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Sample records for doppler swept-source optical

  1. Live imaging of rat embryos with Doppler swept-source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Irina V.; Furushima, Kenryo; Dickinson, Mary E.; Behringer, Richard R.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2009-09-01

    The rat has long been considered an excellent system to study mammalian embryonic cardiovascular physiology, but has lacked the extensive genetic tools available in the mouse to be able to create single gene mutations. However, the recent establishment of rat embryonic stem cell lines facilitates the generation of new models in the rat embryo to link changes in physiology with altered gene function to define the underlying mechanisms behind congenital cardiovascular birth defects. Along with the ability to create new rat genotypes there is a strong need for tools to analyze phenotypes with high spatial and temporal resolution. Doppler OCT has been previously used for 3-D structural analysis and blood flow imaging in other model species. We use Doppler swept-source OCT for live imaging of early postimplantation rat embryos. Structural imaging is used for 3-D reconstruction of embryo morphology and dynamic imaging of the beating heart and vessels, while Doppler-mode imaging is used to visualize blood flow. We demonstrate that Doppler swept-source OCT can provide essential information about the dynamics of early rat embryos and serve as a basis for a wide range of studies on functional evaluation of rat embryo physiology.

  2. High-speed swept source optical coherence Doppler tomography for deep brain microvascular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; You, Jiang; Gu, Xiaochun; Du, Congwu; Pan, Yingtian

    2016-01-01

    Noninvasive microvascular imaging using optical coherence Doppler tomography (ODT) has shown great promise in brain studies; however, high-speed microcirculatory imaging in deep brain remains an open quest. A high-speed 1.3 μm swept-source ODT (SS-ODT) system is reported which was based on a 200 kHz vertical-cavity-surface-emitting laser. Phase errors induced by sweep-trigger desynchronization were effectively reduced by spectral phase encoding and instantaneous correlation among the A-scans. Phantom studies have revealed a significant reduction in phase noise, thus an enhancement of minimally detectable flow down to 268.2 μm/s. Further in vivo validation was performed, in which 3D cerebral-blood-flow (CBF) networks in mouse brain over a large field-of-view (FOV: 8.5 × 5 × 3.2 mm3) was scanned through thinned skull. Results showed that fast flows up to 3 cm/s in pial vessels and minute flows down to 0.3 mm/s in arterioles or venules were readily detectable at depths down to 3.2 mm. Moreover, the dynamic changes of the CBF networks elicited by acute cocaine such as heterogeneous responses in various vessel compartments and at different cortical layers as well as transient ischemic events were tracked, suggesting the potential of SS-ODT for brain functional imaging that requires high flow sensitivity and dynamic range, fast frame rate and a large FOV to cover different brain regions. PMID:27934907

  3. High-speed swept source optical coherence Doppler tomography for deep brain microvascular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; You, Jiang; Gu, Xiaochun; Du, Congwu; Pan, Yingtian

    2016-12-01

    Noninvasive microvascular imaging using optical coherence Doppler tomography (ODT) has shown great promise in brain studies; however, high-speed microcirculatory imaging in deep brain remains an open quest. A high-speed 1.3 μm swept-source ODT (SS-ODT) system is reported which was based on a 200 kHz vertical-cavity-surface-emitting laser. Phase errors induced by sweep-trigger desynchronization were effectively reduced by spectral phase encoding and instantaneous correlation among the A-scans. Phantom studies have revealed a significant reduction in phase noise, thus an enhancement of minimally detectable flow down to 268.2 μm/s. Further in vivo validation was performed, in which 3D cerebral-blood-flow (CBF) networks in mouse brain over a large field-of-view (FOV: 8.5 × 5 × 3.2 mm3) was scanned through thinned skull. Results showed that fast flows up to 3 cm/s in pial vessels and minute flows down to 0.3 mm/s in arterioles or venules were readily detectable at depths down to 3.2 mm. Moreover, the dynamic changes of the CBF networks elicited by acute cocaine such as heterogeneous responses in various vessel compartments and at different cortical layers as well as transient ischemic events were tracked, suggesting the potential of SS-ODT for brain functional imaging that requires high flow sensitivity and dynamic range, fast frame rate and a large FOV to cover different brain regions.

  4. Cardiac-Gated En Face Doppler Measurement of Retinal Blood Flow Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography at 100,000 Axial Scans per Second

    PubMed Central

    Lee, ByungKun; Choi, WooJhon; Liu, Jonathan J.; Lu, Chen D.; Schuman, Joel S.; Wollstein, Gadi; Duker, Jay S.; Waheed, Nadia K.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To develop and demonstrate a cardiac gating method for repeatable in vivo measurement of total retinal blood flow (TRBF) in humans using en face Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) at commercially available imaging speeds. Methods. A prototype swept-source OCT system operating at 100-kHz axial scan rate was developed and interfaced with a pulse oximeter. Using the plethysmogram measured from the earlobe, Doppler OCT imaging of a 1.5- × 2-mm area at the optic disc at 1.8 volumes/s was synchronized to cardiac cycle to improve sampling of pulsatile blood flow. Postprocessing algorithms were developed to achieve fully automatic calculation of TRBF. We evaluated the repeatability of en face Doppler OCT measurement of TRBF in 10 healthy young subjects using three methods: measurement at 100 kHz with asynchronous acquisition, measurement at 100 kHz with cardiac-gated acquisition, and a control measurement using a 400-kHz instrument with asynchronous acquisition. Results. The median intrasubject coefficients of variation (COV) of the three methods were 8.0%, 4.9%, and 6.1%, respectively. All three methods correlated well, without a significant bias. Mean TRBF measured at 100 kHz with cardiac-gated acquisition was 40.5 ± 8.2 μL/min, and the range was from 26.6 to 55.8 μL/min. Conclusions. Cardiac-gated en face Doppler OCT can achieve smaller measurement variability than previously reported methods. Although further validation in older subjects and diseased subjects is required, precise measurement of TRBF using cardiac-gated en face Doppler OCT at commercially available imaging speeds should be feasible. PMID:25744974

  5. Doppler optical cardiogram gated 2D color flow imaging at 1000 fps and 4D in vivo visualization of embryonic heart at 45 fps on a swept source OCT system.

    PubMed

    Mariampillai, Adrian; Standish, Beau A; Munce, Nigel R; Randall, Cristina; Liu, George; Jiang, James Y; Cable, Alex E; Vitkin, I A; Yang, Victor X D

    2007-02-19

    We report a Doppler optical cardiogram gating technique for increasing the effective frame rate of Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) when imaging periodic motion as found in the cardiovascular system of embryos. This was accomplished with a Thorlabs swept-source DOCT system that simultaneously acquired and displayed structural and Doppler images at 12 frames per second (fps). The gating technique allowed for ultra-high speed visualization of the blood flow pattern in the developing hearts of African clawed frog embryos (Xenopus laevis) at up to 1000 fps. In addition, four-dimensional (three spatial dimensions + temporal) Doppler imaging at 45 fps was demonstrated using this gating technique, producing detailed visualization of the complex cardiac motion and hemodynamics in a beating heart.

  6. Doppler optical cardiogram gated 2D color flow imaging at 1000 fps and 4D in vivo visualization of embryonic heart at 45 fps on a swept source OCT system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariampillai, Adrian; Standish, Beau A.; Munce, Nigel R.; Randall, Cristina; Liu, George; Jiang, James Y.; Cable, Alex E.; Vitkin, I. A.; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2007-02-01

    We report a Doppler optical cardiogram gating technique for increasing the effective frame rate of Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) when imaging periodic motion as found in the cardiovascular system of embryos. This was accomplished with a Thorlabs swept-source DOCT system that simultaneously acquired and displayed structural and Doppler images at 12 frames per second (fps). The gating technique allowed for ultra-high speed visualization of the blood flow pattern in the developing hearts of African clawed frog embryos (Xenopus laevis) at up to 1000 fps. In addition, four-dimensional (three spatial dimensions + temporal) Doppler imaging at 45 fps was demonstrated using this gating technique, producing detailed visualization of the complex cardiac motion and hemodynamics in a beating heart.

  7. Long-range, wide-field swept-source optical coherence tomography with GPU accelerated digital lock-in Doppler vibrography for real-time, in vivo middle ear diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, Dan; Farrell, Joshua; Brown, Jeremy; Bance, Manohar; Adamson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We present the design, implementation and validation of a swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for real-time imaging of the human middle ear in live patients. Our system consists of a highly phase-stable Vernier-tuned distributed Bragg-reflector laser along with a real-time processing engine implemented on a graphics processing unit. We use the system to demonstrate, for the first time in live subjects, real-time Doppler measurements of middle ear vibration in response to sound, video rate 2D B-mode imaging of the middle ear and 3D volumetric B-mode imaging. All measurements were performed non-invasively through the intact tympanic membrane demonstrating that the technology is readily translatable to the clinic. PMID:27896001

  8. Polarization-maintaining buffered Fourier domain mode-locked swept source for optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Jing, Joe; Wang, Pinghe; Chen, Zhongping

    2011-12-15

    A polarization-maintaining buffered Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) swept source with a center wavelength of 1300 nm is demonstrated. The scanning rate of the buffered FDML swept source is doubled without sacrificing the output power of the swept source by combining two orthogonally polarized outputs with a polarization beam combiner. The stability of the swept source is improved because the polarization state of the laser beam inside the laser cavity is maintained without the use of any polarization controllers. The swept source is capable of an edge-to-edge tuning range of more than 150 nm and a FWHM range of 95 nm at a 102 kHz sweeping rate and with an average power of 12 mW. A swept source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system is developed utilizing this buffered FDML swept source. The axial resolution of the SSOCT system is measured to be 9.4 µm in air. The sensitivity of the SSOCT system is 107.5 dB at a depth of 0.25 mm with a 6 dB roll-off at a depth of 2.25 mm.

  9. Estimation of elastic parameters of ovarian tissue using phase stabilized swept source optical-coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandy, Sreyankar; Wang, Tianheng; Salehi, Hassan; Sanders, Melinda; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2015-03-01

    We have estimated the micro-mechanical properties of ovarian tissue using phase-sensitive swept source optical coherence tomography. Ovary samples were mechanically excited by periodical vibration of an ultrasound transducer. The displacement and strain of the tissues were calculated during loading. Significant difference in strain was observed between the normal and malignant ovary groups, which indicates much softer and heterogeneous tissue structure for malignant ovaries. The initial results show that the phase sensitive swept source optical coherence elastography (OCE) can be an effective tool for characterization of stiffness and other micro-mechanical properties of normal and malignant ovarian tissue.

  10. Imaging of cardiovascular dynamics in early mouse embryos with swept source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Irina V.; Liebling, Michael; Dickinson, Mary E.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2009-02-01

    Congenital cardiovascular defects are very common, occurring in 1% of live births, and cardiovascular failures are the leading cause of birth defect-related deaths in infants. To improve diagnostics, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular abnormalities, we need to understand not only how cells form the heart and vessels but also how physical factors such as heart contraction and blood flow influence heart development and changes in the circulatory network. Mouse models are an excellent resource for studying cardiovascular development and disease because of the resemblance to humans, rapid generation time, and availability of mutants with cardiovascular defects linked to human diseases. In this work, we present results on development and application of Doppler Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography (DSS-OCT) for imaging of cardiovascular dynamics and blood flow in the mouse embryonic heart and vessels. Our studies demonstrated that the spatial and temporal resolution of the DSS-OCT makes it possible to perform sensitive measurements of heart and vessel wall movements and to investigate how contractile waves facilitate the movement of blood through the circulatory system.

  11. Simple and versatile long range swept source for optical coherence tomography applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräuer, Bastian; Lippok, Norman; Murdoch, Stuart G.; Vanholsbeeck, Frédérique

    2015-12-01

    We present a versatile long coherence length swept-source laser design for optical coherence tomography applications. This design consists of a polygonal spinning mirror and an optical gain chip in a modified Littman-Metcalf cavity. A narrowband intra-cavity filter is implemented through multiple passes off a diffraction grating set at grazing incidence. The key advantage of this design is that it can be readily adapted to any wavelength regions for which broadband gain chips are available. We demonstrate this by implementing sources at 1650 nm, 1550 nm, 1310 nm and 1050 nm. In particular, we present a 1310 nm swept source laser with 24 mm coherence length, 95 nm optical bandwidth, 2 kHz maximum sweep frequency and 7.5 mW average output power. These parameters make it a suitable source for the imaging of biological samples.

  12. Lens-based wavefront sensorless adaptive optics swept source OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Yifan; Lee, Sujin; Ju, Myeong Jin; Heisler, Morgan; Ding, Weiguang; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Bonora, Stefano; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2016-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized modern ophthalmology, providing depth resolved images of the retinal layers in a system that is suited to a clinical environment. Although the axial resolution of OCT system, which is a function of the light source bandwidth, is sufficient to resolve retinal features at a micrometer scale, the lateral resolution is dependent on the delivery optics and is limited by ocular aberrations. Through the combination of wavefront sensorless adaptive optics and the use of dual deformable transmissive optical elements, we present a compact lens-based OCT system at an imaging wavelength of 1060 nm for high resolution retinal imaging. We utilized a commercially available variable focal length lens to correct for a wide range of defocus commonly found in patient’s eyes, and a novel multi-actuator adaptive lens for aberration correction to achieve near diffraction limited imaging performance at the retina. With a parallel processing computational platform, high resolution cross-sectional and en face retinal image acquisition and display was performed in real time. In order to demonstrate the system functionality and clinical utility, we present images of the photoreceptor cone mosaic and other retinal layers acquired in vivo from research subjects.

  13. Lens-based wavefront sensorless adaptive optics swept source OCT

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Yifan; Lee, Sujin; Ju, Myeong Jin; Heisler, Morgan; Ding, Weiguang; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Bonora, Stefano; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized modern ophthalmology, providing depth resolved images of the retinal layers in a system that is suited to a clinical environment. Although the axial resolution of OCT system, which is a function of the light source bandwidth, is sufficient to resolve retinal features at a micrometer scale, the lateral resolution is dependent on the delivery optics and is limited by ocular aberrations. Through the combination of wavefront sensorless adaptive optics and the use of dual deformable transmissive optical elements, we present a compact lens-based OCT system at an imaging wavelength of 1060 nm for high resolution retinal imaging. We utilized a commercially available variable focal length lens to correct for a wide range of defocus commonly found in patient’s eyes, and a novel multi-actuator adaptive lens for aberration correction to achieve near diffraction limited imaging performance at the retina. With a parallel processing computational platform, high resolution cross-sectional and en face retinal image acquisition and display was performed in real time. In order to demonstrate the system functionality and clinical utility, we present images of the photoreceptor cone mosaic and other retinal layers acquired in vivo from research subjects. PMID:27278853

  14. Swept-source anatomic optical coherence elastography of porcine trachea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Ruofei; Price, Hillel; Mitran, Sorin; Zdanski, Carlton; Oldenburg, Amy L.

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative endoscopic imaging is at the vanguard of novel techniques in the assessment upper airway obstruction. Anatomic optical coherence tomography (aOCT) has the potential to provide the geometry of the airway lumen with high-resolution and in 4 dimensions. By coupling aOCT with measurements of pressure, optical coherence elastography (OCE) can be performed to characterize airway wall stiffness. This can aid in identifying regions of dynamic collapse as well as informing computational fluid dynamics modeling to aid in surgical decision-making. Toward this end, here we report on an anatomic optical coherence tomography (aOCT) system powered by a wavelength-swept laser source. The system employs a fiber-optic catheter with outer diameter of 0.82 mm deployed via the bore of a commercial, flexible bronchoscope. Helical scans are performed to measure the airway geometry and to quantify the cross-sectional-area (CSA) of the airway. We report on a preliminary validation of aOCT for elastography, in which aOCT-derived CSA was obtained as a function of pressure to estimate airway wall compliance. Experiments performed on a Latex rubber tube resulted in a compliance measurement of 0.68+/-0.02 mm2/cmH2O, with R2=0.98 over the pressure range from 10 to 40 cmH2O. Next, ex vivo porcine trachea was studied, resulting in a measured compliance from 1.06+/-0.12 to 3.34+/-0.44 mm2/cmH2O, (R2>0.81). The linearity of the data confirms the elastic nature of the airway. The compliance values are within the same order-of-magnitude as previous measurements of human upper airways, suggesting that this system is capable of assessing airway wall compliance in future human studies.

  15. Clinical utility of anterior segment swept-source optical coherence tomography in glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Angmo, Dewang; Nongpiur, Monisha E.; Sharma, Reetika; Sidhu, Talvir; Sihota, Ramanjit; Dada, Tanuj

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT), a noninvasive imaging modality that uses low-coherence light to obtain a high-resolution cross-section of biological structures, has evolved dramatically over the years. The Swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) makes use of a single detector with a rapidly tunable laser as a light source. The Casia SS-1000 OCT is a Fourier-domain, SS-OCT designed specifically for imaging the anterior segment. This system achieves high resolution imaging of 10΅m (Axial) and 30΅m (Transverse) and high speed scanning of 30,000 A-scans per second. With a substantial improvement in scan speed, the anterior chamber angles can be imaged 360 degrees in 128 cross sections (each with 512 A-scans) in about 2.4 seconds. We summarize the clinical applications of anterior segment SS-OCT in Glaucoma. Literature search: We searched PubMed and included Medline using the phrases anterior segment optical coherence tomography in ophthalmology, swept-source OCT, use of AS-OCT in glaucoma, use of swept-source AS-OCT in glaucoma, quantitative assessment of angle, filtering bleb in AS-OCT, comparison of AS-OCT with gonioscopy and comparison of AS-OCT with UBM. Search was made for articles dating 1990 to August 2015. PMID:27013821

  16. Swept source optical coherence microscopy using a Fourier domain mode-locked laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shu-Wei; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Huber, Robert A.; Adler, Desmond C.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2007-05-01

    Swept source optical coherence microscopy (OCM) enables cellular resolution en face imaging as well as integration with optical coherence tomography (OCT) cross sectional imaging. A buffered Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) laser light source provides high speed, three dimensional imaging. Image resolutions of 1.6 µm × 8 µm (transverse × axial) with a 220 µm × 220 µm field of view and sensitivity higher than 98 dB are achieved. Three dimensional cellular imaging is demonstrated in vivo in the Xenopus laevis tadpole and ex vivo in the rat kidney and human colon.

  17. Quantitative evaluation of dental abfraction and attrition using a swept-source optical coherence tomography system.

    PubMed

    Marcauteanu, Corina; Bradu, Adrian; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin Ionel; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh

    2014-02-01

    A fast swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system is employed to acquire volumes of dental tissue, in order to monitor the temporal evolution of dental wear. An imaging method is developed to evaluate the volume of tissue lost in ex vivo artificially induced abfractions and attritions. The minimal volume (measured in air) that our system could measure is 2352 μm3. A volume of 25,000 A-scans is collected in 2.5 s. All these recommend the SS-OCT method as a valuable tool for dynamic evaluation of the abfraction and attrition with remarkable potential for clinical use.

  18. Colorectal neoplasm characterization based on swept-source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chih-Wei; Chiu, Han-Mo; Sun, Chia-Wei

    2009-07-01

    Most of the colorectal cancer has grown from the adenomatous polyp. Adenomatous lesions have a well-documented relationship to colorectal cancer in previous studies. Thus, to detect the morphological changes between polyp and tumor can allow early diagnosis of colorectal cancer and simultaneous removal of lesions. In this paper, the various adenoma/carcinoma in-vitro samples are monitored by our swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system. The significant results indicate a great potential for early detection of colorectal adenomas based on the SS-OCT imaging.

  19. Swept-source optical coherence tomography of lower limb wound healing with histopathological correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barui, Ananya; Banerjee, Provas; Patra, Rusha; Das, Raunak Kumar; Dhara, Santanu; Dutta, Pranab K.; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2011-02-01

    Direct noninvasive visualization of wound bed with depth information is important to understand the tissue repair. We correlate skin swept-source-optical coherence tomography (OCT) with histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation on traumatic lower limb wounds under honey dressing to compare and assess the tissue repair features acquired noninvasively and invasively. Analysis of optical biopsy identifies an uppermost brighter band for stratum corneum with region specific thickness (p < 0.0001) and gray-level intensity (p < 0.0001) variation. Below the stratum corneum, variation in optical intensities is remarkable in different regions of the wound bed. Correlation between OCT and microscopic observations are explored especially in respect to progressive growth and maturation of the epithelial and subepithelial components. Characteristic transition of uniform hypolucid band in OCT image for depigmented zone to wavy highly lucid band in the pigmented zone could be directly correlated with the microscopic findings. The transformation of prematured epithelium of depigmented area, with low expression of E-cadherin, to matured epithelium with higher E-cadherin expression in pigmented zone, implicated plausible change in their optical properties as depicted in OCT. This correlated evaluation of multimodal images demonstrates applicability of swept-source-OCT in wound research and importance of integrated approach in validation of new technology.

  20. Assessment of Optic Nerve Head Drusen Using Enhanced Depth Imaging and Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Anna L.; Tatham, Andrew J.; Medeiros, Felipe A.; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) are calcific deposits buried or at the surface of the optic disc. Although ONHD may be associated with progressive visual field defects, the mechanism of drusen-related field loss is poorly understood. Methods for detecting and imaging disc drusen include B-scan ultrasonography, fundus autofluorescence, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). These modalities are useful for drusen detection but are limited by low resolution or poor penetration of deep structures. This review was designed to assess the potential role of new OCT technologies in imaging ONHD. Evidence Acquisition Critical appraisal of published literature and comparison of new imaging devices to established technology. Results The new imaging modalities of enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) and swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) are able to provide unprecedented in vivo detail of ONHD. Using these devices it is now possible to quantify optic disc drusen dimensions and assess integrity of neighboring retinal structures, including the retinal nerve fiber layer. Conclusions EDI-OCT and SS-OCT have the potential to allow better detection of longitudinal changes in drusen and neural retina and improve our understanding of drusen-related visual field loss. PMID:24662838

  1. All fiber optics circular-state swept source polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hermann; Kao, Meng-Chun; Lai, Chih-Ming; Huang, Jyun-Cin; Kuo, Wen-Chuan

    2014-02-01

    A swept source (SS)-based circular-state (CS) polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) constructed entirely with polarization-maintaining fiber optics components is proposed with the experimental verification. By means of the proposed calibration scheme, bulk quarter-wave plates can be replaced by fiber optics polarization controllers to, therefore, realize an all-fiber optics CS SSPS-OCT. We also present a numerical dispersion compensation method, which can not only enhance the axial resolution, but also improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the images. We demonstrate that this compact and portable CS SSPS-OCT system with an accuracy comparable to bulk optics systems requires less stringent lens alignment and can possibly serve as a technology to realize PS-OCT instrument for clinical applications (e.g., endoscopy). The largest deviations in the phase retardation (PR) and fast-axis (FA) angle due to sample probe in the linear scanning and a rotation angle smaller than 65 deg were of the same order as those in stationary probe setups. The influence of fiber bending on the measured PR and FA is also investigated. The largest deviations of the PR were 3.5 deg and the measured FA change by ~12 to 21 deg. Finally, in vivo imaging of the human fingertip and nail was successfully demonstrated with a linear scanning probe.

  2. Differential phase-contrast, swept-source optical coherence tomography at 1060 nm for in vivo human retinal and choroidal vasculature visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motaghiannezam, S. M. Reza; Koos, David; Fraser, Scott E.

    2012-02-01

    Human retinal and choroidal vasculature was visualized by a differential phase-contrast (DPC) method using high-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) at 1060 nm. The vasculature was recognized as regions of motion by creating differential phase-variance (DPV) tomograms: multiple B-scans of individual slices through the retina were collected and the variance of the phase differences was calculated. DPV captured the small vessels and the meshwork of capillaries associated with the inner retina in en-face images over 4 mm2. The swept-source laser at 1060 nm offered the needed phase sensitivity to perform DPV and generated en-face images that capture motion in the inner choroidal layer exceeding the capabilities of previous spectrometer-based instruments. In comparison with the power Doppler phase-shift method, DPV provided better visualization of the foveal avascular zone in en-face images.

  3. VCSEL-based swept source for low-cost optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sucbei; Choi, Eun Seo

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel wavelength-swept laser source for optical coherence tomography (OCT) which is based on the conventional laser diode technology of the vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). In our self-heating sweep VCSEL (SS-VCSEL), a VCSEL device is simply driven by ramped pulses of currents in direct intensity modulation. The intrinsic property of VCSEL produces a frequency-swept output through the self-heating effect. By the injected current, the temperature of the active region is gradually increased in this effect. Consequently, it changes the wavelength of the laser output by itself. In this study, various characteristics of our SS-VCSEL were experimentally investigated for low-cost instrumentation of a swept source OCT system. A low-cost SS-VCSEL-based OCT system was demonstrated in this research that provided an axial resolution of 135 μm in air, sensitivity of −91 dB and a maximum imaging range longer than 10 cm when our source was operated at a sweep repetition rate of 5 kHz with an output power of 0.41 mW. Based on the experimental observations, we believe that our SS-VCSEL swept source can be an economic alternative in some of low-cost or long-range applications of OCT. PMID:28271006

  4. In vitro retinal imaging with full field swept source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergusson, James; Považay, Boris; Hofer, Bernd; Drexler, Wolfgang

    2010-02-01

    Weakly scattering tree shrew retina has been imaged in vitro with full field swept source optical coherence tomography, visualising multiple intraretinal layers. The system utilises a 50nm bandwidth Superlum SLD, to acheive ~8μm of axial resolution and 4μm of transversal resolution. Volumetric images of retinal tissue with dimensions of 1248x936x678μm (horizontal by vertical by axial) were recorded in two second (equivalent of 153,600 A-scans per second) with a measured signal to noise ratio of 75dB. From the 5mW of SLD optical power available, 720μW illuminates the sample, giving a power per pixel of 4.6nW, ten times less power per pixel then standard FDOCT systems. After upgrading the camera and redesigning the optical beam path, 82dB of SNR was realised.

  5. Ultra-compact silicon photonic integrated interferometer for swept-source optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Yurtsever, Günay; Weiss, Nicolás; Kalkman, Jeroen; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Baets, Roel

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate an ultra-compact silicon integrated photonic interferometer for swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). The footprint of the integrated interferometer is only 0.75×5  mm2. The design consists of three 2×2 splitters, a 13 cm physical length (50.4 cm optical length) reference arm, and grating couplers. The photonic integrated circuit was used as the interferometer of an SS-OCT system. The sensitivity of the system was measured to be -62  dB with 115 μW power delivered to the sample. Using the system, we demonstrate cross-sectional OCT imaging of a layered tissue phantom. We also discuss potential improvements in passive silicon photonic integrated circuit design and integration with active components.

  6. Multimodal ophthalmic imaging using swept source spectrally encoded scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Joseph D.; El-Haddad, Mohamed T.; Tye, Logan A.; Majeau, Lucas; Godbout, Nicolas; Rollins, Andrew M.; Boudoux, Caroline; Tao, Yuankai K.

    2016-03-01

    Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) benefit clinical diagnostic imaging in ophthalmology by enabling in vivo noninvasive en face and volumetric visualization of retinal structures, respectively. Spectrally encoding methods enable confocal imaging through fiber optics and reduces system complexity. Previous applications in ophthalmic imaging include spectrally encoded confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SECSLO) and a combined SECSLO-OCT system for image guidance, tracking, and registration. However, spectrally encoded imaging suffers from speckle noise because each spectrally encoded channel is effectively monochromatic. Here, we demonstrate in vivo human retinal imaging using a swept source spectrally encoded scanning laser ophthalmoscope and OCT (SSSESLO- OCT) at 1060 nm. SS-SESLO-OCT uses a shared 100 kHz Axsun swept source, shared scanner and imaging optics, and are detected simultaneously on a shared, dual channel high-speed digitizer. SESLO illumination and detection was performed using the single mode core and multimode inner cladding of a double clad fiber coupler, respectively, to preserve lateral resolution while improving collection efficiency and reducing speckle contrast at the expense of confocality. Concurrent en face SESLO and cross-sectional OCT images were acquired with 1376 x 500 pixels at 200 frames-per-second. Our system design is compact and uses a shared light source, imaging optics, and digitizer, which reduces overall system complexity and ensures inherent co-registration between SESLO and OCT FOVs. En face SESLO images acquired concurrent with OCT cross-sections enables lateral motion tracking and three-dimensional volume registration with broad applications in multivolume OCT averaging, image mosaicking, and intraoperative instrument tracking.

  7. Endoscopic swept-source optical coherence tomography based on a two-axis microelectromechanical system mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Donglin; Fu, Linlai; Wang, Xin; Gong, Zhongjian; Samuelson, Sean; Duan, Can; Jia, Hongzhi; Ma, Jun Shan; Xie, Huikai

    2013-08-01

    A microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirror based endoscopic swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system that can perform three-dimensional (3-D) imaging at high speed is reported. The key component enabling 3-D endoscopic imaging is a two-axis MEMS scanning mirror which has a 0.8×0.8 mm2 mirror plate and a 1.6×1.4 mm2 device footprint. The diameter of the endoscopic probe is only 3.5 mm. The imaging rate of the SS-OCT system is 50 frames/s. OCT images of both human suspicious oral leukoplakia tissue and normal buccal mucosa were taken in vivo and compared. The OCT imaging result agrees well with the histopathological analysis.

  8. Master/slave interferometry – ideal tool for coherence revival swept source optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bradu, Adrian; Rivet, Sylvain; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that the master slave (MS) interferometry method can significantly simplify the practice of coherence revival swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique. Previous implementations of the coherence revival technique required considerable resources on dispersion compensation and data resampling. The total tolerance of the MS method to nonlinear tuning, to dispersion in the interferometer and to dispersion due to the laser cavity, makes the MS ideally suited to the practice of coherence revival. In addition, enhanced versatility is allowed by the MS method in displaying shorter axial range images than that determined by the digital sampling of the data. This brings an immediate improvement in the speed of displaying cross-sectional images at high rates without the need of extra hardware such as graphics processing units or field programmable gate arrays. The long axial range of the coherence revival regime is proven with images of the anterior segment of healthy human volunteers. PMID:27446682

  9. Quantitative optical inspection of contact lenses immersed in wet cell using swept source OCT.

    PubMed

    Karnowski, Karol; Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Mohan, Nishant; Cox, Ian; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2014-08-15

    We demonstrate swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of contact lenses (CLs) in a wet cell and comprehensive quantitative characterization of CLs from volumetric OCT datasets. The approach is based on a technique developed for lens autopositioning and autoleveling enabled by lateral capillary interactions between the wet cell wall and the lens floating on the liquid surface. The demonstrated OCT imaging has enhanced contrast due to the application of a scattering medium and it improves visualization of both CL interfaces and edges. We also present precise and accurate three-dimensional metrology of soft and rigid CLs based on the OCT data. The accuracy and precision of the extracted lens parameters are compared with the manufacturer's specifications. The presented methodology facilitates industrial inspection methods of the CLs.

  10. Adaptive optics OCT using 1060nm swept source and dual deformable lenses for human retinal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Yifan; Lee, Sujin; Cua, Michelle; Miao, Dongkai; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2016-03-01

    Adaptive optics concepts have been applied to the advancement of biological imaging and microscopy. In particular, AO has also been very successfully applied to cellular resolution imaging of the retina, enabling visualization of the characteristic mosaic patterns of the outer retinal layers using flood illumination fundus photography, Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy (SLO), and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Despite the high quality of the in vivo images, there has been a limited uptake of AO imaging into the clinical environment. The high resolution afforded by AO comes at the price of limited field of view and specialized equipment. The implementation of a typical adaptive optics imaging system results in a relatively large and complex optical setup. The wavefront measurement is commonly performed using a Hartmann-Shack Wavefront Sensor (HS-WFS) placed at an image plane that is optically conjugated to the eye's pupil. The deformable mirror is also placed at a conjugate plane, relaying the wavefront corrections to the pupil. Due to the sensitivity of the HS-WFS to back-reflections, the imaging system is commonly constructed from spherical mirrors. In this project, we present a novel adaptive optics OCT retinal imaging system with significant potential to overcome many of the barriers to integration with a clinical environment. We describe in detail the implementation of a compact lens based wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (WSAO) 1060nm swept source OCT human retinal imaging system with dual deformable lenses, and present retinal images acquired in vivo from research volunteers.

  11. Longitudinal Evaluation of Cornea With Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography and Scheimpflug Imaging Before and After Lasik.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tommy C Y; Biswas, Sayantan; Yu, Marco; Jhanji, Vishal

    2015-07-01

    Swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) is the latest advancement in anterior segment imaging. There are limited data regarding its performance after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). We compared the reliability of swept-source OCT and Scheimpflug imaging for evaluation of corneal parameters in refractive surgery candidates with myopia or myopic astigmatism. Three consecutive measurements were obtained preoperatively and 1 year postoperatively using swept-source OCT and Scheimpflug imaging. The study parameters included central corneal thickness (CCT), thinnest corneal thickness (TCT), keratometry at steep (Ks) and flat (Kf) axes, mean keratometry (Km), and, anterior and posterior best fit spheres (Ant and Post BFS). The main outcome measures included reliability of measurements before and after LASIK was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and reproducibility coefficients (RC). Association between the mean value of corneal parameters with age, spherical equivalent (SEQ), and residual bed thickness (RBT) and association of variance heterogeneity of corneal parameters and these covariates were analyzed. Twenty-six right eyes of 26 participants (mean age, 32.7 ± 6.9 yrs; mean SEQ, -6.27 ± 1.67 D) were included. Preoperatively, swept-source OCT demonstrated significantly higher ICC for Ks, CCT, TCT, and Post BFS (P ≤ 0.016), compared with Scheimpflug imaging. Swept-source OCT demonstrated significantly smaller RC values for CCT, TCT, and Post BFS (P ≤ 0.001). After LASIK, both devices had significant differences in measurements for all corneal parameters (P ≤ 0.015). Swept-source OCT demonstrated a significantly higher ICC and smaller RC for all measurements, compared with Scheimpflug imaging (P ≤ 0.001). Association of variance heterogeneity was only found in pre-LASIK Ant BFS and post-LASIK Post BFS for swept-source OCT, whereas significant association of variance heterogeneity was noted for all measurements except Ks and

  12. Using swept source optical coherence tomography to monitor wound healing in tissue engineered skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. E.; Lu, Z.; Bonesi, M.; Smallwood, R.; Matcher, S. J.; MacNeil, S.

    2010-02-01

    There is an increasing need for a robust simple to use non-invasive imaging technology for monitoring tissue engineered constructs as they develop. We have applied optical coherence tomography (OCT), a relatively new optical technique, to image tissue engineered constructs. Our aim was to evaluate the use of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) to non-invasively image reconstructed skin as it developed over several weeks. The epidermis of the reconstructed skin was readily distinguished from the neodermis when examined with standard histology - a destructive imaging technique - of samples. The development of reconstructed skin based on deepithelialised acellular dermis (DED) was accurately monitored with SS-OCT over three weeks and confirmed with conventional histology. It was also possible to image changes in the epidermis due to the presence of melanoma and the healing of these 3D models after wounding with a scalpel, with or without the addition of a fibrin clot. SS-OCT is proving to be a valuable tool in tissue engineering, showing great promise for the non-invasive imaging of optically turbid tissue engineered constructs, including tissue engineered skin.

  13. Swept source optical coherence tomography for in vivo imaging and vibrometry in the apex of the mouse cochlea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee Yoon; Raphael, Patrick D.; Ellerbee, Audrey K.; Applegate, Brian E.; Oghalai, John S.

    2015-12-01

    Cochlear amplification has been most commonly investigated by measuring the vibrations of the basilar membrane in animal models. Several different techniques have been used for measuring these vibrations such as laser Doppler vibrometry, miniature pressure sensors, low coherence interferometry, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We have built a swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) system, which is similar to SD-OCT in that it is capable of performing both imaging and vibration measurements within the mouse cochlea in vivo without having to open the bone. In vivo 3D images of a mouse cochlea were obtained, and the basilar membrane, tectorial membrane, Reissner's membrane, tunnel of Corti, and reticular lamina could all be resolved. We measured vibrations of multiple structures within the mouse cochlea to sound stimuli. As well, we measured the radial deflections of the reticular lamina and tectorial membrane to estimate the displacement of the outer hair cell stereocilia. These measurements have the potential to more clearly define the mechanisms underlying the linear and non-linear processes within the mammalian cochlea.

  14. Swept source optical coherence tomography for in vivo imaging and vibrometry in the apex of the mouse cochlea

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hee Yoon; Raphael, Patrick D.; Oghalai, John S.; Ellerbee, Audrey K.; Applegate, Brian E.

    2015-12-31

    Cochlear amplification has been most commonly investigated by measuring the vibrations of the basilar membrane in animal models. Several different techniques have been used for measuring these vibrations such as laser Doppler vibrometry, miniature pressure sensors, low coherence interferometry, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We have built a swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) system, which is similar to SD-OCT in that it is capable of performing both imaging and vibration measurements within the mouse cochlea in vivo without having to open the bone. In vivo 3D images of a mouse cochlea were obtained, and the basilar membrane, tectorial membrane, Reissner’s membrane, tunnel of Corti, and reticular lamina could all be resolved. We measured vibrations of multiple structures within the mouse cochlea to sound stimuli. As well, we measured the radial deflections of the reticular lamina and tectorial membrane to estimate the displacement of the outer hair cell stereocilia. These measurements have the potential to more clearly define the mechanisms underlying the linear and non-linear processes within the mammalian cochlea.

  15. Sensitivity enhancement in swept-source optical coherence tomography by parametric balanced detector and amplifier

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jiqiang; Wei, Xiaoming; Li, Bowen; Wang, Xie; Yu, Luoqin; Tan, Sisi; Jinata, Chandra; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.

    2016-01-01

    We proposed a sensitivity enhancement method of the interference-based signal detection approach and applied it on a swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system through all-fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) and parametric balanced detector (BD). The parametric BD was realized by combining the signal and phase conjugated idler band that was newly-generated through FOPA, and specifically by superimposing these two bands at a photodetector. The sensitivity enhancement by FOPA and parametric BD in SS-OCT were demonstrated experimentally. The results show that SS-OCT with FOPA and SS-OCT with parametric BD can provide more than 9 dB and 12 dB sensitivity improvement, respectively, when compared with the conventional SS-OCT in a spectral bandwidth spanning over 76 nm. To further verify and elaborate their sensitivity enhancement, a bio-sample imaging experiment was conducted on loach eyes by conventional SS-OCT setup, SS-OCT with FOPA and parametric BD at different illumination power levels. All these results proved that using FOPA and parametric BD could improve the sensitivity significantly in SS-OCT systems. PMID:27446655

  16. Sensitivity enhancement in swept-source optical coherence tomography by parametric balanced detector and amplifier.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jiqiang; Wei, Xiaoming; Li, Bowen; Wang, Xie; Yu, Luoqin; Tan, Sisi; Jinata, Chandra; Wong, Kenneth K Y

    2016-04-01

    We proposed a sensitivity enhancement method of the interference-based signal detection approach and applied it on a swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system through all-fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) and parametric balanced detector (BD). The parametric BD was realized by combining the signal and phase conjugated idler band that was newly-generated through FOPA, and specifically by superimposing these two bands at a photodetector. The sensitivity enhancement by FOPA and parametric BD in SS-OCT were demonstrated experimentally. The results show that SS-OCT with FOPA and SS-OCT with parametric BD can provide more than 9 dB and 12 dB sensitivity improvement, respectively, when compared with the conventional SS-OCT in a spectral bandwidth spanning over 76 nm. To further verify and elaborate their sensitivity enhancement, a bio-sample imaging experiment was conducted on loach eyes by conventional SS-OCT setup, SS-OCT with FOPA and parametric BD at different illumination power levels. All these results proved that using FOPA and parametric BD could improve the sensitivity significantly in SS-OCT systems.

  17. Volumetric cutaneous microangiography of human skin in vivo by VCSEL swept-source optical coherence tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Woo June Choi; Wang, R K

    2014-08-31

    We demonstrate volumetric cutaneous microangiography of the human skin in vivo that utilises 1.3-μm high-speed sweptsource optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). The swept source is based on a micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS)-tunable vertical cavity surface emission laser (VCSEL) that is advantageous in terms of long coherence length over 50 mm and 100 nm spectral bandwidth, which enables the visualisation of microstructures within a few mm from the skin surface. We show that the skin microvasculature can be delineated in 3D SS-OCT images using ultrahigh-sensitive optical microangiography (UHS-OMAG) with a correlation mapping mask, providing a contrast enhanced blood perfusion map with capillary flow sensitivity. 3D microangiograms of a healthy human finger are shown with distinct cutaneous vessel architectures from different dermal layers and even within hypodermis. These findings suggest that the OCT microangiography could be a beneficial biomedical assay to assess cutaneous vascular functions in clinic. (laser biophotonics)

  18. All ceramic table tops analyzed using swept source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, Eniko Tunde; Marcauteanu, Corina; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Topala, Florin; Duma, Virgil Florin; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2016-03-01

    Erosion is the progressive loss of tooth substance by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. The affected teeth can be restored by using IPS e.max Press "table tops", which replace the occlusal surfaces. In this study we applied a fast in-house Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS OCT) system to analyze IPS e.max Press "table tops". 12 maxillary first premolars have been extracted and prepared for "table tops". These restorations were subjected to 3000 alternating cycles of thermo-cycling in a range from -10°C to +50°C mechanical occlusal loads of 200 N were also applied. Using SS OCT we analyze the marginal seal of these restorations, before and after applying the mechanical and thermal strain. The characteristics of the SS OCT system utilized are presented. Its depth resolution, measured in air is 10 μm. The system is able to acquire entire volumetric reconstructions in 2.5 s. From the dataset acquired high resolution en-face projections were also produced. Thus, the interfaces between all ceramic "table tops" and natural teeth were analyzed on the cross-sections (i.e., the B-scans) produced and also on the volumetric (tri-dimensional (3D)) reconstructions, several open interfaces being detected. The study therefore demonstrates the utility of SS OCT for the analysis of lithium disilicate glass ceramic "table tops".

  19. Detection of occlusal caries in primary teeth using swept source optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yukie; Shimada, Yasushi; Sadr, Alireza; Wada, Ikumi; Miyashin, Michiyo; Takagi, Yuzo; Tagami, Junji; Sumi, Yasunori

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) as a detecting tool for occlusal caries in primary teeth. At the in vitro part of the study, 38 investigation sites of occlusal fissures (noncavitated and cavitated) were selected from 26 extracted primary teeth and inspected visually using conventional dental equipment by six examiners without any magnification. SS-OCT cross-sectional images at 1330-nm center wavelength were acquired on the same locations. The teeth were then sectioned at the investigation site and directly viewed under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) by two experienced examiners. The presence and extent of caries were scored in each observation. The results obtained from SS-OCT and conventional visual inspections were compared with those of CLSM. Consequently, SS-OCT could successfully detect both cavitated and noncavitated lesions. The magnitude of sensitivity for SS-OCT was higher than those for visual inspection (sensitivity of visual inspection and SS-OCT, 0.70 versus 0.93 for enamel demineralization, 0.49 versus 0.89 for enamel cavitated caries, and 0.36 versus 0.75 for dentin caries). Additionally, occlusal caries of a few clinical cases were observed using SS-OCT in vivo. The results indicate that SS-OCT has a great detecting potential for occlusal caries in primary teeth.

  20. Imaging the anterior eye with dynamic-focus swept-source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Johnny P.; Li, Yan; Tang, Maolong; Liu, Liang; Pechauer, Alex D.; Huang, David; Liu, Gangjun

    2015-12-01

    A custom-built dynamic-focus swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system with a central wavelength of 1310 nm was used to image the anterior eye from the cornea to the lens. An electrically tunable lens was utilized to dynamically control the positions of focusing planes over the imaging range of 10 mm. The B-scan images were acquired consecutively at the same position but with different focus settings. The B-scan images were then registered and averaged after filtering the out-of-focus regions using a Gaussian window. By fusing images obtained at different depth focus locations, high-resolution and high signal-strength images were obtained over the entire imaging depth. In vivo imaging of human anterior segment was demonstrated. The performance of the system was compared with two commercial OCT systems. The human eye ciliary body was better visualized with the dynamic-focusing SS-OCT system than using the commercial 840 and 1310 nm OCT systems. The sulcus-to-sulcus distance was measured, and the result agreed with that acquired with ultrasound biomicroscopy.

  1. Wide field and highly sensitive angiography based on optical coherence tomography with akinetic swept source

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jingjiang; Song, Shaozhen; Wei, Wei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-01-01

    Wide-field vascular visualization in bulk tissue that is of uneven surface is challenging due to the relatively short ranging distance and significant sensitivity fall-off for most current optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) systems. We report a long ranging and ultra-wide-field OCTA (UW-OCTA) system based on an akinetic swept laser. The narrow instantaneous linewidth of the swept source with its high phase stability, combined with high-speed detection in the system enable us to achieve long ranging (up to 46 mm) and almost negligible system sensitivity fall-off. To illustrate these advantages, we compare the basic system performances between conventional spectral domain OCTA and UW-OCTA systems and their functional imaging of microvascular networks in living tissues. In addition, we show that the UW-OCTA is capable of different depth-ranging of cerebral blood flow within entire brain in mice, and providing unprecedented blood perfusion map of human finger in vivo. We believe that the UW-OCTA system has promises to augment the existing clinical practice and explore new biomedical applications for OCT imaging. PMID:28101428

  2. Ultrahigh speed endoscopic swept source optical coherence tomography using a VCSEL light source and micromotor catheter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Ahsen, Osman O.; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Liang, Kaicheng; Giacomelli, Michael G.; Potsaid, Benjamin M.; Tao, Yuankai K.; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Kraus, Martin F.; Hornegger, Joachim; Figueiredo, Marisa; Huang, Qin; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Cable, Alex E.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2014-03-01

    We developed an ultrahigh speed endoscopic swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for clinical gastroenterology using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and micromotor based imaging catheter, which provided an imaging speed of 600 kHz axial scan rate and 8 μm axial resolution in tissue. The micromotor catheter was 3.2 mm in diameter and could be introduced through the 3.7 mm accessory port of an endoscope. Imaging was performed at 400 frames per second with an 8 μm spot size using a pullback to generate volumetric data over 16 mm with a pixel spacing of 5 μm in the longitudinal direction. Three-dimensional OCT (3D-OCT) imaging was performed in patients with a cross section of pathologies undergoing standard upper and lower endoscopy at the Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System (VABHS). Patients with Barrett's esophagus, dysplasia, and inflammatory bowel disease were imaged. The use of distally actuated imaging catheters allowed OCT imaging with more flexibility such as volumetric imaging in the terminal ileum and the assessment of the hiatal hernia using retroflex imaging. The high rotational stability of the micromotor enabled 3D volumetric imaging with micron scale volumetric accuracy for both en face and cross-sectional imaging. The ability to perform 3D OCT imaging in the GI tract with microscopic accuracy should enable a wide range of studies to investigate the ability of OCT to detect pathology as well as assess treatment response.

  3. Assessment of cervical demineralization induced by Streptococcus mutans using swept-source optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Tezuka, Hiroki; Shimada, Yasushi; Matin, Khairul; Ikeda, Masaomi; Sadr, Alireza; Sumi, Yasunori; Tagami, Junji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Exposed root surfaces due to gingival recession are subject to biofilm stagnation that can result in caries formation. Cervical enamel and dentin demineralization induced by a cariogenic biofilm was evaluated using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). The cementoenamel junction (CEJ) sections of extracted human teeth were subjected to demineralization for 1, 2, or 3 weeks. A suspension of Streptococcus mutans was applied to form a cariogenic biofilm using an oral biofilm reactor. After incubation, demineralization was observed by SS-OCT. For the analysis of SS-OCT signal, the value of the area under the curve (AUC) of the signal profile was measured. Statistical analyses were performed with 95% level of confidence. Cervical demineralization was displayed as a bright zone in SS-OCT. The demineralization depth of dentin was significantly deeper than that of enamel (p<0.05). Enamel near the CEJ demonstrated a significant increase of AUC over the other enamel region after the demineralization. The gaps along the dentinoenamel junction were additionally observed in SS-OCT. SS-OCT was capable of monitoring the cervical demineralization induced by a cariogenic biofilm and is considered to be a promising modality for the diagnosis of cervical demineralization. PMID:27014718

  4. Imaging the anterior eye with dynamic-focus swept-source optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Su, Johnny P.; Li, Yan; Tang, Maolong; Liu, Liang; Pechauer, Alex D.; Huang, David; Liu, Gangjun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. A custom-built dynamic-focus swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system with a central wavelength of 1310 nm was used to image the anterior eye from the cornea to the lens. An electrically tunable lens was utilized to dynamically control the positions of focusing planes over the imaging range of 10 mm. The B-scan images were acquired consecutively at the same position but with different focus settings. The B-scan images were then registered and averaged after filtering the out-of-focus regions using a Gaussian window. By fusing images obtained at different depth focus locations, high-resolution and high signal-strength images were obtained over the entire imaging depth. In vivo imaging of human anterior segment was demonstrated. The performance of the system was compared with two commercial OCT systems. The human eye ciliary body was better visualized with the dynamic-focusing SS-OCT system than using the commercial 840 and 1310 nm OCT systems. The sulcus-to-sulcus distance was measured, and the result agreed with that acquired with ultrasound biomicroscopy. PMID:26662065

  5. Longitudinal study of arteriogenesis with swept source optical coherence tomography and hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, Kristin M.; Patil, Chetan A.; Nelson, Christopher E.; McCormack, Devin R.; Madonna, Megan C.; Duvall, Craig L.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2014-03-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an atherosclerotic disease of the extremities that leads to high rates of myocardial infarction and stroke, increased mortality, and reduced quality of life. PAD is especially prevalent in diabetic patients, and is commonly modeled by hind limb ischemia in mice to study collateral vessel development and test novel therapies. Current techniques used to assess recovery cannot obtain quantitative, physiological data non-invasively. Here, we have applied hyperspectral imaging and swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) to study longitudinal changes in blood oxygenation and vascular morphology, respectively, intravitally in the diabetic mouse hind limb ischemia model. Additionally, recommended ranges for controlling physiological variability in blood oxygenation with respect to respiration rate and body core temperature were determined from a control animal experiment. In the longitudinal study with diabetic mice, hyperspectral imaging data revealed the dynamics of blood oxygenation recovery distally in the ischemic footpad. In diabetic mice, there is an early increase in oxygenation that is not sustained in the long term. Quantitative analysis of vascular morphology obtained from Hessian-filtered speckle variance OCT volumes revealed temporal dynamics in vascular density, total vessel length, and vessel diameter distribution in the adductor muscle of the ischemic limb. The combination of hyperspectral imaging and speckle variance OCT enabled acquisition of novel functional and morphological endpoints from individual animals, and provides a more robust platform for future preclinical evaluations of novel therapies for PAD.

  6. Detection of occlusal caries in primary teeth using swept source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Yukie; Shimada, Yasushi; Sadr, Alireza; Wada, Ikumi; Miyashin, Michiyo; Takagi, Yuzo; Tagami, Junji; Sumi, Yasunori

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) as a detecting tool for occlusal caries in primary teeth. At the in vitro part of the study, 38 investigation sites of occlusal fissures (noncavitated and cavitated) were selected from 26 extracted primary teeth and inspected visually using conventional dental equipment by six examiners without any magnification. SS-OCT cross-sectional images at 1330-nm center wavelength were acquired on the same locations. The teeth were then sectioned at the investigation site and directly viewed under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) by two experienced examiners. The presence and extent of caries were scored in each observation. The results obtained from SS-OCT and conventional visual inspections were compared with those of CLSM. Consequently, SS-OCT could successfully detect both cavitated and noncavitated lesions. The magnitude of sensitivity for SS-OCT was higher than those for visual inspection (sensitivity of visual inspection and SS-OCT, 0.70 versus 0.93 for enamel demineralization, 0.49 versus 0.89 for enamel cavitated caries, and 0.36 versus 0.75 for dentin caries). Additionally, occlusal caries of a few clinical cases were observed using SS-OCT in vivo. The results indicate that SS-OCT has a great detecting potential for occlusal caries in primary teeth.

  7. Experimental confirmation of potential swept source optical coherence tomography performance limitations

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Kathy; Liu, Bin; Huang, Chuanyong; Brezinski, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has demonstrated considerable potential for a wide range of medical applications. Initial work was done in the time domain OCT (TD-OCT) approach, but recent interest has been generated with spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) approaches. While SD-OCT offers higher data acquisition rates and no movable parts, we recently pointed out theoretical inferior aspects to its performance relative to TD-OCT. In this paper we focus on specific limitations of swept source OCT (SS-OCT), as this is the more versatile of the two SD-OCT embodiments. We present experimental evidence of reduced imaging penetration, increased low frequency noise, higher multiple scattering (which can be worsened still via aliasing), increased need to control the distance from the sample, and saturation of central bandwidth frequencies. We conclude that for scenarios where the dynamic range is relatively low (e.g., retina), the distance from the sample is relatively constant, or high acquisition rates are needed, SS-OCT has a role. However, when penetration remains important in the setting of a relatively high dynamic range, acquisition rates above video rate are not needed, or the distance to the tissue is not constant, TD-OCT may be the superior approach. PMID:19023378

  8. Dynamic imaging of accommodation by swept-source anterior-segment optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Alberto; Ruggeri, Marco; Protti, Alessandra; Leaci, Rosachiara; Gandolfi, Stefano A.; Macaluso, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To study the accommodation process in normal eyes using a commercially available clinical system based on swept-source anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (SS-AS-OCT). Setting Ophthalmology, University of Parma, Parma, Italy. Design Experimental study. Methods The right eye of 14 healthy volunteers (18–46 years) was analyzed with SS-AS-OCT. The optical vergence of the coaxial fixation target integrated in the OCT device was adjusted during imaging to obtain monocular accommodation stimuli with different amplitudes (ASA: 0, 3, 6 and 9 Diopters). Overlapping of real and conjugate OCT images enabled imaging of all the anterior segment optical surfaces in a single frame. Intraocular distances including central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and lens thickness (LT) were extracted from the OCT scans acquired at different static ASA. Dynamic analysis of the crystalline lens was also performed during accommodation and disaccommodation by sequentially acquiring OCT images of the anterior segment at a rate of 8 frames per second. LT was extracted from the temporal sequence of OCT images and plotted as a function of time. Results With accommodation ACD decreased significantly (p<0.05), LT increased (p<0.001) and lens central point moved slightly forward (p<0.01). CCT and ACW measurements did not change significantly with accommodation, which in turn confirmed that centering of the eye in the OCT images was maintained through ASA. LT at 0D was positively correlated with age (range: 3.131–4.088mm, r=0.772, p<0.01). Conclusions High-resolution real-time imaging and biometry of the accommodating anterior segment can be effectively performed with a commercial SS-AS-OCT clinical device. PMID:25704218

  9. Handheld, rapidly switchable, anterior/posterior segment swept source optical coherence tomography probe

    PubMed Central

    Nankivil, Derek; Waterman, Gar; LaRocca, Francesco; Keller, Brenton; Kuo, Anthony N.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first handheld, swept source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system capable of imaging both the anterior and posterior segments of the eye in rapid succession. A single 2D microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner was utilized for both imaging modes, and the optical paths for each imaging mode were optimized for their respective application using a combination of commercial and custom optics. The system has a working distance of 26.1 mm and a measured axial resolution of 8 μm (in air). In posterior segment mode, the design has a lateral resolution of 9 μm, 7.4 mm imaging depth range (in air), 4.9 mm 6dB fall-off range (in air), and peak sensitivity of 103 dB over a 22° field of view (FOV). In anterior segment mode, the design has a lateral resolution of 24 μm, imaging depth range of 7.4 mm (in air), 6dB fall-off range of 4.5 mm (in air), depth-of-focus of 3.6 mm, and a peak sensitivity of 99 dB over a 17.5 mm FOV. In addition, the probe includes a wide-field iris imaging system to simplify alignment. A fold mirror assembly actuated by a bi-stable rotary solenoid was used to switch between anterior and posterior segment imaging modes, and a miniature motorized translation stage was used to adjust the objective lens position to correct for patient refraction between −12.6 and + 9.9 D. The entire probe weighs less than 630 g with a form factor of 20.3 x 9.5 x 8.8 cm. Healthy volunteers were imaged to illustrate imaging performance. PMID:26601014

  10. The advantages of a swept source optical coherence tomography system in the evaluation of occlusal disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcauteanu, Corina; Bradu, Adrian; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin Ionel; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Duma, Virgil Florin; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2014-01-01

    Occlusal disorders are characterized by multiple dental and periodontal signs. Some of these are reversible (such as excessive tooth mobility, fremitus, tooth pain, migration of teeth in the absence of periodontitis), some are not (pathological occlusal/incisal wear, abfractions, enamel cracks, tooth fractures, gingival recessions). In this paper we prove the advantages of a fast swept source OCT system in the diagnosis of pathological incisal wear, a key sign of the occlusal disorders. On 15 extracted frontal teeth four levels of pathological incisal wear facets were artificially created. After every level of induced defect, OCT scanning was performed. B scans were acquired and 3D reconstructions were generated. A swept source OCT instrument is used in this study. The swept source is has a central wavelength of 1050 nm and a sweeping rate of 100 kHz. A depth resolution determined by the swept source of 12 μm in air was experimentally measured. The pathological incisal wear is qualitatively observed on the B-scans as 2D images and 3D reconstructions (volumes). For quantitative evaluations of volumes, we used the Image J software. Our swept source OCT system has several advantages, including the ability to measure (in air) a minimal volume of 2352 μm3 and to collect high resolution volumetric images in 2.5 s. By calculating the areas of the amount of lost tissue corresponding to each difference of B-scans, the final volumes of incisal wear were obtained. This swept source OCT method is very useful for the dynamic evaluation of pathological incisal wear.

  11. In Vivo Choroidal Vascular Lesions in Diabetes on Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Tomoaki; Uji, Akihito; Suzuma, Kiyoshi; Dodo, Yoko; Yoshitake, Shin; Ghashut, Rima; Yoza, Rina; Fujimoto, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes induces microvascular diseases including diabetic retinopathy and choroidopathy which reciprocally promote the pathogenesis, although optical coherence tomography images of diabetic choroidopathy remains to be documented. Here we evaluated the qualitative characteristics of choroidal vascular lesions in patients with diabetes and their association with diabetic retinopathy on swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) images. We retrospectively reviewed 110 consecutive eyes of 110 patients with diabetes and 35 eyes of 35 healthy subjects for whom SS-OCT images (6x6-mm scans centered on the fovea) of sufficient quality were acquired. The curve of chorioretinal sections was flattened using Bruch’s membrane as a reference surface, followed by generation of en-face images. We characterized choroidal vascular lesions and evaluated their association with the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity (logMAR VA), retinal and choroidal thicknesses, and diabetic retinopathy severity. En-face SS-OCT images showed unvisualized vessels in Sattler’s layer in 33 eyes (30.0%). Focal narrowing was seen in choroidal vessels in Haller’s layer in 56 eyes (50.9%). The choroidal vessels ended in the superficial or middle portion of Haller’s layer, referred to as vascular stumps, in 20 eyes (18.2%). Diabetic eyes had these findings more frequently than nondiabetic eyes. The subfoveal choroid was thicker in eyes with focal vascular narrowing and vascular stumps than in eyes without such lesions. Vascular stumps in Haller’s layer were significantly related to diabetic retinopathy severity, logMAR VA, and central retinal and choroidal thicknesses. These novel findings on SS-OCT images would promote the better understanding of complicated pathogenesis in diabetic retinopathy and choroidopathy. PMID:27479070

  12. Handheld ultrahigh speed swept source optical coherence tomography instrument using a MEMS scanning mirror

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chen D.; Kraus, Martin F.; Potsaid, Benjamin; Liu, Jonathan J.; Choi, WooJhon; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex E.; Hornegger, Joachim; Duker, Jay S.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2013-01-01

    We developed an ultrahigh speed, handheld swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) ophthalmic instrument using a 2D MEMS mirror. A vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) operating at 1060 nm center wavelength yielded a 350 kHz axial scan rate and 10 µm axial resolution in tissue. The long coherence length of the VCSEL enabled a 3.08 mm imaging range with minimal sensitivity roll-off in tissue. Two different designs with identical optical components were tested to evaluate handheld OCT ergonomics. An iris camera aided in alignment of the OCT beam through the pupil and a manual fixation light selected the imaging region on the retina. Volumetric and high definition scans were obtained from 5 undilated normal subjects. Volumetric OCT data was acquired by scanning the 2.4 mm diameter 2D MEMS mirror sinusoidally in the fast direction and linearly in the orthogonal slow direction. A second volumetric sinusoidal scan was obtained in the orthogonal direction and the two volumes were processed with a software algorithm to generate a merged motion-corrected volume. Motion-corrected standard 6 x 6 mm2 and wide field 10 x 10 mm2 volumetric OCT data were generated using two volumetric scans, each obtained in 1.4 seconds. High definition 10 mm and 6 mm B-scans were obtained by averaging and registering 25 B-scans obtained over the same position in 0.57 seconds. One of the advantages of volumetric OCT data is the generation of en face OCT images with arbitrary cross sectional B-scans registered to fundus features. This technology should enable screening applications to identify early retinal disease, before irreversible vision impairment or loss occurs. Handheld OCT technology also promises to enable applications in a wide range of settings outside of the traditional ophthalmology or optometry clinics including pediatrics, intraoperative, primary care, developing countries, and military medicine. PMID:24466495

  13. Spectral phase-based automatic calibration scheme for swept source-based optical coherence tomography systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratheesh, K. M.; Seah, L. K.; Murukeshan, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    The automatic calibration in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) systems allows for high resolution imaging with precise depth ranging functionality in many complex imaging scenarios, such as microsurgery. However, the accuracy and speed of the existing automatic schemes are limited due to the functional approximations and iterative operations used in their procedures. In this paper, we present a new real-time automatic calibration scheme for swept source-based optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) systems. The proposed automatic calibration can be performed during scanning operation and does not require an auxiliary interferometer for calibration signal generation and an additional channel for its acquisition. The proposed method makes use of the spectral component corresponding to the sample surface reflection as the calibration signal. The spectral phase function representing the non-linear sweeping characteristic of the frequency-swept laser source is determined from the calibration signal. The phase linearization with improved accuracy is achieved by normalization and rescaling of the obtained phase function. The fractional-time indices corresponding to the equidistantly spaced phase intervals are estimated directly from the resampling function and are used to resample the OCT signals. The proposed approach allows for precise calibration irrespective of the path length variation induced by the non-planar topography of the sample or galvo scanning. The conceived idea was illustrated using an in-house-developed SS-OCT system by considering the specular reflection from a mirror and other test samples. It was shown that the proposed method provides high-performance calibration in terms of axial resolution and sensitivity without increasing computational and hardware complexity.

  14. Diagnosis of Dry Eye by Tear Meniscus Measurements Using Anterior Segment Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Reina; Usui, Tomohiko; Yamagami, Satoru

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic power of tear meniscus measurements using anterior segment swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) for dry eye and suspected dry eye. Fifty subjects (27 men and 23 women; mean age 43.3 ± 13.7 years), comprising 26 eyes of 26 healthy subjects and 24 eyes of 24 patients with dry eye or suspected dry eye according to Japanese diagnostic criteria, were enrolled at The University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine. Subjects underwent SS-OCT, and the central upper and lower tear meniscus heights (TMHs) and areas (TMAs) and the lower tear meniscus volume (TMV) were examined. Intergrader variability and interimage variability, calculated using the pooled coefficient of variation and intraclass correlation coefficient, were used to assess repeatability of measurements in the dry eye group. To diagnose dry eye using tear meniscus measurements by SS-OCT, sensitivity, specificity, and cutoff values of optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements were determined using receiver operating characteristic analysis. The TMH, TMA, and TMV measured by OCT were significantly lower in the dry eye group than in the control group (P < 0.001). Cutoff values of the lower TMH, TMA, and TMV were 191 μm, 12,360 μm, and 0.0473 mm, respectively. Intergrader repeatability and interimage repeatability, measured as the intraclass correlation coefficient, were >80% for all tear meniscus parameters, with acceptable repeatability. Significant correlations between tear meniscus measurements by OCT and vital staining scores, Schirmer test values, and tear film breakup time were observed (P < 0.05). SS-OCT is a noninvasive and practical method for quantitative evaluation of tear fluid and has the potential for detecting dry eye and suspected dry eye.

  15. Apices of maxillary premolars observed by swept source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, Arata; Iino, Yoshiko; Yoshioka, Toshihiko; Hanada, Takahiro; Sunakawa, Mitsuhiro; Sumi, Yasunori; Suda, Hideaki

    2015-02-01

    Apicoectomy is performed for the management of apical periodontitis when orthograde root canal treatment is not possible or is ineffective. Prior to the surgery, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) examination is often performed to evaluate the lesion and the adjacent tissues. During the surgical procedure, the root apex is resected and the resected surface is usually observed under dental operating microscope (DOM). However, it is difficult to evaluate the details and the subsurface structure of the root using CBCT and DOM. A new diagnostic system, swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), has been developed to observe the subsurface anatomical structure. The aim of this study was to observe resected apical root canals of human maxillary premolars using SS-OCT and compare the findings with those observed using CBCT and DOM. Six extracted human maxillary premolars were used. After microfocus computed tomography (Micro CT; for gold standard) and CBCT scanning of the root, 1 mm of the apex was cut perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth. Each resected surface was treated with EDTA, irrigated with saline solution, and stained with methylene blue dye. The resected surface was observed with DOM and SS-OCT. This sequence was repeated three times. The number of root canals was counted and statistically evaluated. There was no significant difference in the accuracy of detecting root canals among CBCT, DOM and SS-OCT (p > 0.05, Wilcoxon test). Because SS-OCT can be used in real time during surgery, it would be a useful tool for observing resected apical root canals.

  16. Observation of the pulp horn by swept source optical coherence tomography and cone beam computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iino, Yoshiko; Yoshioka, Toshihiko; Hanada, Takahiro; Ebihara, Arata; Sunakawa, Mitsuhiro; Sumi, Yasunori; Suda, Hideaki

    2015-02-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is one of the most useful diagnostic techniques in dentistry but it involves ionizing radiation, while swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) has been introduced recently as a nondestructive, real-time, high resolution imaging technique using low-coherence interferometry, which involves no ionizing radiation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of SS-OCT to detect the pulp horn (PH) in comparison with that of CBCT. Ten extracted human mandibular molars were used. After horizontally removing a half of the tooth crown, the distance from the cut dentin surface to PH was measured using microfocus computed tomography (Micro CT) (SL) as the gold standard, by CBCT (CL) and by SS-OCT (OL). In the SS-OCT images, only when PH was observed beneath the overlying dentin, the distance from the cut dentin surface to PH was recorded. If the pulp was exposed, it was defined as pulp exposure (PE). The results obtained by the above three methods were statistically analyzed by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient at a significance level of p < 0.01. SS-OCT detected the presence of PH when the distance from the cut dentin surface to PH determined by SL was 2.33 mm or less. Strong correlations of the measured values were found between SL and CL (r=0.87), SL and OL (r=0.96), and CL and OL (r=0.86). The results showed that SS-OCT images correlated closely with CBCT images, suggesting that SS-OCT can be a useful tool for the detection of PH.

  17. Evaluation of Anterior Chamber Volume in Cataract Patients with Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    He, Wenwen; Zhu, Xiangjia; Wolff, Don; Sun, Xinghuai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the anterior chamber volume in cataract patients with Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT) and its influencing factors. Methods. Anterior chamber volume of 92 cataract patients was evaluated with SS-OCT in this cross-sectional study. Univariate analyses and multiple linear regression were used to investigate gender, age, operated eye, posterior vitreous detachment, lens opacity grading, and axial length (AXL) related variables capable of influencing the ACV. Results. The average ACV was 139.80 ± 38.21 mm3 (range 59.41 to 254.09 mm3). The average ACV was significantly larger in male patients than in female patients (P = 0.001). ACV was negatively correlated with age and LOCS III cortical (C) grading of the lens (Pearson's correlation analysis, r = −0.443, P < 0.001, and Spearman's correlation analysis, ρ = −0.450, P < 0.001). ACV was also increased with AXL (Pearson's correlation analysis, r = 0.552, P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression showed that, with all of the covariates entered into the model, gender (P = 0.002), age (P = 0.015), LOCS III C grade (P = 0.043), and AXL (P = 0.001) were still associated with ACV (F = 10.252  P < 0.001  R2 = 0.498). Conclusion. With SS-OCT, we found that, in healthy cataract patients, ACV varied significantly among different subjects. Influencing factors that contribute to reduced ACV were female gender, increased age, LOCS III C grade, and shorter AXL. PMID:27688910

  18. Evaluation of Anterior Chamber Volume in Cataract Patients with Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    He, Wenwen; Zhu, Xiangjia; Wolff, Don; Zhao, Zhennan; Sun, Xinghuai; Lu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the anterior chamber volume in cataract patients with Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT) and its influencing factors. Methods. Anterior chamber volume of 92 cataract patients was evaluated with SS-OCT in this cross-sectional study. Univariate analyses and multiple linear regression were used to investigate gender, age, operated eye, posterior vitreous detachment, lens opacity grading, and axial length (AXL) related variables capable of influencing the ACV. Results. The average ACV was 139.80 ± 38.21 mm(3) (range 59.41 to 254.09 mm(3)). The average ACV was significantly larger in male patients than in female patients (P = 0.001). ACV was negatively correlated with age and LOCS III cortical (C) grading of the lens (Pearson's correlation analysis, r = -0.443, P < 0.001, and Spearman's correlation analysis, ρ = -0.450, P < 0.001). ACV was also increased with AXL (Pearson's correlation analysis, r = 0.552, P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression showed that, with all of the covariates entered into the model, gender (P = 0.002), age (P = 0.015), LOCS III C grade (P = 0.043), and AXL (P = 0.001) were still associated with ACV (F = 10.252  P < 0.001  R (2) = 0.498). Conclusion. With SS-OCT, we found that, in healthy cataract patients, ACV varied significantly among different subjects. Influencing factors that contribute to reduced ACV were female gender, increased age, LOCS III C grade, and shorter AXL.

  19. Non-contact investigation of the corneal biomechanics with air-puff swept source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maczynska, Ewa; Karnowski, Karol; Kaluzny, Bartlomiej; Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we use swept source optical coherence tomography combined with air-puff module (air-puff SS-OCT) to investigate the properties of the cornea. During OCT measurement the cornea was stimulated by short, air pulse, and corneal response was recorded. In this preliminary study, the air-puff SS-OCT instrument was applied to measure behavior of the porcine corneas under varied, well-controlled intraocular pressure conditions. Additionally, the biomechanical response of the corneal tissue before, during and after crosslinking procedure (CXL) was assessed. Air-puff swept source OCT is a promising tool to extract information about corneal behavior as well as to monitor and assess the effect of CXL.

  20. Full-range swept source optical coherence tomography based on carrier frequency by transmissive dispersive optical delay line.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tong; Ding, Zhihua; Wang, Chuan; Chen, Minghui

    2011-12-01

    A high speed swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system capable of full-range imaging is presented. Wave-number carrier frequency is introduced into the spectral interference signal by a transmissive dispersive optical delay line (TDODL). High carrier frequency in the spectral interference signal corresponding to an equivalent distance-shift is exploited to obtain full-range OCT imaging. Theoretical development is conducted with the instantaneous coherence function introduced for a complete description of a spectral interference signal. Performance advantage of the TDODL-based method over the conventional approach where only one side (positive or negative path length difference) is used for imaging to avoid overlaying mirror artifacts is confirmed by the measured envelopes of spectral interference signal. Feasibility of the proposed method for full-range imaging is validated in a custom-built SS-OCT system by in vivo imaging of a biological sample.

  1. Full-range swept source optical coherence tomography based on carrier frequency by transmissive dispersive optical delay line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tong; Ding, Zhihua; Wang, Chuan; Chen, Minghui

    2011-12-01

    A high speed swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system capable of full-range imaging is presented. Wave-number carrier frequency is introduced into the spectral interference signal by a transmissive dispersive optical delay line (TDODL). High carrier frequency in the spectral interference signal corresponding to an equivalent distance-shift is exploited to obtain full-range OCT imaging. Theoretical development is conducted with the instantaneous coherence function introduced for a complete description of a spectral interference signal. Performance advantage of the TDODL-based method over the conventional approach where only one side (positive or negative path length difference) is used for imaging to avoid overlaying mirror artifacts is confirmed by the measured envelopes of spectral interference signal. Feasibility of the proposed method for full-range imaging is validated in a custom-built SS-OCT system by in vivo imaging of a biological sample.

  2. Simultaneous multimodal ophthalmic imaging using swept-source spectrally encoded scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Joseph D.; El-Haddad, Mohamed T.; Bozic, Ivan; Tye, Logan A.; Majeau, Lucas; Godbout, Nicolas; Rollins, Andrew M.; Boudoux, Caroline; Joos, Karen M.; Patel, Shriji N.; Tao, Yuankai K.

    2016-01-01

    Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) benefits diagnostic imaging and therapeutic guidance by allowing for high-speed en face imaging of retinal structures. When combined with optical coherence tomography (OCT), SLO enables real-time aiming and retinal tracking and provides complementary information for post-acquisition volumetric co-registration, bulk motion compensation, and averaging. However, multimodality SLO-OCT systems generally require dedicated light sources, scanners, relay optics, detectors, and additional digitization and synchronization electronics, which increase system complexity. Here, we present a multimodal ophthalmic imaging system using swept-source spectrally encoded scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography (SS-SESLO-OCT) for in vivo human retinal imaging. SESLO reduces the complexity of en face imaging systems by multiplexing spatial positions as a function of wavelength. SESLO image quality benefited from single-mode illumination and multimode collection through a prototype double-clad fiber coupler, which optimized scattered light throughput and reduce speckle contrast while maintaining lateral resolution. Using a shared 1060 nm swept-source, shared scanner and imaging optics, and a shared dual-channel high-speed digitizer, we acquired inherently co-registered en face retinal images and OCT cross-sections simultaneously at 200 frames-per-second. PMID:28101411

  3. Simultaneous multimodal ophthalmic imaging using swept-source spectrally encoded scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Malone, Joseph D; El-Haddad, Mohamed T; Bozic, Ivan; Tye, Logan A; Majeau, Lucas; Godbout, Nicolas; Rollins, Andrew M; Boudoux, Caroline; Joos, Karen M; Patel, Shriji N; Tao, Yuankai K

    2017-01-01

    Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) benefits diagnostic imaging and therapeutic guidance by allowing for high-speed en face imaging of retinal structures. When combined with optical coherence tomography (OCT), SLO enables real-time aiming and retinal tracking and provides complementary information for post-acquisition volumetric co-registration, bulk motion compensation, and averaging. However, multimodality SLO-OCT systems generally require dedicated light sources, scanners, relay optics, detectors, and additional digitization and synchronization electronics, which increase system complexity. Here, we present a multimodal ophthalmic imaging system using swept-source spectrally encoded scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography (SS-SESLO-OCT) for in vivo human retinal imaging. SESLO reduces the complexity of en face imaging systems by multiplexing spatial positions as a function of wavelength. SESLO image quality benefited from single-mode illumination and multimode collection through a prototype double-clad fiber coupler, which optimized scattered light throughput and reduce speckle contrast while maintaining lateral resolution. Using a shared 1060 nm swept-source, shared scanner and imaging optics, and a shared dual-channel high-speed digitizer, we acquired inherently co-registered en face retinal images and OCT cross-sections simultaneously at 200 frames-per-second.

  4. Ultrahigh phase-stable swept-source optical coherence tomography as a cardiac imaging platform (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yuye; Hendon, Christine P.

    2016-02-01

    Functional extensions to optical coherence tomography (OCT) provide useful imaging contrasts that are complementary to conventional OCT. Our goal is to characterize tissue types within the myocardial due to remodeling and therapy. High-speed imaging is necessary to extract mechanical properties and dynamics of fiber orientation changes in a beating heart. Functional extensions of OCT such as polarization sensitive and optical coherence elastography (OCE) require high phase stability of the system, which is a drawback of current mechanically tuned swept source OCT systems. Here we present a high-speed functional imaging platform, which includes an ultrahigh-phase-stable swept source equipped with KTN deflector from NTT-AT. The swept source does not require mechanical movements during the wavelength sweeping; it is electrically tuned. The inter-sweep phase variance of the system was measured to be less than 300 ps at a path length difference of ~2 mm. The axial resolution of the system is 20 µm and the -10 dB fall-off depth is about 3.2 mm. The sample arm has an 8 mmx8 mm field of view with a lateral resolution of approximately 18 µm. The sample arm uses a two-axis MEMS mirror, which is programmable and capable of scanning arbitrary patterns at a sampling rate of 50 kHz. Preliminary imaging results showed differences in polarization properties and image penetration in ablated and normal myocardium. In the future, we will conduct dynamic stretching experiments with strips of human myocardial tissue to characterize mechanical properties using OCE. With high speed imaging of 200 kHz and an all-fiber design, we will work towards catheter-based functional imaging.

  5. Characterization of Choroidal Layers in Normal Aging Eyes Using Enface Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Robert F.; Baumal, Caroline R.; Mohler, Kathrin J.; Kraus, Martin F.; Liu, Jonathan; Badaro, Emmerson; Alasil, Tarek; Hornegger, Joachim; Fujimoto, James G.; Duker, Jay S.; Waheed, Nadia K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize qualitative and quantitative features of the choroid in normal eyes using enface swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods Fifty-two eyes of 26 consecutive normal subjects were prospectively recruited to obtain multiple three-dimensional 12x12mm volumetric scans using a long-wavelength high-speed SS-OCT prototype. A motion-correction algorithm merged multiple SS-OCT volumes to improve signal. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was segmented as the reference and enface images were extracted at varying depths every 4.13μm intervals. Systematic analysis of the choroid at different depths was performed to qualitatively assess the morphology of the choroid and quantify the absolute thicknesses as well as the relative thicknesses of the choroidal vascular layers including the choroidal microvasculature (choriocapillaris, terminal arterioles and venules; CC) and choroidal vessels (CV) with respect to the subfoveal total choroidal thickness (TC). Subjects were divided into two age groups: younger (<40 years) and older (≥40 years). Results Mean age of subjects was 41.92 (24-66) years. Enface images at the level of the RPE, CC, CV, and choroidal-scleral interface were used to assess specific qualitative features. In the younger age group, the mean absolute thicknesses were: TC 379.4μm (SD±75.7μm), CC 81.3μm (SD±21.2μm) and CV 298.1μm (SD±63.7μm). In the older group, the mean absolute thicknesses were: TC 305.0μm (SD±50.9μm), CC 56.4μm (SD±12.1μm) and CV 248.6μm (SD±49.7μm). In the younger group, the relative thicknesses of the individual choroidal layers were: CC 21.5% (SD±4.0%) and CV 78.4% (SD±4.0%). In the older group, the relative thicknesses were: CC 18.9% (SD±4.5%) and CV 81.1% (SD±4.5%). The absolute thicknesses were smaller in the older age group for all choroidal layers (TC p=0.006, CC p=0.0003, CV p=0.03) while the relative thickness was smaller only for the CC (p=0.04). Conclusions Enface SS-OCT at

  6. Assessment of Anterior Segment Measurements with Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography before and after Ab Interno Trabeculotomy (Trabectome) Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the changes of anterior segment parameters, assessed by swept source anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) after combined Trabectome-cataract surgery and Trabectome-only surgery in open angle glaucoma patients. Methods. Thirty-eight eyes of 24 patients with open angle glaucoma were scanned with swept source AS-OCT before and 4 weeks after combined Trabectome-cataract or Trabectome-only surgery. Intraocular pressure, number of medications, and AS-OCT parameters, such as angle opening distance at 500 and 750 μm from the scleral spur (AOD500 and AOD750), trabecular-iris space area at 500 and 750 mm2 (TISA500, TISA750), angle recess area at 500 and 750 mm2 (ARA500, ARA750), trabecular iris angle (TIA), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber width (ACW), and anterior chamber volume (ACV), were obtained before the surgery. These parameters were compared to evaluate whether the outcome of the surgery differed among the patients after the surgery. The width of the trabecular cleft was also measured for both groups. Results. The reduction of IOP and number of medications was found to be statistically significant in both groups (p < 0.001). ACD, ACV, and angle parameters such as AOD 500/750, TISA 500/750, ARA 500/750, and TIA500 showed significantly greater changes from the preoperative values to postoperative 1st month values in combined Trabectome-cataract surgery group (p < 0.05), whereas Trabectome-only group did not show statistically significant difference (p > 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between two groups for the width of the trabecular cleft (p = 0.7). Conclusion. Anterior chamber angle parameters measured with swept source AS-OCT may be useful for evaluating glaucoma patients before and after Trabectome surgery with or without cataract surgery. PMID:27795855

  7. Swept source optical coherence tomography Gabor fusion splicing technique for microscopy of thick samples using a deformable mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Christopher; Bradu, Adrian; Rogers, John; Phelan, Pauline; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    We present a swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system at 1060 nm equipped with a wavefront sensor at 830 nm and a deformable mirror in a closed-loop adaptive optics (AO) system. Due to the AO correction, the confocal profile of the interface optics becomes narrower than the OCT axial range, restricting the part of the B-scan (cross section) with good contrast. By actuating on the deformable mirror, the depth of the focus is changed and the system is used to demonstrate Gabor filtering in order to produce B-scan OCT images with enhanced sensitivity throughout the axial range from a Drosophila larvae. The focus adjustment is achieved by manipulating the curvature of the deformable mirror between two user-defined limits. Particularities of controlling the focus for Gabor filtering using the deformable mirror are presented.

  8. Swept source optical coherence tomography Gabor fusion splicing technique for microscopy of thick samples using a deformable mirror.

    PubMed

    Costa, Christopher; Bradu, Adrian; Rogers, John; Phelan, Pauline; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    We present a swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system at 1060 nm equipped with a wavefront sensor at 830 nm and a deformable mirror in a closed-loop adaptive optics (AO) system. Due to the AO correction, the confocal profile of the interface optics becomes narrower than the OCT axial range, restricting the part of the B-scan (cross section) with good contrast. By actuating on the deformable mirror, the depth of the focus is changed and the system is used to demonstrate Gabor filtering in order to produce B-scan OCT images with enhanced sensitivity throughout the axial range from a Drosophila larvae. The focus adjustment is achieved by manipulating the curvature of the deformable mirror between two user-defined limits. Particularities of controlling the focus for Gabor filtering using the deformable mirror are presented.

  9. Dual-core ytterbium fiber amplifier for high-power 1060 nm swept source multichannel optical coherence tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Harduar, Mark K; Mariampillai, Adrian; Vuong, Barry; Gu, Xijia; Standish, Beau A; Yang, Victor X D

    2011-08-01

    A novel (to our knowledge) dual-core ytterbium (Yb(3+)) doped fiber, as an optically pumped amplifier, boosts the output power from a 1060 nm swept source laser beyond 250 mW, while providing a wavelength tuning range of 93 nm, for optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. The design of the dual-core Yb-doped fiber amplifier and its multiple wavelength optical pumping scheme to optimize output bandwidth are discussed. Use of the dual-core fiber amplifier showed no appreciable degradation to the coherence length of the seed laser. The signal intensity improvement of this amplifier is demonstrated on a multichannel in vivo OCT imaging system at 1060 nm.

  10. Office-based dynamic imaging of vocal cords in awake patients with swept-source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lingfeng; Liu, Gangjun; Rubinstein, Marc; Saidi, Arya; Wong, Brian J. F.; Chen, Zhongping

    2009-11-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an evolving noninvasive imaging modality that has been used to image the human larynx during surgical endoscopy. The design of a long gradient index (GRIN) lens-based probe capable of capturing images of the human larynx by use of swept-source OCT during a typical office-based laryngoscopy examination is presented. In vivo OCT imaging of the human larynx is demonstrated with a rate of 40 frames per second. Dynamic vibration of the vocal folds is recorded to provide not only high-resolution cross-sectional tissue structures but also vibration parameters, such as the vibration frequency and magnitude of the vocal cords, which provides important information for clinical diagnosis and treatment, as well as fundamental research of the voice itself. Office-based OCT is a promising imaging modality to study the larynx for physicians in otolaryngology.

  11. Imaging vascular dynamics in human retina using full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spahr, Hendrik; Hillmann, Dierck; Hain, Carola; Pfäffle, Clara; Sudkamp, Helge; Franke, Gesa; Hüttmann, Gereon

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a new non-invasive method to assess the functional condition of the retinal vascular system. Phase-sensitive full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography (PhS-FF-SS-OCT) is used to investigate retinal vascular dynamics at unprecedented temporal resolution. Motion of retinal tissue, that is induced by expansion of the vessels therein, is measured with an accuracy of about 10 nm. The pulse shape of arterial and venous pulsation, their temporal delay as well as the frequency dependent pulse propagation through the capillary bed are determined. For the first time, imaging speed and motion sensitivity are sufficient for a direct measurement of pulse waves propagating with more than 600 mm/s in retinal vessels of a healthy young subject.

  12. In vivo office-based dynamic imaging of vocal cords in awake patients with swept-source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lingfeng; Liu, Gangjun; Rubinstein, Marc; Saidi, Arya; Guo, Shuguang; Wong, Brian J. F.; Chen, Zhongping

    2009-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an evolving noninvasive imaging modality and has been used to image the human larynx during surgical endoscopy. The design of a long GRIN lens based probe capable of capturing images of the human larynx by use of swept-source OCT during a typical office-based laryngoscopy examination is presented. In vivo OCT imaging of the human larynx is demonstrated with 40 fame/second. Dynamic vibration of the vocal folds is recorded to provide not only high-resolution cross-sectional tissue structures but also vibration parameters, such as the vibration frequency and magnitude of the vocal cord, which provide important information for clinical diagnosis and treatment, as well as in fundamental research of the voice. Office-based OCT is a promising imaging modality to study the larynx.

  13. Morphometric measurement of Schlemm's canal in normal human eye using anterior segment swept source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Guohua; Wang, Fei; Li, Xiqi; Lu, Jing; Ding, Zhihua; Sun, Xinghuai; Jiang, Chunhui; Zhang, Yudong

    2012-01-01

    We have used anterior segment swept source optical coherence tomography to measure Schlemm's canal (SC) morphometric values in the living human eye. Fifty healthy volunteers with 100 normal eyes were measured in the nasal and temporal side. Comparison with the published SC morphometric values of histologic sections proves the reliability of our results. The statistical results show that there are no significant differences between nasal and temporal SC with respect to their diameter, perimeter, and area in our study (diameter: t=0.122, p=0.903; perimeter: t=-0.003, p=0.998; area: t=-1.169, p=0.244); further, no significant differences in SC morphometric values are found between oculus sinister and oculus dexter (diameter: t=0.943, p=0.35; perimeter: t=1.346, p=0.18; area: t=1.501, p=0.135).

  14. In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jiechen; Liu, Gangjun; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Lingfeng; Mahon, Sari; Mukai, David; Brenner, Matthew; Chen, Zhongping

    2009-11-01

    We report on the feasibility of rapid, high-resolution, 3-D swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) to detect early airway injury changes following smoke inhalation exposure in a rabbit model. The SSOCT system obtains 3-D helical scanning using a microelectromechanical system motor-based endoscope. Real-time 2-D data processing and image display at the speed of 20 frames/s are achieved by adopting the technique of parallel computing. Longitudinal images are reconstructed via an image processing algorithm to remove motion artifacts caused by ventilation and pulse. Quantitative analyses of tracheal airway thickness as well as thickness distribution along tracheal circumference are also performed based on the comprehensive 3-D volumetric data.

  15. Macular Choroidal Thickness and Volume Measured by Swept-source Optical Coherence Tomography in Healthy Korean Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Wook; Song, In Seok; Lee, Ju-hyang; Shin, Yong Un; Lim, Han Woong; Lee, Won June

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the thickness and volume of the choroid in healthy Korean children using swept-source optical coherence tomography. Methods We examined 80 eyes of 40 healthy children and teenagers (<18 years) using swept-source optical coherence tomography with a tunable long-wavelength laser source. A volumetric macular scan protocol using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study grid was used to construct a choroidal thickness map. We also examined 44 eyes of 35 healthy adult volunteers (≥18 years) and compared adult measurements with the findings in children. Results The mean age of the children and teenagers was 9.47 ± 3.80 (4 to 17) vs. 55.04 ± 12.63 years (36 to 70 years) in the adult group (p < 0.001, Student's t-test). Regarding the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study subfields, the inner temporal subfield was the thickest (247.96 µm). The inner and outer nasal choroid were thinner (p = 0.004, p = 0.002, respectively) than the surrounding areas. The mean choroidal volumes of the inner and outer nasal areas were smaller (p = 0.004, p = 0.003, respectively) than those of all the other areas in each circle. Among the nine subfields, all areas in the children, except the outer nasal subfield, were thicker than those in adults (p < 0.05). Regression analysis showed that age, axial length, and refractive error correlated with subfoveal choroidal thickness (p < 0.05). Conclusions Overall macular choroidal thickness and volume in children and teenagers were significantly greater than in adults. The nasal choroid was significantly thinner than the surrounding areas. The pediatric subfoveal choroid is prone to thinning with increasing age, axial length, and refractive error. These differences should be considered when choroidal thickness is evaluated in children with chorioretinal diseases. PMID:26865801

  16. Evaluation of Tizian overlays by means of a swept source optical coherence tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcauteanu, Corina; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Stoica, Eniko Tunde; Topala, Florin; Duma, Virgil Florin; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2016-03-01

    The teeth affected by pathologic attrition can be restored by a minimally invasive approach, using Tizian overlays. In this study we prove the advantages of a fast swept source (SS) OCT system in the evaluation of Tizian overlays placed in an environment characterized by high occlusal forces. 12 maxillary first premolars were extracted and prepared for overlays. The Tizian overlays were subjected to 3000 alternating cycles of thermo-cycling (from -10°C to +50°C) and to mechanical occlusal overloads (at 800 N). A fast SS OCT system was used to evaluate the Tizian overlays before and after the mechanical and thermal straining. The SS (Axsun Technologies, Billerica, MA) has a central wavelength of 1060 nm, sweeping range of 106 nm (quoted at 10 dB) and a 100 kHz line rate. The depth resolution of the system, measured experimentally in air was 10 μm. The imaging system used for this study offers high spatial resolutions in both directions, transversal and longitudinal of around 10 μm, a high sensitivity, and it is also able to acquire entire tridimensional (3D)/volume reconstructions as fast as 2.5 s. Once the full dataset was acquired, rendered high resolutions en-face projections could be produced. Using them, the overlay (i.e., cement) abutment tooth interfaces were remarked both on B-scans/two-dimensional (2D) sections and in the 3D reconstructions. Using the system several open interfaces were possible to detect. The fast SS OCT system thus proves useful in the evaluation of zirconia reinforced composite overlays, placed in an environment characterized by high occlusal forces.

  17. Defense of fake fingerprint attacks using a swept source laser optical coherence tomography setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, Sven; Breithaupt, Ralph; Koch, Edmund

    2013-03-01

    The most established technique for the identification at biometric access control systems is the human fingerprint. While every human fingerprint is unique, fingerprints can be faked very easily by using thin layer fakes. Because commercial fingerprint scanners use only a two-dimensional image acquisition of the finger surface, they can only hardly differentiate between real fingerprints and fingerprint fakes applied on thin layer materials. A Swept Source OCT system with an A-line rate of 20 kHz and a lateral and axial resolution of approximately 13 μm, a centre wavelength of 1320 nm and a band width of 120 nm (FWHM) was used to acquire fingerprints and finger tips with overlying fakes. Three-dimensional volume stacks with dimensions of 4.5 mm x 4 mm x 2 mm were acquired. The layering arrangement of the imaged finger tips and faked finger tips was analyzed and subsequently classified into real and faked fingerprints. Additionally, sweat gland ducts were detected and consulted for the classification. The manual classification between real fingerprints and faked fingerprints results in almost 100 % correctness. The outer as well as the internal fingerprint can be recognized in all real human fingers, whereby this was not possible in the image stacks of the faked fingerprints. Furthermore, in all image stacks of real human fingers the sweat gland ducts were detected. The number of sweat gland ducts differs between the test persons. The typical helix shape of the ducts was observed. In contrast, in images of faked fingerprints we observe abnormal layer arrangements and no sweat gland ducts connecting the papillae of the outer fingerprint and the internal fingerprint. We demonstrated that OCT is a very useful tool to enhance the performance of biometric control systems concerning attacks by thin layer fingerprint fakes.

  18. Associated factors for visibility and width of retrobulbar subarachnoid space on swept-source optical coherence tomography in high myopia

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Hua; Ma, Hongjie; Gao, Rulong; Ng, Danny Siu-Chun; Cheung, Carol Y.; Li, Shuangnong; Wu, Dezheng; Tang, Shibo

    2016-01-01

    Subarachnoid space (SAS) around optic nerve can be visible with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). However, the relevant factors for its visibility and width have not been reported. In this prospective study, 193 eyes with high myopia were evaluated by SS-OCT. The relationship between age, gender, axial length, optic disc area, parapapillary atrophy (PPA) area, peripapillary choroidal thickness with the visibility and width of SAS were assessed. The results showed that SAS was observed in 125 (64.8%) and not observed in 68 (35.2%) eyes. Visibility of SAS is associated with long axial length, high myopia, thin choroid, large PPA and large optic disc areas. Among these associations, PPA area was the only independent factor (b = 0.177, p < 0.001). The width of SAS was associated with thin choroid, long axial length, large optic disc area and large PPA area. Multivariant analysis showed that optic disc area and PPA area were independent factors for the width of SAS (b = 30.8, p = 0.016 and 16.2, p < 0.001 respectively). These results suggested that SAS was extended into the peripapillary region possibly due to extension of posterior sclera in high myopia. PMID:27827444

  19. Freeform metrology using swept-source optical coherence tomography with custom pupil-relay precision scanning configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianing; Xu, Di; Zhao, Nan; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2015-10-01

    The recent advances in the optics manufacturing industry to achieve the capability of fabricating rotationally nonsymmetric optical quality surfaces have considerably stimulated the optical designs with freeform components. This opens up new horizons for novel optical systems with larger fields of view and higher performance, or significantly more compact in volume at equal performance compared to conventional systems. A bottleneck to the broad industrial applications of freeform optics remains the lack of a high performance optical metrology tool capable of measuring significant surface departures and slopes of the parts. To address this issue, we have developed a fiber-based swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system for point-cloud freeform metrology, where two-axis galvanometer scanners are leveraged for high-speed lateral scans. We specifically designed a custom all-reflective achromatic pupil relay system to achieve a diffraction-limited scanning configuration. Coupled with a large field-of-view (FOV) telecentric scan lens, the imaging covers 28.9 mm × 28.9 mm FOV with 35 μm lateral resolution and more than 600 μm depth of focus. Freeform metrology is demonstrated for an Alvarez surface of 400 μm surface sag. The high sensitivity of the SS-OCT system allows for capturing the slope variations of the part up to the maximum slope that is 5 degrees in this case. Specific surface reconstruction, rendering and fitting algorithms were developed to evaluate the metrology results and investigate the accuracy and precision of the measurements.

  20. Asymmetry Analysis of Macular Inner Retinal Layers for Glaucoma Diagnosis: Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Yoon; Lee, Eun Kyoung; Park, Ki Ho; Kim, Dong Myung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report an asymmetry analysis of macular inner retinal layers using swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to evaluate the utility for glaucoma diagnosis. Design Observational, cross-sectional study. Participants Seventy normal healthy subjects and 62 glaucoma patients. Methods Three-dimensional scans were acquired from 70 normal subjects and 62 open angle glaucoma patients by swept-source OCT. The thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL), ganglion cell complex, and total retina were calculated within a 6.2×6.2 mm macular area divided into a 31×31 grid of 200×200 μm superpixels. For each of the corresponding superpixels, the thickness differences between the subject eyes and contra-lateral eyes and between the upper and lower macula halves of the subject eyes were determined. The negative differences were displayed on a gray-scale asymmetry map. Black superpixels were defined as thickness decreases over the cut-off values. Results The negative inter-ocular and inter-hemisphere differences in GCIPL thickness (mean ± standard deviation) were -2.78 ± 0.97 μm and -3.43 ± 0.71 μm in the normal group and -4.26 ± 2.23 μm and -4.88 ± 1.46 μm in the glaucoma group. The overall extent of the four layers’ thickness decrease was larger in the glaucoma group than in the normal group (all Ps<0.05). The numbers of black superpixels on all of the asymmetry maps were larger in the glaucoma group than in the normal group (all Ps<0.05). The area under receiver operating characteristic curves of average negative thickness differences in macular inner layers for glaucoma diagnosis ranged from 0.748 to 0.894. Conclusions The asymmetry analysis of macular inner retinal layers showed significant differences between the normal and glaucoma groups. The diagnostic performance of the asymmetry analysis was comparable to that of previous methods. These findings suggest that the asymmetry analysis can be a

  1. Logarithmic intensity and speckle-based motion contrast methods for human retinal vasculature visualization using swept source optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Motaghiannezam, Reza; Fraser, Scott

    2012-01-01

    We formulate a theory to show that the statistics of OCT signal amplitude and intensity are highly dependent on the sample reflectivity strength, motion, and noise power. Our theoretical and experimental results depict the lack of speckle amplitude and intensity contrasts to differentiate regions of motion from static areas. Two logarithmic intensity-based contrasts, logarithmic intensity variance (LOGIV) and differential logarithmic intensity variance (DLOGIV), are proposed for serving as surrogate markers for motion with enhanced sensitivity. Our findings demonstrate a good agreement between the theoretical and experimental results for logarithmic intensity-based contrasts. Logarithmic intensity-based motion and speckle-based contrast methods are validated and compared for in vivo human retinal vasculature visualization using high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) at 1060 nm. The vasculature was identified as regions of motion by creating LOGIV and DLOGIV tomograms: multiple B-scans were collected of individual slices through the retina and the variance of logarithmic intensities and differences of logarithmic intensities were calculated. Both methods captured the small vessels and the meshwork of capillaries associated with the inner retina in en face images over 4 mm2 in a normal subject. PMID:22435098

  2. Estimation of lesion progress in artificial root caries by swept source optical coherence tomography in comparison to transverse microradiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsume, Yuko; Nakashima, Syozi; Sadr, Alireza; Shimada, Yasushi; Tagami, Junji; Sumi, Yasunori

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) could estimate the lesion depth and mineral loss quantitatively without the use of polarization sensitivity, and to examine a relationship between OCT data and transverse microradiography (TMR) lesion parameters. Twenty-four bovine root dentin specimens were allocated to three groups of 4-, 7-, and 14-day demineralization. Cross-sectional images of the specimens before and after the demineralization were captured by OCT at 1319 nm center wavelength. Following the demineralization, these specimens were cut into sections for TMR analysis. Correlations between the OCT data and TMR lesion parameters were examined. TMR images of the specimens showed cavitated lesions (lesion depth or LDTMR: 200 to 500 μm, ΔZ or mineral loss: 10,000 to 30,000 vol % μm). The OCT images showed ``boundaries,'' suggesting the lesion front. Integrated dB values before and after the demineralization and their difference (RD, RS, and ΔR, respectively) were calculated from the lesion surface to the corrected depth of boundary (LDOCT). A statistically significant correlation was found between LDOCT and LDTMR (p < 0.05, r = 0.68). Similarly, statistically significant correlations were found between ΔZ and RD or ΔR. The OCT showed a potential for quantitative estimation of lesion depth and mineral loss with cavitated dentin lesions in vitro.

  3. Quantification of biofilm thickness using a swept source based optical coherence tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratheesh Kumar, M.; Murukeshan, V. M.; Seah, L. K.; Shearwood, C.

    2015-07-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive, non-contact optical measurement and imaging technique that relies on low coherence interferometry. Apart from bio-imaging applications, the applicability of OCT can be extended to metrological investigations because of the inherent capability of optical interferometry to perform precise measurement with high sensitivity. In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of OCT for the measurement of the refractive index and thickness of bacterial biofilm structures grown in a flow cell. In OCT, the depth profiles are constructed by measuring the magnitude and time delay of back reflected light from the scattering sites by means of optical interferometry. The optical distance between scattering points can be obtained by measuring the separation between the point spread functions (PSF) at the respective points in the A-scan data. The refractive index of the biofilm is calculated by measuring the apparent shift in the position of the PSF corresponding to a reference surface, caused by the biofilm growth. In our experiment, the base layer of the flow cell is used as the reference surface. It is observed that the calculated refractive index of the biofilm is close to that of water, and agrees well with the previously reported value. Finally, the physical thickness of the biofilm is calculated by dividing the optical path length by the calculated value of refractive index.

  4. Noninvasive characterisation of foot reflexology areas by swept source-optical coherence tomography in patients with low back pain.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Krishna; Elanchezhiyan, D; Das, Raunak; Dalal, Devjyoti; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Chatterjee, Subhamoy; Upadhyay, Ashish Datt; Maran, V Bharathi; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2013-01-01

    Objective. When exploring the scientific basis of reflexology techniques, elucidation of the surface and subsurface features of reflexology areas (RAs) is crucial. In this study, the subcutaneous features of RAs related to the lumbar vertebrae were evaluated by swept source-optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in subjects with and without low back pain (LBP). Methods. Volunteers without LBP (n = 6 (male : female = 1 : 1)) and subjects with LBP (n = 15 (male : female = 2 : 3)) were clinically examined in terms of skin colour (visual perception), localised tenderness (visual analogue scale) and structural as well as optical attributes as per SS-OCT. From each subject, 6 optical tomograms were recorded from equidistant transverse planes along the longitudinal axis of the RAs, and from each tomogram, 25 different spatial locations were considered for recording SS-OCT image attributes. The images were analysed with respect to the optical intensity distributions and thicknesses of different skin layers by using AxioVision Rel. 4.8.2 software. The SS-OCT images could be categorised into 4 pathological grades (i.e., 0, 1, 2, and 3) according to distinctness in the visible skin layers. Results. Three specific grades for abnormalities in SS-OCT images were identified considering gradual loss of distinctness and increase in luminosity of skin layers. Almost 90.05% subjects were of mixed type having predominance in certain grades. Conclusion. The skin SS-OCT system demonstrated a definite association of the surface features of healthy/unhealthy RAs with cutaneous features and the clinical status of the lumbar vertebrae.

  5. Noninvasive Characterisation of Foot Reflexology Areas by Swept Source-Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients with Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Krishna; Elanchezhiyan, D.; Das, Raunak; Dalal, Devjyoti; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Chatterjee, Subhamoy; Upadhyay, Ashish Datt; Maran, V. Bharathi; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2013-01-01

    Objective. When exploring the scientific basis of reflexology techniques, elucidation of the surface and subsurface features of reflexology areas (RAs) is crucial. In this study, the subcutaneous features of RAs related to the lumbar vertebrae were evaluated by swept source-optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in subjects with and without low back pain (LBP). Methods. Volunteers without LBP (n = 6 (male : female = 1 : 1)) and subjects with LBP (n = 15 (male : female = 2 : 3)) were clinically examined in terms of skin colour (visual perception), localised tenderness (visual analogue scale) and structural as well as optical attributes as per SS-OCT. From each subject, 6 optical tomograms were recorded from equidistant transverse planes along the longitudinal axis of the RAs, and from each tomogram, 25 different spatial locations were considered for recording SS-OCT image attributes. The images were analysed with respect to the optical intensity distributions and thicknesses of different skin layers by using AxioVision Rel. 4.8.2 software. The SS-OCT images could be categorised into 4 pathological grades (i.e., 0, 1, 2, and 3) according to distinctness in the visible skin layers. Results. Three specific grades for abnormalities in SS-OCT images were identified considering gradual loss of distinctness and increase in luminosity of skin layers. Almost 90.05% subjects were of mixed type having predominance in certain grades. Conclusion. The skin SS-OCT system demonstrated a definite association of the surface features of healthy/unhealthy RAs with cutaneous features and the clinical status of the lumbar vertebrae. PMID:23662156

  6. A study on optical coherence tomography using high frequency swept source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Lei; Tong, Xinglin; Chen, Liang; Hu, Pan; Huang, Di; Zhao, Minli; Wen, Hongqiao

    2016-05-01

    Optical coherence tomography based on ultra technology is used for the assessment of subcutaneous tissue. Using high swept laser technology based on Fourier domain mode locking (FDML), the system operated in the 1300 nm wavelength range with axial scan rate of 150 kHz. Imaging at this wavelength range reduces optical scattering and improves imaging penetration depths in the tissues. The laser consists of a semiconductor amplifier as the gain medium, a tunable Fabry-Perot filter to change the wavelengthcand a long fiber ring cavity. The tuning range of laser is 102 nm. A balanced detector is used for spectra collection instead of the expensive CCD.

  7. Fast 3D in vivo swept-source optical coherence tomography using a two-axis MEMS scanning micromirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Karthik; Condit, Jonathan C.; McElroy, Austin; Kemp, Nate J.; Hoshino, Kazunori; Milner, Thomas E.; Zhang, Xiaojing

    2008-04-01

    We report on a fibre-based forward-imaging swept-source optical coherence tomography system using a high-reflectivity two-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror for high-speed 3D in vivo visualization of cellular-scale architecture of biological specimens. The scanning micromirrors, based on electrostatic staggered vertical comb drive actuators, can provide ± 9° of optical deflection on both rotation axes and uniform reflectivity of greater than 90% over the range of imaging wavelengths (1260-1360 nm), allowing for imaging turbid samples with good signal-to-noise ratio. The wavelength-swept laser, scanning over 100 nm spectrum at 20 kHz rate, enables fast image acquisition at 10.2 million voxels s-1 (for 3D imaging) or 40 frames s-1 (for 2D imaging with 500 transverse pixels per image) with 8.6 µm axial resolution. Lateral resolution of 12.5 µm over 3 mm field of view in each lateral direction is obtained using ZEMAX optical simulations for the lateral beam scanning system across the scanning angle range of the 500 µm × 700 µm micromirror. We successfully acquired en face and tomographic images of rigid structures (scanning micromirror), in vitro biological samples (onion peels and pickle slices) and in vivo images of human epidermis over 2 × 1 × 4 mm3 imaging volume in real time at faster-than-video 2D frame rates. The results indicate that our system framework may be suitable for image-guided minimally invasive examination of various diseased tissues.

  8. Assessment of Choroidal Thickness and Volume During the Water Drinking Test By Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Kaweh; Medeiros, Felipe A.; Marchase, Nicholas; Tatham, Andrew J.; Auerbach, Daniel; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate changes in peripapillary and macular choroidal thickness and volume after the water-drinking test (WDT) using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Design Prospective, cross-sectional observational study. Participants Fifty-six eyes of 28 healthy volunteers. Methods Participants underwent a 3-dimensional optic disc and macula scanning protocol with a prototype SS-OCT (Topcon Inc., Tokyo, Japan) at baseline and 15, 30, 45, and 120 minutes after the start of the WDT. The WDT consisted of drinking 1000mL of water within five minutes. Objective measurements of the choroid were obtained with automated segmentation of the choroidal boundaries. Main Outcome Measures Choroidal thickness and volume. Results Mean (standard deviation) age of participants was 35.6 ± 9.1 years. Intraocular pressure (IOP) increased from 14.9 ± 2.7 mmHg at baseline to a peak of 16.8 ± 3.0 mmHg at 15 minutes after the WDT (p<0.001). Mean baseline choroidal thickness and volume were 181.3 ± 50.8 μm and 6.19 ± 1.80 mm3 at the optic disc and 217.4 ± 43.6 μm and 7.83 ± 1.55 mm3 at the macula. Following the WDT, peripapillary and macular choroidal thickness increased by a maximum of 5.7% (P < 0.001) and 4.3% (P < 0.001) respectively. Choroidal volumes increased by 6.4% (P < 0.001) and 3.9% (P < 0.001), respectively. There was no association between change in IOP and peripapillary (P = 0.27) or macular (P = 0.09) choroidal thickness. Conclusions Using automated segmentation of SS-OCT measurements, significant increases in choroidal thickness and volume are observed after the WDT in healthy subjects. PMID:24021895

  9. Miniature swept source for point of care Optical Frequency Domain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Brian D.; Nezam, S.M. Reza Motaghian; Jillella, Priyanka; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2009-01-01

    Point of care (POC) medical technologies require portable, small, robust instrumentation for practical implementation. In their current embodiment, optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) systems employ large form-factor wavelength-swept lasers, making them impractical in the POC environment. Here, we describe a first step toward a POC OFDI system by demonstrating a miniaturized swept-wavelength source. The laser is based on a tunable optical filter using a reflection grating and a miniature resonant scanning mirror. The laser achieves 75 nm of bandwidth centered at 1340 nm, a 0.24 nm instantaneous line width, a 15.3 kHz repetition rate with 12 mW peak output power, and a 30.4 kHz A-line rate when utilizing forward and backward sweeps. The entire laser system is approximately the size of a deck of cards and can operate on battery power for at least one hour. PMID:19259202

  10. In vivo volumetric depth-resolved vasculature imaging of human limbus and sclera with 1 μm swept source phase-variance optical coherence angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poddar, Raju; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Cortés, Dennis E.; Mannis, Mark J.; Werner, John S.

    2015-06-01

    We present in vivo volumetric depth-resolved vasculature images of the anterior segment of the human eye acquired with phase-variance based motion contrast using a high-speed (100 kHz, 105 A-scans/s) swept source optical coherence tomography system (SSOCT). High phase stability SSOCT imaging was achieved by using a computationally efficient phase stabilization approach. The human corneo-scleral junction and sclera were imaged with swept source phase-variance optical coherence angiography and compared with slit lamp images from the same eyes of normal subjects. Different features of the rich vascular system in the conjunctiva and episclera were visualized and described. This system can be used as a potential tool for ophthalmological research to determine changes in the outflow system, which may be helpful for identification of abnormalities that lead to glaucoma.

  11. In vivo volumetric depth-resolved vasculature imaging of human limbus and sclera with 1μm swept source phase-variance optical coherence angiography

    PubMed Central

    Poddar, Raju; Zawadzki, Robert J; Cortés, Dennis E; Mannis, Mark J; Werner, John S

    2015-01-01

    We present nnnnnin vivo volumetric depth-resolved vasculature images of the anterior segment of the human eye acquired with phase-variance based motion contrast using a high-speed (100 kHz, 105 A-scans/s) swept source optical coherence tomography system (SSOCT). High phase stability SSOCT imaging was achieved by using a computationally efficient phase stabilization approach. The human corneo–scleral junction and sclera were imaged with swept source phase-variance optical coherence angiography and compared with slit lamp images from the same eyes of normal subjects. Different features of the rich vascular system in the conjunctiva and episclera were visualized and described. This system can be used as a potential tool for ophthalmological research to determine changes in the outflow system, which may be helpful for identification of abnormalities that lead to glaucoma. PMID:25984290

  12. High-speed imaging of human retina in vivo with swept-source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H.; Mujat, M.; Kerbage, C.; Lee, E. C.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Teresa C.; de Boer, J. F.

    2006-12-01

    We present the first demonstration of human retinal imaging in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) in the 800-nm range. With 460-μW incident power on the eye, the sensitivity is 91 dB at maximum and >85 dB over 2-mm depth range. The axial resolution is 13 μm in air. We acquired images of retina at 43,200 depth profiles per second and a continuous acquisition speed of 84 frames/s (512 A-lines per frame) could be maintained over more than 2 seconds.

  13. Quantitative upper airway endoscopy with swept-source anatomical optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wijesundara, Kushal; Zdanski, Carlton; Kimbell, Julia; Price, Hillel; Iftimia, Nicusor; Oldenburg, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive imaging of upper airway obstructions in children and adults is needed to improve clinical decision-making. Toward this goal, we demonstrate an anatomical optical coherence tomography (aOCT) system delivered via a small-bore, flexible endoscope to quantify the upper airway lumen geometry. Helical scans were obtained from a proximally-scanned fiber-optic catheter of 820 μm outer diameter and >2 mm focal length. Coupled with a long coherence length wavelength-swept light source, the system exhibited an SNR roll-off of < 10 dB over a 10 mm range. Operating at 10 rotations/s, the average accuracy of segmented cross-sectional areas was found to be −1.4 ± 1.0%. To demonstrate the capability of this system, aOCT was performed on a pediatric airway phantom and on ex vivo swine trachea. The ability for quantitative endoscopy afforded by this system can aid in diagnosis, medical and surgical decision making, and predictive modeling of upper airway obstructive disorders. PMID:24688814

  14. Agreement between Gonioscopic Examination and Swept Source Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Donna; Minnal, Vandana R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate interobserver, intervisit, and interinstrument agreements for gonioscopy and Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (FD ASOCT) for classifying open and narrow angle eyes. Methods. Eighty-six eyes with open or narrow anterior chamber angles were included. The superior angle was classified open or narrow by 2 of 5 glaucoma specialists using gonioscopy and imaged by FD ASOCT in the dark. The superior angle of each FD ASOCT image was graded as open or narrow by 2 masked readers. The same procedures were repeated within 6 months. Kappas for interobserver and intervisit agreements for each instrument and interinstrument agreements were calculated. Results. The mean age was 50.9 (±18.4) years. Interobserver agreements were moderate to good for both gonioscopy (0.57 and 0.69) and FD ASOCT (0.58 and 0.75). Intervisit agreements were moderate to excellent for both gonioscopy (0.53 to 0.86) and FD ASOCT (0.57 and 0.85). Interinstrument agreements were fair to good (0.34 to 0.63), with FD ASOCT classifying more angles as narrow than gonioscopy. Conclusions. Both gonioscopy and FD ASOCT examiners were internally consistent with similar interobserver and intervisit agreements for angle classification. Agreement between instruments was fair to good, with FD ASOCT classifying more angles as narrow than gonioscopy. PMID:27990300

  15. Agreement between Gonioscopic Examination and Swept Source Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging.

    PubMed

    Rigi, Mohammed; Bell, Nicholas P; Lee, David A; Baker, Laura A; Chuang, Alice Z; Nguyen, Donna; Minnal, Vandana R; Feldman, Robert M; Blieden, Lauren S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate interobserver, intervisit, and interinstrument agreements for gonioscopy and Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (FD ASOCT) for classifying open and narrow angle eyes. Methods. Eighty-six eyes with open or narrow anterior chamber angles were included. The superior angle was classified open or narrow by 2 of 5 glaucoma specialists using gonioscopy and imaged by FD ASOCT in the dark. The superior angle of each FD ASOCT image was graded as open or narrow by 2 masked readers. The same procedures were repeated within 6 months. Kappas for interobserver and intervisit agreements for each instrument and interinstrument agreements were calculated. Results. The mean age was 50.9 (±18.4) years. Interobserver agreements were moderate to good for both gonioscopy (0.57 and 0.69) and FD ASOCT (0.58 and 0.75). Intervisit agreements were moderate to excellent for both gonioscopy (0.53 to 0.86) and FD ASOCT (0.57 and 0.85). Interinstrument agreements were fair to good (0.34 to 0.63), with FD ASOCT classifying more angles as narrow than gonioscopy. Conclusions. Both gonioscopy and FD ASOCT examiners were internally consistent with similar interobserver and intervisit agreements for angle classification. Agreement between instruments was fair to good, with FD ASOCT classifying more angles as narrow than gonioscopy.

  16. Long-range and wide field of view optical coherence tomography for in vivo 3D imaging of large volume object based on akinetic programmable swept source

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shaozhen; Xu, Jingjiang; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-01-01

    Current optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging suffers from short ranging distance and narrow imaging field of view (FOV). There is growing interest in searching for solutions to these limitations in order to expand further in vivo OCT applications. This paper describes a solution where we utilize an akinetic swept source for OCT implementation to enable ~10 cm ranging distance, associated with the use of a wide-angle camera lens in the sample arm to provide a FOV of ~20 x 20 cm2. The akinetic swept source operates at 1300 nm central wavelength with a bandwidth of 100 nm. We propose an adaptive calibration procedure to the programmable akinetic light source so that the sensitivity of the OCT system over ~10 cm ranging distance is substantially improved for imaging of large volume samples. We demonstrate the proposed swept source OCT system for in vivo imaging of entire human hands and faces with an unprecedented FOV (up to 400 cm2). The capability of large-volume OCT imaging with ultra-long ranging and ultra-wide FOV is expected to bring new opportunities for in vivo biomedical applications. PMID:27896012

  17. Comparison Between Spectral-Domain and Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiographic Imaging of Choroidal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Andrew R.; Roisman, Luiz; Zhang, Qinqin; Zheng, Fang; Rafael de Oliveira Dias, Joao; Yehoshua, Zohar; Schaal, Karen B.; Feuer, William; Gregori, Giovanni; Chu, Zhongdi; Chen, Chieh-Li; Kubach, Sophie; An, Lin; Stetson, Paul F.; Durbin, Mary K.; Wang, Ruikang K.; Rosenfeld, Philip J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare imaging of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) using swept-source (SS) and spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods Optical coherence tomography angiography was performed using a 100-kHz SS-OCT instrument and a 68-kHz SD-OCTA instrument (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc.). Both 3 × 3- and 6 × 6-mm2 scans were obtained on both instruments. The 3 × 3-mm2 SS-OCTA scans consisted of 300 A-scans per B-scan at 300 B-scan positions, and the SD-OCTA scans consisted of 245 A-scans at 245 B-scan positions. The 6 × 6-mm2 SS-OCTA scans consisted of 420 A-scans per B-scan at 420 B-scan positions, and the SD-OCTA scans consisted of 350 A-scans and 350 B-scan positions. B-scans were repeated four times at each position in the 3 × 3-mm2 scans and twice in the 6 × 6-mm2 scans. Choroidal neovascularization was excluded if not fully contained within the 3 × 3-mm2 scans. The same algorithm was used to detect CNV on both instruments. Two graders outlined the CNV, and the lesion areas were compared between instruments. Results Twenty-seven consecutive eyes from 23 patients were analyzed. For the 3 × 3-mm2 scans, the mean lesion areas for the SS-OCTA and SD-OCTA instruments were 1.17 and 1.01 mm2, respectively (P = 0.047). For the 6 × 6-mm2 scans, the mean lesion areas for the SS-OCTA and SD-OCTA instruments were 1.24 and 0.74 mm2 (P = 0.003). Conclusions The areas of CNV tended to be larger when imaged with SS-OCTA than with SD-OCTA, and this difference was greater for the 6 × 6-mm2 scans. PMID:28273316

  18. Clinical Factors Associated with Lamina Cribrosa Thickness in Patients with Glaucoma, as Measured with Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Omodaka, Kazuko; Takahashi, Seri; Matsumoto, Akiko; Maekawa, Shigeto; Kikawa, Tsutomu; Himori, Noriko; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Maruyama, Kazuichi; Kunikata, Hiroshi; Akiba, Masahiro; Nakazawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the influence of various risk factors on thinning of the lamina cribrosa (LC), as measured with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT; Topcon). Methods This retrospective study comprised 150 eyes of 150 patients: 22 normal subjects, 28 preperimetric glaucoma (PPG) patients, and 100 open-angle glaucoma patients. Average LC thickness was determined in a 3 x 3 mm cube scan of the optic disc, over which a 4 x 4 grid of 16 points was superimposed (interpoint distance: 175 μm), centered on the circular Bruch’s membrane opening. The borders of the LC were defined as the visible limits of the LC pores. The correlation of LC thickness with Humphrey field analyzer-measured mean deviation (MD; SITA standard 24–2), circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT), the vertical cup-to-disc (C/D) ratio, and tissue mean blur rate (MBR) was determined with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The relationship of LC thickness with age, axial length, intraocular pressure (IOP), MD, the vertical C/D ratio, central corneal thickness (CCT), and tissue MBR was determined with multiple regression analysis. Average LC thickness and the correlation between LC thickness and MD were compared in patients with the glaucomatous enlargement (GE) optic disc type and those with non-GE disc types, as classified with Nicolela’s method. Results We found that average LC thickness in the 16 grid points was significantly associated with overall LC thickness (r = 0.77, P < 0.001). The measurement time for this area was 12.4 ± 2.4 minutes. Average LC thickness in this area had a correlation coefficient of 0.57 with cpRNFLT (P < 0.001) and 0.46 (P < 0.001) with MD. Average LC thickness differed significantly between the groups (normal: 268 ± 23 μm, PPG: 248 ± 13 μm, OAG: 233 ± 20 μm). Multiple regression analysis showed that MD (β = 0.29, P = 0.013), vertical C/D ratio (β = -0.25, P = 0.020) and tissue MBR (β = 0.20, P = 0.034) were

  19. Simultaneous 1310/1550 dual-band swept laser source and fiber-based dual-band common-path swept source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Youxin; Chang, Shoude; Murdock, Erroll; Flueraru, Costel

    2011-08-01

    A simultaneous two wavelength band swept laser source and a fiber-based dual-band common-path swept source optical coherence tomography is reported. Simultaneous 1310/1550 dual-wavelength tuning is performed by using two fiber-ring cavities with corresponding optical semiconductor amplifier as their gain mediums and two narrowband optical filters with a single dual-window polygonal scanner. Measured average output powers of 60 mW and 27 mW have been achieved for 1310 and 1550 nm bands, respectively, while the two wavelengths were swept simultaneously from 1227 nm to 1387 nm for 1310 nm band and from 1519 nm to 1581 nm for 1550 nm band at an A-scan rate of 65 kHz. A broadband 1310/1550 wavelength-division multiplexing is used for coupling two wavelengths into a common-path single-mode GRIN-lensed fiber probe to form a dual-band common-path swept-source optical coherence tomography. Simultaneous OCT imaging at 1310 and 1550 nm is achieved by using a depth ratio correction method. This technique allows potentially for in vivo endoscopic high-speed functional OCT imaging with high quality spectroscopic contrast with low computational costs. On the other hand, the common path configuration is able to reject common mode noise and potentially implement high stability quantitative phase measurements.

  20. Tuning of successively scanned two monolithic Vernier-tuned lasers and selective data sampling in optical comb swept source optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong-Hak; Yoshimura, Reiko; Ohbayashi, Kohji

    2013-01-01

    Monolithic Vernier tuned super-structure grating distributed Bragg reflector (SSG-DBR) lasers are expected to become one of the most promising sources for swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) with a long coherence length, reduced sensitivity roll-off, and potential capability for a very fast A-scan rate. However, previous implementations of the lasers suffer from four main problems: 1) frequencies deviate from the targeted values when scanned, 2) large amounts of noise appear associated with abrupt changes in injection currents, 3) optically aliased noise appears due to a long coherence length, and 4) the narrow wavelength coverage of a single chip limits resolution. We have developed a method of dynamical frequency tuning, a method of selective data sampling to eliminate current switching noise, an interferometer to reduce aliased noise, and an excess-noise-free connection of two serially scanned lasers to enhance resolution to solve these problems. An optical frequency comb SS-OCT system was achieved with a sensitivity of 124 dB and a dynamic range of 55-72 dB that depended on the depth at an A-scan rate of 3.1 kHz with a resolution of 15 μm by discretely scanning two SSG-DBR lasers, i.e., L-band (1.560-1.599 μm) and UL-band (1.598-1.640 μm). A few OCT images with excellent image penetration depth were obtained.

  1. Application of full range swept source optical coherence tomography for imaging of the anterior eye segment in patients with type I Boston Keratoprosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poddar, Raju; Cortes, Dennis; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Mannis, Mark J.; Werner, John S.

    2013-03-01

    We present a high-speed complex conjugate resolved 1 μm swept source optical coherence tomography [SS-OCT] system using coherence revival of the light source for clinical imaging of the anterior segment of the eye. High-speed of 100,000 A-scans/sec and 1 μm imaging window of OCT permits dense 3D imaging of the anterior segment, minimizing the influence of motion artifacts and deep penetration of images for topographic analysis. The swept laser performance with internal clocking was adapted to achieve extended imaging depth requirements. The feasibility of our instrument for visualization of the anterior segment of patients with the Boston Keratoprosthesis (KPro) was discussed. The relations between of the KPro and the surrounding tissue were also demonstrated.

  2. Automated detection of inflammatory cells in whole anterior chamber of a uveitis mouse from swept-source optical coherence tomography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo June; Pepple, Kathryn L.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-03-01

    Cell grading in a rodent anterior chamber is essential for anterior inflammation evaluation in preclinical vision research. This paper describes a computerized method for detection and counting of the anterior chamber cells from swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) images of a experimental rodent model of uveitis. The volumetric anterior segment OCT data is obtained from 100 kHz SS-OCT imaging of mouse eye in vivo. For the OCT cross-sections, each OCT structural image is de-speckled and binarized. After removal of cornea, iris, and crystalline lens structures connected to the binary image border, an area thresholding is then employed for each labeled region to isolate only celllike objects in the anterior chamber, followed by roundness estimation of the objects to identify potential cell candidates in the data. Eventually, the cell candidates are counted and graded as total number of cells in the anterior chamber.

  3. Real-time calibration-free C-scan images of the eye fundus using Master Slave swept source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradu, Adrian; Kapinchev, Konstantin; Barnes, Fred; Garway-Heath, David F.; Rajendram, Ranjan; Keane, Pearce; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2015-03-01

    Recently, we introduced a novel Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) method, termed as Master Slave OCT (MS-OCT), specialized for delivering en-face images. This method uses principles of spectral domain interfereometry in two stages. MS-OCT operates like a time domain OCT, selecting only signals from a chosen depth only while scanning the laser beam across the eye. Time domain OCT allows real time production of an en-face image, although relatively slowly. As a major advance, the Master Slave method allows collection of signals from any number of depths, as required by the user. The tremendous advantage in terms of parallel provision of data from numerous depths could not be fully employed by using multi core processors only. The data processing required to generate images at multiple depths simultaneously is not achievable with commodity multicore processors only. We compare here the major improvement in processing and display, brought about by using graphic cards. We demonstrate images obtained with a swept source at 100 kHz (which determines an acquisition time [Ta] for a frame of 200×200 pixels2 of Ta =1.6 s). By the end of the acquired frame being scanned, using our computing capacity, 4 simultaneous en-face images could be created in T = 0.8 s. We demonstrate that by using graphic cards, 32 en-face images can be displayed in Td 0.3 s. Other faster swept source engines can be used with no difference in terms of Td. With 32 images (or more), volumes can be created for 3D display, using en-face images, as opposed to the current technology where volumes are created using cross section OCT images.

  4. Tuning of successively scanned two monolithic Vernier-tuned lasers and selective data sampling in optical comb swept source optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Dong-hak; Yoshimura, Reiko; Ohbayashi, Kohji

    2013-01-01

    Monolithic Vernier tuned super-structure grating distributed Bragg reflector (SSG-DBR) lasers are expected to become one of the most promising sources for swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) with a long coherence length, reduced sensitivity roll-off, and potential capability for a very fast A-scan rate. However, previous implementations of the lasers suffer from four main problems: 1) frequencies deviate from the targeted values when scanned, 2) large amounts of noise appear associated with abrupt changes in injection currents, 3) optically aliased noise appears due to a long coherence length, and 4) the narrow wavelength coverage of a single chip limits resolution. We have developed a method of dynamical frequency tuning, a method of selective data sampling to eliminate current switching noise, an interferometer to reduce aliased noise, and an excess-noise-free connection of two serially scanned lasers to enhance resolution to solve these problems. An optical frequency comb SS-OCT system was achieved with a sensitivity of 124 dB and a dynamic range of 55-72 dB that depended on the depth at an A-scan rate of 3.1 kHz with a resolution of 15 μm by discretely scanning two SSG-DBR lasers, i.e., L-band (1.560-1.599 μm) and UL-band (1.598-1.640 μm). A few OCT images with excellent image penetration depth were obtained. PMID:24409394

  5. Development of Extended-Depth Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography for Applications in Ophthalmic Imaging of the Anterior and Posterior Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhalla, Al-Hafeez Zahir

    extending the imaging range of OCT systems are developed. These techniques include the use of a high spectral purity swept source laser in a full-field OCT system, as well as the use of a peculiar phenomenon known as coherence revival to resolve the complex conjugate ambiguity in swept source OCT. In addition, a technique for extending the depth of focus of OCT systems by using a polarization-encoded, dual-focus sample arm is demonstrated. Along the way, other related advances are also presented, including the development of techniques to reduce crosstalk and speckle artifacts in full-field OCT, and the use of fast optical switches to increase the imaging speed of certain low-duty cycle swept source OCT systems. Finally, the clinical utility of these techniques is demonstrated by combining them to demonstrate high-speed, high resolution, extended-depth imaging of both the anterior and posterior eye simultaneously and in vivo.

  6. Robot-assisted three-dimensional registration for cochlear implant surgery using a common-path swept-source optical coherence tomography probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurbani, Saumya S.; Wilkening, Paul; Zhao, Mingtao; Gonenc, Berk; Cheon, Gyeong Woo; Iordachita, Iulian I.; Chien, Wade; Taylor, Russell H.; Niparko, John K.; Kang, Jin U.

    2014-05-01

    Cochlear implantation offers the potential to restore sensitive hearing in patients with severe to profound deafness. However, surgical placement of the electrode array within the cochlea can produce trauma to sensorineural components, particularly if the initial turn of the cochlea is not successfully navigated as the array is advanced. In this work, we present a robot-mounted common-path swept-source optical coherence tomography endoscopic platform for three-dimensional (3-D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) registration and preoperative surgical planning for cochlear implant surgery. The platform is composed of a common-path 600-μm diameter fiber optic rotary probe attached to a five degrees of freedom robot capable of 1 μm precision movement. The system is tested on a dry fixed ex vivo human temporal bone, and we demonstrate the feasibility of a 3-D OCT registration of the cochlea to accurately describe the spatial and angular profiles of the canal formed by the scala tympani into the first cochlear turn.

  7. Silicon photonic integrated circuit swept-source optical coherence tomography receiver with dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Vermeulen, Diedrik; Chen, Long; Nielsen, Torben; Park, Seo Yeon; Ghaemi, Allan; Swanson, Eric; Doerr, Chris; Fujimoto, James

    2015-07-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a widely used three-dimensional (3D) optical imaging method with many biomedical and non-medical applications. Miniaturization, cost reduction, and increased functionality of OCT systems will be critical for future emerging clinical applications. We present a silicon photonic integrated circuit swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) coherent receiver with dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature (IQ) detection. We demonstrate multiple functional capabilities of IQ polarization resolved detection including: complex-conjugate suppressed full-range OCT, polarization diversity detection, and polarization-sensitive OCT. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a silicon photonic integrated receiver for OCT. The integrated coherent receiver provides a miniaturized, low-cost solution for SS-OCT, and is also a key step towards a fully integrated high speed SS-OCT system with good performance and multi-functional capabilities. With further performance improvement and cost reduction, photonic integrated technology promises to greatly increase penetration of OCT systems in existing applications and enable new applications.

  8. Silicon photonic integrated circuit swept-source optical coherence tomography receiver with dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature detection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhao; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Vermeulen, Diedrik; Chen, Long; Nielsen, Torben; Park, Seo Yeon; Ghaemi, Allan; Swanson, Eric; Doerr, Chris; Fujimoto, James

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a widely used three-dimensional (3D) optical imaging method with many biomedical and non-medical applications. Miniaturization, cost reduction, and increased functionality of OCT systems will be critical for future emerging clinical applications. We present a silicon photonic integrated circuit swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) coherent receiver with dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature (IQ) detection. We demonstrate multiple functional capabilities of IQ polarization resolved detection including: complex-conjugate suppressed full-range OCT, polarization diversity detection, and polarization-sensitive OCT. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a silicon photonic integrated receiver for OCT. The integrated coherent receiver provides a miniaturized, low-cost solution for SS-OCT, and is also a key step towards a fully integrated high speed SS-OCT system with good performance and multi-functional capabilities. With further performance improvement and cost reduction, photonic integrated technology promises to greatly increase penetration of OCT systems in existing applications and enable new applications. PMID:26203382

  9. Sensing and three-dimensional imaging of cochlea and surrounding temporal bone using swept source high-speed optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Mingtao; Chien, Wade W.; Taylor, Russ; Iordachita, Iulian; Huang, Yong; Niparko, John; Kang, Jin U.

    2013-03-01

    We describe a novel dual-functional optical coherence tomography (OCT) system with both a fiber probe using a sapphire ball lens for cross-sectional imaging and sensing, and a 3-D bulk scanner for 3-D OCT imaging. A theoretical sensitivity model for Common Path (CP)-OCT was proposed to assess its optimal performance based on an unbalanced photodetector configuration. A probe design with working distances (WD) 415μm and lateral resolution 11 μm was implemented with sensitivity up to 88dB. To achieve high-speed data processing and real-time three-dimensional visualization, we use graphics processing unit (GPU) based real-time signal processing and visualization to boost the computing performance of swept source optical coherence tomography. Both the basal turn and facial nerve bundles inside the cadaveric human cochlea temporal bone can be clearly identified and 3D images can be rendered with the OCT system, which was integrated with a flexible robotic arm for robotically assisted microsurgery.

  10. The Repeatability Assessment of Three-Dimensional Capsule-Intraocular Lens Complex Measurements by Means of High-Speed Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Pingjun; Li, Jin; Savini, Giacomo; Huang, Jinhai; Huang, Shenghai; Zhao, Yinying; Liao, Na; Lin, Lei; Yu, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Yun-e

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To rebuild the three-dimensional (3-D) model of the anterior segment by high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) and evaluate the repeatability of measurement for the parameters of capsule-intraocular lens (C-IOL) complex. Methods Twenty-two pseudophakic eyes from 22 patients were enrolled. Three continuous SSOCT measurements were performed in all eyes and the tomograms obtained were used for 3-D reconstruction. The output data were used to evaluate the measurement repeatability. The parameters included postoperative aqueous depth (PAD), the area and diameter of the anterior capsule opening (Area and D), IOL tilt (IOL-T), horizontal, vertical, and space decentration of the IOL, anterior capsule opening, and IOL-anterior capsule opening. Results PAD, IOL-T, Area, D, and all decentration measurements showed high repeatability. Repeated measure analysis showed there was no statistically significant difference among the three continuous measurements (all P > .05). Pearson correlation analysis showed high correlation between each pair of them (all r >0.90, P<0.001). ICCs were all more than 0.9 for all parameters. The 95% LoAs of all parameters were narrow for comparison of three measurements, which showed high repeatability for three measurements. Conclusion SSOCT is available to be a new method for the 3-D measurement of C-IOL complex after cataract surgery. This method presented high repeatability in measuring the parameters of the C-IOL complex. PMID:26600254

  11. In vivo microvascular imaging of human oral and nasal cavities using swept-source optical coherence tomography with a single forward/side viewing probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo June; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-03-01

    We report three-dimensional (3D) imaging of microcirculation within human cavity tissues in vivo using a high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) at 1.3 μm with a modified probe interface. Volumetric structural OCT images of the inner tissues of oral and nasal cavities are acquired with a field of view of 2 mm x 2 mm. Two types of disposable and detachable probe attachments are devised and applied to the port of the imaging probe of OCT system, enabling forward and side imaging scans for selective and easy access to specific cavity tissue sites. Blood perfusion is mapped with OCT-based microangiography from 3D structural OCT images, in which a novel vessel extraction algorithm is used to decouple dynamic light scattering signals, due to moving blood cells, from the background scattering signals due to static tissue elements. Characteristic tissue anatomy and microvessel architectures of various cavity tissue regions of a healthy human volunteer are identified with the 3D OCT images and the corresponding 3D vascular perfusion maps at a level approaching capillary resolution. The initial finding suggests that the proposed method may be engineered into a promising tool for evaluating and monitoring tissue microcirculation and its alteration within a wide-range of cavity tissues in the patients with various pathological conditions.

  12. Choroidal neovascularization analyzed on ultra-high speed swept source optical coherence tomography angiography compared to spectral domain optical coherence tomography angiography

    PubMed Central

    Novais, Eduardo A.; Adhi, Mehreen; Moult, Eric M.; Louzada, Ricardo N.; Cole, Emily D.; Husvogt, Lennart; Lee, ByungKun; Dang, Sabin; Regatieri, Caio V. S.; Witkin, André J.; Baumal, Caroline R.; Hornegger, Joachim; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Fujimoto, James G; Duker, Jay S.; Waheed, Nadia K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare visualization of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using an ultra-high speed swept-source (SS)-optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) prototype versus a spectral-domain (SD)-OCTA device. Design Comparative analysis of diagnostic instruments. Methods Patients were prospectively recruited to be imaged on SD-OCT and SS-OCT devices on the same day. The SD-OCT device employed is the RTVue Avanti that operates at ~840nm wavelength and 70,000 A-scans/second. The SS-OCT device used is an ultra-high speed long-wavelength prototype that operates at ~1050nm wavelength and 400,000 A-scans/second. Two observers independently measured the CNV area on OCTA en face images from the two devices using ImageJ. The non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare area measurements and p-values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Fourteen eyes from 13 patients were enrolled. The CNV in 11 eyes (78.6%) were classified as type-1, 2 eyes (14.3%) as type-2, and 1 eye (7.1%) as mixed type. Total CNV area measured using SS-OCT and SD-OCT 3mm × 3mm OCTA were 0.949 ± 1.168mm2 and 0.340 ± 0.301mm2, respectively (p=0.001). For the 6mm × 6mm OCTA the total CNV area using SS-OCT and SD-OCT were 1.218 ± 1.284mm2 and 0.604 ± 0.597mm2, respectively (p=0.0019). The field of view did not significantly affect the measured CNV area (p=0.19 and p=0.18 for SS-OCT and SD-OCT respectively). Conclusion SS-OCTA yielded significantly larger CNV areas than SD-OCTA. It is possible that SS-OCTA is better able to demarcate the full extent of CNV vasculature. PMID:26851725

  13. Trabecular-iris circumference volume in open angle eyes using swept-source fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Rigi, Mohammed; Blieden, Lauren S; Nguyen, Donna; Chuang, Alice Z; Baker, Laura A; Bell, Nicholas P; Lee, David A; Mankiewicz, Kimberly A; Feldman, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To introduce a new anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameter, trabecular-iris circumference volume (TICV), which measures the integrated volume of the peripheral angle, and establish a reference range in normal, open angle eyes. Methods. One eye of each participant with open angles and a normal anterior segment was imaged using 3D mode by the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey, Nagoya, Japan). Trabecular-iris space area (TISA) and TICV at 500 and 750 µm were calculated. Analysis of covariance was performed to examine the effect of age and its interaction with spherical equivalent. Results. The study included 100 participants with a mean age of 50 (±15) years (range 20-79). TICV showed a normal distribution with a mean (±SD) value of 4.75 µL (±2.30) for TICV500 and a mean (±SD) value of 8.90 µL (±3.88) for TICV750. Overall, TICV showed an age-related reduction (P = 0.035). In addition, angle volume increased with increased myopia for all age groups, except for those older than 65 years. Conclusions. This study introduces a new parameter to measure peripheral angle volume, TICV, with age-adjusted normal ranges for open angle eyes. Further investigation is warranted to determine the clinical utility of this new parameter.

  14. Heritability of ocular component dimensions in mice phenotyped using depth-enhanced swept source optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Považay, Boris; Chen, Yen Po; Hofer, Bernd; Drexler, Wolfgang; Guggenheim, Jeremy A

    2011-10-01

    The range of genetic and genomic resources available makes the mouse a powerful model for the genetic dissection of complex traits. Because accurate, high-throughput phenotypic characterisation is crucial to the success of such endeavours, we recently developed an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system with extended depth range scanning capability for measuring ocular component dimensions in mice. In order to test whether the accuracy and reproducibility of our OCT system was sufficient for gene mapping studies, we carried out an experiment designed to estimate the heritability of mouse ocular component dimensions. High-resolution, two dimensional tomograms were obtained for both eyes of 11 pairs of 8 week-old outbred MF1 mice. Subsequently, images were obtained when their offspring were aged 8 weeks. Biometric data were extracted after image segmentation, reconstruction of the geometric shape of each surface, and calculation of intraocular distances. The repeatability of measurements was evaluated for 12 mice scanned on consecutive days. Heritability estimates were calculated using variance components analysis. Sets of tomograms took ∼2 s to acquire. Biometric data could be obtained for 98% of the 130 eyes scanned. The 95% limits of repeatability ranged from ±6 to ±16 μm for the axial ocular component dimensions. The heritability of the axial ocular components was 0.6-0.8, except for corneal thickness, which had a heritability not significantly different from zero. In conclusion, axial ocular component dimensions are highly heritable in mice, as they are in humans. OCT with extended depth range scanning can be used to rapidly phenotype individual mice with sufficient accuracy and precision to permit gene mapping studies.

  15. Non-destructive evaluation of an internal adaptation of resin composite restoration with swept-source optical coherence tomography and micro-CT.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung-Hoon; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji; Park, Sung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and micro-CT can be useful non-destructive methods for evaluating internal adaptation. There is no comparative study evaluating the two methods in the assessment of internal adaptation in composite restoration. The purpose of this study was to compare internal adaptation measurements of SS-OCT and micro-CT. Two cylindrical cavities were created on the labial surface of twelve bovine incisors. The 24 cavities were randomly assigned to four groups of dentin adhesives: (1) three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive, (2) two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive, (3) two-step self-etch adhesive, and (4) one-step self-etch adhesive. After application, the cavities were filled with resin composite. All restorations underwent a thermocycling challenge, and then, eight SS-OCT images were taken using a Santec OCT-2000™ (Santec Co., Komaki, Japan). The internal adaptation was also evaluated using micro-CT (Skyscan, Aartselaar, Belgium). The image analysis was used to calculate the percentage of defective spot (%DS) and compare the results. The groups were compared using one-way ANOVA with Duncan analysis at the 95% significance level. The SS-OCT and micro-CT measurements were compared with a paired t-test, and the relationship was analyzed using a Pearson correlation test at the 95% significance level. The %DS results showed that Group 3≤Group 4

  16. Three-dimensional anterior segment imaging in patients with type 1 Boston Keratoprosthesis with switchable full depth range swept source optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Poddar, Raju; Cortés, Dennis E.; Werner, John S.; Mannis, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. A high-speed (100 kHz A-scans/s) complex conjugate resolved 1 μm swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system using coherence revival of the light source is suitable for dense three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of the anterior segment. The short acquisition time helps to minimize the influence of motion artifacts. The extended depth range of the SS-OCT system allows topographic analysis of clinically relevant images of the entire depth of the anterior segment of the eye. Patients with the type 1 Boston Keratoprosthesis (KPro) require evaluation of the full anterior segment depth. Current commercially available OCT systems are not suitable for this application due to limited acquisition speed, resolution, and axial imaging range. Moreover, most commonly used research grade and some clinical OCT systems implement a commercially available SS (Axsun) that offers only 3.7 mm imaging range (in air) in its standard configuration. We describe implementation of a common swept laser with built-in k-clock to allow phase stable imaging in both low range and high range, 3.7 and 11.5 mm in air, respectively, without the need to build an external MZI k-clock. As a result, 3-D morphology of the KPro position with respect to the surrounding tissue could be investigated in vivo both at high resolution and with large depth range to achieve noninvasive and precise evaluation of success of the surgical procedure. PMID:23912759

  17. Choroidal Thickness and Choroidal Vessel Density in Nonexudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fang; Gregori, Giovanni; Schaal, Karen B.; Legarreta, Andrew D.; Miller, Andrew R.; Roisman, Luiz; Feuer, William J.; Rosenfeld, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the relationship between choroidal thickness and the distribution of choroidal blood vessels in eyes with nonexudative AMD. Methods Eyes with a diagnosis of nonexudative AMD were imaged using a prototype 100-kHz swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) instrument (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA) with a central wavelength of 1050 nm. We used an OCT cube scan pattern consisting of 512 × 512 A-scans over a 12 × 12 mm retinal area. The eyes were partitioned into two groups based on the presence or absence of reticular pseudodrusen (RPD). All scans were segmented using an automated algorithm. In addition, five eyes from each of the two groups were randomly chosen for manual segmentation. Binary choroidal vessels maps were generated from suitable OCT choroidal slabs, and the relationship between the density of large choroidal vessels and choroidal thickness was analyzed using an Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study–like target centered on the fovea. Results Twenty-five eyes were enrolled in each group. The automated algorithm produced accurate choroidal thickness maps with an average difference between the manual and automated segmentations of 13.7 μm. There was a significant and stable correlation between choroidal thickness and choroidal vessel density across the two groups. Both average choroidal thickness and vessel density were significantly lower in eyes with RPD. Conclusions Our fully automated choroidal segmentation algorithm was able to capture the different patterns of choroidal thickness over a wide area. Choroidal thickness has a clear relationship with the density of large choroid vessels in our sample, irrespective of the presence or absence of RPD. PMID:27849311

  18. Visualizing the Choriocapillaris Under Drusen: Comparing 1050-nm Swept-Source Versus 840-nm Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Mark; Moult, Eric M.; Novais, Eduardo A.; Louzada, Ricardo N.; Cole, Emily D.; Lee, ByungKun; Husvogt, Lennart; Keane, Pearse A.; Denniston, Alastair K.; Witkin, André J.; Baumal, Caroline R.; Fujimoto, James G.; Duker, Jay S.; Waheed, Nadia K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the appearance of choriocapillaris (CC) flow under drusen by comparing long-wavelength (1050 nm) swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) angiography with shorter-wavelength (840 nm) spectral-domain (SD) OCT angiography. Methods Patients with drusen imaged on both devices on the same day were selected and graded. Ambiguous OCT angiography (OCTA) signal loss was defined as low OCTA signal on the en face OCTA CC image that also had low OCT signal in the corresponding area on the en face OCT CC image and OCT B-scans. Unambiguous OCTA signal loss was defined as low OCTA signal on the en face OCTA CC image that did not have low OCT signal in the corresponding area on the en face OCT CC image and OCT B-scans. False-positive flow impairment on SS-OCTA was defined as ambiguous OCTA signal loss on SS-OCTA but no OCTA signal loss on SD-OCTA. False-positive flow impairment on SD-OCTA was defined as ambiguous OCTA signal loss on SD-OCTA but no OCTA signal loss on SS-OCTA. Results Nine eyes from seven patients were enrolled, 23 drusen were analyzed. On 840-nm SD-OCTA, 17 drusen (73.9%) exhibited OCTA signal loss. Fourteen (82.4%) were classified as ambiguous, and three (17.6%) were classified as unambiguous; 10 (58.8%) were classified as having false-positive flow impairment. On 1050-nm SS-OCTA, seven drusen (30.4%) exhibited OCTA signal loss and were classified as unambiguous; none were classified as having false-positive flow impairment. Conclusions Results showed that 1050-nm SS-OCTA appears less prone to producing areas of false-positive flow impairment under drusen. PMID:27547891

  19. Dual mode-locked swept sources for SS-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancu, Radu F.; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2016-03-01

    A novel dual-mode-locking mechanism was developed in order to tune an akinetic swept source (AKSS) based on dispersive cavity at a repetition rate close to, but slightly different from the inverse of the cavity roundtrip. Several optical source configurations emitting in the 1060 nm or 1550 nm wavelength region were developed, characterized and tested in OCT applications. For the 1550 nm swept source employing a Faraday rotating mirror in a dispersive cavity, sweeping rates in the range of MHz were achieved, from 782 kHz to up to 5 times this value, with proportional decrease in the tuning bandwidth. Linewidths smaller than 60 pm and output powers exceeding a few mW were measured. The 1060 nm swept source implemented was used to generate OCT images of a pressure sensitive adhesive.

  20. Swept-source optical coherence tomography powered by a 1.3-μm vertical cavity surface emitting laser enables 2.3-mm-deep brain imaging in mice in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Woo June; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. We report noninvasive, in vivo optical imaging deep within a mouse brain by swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), enabled by a 1.3-μm vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). VCSEL SS-OCT offers a constant signal sensitivity of 105 dB throughout an entire depth of 4.25 mm in air, ensuring an extended usable imaging depth range of more than 2 mm in turbid biological tissue. Using this approach, we show deep brain imaging in mice with an open-skull cranial window preparation, revealing intact mouse brain anatomy from the superficial cerebral cortex to the deep hippocampus. VCSEL SS-OCT would be applicable to small animal studies for the investigation of deep tissue compartments in living brains where diseases such as dementia and tumor can take their toll. PMID:26447860

  1. Swept-source optical coherence tomography powered by a 1.3-μm vertical cavity surface emitting laser enables 2.3-mm-deep brain imaging in mice in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo June; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-10-01

    We report noninvasive, in vivo optical imaging deep within a mouse brain by swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), enabled by a 1.3-μm vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). VCSEL SS-OCT offers a constant signal sensitivity of 105 dB throughout an entire depth of 4.25 mm in air, ensuring an extended usable imaging depth range of more than 2 mm in turbid biological tissue. Using this approach, we show deep brain imaging in mice with an open-skull cranial window preparation, revealing intact mouse brain anatomy from the superficial cerebral cortex to the deep hippocampus. VCSEL SS-OCT would be applicable to small animal studies for the investigation of deep tissue compartments in living brains where diseases such as dementia and tumor can take their toll.

  2. Swept source OCT imaging of human anterior segment at 200 kHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnowski, Karol; Gora, Michalina; Kaluzny, Bartlomiej; Huber, Robert; Szkulmowski, Maciej; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2009-02-01

    We present applicability of the high speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo imaging of the anterior segment of the human eye. Three dimensional imaging of the cornea with reduced motion artifacts is possible by using swept source with Fourier domain mode locking operating at 200kHz with 1300nm central wavelength. High imaging speeds allow for assessment of anterior and posterior corneal topography and generation of thickness and elevation maps.

  3. Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Werkmeister, René M.; Blatter, Cedric; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2014-01-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has revolutionized ophthalmology. Since its introduction in the early 1990s it has continuously improved in terms of speed, resolution and sensitivity. The technique has also seen a variety of extensions aiming to assess functional aspects of the tissue in addition to morphology. One of these approaches is Doppler OCT (DOCT), which aims to visualize and quantify blood flow. Such extensions were already implemented in time domain systems, but have gained importance with the introduction of Fourier domain OCT. Nowadays phase-sensitive detection techniques are most widely used to extract blood velocity and blood flow from tissues. A common problem with the technique is that the Doppler angle is not known and several approaches have been realized to obtain absolute velocity and flow data from the retina. Additional studies are required to elucidate which of these techniques is most promising. In the recent years, however, several groups have shown that data can be obtained with high validity and reproducibility. In addition, several groups have published values for total retinal blood flow. Another promising application relates to non-invasive angiography. As compared to standard techniques such as fluorescein and indocyanine-green angiography the technique offers two major advantages: no dye is required and depth resolution is required is provided. As such Doppler OCT has the potential to improve our abilities to diagnose and monitor ocular vascular diseases. PMID:24704352

  4. Doppler effect in optical velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinkevichius, Bronius S.

    1996-02-01

    The current state of the optical metrology based on the Doppler effect has been reviewed. Some historical and scientific information is given, in addition the contemporary optical methods of the velocity measurement using the Doppler effect are analyzed. The Doppler effect applications in astrophysics, plasma physics, investigations of gas and liquid flows, acoustics, mechanics of the deforming solid body and of the rotational motion are considered. The description is presented for the following techniques of the velocity measurement: laser Doppler anemometry, laser Doppler vibrometry, laser gyroscopy.

  5. Strategies to improve phase-stability of ultrafast swept source optical coherence tomography for single shot imaging of transient mechanical waves at 16 kHz frame rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shaozhen; Wei, Wei; Hsieh, Bao-Yu; Pelivanov, Ivan; Shen, Tueng T.; O'Donnell, Matthew; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-05-01

    We present single-shot phase-sensitive imaging of propagating mechanical waves within tissue, enabled by an ultrafast optical coherence tomography (OCT) system powered by a 1.628 MHz Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) swept laser source. We propose a practical strategy for phase-sensitive measurement by comparing the phases between adjacent OCT B-scans, where the B-scan contains a number of A-scans equaling an integer number of FDML buffers. With this approach, we show that micro-strain fields can be mapped with ˜3.0 nm sensitivity at ˜16 000 fps. The system's capabilities are demonstrated on porcine cornea by imaging mechanical wave propagation launched by a pulsed UV laser beam, promising non-contact, real-time, and high-resolution optical coherence elastography.

  6. Positional and Curvature Difference of Lamina Cribrosa According to the Baseline Intraocular Pressure in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT) Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Woo; Jeoung, Jin Wook; Girard, Michael J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial; Park, Ki Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the variation of lamina cribrosa (LC) structure based on the baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and healthy individuals using swept-source optical coherence tomography. Methods A total of 108 eyes with POAG and 61 healthy eyes were recruited. Based on the baseline IOP, the POAG eyes were divided into higher-baseline IOP (HTG; baseline IOP > 21 mmHg, n = 38 eyes) and lower-baseline IOP (NTG; baseline IOP ≤ 21 mmHg, n = 70 eyes). The anterior laminar insertion depth (ALID), mean LC depth (mLCD), and the LC curvature index (mLCD–ALID) were measured, and compared among the three groups. The regional variation of LC structure was evaluated by vertical-horizontal ALID difference. Results The mLCD and LC curvature index were greatest in HTG eyes (520.3 ± 123.0 and 80.9 ± 30.7 μm), followed by NTG (463.2 ± 110.5 and 64.5 ± 30.7 μm) and healthy eyes (382.9 ± 107.6 and 47.6 ± 25.7 μm, all P < 0.001). However, there were no significant difference in ALID between HTG and NTG eyes. The vertical-horizontal ALID difference was larger in NTG eyes (72.8 ± 56.2 μm) than in HTG (32.7 ± 61.4 μm, P = 0.004) and healthy eyes (25.5 ± 34.8 μm, P < 0.001). Conclusions Lamina cribrosa position and curvature differed in POAG eyes with low and high IOP. This would support the theory that IOP induced biomechanical effects on the optic play a role on glaucoma. PMID:27611970

  7. Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jianping; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Lingfeng; Colt, Henri G; Brenner, Matthew; Chen, Zhongping

    2009-01-01

    A fast-scan-rate swept laser for optical coherence tomography (OCT) is suitable to record and analyze a 3-D image volume. However, the whole OCT system speed is limited by data streaming, processing, and storage. In this case, postprocessing is a common technique. Endoscopic clinical applications prefer onsite diagnosis, which requires a real-time technique. Parallel digital signal processors were applied to stream and process data directly from a data digitizer. A real-time system with 20-kHz axial line speed, which was limited only by our swept laser scan rate, was implemented. To couple with the system speed, an endoscope based on an improved 3-D microelectromechanical motor (diameter 1.5 mm, length 9.4 mm) was developed. In vivo 3-D imaging of the human airway was demonstrated. PMID:18601523

  8. Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor.

    PubMed

    Su, Jianping; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Lingfeng; G Colt, Henri; Brenner, Matthew; Chen, Zhongping

    2008-01-01

    A fast-scan-rate swept laser for optical coherence tomography (OCT) is suitable to record and analyze a 3-D image volume. However, the whole OCT system speed is limited by data streaming, processing, and storage. In this case, postprocessing is a common technique. Endoscopic clinical applications prefer onsite diagnosis, which requires a real-time technique. Parallel digital signal processors were applied to stream and process data directly from a data digitizer. A real-time system with 20-kHz axial line speed, which was limited only by our swept laser scan rate, was implemented. To couple with the system speed, an endoscope based on an improved 3-D microelectromechanical motor (diameter 1.5 mm, length 9.4 mm) was developed. In vivo 3-D imaging of the human airway was demonstrated.

  9. Comparative Study of Anterior Eye Segment Measurements with Spectral Swept-Source and Time-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Eyes with Corneal Dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Nowinska, Anna K.; Teper, Sławomir J.; Janiszewska, Dominika A.; Lyssek-Boron, Anita; Dobrowolski, Dariusz; Koprowski, Robert; Wylegala, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare anterior eye segment measurements and morphology obtained with two optical coherence tomography systems (TD OCT, SS OCT) in eyes with corneal dystrophies (CDs). Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers (50 eyes) and 54 patients (96 eyes) diagnosed with CD (epithelial basement membrane dystrophy, EBMD = 12 eyes; Thiel-Behnke CD = 6 eyes; lattice CD TGFBI type = 15 eyes; granular CD type 1 = 7 eyes, granular CD type 2 = 2 eyes; macular CD = 23 eyes; and Fuchs endothelial CD = 31 eyes) were recruited for the study. Automated and manual central corneal thickness (aCCT, mCCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and nasal and temporal trabecular iris angle (nTIA, tTIA) were measured and compared with Bland-Altman plots. Results. Good agreement between the TD and SS OCT measurements was demonstrated for mCCT and aCCT in normal individuals and for mCCT in the CDs group. The ACD, nTIA, and tTIA measurements differed significantly in both groups. TBCD, LCD, and FECD caused increased CCT. MCD caused significant corneal thinning. FECD affected all analyzed parameters. Conclusions. Better agreement between SS OCT and TD OCT measurements was demonstrated in normal individuals compared to the CDs group. OCT provides comprehensive corneal deposits analysis and demonstrates the association of CD with CCT, ACD, and TIA measurements. PMID:26457303

  10. Swept Source OCT Angiography of Neovascular Macular Telangiectasia Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qinqin; Wang, Ruikang K.; Chen, Chieh-Li; Legarreta, Andrew D.; Durbin, Mary K.; An, Lin; Sharma, Utkarsh; Stetson, Paul F.; Legarreta, John E.; Roisman, Luiz; Gregori, Giovanni; Rosenfeld, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To image subretinal neovascularization in proliferative macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel2) using swept source optical coherence tomography based microangiography (OMAG). Study Design Patients with MacTel2 were enrolled in a prospective, observational study known as the MacTel Project and evaluated using a high-speed 1050nm swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) prototype system. The OMAG algorithm generated en face flow images from three retinal layers, as well as the region bounded by the outer retina and Bruch’s membrane, the choriocapillaris, and the remaining choroidal vasculature. The en face OMAG images were compared to images from fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Results Three eyes with neovascular MacTel2 were imaged. The neovascularization was best identified from the en face OMAG images that included a layer between the outer retinal boundary and Bruch’s membrane. OMAG images identified these abnormal vessels better than FA and were comparable to the images obtained using ICGA. In all three cases, OMAG identified choroidal vessels communicating with the neovascularization, and these choroidal vessels were evident in the two cases with ICGA imaging. In one case, monthly injections of bevacizumab reduced the microvascular complexity of the neovascularization, as well as the telangiectatic changes within the retinal microvasculature. In another case, less frequent bevacizumab therapy was associated with growth of the subretinal neovascular complex. Conclusions OMAG imaging provided detailed, depth-resolved information about subretinal neovascularization in MacTel2 eyes demonstrating superiority to FA imaging and similarities to ICGA imaging for documenting the retinal microvascular changes, the size and extent of the neovascular complex, the communications between the neovascular complex and the choroidal circulation, and the response to monthly bevacizumab therapy. PMID:26457402

  11. Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhongping; Zhang, Jun

    Noninvasive techniques for imaging in vivo blood flow are of great value to biomedical research and clinical diagnostics where many diseases have a vascular etiology or component. In ophthalmology, many diseases involve disturbances in ocular blood flow, including diabetic retinopathy, low tension glaucoma, anterior ischemic optic neuritis, and macular degeneration. Simultaneous imaging of tissue structure and blood flow could provide critical information for early diagnosis of ocular diseases.

  12. Compensation of spectral and RF errors in swept-source OCT for high extinction complex demodulation

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Meena; Tozburun, Serhat; Zhang, Ellen Ziyi; Vakoc, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    We provide a framework for compensating errors within passive optical quadrature demodulation circuits used in swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT). Quadrature demodulation allows for detection of both the real and imaginary components of an interference fringe, and this information separates signals from positive and negative depth spaces. To achieve a high extinction (∼60 dB) between these positive and negative signals, the demodulation error must be less than 0.1% in amplitude and phase. It is difficult to construct a system that achieves this low error across the wide spectral and RF bandwidths of high-speed swept-source systems. In a prior work, post-processing methods for removing residual spectral errors were described. Here, we identify the importance of a second class of errors originating in the RF domain, and present a comprehensive framework for compensating both spectral and RF errors. Using this framework, extinctions >60 dB are demonstrated. A stability analysis shows that calibration parameters associated with RF errors are accurate for many days, while those associated with spectral errors must be updated prior to each imaging session. Empirical procedures to derive both RF and spectral calibration parameters simultaneously and to update spectral calibration parameters are presented. These algorithms provide the basis for using passive optical quadrature demodulation circuits with high speed and wide-bandwidth swept-source OCT systems. PMID:25836784

  13. 28 MHz swept source at 1.0 μm for ultrafast quantitative phase imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaoming; Lau, Andy K. S.; Xu, Yiqing; Tsia, Kevin K.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging high-throughput optical imaging modalities, in particular those providing phase information, necessitate a demanding speed regime (e.g. megahertz sweep rate) for those conventional swept sources; while an effective solution is yet to be demonstrated. We demonstrate a stable breathing laser as inertia-free swept source (BLISS) operating at a wavelength sweep rate of 28 MHz, particularly for the ultrafast interferometric imaging modality at 1.0 μm. Leveraging a tunable dispersion compensation element inside the laser cavity, the wavelength sweep range of BLISS can be tuned from ~10 nm to ~63 nm. It exhibits a good intensity stability, which is quantified by the ratio of standard deviation to the mean of the pulse intensity, i.e. 1.6%. Its excellent wavelength repeatability, <0.05% per sweep, enables the single-shot imaging at an ultrafast line-scan rate without averaging. To showcase its potential applications, it is applied to the ultrafast (28-MHz line-scan rate) interferometric time-stretch (iTS) microscope to provide quantitative morphological information on a biological specimen at a lateral resolution of 1.2 μm. This fiber-based inertia-free swept source is demonstrated to be robust and broadband, and can be applied to other established imaging modalities, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), of which an axial resolution better than 12 μm can be achieved. PMID:26504636

  14. Fiber-based swept-source terahertz radar.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Wei; Tseng, Tzu-Fang; Kuo, Chung-Chiu; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2010-05-01

    We demonstrate an all-terahertz swept-source imaging radar operated at room temperature by using terahertz fibers for radiation delivery and with a terahertz-fiber directional coupler acting as a Michelson interferometer. By taking advantage of the high water reflection contrast in the low terahertz regime and by electrically sweeping at a high speed a terahertz source combined with a fast rotating mirror, we obtained the living object's distance information with a high image frame rate. Our experiment showed that this fiber-based swept-source terahertz radar could be used in real time to locate concealed moving live objects with high stability.

  15. Swept-Source OCT Angiography Shows Sparing of the Choriocapillaris in Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yannuzzi, Nicolas A; Swaminathan, Swarup S; Zheng, Fang; Miller, Andrew; Gregori, Giovanni; Davis, Janet L; Rosenfeld, Philip J

    2017-01-01

    Two women with unilateral vision loss from multiple evanescent white dot syndrome were imaged serially with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). En face wide-field structural images revealed peripapillary outer photoreceptor disruption better than conventional fundus autofluorescence imaging. OCT angiography (OCTA) imaging showed preservation of flow within the retinal vasculature and choriocapillaris. As OCTA imaging of the choriocapillaris continues to evolve, these images may lay the groundwork for future investigation. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:69-74.].

  16. Spectral-domain and swept-source OCT imaging of asteroid hyalosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Alasil, Tarek; Adhi, Mehreen; Liu, Jonathan J; Fujimoto, James G; Duker, Jay S; Baumal, Caroline R

    2014-01-01

    A 72-year-old man with diabetes was referred to the retina clinic for diabetic retinopathy. Detailed funduscopic examination of the left eye was limited by prominent asteroid hyalosis. Spectral-domain (SD) and swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) were utilized to examine the vitreous, vitreoretinal interface, and the morphology of the retina. Asteroid hyalosis induced artifacts of the OCT images, which resolved when the appropriate imaging protocols were applied. SS-OCT may show superior diagnostic and preoperative capabilities when compared to SD-OCT in the settings of asteroid hyalosis-induced media opacity.

  17. Fully distributed absolute blood flow velocity measurement for middle cerebral arteries using Doppler optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Li; Zhu, Jiang; Hancock, Aneeka M.; Dai, Cuixia; Zhang, Xuping; Frostig, Ron D.; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is considered one of the most promising functional imaging modalities for neuro biology research and has demonstrated the ability to quantify cerebral blood flow velocity at a high accuracy. However, the measurement of total absolute blood flow velocity (BFV) of major cerebral arteries is still a difficult problem since it is related to vessel geometry. In this paper, we present a volumetric vessel reconstruction approach that is capable of measuring the absolute BFV distributed along the entire middle cerebral artery (MCA) within a large field-of-view. The Doppler angle at each point of the MCA, representing the vessel geometry, is derived analytically by localizing the artery from pure DOCT images through vessel segmentation and skeletonization. Our approach could achieve automatic quantification of the fully distributed absolute BFV across different vessel branches. Experiments on rodents using swept-source optical coherence tomography showed that our approach was able to reveal the consequences of permanent MCA occlusion with absolute BFV measurement. PMID:26977365

  18. Rotational Doppler effect in nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guixin; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang

    2016-08-01

    The translational Doppler effect of electromagnetic and sound waves has been successfully applied in measurements of the speed and direction of vehicles, astronomical objects and blood flow in human bodies, and for the Global Positioning System. The Doppler effect plays a key role for some important quantum phenomena such as the broadened emission spectra of atoms and has benefited cooling and trapping of atoms with laser light. Despite numerous successful applications of the translational Doppler effect, it fails to measure the rotation frequency of a spinning object when the probing wave propagates along its rotation axis. This constraint was circumvented by deploying the angular momentum of electromagnetic waves--the so-called rotational Doppler effect. Here, we report on the demonstration of rotational Doppler shift in nonlinear optics. The Doppler frequency shift is determined for the second harmonic generation of a circularly polarized beam passing through a spinning nonlinear optical crystal with three-fold rotational symmetry. We find that the second harmonic generation signal with circular polarization opposite to that of the fundamental beam experiences a Doppler shift of three times the rotation frequency of the optical crystal. This demonstration is of fundamental significance in nonlinear optics, as it provides us with insight into the interaction of light with moving media in the nonlinear optical regime.

  19. Office based multi-functional anterior eye segment optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Yiheng; Yamanari, Masahiro; Hong, Young-Joo; Makita, Shuichi; Miura, Masahiro; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2012-03-01

    An office based Doppler and polarization sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography (Doppler-PS-SS-OCT) was developed for diagnosis and evaluation of abnormalities of anterior eye segment in clinic. A healthy eye was measured in vivo by the Doppler PS-OCT. The results showed that the Doppler PS-OCT may have potential to identify blood vessels and discriminate fibrous tissues in abnormalities, such as scarring in bleb, and scleral inflammation.

  20. In vivo endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging of mouse colon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welge, Weston A.; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer remains the second deadliest cancer in the United States, despite the high sensitivity and specificity of colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy. While these standard imaging procedures can accurately detect medium and large polyps, some studies have shown miss rates up to 25% for polyps less than 5 mm in diameter. An imaging modality capable of detecting small lesions could potentially improve patient outcomes. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been shown to be a powerful imaging modality for adenoma detection in a mouse model of colorectal cancer. While previous work has focused on analyzing the structural OCT images based on thickening of the mucosa and changes in light attenuation in depth, imaging the microvasculature of the colon may enable earlier detection of polyps. The structure and function of vessels grown to support tumor growth are markedly different from healthy vessels. Doppler OCT is capable of imaging microvessels in vivo. We developed a method of processing raw fringe data from a commercial swept-source OCT system using a lab-built miniature endoscope to extract microvessels. This method can be used to measure vessel count and density and to measure flow velocities. This may improve early detection and aid in the development of new chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic drugs. We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first endoscopic Doppler OCT images of in vivo mouse colon.

  1. Fourier domain mode-locked swept source at 1050 nm based on a tapered amplifier.

    PubMed

    Marschall, Sebastian; Klein, Thomas; Wieser, Wolfgang; Biedermann, Benjamin R; Hsu, Kevin; Hansen, Kim P; Sumpf, Bernd; Hasler, Karl-Heinz; Erbert, Götz; Jensen, Ole B; Pedersen, Christian; Huber, Robert; Andersen, Peter E

    2010-07-19

    While swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the 1050 nm range is promising for retinal imaging, there are certain challenges. Conventional semiconductor gain media have limited output power, and the performance of high-speed Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) lasers suffers from chromatic dispersion in standard optical fiber. We developed a novel light source with a tapered amplifier as gain medium, and investigated the FDML performance comparing two fiber delay lines with different dispersion properties. We introduced an additional gain element into the resonator, and thereby achieved stable FDML operation, exploiting the full bandwidth of the tapered amplifier despite high dispersion. The light source operates at a repetition rate of 116 kHz with an effective average output power in excess of 30 mW. With a total sweep range of 70 nm, we achieved an axial resolution of 15 microm in air (approximately 11 microm in tissue) in OCT measurements. As our work shows, tapered amplifiers are suitable gain media for swept sources at 1050 nm with increased output power, while high gain counteracts dispersion effects in an FDML laser.

  2. MEMS-Based Handheld Fourier Domain Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography for Intraoperative Microvascular Anastomosis Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong; Furtmüller, Georg J.; Tong, Dedi; Zhu, Shan; Lee, W. P. Andrew; Brandacher, Gerald; Kang, Jin U.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of a miniature handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT) imager for real time intraoperative vascular patency evaluation in the setting of super-microsurgical vessel anastomosis. Methods A novel handheld imager Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography based on a 1.3-µm central wavelength swept source for extravascular imaging was developed. The imager was minimized through the adoption of a 2.4-mm diameter microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanning mirror, additionally a 12.7-mm diameter lens system was designed and combined with the MEMS mirror to achieve a small form factor that optimize functionality as a handheld extravascular OCT imager. To evaluate in-vivo applicability, super-microsurgical vessel anastomosis was performed in a mouse femoral vessel cut and repair model employing conventional interrupted suture technique as well as a novel non-suture cuff technique. Vascular anastomosis patency after clinically successful repair was evaluated using the novel handheld OCT imager. Results With an adjustable lateral image field of view up to 1.5 mm by 1.5 mm, high-resolution simultaneous structural and flow imaging of the blood vessels were successfully acquired for BALB/C mouse after orthotopic hind limb transplantation using a non-suture cuff technique and BALB/C mouse after femoral artery anastomosis using a suture technique. We experimentally quantify the axial and lateral resolution of the OCT to be 12.6 µm in air and 17.5 µm respectively. The OCT has a sensitivity of 84 dB and sensitivity roll-off of 5.7 dB/mm over an imaging range of 5 mm. Imaging with a frame rate of 36 Hz for an image size of 1000(lateral)×512(axial) pixels using a 50,000 A-lines per second swept source was achieved. Quantitative vessel lumen patency, lumen narrowing and thrombosis analysis were performed based on acquired structure and Doppler images. Conclusions A miniature handheld OCT imager that can be used for

  3. Corneal topography with high-speed swept source OCT in clinical examination

    PubMed Central

    Karnowski, Karol; Kaluzny, Bartlomiej J.; Szkulmowski, Maciej; Gora, Michalina; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2011-01-01

    We present the applicability of high-speed swept source (SS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) for quantitative evaluation of the corneal topography. A high-speed OCT device of 108,000 lines/s permits dense 3D imaging of the anterior segment within a time period of less than one fourth of second, minimizing the influence of motion artifacts on final images and topographic analysis. The swept laser performance was specially adapted to meet imaging depth requirements. For the first time to our knowledge the results of a quantitative corneal analysis based on SS OCT for clinical pathologies such as keratoconus, a cornea with superficial postinfectious scar, and a cornea 5 months after penetrating keratoplasty are presented. Additionally, a comparison with widely used commercial systems, a Placido-based topographer and a Scheimpflug imaging-based topographer, is demonstrated. PMID:21991558

  4. Line-field parallel swept source MHz OCT for structural and functional retinal imaging.

    PubMed

    Fechtig, Daniel J; Grajciar, Branislav; Schmoll, Tilman; Blatter, Cedric; Werkmeister, Rene M; Drexler, Wolfgang; Leitgeb, Rainer A

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate three-dimensional structural and functional retinal imaging with line-field parallel swept source imaging (LPSI) at acquisition speeds of up to 1 MHz equivalent A-scan rate with sensitivity better than 93.5 dB at a central wavelength of 840 nm. The results demonstrate competitive sensitivity, speed, image contrast and penetration depth when compared to conventional point scanning OCT. LPSI allows high-speed retinal imaging of function and morphology with commercially available components. We further demonstrate a method that mitigates the effect of the lateral Gaussian intensity distribution across the line focus and demonstrate and discuss the feasibility of high-speed optical angiography for visualization of the retinal microcirculation.

  5. Numerical correction of coherence gate in full-field swept-source interference microscopy.

    PubMed

    Grebenyuk, Anton A; Ryabukho, Vladimir P

    2012-07-01

    A big problem in low-coherence interference microscopy is the degradation of the coherence signal caused by shift of the angular and temporal spectrum gates. It limits the depth of field in confocal optical coherence microscopy and degrades images of sample inner structure in most interference microscopy techniques. To overcome this problem we propose numerical correction of the coherence gate in application to full-field swept-source interference microscopy. The proposed technique allows three-dimensional sample imaging without mechanical movement of the microscope components and is also capable of determining separately the geometrical thickness and the refractive index of the sample layers, when the sample contains a transversal pattern. The applicability of the proposed technique is verified with numerical simulation.

  6. Line-field parallel swept source MHz OCT for structural and functional retinal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Fechtig, Daniel J.; Grajciar, Branislav; Schmoll, Tilman; Blatter, Cedric; Werkmeister, Rene M.; Drexler, Wolfgang; Leitgeb, Rainer A.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate three-dimensional structural and functional retinal imaging with line-field parallel swept source imaging (LPSI) at acquisition speeds of up to 1 MHz equivalent A-scan rate with sensitivity better than 93.5 dB at a central wavelength of 840 nm. The results demonstrate competitive sensitivity, speed, image contrast and penetration depth when compared to conventional point scanning OCT. LPSI allows high-speed retinal imaging of function and morphology with commercially available components. We further demonstrate a method that mitigates the effect of the lateral Gaussian intensity distribution across the line focus and demonstrate and discuss the feasibility of high-speed optical angiography for visualization of the retinal microcirculation. PMID:25798298

  7. Mobile fiber-optic laser Doppler anemometer.

    PubMed

    Stieglmeier, M; Tropea, C

    1992-07-20

    A laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) has been developed that combines the compactness and low power consumption of laser diodes and avalanche photodiodes with the flexibility and possibility of miniaturization by using fiber-optic probes. The system has been named DFLDA for laser diode fiber LDA and is especially suited for mobile applications, for example, in trains, airplanes, or automobiles. Optimization considerations of fiber-optic probes are put forward and several probe examples are described in detail. Measurement results from three typical applications are given to illustrate the use of the DFLDA. Finally, a number of future configurations of the DFLDA concept are discussed.

  8. Photoacoustic Doppler flow measurement in optically scattering media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Hui; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2007-12-01

    We recently observed the photoacoustic Doppler effect from flowing small light-absorbing particles. Here, we apply the effect to measure blood-mimicking fluid flow in an optically scattering medium. The light scattering in the medium decreases the amplitude of the photoacoustic Doppler signal but does not affect either the magnitude or the directional discrimination of the photoacoustic Doppler shift. This technology may hold promise for a new Doppler method for measuring blood flow in microcirculation with high sensitivity.

  9. Miniaturized silicon photonic integrated swept source OCT receiver with dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature detection (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhao; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Chen, Long; Vermeulen, Diedrik; Nielsen, Torben; Park, Seo Yeon; Ghaemi, Allan; Swanson, Eric; Doerr, Chris; Fujimoto, James

    2016-03-01

    Miniaturization and cost reduction of OCT systems are important for enabling many new clinical applications as well as accelerating the development of existing applications. Silicon photonics is an important low-cost, high-volume, multi-functional platform for integrated optics because it can benefit from existing semiconductor fabrication techniques to integrate many advanced optical functions onto a single microchip. We present a miniaturized silicon photonic integrated swept source OCT receiver, measuring 3×4mm2, with advanced functionalities including dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature detection, essentially enabling the detection of the full vector field (amplitude, phase, and polarization) of the optical signal. With this integrated receiver, we demonstrate full-range OCT for complex conjugate artifact suppression, polarization diversity detection for removing polarization fading artifact, and polarization sensitive OCT for tissue birefringence imaging. The silicon photonic integrated receiver is a key advance towards developing a miniaturized, multi-functional swept source OCT system.

  10. Depth-encoded all-fiber swept source polarization sensitive OCT

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhao; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Ahsen, Osman Oguz; Lee, ByungKun; Choi, WooJhon; Potsaid, Benjamin; Liu, Jonathan; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex; Kraus, Martin F.; Liang, Kaicheng; Hornegger, Joachim; Fujimoto, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is a functional extension of conventional OCT and can assess depth-resolved tissue birefringence in addition to intensity. Most existing PS-OCT systems are relatively complex and their clinical translation remains difficult. We present a simple and robust all-fiber PS-OCT system based on swept source technology and polarization depth-encoding. Polarization multiplexing was achieved using a polarization maintaining fiber. Polarization sensitive signals were detected using fiber based polarization beam splitters and polarization controllers were used to remove the polarization ambiguity. A simplified post-processing algorithm was proposed for speckle noise reduction relaxing the demand for phase stability. We demonstrated systems design for both ophthalmic and catheter-based PS-OCT. For ophthalmic imaging, we used an optical clock frequency doubling method to extend the imaging range of a commercially available short cavity light source to improve polarization depth-encoding. For catheter based imaging, we demonstrated 200 kHz PS-OCT imaging using a MEMS-tunable vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) and a high speed micromotor imaging catheter. The system was demonstrated in human retina, finger and lip imaging, as well as ex vivo swine esophagus and cardiovascular imaging. The all-fiber PS-OCT is easier to implement and maintain compared to previous PS-OCT systems and can be more easily translated to clinical applications due to its robust design. PMID:25401008

  11. Applications of Doppler optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiqiang

    A major development in biomedical imaging in the last decade has been optical coherence tomography (OCT). This technique enables microscale resolution, depth resolved imaging of the detailed morphology of transparent and nontransparent biological tissue in a noncontact and quasi-noninvasive way. In the first part of this dissertation, we will describe the development and the performance of our home-made OCT systems working with different wavelength regions based on free-space and optical fiber Michelson interferometers. The second part will focus on Doppler OCT (DOCT), an important extension of OCT, which enables the simultaneous evaluation of the structural information and of the fluid flow distribution at a localized position beneath the sample surface. Much effort has been spent during the past few years in our laboratory aimed at providing more accurate velocity measurements with an extended dynamic range. We also applied our technique in different research areas such as microfluidics and hemodynamics. Investigations on the optical properties of the biological tissues (such as absorption and scattering) corresponding to different center wavelengths, have been performed in our laboratory. We used a 10 femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser centered at about 810 nm associated with a free-space Michelson interferometer. The infrared sources were centered at about 1310 and 1560 nm with all-fiber interferometers. Comparative studies using three different sources for several in vitro biological tissues based on a graphical method illustrated how the optical properties affect the quality of the OCT images in terms of the penetration depth and backscattering intensity. We have shown the advantage of working with 810-nm emission wavelength for good backscattering amplitude and contrast, while sources emitting at 1570 nm give good penetration depth. The 1330-nm sources provide a good compromise between the two. Therefore, the choice of the source will ultimately determine the

  12. Performance analysis of a full-field and full-range swept-source OCT system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauter, J.; Boettcher, T.; Körner, K.; Gronle, M.; Osten, W.; Passilly, N.; Froehly, L.; Perrin, S.; Gorecki, C.

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, optical coherence tomography (OCT) became gained importance in medical disciplines like ophthalmology, due to its noninvasive optical imaging technique with micrometer resolution and short measurement time. It enables e. g. the measurement and visualization of the depth structure of the retina. In other medical disciplines like dermatology, histopathological analysis is still the gold standard for skin cancer diagnosis. The EU-funded project VIAMOS (Vertically Integrated Array-type Mirau-based OCT System) proposes a new type of OCT system combined with micro-technologies to provide a hand-held, low-cost and miniaturized OCT system. The concept is a combination of full-field and full-range swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) detection in a multi-channel sensor based on a micro-optical Mirau-interferometer array, which is fabricated by means of wafer fabrication. This paper presents the study of an experimental proof-of-concept OCT system as a one-channel sensor with bulk optics. This sensor is a Linnik-interferometer type with similar optical parameters as the Mirau-interferometer array. A commercial wavelength tunable light source with a center wavelength at 845nm and 50nm spectral bandwidth is used with a camera for parallel OCT A-Scan detection. In addition, the reference microscope objective lens of the Linnik-interferometer is mounted on a piezo-actuated phase-shifter. Phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) techniques are applied for resolving the conjugate complex artifact and consequently contribute to an increase of image quality and depth range. A suppression ratio of the complex conjugate term of 36 dB is shown and a system sensitivity greater than 96 dB could be measured.

  13. Imaging pulse wave velocity in mouse retina using swept-source OCT (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shaozhen; Wei, Wei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-03-01

    Blood vessel dynamics has been a significant subject in cardiology and internal medicine, and pulse wave velocity (PWV) on artery vessels is a classic evaluation of arterial distensibility, and has never been ascertained as a cardiovascular risk marker. The aim of this study is to develop a high speed imaging technique to capture the pulsatile motion on mouse retina arteries with the ability to quantify PWV on any arterial vessels. We demonstrate a new non-invasive method to assess the vessel dynamics on mouse retina. A Swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system is used for imaging micro-scale blood vessel motion. The phase-stabilized SS-OCT provides a typical displacement sensitivity of 20 nm. The frame rate of imaging is ~16 kHz, at A-line rate of ~1.62 MHz, which allows the detection of transient pulse waves with adequate temporal resolution. Imaging volumes with repeated B-scans are obtained on mouse retina capillary bed, and the mouse oxymeter signal is recorded simultaneously. The pulse wave on artery and vein are resolved, and with the synchronized heart beat signal, the temporal delay on different vessel locations is determined. The vessel specific measurement of PWV is achieved for the first time with SS-OCT, for pulse waves propagating more than 100 cm/s. Using the novel methodology of retinal PWV assessment, it is hoped that the clinical OCT scans can provide extended diagnostic information of cardiology functionalities.

  14. Swept-source OCT Angiography of the Retinal Vasculature using Intensity Differentiation Based OMAG Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yanping; Zhang, Qinqin; Thorell, Mariana Rossi; An, Lin; Durbin, Mary; Laron, Michal; Sharma, Utkarsh; Gregori, Giovanni; Rosenfeld, Philip J.; Wang, Ruikang K

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective To demonstrate the feasibility of using a 1050 nm swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) system to achieve noninvasive retinal vasculature imaging in human eyes. Materials and Methods Volumetric datasets were acquired using a ZEISS 1 µm SS-OCT prototype that operated at an A-line rate of 100 kHz. A scanning protocol designed to allow for motion contrast processing, referred to as OCT angiography or optical microangiography (OMAG), was used to scan ~3 mm × 3 mm area in the central macular region of the retina within ~4.5 seconds. Intensity differentiation based OMAG algorithm was used to extract 3-D retinal functional microvasculature information. Results Intensity signal differentiation generated capillary-level resolution en face OMAG images of the retina. The parafoveal capillaries were clearly visible, thereby allowing visualization of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) in normal subjects. Conclusion The capability of OMAG to produce retinal vascular images was demonstrated using the ZEISS 1 µm SS-OCT prototype. This technique can potentially have clinical value for studying retinal vasculature abnormalities. PMID:25230403

  15. Development of phase-stabilized swept-source OCT for the ultrasensitive quantification of microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manapuram, R. K.; Manne, V. G. R.; Larin, K. V.

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes the development of a novel-phase resolved system based on swept-source optical-coherence tomography (SSOCT) for the ultrasensitive imaging and monitoring of gas microbubbles in aqueous media. The developed phase-stabilized SSOCT (PhS-SSOCT) system has an axial resolution of 10 μm, a phase sensitivity of 0.03 rad, an imaging depth of up to 6 mm in air, and a scanning speed of 20 kHz for a single A line. The performance of the sensing system was evaluated in water-containing gas microbubbles with a different diameter. The obtained results demonstrate that bubbles with a diameter greater than 10 μm could be detected by both structural imaging and phase response, whereas bubbles with diameters of less than 10 μm could be detected by the phase response of the SSOCT with a high sensitivity. The accuracy for the measurement of the diameter of gas microbubbles is limited to 10 μm in structural imaging and 0.01 μm in phase-sensitive monitoring. The results from this study indicate that PhS-SSOCT could be used to detect fast-moving microbubbles in aqueous solutions and ultimately could be applied for rapid assessment in biofluids (e.g., blood) and tissues (e.g., skin) in vivo.

  16. Optical, spectroscopic, and Doppler evaluation of "normal" and "abnormal" reflexology areas in lumbar vertebral pathology: a case study.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Krishna; Elanchezhiyan, D; Maran, V B; Das, Raunak Kumar; Kumar, Piyush; Singh, S P; Murali Krishna, C; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2012-01-01

    Scientific validation of reflexology requires an in-depth and noninvasive evaluation of "reflexology/reflex areas" in health and disease. The present paper reports the differential properties of "normal" and "abnormal" reflexology areas related to the lumbar vertebrae in a subject suffering from low back pain. The pathology is supported by radiological evidence. The reflexology target regions were clinically assessed with respect to colour and tenderness in response to finger pressure. Grey scale luminosity and pain intensity, as assessed by visual analogue scale scores, differentiated "normal" from "abnormal" skin. Skin swept source-optical coherence tomography recorded their structural differences. Infrared thermography revealed temperature variations. A laser Doppler study using a combined microcirculation and transcutaneous oxygen monitoring system indicated alterations in blood flow and oxygen perfusion. Raman spectroscopy showed differences in chemical signatures between these areas. The present findings may indicate a potential correlation between the reflexology areas and subsurface pathological changes, showing an association with the healthy or unhealthy status of the lumbar vertebrae.

  17. Doppler optical coherence tomography in cardiovascular applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonesi, M.; Matcher, S.; Meglinski, I.

    2010-06-01

    The study of flow dynamics in complex geometry vessels is highly important in various biomedical applications where the knowledge of the mechanic interactions between the moving fluid and the housing media plays a key role for the determination of the parameters of interest, including the effect of blood flow on the possible rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography (DOCT), as a functional extension of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), is an optic, non-contact, noninvasive technique able to achieve detailed analysis of the flow/vessel interactions. It allows simultaneous high resolution imaging (˜10 µm typical) of the morphology and composition of the vessel and determination of the flow velocity distribution along the measured cross-section. We applied DOCT system to image high-resolution one-dimensional and multi-dimensional velocity distribution profiles of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids flowing in vessels with complex geometry, including Y-shaped and T-shaped vessels, vessels with aneurism, bifurcated vessels with deployed stent and scaffolds. The phantoms were built to mimic typical shapes of human blood vessels, enabling preliminary analysis of the interaction between flow dynamics and the (complex) geometry of the vessels and also to map the related velocity profiles at several inlet volume flow rates. Feasibility studies for quantitative observation of the turbulence of flows arising within the complex geometry vessels are discussed. In addition, DOCT technique was also applied for monitoring cerebral mouse blood flow in vivo. Two-dimensional DOCT images of complex flow velocity profiles in blood vessel phantoms and in vivo sub-cranial mouse blood flow velocities distributions are presented.

  18. Doppler optical coherence tomography in cardiovascular physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonesi, M.; Meglinski, I.; Matcher, S.

    2008-09-01

    The study of flow dynamics in complex geometry vessels is highly important in many biomedical applications where the knowledge of the mechanic interactions between the moving fluid and the housing media plays a key role for the determination of the parameters of interest, including the effect of blood flow on the possible rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography (DOCT), as a functional extension of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), is an optic, non-contact, non-invasive technique able to achieve detailed analysis of the flow/vessel interactions. It allows simultaneous high resolution imaging (10 μm typical) of the morphology and composition of the vessel and determination of the flow velocity distribution along the measured cross-section. We applied DOCT system to image high-resolution one-dimensional and multi-dimensional velocity distribution profiles of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids flowing in vessels with complex geometry, including Y-shaped and T-shaped vessels, vessels with aneurism, bifurcated vessels with deployed stent and scaffolds. The phantoms were built to mimic typical shapes of human blood vessels, enabling preliminary analysis of the interaction between flow dynamics and the (complex) geometry of the vessels and also to map the related velocity profiles at several inlet volume flow rates. Feasibility studies for quantitative observation of the turbulence of flows arising within the complex geometry vessels are discussed. In addition, DOCT technique was also applied for monitoring cerebral mouse blood flow in vivo. Two-dimensional DOCT images of complex flow velocity profiles in blood vessel phantoms and in vivo sub-cranial mouse blood flow velocities distributions are presented.

  19. High-speed, digitally refocused retinal imaging with line-field parallel swept source OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fechtig, Daniel J.; Kumar, Abhishek; Ginner, Laurin; Drexler, Wolfgang; Leitgeb, Rainer A.

    2015-03-01

    MHz OCT allows mitigating undesired influence of motion artifacts during retinal assessment, but comes in state-of-the-art point scanning OCT at the price of increased system complexity. By changing the paradigm from scanning to parallel OCT for in vivo retinal imaging the three-dimensional (3D) acquisition time is reduced without a trade-off between speed, sensitivity and technological requirements. Furthermore, the intrinsic phase stability allows for applying digital refocusing methods increasing the in-focus imaging depth range. Line field parallel interferometric imaging (LPSI) is utilizing a commercially available swept source, a single-axis galvo-scanner and a line scan camera for recording 3D data with up to 1MHz A-scan rate. Besides line-focus illumination and parallel detection, we mitigate the necessity for high-speed sensor and laser technology by holographic full-range imaging, which allows for increasing the imaging speed by low sampling of the optical spectrum. High B-scan rates up to 1kHz further allow for implementation of lable-free optical angiography in 3D by calculating the inter B-scan speckle variance. We achieve a detection sensitivity of 93.5 (96.5) dB at an equivalent A-scan rate of 1 (0.6) MHz and present 3D in vivo retinal structural and functional imaging utilizing digital refocusing. Our results demonstrate for the first time competitive imaging sensitivity, resolution and speed with a parallel OCT modality. LPSI is in fact currently the fastest OCT device applied to retinal imaging and operating at a central wavelength window around 800 nm with a detection sensitivity of higher than 93.5 dB.

  20. En face projection imaging of the human choroidal layers with tracking SLO and swept source OCT angiography methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorczynska, Iwona; Migacz, Justin; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Sudheendran, Narendran; Jian, Yifan; Tiruveedhula, Pavan K.; Roorda, Austin; Werner, John S.

    2015-07-01

    We tested and compared the capability of multiple optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography methods: phase variance, amplitude decorrelation and speckle variance, with application of the split spectrum technique, to image the choroiretinal complex of the human eye. To test the possibility of OCT imaging stability improvement we utilized a real-time tracking scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (TSLO) system combined with a swept source OCT setup. In addition, we implemented a post- processing volume averaging method for improved angiographic image quality and reduction of motion artifacts. The OCT system operated at the central wavelength of 1040nm to enable sufficient depth penetration into the choroid. Imaging was performed in the eyes of healthy volunteers and patients diagnosed with age-related macular degeneration.

  1. Choroidal Thickness in 3001 Chinese Children Aged 6 to 19 Years Using Swept-Source OCT

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Shuyu; He, Xiangui; Deng, Junjie; Lv, Minzhi; Jin, Jiali; Sun, Sifei; Yao, Chunxia; Zhu, Jianfeng; Zou, Haidong; Xu, Xun

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the cross-sectional study is to describe the values and distribution of choroidal thickness and to explore its related factors, especially age, in Chinese children. A total of 3001 Chinese school children aged 6 to 19 years underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examinations, including axial length and cycloplegic refraction. Choroidal thickness was measured by swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). There was a greater difference in the more central regions between the myopes and emmetropes. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the associated factors of choroidal thickness. The results demonstrated that age was independently positively related to choroidal thickness for emmetropes (β = 3.859, p < 0.001), and mild myopes with spherical equivalent greater than −2.00 D (−1.25 D < spherical equivalent ≤ −0.50 D: β = 3.476, p = 0.006; −2.00 D < spherical equivalent ≤ −1.25 D: β = 3.232, p = 0.020). However, no significant relationship between age and choroidal thickness was found in children with spherical equivalent ≤ −2.00 D, suggesting that the protective effect of physiologic choroidal growth with age against rapid axial elongation disappeared while axial elongation becomes the dominant determinant of choroidal thickness among children with myopia worse than −2.00 D. PMID:28327553

  2. Two configurations of miniature Mirau interferometry for swept-source OCT imaging: applications in dermatology and gastroendoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorecki, Christophe

    2015-08-01

    The early diagnosis of cancer is essential since it can be treated more effectively when detected earlier. Visual inspection followed by histological examination is, still today, the gold standard for clinicians. However, a large number of unnecessary surgical procedures are still performed. New diagnostics aids are emerging including the recent techniques of optical coherence tomography (OCT) which permits non-invasive 3D optical biopsies of biological tissues, improving patient's quality of life. Nevertheless, the existing bulk or fiber optics systems are expensive, only affordable at the hospital and thus, not sufficiently used by physicians or cancer's specialists as an early diagnosis tool. We developed two different microsystems based on Mirau interferometry and applied for swept source OCT imaging: one for dermatology and second for gastroenterology. In both cases the architecture is based tem based on spectrally tuned Mirau interferometry. The first configuration, developed in the frame of the European project VIAMOS, includes an active array of 4x4 Mirau interferometers. The matrix of Mirau reference mirrors is integrated on top of an electrostatic vertical comb-drive actuator. In second configuration, developed in the frame of Labex ACTION, we adapted VIAMOS technology to develop an OCT endomicroscope with a single-channel passive Mirau interferometer.

  3. Catadioptric optics for laser Doppler velocimeter applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunagan, Stephen E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the adaptation of low-cost Schmidt-Cassegrain astronomical telescopes to perform the laser-beam-focusing and scattered-light collection tasks associated with dual-beam laser Doppler velocimetry. A generic telescope design is analyzed using ray-tracing methods and Gaussian beam-propagation theory. A straightforward modification procedure to convert from infinite to near unity conjugate-ratio operation with very low residual aberration is identified and tested with a 200-mm-aperture telescope modified for f/10 operation. Performance data for this modified telescope configuration are near the diffraction limit and agree well with predictions.

  4. Doppler optical mixing spectroscopy in multiparticle scattering fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Dubnishchev, Yu N

    2011-03-31

    We discuss the basic scheme of laser Doppler optical mixing spectroscopy for the analysis of media with multiparticle scattering. It is shown that the Rayleigh scheme, in contrast to the heterodyne and differential schemes, is insensitive to the effects of multiparticle scattering. (laser applications and other aspects of quantum electronics)

  5. Phase dynamics in a Doppler broadened optically-pumped laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldán, E.; de Valcárcel, G. J.; Vilaseca, R.; Silva, F.; Pujol, J.; Corbalán, R.; Laguarta, F.

    1989-11-01

    The dynamic behavior of the phase of the generated field in a Doppler-broadened optically-pumped far-infrared laser is theoretically investigated for the first time. The phase undergoes sudden jumps of approximately π radians, which allow to establish the actual symmetry of the main attractor in the phase space, explaining the heteroclynic character of the chaotic behavior observed in experiments.

  6. Multiplexed sub-Doppler spectroscopy with an optical frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, D. A.; Fleisher, A. J.; Plusquellic, D. F.; Hodges, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    An optical frequency comb generated with an electro-optic phase modulator and a chirped radio-frequency waveform is used to perform pump-probe spectroscopy on the D1 and D2 transitions of atomic potassium at 770.1 and 766.7 nm, respectively. With a comb tooth spacing of 200 kHz and an optical bandwidth of 2 GHz the hyperfine transitions can be observed simultaneously. Interferograms are recorded in as little as 5 µs (a timescale corresponding to the inverse of the comb tooth spacing). Importantly, the sub-Doppler features can be measured as long as the laser carrier frequency lies within the Doppler profile, thus removing the need for slow scanning or a priori knowledge of the frequencies of the sub-Doppler features. Sub-Doppler optical frequency comb spectroscopy has the potential to dramatically reduce acquisition times and allow for rapid and accurate assignment of complex molecular and atomic spectra which are presently intractable.

  7. Optical, Spectroscopic, and Doppler Evaluation of “Normal” and “Abnormal” Reflexology Areas in Lumbar Vertebral Pathology: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Krishna; Elanchezhiyan, D.; Maran, V. B.; Das, Raunak Kumar; Kumar, Piyush; Singh, S. P.; Murali Krishna, C.; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2012-01-01

    Scientific validation of reflexology requires an in-depth and noninvasive evaluation of “reflexology/reflex areas” in health and disease. The present paper reports the differential properties of “normal” and “abnormal” reflexology areas related to the lumbar vertebrae in a subject suffering from low back pain. The pathology is supported by radiological evidence. The reflexology target regions were clinically assessed with respect to colour and tenderness in response to finger pressure. Grey scale luminosity and pain intensity, as assessed by visual analogue scale scores, differentiated “normal” from “abnormal” skin. Skin swept source-optical coherence tomography recorded their structural differences. Infrared thermography revealed temperature variations. A laser Doppler study using a combined microcirculation and transcutaneous oxygen monitoring system indicated alterations in blood flow and oxygen perfusion. Raman spectroscopy showed differences in chemical signatures between these areas. The present findings may indicate a potential correlation between the reflexology areas and subsurface pathological changes, showing an association with the healthy or unhealthy status of the lumbar vertebrae. PMID:23365581

  8. Multipoint photonic doppler velocimetry using optical lens elements

    DOEpatents

    Frogget, Brent Copely; Romero, Vincent Todd

    2014-04-29

    A probe including a fisheye lens is disclosed to measure the velocity distribution of a moving surface along many lines of sight. Laser light, directed to the surface and then reflected back from the surface, is Doppler shifted by the moving surface, collected into fisheye lens, and then directed to detection equipment through optic fibers. The received light is mixed with reference laser light and using photonic Doppler velocimetry, a continuous time record of the surface movement is obtained. An array of single-mode optical fibers provides an optic signal to an index-matching lens and eventually to a fisheye lens. The fiber array flat polished and coupled to the index-matching lens using index-matching gel. Numerous fibers in a fiber array project numerous rays through the fisheye lens which in turn project many measurement points at numerous different locations to establish surface coverage over a hemispherical shape with very little crosstalk.

  9. Imaging nanoparticle flow using magneto-motive optical Doppler tomography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeehyun; Oh, Junghwan; Milner, Thomas E; Nelson, J Stuart

    2007-01-24

    We introduce a novel approach for imaging solutions of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles using magneto-motive optical Doppler tomography (MM-ODT). MM-ODT combines an externally applied temporally oscillating high-strength magnetic field with ODT to detect nanoparticles flowing through a microfluidic channel. A solenoid with a cone-shaped ferrite core extensively increased the magnetic field strength (B(max) = 1 T, [Formula: see text]) at the tip of the core and also focused the magnetic field in microfluidic channels containing nanoparticle solutions. Nanoparticle contrast was demonstrated in a microfluidic channel filled with an SPIO solution by imaging the Doppler frequency shift which was observed independently of the nanoparticle flow rate and direction. Results suggest that MM-ODT may be applied to image Doppler shift of SPIO nanoparticles in microfluidic flows with high contrast.

  10. Theoretical analysis and experimental verification on optical rotational Doppler effect.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hailong; Fu, Dongzhi; Dong, Jianji; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-05-02

    We present a theoretical model to sufficiently investigate the optical rotational Doppler effect based on modal expansion method. We find that the frequency shift content is only determined by the surface of spinning object and the reduced Doppler shift is linear to the difference of mode index between input and output orbital angular momentum (OAM) light, and linear to the rotating speed of spinning object as well. An experiment is carried out to verify the theoretical model. We explicitly suggest that the spatial spiral phase distribution of spinning object determines the frequency content. The theoretical model makes us better understand the physical processes of rotational Doppler effect, and thus has many related application fields, such as detection of rotating bodies, imaging of surface and measurement of OAM light.

  11. Phase and frequency dynamics of a short cavity swept-source OCT laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, T.; Goulding, D.; Slepneva, S.; O'Shaughnessy, B.; Kelleher, B.; Lyu, H.-C.; Hegarty, S. P.; Vladimirov, A. G.; Karnowski, K.; Wojtkowski, M.; Huyet, G.

    2015-03-01

    We analyse the dynamical behaviour of a short cavity OCT swept-source laser experimentally and theoretically. Mode-hopping, sliding frequency mode-locking and chaos are all observed during the laser sweep period. Hetero- dyne measurements of laser dynamics allows some insight into the behaviour of the laser, while interferometric techniques allow the full phase reconstruction of the laser electric field. A delay differential equation enables modelling of the laser output, and laser parameters can be altered to provide optimisation conditions for future laser designs.

  12. Doppler and range determination for deep space vehicles using active optical transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, Peter W.; Gagliardi, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes two types of laser system employing active transponders that could accurately determine Doppler and range to deep space vehicles from earth-orbiting satellites. The first is a noncoherent optical system in which the Doppler effect on an intensity-modulating subcarrier is measured. The second is a coherent optical system in which the Doppler effect of the optical carrier itself is measured. Doppler and range measurement errors are mathematically modeled and, for three example systems, numerically evaluated.

  13. Analysis of multiple scattering effects in optical Doppler tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yura, Harold T.; Thrane, Lars; Andersen, Peter E.

    2005-08-01

    Optical Doppler tomography (ODT) combines Doppler velocimetry and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to obtain high-resolution cross-sectional imaging of particle flow velocity in scattering media such as the human retina and skin. Here, we present the results of a theoretical analysis of ODT where multiple scattering effects are included. The purpose of this analysis is to determine how multiple scattering affects the estimation of the depth-resolved localized flow velocity. Depth-resolved velocity estimates are obtained directly from the corresponding mean or standard deviation of the observed Doppler frequency spectrum. Thus, in the present analysis, the dependence of the mean and standard deviation of the Doppler shift on the scattering properties of the flowing medium are obtained. Taking the multiple scattering effects into account, we are able to explain previous measurements of depth-resolved retinal flow profiles where the influence of multiple scattering was observed [Yazdanfar et al., Opt. Lett. 25, 1448 (2000)]. To the best of our knowledge, no analytical model exists that are able to explain these observations.

  14. Analysis of multiple scattering effects in optical Doppler tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yura, Harold T.; Thrane, Lars; Andersen, Peter E.

    2005-04-01

    Optical Doppler tomography (ODT) combines Doppler velocimetry and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to obtain high-resolution cross-sectional imaging of particle flow velocity in scattering media such as the human retina and skin. Here, we present the results of a theoretical analysis of ODT where multiple scattering effects are included. The purpose of this analysis is to determine how multiple scattering affects the estimation of the depth-resolved localized flow velocity. Depth-resolved velocity estimates are obtained directly from the corresponding mean or standard deviation of the observed Doppler frequency spectrum. Thus, in the present analysis, the dependence of the mean and standard deviation of the Doppler shift on the scattering properties of the flowing medium are obtained. Taking the multiple scattering effects into account, we are able to explain previous measurements of depth-resolved retinal flow profiles where the influence of multiple scattering was observed [Yazdanfar et al., Opt. Lett. 25, 1448 (2000)]. To the best of our knowledge, no analytical model exists that are able to explain these observations.

  15. Highly reproducible swept-source, dispersion-encoded full-range biometry and imaging of the mouse eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling; Hofer, Bernd; Chen, Yen-Po; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Drexler, Wolfgang; Považay, Boris

    2010-07-01

    We report a high-speed, dispersion-encoded, full-range (DEFR) swept-source optical coherence tomography system for in vivo ocular imaging and biometry of small animals. The fast DEFR algorithm removes the depth ambiguity, gives access to objects located at the zero delay position, and doubles the sampling depth to 2×5.0 mm (at -101 to -71 dB sensitivity) in a single scan using 2048 samples/depth scan 0.43 nm line width of a light source operating at 1056 nm with 70 nm tuning range. The acquisition speed (frames of 512 depth scans in 18.3 ms) permits precise on-line monitoring during positioning and provides cross-sectional views of the mouse eye. Preliminary studies demonstrate high-throughput, reproducible assessment of multiple biometric features (e.g., day-to-day reproducibility of axial length measurement +/-5.3 μm) that is insensitive to eye motion sufficient for long-term monitoring.

  16. Doppler encoded excitation pattern tomographic optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Feldkhun, Daniel; Wagner, Kelvin H

    2010-12-01

    Most far-field optical imaging systems rely on lenses and spatially resolved detection to probe distinct locations on the object. We describe and demonstrate a high-speed wide-field approach to imaging that instead measures the complex spatial Fourier transform of the object by detecting its spatially integrated response to dynamic acousto-optically synthesized structured illumination. Tomographic filtered backprojection is applied to reconstruct the object in two or three dimensions. This technique decouples depth of field and working distance from resolution, in contrast to conventional imaging, and can be used to image biological and synthetic structures in fluoresced or scattered light employing coherent or broadband illumination. We discuss the electronically programmable transfer function of the optical system and its implications for imaging dynamic processes. We also explore wide-field fluorescence imaging in scattering media by coherence gating. Finally, we present two-dimensional high-resolution tomographic image reconstructions in both scattered and fluoresced light demonstrating a thousandfold improvement in the depth of field compared to conventional lens-based microscopy.

  17. Catadioptric Optics for laser Doppler velocimeter applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunagan, Stephen E.

    1989-01-01

    In the design of a laser velocimeter system, attention must be given to the performance of the optical elements in their two principal tasks: focusing laser radiation into the probe volume, and collecting the scattered light. For large aperture applications, custom lens design and fabrication costs, long optical path requirements, and chromatic aberration (for two color operation) can be problematic. The adaptation of low cost Schmidt-Cassegrain astronomical telescopes to perform these laser beam manipulation and scattered light collection tasks is examined. A generic telescope design is analyzed using ray tracing and Gaussian beam propagation theory, and a simple modification procedure for converting from infinite to near unity conjugate ratio operation with image quality near the diffraction limit was identified. Modification requirements and performance are predicted for a range of geometries. Finally, a 200-mm-aperture telescope was modified for f/10 operation; performance data for this modified optic for both laser beam focusing and scattered light collection tasks agree well with predictions.

  18. Dove prism based rotating dual beam bidirectional Doppler OCT

    PubMed Central

    Blatter, Cedric; Coquoz, Séverine; Grajciar, Branislav; Singh, Amardeep S. G.; Bonesi, Marco; Werkmeister, René M.; Schmetterer, Leopold; Leitgeb, Rainer A.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Doppler OCT is highly sensitive to motion artifacts due to the dependence on the Doppler angle. This limits its accuracy in clinical practice. To overcome this limitation, we use a bidirectional dual beam technique equipped with a novel rotating scanning scheme employing a Dove prism. The volume is probed from two distinct illumination directions with variable controlled incidence plane, allowing for reconstruction of the true flow velocity at arbitrary vessel orientations. The principle is implemented with Swept Source OCT at 1060nm with 100,000 A-Scans/s. We apply the system to resolve pulsatile retinal absolute blood velocity by performing segment scans around the optic nerve head and circumpapillary scan time series. PMID:23847742

  19. Rotational Dove prism scanning dual angle Doppler OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatter, Cedric; Coquoz, Séverine; Grajciar, Branislav; Singh, Amardeep S. G.; Werkmeister, René M.; Schmetterer, Leopold; Leitgeb, Rainer A.

    2013-03-01

    Traditional Doppler OCT is highly sensitive to motion artifacts due to the dependence on the Doppler angle. This limits its reproducibility in clinical practice. To overcome this limitation, we use a bidirectional technique with a novel rotating scanning scheme. The volume is probed simultaneously from two distinct illumination directions with variable controlled orientations, allowing reconstruction of the true flow velocity, independently of the vessel orientation. A Dove prism in the sample arm permits a rotation of the illumination directions that can be synchronized with the standard beam steering device. The principle is implemented with Swept Source OCT at 1060nm with 100,000 A-Scans/s. We apply the system to human retinal absolute blood velocity measurement by performing segment and circumpapillary time series scans around the optic nerve head. We also demonstrate microvasculature imaging by calculation of squared intensity differences between successive tomograms.

  20. Holographic optical system for aberration corrections in laser Doppler velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, R. C.; Case, S. K.; Schock, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    An optical system containing multifaceted holographic optical elements (HOEs) has been developed to correct for aberrations introduced by nonflat windows in laser Doppler velocimetry. The multifacet aberration correction approach makes it possible to record on one plate many sets of adjacent HOEs that address different measurement volume locations. By using 5-mm-diameter facets, it is practical to place 10-20 sets of holograms on one 10 x 12.5-cm plate, so that the procedure of moving the entire optical system to examine different locations may not be necessary. The holograms are recorded in dichromated gelatin and therefore are nonabsorptive and suitable for use with high-power argon laser beams. Low f-number optics coupled with a 90-percent efficient distortion-correcting hologram in the collection side of the system yield high optical efficiency.

  1. In vivo feasibility of endovascular Doppler optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Cuiru; Nolte, Felix; Cheng, Kyle H. Y.; Vuong, Barry; Lee, Kenneth K. C.; Standish, Beau A.; Courtney, Brian; Marotta, Thomas R.; Mariampillai, Adrian; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2012-01-01

    Feasibility of detecting intravascular flow using a catheter based endovascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) system is demonstrated in a porcine carotid model in vivo. The effects of A-line density, radial distance, signal-to-noise ratio, non-uniform rotational distortion (NURD), phase stability of the swept wavelength laser and interferometer system on Doppler shift detection limit were investigated in stationary and flow phantoms. Techniques for NURD induced phase shift artifact removal were developed by tracking the catheter sheath. Detection of high flow velocity (~51 cm/s) present in the porcine carotid artery was obtained by phase unwrapping techniques and compared to numerical simulation, taking into consideration flow profile distortion by the eccentrically positioned imaging catheter. Using diluted blood in saline mixture as clearing agent, simultaneous Doppler OCT imaging of intravascular flow and structural OCT imaging of the carotid artery wall was feasible. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo demonstration of Doppler imaging and absolute measurement of intravascular flow using a rotating fiber catheter in carotid artery. PMID:23082299

  2. Quantitative assessment of oral mucosa and labial minor salivary glands in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome using swept source OCT

    PubMed Central

    Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Nowak, Jan K.; Karnowski, Karol; Zebryk, Paweł; Puszczewicz, Mariusz; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional imaging of the mucosa of the lower lip and labial minor salivary glands is demonstrated in vivo using swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system at 1310 nm with modified interface. Volumetric data sets of the inner surface of the lower lip covering ~230 mm2 field are obtained from patients with Sjögren’s syndrome and a control group. OCT enables high-resolution visualization of mucosal architecture using cross-sectional images as well as en-face projection images. Comprehensive morphometry of the labial minor salivary glands is performed, and statistical significance is assessed. Statistically significant differences in morphometric parameters are found when subgroups of patients with Sjögren’s syndrome are analyzed. PMID:24466492

  3. Evaluation and comparison of the new swept source OCT-based IOLMaster 700 with the IOLMaster 500

    PubMed Central

    Akman, Ahmet; Asena, Leyla; Güngör, Sirel Gür

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the measurements and failure rates obtained with a new swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based biometry to IOLMaster 500. Setting Eye Clinic, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey. Design Observational cross-sectional study and evaluation of a new diagnostic technology. Methods 188 eyes of 101 subjects were included in the study. Measurements of axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), corneal power (K1 and K2) and the measurement failure rate with the new Zeiss IOLMaster 700 were compared with those obtained with the IOLMaster 500. The results were evaluated using Bland–Altman analyses. The differences between both methods were assessed using the paired samples t test, and their correlation was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results The mean age was 68.32±12.71 years and the male/female ratio was 29/72. The agreements between two devices were outstanding regarding AL (ICC=1.0), ACD (ICC=0.920), K1 (ICC=0.992) and K2 (ICC=0.989) values. IOLMaster 700 was able to measure ACD AL, K1 and K2 in all eyes within high-quality SD limits of the manufacturer. IOLMaster 500 was able to measure ACD in 175 eyes, whereas measurements were not possible in the remaining 13 eyes. AL measurements were not possible for 17 eyes with IOLMaster 500. Nine of these eyes had posterior subcapsular cataracts and eight had dense nuclear cataracts. Conclusions Although the agreement between the two devices was excellent, the IOLMaster 700 was more effective in obtaining biometric measurements in eyes with posterior subcapsular and dense nuclear cataracts. PMID:26674777

  4. Comparison of choroidal thickness measurements between spectral-domain OCT and swept-source OCT in normal and diseased eyes

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, Sidra; Siddiqui, MA Rehman; Shahzad, Rida

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Sub-foveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) is affected in many ocular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare SFCT measurements between Topcon 3D 2000 spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and Topcon swept-source OCT (SS-OCT), with different laser wavelengths, in normal and diseased populations. Materials and methods This was a prospective, cross-sectional, noninterventional study including 27 normal volunteers and 27 participants with retinal disease. OCT scans were performed sequentially and under standardized conditions using both SD-OCT and SS-OCT. The OCT scans were evaluated by two independent graders. Paired t-tests and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to assess the statistically significant difference between SFCT measurements as measured by the two devices. Results Mean SFCT measurements for all 54 participants were 264.9±103.1 μm using SD-OCT (range: 47–470 μm) and 278.5±110.5 μm using SS-OCT (range: 56–502 μm), with an inter-device ICC of 0.850. Greater variability was noted in the diseased eyes. Inter-device ICCs were 0.870 (95% CI; 0.760–0.924) and 0.840 (95% CI; 0.654–0.930) for normal and diseased eyes, respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.132). Conclusion Both machines reliably measure SFCT. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:27881909

  5. Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second.

    PubMed

    Potsaid, Benjamin; Baumann, Bernhard; Huang, David; Barry, Scott; Cable, Alex E; Schuman, Joel S; Duker, Jay S; Fujimoto, James G

    2010-09-13

    We demonstrate ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain ophthalmic OCT imaging using a short cavity swept laser at 100,000 - 400,000 axial scan rates. Several design configurations illustrate tradeoffs in imaging speed, sensitivity, axial resolution, and imaging depth. Variable rate A/D optical clocking is used to acquire linear-in-k OCT fringe data at 100 kHz axial scan rate with 5.3 um axial resolution in tissue. Fixed rate sampling at 1 GSPS achieves a 7.5mm imaging range in tissue with 6.0 um axial resolution at 100 kHz axial scan rate. A 200 kHz axial scan rate with 5.3 um axial resolution over 4mm imaging range is achieved by buffering the laser sweep. Dual spot OCT using two parallel interferometers achieves 400 kHz axial scan rate, almost 2X faster than previous 1050 nm ophthalmic results and 20X faster than current commercial instruments. Superior sensitivity roll-off performance is shown. Imaging is demonstrated in the human retina and anterior segment. Wide field 12x12 mm data sets include the macula and optic nerve head. Small area, high density imaging shows individual cone photoreceptors. The 7.5 mm imaging range configuration can show the cornea, iris, and anterior lens in a single image. These improvements in imaging speed and depth range provide important advantages for ophthalmic imaging. The ability to rapidly acquire 3D-OCT data over a wide field of view promises to simplify examination protocols. The ability to image fine structures can provide detailed information on focal pathologies. The large imaging range and improved image penetration at 1050 m wavelengths promises to improve performance for instrumentation which images both the retina and anterior eye. These advantages suggest that swept source OCT at 1050 nm wavelengths will play an important role in future ophthalmic instrumentation.

  6. Automated Quantitation of Choroidal Neovascularization: A Comparison Study Between Spectral-Domain and Swept-Source OCT Angiograms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qinqin; Chen, Chieh-Li; Chu, Zhongdi; Zheng, Fang; Miller, Andrew; Roisman, Luiz; Rafael de Oliveira Dias, Joao; Yehoshua, Zohar; Schaal, Karen B.; Feuer, William; Gregori, Giovanni; Kubach, Sophie; An, Lin; Stetson, Paul F.; Durbin, Mary K.; Rosenfeld, Philip J.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To compare the lesion sizes of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) imaged with spectral-domain (SD) and swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and measured using an automated detection algorithm. Methods Patients diagnosed with CNV were imaged by SD-OCTA and SS-OCTA systems using 3 × 3-mm and 6 × 6-mm scans. The complex optical microangiography (OMAGC) algorithm was used to generate the OCTA images. Optical coherence tomography A datasets for imaging CNV were derived by segmenting from the outer retina to 8 μm below Bruch's membrane. An artifact removal algorithm was used to generate angiograms free of retinal vessel projection artifacts. An automated detection algorithm was developed to quantify the size of the CNV. Automated measurements were compared with manual measurements. Measurements from SD-OCTA and SS-OCTA instruments were compared as well. Results Twenty-seven eyes from 23 subjects diagnosed with CNV were analyzed. No significant differences were detected between manual and automatic measurements: SD-OCTA 3 × 3-mm (P = 0.61, paired t-test) and 6 × 6-mm (P = 0.09, paired t-test) scans and the SS-OCTA 3 × 3-mm (P = 0.41, paired t-test) and 6 × 6-mm (P = 0.16, paired t-test) scans. Bland-Altman analyses were performed to confirm the agreement between automatic and manual measurements. Mean lesion sizes were significantly larger for the SS-OCTA images compared with the SD-OCTA images: 3 × 3-mm scans (P = 0.011, paired sample t-test) and the 6 × 6-mm scans (P = 0.021, paired t-test). Conclusions The automated algorithm measurements of CNV were in agreement with the hand-drawn measurements. On average, automated SS-OCTA measurements were larger than SD-OCTA measurements and consistent with the results from using hand-drawn measurements. PMID:28273317

  7. Phase-stable swept source OCT angiography in human skin using an akinetic source

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhe; Liu, Mengyang; Minneman, Michael; Ginner, Laurin; Hoover, Erich; Sattmann, Harald; Bonesi, Marco; Drexler, Wolfgang; Leitgeb, Rainer A.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate noninvasive structural and microvascular contrast imaging of human skin in vivo, using phase difference swept source OCT angiography (pOCTA). The pOCTA system employs an akinetic, all-semiconductor, highly phase-stable swept laser source which operates at 1340 nm central wavelength, with 37 nm bandwidth (at 0 dB region) and 200 kHz A-scan rate. The phase sensitive detection does not need any external phase stabilizing implementations, due to the outstanding high phase linearity and sweep phase repeatability within 2 mrad. We compare the performance of phase based OCTA to speckle based OCTA for visualizing human vascular networks. pOCTA shows better contrast especially for deeper vascular details as compared to speckle based OCTA. The phase stability of the akinetic source allows the OCTA system to show decent vascular contrast only with 2 B-scans. We compare the performance of using 2 versus 4 B-scans for calculating the vascular contrast. Finally, the performance of a 100 nm bandwidth akinetic laser at 1310 nm is investigated for both OCT and OCTA. PMID:27570695

  8. Fiber-optic laser Doppler turbine tip clearance probe.

    PubMed

    Büttner, Lars; Pfister, Thorsten; Czarske, Jürgen

    2006-05-01

    A laser Doppler based method for in situ single blade tip clearance measurements of turbomachines with high precision is presented for what we believe is the first time. The sensor is based on two superposed fanlike interference fringe systems generated by two laser wavelengths from a fiber-coupled, passive, and therefore compact measurement head employing diffractive optics. Tip clearance measurements at a transonic centrifugal compressor performed during operation at 50,000 rpm (833 Hz, 586 m/s tip speed) are reported. At these speeds the measured uncertainty of the tip position was less than 20 microm, a factor of 2 more accurate than that of capacitive probes. The sensor offers great potential for in situ and online high-precision tip clearance measurements of metallic and nonmetallic turbine blades.

  9. Noninvasive detection of cardiovascular pulsations by optical Doppler techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, HyunDae; Fox, Martin D.

    1997-10-01

    A system has been developed based on the measurement of skin surface vibration that can be used to detect the underlying vascular wall motion of superficial arteries and the chest wall. Data obtained from tissue phantoms suggested that the detected signals were related to intravascular pressure, an important clinical and physiological parameter. Unlike the conventional optical Doppler techniques that have been used to measure blood perfusion in skin layers and blood flow within superficial arteries, the present system was optimized to pick up skin vibrations. An optical interferometer with a 633-nm He:Ne laser was utilized to detect micrometer displacements of the skin surface. Motion velocity profiles of the skin surface near each superficial artery and auscultation points on a chest for the two heart valve sounds exhibited distinctive profiles. The theoretical and experimental results demonstrated that the system detected the velocity of skin movement, which is related to the time derivative of the pressure. The system also reduces the loading effect on the pulsation signals and heart sounds produced by the conventional piezoelectric vibration sensors. The system's sensitivity, which could be optimized further, was 366.2 micrometers /s for the present research. Overall, optical cardiovascular vibrometry has the potential to become a simple noninvasive approach to cardiovascular screening.

  10. Active-passive path-length encoded (APPLE) Doppler OCT

    PubMed Central

    Wartak, Andreas; Haindl, Richard; Trasischker, Wolfgang; Baumann, Bernhard; Pircher, Michael; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel active-passive path-length encoded (APPLE) swept source Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) approach, enabling three-dimensional velocity vector reconstruction of moving particles without prior knowledge of the orientation of motion. The developed APPLE DOCT setup allows for non-invasive blood flow measurements in vivo and was primarily designed for quantitative human ocular blood flow investigations. The system’s performance was demonstrated by in vitro flow phantom as well as in vivo retinal vessel bifurcation measurements. Furthermore, total retinal blood flow – a biomarker aiding in diagnosis and monitoring of major ocular diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy or central/branch retinal vein occlusion – was determined in the eyes of healthy human volunteers. PMID:28018739

  11. Optical Doppler tomographic imaging of fluid flow velocity in highly scattering media

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Milner, T.E.; Dave, D.; Nelson, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    An optical Doppler tomography (ODT) system that permits imaging of fluid flow velocity in highly scattering media is described. ODT combines Doppler velocimetry with the high spatial resolution of low-coherence optical interferometry to measure fluid flow velocity at discrete spatial locations. Tomographic imaging of particle flow velocity within a circular conduit submerged 1mm below the surface in a highly scattering phantom of Intralipid is demonstrated. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital Optical Society of America}

  12. Eliminating Doppler Effects in Synthetic-Aperture Radar Optical Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantindes, N. J.; Bicknell, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    Pair of photodetectors generates correction signals. Instrument detects Doppler shifts in radar and corrects processing parameters so ambiguities caused by shifts not manifested as double or overlapping images.

  13. Imaging doppler velocimeter with downward heterodyning in the optical domain

    DOEpatents

    Reu, Phillip L; Hansche, Bruce D

    2013-05-21

    In a Doppler velocimeter, the incoming Doppler-shifted beams are heterodyned to reduce their frequencies into the bandwidth of a digital camera. This permits the digital camera to produce at every sampling interval a complete two-dimensional array of pixel values. This sequence of pixel value arrays provides a velocity image of the target.

  14. FPGA-based real-time swept-source OCT systems for B-scan live-streaming or volumetric imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandi, Vinzenz; Goette, Josef; Jacomet, Marcel; von Niederhäusern, Tim; Bachmann, Adrian H.; Duelk, Marcus

    2013-03-01

    We have developed a Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography (Ss-OCT) system with high-speed, real-time signal processing on a commercially available Data-Acquisition (DAQ) board with a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The Ss-OCT system simultaneously acquires OCT and k-clock reference signals at 500MS/s. From the k-clock signal of each A-scan we extract a remap vector for the k-space linearization of the OCT signal. The linear but oversampled interpolation is followed by a 2048-point FFT, additional auxiliary computations, and a data transfer to a host computer for real-time, live-streaming of B-scan or volumetric C-scan OCT visualization. We achieve a 100 kHz A-scan rate by parallelization of our hardware algorithms, which run on standard and affordable, commercially available DAQ boards. Our main development tool for signal analysis as well as for hardware synthesis is MATLAB® with add-on toolboxes and 3rd-party tools.

  15. Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers

    PubMed Central

    Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Liu, Jonathan J.; Potsaid, Benjamin; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Lu, Chen D.; Jiang, James; Cable, Alex E.; Duker, Jay S.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate swept source OCT utilizing vertical-cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) technology for in vivo high speed retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging. The MEMS tunable VCSEL enables long coherence length, adjustable spectral sweep range and adjustable high sweeping rate (50–580 kHz axial scan rate). These features enable integration of multiple ophthalmic applications into one instrument. The operating modes of the device include: ultrahigh speed, high resolution retinal imaging (up to 580 kHz); high speed, long depth range anterior segment imaging (100 kHz) and ultralong range full eye imaging (50 kHz). High speed imaging enables wide-field retinal scanning, while increased light penetration at 1060 nm enables visualization of choroidal vasculature. Comprehensive volumetric data sets of the anterior segment from the cornea to posterior crystalline lens surface are also shown. The adjustable VCSEL sweep range and rate make it possible to achieve an extremely long imaging depth range of ~50 mm, and to demonstrate the first in vivo 3D OCT imaging spanning the entire eye for non-contact measurement of intraocular distances including axial eye length. Swept source OCT with VCSEL technology may be attractive for next generation integrated ophthalmic OCT instruments. PMID:23162712

  16. Effect of the optical system on the Doppler spectrum in laser-feedback interferometry.

    PubMed

    Mowla, Alireza; Nikolić, Milan; Taimre, Thomas; Tucker, John R; Lim, Yah Leng; Bertling, Karl; Rakić, Aleksandar D

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of factors influencing the morphology of the Doppler spectrum obtained from a laser-feedback interferometer. We explore the effect of optical system parameters on three spectral characteristics: central Doppler frequency, broadening, and signal-to-noise ratio. We perform four sets of experiments and replicate the results using a Monte Carlo simulation calibrated to the backscattering profile of the target. We classify the optical system parameters as having a strong or weak influence on the Doppler spectrum. The calibrated Monte Carlo approach accurately reproduces experimental results, and allows one to investigate the detailed contribution of system parameters to the Doppler spectrum, which are difficult to isolate in experiment.

  17. Influence of lithium coating on the optics of Doppler backscatter system

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. H.; Liu, A. D. Zhou, C.; Hu, J. Q.; Wang, M. Y.; Yu, C. X.; Liu, W. D.; Li, H.; Lan, T.; Xie, J. L.

    2015-10-15

    This paper presents the first investigation of the effect of lithium coating on the optics of Doppler backscattering. A liquid lithium limiter has been applied in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), and a Doppler backscattering has been installed in the EAST. A parabolic mirror and a flat mirror located in the vacuum vessel are polluted by lithium. An identical optical system of the Doppler backscattering is set up in laboratory. The power distributions of the emission beam after the two mirrors with and without lithium coating (cleaned before and after), are measured at three different distances under four incident frequencies. The results demonstrate that the influence of the lithium coating on the power distributions are very slight, and the Doppler backscattering can work normally under the dosage of lithium during the 2014 EAST campaign.

  18. Magneto-optic Doppler analyzer: a new instrument to measure mesopause winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Bifford P.; Tomczyk, Steven

    1996-11-01

    The magneto-optic Doppler analyzer (MODA) is a new type of passive optical instrument that one can use to measure the Doppler shift of the sodium nightglow emitted at approximately 91 km near the mesopause. From this measurement, horizontal wind signatures are inferred. The MODA is based on a sodium vapor magneto-optic filter that provides inherent wavelength stability at a low cost. The instrument has been used to take nightly zonal and meridional wind measurements since October 1994 at Niwot Ridge, Colorado (40 N, 105 W). We obtained an internally consistent wind signal and measured the semidiurnal tide for several seasons.

  19. Influence of sub-Doppler force on the Doppler trap parameters of a magneto-optical trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Heung-Ryoul; Kim, Kihwan

    2005-05-01

    We have measured the trap frequency as well as the damping coefficient of a magneto-optical trap by using a transient oscillation method. The dependence of such trap properties on the various experimental parameters such as the cooling laser intensity, detuning, and magnetic field gradient is investigated. We find that the measured trap frequency is in excellent agreement with the simple rate-equation analysis based on the Doppler cooling theory. In contrast, the damping coefficient is about twice larger than the calculated one, which is attributed to the existence of the sub-Doppler trap near the trap center. We also have shown for the multi-level atom the trap parameters are affected by the laser intensity, detuning of other directions. From the measurement of the damping coefficient, we have found that the trap parameters are affected by the sub-Doppler force. These observations are explained by the direct calculation of the force where the detuning of transverse laser is different from the considered axis.

  20. Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography Signals: Analysis in Low and High Scattering Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, Alexander V.; Kalkman, Jeroen

    In this chapter, Doppler OCT signals (OCT magnitude and flow velocity profile) for low and high scattering media are analyzed. For low scattering media, we demonstrate the use of the single scattering model to determine the optical properties of the sample. For high scattering media, the effects of multiple scattering are stronger and the single scattering description breaks down. An alternative approach, based on Monte Carlo simulations, is proposed as it gives a more appropriate description of the Doppler OCT signal by taking into account multiple scattering effects. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we analyze the deviation of the OCT slope from the value predicted by the single scattering model and analyze the distortions in the measured Doppler OCT flow profile. Monte Carlo simulations are compared to Doppler OCT measurements for Intralipid and blood.

  1. Two-dimensional phase unwrapping in Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yimin; Huang, David; Su, Ya; Yao, X Steve

    2016-11-14

    For phase-related imaging modalities using interferometric techniques, it is important to develop effective method to recover phase information that is mathematically wrapped. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a two-dimensional (2D) method to achieve effective phase unwrapping in Doppler Fourier-domain (FD) optical coherence tomography (OCT), and recover the discontinuous phase distribution in retinal blood flow successfully for the first time in Doppler OCT studies. The proposed method is based on phase gradient approach in the axial dimension, with phase denoising performed through 2D window moving average in the sampled phase image using complex Doppler OCT data. The 2D unwrapping is carried out to correct phase discontinuities in the wrapped Doppler phase map, and the abrupt phase changes can be identified and corrected accurately. The proposed algorithm is computationally efficient and easy to be implemented.

  2. Three-dimensional Doppler anemometer using a holographic optical element.

    PubMed

    Schneider, F; Windein, W

    1988-11-01

    A new simple 3-D laser Doppler system has been developed for simultaneous measurement of the instantaneous velocity vector of a scattering particle. The system is based on the reference beam method. It uses a hologram to generate the reference beams. Only one laser operating in single mode is required as the light source. The system has been tested by measuring all the components of the Reynolds stress tensor in a round cold air jet. The results are presented.

  3. Phase-referenced Doppler optical coherence tomography in scattering media.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Cameron J; Yazdanfar, Siavash; Westphal, Volker; Rollins, Andrew M

    2005-08-15

    We present a fiber-based, low-coherence interferometer that significantly reduces phase noise by incorporating a second, narrowband, continuous-wave light source as a phase reference. By incorporating this interferometer into a Doppler OCT system, we demonstrate significant velocity noise reduction in reflective and scattering samples using processing techniques amenable to real-time implementation. We also demonstrate 90% suppression of velocity noise in a flow phantom.

  4. Multigigahertz range-Doppler correlative signal processing in optical memory crystals.

    PubMed

    Harris, Todd L; Merkel, Kristian D; Mohan, R Krishna; Chang, Tiejun; Cole, Zachary; Olson, Andy; Babbitt, Wm Randall

    2006-01-10

    Analog optical signal processing of complex radio-frequency signals for range-Doppler radar information is theoretically described and experimentally demonstrated using crystalline optical memory materials and off-the-shelf photonic components. A model of the range-Doppler processing capability of the memory material for the case of single-target detection is presented. Radarlike signals were emulated and processed by the memory material; they consisted of broadband (> 1 GHz), spread-spectrum, pseudorandom noise sequences of 512 bits in length, which were binary phase-shift keyed on a 1.9 GHz carrier and repeated at 100 kHz over 7.5 ms. Delay (range) resolution of 8 ns and Doppler resolution of 130 Hz over 100 kHz were demonstrated.

  5. Fiber optic laser Doppler anemometry in swirling jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taghavi, R.; Rice, E. J.

    1991-01-01

    Time-averaged and fluctuating quantities are measured in a free turbulent swirling jet. Data from a two-component laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) are compared to the measurements via hot-wire and 5-hole pitot probes. To acquire the proper seeding density near the axis of a swirling jet for LDA measurements proved difficult. This is due to an imbalance of the centrifugal force and radial pressure gradient, which throws the seeding material off the axis. Despite this problem, close agreement between various measurement techniques is obtained.

  6. Combined 60° Wide-Field Choroidal Thickness Maps and High-Definition En Face Vasculature Visualization Using Swept-Source Megahertz OCT at 1050 nm

    PubMed Central

    Mohler, Kathrin J.; Draxinger, Wolfgang; Klein, Thomas; Kolb, Jan Philip; Wieser, Wolfgang; Haritoglou, Christos; Kampik, Anselm; Fujimoto, James G.; Neubauer, Aljoscha S.; Huber, Robert; Wolf, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate ultrahigh-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) at 1.68 million A-scans/s for choroidal imaging in normal and diseased eyes over a ∼60° field of view. To investigate and correlate wide-field three-dimensional (3D) choroidal thickness (ChT) and vascular patterns using ChT maps and coregistered high-definition en face images extracted from a single densely sampled Megahertz-OCT (MHz-OCT) dataset. Methods High-definition, ∼60° wide-field 3D datasets consisting of 2088 × 1024 A-scans were acquired using a 1.68 MHz prototype SS-OCT system at 1050 nm based on a Fourier-domain mode-locked laser. Nine subjects (nine eyes) with various chorioretinal diseases or without ocular pathology are presented. Coregistered ChT maps, choroidal summation maps, and depth-resolved en face images referenced to either the retinal pigment epithelium or the choroidal–scleral interface were generated using manual segmentation. Results Wide-field ChT maps showed a large inter- and intraindividual variance in peripheral and central ChT. In only four of the nine eyes, the location with the largest ChT was coincident with the fovea. The anatomy of the large lumen vessels of the outer choroid seems to play a major role in determining the global ChT pattern. Focal ChT changes with large thickness gradients were observed in some eyes. Conclusions Different ChT and vascular patterns could be visualized over ∼60° in patients for the first time using OCT. Due to focal ChT changes, a high density of thickness measurements may be favorable. High-definition depth-resolved en face images are complementary to cross sections and thickness maps and enhance the interpretation of different ChT patterns. PMID:26431482

  7. Optical torque reversal and spin-orbit rotational Doppler shift experiments.

    PubMed

    Hakobyan, Davit; Brasselet, Etienne

    2015-11-30

    We report on optical rotational Doppler frequency shift experiments in the context of a counter-intuitive optomechanical phenomenon that is the angular analog of so-called negative optical radiation forces, which involves spin-orbit scattering of light. In practice, spin-orbit opto-mechanical effects arising from the interaction between polarized light and azimuthally varying birefringent optical elements are retrieved from mechano-optical experiments that involve spatial of the medium. Two kinds of experiments (single-beam and two-beam geometries) are performed and both approaches are discussed in the framework of previous dynamical geometric phase and rotational Doppler shift experiments based on spin and/or orbital angular momentum of light.

  8. Azimuthal Doppler shift of absorption spectrum in optical vortex laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Shinji; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi; Ozawa, Naoya; Terasaka, Kenichiro; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Nagaoka, Kenichi; Morisaki, Tomohiro

    2016-10-01

    Laser spectroscopy is a powerful diagnostic tool for measuring the mean flow velocity of plasma particles. We have been developing a new laser spectroscopy method utilizing an optical vortex beam, which has helical phase fronts corresponding to the phase change in the azimuthal direction. Because of this phase change, a Doppler effect is experienced even by an atom crossing the beam vertically. The additional azimuthal Doppler shift is proportional to the topological charge of optical vortex and is inversely proportional to the distance from the beam axis in which the beam intensity is vanished by destructive interference or the phase singularity. In order to detect the azimuthal Doppler shift, we have performed a laser absorption spectroscopy experiment with the linear ECR plasma device HYPER-I. Since the azimuthal Doppler shift depends on a position in the beam cross section, the absorption spectra at various positions were reconstructed from the transmitted beam intensity measured by a beam profiler. We have observed a clear spatial dependence of the Doppler shift, which qualitatively agreed with theory. Detailed experimental results, as well as remaining issues and future prospect, will be discussed at the meeting. This study was partially supported by JAPS KAKENHI Grand Numbers 15K05365 and 25287152.

  9. Application of low-coherence optical fiber Doppler anemometry to fluid-flow measurement: optical system considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, William J. O.; Grattan, Kenneth T. V.; Palmer, Andrew W.; Meggitt, B. T.

    1991-08-01

    A fiber optic Doppler anemometric (FODA) sensor using an optical delay cavity technique and having the advantage of detecting velocity rather than simple speed is outlined. In this sensor the delay in a sensor cavity formed from light back-reflected from a fiber tip (Fresnel reflection) and light back-reflected from particles flowing in a fluid is balanced by the optical delay when light from this sensor cavity passes through a reference cavity formed by a combination of the zero and first diffraction orders produced by a Bragg cell inserted into the optical arrangement. The performance of an experimental sensor based on this scheme is investigated, and velocity measurements using the Doppler shift data from moving objects are presented. The sensitivity of the scheme is discussed, with reference to the other techniques of fluid flow measurement.

  10. Observation of Doppler-free electromagnetically induced transparency in atoms selected optically with specific velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hoon; Kim, Kwan Su; Kim, Jung Dong; Lee, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Jung Bog

    2011-11-15

    We observed an electromagnetically induced transparency signal in a four-level system with optically selected rubidium atoms at specific velocities in a room-temperature vaporized cell. Since the atoms behave like cold atoms in the selected atomic view, the observed signals coincide with a trapped atomic system. According to this result, we can observe Doppler-free signals, which correspond from 1.2 to 1.0 K in a Doppler-broadened medium. And the selected atoms have velocity components of {+-}(131 {+-} 3) MHz per wave number. Our experimental results can provide insight for research in cold media.

  11. Digital signal processor-based real-time optical Doppler tomography system.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shikui; Piao, Daqing; Chen, Yueli; Zhu, Quing

    2004-01-01

    We present a real-time data-processing and display unit based on a custom-designed digital signal processor (DSP) module for imaging tissue structure and Doppler blood flow. The DSP module is incorporated into a conventional optical coherence tomography system. We also demonstrate the flexibility of embedding advanced Doppler processing algorithms in the DSP module. Two advanced velocity estimation algorithms previously introduced by us are incorporated in this DSP module. Experiments on Intralipid flow demonstrate that a pulsatile flow of several hundred pulses per minute can be faithfully captured in M-scan mode by this DSP system. In vivo imaging of a rat's abdominal blood flow is also presented.

  12. Variable configuration fiber optic laser doppler vibrometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posada-Roman, Julio E.; Jackson, David A.; Garcia-Souto, Jose A.

    2016-06-01

    A multichannel heterodyne fiber optic vibrometer is demonstrated which can be operated at ranges in excess of 50 m. The system is designed to measure periodic signals, impacts, rotation, 3D strain, and vibration mapping. The displacement resolution of each channel exceeds 1 nm. The outputs from all channels are simultaneous, and the number of channels can be increased by using optical switches.

  13. Absolute Retinal Blood Flow Measurement With a Dual-Beam Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Cuixia; Liu, Xiaojing; Zhang, Hao F.; Puliafito, Carmen A.; Jiao, Shuliang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To test the capability of a novel dual-beam Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique for simultaneous in vivo measurement of the Doppler angle and, thus, the absolute retinal blood velocity and the retinal flow rate, without the influence of motion artifacts. Methods. A novel dual-beam Doppler spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) was developed. The two probing beams are separated with a controllable distance along an arbitrary direction, both of which are controlled by two independent 2D optical scanners. Two sets of optical Doppler tomography (ODT) images are acquired simultaneously. The Doppler angle of each blood vessel segment is calculated from the relative coordinates of the centers of the blood vessel in the two corresponding ODT images. The absolute blood flow velocity and the volumetric blood flow rate can then be calculated. To measure the total retinal blood flow, we used a circular scan pattern centered at the optic disc to obtain two sets of concentric OCT/ODT images simultaneously. Results. We imaged two normal human subjects at ages of 48 and 34 years. The total retinal blood flow rates of the two human subjects were calculated to be 47.01 μL/min (older subject) and 51.37 μL/min (younger subject), respectively. Results showed that the performance of this imaging system is immune to eye movement, since the two sets of ODT images were acquired simultaneously. Conclusions. The dual-beam OCT/ODT system is successful in measuring the absolute retinal blood velocity and the volumetric flow rate. The advantage of the technique is that the two sets of ODT images used for the calculation are acquired simultaneously, which eliminates the influence of eye motion and ensures the accuracy of the calculated hemodynamic parameters. PMID:24222303

  14. All-semiconductor high-speed akinetic swept-source for OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minneman, Michael P.; Ensher, Jason; Crawford, Michael; Derickson, Dennis

    2011-12-01

    A novel swept-wavelength laser for optical coherence tomography (OCT) using a monolithic semiconductor device with no moving parts is presented. The laser is a Vernier-Tuned Distributed Bragg Reflector (VT-DBR) structure exhibiting a single longitudinal mode. All-electronic wavelength tuning is achieved at a 200 kHz sweep repetition rate, 20 mW output power, over 100 nm sweep width and coherence length longer than 40 mm. OCT point-spread functions with 45- 55 dB dynamic range are demonstrated; lasers at 1550 nm, and now 1310 nm, have been developed. Because the laser's long-term tuning stability allows for electronic sample trigger generation at equal k-space intervals (electronic k-clock), the laser does not need an external optical k-clock for measurement interferometer sampling. The non-resonant, allelectronic tuning allows for continuously adjustable sweep repetition rates from mHz to 100s of kHz. Repetition rate duty cycles are continuously adjustable from single-trigger sweeps to over 99% duty cycle. The source includes a monolithically integrated power leveling feature allowing flat or Gaussian power vs. wavelength profiles. Laser fabrication is based on reliable semiconductor wafer-scale processes, leading to low and rapidly decreasing cost of manufacture.

  15. Doppler optical coherence microscopy and tomography applied to inner ear mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Scott; Freeman, Dennis M.; Ghaffari, Roozbeh

    2015-12-31

    While it is clear that cochlear traveling waves underlie the extraordinary sensitivity, frequency selectivity, and dynamic range of mammalian hearing, the underlying micromechanical mechanisms remain unresolved. Recent advances in low coherence measurement techniques show promise over traditional laser Doppler vibrometry and video microscopy, which are limited by low reflectivities of cochlear structures and restricted optical access. Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) and Doppler optical coherence microscopy (DOCM) both utilize a broadband source to limit constructive interference of scattered light to a small axial depth called a coherence gate. The coherence gate can be swept axially to image and measure sub-nanometer motions of cochlear structures throughout the cochlear partition. The coherence gate of DOCT is generally narrower than the confocal gate of the focusing optics, enabling increased axial resolution (typically 15 μm) within optical sections of the cochlear partition. DOCM, frequently implemented in the time domain, centers the coherence gate on the focal plane, achieving enhanced lateral and axial resolution when the confocal gate is narrower than the coherence gate. We compare these two complementary systems and demonstrate their utility in studying cellular and micromechanical mechanisms involved in mammalian hearing.

  16. Human cervical carcinoma detection and glucose monitoring in blood micro vasculatures with swept source OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, H.; Ahmed, E.; Ikram, M.

    2013-08-01

    We report a pilot method, i.e., speckle variance (SV) and structured optical coherence tomography to visualize normal and malignant blood microvasculature in three and two dimensions and to monitor the glucose levels in blood by analyzing the Brownian motion of the red blood cells. The technique was applied on nude live mouse's skin and the obtained images depict the enhanced intravasculature network forum up to the depth of ˜2 mm with axial resolution of ˜8 μm. Microscopic images have also been obtained for both types of blood vessels to observe the tumor spatially. Our SV-OCT methodologies and results give satisfactory techniques in real time imaging and can potentially be applied during therapeutic techniques such as photodynamic therapy as well as to quantify the higher glucose levels injected intravenously to animal by determining the translation diffusion coefficient.

  17. In-vivo imaging of keratoconic corneas using high-speed high-resolution swept-source OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschall, S.; Gawish, A.; Feng, Y.; Sorbara, L.; Fieguth, P.; Bizheva, K.

    2013-06-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is a progressive degenerative corneal disease that can lead to a strong deformation of the cornea and loss of clarity, causing distorted or blurred vision. Surgical treatment for severe cases requires precise evaluation of the corneal curvature, thickness, layer structure, and clarity. Current clinical instruments for assessing the corneal shape cannot resolve the internal structure, and high-resolution microscopy techniques are limited to a small field of view. We have implemented a swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) system that enables high-speed imaging (100 kA-scans/s) of the entire cornea and provides ~5.1μm axial resolution in corneal tissue. With an imaging range of 5.6 mm (in air), we can cover the full length from the cornea's apex to the anterior surface of the lens. We have acquired volumetric corneal images from human subjects with different stages of KC and from subjects who underwent surgery or cross-linking therapy. We developed an automatic algorithm for segmenting the outer and inner surfaces of the cornea in the images which will enable precise measurement of the corneal curvature and thickness. This makes SS-OCT an ideal instrument for comprehensive examination of keratoconic corneas.

  18. Coherent optical transients observed in rubidium atomic line filtered Doppler velocimetry experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fajardo, Mario E. Molek, Christopher D.; Vesely, Annamaria L.

    2015-10-14

    We report the first successful results from our novel Rubidium Atomic Line Filtered (RALF) Doppler velocimetry apparatus, along with unanticipated oscillatory signals due to coherent optical transients generated within pure Rb vapor cells. RALF is a high-velocity and high-acceleration extension of the well-known Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV) technique for constructing multi-dimensional flow velocity vector maps in aerodynamics experiments [H. Komine, U.S. Patent No. 4,919,536 (24 April 1990)]. RALF exploits the frequency dependence of pressure-broadened Rb atom optical absorptions in a heated Rb/N{sub 2} gas cell to encode the Doppler shift of reflected near-resonant (λ{sub 0} ≈ 780.24 nm) laser light onto the intensity transmitted by the cell. The present RALF apparatus combines fiber optic and free-space components and was built to determine suitable operating conditions and performance parameters for the Rb/N{sub 2} gas cells. It yields single-spot velocities of thin laser-driven-flyer test surfaces and incorporates a simultaneous Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) channel [Strand et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083108 (2006)] for validation of the RALF results, which we demonstrate here over the v = 0 to 1 km/s range. Both RALF and DGV presume the vapor cells to be simple Beer's Law optical absorbers, so we were quite surprised to observe oscillatory signals in experiments employing low pressure pure Rb vapor cells. We interpret these oscillations as interference between the Doppler shifted reflected light and the Free Induction Decay (FID) coherent optical transient produced within the pure Rb cells at the original laser frequency; this is confirmed by direct comparison of the PDV and FID signals. We attribute the different behaviors of the Rb/N{sub 2} vs. Rb gas cells to efficient dephasing of the atomic/optical coherences by Rb-N{sub 2} collisions. The minimum necessary N{sub 2} buffer gas density ≈0.3 amagat translates into a smallest

  19. Coherent optical transients observed in rubidium atomic line filtered Doppler velocimetry experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajardo, Mario E.; Molek, Christopher D.; Vesely, Annamaria L.

    2015-10-01

    We report the first successful results from our novel Rubidium Atomic Line Filtered (RALF) Doppler velocimetry apparatus, along with unanticipated oscillatory signals due to coherent optical transients generated within pure Rb vapor cells. RALF is a high-velocity and high-acceleration extension of the well-known Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV) technique for constructing multi-dimensional flow velocity vector maps in aerodynamics experiments [H. Komine, U.S. Patent No. 4,919,536 (24 April 1990)]. RALF exploits the frequency dependence of pressure-broadened Rb atom optical absorptions in a heated Rb/N2 gas cell to encode the Doppler shift of reflected near-resonant (λ0 ≈ 780.24 nm) laser light onto the intensity transmitted by the cell. The present RALF apparatus combines fiber optic and free-space components and was built to determine suitable operating conditions and performance parameters for the Rb/N2 gas cells. It yields single-spot velocities of thin laser-driven-flyer test surfaces and incorporates a simultaneous Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) channel [Strand et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083108 (2006)] for validation of the RALF results, which we demonstrate here over the v = 0 to 1 km/s range. Both RALF and DGV presume the vapor cells to be simple Beer's Law optical absorbers, so we were quite surprised to observe oscillatory signals in experiments employing low pressure pure Rb vapor cells. We interpret these oscillations as interference between the Doppler shifted reflected light and the Free Induction Decay (FID) coherent optical transient produced within the pure Rb cells at the original laser frequency; this is confirmed by direct comparison of the PDV and FID signals. We attribute the different behaviors of the Rb/N2 vs. Rb gas cells to efficient dephasing of the atomic/optical coherences by Rb-N2 collisions. The minimum necessary N2 buffer gas density ≈0.3 amagat translates into a smallest useful velocity range of 0 to 2 km/s, which can

  20. Full-range Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography based on sinusoidal phase modulation.

    PubMed

    Nan, Nan; Wang, Xiangzhao; Bu, Peng; Li, Zhongliang; Guo, Xin; Chen, Yan; Wang, Xuan; Yuan, Fenghua; Sasaki, Osami

    2014-04-20

    A novel full-range Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography (full-range FD-DOCT) using sinusoidal phase modulation for B-M scan is proposed. In this sinusoidal B-M scan, zero optical path difference (OPD) position does not move corresponding to lateral scanning points in contrast to linear B-M scan. Since high phase sensitivity arises around the zero OPD position, the proposed full-range FD-DOCT can achieve easily high velocity sensitivity without mirror image around the zero OPD position. Velocity sensitivity dependent on the OPD and the interval of scanning points is examined, and flow velocity detection capability is verified through Doppler imaging of a flow phantom and an in vivo biological sample.

  1. Enhanced Doppler reflectometry power response: physical optics and 2D full wave modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinzón, J. R.; Happel, T.; Blanco, E.; Conway, G. D.; Estrada, T.; Stroth, U.

    2017-03-01

    The power response of a Doppler reflectometer is investigated by means of the physical optics model; a simple model which considers basic scattering processes at the reflection layer. Apart from linear and saturated scattering regimes, non-linear regimes with an enhanced backscattered power are found. The different regimes are characterized and understood based on analytical calculations. The power response is also studied with two-dimensional full wave simulations, where the enhanced backscattered power regimes are also found in qualitative agreement with the physical optics results. The ordinary and extraordinary modes are compared for the same angle of incidence, with the conclusion that the ordinary mode is better suited for Doppler reflectometry turbulence level measurements due to the linearity of its response. The scattering efficiency is studied and a first approximation to describe it is proposed. At the end, the application of the physical optics results to experimental data analysis is discussed. In particular, a formula to assess the linearity of Doppler reflectometry measurements is provided.

  2. Method and apparatus for optical Doppler tomographic imaging of fluid flow velocity in highly scattering media

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, John Stuart; Milner, Thomas Edward; Chen, Zhongping

    1999-01-01

    Optical Doppler tomography permits imaging of fluid flow velocity in highly scattering media. The tomography system combines Doppler velocimetry with high spatial resolution of partially coherent optical interferometry to measure fluid flow velocity at discrete spatial locations. Noninvasive in vivo imaging of blood flow dynamics and tissue structures with high spatial resolutions of the order of 2 to 10 microns is achieved in biological systems. The backscattered interference signals derived from the interferometer may be analyzed either through power spectrum determination to obtain the position and velocity of each particle in the fluid flow sample at each pixel, or the interference spectral density may be analyzed at each frequency in the spectrum to obtain the positions and velocities of the particles in a cross-section to which the interference spectral density corresponds. The realized resolutions of optical Doppler tomography allows noninvasive in vivo imaging of both blood microcirculation and tissue structure surrounding the vessel which has significance for biomedical research and clinical applications.

  3. Quantification of optical Doppler broadening and optical path lengths of multiply scattered light by phase modulated low coherence interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, B.; Rajan, V.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Steenbergen, W.

    2007-07-01

    We show experimental validation of a novel technique to measure optical path length distributions and path length resolved Doppler broadening in turbid media for different reduced scattering coefficients and anisotropies. The technique involves a phase modulated low coherence Mach-Zehnder interferometer, with separate fibers for illumination and detection. Water suspensions of Polystyrene microspheres with high scattering and low absorption levels are used as calibrated scattering phantoms. The path length dependent diffusion broadening or Doppler broadening of scattered light is shown to agree with Diffusive Wave Spectroscopy within 5%. The optical path lengths are determined experimentally from the zero order moment of the phase modulation peak around the modulation frequency in the power spectrum and the results are validated with Monte Carlo simulations.

  4. Quantification of optical Doppler broadening and optical path lengths of multiply scattered light by phase modulated low coherence interferometry.

    PubMed

    Varghese, B; Rajan, V; van Leeuwen, T G; Steenbergen, W

    2007-07-23

    We show experimental validation of a novel technique to measure optical path length distributions and path length resolved Doppler broadening in turbid media for different reduced scattering coefficients and anisotropies. The technique involves a phase modulated low coherence Mach-Zehnder interferometer, with separate fibers for illumination and detection. Water suspensions of Polystyrene microspheres with high scattering and low absorption levels are used as calibrated scattering phantoms. The path length dependent diffusion broadening or Doppler broadening of scattered light is shown to agree with Diffusive Wave Spectroscopy within 5%. The optical path lengths are determined experimentally from the zero order moment of the phase modulation peak around the modulation frequency in the power spectrum and the results are validated with Monte Carlo simulations.

  5. Total retinal blood flow measurement by three beam Doppler optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Haindl, Richard; Trasischker, Wolfgang; Wartak, Andreas; Baumann, Bernhard; Pircher, Michael; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of total retinal blood flow in healthy volunteers using a three beam Doppler optical coherence tomography (D-OCT) technique. This technology has the advantage of a precise determination of the flow vector without the use of any a-priori information on the vessel geometry. Circular D-OCT scans around the optic disc were recorded and venous as well as arterial total blood flow was determined and compared for each subject. The reproducibility of the method was assessed in 6 subjects by repeated measurements. Only small deviations of around 6% between the measurements were found which indicates the high precision of the proposed method. PMID:26977340

  6. Laser Doppler measurement of relative blood velocity in the human optic nerve head

    SciTech Connect

    Riva, C.E.; Grunwald, J.E.; Sinclair, S.H.

    1982-02-01

    The Doppler shift frequency spectrum (DSFS) of laser light scattered from red blood cells (RBCs) moving in the microcirculation of the optic nerve head has been recorded in normal volunteers by means of a fundus camera laser Doppler velocimeter. The width of the DSFS, which varies in proportion to the speed of the RBCs, has been characterized by a parameter alpha. With the use of a model for the scattering of light by tissue and RBCs and for the RBC velocity distribution, values of alpha recorded at normal intraocular pressure (IOP) suggest that the RBCs that contribute to the Doppler signal are flowing in capillaries. The parameter alpha was found to vary markedly with the IOP and with the phase of the ocular pressure pulse at elevated IOP. The return of the speed of RBCs toward normal, which is observed after a step increase of IOP above normal and after a step decrease below normal, has been attributed to an autoregulatory response of the optic nerve circulation.

  7. Observation of the rotational Doppler effect from an optically trapped micro-particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, D. B.; Lee, M. P.; Speirits, F. C.; Barnett, S. M.; Simpson, S. H.; Lavery, M. P. J.; Padgett, M. J.; Gibson, G. M.

    2014-09-01

    The linear Doppler shift forms the basis of various sensor types for the measurement of linear velocity, ranging from speeding cars to fluid flow. Recently, a rotational analogue was demonstrated, enabling the measurement of angular velocity using light carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). If measurement of the light scattered from a spinning object is restricted to a defined OAM state, then a frequency shift is observed that scales with the rotation rate of the object and the OAM of the scattered photon. In this work we measure the rotational Doppler shift from micron-sized calcite particles spinning in an optical trap at tens of Hz. In this case the signal is complicated by the geometry of the rotating particle, and the effect of Brownian motion. By careful consideration of these influences, we show how the signal is robust to both, representing a new technique with which to probe the rotational motion of micro-scale particles.

  8. Doppler Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Label-Free Tissue Angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Szkulmowski, Maciej; Blatter, Cedric; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    Information about tissue perfusion and the vascular structure is certainly most important for assessment of tissue state or personal health and the diagnosis of any pathological conditions. It is therefore of key medical interest to have tools available for both quantitative blood flow assessment as well as qualitative vascular imaging. The strength of optical techniques is the unprecedented level of detail even for small capillary structures or microaneurysms and the possibility to combine different techniques for additional tissue spectroscopy giving insight into tissue metabolism. There is an immediate diagnostic and pharmacological demand for high-resolution, label-free, tissue angiography and flow assessment that in addition allow for precise depth gating of flow information. The most promising candidate is Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) being noncontact, label free, and without employing hazardous radiation. DOCT provides fully quantitative volumetric information about blood flow together with the vascular and structural anatomy. Besides flow quantification, analysis of OCT signal fluctuations allows to contrast moving scatterers in tissue such as red blood cells from static tissue. This allows for non-invasive optical angiography and yields high resolution even for smallest capillaries. Because of the huge potential of DOCT and lable-free optical angiography for diagnosis, the last years saw a rapid increase of publications in this field with many different approaches. The present chapter gives an overview over existing Doppler OCT approaches and angiography techniques. It furthermore discusses limitations and noise issues, and gives examples for angiography in the eye and the skin.

  9. Portable fiber optic coupled doppler interferometer system for detonation and shock wave diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, K.J.

    1993-03-01

    Testing and analysis of shock wave characteristics such as produced by detonators and ground shock propagation frequently require a method of measuring velocity and displacement of the surface of interest. One method of measurement is doppler interferometry. The VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) uses doppler interferometry and has pined wide acceptance as the preferred tool for shock measurement. An important asset of VISAR is that it measures velocity and displacement non intrusively. The conventional VISAR is not well suited for portability because of its sensitive components, large power and cooling requirements, and hazardous laser beam. A new VISAR using the latest technology in solid state lasers and detectors has been developed and tested. To further enhance this system`s versatility, the unit is fiber optic coupled which allows remote testing, permitting the VISAR to be placed over a kilometer away from the target being measured. Because the laser light is contained in the fiber optic, operation of the system around personnel is far less hazardous. A software package for data reduction has also been developed for use with a personal computer. These new advances have produced a very versatile system with full portability which can be totally powered by batteries or a small generator. This paper describes the solid state VISAR and its peripheral components, fiber optic coupling methods and the fiber optic coupled sensors used for sending and receiving laser radiation.

  10. Ultra-wide Field Imaging and Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography of Ocular Electrical Injury in a Child.

    PubMed

    Takkar, Brijesh; Azad, Shorya; Molla, Kabiruddin; Venkatesh, Pradeep

    2016-12-08

    History of trauma in children may be obscured and physicians often rely on signs for diagnosis. The authors discuss a case of electrical injury where ocular signs led to diagnosis of the cause of macular atrophy. A high index of suspicion must always be maintained in such atypical cases, and the setting of electrical injury to the body requires meticulous ocular examination. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2016;53:e69-e71.].

  11. Heart wall velocimetry and exogenous contrast-based cardiac flow imaging in Drosophila melanogaster using Doppler optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choma, Michael A.; Suter, Melissa J.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2010-09-01

    Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) is a central organism in biology and is becoming increasingly important in the cardiovascular sciences. Prior work in optical imaging of the D. melanogaster heart has focused on static and dynamic structural anatomy. In the study, it is demonstrated that Doppler optical coherence tomography can quantify dynamic heart wall velocity and hemolymph flow in adult D. melanogaster. Since hemolymph is optically transparent, a novel exogenous contrast technique is demonstrated to increase the backscatter-based intracardiac Doppler flow signal. The results presented here open up new possibilities for functional cardiovascular phenotyping of normal and mutant D. melanogaster.

  12. Microvascular anastomosis in rodent model evaluated by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong; Tong, Dedi; Zhu, Shan; Wu, Lehao; Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Lee, WP Andrew; Brandacher, Gerald; Kang, Jin U.

    2014-03-01

    Vascular and microvascular anastomosis are critical components of reconstructive microsurgery, vascular surgery and transplant surgery. Imaging modality that provides immediate, real-time in-depth view and 3D structure and flow information of the surgical site can be a great valuable tool for the surgeon to evaluate surgical outcome following both conventional and innovative anastomosis techniques, thus potentially increase the surgical success rate. Microvascular anastomosis for vessels with outer diameter smaller than 1.0 mm is extremely challenging and effective evaluation of the outcome is very difficult if not impossible using computed tomography (CT) angiograms, magnetic resonance (MR) angiograms and ultrasound Doppler. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive high-resolution (micron level), high-speed, 3D imaging modality that has been adopted widely in biomedical and clinical applications. Phaseresolved Doppler OCT that explores the phase information of OCT signals has been shown to be capable of characterizing dynamic blood flow clinically. In this work, we explore the capability of Fourier domain Doppler OCT as an evaluation tool to detect commonly encountered post-operative complications that will cause surgical failure and to confirm positive result with surgeon's observation. Both suture and cuff based techniques were evaluated on the femoral artery and vein in the rodent model.

  13. Measuring hemodynamics in the developing heart tube with four-dimensional gated Doppler optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Michael W.; Peterson, Lindsy; Gu, Shi; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Wilson, David L.; Watanabe, Michiko; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2010-11-01

    Hemodynamics is thought to play a major role in heart development, yet tools to quantitatively assess hemodynamics in the embryo are sorely lacking. The especially challenging analysis of hemodynamics in the early embryo requires new technology. Small changes in blood flow could indicate when anomalies are initiated even before structural changes can be detected. Furthermore, small changes in the early embryo that affect blood flow could lead to profound abnormalities at later stages. We present a demonstration of 4-D Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of structure and flow, and present several new hemodynamic measurements on embryonic avian hearts at early stages prior to the formation of the four chambers. Using 4-D data, pulsed Doppler measurements could accurately be attained in the inflow and outflow of the heart tube. Also, by employing an en-face slice from the 4-D Doppler image set, measurements of stroke volume and cardiac output are obtained without the need to determine absolute velocity. Finally, an image plane orthogonal to the blood flow is used to determine shear stress by calculating the velocity gradient normal to the endocardium. Hemodynamic measurements will be crucial to identifying genetic and environmental factors that lead to congenital heart defects.

  14. Fiber-optic laser-Doppler anemometer microscope applied to the cerebral microcirculation in rats.

    PubMed

    Seki, J; Sasaki, Y; Oyama, T; Yamamoto, J

    1996-01-01

    We have applied our developed fiber-optic laser-Doppler anemometer microscope (FLDAM) for the study of the cerebral microcirculation in the rat. The red cell velocity in single pial microvessels was successfully measured through a closed cranial window for the vessel diameter range from 7.8 to 230 microns. The temporal resolution of the FLDAM was sufficiently high to detect the pulsation in the arterioles. Arterio-venous distributions of the temporal mean red cell velocity and wall shear rate are also described.

  15. Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array

    PubMed Central

    Ustun, Teoman E.; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Hammer, Daniel X.

    2008-01-01

    Real-time display of processed Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FDOCT) images is important for applications that require instant feedback of image information, for example, systems developed for rapid screening or image-guided surgery. However, the computational requirements for high-speed FDOCT image processing usually exceeds the capabilities of most computers and therefore display rates rarely match acquisition rates for most devices. We have designed and developed an image processing system, including hardware based upon a field programmable gated array, firmware, and software that enables real-time display of processed images at rapid line rates. The system was designed to be extremely flexible and inserted in-line between any FDOCT detector and any Camera Link frame grabber. Two versions were developed for spectrometer-based and swept source-based FDOCT systems, the latter having an additional custom high-speed digitizer on the front end but using all the capabilities and features of the former. The system was tested in humans and monkeys using an adaptive optics retinal imager, in zebrafish using a dual-beam Doppler instrument, and in human tissue using a swept source microscope. A display frame rate of 27 fps for fully processed FDOCT images (1024 axial pixels×512 lateral A-scans) was achieved in the spectrometer-based systems. PMID:19045902

  16. Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustun, Teoman E.; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Hammer, Daniel X.

    2008-11-01

    Real-time display of processed Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FDOCT) images is important for applications that require instant feedback of image information, for example, systems developed for rapid screening or image-guided surgery. However, the computational requirements for high-speed FDOCT image processing usually exceeds the capabilities of most computers and therefore display rates rarely match acquisition rates for most devices. We have designed and developed an image processing system, including hardware based upon a field programmable gated array, firmware, and software that enables real-time display of processed images at rapid line rates. The system was designed to be extremely flexible and inserted in-line between any FDOCT detector and any Camera Link frame grabber. Two versions were developed for spectrometer-based and swept source-based FDOCT systems, the latter having an additional custom high-speed digitizer on the front end but using all the capabilities and features of the former. The system was tested in humans and monkeys using an adaptive optics retinal imager, in zebrafish using a dual-beam Doppler instrument, and in human tissue using a swept source microscope. A display frame rate of 27 fps for fully processed FDOCT images (1024 axial pixels×512 lateral A-scans) was achieved in the spectrometer-based systems.

  17. Measuring retinal blood flow in rats using Doppler optical coherence tomography without knowing eyeball axial length

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenzhong; Yi, Ji; Chen, Siyu; Jiao, Shuliang; Zhang, Hao F.

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) is widely used for measuring retinal blood flow. Existing Doppler OCT methods require the eyeball axial length, in which empirical values are usually used. However, variations in the axial length can create a bias unaccounted for in the retinal blood flow measurement. The authors plan to develop a Doppler OCT method that can measure the total retinal blood flow rate without requiring the eyeball axial length. Methods: The authors measured the retinal blood flow rate using a dual-ring scanning protocol. The small and large scanning rings entered the eye at different incident angles (small ring: 4°; large ring: 6°), focused on different locations on the retina, and detected the projected velocities/phase shifts along the probing beams. The authors calculated the ratio of the projected velocities between the two rings, and then used this ratio to estimate absolute flow velocity. The authors tested this method in both Intralipid phantoms and in vivo rats. Results: In the Intralipid flow phantom experiments, the preset and measured flow rates were consistent with the coefficient of determination as 0.97. Linear fitting between preset and measured flow rates determined the fitting slope as 1.07 and the intercept as −0.28. In in vivo rat experiments, the measured average total retinal blood flow was 7.02 ± 0.31μl/min among four wild-type rats. The authors’ measured flow rates were consistent with results in the literature. Conclusions: By using a dual-ring scanning protocol with carefully controlled incident angle difference between the two scanning rings in Doppler OCT, the authors demonstrated that it is feasible to measure the absolute retinal blood flow without knowing the eyeball axial length.

  18. Retinal Blood Flow Response to Hyperoxia Measured With En Face Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Pechauer, Alex D.; Tan, Ou; Liu, Liang; Jia, Yali; Hou, Vivian; Hills, William; Huang, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To use multiplane en face Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure the change in total retinal blood flow (TRBF) in response to hyperoxia. Methods One eye of each healthy human participant (n = 8) was scanned with a commercial high-speed (70-kHz) spectral OCT system. Three repeated scans were captured at baseline and after 10 minutes of oxygen (hyperoxia) by open nasal mask. The procedure was performed twice on day 1 and once more on day 2. Blood flow of each vein was estimated using Doppler OCT at an optimized en face plane. The TRBF was summed from all veins at the optic disc. The TRBF hyperoxic response was calculated as the TRBF percent change from baseline. Results Participants experienced a 23.6% ± 10.7% (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) decrease (P < 0.001, paired t-test) in TRBF during hyperoxia. The within-day repeatability of baseline TRBF was 4.1% and the between-day reproducibility was 10.9% coefficient of variation (CV). Between-grader reproducibility was 3.9% CV. The repeatability and reproducibility (pooled SD) of hyperoxic response were 6.1% and 6.4%, respectively. Conclusions The multiplane en face Doppler OCT algorithm was able to detect, in all participants, a decreased TRBF in response to hyperoxia. The response magnitude for each participant varied among repeated trials, and the averaging of multiple trials was helpful in establishing the individual response. This technique shows good potential for the clinical investigation of vascular autoregulation. PMID:27409465

  19. Supersonic Flow Field Investigation Using a Fiber-optic based Doppler Global Velocimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, James F.; Lee, Joseph W.; Fletcher, Mark T.; Cavone, Angelo A.; AscencionGuerreroViramontes, J.

    2006-01-01

    A three-component fiber-optic based Doppler Global Velocimeter was constructed, evaluated and used to measure shock structures about a low-sonic boom model in a Mach 2 flow. The system was designed to have maximum flexibility in its ability to measure flows with restricted optical access and in various facilities. System layout is described along with techniques developed for production supersonic testing. System evaluation in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel showed a common acceptance angle of f4 among the three views with velocity measurement resolutions comparable with free-space systems. Flow field measurements of shock structures above a flat plate with an attached ellipsoid-cylinder store and a low-sonic boom model are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the system during production testing.

  20. Portable, solid state, fiber optic coupled Doppler interferometer system for detonation and shock diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, K.J.

    1994-08-01

    VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) is a specialized Doppler interferometer system that is gaining world-wide acceptance as the standard for shock phenomena analysis. The VISAR`s large power and cooling requirements, and the sensitive and complex nature of the interferometer cavity has restricted the traditional system to the laboratory. This paper describes the new portable VISAR, its peripheral sensors, and the role it played in optically measuring ground shock of an underground nuclear detonation (UGT). The Solid State VISAR uses a prototype diode pumped Nd:YAG laser and solid state detectors that provide a suitcase-size system with low power requirements. A special window and sensors was developed for fiber optic coupling (1 kilometer long) to the VISCAR. The system has proven itself as reliable, easy to use instrument that is capable of field test use and rapid data reduction using only a notebook personal computer (PC).

  1. Portable, solid state, fiber optic coupled Doppler interferometer system for detonation and shock diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, K.J.; Crump, O.B.

    1994-03-01

    VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) is a specialized Doppler interferometer system that is gaining world-wide acceptance as the standard for shock phenomena analysis. The VISAR`s large power and cooling requirements, and the sensitive and complex nature of the interferometer cavity have restricted the traditional system to the laboratory. This paper describes the new portable VISAR, its peripheral sensors, and the role it played in optically measuring ground shock of an underground nuclear detonation. The solid State VISAR uses a prototype diode pumped ND:YAG laser and solid state detectors that provide a suitcase-size system with low power requirements. A special window and sensors were developed for fiber optic coupling (1 kilometer long) to the VISAR. The system has proven itself as a reliable, easy to use instrument that is capable of field test use and rapid data reduction using only a notebook personal computer (PC).

  2. Portable, solid state, fiber optic coupled doppler interferometer system for detonation and shock diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, K.J.; Crump, O.B.

    1993-01-01

    VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) is a specialized Doppler interferometer system that is gaining world-wide acceptance as the standard for shock phenomena analysis. The VISAR's large power and cooling requirements, and the sensitive and complex nature of the interferometer cavity has restricted the traditional system to the laboratory. This paper describes the new portable VISAR, its peripheral sensors, and the role it played in optically measuring ground shock of an underground nuclear detonation (UGT). The Solid State VISAR uses a prototype diode pumped ND:YAG laser and solid state detectors that provide a suitcase-size system with low power requirements. A special window and sensor was developed for fiber optic coupling (1 kilometer long) to the VISAR. The system has proven itself as a reliable, easy-to-use instrument that is capable of field test use and rapid data reduction employing only a personal computer (PC).

  3. A Fiber Optic Doppler Sensor and Its Application in Debonding Detection for Composite Structures

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fucai; Murayama, Hideaki; Kageyama, Kazuro; Meng, Guang; Ohsawa, Isamu; Shirai, Takehiro

    2010-01-01

    Debonding is one of the most important damage forms in fiber-reinforced composite structures. This work was devoted to the debonding damage detection of lap splice joints in carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) structures, which is based on guided ultrasonic wave signals captured by using fiber optic Doppler (FOD) sensor with spiral shape. Interferometers based on two types of laser sources, namely the He-Ne laser and the infrared semiconductor laser, are proposed and compared in this study for the purpose of measuring Doppler frequency shift of the FOD sensor. Locations of the FOD sensors are optimized based on mechanical characteristics of lap splice joint. The FOD sensors are subsequently used to detect the guided ultrasonic waves propagating in the CFRP structures. By taking advantage of signal processing approaches, features of the guided wave signals can be revealed. The results demonstrate that debonding in the lap splice joint results in arrival time delay of the first package in the guided wave signals, which can be the characteristic for debonding damage inspection and damage extent estimation. PMID:22219698

  4. Linking the thermodynamic temperature to an optical frequency: recent advances in Doppler broadening thermometry.

    PubMed

    Gianfrani, Livio

    2016-03-28

    Laser spectroscopy in the linear regime of radiation-matter interaction is a powerful tool for measuring thermodynamic quantities in a gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. In particular, the Doppler effect can be considered a gift of nature, linking the thermal energy to an optical frequency, namely the line centre frequency of an atomic or molecular spectral line. This is the basis of a relatively new method of primary gas thermometry, known as Doppler broadening thermometry (DBT). This paper reports on the efforts that have been carried out, in the last decade, worldwide, to the end of making DBT competitive with more consolidated and accurate methodologies, such as acoustic gas thermometry and dielectric constant gas thermometry. The main requirements for low-uncertainty DBT, of both theoretical and technical nature, will be discussed, with a special focus on those related to the line shape model and to the frequency scale. A deep comparison among the different molecules that have been selected in successful DBT implementations is also reported. Finally, for the first time, to the best of my knowledge, the influence of refractive index effects is discussed.

  5. Linking the thermodynamic temperature to an optical frequency: recent advances in Doppler broadening thermometry

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy in the linear regime of radiation–matter interaction is a powerful tool for measuring thermodynamic quantities in a gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. In particular, the Doppler effect can be considered a gift of nature, linking the thermal energy to an optical frequency, namely the line centre frequency of an atomic or molecular spectral line. This is the basis of a relatively new method of primary gas thermometry, known as Doppler broadening thermometry (DBT). This paper reports on the efforts that have been carried out, in the last decade, worldwide, to the end of making DBT competitive with more consolidated and accurate methodologies, such as acoustic gas thermometry and dielectric constant gas thermometry. The main requirements for low-uncertainty DBT, of both theoretical and technical nature, will be discussed, with a special focus on those related to the line shape model and to the frequency scale. A deep comparison among the different molecules that have been selected in successful DBT implementations is also reported. Finally, for the first time, to the best of my knowledge, the influence of refractive index effects is discussed. PMID:26903093

  6. A fiber optic Doppler sensor and its application in debonding detection for composite structures.

    PubMed

    Li, Fucai; Murayama, Hideaki; Kageyama, Kazuro; Meng, Guang; Ohsawa, Isamu; Shirai, Takehiro

    2010-01-01

    Debonding is one of the most important damage forms in fiber-reinforced composite structures. This work was devoted to the debonding damage detection of lap splice joints in carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) structures, which is based on guided ultrasonic wave signals captured by using fiber optic Doppler (FOD) sensor with spiral shape. Interferometers based on two types of laser sources, namely the He-Ne laser and the infrared semiconductor laser, are proposed and compared in this study for the purpose of measuring Doppler frequency shift of the FOD sensor. Locations of the FOD sensors are optimized based on mechanical characteristics of lap splice joint. The FOD sensors are subsequently used to detect the guided ultrasonic waves propagating in the CFRP structures. By taking advantage of signal processing approaches, features of the guided wave signals can be revealed. The results demonstrate that debonding in the lap splice joint results in arrival time delay of the first package in the guided wave signals, which can be the characteristic for debonding damage inspection and damage extent estimation.

  7. Evaluation of hemodynamics changes during interventional stent placement using Doppler optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuong, Barry; Genis, Helen; Wong, Ronnie; Ramjist, Joel; Jivraj, Jamil; Farooq, Hamza; Sun, Cuiru; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2015-03-01

    Carotid atherosclerosis is a critical medical concern that can lead to ischemic stroke. Local hemodynamic patterns have also been associated with the development of atherosclerosis, particularly in regions with disturbed flow patterns such as bifurcations. Traditionally, this disease was treated using carotid endarterectomy, however recently there is an increasing trend of carotid artery stenting due to its minimally invasive nature. It is well known that this interventional technique creates changes in vasculature geometry and hemodynamic patterns due to the interaction of stent struts with arterial lumen, and is associated with complications such as distal emboli and restenosis. Currently, there is no standard imaging technique to evaluate regional hemodynamic patterns found in stented vessels. Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) provides an opportunity to identify in vivo hemodynamic changes in vasculature using high-resolution imaging. In this study, blood flow profiles were examined at the bifurcation junction in the internal carotid artery (ICA) in a porcine model following stent deployment. Doppler imaging was further conducted using pulsatile flow in a phantom model, and then compared to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of a virtual bifurcation to assist with the interpretation of emphin vivo results.

  8. In vivo lung microvasculature visualized in three dimensions using fiber-optic color Doppler optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Anthony M. D.; Ohtani, Keishi; MacAulay, Calum; McWilliams, Annette; Shaipanich, Tawimas; Yang, Victor X. D.; Lam, Stephen; Lane, Pierre

    2013-05-01

    For the first time, the use of fiber-optic color Doppler optical coherence tomography (CDOCT) to map in vivo the three-dimensional (3-D) vascular network of airway segments in human lungs is demonstrated. Visualizing the 3-D vascular network in the lungs may provide new opportunities for detecting and monitoring lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. Our CDOCT instrument employs a rotary fiber-optic probe that provides simultaneous two-dimensional (2-D) real-time structural optical coherence tomography (OCT) and CDOCT imaging at frame rates up to 12.5 frames per second. Controlled pullback of the probe allows 3-D vascular mapping in airway segments up to 50 mm in length in a single acquisition. We demonstrate the ability of CDOCT to map both small and large vessels. In one example, CDOCT imaging allows assignment of a feature in the structural OCT image as a large (˜1 mm diameter) blood vessel. In a second example, a smaller vessel (˜80 μm diameter) that is indistinguishable in the structural OCT image is fully visualized in 3-D using CDOCT.

  9. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Doppler effect for an optical discharge source of shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tishchenko, V. N.

    2005-11-01

    The Doppler effect for a moving pulsating optical discharge producing periodic shock waves is considered. The manifestations of the effect are limited by the wave merging mechanism. The validity conditions were found for the effect in the case of a pulsating source of shock waves.

  10. Quantum lock-in force sensing using optical clock Doppler velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Shaniv, Ravid; Ozeri, Roee

    2017-02-10

    Force sensors are at the heart of different technologies such as atomic force microscopy or inertial sensing. These sensors often rely on the measurement of the displacement amplitude of mechanical oscillators under applied force. The best sensitivity is typically achieved when the force is alternating at the mechanical resonance frequency of the oscillator, thus increasing its response by the mechanical quality factor. The measurement of low-frequency forces, that are below resonance, is a more difficult task as the resulting oscillation amplitudes are significantly lower. Here we use a single-trapped (88)Sr(+) ion as a force sensor. The ion is electrically driven at a frequency much lower than the trap resonance frequency. We measure small amplitude of motion by measuring the periodic Doppler shift of an atomic optical clock transition, enhanced using the quantum lock-in technique. We report frequency force detection sensitivity as low as 2.8 × 10(-20) NHz(-1/2).

  11. Model for interpreting Doppler broadened optical line emission measurements on axially symmetric plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englert, G. W.; Patch, R. W.; Reinmann, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    A plasma model, previously developed to interpret neutral-particle analyzer measurements on E x B heating devices, is adapted to analyze Doppler broadened charge-exchange-neutral lines measured by an optical monochromator. Comparison of theoretical with experimental results indicates that azimuthal drift as well as cyclotron motion are quite influential in determining line shapes and widths, and thus important in temperature determination, even when the monochromator line of sight is intersecting the plasma axis of symmetry. At this central sighting position, however, results are quite insensitive to radial ion density distribution when time lag between the charge-exchange-excitation events and emission is neglected. Line shapes and widths obtained by sighting across chords of plasma at various distances from the plasma axis of symmetry indicate a strong dependence on time lag.

  12. Doppler mapping of an alternating-sign flow with complex geometry using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proskurin, S. G.; Potlov, A. Yu; Frolov, S. V.

    2014-01-01

    The method of sign-sensitive mapping of the given range of velocities in a flow with complex geometry based on the principles of optical coherence tomography is described. To produce an alternating-sign flow, the 1% aqueous intralipid solution and the tilted capillary entry with the contraction coefficient 4:1 are used. The mapping is controlled using two parameters, the value of one specific velocity (OSV) for mapping and the accuracy of its determination. The structure image and two OSV images (for positive and negative direction of motion) are obtained as a result of selecting and processing the relevant parts of the signal spectrum. The final image is a result of summing these three images and can be used as a Doppler equivelocity contour map.

  13. Doppler mapping of an alternating-sign flow with complex geometry using optical coherence tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Proskurin, S G; Potlov, A Yu; Frolov, S V

    2014-01-31

    The method of sign-sensitive mapping of the given range of velocities in a flow with complex geometry based on the principles of optical coherence tomography is described. To produce an alternating-sign flow, the 1% aqueous intralipid solution and the tilted capillary entry with the contraction coefficient 4:1 are used. The mapping is controlled using two parameters, the value of one specific velocity (OSV) for mapping and the accuracy of its determination. The structure image and two OSV images (for positive and negative direction of motion) are obtained as a result of selecting and processing the relevant parts of the signal spectrum. The final image is a result of summing these three images and can be used as a Doppler equivelocity contour map. (radiation scattering)

  14. Adaptive anisotropic diffusion for noise reduction of phase images in Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shaoyan; Huang, Yong; Peng, Shizhao; Wu, Yanfeng; Tan, Xiaodi

    2016-08-01

    Phase image in Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography offers additional flow information of investigated samples, which provides valuable evidence towards accurate medical diagnosis. High quality phase images are thus desirable. We propose a noise reduction method for phase images by combining a synthetic noise estimation criteria based on local noise estimator (LNE) and distance median value (DMV) with anisotropic diffusion model. By identifying noise and signal pixels accurately and diffusing them with different coefficients respectively and adaptive iteration steps, we demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed method in both phantom and mouse artery images. Comparison with other methods such as filtering method (mean, median filtering), wavelet method, probabilistic method and partial differential equation based methods in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), equivalent number of looks (ENL) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) showed the advantages of our method in reserving image energy and removing noise.

  15. Adaptive anisotropic diffusion for noise reduction of phase images in Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Shaoyan; Huang, Yong; Peng, Shizhao; Wu, Yanfeng; Tan, Xiaodi

    2016-01-01

    Phase image in Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography offers additional flow information of investigated samples, which provides valuable evidence towards accurate medical diagnosis. High quality phase images are thus desirable. We propose a noise reduction method for phase images by combining a synthetic noise estimation criteria based on local noise estimator (LNE) and distance median value (DMV) with anisotropic diffusion model. By identifying noise and signal pixels accurately and diffusing them with different coefficients respectively and adaptive iteration steps, we demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed method in both phantom and mouse artery images. Comparison with other methods such as filtering method (mean, median filtering), wavelet method, probabilistic method and partial differential equation based methods in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), equivalent number of looks (ENL) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) showed the advantages of our method in reserving image energy and removing noise. PMID:27570687

  16. Quantum lock-in force sensing using optical clock Doppler velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaniv, Ravid; Ozeri, Roee

    2017-02-01

    Force sensors are at the heart of different technologies such as atomic force microscopy or inertial sensing. These sensors often rely on the measurement of the displacement amplitude of mechanical oscillators under applied force. The best sensitivity is typically achieved when the force is alternating at the mechanical resonance frequency of the oscillator, thus increasing its response by the mechanical quality factor. The measurement of low-frequency forces, that are below resonance, is a more difficult task as the resulting oscillation amplitudes are significantly lower. Here we use a single-trapped 88Sr+ ion as a force sensor. The ion is electrically driven at a frequency much lower than the trap resonance frequency. We measure small amplitude of motion by measuring the periodic Doppler shift of an atomic optical clock transition, enhanced using the quantum lock-in technique. We report frequency force detection sensitivity as low as 2.8 × 10-20 NHz-1/2.

  17. Doppler-Free Two-Photon Absorption Spectroscopy of Naphthalene Assisted by AN Optical Frequency Comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Akiko; Matsuba, Ayumi; Misono, Masatoshi

    2014-06-01

    Optical frequency combs are powerful tools for precise frequency measurements in various wavelength regions. The combs have been applied not only to metrology, but also to molecular spectroscopy. Recently, we studied high resolution spectroscopy of iodine molecule assisted by an optical frequency comb. In the study, the comb was used for frequency calibration of a scanning dye laser. In this study, we developed a frequency calibration scheme with a comb and an acousto-optic modulator to realize more precise frequency measurement in a wide frequency range. And the frequency calibration scheme was applied to Doppler-free two-photon absorption (DFTPA) spectroscopy of naphthalene. Naphthalene is one of the prototypical aromatic molecules, and its detailed structure and dynamics in excited states have been reported. We measured DFTPA spectra of A^1B1u(v4=1) ← X^1A_g(v=0) transition around 298 nm. A part of obtained spectra is shown in the figure. The spectral lines are rotationally resolved and the resolution is about 100 kHz. The horizontal axis was calibrated by the developed frequency calibration system employing the comb. The uncertainties of the calibrated frequencies were determined by the fluctuations of the comb modes which were stabilized to a GPS-disciplined clock. A. Nishiyama, D. Ishikawa, and M. Misono, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 2107 (2013).

  18. Application of shadow Doppler velocimetry to paint spray: potential and limitations in sizing optically inhomogeneous droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morikita, Hiroshi; Taylor, Alexander M. K. P.

    1998-02-01

    This paper reports size measurement of droplets with optically inhomogeneous media by shadow Doppler velocimetry (SDV), which can provide spatially and temporally precise in situ readings of the size and velocity of a single particle with irregular shape and with arbitrary optical properties of the particle medium. In this work, water, instant coffee solution and water-based paint with various solid contents were measured to evaluate the capability and limitations of the measurement. The experiment with instant coffee solutions of 2 and 5% (wt:wt), which contained 0957-0233/9/2/009/img1m discrete particles, atomized by a standard paint spray gun, demonstrated that the accuracy of sizing was not affected by the optical properties of the medium. Insensitivity to the optical properties is one of the primary advantages of SDV over the other optical, single-particle sizing methods. As a further demonstration, paint samples atomized by the same gun containing solid flakes of nominal diameter 0957-0233/9/2/009/img2m were also measured. The results revealed a spatially uniform arithmetic mean diameter of 0957-0233/9/2/009/img3m and suggested that the atomization characteristics were influenced in the highest flake volume fraction case (red paint containing mica, 1.5%) with the result that the mean diameter was 20% larger than that of a similar paint with a smaller flake volume fraction (green paint containing aluminium, 0.4%). It was also found that the measurable number density is limited to no more than 1000 droplets 0957-0233/9/2/009/img4 in the case of droplets with an average size of 0957-0233/9/2/009/img5m.

  19. Experimental design and theoretical analysis on the proof experiment of the inverse Doppler effect at optical frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qiang; Liang, Binming; Hu, Aiqing

    2013-08-01

    The proof experiment of inverse Doppler effect is simulated by idealizing optical field distribution of laser as fundamental mode Gaussian beam. Two key factors, the detecting area and the angle from light to normal of detecting surface, are analyzed. The proof experiment conducted recently by our research team successfully shows that the experimental data are consistent with theoretical data. Our work lays a solid foundation for the design of experimental system and the coming experiments on the mechanism of inverse Doppler effect in negative index materials.

  20. Sub-Doppler spectroscopy based on optical pumping and transit relaxation of atoms in a thin gas cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izmailov, Azad Ch.

    2007-06-01

    The paper is the review of methods, achievements, and possibilities of the recently elaborated and well tested high-resolution laser spectroscopy based on sub-Doppler absorption and polarization resonances (on centers of quantum transitions), which arise because of the optical pumping and specific transit relaxation of atoms (molecules) in a thin cell with a rarefied gas. Theoretical basis of this spectroscopy is presented. Experimental technique and results on the record of the sub-Doppler spectral structure of Cs and Rb atoms and on the frequency stabilization of diode lasers by given spectroscopy methods are discussed.

  1. In vivo label-free measurement of lymph flow velocity and volumetric flow rates using Doppler optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Blatter, Cedric; Meijer, Eelco F. J.; Nam, Ahhyun S.; Jones, Dennis; Bouma, Brett E.; Padera, Timothy P.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    Direct in vivo imaging of lymph flow is key to understanding lymphatic system function in normal and disease states. Optical microscopy techniques provide the resolution required for these measurements, but existing optical techniques for measuring lymph flow require complex protocols and provide limited temporal resolution. Here, we describe a Doppler optical coherence tomography platform that allows direct, label-free quantification of lymph velocity and volumetric flow rates. We overcome the challenge of very low scattering by employing a Doppler algorithm that operates on low signal-to-noise measurements. We show that this technique can measure lymph velocity at sufficiently high temporal resolution to resolve the dynamic pulsatile flow in collecting lymphatic vessels. PMID:27377852

  2. In vivo label-free measurement of lymph flow velocity and volumetric flow rates using Doppler optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatter, Cedric; Meijer, Eelco F. J.; Nam, Ahhyun S.; Jones, Dennis; Bouma, Brett E.; Padera, Timothy P.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.

    2016-07-01

    Direct in vivo imaging of lymph flow is key to understanding lymphatic system function in normal and disease states. Optical microscopy techniques provide the resolution required for these measurements, but existing optical techniques for measuring lymph flow require complex protocols and provide limited temporal resolution. Here, we describe a Doppler optical coherence tomography platform that allows direct, label-free quantification of lymph velocity and volumetric flow rates. We overcome the challenge of very low scattering by employing a Doppler algorithm that operates on low signal-to-noise measurements. We show that this technique can measure lymph velocity at sufficiently high temporal resolution to resolve the dynamic pulsatile flow in collecting lymphatic vessels.

  3. Parabolic BM-scan technique for full range Doppler spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Jaillon, Franck; Makita, Shuichi; Yabusaki, Masaki; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-18

    A full range spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) technique that relies on the linear phase modulation of one of the interferometer arms has been widely utilized. Although this method is useful, the mirror image elimination is not perfect for samples in which regions with high axial motion exist. In this paper, we introduce a new modulation pattern to overcome this mirror image elimination failure. This new modulation is a parabolic phase modulation in the transverse scanning direction, and is applied to the SD-OCT reference beam by an electro-optic modulator. Flow phantom and in vivo experiments demonstrate that for moving structures with large velocities, this parabolic phase modulation technique presents better mirror image elimination than a standard linear phase modulation method. A direct consequence of this enhanced mirror image removal is an improved velocity range obtained with phase-resolved Doppler imaging. Consequently, applying the proposed technique in retinal blood flow measurements may be useful for ophthalmologic diagnosis.

  4. Laser system for Doppler cooling of ytterbium ion in an optical frequency standard

    SciTech Connect

    Chepurov, S V; Lugovoy, A A; Kuznetsov, S N

    2014-06-30

    A laser system for Doppler cooling of ytterbium ion on the {sup 2}S{sub 1/2} → {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} transition in a single-ion optical frequency standard is developed. The second harmonic of a semiconductor laser with a wavelength of 739 nm is used for cooling. The laser frequency is doubled in a nonlinear BiBO crystal embedded in a ring resonator, which also serves as a reference for laser frequency stabilisation. Second-harmonic power of ∼100 μW is generated at a wavelength of 369.5 nm. Diode laser radiation is modulated by an electro-optic modulator at 14.75 GHz to generate a sideband exciting the {sup 2}S{sub 1/2} (F = 0) → {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} (F = 1) hyperfine component of the cooling transition that is not excited by resonant cooling light. The sideband relative intensity of a few percent proved to be sufficient to reduce the ion dwelling time in the {sup 2}S{sub 1/2} (F = 0) state to less than 10{sup -4} s and increase the cooling efficiency. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  5. Common-path optical coherence tomography using a microelectromechanical-system-based endoscopic probe.

    PubMed

    Wang, Donglin; Duan, Can; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Yun, Zhao; Pozzi, Antonio; Xie, Huikai

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a common-path (CP) swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system based on a special endoscopic probe design with an in-line internal reflection as the reference and a two-axis electrothermal microelectromechanical system mirror for image scanning. The rear surface of a gradient reflective index (GRIN) lens inside the probe is set as the reference reflection plane. The length of the GRIN lens is optimized to eliminate the artifacts in SSOCT images successfully. Doppler OCT is also demonstrated based on the CP endoscopic probe. The diameter of the probe is only 2.5 mm, so it can be easily inserted into the biopsy channel of traditional endoscopes to access human internal organs for in vivo diagnoses.

  6. Total retinal blood flow and reproducibility evaluation by three beam optical Doppler tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haindl, Richard; Trasischker, Wolfgang; Wartak, Andreas; Baumann, Bernhard; Pircher, Michael; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

    2016-03-01

    We present a three beam optical Doppler tomography (ODT) technique suitable for 3-D velocity and flow measurements to evaluate total retinal blood circulation from and to the optic nerve head (ONH). The system consists of three independent ODT channels. Superluminescent diodes with a central wavelength of 840 nm and a spectral bandwidth of 50 nm were used. The sources are coupled to collimators resting in a specially designed mount to ensure a well-defined beam geometry, necessary for the full reconstruction of the three dimensional velocity vector. The reconstruction works without prior knowledge on the vessel geometry, which is normally required for ODT systems with less than three beams. The beams share a common bulk optics Michelson interferometer, while the detection comprises three identical spectrometers with a line scan rate of 50 kHz. 20 eyes of healthy volunteers were imaged with the 3 beam ODT, employing a circular scan pattern around the ONH. The mean total blood flow was calculated for arteries (47.1 +/- 2.4 μl/min (mean +/- SD)) and veins (47.1 +/- 2.7 μl/min μl/min) independently. The two results showed no significant difference (paired t-test, p < 0.96), rendering both equally reliable for total flow measurements. Furthermore the reproducibility of the method was evaluated for the total flow and flow, velocities within each individual vessel of 6 eyes. The average variation for total flow measurements is sufficiently low to detect deviations of ~ 6% indicating high precision of the proposed method.

  7. Using Doppler shift induced by Galvanometric mirror scanning to reach shot noise limit with laser optical feedback imaging setup.

    PubMed

    Jacquin, O; Lacot, E; Hugon, O; Guillet de Chatelus, H

    2015-03-10

    This paper proposes what we believe is a new method to remove the contribution of parasitic reflections in the images of the laser optical feedback imaging (LOFI) technique. This simple method allows us to extend the LOFI technique to long-distance applications, as imaging through a fog or a smoke. The LOFI technique is an ultrasensitive imaging technique that is interesting for imaging objects through a scattering medium. However, the LOFI sensitivity can be dramatically limited by parasitic optical feedback occurring in the experimental setup. In previous papers [Appl. Opt.48, 64 (2009)10.1364/AO.48.000064APOPAI1559-128X, Opt. Lett.37, 2514 (2012)10.1364/OL.37.002514OPLEDP0146-9592], we already have proposed methods to filter a parasitic optical feedback, but they are not well suited to metric working distances. This new method uses a Doppler frequency shift induced by the moving mirror used to scan the object to be imaged. Using this Doppler frequency shift, we can distinguish the photons reflected by the target and the parasitic photons reflected by the optical components in the experimental setup. In this paper, we demonstrated theoretically and experimentally the possibility to filter the parasitic reflection in LOFI images using the Doppler frequency shift. This method significantly improves the signal-to-noise ratio by a factor 15 and we can obtain a shot noise limited image through a scattering medium of an object at 3 m from the detector.

  8. Evaluation of a multimode fiber optic low coherence interferometer for path length resolved Doppler measurements of diffuse light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; Van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2007-12-01

    The performance of a graded index multimode fiber optic low coherence Mach-Zehnder interferometer with phase modulation is analyzed. Investigated aspects were its ability to measure path length distributions and to perform path length resolved Doppler measurements of multiple scattered photons in a turbid suspension of particles undergoing Brownian and translational motion. The path length resolution of this instrument is compared with a system using single mode fibers for illumination and detection. The optical path lengths are determined from the zero order moment of the phase modulation peak in the power spectrum. The weighted first moment, which is equal to the average Doppler shift, shows a linear response for different mean flow velocities within the physiological range.

  9. Assessment of total retinal blood flow using Doppler Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography during systemic hypercapnia and hypocapnia.

    PubMed

    Shahidi, Ayda M; Patel, Sunni R; Huang, David; Tan, Ou; Flanagan, John G; Hudson, Chris

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in total retinal blood flow (RBF) using Doppler Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (Doppler FD-OCT) in response to the manipulation of systemic partial pressure of CO2 (PETCO2). Double circular Doppler blood flow scans were captured in nine healthy individuals (mean age ± standard deviation: 27.1 ± 4.1, six males) using the RTVue(™) FD-OCT (Optovue). PETCO2 was manipulated using a custom-designed computer-controlled gas blender (RespirAct(™)) connected to a sequential gas delivery rebreathing circuit. Doppler FD-OCT measurements were captured at baseline, during stages of hypercapnia (+5/+10/+15 mmHg PETCO2), return to baseline and during stages of hypocapnia (-5/-10/-15 mmHg PETCO2). Repeated measures analysis of variance (reANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc analysis were used to compare Doppler FD-OCT measurements between the various PETCO2 levels relative to baseline. The effect of PETCO2 on TRBF was also investigated using linear regression models. The average RBF significantly increased by 15% (P < 0.0001) with an increase in PETCO2 and decreased significantly by 10% with a decrease in PETCO2 (P = 0.001). Venous velocity significantly increased by 3.11% from baseline to extreme hypercapnia (P < 0.001) and reduced significantly by 2.01% at extreme hypocapnia (P = 0.012). No significant changes were found in the average venous area measurements under hypercapnia (P = 0.36) or hypocapnia (P = 0.40). Overall, increased and decreased PETCO2 values had a significant effect on RBF outcomes (P < 0.002). In healthy individuals, altered end-tidal CO2 levels significantly changed RBF as measured by Doppler FD-OCT.

  10. Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging of local fluid flow and shear stress within microporous scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yali; Bagnaninchi, Pierre O.; Yang, Ying; Haj, Alicia El; Hinds, Monica T.; Kirkpatrick, Sean J.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2009-05-01

    Establishing a relationship between perfusion rate and fluid shear stress in a 3D cell culture environment is an ongoing and challenging task faced by tissue engineers. We explore Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) as a potential imaging tool for in situ monitoring of local fluid flow profiles inside porous chitosan scaffolds. From the measured fluid flow profiles, the fluid shear stresses are evaluated. We examine the localized fluid flow and shear stress within low- and high-porosity chitosan scaffolds, which are subjected to a constant input flow rate of 0.5 ml.min-1. The DOCT results show that the behavior of the fluid flow and shear stress in micropores is strongly dependent on the micropore interconnectivity, porosity, and size of pores within the scaffold. For low-porosity and high-porosity chitosan scaffolds examined, the measured local fluid flow and shear stress varied from micropore to micropore, with a mean shear stress of 0.49+/-0.3 dyn.cm-2 and 0.38+/-0.2 dyn.cm-2, respectively. In addition, we show that the scaffold's porosity and interconnectivity can be quantified by combining analyses of the 3D structural and flow images obtained from DOCT.

  11. Quantum lock-in force sensing using optical clock Doppler velocimetry

    PubMed Central

    Shaniv, Ravid; Ozeri, Roee

    2017-01-01

    Force sensors are at the heart of different technologies such as atomic force microscopy or inertial sensing. These sensors often rely on the measurement of the displacement amplitude of mechanical oscillators under applied force. The best sensitivity is typically achieved when the force is alternating at the mechanical resonance frequency of the oscillator, thus increasing its response by the mechanical quality factor. The measurement of low-frequency forces, that are below resonance, is a more difficult task as the resulting oscillation amplitudes are significantly lower. Here we use a single-trapped 88Sr+ ion as a force sensor. The ion is electrically driven at a frequency much lower than the trap resonance frequency. We measure small amplitude of motion by measuring the periodic Doppler shift of an atomic optical clock transition, enhanced using the quantum lock-in technique. We report frequency force detection sensitivity as low as 2.8 × 10−20 NHz−1/2. PMID:28186103

  12. In vivo imaging of melanoma-implanted magnetic nanoparticles using contrast-enhanced magneto-motive optical Doppler tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Park, Kibeom; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2016-06-01

    We conducted an initial feasibility study using real-time magneto-motive optical Doppler tomography (MM-ODT) with enhanced contrast to investigate the detection of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) magnetic nanoparticles implanted into in vivo melanoma tissue. The MM-ODT signals were detected owing to the phase shift of the implanted magnetic nanoparticles, which occurred due to the action of an applied magnetic field. An amplifier circuit-based solenoid was utilized for generating high-intensity oscillating magnetic fields. The MM-ODT system was confirmed as an effective in vivo imaging method for detecting melanoma tissue, with the performance comparable to those of conventional optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography methods. Moreover, the optimal values of the SPIO nanoparticles concentration and solenoid voltage for obtaining the uppermost Doppler velocity were derived as well. To improve the signal processing speed for real-time imaging, we adopted multithread programming techniques and optimized the signal path. The results suggest that this imaging modality can be used as a powerful tool to identify the intracellular and extracellular SPIO nanoparticles in melanoma tissues in vivo.

  13. Laser-Doppler velocity profile sensor with submicrometer spatial resolution that employs fiber optics and a diffractive lens.

    PubMed

    Büttner, Lars; Czarske, Jürgen; Knuppertz, Hans

    2005-04-20

    We report a novel laser-Doppler velocity profile sensor for microfluidic and nanofluidic applications and turbulence research. The sensors design is based on wavelength-division multiplexing. The high dispersion of a diffractive lens is used to generate a measurement volume with convergent and divergent interference fringes by means of two laser wavelengths. Evaluation of the scattered light from tracers allows velocity gradients to be measured in flows with submicrometer spatial resolution inside a measurement volume of 700-microm length. Using diffraction optics and fiber optics, we achieved a miniaturized and robust velocity profile sensor for highly resolved velocity measurements.

  14. Advances in Doppler OCT

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gangjun; Chen, Zhongping

    2014-01-01

    We review the principle and some recent applications of Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT). The advances of the phase-resolved Doppler OCT method are described. Functional OCT algorithms which are based on an extension of the phase-resolved scheme are also introduced. Recent applications of Doppler OCT for quantification of flow, imaging of microvasculature and vocal fold vibration, and optical coherence elastography are briefly discussed. PMID:24443649

  15. Three-dimensional Doppler, polarization-gradient, and magneto-optical forces for atoms and molecules with dark states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devlin, J. A.; Tarbutt, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    We theoretically investigate the damping and trapping forces in a three-dimensional magneto-optical trap (MOT), by numerically solving the optical Bloch equations. We focus on the case where there are dark states because the atom is driven on a ‘type-II’ system where the angular momentum of the excited state, F\\prime , is less than or equal to that of the ground state, F. For these systems we find that the force in a three-dimensional light field has very different behaviour to its one dimensional counterpart. This differs from the more commonly used ‘type-I’ systems (F\\prime =F+1) where the 1D and 3D behaviours are similar. Unlike type-I systems where, for red-detuned light, both Doppler and sub-Doppler forces damp the atomic motion towards zero velocity, in type-II systems in 3D, the Doppler force and polarization gradient force have opposite signs. As a result, the atom is driven towards a non-zero equilibrium velocity, v 0, where the two forces cancel. We find that {v}02 scales linearly with the intensity of the light and is fairly insensitive to the detuning from resonance. We also discover a new magneto-optical force that alters the normal MOT force at low magnetic fields and whose influence is greatest in the type-II systems. We discuss the implications of these findings for the laser cooling and magneto-optical trapping of molecules where type-II transitions are unavoidable in realising closed optical cycling transitions.

  16. High-speed polarization-sensitive OCT at 1060 nm using a Fourier domain mode-locked swept source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschall, Sebastian; Torzicky, Teresa; Klein, Thomas; Wieser, Wolfgang; Pircher, Michael; Götzinger, Erich; Zotter, Stefan; Bonesi, Marco; Biedermann, Benjamin; Pedersen, Christian; Huber, Robert; Hitzenberger, Christoph; Andersen, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the 1060nm range is interesting for in vivo imaging of the human posterior eye segment (retina, choroid, sclera), as it permits a long penetration depth. Complementary to structural images, polarization-sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) images visualize birefringent, polarization-maintaining or depolarizing areas within the sample. This information can be used to distinguish retinal layers and structures with different polarization properties. High imaging speed is crucial for imaging ocular structures in vivo in order to minimize motion artifacts while acquiring sufficiently large datasets. Here, we demonstrate PS-OCT imaging at 350 kHz A-scan rate using a two-channel PS-OCT system in conjunction with a Fourier domain mode-locked laser. The light source spectrum spans up to 100nm around the water absorption minimum at 1060 nm. By modulating the laser pump current, we can optimize the spectrum and achieve a depth resolution of 9 μm in air (6.5 μm in tissue). We acquired retinal images in vivo with high resolution and deep penetration into choroid and sclera, and features like the depolarizing RPE or an increasing phase retardation at the chorio-scleral interface are clearly visualized.

  17. Portable fiber optic coupled Doppler interferometer system for detonation and shock wave diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Kevin J.

    1993-01-01

    Testing and analysis of shock wave characteristics such as detonators and ground shock propagation frequently require a method of measuring velocity and displacement of the surface of interest. One method of measurement is Doppler interferometry. The VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) uses Doppler interferometry and has gained wide acceptance as the preferred tool for shock measurement. An important asset of VISAR is that it measures velocity and displacement nonintrusively.

  18. 'Son et lumière': a new combined optical and Doppler ultrasound approach to the detection of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Watmough, D J; Moran, C; Watmough, J A

    1988-04-01

    X-ray mammography is the gold standard for diagnosis of lesions within the female breast. It is also recognized as the technique of choice for breast cancer screening in women over 50-years-old. Notwithstanding these important roles it has shortcomings in terms of limited sensitivity and specificity, especially in younger women. This paper describes the concept of a combined optical density and Doppler ultrasound method proposed initially as a supplement to mammography. A specially devised tissue compressor is also described. Results obtained using test phantoms and initial clinical studies are presented. Neovascularization at the advancing front of neoplastic lesions is believed to underlie detection of lesions by both telediaphanography and Doppler ultrasound.

  19. Fibre Optic Laser Doppler Anemometry, The Potential For Measurements In Man.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpatrick, Walker D.

    1984-10-01

    Fibre optic laser Doppler anemometry (FOLDA) is a useful technique for in vitro studies but has yet to be used successfully for the measurement of intravascular velocity in man. Some reasons for this are: 1. The difficulty of locating the position of the fibre within the vessel. 2. Lack of knowledge of the precise velocity profile across the vessel. 3. The effects of flow perturbation at the tip of the probe. These problems have been assessed using a FOLDA system developed in our laboratory. Three dimensional velocity profiles of blood flowing in arteries with and without stenoses have been plotted at different rates of flow. The results show that the parabolic profile of fully developed laminar flow is flattened in an arterial stenosis and the degree of flattening increases as flow increases. This means the relationship of the flow and velocity is nonlinear. Any use of FOLDA to assess vessel dimension must take this into account. The position of the fibre in the vessel can only be adequately controlled in in-vitro studies. The region of measurement is only 50 μm diameter and must be at the position of the peak velocity to enable quantitative measurement. Thus the technique is useful in humans only when there is a flat velocity profile such as in the coronary sinus. The relationship between coronary sinus flow and FOLDA velocity is linear in experimental animals. The current FOLDA system has a limited range of projection into the blood stream. The velocity is not linearly related to blood flow when the direction of flow is the same as the projected light, probably due to flow perturbation at the fibre tip. This means that a probe introduced into a coronary artey would not measure linear flow however a probe introduced against the flow could be used to assess the severity of peripheral arterial stenoses. To measure flow across a stenoses before and after angioplasty is possible but requires a method of obtaining an average spatial velocity before it is practicable.

  20. En face Doppler total retinal blood flow measurement with 70 kHz spectral optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ou; Liu, Gangjun; Liang, Liu; Gao, Simon S.; Pechauer, Alex D.; Jia, Yali; Huang, David

    2015-06-01

    An automated algorithm was developed for total retinal blood flow (TRBF) using 70-kHz spectral optical coherence tomography (OCT). The OCT was calibrated for the transformation from Doppler shift to speed based on a flow phantom. The TRBF scan pattern contained five repeated volume scans (2×2 mm) obtained in 3 s and centered on central retinal vessels in the optic disc. The TRBF was calculated using an en face Doppler technique. For each retinal vein, blood flow was measured at an optimal plane where the calculated flow was maximized. The TRBF was calculated by summing flow in all veins. The algorithm tracked vascular branching so that either root or branch veins are summed, but never both. The TRBF in five repeated volumes were averaged to reduce variation due to cardiac cycle pulsation. Finally, the TRBF was corrected for eye length variation. Twelve healthy eyes and 12 glaucomatous eyes were enrolled to test the algorithm. The TRBF was 45.4±6.7 μl/min for healthy control and 34.7±7.6 μl/min for glaucomatous participants (p-value=0.01). The intravisit repeatability was 8.6% for healthy controls and 8.4% for glaucoma participants. The proposed automated method provided repeatable TRBF measurement.

  1. En face Doppler total retinal blood flow measurement with 70 kHz spectral optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ou; Liu, Gangjun; Liang, Liu; Gao, Simon S.; Pechauer, Alex D.; Jia, Yali; Huang, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. An automated algorithm was developed for total retinal blood flow (TRBF) using 70-kHz spectral optical coherence tomography (OCT). The OCT was calibrated for the transformation from Doppler shift to speed based on a flow phantom. The TRBF scan pattern contained five repeated volume scans (2×2  mm) obtained in 3 s and centered on central retinal vessels in the optic disc. The TRBF was calculated using an en face Doppler technique. For each retinal vein, blood flow was measured at an optimal plane where the calculated flow was maximized. The TRBF was calculated by summing flow in all veins. The algorithm tracked vascular branching so that either root or branch veins are summed, but never both. The TRBF in five repeated volumes were averaged to reduce variation due to cardiac cycle pulsation. Finally, the TRBF was corrected for eye length variation. Twelve healthy eyes and 12 glaucomatous eyes were enrolled to test the algorithm. The TRBF was 45.4±6.7  μl/min for healthy control and 34.7±7.6  μl/min for glaucomatous participants (p-value=0.01). The intravisit repeatability was 8.6% for healthy controls and 8.4% for glaucoma participants. The proposed automated method provided repeatable TRBF measurement. PMID:26062663

  2. Discretely swept optical coherence tomography system using super-structure grating distributed Bragg reflector lasers at 1561-1639nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, D.; Yoshimura, R.; Hiro-Oka, H.; Furukawa, H.; Goto, A.; Satoh, N.; Igarashi, A.; Nakanishi, M.; Shimizu, K.; Ohbayashi, K.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system with an optical comb swept source system. The swept source system comprised of two super-structured grating distributed Bragg reflector lasers covering a wavelength range from 1561-1693 nm. A method to scan these lasers to obtain an interference signal without stitching noises, which are inherent in these lasers, and to connect two lasers without concatenation noise is explained. Method to reduce optical aliasing noises in this optical comb swept laser OCT is explained and demonstrated based on the characteristic of the optical aliasing noises in this particular OCT system. By reduction of those noises, a sensitivity of 124 dB was realized. The A-scan rate, resolution and depth range were 3.1 kHz, 16 μm (in air) and 12 mm, respectively. Deep imaging penetration into tissue is demonstrated for two selected samples.

  3. A study of atmospheric optical scattering parameters at 1.5 and 2 micron region for solid state Doppler lidar applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margalit, Eli; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Benoist, Rodney; Dubinsky, Richard

    1992-01-01

    The increasing interest in the development of an eye-safe, solid state, Doppler lidar for avionic applications has created the need for a quantitative evaluation of atmospheric effects on performance. Theoretical calculations were completed for optical scattering parameters to be compared with the field measurements. Computer codes were developed for the required calculations and designed to be interactive and user friendly in order to support comparison with experimental results and, thus, provide the basis for evaluation of eye-safe Doppler lidar over a wide range of atmospheric conditions and geographical locations. A holmium Doppler lidar operating at 2.09 microns was constructed for atmospheric backscattering, attenuation, and wind velocity measurements. Theoretical calculations and field studies were performed for backscatter coefficients. The selected wavelengths correspond to Er:glass, Tm:YAG, and Tm,Ho:YAG solid state lasers that are suitable for use in an eye-safe Doppler lidar system.

  4. Development of fiber optic laser Doppler velocimeter for measurement of local blood velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohba, Kenkich; Fujiwara, Noboru

    1993-08-01

    In order to measure the local velocity field in opaque fluid flows like blood flow, a new laser Doppler velocimeter having a pickup consisting of a small distributed index lens attached to the tips of two fibers which are joined side by side in parallel has been newly developed. The distributed index lens is the shape of a truncated cone. The flow field around this sensor has been measured very precisely by means of an ordinary LDV. The effect of turbidity of fluid on the quality of the laser Doppler signal from this sensor has been examined by experiments. As a result, it has been shown that this LDV sensor has a high signal-to-noise ratio, and that the disturbance against flow by the sensor is very small, and it is very promising as a velocity sensor for opaque or semi-opaque fluid flow like blood flow.

  5. Absolute wavelength calibration of a Doppler spectrometer with a custom Fabry-Perot optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltzer, M. M.; Craig, D.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Nishizawa, T.; Nornberg, M. D.

    2016-11-01

    An Ion Doppler Spectrometer (IDS) is used for fast measurements of C VI line emission (343.4 nm) in the Madison Symmetric Torus. Absolutely calibrated flow measurements are difficult because the IDS records data within 0.25 nm of the line. Commercial calibration lamps do not produce lines in this narrow range. A light source using an ultraviolet LED and etalon was designed to provide a fiducial marker 0.08 nm wide. The light is coupled into the IDS at f/4, and a holographic diffuser increases homogeneity of the final image. Random and systematic errors in data analysis were assessed. The calibration is accurate to 0.003 nm, allowing for flow measurements accurate to 3 km/s. This calibration is superior to the previous method which used a time-averaged measurement along a chord believed to have zero net Doppler shift.

  6. Absolute wavelength calibration of a Doppler spectrometer with a custom Fabry-Perot optical system.

    PubMed

    Baltzer, M M; Craig, D; Den Hartog, D J; Nishizawa, T; Nornberg, M D

    2016-11-01

    An Ion Doppler Spectrometer (IDS) is used for fast measurements of C VI line emission (343.4 nm) in the Madison Symmetric Torus. Absolutely calibrated flow measurements are difficult because the IDS records data within 0.25 nm of the line. Commercial calibration lamps do not produce lines in this narrow range. A light source using an ultraviolet LED and etalon was designed to provide a fiducial marker 0.08 nm wide. The light is coupled into the IDS at f/4, and a holographic diffuser increases homogeneity of the final image. Random and systematic errors in data analysis were assessed. The calibration is accurate to 0.003 nm, allowing for flow measurements accurate to 3 km/s. This calibration is superior to the previous method which used a time-averaged measurement along a chord believed to have zero net Doppler shift.

  7. Measurement of retinal blood flow in the rat by combining Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography with fundus imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werkmeister, René M.; Vietauer, Martin; Knopf, Corinna; Fürnsinn, Clemens; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Reitsamer, Herbert; Gröschl, Martin; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Vilser, Walthard; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2014-10-01

    A wide variety of ocular diseases are associated with abnormalities in ocular circulation. As such, there is considerable interest in techniques for quantifying retinal blood flow, among which Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) may be the most promising. We present an approach to measure retinal blood flow in the rat using a new optical system that combines the measurement of blood flow velocities via Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography and the measurement of vessel diameters using a fundus camera-based technique. Relying on fundus images for extraction of retinal vessel diameters instead of OCT images improves the reliability of the technique. The system was operated with an 841-nm superluminescent diode and a charge-coupled device camera that could be operated at a line rate of 20 kHz. We show that the system is capable of quantifying the response of 100% oxygen breathing on the retinal blood flow. In six rats, we observed a decrease in retinal vessel diameters of 13.2% and a decrease in retinal blood velocity of 42.6%, leading to a decrease in retinal blood flow of 56.7%. Furthermore, in four rats, the response of retinal blood flow during stimulation with diffuse flicker light was assessed. Retinal vessel diameter and blood velocity increased by 3.4% and 28.1%, respectively, leading to a relative increase in blood flow of 36.2%;. The presented technique shows much promise to quantify early changes in retinal blood flow during provocation with various stimuli in rodent models of ocular diseases in rats.

  8. Measurement of retinal blood flow in the rat by combining Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography with fundus imaging.

    PubMed

    Werkmeister, René M; Vietauer, Martin; Knopf, Corinna; Fürnsinn, Clemens; Leitgeb, Rainer A; Reitsamer, Herbert; Gröschl, Martin; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Vilser, Walthard; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of ocular diseases are associated with abnormalities in ocular circulation. As such, there is considerable interest in techniques for quantifying retinal blood flow, among which Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) may be the most promising. We present an approach to measure retinal blood flow in the rat using a new optical system that combines the measurement of blood flow velocities via Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography and the measurement of vessel diameters using a fundus camera-based technique. Relying on fundus images for extraction of retinal vessel diameters instead of OCT images improves the reliability of the technique. The system was operated with an 841-nm superluminescent diode and a charge-coupled device camera that could be operated at a line rate of 20 kHz. We show that the system is capable of quantifying the response of 100% oxygen breathing on the retinal blood flow. In six rats, we observed a decrease in retinal vessel diameters of 13.2% and a decrease in retinal blood velocity of 42.6%, leading to a decrease in retinal blood flow of 56.7%. Furthermore, in four rats, the response of retinal blood flow during stimulation with diffuse flicker light was assessed. Retinal vessel diameter and blood velocity increased by 3.4% and 28.1%, respectively, leading to a relative increase in blood flow of 36.2%. The presented technique shows much promise to quantify early changes in retinal blood flow during provocation with various stimuli in rodent models of ocular diseases in rats.

  9. Ultrahigh-velocity resolution imaging of the microcirculation in-vivo using color Doppler optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdanfar, Siavash; Rollins, Andrew M.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2001-05-01

    Color Doppler optical coherence tomography (CDOCT) is a method for noninvasive cross-sectional imaging of blood flow in vivo. In previous implementations, velocity estimates were obtained by measuring the frequency shift of discrete depth-resolved backscatter spectra, resulting in a velocity resolution on the order of 1 mm/s. We present a novel processing method that detects Doppler shifts calculated across sequential axial scans, enabling ultrahigh velocity resolution (~1 micron/s) flow measurement in scattering media. This method of sequential scan processing was calibrated with a moving mirror mounted on a precision motorized translator. Latex microspheres suspended in deuterium oxide were used as a highly scattering test phantom. Laminar flow profiles down to ~15 micron/s centerline velocity (0.02 cc/hr) were observed with a sensitivity of 1.2 micron/s. Finally, vessels on the order of 10 microns in diameter were imaged in living human skin, with a relative frequency sensitivity less than 4 x 10-5. To our knowledge, these results are the lowest velocities ever measured with CDOCT.

  10. Formulation of geopotential difference determination using optical-atomic clocks onboard satellites and on ground based on Doppler cancellation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ziyu; Shen, Wen-Bin; Zhang, Shuangxi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we propose an approach for determining the geopotential difference using high-frequency-stability microwave links between satellite and ground station based on Doppler cancellation system. Suppose a satellite and a ground station are equipped with precise optical-atomic clocks (OACs) and oscillators. The ground oscillator emits a signal with frequency fa towards the satellite and the satellite receiver (connected with the satellite oscillator) receives this signal with frequency fb which contains the gravitational frequency shift effect and other signals and noises. After receiving this signal, the satellite oscillator transmits and emits, respectively, two signals with frequencies fb and fc towards the ground station. Via Doppler cancellation technique, the geopotential difference between the satellite and the ground station can be determined based on gravitational frequency shift equation by a combination of these three frequencies. For arbitrary two stations on ground, based on similar procedures as described above, we may determine the geopotential difference between these two stations via a satellite. Our analysis shows that the accuracy can reach 1 m2 s- 2 based on the clocks' inaccuracy of about 10-17 (s s-1) level. Since OACs with instability around 10-18 in several hours and inaccuracy around 10-18 level have been generated in laboratory, the proposed approach may have prospective applications in geoscience, and especially, based on this approach a unified world height system could be realized with one-centimetre level accuracy in the near future.

  11. Measurement of Retinal Blood Flow in Normal Chinese-American Subjects by Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, Sowmya; Tan, Ou; Wu, Shuang; Nittala, Muneeswar Gupta; Huang, David; Varma, Rohit; Sadda, SriniVas R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To measure total retinal blood flow (TRBF) in normal, healthy Chinese Americans by using semi-automated analysis of Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) scans. Methods. Two hundred sixty-six normal, healthy Chinese-American participants (266 eyes) were enrolled from The Chinese American Eye Study. All participants underwent complete ophthalmic examination, including best-corrected visual acuity, indirect ophthalmoscopy, and Doppler FD-OCT imaging, using the circumpapillary double circular scan protocol. Total retinal blood flow and other vascular parameters (e.g., venous and arterial cross-sectional area and their velocities) were calculated by using Doppler OCT of Retinal Circulation software. Associations between TRBF and other clinical parameters were assessed by using bivariate correlations and linear regression. Results. The mean age of study participants was 57.40 ± 5.60 (range, 50–82) years. The mean TRBF was 49.34 ± 10.08 (range, 27.17–78.08, 95% confidence interval: 25.98–69.10) μL/min. The mean venous area was 0.0548 (±0.0084) mm2. Superior retinal hemispheric blood flow (25.50 ± 6.62 μL/min) was slightly greater than inferior retinal hemispheric blood flow (23.84 ± 7.19 μL/min, P = 0.008). The mean flow velocity was 15.16 ± 3.12 mm/s. There was a weak but significant negative correlation between TRBF and age (r = −0.15, P = 0.012). No significant correlation was found between TRBF and axial length (r = 0.11, P = 0.08). Retinal blood flow was not significantly correlated with any other clinical parameters, including body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and intraocular pressure. Conclusions. Normal Doppler OCT-derived total retinal blood values in a Chinese-American population showed considerable variability, some of which was explained by age. These observations should help design future studies evaluating TRBF in populations with eye disease. PMID:25670487

  12. Doppler-broadened mid-infrared noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry based on an optical parametric oscillator for trace gas detection.

    PubMed

    Silander, Isak; Hausmaninger, Thomas; Ma, Weiguang; Harren, Frans J M; Axner, Ove

    2015-02-15

    An optical parametric oscillator based Doppler-broadened (Db) noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry (NICE-OHMS) system suitable for addressing fundamental vibrational transitions in the 3.2-3.9 μm mid-infrared (MIR) region has been realized. An Allan-Werle analysis provides a detection sensitivity of methane of 1.5×10(-9)  cm(-1) with a 20 s integration time, which corresponds to 90 ppt of CH4 if detected at the strongest transition addressed at 40 Torr. This supersedes that of previous Db MIR NICE-OHMS demonstrations and suggests that the technique can be suitable for detection of both the environmentally important (13)CH(4) and CH3D isotopologues. It also opens up for detection of many other molecular species at ppt and sub-ppt concentration levels.

  13. Visualisation of the oscillation dynamics of cytoplasm in a living cell of Physarum mixomycete plasmodium by the method of optical coherence Doppler tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Bykov, A V; Priezzhev, A V; Lauri, J; Myllylae, Risto

    2009-04-30

    The method of optical coherence Doppler tomography is used for the first time to visualise the oscillatory amoeboid mobility in strands of Physarum polycephalum mixomycete plasmodium and to record periodic radial contractions of the strands and spatiotemporal variations in the velocity of the cytoplasmic flow inside them. (laser biology)

  14. The measurement of sperm motility by the fibre optic Doppler anemometer as a prediction of bovine fertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, J. G.; Ross, D. A.

    The fibre optic Doppler anemometer (FODA) has been used to develop an accurate quantitative method of routinely assessing bull fertility. This method is of importance to the artificial insemination industry because the present qualitative estimation, performed by viewing semen using a microscope, can only set broad limits of quality. Laser light from the FODA was directed into diluted semen samples and the back scattered light was measured. A digital correlator was used to calculate the signal correlation of the back scattered light. The resultant data curves were interpreted in terms of the collective motility and swimming speed of the spermatozoa using a microcomputer. These two parameters are accepted as being indicative of fertility. The accuracy of this method is demonstrated by examination of results obtained in an experiment where enzymes, thought to alter fertility, were added to semen. The effect of the enzymes on the swimming speed and motility was clearly demonstrated.

  15. Multimodal reconstruction of microvascular-flow distributions using combined two-photon microscopy and Doppler optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Louis; Sakadžić, Sava; Lesage, Fréderic; Mandeville, Emiri T.; Fang, Qianqian; Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Boas, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Computing microvascular cerebral blood flow (μCBF) in real cortical angiograms is challenging. Here, we investigated whether the use of Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) flow measurements in individual vessel segments can help in reconstructing μCBF across the entire vasculature of a truncated cortical angiogram. A μCBF computational framework integrating DOCT measurements is presented. Simulations performed on a synthetic angiogram showed that the addition of DOCT measurements, especially close to large inflowing or outflowing vessels, reduces the impact of pressure boundary conditions and estimated vessel resistances resulting in a more accurate reconstruction of μCBF. Our technique was then applied to reconstruct microvascular flow distributions in the mouse cortex down to 660  μm by combining two-photon laser scanning microscopy angiography with DOCT. PMID:26157987

  16. Multimodal reconstruction of microvascular-flow distributions using combined two-photon microscopy and Doppler optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Louis; Sakadžić, Sava; Lesage, Fréderic; Mandeville, Emiri T; Fang, Qianqian; Yaseen, Mohammad A; Boas, David A

    2015-01-01

    Computing microvascular cerebral blood flow ([Formula: see text]) in real cortical angiograms is challenging. Here, we investigated whether the use of Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) flow measurements in individual vessel segments can help in reconstructing [Formula: see text] across the entire vasculature of a truncated cortical angiogram. A [Formula: see text] computational framework integrating DOCT measurements is presented. Simulations performed on a synthetic angiogram showed that the addition of DOCT measurements, especially close to large inflowing or outflowing vessels, reduces the impact of pressure boundary conditions and estimated vessel resistances resulting in a more accurate reconstruction of [Formula: see text]. Our technique was then applied to reconstruct microvascular flow distributions in the mouse cortex down to [Formula: see text] by combining two-photon laser scanning microscopy angiography with DOCT.

  17. Three-beam Doppler optical coherence tomography using a facet prism telescope and MEMS mirror for improved transversal resolution.

    PubMed

    Haindl, R; Trasischker, W; Baumann, B; Pircher, M; Hitzenberger, C K

    An improved three-beam Doppler optical coherence tomography system was developed. It utilizes a custom-made three-facet prism telescope to improve the transversal resolution at the sample. Furthermore, a two-axis gimbal-less MEMS mirror is used to minimize off-pivot beam movement at the pupil of the eye, enabling circular scanning for in vivo retinal measurements. We demonstrate the system's abilities for in vitro circular scanning to measure absolute flow and to reconstruct the full velocity vector on a bifurcation flow phantom. Moreover, in vivo retinal measurements using circular scanning around vessel bifurcations of healthy human volunteers were performed. Measurements of the absolute mean flow and its orientation are in good agreement with the expected values for in vitro measurements. For in vivo measurements, the in- and outflow of blood for retinal vessel bifurcations show an excellent agreement, demonstrating the reliability of the technique.

  18. Three-beam Doppler optical coherence tomography using a facet prism telescope and MEMS mirror for improved transversal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haindl, R.; Trasischker, W.; Baumann, B.; Pircher, M.; Hitzenberger, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    An improved three-beam Doppler optical coherence tomography system was developed. It utilizes a custom-made three-facet prism telescope to improve the transversal resolution at the sample. Furthermore, a two-axis gimbal-less MEMS mirror is used to minimize off-pivot beam movement at the pupil of the eye, enabling circular scanning for in vivo retinal measurements. We demonstrate the system's abilities for in vitro circular scanning to measure absolute flow and to reconstruct the full velocity vector on a bifurcation flow phantom. Moreover, in vivo retinal measurements using circular scanning around vessel bifurcations of healthy human volunteers were performed. Measurements of the absolute mean flow and its orientation are in good agreement with the expected values for in vitro measurements. For in vivo measurements, the in- and outflow of blood for retinal vessel bifurcations show an excellent agreement, demonstrating the reliability of the technique.

  19. Three-beam Doppler optical coherence tomography using a facet prism telescope and MEMS mirror for improved transversal resolution

    PubMed Central

    Haindl, R.; Trasischker, W.; Baumann, B.; Pircher, M.; Hitzenberger, C.K.

    2015-01-01

    An improved three-beam Doppler optical coherence tomography system was developed. It utilizes a custom-made three-facet prism telescope to improve the transversal resolution at the sample. Furthermore, a two-axis gimbal-less MEMS mirror is used to minimize off-pivot beam movement at the pupil of the eye, enabling circular scanning for in vivo retinal measurements. We demonstrate the system’s abilities for in vitro circular scanning to measure absolute flow and to reconstruct the full velocity vector on a bifurcation flow phantom. Moreover, in vivo retinal measurements using circular scanning around vessel bifurcations of healthy human volunteers were performed. Measurements of the absolute mean flow and its orientation are in good agreement with the expected values for in vitro measurements. For in vivo measurements, the in- and outflow of blood for retinal vessel bifurcations show an excellent agreement, demonstrating the reliability of the technique. PMID:26689672

  20. 4D shear stress maps of the developing heart using Doppler optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Lindsy M; Jenkins, Michael W; Gu, Shi; Barwick, Lee; Watanabe, Michiko; Rollins, Andrew M

    2012-11-01

    Accurate imaging and measurement of hemodynamic forces is vital for investigating how physical forces acting on the embryonic heart are transduced and influence developmental pathways. Of particular importance is blood flow-induced shear stress, which influences gene expression by endothelial cells and potentially leads to congenital heart defects through abnormal heart looping, septation, and valvulogenesis. However no imaging tool has been available to measure shear stress on the endocardium volumetrically and dynamically. Using 4D structural and Doppler OCT imaging, we are able to accurately measure the blood flow in the heart tube in vivo and to map endocardial shear stress throughout the heart cycle under physiological conditions for the first time. These measurements of the shear stress patterns will enable precise titration of experimental perturbations and accurate correlation of shear with the expression of molecules critical to heart development.

  1. On-sky Doppler performance of TOU optical very high-resolution spectrograph for detecting low-mass planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian; Ma, Bo; Sithajan, Sirinrat; Singer, Michael A.; Powell, Scott; Varosi, Frank; Zhao, Bo; Schofield, Sidney; Liu, Jian; Grieves, Nolan; Cassette, Anthony; Avner, Louis; Jakeman, Hali; Muterspaugh, Matthew; Williamson, Michael; Barnes, Rory

    2016-08-01

    The TOU robotic, compact very high resolution optical spectrograph (R=100,000, 0.38-0.9 microns) has been fully characterized at the 2 meter Automatic Spectroscopy Telescope (AST) at Fairborn Observatory in Arizona during its pilot survey of 12 bright FGK dwarfs in 2015. This instrument has delivered sub m/s Doppler precision for bright reference stars (e.g., 0.7 m/s for Tau Ceti over 60 days) with 5-30 min exposures and 0.7 m/s long-term instrument stability, which is the best performance among all of the known Doppler spectrographs to our knowledge. This performance was achieved by maintaining the instrument in a very high vacuum of 1 micron torr and about 0.5 mK (RMS) long-term temperature stability through an innovative close-loop instrument bench temperature control. It has discovered a 21 Earth-mass planet (P=43days) around a bright K dwarf and confirmed three super-Earth planetary systems, HD 1461, 190360 and HD 219314. This instrument will be used to conduct the Dharma Planet Survey (DPS) in 2016-2019 to monitor 100 nearby very bright FGK dwarfs (most of them brighter than V=8) at the dedicated 50-inch Robotic Telescope on Mt. Lemmon. With very high RV precision and high cadence ( 100 observations per target randomly spread over 450 days), a large number of rocky planets, including possible habitable ones, are expected to be detected. The survey also provides the largest single homogenous high precision RV sample of nearby stars for studying low mass planet populations and constraining various planet formation models. Instrument on-sky performance is summarized.

  2. Label-free in-vivo measurement of lymph flow velocity using Doppler optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatter, Cedric; Meijer, Eelco F. J.; Nam, Ahhyun S.; Jones, Dennis; Padera, Timothy P.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.

    2016-03-01

    Alterations in lymphatic network function contribute to the lymphedema development, cancer progression and impairment in regional immune function. However, there are limited tools available to directly measure lymphatic vessel function and transport in vivo. Existing approaches such as fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching (FRAP) require injection of exogenous labels which intrinsically alter the physiology of the local lymphatic network. A label-free approach to imaging lymph flow in vivo would provide direct and unaltered measurements of lymphatic vessel transport and could catalyze research in lymphatic biology. Here, we demonstrate and validate the use of Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) to measure lymph flow in vivo at speeds as low as 50µm/s. Compared to blood, lymph is relatively acellular (under normal conditions), but contains similar soluble components to blood plasma. We demonstrate that the small but detectable scattering signal from lymph can be used to extract fluid velocity using a dedicated algorithm optimized for Doppler analysis in low signal-to-noise settings (0 to 6 dB typical). We demonstrate the accuracy of this technique by comparing DOCT to FRAP measurements, using an intralipid lymph proxy in microfluidic devices and in vivo in the mouse ear. Finally, we demonstrate the label free measurement of lymph speed in the hind-limb of mice with a temporal resolution of 0.25s that agree well with prior literature reports. We anticipate that DOCT can become a powerful new tool in preclinical lymphatic biology research—including the relationship between lymphatic function and metastasis formation—with the potential to later expand also to clinical settings.

  3. First ever cross comparison of thermospheric wind measured by narrow- and wide-field optical Doppler spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhadly, M. S.; Meriwether, J.; Conde, M.; Hampton, D.

    2015-11-01

    We present the first ever cross comparisons of F region horizontal neutral wind measurements taken using two different types of optical Doppler spectrometer: all-sky scanning Doppler imagers (SDI) and narrow-field Fabry-Perot interferometers (NFPIs). Horizontal neutral winds were inferred using bistatic observations from three NFPIs, together with monostatic and bistatic observations from two SDIs. All instruments were located in Alaska. Cross comparisons were made for a total of seven nights in January and February 2010. The results show a high degree of correlation between the diurnal behaviors of the line-of-sight (LOS) winds measured by both instruments. The SDI and NFPI LOS wind time series also often contained high-frequency fluctuations with similar overall characteristics, strongly suggesting that these fluctuations were geophysical in origin. However, the amplitude of the high-frequency component was stronger in the NFPI LOS wind than in the SDI data. Even the smallest SDI angular resolution element is much larger than the NFPI field of view, suggesting that its relative insensitivity to high frequencies is because these fluctuations are associated with local-scale structures whose spatial extent is smaller than ˜40 km spanned by the smallest SDI viewing field. Upon fitting vectors to the LOS wind data, close agreement was found between the wind components estimated by the two types of instrument. Discrepancies that did arise occurred most often when the neutral wind speed was weak, suggesting that conditions capable of driving higher neutral wind speeds also suppressed the development of small-scale structures in the thermospheric neutral wind fields.

  4. Fiber-optic laser-Doppler anemometer microscope developed for the measurement of microvascular red cell velocity.

    PubMed

    Seki, J

    1990-11-01

    A fiber-optic laser-Doppler anemometer microscope (FLDAM) was developed and its applicability to the study of microvascular blood flow was examined by measuring red cell velocities in vivo and in vitro. The FLDAM consists of an intravital microscope equipped with a fringe-mode back-scatter LDA. A data processing method of the Doppler signal which used frequency averaging over the entire frequency range of the power spectrum was developed. Spatial resolution of the FLDAM varied from 17 to 200 microns with 50X to 5X objectives. In vitro experiments showed that the red cell velocity obtained by the FLDAM was equal to the mean flow velocity, within the accuracy of the measurements, for tube diameters from 35 to 100 microns, mean velocity from 0.7 to 17 mm/sec, and feed hematocrit of 20%, when 10X or 20X objectives were used. In vivo red cell velocity measurements conducted with the FLDAM in microvessels of rat mesentery with diameters from 6.5 to 49 microns showed that red cell velocities were about 1/1.6 times smaller than those obtained by the two-slit technique, which also suggests that the velocity obtained by the FLDAM corresponds to the mean flow velocity. This relationship was also established from theoretical considerations for the case where the FLDAM sampling volume covers the entire vessel cross section. Furthermore the frequency response of the FLDAM was established to be about 20 Hz, which was sufficient for measurement of pulsatile velocities in rat mesenteric microvessels.

  5. In vivo cross-sectional imaging of the phonating larynx using long-range Doppler optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlan, Carolyn A.; Chou, Li-Dek; Jing, Joseph C.; Chen, Jason J.; Rangarajan, Swathi; Chang, Theodore H.; Sharma, Giriraj K.; Cho, Kyoungrai; Lee, Donghoon; Goddard, Julie A.; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2016-03-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of vocal fold lesions has been a long-evolving science for the otolaryngologist. Contemporary practice requires biopsy of a glottal lesion in the operating room under general anesthesia for diagnosis. Current in-office technology is limited to visualizing the surface of the vocal folds with fiber-optic or rigid endoscopy and using stroboscopic or high-speed video to infer information about submucosal processes. Previous efforts using optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been limited by small working distances and imaging ranges. Here we report the first full field, high-speed, and long-range OCT images of awake patients’ vocal folds as well as cross-sectional video and Doppler analysis of their vocal fold motions during phonation. These vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser source (VCSEL) OCT images offer depth resolved, high-resolution, high-speed, and panoramic images of both the true and false vocal folds. This technology has the potential to revolutionize in-office imaging of the larynx.

  6. Fiber optic confocal laser Doppler velocimeter using an all-fiber laser source for high resolution measurements.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Utkarsh; Chen, Gang; Kang, Jin; Ilev, Ilko; Waynant, Ronald

    2005-08-08

    We demonstrate and analyze a novel fiber optic confocal laser Doppler velocimeter using an ultra-narrow linewidth all-fiber laser source centered at around 1550 nm (eye-safe region). The narrow spectral linewidth of the fiber laser (<10 kHz) is used to achieve an extremely high velocity resolution (~0.0075 m/s), which is an order of magnitude better as compared to the commonly used semiconductor diode lasers or He-Ne lasers based systems. The directional optical circulator based design used in our system is much simpler to implement and is power conserving compared to the conventional Michelson interferometer based designs. We perform Gaussian beam propagation analysis by using the ABCD law to study the performance of the confocal design. The analysis is in good accord with our experimental results. The confocal design is capable of providing ultrahigh spatial resolution (~5microm, in both lateral and longitudinal directions) for high-precision velocity distribution measurement applications.

  7. In vivo cross-sectional imaging of the phonating larynx using long-range Doppler optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Coughlan, Carolyn A.; Chou, Li-dek; Jing, Joseph C.; Chen, Jason J.; Rangarajan, Swathi; Chang, Theodore H.; Sharma, Giriraj K.; Cho, Kyoungrai; Lee, Donghoon; Goddard, Julie A.; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of vocal fold lesions has been a long-evolving science for the otolaryngologist. Contemporary practice requires biopsy of a glottal lesion in the operating room under general anesthesia for diagnosis. Current in-office technology is limited to visualizing the surface of the vocal folds with fiber-optic or rigid endoscopy and using stroboscopic or high-speed video to infer information about submucosal processes. Previous efforts using optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been limited by small working distances and imaging ranges. Here we report the first full field, high-speed, and long-range OCT images of awake patients’ vocal folds as well as cross-sectional video and Doppler analysis of their vocal fold motions during phonation. These vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser source (VCSEL) OCT images offer depth resolved, high-resolution, high-speed, and panoramic images of both the true and false vocal folds. This technology has the potential to revolutionize in-office imaging of the larynx. PMID:26960250

  8. Coherent population trapping resonances at lower atomic levels of Doppler broadened optical lines

    SciTech Connect

    Şahin, E; Hamid, R; Çelik, M; Özen, G; Izmailov, A Ch

    2014-11-30

    We have detected and analysed narrow high-contrast coherent population trapping (CPT) resonances, which are induced in absorption of a weak monochromatic probe light beam by counterpropagating two-frequency pump radiation in a cell with rarefied caesium vapour. The experimental investigations have been performed by the example of nonclosed three level Λ-systems formed by spectral components of the D{sub 2} line of caesium atoms. The applied method allows one to analyse features of the CPT phenomenon directly at a given low long-lived level of the selected Λ-system even in sufficiently complicated spectra of atomic gases with large Doppler broadening. We have established that CPT resonances in transmission of the probe beam exhibit not only a higher contrast but also a much lesser width in comparison with well- known CPT resonances in transmission of the corresponding two-frequency pump radiation. The results obtained can be used in selective photophysics, photochemistry and ultra-high resolution atomic (molecular) spectroscopy. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  9. Estimation of acoustical streaming: theoretical model, Doppler measurements and optical visualisation.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, A; Kowalewski, T; Secomski, W; Wójcik, J

    1998-02-01

    An approximate solution for the streaming velocity generated by flat and weakly focused transducers was derived by directly solving the Dirichlet boundary conditions for the Poisson equation, the solution of the Navier-Stokes equation for the axial components of the streaming velocity. The theoretical model was verified experimentally using a 32 MHz pulsed Doppler unit. The experimental acoustical fields were produced by three different 4 mm diameter flat and focused transducers driven by the transmitter generating the average acoustic power within the range from 1 microW to 6 mW. The streaming velocity was measured along the ultrasonic beam from 0 to 2 cm. Streaming was induced in a solution of water and corn starch. The experimental results showed that for a given acoustic power the streaming velocity was independent of the starch density in water, changed from 0.3 to 40 grams of starch in 1 l of distilled water. For applied acoustic powers, the streaming velocity changed linearly from 0.2 to 40 mm/s. Both, the theoretical solutions for plane and focused waves and the experimental results were in good agreement. The streaming velocity field was also visualised using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) and two different evaluation methods. The first based on the FFT-based cross-correlation analysis between small sections for each pair of images and the second employing the algorithm of searching for local displacements between several images.

  10. Neurosurgical hand-held optical coherence tomography (OCT) forward-viewing probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cuiru; Lee, Kenneth K. C.; Vuong, Barry; Cusimano, Michael; Brukson, Alexander; Mariampillai, Adrian; Standish, Beau A.; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2012-02-01

    A prototype neurosurgical hand-held optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging probe has been developed to provide micron resolution cross-sectional images of subsurface tissue during open surgery. This new ergonomic hand-held probe has been designed based on our group's previous work on electrostatically driven optical fibers. It has been packaged into a catheter probe in the familiar form factor of the clinically accepted Bayonet shaped neurosurgical non-imaging Doppler ultrasound probes. The optical design was optimized using ZEMAX simulation. Optical properties of the probe were tested to yield an ~20 um spot size, 5 mm working distance and a 3.5 mm field of view. The scan frequency can be increased or decreased by changing the applied voltage. Typically a scan frequency of less than 60Hz is chosen to keep the applied voltage to less than 2000V. The axial resolution of the probe was ~15 um (in air) as determined by the OCT system. A custom-triggering methodology has been developed to provide continuous stable imaging, which is crucial for clinical utility. Feasibility of this probe, in combination with a 1310 nm swept source OCT system was tested and images are presented to highlight the usefulness of such a forward viewing handheld OCT imaging probe. Knowledge gained from this research will lay the foundation for developing new OCT technologies for endovascular management of cerebral aneurysms and transsphenoidal neuroendoscopic treatment of pituitary tumors.

  11. Decomposition of a laser-Doppler spectrum for estimation of speed distribution of particles moving in an optically turbid medium: Monte Carlo validation study.

    PubMed

    Liebert, A; Zołek, N; Maniewski, R

    2006-11-21

    A method for measurement of distribution of speed of particles moving in an optically turbid medium is presented. The technique is based on decomposition of the laser-Doppler spectrum. The theoretical background is shown together with the results of Monte Carlo simulations, which were performed to validate the proposed method. The laser-Doppler spectra were obtained by Monte Carlo simulations for assumed uniform and Gaussian speed distributions of particles moving in the turbid medium. The Doppler shift probability distributions were calculated by Monte Carlo simulations for several anisotropy factors of the medium, assuming the Hanyey-Greenstein phase function. The results of the spectra decomposition show that the calculated speed distribution of moving particles match well the distribution assumed for Monte Carlo simulations. This result was obtained for the spectra simulated in optical conditions, in which the photon is scattered with the Doppler shift not more than once during its travel between the source and detector. Influence of multiple scattering of the photon is analysed and a perspective of spectrum decomposition under such conditions is considered. Potential applications and limitations of the method are discussed.

  12. Multiple sclerosis and optic nerve: an analysis of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and color Doppler imaging parameters

    PubMed Central

    Akçam, H T; Capraz, I Y; Aktas, Z; Batur Caglayan, H Z; Ozhan Oktar, S; Hasanreisoglu, M; Irkec, C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare both retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and orbital color Doppler ultrasonography parameters in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) versus healthy controls. Methods This is an observational case–control study. Forty eyes from MS patients and twenty eyes from healthy volunteers were examined. Eyes were classified into three groups as group 1, eyes from MS patients with previous optic neuritis (n=20); group 2, eyes from MS patients without previous optic neuritis (n=20); and group 3, eyes from healthy controls (n=20). Following complete ophthalmologic examination and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurement for each group, blood flow velocities of posterior ciliary arteries, central retinal artery, ophthalmic artery, and superior ophthalmic vein were measured. Pourcelot index (resistive index), an indicator of peripheral vascular resistance, was also calculated. The statistical assessment was performed with the assistance of Pearson's Chi-square test, Mann–Whitney U-test, Kruskal–Wallis test, and Spearman's correlation test. Results The studied eyes exposed similar values in terms of intraocular pressure and central corneal thickness, implying no evidence in favor of glaucoma. All nerve fiber layer thickness values, except superior nasal quadrants, in group 1 were found to be significantly thinner than groups 2 and 3. Blood flow velocity and mean resistivity index parameters were similar in all the groups. Conclusions In MS patients, especially with previous optic neuritis, diminished retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was observed. Contrary to several studies in the current literature, no evidence supporting potential vascular origin of ocular involvement in MS was found. PMID:25081285

  13. Nd:YAG laser bloodless tonsillectomy by fiber optic doppler coupled handpiece beam delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmieri, Beniamino; Rottigni, Valentina

    2012-09-01

    Laser ablation of palatine tonsils is a relatively new technique recently performed in head and neck surgery departments, in order to treat recurrent tonsillar infections or obstructions from enlarged tonsils. In our study, we have investigated a new procedure using the fiber optic laser beam Nd:YAG to remove up to the 89% of tonsillar tissue, and leaving in place the capsule avoiding any hemorrhagic complication and limiting the pain.

  14. Infiltrating a thin or single-layer opal with an atomic vapour: Sub-Doppler signals and crystal optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moufarej, Elias; Maurin, Isabelle; Zabkov, Ilya; Laliotis, Athanasios; Ballin, Philippe; Klimov, Vasily; Bloch, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Artificial thin glass opals can be infiltrated with a resonant alkali-metal vapour, providing novel types of hybrid systems. The reflection at the interface between the substrate and the opal yields a resonant signal, which exhibits sub-Doppler structures in linear spectroscopy for a range of oblique incidences. This result is suspected to originate in an effect of the three-dimensional confinement of the vapour in the opal interstices. It is here extended to a situation where the opal is limited to a few- or even a single-layer opal film, which is a kind of bidimensional grating. We have developed a flexible one-dimensional layered optical model, well suited for a Langmuir-Blodgett opal. Once extended to the case of a resonant infiltration, the model reproduces quick variations of the lineshape with incidence angle or polarization. Alternately, for an opal limited to a single layer of identical spheres, a three-dimensional numerical calculation was developed. It predicts crystalline anisotropy, which is demonstrated through diffraction on an empty opal made of a single layer of polystyrene spheres.

  15. Evaluation of flow velocities after carotid artery stenting through split spectrum Doppler optical coherence tomography and computational fluid dynamics modeling

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Barry; Genis, Helen; Wong, Ronnie; Ramjist, Joel; Jivraj, Jamil; Farooq, Hamza; Sun, Cuiru; Yang, Victor X.D.

    2014-01-01

    Hemodynamics plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis, specifically in regions of curved vasculature such as bifurcations exhibiting irregular blood flow profiles. Carotid atherosclerotic disease can be intervened by stent implantation, but this may result in greater alterations to local blood flow and consequently further complications. This study demonstrates the use of a variant of Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) known as split spectrum DOCT (ssDOCT) to evaluate hemodynamic patterns both before and after stent implantation in the bifurcation junction in the internal carotid artery (ICA). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were constructed to simulate blood velocity profiles and compared to the findings achieved through ssDOCT images. Both methods demonstrated noticeable alterations in hemodynamic patterns following stent implantation, with features such as slow velocity regions at the neck of the bifurcation and recirculation zones at the stent struts. Strong correlation between CFD models and ssDOCT images demonstrate the potential of ssDOCT imaging in the optimization of stent implantation in the clinical setting. PMID:25574447

  16. Evaluation of flow velocities after carotid artery stenting through split spectrum Doppler optical coherence tomography and computational fluid dynamics modeling.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Barry; Genis, Helen; Wong, Ronnie; Ramjist, Joel; Jivraj, Jamil; Farooq, Hamza; Sun, Cuiru; Yang, Victor X D

    2014-12-01

    Hemodynamics plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis, specifically in regions of curved vasculature such as bifurcations exhibiting irregular blood flow profiles. Carotid atherosclerotic disease can be intervened by stent implantation, but this may result in greater alterations to local blood flow and consequently further complications. This study demonstrates the use of a variant of Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) known as split spectrum DOCT (ssDOCT) to evaluate hemodynamic patterns both before and after stent implantation in the bifurcation junction in the internal carotid artery (ICA). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were constructed to simulate blood velocity profiles and compared to the findings achieved through ssDOCT images. Both methods demonstrated noticeable alterations in hemodynamic patterns following stent implantation, with features such as slow velocity regions at the neck of the bifurcation and recirculation zones at the stent struts. Strong correlation between CFD models and ssDOCT images demonstrate the potential of ssDOCT imaging in the optimization of stent implantation in the clinical setting.

  17. Microvascular anastomosis guidance and evaluation using real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain Doppler optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Tong, Dedi; Zhu, Shan; Mao, Qi; Pang, John; Andrew Lee, Wei Ping; Brandacher, Gerald; Kang, Jin U.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Vascular and microvascular anastomoses are critical components of reconstructive microsurgery, vascular surgery, and transplant surgery. Intraoperative surgical guidance using a surgical imaging modality that provides an in-depth view and three-dimensional (3-D) imaging can potentially improve outcome following both conventional and innovative anastomosis techniques. Objective postoperative imaging of the anastomosed vessel can potentially improve the salvage rate when combined with other clinical assessment tools, such as capillary refill, temperature, blanching, and skin turgor. Compared to other contemporary postoperative monitoring modalities—computed tomography angiograms, magnetic resonance (MR) angiograms, and ultrasound Doppler—optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive high-resolution (micron-level), high-speed, 3-D imaging modality that has been adopted widely in biomedical and clinical applications. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the feasibility of real-time 3-D phase-resolved Doppler OCT (PRDOCT) as an assisted intra- and postoperative imaging modality for microvascular anastomosis of rodent femoral vessels is demonstrated, which will provide new insights and a potential breakthrough to microvascular and supermicrovascular surgery. PMID:23856833

  18. Observations of the atmospheric tide, mean wind, and sodium nightglow near the mesopause with the magneto- optic Doppler analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Bifford Preston

    1997-09-01

    In this thesis, I (1) demonstrate a new instrument design that is capable of measuring winds and nightglow; (2) present measurements of the mean winds, tides, and sodium nightglow near the mesopause (ca. 90 km); (3) compare these wind results with those measured by other instruments and results of numerical and empirical models; and (4) compare the nightglow intensity measurements with the predictions of a comprehensive numerical model, to better understand the interaction of the tides with the mesopause-region chemistry. I designed, constructed and operated the Magneto-Optic Doppler Analyzer (MODA). For 1.5 years, Moda observed the sodium nightglow intensity variation and the horizontal wind integrated from ~86-96 km altitude at Niwot Ridge, Colorado (40.0o N, 105.5o W). The observed nightglow intensity showed a significant semidiurnal oscillation, with a 5 hr phase shift in the fall. The mean zonal wind peaked in the summer and winter with a minimum at the equinoxes. The meridional wind was slightly southward or near zero. The semidiurnal tide amplitude peaked in the early summer with a minimum in February. The phases were roughly in quadrature. The measured phase difference between the intensity and zonal wind indicated a seasonal variation of the tide-nightglow interaction. MODA wind results were compared with results from the Urbana Medium-Frequency (MF) Radar, the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI), the empirical Horizontal Wind Model 1993 (HWM93), and the theoretical Global Scale Wave Model (GSWM). The annual variation of the mean winds showed the same pattern amongst the instruments and models. MODA measured the smallest tidal amplitudes, possibly due to longitudinal differences. MODA semidiurnal phases agreed better with HRDI and HWM93 (1-2 hr difference), than with GSWM (~6 hr difference). The calculated semidiurnal sodium nightglow variation from the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere- Electrodynamics General Circulation Model for March shows a

  19. Quasi-optical Gaussian beam tracing to evaluate Doppler backscattering conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honoré, C.; Hennequin, P.; Truc, A.; Quéméneur, A.

    2006-09-01

    Microwave beam backscattering near the cut-off layer appears to be the most interesting diagnostic to observe density fluctuation time evolution for a given localization in the plasma and at a defined wave vector. It also provides perpendicular plasma velocity. Scattering only occurs when the Bragg selection rule is fulfilled, i.e. when the scattering wave vector is almost perpendicular to the magnetic field. In order to evaluate these scattering conditions, ray tracing is required. 3D geometry is necessary to evaluate the angle between the magnetic field and the wave vector at the reflection. The ripple effect on the iso-index layer curve cannot be neglected. Scattering localization and wave vector resolution can be approached if single ray tracing is replaced with quasi-optical beam tracing. Optical propagation is still considered in the WKB approximation but the beam is described as multiple connected rays. The beam radial expansion due to diffraction is well described. This approach allows one to compute beam parameters for all data acquisitions (50 triggers per shot) and all shots (40 shots per day) during the following night on a recent personal computer with MatLab©.

  20. Depth-dependent displacement sensitivity analysis and the influence of Doppler angle for quantitative assessment of mechanical properties using phase-sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Gillian; Subhash, Hrebesh; Alexandrov, Sergey; Leahy, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Optical coherence elastography (OCE) asesses the mechanical properties of samples by applying a mechanical stimulation and detecting the resulting sample displacement using optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCE methods which utilise the phase of the OCT signal offer the potential to detect displacements on the sub-nanometre scale. However, the displacement sensitivity achieveable is directly related to the signal-to-noise ratio and phase stability of the underlying OCT system. Furthermore, the estimation of Doppler angle is imperative in accurately measuring the sample displacement. This work evaluates the contributions of each of these parameters for quantitative assessment of mechanical properties using phase-sensitive spectral domain OCT.

  1. Optical design of the NASA-NSF extreme precision Doppler spectrograph concept "WISDOM"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Stuart I.; Fżrész, Gábor; Simcoe, Robert A.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Woods, Deborah F.

    2016-08-01

    The WISDOM instrument concept was developed at MIT as part of a NASA-NSF funded study to equip the 3.5m WIYN telescope with an extremely precise radial velocity spectrometer. The spectrograph employs an asymmetric white pupil optical design, where the instrument is split into two nearly identical "Short" (380 to 750 nm) and "Long"" (750 to 1300 nm) wavelength channels. The echelle grating and beam sizes are R3.75/125mm and R6/80mm in the short and long channels respectively. Together with the pupil slicer, and octagonal to rectangular fibre coupling, this permits resolving powers over R = 120k with a 1.2" diameter fibre on the sky. A factor of two reduction in the focal length between the main collimator OAP and the transfer collimator ensures a very compact instrument, with a small white pupil footprint, thereby enabling small cross-dispersing and camera elements. A dichroic is used near the white pupil to split each of the long and short channels into two, so that the final spectrograph has 4 channels; namely "Blue," "Green," "Red" and "NIR." Each of these channels has an anamorphic VPH grism for cross-dispersion, and a fully dioptric all-spherical camera objective. The spectral footprints cover 4k×4k and 6k×6k CCDs with 15 µm pixels in the short "Blue" and "Green" wavelength channels, respectively. A 4k×4k CCD with 15 μm pixels is used in the long "Red" channel, with a HgCdTe 1.7 μm cutoff 4k×4k detector with 10um pixels is to be used in the long "NIR" channel. The white pupil relay includes a Mangin mirror very close to the intermediate focus to correct the white pupil relay Petzval curvature before it is swept into a cylinder by the cross-dispersers. This design decision allows each of the dioptric cameras to be fully optimised and tested independently of the rest of the spectrograph. The baseline design for the cameras also ensures that the highest possible (diffraction limited) image quality is achieved across all wavelengths, while also ensuring

  2. Doppler optical coherence tomography to monitor the effect of photodynamic therapy on tissue morphology and perfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalders, Maurice C. G.; Triesscheijn, Martijn L.; Ruevekamp, Marjan; de Bruin, Daniel M.; Baas, Paul; Faber, Dirk J.; Stewart, Fiona A.

    2006-07-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using optical coherence tomography (OCT) for noninvasive real-time visualization of the vascular effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in normal and tumor tissue in mice. Perfusion control measurements were initially performed after administrating vaso-active drugs or clamping of the subcutaneous tumors. Subsequent measurements were made on tumor-bearing mice before and after PDT using the photosensitizer meta-tetrahydroxyphenylchlorin (mTHPC). Tumors were illuminated using either a short drug light interval (D-L, 3h), when mTHPC is primarily located in the tumor vasculature or a long D-L interval (48 h), when the drug is distributed throughout the whole tumor. OCT enabled visualization of the different layers of tumor, and overlying skin with a maximal penetration of ≤ 0.5-1 mm. PDT with a short D-L interval resulted in a significant decrease of perfusion in the tumor periphery, to 20% of pre-treatment values at 160 min, whereas perfusion in the skin initially increased by 10% (at 25 min) and subsequently decreased to 60% of pre-treatment values (at 200 min). PDT with a long D-L interval did not induce significant changes in perfusion. The concept of using noninvasive OCT measurements for monitoring early, treatment-related changes in morphology and perfusion may have applications in evaluating effects of anti-angiogenic or antivascular (cancer) therapy.

  3. Sub-Doppler Resolution Spectroscopy of the Fundamental Band of HCl with AN Optical Frequency Comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwakuni, K.; Abe, M.; Sasada, H.

    2013-06-01

    We have demonstrated wavelength modulation spectroscopy of HCl using a difference-frequency-generation (DFG) source and an enhanced-cavity absorption cell. The frequency axis of the spectrum is calibrated by a fiber-based optical frequency comb which is locked to a Rb clock linked with TAI. The pump and signal sources of DFG are a 1.06-μm Nd:YAG laser and a 1.55-μm ECLD, and the idler wave is generated in a waveguide-type PPLN. The hyperfine structure caused by the Cl nucleus with the spin 3/2 is resolved for the R(0), R(1), and R(2) transitions in the fundamental vibration band. The hyperfine components of Δ F = +1, 0, -1, and the cross-over resonances are observed with a typical line width of about 220 kHz, and the transition frequencies are measured with an uncertainty of less than 10 kHz. The pressure- and power-dependences of the transition frequency and the spectral intensity of the cross-over resonances are also investigated.

  4. Embedded Fiber Optic Probes to Measure Detonation Velocities Using the Photonic Doppler Velocimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Hare, D E; Holtkamp, D B; Strand, O T

    2010-03-02

    Detonation velocities for high explosives can be in the 7 to 8 km/s range. Previous work has shown that these velocities may be measured by inserting an optical fiber probe into the explosive assembly and recording the velocity time history using a Fabry-Perot velocimeter. The measured velocity using this method, however, is the actual velocity multiplied times the refractive index of the fiber core, which is on the order of 1.5. This means that the velocimeter diagnostic must be capable of measuring velocities as high as 12 km/s. Until recently, a velocity of 12 km/s was beyond the maximum velocity limit of a homodyne-based velocimeter. The limiting component in a homodyne system is usually the digitizer. Recently, however, digitizers have come on the market with 20 GHz bandwidth and 50 GS/s sample rate. Such a digitizer coupled with high bandwidth detectors now have the total bandwidth required to make velocity measurements in the 12 km/s range. This paper describes measurements made of detonation velocities using a high bandwidth homodyne system.

  5. Optical coherence tomography for the investigation of posterior and anterior eye segments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2008-09-01

    The applications of three-dimensional Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) to ophthalmology are demonstrated. The fundamentals of two types of FD-OCT, i.e., spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) and swept source OCT (SS-OCT) are described. The 3D investigation of age-related macular degeneration and keratoconus are presented.

  6. Doppler echocardiography

    SciTech Connect

    Labovitz, A.J.; Williams, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors are successful in presenting a basic book on clinical quantitative Doppler echocardiography. It is not intended to be a comprehensive text, but it does cover clinical applications in a succinct fashion. Only the more common diseases in the adult are considered. The subjects are presented logically and are easy to comprehend. The illustrations are good, and the book is paperbound. The basic principles of Doppler echocardiography are presented briefly. The book ends with chapters on left ventricular function (stroke volume and cardiac output), congenital heart disease, and color Doppler echo-cardiography. There are numerous references and a good glossary and index.

  7. Habitable Earth-like Planet Surveys with Next Generation Extremely High Resolution and High Doppler Precision Optical and Near IR Spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian; Powell, S.; Zhao, B.; Wang, J.; Fletcher, A.; Chang, L.; Groot, J.; Wan, X.; Jakeman, H.; Myers, D.; Grafer, E.; Liu, J.; Varosi, F.; Schofield, S.; Moore, A.; van Olphen, M.; Katz, J.; Muterspaugh, M. W.; Barnes, R.; Blake, C.

    2013-01-01

    Two major high precision Doppler surveys for habitable Earth-like planets are about to launch in 2013 using next generation extremely high spectral resolution and high Doppler precision optical and near infrared (NIR) spectrographs developed at UF in 2009-2012. The optical spectrograph, called EXtremely high Precision ExtrasolaR planet Tracker (EXPERT) III (EXPERT-III), produces a spectral resolution over R=100,000 and simultaneously covers 0.38-0.9 mm with a 4kx4k back-illuminated Fairchild CCD detector in a single exposure. It will be coupled to the KPNO 2.1-m telescope. The near IR spectrograph, called the Florida IR Silicon immersion grating spectromeTer (FIRST), produces R=70,000 at 1.4-1.8 mm or R=60,000 at 0.8-1.35 mm in a single exposure with a 2kx2k H2RG IR array. It will be coupled with the Tennessee State University 2-m Automatic Spectroscopic Telescope (AST) at Fairborn Observatory in Arizona. Our rocky planet survey with EXPERT-III will primarily target habitable zone (HZ) rocky planets around nearby ~300 bright K0-M4 dwarfs with V<8.5. Our NIR M dwarf survey is the first large-scale NIR high precision Doppler survey dedicated to detecting and characterizing planets around ~200 nearby M dwarfs with J< 10. A combination of the EXPERT-III HZ planet survey in the optical wavelengths with the FIRST HZ planet survey around M4-M9 dwarfs in the near IR wavelengths will give us a broad view of HZ planets around low-mass stars for the first time. The overall planet sample will substantially increase the power for the statistical study of planet occurrence and properties and constraining planet formation models and physical conditions around low mass (0.2-0.8 M ) stars. We will report the early Doppler performance of both survey instruments on the telescopes.

  8. Measurement of anisotropic reflection of flowing blood using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Kweon-Ho; Jeong, Bosu; Jung, In Oh; Ha, Hojin; Kim, Ki Hean; Lee, Sang Joon

    2011-12-01

    Light reflectance of blood is a complex phenomenon affected by hematocrit and red blood cell (RBC) aggregation (rouleaux formation). According to the hypothesis that RBC rouleaux are aligned with the direction of blood flow, the spatial alignment of RBC rouleaux, as well as their size and quantity in the blood, may also affect light reflectance. The present study aims to investigate the effect of the spatial alignment and distribution of RBC rouleaux on light reflection using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Blood flow velocity and reflectance profiles in a rat jugular-femoral bypass loop were simultaneously measured using a Doppler swept-source OCT system at various incident angles from -30 to +30 deg. The reflectance profiles of flowing blood show nonmonotonous decay with a local negative peak at the center of the tube. The profiles vary depending on the incident angle. This angular dependence is stronger at a higher angle of incidence. The anisotropic reflectance of flowing blood is consistent with the hypothesis on the spatial alignment of RBC rouleaux.

  9. A study of vascular response to thermal injury on hairless mice by fibre optic confocal imaging, laser doppler flowmetry and conventional histology.

    PubMed

    Vo, L T; Papworth, G D; Delaney, P M; Barkla, D H; King, R G

    1998-06-01

    Burn injury causes vascular thrombosis and occlusion by thermal damage to the vascular network in the dermis. In this study, fibre optic confocal imaging (FOCI) and laser doppler flowmetry were used to detect changes in vascular morphology and local dermal blood flux over 4 h, in three defined zones after a thermal burn (50 degrees C, 20 s duration, 3 mm in diameter) was induced on fully anaesthetised hairless mice. FITC-dextran (i.v.) was used to enable FOCI of vascular morphology including three-dimensional imaging of the burn site and its surrounding areas. Samples of the affected areas were collected for conventional histology, including Masson's trichrome. There was vascular damage in the zone of coagulation which showed no change during the 4 h period. The zone of stasis showed an initial reduction in blood flux and confocal imaging of the area indicated significant vessel leakage during the first 2 h which later improved. The zone of hyperaemia showed an initial increase in total blood flux and confocal imaging of the area showed initial blood vessel dilatation. This study demonstrates that FOCI is a useful non-invasive tool in the assessment of vascular changes in thermal burns in vivo, and compares the findings of FOCI with those from laser doppler flowmetry and histology.

  10. Doppler-free, multiwavelength acousto-optic deflector for two-photon addressing arrays of Rb atoms in a quantum information processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sangtaek; McLeod, Robert R.; Saffman, M.; Wagner, Kelvin H.

    2008-04-01

    We demonstrate a dual wavelength acousto-optic deflector (AOD) designed to deflect two wavelengths to the same angles by driving with two RF frequencies. The AOD is designed as a beam scanner to address two-photon transitions in a two-dimensional array of trapped neutral Rb87 atoms in a quantum computer. Momentum space is used to design AODs that have the same diffraction angles for two wavelengths (780 and 480 nm) and have nonoverlapping Bragg-matched frequency response at these wavelengths, so that there will be no cross talk when proportional frequencies are applied to diffract the two wavelengths. The appropriate crystal orientation, crystal shape, transducer size, and transducer height are determined for an AOD made with a tellurium dioxide crystal (TeO2). The designed and fabricated AOD has more than 100 resolvable spots, widely separated band shapes for the two wavelengths within an overall octave bandwidth, spatially overlapping diffraction angles for both wavelengths (780 and 480 nm), and a 4 μs or less access time. Cascaded AODs in which the first device upshifts and the second downshifts allow Doppler-free scanning as required for addressing the narrow atomic resonance without detuning. We experimentally show the diffraction-limited Doppler-free scanning performance and spatial resolution of the designed AOD.

  11. Monte Carlo simulation of an optical coherence Doppler tomograph signal: the effect of the concentration of particles in a flow on the reconstructed velocity profile

    SciTech Connect

    Bykov, A V; Kirillin, M Yu; Priezzhev, A V

    2005-02-28

    Model signals of an optical coherence Doppler tomograph (OCDT) are obtained by the Monte Carlo method from a flow of a light-scattering suspension of lipid vesicles (intralipid) at concentrations from 0.7% to 1.5% with an a priori specified parabolic velocity profile. The velocity profile parameters reconstructed from the OCDT signal and scattering orders of the photons contributing to the signal are studied as functions of the suspension concentration. It is shown that the maximum of the reconstructed velocity profile at high concentrations shifts with respect to the symmetry axis of the flow and its value decreases due to a greater contribution from multiply scattered photons. (papers devoted to the 250th anniversary of the moscow state university)

  12. Measurement of the total retinal blood flow using dual beam Fourier-domain Doppler optical coherence tomography with orthogonal detection planes

    PubMed Central

    Doblhoff-Dier, Veronika; Schmetterer, Leopold; Vilser, Walthard; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Gröschl, Martin; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Werkmeister, René M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a system capable of measuring the total retinal blood flow using a combination of dual beam Fourier-domain Doppler optical coherence tomography with orthogonal detection planes and a fundus camera-based retinal vessel analyzer. Our results show a high degree of conformity of venous and arterial flows, which corroborates the validity of the measurements. In accordance with Murray’s law, the log-log regression coefficient between vessel diameter and blood flow was found to be ~3. The blood’s velocity scaled linearly with the vessel diameter at higher diameters (> 60 µm), but showed a clear divergence from the linear dependence at lower diameters. Good agreement with literature data and the large range and high measurement sensitivity point to a high potential for further investigations. PMID:24575355

  13. Monitoring of drug and stimulation induced cerebral blood flow velocity changes in rat sensory cortex using spectral domain Doppler optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuan; Yang, Yong; Ding, Zhihua; Meng, Jie; Wang, Kai; Yang, Wenwei; Xu, Ying

    2011-04-01

    Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) provides a novel method to measure blood flow velocity in vessels with diameter at micrometer scale. In this study, a developed spectral domain DOCT system is applied to monitor cerebral blood flow velocity changes in a rat. An animal model with a cranial window is used, and by application of a drug, light, and electric stimulations, changes in blood flow velocity of the pial artery in sensory cortex are measured in real time. The results show significant differences in blood flow velocity before and after drug administration or light and electric stimulations, demonstrating the feasibility of DOCT in cerebral microcirculation study. Given its noninvasive nature, high spatial resolution, high velocity sensitivity, and high imaging speed, DOCT shows great promise in brain research by imaging blood flow changes at micrometer scale vessels, which helps to understand the pathogenesis of cerebral diseases and neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. A Polarization-Diversity Homodyne Image-Reject Optical Tranceiver Architecture for Improved Range and Signal Detection in Coherent Doppler Lidars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abari, C. F.; Chu, X.; Mann, J.

    2014-12-01

    Doppler light detection and ranging (lidar) has been used for a few decades for the characterization of wind fields and turbulence structures in the atmosphere. More recently, due to the advances in fiber optic communications, all-fiber coherent Doppler lidars (CDL) have been developed and widely used as a primary instrument for probing the atmospheric boundary layer wind fields. Due to a variety of reasons, all-fiber CDLs have gradually replaced their counterparts benefiting from technologies other than fiber optics. Most CDLs suffer from a number of drawbacks inherent to their principle of operation. For instance, one of the main challenges in CDLs is extracting the signal information from noisy observations, which is common to most opto-electronic systems. Moreover, it is sometimes challenging to extract the sign of the measured radial velocity. Conventionally, CDLs have benefitted from an intermediate frequency (IF) heterodyne receiver architecture for the determination of the radial velocity. In such systems, either the transmitted or the local oscillator (LO) signal is shifted in frequency. Such architectures may suffer from increased noise and spurious effects due to the employment of additional active components, e.g., acousto-optic modulator (AOM), limited measurement bandwidth (BW), and a more sophisticated electronic front-end for signal detection. On the other hand, one of the main challenges in long-range (pulsed) CDLs is the limitations imposed on the pulse repetition rate (PRR) as well as the available transmit power. These restrictions are more significant in all-fiber pulsed CDLs in which Erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA) are employed for the amplification of the optical pulses. In this study, we propose an alternative reconfigurable opto-electronic front-end transceiver architecture in all-fiber CDLs where there is no compromise in the detection BW. Additionally, by benefiting from a polarization diversity architecture we show that both the PRR

  15. A mechanical-free 150-kHz repetition swept light source incorporated a KTN electro-optic deflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Shogo; Naganuma, Kazunori; Imai, Tadayuki; Shibata, Yasuo; Ishibashi, Shigeo; Sasaki, Yuzo; Sasaura, Masahiro; Fujiura, Kazuo; Kato, Kazutoshi

    2011-03-01

    We present a new light source for the swept-source OCT, that is, an external-cavity LD incorporating an electro-optic deflector. We use a KTN deflector that is unique in being very fast and simultaneously providing an appreciable deflection caused by injected carriers. Particularly, high-speed and nearly linear to the applied voltage operation is attained when KTN crystal is pre-charged. Our 1.3-μm Littman-Metcalf external-cavity laser exhibits static linewidth < 0.1 nm, and a 110-nm scanning range up to 150-kHz under a +/-200 V sinusoidal driving voltage to the deflector. Being free of mechanical resonance, the laser would hopefully realize a faster (in a separate study, deflector itself worked up to 400 kHz) and wavenumber-linear scan that is ideal for the swept-source OCT by designing the waveform of driving voltage. And as for the resolving power of deflector, while our KTN deflector has only 35 spatial resolvable points, the number of wavelength points for the swept source clearly exceeds to this limit, which we attribute to line narrowing effect accompanied by the laser operation. Preliminary OCT images taken using the swept source are also presented.

  16. Field demonstration of simultaneous wind and temperature measurements from 5 to 50 km with a Na double-edge magneto-optic filter in a multi-frequency Doppler lidar.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wentao; Chu, Xinzhao; Wiig, Johannes; Tan, Bo; Yamashita, Chihoko; Yuan, T; Yue, J; Harrell, S D; She, C-Y; Williams, B P; Friedman, J S; Hardesty, R M

    2009-05-15

    We report the first (to our knowledge) field demonstration of simultaneous wind and temperature measurements with a Na double-edge magneto-optic filter implemented in the receiver of a three-frequency Na Doppler lidar. Reliable winds and temperatures were obtained in the altitude range of 10-45 km with 1 km resolution and 60 min integration under the conditions of 0.4 W lidar power and 75 cm telescope aperture. This edge filter with a multi-frequency lidar concept can be applied to other direct-detection Doppler lidars for profiling both wind and temperature simultaneously from the lower to the upper atmosphere.

  17. Doppler-shifted optical absorption characterization of plume-lateral expansion in laser ablation of a cerium target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyabe, M.; Oba, M.; Iimura, H.; Akaoka, K.; Maruyama, Y.; Ohba, H.; Tampo, M.; Wakaida, I.

    2012-12-01

    The temporal evolution of the ablation plume of cerium was investigated by absorption spectroscopy. Cerium oxide pellets were ablated in a helium atmosphere by second-harmonic radiation (532 nm) from a Nd:YAG laser at a fluence of 0.5 J/cm2. The lateral velocity (expansion velocity horizontal to the sample surface) of the plume was determined from the magnitude of the Doppler splitting of the absorption spectra measured close to the sample surface. The lateral velocities of neutral and singly ionized atoms were systematically investigated by varying several parameters, such as ambient gas pressure, ablation laser fluence, observation timing, and observation height. In addition, temporal profiles of the absorption signal were measured by detuning the probe laser frequency from the atomic resonant frequency in order to obtain the temporal variation of the velocity. On the basis of the drag force model, the slowing coefficients for atomic and ionic species in a helium atmosphere were evaluated along with lateral velocity in a vacuum. This study may help in understanding the plume dynamics effect on deposited film properties as well as optimizing experimental conditions for ablation-based spectroscopic analysis.

  18. Doppler flowmeter

    DOEpatents

    Karplus, Henry H. B.; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    1983-01-01

    A Doppler flowmeter impulses an ultrasonic fixed-frequency signal obliquely into a slurry flowing in a pipe and a reflected signal is detected after having been scattered off of the slurry particles, whereby the shift in frequencies between the signals is proportional to the slurry velocity and hence slurry flow rate. This flowmeter filters the Doppler frequency-shift signal, compares the filtered and unfiltered shift signals in a divider to obtain a ratio, and then further compares this ratio against a preset fractional ratio. The flowmeter utilizes a voltage-to-frequency convertor to generate a pulsed signal having a determinable rate of repetition precisely proportional to the divergence of the ratios. The pulsed signal serves as the input control for a frequency-controlled low-pass filter, which provides thereby that the cutoff frequency of the filtered signal is known. The flowmeter provides a feedback control by minimizing the divergence. With the cutoff frequency and preset fractional ratio known, the slurry velocity and hence flow will also be determinable.

  19. Doppler flowmeter

    DOEpatents

    Karplus, H.H.B.; Raptis, A.C.

    1981-11-13

    A Doppler flowmeter impulses an ultrasonic fixed-frequency signal obliquely into a slurry flowing in a pipe and a reflected signal is detected after having been scattered off of the slurry particles, whereby the shift in frequencies between the signals is proportional to the slurry velocity and hence slurry flow rate. This flowmeter filters the Doppler frequency-shift signal, compares the filtered and unfiltered shift signals in a divider to obtain a ratio, and then further compares this ratio against a preset fractional ratio. The flowmeter utilizes a voltage-to-frequency convertor to generate a pulsed signal having a determinable rate of repetition precisely proportional to the divergence of the ratios. The pulsed signal serves as the input control for a frequency-controlled low-pass filter, which provides thereby that the cutoff frequency of the filtered signal is known. The flowmeter provides a feedback control by minimizing the divergence. With the cutoff frequency and preset fractional ratio known, the slurry velocity and hence flow will also be determinable.

  20. Laser Doppler velocimetry primer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachalo, William D.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced research in experimental fluid dynamics required a familiarity with sophisticated measurement techniques. In some cases, the development and application of new techniques is required for difficult measurements. Optical methods and in particular, the laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) are now recognized as the most reliable means for performing measurements in complex turbulent flows. And such, the experimental fluid dynamicist should be familiar with the principles of operation of the method and the details associated with its application. Thus, the goals of this primer are to efficiently transmit the basic concepts of the LDV method to potential users and to provide references that describe the specific areas in greater detail.

  1. Identifying and discriminating phase transitions along decaying shocks with line imaging Doppler interferometric velocimetry and streaked optical pyrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Millot, Marius

    2016-01-15

    Ultrafast line-imaging velocity interferometer system for any reflector and streaked optical pyrometry are now commonly used to obtain high precision equation of state and electronic transport data under dynamic compression at major high energy density science facilities. We describe a simple way to improve distinguishing phase transformation signatures from other signals when monitoring decaying shock waves. The line-imaging capability of these optical diagnostics offers additional supporting evidence to the assignment of particular anomalies—such as plateaus or reversals—to the occurrence of a phase transition along the Hugoniot. We illustrate the discussion with two example datasets collected during laser driven shock compression of quartz and stishovite.

  2. Feasibility of optical coherence elastography measurements of shear wave propagation in homogeneous tissue equivalent phantoms.

    PubMed

    Razani, Marjan; Mariampillai, Adrian; Sun, Cuiru; Luk, Timothy W H; Yang, Victor X D; Kolios, Michael C

    2012-05-01

    In this work, we explored the potential of measuring shear wave propagation using optical coherence elastography (OCE) based on a swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. Shear waves were generated using a 20 MHz piezoelectric transducer (circular element 8.5 mm diameter) transmitting sine-wave bursts of 400 μs, synchronized with the OCT swept source wavelength sweep. The acoustic radiation force (ARF) was applied to two gelatin phantoms (differing in gelatin concentration by weight, 8% vs. 14%). Differential OCT phase maps, measured with and without the ARF, demonstrate microscopic displacement generated by shear wave propagation in these phantoms of different stiffness. We present preliminary results of OCT derived shear wave propagation velocity and modulus, and compare these results to rheometer measurements. The results demonstrate the feasibility of shear wave OCE (SW-OCE) for high-resolution microscopic homogeneous tissue mechanical property characterization.

  3. Effects of intracranial pressure on the pial microcirculation in rats studied by a fiber-optic laser-Doppler anemometer microscope.

    PubMed

    Seki, J; Sasaki, Y; Oyama, T; Yamamoto, J

    1999-01-01

    The fiber-optic laser-Doppler anemometer microscope (FLDAM) developed in our laboratory was applied to measure red cell velocity in individual pial microvessels in rats to determine the effect of intracranial pressure (ICP) on the pial microcirculation. The red cell velocity and the vessel diameter of pial microvessels were measured through a closed cranial window at controlled values of ICP between 0 and 50 mmHg. As ICP increased from 0 to 50 mmHg, the average relative diameter of venules with respect to the diameter at an ICP of 5 mmHg decreased from 1.18 +/- 0.12 (mean +/- SD) to 0.74 +/- 0.08 and the average relative velocity increased from 0.80 +/- 0.20 to 1.83 +/- 0.42 monotonically. The changes in diameter and velocity of arterioles with ICP were small, and they were not significantly different from those values at an ICP of 5 mmHg except for the diameter at an ICP of 20 mmHg. The mean volume flow rates calculated assuming a circular vessel cross-section did not show any statistically significant change with ICP between 0 and 50 mmHg in both arterioles and venules, which supports the concept of autoregulation.

  4. Precise measurement of volume of eccrine sweat gland in mental sweating by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawa, Yoshihiko; Fukuda, Akihiro; Ohmi, Masato

    2015-04-01

    We have demonstrated dynamic analysis of the physiological function of eccrine sweat glands underneath skin surface by optical coherence tomography (OCT). In this paper, we propose a method for extraction of the specific eccrine sweat gland by means of the connected component extraction process and the adaptive threshold method, where the en face OCT images are constructed by the swept-source OCT. In the experiment, we demonstrate precise measurement of the volume of the sweat gland in response to the external stimulus.

  5. A Noninvasive Miniaturized-Wireless Laser-Doppler Fiber-Optic Sensor for Understanding Distal Fingertip Injuries in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Pollonini, Luca; Rodriquez, Mikael; Opperman, Roedolph; Hochstein, Jason

    2009-01-01

    During extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) or spacewalks astronauts over use their fingertips under pressure inside the confined spaces of gloves/space suits. The repetitive hand motion is a probable cause for discomfort and injuries to the fingertips. We describe a new wireless fiber-optic probe that can be integrated inside the astronaut glove for noninvasive blood perfusion measurements in distal fingertips. In this preliminary study, we present blood perfusion measurements while performing hand-grip exercises simulating the use of space tools.

  6. Optical system design and experimental evaluation of a coherent Doppler wind Lidar system for the predictive control of wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, Leilei; Tauscher, Julian Asche; Beuth, Thorsten; Heussner, Nico; Fox, Maik; Babu, Harsha Umesh; Stork, Wilhelm

    2014-09-01

    The control of wind turbine blade pitch systems by Lidar assisted wind speed prediction has been proposed to increase the electric power generation and reduce the mechanical fatigue load on wind turbines. However, the sticking point of such Lidar systems is the price. Hence, our objective is to develop a more cost efficient Lidar system to support the pitch control of horizontal axis wind turbines and therefore to reduce the material requirement, lower the operation and maintenance costs and decrease the cost of wind energy in the long term. Compared to the state of the art Lidar systems, a laser with a shorter coherence length and a corresponding fiber delay line is introduced for reducing the costs. In this paper we present the experimental evaluation of different sending and receiving optics designs for such a system from a free space laboratory setup.

  7. Quantitative assessment of rat corneal thickness and morphology during stem cell therapy by high-speed optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Cerine; McGrath, James; Subhash, Hrebesh; Rani, Sweta; Ritter, Thomas; Leahy, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive 3 dimensional optical imaging modality that enables high resolution cross sectional imaging in biological tissues and materials. Its high axial and lateral resolution combined with high sensitivity, imaging depth and wide field of view makes it suitable for wide variety of high resolution medical imaging applications at clinically relevant speed. With the advent of swept source lasers, the imaging speed of OCT has increased considerably in recent years. OCT has been used in ophthalmology to study dynamic changes occurring in the cornea and iris, thereby providing physiological and pathological changes that occur within the anterior segment structures such as in glaucoma, during refractive surgery, lamellar keratoplasty and corneal diseases. In this study, we assess the changes in corneal thickness in the anterior segment of the eye during wound healing process in a rat corneal burn model following stem cell therapy using high speed swept source OCT.

  8. Development of the doppler electron velocimeter: theory.

    SciTech Connect

    Reu, Phillip L.

    2007-03-01

    Measurement of dynamic events at the nano-scale is currently impossible. This paper presents the theoretical underpinnings of a method for making these measurements using electron microscopes. Building on the work of Moellenstedt and Lichte who demonstrated Doppler shifting of an electron beam with a moving electron mirror, further work is proposed to perfect and utilize this concept in dynamic measurements. Specifically, using the concept of ''fringe-counting'' with the current principles of transmission electron holography, an extension of these methods to dynamic measurements is proposed. A presentation of the theory of Doppler electron wave shifting is given, starting from the development of the de Broglie wave, up through the equations describing interference effects and Doppler shifting in electron waves. A mathematical demonstration that Doppler shifting is identical to the conceptually easier to understand idea of counting moving fringes is given by analogy to optical interferometry. Finally, potential developmental experiments and uses of a Doppler electron microscope are discussed.

  9. LASER APPLICATIONS IN MEDICINE: Analysis of distortions in the velocity profiles of suspension flows inside a light-scattering medium upon their reconstruction from the optical coherence Doppler tomograph signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, A. V.; Kirillin, M. Yu; Priezzhev, A. V.

    2005-11-01

    Model signals from one and two plane flows of a particle suspension are obtained for an optical coherence Doppler tomograph (OCDT) by the Monte-Carlo method. The optical properties of particles mimic the properties of non-aggregating erythrocytes. The flows are considered in a stationary scattering medium with optical properties close to those of the skin. It is shown that, as the flow position depth increases, the flow velocity determined from the OCDT signal becomes smaller than the specified velocity and the reconstructed profile extends in the direction of the distant boundary, which is accompanied by the shift of its maximum. In the case of two flows, an increase in the velocity of the near-surface flow leads to the overestimated values of velocity of the reconstructed profile of the second flow. Numerical simulations were performed by using a multiprocessor parallel-architecture computer.

  10. DOPPLER WEATHER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Berlin, Gary J.

    2002-08-05

    The SRS Doppler Weather System consists of a Doppler Server, A Master Server (also known as the Weather Server), several Doppler Slave Servers, and client-side software program called the Doppler Radar Client. This system is used to display near rel-time images taken from the SRS Weather Center's Doppler Radar computer. The Doppler Server is software that resides on the SRS Doppler Computer. It gathers raw data, 24-bit color weather images via screen scraping ever five minutes as requested by the Master Server. The Doppler Server then reduces the 24-bit color images to 8-bit color using a fixed color table for analysis and compression. This preserves the fidelity of the image color and arranges the colors in specific order for display. At the time of color reduction, the white color used for the city names on the background images are remapped to a different index (color) of white that the white on the weather scale. The Weather Server places a time stamp on the image, then compresses the image and passes it to all Doppler Slave servers. Each of the Doppler Slave servers mainitain a circular buffer of the eight most current images representing the last 40 minutes of weather data. As a new image is added, the oldest drops off. The Doppler Radar Client is an optional install program for any site-wide workstation. When a Client session is started, the Client requests Doppler Slave server assignment from the Master Server. Upon its initial request to the Slave Server, the Client obtains all eight current images and maintains its own circular buffer, updating its images every five minutes as the Doppler Slave is updated. Three background reference images are stored as part of the Client. The Client brings up the appropriate background image, decompresses the doppler data, and displays the doppler data on the background image.

  11. Subaperture correlation based digital adaptive optics for full field optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhishek; Drexler, Wolfgang; Leitgeb, Rainer A

    2013-05-06

    This paper proposes a sub-aperture correlation based numerical phase correction method for interferometric full field imaging systems provided the complex object field information can be extracted. This method corrects for the wavefront aberration at the pupil/ Fourier transform plane without the need of any adaptive optics, spatial light modulators (SLM) and additional cameras. We show that this method does not require the knowledge of any system parameters. In the simulation study, we consider a full field swept source OCT (FF SSOCT) system to show the working principle of the algorithm. Experimental results are presented for a technical and biological sample to demonstrate the proof of the principle.

  12. Development and Application of Multifunctional Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Zhongwei

    Microcirculation refers to the functions of capillaries and the neighboring lymphatic vessels. It plays a vital role in the pathophysiology of disorders in many clinical areas including cardiology, dermatology, neurology and ophthalmology, and so forth. It is crucial to develop imaging technologies that can provide both qualitative and quantitative information as to how microcirculation responds to certain injury and/or disease, and its treatment. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging technique for high-resolution cross-sectional imaging of specimens, with many applications in clinical medicine. Current state-of-the-art OCT systems operate in the Fourier domain, using either a broadband light source with a spectrometer, known as spectral domain OCT (SDOCT), or a rapidly tunable laser, known as swept source OCT (SSOCT). The current Fourier domain OCT systems have dramatically improvement in sensitivity, resolution and speed compared to time domain OCT. In addition to the improvement in the OCT system hardware, different methods for functional measurements of tissue beds have been developed and demonstrated. This includes but not limited to, i) Phase-resolved Doppler OCT for quantifying the blood flow, ii) OCT angiography for visualization of microvasculature, iii) Polarization sensitive OCT for measuring the intrinsic optical property/ birefringence of tissue, iv) spectroscopic OCT for measuring blood oxygenation, etc. Functional OCT can provide important clinical information that is not available in the typical intensity based structural OCT images. Among these functional OCT modalities, Doppler OCT and OCT angiography attract great interests as they show high capability for in vivo study of microvascular pathology. By analyzing the Doppler effect of a flowing particle on light frequency, Doppler OCT allows the quantification of the blood flow speed and blood flow rate. The most popular approach for Doppler OCT is achieved through

  13. Sub miniaturized laser doppler velocimeter sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gharib, Morteza (Inventor); Modaress, Darius (Inventor); Taugwalder, Frederic (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A miniaturized laser Doppler velocimeter is formed in a housing that is preferably 3 mm in diameter or less. A laser couples light to a first diffractive optical element that is formed on the fiber end. The light is coupled to a lens that also includes a diffractive optical element. The same lens is also used to collect receive light, and receives includes another diffractive optical element to collect that received light.

  14. Christian Doppler and the Doppler effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toman, Kurt

    1984-04-01

    A summary is given of Doppler's life and career. He was born 180 years ago on November 29, 1803, in Salzburg, Austria. He died on March 17, 1853 in Venice. The effect bearing his name was first announced in a presentation before the Royal Bohemian Society of the Sciences in Prague on May 25, 1842. Doppler considered his work a generalization of the aberration theorem as discovered by Bradley. With it came the inference that the perception of physical phenomena can change with the state of motion of the observer. Acceptance of the principle was not without controversy. In 1852, the mathematician Petzval claimed that no useful scientific deductions can be made from Doppler's elementary equations. In 1860, Ernst Mach resolved the misunderstanding that clouded this controversy. The Doppler effect is alive and well. Its role in radio science and related disciplines is enumerated.

  15. Advanced Doppler tracking experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Doppler tracking method is currently the only technique available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the approx. 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -1) Hz low frequency band. A brief review is given of the Doppler method, a discussion of the main noise sources, and a review of experience with current spacecraft and the prospects for sensitivity improvements in an advanced Doppler tracking experiment.

  16. Doppler micro sense and avoid radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorwara, Ashok; Molchanov, Pavlo; Asmolova, Olga

    2015-10-01

    There is a need for small Sense and Avoid (SAA) systems for small and micro Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to avoid collisions with obstacles and other aircraft. The proposed SAA systems will give drones the ability to "see" close up and give them the agility to maneuver through tight areas. Doppler radar is proposed for use in this sense and avoid system because in contrast to optical or infrared (IR) systems Doppler can work in more harsh conditions such as at dusk, and in rain and snow. And in contrast to ultrasound based systems, Doppler can better sense small sized obstacles such as wires and it can provide a sensing range from a few inches to several miles. An SAA systems comprised of Doppler radar modules and an array of directional antennas that are distributed around the perimeter of the drone can cover the entire sky. These modules are designed so that they can provide the direction to the obstacle and simultaneously generate an alarm signal if the obstacle enters within the SAA system's adjustable "Protection Border". The alarm signal alerts the drone's autopilot to automatically initiate an avoidance maneuver. A series of Doppler radar modules with different ranges, angles of view and transmitting power have been designed for drones of different sizes and applications. The proposed Doppler radar micro SAA system has simple circuitry, works from a 5 volt source and has low power consumption. It is light weight, inexpensive and it can be used for a variety of small unmanned aircraft.

  17. The Cognitive Doppler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozoil, Micah E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the learning needs of students in the concrete operational stage in mathematics. Identifies the phenomenon of reduced cognitive performance in an out-of-class environment as the "Cognitive Doppler." Suggests methods of reducing the pronounced effects of the Cognitive Doppler by capitalizing on the students' ability to memorize…

  18. Doppler ultrasound monitoring technology.

    PubMed

    Docker, M F

    1993-03-01

    Developments in the signal processing of Doppler ultrasound used for the detection of fetal heart rate (FHR) have improved the operation of cardiotocographs. These developments are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of the various Doppler and signal processing methods are compared.

  19. Microvascular changes during acne lesion initiation and scarring is revealed in vivo using optical microangiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Utku; Li, Yuandong; Choi, Woo J.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-02-01

    Acne is a common skin disease in society and often leads to scarring. In this paper, we demonstrate the capabilities of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in detecting specific features of acne lesion initiation and scarring on human facial skin in vivo over 30 days. Optical microangiography (OMAG) technique made it possible to image 3D tissue microvasculature changes up to 1 mm depth in vivo without the need of exogenous contrast agents in ~10 seconds. The presented results show promise to facilitate clinical trials of treatment and prognosis of acne vulgaris by detecting cutaneous microvasculature and structural changes within human skin in vivo.

  20. Quantitative optical coherence microscopy for the in situ investigation of the biofilm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meleppat, Ratheesh Kumar; Shearwood, Christopher; Keey, Seah Leong; Matham, Murukeshan Vadakke

    2016-12-01

    This paper explores the potential of optical coherence microscopy (OCM) for the in situ monitoring of biofilm growth. The quantitative imaging of the early developmental biology of a representative biofilm, Klebsiella pneumonia (KP-1), was performed using a swept source-based Fourier domain OCM system. The growth dynamics of the KP-1 biofilms and their transient response under perturbation was investigated using the enface visualization of microcolonies and their spatial localization. Furthermore, the optical density (OD) and planar density of the biofilms are calculated using an OCM technique and compared with OD and colony forming units measured using standard procedures via the sampling of the flow-cell effluent.

  1. Laser Doppler measurement techniques for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, Peter W.; Gagliardi, Robert M.

    1986-01-01

    Two techniques are proposed for using laser links to measure the relative radial velocity of two spacecraft. The first technique determines the relative radial velocity from a measurement of the two-way Doppler shift on a transponded radio-frequency subcarrier. The subcarrier intensity-modulates reciprocating laser beams. The second technique determines the relative radial velocity from a measurement of the two-way Doppler shift on an optical frequency carrier which is transponded between spacecraft using optical Costas loops. The first technique might be used in conjunction with noncoherent optical communications, while the second technique is compatible with coherent optical communications. The first technique simultaneously exploits the diffraction advantage of laser beams and the maturity of radio-frequency phase-locked loop technology. The second technique exploits both the diffraction advantage of laser beams and the large Doppler effect at optical frequencies. The second technique has the potential for greater accuracy; unfortunately, it is more difficult to implement since it involves optical Costas loops.

  2. Laser Doppler distance sensor using phase evaluation.

    PubMed

    Günther, P; Pfister, T; Büttner, L; Czarske, J

    2009-02-16

    This paper presents a novel optical sensor which allows simultaneous measurements of axial position and tangential velocity of moving solid state objects. An extended laser Doppler velocimeter setup is used with two slightly tilted interference fringe systems. The distance to a solid state surface can be determined via a phase evaluation. The phase laser Doppler distance sensor offers a distance resolution of 150 nm and a total position uncertainty below 1 microm. Compared to conventional measurement techniques, such as triangulation, the distance resolution is independent of the lateral surface velocity. This advantage enables precise distance and shape measurements of fast rotating surfaces.

  3. Doppler radar flowmeter

    DOEpatents

    Petlevich, Walter J.; Sverdrup, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    A Doppler radar flowmeter comprises a transceiver which produces an audio frequency output related to the Doppler shift in frequency between radio waves backscattered from particulate matter carried in a fluid and the radiated radio waves. A variable gain amplifier and low pass filter are provided for amplifying and filtering the transceiver output. A frequency counter having a variable triggering level is also provided to determine the magnitude of the Doppler shift. A calibration method is disclosed wherein the amplifier gain and frequency counter trigger level are adjusted to achieve plateaus in the output of the frequency counter and thereby allow calibration without the necessity of being able to visually observe the flow.

  4. Wide Angle Michelson Doppler Imaging Interferometer (WAMDII)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. T.

    1985-01-01

    The wide angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer (WAMDII) is a specialized type of optical Michelson interferometer working at sufficiently long path difference to measure Doppler shifts and to infer Doppler line widths of naturally occurring upper atmospheric Gaussian line emissions. The instrument is intended to measure vertical profiles of atmospheric winds and temperatures within the altitude range of 85 km to 300 km. The WAMDII consists of a Michelson interferometer followed by a camera lens and an 85 x 106 charge coupled device photodiode array. Narrow band filters in a filter wheel are used to isolate individual line emissions and the lens forms an image of the emitting region on the charge coupled device array.

  5. Wide Angle Michelson Doppler Imaging Interferometer (WAMDII)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, B.

    1986-01-01

    The wide angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer (WAMDII) is a specialized type of optical Michelson interferometer working at sufficiently long path difference to measure Doppler shifts and to infer Doppler line widths of naturally occurring upper atmospheric Gaussian line emissions. The instrument is intended to measure vertical profiles of atmospheric winds and temperatures within the altitude range of 85 km to 300 km. The WAMDII consists of a Michelson interferometer followed by a camera lens and an 85 x 106 charge coupled device photodiode array. Narrow band filters in a filter wheel are used to isolate individual line emissions and the lens forms an image of the emitting region on the charge coupled device array.

  6. Doppler Lidar (DL) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, RK

    2012-02-13

    The Doppler lidar (DL) is an active remote sensing instrument that provides range- and time-resolved measurements of radial velocity and attenuated backscatter. The principle of operation is similar to radar in that pulses of energy are transmitted into the atmosphere; the energy scattered back to the transceiver is collected and measured as a time-resolved signal. From the time delay between each outgoing transmitted pulse and the backscattered signal, the distance to the scatterer is inferred. The radial or line-of-sight velocity of the scatterers is determined from the Doppler frequency shift of the backscattered radiation. The DL uses a heterodyne detection technique in which the return signal is mixed with a reference laser beam (i.e., local oscillator) of known frequency. An onboard signal processing computer then determines the Doppler frequency shift from the spectra of the heterodyne signal. The energy content of the Doppler spectra can also be used to determine attenuated backscatter.

  7. Pulse subtraction Doppler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahue, Veronique; Mari, Jean Martial; Eckersley, Robert J.; Caro, Colin G.; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances have demonstrated the feasibility of molecular imaging using targeted microbubbles and ultrasound. One technical challenge is to selectively detect attached bubbles from those freely flowing bubbles and surrounding tissue. Pulse Inversion Doppler is an imaging technique enabling the selective detection of both static and moving ultrasound contrast agents: linear scatterers generate a single band Doppler spectrum, while non-linear scatterers generate a double band spectrum, one being uniquely correlated with the presence of contrast agents and non-linear tissue signals. We demonstrate that similar spectrums, and thus the same discrimination, can be obtained through a Doppler implementation of Pulse Subtraction. This is achieved by reconstructing a virtual echo using the echo generated from a short pulse transmission. Moreover by subtracting from this virtual echo the one generated from a longer pulse transmission, it is possible to fully suppress the echo from linear scatterers, while for non-linear scatterers, a signal will remain, allowing classical agent detection. Simulations of a single moving microbubble and a moving linear scatterer subject to these pulses show that when the virtual echo and the long pulse echo are used to perform pulsed Doppler, the power Doppler spectrum allows separation of linear and non-linear moving scattering. Similar results are obtained on experimental data acquired on a flow containing either microbubble contrast agents or linear blood mimicking fluid. This new Doppler method constitutes an alternative to Pulse Inversion Doppler and preliminary results suggest that similar dual band spectrums could be obtained by the combination of any non-linear detection technique with Doppler demodulation.

  8. The EVE Doppler Sensitivity and Flare Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Woods, T. N.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Didkovsky, L.; Del Zanna, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) obtains continuous EUV spectra of the Sun viewed as a star. Its primary objective is the characterization of solar spectral irradiance, but its sensitivity and stability make it extremely interesting for observations of variability on time scales down to the limit imposed by its basic 10 s sample interval. In this paper we characterize the Doppler sensitivity of the EVE data. We find that the 30.4 nm line of He II has a random Doppler error below 0.001 nm (1 pm, better than 10 km/s as a redshift), with ample stability to detect the orbital motion of its satellite, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Solar flares also displace the spectrum, both because of Doppler shifts and because of EVE's optical layout, which (as with a slitless spectrograph) confuses position and wavelength. As a flare develops, the centroid of the line displays variations that reflect Doppler shifts and therefore flare dynamics. For the impulsive phase of the flare SOL2010-06-12, we find the line centroid to have a redshift of 16.8 +/- 5.9 km/s relative to that of the flare gradual phase (statistical errors only). We find also that high-temperature lines, such as Fe XXIV 19.2 nm, have well-determined Doppler components for major flares, with decreasing apparent blueshifts as expected from chromospheric evaporation flows.

  9. Rubidium atomic line filtered (RALF) Doppler velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajardo, Mario E.; Molek, Christopher D.; Vesely, Annamaria L.

    2017-01-01

    We report recent improvements to our Rubidium Atomic Line Filtered (RALF) Doppler velocimetry apparatus [M.E. Fajardo, C.D. Molek, and A.L. Vesely, J. Appl. Phys. 118, 144901 (2015)]. RALF is a high-velocity and high-acceleration adaptation of the Doppler Global Velocimetry method for measuring multi-dimensional velocity vector flow fields, which was developed in the 1990s by aerodynamics researchers [H. Komine, U.S. Patent #4,919,536]. Laser velocimetry techniques in common use within the shock physics community (e.g. VISAR, Fabry-Pérot, PDV) decode the Doppler shift of light reflected from a moving surface via interference phenomena. In contrast, RALF employs a completely different physical principle: the frequency-dependent near-resonant optical transmission of a Rb/N2 gas cell, to encode the Doppler shift of reflected λ0 ≈ 780.24 nm light directly onto the transmitted light intensity. Thus, RALF is insensitive to minor changes to the optical pathlengths and transit times of the Doppler shifted light, which promises a number of practical advantages in imaging velocimetry applications. The single-point RALF proof-of-concept apparatus described here is fiber optic based, and our most recent modifications include the incorporation of a larger bandwidth detection system, and a second 780 nm laser for simultaneous upshifted-PDV (UPDV) measurements. We report results for the laser driven launch of a 10-μm-thick aluminum flyer which show good agreement between the RALF and UPDV velocity profiles, within the limitations of the admittedly poor signal:noise ratio (SNR) RALF data.

  10. Rubidium Atomic Line Filtered (RALF) Doppler Velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajardo, Mario; Molek, Christopher; Vesely, Annamaria

    2015-06-01

    We report the successful proof-of-concept demonstration of the Rubidium Atomic Line Filtered (RALF) Doppler velocimetry technique. RALF is a high-velocity and high-acceleration adaptation of the Global Doppler Velocimetry (GDV) method developed in the 1990s by aerodynamics researchers. Laser velocimetry techniques in common use within the shock physics community (e . g . VISAR, Fabry-Perot, PDV) decode the Doppler shift of light reflected from a moving surface via interference phenomena. In contrast, RALF employs a completely different physical principle: the frequency-dependent near-resonant optical transmission of a Rb/N2 gas cell, to convert the Doppler shift of reflected λ0 ~ 780.24 nm light directly into transmitted light intensity. The single-point RALF apparatus used in these experiments is fiber optic based, and incorporates a simultaneous PDV measurement channel as an ``internal standard'' for validation of the RALF results. Future plans include ``line-RALF'' experiments with streak camera detection, and two-dimensional surface velocity mapping using pulsed laser illumination and gated intensified CCD camera detection. [RW PA#4931

  11. Doppler-cancelled response to VLF gravitational waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caporali, A.

    1981-01-01

    The interaction of long periodic gravitational waves with a three link microwave system known as the Doppler Cancelling System is discussed. This system, which was developed for a gravitational redshift experiment, uses one-way and two-way Doppler informatin to construct the beat signal of two reference oscillators moving with respect to each other. The geometric optics approximation is used to derive the frequency shift produced on a light signal propagating in a gravitational wave space-time. The signature left on the Doppler-cancelled beat by burst and continuous gravitational waves is analyzed. A comparison is made between the response to gravitational waves of the Doppler Cancelling System and that of a Doppler tracking system which employs two-way, round-trip radio waves. A three-fold repetition of the gravitational wave form is found to be a common feature of the response functions of both systems. These two functions otherwise exhibit interesting differences.

  12. Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zachary M; Wollstein, Gadi; Wang, Bo; Schuman, Joel S

    2017-03-01

    Since the introduction of commercial optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems, the ophthalmic imaging modality has rapidly expanded and it has since changed the paradigm of visualization of the retina and revolutionized the management and diagnosis of neuro-retinal diseases, including glaucoma. OCT remains a dynamic and evolving imaging modality, growing from time-domain OCT to the improved spectral-domain OCT, adapting novel image analysis and processing methods, and onto the newer swept-source OCT and the implementation of adaptive optics (AO) into OCT. The incorporation of AO into ophthalmic imaging modalities has enhanced OCT by improving image resolution and quality, particularly in the posterior segment of the eye. Although OCT previously captured in-vivo cross-sectional images with unparalleled high resolution in the axial direction, monochromatic aberrations of the eye limit transverse or lateral resolution to about 15-20 μm and reduce overall image quality. In pairing AO technology with OCT, it is now possible to obtain diffraction-limited resolution images of the optic nerve head and retina in three-dimensions, increasing resolution down to a theoretical 3 μm(3). It is now possible to visualize discrete structures within the posterior eye, such as photoreceptors, retinal nerve fiber layer bundles, the lamina cribrosa, and other structures relevant to glaucoma. Despite its limitations and barriers to widespread commercialization, the expanding role of AO in OCT is propelling this technology into clinical trials and onto becoming an invaluable modality in the clinician's arsenal.

  13. Monitoring the gingival regeneration after aesthetic surgery with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Luana O.; Graça, Natalia D. R. L.; Melo, Luciana S. A.; Silva, Claudio H. V.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) technique working in spectral domain (Swept Source OCT at 1325 nm, Thorlabs, New Jersey, USA) to monitor the tissue repair in patients undergoing periodontal plastic surgery. The evaluations were done over a period of 60 days. It was observed that 15 days after periodontal surgery the gum was still in different healing process as compared to the observation after 60 days. Thus it is clear that, despite some technical limitations, the OCT is an efficient method in the evaluation of regeneration gingival.

  14. Spatial characterization of corneal biomechanical properties with optical coherence elastography after UV cross-linking

    PubMed Central

    Twa, Michael D.; Li, Jiasong; Vantipalli, Srilatha; Singh, Manmohan; Aglyamov, Salavat; Emelianov, Stanislav; Larin, Kirill V.

    2014-01-01

    Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) is a clinical treatment for keratoconus that structurally reinforces degenerating ocular tissue, thereby limiting disease progression. Clinical outcomes would benefit from noninvasive methods to assess tissue material properties in affected individuals. Regional variations in tissue properties were quantified before and after CXL in rabbit eyes using optical coherence elastography (OCE) imaging. Low-amplitude (<1µm) elastic waves were generated using micro air-pulse stimulation and the resulting wave amplitude and speed were measured using phase-stabilized swept-source OCE. OCE imaging following CXL treatment demonstrates increased corneal stiffness through faster elastic wave propagation speeds and lower wave amplitudes. PMID:24877005

  15. Expanding Functionality of Commercial Optical Coherence Tomography Systems by Integrating a Custom Endoscope

    PubMed Central

    Welge, Weston A.; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a useful imaging modality for detecting and monitoring diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and other tubular structures. The non-destructiveness of OCT enables time-serial studies in animal models. While turnkey commercial research OCT systems are plenty, researchers often require custom imaging probes. We describe the integration of a custom endoscope with a commercial swept-source OCT system and generalize this description to any imaging probe and OCT system. A numerical dispersion compensation method is also described. Example images demonstrate that OCT can visualize the mouse colon crypt structure and detect adenoma in vivo. PMID:26418811

  16. Laser Doppler anemometer signal processing for blood flow velocity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Borozdova, M A; Fedosov, I V; Tuchin, V V

    2015-03-31

    A new method for analysing the signal in a laser Doppler anemometer based on the differential scheme is proposed, which provides the flow velocity measurement in strongly scattering liquids, particularly, blood. A laser Doppler anemometer intended for measuring the absolute blood flow velocity in animal and human near-surface arterioles and venules is developed. The laser Doppler anemometer signal structure is experimentally studied for measuring the flow velocity in optically inhomogeneous media, such as blood and suspensions of scattering particles. The results of measuring the whole and diluted blood flow velocity in channels with a rectangular cross section are presented. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  17. Doppler ion program description

    SciTech Connect

    Henline, P.

    1980-12-01

    The Doppler spectrometer is a conventional Czerny-Turner grating spectrometer with a 1024 channel multiple detector. Light is dispersed across the detector, and its output yields a spectrum covering approximately 200 A. The width of the spectral peak is directly proportional to the temperature of the emitting ions, and determination of the impurity ion temperature allows one to infer the plasma ion temperature. The Doppler ion software system developed at General Atomic uses a TRACOR Northern 1710-31 and an LSI-11/2. The exact configuration of Doublet III is different from TRACOR Northern systems at other facilities.

  18. Finnish Meteorological Institute Doppler Lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Ewan OConnor

    2015-03-27

    This doppler lidar system provides co-polar and cross polar attenuated backscatter coefficients,signal strength, and doppler velocities in the cloud and in the boundary level, including uncertainties for all parameters. Using the doppler beam swinging DBS technique, and Vertical Azimuthal Display (VAD) this system also provides vertical profiles of horizontal winds.

  19. The Doppler Pendulum Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, C. K.; Wong, H. K.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment to verify the Doppler effect of sound waves is described. An ultrasonic source is mounted at the end of a simple pendulum. As the pendulum swings, the rapid change of frequency can be recorded by a stationary receiver using a simple frequency-to-voltage converter. The experimental results are in close agreement with the Doppler…

  20. Doppler wind profile experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The data collection phase of a Doppler wind measurement experiment supported by high-resolution Jimsphere/FPS-16 wind data and Windsonde data was carried out at the Kennedy Space Center in February, March and early April of 1985. The Doppler wind measurements were made using a hybrid doppler profiler put in place by the Johnson Space Center and a SOUSY profiler operated by Radian Corporation. Both systems operated at 50 Mhz. Although the doppler profiler systems were located 10 km apart to enable concurrent operation of the systems for data comparison, little concurrent data were obtained due to set-up delays with the SOUSY system, and system problems with the WPL system during the last month of the test. During the test period, special serial Jimsphere soundings were taken at two-hour intervals on six days in March and April in addition to balloon soundings taken in support of the Shuttle launch operations. In addition, there is temperature, moisture and wind information available from the daily morning Radiosonde sounding taken at the Kennedy site. The balloon release point was at the same location as the SOUSY profiler. Vertical resolution of the SOUSY profiler was 150 M to approximately 20 km. The vertical resolution of the WPL profiler was 290 M to 10 km and 870 M to 17 km. Winds determined form the Jimsphere balloon have a vertical resolution of 30 M.

  1. Manipulating the spin-dependent splitting by geometric Doppler effect.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yachao; Ke, Yougang; Zhou, Junxiao; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2015-06-29

    We report the manipulation of spin-dependent splitting by geometric Doppler effect based on dielectric metasurfaces. The extrapolation of rotational Doppler effect from temporal to spatial coordinate gives the phase change when the local optical axes of dielectric metasurfaces are rotating in space. Therefore, the continuous variation of local optical axes in a certain direction will introduce a phase gradient in the same direction at the beam cross section. This is additive to the phase gradient appeared when breaking the rotational symmetry of linearly polarized cylindrical vector beams, which leads to the deflections of different spin components of light, i.e., photonic spin Hall effect. Hence, it is possible to manipulate the spin-dependent splitting by introducing the geometric Doppler effect. Theoretically and experimentally, we show that the magnitude and orientation of the spin-dependent splitting are both tunable when changing the spatial rotation rate of local optical axes and incident polarization.

  2. Doppler Lidar for Wind Measurements on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Emmitt, George D.; Yu, Jirong; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has a long history of developing 2-micron laser transmitter for wind sensing. With support from NASA Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) and Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), NASA Langley Research Center has developed a state-of-the-art compact lidar transceiver for a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system for wind measurement. The transmitter portion of the transceiver employs the high-pulse-energy, Ho:Tm:LuLiF, partially conductively cooled laser technology developed at NASA Langley. The transceiver is capable of 250 mJ pulses at 10 Hz. It is very similar to the technology envisioned for coherent Doppler lidar wind measurements from Earth and Mars orbit. The transceiver is coupled to the large optics and data acquisition system in the NASA Langley VALIDAR mobile trailer. The large optics consists of a 15-cm off-axis beam expanding telescope, and a full-hemispheric scanner. Vertical and horizontal vector winds are measured, as well as relative backscatter. The data acquisition system employs frequency domain velocity estimation and pulse accumulation. It permits real-time display of the processed winds and archival of all data. This lidar system was recently deployed at Howard University facility in Beltsville, Mary-land, along with other wind lidar systems. Coherent Doppler wind lidar ground-based wind measurements and comparisons with other sensors will be presented. A simulation and data product for wind measurement at Venus will be presented.

  3. Laser Doppler anemometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dennis A.

    1988-01-01

    The material in this NASA TM is to appear as a chapter on Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) in the AGARDograph entitled, A Survey of Measurements and Measuring Techniques in Rapidly Distorted Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers. The application of LDA (specifically, the dual-beam, burst-counter approach) to compressible flows is discussed. Subjects treated include signal processing, particle light scattering and tracking, data reduction and sampling bias, and three-dimensional measurements.

  4. Laser double Doppler flowmeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poffo, L.; Goujon, J.-M.; Le Page, R.; Lemaitre, J.; Guendouz, M.; Lorrain, N.; Bosc, D.

    2014-05-01

    The Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a non-invasive method for estimating the tissular blood flow and speed at a microscopic scale (microcirculation). It is used for medical research as well as for the diagnosis of diseases related to circulatory system tissues and organs including the issues of microvascular flow (perfusion). It is based on the Doppler effect, created by the interaction between the laser light and tissues. LDF measures the mean blood flow in a volume formed by the single laser beam, that penetrate into the skin. The size of this measurement volume is crucial and depends on skin absorption, and is not directly reachable. Therefore, current developments of the LDF are focused on the use of always more complex and sophisticated signal processing methods. On the other hand, laser Double Doppler Flowmeter (FL2D) proposes to use two laser beams to generate the measurement volume. This volume would be perfectly stable and localized at the intersection of the two laser beams. With FL2D we will be able to determine the absolute blood flow of a specific artery. One aimed application would be to help clinical physicians in health care units.

  5. Optical coherence tomography examination of hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Wei; Huang, Zheng; Xu, Jianshu; Yang, Hongqin; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen

    2014-09-01

    Human hair is a keratinous tissue composed mostly of flexible keratin, which can form a complex architecture consisting of distinct compartments or units (e.g. hair bulb, inner root sheath, shaft). Variations in hair shaft morphology can reflect ethnical diversity, but may also indicate internal diseases, nutritional deficiency, or hair and scalp disorders. Hair shaft abnormalities in cross section and diameter, as well as ultramorphological characterization and follicle shapes, might be visualized non-invasively by high-speed 2D and 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT). In this study, swept source OCT (ThorLabs) was used to examine human hair. Preliminary results showed that the high-speed OCT was a suitable and promising tool for non-invasive analysis of hair conditions.

  6. Development of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for applications in developmental biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Anjul Maheshwari

    Developmental biology is a field in which explorations are made to answer how an organism transforms from a single cell to a complex system made up of trillions of highly organized and highly specified cells. This field, however, is not just for discovery, it is crucial for unlocking factors that lead to diseases, defects, or malformations. The one key ingredient that contributes to the success of studies in developmental biology is the technology that is available for use. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is one such technology. OCT fills a niche between the high resolution of confocal microscopy and deep imaging penetration of ultrasound. Developmental studies of the chicken embryo heart are of great interest. Studies in mature hearts, zebrafish animal models, and to a more limited degree chicken embryos, indicate a relationship between blood flow and development. It is believed that at the earliest stages, when the heart is still a tube, the purpose of blood flow is not for convective transport of oxygen, nutrients and waster, bur rather to induce shear-related gene expressions to induce further development. Yet, to this date, the simple question of "what makes blood flow?" has not been answered. This is mainly due limited availability to adequate imaging and blood flow measurement tools. Earlier work has demonstrated the potential of OCT for use in studying chicken embryo heart development, however quantitative measurement techniques still needed to be developed. In this dissertation I present technological developments I have made towards building an OCT system to study chick embryo heart development. I will describe: (1) a swept-source OCT with extended imaging depth; (2) a spectral domain OCT system for non-invasive small animal imaging; (3) Doppler flow imaging and techniques for quantitative blood flow measurement in living chicken embryos; and (4) application of the OCT system that was developed in the Specific Aims 2-5 to test hypotheses generated by a

  7. Clinical applications of doppler ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, K.J.W.; Burns, P.N.; Well, P.N.T.

    1987-01-01

    This book introduces a guide to the physical principles and instrumentation of duplex Doppler ultrasound and its applications in obstetrics, gynecology, neonatology, gastroentology, and evaluation of peripheral vascular disease. The book provides information needed to perform Doppler ultrasound examinations and interpret the results. An introduction to Doppler physics and instrumentation is followed by a thorough review of hemodynamics, which explains the principles underlying interpretation of Doppler signals. Of special note is the state-of-the-art coverage of new applications of Doppler in recognition of high-risk pregnancy, diagnosis of intrauterine growth retardation, investigation of neonatal blood flow, evaluation of first-trimester pregnancy, and diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease. The book also offers guidelines on the use of Doppler ultrasound in diagnosing carotid disease, deep venous thrombosis, and aorta/femoral disease.

  8. Laser Doppler diagnostics for orthodontia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhkova, Anastasia V.; Lebedeva, Nina G.; Sedykh, Alexey V.; Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Lepilin, Alexander V.; Kharish, Natalia A.

    2004-06-01

    The results of statistical analysis of Doppler spectra of intensity fluctuations of light, scattered from mucous membrane of oral cavity of healthy volunteers and patients, abused by the orthodontic diseases, are presented. Analysis of Doppler spectra, obtained from tooth pulp of patients, is carried out. New approach to monitoring of blood microcirculation in orthodontics is suggested. Influence of own noise of Doppler measuring system on formation of the output signal is studied.

  9. Study on image feature extraction and classification for human colorectal cancer using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shu-Wei; Yang, Shan-Yi; Huang, Wei-Cheng; Chiu, Han-Mo; Lu, Chih-Wei

    2011-06-01

    Most of the colorectal cancer has grown from the adenomatous polyp. Adenomatous lesions have a well-documented relationship to colorectal cancer in previous studies. Thus, to detect the morphological changes between polyp and tumor can allow early diagnosis of colorectal cancer and simultaneous removal of lesions. OCT (Optical coherence tomography) has been several advantages including high resolution and non-invasive cross-sectional image in vivo. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the B-scan OCT image features and histology of malignant human colorectal tissues, also en-face OCT image and the endoscopic image pattern. The in-vitro experiments were performed by a swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system; the swept source has a center wavelength at 1310 nm and 160nm in wavelength scanning range which produced 6 um axial resolution. In the study, the en-face images were reconstructed by integrating the axial values in 3D OCT images. The reconstructed en-face images show the same roundish or gyrus-like pattern with endoscopy images. The pattern of en-face images relate to the stages of colon cancer. Endoscopic OCT technique would provide three-dimensional imaging and rapidly reconstruct en-face images which can increase the speed of colon cancer diagnosis. Our results indicate a great potential for early detection of colorectal adenomas by using the OCT imaging.

  10. Development of novel high-speed en face optical coherence tomography system using KTN optical beam deflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmi, Masato; Fukuda, Akihiro; Miyazu, Jun; Ueno, Masahiro; Toyoda, Seiji; Kobayashi, Junya

    2015-02-01

    We developed a novel high-speed en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) system using a KTa1-xNbxO3 (KTN) optical beam deflector. Using the imaging system, fast scanning was performed at 200 kHz by the KTN beam deflector, while slow scanning was performed at 400 Hz by the galvanometer mirror. In a preliminary experiment, we obtained en face OCT images of a human fingerprint at 400 fps. This is the highest speed reported in time-domain en face OCT imaging and is comparable to the speed of swept-source OCT. A 3D-OCT image of a sweat gland was also obtained by our imaging system.

  11. Angular scan optical coherence tomography imaging and metrology of spherical gradient refractive index preforms.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jianing; Meemon, Panomsak; Ponting, Michael; Rolland, Jannick P

    2015-03-09

    The fabrication of high-performance spherical gradient refractive index (S-GRIN) optics requires nondestructive metrology techniques to inspect the samples. We have developed an angular-scan, swept-source-based, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) system centered at 1318 nm with 5 mm imaging depth capable of 180° polar scan and 360° azimuthal scan to investigate polymeric S-GRIN preforms. We demonstrate a method that enables simultaneous mapping of the group optical thickness, physical thickness, the radially-averaged group refractive index, and the transmitted wavefront of the S-GRIN preforms. The angular scan OCT imaging and metrology enables direct visualization, molding uniformity characterization, and optical property evaluations of the preforms. The results on two generations of S-GRIN preforms are discussed that showcase the evolution of the manufacturing process in response to the OCT metrology feedback.

  12. ANL Doppler flowmeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karplus, H. B.; Raptis, A. C.; Lee, S.; Simpson, T.

    1985-10-01

    A flowmeter has been developed for measuring flow velocity in hot slurries. The flowmeter works on an ultrasonic Doppler principle in which ultrasound is injected into the flowing fluid through the solid pipe wall. Isolating waveguides separate the hot pipe from conventional ultrasonic transducers. Special clamp-on high-temperature transducers also can be adapted to work well in this application. Typical flows in pilot plants were found to be laminar, giving rise to broad-band Doppler spectra. A special circuit based on a servomechanism sensor was devised to determine the frequency average of such a broad spectrum. The device was tested at different pilot plants. Slurries with particulates greater than 70 microns (0.003 in.) yielded good signals, but slurries with extremely fine particulates were unpredictable. Small bubbles can replace the coarse particles to provide a good signal if there are not too many. Successful operation with very fine particulate slurries may have been enhanced by the presence of microbubbles.

  13. Doppler Beats or Interference Fringes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Paul S.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the following: another version of Doppler beats; alternate proof of spin-1 sin-1/2 problems; some mechanisms related to Dirac's strings; Doppler redshift in oblique approach of source and observer; undergraduate experiment on noise thermometry; use of the time evolution operator; resolution of an entropy maximization controversy;…

  14. Gabor fusion master slave optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Cernat, Ramona; Bradu, Adrian; Israelsen, Niels Møller; Bang, Ole; Rivet, Sylvain; Keane, Pearse A.; Heath, David-Garway; Rajendram, Ranjan; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the Gabor filtering protocol to a Master/Slave (MS) swept source optical coherence tomography (SS)-OCT system at 1300 nm. The MS-OCT system delivers information from selected depths, a property that allows operation similar to that of a time domain OCT system, where dynamic focusing is possible. The Gabor filtering processing following collection of multiple data from different focus positions is different from that utilized by a conventional swept source OCT system using a Fast Fourier transform (FFT) to produce an A-scan. Instead of selecting the bright parts of A-scans for each focus position, to be placed in a final B-scan image (or in a final volume), and discarding the rest, the MS principle can be employed to advantageously deliver signal from the depths within each focus range only. The MS procedure is illustrated on creating volumes of data of constant transversal resolution from a cucumber and from an insect by repeating data acquisition for 4 different focus positions. In addition, advantage is taken from the tolerance to dispersion of the MS principle that allows automatic compensation for dispersion created by layers above the object of interest. By combining the two techniques, Gabor filtering and Master/Slave, a powerful imaging instrument is demonstrated. The master/slave technique allows simultaneous display of three categories of images in one frame: multiple depth en-face OCT images, two cross-sectional OCT images and a confocal like image obtained by averaging the en-face ones. We also demonstrate the superiority of MS-OCT over its FFT based counterpart when used with a Gabor filtering OCT instrument in terms of the speed of assembling the fused volume. For our case, we show that when more than 4 focus positions are required to produce the final volume, MS is faster than the conventional FFT based procedure. PMID:28270987

  15. Gabor fusion master slave optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Cernat, Ramona; Bradu, Adrian; Israelsen, Niels Møller; Bang, Ole; Rivet, Sylvain; Keane, Pearse A; Heath, David-Garway; Rajendram, Ranjan; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes the application of the Gabor filtering protocol to a Master/Slave (MS) swept source optical coherence tomography (SS)-OCT system at 1300 nm. The MS-OCT system delivers information from selected depths, a property that allows operation similar to that of a time domain OCT system, where dynamic focusing is possible. The Gabor filtering processing following collection of multiple data from different focus positions is different from that utilized by a conventional swept source OCT system using a Fast Fourier transform (FFT) to produce an A-scan. Instead of selecting the bright parts of A-scans for each focus position, to be placed in a final B-scan image (or in a final volume), and discarding the rest, the MS principle can be employed to advantageously deliver signal from the depths within each focus range only. The MS procedure is illustrated on creating volumes of data of constant transversal resolution from a cucumber and from an insect by repeating data acquisition for 4 different focus positions. In addition, advantage is taken from the tolerance to dispersion of the MS principle that allows automatic compensation for dispersion created by layers above the object of interest. By combining the two techniques, Gabor filtering and Master/Slave, a powerful imaging instrument is demonstrated. The master/slave technique allows simultaneous display of three categories of images in one frame: multiple depth en-face OCT images, two cross-sectional OCT images and a confocal like image obtained by averaging the en-face ones. We also demonstrate the superiority of MS-OCT over its FFT based counterpart when used with a Gabor filtering OCT instrument in terms of the speed of assembling the fused volume. For our case, we show that when more than 4 focus positions are required to produce the final volume, MS is faster than the conventional FFT based procedure.

  16. Dual Beam Doppler Optical Coherence Angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuno, Yoshiaki; Makita, Shuichi; Jaillon, Franck

    The ocular vasculature and circulation play a crucial role in the development of several eye diseases including glaucoma [1], diabetic retinopathy [2], and exudative macular diseases [3]. Modalities that are capable of investigating the ocular vasculature and circulation are important for both understanding the mechanisms of the diseases and diagnosing these diseases.

  17. Optical coherence tomography detection of shear wave propagation in inhomogeneous tissue equivalent phantoms and ex-vivo carotid artery samples.

    PubMed

    Razani, Marjan; Luk, Timothy W H; Mariampillai, Adrian; Siegler, Peter; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Kolios, Michael C; Yang, Victor X D

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we explored the potential of measuring shear wave propagation using optical coherence elastography (OCE) in an inhomogeneous phantom and carotid artery samples based on a swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. Shear waves were generated using a piezoelectric transducer transmitting sine-wave bursts of 400 μs duration, applying acoustic radiation force (ARF) to inhomogeneous phantoms and carotid artery samples, synchronized with a swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) imaging system. The phantoms were composed of gelatin and titanium dioxide whereas the carotid artery samples were embedded in gel. Differential OCT phase maps, measured with and without the ARF, detected the microscopic displacement generated by shear wave propagation in these phantoms and samples of different stiffness. We present the technique for calculating tissue mechanical properties by propagating shear waves in inhomogeneous tissue equivalent phantoms and carotid artery samples using the ARF of an ultrasound transducer, and measuring the shear wave speed and its associated properties in the different layers with OCT phase maps. This method lays the foundation for future in-vitro and in-vivo studies of mechanical property measurements of biological tissues such as vascular tissues, where normal and pathological structures may exhibit significant contrast in the shear modulus.

  18. Pupil Tracking for Real-Time Motion Corrected Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar M.; Nankivil, Derek; Viehland, Christian; Keller, Brenton; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Volumetric acquisition with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) is necessary to obtain accurate representations of the tissue structure and to account for asymmetries of the anterior eye anatomy. Additionally, recent interest in imaging of anterior segment vasculature and aqueous humor flow resulted in application of OCT angiography techniques to generate en face and 3D micro-vasculature maps of the anterior segment. Unfortunately, ASOCT structural and vasculature imaging systems do not capture volumes instantaneously and are subject to motion artifacts due to involuntary eye motion that may hinder their accuracy and repeatability. Several groups have demonstrated real-time tracking for motion-compensated in vivo OCT retinal imaging, but these techniques are not applicable in the anterior segment. In this work, we demonstrate a simple and low-cost pupil tracking system integrated into a custom swept-source OCT system for real-time motion-compensated anterior segment volumetric imaging. Pupil oculography hardware coaxial with the swept-source OCT system enabled fast detection and tracking of the pupil centroid. The pupil tracking ASOCT system with a field of view of 15 x 15 mm achieved diffraction-limited imaging over a lateral tracking range of +/- 2.5 mm and was able to correct eye motion at up to 22 Hz. Pupil tracking ASOCT offers a novel real-time motion compensation approach that may facilitate accurate and reproducible anterior segment imaging. PMID:27574800

  19. Photothermal detection of the contrast properties of polypyrrole nanoparticles using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasaragod, Deepa; Au, Kin Man; Lu, Zenghai; Childs, David; Armes, Steven P.; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2013-02-01

    We report on a photothermal modulation detection scheme developed using a swept source-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) system centred at 1300nm. Photothermal detection is an improved technique for studying the contrast properties of exogenous contrast agents such as highly absorbing polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles used for OCT imaging. The swept source based OCT system has a wavelength sweep rate of 10 kHz which is used for the phase modulation detection of various concentrations of PPy nanoparticles. PPy nanoparticles have been recently reported to be a promising candidate for OCT imaging owing to their strong NIR absorption from 700-1300nm. Phase-sensitive detection of the photothermal modulation signal is achieved using a pumped 975 nm laser beam at 80Hz and 160Hz for varying concentrations of PPy nanoparticles dispersed in 2% Intralipid phantom. A phase-sensitive detection system is realised by carrying out the phase calibration using the back reflections obtained from the coverslip used with the sample. This study provides quantitative support for the use of PPy nanoparticles as a potential biocompatible contrast agent in OCT imaging.

  20. Quantum interference of biphotons with a Doppler frequency shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lariontsev, E. G.

    2016-08-01

    We report a theoretical study of transformation of a biphoton state of light under Bragg diffraction on a travelling sound wave in an acousto-optic modulator (AOM). It is shown that the diffraction of AOM biphotons emitted during the collinear parametric scattering of light leads to a shift of the carrier frequency of a biphoton wave packet, which exceeds twice the Doppler frequency shift for the classical field. A method is proposed for measuring the Doppler frequency shift of a biphoton, which is based on interference between independent biphotons.

  1. Miniature Laser Doppler Velocimeter for Measuring Wall Shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gharib, Morteza; Modarress, Darius; Forouhar, Siamak; Fourguette, Dominique; Taugwalder, Federic; Wilson, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    A miniature optoelectronic instrument has been invented as a nonintrusive means of measuring a velocity gradient proportional to a shear stress in a flow near a wall. The instrument, which can be mounted flush with the wall, is a variant of a basic laser Doppler velocimeter. The laser Doppler probe volume can be located close enough to the wall (as little as 100 micron from the surface) to lie within the viscosity-dominated sublayer of a turbulent boundary layer. The instrument includes a diode laser, the output of which is shaped by a diffractive optical element (DOE) into two beams that have elliptical cross sections with very high aspect ratios.

  2. Decalcification using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid for clear microstructure imaging of cochlea through optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaeyul; Kim, Kanghae; Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Jeon, Doekmin; Lee, Sang Heun; Jeon, Mansik; Jang, Jeong Hun

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of decalcification using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as an optical clearing method to enhance the depth visibility of internal soft tissues of cochlea. Ex vivo mouse and guinea pig cochlea samples were soaked in EDTA solutions for decalcification, and swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used as imaging modality to monitor the decalcified samples consecutively. The monitored noninvasive cross-sectional images showed that the mouse and guinea pig cochlea samples had to be decalcified for subsequent 7 and 14 days, respectively, to obtain the optimal optical clearing results. Using this method, difficulties in imaging of internal cochlea microstructures of mice could be evaded. The obtained results verified that the depth visibility of the decalcified ex vivo samples was enhanced.

  3. GEOS-3 Doppler difference tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenbaum, B.

    1977-01-01

    The Doppler difference method as applied to track the GEOS 3 spacecraft is discussed. In this method a pair of 2 GHz ground tracking stations simultaneously track a spacecraft beacon to generate an observable signal in which bias and instability of the carrier frequency cancel. The baselines are formed by the tracking sites at Bermuda, Rosman, and Merritt Island. Measurements were made to evaluate the effectiveness of the Doppler differencing procedure in tracking a beacon target with the high dynamic rate of the GEOS 3 orbit. Results indicate the precision of the differenced data to be at a level comparable to the conventional precise two way Doppler tracking.

  4. Digital Doppler measurement with spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, Peter W.; Hinedi, Sami M.; Labelle, Remi C.; Bevan, Roland P.; Del Castillo, Hector M.; Chong, Dwayne C.

    1991-01-01

    Digital and analog phase-locked loop (PLL) receivers were operated in parallel, each tracking the residual carrier from a spacecraft. The PLL tracked the downlink carrier and measured its instantaneous phase. This information, combined with a knowledge of the uplink carrier and the transponder ratio, permitted the computation of a Doppler observable. In this way, two separate Doppler measurements were obtained for one observation window. The two receivers agreed on the magnitude of the Doppler effect to within 1 mHz. There was less jitter on the data from the digital receiver. This was due to its smaller noise bandwidth. The demonstration and its results are described.

  5. Evaluation of meteorological airborne Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, P. H.; Mueller, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper will discuss the capabilities of airborne Doppler radar for atmospheric sciences research. The evaluation is based on airborne and ground based Doppler radar observations of convective storms. The capability of airborne Doppler radar to measure horizontal and vertical air motions is evaluated. Airborne Doppler radar is shown to be a viable tool for atmospheric sciences research.

  6. Laser Doppler Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-19

    Spacer material: Zerodur , ULE or equivalent 3. Mirrors to be optically contacted to spacer 4. Mirror surfaces: matched to better than Vd120, after...the mechanical, optical and electronic design of the apparatus to date. The Contraves mount was fitted with new coude mirrors for the YAG laser; the...accuracy  MHz. The choice of mirror reflectances for the interferometer plates and the tolerance to be placed on the field of view have been

  7. Retroreflector for photonic Doppler velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagoski, Thomas J.; Coutu, Ronald A., Jr.; Starman, LaVern A.

    2009-08-01

    In order to meet the goals of the Department of Defense (DoD) for smaller and more accurate weapons, numerous projects are currently investigating the miniaturization of weapons and munition fuze components. One of these efforts is to characterize the performance of small detonators. The velocity of the flyer, the key component needed to initiate a detonation sequence, can be measured using a photonic Doppler velocimeter (PDV). The purpose of this research was to develop a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device that would act as an optimal retroreflective surface for the PDV. Two MEMS solutions were explored: one using the PolyMUMPsTM fabrication process and one in-house fabrication design using silicon on insulator (SOI) wafers. The in-house design consisted of an array of corner reflectors created using an SOI wafer. Each corner reflector consisted of three separate mirror plates which were self-assembled by photoresist pad hinges. When heated to a critical temperature (typically 140-160 °C), the photoresist pads melted and the resulting surface tension caused each mirror to rotate into place. The resulting array of corner reflectors was then coated with a thin layer of gold to increase reflectivity. Despite the successful assembly of a PolyMUMPsTM corner reflector, assembling an array of these reflectors was found to be unfeasible. Although the SOI corner reflector design was completed, these devices were not fabricated in time for testing during this research. However, the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) and optical cross section (OCS) of commercially available retroreflective tapes were measured. These results can be used as a baseline comparison for future testing of a fabricated SOI corner reflector array.

  8. Photonic Doppler velocimetry lens array probe incorporating stereo imaging

    DOEpatents

    Malone, Robert M.; Kaufman, Morris I.

    2015-09-01

    A probe including a multiple lens array is disclosed to measure velocity distribution of a moving surface along many lines of sight. Laser light, directed to the moving surface is reflected back from the surface and is Doppler shifted, collected into the array, and then directed to detection equipment through optic fibers. The received light is mixed with reference laser light and using photonic Doppler velocimetry, a continuous time record of the surface movement is obtained. An array of single-mode optical fibers provides an optic signal to the multiple lens array. Numerous fibers in a fiber array project numerous rays to establish many measurement points at numerous different locations. One or more lens groups may be replaced with imaging lenses so a stereo image of the moving surface can be recorded. Imaging a portion of the surface during initial travel can determine whether the surface is breaking up.

  9. All-sky Doppler interferometer for thermospheric dynamics studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, Manfred A.; Zipf, Mark E.; Sipler, Dwight P.; Baumgardner, Jeffrey L.

    1995-04-01

    An efficient, all-sky input optical system has been mated to a 100-mm-aperture Fabry-Perot interferometer that employs a cooled (-150 deg C) CCD as a photon detector to create an all-sky Doppler interferom-eter. The instrument is capable of simultaneously measuring Doppler shifts and widths of nightglow emission lines from many different points in the sky, thereby providing determinations of upper-atmosphere neutral wind and temperature fields over a large region (to approximately equals 2000 km in extent). For OI 630-nm (thermosphere) and OH 799.6-nm (mesopause) nightglow emissions, exposure times of 5-15 min provide good-quality interferometric images. The capability of the all-sky Doppler interferometer is illustrated by examples of thermospheric wind and temperature fields measured over Millstone Hill, Massachusetts.

  10. Dual-Doppler Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, Lisa L.

    2012-01-01

    When two or more Doppler weather radar systems are monitoring the same region, the Doppler velocities can be combined to form a three-dimensional (3-D) wind vector field thus providing for a more intuitive analysis of the wind field. A real-time display of the 3-D winds can assist forecasters in predicting the onset of convection and severe weather. The data can also be used to initialize local numerical weather prediction models. Two operational Doppler Radar systems are in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS); these systems are operated by the 45th Space Wing (45 SW) and the National Weather Service Melbourne, Fla. (NWS MLB). Dual-Doppler applications were considered by the 45 SW in choosing the site for the new radar. Accordingly, the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS), NWS MLB and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to investigate the feasibility of establishing dual-Doppler capability using the two existing systems. This study investigated technical, hardware, and software requirements necessary to enable the establishment of a dual-Doppler capability. Review of the available literature pertaining to the dual-Doppler technique and consultation with experts revealed that the physical locations and resulting beam crossing angles of the 45 SW and NWS MLB radars make them ideally suited for a dual-Doppler capability. The dual-Doppler equations were derived to facilitate complete understanding of dual-Doppler synthesis; to determine the technical information requirements; and to determine the components of wind velocity from the equation of continuity and radial velocity data collected by the two Doppler radars. Analysis confirmed the suitability of the existing systems to provide the desired capability. In addition, it is possible that both 45 SW radar data and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar data from Orlando International Airport could be used to alleviate any

  11. Doppler characteristics of sea clutter.

    SciTech Connect

    Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2010-06-01

    Doppler radars can distinguish targets from clutter if the target's velocity along the radar line of sight is beyond that of the clutter. Some targets of interest may have a Doppler shift similar to that of clutter. The nature of sea clutter is different in the clutter and exo-clutter regions. This behavior requires special consideration regarding where a radar can expect to find sea-clutter returns in Doppler space and what detection algorithms are most appropriate to help mitigate false alarms and increase probability of detection of a target. This paper studies the existing state-of-the-art in the understanding of Doppler characteristics of sea clutter and scattering from the ocean to better understand the design and performance choices of a radar in differentiating targets from clutter under prevailing sea conditions.

  12. Doppler tracking of planetary spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    This article concerns the measurement of Doppler shift on microwave links that connect planetary spacecraft with the Deep Space Network. Such measurements are made by tracking the Doppler effect with phase-locked loop receivers. A description of equipment and techniques as well as a summary of the appropriate mathematical models are given. The two-way Doppler shift is measured by transmitting a highly-stable microwave (uplink) carrier from a ground station, having the spacecraft coherently transpond this carrier, and using a phase-locked loop receiver at the ground station to track the returned (downlink) carrier. The largest sources of measurement error are usually plasma noise and thermal noise. The plasma noise, which may originate in the ionosphere or the solar corona, is discussed; and a technique to partially calibrate its effect, involving the use of two simultaneous downlink carriers that are coherently related, is described. Range measurements employing Doppler rate-aiding are also described.

  13. Split-spectrum phase-gradient optical coherence tomography angiography

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gangjun; Jia, Yali; Pechauer, Alex D.; Chandwani, Rahul; Huang, David

    2016-01-01

    A phase gradient angiography (PGA) method is proposed for optical coherence tomography (OCT). This method allows the use of phase information to map the microvasculature in tissue without the correction of bulk motion and laser trigger jitter induced phase artifacts. PGA can also be combined with the amplitude/intensity to improve the performance. Split-spectrum technique can further increase the signal to noise ratio by more than two times. In-vivo imaging of human retinal circulation is shown with a 70 kHz, 840 nm spectral domain OCT system and a 200 kHz, 1050 nm swept source OCT system. Four different OCT angiography methods are compared. The best performance was achieved with split-spectrum amplitude and phase-gradient angiography. PMID:27570689

  14. Microvascular contrast enhancement in optical coherence tomography using microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assadi, Homa; Demidov, Valentin; Karshafian, Raffi; Douplik, Alexandre; Vitkin, I. Alex

    2016-07-01

    Gas microbubbles (MBs) are investigated as intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) contrast agents. Agar + intralipid scattering tissue phantoms with two embedded microtubes were fabricated to model vascular blood flow. One was filled with human blood, and the other with a mixture of human blood + MB. Swept-source structural and speckle variance (sv) OCT images, as well as speckle decorrelation times, were evaluated under both no-flow and varying flow conditions. Faster decorrelation times and higher structural and svOCT image contrasts were detected in the presence of MB in all experiments. The effects were largest in the svOCT imaging mode, and uniformly diminished with increasing flow velocity. These findings suggest the feasibility of utilizing MB for tissue hemodynamic investigations and for microvasculature contrast enhancement in OCT angiography.

  15. Imaging of mouse embryonic eye development using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, Saba H.; Kasiraj, Alyssa; Larina, Irina V.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2010-02-01

    Congenital abnormalities are often caused by genetic disorders which alter the normal development of the eye. Embryonic eye imaging in mouse model is important for understanding of normal and abnormal eye development and can contribute to prevention and treatment of eye defects in humans. In this study, we used Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT) to image eye structure in mouse embryos at 12.5 to 17.5 days post coitus (dpc). The imaging depth of the OCT allowed us to visualize the whole eye globe at these stages. Different ocular tissues including lens, cornea, eyelids, and hyaloid vasculature were visualized. These results suggest that OCT imaging is a useful tool to study embryonic eye development in the mouse model.

  16. Mathematical Models for Doppler Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, William M.

    1987-01-01

    Error analysis increases precision of navigation. Report presents improved mathematical models of analysis of Doppler measurements and measurement errors of spacecraft navigation. To take advantage of potential navigational accuracy of Doppler measurements, precise equations relate measured cycle count to position and velocity. Drifts and random variations in transmitter and receiver oscillator frequencies taken into account. Mathematical models also adapted to aircraft navigation, radar, sonar, lidar, and interferometry.

  17. Novel instantaneous laser Doppler velocimeter.

    PubMed

    Avidor, J M

    1974-02-01

    A laser Doppler velocimeter capable of directly measuring instantaneous velocities is described. The new LDV uses a novel detection technique based on the utilization of a static slightly defocused spherical Fabry-Perot interferometer used in conjunction with a special mask for the detection of instantaneous Doppler frequency shifts. The essential characteristics of this LDV are discussed, and such a system recently developed is described. Results of turbulent flow measurements show good agreement with data obtained using hot wire anemometry.

  18. Adaptive spectral doppler estimation.

    PubMed

    Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, 2 adaptive spectral estimation techniques are analyzed for spectral Doppler ultrasound. The purpose is to minimize the observation window needed to estimate the spectrogram to provide a better temporal resolution and gain more flexibility when designing the data acquisition sequence. The methods can also provide better quality of the estimated power spectral density (PSD) of the blood signal. Adaptive spectral estimation techniques are known to provide good spectral resolution and contrast even when the observation window is very short. The 2 adaptive techniques are tested and compared with the averaged periodogram (Welch's method). The blood power spectral capon (BPC) method is based on a standard minimum variance technique adapted to account for both averaging over slow-time and depth. The blood amplitude and phase estimation technique (BAPES) is based on finding a set of matched filters (one for each velocity component of interest) and filtering the blood process over slow-time and averaging over depth to find the PSD. The methods are tested using various experiments and simulations. First, controlled flow-rig experiments with steady laminar flow are carried out. Simulations in Field II for pulsating flow resembling the femoral artery are also analyzed. The simulations are followed by in vivo measurement on the common carotid artery. In all simulations and experiments it was concluded that the adaptive methods display superior performance for short observation windows compared with the averaged periodogram. Computational costs and implementation details are also discussed.

  19. High Resolution Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This Grant supported the development of an incoherent lidar system to measure winds and aerosols in the lower atmosphere. During this period the following activities occurred: (1) an active feedback system was developed to improve the laser frequency stability; (2) a detailed forward model of the instrument was developed to take into account many subtle effects, such as detector non-linearity; (3) a non-linear least squares inversion method was developed to recover the Doppler shift and aerosol backscatter without requiring assumptions about the molecular component of the signal; (4) a study was done of the effects of systematic errors due to multiple etalon misalignment. It was discovered that even for small offsets and high aerosol loadings, the wind determination can be biased by as much as 1 m/s. The forward model and inversion process were modified to account for this effect; and (5) the lidar measurements were validated using rawinsonde balloon measurements. The measurements were found to be in agreement within 1-2 m/s.

  20. High Resolution Doppler Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Paul B.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on UARS spacecraft during the period 4/l/96 - 3/31/99. During this period, HRDI operation, data processing, and data analysis continued, and there was a high level of vitality in the HRDI project. The HRDI has been collecting data from the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere since instrument activation on October 1, 1991. The HRDI team has stressed three areas since operations commenced: 1) operation of the instrument in a manner which maximizes the quality and versatility of the collected data; 2) algorithm development and validation to produce a high-quality data product; and 3) scientific studies, primarily of the dynamics of the middle atmosphere. There has been no significant degradation in the HRDI instrument since operations began nearly 8 years ago. HRDI operations are fairly routine, although we have continued to look for ways to improve the quality of the scientific product, either by improving existing modes, or by designing new ones. The HRDI instrument has been programmed to collect data for new scientific studies, such as measurements of fluorescence from plants, measuring cloud top heights, and lower atmosphere H2O.

  1. Results of the international ionospheric Doppler sounder network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastovicka, Jan; Chum, Jaroslav

    2016-07-01

    This paper summarizes main recent results reached by the Czech-lead international network of ionospheric Doppler sounders. The network consists of Doppler sounders in the western half of Czechia (5 measuring paths, 3 frequencies with central receivers in Prague), northern Taiwan (3 transmitters, two separated receivers, 1 frequency), and three similar systems (3 measuring paths with 1 receiver and 1 frequency) in Tucuman (north-western Argentina), Hermanus (the southernmost South Africa) and Luisville (northern South Africa). Three main areas of research have been (1) statistical properties of gravity waves, (2) ionospheric effects of earthquakes, and (3) low latitude/equatorial phenomena. Some results: (1) the theoretically expected dominance of gravity wave propagation against wind has been confirmed; (2) impact of the Tohoku 2001 M9.0 earthquake was registered in the ionosphere over the Czech Republic as long-period infrasound on the distance of about 9000 km from epicenter; analysis of ionospheric infrasound excited by the Nepal 2015 M7.8 earthquake observed by the Czech and Taiwan Doppler sounders showed that the intensity of ionospheric signal is significantly height dependent and that the Doppler shift depends not only on the advection (up and down motion) of the reflecting layer but also on the compression/rarefaction of the electron gas; (3) spread F structures observed by Doppler sounders in Tucuman and Taiwan (both under the crest of equatorial ionization anomaly) provide results consistent with S4 scintillation data and with previous optical, GPS and satellite measurements.

  2. Response of a Doppler canceling system to plane gravitational waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caporali, A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses the interaction of long periodic gravitational waves with a three-link microwave system known as the Doppler canceling system. This system, which was developed for a gravitational red-shift experiment, uses one-way and two-way Doppler information to construct the beat signal of two reference oscillators moving with respect to each other. The geometric-optics approximation is used to derive the frequency shift produced on a light signal propagating in a gravitational-wave space-time. The signature left on the Doppler-cancelled beat by bursts and continuous gravitational waves is analyzed. A comparison is made between the response to gravitational waves of the Doppler canceling system and that of a (NASA) Doppler tracking system which employs two-way, round-trip radio waves. A threefold repetition of the gravitational wave form is found to be a common feature of the response functions of both systems. These two functions otherwise exhibit interesting differences.

  3. Sapphire ball lens-based fiber probe for common-path optical coherence tomography and its applications in corneal and retinal imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingtao; Huang, Yong; Kang, Jin U

    2012-12-01

    We describe a common-path swept source optical coherence tomography fiber probe design using a sapphire ball lens for cross-sectional imaging and sensing for retina vitrectomy surgery. The high refractive index (n=1.75) of the sapphire ball lens improves the focusing power and enables the probe to operate in the intraocular space. The highly precise spherical shape of the sapphire lens also reduces astigmatism and coma compared to fused nonspherical ball lenses. A theoretical sensitivity model for common-path optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) was developed to assess its optimal performance based on an unbalanced photodetector configuration. Two probe designs-with working distances 415 and 1221 μm and lateral resolution 11 and 18 μm-were implemented with sensitivity up to 88 dB, which is significantly higher than previously reported CP-OCT probes. We assessed the performances of the fiber probes by cross-sectional imaging a bovine cornea and retina in air and in vitreous gel with a 1310 nm swept source OCT system. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of sapphire ball lens-based CP-OCT probes directly inserted into the vitreous gel of a bovine eyeball for ocular imaging with a sensitivity approaching the theoretical limitation of CP-OCT.

  4. SYNTHESIZED SPECTRA OF OPTICALLY THIN EMISSION LINES PRODUCED BY THE BIFROST STELLAR ATMOSPHERE CODE, INCLUDING NONEQUILIBRIUM IONIZATION EFFECTS: A STUDY OF THE INTENSITY, NONTHERMAL LINE WIDTHS, AND DOPPLER SHIFTS

    SciTech Connect

    Olluri, K.; Gudiksen, B. V.; Hansteen, V. H.; Pontieu, B. De

    2015-03-20

    In recent years realistic 3D numerical models of the solar atmosphere have become available. The models attempt to recreate the solar atmosphere and mimic observations in the best way, in order to make it possible to couple complicated observations with physical properties such as the temperatures, densities, velocities, and magnetic fields. We here present a study of synthetic spectra created using the Bifrost code in order to assess how well they fit with previously taken solar data. A study of the synthetic intensity, nonthermal line widths, Doppler shifts, and correlations between any two of these three components of the spectra first assuming statistical equilibrium is made, followed by a report on some of the effects nonequilibrium ionization will have on the synthesized spectra. We find that the synthetic intensities compare well with the observations. The synthetic observations depend on the assumed resolution and point-spread function (PSF) of the instrument, and we find a large effect on the results, especially for intensity and nonthermal line width. The Doppler shifts produce the reported persistent redshifts for the transition region (TR) lines and blueshifts for the upper TR and corona lines. The nonthermal line widths reproduce the well-known turnoff point around (2–3) × 10{sup 5} K, but with much lower values than those observed. The nonthermal line widths tend to increase with decreasing assumed instrumental resolution, also when nonequilibrium ionization is included. Correlations between the nonthermal line width of any two TR line studies as reported by Chae et al. are reproduced, while the correlations of intensity to line width are reproduced only after applying a PSF to the data. Doppler shift correlations reported by Doschek for the TR lines and correlations of Doppler shift to nonthermal line width of the Fe xii{sub 19.5} line reported by Doschek et al. are reproduced.

  5. Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography Using Galvo Filter-Based Wavelength Swept Laser

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Muhammad Faizan; Kim, Pilun; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2016-01-01

    We report a wavelength swept laser-based full-field optical coherence tomography for measuring the surfaces and thicknesses of refractive and reflective samples. The system consists of a galvo filter–based wavelength swept laser and a simple Michelson interferometer. Combinations of the reflective and refractive samples are used to demonstrate the performance of the system. By synchronizing the camera with the source, the cross-sectional information of the samples can be seen after each sweep of the swept source. This system can be effective for the thickness measurement of optical thin films as well as for the depth investigation of samples in industrial applications. A resolution target with a glass cover slip and a step height standard target are imaged, showing the cross-sectional and topographical information of the samples. PMID:27869659

  6. Optical coherence tomography monitoring of angioplasty balloon inflation in a deployment tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azarnoush, Hamed; Vergnole, Sébastien; Bourezak, Rafik; Boulet, Benoit; Lamouche, Guy

    2010-08-01

    We present an innovative integration of an intravascular optical coherence tomography probe into a computerized balloon deployment system to monitor the balloon inflation process. The high-resolution intraluminal imaging of the balloon provides a detailed assessment of the balloon quality and, consequently, a technique to improve the balloon manufacturing process. A custom-built swept-source optical coherence tomography system is used for real-time imaging. A semicompliant balloon with a nominal diameter of 4 mm is fabricated for the experiments. Imaging results correspond to balloon deployment in air and inside an artery phantom. A characterization of the balloon diameter, wall thickness, compliance, and elastic modulus is provided, based on image segmentation. Using the images obtained from the probe pullback, a three-dimensional visualization of the inflated balloon is presented.

  7. A preliminary study on the identification of vehicle paint chip based on optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ning; Li, Zhihui; Xu, Xiaojing; Huang, Wei; Xu, Lei; Guo, Jingjing; Xie, Lanchi

    2015-12-01

    Vehicle paint chip is a common evidence that plays a significant role in many criminal cases. This paper introduced a novel imaging technology - optical coherence tomography (OCT), which can realize non-invasive, rapid, high-resolution and cross-sectional imaging for the identification of vehicle paint chips. In this paper, a 1310nm swept-source OCT system was adopted to implement the paint imaging. The results show that, compared with conventional spectroscopy and SEM methods, OCT technology can directly obtain the tomographic images of the paints without slicing. In addition, the optical attenuation properties were analyzed to provide a new feature for separating different paint samples. The OCT technology and traditional methods can be combined to further narrow the scope of investigation, providing a comprehensive means to determine or rule out the suspect vehicles.

  8. Dual-wavelength photothermal optical coherence tomography for imaging microvasculature blood oxygen saturation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Biwei; McElroy, Austin B.; Kazmi, Shams; Dunn, Andrew K.; Duong, Timothy Q.; Milner, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. A swept-source dual-wavelength photothermal (DWP) optical coherence tomography (OCT) system is demonstrated for quantitative imaging of microvasculature oxygen saturation. DWP-OCT is capable of recording three-dimensional images of tissue and depth-resolved phase variation in response to photothermal excitation. A 1,064-nm OCT probe and 770-nm and 800-nm photothermal excitation beams are combined in a single-mode optical fiber to measure microvasculature hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) levels in phantom blood vessels with a range of blood flow speeds (0 to 17  mm/s). A 50-μm-diameter blood vessel phantom is imaged, and SO2 levels are measured using DWP-OCT and compared with values provided by a commercial oximeter at various blood oxygen concentrations. The influences of blood flow speed and mechanisms of SNR phase degradation on the accuracy of SO2 measurement are identified and investigated. PMID:23640076

  9. Optical clearing of melanoma in vivo: characterization by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Layla; Demidov, Valentin; Vitkin, I. Alex; Bagnato, Vanderlei; Kurachi, Cristina; Wilson, Brian C.

    2016-08-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer, with significant risk of fatality. Due to its pigmentation, light-based imaging and treatment techniques are limited to near the tumor surface, which is inadequate, for example, to evaluate the microvascular density that is associated with prognosis. White-light diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and near-infrared optical coherence tomography (OCT) were used to evaluate the effect of a topically applied optical clearing agent (OCA) in melanoma in vivo and to image the microvascular network. DRS was performed using a contact fiber optic probe in the range from 450 to 650 nm. OCT imaging was performed using a swept-source system at 1310 nm. The OCT image data were processed using speckle variance and depth-encoded algorithms. Diffuse reflectance signals decreased with clearing, dropping by ˜90% after 45 min. OCT was able to image the microvasculature in the pigmented melanoma tissue with good spatial resolution up to a depth of ˜300 μm without the use of OCA; improved contrast resolution was achieved with optical clearing to a depth of ˜750 μm in tumor. These findings are relevant to potential clinical applications in melanoma, such as assessing prognosis and treatment responses. Optical clearing may also facilitate the use of light-based treatments such as photodynamic therapy.

  10. Optical clearing of melanoma in vivo: characterization by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Pires, Layla; Demidov, Valentin; Vitkin, I Alex; Bagnato, Vanderlei; Kurachi, Cristina; Wilson, Brian C

    2016-08-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer, with significant risk of fatality. Due to its pigmentation, light-based imaging and treatment techniques are limited to near the tumor surface, which is inadequate, for example, to evaluate the microvascular density that is associated with prognosis. White-light diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and near-infrared optical coherence tomography (OCT) were used to evaluate the effect of a topically applied optical clearing agent (OCA) in melanoma in vivo and to image the microvascular network. DRS was performed using a contact fiber optic probe in the range from 450 to 650 nm. OCT imaging was performed using a swept-source system at 1310 nm. The OCT image data were processed using speckle variance and depth-encoded algorithms. Diffuse reflectance signals decreased with clearing, dropping by ∼ 90% after 45 min. OCT was able to image the microvasculature in the pigmented melanoma tissue with good spatial resolution up to a depth of ∼ 300 μm without the use of OCA; improved contrast resolution was achieved with optical clearing to a depth of ∼ 750 μm in tumor. These findings are relevant to potential clinical applications in melanoma, such as assessing prognosis and treatment responses. Optical clearing may also facilitate the use of light-based treatments such as photodynamic therapy.

  11. Wavelength-swept fiber laser based on acousto-optic tuning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming-hui; Fan, Yun-ping; Zhang, Hao; Tao, Jian-feng; Zheng, Gang

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we have demonstrated a wavelength-swept fiber laser based on an acousto-optic tunable filter(AOTF) as a selective element and a semiconductor optical amplifier(SOA) as a gain medium in an internal fiber ring cavity. The light deriving from one port of the SOA goes through an optical isolator, the AOTF, a fiber coupler and a polarized controller successively, then it goes back to the other port of the SOA to form a ring cavity. The laser output is from another port of the fiber coupler. The laser made by this method is mainly used for swept-source optical coherence tomography(SS-OCT). The application of the SOA provides a sufficiently broad range and can ensure an increased axial resolution of SS-OCT. AOTF offers a wide tuning range, high switching speed and stable operation against vibration for the non-mechanical structure. The proposed wavelength-swept fiber laser ensures a high axial resolution of tomographic images and has a stable laser output. We have discussed the influence of the SOA injection current to the tuning range of the laser. In the SOA injection current of 280 mA, a continuous wavelength tuning range from 1295 to 1370 nm centered at a wavelength of 1330nm is obtained at the sweep rate of 1.06 kHz, and the power of the swept source was 1.14 mW. In addition, for quantitative characterization of the wavelength-swept performance with a AOTF, we have theoretically and experimentally analyzed the influence of the following controllable parameters: injection current, output power and sweeping frequency.

  12. Laser Doppler vibrometry: new ENT applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasche, Norbert; Baermann, M.; Kempe, C.; Hoermann, Karl; Foth, Hans-Jochen

    1996-12-01

    Common audiometry often does not really allow a reliable and objective differential diagnosis of hearing disorders such as otosclerosis, adhesive otitis, ossicular interruption or tinnitus, even though several methods might be used complementarily. In recent years, some experimental studies on middle ear mechanics established laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) as a useful method allowing objective measurement of human tympanic membrane displacement. The present study on LDV investigated the clinical use of this new method under physiological conditions. LDV proved to be a fast, reproducible, non-invasive and very sensitive instrument to characterize ear-drum vibrations in various middle ear dysfunctions, except in tinnitus patients. For future applications, improved optical characteristics of the vibrometer might result in a better differential diagnosis of subjective and objective tinnitus, otoacoustic emissions or Morbus Meniere.

  13. Doppler variance imaging for three-dimensional retina and choroid angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lingfeng; Chen, Zhongping

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of Doppler variance (standard deviation) imaging for 3-D in vivo angiography in the human eye. In addition to the regular optical Doppler tomography velocity and structural images, we use the variance of blood flow velocity to map the retina and choroid vessels. Variance imaging is subject to bulk motion artifacts as in phase-resolved Doppler imaging, and a histogram-based method is proposed for bulk-motion correction in variance imaging. Experiments were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for 3-D vasculature imaging of human retina and choroid.

  14. Laser Doppler spectrometer method of particle sizing. [for air pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, F. N.

    1976-01-01

    A spectrometer for the detection of airborne particulate pollution in the submicron size range is described. In this device, airborne particles are accelerated through a supersonic nozzle, with different sizes achieving different velocities in the gas flow. Information about the velocities of the accelerated particles is obtained with a laser-heterodyne optical system through the Doppler shift of light scattered from the particles. Detection is accomplished by means of a photomultiplier. Nozzle design and signal processing techniques are also discussed.

  15. Identification and Minimization of Errors in Doppler Global Velocimetry Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, James F.; Lee, Joseph W.

    2000-01-01

    A systematic laboratory investigation was conducted to identify potential measurement error sources in Doppler Global Velocimetry technology. Once identified, methods were developed to eliminate or at least minimize the effects of these errors. The areas considered included the Iodine vapor cell, optical alignment, scattered light characteristics, noise sources, and the laser. Upon completion the demonstrated measurement uncertainty was reduced to 0.5 m/sec.

  16. Wide tuning range wavelength-swept laser with a single SOA at 1020 nm for ultrahigh resolution Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Won; Song, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Moon-Youn; Kim, Seung-Hwan

    2011-10-24

    In this study, we demonstrated a wide tuning range wavelength-swept laser with a single semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) at 1020 nm for ultrahigh resolution, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (UHR, FD-OCT). The wavelength-swept laser was constructed with an external line-cavity based on a Littman configuration. An optical wavelength selection filter consisted of a grating, a telescope, and a polygon scanner. Before constructing the optical wavelength selection filter, we observed that the optical power, the spectrum bandwidth, and the center wavelength of the SOA were affected by the temperature of the thermoelectric (TE) cooler in the SOA mount as well as the applied current. Therefore, to obtain a wide wavelength tuning range, we adjusted the temperature of the TE cooler in the SOA mount. When the temperature in the TE cooler was 9 °C, our swept source had a tuning range of 142 nm and a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 121.5 nm at 18 kHz. The measured instantaneous spectral bandwidth (δλ) is 0.085 nm, which was measured by an optical spectrum analyzer with a resolution bandwidth of 0.06 nm. This value corresponds to an imaging depth of 3.1 mm in air. Additionally, the averaged optical power of our swept source was 8.2 mW. In UHR, FD/SS-OCT using our swept laser, the measured axial resolution was 4.0 μm in air corresponding to 2.9 μm in tissue (n = 1.35). The sensitivity was measured to be 93.1 dB at a depth of 100 μm. Finally, we obtained retinal images (macular and optic disk) and a corneal image.

  17. Doppler Ultrasound: What Is It Used for?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in your neck (carotid artery stenosis) A Doppler ultrasound can estimate how fast blood flows by measuring the rate of change in its pitch (frequency). During a Doppler ultrasound, a technician trained in ultrasound imaging (sonographer) presses ...

  18. Right Ventricular Tissue Doppler in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Kathleen M.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Ebert, Douglas; Martin, David S.; Barratt, Michael R.; Martin, David S.; Bogomolov, Valery V.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Duncan, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The presentation slides review normal physiology of the right ventricle in space, general physiology of the right ventricle; difficulties in imaging the heart in space, imaging methods, tissue Doppler spectrum, right ventricle tissue Doppler, and Rt Tei Index.

  19. Understanding Doppler Broadening of Gamma Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini; Sullivan, John P.

    2014-07-03

    Doppler-broadened gamma ray peaks are observed routinely in the collection and analysis of gamma-ray spectra. If not recognized and understood, the appearance of Doppler broadening can complicate the interpretation of a spectrum and the correct identification of the gamma ray-emitting material. We have conducted a study using a simulation code to demonstrate how Doppler broadening arises and provide a real-world example in which Doppler broadening is found. This report describes that study and its results.

  20. The Doppler Effect--A New Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the Doppler effect as it applies to different situations, such as a stationary source of sound with the observer moving, a stationary observer, and the sound source and observer both moving. Police radar, satellite surveillance radar, radar astronomy, and the Doppler navigator, are discussed as applications of Doppler shift. (JR)

  1. Doppler observations of solar rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, P. H.

    1980-01-01

    Daily observations of the photospheric equatorial rotation rate using the Doppler effect mode at the Sanford Solar Observatory are presented. These observations show no variations in the rotation rate that exceed the observational error of about one percent. The average rotation rate is indistinguishable from that of sunspots and large scale magnetic field structures.

  2. Doppler observations of solar rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, P. H.; Wilcox, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Daily observations of the photospheric equatorial rotation rate using the Doppler effect are made at the Stanford Solar Observatory. These observations show no variations in the rotation rate that exceed the observational error of about 1%. The average rotation rate is indistinguishable from that of sunspots and large-scale magnetic field structures.

  3. Doppler Imaging of EI Eridani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washuettl, Albert; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Collier-Cameron, Andrew

    We present Doppler images of the rapidly rotating active close binary star EI Eridani. Several Doppler images have been produced since 1984 making use of different versions of the Doppler imaging technique. They all show high-latitude spots surrounding or covering the rotational pole as well as some smaller spots on lower latitudes. The high-latitude/polar spot seems to be long-lived (at least a decade) but changes its shape on comparatively short timescales (of the order of one month). From time to time spots along the stellar equator also occur, but their lifetimes tend to be relatively short (weeks). Furthermore, long-term photometric observations revealed the existence of a magnetic cycle which has been estimated to be around 11 years. We also present time-resolved Doppler images from EI Eri obtained at McMath/NSO in fall 1996 during 70 consecutive nights. The final aim of this program is to investigate the spot evolution over the whole activity cycle.

  4. Laser Doppler flowmetry signals to quantify effects of isoflurane on the peripheral cardiovascular system of healthy rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humeau, Anne; Fizanne, Lionel; Roux, Jérôme; Asfar, Pierre; Cales, Paul; Rousseau, David; Chapeau-Blondeau, François

    2007-12-01

    The optical Doppler effect resulting from interactions between laser light photons and red blood cells of the microcirculation is used to characterize the influence of isoflurane, an halogenated volatile anesthetic, on the peripheral cardiovascular system. After having recorded laser Doppler flowmetry blood perfusion signals on isoflurane-induced anesthetized healthy rats, wavelet analyses show a significant decrease of the myogenic and neurogenic activities when isoflurane dose increases from 1.5% to 3%. Moreover, the approximate entropy shows a weak decrease of signal irregularity when dose of isoflurane increases. These findings demonstrate the usefulness of the optical Doppler effect in physiological and pharmacological applications.

  5. A pilot study to Doppler-image an accretion spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz Guenther, Hans

    2009-10-01

    Classical T Tauri stars (CTTS) are young, accreting systems. The accretion is thought to cause a soft X-ray excess and unusual line ratios in the He-like triplets. The accretion spots can also be seen with optical Doppler-imaging; however, the final test to correlate these signatures - simultaneous X-ray and ground-based observations - is still missing. We propose a 15 ks pilot study of MN Lup, the prime target for simultaneous observations from the optical point of view, to confirm its CTTS status and characterize its X-ray properties.

  6. Compact laser Doppler flowmeter for application in dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedosov, Ivan V.; Mareew, Gleb O.; Finokhina, Olga A.; Lepilin, Alexander V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2005-06-01

    Lightweight handheld laser Doppler instrument is designed for blood flow assessment in soft tissues of oral cavity. Laser light source, fiber optic probe detector and amplifier circuitry are mounted inside the compact hand held probe assembly to minimize noise and to exclude optical fiber motion artifacts. Both the instrument and data processing software are optimized for the using of the standard PC sound interface as the data acquisition device that provides low cost and effective solution for clinical use. The instrument is suitable for quantitative diagnostics of gingivitis and other disorders in dentistry.

  7. Optical signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, D.

    1978-01-01

    The article discusses several optical configurations used for signal processing. Electronic-to-optical transducers are outlined, noting fixed window transducers and moving window acousto-optic transducers. Folded spectrum techniques are considered, with reference to wideband RF signal analysis, fetal electroencephalogram analysis, engine vibration analysis, signal buried in noise, and spatial filtering. Various methods for radar signal processing are described, such as phased-array antennas, the optical processing of phased-array data, pulsed Doppler and FM radar systems, a multichannel one-dimensional optical correlator, correlations with long coded waveforms, and Doppler signal processing. Means for noncoherent optical signal processing are noted, including an optical correlator for speech recognition and a noncoherent optical correlator.

  8. High-resolution full-field optical coherence microscopy using a Mirau interferometer for the quantitative imaging of biological cells.

    PubMed

    Anna, Tulsi; Srivastava, Vishal; Mehta, Dalip Singh; Shakher, Chandra

    2011-12-01

    In this paper quantitative imaging of biological cells using high-resolution full-field optical coherence microscopy (FF-OCM) is reported. The FF-OCM was realized using a swept-source system, a Mirau interferometer, and a CCD camera (a two-dimensional detection unit). A Mirau-interferometric objective lens was used to generate the interferometric signal. The signal was analyzed by a Fourier analysis technique. Optically sectioned amplitude images and a quantitative phase map of biological cells such as onion skin and red blood cells (RBCs) are demonstrated. Further, the refractive index profile of the RBCs is also presented. For the 50× Mirau objective, the experimentally achieved axial and transverse resolution of the present system are 3.8 and 1.2 μm, respectively. The CCD provides parallel detection and measures enface images without X, Y, Z mechanical scanning.

  9. Compressive sensing optical coherence tomography using randomly accessible lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harfouche, Mark; Satyan, Naresh; Vasilyev, Arseny; Yariv, Amnon

    2014-05-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel a compressive sensing swept source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system that enables high speed images to be taken while maintaining the high resolution offered from a large bandwidth sweep. Conventional SSOCT systems sweep the optical frequency of a laser ω(t) to determine the depth of the reflectors at a given lateral location. A scatterer located at delay τ appears as a sinusoid cos (ω(t)τ ) at the photodetector. The finite optical chirp rate and the speed of analog to digital and digital to analog converters limit the acquisition rate of an axial scan. The proposed acquisition modality enables much faster image acquisition rates by interrogating the beat signal at randomly selected optical frequencies while preserving resolution and depth of field. The system utilizes a randomly accessible laser, a modulated grating Y-branch laser, to sample the interference pattern from a scene at randomly selected optical frequencies over an optical bandwidth of 5 THz , corresponding to a resolution of 30 μm in air. The depth profile is then reconstructed using an l1 minimization algorithm with a LASSO constraint. Signal-dependent noise sources, shot noise and phase noise, are analyzed and taken into consideration during the recovery. Redundant dictionaries are used to improve the reconstruction of the depth profile. A compression by a factor of 10 for sparse targets up to a depth of 15 mm in noisy environments is shown.

  10. High-speed upper-airway imaging using full-range optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Joseph; Zhang, Jun; Loy, Anthony Chin; Wong, Brian J. F.; Chen, Zhongping

    2012-11-01

    Obstruction in the upper airway can often cause reductions in breathing or gas exchange efficiency and lead to rest disorders such as sleep apnea. Imaging diagnosis of the obstruction region has been accomplished using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However CT requires the use of ionizing radiation, and MRI typically requires sedation of the patient to prevent motion artifacts. Long-range optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to provide high-speed three-dimensional tomographic images with high resolution and without the use of ionizing radiation. In this paper, we present work on the development of a long-range OCT endoscopic probe with 1.2 mm OD and 20 mm working distance used in conjunction with a modified Fourier domain swept source OCT system to acquire structural and anatomical datasets of the human airway. Imaging from the bottom of the larynx to the end of the nasal cavity is completed within 40 s.

  11. Optical coherence tomography layer thickness characterization of a mock artery during angioplasty balloon deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azarnoush, Hamed; Vergnole, Sébastien; Boulet, Benoît; Lamouche, Guy

    2011-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used to study the deformation of a mock artery in an angioplasty simulation setup. An OCT probe integrated in a balloon catheter provides intraluminal real-time images during balloon inflation. Swept-source OCT is used for imaging. A 4 mm semi-compliant polyurethane balloon is used for experiments. The balloon is inflated inside a custom-built multi-layer artery phantom. The phantom has three layers to mock artery layers, namely, intima, media and adventitia. Semi-automatic segmentation of phantom layers is performed to provide a detailed assessment of the phantom deformation at various inflation pressures. Characterization of luminal diameter and thickness of different layers of the mock artery is provided for various inflation pressures.

  12. Automated measurement of choroidal thickness in the human eye by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Torzicky, Teresa; Pircher, Michael; Zotter, Stefan; Bonesi, Marco; Götzinger, Erich; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new method to automatically segment the thickness of the choroid in the human eye by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). A swept source PS-OCT instrument operating at a center wavelength of 1040 nm is used. The segmentation method is based entirely on intrinsic, tissue specific polarization contrast mechanisms. In a first step, the anterior boundary of the choroid, the retinal pigment epithelium, is segmented based on depolarization. In a second step, the choroid-sclera interface is found by using the birefringence of the sclera. The method is demonstrated in five healthy eyes. The mean repeatability (standard deviation) of thickness measurement was found to be 18.3 μm. PMID:22453435

  13. Utilizing optical coherence tomography for CAD/CAM of indirect dental restorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chityala, Ravishankar; Vidal, Carola; Jones, Robert

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has seen broad application in dentistry including early carious lesion detection and imaging defects in resin composite restorations. This study investigates expanding the clinical usefulness by investigating methods to use OCT for obtaining three-dimensional (3D) digital impressions, which can be integrated to CAD/CAM manufacturing of indirect restorations. 3D surface topography `before' and `after' a cavity preparation was acquired by an intraoral cross polarization swept source OCT (CP-OCT) system with a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) scanning mirror. Image registration and segmentation methods were used to digitally construct a replacement restoration that modeled the original surface morphology of a hydroxyapatite sample. After high resolution additive manufacturing (e.g. polymer 3D printing) of the replacement restoration, micro-CT imaging was performed to examine the marginal adaptation. This study establishes the protocol for further investigation of integrating OCT with CAD/CAM of indirect dental restorations.

  14. Microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography for image-aided positioning of glaucoma surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiqi; Wei, Ling; Dong, Xuechuan; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Chun; He, Yi; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Yudong

    2015-07-01

    Most glaucoma surgeries involve creating new aqueous outflow pathways with the use of a small surgical instrument. This article reported a microscope-integrated, real-time, high-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography system (SS-OCT) with a 1310-nm light source for glaucoma surgery. A special mechanism was designed to produce an adjustable system suitable for use in surgery. A two-graphic processing unit architecture was used to speed up the data processing and real-time volumetric rendering. The position of the surgical instrument can be monitored and measured using the microscope and a grid-inserted image of the SS-OCT. Finally, experiments were simulated to assess the effectiveness of this integrated system. Experimental results show that this system is a suitable positioning tool for glaucoma surgery.

  15. Novel measure for the calibration of laser Doppler flowmetry devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunaev, Andrey V.; Zherebtsov, Evgeny A.; Rogatkin, Dmitrii A.; Stewart, Neil A.; Sokolovski, Sergei G.; Rafailov, Edik U.

    2014-03-01

    The metrological basis for optical non-invasive diagnostic devices is an unresolved issue. A major challenge for laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is the need to compare the outputs from individual devices and various manufacturers to identify variations useful in clinical diagnostics. The most common methods for instrument calibration are simulants or phantoms composed of colloids of light-scattering particles which simulate the motion of red blood cells based on Brownian motion. However, such systems have limited accuracy or stability and cannot calibrate for the known rhythmic components of perfusion (0.0095-1.6 Hz). To solve this problem, we propose the design of a novel technique based on the simulation of moving particles using an electromechanical transducer, in which a precision piezoelectric actuator is used (e.g., P-602.8SL with maximum movement less than 1 mm). In this system, Doppler shift is generated in the layered structure of different solid materials with different optical light diffusing properties. This comprises a fixed, light transparent upper plane-parallel plate and an oscillating fluoroplastic (PTFE) disk. Preliminary studies on this experimental setup using the LDF-channel of a "LAKK-M" system demonstrated the detection of the linear portion (0-10 Hz with a maximum signal corresponding to Doppler shift of about 20 kHz) of the LDF-signal from the oscillating frequency of the moving layer. The results suggest the possibility of applying this technique for the calibration of LDF devices.

  16. Laser Doppler flowmetry in endodontics: a review.

    PubMed

    Jafarzadeh, H

    2009-06-01

    Vascular supply is the most accurate marker of pulp vitality. Tests for assessing vascular supply that rely on the passage of light through a tooth have been considered as possible methods for detecting pulp vitality. Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), which is a noninvasive, objective, painless, semi-quantitative method, has been shown to be reliable for measuring pulpal blood flow. The relevant literature on LDF in the context of endodontics up to March 2008 was reviewed using PubMed and MEDLINE database searches. This search identified papers published between June 1983 and March 2008. Laser light is transmitted to the pulp by means of a fibre optic probe. Scattered light from moving red blood cells will be frequency-shifted whilst that from the static tissue remains unshifted. The reflected light, composed of Doppler-shifted and unshifted light, is returned by afferent fibres and a signal is produced. This technique has been successfully employed for estimating pulpal vitality in adults and children, differential diagnosis of apical radiolucencies (on the basis of pulp vitality), examining the reactions to pharmacological agents or electrical and thermal stimulation, and monitoring of pulpal responses to orthodontic procedures and traumatic injuries. Assessments may be highly susceptible to environmental and technique-related factors. Nonpulpal signals, principally from periodontal blood flow, may contaminate the signal. Because this test produces no noxious stimuli, apprehensive or distressed patients accept it more readily than current methods of pulp vitality assessment. A review of the literature and a discussion of the application of this system in endodontics are presented.

  17. High-performance multi-megahertz optical coherence tomography based on amplified optical time-stretch

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jingjiang; Wei, Xiaoming; Yu, Luoqin; Zhang, Chi; Xu, Jianbing; Wong, K. K. Y.; Tsia, Kevin K.

    2015-01-01

    As the key prerequisite of high-speed volumetric structural and functional tissue imaging in real-time, scaling the A-scan rate beyond MHz has been one of the major pursuits in the development of optical coherence tomography (OCT). Along with a handful of techniques enabling multi-MHz, amplified optical time-stretch OCT (AOT-OCT) has recently been demonstrated as a viable alternative for ultrafast swept-source OCT well above MHz without the need for the mechanical wavelength-tuning mechanism. In this paper, we report a new generation of AOT-OCT demonstrating superior performance to its older generation and all other time-stretch-based OCT modalities in terms of shot-to-shot stability, sensitivity (~90dB), roll-off performance (>4 mm/dB) and A-scan rate (11.5 MHz). Such performance is mainly attributed to the combined contribution from the stable operation of the broadband and compact mode-locked fiber laser as well as the optical amplification in-line with the time-stretch process. The system allows us, for the first time, to deliver volumetric time-stretch-based OCT of biological tissues with the single-shot A-scan rate beyond 10 MHz. Comparing with the existing high-speed OCT systems, the inertia-free AOT-OCT shows promises to realize high-performance 3D OCT imaging at video rate. PMID:25909017

  18. An All-Fiber-Optic Combined System of Noncontact Photoacoustic Tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Jonghyun; Shin, Jun Geun; Park, Soongho; Rim, Sunghwan; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2016-01-01

    We propose an all-fiber-based dual-modal imaging system that combines noncontact photoacoustic tomography (PAT) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The PAT remotely measures photoacoustic (PA) signals with a 1550-nm laser on the surface of a sample by utilizing a fiber interferometer as an ultrasound detector. The fiber-based OCT, employing a swept-source laser centered at 1310 nm, shares the sample arm of the PAT system. The fiber-optic probe for the combined system was homemade with a lensed single-mode fiber (SMF) and a large-core multimode fiber (MMF). The compact and robust common probe is capable of obtaining both the PA and the OCT signals at the same position without any physical contact. Additionally, the MMF of the probe delivers the short pulses of a Nd:YAG laser to efficiently excite the PA signals. We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed dual-modal system with a phantom made of a fishing line and a black polyethylene terephthalate fiber in a tissue mimicking solution. The all-fiber-optic system, capable of providing complementary information about absorption and scattering, has a promising potential in minimally invasive and endoscopic imaging. PMID:27213392

  19. An All-Fiber-Optic Combined System of Noncontact Photoacoustic Tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Eom, Jonghyun; Shin, Jun Geun; Park, Soongho; Rim, Sunghwan; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2016-05-20

    We propose an all-fiber-based dual-modal imaging system that combines noncontact photoacoustic tomography (PAT) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The PAT remotely measures photoacoustic (PA) signals with a 1550-nm laser on the surface of a sample by utilizing a fiber interferometer as an ultrasound detector. The fiber-based OCT, employing a swept-source laser centered at 1310 nm, shares the sample arm of the PAT system. The fiber-optic probe for the combined system was homemade with a lensed single-mode fiber (SMF) and a large-core multimode fiber (MMF). The compact and robust common probe is capable of obtaining both the PA and the OCT signals at the same position without any physical contact. Additionally, the MMF of the probe delivers the short pulses of a Nd:YAG laser to efficiently excite the PA signals. We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed dual-modal system with a phantom made of a fishing line and a black polyethylene terephthalate fiber in a tissue mimicking solution. The all-fiber-optic system, capable of providing complementary information about absorption and scattering, has a promising potential in minimally invasive and endoscopic imaging.

  20. Master-Slave optical coherence tomography for parallel processing, calibration free and dispersion tolerance operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradu, Adrian; Kapinchev, Konstantin; Barnes, Fred; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2015-03-01

    We present further improvements on the Master Slave (MS) interferometry method since our first communication [1]. In this paper, we present more data collection and additionally demonstrate an important feature of the MS method, that of tolerance to dispersion. MS interferometry produces the interference of a selected point in depth based on principles of spectral domain (SD) interferometry, but without the need of a Fast Fourier transformation (FFT). The method can be used to directly produce en-face optical coherence tomography (OCT) images but also as a tool to accurately measure distances in low coherence interferometry for sensing applications [1]. In the MS-OCT method, cross-correlation is applied to both methods of SD-OCT, spectrometer based (SP) or swept source (SS) OCT. The channelled spectrum provided by an OCT system is correlated with the signal produced by reading a stored mask. Several such masks can be used simultaneously. The masks operate as adaptive filters. Each mask (filter) determines recognition in the measured channelled spectrum delivered by the interferometer, of the pattern corresponding to each optical path difference to be recognized. The method presents net advantages in comparison with the classical method of producing axial reflectivity profiles by FFT: no need for resampling of data, possibility to tailor the trade-off between depth resolution and sensitivity. Here, using a swept source, the MS method is used to obtain axial reflectivity profiles, which are compared to the axial profiles obtained by calibration of data and FFT. The tolerance to dispersion of the MS method was assumed in [1] but not demonstrated. Here, measurements are performed to demonstrate its axial resolution independence on dispersion.

  1. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist. XVII. Role of colour Doppler and power Doppler.

    PubMed

    Iagnocco, A; Epis, O; Delle Sedie, A; Meenagh, G; Filippucci, E; Riente, L; Scirè, C A; Montecucco, C; Bombardieri, S; Grassi, W; Valesini, G

    2008-01-01

    The use of Doppler ultrasound in rheumatology has grown in recent years. This is partly due to the increasing number of rheumatologists who perform US in their daily clinical practise and also to the technological advances of US systems. Both colour Doppler and power Doppler are used to evaluate the degree of intra- and peri-articular soft tissue inflammation. Moreover, Doppler US has been found to be of help in the assessment of vascular pathologies such as the vasculitides. In this review we provide an update of the data regarding the use of colour Doppler and power Doppler in rheumatology.

  2. Steady-state phase error for a phase-locked loop subjected to periodic Doppler inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C.-C.; Win, M. Z.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of a carrier phase locked loop (PLL) driven by a periodic Doppler input is studied. By expanding the Doppler input into a Fourier series and applying the linearized PLL approximations, it is easy to show that, for periodic frequency disturbances, the resulting steady state phase error is also periodic. Compared to the method of expanding frequency excursion into a power series, the Fourier expansion method can be used to predict the maximum phase error excursion for a periodic Doppler input. For systems with a large Doppler rate fluctuation, such as an optical transponder aboard an Earth orbiting spacecraft, the method can be applied to test whether a lower order tracking loop can provide satisfactory tracking and thereby save the effect of a higher order loop design.

  3. Novel Doppler laser radar for diagnostics in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, Madhavan; Slotwinski, Anthony

    2004-10-01

    We describe the development of a novel Doppler laser radar (DOLAR) for remote measurement of flow velocity (0-10 m/s) and film thickness of liquid metal walls, currently being studied for their superior heat handling and self-healing characteristics. Small fluctuations in flow velocity({approx}mm/s) and flow thickness ({approx}50 {mu}m) that may arise during plasma discharges can also be measured. The DOLAR is also designed for non intrusive mapping of features of plasma-facing solid surfaces with very high precision ({approx}50 {mu}m). It can also measure the motion of structural components of a fusion reactor during plasma discharges and during plasma disruptions. The device utilizes frequency modulation laser radar principles for precision range measurements. Compensation of Doppler frequency shift is used to measure flow velocity. The DOLAR probe head is designed with acousto-optic and piezoelectric devices for operation in the harsh fusion environment.

  4. Laser Doppler velocimeter system simulation for sensing aircraft wake vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, J. A. L.; Meng, J. C. S.

    1974-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model of aircraft vortex wakes in an irregular wind shear field near the ground is developed and used as a basis for modeling the characteristics of a laser Doppler detection and vortex location system. The trailing vortex sheet and the wind shear are represented by discrete free vortices distributed over a two-dimensional grid. The time dependent hydrodynamic equations are solved by direct numerical integration in the Boussinesq approximation. The ground boundary is simulated by images, and fast Fourier Transform techniques are used to evaluate the vorticity stream function. The atmospheric turbulence was simulated by constructing specific realizations at time equal to zero, assuming that Kolmogoroff's law applies, and that the dissipation rate is constant throughout the flow field. The response of a simulated laser Doppler velocimeter is analyzed by simulating the signal return from the flow field as sensed by a simulation of the optical/electronic system.

  5. Microwave Doppler reflectometer system in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Zhou, C; Liu, A D; Zhang, X H; Hu, J Q; Wang, M Y; Li, H; Lan, T; Xie, J L; Sun, X; Ding, W X; Liu, W D; Yu, C X

    2013-10-01

    A Doppler reflectometer system has recently been installed in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting (EAST) Tokamak. It includes two separated systems, one for Q-band (33-50 GHz) and the other for V-band (50-75 GHz). The optical system consists of a flat mirror and a parabolic mirror which are optimized to improve the spectral resolution. A synthesizer is used as the source and a 20 MHz single band frequency modulator is used to get a differential frequency for heterodyne detection. Ray tracing simulations are used to calculate the scattering location and the perpendicular wave number. In EAST last experimental campaign, the Doppler shifted signals have been obtained and the radial profiles of the perpendicular propagation velocity during L-mode and H-mode are calculated.

  6. Laser Doppler velocimeter measurements in a turbine stator cascade facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    A laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) developed for mapping the flow velocity downstream from a 32-inch diameter annular cascade of turbine stator vanes in described. The LDV measurements were taken in a plane located approximately 0.5 inch downstream of the trailing edges of the vanes. Two components of the mean velocity (axial and circumferential) were measured. The flow velocities were in the high subsonic range. The LDV optics are of the dual scatter type with off-axis collection of the scattered light. The electronics system is based on the measurement of the time interval corresponding to eight periods of the Doppler signal and has a range of 10 to 80 MHz. The LDV measurements are compared with previous measurements made with a pressure probe.

  7. Laser Doppler velocimeter measurements in a turbine stator cascade facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    A laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) developed for mapping the flow velocity downstream from a 32-inch diameter annular cascade of turbine stator vanes is described. The LDV measurements were taken in a plane located approximately 0.5 inch downstream of the trailing edges of the vanes. Two components of the mean velocity (axial and circumferential) were measured. The flow velocities were in the high subsonic range. The LDV optics are of the dual scatter type with off-axis collection of the scattered light. The electronics system is based on the measurement of the time interval corresponding to eight periods of the Doppler signal and has a range of 10 to 80 MHz. The LDV measurements are compared with previous measurements made with a pressure probe.

  8. A fisheye lens as a photonic Doppler velocimetry probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frogget, Brent C.; Cata, Brian M.; Cox, Brian C.; DeVore, Douglas O.; Esquibel, David L.; Frayer, Daniel K.; Furlanetto, Michael R.; Holtkamp, David B.; Kaufman, Morris I.; Malone, Robert M.; Romero, Vincent T.

    A new fisheye lens design is used as a miniature probe to measure the velocity distribution of an imploding surface along many lines of sight. Laser light, directed and scattered back along each beam on the surface, is Doppler shifted by the moving surface and collected into the launching fiber. The received light is mixed with reference laser light in each optical fiber in a technique called photonic Doppler velocimetry, providing a continuous time record. An array of single-mode optical fibers sends laser light through the fisheye lens. The lens consists of an index-matching positive element, two positive doublet groups, and two negative singlet elements. The optical design minimizes beam diameters, physical size, and back reflections for excellent signal collection. The fiber array projected through the fisheye lens provides many measurement points of surface coverage over a hemisphere with very little crosstalk. The probe measures surface movement with only a small encroachment into the center of the cavity. The fiber array is coupled to the index-matching element using index-matching gel. The array is bonded and sealed into a blast tube for ease of assembly and focusing. This configuration also allows the fiber array to be flat polished at a common object plane. In areas where increased measurement point density is desired, the fibers can be close packed. To further increase surface density coverage, smaller-diameter cladding optical fibers may be used.

  9. A Fisheye Lens as a Photonic Doppler Velocimetry Probe

    SciTech Connect

    Frogget, B C; Cox, B C; DeVore, D O; Esquibel, D L; Frayer, D K; Furlanetto, M R; Holtkamp, D B; Kaufman, M I; Malone, R M; Romero, V T

    2012-09-01

    A new fisheye lens design is used as a miniature probe to measure the velocity distribution of an imploding surface along many lines of sight. Laser light, directed and scattered back along each beam on the surface, is Doppler shifted by the moving surface and collected into the launching fiber. The received light is mixed with reference laser light in each optical fiber in a technique called photonic Doppler velocimetry, providing a continuous time record. An array of single-mode optical fibers sends laser light through the fisheye lens. The lens consists of an index-matching positive element, two positive doublet groups, and two negative singlet elements. The optical design minimizes beam diameters, physical size, and back reflections for excellent signal collection. The fiber array projected through the fisheye lens provides many measurement points of surface coverage over a hemisphere with very little crosstalk. The probe measures surface movement with only a small encroachment into the center of the cavity. The fiber array is coupled to the index-matching element using index-matching gel. The array is bonded and sealed into a blast tube for ease of assembly and focusing. This configuration also allows the fiber array to be flat polished at a common object plane. In areas where increased measurement point density is desired, the fibers can be close packed. To further increase surface density coverage, smaller-diameter cladding optical fibers may be used.

  10. Measurement of the Doppler power of flowing blood using ultrasound Doppler devices.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Chung; Chou, Hung-Lung; Chen, Pay-Yu

    2015-02-01

    Measurement of the Doppler power of signals backscattered from flowing blood (henceforth referred to as the Doppler power of flowing blood) and the echogenicity of flowing blood have been used widely to assess the degree of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation for more than 20 y. Many studies have used Doppler flowmeters based on an analogue circuit design to obtain the Doppler shifts in the signals backscattered from flowing blood; however, some recent studies have mentioned that the analogue Doppler flowmeter exhibits a frequency-response problem whereby the backscattered energy is lost at higher Doppler shift frequencies. Therefore, the measured Doppler power of flowing blood and evaluations of RBC aggregation obtained using an analogue Doppler device may be inaccurate. To overcome this problem, the present study implemented a field-programmable gate array-based digital pulsed-wave Doppler flowmeter to measure the Doppler power of flowing blood, in the aim of providing more accurate assessments of RBC aggregation. A clinical duplex ultrasound imaging system that can acquire pulsed-wave Doppler spectrograms is now available, but its usefulness for estimating the ultrasound scattering properties of blood is still in doubt. Therefore, the echogenicity and Doppler power of flowing blood under the same flow conditions were measured using a laboratory pulser-receiver system and a clinical ultrasound system, respectively, for comparisons. The experiments were carried out using porcine blood under steady laminar flow with both RBC suspensions and whole blood. The experimental results indicated that a clinical ultrasound system used to measure the Doppler spectrograms is not suitable for quantifying Doppler power. However, the Doppler power measured using a digital Doppler flowmeter can reveal the relationship between backscattering signals and the properties of blood cells because the effects of frequency response are eliminated. The measurements of the Doppler power and

  11. Performance Of A Doppler-Corrected MDPSK Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Jedrey, Thomas C.; Hinedi, Sami; Agan, Martin J.

    1994-01-01

    Report presents theoretical analysis of effect of rate of change of Doppler shift of received multiple-differential-phase-shift-keyed (MDPSK) radio signal on performance of Doppler-corrected differential detector. In particular detector, phase of received signal corrected for Doppler shift by use of Doppler estimator designed to operate in presence of negligibly small Doppler rate.

  12. Equations for Bistatic Doppler Shift and Rate of Change of Doppler Shift of Dark Satellite Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Equations are given for the doppler shift and rate of change of doppler shift for the bistatic case where an orbiting, nontransmitting earth... of change of doppler shift, satellite height, earth-center angle between the receiver and the satellite, and zenith angle from receiver to satellite are shown for a typical satellite, 1958 Alpha, Explorer I....have been computed, using transmitting and receiving sites of the Space Surveillance System. Plots of various relationships between doppler shift, rate

  13. Swept laser source based on acousto-optic tunable filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Minghui; Li, Hao; Chen, Rong

    2014-12-01

    The design and development of the swept laser for optical coherence tomography is presented. It is manifested by a semiconductor optical amplifier, a fiber coupler, two fiber isolators, a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) for frequency tuning within a unidirectional all-fiber ring cavity. Light output from the coupler is further amplified and spectral shaped by a booster SOA terminated at both ends with two isolators. The total loss in ring cavity is 8.2 dB. The gain SOA provides fiber-to-fiber small signal gain of 22.2 dB with saturation output power of 9.0 dBm. The developed laser source provides up to 100 kHz over a full-width wavelength tuning range of 140 nm at center wavelength of 1308 nm with an average power of 8 mW, yielding an axial resolution of 5.4 μm in air for OCT imaging. Theoretically, the measurement principle and the feasibility of the system are analyzed. Implementing the laser source in swept source based OCT (SS-OCT) system, real-time structural imaging of biological tissue is realized.

  14. Simultaneous spatial and spectral mapping of flow using photoacoustic Doppler measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheinfeld, Adi; Gilead, Sharon; Eyal, Avishay

    2010-11-01

    We demonstrate the use of tone-burst excitation and time-gated spectral analysis for photoacoustic Doppler mapping of flow in an unperturbed vessel phantom and in a vessel with a spatially varying lumen. The method, which mimics pulsed Doppler ultrasound, enables simultaneous measurement of axial position and flow as well as complete characterization of the Doppler spectrum over a wide range of mean velocities (3.5 to 200 mm/s). To generate the required optical excitation, a continuous cw laser source followed by an external electro-optic modulator is used. Stenoses at various levels are emulated in a C-flex tube with a flowing suspension of micrometer-scale carbon particles. Two-dimensional maps of spectral content versus axial position at different points along the vessel and for various levels of perturbations demonstrate the potential use of the method for characterization of flow irregularities.

  15. Automated three-dimensional registration and volume rebuilding for wide-field angiographic and structural optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Pengxiao; Liu, Gangjun; Zhang, Miao; Wang, Jie; Hwang, Thomas S.; Wilson, David J.; Huang, David; Li, Dengwang; Jia, Yali

    2017-02-01

    We propose a three-dimensional (3-D) registration method to correct motion artifacts and construct the volume structure for angiographic and structural optical coherence tomography (OCT). This algorithm is particularly suitable for the nonorthogonal wide-field OCT scan acquired by a ultrahigh-speed swept-source system (>200 kHz A-scan rate). First, the transverse motion artifacts are corrected by the between-frame registration based on en face OCT angiography (OCTA). After A-scan transverse translation between B-frames, the axial motions are corrected based on the rebuilt boundary of inner limiting membrane. Finally, a within-frame registration is performed for local optimization based on cross-sectional OCTA. We evaluated this algorithm on retinal volumes of six normal subjects. The results showed significantly improved retinal smoothness in 3-D-registered structural OCT and image contrast on en face OCTA.

  16. Optical Inspection and Morphological Analysis of Diospyros kaki Plant Leaves for the Detection of Circular Leaf Spot Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Kim, Pilun; Jung, Hee-Young; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of using the bio-photonic imaging technique to assess symptoms of circular leaf spot (CLS) disease in Diospyros kaki (persimmon) leaf samples was investigated. Leaf samples were selected from persimmon plantations and were categorized into three groups: healthy leaf samples, infected leaf samples, and healthy-looking leaf samples from infected trees. Visually non-identifiable reduction of the palisade parenchyma cell layer thickness is the main initial symptom, which occurs at the initial stage of the disease. Therefore, we established a non-destructive bio-photonic inspection method using a 1310 nm swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system. These results confirm that this method is able to identify morphological differences between healthy leaves from infected trees and leaves from healthy and infected trees. In addition, this method has the potential to generate significant cost savings and good control of CLS disease in persimmon fields. PMID:27529250

  17. Assessing ex vivo dental biofilms and in vivo composite restorations using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R.; Aparicio, C.; Chityala, R.; Chen, R.; Fok, A.; Rudney, J.

    2012-01-01

    A cross-polarization 1310-nm optical coherence tomography system (CP-OCT), using a beam splitter based design, was used to assess ex vivo growth of complex multi-species dental biofilms. These biofilm microcosms were derived from plaque samples along the interface of composite or amalgam restoration in children with a history of early childhood caries. This paper presents a method of measuring the mean biofilm height of mature biofilms using CP-OCT. For our in vivo application, the novel swept source based CP-OCT intraoral probe (Santec Co. Komaki, Japan) dimensions and system image acquisition speed (20 image frames/second) allowed imaging pediatric subjects as young as 4 years old. The subsurface enamel under the interface of composite resin restorations of pediatric subjects were imaged using CP-OCT. Cavitated secondary caries is clearly evident from sound resin composite restorations.

  18. Multimodal full-field optical coherence tomography on biological tissue: toward all optical digital pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, F.; Dalimier, E.; Vermeulen, P.; Fragola, A.; Boccara, A. C.

    2012-03-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an efficient technique for in-depth optical biopsy of biological tissues, relying on interferometric selection of ballistic photons. Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography (FF-OCT) is an alternative approach to Fourier-domain OCT (spectral or swept-source), allowing parallel acquisition of en-face optical sections. Using medium numerical aperture objective, it is possible to reach an isotropic resolution of about 1x1x1 ìm. After stitching a grid of acquired images, FF-OCT gives access to the architecture of the tissue, for both macroscopic and microscopic structures, in a non-invasive process, which makes the technique particularly suitable for applications in pathology. Here we report a multimodal approach to FF-OCT, combining two Full-Field techniques for collecting a backscattered endogeneous OCT image and a fluorescence exogeneous image in parallel. Considering pathological diagnosis of cancer, visualization of cell nuclei is of paramount importance. OCT images, even for the highest resolution, usually fail to identify individual nuclei due to the nature of the optical contrast used. We have built a multimodal optical microscope based on the combination of FF-OCT and Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM). We used x30 immersion objectives, with a numerical aperture of 1.05, allowing for sub-micron transverse resolution. Fluorescent staining of nuclei was obtained using specific fluorescent dyes such as acridine orange. We present multimodal images of healthy and pathological skin tissue at various scales. This instrumental development paves the way for improvements of standard pathology procedures, as a faster, non sacrificial, operator independent digital optical method compared to frozen sections.

  19. Multiplexed photonic Doppler velocimetry for large channel count experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daykin, Edward; Burk, Martin; Holtkamp, David; Miller, Edward Kirk; Rutkowski, Araceli; Strand, Oliver Ted; Pena, Michael; Perez, Carlos; Gallegos, Cenobio

    2017-01-01

    Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) is routinely employed as a means of measuring surface velocities for shockwave experimentation. Scientists typically collect ˜4 to 12 channels of PDV data and use extrapolation, assumptions, and models to determine the velocities in regions of the experiment that were not observed directly. We have designed, built and applied a new optical velocimetry diagnostic—the Multiplexed Photonic Doppler Velocimeter (MPDV)—for use on shock physics experiments that require a large number (100s) of spatial points to be measured. MPDV expands upon PDV measurement capabilities via frequency and time multiplexing using commercially available products developed for the telecommunications industry. The MPDV uses the heterodyne method to multiplex four data channels in the frequency domain combined with fiber delays to multiplex an additional four-channel dataset in the time domain, all of which are recorded onto the same digitizer input. This means that each digitizer input records data from eight separate spatial points, so that a single 4-input digitizer may record a total of 32 channels of data. Motivation for development of a multiplexed PDV was driven by requirements for an economical, high-fidelity, high channel-count optical velocimetry system. We present a survey of the methods, components, and trade-offs incorporated into this recent development in optical velocimetry.

  20. Design, Assembly, and Testing of a Photon Doppler Velocimetry Probe

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Robert M; Cox, Brian C; Daykin, Edward P; DeVore, Douglas O; Esquibel, David L; Frayer, Daniel K; Frogget, Brent C; Gallegos, Cenobio H; Kaufman, Morris I; McGillivray, Kevin D; Romero, Vincent T; Briggs, Matthew E; Furlanetto, Michael R; Holtkamp, David B; Pazuchanics, Peter; Primas, Lori E; Shinas, Michael A; Sorenson, Danny S

    2011-08-21

    A novel fiber-optic probe measures the velocity distribution of an imploding surface along many lines of sight. Reflected light from each spot on the moving surface is Doppler shifted with a small portion of this light propagating backwards through the launching fiber. The reflected light is mixed with a reference laser in a technique called photon Doppler velocimetry, providing continuous time records. Within the probe, a matrix array of 56 single-mode fibers sends light through an optical relay consisting of three types of lenses. Seven sets of these relay lenses are grouped into a close-packed array allowing the interrogation of seven regions of interest. A six-faceted prism with a hole drilled into its center directs the light beams to the different regions. Several types of relay lens systems have been evaluated, including doublets and molded aspheric singlets. The optical design minimizes beam diameters and also provides excellent imaging capabilities. One of the fiber matrix arrays can be replaced by an imaging coherent bundle. This close-packed array of seven relay systems provides up to 476 beam trajectories. The pyramid prism has its six facets polished at two different angles that will vary the density of surface point coverage. Fibers in the matrix arrays are angle polished at 8{sup o} to minimize back reflections. This causes the minimum beam waist to vary along different trajectories. Precision metrology on the direction cosine trajectories is measured to satisfy environmental requirements for vibration and temperature.

  1. Multiplexed Photonic Doppler Velocimetry for Large Channel Count Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daykin, Edward; Burk, Martin; Gallegos, Cenobio; Pena, Michael; Perez, Carlos; Rutkowski, Araceli; Strand, Oliver; Holtkamp, David

    2015-06-01

    The Photonic Doppler Velocimeter (PDV) is routinely employed as a means of measuring surface velocities for shockwave experimentation. Scientists typically collect ~ 4 to 12 channels of PDV data and use extrapolation, assumptions and models to determine the velocities in regions of the experiment that were not observed directly. We have designed, built and applied a new optical velocimetry diagnostic - the Multiplexed Photonic Doppler Velocimeter (MPDV) - for use on shock physics experiments that requires a large number (~ 100) of spatial points to be measured. MPDV expands upon PDV measurement capabilities via frequency and time multiplexing. The MPDV is built using commercially available products. The MPDV uses the heterodyne method to multiplex four data channels in the frequency domain combined with fiber delays to multiplex an additional four channel data set in the time domain, all of which are recorded onto the same digitizer input. This means that each digitizer input records data from eight separate spatial points, so that a single 4-input digitizer may record a total of 32 channels of data. Motivation for development of a multiplexed PDV was driven by requirements for an economical, high channel count optical velocimetry system. We will present a survey of methods, components and trade-offs incorporated into this recent development in optical velocimetry.

  2. Atmospheric aerosol and Doppler lidar studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeff; Bowdle, D. A.; Srivastava, V.; Jarzembski, M.; Cutten, D.; Mccaul, E. W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies were performed of atmospheric aerosol backscatter and atmospheric dynamics with Doppler lidar as a primary tool. Activities include field and laboratory measurement and analysis efforts. The primary focus of activities related to understanding aerosol backscatter is the GLObal Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) program. GLOBE is a multi-element effort designed toward developing a global aerosol model to describe tropospheric clean background backscatter conditions that Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) is likely to encounter. Two survey missions were designed and flown in the NASA DC-8 in November 1989 and May to June 1990 over the remote Pacific Ocean, a region where backscatter values are low and where LAWS wind measurements could make a major contribution. The instrument complement consisted of pulsed and continuous-wave (CW) CO2 gas and solid state lidars measuring aerosol backscatter, optical particle counters measuring aerosol concentration, size distribution, and chemical composition, a filter/impactor system collecting aerosol samples for subsequent analysis, and integrating nephelometers measuring visible scattering coefficients. The GLOBE instrument package and survey missions were carefully planned to achieve complementary measurements under clean background backscatter conditions.

  3. Airborne Differential Doppler Weather Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, R.; Bidwell, S.; Liao, L.; Rincon, R.; Heymsfield, G.; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Precipitation Radar aboard the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) Satellite has shown the potential for spaceborne sensing of snow and rain by means of an incoherent pulsed radar operating at 13.8 GHz. The primary advantage of radar relative to passive instruments arises from the fact that the radar can image the 3-dimensional structure of storms. As a consequence, the radar data can be used to determine the vertical rain structure, rain type (convective/stratiform) effective storm height, and location of the melting layer. The radar, moreover, can be used to detect snow and improve the estimation of rain rate over land. To move toward spaceborne weather radars that can be deployed routinely as part of an instrument set consisting of passive and active sensors will require the development of less expensive, lighter-weight radars that consume less power. At the same time, the addition of a second frequency and an upgrade to Doppler capability are features that are needed to retrieve information on the characteristics of the drop size distribution, vertical air motion and storm dynamics. One approach to the problem is to use a single broad-band transmitter-receiver and antenna where two narrow-band frequencies are spaced apart by 5% to 10% of the center frequency. Use of Ka-band frequencies (26.5 GHz - 40 GHz) affords two advantages: adequate spatial resolution can be attained with a relatively small antenna and the differential reflectivity and mean Doppler signals are directly related to the median mass diameter of the snow and raindrop size distributions. The differential mean Doppler signal has the additional property that this quantity depends only on that part of the radial speed of the hydrometeors that is drop-size dependent. In principle, the mean and differential mean Doppler from a near-nadir viewing radar can be used to retrieve vertical air motion as well as the total mean radial velocity. In the paper, we present theoretical calculations for the

  4. Nonmechanical axial scanning laser Doppler velocimeter with directional discrimination.

    PubMed

    Maru, Koichi; Hata, Takahiro

    2012-07-10

    An axial scanning laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) with directional discrimination not requiring any moving mechanism in its probe is proposed. The proposed LDV utilizes frequency shift induced by acousto-optic modulators (AOMs) for discriminating the direction of velocity. The measurement position is axially scanned by changing the wavelength of the light input to the probe. The experimental result reveals that both the axial scan and the directional discrimination can be realized by using the proposed method without any moving element in the probe.

  5. Rotational Doppler effect in harmonic generation from spinning molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucher, O.; Prost, E.; Hertz, E.; Billard, F.; Lavorel, B.; Milner, Alexander A.; Milner, Valery A.; Zyss, Joseph; Averbukh, Ilya Sh.

    2016-11-01

    We present an observation of the rotational Doppler shift in the frequency of optical harmonic generated in fast rotating molecules. Conservation of energy and angular momentum in the light-molecule interaction suggests four different kinds of shifts depending on the mutual handedness of the circularly polarized fundamental and harmonic fields, as well as the handedness of the molecular rotation. All four types of the frequency shifts were observed in our experiments on third-harmonic generation in a gas of fast spinning O2 molecules.

  6. Application of Optical Coherence Tomography to Identify Pulp Exposure During Access Cavity Preparation Using an Er:YAG Laser

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jiangfeng; Watanabe, Satoshi; Iino, Yoshiko; Kokuzawa, Chizuko; Anjo, Tomoo; Suda, Hideaki; Sumi, Yasunori

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to guide and identify pulp exposure using an erbium: yttrium–aluminum–garnet (Er:YAG) laser. Background data: The Er:YAG laser has been proven to be effective in ablating dental hard tissue and offers advantages, as there is none of the vibration and noise you get with conventional methods, but it has limitations in relation to the tactile feedback that would aid in identification of entry into the pulp chamber. Based on depth-resolved optical reflectivity, OCT technology has been developed to provide high-resolution, cross-sectional images of the internal structure of biological tissues. Materials and methods: The pulp chambers of 20 human mandibular incisors were examined, and the average thickness of hard tissue covering the pulp chamber was assessed using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) images. An Er:YAG laser was used to gradually penetrate the hard tissue over the pulp chamber under microscopic guidance. The preparation was constantly imaged using a swept-source OCT at 10 sec intervals until a pulp chamber exposure was identified using the technology. The pulp exposure was re-examined under the microscope and compared with micro-CT images for verification. Results: The pulp exposures of 20 incisors were all verified microscopically and with micro-CT images. The thickness of hard tissue penetrated by the laser ranged from 0.44 to 1.69 mm. Conclusions: Swept-source OCT is a useful tool for identifying pulp exposure during access opening with the Er: YAG laser. PMID:24905930

  7. Doppler phase-shifting digital holography and its application to surface shape measurement.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yuichi; Barada, Daisuke; Kiire, Tomohiro; Yatagai, Toyohiko

    2010-05-15

    Digital holography utilizing the optical Doppler effect is proposed in which the time variation of interference fringes is recorded using a high-speed CMOS camera. The complex amplitude diffracted from the object wave is extracted by time-domain Fourier transforming the recorded interference fringes. The method was used to measure the surface shape of a concave mirror under a disturbed environment.

  8. Research on Doppler frequency in incoherent FM/CW laser detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kai; Cui, Zhanzhong

    2010-10-01

    The principle of transmitted and received laser in incoherent FM/CW laser detection is different from the one in coherent FM/CW laser detection. The methods for distance solution in both detections are similar. Incoherent FM/CW laser detection uses subcarrier to modulate the intensity of laser, and the photodetector detects the intensity of received signal. The amplified photocurrent is mixed with local oscillator signal, and the intermediate frequency (IF) signal contains the information of distance from sensor to target. The Doppler frequency for this detection is related with the relative radial velocity between sensor and target. The optical frequency is directly modulated with electro-optic device in coherent FM/CW laser detection and the received laser signal is photomixed with transmitted laser signal. The Doppler frequency in the detection relates to the optical frequency. In distance-measuring lidar, the Doppler frequency affects the solution. The Doppler frequency in incoherent FM/CW laser detection is unrelated with optical frequency, and it is much less than the one in coherent FM/CW laser detection, correspondingly. The error in incoherent FM/CW laser detection is smaller. As a result, the incoherent FM/CW laser detection is more suitable for the use of distance-measuring lidar.

  9. Observation of the Zero Doppler Effect.

    PubMed

    Ran, Jia; Zhang, Yewen; Chen, Xiaodong; Fang, Kai; Zhao, Junfei; Chen, Hong

    2016-04-05

    The normal Doppler effect has well-established applications in many areas of science and technology. Recently, a few experimental demonstrations of the inverse Doppler effect have begun to appear in negative-index metamaterials. Here we report an experimental observation of the zero Doppler effect, that is, no frequency shift irrespective of the relative motion between the wave signal source and the detector in a zero-index metamaterial. This unique phenomenon, accompanied by the normal and inverse Doppler effects, is generated by reflecting a wave from a moving discontinuity in a composite right/left-handed transmission line loaded with varactors when operating in the near zero-index passband, or the right/left-handed passband. This work has revealed a complete picture of the Doppler effect in metamaterials and may lead to potential applications in electromagnetic wave related metrology.

  10. Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, S. L.; Zhao, X. P.; Liu, S.; Shen, F. L.; Li, L. L.; Luo, C. R.

    2016-08-01

    The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with ‘flute-like’ acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double meta-molecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe.

  11. Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Zhai, S L; Zhao, X P; Liu, S; Shen, F L; Li, L L; Luo, C R

    2016-08-31

    The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with 'flute-like' acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double meta-molecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe.

  12. Miniature endoscopic optical coherence tomography for calculus detection.

    PubMed

    Kao, Meng-Chun; Lin, Chun-Li; Kung, Che-Yen; Huang, Yi-Fung; Kuo, Wen-Chuan

    2015-08-20

    The effective treatment of periodontitis involves the detection and removal of subgingival dental calculus. However, subgingival calculus is more difficult to detect than supragingival calculus because it is firmly attached to root surfaces within periodontal pockets. To achieve a smooth root surface, clinicians often remove excessive amounts of root structure because of decreased visibility. In addition, enamel pearl, a rare type of ectopic enamel formation on the root surface, can easily be confused with dental calculus in the subgingival environment. In this study, we developed a fiber-probe swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) technique and combined it with the quantitative measurement of an optical parameter [standard deviation (SD) of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) intensity] to differentiate subgingival calculus from sound enamel, including enamel pearl. Two-dimensional circumferential images were constructed by rotating the miniprobe (0.9 mm diameter) while acquiring image lines, and the adjacent lines in each rotation were stacked to generate a three-dimensional volume. In OCT images, compared to sound enamel and enamel pearls, dental calculus showed significant differences (P<0.001) in SD values. Finally, the receiver operating characteristic curve had a high capacity (area under the curve=0.934) for discriminating between healthy regions (including enamel pearl) and dental calculus.

  13. Compact piezoelectric transducer fiber scanning probe for optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Ahsen, Osman O; Liang, Kaicheng; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Xue, Ping; Li, Xingde; Fujimoto, James G

    2014-01-15

    We developed a compact, optical fiber scanning piezoelectric transducer (PZT) probe for endoscopic and minimally invasive optical coherence tomography (OCT). Compared with previous forward-mount fiber designs, we present a reverse-mount design that achieves a shorter rigid length. The fiber was mounted at the proximal end of a quadruple PZT tube and scanned inside the hollow PZT tube to reduce the probe length. The fiber resonant frequency was 338 Hz using a 17-mm-long fiber. A 0.9 mm fiber deflection was achieved with a driving amplitude of 35 V. Using a GRIN lens-based optical design with a 1.3× magnification, a ∼6 μm spot was scanned over a 1.2 mm diameter field. The probe was encased in a metal hypodermic tube with a ∼25 mm rigid length and covered with a 3.2 mm outer diameter (OD) plastic sheath. Imaging was performed with a swept source OCT system based on a Fourier domain modelocked laser (FDML) light source at a 240 kHz axial scan rate and 8 μm axial resolution (in air). En face OCT imaging of skin in vivo and human colon ex vivo was demonstrated.

  14. Laser Doppler dust devil measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilbro, J. W.; Jeffreys, H. B.; Kaufman, J. W.; Weaver, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning laser doppler velocimeter (SLDV) system was used to detect, track, and measure the velocity flow field of naturally occurring tornado-like flows (dust devils) in the atmosphere. A general description of the dust devil phenomenon is given along with a description of the test program, measurement system, and data processing techniques used to collect information on the dust devil flow field. The general meteorological conditions occurring during the test program are also described, and the information collected on two selected dust devils are discussed in detail to show the type of information which can be obtained with a SLDV system. The results from these measurements agree well with those of other investigators and illustrate the potential for the SLDV in future endeavors.

  15. Calibration of echocardiographic tissue doppler velocity, using simple universally applicable methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhutia, Niti M.; Zolgharni, Massoud; Willson, Keith; Cole, Graham; Nowbar, Alexandra N.; Manisty, Charlotte H.; Francis, Darrel P.

    2014-03-01

    Some of the challenges with tissue Doppler measurement include: apparent inconsistency between manufacturers, uncertainty over which part of the trace to make measurements and a lack of calibration of measurements. We develop and test tools to solve these problems in echocardiography laboratories. We designed and constructed an actuator and phantom setup to produce automatic reproducible motion, and used it to compare velocities measured using 3 echocardiographic modalities: M-mode, speckle tracking, and tissue Doppler, against a non-ultrasound, optical gold standard. In the clinical phase, 25 patients underwent M-mode, speckle tracking and tissue Doppler measurements of tissue velocities. In-vitro, the M-mode and speckle tracking velocities were concordant with optical assessment. Of the three possible tissue Doppler measurement conventions (outer, middle and inner line) only the middle line agreed with the optical assessment (discrepancy -0.20 (95% confidence interval -0.44 to 0.03)cm/s, p=0.11, outer +5.19(4.65 to 5.73)cm/s, p<0.0001, inner -6.26(-6.87 to -5.65)cm/s, p<0.0001). All 4 studied manufacturers showed a similar pattern. M-mode was therefore chosen as the in-vivo gold standard. Clinical measurements of tissue velocities by speckle tracking and the middle line of the tissue Doppler were concordant with M-mode, while the outer line significantly overestimated (+1.27(0.96 to 1.59)cm/s, p<0.0001) and the inner line underestimated (-1.81(-2.11 to -1.52)cm/s, p<0.0001). Echocardiographic velocity measurements can be calibrated by simple, inexpensive tools. We found that the middle of the tissue Doppler trace represents velocity correctly. Echocardiographers requiring velocities to match between different equipment, settings or modalities should use the middle line as the "guideline".

  16. Rotational Doppler shift for electromagnetic waves carrying orbital angular momentum based on spectrum analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tao; Wang, Gang

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the rotational Doppler effect for the electromagnetic wave carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) with a method based on spectrum analysis, which is appropriate for both optics and free-space radio cases. We find that the frequency spectrum received is the convolution of emission spectrum and a discrete spectrum about OAM states, and verify it in the numerical simulations as well. This discovery makes it possible to distinguish the linear and rotational Doppler shift, and is helpful to developments of remote sensing and velocimetry in radar.

  17. Single-stage sub-Doppler cooling of alkaline earth atoms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinye; Loftus, Thomas H; Dunn, Josh W; Greene, Chris H; Hall, John L; Gallagher, Alan; Ye, Jun

    2003-05-16

    We report the first experimental study of sub-Doppler cooling in alkaline earth atoms (87Sr) enabled by the presence of nuclear spin-originated magnetic degeneracy in the atomic ground state. Sub-Doppler cooling in a sigma(+)-sigma(-) configuration is achieved despite the presence of multiple, closely spaced excited states. This surprising result is confirmed by an expanded multilevel theory of the radiative cooling force. Detailed investigations of system performance have shed new insights into (sigma(+)-sigma(-)) cooling dynamics and will likely play an important role in the future development of neutral atom-based optical frequency standards.

  18. Doppler measurement of implosion velocity in fast Z-pinch x-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B.; Jennings, C. A.; Bailey, J. E.; Rochau, G. A.; Maron, Y.; Coverdale, C. A.; Yu, E. P.; Hansen, S. B.; Ampleford, D. J.; Lake, P. W.; Dunham, G.; Cuneo, M. E.; Deeney, C.; Fisher, D. V.; Fisher, V. I.; Bernshtam, V.; Starobinets, A.; Weingarten, L.

    2011-11-01

    The observation of Doppler splitting in K-shell x-ray lines emitted from optically thin dopants is used to infer implosion velocities of up to 70 cm/μs in wire-array and gas-puff Z pinches at drive currents of 15-20 MA. These data can benchmark numerical implosion models, which produce reasonable agreement with the measured velocity in the emitting region. Doppler splitting is obscured in lines with strong opacity, but red-shifted absorption produced by the cooler halo of material backlit by the hot core assembling on axis can be used to diagnose velocity in the trailing mass.

  19. Three interfering beams in laser Doppler velocimetry for particle position and microflow velocity profile measurements.

    PubMed

    Onofri, Fabrice

    2006-05-10

    It is proposed to use three interfering and coplanar laser beams to form the probe volume of laser Doppler systems. This allows us to obtain, for each particle crossing this probe volume, a Doppler signal whose frequency amplitude spectrum exhibits two characteristic peaks. Electromagnetic calculations and experimental validations clearly demonstrate that we can estimate simultaneously, from the analysis of these two frequency peaks, the particle position along the optical axis and one velocity component. This technique is expected to have great potentialities for velocity profile measurements in microfluidic or boundary layer flows, as well as for the sizing of spherical particles.

  20. A Doppler lidar with CO2-laser intracavity detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlevskii, A. P.; Gordov, E. P.; Zhiliba, A. I.; Sharin, P. P.

    A version of a high-sensitive Doppler lidar, based on intracavity coherent laser detection is described. The device consists of a CO2 laser, transmitting-receiving optical system, and signal-processing unit. Laser-intensity stabilization is achieved by decreasing the mechanical disturbance of the laser resonator, and the optical tract is formed by a Cassegrain telescope. A portion of the laser beam reflected back by a Breuster window of the gas discharge tube is focused by a spherical mirror onto a photodetector. Results of laboratory and real-atmosphere experiments are reported, and it is shown that vibrations of a retroreflector with an amplitude of 50 micron are detected at distances up to 500 m.