the film. The film can then be applied to a porous, preheated electrode top surface, and then a dense skeletal LaCrO[sub 3] structure is electrochemically vapor deposited between and around the doped LaCrO[sub 3] particles. Additional solid oxide electrolyte and fuel electrode layers can then be added to provide a fuel cell. 4 figs.

  18. Segregation of Sb in Ge epitaxial layers and its usage for the selective doping of Ge-based structures

    SciTech Connect

    Antonov, A. V.; Drozdov, M. N.; Novikov, A. V. Yurasov, D. V.

    2015-11-15

    The segregation of Sb in Ge epitaxial layers grown by the method of molecular beam epitaxy on Ge (001) substrates is investigated. For a growth temperature range of 180–325°C, the temperature dependence is determined for the segregation ratio of Sb in Ge, which shows a sharp increase (by more than three orders of magnitude) with increasing temperature. The strong dependence of the segregation properties of Sb on the growth temperature makes it possible to adapt a method based on the controlled use of segregation developed previously for the doping of Si structures for the selective doping of Ge structures with a donor impurity. Using this method selectively doped Ge:Sb structures, in which the bulk impurity concentration varies by an order of magnitude at distances of 3–5 nm, are obtained.

  19. Electric-double-layer doping of WSe2 field-effect transistors using polyethylene-oxide cesium perchlorate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathipour, Sara; Pandey, Pratyush; Fullerton-Shirey, Susan; Seabaugh, Alan

    2016-12-01

    Electric double layers (EDLs) formed between polyethylene oxide cesium perchlorate and multilayer WSe2 field-effect transistors (FETs) are explored as a means for contact and access region doping. In this application, the electric double layer is formed using a top field plate or a side gate and then locked into place by cooling of the device below the glass transition temperature of the polymer. A dual work-function Ti/Pd contact is used to form the Schottky contacts with Ti as the n-contact and Pd as the p-contact and these are evaporated in a single evaporation. Using the EDL doping technique, sheet carrier density and current density are as high as (4.9 ± 1.9) × 1013 cm-2 and 58 μA/μm for n-doping and (3.5 ± 1.9) × 1013 cm-2 and 50 μA/μm for p-doping for the highest channel conductivities. The weak temperature dependence of the transfer characteristics at high doping levels reveals that the current in the Schottky contacts is dominated by tunneling with a contact resistance of 1 kΩ μm for the p-branch and 3.4 kΩ μm for the n-branch, comparable to the best WSe2 FET reports. At the highest carrier densities, the temperature coefficient of the conductance becomes negative as the mobility of the channel controls the temperature dependence. Using EDL doping, n-FET and p-FET configurations are demonstrated.

  20. Effects of growth temperature on characteristics of Mg-delta-doped p-AlInGaN epi-layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zili; Zhang, Xiong; Liang, Tianhui; Feng, Zhe Chuan; Cui, Yiping

    2016-10-01

    The Mg-delta-doped p-AlInGaN epi-layers were successfully grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The effects of growth temperature on the characteristics of the Mg-delta-doped p-AlInGaN epi-layers were investigated in detail with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), photoluminescence (PL), and Hall effect measurements. The characterization results showed that the surfaces of the p-AlInGaN epi-layers were textured with a high density of hexagonal pits, which was found to be strongly dependent on the growth temperature. This feature should be very helpful to enhance the light extraction efficiency when the p-AlInGaN epi-layers were used as the top p-contact layer for making AlInGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV-LEDs). In addition, the low temperature PL spectra demonstrated that the Mg-H complex-related broad emission band which was observed for the as-grown p-AlInGaN epi-layer samples was not resolvable for the annealed samples. This fact implies that the Mg-H complex can be effectively dissociated by annealing process. Moreover, owing to the improved In incorporation efficiency and crystalline quality for the p-AlInGaN epi-layers, a hole concentration as high as 1.69 × 1017 cm-3 was achieved with the reformed Mg-delta-doping technique developed in this study.

  1. Effect of space layer doping on photoelectric conversion efficiency of InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyoung Su; Lee, Dong Uk; Kim, Eun Kyu; Choi, Won Jun

    2015-11-01

    We report an effect of photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) by space layer doping in InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cells (QDSC) and δ-doped QDSC grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The PCEs of QDSC and δ-doped QDSC without anti-reflection coating were 10.8% and 4.3%, respectively. The QDSC had about four electrons per QD, and its ideality factor was temperature-independent, which implies that recombination of electron-hole pairs is suppressed by strong potential barriers around charged dots. From the deep level transient spectroscopy measurements, four defect levels, including QD with the activation energy ranges from 0.08 eV to 0.50 eV below GaAs conduction band edge, appeared. Especially, the M1 defect (Ec-0.14 eV) was newly formed in δ-doped QDSC and its density was higher than those of M3 (Ec-0.35 eV) and M4 (Ec-0.50 eV) levels in QDSC. These results suggest that the photo-carriers recombining at M1 defect might be responsible for the reduction of PCE in δ-doped QDSC.

  2. Effect of space layer doping on photoelectric conversion efficiency of InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kyoung Su; Lee, Dong Uk; Kim, Eun Kyu; Choi, Won Jun

    2015-11-16

    We report an effect of photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) by space layer doping in InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cells (QDSC) and δ-doped QDSC grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The PCEs of QDSC and δ-doped QDSC without anti-reflection coating were 10.8% and 4.3%, respectively. The QDSC had about four electrons per QD, and its ideality factor was temperature-independent, which implies that recombination of electron-hole pairs is suppressed by strong potential barriers around charged dots. From the deep level transient spectroscopy measurements, four defect levels, including QD with the activation energy ranges from 0.08 eV to 0.50 eV below GaAs conduction band edge, appeared. Especially, the M1 defect (E{sub c}-0.14 eV) was newly formed in δ-doped QDSC and its density was higher than those of M3 (E{sub c}-0.35 eV) and M4 (E{sub c}-0.50 eV) levels in QDSC. These results suggest that the photo-carriers recombining at M1 defect might be responsible for the reduction of PCE in δ-doped QDSC.

  3. Structural, electrical, and optical properties of Ti-doped ZnO films fabricated by atomic layer deposition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    High-quality Ti-doped ZnO films were grown on Si, thermally grown SiO2, and quartz substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 200°C with various Ti doping concentrations. Titanium isopropoxide, diethyl zinc, and deionized water were sources for Ti, Zn, and O, respectively. The Ti doping was then achieved by growing ZnO and TiO2 alternately. A hampered growth mode of ZnO on TiO2 layer was confirmed by comparing the thicknesses measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry with the expected. It was also found that the locations of the (100) diffraction peaks shift towards lower diffraction angles as Ti concentration increased. For all samples, optical transmittance over 80% was obtained in the visible region. The sample with ALD cycle ratio of ZnO/TiO2 being 20 had the lowest resistivity of 8.874 × 10−4 Ω cm. In addition, carrier concentration of the prepared films underwent an evident increase and then decreased with the increase of Ti doping concentration. PMID:23442766

  4. Effect of Nb Doping on Chemical Sensing Performance of Two-Dimensional Layered MoSe2.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun Young; Kim, Yonghun; Chung, Hee-Suk; Kim, Ah Ra; Kwon, Jung-Dae; Park, Jucheol; Kim, Young Lae; Kwon, Se-Hun; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Cho, Byungjin

    2017-02-01

    Here, we report that Nb doping of two-dimensional (2D) MoSe2 layered nanomaterials is a promising approach to improve their gas sensing performance. In this study, Nb atoms were incorporated into a 2D MoSe2 host matrix, and the Nb doping concentration could be precisely controlled by varying the number of Nb2O5 deposition cycles in the plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition process. At relatively low Nb dopant concentrations, MoSe2 showed enhanced device durability as well as NO2 gas response, attributed to its small grains and stabilized grain boundaries. Meanwhile, an increase in the Nb doping concentration deteriorated the NO2 gas response. This might be attributed to a considerable increase in the number of metallic NbSe2 regions, which do not respond to gas molecules. This novel method of doping 2D transition metal dichalcogenide-based nanomaterials with metal atoms is a promising approach to improve the performance such as stability and gas response of 2D gas sensors.

  5. A non-destructive n-doping method for graphene with precise control of electronic properties via atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyu Seok; Kalode, Pranav Y; Koo Lee, Yong-Eun; Kim, Hongbum; Lee, Lynn; Sung, Myung Mo

    2016-03-07

    Graphene applications require high precision control of the Fermi level and carrier concentration via a nondestructive doping method. Here, we develop an effective n-doping technique using atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnO thin films on graphene through a reactive molecular layer. This ALD doping method is nondestructive, simple, and precise. The ZnO thin films on graphene are uniform, conformal, of good quality with a low density of pinholes, and finely tunable in thickness with 1 Å resolution. We demonstrate graphene transistor control in terms of the Dirac point, carrier density, and doping state as a function of the ZnO thickness. Moreover, ZnO functions as an effective thin-film barrier against air-borne water and oxygen on the graphene, resulting in extraordinary stability in air for graphene devices. ZnO ALD was also applied to other two-dimensional materials including MoS2 and WSe2, which substantially enhanced electron mobility.

  6. Structure and electrical properties of Al-doped HfO₂ and ZrO₂ films grown via atomic layer deposition on Mo electrodes.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yeon Woo; Jeon, Woojin; Lee, Woongkyu; An, Cheol Hyun; Kim, Seong Keun; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2014-12-24

    The effects of Al doping in atomic-layer-deposited HfO2 (AHO) and ZrO2 (AZO) films on the evolutions of their crystallographic phases, grain sizes, and electric properties, such as their dielectric constants and leakage current densities, were examined for their applications in high-voltage devices. The film thickness and Al-doping concentration were varied in the ranges of 60-75 nm and 0.5-9.7%, respectively, for AHO and 55-90 nm and 1.0-10.3%, respectively, for AZO. The top and bottom electrodes were sputtered Mo films. The detailed structural and electrical property variations were examined as functions of the Al concentration and film thickness. The AHO films showed a transition from the monoclinic phase (Al concentration up to 1.4%) to the tetragonal/cubic phase (Al concentration 2.0-3.5%), and finally, to the amorphous phase (Al concentration >4.7%), whereas the AZO films remained in the tetragonal/cubic phase up to the Al concentration of 6.4%. For both the AHO and AZO films, the monoclinic and amorphous phases had dielectric constants of 20-25, and the tetragonal/cubic phases had dielectric constants of 30-35. The highest electrical performance levels for the application to the high-voltage charge storage capacitors in flat panel displays were achieved with the 4.7-9.7% Al-doped AHO films and the 2.6% Al-doped AZO films.

  7. Non-equilibrium Approach to Doping of Wide Bandgap materials by Molecular Beam Epitaxy. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tamargo, M. C.; Neumark, G. F.

    2004-04-19

    It is well known that it has been difficult to obtain good bipolar doping in a wide bandgap semiconductors. Developed a new doping technique, involving use of a standard dopant, together with a ''co-dopant'' used to facilitate the introduction of the dopant, and have vastly alleviated this problem.

  8. Silica supported phospholipid layers doped with GM1: A comparison between different methods.

    PubMed

    Santos, Olga; Arnebrant, Thomas

    2009-01-15

    A method to coat hydrophobic surfaces with lipid molecules in a reproducible manner and in which the lipid molecules are resistant to detergent washings, would benefit the development of new ELISA assays. This work presents different approaches to build 1,2-dioleolyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) layers doped with a monosialoganglioside (GM1) supported on silica surfaces, which are stable toward buffer rinsing and washing with surfactant (Tween 20). The three methods employed were: method 1, coadsorption of DOPC:GM1 (0-10 mol%) with the surfactant n-dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside (DDM) from micellar solutions, with successive adsorption and rinsing steps; method 2, vesicle fusion from DOPC: GM1 (0-10 mol%) liposomes; and method 3, deposition of GM1 from organic solvent (chloroform) and exposure to an aqueous environment (hydration method). The vesicle fusion method was also tested in polystyrene surfaces. Cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) was used to detect the presence of GM1 on the formed layers. The results indicated that the vesicle fusion was the only method that was successful in creating stable mono- and bilayers onto hydrophobized and hydrophilic silica, respectively. The mixed micellar solution method was suitable for creating pure lipid (DOPC) monolayers but the incorporation of GM1 in the micelles led to monolayers which were very unstable with respect to buffer rinsing. The hydration method led to monolayers of GM1 that were partly rinsed off by a continuous buffer flow. Adsorption of CTB was found to be proportional to the amount of GM1 present in the liposomes. The amount of CTB adsorbed onto the lipid bilayers was roughly the double as the one determined on the monolayers with the same liposome compositions. The vesicle fusion method was also able to create monolayers of pure DOPC and DOPC:10 mol% GM1 on the polystyrene surfaces.

  9. High-surface-area nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide for electric double-layer capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Youn, Hee-Chang; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel A.; Lee, Chang-Wook; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2015-06-08

    A two-step method consisting of solid-state microwave irradiation and heat treatment under NH₃ gas was used to prepare nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) with a high specific surface area (1007m²g⁻¹), high electrical conductivity (1532S m⁻¹), and low oxygen content (1.5 wt%) for electric double-layer capacitor applications. The specific capacitance of N-RGO was 291 Fg⁻¹ at a current density of 1 A g⁻¹, and a capacitance of 261 F g⁻¹ was retained at 50 A g⁻¹, indicating a very good rate capability. N-RGO also showed excellent cycling stability, preserving 96% of the initial specific capacitance after 100,000 cycles. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy evidenced the recover of π-conjugation in the carbon networks with the removal of oxygenated groups and revealed the chemical bonding of the nitrogen atoms in N-RGO. The good electrochemical performance of N-RGO is attributed to its high surface area, high electrical conductivity, and low oxygen content.

  10. Atomic layer deposition of Nb-doped ZnO for thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, A.; Wrench, J. S.; Jin, J. D.; Whittles, T. J.; Mitrovic, I. Z.; Raja, M.; Dhanak, V. R.; Chalker, P. R.; Hall, S.

    2016-11-01

    We present physical and electrical characterization of niobium-doped zinc oxide (NbZnO) for thin film transistor (TFT) applications. The NbZnO films were deposited using atomic layer deposition. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that the crystallinity of the NbZnO films reduces with an increase in the Nb content and lower deposition temperature. It was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy that Nb5+ is present within the NbZnO matrix. Furthermore, photoluminescence indicates that the band gap of the ZnO increases with a higher Nb content, which is explained by the Burstein-Moss effect. For TFT applications, a growth temperature of 175 °C for 3.8% NbZnO provided the best TFT characteristics with a saturation mobility of 7.9 cm2/Vs, the current On/Off ratio of 1 × 108, and the subthreshold swing of 0.34 V/decade. The transport is seen to follow a multiple-trap and release mechanism at lower gate voltages and percolation thereafter.

  11. Chromium and yttrium-doped magnesium aluminum oxides prepared from layered double hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-García, J. M.; Pérez-Bernal, M. E.; Ruano-Casero, R. J.; Rives, V.

    2007-12-01

    Layered double hydroxides with the hydrotalcite-like structures, containing Mg 2+ and Al 3+, doped with Cr 3+ and Y 3+, have been prepared by precipitation at constant pH. The weight percentages of Cr 3+ and Y 3+ were 1, 2, or 3%, and 0.5 or 1%, respectively. Single phases were obtained in all cases, whose crystallinity decreased as the content in Cr and Y was increased. The solids have been characterised by element chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses (differential, thermogravimetric and programmed reduction), FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopies; the specific surface areas have been determined from nitrogen adsorption isotherms at -196 °C. Upon calcination at 1200 °C for 5 h in air all solids display a mixed structure (spinel and rock salt for MgO); these solids have also been characterised by these techniques and their chromatic coordinates (CIE - L∗a∗b∗) have been determined. Their pink colour makes these solids suitable for being used as ceramic pigments.

  12. High-Surface-Area Nitrogen-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide for Electric Double-Layer Capacitors.

    PubMed

    Youn, Hee-Chang; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel A; Lee, Chang-Wook; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2015-06-08

    A two-step method consisting of solid-state microwave irradiation and heat treatment under NH3 gas was used to prepare nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) with a high specific surface area (1007 m(2)  g(-1) ), high electrical conductivity (1532 S m(-1) ), and low oxygen content (1.5 wt %) for electrical double-layer capacitor applications. The specific capacitance of N-RGO was 291 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1) , and a capacitance of 261 F g(-1) was retained at 50 A g(-1) , which indicated a very good rate capability. N-RGO also showed excellent cycling stability and preserved 96 % of the initial specific capacitance after 100 000 cycles. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy results provided evidenced for the recovery of π conjugation in the carbon networks with the removal of oxygenated groups and revealed chemical bonding of the nitrogen atoms in N-RGO. The good electrochemical performance of N-RGO is attributed to its high surface area, high electrical conductivity, and low oxygen content.

  13. High-surface-area nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide for electric double-layer capacitors

    DOE PAGES

    Youn, Hee-Chang; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Myeong-Seong; ...

    2015-06-08

    A two-step method consisting of solid-state microwave irradiation and heat treatment under NH₃ gas was used to prepare nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) with a high specific surface area (1007m²g⁻¹), high electrical conductivity (1532S m⁻¹), and low oxygen content (1.5 wt%) for electric double-layer capacitor applications. The specific capacitance of N-RGO was 291 Fg⁻¹ at a current density of 1 A g⁻¹, and a capacitance of 261 F g⁻¹ was retained at 50 A g⁻¹, indicating a very good rate capability. N-RGO also showed excellent cycling stability, preserving 96% of the initial specific capacitance after 100,000 cycles. Near-edge X-ray absorptionmore » fine-structure spectroscopy evidenced the recover of π-conjugation in the carbon networks with the removal of oxygenated groups and revealed the chemical bonding of the nitrogen atoms in N-RGO. The good electrochemical performance of N-RGO is attributed to its high surface area, high electrical conductivity, and low oxygen content.« less

  14. Cr-doped TiSe2 - A layered dichalcogenide spin glass

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Huixia; Tao, Jing; Krizan, Jason W.; Seibel, Elizabeth M.; Xie, Weiwei; Sahasrabudhe, Girija S.; Bergman, Susanna L.; Phelan, Brendan F.; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Jiandi; Cava, R. J.

    2015-09-17

    We report the magnetic characterization of the Cr-doped layered dichalcogenide TiSe2. The temperature dependent magnetic susceptibilities are typical of those seen in geometrically frustrated insulating antiferromagnets. The Cr moment is close to the spin-only value, and the Curie–Weiss temperatures (θcw) are between –90 and –230 K. Freezing of the spin system, which is glassy, characterized by peaks in the ac and dc susceptibility and specific heat, does not occur until below T/θcw = 0.05. The CDW transition seen in the resistivity for pure TiSe2 is still present for 3% Cr substitution but is absent by 10% substitution, above which the materials are metallic and p-type. Structural refinements, magnetic characterization, and chemical considerations indicate that the materials are of the type Ti1–xCrxSe2-x/2 for 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6.

  15. Electrochemical removal of hydrogen atoms in Mg-doped GaN epitaxial layers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, June Key E-mail: hskim7@jbnu.ac.kr; Hyeon, Gil Yong; Tawfik, Wael Z.; Choi, Hee Seok; Ryu, Sang-Wan; Jeong, Tak; Jung, Eunjin; Kim, Hyunsoo E-mail: hskim7@jbnu.ac.kr

    2015-05-14

    Hydrogen atoms inside of an Mg-doped GaN epitaxial layer were effectively removed by the electrochemical potentiostatic activation (EPA) method. The role of hydrogen was investigated in terms of the device performance of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The effect of the main process parameters for EPA such as solution type, voltage, and time was studied and optimized for application to LED fabrication. In optimized conditions, the light output of 385-nm LEDs was improved by about 26% at 30 mA, which was caused by the reduction of the hydrogen concentration by ∼35%. Further removal of hydrogen seems to be involved in the breaking of Ga-H bonds that passivate the nitrogen vacancies. An EPA process with high voltage breaks not only Mg-H bonds that generate hole carriers but also Ga-H bonds that generate electron carriers, thus causing compensation that impedes the practical increase of hole concentration, regardless of the drastic removal of hydrogen atoms. A decrease in hydrogen concentration affects the current-voltage characteristics, reducing the reverse current by about one order and altering the forward current behavior in the low voltage region.

  16. Cr-doped TiSe2 - A layered dichalcogenide spin glass

    DOE PAGES

    Luo, Huixia; Tao, Jing; Krizan, Jason W.; ...

    2015-09-17

    We report the magnetic characterization of the Cr-doped layered dichalcogenide TiSe2. The temperature dependent magnetic susceptibilities are typical of those seen in geometrically frustrated insulating antiferromagnets. The Cr moment is close to the spin-only value, and the Curie–Weiss temperatures (θcw) are between –90 and –230 K. Freezing of the spin system, which is glassy, characterized by peaks in the ac and dc susceptibility and specific heat, does not occur until below T/θcw = 0.05. The CDW transition seen in the resistivity for pure TiSe2 is still present for 3% Cr substitution but is absent by 10% substitution, above which themore » materials are metallic and p-type. Structural refinements, magnetic characterization, and chemical considerations indicate that the materials are of the type Ti1–xCrxSe2-x/2 for 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6.« less

  17. Electron transport in Al-doped ZnO nanolayers obtained by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagoev, B. S.; Dimitrov, D. Z.; Mehandzhiev, V. B.; Kovacheva, D.; Terziyska, P.; Pavlic, J.; Lovchinov, K.; Mateev, E.; Leclercq, J.; Sveshtarov, P.

    2016-03-01

    Al-doped ZnO thin films with different Al content were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD). To carry out thermal ALD, diethyl zinc (DEZ) and tri-methyl aluminium (TMA) were used as Zn and Al precursors, respectively, and water vapor as oxidant. Various numbers n of DEZ and m TMA cycles was used to obtain different [ZnO] n [Al2O3] m films, where n = 100 - 95, m = 1 - 5. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed a predominantly (100) oriented polycrystalline phase for the ZnO:Al films with a low Al content (m = 1 - 3) and an amorphous structure for pure Al2O3. In ZnO:Al with a higher Al content (m = 4 - 6) the (100) reflection disappeared and the (002) peak increased. The resistivity of the films decreased with the increase in the Al content, reaching a minimum of 3.3×10-3 Ω cm at about 1.1 % Al2O3 for the [ZnO]99[Al2O3]2 sample; for higher dopant concentrations, the resistivity increased because of the increased crystal inhomogeneity due to axis reorientation.

  18. Phosphorus Doping Effect in a Zinc Oxide Channel Layer to Improve the Performance of Oxide Thin-Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dong-Suk; Moon, Yeon-Keon; Lee, Sih; Kim, Kyung-Taek; Moon, Dae-Yong; Lee, Sang-Ho; Kim, Woong-Sun; Park, Jong-Wan

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we fabricated phosphorus-doped zinc oxide-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) using direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering at a relatively low temperature of 100°C. To improve the TFT device performance, including field-effect mobility and bias stress stability, phosphorus dopants were employed to suppress the generation of intrinsic defects in the ZnO-based semiconductor. The positive and negative bias stress stabilities were dramatically improved by introducing the phosphorus dopants, which could prevent turn-on voltage ( V ON) shift in the TFTs caused by charge trapping within the active channel layer. The study showed that phosphorus doping in ZnO was an effective method to control the electrical properties of the active channel layers and improve the bias stress stability of oxide-based TFTs.

  19. Fluorescent vancomycin and terephthalate comodified europium-doped layered double hydroxides nanoparticles: synthesis and application for bacteria labelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianchao; Fan, Hai; Wang, Nan; Ai, Shiyun

    2014-09-01

    Vancomycin (Van)- and terephthalate (TA)-comodified europium-doped layered double hydroxides (Van-TA-Eu-LDHs) nanoparticles were successfully prepared by a two-step method, in which, TA acted as a sensitizer to enhance the fluorescent property and Van was modified on the surface of LDH to act as an affinity reagent to bacteria. The obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope and fluorescent spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the prepared Van- and TA-comodified europium-doped layered double hydroxides (Van-TA-Eu-LDHs) nanoparticles with diameter of 50 nm in size showed highly efficient fluorescent property. Furthermore, due to the high affinity of Van to bacteria, the prepared Van-TA-Eu-LDHs nanoparticles showed efficient bacteria labelling by fluorescent property. The prepared nanoparticles may have wide applications in the biological fields, such as biomolecular labelling and cell imaging.

  20. Simulation of the effective concentration profiles in InGaAs/GaAs heterostructures containing δ-doped layers

    SciTech Connect

    Khazanova, S. V. Degtyarev, V. E.; Tikhov, S. V.; Baidus, N. V.

    2015-01-15

    InGaAs/GaAs heterostructures containing quantum wells and δ-doped layers are studied theoretically and experimentally. On the basis of the procedure of self-consistently solving the Schrödinger equation and Poisson equation, the differential capacitance and the apparent electron concentration profiles are numerically calculated for structures with different mutual arrangements of the quantum well and the δ layer. The results of the calculations are compared with the result of analyzing the experimental capacitance-voltage characteristics of the structures. The systematic features of the behavior of the apparent concentration profiles and capacitance-voltage characteristics in relation to the geometric properties of the structure, the temperature, and the doping level are established.

  1. Distinct oxygen hole doping in different layers of Sr₂CuO4-δ/La₂CuO₄ superlattices

    DOE PAGES

    Smadici, S.; Lee, J. C. T.; Rusydi, A.; ...

    2012-03-28

    X-ray absorption in Sr₂CuO4-δ/La₂CuO₄ (SCO/LCO) superlattices shows a variable occupation with doping of a hole state different from holes doped for x≲xoptimal in bulk La2-xSrxCuO₄ and suggests that this hole state is on apical oxygen atoms and polarized in the a-b plane. Considering the surface reflectivity gives a good qualitative description of the line shapes of resonant soft x-ray scattering. The interference between superlattice and surface reflections was used to distinguish between scatterers in the SCO and the LCO layers, with the two hole states maximized in different layers of the superlattice.

  2. Optimized inverted polymer solar cells incorporating Cs2CO3-doped C60 as electron transport layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbot, A.; Lucas, B.; Di Bin, C.; Ratier, B.; Aldissi, M.

    2013-05-01

    An efficient charge transfer between co-sublimed cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) and fullerene C60 provides an n-type material exhibiting an electrical conductivity above 1 S/cm. This type of doped layers can be used in organic optoelectronic devices to reduce ohmic losses at organic-electrode interfaces. We report here an analysis of inverted polymer-based solar cells incorporating Cs2CO3 doped C60 as electron transport layer (ETL). The optimization of both dopant concentration and thickness resulted in a maximum efficiency of 3.79% compared to 3% for similar devices using undoped C60 as ETL and 2.13% for devices without any ETL.

  3. Comparative study of InGaP/GaAs high electron mobility transistors with upper and lower delta-doped supplied layers

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Jung-Hui Ye, Sheng-Shiun; Guo, Der-Feng; Lour, Wen-Shiung

    2012-04-15

    Influence corresponding to the position of {delta}-doped supplied layer on InGaP/GaAs high electron mobility transistors is comparatively studied by two-dimensional simulation analysis. The simulated results exhibit that the device with lower {delta}-doped supplied layer shows a higher gate potential barrier height, a higher saturation output current, a larger magnitude of negative threshold voltage, and broader gate voltage swing, as compared to the device with upper {delta}-doped supplied layer. Nevertheless, it has smaller transconductance and inferior high-frequency characteristics in the device with lower {delta}-doped supplied layer. Furthermore, a knee effect in current-voltage curves is observed at low drain-to-source voltage in the two devices, which is investigated in this article.

  4. The influence of doping and post-treatment on optical-electrical properties of novel window layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingzuo; Shen, Jiesheng; Zhao, Yue

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, vacuum thermal evaporation and direct current magnetron sputtering technique are used to produce a novel window layer with the structure of i-ZnO/AZO/Ag(In):AZO. Based on the traditional i-ZnO/AZO window layer, the metal Ag (In) thin film is deposited on the surface of this double-layer thin film to form a new window layer with the structure of i-ZnO/AZO/Ag (In):AZO. Comparing with the traditional i-ZnO/AZO window layer, the deposited metal Ag (In) thin film on the surface of traditional i-ZnO/AZO window layer may lead to the reduction in resistivity and transmittance, which can be attributed to high conductivity and high reflectivity of deposited metal Ag (In) thin film. After annealing, the resistance of novel window layer with the structure of i-ZnO/AZO/In:AZO has a large reduction, but the change of resistance of novel i-ZnO/AZO/Ag:AZO window layer shows a opposite trend. This phenomenon may be related to the different number of valence electron of doping element. Furthermore, the annealing process promotes the recrystallization process to decrease the internal stress and the crystal structure defects, which leads to an obvious decrease in the transmittance and the carrier scattering rate of novel window layer.

  5. Efficiency enhancement of solution-processed inverted organic solar cells with a carbon-nanotube-doped active layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wen-Kai; Su, Shui-Hsiang; Yeh, Meng-Cheng; Huang, Yang-Chan; Yokoyama, Meiso

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processed titanium-doped ZnO (TZO) is synthesized by the sol-gel method to be the electron-transporting layer (ETL) in an inverted organic solar cell (IOSC). Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are doped into an active layer of poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C 61 butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM). The addition of CNTs in the P3HT:PCBM composite increases the conjugation length of P3HT:PCBM:CNTs, which simultaneously enhances the capacity of the composite to absorb solar energy radiation. Vanadium oxide (V2O5) was spin-coated onto the active layer to be a hole-transporting layer (HTL). The power conversion efficiency (PCE) results indicate that the V2O5 nanobelt structure possesses better phase separation and provides a more efficient surface area for the P3HT:PCBM:CNT active layer to increase photocurrent. The optimized IOSCs exhibited an open circuit voltage (Voc), a short-circuit current density (Jsc), a fill factor (FF), and a PCE of 0.55 V, 6.50 mA/cm2, 58.34%, and 2.20%, respectively, under simulated AM1.5G illumination of 100 mW/cm2.

  6. Doping ZnO with Water/Alcohol-Soluble Small Molecules as Electron Transport Layers for Inverted Polymer Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Zhang, Lin; Xiao, Liangang; Peng, Xiaobin; Cao, Yong

    2016-10-03

    By doping ZnO with porphyrin small molecules (FNEZnP-OE and FNEZnP-T) as cathode electron transport layers (ETLs), the inverted polymer solar cells (i-PSC) with PTB7:PC71BM (PTB7: polythieno[3,4-b]-thiophene-co-benzodithiophene, PC71BM: [6, 6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester) as the active materials exhibit enhanced device performance. While the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the PSCs with pure ZnO ETL is 7.52%, that of the devices with FNEZnP-T-doped ZnO ETL shows a slightly improved PCE of 8.09%, and that of the PSCs with FNEZnP-OE-doped ZnO ETL is further enhanced up to 9.24% with an over 20% improvement compared to that with pure ZnO ETL. The better performance is contributed by the better interfacial contact and reduced work function induced by 9,9-bis(30-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorenes and 3,4-bis-(2-(2-methoxy-ethoxy)-ethoxy)-phenyls in the porphyrin small molecules. More importantly, the PCE is still higher than 8% even when the thickness of FNEZnP-OE-doped ZnO ETL is up to 110 nm, which are important criteria for eventually making organic photovoltaic modules with roll-to-roll coat processing.

  7. Surface modification of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by ozone via atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lushington, Andrew; Liu, Jian; Tang, Yongji; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang

    2014-01-15

    The use of ozone as an oxidizing agent for atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes is rapidly growing due to its strong oxidizing capabilities. However, the effect of ozone on nanostructured substrates such as nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) and pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PCNTs) are not very well understood and may provide an avenue toward functionalizing the carbon nanotube surface prior to deposition. The effects of ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs and PCNTs using 10 wt. % ozone at temperatures of 150, 250, and 300 °C are studied. The effect of ozone pulse time and ALD cycle number on NCNTs and PCNTs was also investigated. Morphological changes to the substrate were observed by scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements were also conducted to determine surface area, pore size, and pore size distribution following ozone treatment. The graphitic nature of both NCNTs and PCNTs was determined using Raman analysis while x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to probe the chemical nature of NCNTs. It was found that O{sub 3} attack occurs preferentially to the outermost geometric surface of NCNTs. Our research also revealed that the deleterious effects of ozone are found only on NCNTs while little or no damage occurs on PCNTs. Furthermore, XPS analysis indicated that ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs, at elevated temperatures, results in loss of nitrogen content. Our studies demonstrate that ALD ozone treatment is an effective avenue toward creating low nitrogen content, defect rich substrates for use in electrochemical applications and ALD of various metal/metal oxides.

  8. Characterization of epitaxial GaAs MOS capacitors using atomic layer-deposited TiO2/Al2O3 gate stack: study of Ge auto-doping and p-type Zn doping

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Electrical and physical properties of a metal-oxide-semiconductor [MOS] structure using atomic layer-deposited high-k dielectrics (TiO2/Al2O3) and epitaxial GaAs [epi-GaAs] grown on Ge(100) substrates have been investigated. The epi-GaAs, either undoped or Zn-doped, was grown using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition method at 620°C to 650°C. The diffusion of Ge atoms into epi-GaAs resulted in auto-doping, and therefore, an n-MOS behavior was observed for undoped and Zn-doped epi-GaAs with the doping concentration up to approximately 1017 cm-3. This is attributed to the diffusion of a significant amount of Ge atoms from the Ge substrate as confirmed by the simulation using SILVACO software and also from the secondary ion mass spectrometry analyses. The Zn-doped epi-GaAs with a doping concentration of approximately 1018 cm-3 converts the epi-GaAs layer into p-type since the Zn doping is relatively higher than the out-diffused Ge concentration. The capacitance-voltage characteristics show similar frequency dispersion and leakage current for n-type and p-type epi-GaAs layers with very low hysteresis voltage (approximately 10 mV). PACS: 81.15.Gh. PMID:22297193

  9. Enhancement of the photoluminescence in Er-doped Al2O3 fabricated by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rönn, John; Karvonen, Lasse; Pyymäki-Perros, Alexander; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Lipsanen, Harri; Säynätjoki, Antti; Sun, Zhipei

    2016-02-01

    We show the enhancement of the photoluminescence at λ = 1:5 μm in highly-doped (> 1021 cm-3) Er-Al2O3 samples by controlling the vertical distance between the Er-ions using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. Er2O3 and Al2O3 were deposited on top of silicon in an alternating fashion with ALD. Five Er2O3-Al2O3 samples were fabricated by keeping the amount of Er2O3 constant but changing the thickness of the Al2O3-layers between the Er2O3-layers. The PL spectra of the samples reveal that the PL signal enhances up to 90% when the vertical distance (the number of Al2O3-layers) between the Er-ions increases. The PL enhancement can be related to the reduction of up-conversion signal at 532 and 650 nm in the Er-ions. Our results demonstrate that ALD is an excellent technique to fabricate and to optimize Er-doped materials due to its unique depositions properties.

  10. Driving voltage reduction in white organic light-emitting devices from selectively doping in ambipolar blue-emitting layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Chih-Hung; Lin, Chi-Feng; Lee, Jiun-Haw

    2007-11-01

    White organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) consisting of ambipolar 9,10-bis(2'-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN) as a host of blue-emitting layer (EML) were investigated. A thin codoped layer of yellow 5,6,11,12-Tetraphenylnaphthacene (rubrene) served as a probe for detecting the position of maximum recombination rate in the 4,4'-bis[2-(4-(N,N-diphenylamino)phenyl)vinyl]biphenyl (DPAVBi) doped-ADN EML. Due to the energy barrier and bipolar carrier transport, the maximum recombination rate was found to be close to but not exactly at the interface of the hole-transporting layer and the EML. With appropriate tuning in the thickness, position, and dopant concentrations of the codoped layer (rubrene:DPAVBi:ADN) in the EML, the device driving voltage decreased by 21.7%, nearly 2 V in reduction, due to the increased recombination current from the faster exciton relaxation induced by the yellow dopants. Among the advantages of introducing the codoped layer over conventional single-doped layers are the elimination of the trapping effect to avoid increasing the device driving voltage, the alleviation of the dependence of the recombination zone on the applied voltage for improving color stability, and the utilization of excitons in a more efficient way to enhance device efficiency. Without using any electrically conductive layers such as the p-i-n structure, we were able to successfully generate 112 cd/m2 at 4 V from our white OLED simply by engineering the structure of the EML.

  11. The Synthesis of Infinite-Layer CaCuO2 and Hypothetical p-TYPE Doping with na Under High-Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, X. M.; Wang, F.; Yu, Y.; Li, F. Y.; Yu, R. C.; Jin, C. Q.

    The CaCuO2 with infinite-layer structure (IL CaCuO2) was synthesized under high-pressure. The p-type doped infinite layer compounds Ca1-xNaxCuO2 with the different carriers concentration (x=0.05, 0.1) were also prepared from high temperature and high-pressure technique. The lattice parameter a decreases with increasing Na content x in the p-type doped Ca1-xNaxCuO2, suggesting that the hole like carriers enter into the CuO2 plane, and Na is successfully doped into the infinite-layer CaCuO2. This was confirmed by the systematic evolution of resistance with increasing the doping level. However, no superconductivity was observed in the samples.

  12. Electronic properties of δ-doped Si:P and Ge:P layers in the high-density limit using a Thomas-Fermi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. S.; Cole, J. H.; Russo, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    We present a scalable method for calculating the electronic properties of a δ-doped phosphorus layer in silicon and germanium. Our calculations are based on an sp3d5s* tight-binding model and the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac approximation. The energy shift in the lowest conduction band states of the Ge band structure is characterized and a comparison is made to a δ-doped P layer in Si. The results for the δ-doped Si:P layer themselves compare well to the predictions of more "resource intensive" computational models. The Thomas-Fermi method presented herein scales easily to large system sizes. Efficient scaling is important for the calculation of quantum transport properties in δ-doped semiconductors that are currently of experimental interest.

  13. Effects of emission layer doping on the spatial distribution of charge and host recombination rate density in organic light emitting devices: A numerical study

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yanli; Zhou, Maoqing; Zheng, Tingcai; Yao, Bo; Peng, Yingquan

    2013-12-28

    Based on drift-diffusion theory, a numerical model of the doping of a single energy level trap in the emission layer of an organic light emitting device (OLED) was developed, and the effects of doping of this single energy level trap on the distribution of the charge density, the recombination rate density, and the electric field in single- and double-layer OLEDs were studied numerically. The results show that by doping the n-type (p-type) emission layer with single energy electron (hole) traps, the distribution of the recombination rate density can be tuned and shifted, which is useful for improvement of the device performance by reduced electrode quenching or for realization of desirable special functions, e.g., emission spectrum tuning in multiple dye-doped white OLEDs.

  14. Influence of the thickness and doping of the emission layer on the performance of organic light-emitting diodes with PiN structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jingsong; Blochwitz-Nimoth, Jan; Pfeiffer, Martin; Leo, Karl

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the behavior of various intrinsic emission zones on the characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with a p-doped hole-transport layer and an n-doped electron-transport layer based on our previous work [J. S. Huang, M. Pfeiffer, A. Werner, J. Blochwitz, K. Leo, and S. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 139 (2002)]. This configuration is referred to as a PiN structure. Because the p- and n-doped regions occupy nearly 80% of the total thickness in our PiN device, the intrinsic region becomes a narrow layer between two doped regions. This intrinsic region includes the region where the radiative recombination occurs. Thus, the nature of this layer plays an important role in determining the actual device performance. Employing 8-tris-hydroxyquinoline aluminum as an emitter, we investigated the influence of the thickness of the emitter layer on the performance of the device. The optimum thickness of the emitter layer is found to be 20 nm. Combining the fluorescence dye doping method, we have optimized the PiN structure device. Two emitter systems have been used: Alq3 doped with two highly fluorescent laser dyes, Quinacridone or Coumarin 6, respectively. We have demonstrated the influence of the thickness and the doping of the emission zone on the characteristics of a doped emitter device with PiN structure, and obtained higher-efficiency PiN structure devices. The different properties of PiN devices corresponding to two different emitter dopants with different trapping effect are also discussed.

  15. Hidden phase in a two-dimensional Sn layer stabilized by modulation hole doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Fangfei; Mulugeta, Daniel; Tu, Weisong; Smith, Tyler S.; Vilmercati, Paolo; Lee, Geunseop; Huang, Ying-Tzu; Diehl, Renee D.; Snijders, Paul C.; Weitering, Hanno H.

    2017-03-01

    Semiconductor surfaces and ultrathin interfaces exhibit an interesting variety of two-dimensional quantum matter phases, such as charge density waves, spin density waves and superconducting condensates. Yet, the electronic properties of these broken symmetry phases are extremely difficult to control due to the inherent difficulty of doping a strictly two-dimensional material without introducing chemical disorder. Here we successfully exploit a modulation doping scheme to uncover, in conjunction with a scanning tunnelling microscope tip-assist, a hidden equilibrium phase in a hole-doped bilayer of Sn on Si(111). This new phase is intrinsically phase separated into insulating domains with polar and nonpolar symmetries. Its formation involves a spontaneous symmetry breaking process that appears to be electronically driven, notwithstanding the lack of metallicity in this system. This modulation doping approach allows access to novel phases of matter, promising new avenues for exploring competing quantum matter phases on a silicon platform.

  16. Hidden phase in a two-dimensional Sn layer stabilized by modulation hole doping.

    PubMed

    Ming, Fangfei; Mulugeta, Daniel; Tu, Weisong; Smith, Tyler S; Vilmercati, Paolo; Lee, Geunseop; Huang, Ying-Tzu; Diehl, Renee D; Snijders, Paul C; Weitering, Hanno H

    2017-03-07

    Semiconductor surfaces and ultrathin interfaces exhibit an interesting variety of two-dimensional quantum matter phases, such as charge density waves, spin density waves and superconducting condensates. Yet, the electronic properties of these broken symmetry phases are extremely difficult to control due to the inherent difficulty of doping a strictly two-dimensional material without introducing chemical disorder. Here we successfully exploit a modulation doping scheme to uncover, in conjunction with a scanning tunnelling microscope tip-assist, a hidden equilibrium phase in a hole-doped bilayer of Sn on Si(111). This new phase is intrinsically phase separated into insulating domains with polar and nonpolar symmetries. Its formation involves a spontaneous symmetry breaking process that appears to be electronically driven, notwithstanding the lack of metallicity in this system. This modulation doping approach allows access to novel phases of matter, promising new avenues for exploring competing quantum matter phases on a silicon platform.

  17. Hidden phase in a two-dimensional Sn layer stabilized by modulation hole doping

    DOE PAGES

    Ming, Fangfei; Mulugeta Amare, Daniel; Tu, Weisong; ...

    2017-03-07

    Semiconductor surfaces and ultrathin interfaces exhibit an interesting variety of two-dimensional quantum matter phases, such as charge density waves, spin density waves and superconducting condensates. Yet, the electronic properties of these broken symmetry phases are extremely difficult to control due to the inherent difficulty of doping a strictly two-dimensional material without introducing chemical disorder. Here we successfully exploit a modulation doping scheme to uncover, in conjunction with a scanning tunnelling microscope tip-assist, a hidden equilibrium phase in a hole-doped bilayer of Sn on Si(111). This new phase is intrinsically phase separated into insulating domains with polar and nonpolar symmetries. Itsmore » formation involves a spontaneous symmetry breaking process that appears to be electronically driven, notwithstanding the lack of metallicity in this system. This modulation doping approach allows access to novel phases of matter, promising new avenues for exploring competing quantum matter phases on a silicon platform.« less

  18. Metal-Doped Silver Oxide Films as a Mask Layer for the Super-RENS Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shima, Takayuki; Buechel, Dorothea; Mihalcea, Christophe; Kim, Jooho; Atoda, Nobufumi; Tominaga, Junji

    Various kinds of metal (Co, Pd, Pt and Au) were doped into Ag2O and AgO sputtered films to study its effect on the thermal decomposition process. The oxygen composition ratio was evaluated by the X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy method after annealing up to 260,oC. The optical transmittance change was measured during heating of the film to 600,oC. Noble metal doping was found to modify the AgO decomposition process, and the oxygen content decreased gradually compared to the undoped case. Super-RENS disks with a metal-doped AgO mask were prepared, and the laser power necessary for super-resolutional readout was evaluated. It slightly shifted to the higher-power side when the noble metal was doped, and this agrees with the modification of the decomposition process.Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Domestic Research Fellow

  19. Hidden phase in a two-dimensional Sn layer stabilized by modulation hole doping

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Fangfei; Mulugeta, Daniel; Tu, Weisong; Smith, Tyler S.; Vilmercati, Paolo; Lee, Geunseop; Huang, Ying-Tzu; Diehl, Renee D.; Snijders, Paul C.; Weitering, Hanno H.

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor surfaces and ultrathin interfaces exhibit an interesting variety of two-dimensional quantum matter phases, such as charge density waves, spin density waves and superconducting condensates. Yet, the electronic properties of these broken symmetry phases are extremely difficult to control due to the inherent difficulty of doping a strictly two-dimensional material without introducing chemical disorder. Here we successfully exploit a modulation doping scheme to uncover, in conjunction with a scanning tunnelling microscope tip-assist, a hidden equilibrium phase in a hole-doped bilayer of Sn on Si(111). This new phase is intrinsically phase separated into insulating domains with polar and nonpolar symmetries. Its formation involves a spontaneous symmetry breaking process that appears to be electronically driven, notwithstanding the lack of metallicity in this system. This modulation doping approach allows access to novel phases of matter, promising new avenues for exploring competing quantum matter phases on a silicon platform. PMID:28266499

  20. High-performance quantum dot light-emitting diodes with hybrid hole transport layer via doping engineering.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qianqian; Pan, Jiangyong; Zhang, Yuning; Chen, Jing; Tao, Zhi; He, Chao; Zhou, Kaifeng; Tu, Yan; Lei, Wei

    2016-11-14

    Here, we report on the hybrid hole transport materials 4,4'-bis-(carbazole-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) or poly-N-vinylcarbazole (PVK) doped into poly(4-butyl-phenyl-diphenyl-amine) (Poly-TPD) as the hybrid hole transport layer (HTL) to tailor the energy band alignment between hole injection layer (HIL) and quantum dot (QD) light emitting layer in order to realize efficient quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs) in all solution-processed fabrication. Compared to the pristine Poly-TPD based device, it is found that the electroluminescence (EL) performance of QLEDs can be significantly improved by 1.5 fold via addition of CBP into Poly-TPD, which can be attributed to the lowered highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of Poly-TPD to reduce the energy barrier between HTL and valance band (VB) of QDs. Thus, after doping small molecules into polymer under optimized proportion (Poly-TPD:CBP = 2:1 by weight), the hole transport rate can be balanced, facilitating the carrier injection from HTL to QDs and enhancing the efficiency of QLEDs. As a result, a maximum luminance, a maximum current efficiency and a maximum power efficiency of 7600 cd/m2, 5.41 cd/A and 4.25 lm/W can be obtained based on this variety of hybrid HTL employed QLEDs.

  1. Method for sputtering a PIN microcrystalline/amorphous silicon semiconductor device with the P and N-layers sputtered from boron and phosphorous heavily doped targets

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, Theodore D.; Maruska, H. Paul

    1985-04-02

    A silicon PIN microcrystalline/amorphous silicon semiconductor device is constructed by the sputtering of N, and P layers of silicon from silicon doped targets and the I layer from an undoped target, and at least one semi-transparent ohmic electrode.

  2. Well-aligned Nd-doped SnO2 nanorod layered arrays: preparation, characterization and enhanced alcohol-gas sensing performance.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guohui; Gao, Fan; Jiang, Qiuping; Li, Yuehua; Liu, Yongjun; Luo, Li; Zhao, Kang; Zhao, Heyun

    2016-02-21

    Well-oriented neodymium doped SnO2 layered nanorod arrays were synthesized by a substrate-free hydrothermal route using sodium stannate and sodium hydroxide at 210 °C. The morphology and phase structure of the Nd-doped SnO2 nanoarrays were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the BET method. The results demonstrated that the Nd-doped SnO2 layered nanorod arrays showed a unique nanostructure combined together with double layered arrays of nanorods with a diameter of 12 nm and a length of several hundred nanometers. The Nd-doped layered SnO2 nanoarrays kept the crystal structure of the bulk SnO2 and possessed more surface defects caused by the Nd ions doped into the SnO2 lattice. The Nd dopant acts as a crystallite growth inhibitor to prevent the growth of SnO2 nanorods. An investigation into the gas-sensing properties indicated that the optimized doping level of 3.0 at% Nd-doped SnO2 layered nanorod arrays exhibited an excellent sensing response toward alcohol at a lower temperature of 260 °C. The enhanced sensor performance was attributed to the higher specific surface area, multi-defect surface structure and the excellent catalytic properties of Nd dopant that is able to increase the amount of active sites on the surface of semiconducting oxides. The Nd-doped SnO2 nanoarray sensors were considered to be a promising candidate for trace alcohol detections in environmental gas monitoring.

  3. Atom Probe Tomography Analysis of Ag Doping in 2D Layered Material (PbSe)5(Bi2Se3)3.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaochen; Singh, Arunima K; Fang, Lei; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Tavazza, Francesca; Davydov, Albert V; Lauhon, Lincoln J

    2016-10-12

    Impurity doping in two-dimensional (2D) materials can provide a route to tuning electronic properties, so it is important to be able to determine the distribution of dopant atoms within and between layers. Here we report the tomographic mapping of dopants in layered 2D materials with atomic sensitivity and subnanometer spatial resolution using atom probe tomography (APT). APT analysis shows that Ag dopes both Bi2Se3 and PbSe layers in (PbSe)5(Bi2Se3)3, and correlations in the position of Ag atoms suggest a pairing across neighboring Bi2Se3 and PbSe layers. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations confirm the favorability of substitutional doping for both Pb and Bi and provide insights into the observed spatial correlations in dopant locations.

  4. Doped lanthanum nickelates with a layered perovskite structure as bifunctional cathode catalysts for rechargeable metal-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyu-Nam; Jung, Jong-Hyuk; Im, Won Bin; Yoon, Sukeun; Shin, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Jong-Won

    2013-10-23

    Rechargeable metal-air batteries have attracted a great interest in recent years because of their high energy density. The critical challenges facing these technologies include the sluggish kinetics of the oxygen reduction-evolution reactions on a cathode (air electrode). Here, we report doped lanthanum nickelates (La2NiO4) with a layered perovskite structure that serve as efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution in an aqueous alkaline electrolyte. Rechargeable lithium-air and zinc-air batteries assembled with these catalysts exhibit remarkably reduced discharge-charge voltage gaps (improved round-trip efficiency) as well as high stability during cycling.

  5. Infrared and thermoelectric power generation in thin atomic layer deposited Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} films

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Harkirat S.; Lang, Brian N.; Schwab, Yosyp; Scarel, Giovanna; Niemelä, Janne-Petteri; Karppinen, Maarit

    2015-01-15

    Infrared radiation is used to radiatively transfer heat to a nanometric power generator (NPG) device with a thermoelectric Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} film deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as the active element, onto a borosilicate glass substrate. The linear rise of the produced voltage with respect to the temperature difference between the “hot” and “cold” junctions, typical of the Seebeck effect, is missing. The discovery of the violation of the Seebeck effect in NPG devices combined with the ability of ALD to tune thermoelectric thin film properties could be exploited to increase the efficiency of these devices for energy harvesting purposes.

  6. Final-state effect on X-ray photoelectron spectrum of n-doped SrTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chungwei; Posadas, Agham; Demkov, Alexander; Demkov Team

    2015-03-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a widely used technique to determine the oxidation states of chemical elements. In stoichiometric SrTiO3, the Ti4+ peak appears at a binding energy of about 459.0 eV for photoelectrons ejected from the Ti 2 p core level. In lightly n-doped SrTiO3, a weak shoulder at a binding energy of about 1.5 eV lower than the Ti4+ peak appears in the XPS spectrum that has been conventionally interpreted as a Ti3+ signal. By taking the final-state effect into account, i.e. by considering the response of the valence electrons in the presence of a core hole, we argue that such a Ti3+ peak does not necessarily imply the existence of spatially localized Ti3+ ions, and explicitly show that a spatially uniform Ti(4 - x) + distribution also leads to the multi-peak structure. Spectra from metallic n-doped SrTiO3 (e.g. La replacing Sr, Nb replacing Ti, or even oxygen vacancy doping) should be interpreted as the latter case. Several experiments based on this interpretation are discussed. Support for this work was provided through Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program funded by U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Basic Energy Sciences under award number DESC0008877.

  7. Self-doping effect in poly(o-methoxyaniline)/poly(3-thiopheneacetic acid) layer-by-layer films.

    PubMed

    Trivinho-Strixino, Francisco; Pereira, Ernesto C; Mello, Sarita V; Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2004-04-27

    Nanostructured films from two conducting polymers, poly(o-methoxyaniline) (POMA) and poly(3-thiopheneacetic acid) (PTAA), were fabricated with the layer-by-layer (LBL) technique. The electrochemical response of the LBL films differs from that of a POMA cast film, even in a potential range where PTAA is inactive. This is attributed to differences in the diffusion-controlled charge and mass transport, where distinct ionic species participate in the LBL films, as demonstrated by quartz crystal microbalance measurements. The results show that the transport properties of conducting polymers can be changed by alternation with layers of appropriate materials in LBL films.

  8. Thickness-dependent growth orientation of F-doped ZnO films formed by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Kyung-Mun; Choi, Yong-June; Park, Hyung-Ho; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-01-15

    ZnO thin films were doped with fluorine using atomic layer deposition (ALD) with an in-house F source at a deposition temperature of 140 °C. Structural and morphological properties of the resulting F-doped ZnO (ZnO:F) films were investigated by x-ray diffraction analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and grazing incidence wide-angle x-ray diffraction. During the initial growth stage of up to 200 ALD cycles, no difference was observed between the preferred growth orientations of undoped ZnO and ZnO:F films. However, after 300 ALD cycles, ZnO and ZnO:F films showed (002) and (100) preferred orientation, respectively. This difference in preferred growth orientation arose from the perturbation-and-passivation effect of F doping, which involves F anions filling the oxygen-related defect sites in the ZnO lattice. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopic analyses were carried out to investigate the surface plane dependency of the films' work functions, which confirmed that the ZnO and ZnO:F films had different growth behaviors.

  9. Direct electrochemistry of Shewanella loihica PV-4 on gold nanoparticles-modified boron-doped diamond electrodes fabricated by layer-by-layer technique.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenguo; Xie, Ronggang; Bai, Linling; Tang, Zuming; Gu, Zhongze

    2012-05-01

    Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) are robust devices capable of taping biological energy, converting pollutants into electricity through renewable biomass. The fabrication of nanostructured electrodes with good bio- and electrochemical activity, play a profound role in promoting power generation of MFCs. Au nanoparticles (AuNPs)-modified Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) electrodes are fabricated by layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique and used for the direct electrochemistry of Shewanella loihica PV-4 in an electrochemical cell. Experimental results show that the peak current densities generated on the Au/PAH multilayer-modified BDD electrodes increased from 1.25 to 2.93 microA/cm(-2) as the layer increased from 0 to 6. Different cell morphologies of S. loihica PV-4 were also observed on the electrodes and the highest density of cells was attached on the (Au/PAH)6/BDD electrode with well-formed three-dimensional nanostructure. The electrochemistry of S. loihica PV-4 was enhanced on the (Au/PAH)4/BDD electrode due to the appropriate amount of AuNPsand thickness of PAH layer.

  10. 2D Layered Materials of Rare-Earth Er-Doped MoS2 with NIR-to-NIR Down- and Up-Conversion Photoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Bai, Gongxun; Yuan, Shuoguo; Zhao, Yuda; Yang, Zhibin; Choi, Sin Yuk; Chai, Yang; Yu, Siu Fung; Lau, Shu Ping; Hao, Jianhua

    2016-09-01

    A 2D system of Er-doped MoS2 layered nanosheets is developed. Structural studies indicate that the Er atoms can be substitutionally introduced into MoS2 to form stable doping. Density functional theory calculation implies that the system remains stable. Both NIR-to-NIR up-conversion and down-conversion light-emissions are observed in 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, ascribed to the energy transition from Er(3+) dopants.

  11. Electrodeposition of ZnO-doped films as window layer for Cd-free CIGS-based solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsin, Fabien; Vénérosy, Amélie; Hildebrandt, Thibaud; Hariskos, Dimitrios; Naghavi, Negar; Lincot, Daniel; Rousset, Jean

    2016-02-01

    The Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin film solar cell technology has made a steady progress within the last decade reaching efficiency up to 22.3% on laboratory scale, thus overpassing the highest efficiency for polycrystalline silicon solar cells. High efficiency CIGS modules employ a so-called buffer layer of cadmium sulfide CdS deposited by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD), which presence and Cd-containing waste present some environmental concerns. A second potential bottleneck for CIGS technology is its window layer made of i-ZnO/ZnO:Al, which is deposited by sputtering requiring expensive vacuum equipment. A non-vacuum deposition of transparent conductive oxide (TCO) relying on simpler equipment with lower investment costs will be more economically attractive, and could increase competitiveness of CIGS-based modules with the mainstream silicon-based technologies. In the frame of Novazolar project, we have developed a low-cost aqueous solution photo assisted electrodeposition process of the ZnO-based window layer for high efficiency CIGS-based solar cells. The window layer deposition have been first optimized on classical CdS buffer layer leading to cells with efficiencies similar to those measured with the sputtered references on the same absorber (15%). The the optimized ZnO doped layer has been adapted to cadmium free devices where the CdS is replaced by chemical bath deposited zinc oxysulfide Zn(S,O) buffer layer. The effect of different growth parameters has been studied on CBD-Zn(S,O)-plated co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 substrates provided by the Zentrum für Sonnenenergie-und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW). This optimization of the electrodeposition of ZnO:Cl on CIGS/Zn(S,O) stacks led to record efficiency of 14%, while the reference cell with a sputtered (Zn,Mg)O/ZnO:Al window layer has an efficiency of 15.2%.

  12. The effects of the porous buffer layer and doping with dysprosium on internal stresses in the GaInP:Dy/por-GaAs/GaAs(100) heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Seredin, P. V.; Gordienko, N. N.; Glotov, A. V.; Zhurbina, I. A.; Domashevskaya, E. P.; Arsent'ev, I. N. Shishkov, M. V.

    2009-08-15

    In structures with a porous buffer layer, residual internal stresses caused by a mismatch between the crystal-lattice parameters of the epitaxial GaInP alloy and the GaAs substrate are redistributed to the porous layer that acts as a buffer and is conducive to disappearance of internal stresses. Doping of the epitaxial layer with dysprosium exerts a similar effect on the internal stresses in the film-substrate structure.

  13. Deep ultraviolet to near-infrared emission and photoresponse in layered N-doped graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Tang, Libin; Ji, Rongbin; Li, Xueming; Bai, Gongxun; Liu, Chao Ping; Hao, Jianhua; Lin, Jingyu; Jiang, Hongxing; Teng, Kar Seng; Yang, Zhibin; Lau, Shu Ping

    2014-06-24

    Material that can emit broad spectral wavelengths covering deep ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared is highly desirable. It can lead to important applications such as broadband modulators, photodetectors, solar cells, bioimaging, and fiber communications. However, there is currently no material that meets such desirable requirement. Here, we report the layered structure of nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) which possess broadband emission ranging from 300 to >1000 nm. The broadband emission is attributed to the layered structure of the N-GQDs that contains a large conjugated system and provides extensive delocalized π electrons. In addition, a broadband photodetector with responsivity as high as 325 V/W is demonstrated by coating N-GQDs onto interdigital gold electrodes. The unusual negative photocurrent is observed which is attributed to the trapping sites induced by the self-passivated surface states in the N-GQDs.

  14. Characterization of iron doped indium phosphide as a current blocking layer in buried heterostructure quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nida, S.; Hinkov, B.; Gini, E.; Faist, J.

    2017-03-01

    This work analyzes transport through metal organic chemical vapour deposition grown Iron doped Indium Phosphide (InP:Fe) for use as a current blocking layer in buried heterostructure Quantum Cascade Lasers. The nature of Iron incorporation in InP and electrical transport properties of InP:Fe is investigated via simulation and compared with measurement. Through simulations, we are able to predict the threshold for the onset of current rise in test structures due to avalanche injection of carriers. In addition, the benefit of InAlAs barriers inserted in InP:Fe layers is investigated and found to reduce the leakage current at lower biases while delaying the onset of avalanche. In buried heterostructure configuration, we have determined that non ideal regrowth profiles make the structure more susceptible to high field effects such as avalanche injection and trap filling that induce leakage currents.

  15. Optical and surface properties of the in doped GaAs layer deposition using thermionic vacuum arc method.

    PubMed

    Pat, Suat; Özen, Soner; Şenay, Volkan; Korkmaz, Şadan; Şimşek, Veli

    2016-07-01

    A broadband optical transparent InGaAs semiconductor layer production of micron thicknesses was produced in only 75 s by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) method at the first time. The optical and surface properties of the produced layers have been investigated. InGaAs structure is using in electronics and optoelectronics devices. The main advantage of TVA method is its fast deposition rate, without any loss in the quality of the films. Doping is a very simple and fast according to common production methods. InGaAs is an alloy of indium arsenide (InAs) and gallium arsenide (GaAs). InAs with (220) crystallographic direction and GaAs with (024)/(022) crystallographic directions were detected using by XRD analysis. GaAs and InAs are in the cubic and zinc blende crystal system, respectively. According to the transmittance spectra, sample has a broadband transparency in the range of 1000-3300 nm. According to results, defined TVA method for In doping to GaAs is proper fast and friendly method. SCANNING 38:297-302, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Superconductivity below 20 K in heavily electron-doped surface layer of FeSe bulk crystal.

    PubMed

    Seo, J J; Kim, B Y; Kim, B S; Jeong, J K; Ok, J M; Kim, Jun Sung; Denlinger, J D; Mo, S-K; Kim, C; Kim, Y K

    2016-04-06

    A superconducting transition temperature (Tc) as high as 100 K was recently discovered in one monolayer FeSe grown on SrTiO3. The discovery ignited efforts to identify the mechanism for the markedly enhanced Tc from its bulk value of 8 K. There are two main views about the origin of the Tc enhancement: interfacial effects and/or excess electrons with strong electron correlation. Here, we report the observation of superconductivity below 20 K in surface electron-doped bulk FeSe. The doped surface layer possesses all the key spectroscopic aspects of the monolayer FeSe on SrTiO3. Without interfacial effects, the surface layer state has a moderate Tc of 20 K with a smaller gap opening of 4.2 meV. Our results show that excess electrons with strong correlation cannot induce the maximum Tc, which in turn reveals the need for interfacial effects to achieve the highest Tc in one monolayer FeSe on SrTiO3.

  17. Superconductivity below 20 K in heavily electron-doped surface layer of FeSe bulk crystal

    PubMed Central

    Seo, J. J.; Kim, B. Y.; Kim, B. S.; Jeong, J. K.; Ok, J. M.; Kim, Jun Sung; Denlinger, J. D.; Mo, S. -K.; Kim, C.; Kim, Y. K.

    2016-01-01

    A superconducting transition temperature (Tc) as high as 100 K was recently discovered in one monolayer FeSe grown on SrTiO3. The discovery ignited efforts to identify the mechanism for the markedly enhanced Tc from its bulk value of 8 K. There are two main views about the origin of the Tc enhancement: interfacial effects and/or excess electrons with strong electron correlation. Here, we report the observation of superconductivity below 20 K in surface electron-doped bulk FeSe. The doped surface layer possesses all the key spectroscopic aspects of the monolayer FeSe on SrTiO3. Without interfacial effects, the surface layer state has a moderate Tc of 20 K with a smaller gap opening of 4.2 meV. Our results show that excess electrons with strong correlation cannot induce the maximum Tc, which in turn reveals the need for interfacial effects to achieve the highest Tc in one monolayer FeSe on SrTiO3. PMID:27050161

  18. Imaging of Compressed Pure-CH Shells and CH Shells with Titanium-Doped Layers on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Yaakobi, B.; Goncharov, V. N.; Delettrez, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    1999-11-01

    The compressed shell integrity of spherical targets has been studied using the 60-beam, 30-kJ UV, OMEGA laser system. The emission from the hot core has been imaged through the cold shell at two narrow, x-ray energy bands, absorbing and nonabsorbing by the shell, allowing nonuniformities in the core emission and the cold shell areal density to be measured. Images of the target have been obtained using a pinhole-array with K-edge filters. The x-ray energies used are around 2.8 and 4.5 keV for pure-CH shells, and around 4.5 and 6 keV for titanium-doped layers. Additional images of the shell are obtained with a framed monochromatic x-ray microscope and a time-integrated crystal-spectrometer/pinhole-array combination. We will present measurements of the compressed shell integrity at the stagnation stage of spherical implosions by varying the position of the titanium-doped layer within the shell, by varying the thickness of the CH shell, and by using two different laser pulse shapes. The experimental results will be compared with 2-D (ORCHID) hydrodynamic simulations. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460, the University of Rochester, and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority.

  19. Luminescent down-shifting layers with Eu2+ and Eu3+ doped strontium compound particles for photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodovnyk, Anastasiia; Hollmann, Andre; Osvet, Andres; Forberich, Karen; Stern, Edda; Batentschuk, Miroslaw; Klupp Taylor, Robin; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2014-10-01

    In this contribution we discuss luminescent down-shifting (LDS) systems consisting of a polymer matrix filled with phosphor particles. It is an elegant approach to make a use of potentially destructive or otherwise wasted high energy photons and diminish charge carrier losses caused by thermalization in photovoltaics. Sub-micron and micron sized particles of strontium aluminate doped with Eu2+ and strontium carbonate doped with Eu3+ ions are chosen for the application due to their suitable absorption in UV spectral region. These particles exhibit strong luminescence in the visible range between 520 and 650 nm. The systems are carefully designed to meet critical optical requirements such as high transparency in the visible spectrum as well as sufficient absorption of UV light. They are coated on quartz glass substrates (20 x 20 x 1 mm) and can be easily laminated to different kinds of solar cells without any modification to well-established device fabrication processes. Optical characterization further confirms that particles of a few microns in size generate strong light scattering in layers due to the sizes slightly larger than visible light wavelengths. Dried thick layers of 20 to 100 μm are tested with CIGS and organic cells. The concept of light conversion is experimentally proven. However, optical losses cause a reduction in the overall performance of the tested devices. Possible ways to bring down the amount of light scattering and, thus, to increase optical transmission for the studied system are also addressed, and are a subject of future research.

  20. Multi-scale analysis of the diffusion barrier layer of gadolinia-doped ceria in a solid oxide fuel cell operated in a stack for 3000 h

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, M.; Miguel-Pérez, V.; Tarancón, A.; Slodczyk, A.; Torrell, M.; Ballesteros, B.; Ouweltjes, J. P.; Bassat, J. M.; Montinaro, D.; Morata, A.

    2017-03-01

    The state-of-the-art materials for SOFCs are yttria-stabilized zirconia as electrolyte and lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite as cathode. However, the formation of insulating phases between them requires the use of diffusion barriers, typically made of gadolinia doped ceria. The study of the stability of this layer during the fabrication and in operando is currently one of the major goals of the SOFC industry. In this work, the cation inter-diffusion at the cathode/barrier layer/electrolyte region is analysed for an anode-supported cell industrially fabricated by conventional techniques, assembled in a short-stack and tested under real operation conditions for 3000 h. A comprehensive study of this cell, and an equivalent non-operated one, is performed in order to understand the inter-diffusion mechanisms with possible effects on the final performance. The analyses evidence that the cation diffusion is occurring during the fabrication process. Despite the significant diffusion of Ce,Gd, Zr, Y and Sr cations, the formation of typically reported CGO-YSZ solid solution is not observed while the presence of isolated grains of SrZrO3 is proved. All in all, this study presents new insights into the stability of the typically employed diffusion barriers for solid oxide cells that will guide future strategies to improve their performance and durability.

  1. Doped Y.sub.2O.sub.3 buffer layers for laminated conductors

    DOEpatents

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W [Framingham, MA

    2007-08-21

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the metallic substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising Y.sub.2O.sub.3 and a dopant for blocking cation diffusion through the Y.sub.2O.sub.3, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  2. Equilibrium and kinetics studies on As(V) and Sb(V) removal by Fe2+ -doped Mg-Al layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Tomohito; Kondo, Eisuke; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2015-03-15

    Mg-Al layered double hydroxides (Mg-Al LDHs) doped with Fe(2+) adsorbed As(V) [Formula: see text] and Sb(V) [Formula: see text] from an aqueous solution through anion exchange with Cl(-) intercalated in the LDH interlayer. Fe(2+)-doped Mg-Al LDH exhibited superior As(V) removal compared with Mg-Al LDH. The oxidation of Fe(2+) doped in the Mg-Al LDH host layer to Fe(3+) increased the positive layer charge of the LDH, thus increasing the anion-uptake capacity owing to stronger electrostatic attractive force between the positively charged layer and the anion. However, Fe(2+)-doped Mg-Al LDH was not superior to Mg-Al LDH in terms of Sb(V) removal. This was attributed to the preferential intercalation of OH(-) over [Formula: see text] . The As(V) and Sb(V) removal by LDH followed Langmuir-type adsorption, which proceeded via a pseudo-first-order reaction. The equilibrium and kinetics studies confirm that the adsorption of As(V) and Sb(V) by Fe(2+)-doped Mg-Al LDH was the result of chemical adsorption, involving the anion exchange of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] with the intercalated Cl(-).

  3. A DFT study on NEA GaN photocathode with an ultrathin n-type Si-doped GaN cap layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Sihao; Liu, Lei; Kong, Yike; Diao, Yu

    2016-10-01

    Due to the drawbacks of conventional negative electron affinity (NEA) GaN photocathodes activated by Cs or Cs/O, a new-type NEA GaN photocathodes with heterojunction surface dispense with Cs activation are proposed. This structure can be obtained through the coverage of an ultrathin n-type Si-doped GaN cap layer on the p-type Mg-doped GaN emission layer. The influences of the cap layer on the photocathode are calculated using DFT. This study indicates that the n-type cap layer can promote the photoemission characteristics of GaN photocathode and demonstrates the probability of the preparation of a NEA GaN photocathode with an n-type cap layer.

  4. Examination of Na-Doped Mo Sputtering for CIGS Devices: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-375

    SciTech Connect

    Repins, I.

    2012-01-01

    This work has investigated the use of Na doped Mo (MONA) sputtering targets for use in preparing CIGS devices. The Mo:Na material is doped to about 3% Na by weight, implying that a 40 nm layer on top of the standard Mo contact contains sufficient Na to dope a 2.5 ..mu..m CIGS film. The ability to control Na doping independent of both CIGS processing conditions and adhesion is an important gain for industry and research. Manufacturers gain a route to increased manufacturability and performance, while NREL researchers gain a tightened performance distribution of devices and increased process flexibility. Our immediate partner in this work, the Climax Molybdenum Technology Center, gains validation of their product.

  5. Temperature Dependence of Electric Transport in Few-layer Graphene under Large Charge Doping Induced by Electrochemical Gating

    PubMed Central

    Gonnelli, R. S.; Paolucci, F.; Piatti, E.; Sharda, Kanudha; Sola, A.; Tortello, M.; Nair, Jijeesh R.; Gerbaldi, C.; Bruna, M.; Borini, S.

    2015-01-01

    The temperature dependence of electric transport properties of single-layer and few-layer graphene at large charge doping is of great interest both for the study of the scattering processes dominating the conductivity at different temperatures and in view of the theoretically predicted possibility to reach the superconducting state in such extreme conditions. Here we present the results obtained in 3-, 4- and 5-layer graphene devices down to 3.5 K, where a large surface charge density up to about 6.8·1014 cm−2 has been reached by employing a novel polymer electrolyte solution for the electrochemical gating. In contrast with recent results obtained in single-layer graphene, the temperature dependence of the sheet resistance between 20 K and 280 K shows a low-temperature dominance of a T2 component – that can be associated with electron-electron scattering – and, at about 100 K, a crossover to the classic electron-phonon regime. Unexpectedly, this crossover does not show any dependence on the induced charge density, i.e. on the large tuning of the Fermi energy. PMID:25906088

  6. Improvement of organic solar cell efficiency by solution-processed doping of pentacene in PEDOT:PSS layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilvery, A. K.; Batra, A. K.; Surabhi, R.; Lal, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    In the current research, organic solar cells (OSCs) with various concentrations of pentacene in Poly(ethylenedioxythiopene):Poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) interface layer were investigated for better hole extraction. The ITO/Pentacene + PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Al-fabricated solar cell fabricated via brush coating provides superior photovoltaic, electrical and optical characteristics when compared with the ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Al solar cell. The ITO/Pentacene + PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Al solar cells deliver a VOC ~350 mV and 2.57% efficiency. It is observed that the optimized concentration of pentacene doping in PEDOT:PSS layer, along with an active layer of P3HT and PC60BM, doubles the efficiency of the device, when compared with pristine PEDOT:PSS layer. The degradation studies of the fabricated bulk heterojunction OSCs reveal that the degrading abilities of ITO/Pentacene + PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Al solar cells are 60% more better than those of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Al devices. Thus, this work will ultimately contribute toward fully solution processed painted device, which will provide low-cost manufacturing and improved stability of pentacene-based organic photovoltaics.

  7. Enhanced Performance of Quantum Dot-Based Light-Emitting Diodes with Gold Nanoparticle-Doped Hole Injection Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei; Lin, Qingli; Wang, Hongzhe; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Fengjuan; Du, Zuliang; Shen, Huaibin; Li, Lin Song

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the performance of quantum dot-based light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) comprising ZnCdSe/ZnS core-shell QDs as an emitting layer were enhanced by employing Au-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) hole injection layer (HIL). By varying the concentration and dimension of Au nanoparticle (NP) dopants in PEDOT:PSS, the optimal devices were obtained with ~22-nm-sized Au NP dopant at the concentration with an optical density (OD) of 0.21. Highly bright green QLEDs with a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 8.2 % and a current efficiency of 29.1 cd/A exhibit 80 % improvement compared with devices without Au NP dopants. The improved performance may be attributed to the significant increase in the hole injection rate as a result of the introduction of Au NPs and the good matching between the resonance frequency of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) generated by the Au NPs and the emission band of QD layer, as well as the suppressed Auger recombination of QD layer due to the LSPR-induced near-field enhanced radiative recombination rate of excitons. These results are helpful for fabricating high-performance QD-based applications, such as full-color displays and solid-state lighting.

  8. Structural transformation and photoluminescence behavior during calcination of the layered europium-doped yttrium hydroxide intercalate with organic-sensitizer

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yahong; Pan, Guohua; Gu, Qingyang; Li, Xinxin; Sun, Genban; Ma, Shulan; Yang, Xiaojing

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Calcination of organic sensitizer intercalated layered europium-doped yttrium hydroxide displayed tunable luminescent performance dependent on calcined temperatures. The 200 °C-calcined sample revealed an optimal fluorescence behavior with respect to TA-LYH:Eu composite and the as-transformed oxide. - Highlights: • We report the calcinations process of organic/LYH:Eu nanocomposite materials. • We study structural transformation and fluorescence behavior of the calcined samples. • Calcined samples displayed tunable luminescent performance dependent on temperatures. • The optimal fluorescence was found in 200 °C-calcined sample. • This material can provide valuable guide for developing tunable luminescent materials. - Abstract: We report, for the first time, structural transformation and photoluminescence behavior by calcination of layered europium-doped yttrium hydroxide (LYH:Eu) intercalate with organic sensitizer terephthalate (TA). The calcined samples displayed tunable luminescent performance dependent on calcined temperatures. Calcination under low temperatures (200 and 300 °C) retained layered structure, while high temperatures (>400 °C) yielded oxide phase. The optimal fluorescence occurred in 200 °C-calcination, possibly resulting from an optimal arrangement of TA. Above 200 °C, the luminescence intensity was first weakened and then enhanced, due to gradual departure of TA and following occurrence of oxide phase. The energy transfer presented an intrinsic transition from TA-to-Eu{sup 3+} in the organic intercalate to O{sup 2−}-to-Eu{sup 3+} charge transfer in as-transformed oxide. The predominant luminescence property of the hybrid material can provide valuable guide for developing tunable luminescent materials, especially flexible materials resulting from the containing organic component.

  9. Doping Induced Electronic Phase Separation and Coulomb Bubbles in Layered Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarela, M.; Kusmartsev, F. V.

    2010-12-01

    We study properties of charge fluids with random impurities or heavy polarons using a microscopic Hamiltonian with the full many-body Coulomb interaction. At zero temperature and high enough density the bosonic fluid is superconducting, but when density decreases the Coulomb interaction will be strongly over-screened and impurities or polarons begin to trap charge carriers forming bound quasiparticle like clusters, which we call Coulomb bubbles or clumps. These bubbles are embedded inside the superconductor and form nuclei of a new insulating state. The growth of a bubble is terminated by the Coulomb force. The fluid contains two groups of charge carriers associated with free and localized states. The insulating state arises via a percolation of the insulating islands of bubbles, which cluster and prevent the flow of the electrical supercurrent through the system. Our results are applicable to HTSC. There the Coulomb fluids discussed in the paper correspond to mobile holes located on Cu sites and heavy polarons or charged impurities located on Oxygen sites. As a result of our calculations the following two-componet picture of two competing orders in cuprates arise. The mobile and localized states are competing with each other and their balance is controlled by doping. At high doping a large Fermi surface is open. There the density of real charge carriers is significantly larger than the density of the doped ones. When doping decreases more and more carriers are localized as Coulomb clumps which are creating around heavy polarons localized on Oxygen sites and forming a regular lattice. The picture is consistent with the Gorkov and Teitelbaum (GT) analysis 1,2 of the transport, Hall effect data and the ARPES spectra as well as with nanoscale superstructures observed in Scanning Tunneling Microscope(STM) experiments [3-8]. The scenario of the clump formation may be also applicable to pnictides, where two types of clumps may arise even at very high temperatures.

  10. Doping Induced Electronic Phase Separation and Coulomb Bubbles in Layered Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarela, M.; Kusmartsev, F. V.

    We study properties of charge fluids with random impurities or heavy polarons using a microscopic Hamiltonian with the full many-body Coulomb interaction. At zero temperature and high enough density the bosonic fluid is superconducting, but when density decreases the Coulomb interaction will be strongly over-screened and impurities or polarons begin to trap charge carriers forming bound quasiparticle like clusters, which we call Coulomb bubbles or clumps. These bubbles are embedded inside the superconductor and form nuclei of a new insulating state. The growth of a bubble is terminated by the Coulomb force. The fluid contains two groups of charge carriers associated with free and localized states. The insulating state arises via a percolation of the insulating islands of bubbles, which cluster and prevent the flow of the electrical supercurrent through the system. Our results are applicable to HTSC. There the Coulomb fluids discussed in the paper correspond to mobile holes located on Cu sites and heavy polarons or charged impurities located on Oxygen sites. As a result of our calculations the following two-componet picture of two competing orders in cuprates arise. The mobile and localized states are competing with each other and their balance is controlled by doping. At high doping a large Fermi surface is open. There the density of real charge carriers is significantly larger than the density of the doped ones. When doping decreases more and more carriers are localized as Coulomb clumps which are creating around heavy polarons localized on Oxygen sites and forming a regular lattice. The picture is consistent with the Gorkov and Teitelbaum (GT) analysis 1,2 of the transport, Hall effect data and the ARPES spectra as well as with nanoscale superstructures observed in Scanning Tunneling Microscope(STM) experiments [3-8]. The scenario of the clump formation may be also applicable to pnictides, where two types of clumps may arise even at very high temperatures.

  11. Effect of Sr doping in layered Eu3Bi2S4F4 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pan; Zhai, Hui-Fei; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Jian; Feng, Chun-Mu; Cao, Guang-Han; Xu, Zhu-An

    2017-01-01

    We report the effect of Sr-doping in the BiS2-based superconductor {{Eu}}3-xSr x Bi2S4F4. Eu3Bi2S4F4 is a self-doped compound with a mixed Eu valence state. By the partial substitution of Sr for Eu, T c gradually decreases and superconductivity disappears above 0.3 K when x\\gt 1.0. Magnetic-susceptibility and specific-heat measurements reveal that Sr substitution leads to a decrease in both Eu2+ and Eu3+ populations. The decreased Eu3+ population, and the corresponding lower charge carrier density, may be the main origin for the suppression of superconductivity. In addition, we find a significant increase in the Sommerfeld coefficient {γ }0 upon Sr doping, which may be due to the Kondo effect between the magnetic moments (associated to Eu2+ ions) and the conducting electrons. This work implies that the Kondo effect could compete with superconductivity in Eu3Bi2S4F4.

  12. Phosphorus-Doped Graphene Oxide Layer as a Highly Efficient Flame Retardant.

    PubMed

    Some, Surajit; Shackery, Iman; Kim, Sun Jun; Jun, Seong Chan

    2015-10-26

    A simple and easy process has been developed to efficiently dope phosphorus into a graphene oxide surface. Phosphorus-doped graphene oxide (PGO) is prepared by the treatment of polyphosphoric acid with phosphoric acid followed by addition of a graphene oxide solution while maintaining a pH of around 5 by addition of NaOH solution. The resulting materials are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The as-made PGO solution-coated cloth exhibits excellent flame retardation properties. The PGO-coated cloth emits some smoke at the beginning without catching fire for more than 120 s and maintains its initial shape with little shrinkage. In contrast, the pristine cloth catches fire within 5 s and is completely burned within 25 s, leaving trace amounts of black residue. The simple technique of direct introduction of phosphorus into the graphene oxide surface to produce phosphorus-doped oxidized carbon nanoplatelets may be a general approach towards the low-cost mass production of PGO for many practical applications, including flame retardation.

  13. Room temperature performance of 4 V aqueous hybrid supercapacitor using multi-layered lithium-doped carbon negative electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Sho; Yamamoto, Rie; Sugimoto, Shigeyuki; Sugimoto, Wataru

    2016-09-01

    Water-stable multi-layered lithium-doped carbon (LixC6) negative electrode using poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-lithium bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) polymer electrolyte containing N-methyl-N-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl)imide (PP13TFSI) ionic liquid was developed. Electrochemical properties at 60 °C of the aqueous hybrid supercapacitor using activated carbon positive electrode and a multi-layered LixC6 negative electrode (LixC6 | PEO-LiTFSI | LTAP) without PP13TFSI exhibited performance similar to that using Li anode (Li | PEO-LiTFSI | LTAP). A drastic decrease in ESR was achieved by the addition of PP13TFSI to PEO-LiTFSI, allowing room temperature operation. The ESR of the multi-layered LixC6 negative electrode with PEO-LiTFSI-PP13TFSI at 25 °C was 801 Ω cm2, which is 1/6 the value of the multi-layered Li negative electrode with PEO-LiTFSI (5014 Ω cm2). Charge/discharge test of the aqueous hybrid supercapacitor using multi-layered LixC6 negative electrode with PEO-LiTFSI-PP13TFSI at 25 °C afforded specific capacity of 20.6 mAh (g-activated carbon)-1 with a working voltage of 2.7-3.7 V, and good long-term capability up to 3000 cycles. Furthermore, an aqueous hybrid supercapacitor consisting of a high capacitance RuO2 nanosheet positive electrode and multi-layered LixC6 negative electrode with PEO-LiTFSI-PP13TFSI showed specific capacity of 196 mAh (g-RuO2)-1 and specific energy of 625 Wh (kg-RuO2)-1 in 2.0 M acetic acid-lithium acetate buffered solution at 25 °C.

  14. Final Closeout report for grant FG36-08GO18018, titled: Functional Multi-Layer Solution Processable Polymer Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Adam J. Moule

    2012-05-01

    heterojunction layer is based upon the idea of balancing good and bad properties within a single film. This proposal addresses the idea that the use of multiple layers that have differing electrical and optical functions could lead to greater efficiency because fewer materials compromises must be made. This idea is not new, multiple functional layer have been successfully used in cross-linked OLED's and organic small molecule evaporated PV devices. The main reason that multiple layers of polymers are not commonly deposited is that most conjugated polymers are mutually soluble in the same solvents. The work outlined in the proposal was intended to develop a new deposition strategy that would allow multiple organic layers to be deposited from solution using spin coating. The deposition method that we proposed was successful, sometimes, but ultimately not reliable. Instead we focused on more reliable methods to implement doping along the interface between layers. This work has been very successful. We found that using PEDOT:PSS, the PSS would form a surface layer of {approx}2-3 nm thickness that would mix with and electrochemically react with P3HT upon heating. This mechanism is also a crosslinking reaction in that H{sub 2} is released and permanent new bonds are formed. Using the Plextronics Inc. replacement to PEDOT:PSS, for which there are no mobile dopants, we were able to show that a second and different mechanism can be used to p-type dope organic materials. We are currently working with Plextronics to develop a new product. Finally we produced n-type doping of a thin fullerene layer near the cathode also using a self-assembly method. Low work function metals will diffuse into the BHJ layer and dope the fullerene upon heating. This doping also affects the vertical segregation of BHJ materials in a predictable way. We accomplished all of the scientific goals that we set out in the proposal written in May 2007. Some of the methods we proposed were not fully successful, but we

  15. Molecular Design of Doped Polymers for Thermoelectric Systems-Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chabinyc, Michael L.; Hawker, Craig J.

    2013-10-09

    The self-assembly of organic semiconducting molecules and polymers is critical for their electrical properties. This project addressed the design of organic semiconductors with novel synthetic building blocks for proton-dopable conducting materials and the molecular order and microstructure of high performance semiconducting polymers blended with charge transfer dopants. Novel azulene donor-acceptor materials were designed and synthesized with unique electronic effects upon protonation to generate charged species in solution. The microstructure and optical properties of these derivatives were examined to develop structure-property relationships. Studies of the microstructure of blends of charge transfer doped semiconducting polymers revealed highly ordered conductive phases in blends. The molecular packing of one blend was studied in detail using a combination of solid-state NMR and x-ray scattering revealing that dopant incorporation is unlikely to be random as assumed in transport models. Studies of the electrical properties of these highly ordered blends revealed a universal trend between the thermopower and electrical conductivity of semiconducting polymers that is independent of the doping mechanism.

  16. W-doped TiO2 mesoporous electron transport layer for efficient hole transport material free perovskite solar cells employing carbon counter electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yuqing; Cheng, Nian; Kondamareddy, Kiran Kumar; Wang, Changlei; Liu, Pei; Guo, Shishang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2017-02-01

    Doping of TiO2 by metal elements for the scaffold layer of the perovskite solar cells has been proved to be one of the effective methods to improve the power conversion efficiency. In the present work, we report the impact of doping of TiO2 nanoparticles with different amounts of tungsten (W) on the photovoltaic properties of hole transport material free perovskite solar cells (PSCs) that employ carbon counter electrode. Light doping with W (less than 1000 ppm) improves the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of solar cells by promoting the electron conductivity in the TiO2 layer which facilitates electron transfer and collection. With the incorporation of W, average efficiency of PSCs is increased from 9.1% for the un-doped samples to 10.53% for the 1000 ppm W-doped samples, mainly originates from the increase of short circuit current density and fill factor. Our champion cell exhibits an impressive PCE of 12.06% when using the 1000 ppm W-doped TiO2 films.

  17. Macroscale cobalt-MOFs derived metallic Co nanoparticles embedded in N-doped porous carbon layers as efficient oxygen electrocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hai-Sheng; Zhang, Haimin; Liu, Rongrong; Zhang, Xian; Zhao, Huijun; Wang, Guozhong

    2017-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) materials have aroused great research interest in different areas owing to their unique properties, such as high surface area, various composition, well-organized framework and controllable porous structure. Controllable fabrication of MOFs materials at macro-scale may be more promising for their large-scale practical applications. Here we report the synthesis of macro-scale Co-MOFs crystals using 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid (H3BTC) linker in the presence of Co2+, triethylamine (TEA) and nonanoic acid by a facile solvothermal reaction. Further, the as-fabricated Co-MOFs as precursor was pyrolytically treated at different temperatures in N2 atmosphere to obtain metallic Co nanoparticles embedded in N-doped porous carbon layers (denoted as Co@NPC). The results demonstrate that the Co-MOFs derived sample obtained at 900 °C (Co@NPC-900) shows a porous structure (including micropore and mesopore) with a surface area of 110.8 m2 g-1 and an N doping level of 1.62 at.% resulted from TEA in the pyrolysis process. As electrocatalyst, the Co@NPC-900 exhibits bifunctional electrocatalytic activities toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline media which are key reactions in some renewable energy technologies such as fuel cells and rechargeable metal-air batteries. The results indicate that the Co@NPC-900 can afford an onset potential of 1.50 V (vs. RHE) and a potential value of 1.61 V (vs. RHE) at a current density of 10 mA cm-2 for ORR and OER with high applicable stability, respectively. The efficient catalytic activity of Co@NPC-900 as bifunctional oxygen electrocatalyst can be ascribed to N doping and embedded metallic Co nanoparticles in carbon structure providing catalytic active sites and porous structure favourable for electrocatalysis-related mass transport.

  18. Aluminum doped nickel oxide thin film with improved electrochromic performance from layered double hydroxides precursor in situ pyrolytic route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jingjing; Lai, Lincong; Zhang, Ping; Li, Hailong; Qin, Yumei; Gao, Yuanchunxue; Luo, Lei; Lu, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Electrochromic materials with unique performance arouse great interest on account of potential application values in smart window, low-power display, automobile anti-glare rearview mirror, and e-papers. In this paper, high-performing Al-doped NiO porous electrochromic film grown on ITO substrate has been prepared via a layered double hydroxides(LDHs) precursor in situ pyrolytic route. The Al3+ ions distributed homogenously within the NiO matrix can significantly influence the crystallinity of Ni-Al LDH and NiO:Al3+ films. The electrochromic performance of the films were evaluated by means of UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and chronoamperometry(CA) measurements. In addition, the ratio of Ni3+/Ni2+ also varies with Al content which can lead to different electrochemical performances. Among the as-prepared films, NiO film prepared from Ni-Al (19:1) LDH show the best electrochromic performance with a high transparency of 96%, large optical modulation range (58.4%), fast switching speed (bleaching/coloration times are 1.8/4.2 s, respectively) and excellent durability (30% decrease after 2000 cycles). The improved performance was owed to the synergy of large NiO film specific surface area and porous morphology, as well as Al doping stifled the formation of Ni3+ making bleached state more pure. This LDHs precursor pyrolytic method is simple, low-cost and environmental benign and is feasible for the preparation of NiO:Al and other Al-doped oxide thin film.

  19. Solid oxide fuel cell bi-layer anode with gadolinia-doped ceria for utilization of solid carbon fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, Isaiah D.; Koylu, Umit O.; Dogan, Fatih

    Pyrolytic carbon was used as fuel in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and a bi-layer anode composed of nickel oxide gadolinia-doped ceria (NiO-GDC) and NiO-YSZ. The common problems of bulk shrinkage and emergent porosity in the YSZ layer adjacent to the GDC/YSZ interface were avoided by using an interlayer of porous NiO-YSZ as a buffer anode layer between the electrolyte and the NiO-GDC primary anode. Cells were fabricated from commercially available component powders so that unconventional production methods suggested in the literature were avoided, that is, the necessity of glycine-nitrate combustion synthesis, specialty multicomponent oxide powders, sputtering, or chemical vapor deposition. The easily-fabricated cell was successfully utilized with hydrogen and propane fuels as well as carbon deposited on the anode during the cyclic operation with the propane. A cell of similar construction could be used in the exhaust stream of a diesel engine to capture and utilize soot for secondary power generation and decreased particulate pollution without the need for filter regeneration.

  20. Characteristics of Al-doped ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition for silicon nanowire photovoltaic device.

    PubMed

    Oh, Byeong-Yun; Han, Jin-Woo; Seo, Dae-Shik; Kim, Kwang-Young; Baek, Seong-Ho; Jang, Hwan Soo; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2012-07-01

    We report the structural, electrical, and optical characteristics of Al-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) films deposited on glass by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with various Al2O3 film contents for use as transparent electrodes. Unlike films fabricated by a sputtering method, the diffraction peak position of the films deposited by ALD progressively moved to a higher angle with increasing Al2O3 film content. This indicates that Zn sites were effectively replaced by Al, due to layer-by-layer growth mechanism of ALD process which is based on alternate self-limiting surface chemical reactions. By adjusting the Al2O3 film content, a ZnO:Al film with low electrical resistivity (9.84 x 10(-4) Omega cm) was obtained at an Al2O3 film content of 3.17%, where the Al concentration, carrier mobility, optical transmittance, and bandgap energy were 2.8 wt%, 11.20 cm2 V(-1) s(-1), 94.23%, and 3.6 eV, respectively. Moreover, the estimated figure of merit value of our best sample was 8.2 m7Omega(-1). These results suggest that ZnO:Al films deposited by ALD could be useful for electronic devices in which especially require 3-dimensional conformal deposition of the transparent electrode and surface passivation.

  1. Growth of a delta-doped silicon layer by molecular beam epitaxy on a charge-coupled device for reflection-limited ultraviolet quantum efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoenk, Michael E.; Grunthaner, Paula J.; Grunthaner, Frank J.; Terhune, R. W.; Fattahi, Masoud; Tseng, Hsin-Fu

    1992-01-01

    Low-temperature silicon molecular beam epitaxy is used to grow a delta-doped silicon layer on a fully processed charge-coupled device (CCD). The measured quantum efficiency of the delta-doped backside-thinned CCD is in agreement with the reflection limit for light incident on the back surface in the spectral range of 260-600 nm. The 2.5 nm silicon layer, grown at 450 C, contained a boron delta-layer with surface density of about 2 x 10 exp 14/sq cm. Passivation of the surface was done by steam oxidation of a nominally undoped 1.5 nm Si cap layer. The UV quantum efficiency was found to be uniform and stable with respect to thermal cycling and illumination conditions.

  2. Nitrogen and vanadium Co-doped TiO2 mesosponge layers for enhancement in visible photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jiasong; Xu, Jinrong; Wang, Qingyao

    2014-10-01

    Novel N and V co-doped TiO2 mesosponge (N-V-TMSW) layers were successfully prepared by one-step hydrothermal treatment of TiO2 nanotube arrays, and the phase composition, morphology and optical property were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The crystal structure and density of states were studied by means of the first-principle pseudo-potential plane wave. The results indicated that titanium ions and oxygen atoms in TiO2 were successfully substituted by vanadium ions and nitrogen atoms, respectively. The sample N-V0.1-TMSW showed a remarkable absorption in the visible light range of 400-600 nm and high visible photocatalytic activity

  3. p-wave triggered superconductivity in single-layer graphene on an electron-doped oxide superconductor

    PubMed Central

    Di Bernardo, A.; Millo, O.; Barbone, M.; Alpern, H.; Kalcheim, Y.; Sassi, U.; Ott, A. K.; De Fazio, D.; Yoon, D.; Amado, M.; Ferrari, A. C.; Linder, J.; Robinson, J. W. A.

    2017-01-01

    Electron pairing in the vast majority of superconductors follows the Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer theory of superconductivity, which describes the condensation of electrons into pairs with antiparallel spins in a singlet state with an s-wave symmetry. Unconventional superconductivity was predicted in single-layer graphene (SLG), with the electrons pairing with a p-wave or chiral d-wave symmetry, depending on the position of the Fermi energy with respect to the Dirac point. By placing SLG on an electron-doped (non-chiral) d-wave superconductor and performing local scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, here we show evidence for a p-wave triggered superconducting density of states in SLG. The realization of unconventional superconductivity in SLG offers an exciting new route for the development of p-wave superconductivity using two-dimensional materials with transition temperatures above 4.2 K. PMID:28102222

  4. p-wave triggered superconductivity in single-layer graphene on an electron-doped oxide superconductor.

    PubMed

    Di Bernardo, A; Millo, O; Barbone, M; Alpern, H; Kalcheim, Y; Sassi, U; Ott, A K; De Fazio, D; Yoon, D; Amado, M; Ferrari, A C; Linder, J; Robinson, J W A

    2017-01-19

    Electron pairing in the vast majority of superconductors follows the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity, which describes the condensation of electrons into pairs with antiparallel spins in a singlet state with an s-wave symmetry. Unconventional superconductivity was predicted in single-layer graphene (SLG), with the electrons pairing with a p-wave or chiral d-wave symmetry, depending on the position of the Fermi energy with respect to the Dirac point. By placing SLG on an electron-doped (non-chiral) d-wave superconductor and performing local scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, here we show evidence for a p-wave triggered superconducting density of states in SLG. The realization of unconventional superconductivity in SLG offers an exciting new route for the development of p-wave superconductivity using two-dimensional materials with transition temperatures above 4.2 K.

  5. The multicomponent doping of surface layers of materials under the influence of ion beams with a broad energy spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalin, B. A.; Volkov, N. V.; Valikov, R. A.; Yashin, A. S.; Yakutkina, T. V.

    2016-04-01

    The paper discusses the various factors that influence the efficiency of ion mixing. It was found that in the base of penetration of atoms multilayer films in polycrystalline substrate is the process of energy transfer from ions and primary knocked-on atom (PKA) of films to subsequent displacement cascade. At the same time the penetration of implanted atoms to great depths determined by the density of defects, radiation-stimulated migration of interstitial atoms and their physico-chemical interaction with the atoms of the matrix, which can be described by the model of an isotropic mixing. It is shown that doping atoms of the multilayer films, possibly the formation of gradient layers, which are determined by radiation traces in the substrate implanted atoms and their migration under irradiation by the ion beam with a broad energy spectrum.

  6. Stable and null current hysteresis perovskite solar cells based nitrogen doped graphene oxide nanoribbons hole transport layer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongmo; Mat Teridi, Mohd Asri; Mohd Yusoff, Abd. Rashid bin; Jang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells are becoming one of the leading technologies to reduce our dependency on traditional power sources. However, the frequently used component poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) has several shortcomings, such as an easily corroded indium-tin-oxide (ITO) interface at elevated temperatures and induced electrical inhomogeneity. Herein, we propose solution-processed nitrogen-doped graphene oxide nanoribbons (NGONRs) as a hole transport layer (HTL) in perovskite solar cells, replacing the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS. The conversion efficiency of NGONR-based perovskite solar cells has outperformed a control device constructed using PEDOT:PSS. Moreover, our proposed NGONR-based devices also demonstrate a negligible current hysteresis along with improved stability. This work provides an effective route for substituting PEDOT:PSS as the effective HTL. PMID:27277388

  7. Electron channel mobility in silicon-doped Ga2O3 MOSFETs with a resistive buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Man Hoi; Sasaki, Kohei; Kuramata, Akito; Yamakoshi, Shigenobu; Higashiwaki, Masataka

    2016-12-01

    The electron mobility in depletion-mode lateral β-Ga2O3(010) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with an n-channel formed by Si-ion (Si+) implantation doping was extracted using low-field electrical measurements on FET structures. An undoped Ga2O3 buffer layer protected the channel against charge compensation by suppressing outdiffusion of deep Fe acceptors from the semi-insulating substrate. The molecular beam epitaxy growth temperature was identified as a key process parameter for eliminating parasitic conduction at the buffer/substrate growth interface. Devices with a resistive buffer showed room temperature channel mobilities of 90-100 cm2 V-1 s-1 at carrier concentrations of low- to mid-1017 cm-3, with small in-plane mobility anisotropy of 10-15% ascribable to anisotropic carrier scattering.

  8. Photovoltaic response in pristine WSe{sub 2} layers modulated by metal-induced surface-charge-transfer doping

    SciTech Connect

    Wi, Sungjin; Chen, Mikai; Li, Da; Nam, Hongsuk; Meyhofer, Edgar; Liang, Xiaogan

    2015-08-10

    We obtained photovoltaic response in pristine multilayer WSe{sub 2} by sandwiching WSe{sub 2} between top and bottom metals. In this structure, the work-function difference between the top metal and WSe{sub 2} plays a critical role in generating built-in potentials and photovoltaic responses. Our devices with Zn as top metal exhibit photo-conversion efficiencies up to 6.7% under 532 nm illumination and external quantum efficiencies in the range of 40%–83% for visible light. This work provides a method for generating photovoltaic responses in layered semiconductors without detrimental doping or exquisite heterostructures, and also advances the physics for modulating the band structures of such emerging semiconductors.

  9. p-wave triggered superconductivity in single-layer graphene on an electron-doped oxide superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Bernardo, A.; Millo, O.; Barbone, M.; Alpern, H.; Kalcheim, Y.; Sassi, U.; Ott, A. K.; de Fazio, D.; Yoon, D.; Amado, M.; Ferrari, A. C.; Linder, J.; Robinson, J. W. A.

    2017-01-01

    Electron pairing in the vast majority of superconductors follows the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity, which describes the condensation of electrons into pairs with antiparallel spins in a singlet state with an s-wave symmetry. Unconventional superconductivity was predicted in single-layer graphene (SLG), with the electrons pairing with a p-wave or chiral d-wave symmetry, depending on the position of the Fermi energy with respect to the Dirac point. By placing SLG on an electron-doped (non-chiral) d-wave superconductor and performing local scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, here we show evidence for a p-wave triggered superconducting density of states in SLG. The realization of unconventional superconductivity in SLG offers an exciting new route for the development of p-wave superconductivity using two-dimensional materials with transition temperatures above 4.2 K.

  10. Investigation of Diffusion Barrier Layers for Bi-Doped Mg2(Si,Ge) Thermoelectric Legs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahoveanu, Codrin; Laversenne, Laetitia; de Vaulx, Cédric; Bès, Alexandre; Azzouz, Kamel; Lacoste, Ana

    2016-11-01

    The performance of thermoelectric (TE) modules is governed not only by the thermoelectric materials whose properties are capitalized, but also on the quality of the electrical contacts which are ubiquitous in the design of the device. To ensure the necessary stability of the interfaces between the TE materials and the electrodes, diffusion barriers are generally used. In this study, attempts are presented in finding diffusion barriers that would be suitable for Mg2(Si,Ge) TE materials. These involved the deposition by microwave plasma-assisted co-sputtering of intermediate gradient layers starting from Mg and Si, ending up with a Ni layer, or the deposition of metallic layers (Ti, Cr, W and Ta). The effectiveness of the deposited layers as diffusion barriers is assessed after the legs were subjected to a brazing process, with the results favoring the use of gradient layers with a thick Ni layer and metallic layers based on Ta and Cr, despite some adherence issues for the latter.

  11. Constructing 2D porous graphitic C3 N4 nanosheets/nitrogen-doped graphene/layered MoS2 ternary nanojunction with enhanced photoelectrochemical activity.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yang; Wen, Zhenhai; Cui, Shumao; Guo, Xiaoru; Chen, Junhong

    2013-11-20

    A 2D porous graphitic C3 N4 nanosheets/nitrogen-doped graphene/layered MoS2 ternary nanojunction is synthesized using a simple pyrolysis process followed by a hydrothermal treatment. The 2D ternary nanojunction exhibits significantly enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activities due to the large contact area, efficient light absorption, and rapid charge separation and transport.

  12. Effectiveness of compacted soil liner as a gas barrier layer in the landfill final cover system.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seheum; Nam, Kyoungphile; Kim, Jae Young; Hwan, Shim Kyu; Chung, Moonkyung

    2008-01-01

    A compacted soil liner (CSL) has been widely used as a single barrier layer or a part of composite barrier layer in the landfill final cover system to prevent water infiltration into solid wastes for its acceptable hydraulic permeability. This study was conducted to test whether the CSL was also effective in prohibiting landfill gas emissions. For this purpose, three different compaction methods (i.e., reduced, standard, and modified Proctor methods) were used to prepare the soil specimens, with nitrogen as gas, and with water and heptane as liquid permeants. Measured gas permeability ranged from 2.03 x 10(-10) to 4.96 x 10(-9) cm(2), which was a magnitude of two or three orders greater than hydraulic permeability (9.60 x 10(-13) to 1.05 x 10(-11) cm(2)). The difference between gas and hydraulic permeabilities can be explained by gas slippage, which makes gas more permeable, and by soil-water interaction, which impedes water flow and then makes water less permeable. This explanation was also supported by the result that a liquid permeability measured with heptane as a non-polar liquid was similar to the intrinsic gas permeability. The data demonstrate that hydraulic requirement for the CSL is not enough to control the gas emissions from a landfill.

  13. Zirconium doped TiO2 thin films: A promising dielectric layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arvind; Mondal, Sandip; Rao, K. S. R. Koteswara

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, we have fabricated the zirconium doped TiO2 thin (ZTO) films from a facile spin - coating method. The addition of Zirconium in TiO2 offers conduction band offset to Si and consequently decreased the leakage current density by approximately two orders as compared to pure TiO2 thin (TO) films. The ZTO thin film shows a high dielectric constant 27 with a very low leakage current density ˜10-8 A/cm2. The oxide capacitate, flat band voltage and change in flat band voltage are 172 pF, -1.19 V and 54 mV. The AFM analysis confirmed the compact and pore free flat surface. The RMS surface roughness is found to be 1.5 Å. The ellipsometry analysis also verified the fact with a high refractive index 2.21.

  14. Efficiency enhancement of regular-type perovskite solar cells based on Al-doped ZnO nanorods as electron transporting layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zheng-Lun; Chen, Chih-Ming; Lin, Zheng-Kun; Yang, Sheng-Hsiung

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we first incorporated Al(NO3)3·9H2O as the Al source into ZnO nanorods (NRs) lattice via the hydrothermal method to modify nature properties of ZnO NRs for the fabrication of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of Al-doped ZnO NRs exhibits higher 2θ values and stronger intensity of (002) plane. Larger optical band gap and higher electrical conductivity of Al-doped ZnO NRs are also observed relative to non-doped ZnO ones. The steady-state photoluminescence shows effective charge extraction and collection at the interface between Al-doped ZnO NRs and perovskite layer. The optimized PSC based on Al-doped ZnO NRs showed an open-circuit voltage of 0.84 V, a short-circuit current density of 21.93 mA/cm2, a fill factor of 57%, and a power conversion efficiency of 10.45% that was 23% higher than the non-doped ZnO ones.

  15. Simulation on SIMS depth profiling of delta-doped layer including relaxation caused by defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, M.; Nagao, S.; Yamamura, Y.

    2001-06-01

    Using the dynamic Monte Carlo (MC) code, ACAT-DIFFUSE, the SIMS depth profiling of a multilayered thin film (Ta 2O 5 (18 nm)/SiO 2 (0.5 nm)) sample was investigated. The ACAT-DIFFUSE code is based on the binary collision approximation, taking into account the generation of interstitial atoms and vacancies, annihilation of vacancies, diffusion of interstitial atoms and primary ions and the relaxation of target materials according to the packing condition which include not only beam and target particles but also defects (interstitial atoms and vacancies). The observed 1-3 nm shift of the delta layer peak to the surface in SIMS depth profiles can be reproduced by the ACAT-DIFFUSE simulation. It is found that this peak shift is mainly due to the relaxation or expansion caused by defects produced behind the delta layer, not due to the collision mixing which results mainly in broadening the observed delta layer peak. Therefore, as ion energy decreases or the angle of incidence becomes large, the peak shift becomes small, because the total amount of defects produced behind the delta layer is small before the delta layer is sputtered off.

  16. Estimation on the self recovery behavior of low-conductivity layer in landfill final cover by laboratory conductivity tests.

    PubMed

    Kwon, O; Park, J

    2006-11-01

    This study examined the application of a Self Recovering Sustainable Layer (SRSL) as a landfill final cover. Low-conductivity layers in landfill covers are known to have problems associated with cracking as a result of the differential settlement or climatic changes. A SRSL is defined as a layer with chemical properties that reduces the increased hydraulic conductivity resulting from cracking by forming low-conductivity precipitates of chemicals contained in the layer. In this study, the formation of precipitates was confirmed using a batch test, spectroscopic analysis and mineralogical speciation tests. The possibility of secondary contamination due to the chemicals used for recovery was evaluated using a leaching test. A laboratory conductivity test was performed on a single layer composed of each chemical as well as on a 2-layer system. The recovery performance of the SRSL was estimated by developing artificial cracks in the specimens and observing the change in hydraulic conductivity as a function of time. In the laboratory conductivity test, the hydraulic conductivity of a 2-layer system as well as those of the individual layers that comprise the 2-layer system was estimated. In addition sodium ash was found to enhance the reduction in conductivity. A significant increase in conductivity was observed after the cracks developed but this was reduced with time, which indicated that the SRSL has a proper recovering performance. In conclusion, a SRSL can be used as a landfill final cover that could maintain low-conductivity even after the serious damages due to settlement.

  17. Optical properties of double layer thin films zinc oxide doping aluminum (ZnO/Al) were deposited on glass substrates by sol gel method spray coating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permatasari, Anes; Sutanto, Heri; Marito Siagian, Sinta

    2017-01-01

    Thin films of double layer of ZnO/Al has succeeded in deposition on a glass substrate using sol-gel method and spray coating techniques. Variations of doping Al as much as 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%. ZnO precursor synthesized using zinc acetate dehydrate (Zn(COOCH3)2.2H2O), isopropanol ((CH3)2CHOH) and monoethanolamine (MEA) were stirred using a magnetic stirrer for 45 minutes. ZnO precursor get homogeneous and then added of aluminum nitrate nonahydrate predetermined doping concentration and stirred again for 15 minutes. Deposition solution is done by the spray on a glass substrate and then heated at a temperature of 450°C. A layer of ZnO/Al deposited over the ZnO to produce a thin layer of a double layer. Optical properties layer of ZnO/Al characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Based on data from UV-Vis absorbance was determined the value of the energy band gap. Pure and dopped layers has different energy due the Al dopping. For pure ZnO layer has energy band gap of 3.347 eV and decreased to 3.09 eV for ZnO layer with Al dopant.

  18. A novel way to enhance hydrogenation resistance of nano-layered titanium silicon carbide by the doping of aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Xu, Canhui; Li, Fangzhi; Tan, Yongqiang; Zhang, Haibin; Peng, Shuming

    2016-08-01

    The outstanding irradiation and corrosion resistance of nano-layered Ti3SiC2 make it suitable for cladding materials in advanced nuclear systems. However, Ti3SiC2 shows the relatively poor thermal stability in hydrogen circumstance at high temperature, which is a big obstacle for its nuclear related applications. In this paper, we proposed an effective approach to improve the hydrogenation resistance of Ti3SiC2 by the doping of Al. The experimental results demonstrated that compared to pure Ti3SiC2, Ti3Si0.9Al0.1C2 (TSAC) displayed much better hydrogenation resistance. Through first-principles calculation, it was concluded that the introduction of H interstitial atom made the formation energy of Al vacancy much lower, so Al atoms became much easier to remove from TSAC than Si atoms and Ti atoms. The preferable loss of aluminium from TSAC substrate gave rise to the formation of Al2O3 layer, which improved the hydrogenation resistance of TSAC by inhibiting further reaction between TSAC and hydrogen.

  19. Simulation of nucleation and growth of atomic layer deposition phosphorus for doping of advanced FinFETs

    SciTech Connect

    Seidel, Thomas E.; Goldberg, Alexander; Halls, Mat D.; Current, Michael I.

    2016-01-15

    Simulations for the nucleation and growth of phosphorus films were carried out using density functional theory. The surface was represented by a Si{sub 9}H{sub 12} truncated cluster surface model with 2 × 1-reconstructured (100) Si-OH terminations for the initial reaction sites. Chemistries included phosphorous halides (PF{sub 3}, PCl{sub 3}, and PBr{sub 3}) and disilane (Si{sub 2}H{sub 6}). Atomic layer deposition (ALD) reaction sequences were illustrated with three-dimensional molecular models using sequential PF{sub 3} and Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} reactions and featuring SiFH{sub 3} as a byproduct. Exothermic reaction pathways were developed for both nucleation and growth for a Si-OH surface. Energetically favorable reactions for the deposition of four phosphorus atoms including lateral P–P bonding were simulated. This paper suggests energetically favorable thermodynamic reactions for the growth of elemental phosphorus on (100) silicon. Phosphorus layers made by ALD are an option for doping advanced fin field-effect transistors (FinFETs). Phosphorus may be thermally diffused into the silicon or recoil knocked in; simulations of the recoil profile of phosphorus into a FinFET surface are illustrated.

  20. High-field electroluminescence in semiconductor tunnel junctions with a Mn-doped GaAs layer

    SciTech Connect

    Hai, Pham Nam; Yatsui, Takashi; Ohtsu, Motoichi; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2014-09-21

    We investigated high-field electroluminescence (EL) in semiconductor tunnel junctions with a Mn-doped GaAs layer (here, referred to as GaAs:Mn). Besides the band-gap emission of GaAs, the EL spectra show visible light emissions with two peaks at 1.94 eV and 2.19 eV, which are caused by d-d transitions of the Mn atoms excited by hot electrons. The threshold voltages for band-gap and visible light EL in the tunnel junctions with a GaAs:Mn electrode are 1.3 V higher than those of GaAs:Mn excited by hot holes in reserve biased p⁺-n junctions, which is consistent with the hot carrier transport in the band profiles of these structures. Our EL results at room temperature show that the electron temperature in GaAs:Mn can be as high as ~700 K for a low input electrical power density of 0.4 W/cm², while the lattice temperature of the GaAs:Mn layer can be kept at 340 K.

  1. Development of a highly transparent, low-resistance lithium-doped nickel oxide triple-layer film deposited by magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Ching; Shih, Wei-Chen

    2017-01-31

    This research presents a triple-layer transparent conductive oxide thin film, with a lithium-doped nickel oxide/silver/lithium-doped nickel oxide (L-NiO/Ag/L-NiO) structure using radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering on glass substrates. The high transmittance L-NiO thin films were deposited using the sputtering method with Ar/H2 as the reaction gases. The triple-layer structure, L-NiO/Ag/L-NiO, showed impressive electrical conductivity. The figure of merit (FOM) results indicated that the L-NiO/Ag/L-NiO triple-layer thin films with Ag deposition times of 2 min possessed satisfactory optical and electrical properties for potential applications.

  2. Features of the charge-transport mechanism in layered Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} single crystals doped with chlorine and terbium

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullaev, N. A. Abdullaev, N. M.; Aliguliyeva, H. V.; Kerimova, T. G.; Mehdiyev, G. S.; Nemov, S. A.

    2011-01-15

    The temperature dependences (T = 5-300 K) of the resistivity in the plane of layers and in the direction perpendicular to the layers, as well as the Hall effect and the magnetoresistance (H < 80 kOe, T = 0.5-4.2 K) in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} single crystals doped with chlorine and terbium, are investigated. It is shown that the doping of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} with terbium atoms results in p-type conductivity and in increasing hole concentration. The doping of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} with chlorine atoms modifies also the character of its conductivity instead of changing only the type from p to n. In the temperature dependence of the resistivity in the direction perpendicular to layers, a portion arises with the activation conductivity caused by the hopping between localized states. The charge-transport mechanism in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} single crystals doped with chlorine is proposed.

  3. Synthesis, Characterization And Optoelectrical Properties of Cd Doped ZnO Poly Crystalline Nano Thin Films Deposited by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindal, Nitin; Sharma, Manisha; Kumar, H.; Sharma, S.; Upadhaya, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Cadmium doped zinc oxide polycrystalline nano thin films were deposited on microscopic glass substrates following a modified chemical bath technique called Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR). Cadmium doping was found to increase the film grown rate. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed that films have polycrystalline nature. The SEM image revealed growth of large crystallites perpendicular to the substrates. The optical transmittance spectra indicate that these thin films have the direct energy band gap. The resistivity of these films decreased with increase in the temperature for all compositions, which confirmed the semiconducting nature of films.

  4. Bolometric detection of magnetoplasma resonances in microwave absorption by two-dimensional electron systems based on doping layer conductivity measurements in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Dorozhkin, S. I. Sychev, D. V.; Kapustin, A. A.

    2014-11-28

    We have implemented a new bolometric method to detect resonances in magneto-absorption of microwave radiation by two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) in selectively doped GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures. Radiation is absorbed by the 2DES and the thermally activated conductivity of the doping layer supplying electrons to the 2DES serves as a thermometer. The resonant absorption brought about by excitation of the confined magnetoplasma modes appears as peaks in the magnetic field dependence of the low-frequency impedance measured between the Schottky gate and 2DES.

  5. Plasma versus thermal annealing for the Au-catalyst growth of ZnO nanocones and nanowires on Al-doped ZnO buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güell, Frank; Martínez-Alanis, Paulina R.; Roso, Sergio; Salas-Pérez, Carlos I.; García-Sánchez, Mario F.; Santana, Guillermo; Marel Monroy, B.

    2016-06-01

    We successfully synthesized ZnO nanocones and nanowires over polycrystalline Al-doped ZnO (AZO) buffer layers on fused silica substrates by a vapor-transport process using Au-catalyst thin films. Different Au film thicknesses were thermal or plasma annealed in order to analyze their influence on the ZnO nanostructure growth morphology. Striking differences have been observed. Thermal annealing generates a distribution of Au nanoclusters and plasma annealing induces a fragmentation of the Au thin films. While ZnO nanowires are found in the thermal-annealed samples, ZnO nanocones and nanowires have been obtained on the plasma-annealed samples. Enhancement of the preferred c-axis (0001) growth orientation was demonstrated by x-ray diffraction when the ZnO nanocones and nanowires have been grown over the AZO buffer layer. The transmittance spectra of the ZnO nanocones and nanowires show a gradual increase from 375 to 900 nm, and photoluminescence characterization pointed out high concentration of defects leading to observation of a broad emission band in the visible range from 420 to 800 nm. The maximum emission intensity peak position of the broad visible band is related to the thickness of the Au-catalyst for the thermal-annealed samples and to the plasma power for the plasma-annealed samples. Finally, we proposed a model for the plasma versus thermal annealing of the Au-catalyst for the growth of the ZnO nanocones and nanowires. These results are promising for renewable energy applications, in particular for its potential application in solar cells.

  6. Micro/Nano hierarchical peony-like Al doped ZnO superhydrophobic film: The guiding effect of (100) preferred seed layer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Wang, Jingfeng; Kong, Yi; Zhou, Jia; Wu, Jinzhu; Wang, Gang; Bi, Hai; Wu, Xiaohong; Qin, Wei; Li, Qingkun

    2016-01-01

    In this communication, we present a versatile and controllable strategy for formation of superhydrophobic micro/nano hierarchical Al doped ZnO (AZO) films with a water contact angle (CA) of 170 ± 4°. This strategy involves a two-step layer-by-layer process employing an atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique followed by a hydrothermal method, and the resulting novel AZO surface layer consists of (100) dominant nano-rice-like AZO seed layer (the water CA of 110 ± 4°) covered with micro-peony-like AZO top. The growth mechanisms and superhydrophobic properties of the hierarchical AZO layer are discussed. It is believed that the present route holds promise for future success in the design and development of practical superhydrophobic materials. PMID:26753877

  7. Micro/Nano hierarchical peony-like Al doped ZnO superhydrophobic film: The guiding effect of (100) preferred seed layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Wang, Jingfeng; Kong, Yi; Zhou, Jia; Wu, Jinzhu; Wang, Gang; Bi, Hai; Wu, Xiaohong; Qin, Wei; Li, Qingkun

    2016-01-01

    In this communication, we present a versatile and controllable strategy for formation of superhydrophobic micro/nano hierarchical Al doped ZnO (AZO) films with a water contact angle (CA) of 170 ± 4°. This strategy involves a two-step layer-by-layer process employing an atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique followed by a hydrothermal method, and the resulting novel AZO surface layer consists of (100) dominant nano-rice-like AZO seed layer (the water CA of 110 ± 4°) covered with micro-peony-like AZO top. The growth mechanisms and superhydrophobic properties of the hierarchical AZO layer are discussed. It is believed that the present route holds promise for future success in the design and development of practical superhydrophobic materials.

  8. Domain structure and properties of triglycine sulfate crystals with profile D, L-α- and L-α-alanine-doped layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstikhina, A. L.; Belugina, N. V.; Gainutdinov, R. V.; Ivanova, E. S.; Lashkova, A. K.; Shut, V. N.; Kashevich, I. F.; Mozzharov, S. E.

    2016-11-01

    A complex investigation of the domain structure and dielectric properties of triglycine sulfate (TGS) crystals containing profile layers doped with D, L-α-alanine (DLATGS) and L-α-alanine (LATGS) impurities is carried out. The images of the DLATGS and LATGS layers and ferroelectric domains are obtained by piezoelectric force microscopy; the parameters of the domain structure and the degree of unipolarity are determined. It is established that DLATGS layers are multidomain and LATGS stripes are mainly single-domain. The experimental data on the macroscopic dielectric properties of the crystals are compared with the results of a microscopic analysis of the domain structure.

  9. Atomic layer deposition of Al-doped ZnO/Al2O3 double layers on vertically aligned carbon nanofiber arrays.

    PubMed

    Malek, Gary A; Brown, Emery; Klankowski, Steven A; Liu, Jianwei; Elliot, Alan J; Lu, Rongtao; Li, Jun; Wu, Judy

    2014-05-14

    High-aspect-ratio, vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) were conformally coated with aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) using atomic layer deposition (ALD) in order to produce a three-dimensional array of metal-insulator-metal core-shell nanostructures. Prefunctionalization before ALD, as required for initiating covalent bonding on a carbon nanotube surface, was eliminated on VACNFs due to the graphitic edges along the surface of each CNF. The graphitic edges provided ideal nucleation sites under sequential exposures of H2O and trimethylaluminum to form an Al2O3 coating up to 20 nm in thickness. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning electron microscopy images confirmed the conformal core-shell AZO/Al2O3/CNF structures while energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy verified the elemental composition of the different layers. HRTEM selected area electron diffraction revealed that the as-made Al2O3 by ALD at 200 °C was amorphous, and then, after annealing in air at 450 °C for 30 min, was converted to polycrystalline form. Nevertheless, comparable dielectric constants of 9.3 were obtained in both cases by cyclic voltammetry at a scan rate of 1000 V/s. The conformal core-shell AZO/Al2O3/VACNF array structure demonstrated in this work provides a promising three-dimensional architecture toward applications of solid-state capacitors with large surface area having a thin, leak-free dielectric.

  10. Electron Scattering and Doping Mechanisms in Solid-Phase-Crystallized In2O3:H Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Macco, Bart; Knoops, Harm C M; Kessels, Wilhelmus M M

    2015-08-05

    Hydrogen-doped indium oxide (In2O3:H) has recently emerged as an enabling transparent conductive oxide for solar cells, in particular for silicon heterojunction solar cells because its high electron mobility (>100 cm(2)/(V s)) allows for a simultaneously high electrical conductivity and optical transparency. Here, we report on high-quality In2O3:H prepared by a low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) process and present insights into the doping mechanism and the electron scattering processes that limit the carrier mobility in such films. The process consists of ALD of amorphous In2O3:H at 100 °C and subsequent solid-phase crystallization at 150-200 °C to obtain large-grained polycrystalline In2O3:H films. The changes in optoelectronic properties upon crystallization have been monitored both electrically by Hall measurements and optically by analysis of the Drude response. After crystallization, an excellent carrier mobility of 128 ± 4 cm(2)/(V s) can be obtained at a carrier density of 1.8 × 10(20) cm(-3), irrespective of the annealing temperature. Temperature-dependent Hall measurements have revealed that electron scattering is dominated by unavoidable phonon and ionized impurity scattering from singly charged H-donors. Extrinsic defect scattering related to material quality such as grain boundary and neutral impurity scattering was found to be negligible in crystallized films indicating that the carrier mobility is maximized. Furthermore, by comparison of the absolute H-concentration and the carrier density in crystallized films, it is deduced that <4% of the incorporated H is an active dopant in crystallized films. Therefore, it can be concluded that inactive H atoms do not (significantly) contribute to defect scattering, which potentially explains why In2O3:H films are capable of achieving a much higher carrier mobility than conventional In2O3:Sn (ITO).

  11. High quality boron-doped epitaxial layers grown at 200°C from SiF4/H2/Ar gas mixtures for emitter formation in crystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léal, Ronan; Haddad, Farah; Poulain, Gilles; Maurice, Jean-Luc; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2017-02-01

    Controlling the doping profile in solar cells emitter and front/back surface field is mandatory to reach high efficiencies. In the current state of the art, these doped layers are made by dopant diffusion at around 900°C, which implies potential temperature induced damages in the c-Si absorber and for which a precise control of doping is difficult. An alternative solution based on boron-doped epitaxial silicon layers grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) from 200°C using SiF4/H2/Ar/B2H6 chemistry is reported. The structural properties of the doped and undoped epitaxial layers were assessed by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The incorporation of boron has been studied via plasma profiling time of flight mass spectrometry (PP-TOFMS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements. The boron-doped epitaxial layers revealed excellent structural and electrical properties even for high carrier concentrations (>1019cm-3). Sheet resistances between 100 and 130 Ω/sq can been obtained depending on the thickness and the doping concentration, which is within the range of targeted values for emitters in c-Si solar cells. Electrochemical capacitance voltage (ECV) revealed a uniform doping profile around 3.1019 cm-3 and by comparing with SIMS measurement a doping efficiency around 50% has been found.

  12. Highly phosphorus-doped crystalline Si layers grown by pulse-magnetron sputter deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenske, Frank; Gorka, Benjamin

    2009-04-01

    The electrical properties of highly phosphorus-doped crystalline silicon films deposited by pulse-magnetron sputtering were studied. The films were grown, 450 nm thick, on Si(100) and Si(111) wafers at low substrate temperatures Ts of 450-550 °C and post-treated by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and plasma hydrogenation (PH). In the case of films grown on Si(100), at all values of Ts postgrowth treatment by RTA resulted in an increase in the dopant activation up to 100% and of the Hall mobility to about bulklike values of 50 cm2 V-1 s-1. This result suggests high structural quality of the films on Si(100). The Si(111) films, which are typically more defective, exhibit a completely different behavior with a strong dependence of the electrical dopant activation and the Hall mobility on Ts. By post-treatment a maximum P donor activation level of 22% could be obtained. The variation in the post-treatment procedure (RTA+PH and PH+RTA) for the films deposited at high Ts showed that PH results only in minor changes in the film properties. The different influence of RTA and PH is discussed in terms of the different defect structure of the films. These investigations reveal that high Ts and after-treatment by RTA are the main preconditions for optimal electrical film properties.

  13. A high-sensitivity fiber-optic evanescent wave sensor with a three-layer structure composed of Canada balsam doped with GeO2.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Nianbing; Zhao, Mingfu; Zhong, Lianchao; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Luo, Binbin; Li, Yishan

    2016-11-15

    In this paper, we present a high-sensitivity polymer fiber-optic evanescent wave (FOEW) sensor with a three-layer structure that includes bottom, inter-, and surface layers in the sensing region. The bottom layer and inter-layer are POFs composed of standard cladding and the core of the plastic optical fiber, and the surface layer is made of dilute Canada balsam in xylene doped with GeO2. We examine the morphology of the doped GeO2, the refractive index and composition of the surface layer and the surface luminous properties of the sensing region. We investigate the effects of the content and morphology of the GeO2 particles on the sensitivity of the FOEW sensors by using glucose solutions. In addition, we examine the response of sensors incubated with staphylococcal protein A plus mouse IgG isotype to goat anti-mouse IgG solutions. Results indicate very good sensitivity of the three-layer FOEW sensor, which showed a 3.91-fold improvement in the detection of the target antibody relative to a conventional sensor with a core-cladding structure, and the novel sensor showed a lower limit of detection of 0.2ng/l and a response time around 320s. The application of this high-sensitivity FOEW sensor can be extended to biodefense, disease diagnosis, biomedical and biochemical analysis.

  14. The Role of Nanoscale Seed Layers on the Enhanced Performance of Niobium doped TiO2 Thin Films on Glass

    PubMed Central

    Nikodemski, Stefan; Dameron, Arrelaine A.; Perkins, John D.; O’Hayre, Ryan P.; Ginley, David S.; Berry, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) coatings with decreased cost and greater process or performance versatility are needed for a variety of optoelectronic applications. Among potential new TCO candidates, doped titanium dioxide is receiving particular interest. In this study, niobium-doped titania bilayer structures consisting of a nanoscale seed layer (deposited by atomic layer deposition or RF magnetron sputtering) followed by a thick bulk-like layer were grown directly on glass in order to examine the effects of the seed layer processing on the subsequent crystallization and electrical properties of these heterostructures. Observations from Raman spectroscopy suggest that higher oxygen content in the seed layer suppresses the formation of detrimental titania polymorph phases, found in films produced by annealing directly after synthesis without any exposure to oxygen. Furthermore, our results indicate that the generation of excellent Nb:TiO2 conductors on glass (without breaking vacuum) only occurs within a narrow processing range and that the sequential deposition of oxygen-poor layers on oxygen-rich layers is a critical step towards achieving films with low resistivity. PMID:27610922

  15. The Role of Nanoscale Seed Layers on the Enhanced Performance of Niobium doped TiO2 Thin Films on Glass.

    PubMed

    Nikodemski, Stefan; Dameron, Arrelaine A; Perkins, John D; O'Hayre, Ryan P; Ginley, David S; Berry, Joseph J

    2016-09-09

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) coatings with decreased cost and greater process or performance versatility are needed for a variety of optoelectronic applications. Among potential new TCO candidates, doped titanium dioxide is receiving particular interest. In this study, niobium-doped titania bilayer structures consisting of a nanoscale seed layer (deposited by atomic layer deposition or RF magnetron sputtering) followed by a thick bulk-like layer were grown directly on glass in order to examine the effects of the seed layer processing on the subsequent crystallization and electrical properties of these heterostructures. Observations from Raman spectroscopy suggest that higher oxygen content in the seed layer suppresses the formation of detrimental titania polymorph phases, found in films produced by annealing directly after synthesis without any exposure to oxygen. Furthermore, our results indicate that the generation of excellent Nb:TiO2 conductors on glass (without breaking vacuum) only occurs within a narrow processing range and that the sequential deposition of oxygen-poor layers on oxygen-rich layers is a critical step towards achieving films with low resistivity.

  16. The Role of Nanoscale Seed Layers on the Enhanced Performance of Niobium doped TiO2 Thin Films on Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikodemski, Stefan; Dameron, Arrelaine A.; Perkins, John D.; O’Hayre, Ryan P.; Ginley, David S.; Berry, Joseph J.

    2016-09-01

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) coatings with decreased cost and greater process or performance versatility are needed for a variety of optoelectronic applications. Among potential new TCO candidates, doped titanium dioxide is receiving particular interest. In this study, niobium-doped titania bilayer structures consisting of a nanoscale seed layer (deposited by atomic layer deposition or RF magnetron sputtering) followed by a thick bulk-like layer were grown directly on glass in order to examine the effects of the seed layer processing on the subsequent crystallization and electrical properties of these heterostructures. Observations from Raman spectroscopy suggest that higher oxygen content in the seed layer suppresses the formation of detrimental titania polymorph phases, found in films produced by annealing directly after synthesis without any exposure to oxygen. Furthermore, our results indicate that the generation of excellent Nb:TiO2 conductors on glass (without breaking vacuum) only occurs within a narrow processing range and that the sequential deposition of oxygen-poor layers on oxygen-rich layers is a critical step towards achieving films with low resistivity.

  17. The role of nanoscale seed layers on the enhanced performance of niobium doped TiO2 thin films on glass

    SciTech Connect

    Nikodemski, Stefan; Dameron, Arrelaine A.; Perkins, John D.; O’Hayre, Ryan P.; Ginley, David S.; Berry, Joseph J.

    2016-09-09

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) coatings with decreased cost and greater process or performance versatility are needed for a variety of optoelectronic applications. Among potential new TCO candidates, doped titanium dioxide is receiving particular interest. In this study, niobium-doped titania bilayer structures consisting of a nanoscale seed layer (deposited by atomic layer deposition or RF magnetron sputtering) followed by a thick bulk-like layer were grown directly on glass in order to examine the effects of the seed layer processing on the subsequent crystallization and electrical properties of these heterostructures. Observations from Raman spectroscopy suggest that higher oxygen content in the seed layer suppresses the formation of detrimental titania polymorph phases, found in films produced by annealing directly after synthesis without any exposure to oxygen. Here, our results indicate that the generation of excellent Nb:TiO2 conductors on glass (without breaking vacuum) only occurs within a narrow processing range and that the sequential deposition of oxygen-poor layers on oxygen-rich layers is a critical step towards achieving films with low resistivity.

  18. The role of nanoscale seed layers on the enhanced performance of niobium doped TiO2 thin films on glass

    DOE PAGES

    Nikodemski, Stefan; Dameron, Arrelaine A.; Perkins, John D.; ...

    2016-09-09

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) coatings with decreased cost and greater process or performance versatility are needed for a variety of optoelectronic applications. Among potential new TCO candidates, doped titanium dioxide is receiving particular interest. In this study, niobium-doped titania bilayer structures consisting of a nanoscale seed layer (deposited by atomic layer deposition or RF magnetron sputtering) followed by a thick bulk-like layer were grown directly on glass in order to examine the effects of the seed layer processing on the subsequent crystallization and electrical properties of these heterostructures. Observations from Raman spectroscopy suggest that higher oxygen content in the seedmore » layer suppresses the formation of detrimental titania polymorph phases, found in films produced by annealing directly after synthesis without any exposure to oxygen. Here, our results indicate that the generation of excellent Nb:TiO2 conductors on glass (without breaking vacuum) only occurs within a narrow processing range and that the sequential deposition of oxygen-poor layers on oxygen-rich layers is a critical step towards achieving films with low resistivity.« less

  19. Simulation of oxide sputtering and SIMS depth profiling of delta-doped layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamura, Y.; Ishida, M.

    2003-01-01

    Using the dynamic Monte Carlo code, ACAT-DIFFUSE, the oxide sputtering and the SIMS depth profiling of a multilayered thin film sample was investigated. The ACAT-DIFFUSE code is based on the binary collision approximation, taking into account the generation of interstitial atoms and vacancies, annihilation of vacancies, diffusion and the relaxation of target materials according to the packing condition which include not only beam and target particles but also defects (interstitial atoms and vacancies). The observed shift of the delta layer peak to the surface in SIMS depth profiles can be reproduced by the ACAT-DIFFUSE simulation. It is found that this peak shift is mainly due to the relaxation or expansion caused by defects produced behind the delta layer, not due to preferential sputtering.

  20. Comment on "Superconductivity in electron-doped layered TiNCl with variable interlayer coupling"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harshman, Dale R.; Fiory, Anthony T.

    2014-11-01

    In their article, Zhang et al. [Phys. Rev. B 86, 024516 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.024516] present a remarkable result for Ax(S) yTiNCl compounds (α -phase TiNCl partially intercalated with alkali A and optionally co-intercalated molecular species S ), finding the superconducting transition temperature Tc scales with d-1, where the spacing d between TiNCl-layered structures depends on intercalant thickness. Recognizing that this behavior indicates interlayer coupling, Zhang et al. cite, among other papers, the interlayer Coulombic pairing mechanism picture [Harshman et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23, 295701 (2011), 10.1088/0953-8984/23/29/295701]. This Comment shows that superconductivity occurs by interactions between the chlorine layers of the TiNCl structure and the layers containing Ax, wherein the transverse Ax-Cl separation distance ζ is smaller than d . In the absence of pair-breaking interactions, the optimal transition temperature is modeled by Tc 0∝(σ/A ) 1 /2ζ-1 , where σ /A is the fractional charge per area per formula unit. Particularly noteworthy are the rather marginally metallic trends in resistivities of Ax(S) yTiNCl , indicating high scattering rates, which are expected to partially originate from remote Coulomb scattering (RCS) from the Ax ions. By modeling a small fraction of the RCS as inducing pair breaking, taken to cut off exponentially with ζ , observations of Tc7 Å . Since a spatially separated alkali-ion layer is not formed in L i0.13TiNCl , the observed Tc of 5.9 K is attributed to an intergrowth phase related to TiN (Tc=5.6 K ).

  1. Enhancing of catalytic properties of vanadia via surface doping with phosphorus using atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Strempel, Verena E.; Naumann d'Alnoncourt, Raoul; Löffler, Daniel; Kröhnert, Jutta; Skorupska, Katarzyna; Johnson, Benjamin; Driess, Matthias; Rosowski, Frank

    2016-01-15

    Atomic layer deposition is mainly used to deposit thin films on flat substrates. Here, the authors deposit a submonolayer of phosphorus on V{sub 2}O{sub 5} in the form of catalyst powder. The goal is to prepare a model catalyst related to the vanadyl pyrophosphate catalyst (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} industrially used for the oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride. The oxidation state of vanadium in vanadyl pyrophosphate is 4+. In literature, it was shown that the surface of vanadyl pyrophosphate contains V{sup 5+} and is enriched in phosphorus under reaction conditions. On account of this, V{sub 2}O{sub 5} with the oxidation state of 5+ for vanadium partially covered with phosphorus can be regarded as a suitable model catalyst. The catalytic performance of the model catalyst prepared via atomic layer deposition was measured and compared to the performance of catalysts prepared via incipient wetness impregnation and the original V{sub 2}O{sub 5} substrate. It could be clearly shown that the dedicated deposition of phosphorus by atomic layer deposition enhances the catalytic performance of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} by suppression of total oxidation reactions, thereby increasing the selectivity to maleic anhydride.

  2. The properties of vacuum-evaporated CdS and CdSe double layered films doping with copper and chlorine

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, P.F.; Li, H.F.; Zhu, Z.C.; Tang, J.F.

    1993-12-31

    The effect of doping with copper and chlorine on various properties of vacuum-evaporated CdS and CdSe double layers has been studied. The properties specifically studied were: (1) the dark conductivity and photoconductivity as functions of the doping concentration and the ratio of copper to chlorine, (2) the response time of various photoconductive films and (3) the optical absorption and spectral response. It was found that the dark conductivity decreases and the photoconductivity increases significantly if the ratio of Cu to Cl is suitable. The response time was about 5--10 ms for doping films and more than 100 ms for undoping ones. The optical absorption increases and the spectral response moves to a longer wavelength as the concentration of CdSe increases. The response wavelength can be changed by adjusting the thickness ratio of CdS to CdSe.

  3. Layered structure of anodic SiO{sub 2} films doped with phosphorus or boron

    SciTech Connect

    Mileshko, L. P.

    2009-12-15

    It is shown that anodic silicon oxide films deposited by reanodization (repeated anodic oxidation) of p- and n-type silicon in phosphate (1.5 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}), borate (1.5 M H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), and nitrate (0.04 M NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) electrolytes based on tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol have a three- or four-layer structure both before and after high-temperature annealing. It is assumed that this circumstance accounts for the nonuniform distribution of phosphorus and boron across the thickness of anodic SiO{sub 2}.

  4. Homogeneous double-layer amorphous Si-doped indium oxide thin-film transistors for control of turn-on voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizu, Takio; Aikawa, Shinya; Nabatame, Toshihide; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Ito, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Makoto; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito

    2016-07-01

    We fabricated homogeneous double-layer amorphous Si-doped indium oxide (ISO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an insulating ISO cap layer on top of a semiconducting ISO bottom channel layer. The homogeneously stacked ISO TFT exhibited high mobility (19.6 cm2/V s) and normally-off characteristics after annealing in air. It exhibited normally-off characteristics because the ISO insulator suppressed oxygen desorption, which suppressed the formation of oxygen vacancies (VO) in the semiconducting ISO. Furthermore, we investigated the recovery of the double-layer ISO TFT, after a large negative shift in turn-on voltage caused by hydrogen annealing, by treating it with annealing in ozone. The recovery in turn-on voltage indicates that the dense VO in the semiconducting ISO can be partially filled through the insulator ISO. Controlling molecule penetration in the homogeneous double layer is useful for adjusting the properties of TFTs in advanced oxide electronics.

  5. Improvement of device efficiency for blue organic light emitting diodes by controlling the Cs2CO3-doped electron transport layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Richard; Shi, Jianmin; Forsythe, Eric; Blomquist, Steven; Srour, Merric; Morton, David

    2014-01-01

    The electronic transport properties of 1, 3, 5-tri(1-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl (TPBI) electron transporting layers (ETLs) have been investigated as a function of cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) doping for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The current density-voltage and light emission characteristics were measured as a function of the Cs2CO3-doped ETL thickness. Cs2CO3-doped TPBI decreased OLED operating voltage by 26% and increased device luminance by 17% in a wide concentration range (3.5% to 10.5%) compared to undoped devices. The effects of 7% Cs2CO3-doped ETL thickness indicated that the operating voltage continuously decreased to 37% when the ETL thickness increased to 600 Å and luminance output continued to increase to 21% at ETL thickness 525 Å. The blue OLED can be optimized by adjusting the thicknesses of Cs2CO3-doped TPBI ETL to balance the electron and hole injection.

  6. Steep subthreshold swing of pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor with nitrogen-doped LaB6 interfacial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Yasutaka; Ohmi, Shun-ichiro

    2017-04-01

    A pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor (OFET) is necessary to work at a low operation voltage and a steep subthreshold swing. The subthreshold swing of pentacene-based OFET was markedly improved by introducing a nitrogen-doped LaB6 interfacial layer (N-doped LaB6 IL) although charge-injection-type hysteresis was observed in I D–V G characteristics. In this study, the thickness dependence of N-doped LaB6 IL for p-type pentacene-based OFET was investigated. A 1.2–2.7-nm-thick N-doped LaB6 IL was deposited on an SiO2 gate insulator by RF sputtering at an RF power of 20–30 W. It was found that a 1.2-nm-thick N-doped LaB6 IL realized a steep subthreshold swing of 75 mV/dec with a mobility of 0.26 cm2/(V·s) for p-type pentacene-based OFET.

  7. Electron-Phonon Interactions in Field-Effect Doped Layers of Crystalline C_60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Nichols A.; Kim, Jeongnim; Martin, Richard M.

    2002-03-01

    Recent developments [1] have shown that MOS-FET devices can induce 2-D metallic layers in C_60 with a high carrier density. For 2-4 holes per C_60, superconductivity has been observed with transition temperatures Tc as high as 52 K in pure C_60 [1a] and 117 K in intercalated C_60 [1b], the highest Tc reported for any non-copper-oxide superconductor. Density functional calculations [2] have shown that the carriers are confined to 2-D bands, with states that are highly distorted due to the field and 2-D Fermi surfaces that are very sensitive to the orientational order. In this work we study the electron-phonon interactions for the metallic interface states, motivated by the evidence that superconductivity in the bulk is electron-phonon mediated. Calculations are performed with the SIESTA local orbital DFT code [3] for a range of electron and hole densities in various ordered C_60 layers. *Supported by NSF DMR 99-76550 and DOE DEFG-96-ER45439. [1] [a]J. H. Schön, Ch. Kloc and B. Batlogg, Nature 408, 549 (2000); [b] Science 293, 2432 (2001). [2] J. L. Mozos, P. Ordejón and R. Martin, to be published. [3] P. Ordejón E. Artacho, and J. M. Soler, Phys. Rev. B 53, R10441 (1996).

  8. DNA translocation through a nanopore in a single-layered doped semiconductor membrane.

    PubMed

    Jou, Ining A; Melnikov, Dmitriy V; McKinney, Christopher R; Gracheva, Maria E

    2012-12-01

    Recently, we developed a computational model that allowed us to study the influence a semiconductor membrane has on a DNA molecule translocating through a nanopore in this membrane. Our model incorporated both the self-consistent Poisson-Nernst-Planck simulations for the electric potential of a solid state membrane immersed in an electrolyte solution together with the Brownian dynamics of the biomolecule. In this paper, we study how the applied electrolyte bias, the semiconductor membrane bias, and the semiconductor material type (n-Si or p-Si) affect the translocation dynamics of a single-stranded DNA moving through a nanopore in a single-layered semiconductor membrane. We show that the type of semiconductor material used for the membrane has a prominent effect on the biomolecule's translocation time, with DNA exhibiting much longer translocation times through the p-type membrane than through the n type at the same electrolyte and membrane potentials, while the extension of the biomolecule remains practically unchanged. In addition, we find the optimal combination for the membrane-electrolyte system's parameters to achieve the longest translocation time and largest DNA extension. With our single-layered electrically tunable membranes, the DNA translocation time can be manipulated to have an order of magnitude increase.

  9. Doping Profiles for Indium Antimonide Magnetoresistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partin, D. L.; Heremans, J.; Thrush, C. M.

    1997-03-01

    Indium antimonide is of interest for magnetoresistors in position sensors. These sensors are fabricated as thin film elements in order to increase the device impedance. The InSb is doped n-type to stabilize the electron density against temperature changes. This involves tradeoffs, since ionized donors scatter electrons, reducing their mobility and hence reducing the device sensitivity to a magnetic field. Optimizing the sensitivity involved three steps. The InSb is undoped for the first 10 to 20 percent of the film thickness, forming a buffer from the lattice mismatched substrate. The doping in the middle layer of the film has a doping gradient. Finally, a thin contact layer is more heavily doped to reduce contact resistance.

  10. AC Electrical Conduction of Cr-Doped SrTiO3 Thin Films with an Oxygen-Deficient Interface Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Bach Thang; Eom, Ki Tae; Lee, Jaichan

    2017-01-01

    The ac electrical conduction of Cr-doped SrTiO3 thin films with an oxygen-deficient interface layer was investigated as a function of temperature and frequency. The Cr-doped SrTiO3 (Cr-STO) thin films with an ultra-thin (˜2 nm) oxygen-deficient layer inserted between the top electrode and the Cr-STO layer exhibited two ac conduction mechanisms, i.e., variable-range hopping and small-polaron hopping conduction, accompanied by a relaxation process. Since high oxygen deficiency induces large lattice distortion in the depletion layer, the first relaxation process occurs at low frequencies in the thin oxygen depletion layer Cr-SrTiO3-δ , and the corresponding conduction behavior follows the small-polaron tunneling model. In the high frequency range, an additional relaxation process is involved and is associated with the variable-range hopping between the localized states in the band gap of the thick Cr-SrTiO3 layer.

  11. Numerical Analysis of In2S3 Layer Thickness, Band Gap and Doping Density for Effective Performance of a CIGS Solar Cell Using SCAPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshsirat, Nima; Md Yunus, Nurul Amziah

    2016-11-01

    The effect of indium sulfide buffer layer's geometrical and electro-optical properties on the Copper-Indium-Gallium-diSelenide solar cell performance using numerical simulation is investigated. The numerical simulation software used is a solar cell capacitance simulator in (SCAPS). The innermost impacts of buffer layer thickness, band gap, and doping density on the cells output parameters such as open circuit voltage, short circuit current density, fill factor, and the efficiency were extensively simulated. The results show that the cell efficiency, which was innovatively illustrated as a two-dimensional contour plot function, depends on the buffer layer electron affinity and doping density by keeping all the other parameters at a steady state. The analysis, which was made from this numerical simulation, has revealed that the optimum electron affinity is to be 4.25 ± 0.2 eV and donor density of the buffer layer is over 1× 10 ^{17} cm^{-3}. It is also shown that the cell with an optimum thin buffer layer has higher performance and efficiency due to the lower optical absorption of the buffer layer.

  12. Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Dong; She, Xiaoyang; Du, Bobo; Yang, Dexing; Zhang, Wending; Song, Kun; Cui, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Biqiang; Peng, Tao; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-01-01

    Few-layer transition-metal dichalcogenide WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets are fabricated by a liquid exfoliation technique using sodium deoxycholate bile salt as surfactant, and their nonlinear optical properties are investigated based on a balanced twin-detector measurement scheme. It is demonstrated that both types of nanosheets exhibit nonlinear saturable absorption properties at the wavelength of 1.55 μm. By depositing the nanosheets on side polished fiber (SPF) or mixing the nanosheets with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution, SPF-WSe2 saturable absorber (SA), SPF-MoSe2 SA, PVA-WSe2 SA, and PVA-MoSe2 SA are successfully fabricated and further tested in erbium-doped fiber lasers. The SPF-based SA is capable of operating at the high pump regime without damage, and a train of 3252.65 MHz harmonically mode-locked pulses are obtained based on the SPF-WSe2 SA. Soliton mode locking operations are also achieved in the fiber laser separately with other three types of SAs, confirming that the WSe2 and MoSe2 nanosheets could act as cost-effective high-power SAs for ultrafast optics. PMID:27010509

  13. Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Mao, Dong; She, Xiaoyang; Du, Bobo; Yang, Dexing; Zhang, Wending; Song, Kun; Cui, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Biqiang; Peng, Tao; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-03-24

    Few-layer transition-metal dichalcogenide WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets are fabricated by a liquid exfoliation technique using sodium deoxycholate bile salt as surfactant, and their nonlinear optical properties are investigated based on a balanced twin-detector measurement scheme. It is demonstrated that both types of nanosheets exhibit nonlinear saturable absorption properties at the wavelength of 1.55 μm. By depositing the nanosheets on side polished fiber (SPF) or mixing the nanosheets with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution, SPF-WSe2 saturable absorber (SA), SPF-MoSe2 SA, PVA-WSe2 SA, and PVA-MoSe2 SA are successfully fabricated and further tested in erbium-doped fiber lasers. The SPF-based SA is capable of operating at the high pump regime without damage, and a train of 3252.65 MHz harmonically mode-locked pulses are obtained based on the SPF-WSe2 SA. Soliton mode locking operations are also achieved in the fiber laser separately with other three types of SAs, confirming that the WSe2 and MoSe2 nanosheets could act as cost-effective high-power SAs for ultrafast optics.

  14. Surface plasmon resonance based fiber optic trichloroacetic acid sensor utilizing layer of silver nanoparticles and chitosan doped hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Semwal, Vivek; Shrivastav, Anand M; Gupta, Banshi D

    2017-02-10

    In this study, we report a silver nanoparticles/chitosan doped hydrogel-based fiber optic sensor for the detection of trichloroacetic acid (TCA). The sensor is based on the combined phenomenon of localized and propagating surface plasmons. The sensing relies on the interaction of TCA with silver nanoparticles (AgNP) which results in the electron transfer between the negative group of TCA and positive amino group of AgNP stabilizer (chitosan). This alters the mechanical properties/refractive index of the AgNP embedded hydrogel matrix as well as the refractive index of the AgNP. The change in refractive index of both in turn changes the effective refractive index of the nanocomposite hydrogel layer which can be determined using the Maxwell-Garnet Theory. Four stage optimization of the probe fabrication parameters is performed to obtain the best performance of the sensing probe. The sensor operates in the TCA concentration range 0-120 μm which is harmful for the humans and environment. The shift in peak extinction wavelength observed for the same TCA concentration range is 42 nm. The sensor has the linearity range for the TCA concentration range of 40-100 μm. The sensor possesses high sensitivity, selectivity and numerous other advantages such as ease of handling, quick response, modest cost and capability of online monitoring and remote sensing.

  15. Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Dong; She, Xiaoyang; Du, Bobo; Yang, Dexing; Zhang, Wending; Song, Kun; Cui, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Biqiang; Peng, Tao; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-03-01

    Few-layer transition-metal dichalcogenide WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets are fabricated by a liquid exfoliation technique using sodium deoxycholate bile salt as surfactant, and their nonlinear optical properties are investigated based on a balanced twin-detector measurement scheme. It is demonstrated that both types of nanosheets exhibit nonlinear saturable absorption properties at the wavelength of 1.55 μm. By depositing the nanosheets on side polished fiber (SPF) or mixing the nanosheets with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution, SPF-WSe2 saturable absorber (SA), SPF-MoSe2 SA, PVA-WSe2 SA, and PVA-MoSe2 SA are successfully fabricated and further tested in erbium-doped fiber lasers. The SPF-based SA is capable of operating at the high pump regime without damage, and a train of 3252.65 MHz harmonically mode-locked pulses are obtained based on the SPF-WSe2 SA. Soliton mode locking operations are also achieved in the fiber laser separately with other three types of SAs, confirming that the WSe2 and MoSe2 nanosheets could act as cost-effective high-power SAs for ultrafast optics.

  16. Surface plasmon resonance based fiber optic trichloroacetic acid sensor utilizing layer of silver nanoparticles and chitosan doped hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semwal, Vivek; Shrivastav, Anand M.; Gupta, Banshi D.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we report a silver nanoparticles/chitosan doped hydrogel-based fiber optic sensor for the detection of trichloroacetic acid (TCA). The sensor is based on the combined phenomenon of localized and propagating surface plasmons. The sensing relies on the interaction of TCA with silver nanoparticles (AgNP) which results in the electron transfer between the negative group of TCA and positive amino group of AgNP stabilizer (chitosan). This alters the mechanical properties/refractive index of the AgNP embedded hydrogel matrix as well as the refractive index of the AgNP. The change in refractive index of both in turn changes the effective refractive index of the nanocomposite hydrogel layer which can be determined using the Maxwell-Garnet Theory. Four stage optimization of the probe fabrication parameters is performed to obtain the best performance of the sensing probe. The sensor operates in the TCA concentration range 0-120 μm which is harmful for the humans and environment. The shift in peak extinction wavelength observed for the same TCA concentration range is 42 nm. The sensor has the linearity range for the TCA concentration range of 40-100 μm. The sensor possesses high sensitivity, selectivity and numerous other advantages such as ease of handling, quick response, modest cost and capability of online monitoring and remote sensing.

  17. Distinct oxygen hole doping in different layers of Sr₂CuO4-δ/La₂CuO₄ superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Smadici, S.; Lee, J. C. T.; Rusydi, A.; Logvenov, G.; Bozovic, I.; Abbamonte, P.

    2012-03-28

    X-ray absorption in Sr₂CuO4-δ/La₂CuO₄ (SCO/LCO) superlattices shows a variable occupation with doping of a hole state different from holes doped for x≲xoptimal in bulk La2-xSrxCuO₄ and suggests that this hole state is on apical oxygen atoms and polarized in the a-b plane. Considering the surface reflectivity gives a good qualitative description of the line shapes of resonant soft x-ray scattering. The interference between superlattice and surface reflections was used to distinguish between scatterers in the SCO and the LCO layers, with the two hole states maximized in different layers of the superlattice.

  18. A FeCl2-graphite sandwich composite with Cl doping in graphite layers: a new anode material for high-performance Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lili; Guo, Cong; Zhu, Yongchun; Zhou, Jianbin; Fan, Long; Qian, Yitai

    2014-11-01

    A composite with FeCl2 nanocrystals sandwiched between Cl-doped graphite layers has been created via a space-confined nanoreactor strategy. This composite can be used as a new type of anode material for Li-ion batteries, which exhibit high reversible capacity and superior rate capability with excellent cycle life.A composite with FeCl2 nanocrystals sandwiched between Cl-doped graphite layers has been created via a space-confined nanoreactor strategy. This composite can be used as a new type of anode material for Li-ion batteries, which exhibit high reversible capacity and superior rate capability with excellent cycle life. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section and Fig. S1-S8. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05070c

  19. Bottom-gate poly-Si thin-film transistors by nickel silicide seed-induced lateral crystallization with self-aligned lightly doped layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sol Kyu; Seok, Ki Hwan; Chae, Hee Jae; Lee, Yong Hee; Han, Ji Su; Jo, Hyeon Ah; Joo, Seung Ki

    2017-03-01

    We report a novel method to reduce source and drain (S/D) resistances, and to form a lightly doped layer (LDL) of bottom-gate polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs). For application in driving TFTs, which operate under high drain voltage condition, poly-Si TFTs are needed in order to attain reliability against hot-carriers as well as high field-effect mobility (μFE). With an additional doping on the p+ Si layer, sheet resistance on S/D was reduced by 37.5% and an LDL was introduced between the channel and drain. These results contributed to not only a lower leakage current and gate-induced drain leakage, but also high immunity of kink-effect and hot-carrier stress. Furthermore, the measured electrical characteristics exhibited a steep subthreshold slope of 190 mV/dec and high μFE of 263 cm2/Vs.

  20. Highly emissive and low refractive index layers from doped silica nanospheres for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haranath, D.; Gandhi, Namita; Sahai, Sonal; Husain, M.; Shanker, Virendra

    2010-08-01

    Confinement of europium (Eu 3+) ions in silica (SiO 2) nanospheres yields efficient red-emitting nanophosphors when excited via charge transfer states (CTS) absorption in UV (393 nm) radiation. This is explained on the basis of modulation of f-f transition due to quantum confinement of rare-earth ion in a nanosize host. It is also evidenced that the short range crystallanity and confinement effects provided by the nanospheres increases the Eu 3+ emission intensity by almost ten times at the expense of CTS. Coating of organically modified SiO 2 nanospheres resulted in low refractive index layers that are highly useful as cover glazing for solar collectors.

  1. Asymmetric Stark shift in an impurity doped dome-shaped quantum dot with wetting layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculescu, E. C.; Cristea, M.; Bejan, D.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of vertical electric field and donor impurity on the electronic properties of the dome-shaped InAs/GaAs quantum dot coupled to its wetting layer were investigated. The dependence of the electron density, energy and Stark shift of the S-, P- and WL-states on the applied electric field was studied with and without impurity. The S- and P-states have no significant qualitative changes in the shape of the wave functions with increasing the electric field, except that they become slightly shifted due to the competition between the field action and the quantum confinement. The wave function of the WL-state is strongly modified in polarized structures. Our results reveal that the Stark shift of electron energies can be fitted with a quadratic dependence on the electric field, the linear and quadratic terms corresponding to the dipole moment and static electron polarizability. Their estimated values reasonable agree with those calculated.

  2. Improved Thermoelectric Characteristics of Si-Doped Misfit-Layered Cobaltite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chia-Jyi; Huang, Yu-Chih; Nong, N. V.; Liu, Yen-Liang; Petŕićek, V.

    2011-05-01

    The cobaltite Ca3Co4O9+ δ has shown large thermopower and is considered to be a good candidate for use as a thermoelectric material. The composition of Ca3Co4O9+ δ is better expressed as [Ca2CoO3][CoO2] b1/ b2 with the misfit-layered structure featuring different periodicities along the b axis, with b 1 referring to the b-axis length of the NaCl-type [Ca2CoO3] sublattice and b 2 referring to the b-axis length of the [CoO2] sublattice. The crystal structure of Ca3Co4O9+ δ can be viewed as being of two subsystems, i.e., the distorted NaCl-type [Ca2CoO3] sublattice and the CdI2-type [CoO2] sublattice, alternately stacked along the c-axis. In this paper, we report measurements of the electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient for a series of misfit-layered oxides Ca3Co4- x Si x O9+ δ prepared by solid-state reaction. Structural parameters are refined with the superspace group X2/m(0β0)s0 using powder x-ray diffraction data. With partial substitution of Si4+ for Co3+, the resistivity decreases, while the thermopower increases simultaneously. These results indicate that partial substitution of Si4+ improves the thermoelectric characteristics of Ca3Co4O9+ δ .

  3. Nickel Nanoparticles Encapsulated in Few-Layer Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks as Efficient Bifunctional Electrocatalysts for Overall Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Xu, You; Tu, Wenguang; Zhang, Bowei; Yin, Shengming; Huang, Yizhong; Kraft, Markus; Xu, Rong

    2017-03-01

    Nickel nanoparticles encapsulated in few-layer nitrogen-doped graphene (Ni@NC) are synthesized by using a Ni-based metal-organic framework as the precursor for high-temperature annealing treatment. The resulting Ni@NC materials exhibit highly efficient and ultrastable electrocatalytic activity toward the hydrogen evolution reaction and the oxygen evolution reaction as well as overall water splitting in alkaline environment.

  4. One-step synthesis of layered yttrium hydroxides in immiscible liquid–liquid systems: Intercalation of sterically-bulky hydrophobic organic anions and doping of europium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Mebae; Fujihara, Shinobu

    2014-02-15

    Inorganic–organic layered rare-earth compounds were synthesized on the basis of a biphasic liquid–liquid system in one pot. Layered yttrium hydroxides (LYHs) were chosen as a host material for the intercalation of hydrophobic organic guest anions such as benzoate, sebacate, or laurate. In a typical synthesis, an organic phase dissolving carboxylic acid was placed in contact with an equal amount of an aqueous phase dissolving yttrium nitrate n-hydrate and urea. At elevated temperatures up to 80 °C, urea was hydrolyzed to release hydroxyl anions which were used to form yttrium hydroxide layers. LYHs were then precipitated with the intercalation of carboxylate anions delivered from the organic phase under the distribution law. The structure and the morphology of the LYHs could be modulated by the intercalated anions. Doped with Eu{sup 3+} ions, the LYHs exhibited red photoluminescence which was enhanced by the intercalated anions due to the antenna effect. - Graphical abstract: The Eu{sup 3+}-doped layered yttrium hydroxide exhibits intense red photoluminescence after intercalation of benzoate ions. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Immiscible biphasic liquid systems were introduced to synthesize layered yttrium hydroxides. • The temperature of the biphasic systems does not exceed 80 °C in one step of the synthesis. • Hydrophobic organic anions were intercalated between the hydroxide layers in one pot. • Structure and morphology of the hydroxides were modulated by changing the kind of organic anions. • Eu{sup 3+}-doping led to red luminescence from the hydroxides in association with the intercalated organic anions.

  5. Surface modification of Na3V2(PO4)3 by nitrogen and sulfur dual-doped carbon layer with advanced sodium storage property.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xinghui; Ou, Xing; Zheng, Fenghua; Pan, Qichang; Xiong, Xunhui; Hu, Renzong; Yang, Chenghao; Liu, Meilin

    2017-03-27

    Nitrogen and sulfur dual-doped carbon layer wrapped Na3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles (NVP@NSC) have been successfully fabricated by a facile solid-state method. In this hierarchical structure, the Na3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles are well dispersed and closely coated by nitrogen and sulfur dual-doped carbon layer, constructing an effective and interconnected conducting network to reduce the internal resistance. Furthermore, the uniform coating layers alleviate the agglomeration of Na3V2(PO4)3, as well as mitigate the side reaction between electrode and electrolyte. Due to the excellent electron transfer mutually enhancing sodium diffusion for this extraordinary structure, the NVP@NSC composite delivers an impressive discharge capacity of 113.0 mAh g-1 at 1C, and shows a capacity retention of 82.1% after 5000 cycles at an ultrahigh rate of 50C, suggesting the remarkable rate capability and long cyclicity. Surprisingly, a reversible capacity of 91.1 mAh g-1 is maintained after 1000 cycles at 5C under the elevated temperature of 55°C. The approach of nitrogen and sulfur dual-doped carbon coated Na3V2(PO4)3 provides an effective and promising strategy to enhance the ultrahigh rate and ultralong life property of cathode, which can be used for large-scale commercial production in sodium ion batteries.

  6. Polarization induced doped transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep; Nomoto, Kazuki; Song, Bo; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang

    2016-06-07

    A nitride-based field effect transistor (FET) comprises a compositionally graded and polarization induced doped p-layer underlying at least one gate contact and a compositionally graded and doped n-channel underlying a source contact. The n-channel is converted from the p-layer to the n-channel by ion implantation, a buffer underlies the doped p-layer and the n-channel, and a drain underlies the buffer.

  7. Insulating-layer formation of metallic LaNiO3 on Nb-doped SrTiO3 substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Hyang Keun; Chang, Young Jun; Moreschini, Luca; Kim, Hyeong-Do; Sohn, Chang Hee; Sinn, Soobin; Oh, Ji Seop; Kuo, Cheng-Tai; Bostwick, Aaron; Rotenberg, Eli; Noh, Tae Won

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the electronic structures of strongly correlated metallic LaNiO3 (LNO) and semiconducting Nb-doped SrTiO3 (Nb:STO) heterostructures by varying the LNO film thickness using in situ photoemission spectroscopy. We found that, contrary to other interfaces with SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, insulating LNO layers are formed between metallic LNO layers and Nb:STO. Such behavior seems to be related with an electron transfer from Nb:STO to LNO due to Schottky-barrier formation at the interface.

  8. Insulating-layer formation of metallic LaNiO{sub 3} on Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3} substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Hyang Keun; Kim, Hyeong-Do Sohn, Chang Hee; Sinn, Soobin; Oh, Ji Seop; Kuo, Cheng-Tai; Noh, Tae Won; Chang, Young Jun; Moreschini, Luca; Bostwick, Aaron; Rotenberg, Eli

    2015-03-23

    We investigated the electronic structures of strongly correlated metallic LaNiO{sub 3} (LNO) and semiconducting Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3} (Nb:STO) heterostructures by varying the LNO film thickness using in situ photoemission spectroscopy. We found that, contrary to other interfaces with SrTiO{sub 3} and LaAlO{sub 3}, insulating LNO layers are formed between metallic LNO layers and Nb:STO. Such behavior seems to be related with an electron transfer from Nb:STO to LNO due to Schottky-barrier formation at the interface.

  9. Characterization of MFIS Structure with Dy-Doped ZrO2 Buffer Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, J. H.; Ah, G. Z.; Han, D. H.; Park, B. E.

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of DZO thin film as an insulating buffer layer for ferroelectric gate field effect transistors (Fe-FETs) with a metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor (MFIS) structure, we fabricated DZO/Si and BLT/DZO/Si structures by a sol-gel method. Equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) values of the DZO thin films were about 12.4nm, 11.9nm, 11.2nm and 11.1 nm for 650 °C, 700 °C 750 °C, and 800 °C,, respectively. Hysteresis was observed in all capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves of the DZO/Si structures, but hysteresis of the 750-°C-annealed film was negligible. The leakage current densities of the DZO thin films on Si showed the good characteristics regardless of the annealing temperature variations. The C-V characteristics of Au/300-nm-thick BLT/750-°C-annealed DZO/Si structure showed clockwise hysteresis loops, and the memory window width increased as the bias voltage increased. The maximum value of the memory window width was about 1.9 V at ±7 V.

  10. Antiferromagnetic long-range spin ordering in Fe- and NiF e2 -doped BaTi O3 multiferroic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, A.; Aghavnian, T.; Badjeck, V.; Mocuta, C.; Stanescu, D.; Magnan, H.; Rountree, C. L.; Belkhou, R.; Ohresser, P.; Jedrecy, N.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the Fe doping and on the comparative Ni-Fe codoping with composition close to NiF e2 of fully oxidized BaTi O3 layers (˜20 nm) elaborated by atomic oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy; specifically any role of oxygen vacancies can be excluded in our films. Additionally to the classical in situ laboratory tools, the films were thoroughly characterized by synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. For purely Fe-doped layers, the native tetragonal perovskite structure evolves rapidly toward cubiclike up to 5% doping level above which the crystalline order disappears. On the contrary, low codoping levels (˜5 %NiF e2 ) fairly improve the thin film crystalline structure and surface smoothness; high levels (˜27%) lead to more crystallographically disordered films, although the tetragonal structure is preserved. Synchrotron radiation magnetic dichroic measurements reveal that metal clustering does not occur, that the Fe valence evolves from Fe2 + for low Fe doping levels to Fe3 + for high doping levels, and that the introduction of Ni favors the occurrence of the Fe2 + valence in the films. For the lower codoping levels it seems that Fe2 + substitutes Ba2 +, whereas Ni2 + always substitutes Ti4 +. Ferromagnetic long-range ordering can be excluded with great sensitivity in all samples as deduced from our x-ray magnetic absorption circular dichroic measurements. On the contrary, our linear dichroic x-ray absorption results support antiferromagnetic long-range ordering while piezoforce microscopy gives evidence of a robust ferroelectric long-range ordering showing that our films are excellent candidates for magnetic exchange coupled multiferroic applications.

  11. Final-state effect on x-ray photoelectron spectrum of nominally d1 and n -doped d0 transition-metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chungwei; Posadas, Agham; Hadamek, Tobias; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of nominally d1 and n -doped d0 transition-metal oxides including NbO2,SrVO3, and LaTiO3 (nominally d1), as well as n -doped SrTiO3 (nominally d0). In the case of single phase d1 oxides, we find that the XPS spectra (specifically photoelectrons from Nb 3 d , V 2 p , Ti 2 p core levels) all display at least two, and sometimes three distinct components, which can be consistently identified as d0,d1, and d2 oxidation states (with decreasing order in binding energy). Electron doping increases the d2 component but decreases the d0 component, whereas hole doping reverses this trend; a single d1 peak is never observed, and the d0 peak is always present even in phase-pure samples. In the case of n -doped SrTiO3, the d1 component appears as a weak shoulder with respect to the main d0 peak. We argue that these multiple peaks should be understood as being due to the final-state effect and are intrinsic to the materials. Their presence does not necessarily imply the existence of spatially localized ions of different oxidation states nor of separate phases. A simple model is provided to illustrate this interpretation, and several experiments are discussed accordingly. The key parameter to determine the relative importance between the initial-state and final-state effects is also pointed out.

  12. Final Report for Award DE-SC0005403. Improved Electrochemical Performance of Strained Lattice Electrolytes via Modulated Doping

    SciTech Connect

    Hertz, Joshua L.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    2015-09-06

    The enclosed document provides a final report to document the research performed at the University of Delaware under Grant DE-SC0005403: Improved Electrochemical Performance of Strained Lattice Electrolytes via Modulated Doping. The ultimate goal of this project was to learn how to systematically strain the inter-atomic distance in thin ceramic films and how to use this newfound control to improve the ease by which oxygen ions can conduct through the films. Increasing the ionic conductivity of ceramics holds the promise of drastic improvements in the performance of solid oxide fuel cells, chemical sensors, gas permeation membranes, and related devices. Before this work, the experimental evidence advocating for strain-based techniques was often controversial and poorly characterized. Enabling much of this work was a new method to quickly create a very wide range of ceramic nanostructures that was established during the first phase of the project. Following this initial phase, we created a variety of promising nanostructured epitaxial films and multilayers with systematic variations in lattice mismatch and dopant content. Over the course of the work, a positive effect of tensile atomic strain on the oxygen conductivity was conclusively found using a few different forms of samples and experimental techniques. The samples were built by sputtering, an industrially scalable technique, and thus the technological implementation of these results may be economically feasible. Still, two other results consistently achieved over multiple efforts in this work give pause. The first of these results was that very specific, pristine surfaces upon which to build the nanostructures were strictly required in order to achieve measurable results. The second of these results was that compressively strained films with concomitant reductions in oxygen conductivity are much easier to obtain relative to tensile-strained films with increased conductivity.

  13. Inverted organic solar cells based on Cd-doped TiO2 as an electron extraction layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjitha, A.; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Thambidurai, M.; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan; Madhan Kumar, A.; Gasem, Zuhair M.

    2014-10-01

    Nanocrystalline Cd-doped TiO2 thin films have been prepared by sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that TiO2 and Cd-doped TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films are of anatase phase. The average grain size of TiO2 and Cd-doped TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films was found to lie in the range of 15-18 nm. Solar cells have been fabricated with a device structure of ITO/Cd-doped TiO2/P3HT:PC71BM/MoO3/Al configuration. The power conversion efficiency of the inverted organic solar cell with Cd-doped TiO2 is 3.06% and is higher than that of TiO2 based organic solar cell (2.64%).

  14. Comparative investigation of InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells using different Te-doped InGaP layers in tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sang Hyun; Kim, Chang Zoo; Kim, Youngjo; Jun, Dong Hwan; Kang, Ho Kwan; Kim, Hogyoung

    2016-03-01

    Heavily tellurium (Te)-doped InGaP layers in tunnel junctions (TJs) grown by using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) were investigated to improve the device performance of InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells. Three different doping techniques were employed to grow the Te-doped InGaP layers in the TJ; Te doping, Te and Si co-doping and Te pre-doping. Compared to other samples, the external quantum efficiency (EQE) profiles in the InGaP top cell were found to be higher for the sample with Te pre-doping. Under a concentrated light condition, higher fill factor (FF) and conversion efficiency were also observed for the sample with Te pre-doping. These indicate that the crystalline qualities of the upper TJ, composed of a p-GaAs/n-InGaP TJ, and the InGaP top cell were improved by using the Te pre-doping method.

  15. Highly doped silicon nanowires by monolayer doping.

    PubMed

    Veerbeek, Janneke; Ye, Liang; Vijselaar, Wouter; Kudernac, Tibor; van der Wiel, Wilfred G; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2017-02-23

    Controlling the doping concentration of silicon nanostructures is challenging. Here, we investigated three different monolayer doping techniques to obtain silicon nanowires with a high doping dose. These routes were based on conventional monolayer doping, starting from covalently bound dopant-containing molecules, or on monolayer contact doping, in which a source substrate coated with a monolayer of a carborane silane was the dopant source. As a third route, both techniques were combined to retain the benefits of conformal monolayer formation and the use of an external capping layer. These routes were used for doping fragile porous nanowires fabricated by metal-assisted chemical etching. Differences in porosity were used to tune the total doping dose inside the nanowires, as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements. The higher the porosity, the higher was the surface available for dopant-containing molecules, which in turn led to a higher doping dose. Slightly porous nanowires could be doped via all three routes, which resulted in highly doped nanowires with (projected areal) doping doses of 10(14)-10(15) boron atoms per cm(2) compared to 10(12) atoms per cm(2) for a non-porous planar sample. Highly porous nanowires were not compatible with the conventional monolayer doping technique, but monolayer contact doping and the combined route resulted for these highly porous nanowires in tremendously high doping doses up to 10(17) boron atoms per cm(2).

  16. A Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of intracanal smear layer removal by two different final irrigation activation systems

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Deepti; Dua, Ankur; Uppin, Veerendra M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare smear layer removal at apical 1 mm level after final irrigation activation with an EndoVac system and Max-I probe. Materials and Methods: Fifty freshly extracted maxillary central incisors were randomly divided into two groups after completing cleaning and shaping with ProTaper rotary files. In one group, final irrigation was performed with an EndoVac system while in the other group final irrigation was performed with a 30 gauge Max-I probe. 3% sodium hypochlorite and 17% ethylenediaminetetracetic acid were used as final irrigants in all teeth. After instrumentation and irrigation, the teeth were sectioned longitudinally into buccal and palatal halves and viewed under a scanning electron microscope for evaluation of the smear layer. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: The EndoVac group showed significantly better smear layer removal compared with the Max-I probe at the apical 1 mm level. Conclusion: An apical negative pressure system (EndoVac) results in better debridement at apical 1 mm when compared with side-vented closed ended needle irrigation (Max-I probe). PMID:24808693

  17. Atomic Layer Deposition of p-Type Epitaxial Thin Films of Undoped and N-Doped Anatase TiO2.

    PubMed

    Vasu, K; Sreedhara, M B; Ghatak, J; Rao, C N R

    2016-03-01

    Employing atomic layer deposition, we have grown p-type epitaxial undoped and N-doped anatase TiO2(001) thin films on c-axis Al2O3 substrate. From X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy studies, crystallographic relationships between the film and the substrate are found to be (001)TiO2//(0001)Al2O3 and [1̅10]TiO2//[011̅0]Al2O3. N-doping in TiO2 thin films enhances the hole concentration and mobility. The optical band gap of anatase TiO2 (3.23 eV) decreases to 3.07 eV upon N-doping. The epitaxial films exhibit room-temperature ferromagnetism and photoresponse. A TiO2-based homojunction diode was fabricated with rectification from the p-n junction formed between N-doped p-TiO2 and n-TiO2.

  18. Eu{sup 3+} luminescence enhancement by intercalation of benzenepolycarboxylic guests into Eu{sup 3+}-doped layered gadolinium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Qingyang; Pan, Guohua; Ma, Teng; Huang, Gailing; Sun, Genban; Ma, Shulan; Yang, Xiaojing

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: Two benzenepolycarboxylic sensitizers, 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid (BTA) and 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid (BA), were intercalated into NO{sub 3}–LGdH:Eu, in which different structures of the compounds resulted in varied arrangement in the gallery. The two organic compounds especially BA markedly enhanced the red luminescence of Eu{sup 3+} due to efficient energy transfer between the organic guests and Eu{sup 3+} centers. - Highlights: • We report the intercalation of benzenepolycarboxylic organic sensitizers into LRH. • We study the intercalation structure and the arrangement of the interlayer guests. • The two organic compounds can markedly enhance the luminescence of Eu{sup 3+}. • There exists efficient energy transfer between organic guests and Eu{sup 3+} centers. • This material opens a route for fabricating new multifunctional luminescent materials. - Abstract: Two benzenepolycarboxylic organic sensitizers, 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid (BTA) and 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid (BA), were intercalated into the gallery of NO{sub 3}{sup −} type Eu{sup 3+}-doped layered gadolinium hydroxide (NO{sub 3}–LGdH:Eu). CHN analysis, FTIR, and SEM were employed to characterize the intercalation structures of the as-prepared organic/inorganic hybrids. The area per unit charge (S{sub charge}) was used to explain the intercalation structure and the arrangement of the interlayer guests. Different structures of the two organic compounds resulted in varied arrangement of guests. Photoluminescence studies indicated that both of the two organic compounds especially BA markedly enhanced the red luminescence of Eu{sup 3+} due to efficient energy transfer between the organic guests and Eu{sup 3+} centers.

  19. Cobalt Ferrite Bearing Nitrogen-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide Layers Spatially Separated with Microporous Carbon as Efficient Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Varchaswal; Singh, Santosh K; Kurungot, Sreekumar

    2016-08-17

    The present work discloses how high-quality dispersion of fine particles of cobalt ferrite (CF) could be attained on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (CF/N-rGO) and how this material in association with a microporous carbon phase could deliver significantly enhanced activity toward electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Our study indicates that the microporous carbon phase plays a critical role in spatially separating the layers of CF/N-rGO and in creating a favorable atmosphere to ensure the seamless distribution of the reactants to the active sites located on CF/N-rGO. In terms of the ORR current density, the heat-treated hybrid catalyst at 150 °C (CF/N-rGO-150) is found to be clearly outperforming (7.4 ± 0.5 mA/cm(2)) the state-of-the-art 20 wt % Pt-supported carbon catalyst (PtC) (5.4 ± 0.5 mA/cm(2)). The mass activity and stability of CF-N-rGO-150 are distinctly superior to PtC even after 5000 electrochemical cycles. As a realistic system level exploration of the catalyst, testing of a primary zinc-air battery could be demonstrated using CF/N-rGO-150 as the cathode catalyst. The battery is giving a galvanostatic discharge time of 15 h at a discharge current density of 20 mA/cm(2) and a specific capacity of ∼630 mAh g(-1) in 6 M KOH by using a Zn foil as the anode. Distinctly, the battery performance of this system is found to be superior to that of PtC in less concentrated KOH solution as the electrolyte.

  20. Niobium Doping Effects on TiO2 Mesoscopic Electron Transport Layer-Based Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hoe; Han, Gill Sang; Seong, Won Mo; Lee, Jin-Wook; Kim, Byeong Jo; Park, Nam-Gyu; Hong, Kug Sun; Lee, Sangwook; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2015-07-20

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are the most promising candidates as next-generation solar energy conversion systems. To design a highly efficient PSC, understanding electronic properties of mesoporous metal oxides is essential. Herein, we explore the effect of Nb doping of TiO2 on electronic structure and photovoltaic properties of PSCs. Light Nb doping (0.5 and 1.0 at %) increased the optical band gap slightly, but heavy doping (5.0 at %) distinctively decreased it. The relative Fermi level position of the conduction band is similar for the lightly Nb-doped TiO2 (NTO) and the undoped TiO2 whereas that of the heavy doped NTO decreased by as much as ∼0.3 eV. The lightly doped NTO-based PSCs exhibit 10 % higher efficiency than PSCs based on undoped TiO2 (from 12.2 % to 13.4 %) and 52 % higher than the PSCs utilizing heavy doped NTO (from 8.8 % to 13.4 %), which is attributed to fast electron injection/transport and preserved electron lifetime, verified by transient photocurrent decay and impedance studies.

  1. Bottom-Up Fabrication of Single-Layered Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots through Intermolecular Carbonization Arrayed in a 2D Plane.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Liu, Yousong; Li, Zhaoqian; Shen, Jinpeng; Yang, Yuntao; Cui, Xudong; Yang, Guangcheng

    2016-01-04

    A single-layered intermolecular carbonization method was applied to synthesize single-layered nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) by using 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) as the only precursor. In this method, the gas produced in the pyrolysis of TATB assists with speeding up of the reactions and expanding the layered distance, so that it facilitates the formation of single-layered N-GQDs (about 80 %). The symmetric intermolecular carbonizations of TATB arrayed in a plane and six nitrogen-containing groups ensure small, uniform sizes (2-5 nm) of the resulting products, and provide high nitrogen-doping concentrations (N/C atomic ratio ca. 10.6 %). In addition to release of the produced gas, TATB is almost completely converted into aggregated N-GQDs; thus, relatively higher production rates are possible with this approach. Investigations show that the as-produced N-GQDs have superior fluorescent characteristics; high water solubility, biocompatibility, and low toxicity; and are ready for potential applications, such as biomedical imaging and optoelectronic devices.

  2. Use of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} films grown by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition for shallow boron doping in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Kalkofen, Bodo Amusan, Akinwumi A.; Bukhari, Muhammad S. K.; Burte, Edmund P.; Garke, Bernd; Lisker, Marco; Gargouri, Hassan

    2015-05-15

    Plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PALD) was carried for growing thin boron oxide films onto silicon aiming at the formation of dopant sources for shallow boron doping of silicon by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). A remote capacitively coupled plasma source powered by GaN microwave oscillators was used for generating oxygen plasma in the PALD process with tris(dimethylamido)borane as boron containing precursor. ALD type growth was obtained; growth per cycle was highest with 0.13 nm at room temperature and decreased with higher temperature. The as-deposited films were highly unstable in ambient air and could be protected by capping with in-situ PALD grown antimony oxide films. After 16 weeks of storage in air, degradation of the film stack was observed in an electron microscope. The instability of the boron oxide, caused by moisture uptake, suggests the application of this film for testing moisture barrier properties of capping materials particularly for those grown by ALD. Boron doping of silicon was demonstrated using the uncapped PALD B{sub 2}O{sub 3} films for RTA processes without exposing them to air. The boron concentration in the silicon could be varied depending on the source layer thickness for very thin films, which favors the application of ALD for semiconductor doping processes.

  3. Photocatalytic performance of Sn-doped TiO2 nanostructured mono and double layer thin films for Malachite Green dye degradation under UV and vis-lights.

    PubMed

    Sayilkan, F; Asiltürk, M; Tatar, P; Kiraz, N; Arpaç, E; Sayilkan, H

    2007-06-01

    Nanostructure Sn(4+)-doped TiO(2) based mono and double layer thin films, contain 50% solid ratio of TiO(2) in coating have been prepared on glass surfaces by spin-coating technique. Their photocatalytic performances were tested for degradation of Malachite Green dye in solution under UV and vis irradiation. Sn(4+)-doped nano-TiO(2) particle a doping ratio of about 5[Sn(4+)/Ti(OBu(n))(4); mol/mol%] has been synthesized by hydrotermal process at 225 degrees C. The structure, surface and optical properties of the thin films and/or the particles have been investigated by XRD, BET and UV/vis/NIR techniques. The results showed that the double layer coated glass surfaces have a very high photocatalytic performance than the other one under UV and vis lights. The results also proved that the hydrothermally synthesized nano-TiO(2) particles are fully anatase crystalline form and are easily dispersed in water. The results also reveal that the coated surfaces have hydrophilic property.

  4. Effects of Al concentration on microstructural characteristics and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films on Si substrates by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Ho; Lee, Jae-Won; Hwang, Sooyeon; Kim, Sang Yun; Cho, Hyung Koun; Lee, Jeong Yong; Park, Jin-Seong

    2012-07-01

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films with various Al concentrations were synthesized on Si(001) substrates with native oxide layers by atomic layer deposition process. The effects of the Al concentration on the microstructural characteristics of the AZO thin films grown at 250 degrees C and the correlation between their microstructural characteristics and electrical properties of the AZO thin films were investigated by AFM, XRD, HRTEM and Hall measurements. The XRD and HRTEM results revealed that the crystallinity and electrical properties of the undoped ZnO thin films were enhanced by 2.48 at% Al doping. However, 12.62 at% Al doping induced the deterioration of their crystallinity and electrical properties due to the formation of nano-sized metallic Al clusters and randomly oriented ZnO-based nano-crystals. To enhance the electrical properties of the AZO thin films while maintaining their crystallinity and electrical properties, a moderate Al concentration has to be chosen under the solubility limit of Al in ZnO.

  5. Rapid Melt and Resolidification of Surface Layers Using Intense, Pulsed Ion Beams Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Renk, Timothy J. Turman, Bob Senft, Donna Sorensen, Neil R. Stinnett, Regan Greenly, John B. Thompson, Michael O. Buchheit, Rudolph G.

    1998-10-02

    The emerging technology of pulsed intense ion beams has been shown to lead to improvements in surface characteristics such as hardness and wear resistance, as well as mechanical smoothing. We report hereon the use of this technology to systematically study improvements to three types of metal alloys - aluminum, iron, and titanium. Ion beam tieatment produces a rapid melt and resolidification (RMR) of the surface layer. In the case of a predeposited thin-fihn layer, the beam mixes this layer into the substrate, Ieading to improvements that can exceed those produced by treatment of the alloy alone, In either case, RMR results in both crystal refinement and metastable state formation in the treated surface layer not accessible by conventional alloy production. Although more characterization is needed, we have begun the process of relating these microstructural changes to the surface improvements we discuss in this report.

  6. Al-doped ZnO seed layer-dependent crystallographic control of ZnO nanorods by using electrochemical deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Hyo-Soo; Choi, Nak-Jung; Kim, Kyoung-Bo; Kim, Moojin; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Polar and semipolar ZnO NRs were successfully achieved by hydrothermal synthesis. • Semipolar and polar ZnO NRs were grown on ZnO and AZO/m-sapphire, respectively. • Al % of AZO/m-sapphire enhanced the lateral growth rate of polar ZnO NRs. - Abstract: We investigated the effect of an Al-doped ZnO film on the crystallographic direction of ZnO nanorods (NRs) using electrochemical deposition. From high-solution X-ray diffraction measurements, the crystallographic plane of ZnO NRs grown on (1 0 0) ZnO/m-plane sapphire was (1 0 1). The surface grain size of the (100) Al-doped ZnO (AZO) film decreased with increasing Al content in the ZnO seed layer, implying that the Al dopant accelerated the three-dimensional (3D) growth of the AZO film. In addition, it was found that with increasing Al doping concentration of the AZO seed layer, the crystal orientation of the ZnO NRs grown on the AZO seed layer changed from [1 0 1] to [0 0 1]. With increasing Al content of the nonpolar (1 0 0) AZO seed layer, the small surface grains with a few crystallographic planes of the AZO film changed from semipolar (1 0 1) ZnO NRs to polar (0 0 1) ZnO NRs due to the increase of the vertical [0 0 1] growth rate of the ZnO NRs owing to excellent electrical properties.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of UV-treated Fe-doped bismuth lanthanum titanate-doped TiO2 layers in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Myoung Geun; Bark, Chung Wung

    2016-06-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on titanium dioxide (TiO2) have been extensively studied because they constitute promising low-cost alternatives to their conventional semiconductor-based counterparts. However, much of the effort aimed at achieving high conversion efficiencies has focused on dye and liquid electrolytes. In this work, we report the photovoltaic characteristics of DSSCs fabricated by mixing TiO2 with Fe-doped bismuth lanthanum titanate (Fe-BLT). These nanosized Fe-BLT powders were prepared by using a high-energy ball-milling process. In addition, we used a UV radiation-ozone (UV-O3) treatment to change the surface wettability of TiO2 from hydrophobic to hydrophilic and thereby prevented the easy separation of the Fe-BLT-mixed TiO2 from the fluorine-doped tin-oxide (FTO) coating glass.

  8. The pressure dependence of Tc in the infinite-layer electron-doped compound Sr 0.84Nd 0.16CuO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooten, C. L.; Beom-hoan, O.; Markert, J. T.; Smith, M. G.; Manthiram, A.; Zhou, J.; Goodenough, J. B.

    1992-03-01

    We report the effect of nearly hydrostatic pressure in the range 0-20 kbar on the resistively determined superconducting transition temperature Tc of the recently discovered infinite-layer electron-doped copper-oxide compound Sr 0.84ND 0.16CuO 2. In contrast to other electron-doped copper oxides, we observe a positive and appreciable change in Tc with pressure with value {dT c}/{dP }=+0.06±0.02 K/kbar. Thus the sign and magnitude of {dT c}/{dP} are not dominated by the carrier type; in this compound, we suggest they are determined by a pressure-induced enhancement of the interlayer coupling.

  9. Doping dependence of the coupling of electrons to bosonic modes in the single-layer high-temperature Bi2Sr2CuO6 superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Meevasana, W.

    2010-06-02

    A recent highlight in the study of high-Tc superconductors is the observation of band renormalization or self-energy effects on the quasiparticles. This is seen in the form of kinks in the quasiparticle dispersions as measured by photoemission and interpreted as signatures of collective bosonic modes coupling to the electrons. Here we compare for the first time the self-energies in an optimally doped and strongly overdoped, nonsuperconducting single-layer Bi-cuprate (Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 6}). In addition to the appearance of a strong overall weakening, we also find that the weight of the self-energy in the overdoped system shifts to higher energies. We present evidence that this is related to a change in the coupling to c-axis phonons due to the rapid change of the c-axis screening in this doping range.

  10. Doping-free silicon thin film solar cells using a vanadium pentoxide window layer and a LiF/Al back electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hyung Hwan; Kwon, Jung-Dae; Lee, Sunghun; Su Kim, Chang; Nam, Kee-Seok; Jeong, Yongsoo; Chung, Kwun-Bum; Yoon Ryu, Seung; Ocak, Tülay; Eray, Aynur; Kim, Dong-Ho; Park, Sung-Gyu

    2013-08-01

    This work describes the preparation of a doped layer-free hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film solar cell consisting of a vanadium pentoxide (V2O5-x) window layer, an intrinsic a-Si:H absorber layer, and a lithium fluoride (LiF)/aluminum (Al) back electrode. The large difference between the work functions of the V2O5-x layer and the LiF/Al electrode permitted photogenerated carriers in the i-a-Si:H absorber layer to be effectively separated and collected. The effects of the V2O5-x layer thickness and the oxidation states on the photovoltaic performance were investigated in detail. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed that the major species of the sputtered V2O5-x thin films were V5+ and V4+. Optimization of the V2O5-x window layer yielded a power conversion efficiency of 7.04%, which was comparable to the power conversion efficiency of a typical a-Si:H solar cell (7.09%).

  11. One-step synthesis of layered yttrium hydroxides in immiscible liquid-liquid systems: Intercalation of sterically-bulky hydrophobic organic anions and doping of europium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Mebae; Fujihara, Shinobu

    2014-02-01

    Inorganic-organic layered rare-earth compounds were synthesized on the basis of a biphasic liquid-liquid system in one pot. Layered yttrium hydroxides (LYHs) were chosen as a host material for the intercalation of hydrophobic organic guest anions such as benzoate, sebacate, or laurate. In a typical synthesis, an organic phase dissolving carboxylic acid was placed in contact with an equal amount of an aqueous phase dissolving yttrium nitrate n-hydrate and urea. At elevated temperatures up to 80 °C, urea was hydrolyzed to release hydroxyl anions which were used to form yttrium hydroxide layers. LYHs were then precipitated with the intercalation of carboxylate anions delivered from the organic phase under the distribution law. The structure and the morphology of the LYHs could be modulated by the intercalated anions. Doped with Eu3+ ions, the LYHs exhibited red photoluminescence which was enhanced by the intercalated anions due to the antenna effect.

  12. Enhancement of photoinduced electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO/BiFeO3 layered thin films prepared by chemical solution deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Wataru; Yuitoo, Isamu; Takeuchi, Teruaki; Hayashi, Koichiro; Yogo, Toshinobu

    2015-10-01

    Polycrystalline BiFeO3 and Al-doped ZnO/BiFeO3 bilayered thin films were prepared on Pt/TiOx/SiO2/Si substrates by chemical solution deposition. Their photoinduced electrical properties under blue light irradiation were characterized. The rapid on/off response of the photocurrent to light in unpoled BiFeO3 (BFO) and Al-doped ZnO/BiFeO3 (AZO/BFO) thin films was demonstrated. The AZO/BFO layered film exhibited an approximately triple-digit larger photocurrent in comparison with a BFO single-layer film. This is attributable to the photoexcited carrier generation effect at the interface between AZO (n-type) and BFO (p-type) films. Furthermore, in the AZO/BFO layered structure, the direction of the internal bias electric field caused by the space charge distribution in the unpoled BFO film is the same as that of the built-in electric field by forming a p-n junction of AZO and BFO layers. Photovoltaic properties were also improved by fabricating such a layered film. On the other hand, when the placement of BFO to AZO was reversed, the photoelectric current decreased to approximately one-tenth of that of the BFO single-layer film. In the BFO/AZO film, the internal electric field at the p-n junction between BFO and AZO is considered to have an orientation opposite to the self-bias field formed in the BFO film.

  13. Investigations on the roles of position controlled Al layers incorporated into an Al-doped ZnO active channel during atomic layer deposition for thin film transistor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eom-Ji; Lee, Won-Ho; Yoon, Sung-Min

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the effects of the distance between incorporated Al layers on the characteristics of thin-film transistors (TFTs) using Al-doped ZnO (AZO) as the active channels. The intervals between the Al layers were controlled by designing the sequences of Al cycles during the atomic-layer deposition. Two configurations were designed as “scatter” or “focus”, in which the incorporated Al layers were dispersed to bottom and top sides or concentrated on the center region. Electrical conductivities of “scatter” and “focus” films were observed to be different. While the dispersed Al layers could work as dopants, a too-close interval between the Al layers suppressed carrier transport, even with the same incorporated Al amounts. These differences were reflected on the device characteristics. The TFT performance of the “scatter” device was better than that of the “focus” device. Consequently, adequately dispersed Al layers in the AZO channel are very important for improving device performance.

  14. Low-Cost Protective Layer Coatings on Thermal Barrier Coatings via CCVD. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrick, Michelle

    2003-09-18

    MicroCoating Technologies, Inc., investigated the use of the Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVD) process to deposit oxygen or sintering barrier coatings for thermal barrier coating (TBC) applications. In addition, it looked at the use of its nanopowders by the NanoSpray process for developing smoothing layers on TBCs. Testing and analysis of coated substrates included heat treatments, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and profilometry. Coatings on TBC-coated superalloy coupons were tested by an outside collaborator. Results from the investigations indicated that the thin film coatings were not well-suited as barrier layers on the rough bond coat or TBC. Subsequent investigations considered smoothing layers on the TBC, as suggested by the collaborator, using nanopowder-based coatings. Smoothing of substrate surfaces by 50% was observed by profilometry.

  15. Radiographic layer counter for composites. Final technical report, Jun 87-Feb 88

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.E.

    1991-06-01

    The Army helmet is a composite of layers of resin-bonded Kevlar. Inadvertent omission of layers or undetected shifting of layers during molding processes can reduce the effective number of fibers in some helmet areas and impair their strength properties. A nondestructive method of 100% testing of the helmets, more effective than random sampling by ballistic testing, is needed. This six-month study evaluated the feasibility of using relatively low-energy radioisotopes to gauge the uniformity of Kelvar helmets. The potential for constructing a portable detection unit was also assessed. A laboratory radiometric test system was used to evaluate resin-bonded Kevlar samples, as well as actual Army helmets from current suppliers. It was found that the radiometric test system has the capacity to reflect the general condition of fabricated Kevlar helmets.

  16. Drastic reduction in the surface recombination velocity of crystalline silicon passivated with catalytic chemical vapor deposited SiN{sub x} films by introducing phosphorous catalytic-doped layer

    SciTech Connect

    Thi, Trinh Cham Koyama, Koichi; Ohdaira, Keisuke; Matsumura, Hideki

    2014-07-28

    We improve the passivation property of n-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface passivated with a catalytic chemical vapor deposited (Cat-CVD) Si nitride (SiN{sub x}) film by inserting a phosphorous (P)-doped layer formed by exposing c-Si surface to P radicals generated by the catalytic cracking of PH{sub 3} molecules (Cat-doping). An extremely low surface recombination velocity (SRV) of 2 cm/s can be achieved for 2.5 Ω cm n-type (100) floating-zone Si wafers passivated with SiN{sub x}/P Cat-doped layers, both prepared in Cat-CVD systems. Compared with the case of only SiN{sub x} passivated layers, SRV decreases from 5 cm/s to 2 cm/s. The decrease in SRV is the result of field effect created by activated P atoms (donors) in a shallow P Cat-doped layer. Annealing process plays an important role in improving the passivation quality of SiN{sub x} films. The outstanding results obtained imply that SiN{sub x}/P Cat-doped layers can be used as promising passivation layers in high-efficiency n-type c-Si solar cells.

  17. Using an ultra-thin non-doped orange emission layer to realize high efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes with low efficiency roll-off

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Liping; Chen, Jiangshan; Ma, Dongge; Zhao, Yongbiao; Zhang, Hongmei

    2014-06-28

    By adopting an ultra-thin non-doped orange emission layer sandwiched between two blue emission layers, high efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) with reduced efficiency roll-off were fabricated. The optimized devices show a balanced white emission with Internationale de L'Eclairage of (0.41, 0.44) at the luminance of 1000 cd/m{sup 2}, and the maximum power efficiency, current efficiency (CE), and external quantum efficiency reach 63.2 lm/W, 59.3 cd/A, and 23.1%, which slightly shift to 53.4 lm/W, 57.1 cd/A, and 22.2% at 1000 cd/m{sup 2}, respectively, showing low efficiency roll-off. Detailed investigations on the recombination zone and the transient electroluminescence (EL) clearly reveal the EL processes of the ultra-thin non-doped orange emission layer in WOLEDs.

  18. Flowfield measurements in a separated and reattached flat plate turbulent boundary layer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, W.P.

    1987-03-01

    The separation and reattachment of a large-scale, two-dimensional turbulent boundary layer at low subsonic speed on a flat plate has been studied experimentally. The separation bubble was 55 cm long and had a maximum bubble thickness, measured to the height of the mean dividing streamline, of 17 cm, which was twice the thickness of the inlet boundary layer. A combination of laser velocimetry, hot-wire anemometry, pneumatic probing techniques, and flow visualization were used as diagnostics. Principal findings were that an outer inviscid rotational flow was defined which essentially convected over the blockage associated with the inner, viscously dominated bubble recirculation region. A strong backflow region in which the flow moved upstream 100 percent of the time was measured near the test surface over the central 35 percent of the bubble. A laminar backflow boundary layer having pseudo-turbulent characteristics including a log-linear velocity profile was generated under the highly turbulent backflow. Velocity profile shapes in the reversed flow region matched a previously developed universal backflow profile at the upstream edge of the separation region but not in the steady backflow region downstream. A smoke flow visualization movie and hot-film measurements revealed low frequency nonperiodic flapping at reattachment. However, forward flow fraction data at reattachment and mean velocity profiles in the redeveloping boundary layer downstream of reattachment correlated with backward-facing step data when the axial dimension was scaled by the distance from the maximum bubble thickness to reattachment.

  19. New Approach for High-Voltage Electrical Double-Layer Capacitors Using Vertical Graphene Nanowalls with and without Nitrogen Doping.

    PubMed

    Chi, Yu-Wen; Hu, Chi-Chang; Shen, Hsiao-Hsuan; Huang, Kun-Ping

    2016-09-14

    Integrating various devices to achieve high-performance energy storage systems to satisfy various demands in modern societies become more and more important. Electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), one kind of the electrochemical capacitors, generally provide the merits of high charge-discharge rates, extremely long cycle life, and high efficiency in electricity capture/storage, leading to a desirable device of electricity management from portable electronics to hybrid vehicles or even smart grid application. However, the low cell voltage (2.5-2.7 V in organic liquid electrolytes) of EDLCs lacks the direct combination of Li-ion batteries (LIBs) and EDLCs for creating new functions in future applications without considering the issue of a relatively low energy density. Here we propose a guideline, "choosing a matching pair of electrode materials and electrolytes", to effectively extend the cell voltage of EDLCs according to three general strategies. Based on the new strategy proposed in this work, materials with an inert surface enable to tolerate a wider potential window in commercially available organic electrolytes in comparison with activated carbons (ACs). The binder-free, vertically grown graphene nanowalls (GNW) and nitrogen-doped GNW (NGNW) electrodes respectively provide good examples for extending the upper potential limit of a positive electrode of EDLCs from 0.1 to 1.5 V (vs Ag/AgNO3) as well as the lower potential limit of a negative electrode of EDLCs from -2.0 V to ca. -2.5 V in 1 M TEABF4/PC (propylene carbonate) compared to ACs. This newly designed asymmetric EDLC exhibits a cell voltage of 4 V, specific energy of 52 Wh kg(-1) (ca. a device energy density of 13 Wh kg(-1)), and specific power of 8 kW kg(-1) and ca. 100% retention after 10,000 cycles charge-discharge, reducing the series number of EDLCs to enlarge the module voltage and opening the possibility for directly combining EDLCs and LIBs in advanced applications.

  20. Effects of Si-doping on structural, electrical, and optical properties of polar and non-polar AlGaN epi-layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongquan; Zhang, Xiong; Wang, Shuchang; Wang, Yi; Luan, Huakai; Dai, Qian; Wu, Zili; Zhao, Jianguo; Cui, Yiping

    2016-08-01

    The polar (0001)-oriented c-plane and non-polar (11 2 bar 0) -oriented a-plane wurtzite AlGaN epi-layers were successfully grown on polar (0001)-oriented c-plane and semi-polar (1 1 bar 02) -oriented r-plane sapphire substrates, respectively with various Si-doping levels in a low pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. The morphological, structural, electrical, and optical properties of the polar and non-polar AlGaN epi-layers were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Hall effect, and Raman spectroscopy. The characterization results show that Si dopants incorporated into the polar and non-polar AlGaN films induced a relaxation of compressive residual strain and a generation of biaxial tensile strain on the surface in consequence of the dislocation climbing. In particular, it was found that the Si-induced compressive strain relaxation in the non-polar AlGaN samples can be promoted by the structural anisotropy as compared with the polar counterparts. The gradually increased relaxation of compressive residual strain in both polar and non-polar AlGaN samples with increasing Si-doping level was attributed to the Si-induced enhancement in the opportunity for the dislocations to interact and annihilate. This implies that the crystal quality for both polar and non-polar AlGaN epi-layers can be remarkably improved by Si-doping.

  1. Influence of doping and doping level on magnetoelectric coupling in layered composites Tb1-xDyxFe2-y/Ba-Ti1-zMzO3+δ (M = Fe, Cr, Mn, Co)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, N.; Fan, J. F.; Cao, H. X.; Wei, J. J.

    2010-06-01

    Perovskites BaTi1-zMzO3+δ (M = Fe, Cr, Mn, Co) has been sol-gel synthesized. Their transformation point of ferroelectric to paraelectric and the latent heat of the transformation were found a little lower than those for pure BaTiO3 (BTO), respectively. Layered composites Tb1-xDyxFe2-y-BaTi1-zMzO3+δ have been fabricated. Their magnetoelectric (ME) effect has been investigated. All the bilayers containing the doped BTO displayed a stronger ME effects than that containing pure BTO does. The bilayer Tb1-xDyxFe2-y-BaTi0.99Cr0.01O3+δ was observed to show a larger ME coupling in the composites containing other doped BTO. While Tb1-xDyxFe2-y-BaTi0.985Fe0.015O3+δ showed the largest ME effects in the bilayers Tb1-xDyxFe2-y-BaTi1-zFezO3+δ (0 ≤ z ≤ 0.02). Additionally, the ME voltage coefficient for the trilayers Tb1-xDyxFe2-y-BaTi0.99M0.01O3+δ-Tb1-xDyxFe2-y was observed to be two or three times larger than that observed in the bilayers composed by the same substances. Theoretical analyses have been given for these observations. All the results suggest that the doped BTO can be a new choice of piezoelectrics in fabricating layered ME composites.

  2. Facile conversion of layered Ruddlesden-Popper-related structure Y2O3-doped Sr2CeO4 into fast oxide ion-conducting fluorite-type Y2O3-doped CeO2.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Ryan Georg; Bhella, Surinderjit Singh; Thangadurai, Venkataraman

    2009-01-05

    The present work shows a new solid- and gas-phase reaction technique for the preparation of a fast oxide-ion-conducting Y(2)O(3)-doped Ce(1-x)Y(x)O(2-delta) (x = 0.1, 0.2) (YCO), which involves the reaction of layered (Ruddlesden-Popper K(2)NiF(4)-type) structure Y(2)O(3)-doped Sr(2)CeO(4) (YSCO) with CO(2) at an elevated temperature and subsequent acid-washing. A powder X-ray diffraction study revealed the formation of a single-phase cubic fluorite-type YCO for the CO(2)-reacted and subsequent acid-washed product. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis showed the absence of Sr in the CO(2)-treated and subsequent acid-washed product, confirming the transformation of layered YSCO into YCO. The cubic lattice constant was found to decrease with increasing Y content in YCO, which is consistent with the other YCO samples reported in the literature. The scanning electron microscopy study showed smaller-sized particles for the product obtained after CO(2)- and acid-washed YCO samples, while the high-temperature sintered YCO and the precursor YSCO exhibit larger-sized particles. The bulk ionic conductivity of the present CO(2)-capture-method-prepared YCO exhibits about one and half orders of magnitude higher electrical conductivity than that of the undoped CeO(2) and was found to be comparable to those of ceramic- and wet-chemical-method synthesized rare-earth-doped CeO(2).

  3. A new aspect of single-layered cuprate superconductors — 90 K superconductors for Ca-doped Bi2Sr2CuO6+δ single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizaki, R.; Yamamoto, T.; Ikeda, H.; Kadowaki, K.

    2012-12-01

    We found that the highest Tc (Tc max) of the superconductors in Bi-2201 phase was 80-90 K for the partially Ca substituted Bi2Sr2CuO6+δ for Sr. The superconductivity was confirmed to be bulk effect from a specific heat jump around Tc. By the findings the correlation between the structure and Tc max has been made clear and simple with respect to the distance between Cu and the apical oxygen for the single-layered cuprate superconductors in the hole doped system.

  4. Morphological variations of Mn-doped ZnO dilute magnetic semiconductors thin films grown by succesive ionic layer by adsorption reaction method.

    PubMed

    Balamurali, Subramanian; Chandramohan, Rathinam; Karunakaran, Marimuthu; Mahalingam, Thayan; Parameswaran, Padmanaban; Suryamurthy, Nagamani; Sukumar, Arcod Anandhakrishnan

    2013-07-01

    Transparent conducting Mn-doped ZnO thin films have been prepared by successive ionic layer by adsorption reaction (SILAR) method. The deposition conditions have been optimized based on their structure and on the formation of smoothness, adherence, and stoichiometry. The results of the studies by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM), reveal the varieties of structural and morphological modifications feasible with SILAR method. The X-ray diffraction patterns confirm that the ZnO:Mn has wurtzite structure. The interesting morphological variations with dopant concentration are observed and discussed. The films' quality is comparable with those grown with physical methods and is suitable for spintronic applications.

  5. Photoresponsive azo-doped aerosil/7CB nematic liquid-crystalline nanocomposite films: the role of polyimide alignment layers of the films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjichristov, Georgi B.; Marinov, Yordan G.

    2017-01-01

    We studied thin films (25 µm-thick) of nanomaterials composed from 3 wt.% aerosil nanospheres and the room-temperature nematic liquid crystal 4-n-heptyl cyanobiphenyl (7CB). The inclusion of 3 wt.% of the photoactive liquid crystal 4-(4‧-ethoxyphenylazo)phenyl hexanoate (EPH) in the aerosil/7CB nanostructured nematics make them photoresponsive. The films had alignment layers from rubbed polyimide (PI). Our study is concentrated on the inspection of the PI-role for the photo-stimulated electro-optical properties of the considered EPH-doped aerosil/7CB nanocomposite films.

  6. A High-Lift Building Block Flow: Turbulent Boundary Layer Relaminarization A Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, Corey; Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental evidence exists which suggests turbulent boundary layer relaminarization may play an important role in the inverse Reynolds number effect in high-lift systems. An experimental investigation of turbulent boundary layer relaminarization has been undertaken at the University of Notre Dame's Hessert Center for Aerospace Research in cooperation with NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. A wind tunnel facility has been constructed at the Hessert Center and relaminarization achieved. Preliminary evidence suggests the current predictive tools available are inadequate at determining the onset of relaminarization. In addition, an in-flight relaminarization experiment for the NASA Dryden FTF-II has been designed to explore relaminarization at Mach and Reynolds numbers more typical of commercial high-lift systems.

  7. Room-temperature field effect transistors with metallic ultrathin TiN-based channel prepared by atomic layer delta doping and deposition.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Po-Hsien; Wang, Chun-Yuan; Chang, Teng-Jan; Shen, Tsung-Han; Cai, Yu-Syuan; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2017-04-13

    Metallic channel transistors have been proposed as the candidate for sub-10 nm technology node. However, the conductivity modulation in metallic channels can only be observed at low temperatures usually below 100 K. In this study, room-temperature field effect and modulation of the channel resistance was achieved in the metallic channel transistors, in which the oxygen-doped TiN ultrathin-body channels were prepared by the atomic layer delta doping and deposition (AL3D) with precise control of the channel thickness and electron concentration. The decrease of channel thickness leads to the reduction in electron concentration and the blue shift of absorption spectrum, which can be explained by the onset of quantum confinement effect. The increase of oxygen incorporation results in the increase of interband gap energy, also giving rise to the decrease in electron concentration and the blue shift of absorption spectrum. Because of the significant decrease in electron concentration, the screening effect was greatly suppressed in the metallic channel. Therefore, the channel modulation by the gate electric field was achieved at room temperature due to the quantum confinement and suppressed screening effect with the thickness down to 4.8 nm and the oxygen content up to 35% in the oxygen-doped TiN ultrathin-body channel.

  8. Yb,Er-doped CeO2 nanotubes as an assistant layer for photoconversion-enhanced dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Rongfang; Huan, Long; Gu, Peng; Guo, Rong; Chen, Ming; Diao, Guowang

    2016-11-01

    Yb,Er-doped CeO2 nanotubes were successfully synthesized using Ag nanowires as a hard template via a facile hydrothermal reaction and subsequent calcination and leaching processes. Yb,Er-doped CeO2 nanotubes as a promising assistant layer were investigated to determine theirs photovoltaic properties in an effort to enhance the power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The influence factors of photoelectric properties of CeO2:Yb,Er NTs, including diameter of nanotubes, hydrothermal time, calcination temperature, and elements doping, have been studied. Compared with pristine P25 photoanode, the DSSCs fabricated by CeO2:Yb,Er nanotubes and P25 exhibited a power conversion efficiency (η) of 8.67%, an increase of 34%, and incident photo-to-electric conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 92.96%, an increase of 48.83%, which evidence that CeO2:Yb,Er NTs are a promising assistant photoanode material for DSSCs. The enhance mechanism of CeO2:Yb,Er nanotubes has been further revealed according to experimental results.

  9. Cooperative transition of electronic states of antisite As defects in Be-doped low-temperature-grown GaAs layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambri Mohamed, Mohd; Tien Lam, Pham; Bae, K. W.; Otsuka, N.

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic properties resulting from localized spins associated with antisite arsenic ions AsGa+ in Be-doped low-temperature-grown GaAs (LT-GaAs) layers were studied by measuring the magnetization of lift-off samples. With fast cooling, the magnetization of samples at 1.8 K becomes significantly lower than that expected from Curie-type paramagnetism in the range of the applied field to 7 T, and a transition from low magnetization to the magnetization of paramagnetism occurs upon the heating of samples to 4.5 K. With slow cooling, on the other hand, samples have a paramagnetic temperature dependence throughout the measurement-temperature range. The magnetization was found to decrease monotonically when a sample was kept at a fixed low temperature. These observations are explained by the cooperative transition of electron states of AsGa defects, which is closely related to the normal-metastable state transition of EL2 defects in semi-insulating GaAs. The results of the magnetization measurements in the present study suggest that AsGa+ ions are spontaneously displaced at low temperature without photoexcitation in Be-doped LT-GaAs. The similarity of the transition observed in this system to the normal-metastable state transition of the EL2 defect was also suggested by first-principle calculations of the electron state of an AsGa defect with a doped Be atom.

  10. Layered Lithium-Rich Oxide Nanoparticles Doped with Spinel Phase: Acidic Sucrose-Assistant Synthesis and Excellent Performance as Cathode of Lithium Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Chen, Dongrui; Liao, Youhao; Zhong, Xiaoxin; Li, Weishan; Zhang, Yuegang

    2016-02-01

    Nanolayered lithium-rich oxide doped with spinel phase is synthesized by acidic sucrose-assistant sol-gel combustion and evaluated as the cathode of a high-energy-density lithium ion battery. Physical characterizations indicate that the as-synthesized oxide (LR-SN) is composed of uniform and separated nanoparticles of about 200 nm, which are doped with about 7% spinel phase, compared to the large aggregated ones of the product (LR) synthesized under the same condition but without any assistance. Charge/discharge demonstrates that LR-SN exhibits excellent rate capability and cyclic stability: delivering an average discharge capacity of 246 mAh g(-1) at 0.2 C (1C = 250 mA g(-1)) and earning a capacity retention of 92% after 100 cycles at 4 C in the lithium anode-based half cell, compared to the 227 mA g(-1) and the 63% of LR, respectively. Even in the graphite anode-based full cell, LR-SN still delivers a capacity of as high as 253 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C, corresponding to a specific energy density of 801 Wh kg(-1), which are the best among those that have been reported in the literature. The separated nanoparticles of the LR-SN provide large sites for charge transfer, while the spinel phase doped in the nanoparticles facilitates lithium ion diffusion and maintains the stability of the layered structure during cycling.

  11. Investigating the effect of capping layers on final thin film morphology after a dewetting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Benjamin C.

    Nanoparticles on a substrate have numerous applications in nanotechnology, from enhancements to solar cell efficiency to improvements in carbon nanotube growth. Producing nanoparticles in a cheap fashion with some control over size and spacing is difficult to do, but desired. This work presents a novel method for altering the radius and pitch distributions of nickel and gold nanoparticles in a scalable fashion. The introduction of alumina capping layers to thin nickel films during a pulsed laser-induced dewetting process has yielded reductions in the mean and standard deviation of radii and pitch for dewet nanoparticles. Carbon nanotube mats grown on these samples show a much thicker mat for the capped case. The same capping layers have produced an opposite effect of increased nanoparticle size and spacing during a solid state dewetting process of a gold film. These results also show a decrease in the magnitude of the effect as the capping layer thickness increases. Since the subject of research interest for using these nanoparticles has shifted towards producing ordered arrays with size and spacing control, the uncertainty in the values of these distributions needs to be quantified for any form of meaningful comparison to be made between fabrication methods. Presented here is a first step in the uncertainty analysis of such samples via synthetic images producing error distributions.

  12. Enhanced electrical property of Ni-doped CoOx hole transport layer for inverted perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Aibin; Yu, Yu; Liu, Yan; Yang, Songwang; Lei, Lei; Bao, Shanhu; Cao, Xun; Jin, Ping

    2017-03-15

    Ultrathin Ni doped CoOx (Ni:CoOx) films were demonstrated by direct current (DC) co-sputtering at room temperature and employed as inorganic hole transport materials for inverted perovskite solar cells. P-type Ni2+ doping introduced in this work was designed to adjust the valence band position of CoOx to match the highest occupied molecular orbital of perovskite absorber material (CH3NH3PbI3), which would effectively inhibit recombination of photo-induced electrons and holes. Moreover, the hole extraction capacity would be further enhanced as a result of the appropriate Ni2+ doping, and hence the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the devices increased from 3.68% to 9.60%. The optimized performance was also accompanied by decent stability as a result of its intrinsic stability and conductivity.

  13. Highly improved photo-induced bias stability of sandwiched triple layer structure in sol-gel processed fluorine-doped indium zinc oxide thin film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongha; Park, Hyungjin; Bae, Byeong-Soo

    2016-03-01

    In order to improve the reliability of TFT, an Al2O3 insulating layer is inserted between active fluorine doped indium zinc oxide (IZO:F) thin films to form a sandwiched triple layer. All the thin films were fabricated via low-cost sol-gel process. Due to its large energy bandgap and high bonding energy with oxygen atoms, the Al2O3 layer acts as a photo-induced positive charge blocking layer that effectively blocks the migration of both holes and V o2+ toward the interface between the gate insulator and the semiconductor. The inserted Al2O3 triple layer exhibits a noticeably low turn on voltage shift of -0.7 V under NBIS as well as the good TFT performance with a mobility of 10.9 cm2/V ṡ s. We anticipate that this approach can be used to solve the stability issues such as NBIS, which is caused by inescapable oxygen vacancies.

  14. Low-Temperature Solution-Processed Thiophene-Sulfur-Doped Planar ZnO Nanorods as Electron-Transporting Layers for Enhanced Performance of Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Ambade, Swapnil B; Ambade, Rohan B; Bagde, Sushil S; Eom, Seung Hun; Mane, Rajaram S; Shin, Won Suk; Lee, Soo-Hyoung

    2017-02-01

    1-D ZnO represents a fascinating class of nanostructures that are significant to optoelectronics. In this work, we investigated the use of an eco-friendly, metal free in situ doping through a pure thiophene-sulfur (S) on low temperature processed (<95 °C) and annealed (<170 °C), planar 1-D ZnO nanorods (ZnRs) spin-coated as a hole-blocking and electron transporting layer (ETL) for inverted organic solar cells (iOSCs). The TEM, HRTEM, XPS, FT-IR, EDS and Raman studies clearly reveal that the thiophene-S (Thi-S) atom is incorporated on planar ZnRs. The investigations in electrical properties suggest the enhancement in conductivity after Thi-S doping on 1-D ZnRs. The iOSCs of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT: PC60BM) photoactive layer containing thiophene-S doped planar ZnRs (Thi-S-PZnRs) as ETL exhibits power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.68% under simulated AM 1.5 G, 100 mW cm(-2) illumination. The ∼47% enhancement in PCE compared with pristine planar ZnRs (PCE = 2.38%) ETL is attributed to a combination of desirable energy level alignment, morphological modification, increased conductivity and doping effect. The universality of Thi-S-PZnRs ETL is demonstrated by the highest PCE of 8.15% in contrast to 6.50% exhibited by the iOSCs of ZnRs ETL for the photoactive layer comprising of poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophene-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b;4,5-b]dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-)-2-carboxylate-2-6-diyl)]: phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PTB7-Th: PCB71M). This enhancement in PCE is observed to be driven mainly through improved photovoltaic parameters like fill factor (ff) as well as photocurrent density (Jsc), which are assigned to increased conductivity, exciton dissociation, and effective charge extraction, while; better ohmic contact, reduced charge recombination, and low leakage current density resulted in increased Voc.

  15. Final Progress Report: FRACTURE AND SUBCRITICAL DEBONDING IN THIN LAYERED STRUCTURES: EXPERIMENTS AND MULTI-SCALE MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhold H. Dauskardt

    2005-08-30

    Final technical report detailing unique experimental and multi-scale computational modeling capabilities developed to study fracture and subcritical cracking in thin-film structures. Our program to date at Stanford has studied the mechanisms of fracture and fatigue crack-growth in structural ceramics at high temperature, bulk and thin-film glasses in selected moist environments where we demonstrated the presence of a true mechanical fatigue effect in some glass compositions. We also reported on the effects of complex environments and fatigue loading on subcritical cracking that effects the reliability of MEMS and other micro-devices using novel micro-machined silicon specimens and nanomaterial layers.

  16. Microscopic potential fluctuations in Si-doped AlGaN epitaxial layers with various AlN molar fractions and Si concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Kurai, Satoshi Yamada, Yoichi; Miyake, Hideto; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa

    2016-01-14

    Nanoscopic potential fluctuations of Si-doped AlGaN epitaxial layers with the AlN molar fraction varying from 0.42 to 0.95 and Si-doped Al{sub 0.61}Ga{sub 0.39}N epitaxial layers with Si concentrations of 3.0–37 × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} were investigated by cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging combined with scanning electron microscopy. The spot CL linewidths of AlGaN epitaxial layers broadened as the AlN molar fraction was increased to 0.7, and then narrowed at higher AlN molar fractions. The experimental linewidths were compared with the theoretical prediction from the alloy broadening model. The trends displayed by our spot CL linewidths were consistent with calculated results at AlN molar fractions of less than about 0.60, but the spot CL linewidths were markedly broader than the calculated linewidths at higher AlN molar fractions. The dependence of the difference between the spot CL linewidth and calculated line broadening on AlN molar fraction was found to be similar to the dependence of reported S values, indicating that the vacancy clusters acted as the origin of additional line broadening at high AlN molar fractions. The spot CL linewidths of Al{sub 0.61}Ga{sub 0.39}N epitaxial layers with the same Al concentration and different Si concentrations were nearly constant in the entire Si concentration range tested. From the comparison of reported S values, the increase of V{sub Al} did not contribute to the linewidth broadening, unlike the case of the V{sub Al} clusters.

  17. Modulated two-dimensional charge-carrier density in LaTiO3-layer-doped LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Safdar; Bernal, Camille; Yang, Kesong

    2015-03-11

    The highly mobile two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed at the polar/nonpolar LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO) heterostructure (HS) is a matter of great interest because of its potential applications in nanoscale solid-state devices. To realize practical implementation of the 2DEG in device design, desired physical properties such as tuned charge carrier density and mobility are necessary. In this regard, polar perovskite-based transition metal oxides can act as doping layers at the interface and are expected to tune the electronic properties of 2DEG of STO-based HS systems dramatically. Herein, we investigated the doping effects of LaTiO3(LTO) layers on the electronic properties of 2DEG at n-type (LaO)(+1)/(TiO2)(0) interface in the LAO/STO HS using spin-polarized density functional theory calculations. Our results indicate an enhancement of orbital occupation near the Fermi energy, which increases with respect to the number of LTO unit cells, resulting in a higher charge carrier density of 2DEG than that of undoped system. The enhanced charge carrier density is attributed to an extra electron introduced by the Ti 3d(1) orbitals from the LTO dopant unit cells. This conclusion is consistent with the recent experimental findings (Appl. Phys. Lett. 2013, 102, 091601). Detailed charge density and partial density of states analysis suggests that the 2DEG in the LTO-doped HS systems primarily comes from partially occupied dyz and dxz orbitals.

  18. Emergence of Two-Dimensional Massless Dirac Fermions, Chiral Pseudospins, and Berry's Phase in Potassium Doped Few-Layer Black Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Baik, Seung Su; Kim, Keun Su; Yi, Yeonjin; Choi, Hyoung Joon

    2015-12-09

    Thin flakes of black phosphorus (BP) are a two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor whose energy gap is predicted being sensitive to the number of layers and external perturbations. Very recently, it was found that a simple method of potassium (K) doping on the surface of BP closes its band gap completely, producing a Dirac semimetal state with a linear band dispersion in the armchair direction and a quadratic one in the zigzag direction. Here, based on first-principles density functional calculations, we predict that, beyond the critical K density of the gap closure, 2D massless Dirac Fermions (i.e., Dirac cones) emerge in K-doped few-layer BP, with linear band dispersions in all momentum directions, and the electronic states around Dirac points have chiral pseudospins and Berry's phase. These features are robust with respect to the spin-orbit interaction and may lead to graphene-like electronic transport properties with greater flexibility for potential device applications.

  19. Growth and Implementation of Carbon-Doped AlGaN Layers for Enhancement-Mode HEMTs on 200 mm Si Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jie; Posthuma, Niels; Wellekens, Dirk; Saripalli, Yoga N.; Decoutere, Stefaan; Arif, Ronald; Papasouliotis, George D.

    2016-12-01

    We are reporting the growth of AlGaN based enhancement-mode high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) on 200 mm silicon (111) substrates using a single wafer metalorganic chemical vapor deposition reactor. It is found that TMAl pre-dosing conditions are critical in controlling the structural quality, surface morphology, and wafer bow of the HEMT stack. Optimal structural quality and pit-free surface are demonstrated for AlGaN HEMTs with pre-dosing temperature at 750°C. Intrinsically, carbon-doped AlGaN, is used as the current blocking layer in the HEMT structures. The lateral buffer breakdown and device breakdown characteristics, reach 400 V at a leakage current of 1 μA/mm measured at 150°C. The fabricated HEMT devices, with a Mg doped p-GaN gate layer, are operating in enhancement mode reaching a positive threshold voltage of 2-2.5 V, a low on-resistance of 10.5 Ω mm with a high drain saturation current of 0.35 A/mm, and a low forward bias gate leakage current of 0.5 × 10-6 A/mm ( V gs = 7 V). Tight distribution of device parameters across the 200 mm wafers and over repeat process runs is observed.

  20. The formation of nano-layered grains and their enhanced superconducting transition temperature in Mg-doped FeSe0.9 bulks.

    PubMed

    Lan, Feng; Ma, Zongqing; Liu, Yongchang; Chen, Ning; Cai, Qi; Li, Huijun; Barua, Shaon; Patel, Dipak; Al Hossain, M Shahriar; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue

    2014-09-26

    To search a proper dopant to further improve superconductivity in 11 type Fe-based superconductors makes sense to both their superconductivity mechanism and possible technological applications. In present work, Mg doped FeSe polycrystalline bulks were obtained by a two-step solid-state reaction method. Even though there are many MgSe and iron impurities existing in the Mg heavy doped FeSe bulks, they exhibit obviously increased Tc compared to undoped FeSe sample. It was found that Mg addition has little effect on the crystal lattice parameters of superconducting β-FeSe, whereas leads to the formation of nano-layered grain structure consisted of MgSe and β-FeSe with similar X-ray diffraction characteristics. Lots of nano-structural interfaces between FeSe and MgSe formed in this homogenous layered grain structure have significant effect on the superconducting properties and are responsible for the enhancement of Tc, as like the case of FeSe thin film on some specific substrates. Our work not only demonstrates a powerful way for raising Tc in bulk superconductors, but also provides a well-defined platform for systematic studies of the mechanism of unconventional superconductivity by considering interface effect.

  1. Improved photovoltaic performance of inverted polymer solar cells through a sol-gel processed Al-doped ZnO electron extraction layer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Young; Cho, Eunae; Kim, Jaehoon; Shin, Hyeonwoo; Roh, Jeongkyun; Thambidurai, Mariyappan; Kang, Chan-mo; Song, Hyung-Jun; Kim, SeongMin; Kim, Hyeok; Lee, Changhee

    2015-09-21

    We demonstrate that nanocrystalline Al-doped zinc oxide (n-AZO) thin film used as an electron-extraction layer can significantly enhance the performance of inverted polymer solar cells based on the bulk heterojunction of poly[[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophenediyl] (PCDTBT) and [6,6]-phenyl C(71)-butyric acid methyl ester (PC(70)BM). A synergistic study with both simulation and experiment on n-AZO was carried out to offer a rational guidance for the efficiency improvement. As a result, An n-AZO film with an average grain size of 13 to 22 nm was prepared by a sol-gel spin-coating method, and a minimum resistivity of 2.1 × 10(-3) Ω·cm was obtained for an Al-doping concentration of 5.83 at.%. When an n-AZO film with a 5.83 at.% Al concentration was inserted between the ITO electrode and the active layer (PCDTBT:PC(70)BM), the power conversion efficiency increased from 3.7 to 5.6%.

  2. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Highly-Crumpled, Few-Layered Graphene and Nitrogen-Doped Graphene for Use as High-Performance Electrodes in Capacitive Deionization

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Ahmad; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Shanbedi, Mehdi; Savari, Maryam; Kazi, S. N.; Chew, B. T.

    2015-01-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a promising procedure for removing various charged ionic species from brackish water. The performance of graphene-based material in capacitive deionization is lower than the expectation of the industry, so highly-crumpled, few-layered graphene (HCG) and highly-crumpled nitrogen-doped graphene (HCNDG) with high surface area have been introduced as promising candidates for CDI electrodes. Thus, HCG and HCNDG were prepared by exfoliation of graphite in the presence of liquid-phase, microwave-assisted methods. An industrially-scalable, cost-effective, and simple approach was employed to synthesize HCG and HCNDG, resulting in few-layered graphene and nitrogen-doped graphene with large specific surface area. Then, HCG and HCNDG were utilized for manufacturing a new class of carbon nanostructure-based electrodes for use in large-scale CDI equipment. The electrosorption results indicated that both the HCG and HCNDG have fairly large specific surface areas, indicating their huge potential for capacitive deionization applications. PMID:26643279

  3. The Influence of Hafnium Doping on Density of States in Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Deposited via Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xingwei; Qin, Cunping; Song, Jiantao; Zhang, Jianhua; Jiang, Xueyin; Zhang, Zhilin

    2017-01-01

    Thin-film transistors (TFTs) with atomic layer deposition (ALD) HfZnO (HZO) as channel layer and Al2O3 as gate insulator were successfully fabricated. Compared with ZnO-TFT, the stability of HZO-TFT was obviously improved as Hf doping can suppress the generation of oxygen related defects. The transfer characteristics of TFTs at different temperatures were also investigated, and temperature stability enhancement was observed for the TFT with Hf doping. The density of states (DOS) was calculated based on the experimentally obtained E a, which can explain the experimental observation. A high-field effect mobility of 9.4 cm2/Vs, a suitable turn-on voltage of 0.26 V, a high on/off ratio of over 107 and a steep sub-threshold swing of 0.3 V/decade were obtained in HZO-TFT. The results showed that temperature stability enhancement in HfZnO thin-film transistors are attributed to the smaller DOS.

  4. Polymer solar cells with efficiency >10% enabled via a facile solution-processed Al-doped ZnO electron transporting layer (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadamma, Lethy K.; Al-Senani, Mohammed; Amassian, Aram

    2015-10-01

    The present work details a facile and low-temperature (125C) solution-processed Al-doped ZnO (AZO) buffer layer functioning very effectively as electron accepting/hole blocking layer for a wide range of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction systems, and yielding power conversion efficiency in excess of 10% (8%) on glass (plastic) substrates. We show that ammonia addition to the aqueous AZO nanoparticle solution is a critically important step toward producing compact and smooth thin films which partially retain the aluminum doping and crystalline order of the starting AZO nanocrystals. The ammonia treatment appears to reduce the native defects via nitrogen incorporation, making the AZO film a very good electron transporter and energetically matched with the fullerene acceptor. Importantly, highly efficient solar cells are achieved without the need for additional surface chemical passivation or modification, which has become an increasingly common route to improving the performance of evaporated or solution-processed ZnO ETLs in solar cells.

  5. The formation of nano-layered grains and their enhanced superconducting transition temperature in Mg-doped FeSe0.9 bulks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Feng; Ma, Zongqing; Liu, Yongchang; Chen, Ning; Cai, Qi; Li, Huijun; Barua, Shaon; Patel, Dipak; Hossain, M. Shahriar Al; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue

    2014-09-01

    To search a proper dopant to further improve superconductivity in 11 type Fe-based superconductors makes sense to both their superconductivity mechanism and possible technological applications. In present work, Mg doped FeSe polycrystalline bulks were obtained by a two-step solid-state reaction method. Even though there are many MgSe and iron impurities existing in the Mg heavy doped FeSe bulks, they exhibit obviously increased Tc compared to undoped FeSe sample. It was found that Mg addition has little effect on the crystal lattice parameters of superconducting β-FeSe, whereas leads to the formation of nano-layered grain structure consisted of MgSe and β-FeSe with similar X-ray diffraction characteristics. Lots of nano-structural interfaces between FeSe and MgSe formed in this homogenous layered grain structure have significant effect on the superconducting properties and are responsible for the enhancement of Tc, as like the case of FeSe thin film on some specific substrates. Our work not only demonstrates a powerful way for raising Tc in bulk superconductors, but also provides a well-defined platform for systematic studies of the mechanism of unconventional superconductivity by considering interface effect.

  6. The formation of nano-layered grains and their enhanced superconducting transition temperature in Mg-doped FeSe0.9 bulks

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Feng; Ma, Zongqing; Liu, Yongchang; Chen, Ning; Cai, Qi; Li, Huijun; Barua, Shaon; Patel, Dipak; Hossain, M. Shahriar Al; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue

    2014-01-01

    To search a proper dopant to further improve superconductivity in 11 type Fe-based superconductors makes sense to both their superconductivity mechanism and possible technological applications. In present work, Mg doped FeSe polycrystalline bulks were obtained by a two-step solid-state reaction method. Even though there are many MgSe and iron impurities existing in the Mg heavy doped FeSe bulks, they exhibit obviously increased Tc compared to undoped FeSe sample. It was found that Mg addition has little effect on the crystal lattice parameters of superconducting β-FeSe, whereas leads to the formation of nano-layered grain structure consisted of MgSe and β-FeSe with similar X-ray diffraction characteristics. Lots of nano-structural interfaces between FeSe and MgSe formed in this homogenous layered grain structure have significant effect on the superconducting properties and are responsible for the enhancement of Tc, as like the case of FeSe thin film on some specific substrates. Our work not only demonstrates a powerful way for raising Tc in bulk superconductors, but also provides a well-defined platform for systematic studies of the mechanism of unconventional superconductivity by considering interface effect. PMID:25257951

  7. The Influence of Hafnium Doping on Density of States in Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Deposited via Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xingwei; Qin, Cunping; Song, Jiantao; Zhang, Jianhua; Jiang, Xueyin; Zhang, Zhilin

    2017-12-01

    Thin-film transistors (TFTs) with atomic layer deposition (ALD) HfZnO (HZO) as channel layer and Al2O3 as gate insulator were successfully fabricated. Compared with ZnO-TFT, the stability of HZO-TFT was obviously improved as Hf doping can suppress the generation of oxygen related defects. The transfer characteristics of TFTs at different temperatures were also investigated, and temperature stability enhancement was observed for the TFT with Hf doping. The density of states (DOS) was calculated based on the experimentally obtained E a, which can explain the experimental observation. A high-field effect mobility of 9.4 cm(2)/Vs, a suitable turn-on voltage of 0.26 V, a high on/off ratio of over 10(7) and a steep sub-threshold swing of 0.3 V/decade were obtained in HZO-TFT. The results showed that temperature stability enhancement in HfZnO thin-film transistors are attributed to the smaller DOS.

  8. Improving biogas separation and methane storage with multilayer graphene nanostructure via layer spacing optimization and lithium doping: a molecular simulation investigation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie-Jie; Li, Wen-Wei; Li, Xue-Liang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2012-09-18

    Methane is a desirable alternative to conventional fossil fuels, and also a main component of biogas from anaerobic fermentation of organic wastes. However, its relatively lower purity and poor storage by existing adsorbent materials negatively affect its wide application. Thus, efficient, cost-effective, and safe adsorbent materials for methane purification and storage are highly desired. In this study, multilayer graphene nanostructures (MGNs) with optimized structure are investigated as a potential adsorbent for this purpose. The effects of layer distance and Li doping on MGN performance in terms of methane storage and acid gas (H(2)S and CO(2)) separation from biogas are examined by molecular simulations. The mechanisms for the interactions between gas molecules and substrates are elucidated by analyzing the binding energy, geometric structures, and charge distribution from the first-principles calculations. The results show that nonhydrocarbons in biogas can be effectively separated using Li-doped MGNs with the optimal layer distance of 0.68 nm, and then the pure methane gas can be stored in MGNs with capacity satisfying the DOE target. This work offers a molecular-level insight into the interactions between gas molecules and MGNs and might provide useful information for development of new materials for methane purification and storage.

  9. Ni-based anode-supported Al2O3-doped-Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 thin electrolyte solid oxide fuel cells with Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Libin; Bai, Yaohui; Liu, Jiang

    2014-02-01

    In order to reduce the sintering temperature of Ni-based anode-supported thin 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) elsectrolyte solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), alumina, with a weight percent of 1, 3, 5, and 7, is respectively doped into YSZ as sintering aid. A pure YSZ buffer layer is introduced between the Al2O3-doped-YSZ electrolyte and Ni-YSZ anode, to prevent Al2O3 and NiO from forming non-conductive spinel NiAl2O4. The experimental results show that doping proper amount of Al2O3 doping can reduce the sintering temperature of YSZ, e.g., 1 wt.% doping decreases the temperature from 1673 K to 1573 K. Anode-supported SOFCs are prepared with Al2O3-doped-YSZ electrolytes sintered at different temperatures. Electrochemical characterization of the SOFCs shows that the single cell with 1 wt.% alumina-doped YSZ electrolyte sintered at 1573 K gives the highest output. The effect of alumina doping on sintering behavior and electrical performance of YSZ is discussed in detail.

  10. Analysis of the photodiode boundary layer transition indicator. LDRD final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kuntz, D.W.; Wilken, A.C.; Payne, J.L.

    1994-06-01

    The photodiode transition indicator is a device which has been successfully used to determine the onset of boundary layer transition on numerous hypersonic flight vehicles. The exact source of the electromagnetic radiation detected by the photodiode at transition was not understood. In some cases early saturation of the device occurred, and the device failed to detect transition. Analyses have been performed to determine the source of the radiation producing the photodiode signal. The results of these analyses indicate that the most likely source of the radiation is blackbody emission from the heatshield material bordering the quartz window of the device. Good agreement between flight data and calculations based on this radiation source has been obtained. Analyses also indicate that the most probable source of the radiation causing early saturation is blackbody radiation from carbon particles which break away from the nosetip during the ablation process.

  11. Nonlinear interactions in mixing layers and compressible heated round jets. Ph.D. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrah, Yousef Mohd

    1989-01-01

    The nonlinear interactions between a fundamental instability mode and both its harmonics and the changing mean flow are studied using the weakly nonlinear stability theory of Stuart and Watson, and numerical solutions of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations. The first part focuses on incompressible cold (or isothermal; constant temperature throughout) mixing layers, and for these, the first and second Landau constants are calculated as functions of wavenumber and Reynolds number. It is found that the dominant contribution to the Landau constants arises from the mean flow changes and not from the higher harmonics. In order to establish the range of validity of the weakly nonlinear theory, the weakly nonlinear and numerical solutions are compared and the limitation of each is discussed. At small amplitudes and at low-to-moderate Reynolds numbers, the two results compare well in describing the saturation of the fundamental, the distortion of the mean flow, and the initial stages of vorticity roll-up. At larger amplitudes, the interaction between the fundamental, second harmonic, and the mean flow is strongly nonlinear and the numerical solution predicts flow oscillations, whereas the weakly nonlinear theory yields saturation. In the second part, the weakly nonlinear theory is extended to heated (or nonisothermal; mean temperature distribution) subsonic round jets where quadratic and cubic nonlinear interactions are present, and the Landau constants also depend on jet temperature ratio, Mach number and azimuthal mode number. Under exponential growth and nonlinear saturation, it is found that heating and compressibility suppress the growth of instability waves, that the first azimuthal mode is the dominant instability mode, and that the weakly nonlinear solution describes the early stages of the roll-up of an axisymmetric shear layer. The receptivity of a typical jet flow to pulse type input disturbance is also studied by solving the initial value problem

  12. Slurry spin coating of thin film yttria stabilized zirconia/gadolinia doped ceria bi-layer electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Joong; Kim, Manjin; Neoh, Ke Chean; Han, Gwon Deok; Bae, Kiho; Shin, Jong Mok; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Shim, Joon Hyung

    2016-09-01

    Thin ceramic bi-layered membrane comprising yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) is fabricated by the cost-effective slurry spin coating technique, and it is evaluated as an electrolyte of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). It is demonstrated that the slurry spin coating method is capable of fabricating porous ceramic films by adjusting the content of ethyl-cellulose binders in the source slurry. The porous GDC layer deposited by spin coating under an optimal condition functions satisfactorily as a cathode-electrolyte interlayer in the test SOFC stack. A 2-μm-thick electrolyte membrane of the spin-coated YSZ/GDC bi-layer is successfully deposited as a dense and stable film directly on a porous NiO-YSZ anode support without any interlayers, and the SOFC produces power output over 200 mW cm-2 at 600 °C, with an open circuit voltage close to 1 V. Electrochemical impedance spectra analysis is conducted to evaluate the performance of the fuel cell components in relation with the microstructure of the spin-coated layers.

  13. Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R.

    2016-01-01

    The extensive coverage of low clouds over the subtropical eastern oceans greatly impacts the current climate. In addition, the response of low clouds to changes in atmospheric greenhouse gases and aerosols is a major source of uncertainty, which thwarts accurate prediction of future climate change. Low clouds are poorly simulated in climate models, partly due to inadequate long-term simultaneous observations of their macrophysical and microphysical structure, radiative effects, and associated aerosol distribution in regions where their impact is greatest. The thickness and extent of subtropical low clouds is dependent on tight couplings between surface fluxes of heat and moisture, radiative cooling, boundary layer turbulence, and precipitation (much of which evaporates before reaching the ocean surface and is closely connected to the abundance of cloud condensation nuclei). These couplings have been documented as a result of past field programs and model studies. However, extensive research is still required to achieve a quantitative understanding sufficient for developing parameterizations, which adequately predict aerosol indirect effects and low cloud response to climate perturbations. This is especially true of the interactions between clouds, aerosol, and precipitation. These processes take place in an ever-changing synoptic environment that can confound interpretation of short time period observations.

  14. Eu(3+) doped down shifting TiO2 layer for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Swami, Sanjay Kumar; Kumar, Anuj; Ntwaeaborwa, O M; Dutta, Viresh; Swart, H C

    2016-12-15

    Europium doped TiO2 (TiO2:Eu(3+)) down-shifting (DS) nanophosphors (NPrs) were synthesized by the solution-combustion method with different concentrations of Eu(3+). The X-ray diffraction results confirmed the formation of a polycrystalline tetragonal structure of the TiO2. The emission of colour of the TiO2:Eu(3+) DS NPr was tuned by varying the doping concentration of Eu(3+). The photoluminescence results confirmed that the TiO2:Eu(3+) DS NPrs converted the UV light into visible light by energy down-conversion process, i.e. down-shifting of high energy UV photons to low energy visible photons. These TiO2:Eu(3+) DS NPrs were used to enhance the efficiency of the Dye sensitized solar cell from 8.32% to 8.80%.

  15. An ultra-thin, un-doped NiO hole transporting layer of highly efficient (16.4%) organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Seongrok; Park, Ik Jae; Kim, Myungjun; Lee, Seonhee; Bae, Changdeuck; Jung, Hyun Suk; Park, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Jin Young; Shin, Hyunjung

    2016-06-01

    NiO is a wide band gap p-type oxide semiconductor and has potential for applications in solar energy conversion as a hole-transporting layer (HTL). It also has good optical transparency and high chemical stability, and the capability of aligning the band edges to the perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) layers. Ultra-thin and un-doped NiO films with much less absorption loss were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with highly precise control over thickness without any pinholes. Thin enough (5-7.5 nm in thickness) NiO films with the thickness of few time the Debye length (LD = 1-2 nm for NiO) show enough conductivities achieved by overlapping space charge regions. The inverted planar perovskite solar cells with NiO films as HTLs exhibited the highest energy conversion efficiency of 16.40% with high open circuit voltage (1.04 V) and fill factor (0.72) with negligible current-voltage hysteresis.NiO is a wide band gap p-type oxide semiconductor and has potential for applications in solar energy conversion as a hole-transporting layer (HTL). It also has good optical transparency and high chemical stability, and the capability of aligning the band edges to the perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) layers. Ultra-thin and un-doped NiO films with much less absorption loss were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with highly precise control over thickness without any pinholes. Thin enough (5-7.5 nm in thickness) NiO films with the thickness of few time the Debye length (LD = 1-2 nm for NiO) show enough conductivities achieved by overlapping space charge regions. The inverted planar perovskite solar cells with NiO films as HTLs exhibited the highest energy conversion efficiency of 16.40% with high open circuit voltage (1.04 V) and fill factor (0.72) with negligible current-voltage hysteresis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01601d

  16. Transforming the representation of the boundary layer and low clouds for high-resolution regional climate modeling: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hsin-Yuan; Hall, Alex

    2013-07-24

    the mostly dry mountain-breeze circulations force an additional component that results in semi-diurnal variations near the coast. A series of numerical tests, however, reveal sensitivity of the simulations to the choice of vertical grid, limiting the possibility of solid quantitative statements on the amplitudes and phases of the diurnal and semidiurnal components across the domain. According to our experiments, the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino (MYNN) boundary layer scheme and the WSM6 microphysics scheme is the combination of schemes that performs best. For that combination, mean cloud cover, liquid water path, and cloud depth are fairly wellsimulated, while mean cloud top height remains too low in comparison to observations. Both microphysics and boundary layer schemes contribute to the spread in liquid water path and cloud depth, although the microphysics contribution is slightly more prominent. Boundary layer schemes are the primary contributors to cloud top height, degree of adiabaticity, and cloud cover. Cloud top height is closely related to surface fluxes and boundary layer structure. Thus, our study infers that an appropriate tuning of cloud top height would likely improve the low-cloud representation in the model. Finally, we show that entrainment governs the degree of adiabaticity, while boundary layer decoupling is a control on cloud cover. In the intercomparison study using WRF single-column model experiments, most parameterizations show a poor agreement of the vertical boundary layer structure when compared with large-eddy simulation models. We also implement a new Total-Energy/Mass- Flux boundary layer scheme into the WRF model and evaluate its ability to simulate both stratocumulus and shallow cumulus clouds. Result comparisons against large-eddy simulation show that this advanced parameterization based on the new Eddy-Diffusivity/Mass-Flux approach provides a better performance than other boundary layer parameterizations.

  17. Electrical spin injection in modulation-doped GaAs from an in situ grown Fe/MgO layer

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, Seong Hoon; Kim, Hyung-jun; Koo, Hyun Cheol; Lee, Yun-Hi; Chang, Joonyeon

    2015-09-07

    We study spin accumulation in n-doped GaAs that were electrically injected from Fe via MgO using three-terminal Hanle measurement. The Fe/MgO/GaAs structures were prepared in a cluster molecular beam epitaxy that did not require the breaking of the vacuum. We found the crystal orientation relationship of epitaxial structures Fe[100]//MgO[110]//GaAs[110] without evident defects at the interface. Control of depletion width and interface resistance by means of modulation doping improves spin injection, leading to enhanced spin voltage (ΔV) of 6.3 mV at 10 K and 0.8 mV even at 400 K. The extracted spin lifetime and spin diffusion length of GaAs are 220 ps and 0.77 μm, respectively, at 200 K. MgO tunnel barrier grown in situ with modulation doping at the interface appears to be promising for spin injection into GaAs.

  18. LDRD Project 52523 final report :Atomic layer deposition of highly conformal tribological coatings.

    SciTech Connect

    Jungk, John Michael; Dugger, Michael Thomas; George, Steve M.; Prasad, Somuri V.; Grubbs, Robert K.; Moody, Neville Reid; Mayer, Thomas Michael; Scharf, Thomas W.; Goeke, Ronald S.; Gerberich, William W.

    2005-10-01

    Friction and wear are major concerns in the performance and reliability of micromechanical (MEMS) devices. While a variety of lubricant and wear resistant coatings are known which we might consider for application to MEMS devices, the severe geometric constraints of many micromechanical systems (high aspect ratios, shadowed surfaces) make most deposition methods for friction and wear-resistance coatings impossible. In this program we have produced and evaluate highly conformal, tribological coatings, deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), for use on surface micromachined (SMM) and LIGA structures. ALD is a chemical vapor deposition process using sequential exposure of reagents and self-limiting surface chemistry, saturating at a maximum of one monolayer per exposure cycle. The self-limiting chemistry results in conformal coating of high aspect ratio structures, with monolayer precision. ALD of a wide variety of materials is possible, but there have been no studies of structural, mechanical, and tribological properties of these films. We have developed processes for depositing thin (<100 nm) conformal coatings of selected hard and lubricious films (Al2O3, ZnO, WS2, W, and W/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanolaminates), and measured their chemical, physical, mechanical and tribological properties. A significant challenge in this program was to develop instrumentation and quantitative test procedures, which did not exist, for friction, wear, film/substrate adhesion, elastic properties, stress, etc., of extremely thin films and nanolaminates. New scanning probe and nanoindentation techniques have been employed along with detailed mechanics-based models to evaluate these properties at small loads characteristic of microsystem operation. We emphasize deposition processes and fundamental properties of ALD materials, however we have also evaluated applications and film performance for model SMM and LIGA devices.

  19. Scrape-Off-Layer Flow Studies in Tokamaks: Final Report of LDRD Project 09-ERD-025

    SciTech Connect

    Rognlien, T D; Allen, S L; Ellis, R M; Porter, G D; Nam, S K; Weber, T R; Umansky, M V; Howard, J

    2011-11-21

    A summary is given of the work carried out under the LDRD project 09-ERD-025 entitled Scrape-Off-Layer Flow Studies in Tokamaks. This project has lead to implementation of the new prototype Fourier Transform Spectrometer edge plasma flow diagnostic on the DIII-D National Fusion Facility at General Atomics, acquisition of carbon impurity concentration and flow data, and demonstration that the resulting data compare reasonably well with LLNL's edge plasma transport code UEDGE. Details of the work are contained in attached published papers, while the most recent results that are being written-up for publication are summarized in the report. Boundary plasma flows in tokamak fusion devices are key in determining the distribution of fuel and impurity ions, with tritium build-up in the walls an especially critical operational issue. The intrusion of impurity ions to the hot plasma core region can result in serious energy-loss owing to line radiation. However, flow diagnostic capability has been severely limited in fusion-relevant hot edge plasmas where Langmuir-type probes cannot withstand the high heat flux and traditional Doppler spectroscopy has limited resolution and signal strength. Thus, new edge plasma flow diagnostic capabilities need to be developed that can be used in existing and future devices such as ITER. The understanding of such flows requires simulation with 2-dimensional transport codes owing to the geometrical complexity of the edge region in contact with material surfaces and the large number of interaction physical processes including plasma flow along and across the magnetic field, and coupling between impurity and neutral species. The characteristics of edge plasma flows are substantially affected by cross-magnetic-field drifts (ExB/B{sup 2} and BxVB/B{sup 2}), which are known to introduce substantial convergence difficulty for some cases. It is important that these difficulties be overcome so that drifts can be included in transport models, both

  20. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ce-doped Zn-Al multi-metal oxide composites derived from layered double hydroxide precursors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianyao; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhang, Hua; Lu, Hongtao; Qiu, Yanling; Zhu, Linyan; Küppers, Stephan

    2016-11-01

    In this work, a series of novel Zn-Al-Ce multi-metal oxide (Zn-Al-Ce-MMO) photocatalysts with different Ce doping contents were prepared by calcination of Ce-doped Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (Zn-Al-Ce-LDH) precursors at various temperatures in air atmosphere. The synthesized Zn-Al-Ce-MMO materials were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TGA, BET, SEM, TEM, XPS and UV-vis DRS. The photocatalytic activities of the Zn-Al-Ce-MMO materials were evaluated by the photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) dye and paracetamol in aqueous solution under simulated solar light irradiation. The result of photodegradation of RhB showed that the Zn-Al-Ce-MMO samples exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity than that of Zn-Al-MMO, and the optimal Ce doping content is 5% of mole ratio (nCe/n(Zn+Al+Ce)). The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the Zn-Al-Ce-MMO was mainly attributed to the increasing in the separation efficiency of electrons and holes. The effect of calcination temperature was also studied. The photocatalytic activity of Zn-Al-Ce-MMO increased with increasing calcination temperature up to 750°C, which can be ascribed to the formation of well-crystallized metal oxides during calcination. Under experimental conditions, 97.8% degradation efficiency of RhB and 98.9% degradation efficiency of paracetamol were achieved after 240min. Active species trapping and EPR experiments suggested that hole (h(+)), superoxide radical (O2(-)) and hydroxyl radical (OH) played important roles during the RhB photocatalytic process. Moreover, the results indicated that the synthesized Zn-Al-Ce-MMO materials had good stability and reusability.

  1. Electrical and optical properties of Al-doped ZnO and ZnAl2O4 films prepared by atomic layer deposition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    ZnO/Al2O3 multilayers were prepared by alternating atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 150°C using diethylzinc, trimethylaluminum, and water. The growth process, crystallinity, and electrical and optical properties of the multilayers were studied with a variety of the cycle ratios of ZnO and Al2O3 sublayers. Transparent conductive Al-doped ZnO films were prepared with the minimum resistivity of 2.4 × 10−3 Ω·cm at a low Al doping concentration of 2.26%. Photoluminescence spectroscopy in conjunction with X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the thickness of ZnO sublayers plays an important role on the priority for selective crystallization of ZnAl2O4 and ZnO phases during high-temperature annealing ZnO/Al2O3 multilayers. It was found that pure ZnAl2O4 film was synthesized by annealing the specific composite film containing alternative monocycle of ZnO and Al2O3 sublayers, which could only be deposited precisely by utilizing ALD technology. PMID:23537274

  2. Layered-MnO₂ Nanosheet Grown on Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Template as a Composite Cathode for Flexible Solid-State Asymmetric Supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongchuan; Miao, Xiaofei; Fang, Jianhui; Zhang, Xiangxin; Chen, Sujing; Li, Wei; Feng, Wendou; Chen, Yuanqiang; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yining

    2016-03-02

    Flexible solid-state supercapacitors provide a promising energy-storage alternative for the rapidly growing flexible and wearable electronic industry. Further improving device energy density and developing a cheap flexible current collector are two major challenges in pushing the technology forward. In this work, we synthesize a nitrogen-doped graphene/MnO2 nanosheet (NGMn) composite by a simple hydrothermal method. Nitrogen-doped graphene acts as a template to induce the growth of layered δ-MnO2 and improves the electronic conductivity of the composite. The NGMn composite exhibits a large specific capacitance of about 305 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 5 mV s(-1). We also create a cheap and highly conductive flexible current collector using Scotch tape. Flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors are fabricated with NGMn cathode, activated carbon anode, and PVA-LiCl gel electrolyte. The device can achieve a high operation voltage of 1.8 V and exhibits a maximum energy density of 3.5 mWh cm(-3) at a power density of 0.019 W cm(-3). Moreover, it retains >90% of its initial capacitance after 1500 cycles. Because of its flexibility, high energy density, and good cycle life, NGMn-based flexible solid state asymmetric supercapacitors have great potential for application in next-generation portable and wearable electronics.

  3. Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yizhong; Luo, Zhengqian; Li, Yingyue; Zhong, Min; Xu, Bin; Che, Kaijun; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping; Peng, Jian; Weng, Jian

    2014-10-20

    We propose and demonstrate a MoS2-based passively Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser with a wide tuning range of 1519.6-1567.7 nm. The few-layer MoS2 nano-platelets are prepared by the liquid-phase exfoliation method, and are then made into polymer-composite film to construct the fiber-compatible MoS2 saturable absorber (SA). It is measured at 1560 nm wavelength, that such MoS2 SA has the modulation depth of ∼ 2% and the saturable optical intensity of ∼ 10 MW/cm(2). By further inserting the filmy MoS2-SA into an Er-doped fiber laser, stable Q-switching operation with a 48.1 nm continuous tuning from S- to C-waveband is successfully achieved. The shortest pulse duration and the maximum pulse energy are 3.3 μs and 160 nJ, respectively. The repetition rate and the pulse duration under different operation conditions have been also characterized. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first demonstration of MoS2 Q-switched, widely-tunable fiber laser.

  4. Reducing Hysteresis and Enhancing Performance of Perovskite Solar Cells Using Low-Temperature Processed Y-Doped SnO2 Nanosheets as Electron Selective Layers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Lei, Hongwei; Tao, Hong; Zheng, Xiaolu; Ma, Junjie; Liu, Qin; Ke, Weijun; Chen, Zhiliang; Xiong, Liangbin; Qin, Pingli; Chen, Zhao; Qin, Minchao; Lu, Xinhui; Yan, Yanfa; Fang, Guojia

    2017-01-01

    Despite the rapid increase of efficiency, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) still face some challenges, one of which is the current-voltage hysteresis. Herein, it is reported that yttrium-doped tin dioxide (Y-SnO2 ) electron selective layer (ESL) synthesized by an in situ hydrothermal growth process at 95 °C can significantly reduce the hysteresis and improve the performance of PSCs. Comparison studies reveal two main effects of Y doping of SnO2 ESLs: (1) it promotes the formation of well-aligned and more homogeneous distribution of SnO2 nanosheet arrays (NSAs), which allows better perovskite infiltration, better contacts of perovskite with SnO2 nanosheets, and improves electron transfer from perovskite to ESL; (2) it enlarges the band gap and upshifts the band energy levels, resulting in better energy level alignment with perovskite and reduced charge recombination at NSA/perovskite interfaces. As a result, PSCs using Y-SnO2 NSA ESLs exhibit much less hysteresis and better performance compared with the cells using pristine SnO2 NSA ESLs. The champion cell using Y-SnO2 NSA ESL achieves a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 17.29% (16.97%) when measured under reverse (forward) voltage scanning and a steady-state efficiency of 16.25%. The results suggest that low-temperature hydrothermal-synthesized Y-SnO2 NSA is a promising ESL for fabricating efficient and hysteresis-less PSC.

  5. Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction

    PubMed Central

    Du, Juan; Wang, Qingkai; Jiang, Guobao; Xu, Changwen; Zhao, Chujun; Xiang, Yuanjiang; Chen, Yu; Wen, Shuangchun; Zhang, Han

    2014-01-01

    By coupling few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) with fiber-taper evanescent light field, a new type of MoS2 based nonlinear optical modulating element had been successfully fabricated as a two-dimensional layered saturable absorber with strong light-matter interaction. This MoS2-taper-fiber device is not only capable of passively mode-locking an all-normal-dispersion ytterbium-doped fiber laser and enduring high power laser excitation (up to 1 W), but also functions as a polarization sensitive optical modulating component (that is, different polarized light can induce different nonlinear optical response). Thanks to the combined advantages from the strong nonlinear optical response in MoS2 together with the sufficiently-long-range interaction between light and MoS2, this device allows for the generation of high power stable dissipative solitons at 1042.6 nm with pulse duration of 656 ps and a repetition rate of 6.74 MHz at a pump power of 210 mW. Our work may also constitute the first example of MoS2-enabled wave-guiding photonic device, and potentially give some new insights into two-dimensional layered materials related photonics. PMID:25213108

  6. Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Wang, Qingkai; Jiang, Guobao; Xu, Changwen; Zhao, Chujun; Xiang, Yuanjiang; Chen, Yu; Wen, Shuangchun; Zhang, Han

    2014-09-12

    By coupling few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) with fiber-taper evanescent light field, a new type of MoS2 based nonlinear optical modulating element had been successfully fabricated as a two-dimensional layered saturable absorber with strong light-matter interaction. This MoS2-taper-fiber device is not only capable of passively mode-locking an all-normal-dispersion ytterbium-doped fiber laser and enduring high power laser excitation (up to 1 W), but also functions as a polarization sensitive optical modulating component (that is, different polarized light can induce different nonlinear optical response). Thanks to the combined advantages from the strong nonlinear optical response in MoS2 together with the sufficiently-long-range interaction between light and MoS2, this device allows for the generation of high power stable dissipative solitons at 1042.6 nm with pulse duration of 656 ps and a repetition rate of 6.74 MHz at a pump power of 210 mW. Our work may also constitute the first example of MoS2-enabled wave-guiding photonic device, and potential y give some new insights into two-dimensional layered materials related photonics.

  7. Embedment of nano-sized Ag layer into Ag-doped In2O3 films for use as highly transparent and conductive anode in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Da-Young; Na, Seok-In; Chung, Kwun-Bum; Kim, Han-Ki

    2015-08-01

    By inserting a nano-sized Ag layer between bottom Ag-doped In2O3 (AIO) and a top AIO layer, we were able to control the sheet resistance and optical transmittance of AIO films for application in organic solar cells (OSCs) as a transparent electrode. To optimize the AIO/Ag/AIO multilayer, we investigated the electrical, optical, structural and morphological properties of the AIO/Ag/AIO multilayer as a function of Ag interlayer thickness with a constant bottom and top AIO thickness of 35 nm. The optimized AIO/Ag/AIO multilayer showed a much lower resistivity of 3.988 × 10-5 Ω cm and a higher optical transmittance of 84.79% than the values (4.625 × 10-4 Ω cm and 78.36%) of the single AIO film, due to the high conductivity of the metallic Ag layer and the antireflection effect of the symmetric AIO/Ag/AIO structure. In addition, we investigated the performances of OSCs with AIO/Ag/AIO electrodes as a function of Ag interlayer thickness to determine the optimal Ag thickness to produce a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the OSCs. Based on the PCE of the OSCs, we correlated the performance of the OSCs with the Ag interlayer thickness in the AIO/Ag/AIO multilayer and suggested a possible mechanism to explain the dependency of PCE on Ag thickness in AIO/Ag/AIO multilayer electrodes.

  8. Atomic layer deposition of Al-doped ZnO films using ozone as the oxygen source: A comparison of two methods to deliver aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Hai; Luo Bing; Yu Dan; Cheng, An-jen; Campbell, Stephen A.; Gladfelter, Wayne L.

    2012-01-15

    Aluminum-doped ZnO films were prepared by atomic layer deposition at 250 deg. C using diethylzinc (DEZ), trimethylaluminum (TMA), and ozone as the precursors. Two deposition methods were compared to assess their impact on the composition, structural, electrical, and optical properties as a function of Al concentration. The first method controlled the Al concentration by changing the relative number of Al to Zn deposition cycles; a process reported in the literature where water was used as the oxygen source. The second method involved coinjection of the DEZ and TMA during each cycle where the partial pressures of the precursors control the aluminum concentration. Depth profiles of the film composition using Auger electron spectroscopy confirmed a layered microstructure for the films prepared by the first method, whereas the second method led to a homogeneous distribution of the aluminum throughout the ZnO film. Beneath the surface layer the carbon concentrations for all of the films were below the detection limit. Comparison of their electrical and optical properties established that films deposited by coinjection of the precursors were superior.

  9. Fully transparent thin film transistors based on zinc oxide channel layer and molybdenum doped indium oxide electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MÄ dzik, Mateusz; Elamurugu, Elangovan; Viegas, Jaime

    2016-03-01

    In this work we report the fabrication of thin film transistors (TFT) with zinc oxide channel and molybdenum doped indium oxide (IMO) electrodes, achieved by room temperature sputtering. A set of devices was fabricated, with varying channel width and length from 5μm to 300μm. Output and transfer characteristics were then extracted to study the performance of thin film transistors, namely threshold voltage and saturation current, enabling to determine optimal fabrication process parameters. Optical transmission in the UV-VIS-IR are also reported.

  10. Application of metal-doped organic layer both as exciton blocker and optical spacer for organic photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, M. Y.; Lai, S. L.; Lau, K. M.; Lee, C. S.; Lee, S. T.

    2006-10-01

    An effective optical spacer based on doping of ytterbium (Yb) metal into bathophenanthroline (BPhen) has been developed for applications in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. Utilizing Yb:BPhen as an optical spacer in standard copper phthalocyanine/C60 photovoltaic devices, power efficiency can be increased by four times to 3.42%. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy measurements reveal that the good electron transport between C60 and Yb:BPhen is mainly related to the suitable energy level alignment at the interface. Combining with its high optical transparency and electrical conductivity, the Yb:BPhen film provides a useful means for maximizing the power conversion efficiency of OPV devices.

  11. Improved efficiency in organic light-emitting devices with tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium doped 9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene emission layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yongbo; Lian, Jiarong; Li, Shuang; Zhou, Xiang

    2008-11-01

    Organic light-emitting devices with tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) doped 9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN) as the emission layer (EML) have been fabricated. These devices exhibit efficient electroluminescence (EL) originated from the Alq3 as the mass ratio of Alq3 to ADN was varied from 1 to 50%. The devices with an optimal Alq3 mass ratio of 10 wt% showed a peak EL efficiency and an external quantum efficiency of 9.1 cd A-1 and 2.7% at a luminance of 1371 cd m-2, which is improved by a factor of 2.2 compared with 4.1 cd A-1 and 1.2% at a luminance of 3267 cd m-2 for conventional devices with the neat Alq3 as the EML.

  12. Performance enhancement of blue light-emitting diodes without an electron-blocking layer by using special designed p-type doped InGaN barriers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun-Yan; Fan, Guang-Han; Yin, Yi-An; Yao, Guang-Rui

    2012-01-02

    In this study, the characteristics of the nitride-based blue light-emitting diode (LED) without an electron-blocking layer (EBL) are analyzed numerically. The emission spectra, carrier concentrations in the quantum wells (QWs), energy band diagrams, electrostatic fields, and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) are investigated. The simulation results indicate that the LED without an EBL has a better hole-injection efficiency and smaller electrostatic fields in its active region over the conventional LED with an AlGaN EBL. The simulation results also show that the LED without an EBL has severe efficiency droop. However, when the special designed p-type doped InGaN QW barriers are used, the efficiency droop is markedly improved and the electroluminescence (EL) emission intensity is greatly enhanced which is due to the improvement of the hole uniformity in the active region and small electron leakage.

  13. Photoelectrochemical characteristics of TiO2 nanorod arrays grown on fluorine doped tin oxide substrates by the facile seeding layer assisted hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Mei-rong; Han, Cui-ping; Gu, Xiu-quan; Wang, Yong; Tang, Lu; Tang, Hui

    2016-05-01

    TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs) were prepared on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by a facile two-step hydrothermal method. The nanorods were selectively grown on the FTO regions which were covered with TiO2 seeding layer. It took 5 h to obtain the compact arrays with the nanorod length of ~2 μm and diameter of ~50 nm. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of TiO2 NRAs are also investigated. It is demonstrated that the TiO2 NRAs indicate the good photoelectric conversion ability with an efficiency of 0.22% at a full-wavelength irradiation. A photocurrent density of 0.21 mA/cm2 is observed at 0.7 V versus the saturated calomel electrode (SCE). More evidences suggest that the charge transferring resistance is lowered at an irradiation, while the flat-band potential ( V fb) is shifted towards the positive side.

  14. Ionization potentials of transparent conductive indium tin oxide films covered with a single layer of fluorine-doped tin oxide nanoparticles grown by spray pyrolysis deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Fukano, Tatsuo; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi; Ida, Takashi; Hashizume, Hiroo

    2005-04-15

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited with single layers of monodispersive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) nanoparticles of several nanometers in size were grown on glass substrates by intermittent spray pyrolysis deposition using conventional atomizers. These films have significantly higher ionization potentials than the bare ITO and FTO films grown using the same technique. The ITO films covered with FTO particles of 7 nm in average size show an ionization potential of 5.01 eV, as compared with {approx}4.76 and {approx}4.64 eV in ITO and FTO films, respectively, which decreases as the FTO particle size increases. The ionization potentials are practically invariant against oxidation and reduction treatments, promising a wide application of the films to transparent conducting oxide electrodes in organic electroluminescent devices and light-emitting devices of high efficiencies.

  15. Recent Advances in Doping of Molybdenum Disulfide: Industrial Applications and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Pham, Viet Phuong; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-11-01

    Owing to their excellent physical properties, atomically thin layers of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 ) have recently attracted much attention due to their nonzero-gap property, exceptionally high electrical conductivity, good thermal stability, and excellent mechanical strength, etc. MoS2 -based devices exhibit great potential for applications in optoelectronics and energy harvesting. Here, a comprehensive review of various doping strategies is presented, including wet doping and dry doping of atomically crystalline MoS2 thin layers, and the progress made so far for their doping-based prospective applications is also discussed. Finally, several significant research issues for the prospects of doped-MoS2 in industry, as a guide for 2D material community, are also provided.

  16. Contrasting conduction mechanisms of two internal barrier layer capacitors: (Mn, Nb)-doped SrTiO3 and CaCu3Ti4O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Kosuke; Chen, Wei-Ting; Guo, Hanzheng; Lee, Wen-Hsi; Guillemet-Fritsch, Sophie; Randall, Clive A.

    2017-02-01

    The d.c. conduction is investigated in the two different types of internal barrier layer capacitors, namely, (Mn, Nb)-doped SrTiO3 (STO) and CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Capacitance - Voltage (C-V) analysis are performed to estimate the effective electric field at a grain boundary, EGB. Then, the d.c. conduction mechanism is discussed based on the J (Current density)-EGB characteristics. Three different conduction mechanisms are successively observed with the increase of EGB in both systems. In (Mn, Nb)-doped STO, non-linear J-EGB characteristics is temperature dependent at the intermediate EGB and becomes relatively insensitive to the temperature at the higher EGB. The J- EGB at each regime is explained by the Schottky emission (SE) followed by Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) tunneling. Based on the F-N tunneling, the breakdown voltage is then scaled by the function of the depletion layer thickness and Schottky barrier height at the average grain boundary. The proposed function shows a clear linear relationship with the breakdown. On the other hand, F-N tunneling was not observed in CCTO in our measurement. Ohmic, Poole-Frenkel (P-F), and SE are successively observed in CCTO. The transition point from P-F and SE depends on EGB and temperature. A charge-based deep level transient spectroscopy study reveals that 3 types of trap states exist in CCTO. The trap one with Et ˜ 0.65 eV below the conduction band is found to be responsible for the P-F conduction.

  17. Luminance behavior of lithium-doped ZnO nanowires with p-type conduction characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ko, Won Bae; Lee, Jun Seok; Lee, Sang Hyo; Cha, Seung Nam; Sohn, Jung Inn; Kim, Jong Min; Park, Young Jun; Kim, Hyun Jung; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2013-09-01

    The present study describes the room-temperature cathodeluminescence (CL) and temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) properties of p-type lithium (Li)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) grown by hydrothermal doping and post-annealing processes. A ZnO thin film was used as a seed layer in NW growth. The emission wavelengths and intensities of undoped ZnO NWs and p-type Li-doped ZnO NWs were analyzed for comparison. CL and PL observations of post-annealed p-type Li-doped ZnO NWs clearly exhibited a dominant sharp band-edge emission. Finally, a n-type ZnO thin film/p-type annealed Li-doped ZnO NW homojunction diode was prepared to confirm the p-type conduction of annealed Li-doped ZnO NWs as well as the structural properties measured by transmission electron microscopy.

  18. Electrodeposition of Mg doped ZnO thin film for the window layer of CIGS solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mang; Yi, Jie; Yang, Sui; Cao, Zhou; Huang, Xiaopan; Li, Yuanhong; Li, Hongxing; Zhong, Jianxin

    2016-09-01

    Mg doped ZnO (ZMO) film with the tunable bandgap can adjust the conduction band offset of the window/chalcopyrite absorber heterointerface to positive to reduce the interface recombination and resulting in an increasement of chalcopyrite based solar cell efficiency. A systematic study of the effect of the electrodeposition potential on morphology, crystalline structure, crystallographic orientation and optical properties of ZMO films was investigated. It is interestingly found that the prepared doped samples undergo a significant morphological change induced by the deposition potential. With negative shift of deposition potential, an obvious morphology evolution from nanorod structrue to particle covered films was observed. A possible growth mechanism for explaining the morphological change is proposed and briefly discussed. The combined optical techniques including absorption, transmission and photoluminescence were used to study the obtained ZMO films deposited at different potential. The sample deposited at -0.9 V with the hexagonal nanorods morphology shows the highest optical transparency of 92%. The photoluminescence spectra reveal that the crystallization of the hexagonal nanorod ZMO thin film deoposited at -0.9 V is much better than the particles covered ZMO thin film. Combining the structural and optical properties analysis, the obtained normal hexagonal nanorod ZMO thin film could potentially be useful in nanostructured chalcopyrite solar cells to improve the device performance.

  19. Localised doping of Li-silicate glasses by Er 3+ ion exchange to fabricate thin optical layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salavcova, Linda; Spirkova, Jarmila; Mika, Martin; Mackova, Anna; Oswald, Jiri; Langrova, Anna; Vacik, Jiri

    2007-03-01

    Here we present a new method of fabrication of erbium containing thin optical layers that could be interesting for photonics active structures. These layers were fabricated by a purely thermal ion-exchange process at temperatures above the transformation point of the used glasses to minimise internal strain that arose in the layers during the fabrication process. In order to accelerate migration of rather immobile Er3+ ions, we used substrates with a high content of easily exchangeable Li+ ions. The substrates were prepared either as specially designed Li-glasses or glasses with intentionally created Li-containing surface layers. A number of nuclear analytical methods (i.e., Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy-RBS, and neutron depth profiling-NDP), as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDAX) were used to confirm presence of erbium in the glass surface and to determine the chemical composition of the fabricated layers. Photoluminescence spectra of the fabricated samples were measured to examine desired emission at the wavelength of 1.5 μm.

  20. Strain and Electrical Characterization of Boron-Doped SiGeC Layers Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hållstedt, J.; Parent, A.; Zhang, S.-L.; Östling, M.; Radamson, H. H.

    2004-01-01

    Incorporation, induced strain and electrical properties of boron and carbon in Si1 x yGexCy epitaxial layers (x = 0.23 and 0.28 with y = 0 and 0.005) grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) have been studied. The boron concentration in the epitaxial layers was in the range of 3 × 1018 1 × 1021cm 3. The growth rate enhanced weakly by increasing boron partial pressure up to 0.002 mtorr corresponding to 2 × 1019cm 3 where a significant increase in deposition rate was observed. In SiGeC layers, the active boron concentration was obtained from the strain compensation amount. It was also found that the boron atoms have a tendency to locate at substitutional sites more preferentially compared to carbon. The incorporation of boron in SiGeC layers was clearly improved in the range 2 × 1019 3 × 1020cm 3. These investigations also enabled an estimation of the Hall scattering factor of the SiGeC layers. A comparison between our results with the previous theoretical calculations showed a good agreement. This created the possibility to evaluate the drift mobility in our samples.

  1. Study of Aluminum-doped zinc oxide current spreading layer on P-side up thin-film AlGaInP-based light-emitting diodes by ALD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Ming-Chun; Chen, Chi-Lu; Lai, Nan-Kai; Wuu, Dong-Sing; Lee, Hsin-Ying; Lin, Yu-Chang; Horng, Ray-Hua

    2015-03-01

    A twice wafer-transfer technique can be used to fabricate high-brightness p-side-up thin-film AlGaInP-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with an aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films transparent conductive layer deposited on a GaP window layer. The GaP window layer consist of the two different doping profile, the carbon doped Gap (GaP:C) window layer of 50 nm is on the top of Mg doped GaP window layer of 8 μm. The GaP:C window layer is used to improved the ohmic contact properties of GaP:C/AZO. The AZO with different cycle ratio of Zn:Al (15:1, 20:1 and 25:1) is deposited on GaP:C window layer as current spreading layer by atomic layer deposition. The AZO layer can be used to improve light extraction, which enhances light output power. The output power of p-side-up thin-film AlGaInP LED with an AZO layer of 20:1 cycle ratio has improved up to 19.2 % at injection current of 350 mA, as compared with that of LED without AZO film. The p-side-up thin-film AlGaInP LED with AZO current spreading layer exhibited excellent performance stability, the emission wavelength shift of p-side-up thin-film AlGaInP LED without and with AZO thin film(Zn:Al=20:1) are 17 nm and 3 nm under the injection current increased from 20 mA to 1000mA, respectively. This stability can be attributed to the following factors: 1) Refractive index matching, performed by introducing AZO thin film between the epoxy and the GaP window layer enhances light extraction; and 2) the favorable thermal dissipation of the silicon substrate reduces thermal degradation.

  2. Laser and optical properties of Yb:YAG ceramics with layered doping distribution: design, characterization and evaluation of different production processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toci, Guido; Lapucci, Antonio; Ciofini, Marco; Esposito, Laura; Hostaša, Jan; Gizzi, Leonida A.; Labate, Luca; Ferrara, Paolo; Pirri, Angela; Vannini, Matteo

    2016-03-01

    The laser, optical and spectroscopic properties of multilayer Yb:YAG ceramic structures, differently activated, were investigated. The structures were designed by means of Finite Element Modeling, adjusting the doping distributions to reduce peak temperature, surface deformation and thermally induced stresses, depending on the pump and cooling geometry. Two ceramic processes were used, i.e. dry pressing of spray-dried powders (SD) and tape casting (TC), resulting in different defect density and size distribution: TC gives a more uniform transmission, whereas SD results in larger, unevenly scattered defects. The spectroscopic properties were found independent from the production process. The laser performance has been characterized under high intensity pumping in a longitudinally diode pumped laser cavity, comparing the behavior of the different structures in terms of slope efficiency, stability under increasing thermal load, spatial uniformity of laser emission. Slope efficiency values as high as 58% in Quasi-CW pumping conditions and 54% in CW conditions was measured in two-layers structures. The production process and the number of layers influenced the behavior of the samples, in particular regarding the spatial uniformity of the laser emission. Samples made by tape casting have shown overall a better thermal stability with respect to the samples made by spray drying.

  3. Thickness Effect of Al-Doped ZnO Window Layer on Damp Heat Stability of CuInGaSe2 Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Pern, F. J.; Mansfield, L.; DeHart, C.; Glick, S. H.; Yan, F.; Noufi, R.

    2011-07-01

    We investigated the damp heat (DH) stability of CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells as a function of thickness of the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) window layer from the 'standard' 0.12 μm to a modest 0.50 μm over an underlying 0.10-μm intrinsic ZnO buffer layer. The CIGS cells were prepared with external electrical contact using fine Au wire to the tiny 'standard' Ni/Al (0.05 μm/3 μm) metal grid contact pads. Bare cell coupons and sample sets encapsulated in a specially designed, Al-frame test structure with an opening for moisture ingress control using a TPT backsheet were exposed to DH at 85oC and 85% relative humidity, and characterized by current-voltage (I-V), quantum efficiency (QE), and (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (ECIS). The results show that bare cells exhibited rapid degradation within 50-100 h, accompanied by film wrinkling and delamination and corrosion of Mo and AlNi grid, regardless of AZO thickness. In contrast, the encapsulated cells did not show film wrinkling, delamination, and Mo corrosion after 168 h DH exposure; but the trend of efficiency degradation rate showed a weak correlation to the AZO thickness.

  4. Minimizing Unintentional Strain and Doping of Single-Layer Graphene on SiO2 in Aqueous Environments by Acid Treatments.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Katsuya; Sano, Masahito

    2015-05-05

    The effects of treating SiO2/Si with either acidic or alkaline solutions on single-layer graphene were investigated using Raman microscopy. It is well-known that in air graphene on SiO2 is unintentionally strained and hole-doped to different degrees, varying widely by sample. It is also known that various amine compounds act as electron donors to graphitic materials. In this study, a SiO2/Si substrate was simply dipped in either a concentrated HCl solution or pH 9.0 NaOH solution and then rinsed, prior to transferring graphene on it. The G and 2D peaks were followed at a fixed position on a single-layer graphene flake in water and various concentrations of pH 7.4 tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) buffer. The results demonstrate that these treatments reduce the sample variation, improve the stability against Tris, and even bring some graphene samples close to a freestanding state. The Raman analysis reveals that the main effect of dipping is to relieve strain. The undoping effect on some samples is explained by the HCl solution becoming trapped between the graphene and SiO2 surface.

  5. Fabrication and characterization of silicon wire solar cells having ZnO nanorod antireflection coating on Al-doped ZnO seed layer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have fabricated and characterized the silicon [Si] wire solar cells with conformal ZnO nanorod antireflection coating [ARC] grown on a Al-doped ZnO [AZO] seed layer. Vertically aligned Si wire arrays were fabricated by electrochemical etching and, the p-n junction was prepared by spin-on dopant diffusion method. Hydrothermal growth of the ZnO nanorods was followed by AZO film deposition on high aspect ratio Si microwire arrays by atomic layer deposition [ALD]. The introduction of an ALD-deposited AZO film on Si wire arrays not only helps to create the ZnO nanorod arrays, but also has a strong impact on the reduction of surface recombination. The reflectance spectra show that ZnO nanorods were used as an efficient ARC to enhance light absorption by multiple scattering. Also, from the current-voltage results, we found that the combination of the AZO film and ZnO nanorods on Si wire solar cells leads to an increased power conversion efficiency by more than 27% compared to the cells without it. PMID:22222067

  6. Effect of the microstructural characteristics of a Ga-doped TiO2 hole block layer on an inverted structure organic solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Ryu, Sang Ouk

    2016-09-01

    Inverted-structure organic solar cells (OSCs) were fabricated using atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) processed Ga-doped TiO2 as hole blocking layer (HBL). Measured photovoltaic efficiencies were greatly related to the crystallinity of the TiO2 films. However, the efficiencies of the OSCs and the crystallinity of the HBL did not show a linear relationship. The HBL was fully crystallized at a deposition temperature of 200 °C or above, and the power conversion efficiency was measured to be 2.7% with for the HBL processed at 200 °C, but the efficiency decreased to 2.4% for the HBL processed at 250 °C. On the other hand, the surface roughness of the crystallized films was found be increased to two fold in the studied temperature range. Once the HBL had been fully crystallized, the major factor that determined the overall performance of OSCs was the surface roughness of the HBL.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of silicon wire solar cells having ZnO nanorod antireflection coating on Al-doped ZnO seed layer.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seong-Ho; Noh, Bum-Young; Park, Il-Kyu; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2012-01-05

    In this study, we have fabricated and characterized the silicon [Si] wire solar cells with conformal ZnO nanorod antireflection coating [ARC] grown on a Al-doped ZnO [AZO] seed layer. Vertically aligned Si wire arrays were fabricated by electrochemical etching and, the p-n junction was prepared by spin-on dopant diffusion method. Hydrothermal growth of the ZnO nanorods was followed by AZO film deposition on high aspect ratio Si microwire arrays by atomic layer deposition [ALD]. The introduction of an ALD-deposited AZO film on Si wire arrays not only helps to create the ZnO nanorod arrays, but also has a strong impact on the reduction of surface recombination. The reflectance spectra show that ZnO nanorods were used as an efficient ARC to enhance light absorption by multiple scattering. Also, from the current-voltage results, we found that the combination of the AZO film and ZnO nanorods on Si wire solar cells leads to an increased power conversion efficiency by more than 27% compared to the cells without it.

  8. Local structure of Fe in Fe-doped misfit-layered calcium cobaltite: An X-ray absorption spectroscopy study

    SciTech Connect

    Prasoetsopha, Natkrita; Pinitsoontorn, Supree; Bootchanont, Atipong; Kidkhunthod, Pinit; Srepusharawoot, Pornjuk; Kamwanna, Teerasak; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Kurosaki, Ken; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2013-08-15

    Polycrystalline Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 9+δ} ceramics (x=0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05) were fabricated using a simple thermal hydro-decomposition method and a spark plasma sintering technique. Thermoelectric property measurements showed that increasing Fe concentration resulted in a decrease in electrical resistivity, thermopower and thermal conductivity, leading to an improvement in the dimensionless figure-of-merit, >35% for x=0.05 at 1073 K. An X-ray absorption spectroscopy technique was used to investigate the local structure of Fe ions in the Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 9+δ} structure for the first time. By fitting data from the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra and analyzing the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra incorporated with first principle simulation, it was shown that Fe was substituted for Co in the the Ca{sub 2}CoO{sub 3} (rocksalt, RS) layer rather than in the CoO{sub 2} layer. Variation in the thermoelectric properties as a function of Fe concentration was attributed to charge transfer between the CoO{sub 2} and the RS layers. The origin of the preferential Fe substitution site was investigated considering the ionic radii of Co and Fe and the total energy of the system. - Graphical abstract: The Fe K-edge XANES spectra of: (a) experimental result in comparison to the simulated spectra when Fe atoms were substituted in the RS layer; (b) with magnetic moment; (c) without magnetic moment, and in the CoO{sub 2} layer; (d) with magnetic moment and (e) without magnetic moment. Highlights: • Synthesis, structural studies, and thermoelectric properties of Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 9+δ}. • Direct evidence for the local structure of the Fe ions in the Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 9+δ} using XAS analysis. • EXAFS and XANES analysis showed that Fe was likely to be situated in the RS layer structure. • Changes in TE property with Fe content was due to charge transfer between

  9. Effect of Si, Sc, Cr doping on the structural, optical and discharge characteristics of MgO thin films as protective layer for plasma display panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Chandra Bhal; Barik, U. K.; Sarkar, Surajit; Singh, Vandana; Ram, Sanjay K.; Dwivedi, Harish K.; Kumar, Satyendra

    2012-10-01

    We report the effect of Si, Cr, Sc doping in the crystalline structure, optical and discharge characteristics of MgO thin films. Silicon and multiple (Si, Cr, Sc) doped MgO thin films demonstrate higher secondary electron emission (SEE). Si doping with Cr and Sc doping in MgO films shows much higher SEE as compared to pure and only Si doped MgO films. The importance of optimum amount of Sc doping is seen in our study where SEE reduced with further increase in Sc doping. The structural attributes of MgO films are correlated to the observed changes in discharge characteristics in the context of varying amount of Si, Sc, and Cr doping.

  10. Impact of Copper-Doped Titanium Dioxide Interfacial Layers on the Interface-State and Electrical Properties of Si-based MOS Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, Seçkİn; Sönmezoğlu, Savaş

    2015-09-01

    The current study presents the interface-state and electrical properties of silicon (Si)-based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices using copper-doped titanium dioxide (Cu:TiO2) nanoparticles for possible applications as an interfacial layer in scaled high-k/metal gate MOSFET technology. The structural properties of the Cu:TiO2 nanoparticles have been obtained by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis-NIR spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy measurements; they were compared with pure TiO2 thin film. With the incorporation of Cu, rutile-dominated anatase/rutile multiphase crystalline was revealed by XRD analysis. To understand the nature of this structure, the electronic parameters controlling the device performance were calculated using current-voltage ( I- V), capacitance-voltage ( C- V), and conductance-voltage ( G- V) measurements. The ideality factor ( n) was 1.21 for the Al/Cu:TiO2/ p-Si MOS device, while the barrier height ϕ b was 0.75 eV with semi-log I- V characteristics. This is in good agreement with 0.78 eV measured by the Norde model. Possible reasons for the deviation of the ideality factor from unity have been addressed. From the C- V measurements, the values of diffusion potential, barrier height, and carrier concentration were extracted as 0.67, 0.98 eV, and 8.73 × 1013 cm-3, respectively. Our results encourage further work to develop process steps that would allow the Cu-doped TiO2 film/Si interface to play a major role in microelectronic applications.

  11. Atomic layer deposition of highly-doped Er:Al2O3 and Tm:Al2O3 for silicon-based waveguide amplifiers (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roenn, John; Karvonen, Lasse; Pyymäki-Perros, Alexander; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Lipsanen, Harri; Säynätjoki, Antti; Sun, Zhipei

    2016-05-01

    Recently, rare-earth doped waveguide amplifiers (REDWAs) have drawn significant attention as a promising solution to on-chip amplification of light in silicon photonics and integrated optics by virtue of their high excited state lifetime (up to 10 ms) and broad emission spectrum (up to 200 nm) at infrared wavelengths. In the family of rare-earths, at least erbium, holmium, thulium, neodymium and ytterbium have been demonstrated to be good candidates for amplifier operation at moderate concentrations (< 0.1 %). However, efficient amplifier operation in REDWAs is a very challenging task because high concentration of ions (<0.1%) is required in order to produce reasonable amplification over short device length. Inevitably, high concentration of ions leads to energy-transfer between neighboring ions, which results as decreased gain and increased noise in the amplifier system. It has been shown that these energy-transfer mechanisms in highly-doped gain media are inversely proportional to the sixth power of the distance between the ions. Therefore, novel fabrication techniques with the ability to control the distribution of the rare-earth ions within the gain medium are urgently needed in order to fabricate REDWAs with high efficiency and low noise. Here, we show that atomic layer deposition (ALD) is an excellent technique to fabricate highly-doped (<1%) RE:Al2O3 gain materials by using its nanoscale engineering ability to delicately control the incorporation of RE ions during the deposition. In our experiment, we fabricated Er:Al2O3 and Tm:Al2O3 thin films with ALD by varying the concentration of RE ions from 1% to 7%. By measuring the photoluminescence response of the fabricated samples, we demonstrate that it is possible to incorporate up to 5% of either Er- or Tm-ions in Al2O3 host before severe quenching occurs. We believe that this technique can be extended to other RE ions as well. Therefore, our results show the exceptionality of ALD as a deposition technique for

  12. Ab initio study of doping effects in the 42214 compounds: A new family of layered iron-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucci, F.; Sanna, A.; Profeta, G.; Continenza, A.; Gross, E. K. U.

    2017-01-01

    We present a systematic DFT-GGA theoretical characterization of the RE4Fe2As2Te1 -xO4 -yFy family of compounds (conventionally called 42214) as a function of a set of key tuning parameters: rare earth (RE = Pr, Sm, and Gd), Te content, oxygen → fluorine substitutional doping, and external pressure. We focus our discussion on the effect of these parameters on magnetic stability and on the nonmagnetic electronic structure, as most relevant aspects related to the occurrence of superconductivity. To uncover the complexity of the 42214 crystal structure, the electronic analysis is based on an unfolding procedure that allows us to observe the behavior of the hole and electron pockets of the Fermi surface and of the nesting function. We complete the present study with the characterization of a related hypothetical compound having Se substituting for Te. Our results show that this peculiar compound family offers very good opportunities to properly harness material properties; based on our results, we infer that suitably tuning a variety of parameters, as those examined here, improved superconducting properties could be achieved.

  13. Effect of nitrogen doping on wetting and photoactive properties of laser processed zinc oxide-graphene oxide nanocomposite layers

    SciTech Connect

    György, E.; Pérez del Pino, A.; Logofatu, C.; Duta, A.; Isac, L.

    2014-07-14

    Zinc oxide-graphene oxide nanocomposite layers were submitted to laser irradiation in air or controlled nitrogen atmosphere using a frequency quadrupled Nd:YAG (λ = 266 nm, τ{sub FWHM} ≅ 3 ns, ν = 10 Hz) laser source. The experiments were performed in air at atmospheric pressure or in nitrogen at a pressure of 2 × 10{sup 4} Pa. The effect of the irradiation conditions, incident laser fluence value, and number of subsequent laser pulses on the surface morphology of the composite material was systematically investigated. The obtained results reveal that nitrogen incorporation improves significantly the wetting and photoactive properties of the laser processed layers. The kinetics of water contact angle variation when the samples are submitted to laser irradiation in nitrogen are faster than that of the samples irradiated in air, the surfaces becoming super-hydrophilic under UV light irradiation.

  14. Delta-doping of Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, E. F.

    2005-08-01

    Part I: 1. Introduction E. F. Schubert; Part II: 2. Electronic structure of delta-doped semiconductors C. R. Proetto; Part III: 3. Recent progress in delta-like confinement of impurities in GaAs K. H. Ploog; 4. Flow-rate modulation epitaxy (FME) of III-V semiconductors T. Makimoto and Y. Horikoshi; 5. Gas source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) of delta-doped III-V semiconductors D. Ritter; 6. Solid phase epitaxy for delta-doping in silicon I. Eisele; 7. Low temperature MBE of silicon H.-J. Gossmann; Part IV: 8. Secondary ion mass spectrometry of delta-doped semiconductors H. S. Luftmann; 9. Capacitance-voltage profiling E. F. Schubert; 10. Redistribution of impurities in III-V semiconductors E. F. Schubert; 11. Dopant diffusion and segregation in delta-doped silicon films H.-J. Gossmann; 12. Characterisation of silicon and delta-doped structures in GaAs R. C. Newman; 13. The DX-center in silicon delta-doped GaAs and AlxGa1-xAs P. M. Koenraad; Part V: 14. Luminescence and ellipsometry spectroscopy H. Yao and E. F. Schubert; 15. Photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy of single delta-doped III-V semiconductor heterostructures J. Wagner and D. Richards; 16. Electron transport in delta-doped quantum wells W. T. Masselink; 17. Electron mobility in delta-doped layers P. M. Koenraad; 18. Hot electrons in delta-doped GaAs M. Asche; 19. Ordered delta-doping R. L. Headrick, L. C. Feldman and B. E. Weir; Part IV: 20. Delta-doped channel III-V field effect transistors (FETs) W.-P. Hong; 21. Selectively doped heterostructure devices E. F. Schubert; 22. Silicon atomic layer doping FET K. Nakagawa and K. Yamaguchi; 23. Planar doped barrier devices R. J. Malik; 24. Silicon interband and intersubband photodetectors I. Eisele; 25. Doping superlattice devices E. F. Schubert.

  15. Spontaneous and strong multi-layer graphene n-doping on soda-lime glass and its application in graphene-semiconductor junctions

    DOE PAGES

    Dissanayake, D. M. N. M.; Ashraf, A.; Dwyer, D.; ...

    2016-02-12

    Scalable and low-cost doping of graphene could improve technologies in a wide range of fields such as microelectronics, optoelectronics, and energy storage. While achieving strong p-doping is relatively straightforward, non-electrostatic approaches to n-dope graphene, such as chemical doping, have yielded electron densities of 9.5 × 1012 e/cm2 or below. Furthermore, chemical doping is susceptible to degradation and can adversely affect intrinsic graphene’s properties. Here we demonstrate strong (1.33 × 1013 e/cm2), robust, and spontaneous graphene n-doping on a soda-lime-glass substrate via surface-transfer doping from Na without any external chemical, high-temperature, or vacuum processes. Remarkably, the n-doping reaches 2.11 × 1013more » e/cm2 when graphene is transferred onto a p-type copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) semiconductor that itself has been deposited onto soda-lime-glass, via surface-transfer doping from Na atoms that diffuse to the CIGS surface. Using this effect, we demonstrate an n-graphene/p-semiconductor Schottky junction with ideality factor of 1.21 and strong photo-response. As a result, the ability to achieve strong and persistent graphene n-doping on low-cost, industry-standard materials paves the way toward an entirely new class of graphene-based devices such as photodetectors, photovoltaics, sensors, batteries, and supercapacitors.« less

  16. Spontaneous and strong multi-layer graphene n-doping on soda-lime glass and its application in graphene-semiconductor junctions

    PubMed Central

    Dissanayake, D. M. N. M.; Ashraf, A.; Dwyer, D.; Kisslinger, K.; Zhang, L.; Pang, Y.; Efstathiadis, H.; Eisaman, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Scalable and low-cost doping of graphene could improve technologies in a wide range of fields such as microelectronics, optoelectronics, and energy storage. While achieving strong p-doping is relatively straightforward, non-electrostatic approaches to n-dope graphene, such as chemical doping, have yielded electron densities of 9.5 × 1012 e/cm2 or below. Furthermore, chemical doping is susceptible to degradation and can adversely affect intrinsic graphene’s properties. Here we demonstrate strong (1.33 × 1013 e/cm2), robust, and spontaneous graphene n-doping on a soda-lime-glass substrate via surface-transfer doping from Na without any external chemical, high-temperature, or vacuum processes. Remarkably, the n-doping reaches 2.11 × 1013 e/cm2 when graphene is transferred onto a p-type copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) semiconductor that itself has been deposited onto soda-lime-glass, via surface-transfer doping from Na atoms that diffuse to the CIGS surface. Using this effect, we demonstrate an n-graphene/p-semiconductor Schottky junction with ideality factor of 1.21 and strong photo-response. The ability to achieve strong and persistent graphene n-doping on low-cost, industry-standard materials paves the way toward an entirely new class of graphene-based devices such as photodetectors, photovoltaics, sensors, batteries, and supercapacitors. PMID:26867673

  17. Spontaneous and strong multi-layer graphene n-doping on soda-lime glass and its application in graphene-semiconductor junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dissanayake, D. M. N. M.; Ashraf, A.; Dwyer, D.; Kisslinger, K.; Zhang, L.; Pang, Y.; Efstathiadis, H.; Eisaman, M. D.

    2016-02-01

    Scalable and low-cost doping of graphene could improve technologies in a wide range of fields such as microelectronics, optoelectronics, and energy storage. While achieving strong p-doping is relatively straightforward, non-electrostatic approaches to n-dope graphene, such as chemical doping, have yielded electron densities of 9.5 × 1012 e/cm2 or below. Furthermore, chemical doping is susceptible to degradation and can adversely affect intrinsic graphene’s properties. Here we demonstrate strong (1.33 × 1013 e/cm2), robust, and spontaneous graphene n-doping on a soda-lime-glass substrate via surface-transfer doping from Na without any external chemical, high-temperature, or vacuum processes. Remarkably, the n-doping reaches 2.11 × 1013 e/cm2 when graphene is transferred onto a p-type copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) semiconductor that itself has been deposited onto soda-lime-glass, via surface-transfer doping from Na atoms that diffuse to the CIGS surface. Using this effect, we demonstrate an n-graphene/p-semiconductor Schottky junction with ideality factor of 1.21 and strong photo-response. The ability to achieve strong and persistent graphene n-doping on low-cost, industry-standard materials paves the way toward an entirely new class of graphene-based devices such as photodetectors, photovoltaics, sensors, batteries, and supercapacitors.

  18. Spontaneous and strong multi-layer graphene n-doping on soda-lime glass and its application in graphene-semiconductor junctions.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, D M N M; Ashraf, A; Dwyer, D; Kisslinger, K; Zhang, L; Pang, Y; Efstathiadis, H; Eisaman, M D

    2016-02-12

    Scalable and low-cost doping of graphene could improve technologies in a wide range of fields such as microelectronics, optoelectronics, and energy storage. While achieving strong p-doping is relatively straightforward, non-electrostatic approaches to n-dope graphene, such as chemical doping, have yielded electron densities of 9.5 × 10(12) e/cm(2) or below. Furthermore, chemical doping is susceptible to degradation and can adversely affect intrinsic graphene's properties. Here we demonstrate strong (1.33 × 10(13) e/cm(2)), robust, and spontaneous graphene n-doping on a soda-lime-glass substrate via surface-transfer doping from Na without any external chemical, high-temperature, or vacuum processes. Remarkably, the n-doping reaches 2.11 × 10(13) e/cm(2) when graphene is transferred onto a p-type copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) semiconductor that itself has been deposited onto soda-lime-glass, via surface-transfer doping from Na atoms that diffuse to the CIGS surface. Using this effect, we demonstrate an n-graphene/p-semiconductor Schottky junction with ideality factor of 1.21 and strong photo-response. The ability to achieve strong and persistent graphene n-doping on low-cost, industry-standard materials paves the way toward an entirely new class of graphene-based devices such as photodetectors, photovoltaics, sensors, batteries, and supercapacitors.

  19. Optical properties of ion-doped ZnO(Se) layers in the context of band anticrossing theory

    SciTech Connect

    Morozova, N. K.; Galstyan, V. G.; Volkov, A. O.; Mashchenko, V. E.

    2015-09-15

    The study of the optical properties of ZnO(Se) is a continuation of previous studies of ZnS(O), ZnSe(O), and CdS(O) systems in the context of band anticrossing theory. Selenium ions are implanted into high-purity zinc oxide crystals to a concentration of 10{sup 20} cm{sup –3}. The microcathodoluminescence spectra recorded with a scanning electron microscope at a temperature of 100 K provide information from the bulk of the implanted layer. The origin of the orange-red luminescence of ZnO(Se)–Zn layers is clarified. Orangered luminescence is thought to be a result of the formation of a highly mismatched alloy system, in which ZnSe(O) is formed during implantation and radiation annealing. Data suggesting that the green luminescence of pure self-activated ZnO–Zn is the self-activated (SA) emission studied in detail for other II–VI compounds (ZnS(O), ZnSe(O)) and defined by intrinsic defect complexes (A centers) are reported.

  20. Effect of different final irrigating solutions on smear layer removal in apical third of root canal: A scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Vemuri, Sayesh; Kolanu, Sreeha Kaluva; Varri, Sujana; Pabbati, Ravi Kumar; Penumaka, Ramesh; Bolla, Nagesh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this in vitro study is to compare the smear layer removal efficacy of different irrigating solutions at the apical third of the root canal. Materials and Methods: Forty human single-rooted mandibular premolar teeth were taken and decoronated to standardize the canal length to 14 mm. They were prepared by ProTaper rotary system to an apical preparation of file size F3. Prepared teeth were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10); saline (Group 1; negative control), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Group 2), BioPure MTAD (Group 3), and QMix 2 in 1 (Group 4). After final irrigation with tested irrigants, the teeth were split into two halves longitudinally and observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for the removal of smear layer. The SEM images were then analyzed for the amount of smear layer present using a three score system. Statistical Analysis: Data are analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Intergroup comparison of groups showed statistically significant difference in the smear layer removal efficacy of irrigants tested. QMix 2 in 1 is most effective in removal of smear layer when compared to other tested irrigants. Conclusion: QMix 2 in 1 is the most effective final irrigating solution for smear layer removal. PMID:26957801

  1. Low temperature p-type doping of (Al)GaN layers using ammonia molecular beam epitaxy for InGaN laser diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Malinverni, M. Lamy, J.-M.; Martin, D.; Grandjean, N.; Feltin, E.; Dorsaz, J.; Castiglia, A.; Rossetti, M.; Duelk, M.; Vélez, C.

    2014-12-15

    We demonstrate state-of-the-art p-type (Al)GaN layers deposited at low temperature (740 °C) by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy (NH{sub 3}-MBE) to be used as top cladding of laser diodes (LDs) with the aim of further reducing the thermal budget on the InGaN quantum well active region. Typical p-type GaN resistivities and contact resistances are 0.4 Ω cm and 5 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm{sup 2}, respectively. As a test bed, we fabricated a hybrid laser structure emitting at 400 nm combining n-type AlGaN cladding and InGaN active region grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy, with the p-doped waveguide and cladding layers grown by NH{sub 3}-MBE. Single-mode ridge-waveguide LD exhibits a threshold voltage as low as 4.3 V for an 800 × 2 μm{sup 2} ridge dimension and a threshold current density of ∼5 kA cm{sup −2} in continuous wave operation. The series resistance of the device is 6 Ω and the resistivity is 1.5 Ω cm, confirming thereby the excellent electrical properties of p-type Al{sub 0.06}Ga{sub 0.94}N:Mg despite the low growth temperature.

  2. High power GaN-based LEDs with nano-structured Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) transparent conductive layer (TCL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Weiqing; Fan, Bingfeng; Jiang, Hao; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Baijun; Xian, Yulun; Huang, Shanjing; Zheng, Zhiyuan; Wu, Zhisheng; Tong, Keny; Wong, Raymond; Wang, Gang

    2010-12-01

    High power GaN-based LEDs with nano-structured Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) transparent conductive layer (TCL) were fabricated by using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. Compared with the conventional LED with Ni/Au or ITO process, the saturation current in the LEDs with GZO TCL approximately increased up to more than 14 % and 13 %, and the light output intensity up to 57.5 % and 30.1 %, respectively. This improvement was attributed to the high carrier concentration of GZO TCL and the planar structure at the TCL bottom, which improved the electrical conductivity, and therefore promoted current spreading. The refractive index of GZO is similar to GaN (n ~ 2) and thereby results in the reduction of the reflection loss between GaN and TCL interface. In addition, the nano-structure of GZO TCL increased the light output critical angle and enhanced surface light emitting while reducing the lateral light loss and consequently improved light extraction efficiency of LEDs.

  3. Plasmonic Three-Dimensional Transparent Conductor Based on Al-Doped Zinc Oxide-Coated Nanostructured Glass Using Atomic Layer Deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Malek, Gary A.; Aytug, Tolga; Liu, Qingfeng; ...

    2015-04-02

    Transparent nanostructured glass coatings, fabricated on glass substrates, with a unique three-dimensional (3D) architecture were utilized as the foundation for the design of plasmonic 3D transparent conductors. Transformation of the non-conducting 3D structure to a conducting 3D network was accomplished through atomic layer deposition of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO). After AZO growth, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were deposited by electronbeam evaporation to enhance light trapping and decrease the overall sheet resistance. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microcopy images revealed the highly porous, nanostructured morphology of the AZO coated glass surface along with the in-plane dimensions of the depositedmore » AuNPs. Sheet resistance measurements conducted on the coated samples verified that the electrical properties of the 3D network are comparable to that of the untextured two-dimensional AZO coated glass substrates. In addition, transmittance measurements of the glass samples coated with various AZO thicknesses showed preservation of the highly transparent nature of each sample, while the AuNPs demonstrated enhanced light scattering as well as light-trapping capability.« less

  4. Performance enhancement of perovskite solar cells with Mg-doped TiO{sub 2} compact film as the hole-blocking layer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jing; Qin, Minchao; Tao, Hong; Ke, Weijun; Chen, Zhao; Wan, Jiawei; Qin, Pingli; Lei, Hongwei; Fang, Guojia; Xiong, Liangbin; Yu, Huaqing

    2015-03-23

    In this letter, we report perovskite solar cells with thin dense Mg-doped TiO{sub 2} as hole-blocking layers (HBLs), which outperform cells using TiO{sub 2} HBLs in several ways: higher open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) (1.08 V), power conversion efficiency (12.28%), short-circuit current, and fill factor. These properties improvements are attributed to the better properties of Mg-modulated TiO{sub 2} as compared to TiO{sub 2} such as better optical transmission properties, upshifted conduction band minimum (CBM) and downshifted valence band maximum (VBM), better hole-blocking effect, and higher electron life time. The higher-lying CBM due to the modulation with wider band gap MgO and the formation of magnesium oxide and magnesium hydroxides together resulted in an increment of V{sub oc}. In addition, the Mg-modulated TiO{sub 2} with lower VBM played a better role in the hole-blocking. The HBL with modulated band position provided better electron transport and hole blocking effects within the device.

  5. Performance enhancement of perovskite solar cells with Mg-doped TiO2 compact film as the hole-blocking layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Qin, Minchao; Tao, Hong; Ke, Weijun; Chen, Zhao; Wan, Jiawei; Qin, Pingli; Xiong, Liangbin; Lei, Hongwei; Yu, Huaqing; Fang, Guojia

    2015-03-01

    In this letter, we report perovskite solar cells with thin dense Mg-doped TiO2 as hole-blocking layers (HBLs), which outperform cells using TiO2 HBLs in several ways: higher open-circuit voltage (Voc) (1.08 V), power conversion efficiency (12.28%), short-circuit current, and fill factor. These properties improvements are attributed to the better properties of Mg-modulated TiO2 as compared to TiO2 such as better optical transmission properties, upshifted conduction band minimum (CBM) and downshifted valence band maximum (VBM), better hole-blocking effect, and higher electron life time. The higher-lying CBM due to the modulation with wider band gap MgO and the formation of magnesium oxide and magnesium hydroxides together resulted in an increment of Voc. In addition, the Mg-modulated TiO2 with lower VBM played a better role in the hole-blocking. The HBL with modulated band position provided better electron transport and hole blocking effects within the device.

  6. N-doped graphene layers encapsulated NiFe alloy nanoparticles derived from MOFs with superior electrochemical performance for oxygen evolution reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yi; Yu, Xin-Yao; Paik, Ungyu

    2016-09-01

    Water splitting, an efficient approach for hydrogen production, is often hindered by unfavorable kinetics of oxygen evolution reaction (OER). In order to reduce the overpotential, noble metal oxides-based electrocatalysts like RuO2 and IrO2 are usually utilized. However, due to their scarcity, the development of cost-effective non-precious OER electrocatalysts with high efficiency and good stability is urgently required. Herein, we report a facile one-step annealing of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) strategy to synthesize N-doped graphene layers encapsulated NiFe alloy nanoparticles (NiFe@C). Through tuning the nanoparticle size and calcination temperature, NiFe@C with an average size of around 16 nm obtained at 700 °C exhibits superior OER performance with an overpotential of only 281 mV at 10 mA cm‑2 and high durability. The facile synthesis method and excellent electrochemical performance show great potential of NiFe@C in replacing the precious metal-based electrocatalysts in the OER.

  7. Utilizing ionic liquids for controlled N-doping in hard-templated, mesoporous carbon electrodes for high-performance electrochemical double-layer capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Benjamin E.; He, Siyao; Buffington, Keegan; Rudisill, Stephen; Smyrl, William H.; Stein, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The specific energy of electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) can be increased by design of the pore architecture to provide large interfaces between electrodes and electrolyte and efficient access to these surfaces. Colloidal-crystal templated carbon electrodes with interconnected, uniform mesopores have demonstrated high capacitances at fast charge/discharge rates in EDLCs used with ionic liquid electrolytes. Here we aim to enhance capacitive performance further through nitrogen doping, by combining a phenol-formaldehyde precursor with the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanoamide (EMI-DCA) as the nitrogen source. The IL content in this precursor affects the resistance, structural integrity, and specific capacitance of the porous electrodes. With an IL content up to 50 wt%, the electrode resistance is reduced while the bicontinuous mesoporous structure of the resulting carbon is preserved. The specific capacitance of an electrode prepared with 50% IL in the precursor increases over 40% at 10 A g-1 compared to mesoporous carbons prepared using only the phenol-formaldehyde resol. With an ionic liquid electrolyte, the maximum specific capacitance is 237 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1, and a specific capacitance of at least 195 F g-1 is maintained after 1000 cycles at 1 A g-1. A higher IL content in the precursor results in reduced structural order and capacitive performance.

  8. N-doped graphene layers encapsulated NiFe alloy nanoparticles derived from MOFs with superior electrochemical performance for oxygen evolution reaction

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yi; Yu, Xin-Yao; Paik, Ungyu

    2016-01-01

    Water splitting, an efficient approach for hydrogen production, is often hindered by unfavorable kinetics of oxygen evolution reaction (OER). In order to reduce the overpotential, noble metal oxides-based electrocatalysts like RuO2 and IrO2 are usually utilized. However, due to their scarcity, the development of cost-effective non-precious OER electrocatalysts with high efficiency and good stability is urgently required. Herein, we report a facile one-step annealing of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) strategy to synthesize N-doped graphene layers encapsulated NiFe alloy nanoparticles (NiFe@C). Through tuning the nanoparticle size and calcination temperature, NiFe@C with an average size of around 16 nm obtained at 700 °C exhibits superior OER performance with an overpotential of only 281 mV at 10 mA cm−2 and high durability. The facile synthesis method and excellent electrochemical performance show great potential of NiFe@C in replacing the precious metal-based electrocatalysts in the OER. PMID:27658968

  9. Antenna Effect on the Organic Spacer-Modified Eu-Doped Layered Gadolinium Hydroxide for the Detection of Vanadate Ions over a Wide pH Range.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Heejin; Lee, Byung-Il; Byeon, Song-Ho

    2016-05-04

    The excitation of the adsorbed vanadate group led to the red emission arising from the efficient energy transfer to Eu-doped layered gadolinium hydroxide (LGdH:Eu). This light-harvesting antenna effect allowed LGdH:Eu to detect selectively a vanadate in aqueous solution at different pHs. Because vanadate exists in various forms by extensive oligomerization and protonation reactions in aqueous solution depending on pH, it is important to detect a vanadate regardless of its form over a wide pH range. In particular, spacer molecules with long alkyl chains greatly facilitated access of a vanadate antenna into the interlayer surface of LGdH:Eu. The concomitant increase in adsorption capacity of LGdH:Eu achieved a strong antenna effect of vanadate on the red emission from Eu(3+). When a suspension containing LGdH:Eu nanosheets (1.0 g/L) was used, the vanadate concentration down to 1 × 10(-5) M could even be visually monitored, and the detection limit based on the (5)D0 → (7)F2 emission intensity could reach 4.5 × 10(-8) M.

  10. Plasmonic Three-Dimensional Transparent Conductor Based on Al-Doped Zinc Oxide-Coated Nanostructured Glass Using Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Malek, Gary A.; Aytug, Tolga; Liu, Qingfeng; Wu, Judy

    2015-04-02

    Transparent nanostructured glass coatings, fabricated on glass substrates, with a unique three-dimensional (3D) architecture were utilized as the foundation for the design of plasmonic 3D transparent conductors. Transformation of the non-conducting 3D structure to a conducting 3D network was accomplished through atomic layer deposition of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO). After AZO growth, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were deposited by electronbeam evaporation to enhance light trapping and decrease the overall sheet resistance. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microcopy images revealed the highly porous, nanostructured morphology of the AZO coated glass surface along with the in-plane dimensions of the deposited AuNPs. Sheet resistance measurements conducted on the coated samples verified that the electrical properties of the 3D network are comparable to that of the untextured two-dimensional AZO coated glass substrates. In addition, transmittance measurements of the glass samples coated with various AZO thicknesses showed preservation of the highly transparent nature of each sample, while the AuNPs demonstrated enhanced light scattering as well as light-trapping capability.

  11. Raman scattering enhancement characteristic of Nb-doped silica fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kun; Chen, Zhenyi; Chen, Na; Guo, Qiang; Bai, Hua; Pang, Fufei; Wang, Tingyun

    2010-12-01

    Raman scattering enhancement characteristic of a new kind of Nb-doped silica fiber has been studied in this paper. This Nb-doped special silica optical fiber is fabricated on Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition (MCVD) (which is the traditional fiber preform fabrication technologies) combined with Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). Meanwhile, Raman spectrum of different length Nb-doped special silica optical fiber samples has been measured with the 785nm exciting light. Then, it develops the measurement comparison between Nb-doped special silica optical fiber and conventional single-mode optical fiber in the wavelength range from 820nm to 920nm. The measuring results indicate that the new Nb-doped special silica optical fiber shows higher Raman scattering intensity compared with conventional single-mode optical fiber. On the other hand, the inferred spectrum of the new Nb-doped special silica optical fiber is also measured, and its measurement wavenumber range is from 400 cm-1 to 4000 cm-1. Finally, the loss spectrum of the Nb-doped special silica optical fiber is measured and its loss at 1550nm is 0.01dB/m.

  12. Research Update: Atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition of ZnO thin films: Reactors, doping, and devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hoye, Robert L. Z. E-mail: jld35@cam.ac.uk; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L. E-mail: jld35@cam.ac.uk; Muñoz-Rojas, David; Nelson, Shelby F.; Illiberi, Andrea; Poodt, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition (AP-SALD) has recently emerged as an appealing technique for rapidly producing high quality oxides. Here, we focus on the use of AP-SALD to deposit functional ZnO thin films, particularly on the reactors used, the film properties, and the dopants that have been studied. We highlight how these films are advantageous for the performance of solar cells, organometal halide perovskite light emitting diodes, and thin-film transistors. Future AP-SALD technology will enable the commercial processing of thin films over large areas on a sheet-to-sheet and roll-to-roll basis, with new reactor designs emerging for flexible plastic and paper electronics.

  13. A Low-Temperature, Solution-Processable, Cu-Doped Nickel Oxide Hole-Transporting Layer via the Combustion Method for High-Performance Thin-Film Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Woong; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2015-12-16

    Low-temperature, solution-processable Cu-doped NiOX (Cu:NiOx ), prepared via combustion chemistry, is demonstrated as an excellent hole-transporting layer (HTL) for thin-film perovskite solar cells (PVSCs). Its good crystallinity, conductivity, and hole-extraction properties enable the derived PVSC to have a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.74%. Its general applicability for various elecrode materials is also revealed.

  14. Phase diagram of electrostatically doped SrTiO3.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeonbae; Clement, Colin; Hellerstedt, Jack; Kinney, Joseph; Kinnischtzke, Laura; Leng, Xiang; Snyder, S D; Goldman, A M

    2011-04-01

    Electric double layer transistor configurations have been employed to electrostatically dope single crystals of insulating SrTiO(3). Here we report on the results of such doping over broad ranges of temperature and carrier concentration employing an ionic liquid as the gate dielectric. The surprising results are, with increasing carrier concentration, an apparent carrier-density dependent conductor-insulator transition, a regime of the anomalous Hall effect, suggesting magnetic ordering, and finally the appearance of superconductivity. The possible appearance of magnetic order near the boundary between the insulating and superconducting regimes is reminiscent of effects associated with quantum critical behavior in some complex compounds.

  15. Intralayer doping effects on the high-energy magnetic correlations in NaFeAs

    SciTech Connect

    Pelliciari, Jonathan; Huang, Yaobo; Das, Tanmoy; Dantz, Marcus; Bisogni, Valentina; Velasco, Paul Olalde; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Xing, Lingyi; Wang, Xiancheng; Jin, Changqing; Schmitt, Thorsten

    2016-04-26

    We used resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) and dynamical susceptibility calculations to study the magnetic excitations in NaFe1$-$xCoxAs ( x=0 , 0.03, and 0.08). Despite a relatively low ordered magnetic moment, collective magnetic modes are observed in parent compounds (x=0) and persist in optimally (x= 0.03) and overdoped (x = 0.08) samples. Their magnetic bandwidths are unaffected by doping within the range investigated. High-energy magnetic excitations in iron pnictides are robust against doping and present irrespectively of the ordered magnetic moment. Nonetheless, Co doping slightly reduces the overall magnetic spectral weight, differently from previous studies on hole-doped BaFe2As2 , where it was observed constant. Finally, we demonstrate that the doping evolution of magnetic modes is different for the dopants being inside or outside the Fe-As layer.

  16. Intralayer doping effects on the high-energy magnetic correlations in NaFeAs

    DOE PAGES

    Pelliciari, Jonathan; Huang, Yaobo; Das, Tanmoy; ...

    2016-04-26

    We used resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) and dynamical susceptibility calculations to study the magnetic excitations in NaFe1$-$xCoxAs ( x=0 , 0.03, and 0.08). Despite a relatively low ordered magnetic moment, collective magnetic modes are observed in parent compounds (x=0) and persist in optimally (x= 0.03) and overdoped (x = 0.08) samples. Their magnetic bandwidths are unaffected by doping within the range investigated. High-energy magnetic excitations in iron pnictides are robust against doping and present irrespectively of the ordered magnetic moment. Nonetheless, Co doping slightly reduces the overall magnetic spectral weight, differently from previous studies on hole-doped BaFe2As2 , wheremore » it was observed constant. Finally, we demonstrate that the doping evolution of magnetic modes is different for the dopants being inside or outside the Fe-As layer.« less

  17. Enhanced low temperature thermoelectric performance of Ag-doped BiCuSeO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, S. G.; Lei, Hechang; Shao, D. F.; Lv, H. Y.; Lu, W. J.; Huang, Y. N.; Liu, Y.; Yuan, B.; Zu, L.; Kan, X. C.; Song, W. H.; Sun, Y. P.

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the physical properties of the silver doped layered oxyselenides BiCu1-xAgxSeO (x = 0-0.4), which crystallize in an unusual intergrowth structure with [Cu2Se2]2- and [Bi2O2]2+ layers. The total thermal conductivity is decreased because the heavier Ag doping in BiCuSeO lattice decreased the lattice thermal conductivity. The undoped BiCuSeO exhibits a semiconducting behavior, and the Ag-doped BiCuSeO performs much improved electrical conductivity. Although Ag-doping causes a decreasing Seebeck coefficient, the significant increase of the electrical conductivity compensates the moderate decrease of the Seebeck coefficient, which leads to the strongly improved power factor values. Finally, the figure of merit is improved and reaches a maximum ˜0.07 at 300 K for the sample BiCu0.7Ag0.3SeO.

  18. Bi-layer channel structure-based oxide thin-film transistors consisting of ZnO and Al-doped ZnO with different Al compositions and stacking sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sung Woon; Yun, Myeong Gu; Ahn, Cheol Hyoun; Kim, So Hee; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2015-03-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO)-based bi-layers, consisting of ZnO and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layers grown by atomic layer deposition, were utilized as the channels of oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs). Thin AZO layers (5 nm) with different Al compositions (5 and 14 at. %) were deposited on top of and beneath the ZnO layers in a bi-layer channel structure. All of the bi-layer channel TFTs that included the AZO layers showed enhanced stability (Δ V Th ≤ 3.2 V) under a positive bias stress compared to the ZnO single-layer channel TFT (Δ V Th = 4.0 V). However, the AZO/ZnO bi-layer channel TFTs with an AZO interlayer between the gate dielectric and the ZnO showed a degraded field effect mobility (0.3 cm2/V·s for 5 at. % and 1.8 cm2/V·s for 14 at. %) compared to the ZnO single-layer channel TFT (5.5 cm2/V·s) due to increased scattering caused by Al-related impurities near the gate dielectric/channel interface. In contrast, the ZnO/AZO bi-layer channel TFTs with an AZO layer on top of the ZnO layer exhibited an improved field effect mobility (7.8 cm2/V·s for 14 at. %) and better stability. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Efficient small molecular organic light emitting diode with graphene cathode covered by a Sm layer with nano-hollows and n-doped by Bphen:Cs2CO3 in the hollows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Li; Li, Lei; Qin, Laixiang; Ma, Yaoguang; Wang, Wei; Meng, Hu; Jin, Weifeng; Wang, Yilun; Xu, Wanjin; Ran, Guangzhao; You, Liping; Qin, Guogang

    2017-03-01

    Graphene is a favorable candidate for electrodes of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Graphene has quite a high work function of ∼4.5 eV, and has been extensively studied when used as anodes of OLEDs. In order to use graphene as a cathode, the electron injection barrier between the graphene cathode and the electron transport layer has to be low enough. Using 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen):Cs2CO3 to n-dope graphene is a very good method, but the electron injection barrier between the n-doped graphene and Bphen:Cs2CO3 is still too high to be ∼1.0 eV. In this work, in order to further reduce the electron injection barrier, a novel method is suggested. On the graphene cathode, a Sm layer with a lot of nano-hollows, and subsequently a layer of Bphen:Cs2CO3, are deposited. The Bphen:Cs2CO3 can n-dope graphene in the nano-hollows, and the Fermi level of the graphene rises. The nano Sm layer is very easily oxidized. Oxygen adsorbed on the surface of graphene may react with Sm to form an O‑–Sm+ dipole layer. On the areas of the Sm oxide dipole layer without nano-hollows, the electron injection barrier can be further lowered by the dipole layer. Electrons tend to mainly inject through the lower electron barrier where the dipole layer exists. Based on this idea, an effective inverted small molecular OLED with the structure of graphene/1 nm Sm layer with a lot of nano-hollows/Bphen:Cs2CO3/Alq3:C545T/NPB/MoO3/Al is presented. The maximum current efficiency and maximum power efficiency of the OLED with a 1 nm Sm layer are about two and three times of those of the reference OLED without any Sm layer, respectively.

  20. Efficient small molecular organic light emitting diode with graphene cathode covered by a Sm layer with nano-hollows and n-doped by Bphen:Cs2CO3 in the hollows.

    PubMed

    Yao, Li; Li, Lei; Qin, Laixiang; Ma, Yaoguang; Wang, Wei; Meng, Hu; Jin, Weifeng; Wang, Yilun; Xu, Wanjin; Ran, Guangzhao; You, Liping; Qin, Guogang

    2017-03-10

    Graphene is a favorable candidate for electrodes of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Graphene has quite a high work function of ∼4.5 eV, and has been extensively studied when used as anodes of OLEDs. In order to use graphene as a cathode, the electron injection barrier between the graphene cathode and the electron transport layer has to be low enough. Using 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen):Cs2CO3 to n-dope graphene is a very good method, but the electron injection barrier between the n-doped graphene and Bphen:Cs2CO3 is still too high to be ∼1.0 eV. In this work, in order to further reduce the electron injection barrier, a novel method is suggested. On the graphene cathode, a Sm layer with a lot of nano-hollows, and subsequently a layer of Bphen:Cs2CO3, are deposited. The Bphen:Cs2CO3 can n-dope graphene in the nano-hollows, and the Fermi level of the graphene rises. The nano Sm layer is very easily oxidized. Oxygen adsorbed on the surface of graphene may react with Sm to form an O(-)-Sm(+) dipole layer. On the areas of the Sm oxide dipole layer without nano-hollows, the electron injection barrier can be further lowered by the dipole layer. Electrons tend to mainly inject through the lower electron barrier where the dipole layer exists. Based on this idea, an effective inverted small molecular OLED with the structure of graphene/1 nm Sm layer with a lot of nano-hollows/Bphen:Cs2CO3/Alq3:C545T/NPB/MoO3/Al is presented. The maximum current efficiency and maximum power efficiency of the OLED with a 1 nm Sm layer are about two and three times of those of the reference OLED without any Sm layer, respectively.

  1. Bias-illumination stress effect in thin film transistors with a nitrogen low-doped IZO active layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremisin, Alexander B.; Kuznetsov, Sergey N.; Stefanovich, Genrikh B.

    2016-10-01

    The effect of ZnO and IZO moderate nitridation on the performance of thin film transistors (TFTs) has been studied by methods of transfer and capacitance-voltage characteristics, isochronal annealing and computer modeling. Layers of ZnO:N and IZO:N were prepared by reactive sputtering. It is shown that nitridation of the ZnO matrix up to a concentration of 9 at.% results in the deterioration of transistor parameters. However, nitridation of the IZO matrix does not impair a transistor’s static parameters and also provides enhanced performance reproducibility. An additional positive effect is manifested in the electrical stress stability of transistor characteristics at negative bias and positive bias in darkness. Negative bias illumination stress (NBIS) of IZO:N structures also causes TFTs’ degradation similar to that for IGZO devices. However, our observations of the NBIS effect have revealed the following important features. Holes trapped under NBIS could not be neutralized by electrons in the channel in the accumulation regime, thus indicating negligible interaction between positively-charged defects and the conduction band. In addition, trapped holes’ depopulation was performed by thermal activation with an isochronal annealing method. An activation energy of ˜0.8 eV was revealed which is interpreted as the energy level of defects above the valence-band maximum. The specified features do not correlate with the assumption of the key role of oxygen vacancies in NBIS that is extensively presented in literature.

  2. Enhanced light extraction of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with periodic textured SiO2 on Al-doped ZnO transparent conductive layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhao; Bingfeng, Fan; Yiting, Chen; Yi, Zhuo; Zhoujun, Pang; Zhen, Liu; Gang, Wang

    2016-07-01

    We report an effective enhancement in light extraction of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with an Al-doped ZnO (AZO) transparent conductive layer by incorporating a top regular textured SiO2 layer. The 2 inch transparent through-pore anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane was fabricated and used as the etching mask. The periodic pore with a pitch of about 410 nm was successfully transferred to the surface of the SiO2 layer without any etching damages to the AZO layer and the electrodes. The light output power was enhanced by 19% at 20 mA and 56% at 100 mA compared to that of the planar LEDs without a patterned surface. This approach offers a technique to fabricate a low-cost and large-area regular pattern on the LED chip for achieving enhanced light extraction without an obvious increase of the forward voltage. ).

  3. Spontaneous and strong multi-layer graphene n-doping on soda-lime glass and its application in graphene-semiconductor junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Dissanayake, D. M. N. M.; Ashraf, A.; Dwyer, D.; Kisslinger, K.; Zhang, L.; Pang, Y.; Efstathiadis, H.; Eisaman, M. D.

    2016-02-12

    Scalable and low-cost doping of graphene could improve technologies in a wide range of fields such as microelectronics, optoelectronics, and energy storage. While achieving strong p-doping is relatively straightforward, non-electrostatic approaches to n-dope graphene, such as chemical doping, have yielded electron densities of 9.5 × 1012 e/cm2 or below. Furthermore, chemical doping is susceptible to degradation and can adversely affect intrinsic graphene’s properties. Here we demonstrate strong (1.33 × 1013 e/cm2), robust, and spontaneous graphene n-doping on a soda-lime-glass substrate via surface-transfer doping from Na without any external chemical, high-temperature, or vacuum processes. Remarkably, the n-doping reaches 2.11 × 1013 e/cm2 when graphene is transferred onto a p-type copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) semiconductor that itself has been deposited onto soda-lime-glass, via surface-transfer doping from Na atoms that diffuse to the CIGS surface. Using this effect, we demonstrate an n-graphene/p-semiconductor Schottky junction with ideality factor of 1.21 and strong photo-response. As a result, the ability to achieve strong and persistent graphene n-doping on low-cost, industry-standard materials paves the way toward an entirely new class of graphene-based devices such as photodetectors, photovoltaics, sensors, batteries, and supercapacitors.

  4. Method of making molecularly doped composite polymer material

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, John D [Tucson, AZ; Martin, Peter M [Kennewick, WA; Graff, Gordon L [West Richland, WA; Burrows, Paul E [Kennewick, WA; Gross, Mark E. , Sapochak, Linda S.

    2005-06-21

    A method of making a composite polymer of a molecularly doped polymer. The method includes mixing a liquid polymer precursor with molecular dopant forming a molecularly doped polymer precursor mixture. The molecularly doped polymer precursor mixture is flash evaporated forming a composite vapor. The composite vapor is cryocondensed on a cool substrate forming a composite molecularly doped polymer precursor layer, and the cryocondensed composite molecularly doped polymer precursor layer is cross linked thereby forming a layer of the composite polymer layer of the molecularly doped polymer.

  5. Enhanced photoelectrochemical water oxidation via atomic layer deposition of TiO2 on fluorine-doped tin oxide nanoparticle films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova, Isvar A.; Peng, Qing; Ferrall, Isa L.; Rieth, Adam J.; Hoertz, Paul G.; Glass, Jeffrey T.

    2015-04-01

    TiO2 is an exemplary semiconductor anode material for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting electrodes due to its functionality, long-term stability in corrosive environments, nontoxicity, and low cost. In this study, TiO2 photoanodes with enhanced photocurrent density were synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO2 onto a porous, transparent, and conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide nanoparticle (nanoFTO) scaffold fabricated by solution processing. The simplicity and disordered nature of the nanoFTO nanostructure combined with the ultrathin conformal ALD TiO2 coatings offers advantages including decoupling charge carrier diffusion length from optical penetration depth, increased photon absorption probability through scattering, complimentary photon absorption, and favorable interfaces for charge separation and transfer across the various junctions. We examine the effects of porosity of the nanoFTO scaffold and thickness of the TiO2 coating on PEC performance and achieve an optimal photocurrent of 0.7 mA cm-2 at 0 V vs. Ag/AgCl under 100 mW cm-2 AM 1.5 G irradiation in a 1 M KOH aqueous electrolyte. Furthermore, the fundamental mechanisms behind the improvements are characterized via cyclic voltammetry, incident photon-to-current efficiency, transient photocurrent spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and are contrasted with those of single crystal rutile TiO2 nanowires. The strategies employed in this work highlight the opportunities inherent to these types of heteronanostructures, where the lessons may be applied to improve the PEC conversion efficiencies of other promising semiconductors, such as hematite (α-Fe2O3) and other materials more sensitive to visible light.TiO2 is an exemplary semiconductor anode material for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting electrodes due to its functionality, long-term stability in corrosive environments, nontoxicity, and low cost. In this study, TiO2 photoanodes with enhanced photocurrent

  6. Structural and magnetotransport properties of the Y doped A-site deficient double layered manganites La1.2-x□0.2YxCa1.6Mn2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahamdioua, N.; Amira, A.; Altintas, S. P.; Varilci, A.; Terzioglu, C.

    2016-08-01

    We present structural, magnetic and electrical properties of the polycrystalline A-site-deficient yttrium doped double layered manganites La1.2-x□0.2YxCa1.6Mn2O7 (x=0.2, 0.3 and 0.4) prepared by a solid state reaction method. The samples crystallize in the tetragonal structure with the space group I4/mmm. Doping with Y decreases the cell parameters and causes a decrease of the metal-insulator transition temperature. The same evolution with doping is also seen for the deduced Curie temperature from susceptibility curves which present a clear paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition. The significant positive intrinsic magnetoresistance, shown in all samples, reaches 85% at 122 K under 7 T for 0.3 doped sample and can be attributed to the suppression of spin fluctuations via aligning the spins under external magnetic field, while the extrinsic one is attributed to the inter-grain spin-polarized tunneling across the grain boundaries. The simulation of the resistivity curves in the entire temperature range show that the percolation model is suitable to fit our results. The applied magnetic field increases the density of states near the Fermi level, which is in accordance with the observed decrease of resistivity.

  7. The layered double hydroxide route to Bi-Zn co-doped TiO₂ with high photocatalytic activity under visible light.

    PubMed

    Benalioua, Bahia; Mansour, Meriem; Bentouami, Abdelhadi; Boury, Bruno; Elandaloussi, El Hadj

    2015-05-15

    In this work, a co-doped Bi-Zn-TiO₂ photocatalist is synthesized by an original synthesis route of layered double hydroxide followed by heat treatment at 670 °C. After characterization the photocatalyst efficiency is estimated by the photo-discoloration of an anionic dye (indigo carmine) under visible light and compare to TiO₂-P25 as reference material. In this new photocatalyst, anatase and ZnO wurtzite are the only identified crystalline phase, rutile and Bi₂O₃ being undetected. Moreover, the binding energy of Bi determined (XPS analysis) is different from the one of Bi in Bi₂O₃. Compared to TiO₂-P25, the absorption is red shifted (UV-vis DRS) and the Bi-Zn-TiO₂ photocatalyst showed sorption capacity toward indigo carmine higher than that TiO₂-P25. The kinetics of the photo-discoloration is faster with Bi-Zn-TiO₂ than with TiO₂-P25. Indeed, a complete discoloration is obtained after 70 min and 120 min in the presence of Bi-Zn-TiO₂ and TiO₂-P25 respectively. The identification of the responsible species on photo-discoloration was carried out in the presence of different scavengers. The study showed that the first responsible is h(+) specie with a moderate contribution of superoxide anion radical and a minor contribution of the hydroxyl radical. The material showed high stability after five uses with the same rate of photo-discoloration.

  8. Influence of excess Ba concentration on the dielectric nonlinearity in Mn and V-doped BaTiO3 multi layer ceramic capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seok-Hyun; Kim, Sun-Jung; Kim, Sang-Hyuk; Kim, Doo-Young

    2013-12-01

    The effect of excess Ba concentration on the dielectric nonlinearity was investigated in Mn and V-doped BaTiO3 multi layer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) under the same grain size condition, which was described by the Preisach model utilizing the first order reversal curve (FORC) distribution. The high-field dielectric constant and its ac field dependence dramatically changed increasing to a maximum and then decreasing with the increase of Ba concentration. The saturation polarization which scales to the magnitude of spontaneous polarization also showed similar behavior. These results indicate that the dependence of the dielectric constant on the Ba concentration is associated with the variation of both domain wall contribution and the magnitude of the spontaneous polarization, which could be correlated with the same dependence on the Ba concentration of the reversible FORC distribution at zero bias and the irreversible FORC distribution near origin. In the corresponding bulk specimens of the dielectrics of MLCC, almost the same amount of the Ba2TiSi2O8 second phases were detected irrespective of Ba concentration, which shows that the excess Ba incorporate into BaTiO3. Thus, low and high Ba concentration corresponds to Ba-deficient and Ba-rich or Ti-deficient BaTiO3, respectively, which results in a small spontaneous polarization and low domain wall density. The intermediate Ba concentration for the maximum dielectric constant is supposed to be near stoichiometric condition in the ABO3 structure corresponding to large spontaneous polarization and high domain wall density. The excess Ba concentration and its resultant A/B stoichiometry is a crucial factor controlling dielectric properties.

  9. Effectiveness of Four Different Final Irrigation Activation Techniques on Smear Layer Removal in Curved Root Canals : A Scanning Electron Microscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Puneet; Nandini, Suresh; Ballal, Suma; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of apical negative pressure (ANP), manual dynamic agitation (MDA), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) and needle irrigation (NI) as final irrigation activation techniques for smear layer removal in curved root canals. Materials and Methods: Mesiobuccal root canals of 80 freshly extracted maxillary first molars with curvatures ranging between 25° and 35° were used. A glide path with #08–15 K files was established before cleaning and shaping with Mtwo rotary instruments (VDW, Munich, Germany) up to size 35/0.04 taper. During instrumentation, 1 ml of 2.5% NaOCl was used at each change of file. Samples were divided into 4 equal groups (n=20) according to the final irrigation activation technique: group 1, apical negative pressure (ANP) (EndoVac); group 2, manual dynamic agitation (MDA); group 3, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI); and group 4, needle irrigation (NI). Root canals were split longitudinally and subjected to scanning electron microscopy. The presence of smear layer at coronal, middle and apical levels was evaluated by superimposing 300-μm square grid over the obtained photomicrographs using a four-score scale with X1,000 magnification. Results: Amongst all the groups tested, ANP showed the overall best smear layer removal efficacy (p < 0.05). Removal of smear layer was least effective with the NI technique. Conclusion: ANP (EndoVac system) can be used as the final irrigation activation technique for effective smear layer removal in curved root canals. PMID:24910670

  10. Thin layer of ordered boron-doped TiO2 nanotubes fabricated in a novel type of electrolyte and characterized by remarkably improved photoactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siuzdak, Katarzyna; Szkoda, Mariusz; Lisowska-Oleksiak, Anna; Grochowska, Katarzyna; Karczewski, Jakub; Ryl, Jacek

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports a novel method of boron doped titania nanotube arrays preparation by electrochemical anodization in electrolyte containing boron precursor - boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3 C4H10O), simultaneously acting as an anodizing agent. A pure, ordered TiO2 nanotubes array, as a reference sample, was also prepared in solution containing a standard etching compound: ammonium fluoride. The doped and pure titania were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence emission spectroscopy and by means of electrochemical methods. The B-doping decidedly shifts the absorption edge of TiO2 nanotubes towards the visible light region and significantly inhibits the radiative recombination processes. Despite the fact that the doped sample is characterized by 4.6 lower real surface area when compared to pure titania, it leads to the decomposition of methylene blue in 93%, that is over 2.3 times higher than the degradation efficiency exhibited by the undoped material. The formation rate of hydroxyl radicals (rad OH) upon illumination significantly favours boron doped titania as a photocatalytic material. Moreover, the simple doping of TiO2 nanotubes array results in the enhancement of generated photocurrent from 120 μA/cm2 to 350 μA/cm2 registered for undoped and doped electrode, respectively.

  11. Influence of the concentration in Fe-doped BaTiO 3 on magnetoelectric couping of layered composites BaTi 1-xFe xO 3-Tb 1-yDy yFe 2-z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ning; Wei, Jianjin

    Perovskites BaTi 1-xFe xO 3 has been synthesized with the concentration x ranging from 0.01 to 0.02. Their transformation point of ferroelectric to paraelectric and the corresponding latent heat of the phase transformation were observed to decrease with increasing the doping level of Fe 3+. Bonded layered composites BaTi 1-xFe xO 3-Tb 1-yDy yFe 2-z have been fabricated and their magnetoelectric effect has been investigated. The sample containing a layer of perovskite BaTi 0.985Fe 0.015O 3 was found to show the maximum transverse ME voltage coefficient, which is about 1422 mV Oe -1 cm -1 under a magnetic field of 1580 Oe, in these bilayers. Analysis shows that the Fe-doped BaTiO 3 with doping level at about 1.5% should have largest piezoelectric coefficient in these ceramics BaTi 1-xFe xO 3.

  12. Free and bound excitonic effects in Al0.5Ga0.5N/Al0.35Ga0.65N MQWs with different Si-doping levels in the well layers

    PubMed Central

    He, Chenguang; Qin, Zhixin; Xu, Fujun; Hou, Mengjun; Zhang, Shan; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Xinqiang; Ge, Weikun; Shen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Free exciton (FX) and bound exciton (BX) in Al0.5Ga0.5N/Al0.35Ga0.65N multiple quantum wells (MQWs) with different Si-doping levels in the well layers are investigated by photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Low temperature (10 K) PL spectra identify a large binding energy of 87.4 meV for the BX in undoped sample, and 63.6 meV for the BX in Si-doped (2 × 1018 cm−3) sample. They are attributed to O-bound and Si-bound excitons, respectively. The large binding energies of BX are assumed to originate from the strong quantum confinement in the quantum wells, which also leads to a stronger FX PL peak intensity in comparison with BX at 10 K. Si-doping is found to suppress the FX quenching by reducing threading dislocation density (TDD) in the well layers, leading to a significant improvement of IQE from 33.7% to 45%. PMID:26267249

  13. Doping in Zinc Selenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Edward Dean

    An experimental technique ensuring the incorporation of substitutional arsenic and copper doping in ZnSe is presented. Two techniques are investigated. In each, neutron transmutation doping is employed to introduce arsenic and copper dopants in ZnSe. In the first technique, as-grown crystals of ZnSe are exposed to thermal neutrons. The crystals are thermally annealed after irradiation in order to repair the neutron induced lattice damage. The thermal annealing schedules employed in this work, however, do not fully repair the ZnSe lattice. In the second technique, homoepitaxial layers of ZnSe are deposited with irradiated zinc and selenium as source materials. High quality layers of ZnSe, characterized by x-ray diffraction and low temperature photoluminescence, are produced. The long half lives of As^ {75} and Zn^{65} allow the epitaxial layers to be formed prior to nuclear decay. Since the nuclear recoil associated with the decays are not sufficient to displace the dopant nuclei from their substitutional lattice sites, the technique results in isolated As_{Se } or isolated Cu_{Zn } being introduced in layers of ZnSe after crystal growth. Since the dopants are introduced in the bulk crystal after crystal growth, the doping process is decoupled from any interactions present during crystal growth. A technique in which crystal doping is decoupled from crystal growth provides several unique probes for arsenic and copper doping in ZnSe.

  14. Magneto-conductive mechanisms in the La-site doped double-layered La1.4Ca1.6Mn2O7 manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahamdioua, N.; Amira, A.; Boudjadja, Y.; Saoudel, A.; Altintas, S. P.; Varilci, A.; Terzioglu, C.

    2016-11-01

    Magneto-conductive mechanisms and properties of La1.2Re0.2Ca1.6Mn2O7 (Re=La, Pr, Y, Gd and Eu) have been investigated. In the low temperature range, combining residual resistivity, weak localization effect, electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in a model, fit well the resistivity curves of undoped, Pr-doped and Y-doped samples. The Gd-doped and Eu-doped ones require the introduction of the small polaron metallic conduction. In the high temperature range, 3D-Mott's variable range hopping (3D-VRH) is the best model to fit resistivity of the undoped, Pr-doped and Y-doped samples, while Effros-Shklovskii model (ES-VRH) is the best one for Gd-doped and Eu-doped samples. In the entire temperature range, the percolation model fit well the resistivity. Using 3D-VRH model, the density of state (DOS) decreases with doping by Gd and Eu, whereas mean hopping distance Rh(T) and mean hopping energy Eh(T) increase. This may explain the resistivity increase and the crossover to the ES-VRH model. Values of Rh(T) vary between 1.811 and 1.030 nm, which allow us to suggest 3D-VRH as the best model fitting current results. Eh(T) values range from 0.1157 to 0.2635 eV. The DOS increases as increasing magnetic field while Rh(T) and Eh(T) decrease, which is in agreement with the observed decrease of resistivity.

  15. Boundary-layer cumulus over heterogeneous landscapes: A subgrid GCM parameterization. Final report, December 1991--November 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, R.B.; Tripoli, G.

    1996-01-08

    The authors developed single-column parameterizations for subgrid boundary-layer cumulus clouds. These give cloud onset time, cloud coverage, and ensemble distributions of cloud-base altitudes, cloud-top altitudes, cloud thickness, and the characteristics of cloudy and clear updrafts. They tested and refined the parameterizations against archived data from Spring and Summer 1994 and 1995 intensive operation periods (IOPs) at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) ARM CART site near Lamont, Oklahoma. The authors also found that: cloud-base altitudes are not uniform over a heterogeneous surface; tops of some cumulus clouds can be below the base-altitudes of other cumulus clouds; there is an overlap region near cloud base where clear and cloudy updrafts exist simultaneously; and the lognormal distribution of cloud sizes scales to the JFD of surface layer air and to the shape of the temperature profile above the boundary layer.

  16. Final Report: Rational Design of Wide Band Gap Buffer Layers for High-Efficiency Thin-Film Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Lordi, Vincenzo

    2016-09-30

    The main objective of this project is to enable rational design of wide band gap buffer layer materials for CIGS thin-film PV by building understanding of the correlation of atomic-scale defects in the buffer layer and at the buffer/absorber interface with device electrical properties. Optimized wide band gap buffers are needed to reduce efficiency loss from parasitic absorption in the buffer. The approach uses first-principles materials simulations coupled with nanoscale analytical electron microscopy as well as device electrical characterization. Materials and devices are produced by an industrial partner in a manufacturing line to maximize relevance, with the goal of enabling R&D of new buffer layer compositions or deposition processes to push device efficiencies above 21%. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is the reference material for analysis, as the prototypical high-performing buffer material.

  17. Effect of sulfur doped TiO2 on photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hyunwoong; Nam, Sang-Hun; Itagaki, Naho; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2016-07-01

    In a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC), a nano-porous semiconductor layer plays an important role in the performance. It determines open-circuit voltage and it affects the dye adsorption capacity and charge transfer, which are closely associated with photocurrent and overall performance. TiO2 is the most proper material for nano-porous layer since the first development of DSCs. This work focuses on the enhancement of TiO2 by doping. Sulfur (S) doping enhances charge transfer and the photoconversion of TiO2. Therefore, the increase in photocurrent and efficiency is expected by S doping. S is doped into TiO2 by hydrolysis method. The amount of S is varied and their photo-responses are verified. The most effective S doped TiO2 is applied to DSCs. Overall performance of DSC is enhanced by the addition of S doped TiO2. Especially, the photocurrent is much increased by the improvement on charge transfer, electron lifetime, and photo-conversion. The photovoltaic properties of DSCs are investigated with various ratios of undoped and S doped TiO2. Finally, a DSC based on undoped and S doped TiO2 ratio of 1:1 has the highest efficiency, better than that of a standard DSC based on undoped TiO2. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Low Reynold's number boundary layers in a disturbed environment. Ph.D. Thesis - August, 1985 - Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paik, D. K.; Reshotko, E.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of flat plate boundary layer development were made in a low speed wind tunnel at turbulence levels from 2%to 7%. Only transitional and turbulent flows were observed in the range 280 Re sub theta 700. The mean turbulent velocity profiles display law-of-the-wall behavior but have negligible wake component. The u' disturbance profiles compare well with those of other experiments, the peak value of u'/u sub tau being about 2.5. The effect of free-stream turbulence level on turbulent skin friction can be nicely correlated with those of other investigations on a plot of u sub e/u sub tau versus Re sub theta. A discussion on the u' spectra for the transitional boundary-layers is presented.

  19. Mixing and non-equilibrium chemical reaction in a compressible mixing layer. M.S. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberger, Craig J.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of compressibility, chemical reaction exothermicity, and non-equilibrium chemical modeling in a reacting plane mixing layer were investigated by means of two dimensional direct numerical simulations. The chemical reaction was irreversible and second order of the type A + B yields Products + Heat. The general governing fluid equations of a compressible reacting flow field were solved by means of high order finite difference methods. Physical effects were then determined by examining the response of the mixing layer to variation of the relevant non-dimensionalized parameters. The simulations show that increased compressibility generally results in a suppressed mixing, and consequently a reduced chemical reaction conversion rate. Reaction heat release was found to enhance mixing at the initial stages of the layer growth, but had a stabilizing effect at later times. The increased stability manifested itself in the suppression or delay of the formation of large coherent structures within the flow. Calculations were performed for a constant rate chemical kinetics model and an Arrhenius type kinetic prototype. The choice of the model was shown to have an effect on the development of the flow. The Arrhenius model caused a greater temperature increase due to reaction than the constant kinetic model. This had the same effect as increasing the exothermicity of the reaction. Localized flame quenching was also observed when the Zeldovich number was relatively large.

  20. Comparative behavior of sol gel derived 45S5 and copper doped CaO-P2O5-SiO2 system for the growth of hydroxyl apatite layer from XRD and Raman studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Pardeep; Singh, K. J.

    2015-08-01

    Bioactive samples of 45S5 and copper doped CaO-P2O5- SiO2 compositions have been prepared in the laboratory. XRD and Raman techniques have been employed to infer the structural information of the samples before and after in vitro test. In vitro tests have been undertaken by soaking the samples in simulated body fluid. Formation of hydroxyl apatite layer on the surface of samples indicates that all the prepared samples are bioactive in nature. Reported investigations are important to improve the antibacterial properties of the future bioactive implant materials.

  1. Evaluation of smear layer removal and marginal adaptation of root canal sealer after final irrigation using ethylenediaminetetraacetic, peracetic, and etidronic acids with different concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Özgür İlke; Zeyrek, Salev; Çelik, Bülent

    2017-02-12

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different irrigation solutions on the smear layer removal and marginal adaptation of a resin-based sealer to root canal dentine. A total of 152 instrumented roots were irrigated with the following irrigants: 9,18% etidronic acid (HEBP), 0.5, 1,2% peracetic acid (PAA), 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), saline. The amount of smear layer was evaluated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) in seventy root samples. Eighty-two roots were filled with AH Plus and gutta-percha. Slices obtained from apical third of each specimen were viewed with SEM to assess marginal adaptation. Use of 9% and 18% HEBP resulted in more efficient smear layer removal in the apical third than the other chelators (p < 0.05). Higher smear layer scores in the coronal and middle thirds were obtained from 0.5%, 1% PAA groups. Regarding marginal adaptation, 18% HEBP group showed the lowest gap size values (p < 0.05), and better marginal adaptation. Etidronic acid is a promising candidate for final irrigation of root canals.

  2. Surface Passivation by Quantum Exclusion Using Multiple Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A semiconductor device has a multilayer doping to provide improved passivation by quantum exclusion. The multilayer doping includes a plurality M of doped layers, where M is an integer greater than 1. The dopant sheet densities in the M doped layers need not be the same, but in principle can be selected to be the same sheet densities or to be different sheet densities. M-1 interleaved layers provided between the M doped layers are not deliberately doped (also referred to as "undoped layers"). Structures with M=2, M=3 and M=4 have been demonstrated and exhibit improved passivation.

  3. Scaling and modeling of three-dimensional, end-wall, turbulent boundary layers. Ph.D. Thesis - Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, U. C.; Reshotko, E.

    1984-01-01

    The method of matched asymptotic expansion was employed to identify the various subregions in three dimensional, turbomachinery end wall turbulent boundary layers, and to determine the proper scaling of these regions. The two parts of the b.l. investigated are the 3D pressure driven part over the endwall, and the 3D part located at the blade/end wall juncture. Models are proposed for the 3d law of the wall and law of the wake. These models and the data of van den Berg and Elsenaar and of Mueller are compared and show good agreement between models and experiments.

  4. Defect termination on crystalline silicon surfaces by hydrogen for improvement in the passivation quality of catalytic chemical vapor-deposited SiNx and SiNx/P catalytic-doped layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cham Thi, Trinh; Koyama, Koichi; Ohdaira, Keisuke; Matsumura, Hideki

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the role of hydrogen (H) in the improvement in the passivation quality of silicon nitride (SiNx) prepared by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD) and Cat-CVD SiNx/phosphorus (P) Cat-doped layers on crystalline silicon (c-Si) by annealing. Both structures show promising passivation capabilities for c-Si with extremely low surface recombination velocity (SRV) on n-type c-Si. Defect termination by H is evaluated on the basis of defect density (Nd) determined by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and interface state density (Dit) calculated by the Terman method. The two parameters are found to be drastically decreased by annealing after SiNx deposition. The calculated average Dit at midgap (Dit-average) is 2.2 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2 for the SiNx/P Cat-doped c-Si sample with a SRV of 2 cm/s, which is equivalent to 3.1 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2 for the SiNx/c-Si sample with a SRV of 5 cm/s after annealing. The results indicate that H atoms play a critical role in the reduction in Dit for SiNx/c-Si and SiNx/P Cat-doped c-Si, resulting in a drastic reduction in SRV by annealing.

  5. Highly improved resistive switching performances of the self-doped Pt/HfO2:Cu/Cu devices by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sen; Wang, Wei; Li, QingJiang; Zhao, XiaoLong; Li, Nan; Xu, Hui; Liu, Qi; Liu, Ming

    2016-12-01

    Metal-oxide electrochemical metallization (ECM) memory is a promising candidate for the next generation nonvolatile memory. But this memory suffers from large dispersion of resistive switching parameters due to the intrinsic randomness of the conductive filament. In this work, we have proposed a self-doping approach to improve the resistive switching characteristics. The fabricated Pt/HfO2:Cu/Cu device shows outstanding nonvolatile memory properties, including high uniformity, good endurance, long retention and fast switching speed. The results demonstrate that the self-doping approach is an effective method to improve the metal-oxide ECM memory performances and the self-doped Pt/HfO2:Cu/Cu device has high potentiality for the nonvolatile memory applications in the future.

  6. Vibrationally induced center reconfiguration in co-doped GaN:Eu, Mg epitaxial layers: Local hydrogen migration vs. activation of non-radiative channels

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, B.; Dierolf, V.; Lee, D.; Lee, D.; Fujiwara, Y.

    2013-12-09

    Europium doped gallium nitride (GaN:Eu) is a promising candidate as a material for red light emitting diodes. When Mg was co-doped into GaN:Eu, additional incorporation environments were discovered that show high excitation efficiency at room temperature and have been attributed to the coupling of Mg-H complexes to the majority Eu site. Electron beam irradiation, indirect and resonant (direct) laser excitation were found to modify these complexes, indicating that vibrational energy alone can trigger the migration of the H while the presence of additional charges and excess energy controls the type of reconfiguration and the activation of non-radiative decay channels.

  7. Vibrationally induced center reconfiguration in co-doped GaN:Eu, Mg epitaxial layers: Local hydrogen migration vs. activation of non-radiative channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, B.; Lee, D.; Lee, D.; Fujiwara, Y.; Dierolf, V.

    2013-12-01

    Europium doped gallium nitride (GaN:Eu) is a promising candidate as a material for red light emitting diodes. When Mg was co-doped into GaN:Eu, additional incorporation environments were discovered that show high excitation efficiency at room temperature and have been attributed to the coupling of Mg-H complexes to the majority Eu site. Electron beam irradiation, indirect and resonant (direct) laser excitation were found to modify these complexes, indicating that vibrational energy alone can trigger the migration of the H while the presence of additional charges and excess energy controls the type of reconfiguration and the activation of non-radiative decay channels.

  8. Measurements of a low-temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, I.; Armandula, H.; Comtet, C.; Fejer, M. M.; Gretarsson, A.; Harry, G.; Hough, J.; Mackowski, J.-M. M.; MacLaren, I.; Michel, C.; Montorio, J.-L.; Morgado, N.; Nawrodt, R.; Penn, S.; Reid, S.; Remillieux, A.; Route, R.; Rowan, S.; Schwarz, C.; Seidel, P.; Vodel, W.; Zimmer, A.

    2008-03-01

    Thermal noise arising from mechanical dissipation in oxide coatings is a major limitation to many precision measurement systems, including optical frequency standards, high-resolution optical spectroscopy and interferometric gravity wave detectors. Presented here are measurements of dissipation as a function of temperature between 7 K and 290 K in ion-beam-sputtered Ta2O5 doped with TiO2, showing a loss peak at 20 K. Analysis of the peak provides the first evidence of the source of dissipation in doped Ta2O5 coatings, leading to possibilities for the reduction of thermal noise effects.

  9. Boron concentration profiling by high angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy in homoepitaxial δ-doped diamond layers

    SciTech Connect

    Araújo, D.; Alegre, M. P.; Piñero, J. C.; Fiori, A.; Bustarret, E.; Jomard, F.

    2013-07-22

    To develop further diamond related devices, the concentration and spatial location of dopants should be controlled down to the nanometer scale. Scanning transmission electron microscopy using the high angle annular dark field mode is shown to be sensitive to boron doping in diamond epilayers. An analytical procedure is described, whereby local boron concentrations above 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} were quantitatively derived down to nanometer resolution from the signal dependence on thickness and boron content. Experimental boron local doping profiles measured on diamond p{sup −}/p{sup ++}/p{sup −} multilayers are compared to macroscopic profiles obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry, avoiding reported artefacts.

  10. Fe-Cluster Pushing Electrons to N-Doped Graphitic Layers with Fe3C(Fe) Hybrid Nanostructure to Enhance O2 Reduction Catalysis of Zn-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Hu, Jiangtao; Weng, Mouyi; Tan, Rui; Tian, Leilei; Yang, Jinlong; Amine, Joseph; Zheng, Jiaxin; Chen, Haibiao; Pan, Feng

    2017-02-08

    Non-noble metal catalysts with catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) comparable or even superior to that of Pt/C are extremely important for the wide application of metal-air batteries and fuel cells. Here, we develop a simple and controllable strategy to synthesize Fe-cluster embedded in Fe3C nanoparticles (designated as Fe3C(Fe)) encased in nitrogen-doped graphitic layers (NDGLs) with graphitic shells as a novel hybrid nanostructure as an effective ORR catalyst by directly pyrolyzing a mixture of Prussian blue (PB) and glucose. The pyrolysis temperature was found to be the key parameter for obtaining a stable Fe3C(Fe)@NDGL core-shell nanostructure with an optimized content of nitrogen. The optimized Fe3C(Fe)@NDGL catalyst showed high catalytic performance of ORR comparable to that of the Pt/C (20 wt %) catalyst and better stability than that of the Pt/C catalyst in alkaline electrolyte. According to the experimental results and first principle calculation, the high activity of the Fe3C(Fe)@NDGL catalyst can be ascribed to the synergistic effect of an adequate content of nitrogen doping in graphitic carbon shells and Fe-cluster pushing electrons to NDGL. A zinc-air battery utilizing the Fe3C(Fe)@NDGL catalyst demonstrated a maximum power density of 186 mW cm(-2), which is slightly higher than that of a zinc-air battery utilizing the commercial Pt/C catalyst (167 mW cm(-2)), mostly because of the large surface area of the N-doped graphitic carbon shells. Theoretical calculation verified that O2 molecules can spontaneously adsorb on both pristine and nitrogen doped graphene surfaces and then quickly diffuse to the catalytically active nitrogen sites. Our catalyst can potentially become a promising replacement for Pt catalysts in metal-air batteries and fuel cells.

  11. Aspects of the strontium oxide-copper oxide-titanium dioxide ternary system related to the deposition of strontium titanate and copper doped strontium titanate thin film buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Alicia

    YBa2Cu3O7-delta (YBCO) coated conductors are promising materials for large-scale superconductivity applications. One version of a YBCO coated conductor is based on ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) of magnesium oxide (MgO) onto polycrystalline metal substrates. SrTiO3 (STO) is often deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) methods as a buffer layer between the YBCO and IBAD MgO due to its chemical stability and lattice mismatch of only ˜1.5% with YBCO. In this work, some aspects of the stability of STO with respect to copper (Cu) and chemical solution deposition of STO on IBAD MgO templates were examined. Solubility limits of Cu in STO were established by processing Cu-doped STO powders by conventional bulk preparation techniques. The maximum solubility of Cu in STO was ˜1% as determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Rietveld refinements of x-ray diffraction (XRD) data. XRD analysis, performed in collaboration with NIST, on powder compositions on the STO/SrCuO 2 tie line did not identify any ternary phases. SrCu0.10Ti0.90Oy buffer layers were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and CSD on IBAD MgO flexible metallic textured tapes. TEM analysis of a ˜100 nm thick SrCu0.10Ti 0.90Oy buffer layer deposited by PLD showed a smooth Cu-doped STO/MgO interface. A ˜600 nm thick YBCO film, deposited onto the SrCu 0.10Ti0.90Oy buffer by PLD, exhibited a T c of 87 K and critical current density (Jc) of ˜1 MA/cm 2. STO and Cu-doped STO thin films by CSD were ˜30 nm thick. The in plane alignment (FWHM) after deposition of the STO improved by ˜1° while it degraded by ˜2° with the SrCu0.05TiOy buffer. YBCO was deposited by PLD on the STO and SrCu0.05TiO y buffers. The in plane alignment (FWHM) of the YBCO with the STO buffer layer slightly improved while that of the YBCO with the SrCu0.05TiO y buffer layer remained constant. A goal of the CSD approach to fabrication of coated conductors is process simplicity. In this study, single layer

  12. High Mobility Exceeding 80 cm2 V-1 s-1 in Polycrystalline Ta-Doped SnO2 Thin Films on Glass Using Anatase TiO2 Seed Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakao, Shoichiro; Yamada, Naoomi; Hitosugi, Taro; Hirose, Yasushi; Shimada, Toshihiro; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2010-03-01

    High-mobility Ta-doped SnO2 (TTO) thin films were grown on glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition using a seed-layer technique. The use of 10-nm-thick polycrystalline anatase TiO2 seed layers was found to lead to the preferred growth of (200)-oriented TTO films, resulting in a 30% increase in the carrier density and a more than two times increase in mobility, compared to films grown directly on the glass substrates. The highest mobility obtained was 83 cm2 V-1 s-1 with a resistivity of 2.8×10-4 Ω cm, whereas the film with the lowest resistivity of 1.8×10-4 Ω cm had a mobility of 60 cm2 V-1 s-1.

  13. Finalizing the CCSDS Space-Data Link Layer Security Protocol: Setup and Execution of the Interoperability Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Daniel; Aguilar-Sanchez, Ignacio; Saba, Bruno; Moury, Gilles; Biggerstaff, Craig; Bailey, Brandon; Weiss, Howard; Pilgram, Martin; Richter, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    The protection of data transmitted over the space-link is an issue of growing importance also for civilian space missions. Through the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), space agencies have reacted to this need by specifying the Space Data-Link Layer Security (SDLS) protocol which provides confidentiality and integrity services for the CCSDS Telemetry (TM), Telecommand (TC) and Advanced Orbiting Services (AOS) space data-link protocols. This paper describes the approach of the CCSDS SDLS working group to specify and execute the necessary interoperability tests. It first details the individual SDLS implementations that have been produced by ESA, NASA, and CNES and then the overall architecture that allows the interoperability tests between them. The paper reports on the results of the interoperability tests and identifies relevant aspects for the evolution of the test environment.

  14. NiO gate GaN-based enhancement-mode hetrojunction field-effect transistor with extremely low on-resistance using metal organic chemical vapor deposition regrown Ge-doped layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Asamira; Choe, Songbeak; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Otsuka, Nobuyuki; Ueda, Daisuke

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we present a normally-off GaN-based transistor with an extremely low on-resistance (R on) fabricated by using a Ge-doped n++-GaN layer for ohmic contacts. We developed a novel GaN regrowth technique using Ge as a dopant, which achieved an extremely high doping concentration of 1 × 1020 cm-3, and thereby the lowest specific contact resistance of 1.5 × 10-6 Ω·cm2. The NiO gate fabricated using an atomic layer deposition technique reduced the spacing between the source and drain electrodes. The fabricated device showed the record-breaking R on of 0.95 Ω·mm with the maximum drain current and transconductance of 1.1 A/mm and 490 mS/mm, respectively. Note that the obtained threshold voltage was 0.55 V. This extremely low R on characteristic indicates the great potential of NiO-gate GaN-based heterojunction field-effect transistors.

  15. Study of stacked-emitter layer for high efficiency amorphous/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Youngseok; Kim, Heewon; Iftiquar, S. M.; Kim, Sunbo; Kim, Sangho; Ahn, Shihyun; Lee, Youn-Jung; Dao, Vinh Ai; Yi, Junsin

    2014-12-01

    A modified emitter, of stacked two layer structure, was investigated for high-efficiency amorphous/crystalline silicon heterojunction (HJ) solar cells. Surface area of the cells was 181.5 cm2. The emitter was designed to achieve a high open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF). When doping of the emitter layer was increased, it was observed that the silicon dihydride related structural defects within the films increased, and the Voc of the HJ cell decreased. On the other hand, while the doping concentration of the emitter was reduced the FF of the cell reduced. Therefore, a combination of a high conductivity and low defects of a single emitter layer appears difficult to obtain, yet becomes necessary to improve the cell performance. So, we investigated a stacked-emitter with low-doped/high-doped double layer structure. A low-doped emitter with reduced defect density was deposited over the intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon passivation layer, while the high-doped emitter with high conductivity was deposited over the low-doped emitter. The effects of doping and defect density of the emitter, on the device performance, were elucidated by using computer simulation and an optimized device structure was formulated. The simulation was performed with the help of Automat for the Simulation of Heterostructures simulation software. Finally, based on the simulation results, amorphous/crystalline heterojunction silicon solar cells were optimized by reducing density of defect states in the stacked-emitter structure and we obtained 725 mV, 77.41%, and 19.0% as the open-circuit voltage, fill factor, and photo-voltaic conversion efficiency of the device, respectively.

  16. Electrical conduction behavior of organic light-emitting diodes using fluorinated self-assembled monolayer with molybdenum oxide-doped hole transporting layer.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Geon; Mori, Tatsuo

    2015-06-01

    The electrical conductivity behavior of a fluorinated self-assembled monolayer (FSAM) of a molybdenum oxide (MoOx)-doped α-naphthyl diamine derivative (α-NPD) in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) was investigated. The current density of the MoOx-doped α-NPD/FSAM device was proportional to its voltage owing to smooth carrier injection through the FSAM and the high carrier density of its bulk. The temperature-dependent characteristics of this device were investigated. The current density-voltage characteristics at different temperatures were almost the same owing to its very low activation energy. The activation energy of the device was estimated to be 1.056 × 10(-2) [eV] and was very low due to the inelastic electron tunneling of FSAM molecules.

  17. RVB states in doped band insulators from Coulomb forces: theory and a case study of superconductivity in BiS2 layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskaran, G.

    2016-12-01

    Doped band insulators, HfNCl, WO3, diamond, Bi2Se3, BiS2 families, STO/LAO interface, gate doped SrTiO3, MoS2 and so on are unusual superconductors. With an aim to build a general theory for superconductivity in doped band insulators, we focus on the BiS2 family which was discovered by Mizuguchi et al in 2012. While maximum Tc is only ˜11 K in {{LaO}}1-{{x}}{{{F}}}{{x}}{{BiS}}2, a number of experimental results are puzzling and anomalous in the sense that they resemble high T c and unconventional superconductors. Using a two orbital model of Usui, Suzuki and Kuroki, we show that the uniform low density free Fermi sea in {{LaO}}{0,5}{{{F}}}0.5{{BiS}}2 is unstable towards formation of the next nearest neighbor Bi-S-Bi diagonal valence bond (charged -2e Cooper pair) and their Wigner crystallization. Instability to this novel state of matter is caused by unscreened nearest neighbor coulomb repulsions (V ˜ 1 eV) and a hopping pattern with sulfur mediated diagonal next nearest neighbor Bi-S-Bi hopping t’ ˜ 0.88 eV, as well as larger than nearest neighbor Bi-Bi hopping, t ˜ 0.16 eV. Wigner crystals of Cooper pairs quantum melt for doping around x = 0.5 and stabilize certain resonating valence bond states and superconductivity. We study a few variational RVB states and suggest that BiS2 family members are latent high Tc superconductors, but challenged by competing orders and the fragile nature of many body states sustained by unscreened Coulomb forces. One of our superconducting states has d XY symmetry and a gap. We also predict a 2d Bose metal or vortex liquid normal state, as charged -2e valence bonds survive in the normal state.

  18. Airplane dopes and doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W H

    1919-01-01

    Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate are the important constituents of airplane dopes in use at the present time, but planes were treated with other materials in the experimental stages of flying. The above compounds belong to the class of colloids and are of value because they produce a shrinking action on the fabric when drying out of solution, rendering it drum tight. Other colloids possessing the same property have been proposed and tried. In the first stages of the development of dope, however, shrinkage was not considered. The fabric was treated merely to render it waterproof. The first airplanes constructed were covered with cotton fabric stretched as tightly as possible over the winds, fuselage, etc., and flying was possible only in fine weather. The necessity of an airplane which would fly under all weather conditions at once became apparent. Then followed experiments with rubberized fabrics, fabrics treated with glue rendered insoluble by formaldehyde or bichromate, fabrics treated with drying and nondrying oils, shellac, casein, etc. It was found that fabrics treated as above lost their tension in damp weather, and the oil from the motor penetrated the proofing material and weakened the fabric. For the most part the film of material lacked durability. Cellulose nitrate lacquers, however were found to be more satisfactory under varying weather conditions, added less weight to the planes, and were easily applied. On the other hand, they were highly inflammable, and oil from the motor penetrated the film of cellulose nitrate, causing the tension of the fabric to be relaxed.

  19. Efficient conversion from UV light to near-IR emission in Yb{sup 3+}-doped triple-layered perovskite CaLaNb{sub 3}O{sub 10}

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yuting; Li, Yuze; Qin, Lin; Huang, Yanlin; Qin, Chuanxiang; Tsuboi, Taiju; Huang, Wei

    2015-04-15

    Graphical abstract: CaRNb{sub 3}O{sub 10} is a self-activated oxide due to charge transfer transition in octahedral NbO{sub 6} groups. CaLaNb{sub 3}O{sub 10}:Yb{sup 3+} presents intense IR emission due to the cooperative energy transfer from host (NbO{sub 6}) to Yb{sup 3+} is responsible. It could be expected to be potentially applicable for enhancing photovoltaic conversion efficiency of Si-based solar cells. - Abstract: Yb{sup 3+}-doped triple-layered perovskite CaLaNb{sub 3}O{sub 10} micro-particles were synthesized via the solid-state reaction method. The crystal structure and morphology of the polycrystalline samples were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements, respectively. The reflectance spectra, photoluminescence (PL) excitation and emission spectra, the decay curves, and the absolute quantum efficiency (QE) of the near-infrared (NIR) emission (910–1100 nm) were measured. Under excitation of UV light, Yb{sup 3+}-doped perovskite shows an intense NIR emission attributed to the {sup 2}F{sub 5/2} → {sup 2}F{sub 7/2} transitions of Yb{sup 3+} ions, which could match maximum spectral response of a Si-based solar cell. This is beneficial for its possible application in an enhancement of the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of solar energy utilization. The efficient energy transfer in Yb{sup 3+}-doped CaLaNb{sub 3}O{sub 10} from NbO{sub 6} groups into Yb{sup 3+} ions was confirmed by the spectra and fluorescent decay measurements. Cooperative energy transfer (CET) was supposed to be the NIR emission mechanism.

  20. Epitaxial Silicon Doped With Antimony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, James E.; Halleck, Bradley L.

    1996-01-01

    High-purity epitaxial silicon doped with antimony made by chemical vapor deposition, using antimony pentachloride (SbCI5) as source of dopant and SiH4, SiCI2H2, or another conventional source of silicon. High purity achieved in layers of arbitrary thickness. Epitaxial silicon doped with antimony needed to fabricate impurity-band-conduction photodetectors operating at wavelengths from 2.5 to 40 micrometers.

  1. Stannum doping of layered LiNi 3/8Co 2/8Mn 3/8O 2 cathode materials with high rate capability for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiangang; He, Xiangming; Zhao, Rusong; Wan, Chunrong; Jiang, Changyin; Xia, Dingguo; Zhang, Shichao

    Sn doped lithium nickel cobalt manganese composite oxide of LiNi 3/8Co 2/8Mn 3/8- xSn xO 2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.10) was synthesized by stannum substitute of manganese to enhance its rate capability at first time. Its structure and electrochemical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) and charge/discharge tests. LiNi 3/8Co 2/8Mn 3/8- xSn xO 2 had stable layered structure with α-NaFeO 2 type as x up to 0.05, meanwhile, its chemical diffusion coefficient D Li of Li-ion was enhanced by almost one order of magnitude, leading to notable improvement of the rate capability of LiNi 3/8Co 2/8Mn 3/8O 2. The compound of x = 0.10 showed the best rate capability among Sn doped samples, but its discharge capacity reduced markedly due to secondary phase Li 2SnO 3 and increase of cation-disorder. The compound with x = 0.05 showed high rate capability with initial discharge capacity in excess of 156 mAh g -1. It is a promising alternative cathode material for EV application of Li-ion batteries.

  2. Biomass-Derived Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanofiber Network: A Facile Template for Decoration of Ultrathin Nickel-Cobalt Layered Double Hydroxide Nanosheets as High-Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitor Electrode.

    PubMed

    Lai, Feili; Miao, Yue-E; Zuo, Lizeng; Lu, Hengyi; Huang, Yunpeng; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-06-01

    The development of biomass-based energy storage devices is an emerging trend to reduce the ever-increasing consumption of non-renewable resources. Here, nitrogen-doped carbonized bacterial cellulose (CBC-N) nanofibers are obtained by one-step carbonization of polyaniline coated bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers, which not only display excellent capacitive performance as the supercapacitor electrode, but also act as 3D bio-template for further deposition of ultrathin nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide (Ni-Co LDH) nanosheets. The as-obtained CBC-N@LDH composite electrodes exhibit significantly enhanced specific capacitance (1949.5 F g(-1) at a discharge current density of 1 A g(-1) , based on active materials), high capacitance retention of 54.7% even at a high discharge current density of 10 A g(-1) and excellent cycling stability of 74.4% retention after 5000 cycles. Furthermore, asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) are constructed using CBC-N@LDH composites as positive electrode materials and CBC-N nanofibers as negative electrode materials. By virtue of the intrinsic pseudocapacitive characteristics of CBC-N@LDH composites and 3D nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber networks, the developed ASC exhibits high energy density of 36.3 Wh kg(-1) at the power density of 800.2 W kg(-1) . Therefore, this work presents a novel protocol for the large-scale production of biomass-derived high-performance electrode materials in practical supercapacitor applications.

  3. Ion-beam-spurted dimethyl-sulfate-doped PEDOT:PSS composite-layer-aligning liquid crystal with low residual direct-current voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Lee, Ju Hwan; Seo, Dae-Shik; Li, Xiang-Dan

    2016-09-01

    Thin ion-beam (IB)-spurted dimethyl sulfate/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (DMS/PEDOT:PSS) layers with improved electro-optic performance are presented for aligning liquid crystals. IB spurting is effective for enhancing the conductivity of such layers, as well as the anchoring energy of the liquid crystals sandwiched between them. Compared with a commercial twisted-nematic cell assembled with polyimide alignment layers, the same cell assembled with 3.0-keV IB-spurted DMS/PEDOT:PSS alignment layers shows a 38% faster switching and a 93% lower residual direct current. The improved electro-optic performance here is likely due to the enhanced electric field effect and the charge-releasing ability of thin IB-spurted DMS/PEDOT:PSS layers.

  4. Undoped TiO{sub 2} and nitrogen-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition on planar and architectured surfaces for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Liang Soum-Glaude, Adurey; Volpi, Fabien; Salvo, Luc; Berthomé, Grégory; Coindeau, Stéphane; Mantoux, Arnaud; Boichot, Raphaël; Lay, Sabine; Brizé, Virginie; Blanquet, Elisabeth; Giusti, Gaël; Bellet, Daniel

    2015-01-15

    Undoped and nitrogen doped TiO{sub 2} thin films were deposited by atomic layer deposition on planar substrates. Deposition on 3D-architecture substrates made of metallic foams was also investigated to propose architectured photovoltaic stack fabrication. All the films were deposited at 265 °C and nitrogen incorporation was achieved by using titanium isopropoxide, NH{sub 3} and/or N{sub 2}O as precursors. The maximum nitrogen incorporation level obtained in this study was 2.9 at. %, resulting in films exhibiting a resistivity of 115 Ω cm (+/−10 Ω cm) combined with an average total transmittance of 60% in the 400–1000 nm wavelength range. Eventually, TiO{sub 2} thin films were deposited on the 3D metallic foam template.

  5. Hourglass Dispersion and Resonance of Magnetic Excitations in the Superconducting State of the Single-Layer Cuprate HgBa_{2}CuO_{4+δ} Near Optimal Doping.

    PubMed

    Chan, M K; Tang, Y; Dorow, C J; Jeong, J; Mangin-Thro, L; Veit, M J; Ge, Y; Abernathy, D L; Sidis, Y; Bourges, P; Greven, M

    2016-12-30

    We use neutron scattering to study magnetic excitations near the antiferromagnetic wave vector in the underdoped single-layer cuprate HgBa_{2}CuO_{4+δ} (superconducting transition temperature T_{c}≈88  K, pseudogap temperature T^{*}≈220  K). The response is distinctly enhanced below T^{*} and exhibits a Y-shaped dispersion in the pseudogap state, whereas the superconducting state features an X-shaped (hourglass) dispersion and a further resonancelike enhancement. A large spin gap of about 40 meV is observed in both states. This phenomenology is reminiscent of that exhibited by bilayer cuprates. The resonance spectral weight, irrespective of doping and compound, scales linearly with the putative binding energy of a spin exciton described by an itinerant-spin formalism.

  6. Hourglass Dispersion and Resonance of Magnetic Excitations in the Superconducting State of the Single-Layer Cuprate HgBa2 CuO4 +δ Near Optimal Doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, M. K.; Tang, Y.; Dorow, C. J.; Jeong, J.; Mangin-Thro, L.; Veit, M. J.; Ge, Y.; Abernathy, D. L.; Sidis, Y.; Bourges, P.; Greven, M.

    2016-12-01

    We use neutron scattering to study magnetic excitations near the antiferromagnetic wave vector in the underdoped single-layer cuprate HgBa2CuO4 +δ (superconducting transition temperature Tc≈88 K , pseudogap temperature T*≈220 K ). The response is distinctly enhanced below T* and exhibits a Y -shaped dispersion in the pseudogap state, whereas the superconducting state features an X -shaped (hourglass) dispersion and a further resonancelike enhancement. A large spin gap of about 40 meV is observed in both states. This phenomenology is reminiscent of that exhibited by bilayer cuprates. The resonance spectral weight, irrespective of doping and compound, scales linearly with the putative binding energy of a spin exciton described by an itinerant-spin formalism.

  7. Bioinspired synthesis of nitrogen/sulfur co-doped graphene as an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huanhuan; Liu, Xiangqian; He, Guangli; Zhang, Xiaoxing; Bao, Shujuan; Hu, Weihua

    2015-04-01

    Efficient electrocatalyst of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is crucial for a variety of renewable energy applications and heteroatom-doped carbon materials have demonstrated promising catalytic performance towards ORR. In this paper we report a bioinspired method to synthesize nitrogen/sulfur (N/S) co-doped graphene as an efficient ORR electrocatalyst via self-polymerization of polydopamine (PDA) thin layer on graphene oxide sheets, followed by reacting with cysteine and finally thermal annealing in Argon (Ar) atmosphere. As-prepared N/S co-doped graphene exhibits significantly enhanced ORR catalytic activity in alkaline solution compared with pristine graphene or N-doped graphene. It also displays long-term operation stability and strong tolerance to methanol poison effect, indicating it a promising ORR electrocatalyst.

  8. Properties of doped Bi-based superconductors. Final technical report for the contract period June 1, 1997 to May 31, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, James E.

    2001-08-30

    This report summarizes the results of an extension of grant DE-FG05-93ER45493. The research goal was to have undergraduate students involved in a study of the effects of doping on the properties of BSCCO superconductors. Specifically the students investigated the effects in both bulk samples and in single crystals (whiskers). Of equal importance was the opportunity afforded minority students in a four-year institution to participate in state-of-the-art research and increase the number of students entering graduate school in science, engineering and mathematics. Over 75% of the undergraduates involved with the research enrolled in graduate school. The project in collaboration with Clemson University was able to identify and support an African American graduate student who will receive his doctorate in December of 2001.

  9. Performance improvement of tin-doped zinc oxide thin-film transistor by novel channel modulation layer of indium tin oxide/tin zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhuofa; Han, Dedong; Zhao, Nannan; Wu, Jing; Cong, Yingying; Dong, Junchen; Zhao, Feilong; Zhang, Shengdong; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi; Liu, Lifeng

    2015-04-01

    By applying a novel active modulation layer of indium tin oxide/tin zinc oxide (ITO/TZO), we have successfully fabricated high-performance bottom-gate-type dual-active-layer thin-film transistors (TFTs) on a glass substrate at a low temperature by a simple process. The as-fabricated dual-active-layer ITO/TZO TFTs exhibited excellent electrical properties compared with single-active-layer TZO TFTs. We found that the dual-layer ITO/TZO TFT with an optimized stack structure of ITO (5 nm)/TZO (45 nm) as the channel layer exhibits excellent properties, namely, a high saturation mobility of 204 cm2 V-1 s-1, a steep subthreshold slope of 219 mV/dec, a low threshold voltage of 0.8 V, and a high on-off current ratio of 4.3 × 107. A physical mechanism for the electrical improvement is also deduced. Owing to its advantages, namely, a low processing temperature, a high electrical performance, a simple process, and a low cost, this novel active modulation layer is highly promising for the manufacture of oxide semiconductor TFT and transparent displays.

  10. Opto-electronic properties of P-doped nc-Si-QD/a-SiC:H thin films as foundation layer for all-Si solar cells in superstrate configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Debjit; Das, Debajyoti

    2016-07-01

    With the advent of nc-Si solar cells having improved stability, the efficient growth of nc-Si i-layer of the top cell of an efficient all-Si solar cell in the superstrate configuration prefers nc-Si n-layer as its substrate. Accordingly, a wide band gap and high conducting nc-Si alloy material is a basic requirement at the n-layer. Present investigation deals with the development of phosphorous doped n-type nanocrystalline silicon quantum dots embedded in hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (nc-Si-QD/a-SiC:H) hetero-structure films, wherein the optical band gap can be widened by the presence of Si-C bonds in the amorphous matrix and the embedded high density tiny nc-Si-QDs could provide high electrical conductivity, particularly in P-doped condition. The nc-Si-QDs simultaneously facilitate further widening of the optical band gap by virtue of the associated quantum confinement effect. A complete investigation has been made on the electrical transport phenomena involving charge transfer by tunneling and thermionic emission prevailing in n-type nc-Si-QD/a-SiC:H thin films. Their correlation with different phases of the specific heterostructure has been carried out for detailed understanding of the material, in order to improve its device applicability. The n-type nc-Si-QD/a-SiC:H films exhibit a thermally activated electrical transport above room temperature and multi-phonon hopping (MPH) below room temperature, involving defects in the amorphous phase and the grain-boundary region. The n-type nc-Si-QD/a-SiC:H films grown at ˜300 °C, demonstrating wide optical gap ˜1.86-1.96 eV and corresponding high electrical conductivity ˜4.5 × 10-1-1.4 × 10-2 S cm-1, deserve to be an effective foundation layer for the top nc-Si sub-cell of all-Si solar cells in n-i-p structure with superstrate configuration.

  11. Pd/Ni-WO3 anodic double layer gasochromic device

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland; Liu, Ping

    2004-04-20

    An anodic double layer gasochromic sensor structure for optical detection of hydrogen in improved response time and with improved optical absorption real time constants, comprising: a glass substrate; a tungsten-doped nickel oxide layer coated on the glass substrate; and a palladium layer coated on the tungsten-doped nickel oxide layer.

  12. Pattern dependency in selective epitaxy of B-doped SiGe layers for advanced metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hâllstedt, J.; Kolahdouz, M.; Ghandi, R.; Radamson, H. H.; Wise, R.

    2008-03-01

    This study presents investigations about the physical mechanisms, origin, and methods to control the pattern dependency in selective epitaxial growth of Si1-xGex (x=0.14-0.32) layers. It is shown with a comprehensive experimental study that the local Si coverage of individual chips on patterned wafers is the main parameter for the layer profile in the epitaxial growth. This was explained by the gas depletion of the growth species in the low velocity boundary layer over the wafer. The gas depletion radius around each oxide opening was in the centimeter range which is related to the boundary layer thickness. The results from these experiments were applied to grow Si0.75Ge0.25 layers with B concentration of 4×1020cm-3 selectively for elevated source and drains in fully depleted ultrathin body silicon on insulator p metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (p-MOSFET) devices. The epitaxy control was maintained over a wide range of device sizes by optimized process parameters in combination with a wafer pattern design consisting of dummy features causing a uniform gas depletion over the chips on the wafer.

  13. Ultrabroad Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence at New Wavelengths from Doped Organometal Halide Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Yong, Zi-Jun; Zhang, Kai-Cheng; Liu, Bo-Mei; Wang, Zhao-Wei; Hou, Jing-Shan; Fang, Yong-Zheng; Zhou, Yi; Sun, Hong-Tao; Song, Bo

    2016-07-21

    Doping of semiconductors by introducing foreign atoms enables their widespread applications in microelectronics and optoelectronics. We show that this strategy can be applied to direct bandgap lead-halide perovskites, leading to the realization of ultrawide photoluminescence (PL) at new wavelengths enabled by doping bismuth (Bi) into lead-halide perovskites. Structural and photophysical characterization reveals that the PL stems from one class of Bi doping-induced optically active center, which is attributed to distorted [PbI6] units coupled with spatially localized bipolarons. Additionally, we find that compositional engineering of these semiconductors can be employed as an additional way to rationally tune the PL properties of doped perovskites. Finally, we accomplished the electroluminescence at cryogenic temperatures by using this system as an emissive layer, marking the first electrically driven devices using Bi-doped photonic materials. Our results suggest that low-cost, earth-abundant, solution-processable Bi-doped perovskite semiconductors could be promising candidate materials for developing optical sources operating at new wavelengths.

  14. Efficient indium-tin-oxide free inverted organic solar cells based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide cathode and low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide electron extraction layer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dazheng; Zhang, Chunfu Wang, Zhizhe; Zhang, Jincheng; Tang, Shi; Wei, Wei; Sun, Li; Hao, Yue

    2014-06-16

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) free inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs) based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) cathode, low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide (ZnO) electron extraction layer, and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2, 5-diyl):[6, 6]-phenyl C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester blend were realized in this work. The resulted IOSC with ZnO annealed at 150 °C shows the superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.01%, if decreasing the ZnO annealing temperature to 100 °C, the obtained IOSC also shows a PCE of 2.76%, and no light soaking issue is observed. It is found that this ZnO film not only acts as an effective buffer layer but also slightly improves the optical transmittance of AZO substrates. Further, despite the relatively inferior air-stability, these un-encapsulated AZO/ZnO IOSCs show comparable PCEs to the referenced ITO/ZnO IOSCs, which demonstrates that the AZO cathode is a potential alternative to ITO in IOSCs. Meanwhile, this simple ZnO process is compatible with large area deposition and plastic substrates, and is promising to be widely used in IOSCs and other relative fields.

  15. Mg-doping for improved long-term cyclability of layered Na-ion cathode materials - The example of P2-type NaxMg0.11Mn0.89O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Daniel; Vaalma, Christoph; Chagas, Luciana Gomes; Passerini, Stefano

    2015-05-01

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are establishing themselves as a low-cost alternative to the widespread lithium-ion technology, a trend that is exemplified by the use of aluminium as anode current collector. In order to be in line with this philosophy, environmentally friendly, abundant and cheap materials need to be used in order to provide a complementary rather than competing battery technology other than lithium-ion. With the same scope in mind, herein we present the structural and electrochemical characterization of P2-type NaxMg0.11Mn0.89O2 material to demonstrate the effectiveness of Mg-doping for the development of future layered cathode materials. Of particular interest is the effect on the long-term cyclability (200 cycles), which has not been reported, yet. As shown in the manuscript, a Mg content as low as 11% in the MO2 layer leads to a smoothing of the potential profile, very high coulombic efficiencies exceeding 99.5% at 12 mA g-1 and a stable long-term cycling behaviour.

  16. Contact resistance at planar metal contacts on bilayer graphene and effects of molecular insertion layers.

    PubMed

    Nouchi, Ryo

    2017-03-01

    The possible origins of metal-bilayer graphene (BLG) contact resistance are investigated by taking into consideration the bandgap formed by interfacial charge transfer at the metal contacts. Our results show that a charge injection barrier (Schottky barrier) does not contribute to the contact resistance because the BLG under the contacts is always degenerately doped. We also showed that the contact-doping-induced increase in the density of states (DOS) of BLG under the metal contacts decreases the contact resistance owing to enhanced charge carrier tunnelling at the contacts. The contact doping can be enhanced by inserting molecular dopant layers into the metal contacts. However, carrier tunnelling through the insertion layer increases the contact resistance, and thus, alternative device structures should be employed. Finally, we showed that the inter-band transport by variable range hopping via in-gap states is the largest contributor to contact resistance when the carrier type of the gated channel is opposite to the contact doping carrier type. This indicates that the strategy of contact resistance reduction by the contact-doping-induced increase in the DOS is effective only for a single channel transport branch (n- or p-type) depending on the contact doping carrier type.

  17. Contact resistance at planar metal contacts on bilayer graphene and effects of molecular insertion layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouchi, Ryo

    2017-03-01

    The possible origins of metal–bilayer graphene (BLG) contact resistance are investigated by taking into consideration the bandgap formed by interfacial charge transfer at the metal contacts. Our results show that a charge injection barrier (Schottky barrier) does not contribute to the contact resistance because the BLG under the contacts is always degenerately doped. We also showed that the contact-doping-induced increase in the density of states (DOS) of BLG under the metal contacts decreases the contact resistance owing to enhanced charge carrier tunnelling at the contacts. The contact doping can be enhanced by inserting molecular dopant layers into the metal contacts. However, carrier tunnelling through the insertion layer increases the contact resistance, and thus, alternative device structures should be employed. Finally, we showed that the inter-band transport by variable range hopping via in-gap states is the largest contributor to contact resistance when the carrier type of the gated channel is opposite to the contact doping carrier type. This indicates that the strategy of contact resistance reduction by the contact-doping-induced increase in the DOS is effective only for a single channel transport branch (n- or p-type) depending on the contact doping carrier type.

  18. Two-Equation Low-Reynolds-Number Turbulence Modeling of Transitional Boundary Layer Flows Characteristic of Gas Turbine Blades. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Contractor Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Rodney C.; Patankar, Suhas V.

    1988-01-01

    The use of low Reynolds number (LRN) forms of the k-epsilon turbulence model in predicting transitional boundary layer flow characteristic of gas turbine blades is developed. The research presented consists of: (1) an evaluation of two existing models; (2) the development of a modification to current LRN models; and (3) the extensive testing of the proposed model against experimental data. The prediction characteristics and capabilities of the Jones-Launder (1972) and Lam-Bremhorst (1981) LRN k-epsilon models are evaluated with respect to the prediction of transition on flat plates. Next, the mechanism by which the models simulate transition is considered and the need for additional constraints is discussed. Finally, the transition predictions of a new model are compared with a wide range of different experiments, including transitional flows with free-stream turbulence under conditions of flat plate constant velocity, flat plate constant acceleration, flat plate but strongly variable acceleration, and flow around turbine blade test cascades. In general, calculational procedure yields good agreement with most of the experiments.

  19. Two-equation low-Reynolds-number turbulence modeling of transitional boundary layer flows characteristic of gas turbine blades. Ph. D. Thesis. Final Contractor Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, R.C.; Patankar, S.V.

    1988-05-01

    The use of low Reynolds number (LRN) forms of the k-epsilon turbulence model in predicting transitional boundary layer flow characteristic of gas turbine blades is developed. The research presented consists of: (1) an evaluation of two existing models; (2) the development of a modification to current LRN models; and (3) the extensive testing of the proposed model against experimental data. The prediction characteristics and capabilities of the Jones-Launder (1972) and Lam-Bremhorst (1981) LRN k-epsilon models are evaluated with respect to the prediction of transition on flat plates. Next, the mechanism by which the models simulate transition is considered and the need for additional constraints is discussed. Finally, the transition predictions of a new model are compared with a wide range of different experiments, including transitional flows with free-stream turbulence under conditions of flat plate constant velocity, flat plate constant acceleration, flat plate but strongly variable acceleration, and flow around turbine blade test cascades. In general, calculational procedure yields good agreement with most of the experiments.

  20. Synergetic pinning centres in BaZrO3-doped YBa2Cu3O7-x films induced by SrTiO3 nano-layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisan, A.; Dang, V. S.; Mikheenko, P.; Ionescu, A. M.; Ivan, I.; Miu, L.

    2017-04-01

    We report on the enhancement of critical current density (J c) and the unusual behaviour of its dependence on field orientation in YBa2Cu3O7‑x (YBCO) nanostructured films by a combination of substrate decoration with Ag nano-dots, of the incorporation of BaZrO3 (BZO) nano-particles and nano-rods, and of multilayer architecture (a thin SrTiO3 layer separating two 1.5 μm-thick YBCO layers). SrTiO3 insulating layers were 15, 30 or 45 nm thick. The highest improvement of J c in applied magnetic fields along the c-axis and smaller than 1 T occurs in the bi-layer with 30 nm-thick STO, but the influence of STO thickness is small. Our thick nanostructured films show significant improvement of J c in the magnetic field along the ab-plane direction. The presence of BZO nano-rods, ab-plane defects and nano particles of BZO and Y2O3 was observed in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of the film. The peculiarities of artificial pinning centres revealed in the TEM images of the nanostructured films are used to explain an unusual split of the peak in the J c dependence on the magnetic field along the ab-plane of YBCO. Effective pinning potentials in high magnetic fields have rather high values for such thick films.

  1. Epitaxial Deposition Of Germanium Doped With Gallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, James E.

    1994-01-01

    Epitaxial layers of germanium doped with gallium made by chemical vapor deposition. Method involves combination of techniques and materials used in chemical vapor deposition with GeH4 or GeCl4 as source of germanium and GaCl3 as source of gallium. Resulting epitaxial layers of germanium doped with gallium expected to be highly pure, with high crystalline quality. High-quality material useful in infrared sensors.

  2. Fabrication and applications of multi-layer graphene stack on transparent polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajewska, Aleksandra; Pasternak, Iwona; Sobon, Grzegorz; Sotor, Jaroslaw; Przewloka, Aleksandra; Ciuk, Tymoteusz; Sobieski, Jan; Grzonka, Justyna; Abramski, Krzysztof M.; Strupinski, Wlodek

    2017-01-01

    In this report, we demonstrate the preparation method of a multi-layer stack with a pre-defined number of graphene layers, which was obtained using chemical vapor deposition graphene deposited on a copper substrate and subsequently transferred onto a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate. The prepared multi-layer stack can also be transferred onto an arbitrary substrate and in the end, the polymer can be removed, which in consequence significantly increases the range of possible graphene applications. The multi-layer character was confirmed by optical transmittance measurements and Raman spectroscopy, whereas the microstructure of the multi-layer graphene stack was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The electrical properties in the function of the number of graphene layers were assessed with standard Hall Effect measurements. Finally, we showed the practical application of the multi-layer graphene stack as a saturable absorber of a mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser.

  3. The influence of MoO{sub x} gap states on hole injection from aluminum doped zinc oxide with nanoscale MoO{sub x} surface layer anodes for organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, Jitendra Kumar; Santos-Ortiz, Reinaldo; Du, Jincheng; Shepherd, Nigel D.

    2015-08-14

    The effective workfunction of Al doped ZnO films (AZO) increased from 4.1 eV to 5.55 eV after surface modification with nanoscale molybdenum sub-oxides (MoO{sub x}). Hole only devices with anodes consisting of 3 nm of MoO{sub x} on AZO exhibited a lower turn-on voltage (1.5 vs 1.8 V), and larger charge injection (190 vs 118 mA/cm{sup 2}) at the reference voltage, compared to indium tin oxide (ITO). AZO devices with 10 nm of MoO{sub x} exhibited the highest workfunction but performed poorly compared to devices with 3 nm of MoO{sub x}, or standard ITO. Ultraviolet photoelectron, X-ray photoelectron, and optical spectroscopies indicate that the 3 nm MoO{sub x} films are more reduced and farther away from MoO{sub 3} stoichiometry than their 10 nm equivalents. The vacancies associated with non-stoichiometry result in donor-like gap states which we assign to partially occupied Mo 4d levels. We propose that Fowler-Nordheim tunneling from these levels is responsible for the reduction in threshold voltage measured in devices with 3 nm of MoO{sub x}. A schematic band diagram is proposed. The thicker MoO{sub x} layers are more stoichiometric and resistive, and the voltage drop across these layers dominates their electrical performance, leading to an increase in threshold voltage. The results indicate that AZO with MoO{sub x} layers of optimal thickness may be potential candidates for anode use in organic light emitting diodes.

  4. The influence of MoOx gap states on hole injection from aluminum doped zinc oxide with nanoscale MoOx surface layer anodes for organic light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Jitendra Kumar; Santos-Ortiz, Reinaldo; Du, Jincheng; Shepherd, Nigel D.

    2015-08-01

    The effective workfunction of Al doped ZnO films (AZO) increased from 4.1 eV to 5.55 eV after surface modification with nanoscale molybdenum sub-oxides (MoOx). Hole only devices with anodes consisting of 3 nm of MoOx on AZO exhibited a lower turn-on voltage (1.5 vs 1.8 V), and larger charge injection (190 vs 118 mA/cm2) at the reference voltage, compared to indium tin oxide (ITO). AZO devices with 10 nm of MoOx exhibited the highest workfunction but performed poorly compared to devices with 3 nm of MoOx, or standard ITO. Ultraviolet photoelectron, X-ray photoelectron, and optical spectroscopies indicate that the 3 nm MoOx films are more reduced and farther away from MoO3 stoichiometry than their 10 nm equivalents. The vacancies associated with non-stoichiometry result in donor-like gap states which we assign to partially occupied Mo 4d levels. We propose that Fowler-Nordheim tunneling from these levels is responsible for the reduction in threshold voltage measured in devices with 3 nm of MoOx. A schematic band diagram is proposed. The thicker MoOx layers are more stoichiometric and resistive, and the voltage drop across these layers dominates their electrical performance, leading to an increase in threshold voltage. The results indicate that AZO with MoOx layers of optimal thickness may be potential candidates for anode use in organic light emitting diodes.

  5. High-performance InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent conductive layers grown by MOCVD using H2O as an oxidizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jia-Yong; Pei, Yan-Li; Zhuo, Yi; Chen, Zi-Min; Hu, Rui-Qin; Cai, Guang-Shuo; Wang, Gang

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the high performance of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with Al-doped ZnO (AZO) transparent conductive layers (TCLs) has been demonstrated. The AZO-TCLs were fabricated on the n+-InGaN contact layer by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using H2O as an oxidizer at temperatures as low as 400 °C without any post-deposition annealing. It shows a high transparency (98%), low resistivity (510-4 Ω·cm), and an epitaxial-like excellent interface on p-GaN with an n+-InGaN contact layer. A forward voltage of 2.82 V @ 20 mA was obtained. Most importantly, the power efficiencies can be markedly improved by 53.8%@20 mA current injection and 39.6%@350 mA current injection compared with conventional LEDs with indium tin oxide TCL (LED-III), and by 28.8%@20 mA current injection and 4.92%@350 mA current injection compared with LEDs with AZO-TCL prepared by MOCVD using O2 as an oxidizer (LED-II), respectively. The results indicate that the AZO-TCL grown by MOCVD using H2O as an oxidizer is a promising TCL for a low-cost and high-efficiency GaN-based LED application. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61204091, 61404177, 51402366, and U1201254) and the Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2015B010132006).

  6. Electronic structure of self-doped layered Eu3F4Bi2S4 material revealed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy and photoelectron spectromicroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, E.; Sugimoto, T.; Wakita, T.; Barinov, A.; Terashima, K.; Kandyba, V.; Proux, O.; Kajitani, J.; Higashinaka, R.; Matsuda, T. D.; Aoki, Y.; Yokoya, T.; Mizokawa, T.; Saini, N. L.

    2017-01-01

    We have studied the electronic structure of Eu3F4Bi2S4 using a combination of Eu L3-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and space-resolved angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). From the Eu L3-edge XAS, we have found that the Eu in this system is in mixed valence state with coexistence of Eu2 +/Eu3 + . The bulk charge doping was estimated to be ˜0.3 per Bi site in Eu3F4Bi2S4 , which corresponds to the nominal x in a typical REO1 -xFxBiS2 system (RE: rare-earth elements). From the space-resolved ARPES, we have ruled out the possibility of any microscale phase separation of Eu valence in the system. Using a microfocused beam we have observed the band structure as well as the Fermi surface that appeared similar to other compounds of this family with disconnected rectangular electronlike pockets around the X point. The Luttinger volume analysis gives the effective carrier to be 0.23 electrons per Bi site in Eu3F4Bi2S4 , indicating that the system is likely to be in the underdoped region of its superconducting phase diagram.

  7. Effect of Al and Ce doping on the deformation upon sintering in sequential tape cast layers for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cologna, M.; Contino, A. R.; Montinaro, D.; Sglavo, V. M.

    Water-based tape casting is an attractive production route for planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) due to its high productivity and reduced environmental issues. In this work planar anode supported SOFCs with thin electrolyte were prepared by water-based sequential tape casting and co-sintering. An in situ high temperature monitoring apparatus was assembled to allow the determination of free sintering shrinkage of thin green tape cast layers and to follow the curvature developed in multilayers during the entire sintering process. The instantaneous curvature developed upon co-sintering was studied as a function of the firing schedule and layer composition. It was found that by tailoring the electrode composition it is possible to reduce the shrinking rate difference between anode and electrolyte thus obtaining defect-free electrolyte, minimising the residual curvature of the half-cell and improving the electrochemical performances of the cell.

  8. Improvement in properties of window layer of sprayed CuInS2/In2S3 solar cell by optimization of tin doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, M. V.; Sreejith, M. S.; Kartha, C. Sudha; Vijayakumar, K. P.

    2014-01-01

    Effect of diffusion of Tin in the window layer of CuInS2/In2S3 heterojunction photovoltaic device fabricated using automated spray pyrolysis machine, is presented in this paper. Considerable improvement in the device parameters was observed through this process. The best device obtained in this study had open-circuit voltage of 370mV, short circuit current density of 5.33mA/cm2, fill factor of 32% and efficiency of 0.65%.

  9. Investigation of blown boundary layers with an improved wall jet system. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Technical Report, 1 Jul. 1978 - Dec. 1979; [to prevent turbulent boundary layer separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saripalli, K. R.; Simpson, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The behavior of two dimensional incompressible turbulent wall jets submerged in a boundary layer when they are used to prevent boundary layer separation on plane surfaces is investigated. The experimental set-up and instrumentation are described. Experimental results of zero pressure gradient flow and adverse pressure gradient flow are presented. Conclusions are given and discussed.

  10. Enhanced Performance in Al-Doped ZnO Based Transparent Flexible Transparent Thin-Film Transistors Due to Oxygen Vacancy in ZnO Film with Zn-Al-O Interfaces Fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Yao, Rui; Wang, Huanhuan; Wu, Xiaoming; Wu, Jinzhu; Wu, Xiaohong; Qin, Wei

    2017-04-05

    Highly conductive and optical transparent Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin film composed of ZnO with a Zn-Al-O interface was fabricated by thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. The as-prepared AZO thin film exhibits excellent electrical and optical properties with high stability and compatibility with temperature-sensitive flexible photoelectronic devices; film resistivity is as low as 5.7 × 10(-4) Ω·cm, the carrier concentration is high up to 2.2 × 10(21) cm(-3). optical transparency is greater than 80% in a visible range, and the growth temperature is below 150 °C on the PEN substrate. Compared with the conventional AZO film containing by a ZnO-Al2O3 interface, we propose that the underlying mechanism of the enhanced electrical conductivity for the current AZO thin film is attributed to the oxygen vacancies deficiency derived from the free competitive growth mode of Zn-O and Al-O bonds in the Zn-Al-O interface. The flexible transparent transistor based on this AZO electrode exhibits a favorable threshold voltage and Ion/Ioff ratio, showing promising for use in high-resolution, fully transparent, and flexible display applications.

  11. Strongly Coupled Ternary Hybrid Aerogels of N-deficient Porous Graphitic-C3N4 Nanosheets/N-Doped Graphene/NiFe-Layered Double Hydroxide for Solar-Driven Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yang; Wen, Zhenhai; Cui, Shumao; Feng, Xinliang; Chen, Junhong

    2016-04-13

    Developing photoanodes with efficient sunlight harvesting, excellent charge separation and transfer, and fast surface reaction kinetics remains a key challenge in photoelectrochemical water splitting devices. Here we report a new strongly coupled ternary hybrid aerogel that is designed and constructed by in situ assembly of N-deficient porous carbon nitride nanosheets and NiFe-layered double hydroxide into a 3D N-doped graphene framework architecture using a facile hydrothermal method. Such a 3D hierarchical structure combines several advantageous features, including effective light-trapping, multidimensional electron transport pathways, short charge transport time and distance, strong coupling effect, and improved surface reaction kinetics. Benefiting from the desirable nanostructure, the ternary hybrid aerogels exhibited remarkable photoelectrochemical performance for water oxidation. Results included a record-high photocurrent density that reached 162.3 μA cm(-2) at 1.4 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode with a maximum incident photon-to-current efficiency of 2.5% at 350 nm under AM 1.5G irradiation, and remarkable photostability. The work represents a significant step toward the development of novel 3D aerogel-based photoanodes for solar water splitting.

  12. Mesoporous and Nanostructured TiO2 layer with Ultra-High Loading on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Foams as Flexible and Free-Standing Electrodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shiyong; Zhong, Yijun; Cai, Rui; Zhang, Zhaobao; Wei, Shenying; Shao, Zongping

    2016-12-01

    A simple and green method is developed for the preparation of nanostructured TiO2 supported on nitrogen-doped carbon foams (NCFs) as a free-standing and flexible electrode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), in which the TiO2 with 2.5-4 times higher loading than the conventional TiO2 -based flexible electrodes acts as the active material. In addition, the NCFs act as a flexible substrate and efficient conductive networks. The nanocrystalline TiO2 with a uniform size of ≈10 nm form a mesoporous layer covering the wall of the carbon foam. When used directly as a flexible electrode in a LIB, a capacity of 188 mA h g(-1) is achieved at a current density of 200 mA g(-1) for a potential window of 1.0-3.0 V, and a specific capacity of 149 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles at a current density of 1000 mA g(-1) is maintained. The highly conductive NCF and flexible network, the mesoporous structure and nanocrystalline size of the TiO2 phase, the firm adhesion of TiO2 over the wall of the NCFs, the small volume change in the TiO2 during the charge/discharge processes, and the high cut-off potential contribute to the excellent capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability of the TiO2 /NCFs flexible electrode.

  13. Li-Doped Ionic Liquid Electrolytes: From Bulk Phase to Interfacial Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskins, Justin B.; Lawson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquids have been proposed as candidate electrolytes for high-energy density, rechargeable batteries. We present an extensive computational analysis supported by experimental comparisons of the bulk and interfacial properties of a representative set of these electrolytes as a function of Li-salt doping. We begin by investigating the bulk electrolyte using quantum chemistry and ab initio molecular dynamics to elucidate the solvation structure of Li(+). MD simulations using the polarizable force field of Borodin and coworkers were then performed, from which we obtain an array of thermodynamic and transport properties. Excellent agreement is found with experiments for diffusion, ionic conductivity, and viscosity. Combining MD simulations with electronic structure computations, we computed the electrochemical window of the electrolytes across a range of Li(+)-doping levels and comment on the role of the liquid environment. Finally, we performed a suite of simulations of these Li-doped electrolytes at ideal electrified interfaces to evaluate the differential capacitance and the equilibrium Li(+) distribution in the double layer. The magnitude of differential capacitance is in good agreement with our experiments and exhibits the characteristic camel-shaped profile. In addition, the simulations reveal Li(+) to be highly localized to the second molecular layer of the double layer, which is supported by additional computations that find this layer to be a free energy minimum with respect to Li(+) translation.

  14. Noncontacting laser photocarrier radiometric depth profilometry of harmonically modulated band bending in the space-charge layer at doped SiO{sub 2}-Si interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Mandelis, Andreas; Batista, Jerias; Gibkes, Juergen; Pawlak, Michael; Pelzl, Josef

    2005-04-15

    Laser infrared photocarrier radiometry (PCR) was used with a harmonically modulated low-power laser pump and a superposed dc superband-gap optical bias (a secondary laser beam) to control and monitor the space-charge-layer (SCL) width in oxidized p-Si-SiO{sub 2} and n-Si-SiO{sub 2} interfaces (wafers) exhibiting charged interface-state related band bending. Applying the theory of PCR-SCL dynamics [A. Mandelis, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083508 (2005)] to the experiments yielded various transport parameters of the samples as well as depth profiles of the SCL exhibiting complete ( p-type Si) or partial (n-type Si) band flattening, to a degree controlled by widely different minority-carrier capture cross section at each interface. The uncompensated charge density at the interface was also calculated from the theory.

  15. Improved conversion efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells based on electrospun Al-doped ZnO nanofiber electrodes prepared by seed layer treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Yun Sining; Lim, Sangwoo

    2011-02-15

    The application of electrospun nanofibers in electronic devices is limited due to their poor adhesion to conductive substrates. To improve this, a seed layer (SD) is introduced on the FTO substrate before the deposition of the electrospun composite nanofibers. This facilitates the release of interfacial tensile stress during calcination and enhances the interfacial adhesion of the AZO nanofiber films with the FTO substrate. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) based on these AZO nanofiber photoelectrodes have been fabricated and investigated. An energy conversion efficiency ({eta}) of 0.54-0.55% has been obtained under irradiation of AM 1.5 simulated sunlight (100 mW/cm{sup 2}), indicating a massive improvement of {eta} in the AZO nanofiber film DSSCs after SD-treatment of the FTO substrate as compared to those with no treatment. The SD-treatment has been demonstrated to be a simple and facile method to solve the problem of poor adhesion between electrospun nanofibers and the conductive substrate. -- Graphical abstract: The poor adhesion between electrospun nanofibers and substrate is improved by a simple and facile seed layer (SD) treatment. The energy conversion efficiency of AZO nanofiber-based DSSCs has been greatly increased by SD-treatment of the FTO substrate. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} A simple and facile method (SD-treatment) has been demonstrated. {yields} The poor adhesion between electrospun nanofibers and substrate is improved by the SD-treatment. {yields} The {eta} of AZO nanofiber-based DSSCs has been greatly improved by SD-treatment of the FTO substrate.

  16. A brief review of co-doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingzhao; Tse, Kinfai; Wong, Manhoi; Zhang, Yiou; Zhu, Junyi

    2016-12-01

    Dopants and defects are important in semiconductor and magnetic devices. Strategies for controlling doping and defects have been the focus of semiconductor physics research during the past decades and remain critical even today. Co-doping is a promising strategy that can be used for effectively tuning the dopant populations, electronic properties, and magnetic properties. It can enhance the solubility of dopants and improve the stability of desired defects. During the past 20 years, significant experimental and theoretical efforts have been devoted to studying the characteristics of co-doping. In this article, we first review the historical development of co-doping. Then, we review a variety of research performed on co-doping, based on the compensating nature of co-dopants. Finally, we review the effects of contamination and surfactants that can explain the general mechanisms of co-doping.

  17. Characterization of deep level defects and thermally stimulated depolarization phenomena in La-doped TlInS2 layered semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyidov, MirHasan Yu.; Suleymanov, Rauf A.; Mikailzade, Faik A.; Kargın, Elif Orhan; Odrinsky, Andrei P.

    2015-06-01

    Lanthanum-doped high quality TlInS2 (TlInS2:La) ferroelectric-semiconductor was characterized by photo-induced current transient spectroscopy (PICTS). Different impurity centers are resolved and identified. Analyses of the experimental data were performed in order to determine the characteristic parameters of the extrinsic and intrinsic defects. The energies and capturing cross section of deep traps were obtained by using the heating rate method. The observed changes in the Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) near the phase transition points in TlInS2:La ferroelectric-semiconductor are interpreted as a result of self-polarization of the crystal due to the internal electric field caused by charged defects. The TSDC spectra show the depolarization peaks, which are attributed to defects of dipolar origin. These peaks provide important information on the defect structure and localized energy states in TlInS2:La. Thermal treatments of TlInS2:La under an external electric field, which was applied at different temperatures, allowed us to identify a peak in TSDC which was originated from La-dopant. It was established that deep energy level trap BTE43, which are active at low temperature (T ≤ 156 K) and have activation energy 0.29 eV and the capture cross section 2.2 × 10-14 cm2, corresponds to the La dopant. According to the PICTS results, the deep level trap center B5 is activated in the temperature region of incommensurate (IC) phases of TlInS2:La, having the giant static dielectric constant due to the structural disorders. From the PICTS simulation results for B5, native deep level trap having an activation energy of 0.3 eV and the capture cross section of 1.8 × 10-16 cm2 were established. A substantial amount of residual space charges is trapped by the deep level localized energy states of B5 in IC-phase. While the external electric field is applied, permanent dipoles, which are originated from the charged B5 deep level defects, are aligned in the

  18. Characterization of deep level defects and thermally stimulated depolarization phenomena in La-doped TlInS{sub 2} layered semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Seyidov, MirHasan Yu. Suleymanov, Rauf A.; Mikailzade, Faik A.; Kargın, Elif Orhan; Odrinsky, Andrei P.

    2015-06-14

    Lanthanum-doped high quality TlInS{sub 2} (TlInS{sub 2}:La) ferroelectric-semiconductor was characterized by photo-induced current transient spectroscopy (PICTS). Different impurity centers are resolved and identified. Analyses of the experimental data were performed in order to determine the characteristic parameters of the extrinsic and intrinsic defects. The energies and capturing cross section of deep traps were obtained by using the heating rate method. The observed changes in the Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) near the phase transition points in TlInS{sub 2}:La ferroelectric-semiconductor are interpreted as a result of self-polarization of the crystal due to the internal electric field caused by charged defects. The TSDC spectra show the depolarization peaks, which are attributed to defects of dipolar origin. These peaks provide important information on the defect structure and localized energy states in TlInS{sub 2}:La. Thermal treatments of TlInS{sub 2}:La under an external electric field, which was applied at different temperatures, allowed us to identify a peak in TSDC which was originated from La-dopant. It was established that deep energy level trap BTE43, which are active at low temperature (T ≤ 156 K) and have activation energy 0.29 eV and the capture cross section 2.2 × 10{sup −14} cm{sup 2}, corresponds to the La dopant. According to the PICTS results, the deep level trap center B5 is activated in the temperature region of incommensurate (IC) phases of TlInS{sub 2}:La, having the giant static dielectric constant due to the structural disorders. From the PICTS simulation results for B5, native deep level trap having an activation energy of 0.3 eV and the capture cross section of 1.8 × 10{sup −16} cm{sup 2} were established. A substantial amount of residual space charges is trapped by the deep level localized energy states of B5 in IC-phase. While the external electric field is applied, permanent dipoles

  19. Phosphorous doping a semiconductor particle

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Gary Don; Reynolds, Jeffrey Scott

    1999-07-20

    A method (10) of phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle using ammonium phosphate. A p-doped silicon sphere is mixed with a diluted solution of ammonium phosphate having a predetermined concentration. These spheres are dried (16, 18), with the phosphorus then being diffused (20) into the sphere to create either a shallow or deep p-n junction. A good PSG glass layer is formed on the surface of the sphere during the diffusion process. A subsequent segregation anneal process is utilized to strip metal impurities from near the p-n junction into the glass layer. A subsequent HF strip procedure is then utilized to removed the PSG layer. Ammonium phosphate is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirement.

  20. Phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, G.D.; Reynolds, J.S.

    1999-07-20

    A method of phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle using ammonium phosphate is disclosed. A p-doped silicon sphere is mixed with a diluted solution of ammonium phosphate having a predetermined concentration. These spheres are dried with the phosphorus then being diffused into the sphere to create either a shallow or deep p-n junction. A good PSG glass layer is formed on the surface of the sphere during the diffusion process. A subsequent segregation anneal process is utilized to strip metal impurities from near the p-n junction into the glass layer. A subsequent HF strip procedure is then utilized to removed the PSG layer. Ammonium phosphate is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirement. 1 fig.