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Sample records for dor associada em

  1. DORS: DDC Online Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Songqiao; Svenonius, Elaine

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Dewey Online Retrieval System (DORS), which was developed at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), to experiment with classification-based search strategies in online catalogs. Classification structures in automated information retrieval are discussed; and specifications for a classification retrieval interface are…

  2. Beclometasone oral--DOR BioPharma.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    orBec is an oral enteric-coated tablet formulation of the corticosteroid beclometasone, which has been developed by Enteron Pharmaceuticals, a subsidiary of Corporate Technology Development (now DOR BioPharma). orBec is being developed for the treatment of gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and an NDA has been filed in the US. DOR BioPharma has also filed an MAA in Europe for the same indication.orBec is designed to reduce the need for systemic immunosuppressive drugs, thereby improving the outcome of bone marrow and stem cell transplantation.DOR BioPharma may seek a marketing partner in the US and elsewhere for orBec in GVHD and will seek a partner for other potential indications of the drug.In December 2001, Corporate Technology Development was acquired by Endorex Corporation (now DOR BioPharma). In October 1998, Enteron Pharmaceuticals (DOR BioPharma) entered into an exclusive, worldwide, royalty bearing license agreement with George B. McDonald, MD, including the right to grant sublicenses, for the rights to the intellectual property and know-how relating to orBec. In January 2007, DOR BioPharma received $US3 million under a non-binding letter of intent from Sigma-Tau Pharmaceuticals. The agreement grants Sigma-Tau an exclusive right to negotiate terms and conditions for a possible business transaction or strategic alliance regarding orBec and potentially other DOR pipeline compounds until 1 March 2007. Under the terms of the agreement, Sigma-Tau purchased $US1 million of DOR's common stock, with an additional $US2 million paid in cash. If no agreement is reached by 1 March 2007, DOR will return the $US2 million to Sigma-Tau within 60 days. DOR BioPharma received an unsolicited proposal from Cell Therapeutics, Inc. to acquire DOR BioPharma in January 2007. Because of the non-binding agreement already signed with Sigma-Tau, DOR BioPharma's board of directors cannot consider Cell Therapeutics' merger proposal at this time. orBec has been filed for

  3. Performance of DOR measurement in China CE'2 navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Songtao; Tang, Geshi; Chen, Lue; Wang, Mei

    2013-07-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) has been successfully used in many deep space exploration projects over the past decades. Because it does not lose sensitivity to spacecraft declination when the spacecraft is near earth's equatorial plane, as is the case for Doppler tracking. Differential One-way Ranging (DOR) can improve the accuracy of delay through wide spanned bandwidth. In this paper, performance of DOR experiment is analyzed, accuracy of results can satisfy China CE'2 navigation.

  4. A Digital Library for Education: The PEN-DOR Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullerton, Karen; Greenberg, Jane; McClure, Maureen; Rasmussen, Edie; Stewart, Darin

    1999-01-01

    Describes Pen-DOR (Pennsylvania Education Network Digital Object Repository), a digital library designed to provide K-12 educators with access to multimedia resources and tools to create new lesson plans and modify existing ones via the World Wide Web. Discusses design problems of a distributed, object-oriented database architecture and describes…

  5. Can "dor to dor+rec neurorrhaphy" by biodegradable chitin conduit be a new method for peripheral nerve injury?

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiao Feng; Kou, Yu Hui; Wang, Yan Hua; Zhang, Peixun; Zhang, Dian Yin; Fu, Zhong Guo; Zhang, Hong Bo; Jiang, Bao Guo

    2011-04-01

    This study aims to estimate the effects of using one donor nerve to repair the injured nerve and itself simultaneously by biodegradable chitin conduit. Proximal median nerve served as donor nerve to repair the distal median and whole ulnar nerve. Four months postoperation, the number of myelinated axons and nerve conduction velocities of the distal median and ulnar nerve were (2085 ± 215 and 24.4 ± 5.9 m/s), and (1193 ± 102 and 30.7 ± 11.2 m/s). Recovery of the tetanic muscle forces of the reinvervated muscles were also observed. It suggests that Dor to Dor+Rec neurorrhaphy is a practical method for severe peripheral nerve injury.

  6. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation in diminished ovarian reserve (DOR)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With infertility populations in the developed world rapidly aging, treatment of diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) assumes increasing clinical importance. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been reported to improve pregnancy chances with DOR, and is now utilized by approximately one third of all IVF centers world-wide. Increasing DHEA utilization and publication of a first prospectively randomized trial now warrants a systematic review. Methods PubMed, Cochrane and Ovid Medline were searched between 1995 and 2010 under the following strategy: [ and ]. Bibliographies of relevant publications were further explored for additional relevant citations. Since only one randomized study has been published, publications, independent of evidence levels and quality assessment, were reviewed. Results Current best available evidence suggests that DHEA improves ovarian function, increases pregnancy chances and, by reducing aneuploidy, lowers miscarriage rates. DHEA over time also appears to objectively improve ovarian reserve. Recent animal data support androgens in promoting preantral follicle growth and reduction in follicle atresia. Discussion Improvement of oocyte/embryo quality with DHEA supplementation potentially suggests a new concept of ovarian aging, where ovarian environments, but not oocytes themselves, age. DHEA may, thus, represent a first agent beneficially affecting aging ovarian environments. Others can be expected to follow. PMID:21586137

  7. Results of a search for γ Dor and δ SCT stars with the Kepler spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, P. A.; Miles, L. F.; Guzik, J. A.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Jackiewicz, J.; Kinemuchi, K.

    2015-02-01

    The light curves of 2768 stars with effective temperatures and surface gravities placing them near the gamma Doradus (γ Dor)/delta Scuti (δ Sct) instability region were observed as part of the Kepler Guest Observer program from Cycles 1 through 5. The light curves were analyzed in a uniform manner to search for γ Dor, δ Sct, and hybrid star pulsations. The γ Dor, δ Sct, and hybrid star pulsations extend asteroseismology to stars slightly more massive (1.4–2.5 M{sub ⊙}) than our Sun. We find 207 γ Dor, 84 δ Sct, and 32 hybrid candidate stars. Many of these stars are cooler than the red edge of the γ Dor instability strip as determined from ground-based observations made before Kepler. A few of our γ Dor candidate stars lie on the hot side of the ground-based γ Dor instability strip. The hybrid candidate stars cover the entire region between 6200 K and the blue edge of the ground-based δ Sct instability strip. None of our candidate stars are hotter than the hot edge of the ground-based δ Sct instability strip. Our discoveries, coupled with the work of others, show that Kepler has discovered over 2000 γ Dor, δ Sct, and hybrid star candidates in the 116 square degree Kepler field of view. We found relatively few variable stars fainter than magnitude 15, which may be because they are far enough away to lie between spiral arms in our Galaxy, where there would be fewer stars.

  8. A KINE-CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE AB DOR MOVING GROUP 'STREAM'

    SciTech Connect

    Barenfeld, Scott A.; Bubar, Eric J.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Young, Patrick A.

    2013-03-20

    The AB Dor Moving Group consists of a 'nucleus' of {approx}10 stars at d {approx_equal} 20 pc, along with dozens of purported 'stream' members distributed across the sky. We perform a chemical and kinematic analysis of a subsample of AB Dor stream stars to test whether they constitute a physical stellar group. We use the NEMO Galactic kinematic code to investigate the orbits of the stream members, and perform a chemical abundance analysis using high resolution spectra taken with the Magellan Clay 6.5 m telescope. Using a {chi}{sup 2} test with the measured abundances for 10 different elements, we find that only half of the purported AB Dor stream members could possibly constitute a statistically chemically homogeneous sample. Some stream members with three-dimensional velocities were hundreds of parsecs from the AB Dor nucleus {approx}10{sup 8} yr ago, and hence were unlikely to share a common origin. We conclude that the published lists of AB Dor moving group stream members are unlikely to represent the dispersed remnant of a single star formation episode. A subsample of the stream stars appears to be both statistically chemically homogeneous and in the vicinity of the AB Dor nucleus at birth. Their mean metallicity is [Fe/H] = 0.02 {+-} 0.02 dex, which we consider representative for the AB Dor group. Finally, we report a strong lower limit on the age of the AB Dor nucleus of >110 Myr based on the pre-main sequence contraction times for K-type members which have reached the main sequence.

  9. Further Optimization and Evaluation of Bioavailable, Mixed-Efficacy µ-Opioid Receptor (MOR) Agonists/δ-Opioid Receptor (DOR) Antagonists: Balancing MOR and DOR Affinities

    PubMed Central

    Harland, Aubrie A.; Yeomans, Larisa; Griggs, Nicholas W.; Anand, Jessica P.; Pogozheva, Irina D.; Jutkiewicz, Emily M.; Traynor, John R.; Mosberg, Henry I.

    2016-01-01

    In a previously described peptidomimetic series, we reported the development of bifunctional µ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist and δ-opioid receptor (DOR) antagonist ligands with a lead compound that produced antinociception for 1 h after intraperitoneal administration in mice. In this paper, we expand on our original series by presenting two modifications, both of which were designed with the following objectives: 1) probing bioavailability and improving metabolic stability, 2) balancing affinities between MOR and DOR while reducing affinity and efficacy at the Κ-opioid receptor (KOR), and 3) improving in vivo efficacy. Here we establish that through N-acetylation of our original peptidomimetic series, we are able to improve DOR affinity and increase selectivity relative to KOR while maintaining the desired MOR agonist/DOR antagonist profile. From initial in vivo studies, one compound (14a) was found to produce dose-dependent antinociception after peripheral administration with an improved duration of action of longer than 3 h. PMID:26524472

  10. Ablation d'un film d'or par laser à excimère

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentis, M.; Hermann, J.; Pereira, A.; Delaporte, Ph.; Marine, W.; Perrière, J.; Bianchi, L.; Galli, R.

    2003-06-01

    Ces travaux de recherche ont été réalisés dans le cadre du projet de développement du Laser MégaJoule (LMJ). Parmi les expériences d'interaction laser - matière à très haut flux, certaines conduiront à un dépôt de particules d'or sur les éléments internes de la chambre d'interaction. Pour nettoyer ce dépôt de particules, la possibilité d'utiliser un procédé automatisé basé sur l'ablation laser a été étudiée. Un modèle numérique simplifié a été développé et une étude expérimentale réalisée sur des échantillons d'acier inoxydable ou de B4C recouverts d'un film d'or d'une épaisseur de ~20 nm déposés par PVD. Ces travaux montrent que plus de 95 % du film d'or peuvent être enlevés avec quelques tirs d'un laser XeCI dès que la densité d'énergie dépasse 3 J/cm^2.

  11. Robotic heller myotomy and Dor fundoplication for achalasia in a woman with morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Bedirli, Abdulkadir; Dogan, Ibrahim; Kozan, Ramazan

    2012-12-01

    Achalasia is a relatively rare condition with a prevalence estimated at less than 0.001 %. Laparoscopic or robotic Heller myotomy is an effective surgical treatment for achalasia. We present the first published case of a morbidly obese achalasia patient treated with robotic Heller myotomy and Dor fundoplication. The operative time was 175 min, with an estimated blood loss of 110 ml. The patient had a normal bowel transit on postoperative day 2, and he was discharged on postoperative day 4 on a liquid diet. A follow-up at 2 months showed significant resolved symptoms of achalasia. PMID:27628481

  12. Line profile variations in the spectra of the gamma DOR Star HR 2740

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poretti, E.; Mantegazza, L.; Zerbi, F.

    In recent years few early F--type stars (now called gamma Dor stars) showing small amplitude light variations (a few hundredths of a mag) have been discovered. These variations are not regular but their analysis suggest that they can result from the superposition of close periodicities with characteristic time scales of the order of 0.8-1.5 days. Due to the length of involved periods it is almost impossible to get rid of ambiguities generated by the 1 d^{-1} aliasing present in single site observations. Hence, a number of multisite campaign were carried out to detect the frequency content of their light curves. We present here the results obtained on 9 Aur, HD 164615, HD 224638, HD 224945 and HR 2740, i.e. the gamma Dor stars observed in the successful campaign coordinated by Brera Observatory in 1995 and 1996; the multiperiodic behaviour of some of them unambiguously supports the pulsation mechanism, but a full understanding of the driving mechanism is still lacking. Moreover, light amplitudes variations are observed and there are some examples of possible mode switching.

  13. The characteristics recognition of preseismic groundwater fluctuation in Dor-Her station, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, F.; Hsu, K.; Wang, C.

    2010-12-01

    Before the occurrences of earthquakes, the changes of groundwater level could reflect the redistribution of tectonic stress and crustal strain. This study analyzed the2003-2009data of groundwater level in observation wells of Dor-Her, and compared the data with the seismic records of magnitude over 5.0. The results showed that the groundwater level of Dor-Her observation station decreased at 60~100 days and then increased at 20~50 days prior to the occurrences of earthquakes. According to this feature indicator, it was found that the product of the increase magnitude (GW) prior to the earthquake is directly proportioned to the product of earthquake occurrence time (D) and earthquake magnitude (M), while it is inversely proportional to the hypocentral distance (R) high a correlation coefficient of 0.9 was found. This study further explored the impacts of seismic or fault activities on the groundwater levels for shallow-focus earthquakes with magnitudes over 5.0. The statistical analysis of the frequencies and magnitudes of groundwater-level shows concluded the characteristics of groundwater-level changes with the magnitudes of earthquakes. Keyword: earthquake, groundwater anomaly, characteristics recognition

  14. Identification of the key regulating genes of diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) by network and gene ontology analysis.

    PubMed

    Pashaiasl, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2016-09-01

    Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) is one of the reasons for infertility that not only affects both older and young women. Ovarian reserve assessment can be used as a new prognostic tool for infertility treatment decision making. Here, up- and down-regulated gene expression profiles of granulosa cells were analysed to generate a putative interaction map of the involved genes. In addition, gene ontology (GO) analysis was used to get insight intol the biological processes and molecular functions of involved proteins in DOR. Eleven up-regulated genes and nine down-regulated genes were identified and assessed by constructing interaction networks based on their biological processes. PTGS2, CTGF, LHCGR, CITED, SOCS2, STAR and FSTL3 were the key nodes in the up-regulated networks, while the IGF2, AMH, GREM, and FOXC1 proteins were key in the down-regulated networks. MIRN101-1, MIRN153-1 and MIRN194-1 inhibited the expression of SOCS2, while CSH1 and BMP2 positively regulated IGF1 and IGF2. Ossification, ovarian follicle development, vasculogenesis, sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity, and golgi apparatus are the major differential groups between up-regulated and down-regulated genes in DOR. Meta-analysis of publicly available transcriptomic data highlighted the high coexpression of CTGF, connective tissue growth factor, with the other key regulators of DOR. CTGF is involved in organ senescence and focal adhesion pathway according to GO analysis. These findings provide a comprehensive system biology based insight into the aetiology of DOR through network and gene ontology analyses. PMID:27324248

  15. Amplitude Variability in gamma Dor and delta Sct Stars Observed by Kepler

    SciTech Connect

    Guzik, Joyce Ann; Kosak, Mary Katherine; Bradley, Paul Andrew; Jackiewicz, Jason

    2015-08-17

    The NASA Kepler spacecraft data revealed a large number of new multimode nonradially pulsating gamma Dor and delta Sct variable stars. The Kepler high-precision long time-series photometry makes it possible to study amplitude variations of the frequencies, and recent literature on amplitude and frequency variations in nonradially pulsating variables is summarized. Several methods are applied to study amplitude variability in about a dozen gamma Doradus or delta Scuti candidate variable stars observed for several quarters as part of the Kepler Guest Observer program. The magnitude and timescale of the amplitude variations are discussed, along with the presence or absence of correlations between amplitude variations for different frequencies of a given star. Proposed causes of amplitude spectrum variability that will require further investigation are also discussed.

  16. Binary stars in loose associations: AB Dor B and HD 160934

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azulay, R.; Guirado, J. C.; Marcaide, J. M.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Ros, E.

    2015-05-01

    Precise determination of dynamical masses of pre-main- sequence (PMS) stars is necessary to calibrate PMS stellar evolutionary models, whose predictions are in disagreement with measurements for masses below 1.2 M_{⊙}. Binary stars in young, nearby loose associations are particularly good candidates, since all members share a common age. We present phase-reference VLBI observations of two binary systems that belong to the AB Doradus moving, HD 160934 A/c and AB Dor Ba/Bb, from which we have measured both the relative and absolute orbital motion. Accordingly, we obtained precise estimates of the mass of the components of these binaries (ranging from 0.25 to 0.7 M_{⊙}). We will show how these measurements provide precise calibration points for testing PMS models of low-mass stars.

  17. Study of the period changes in SW Dor, an RR Lyrae type star with Blazhko effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdnikov, L. N.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Dambis, A. K.; Kravtsov, V. V.; Sefako, R.

    2016-09-01

    In 2012-2014 we acquired 1569 CCD BVIc frames for the RR Lyrae type variable SW Dor with the 76-cm telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) and 1-m telescopes of Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope network (LCOGT). Our observations showed a large scatter in the resulting phased light curve, especially near maximum brightness, which allowed us to reveal the Blazhko effect with a period of ˜80.9d. To study the pulsation period changes, we used all the available observations including the 1299 magnitude estimates from the digitized plate library of Harvard University (the DASCH project), which allowed us to construct the O-C diagram spanning a 125-year long time interval and discover for the first time at least three abrupt changes of the pulsation period.

  18. Nanoparticules d'or: De l'imagerie par resonance magnetique a la radiosensibilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, Etienne M.

    Cette thèse approfondit l'étude de nanoparticules d'or de 5 nm de diamètre recouvertes de diamideéthanethioldiethylènetriaminepentacétate de gadolinium (DTDTPA:Gd), un agent de contraste pour l'imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM). En guise de ciblage passif, la taille des nanoparticules a été contrôlée afin d'utiliser le réseau de néovaisseaux poreux et perméable des tumeurs. De plus les tumeurs ont un drainage lymphatique déficient qui permet aux nanoparticules de demeurer plus longtemps dans le milieu interstitiel de la tumeur. Les expériences ont été effectuées sur des souris Balb/c femelles portant des tumeurs MC7-L1. La concentration de nanoparticules a pu être mesurée à l'IRM in vivo. La concentration maximale se retrouvait à la fin de l'infusion de 10 min. La concentration s'élevait à 0.3 mM dans la tumeur et de 0.12 mM dans le muscle environnant. Les nanoparticules étaient éliminées avec une demi-vie de 22 min pour les tumeurs et de 20 min pour le muscle environnant. Les nanoparticules ont été fonctionnalisées avec le peptide Tat afin de leur conférer des propriétés de ciblage actif La rétention de ces nanoparticules a ainsi été augmentée de 1600 %, passant d'une demi-vie d'élimination de 22 min à 350 min. La survie des souris a été mesurée à l'aide de courbes Kaplan-Meier et d'un modèle mathématique évalue l'efficacité de traitements. Le modèle nous permet, à l'aide de la vitesse de croissance des tumeurs et de l'efficacité des traitements, de calculer la courbe de survie des spécimens. Un effet antagoniste a été observé au lieu de l'effet synergétique attendu entre une infusion de Au@DTDTPA:Gd et l'irradiation aux rayons X. L'absence d'effet synergétique a été attribuée à l'épaisseur du recouvrement de DTDTPA:Gd qui fait écran aux électrons produits par l'or. De plus, le moyen d'ancrage du recouvrement utilise des thiols qui peuvent s'avérer être des capteurs de radicaux. De plus

  19. Masses and activity of AB Doradus B a/b. The age of the AB Dor quadruple system revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolter, U.; Czesla, S.; Fuhrmeister, B.; Robrade, J.; Engels, D.; Wieringa, M.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2014-10-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the close binary AB Dor Ba/b (Rst137B). Our study comprises astrometric orbit measurements, optical spectroscopy, X-ray and radio observations. Using all available adaptive optics images of AB Dor B taken with VLT/NACO from 2004 to 2009, we tightly constrain its orbital period to 360.6 ± 1.5 days. We present the first orbital solution of Rst 137B and estimate the combined mass of AB Dor Ba+b as 0.69+0.02-0.24 M⊙, slightly exceeding previous estimates based on IR photometry. Our determined orbital inclination of Rst 137B is close to the axial inclination of AB Dor A inferred from Doppler imaging. Our VLT/UVES spectra yield high rotational velocities of ≥30 km s-1 for both components Ba and Bb, in accord with previous measurements, which corresponds to rotation periods significantly shorter than one day. Our combined spectral model, using PHOENIX spectra, yields an effective temperature of 3310 ± 50 K for the primary and approximately 60 K less for the secondary. The optical spectra presumably cover a chromospheric flare and show that at least one component of Rst 137B is significantly active. Activity and weak variations are also found in our simultaneous XMM-Newton observations, while our ATCA radio data yield constant fluxes at the level of previous measurements. Using evolutionary models, our newly determined stellar parameters confirm that the age of Rst 137B is between 50 and 100 Myr. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, 383.D-1002(A) and the ESO Science Archive Facility. Using data obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member states and NASA. Using data obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) operated by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO).

  20. Combined time-series resistivity and geochemical tracer techniques to examine submarine groundwater discharge at Dor Beach, Israel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swarzenski, P.W.; Burnett, W.C.; Greenwood, W.J.; Herut, B.; Peterson, R.; Dimova, N.; Shalem, Y.; Yechieli, Y.; Weinstein, Y.

    2006-01-01

    A high-resolution, stationary geophysical and geochemical survey was conducted at Dor Beach, Israel, to examine the shallow coastal hydrogeology and its control on the exchange of submarine groundwater with the shallow Mediterranean Sea. Time-series resistivity profiles using a new 56 electrode (112-m long) marine cable produced detailed profiles of the fresh water/salt water interface and the subtle response of this interface to tidal excursions and other forcing factors. Such information, when ground-truthed with representative pore water salinities and formation resistivity values, can provide unique information of the extent and rates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Time-series 222Rn measurements of the adjacent coastal water column complemented these geophysical techniques and were modeled to yield integrated advective flow rates across the sediment/water interface, which at Dor Beach ranged from about 0 to 30 cm day-1 (mean = 7.1 cm d-1), depending on the tidal range. Such results suggest that the underlying hydrogeologic framework at Dor is favorable for substantial SGD. Extrapolating these SGD estimates across a 100-m wide coastal zone implies that the Rn-derived SGD rate would equal ???7.1 m3 d-1 per m of shoreline, and that the source of this discharging groundwater is a complex mixture of fresh groundwater derived from the upland Kurkar deposits, as well as locally recycled seawater. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Combined time-series resistivity and geochemical tracer techniques to examine submarine groundwater discharge at Dor Beach, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarzenski, P. W.; Burnett, W. C.; Greenwood, W. J.; Herut, B.; Peterson, R.; Dimova, N.; Shalem, Y.; Yechieli, Y.; Weinstein, Y.

    2006-12-01

    A high-resolution, stationary geophysical and geochemical survey was conducted at Dor Beach, Israel, to examine the shallow coastal hydrogeology and its control on the exchange of submarine groundwater with the shallow Mediterranean Sea. Time-series resistivity profiles using a new 56 electrode (112-m long) marine cable produced detailed profiles of the fresh water/salt water interface and the subtle response of this interface to tidal excursions and other forcing factors. Such information, when ground-truthed with representative pore water salinities and formation resistivity values, can provide unique information of the extent and rates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Time-series 222Rn measurements of the adjacent coastal water column complemented these geophysical techniques and were modeled to yield integrated advective flow rates across the sediment/water interface, which at Dor Beach ranged from about 0 to 30 cm day-1 (mean = 7.1 cm d-1), depending on the tidal range. Such results suggest that the underlying hydrogeologic framework at Dor is favorable for substantial SGD. Extrapolating these SGD estimates across a 100-m wide coastal zone implies that the Rn-derived SGD rate would equal ~7.1 m3 d-1 per m of shoreline, and that the source of this discharging groundwater is a complex mixture of fresh groundwater derived from the upland Kurkar deposits, as well as locally recycled seawater.

  2. Acquisition of Flavescence Dorée Phytoplasma by Scaphoideus titanus Ball from Different Grapevine Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Galetto, Luciana; Miliordos, Dimitrios E.; Pegoraro, Mattia; Sacco, Dario; Veratti, Flavio; Marzachì, Cristina; Bosco, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Flavescence dorée (FD) is a threat for wine production in the vineyard landscape of Piemonte, Langhe-Roero and Monferrato, Italy. Spread of the disease is dependent on complex interactions between insect, plant and phytoplasma. In the Piemonte region, wine production is based on local cultivars. The role of six local grapevine varieties as a source of inoculum for the vector Scaphoideus titanus was investigated. FD phytoplasma (FDP) load was compared among red and white varieties with different susceptibility to FD. Laboratory-reared healthy S. titanus nymphs were caged for acquisition on infected plants to measure phytoplasma acquisition efficiency following feeding on different cultivars. FDP load for Arneis was significantly lower than for other varieties. Acquisition efficiency depended on grapevine variety and on FDP load in the source plants, and there was a positive interaction for acquisition between variety and phytoplasma load. S. titanus acquired FDP with high efficiency from the most susceptible varieties, suggesting that disease diffusion correlates more with vector acquisition efficiency than with FDP load in source grapevines. In conclusion, although acquisition efficiency depends on grapevine variety and on FDP load in the plant, even varieties supporting low FDP multiplication can be highly susceptible and good sources for vector infection, while poorly susceptible varieties may host high phytoplasma loads. PMID:27649162

  3. Combined ERT-TDEM measurements for studying submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) at Dor Beach, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, E.; Goldman, M.; Weinstein, Y.; Yechieli, Y.

    2008-12-01

    During last years, Dor Beach became a major test site for hydrogeological, geochemical and geophysical investigations of the SGD phenomenon in Israel. The high resolution time-series ERT measurements using 112-m long cable carried out at the site in 2006 have provided important information regarding shallow coastal hydrogeology up to the maximum exploration depth of approximately 20 m (Swarzenski et al, 2006). In a recent experiment (summer 2008), we focused on deeper parts of the site. This goal was achieved by using roughly two times longer shore diagonal and shore perpendicular ERT lines accompanied by onshore TDEM measurements. Such a combination allowed obtaining reliable information regarding the distribution of electrical resistivity up to a maximum depth of approximately 100 m. As a result, an additional high resistivity structure has been detected at a depth of approximately 63 m, which most likely represents the underlying Carmel Cretaceous aquifer saturated with water of lower than seawater salinity. Two saline/freshwater interfaces were detected at depths of approximately 17 m and 49 m. The upper interface between fresh and brackish water was detected by both ERT and TDEM, while the lower fresh/seawater interface was detected by TDEM alone.

  4. The Coronae of AB Dor and V471 Tau: Youth vs Tidal Spin-Up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Alvarez, D.; Drake, J. J.; Lin, L.; Kashyap, V.

    2004-01-01

    We report on an analysis of high resolution Chandra spectra of two stars with very similar spectral types and rotation rates but with very different evolutionary histories. AB Doradus is a young relatively bright (V=6.9) rapidly rotating (P=0.51d) late-type star (dK0-2) that is just evolving onto the main sequence. V471 Tau is a post-common envelope pre-cataclysmic binary system and is comprised of a cool main-sequence chromospherically active dwarf (dK2V=9.5) and a degenerate hot white dwarf in an orbit with a separation of only 3.4 R* and P=0.52d. Chandra HETGS spectra of AB Dor and LETGS spectra V471 Tau caught both objects in relatively quiescent non-flaring states and show them to have very similar X-ray spectra. Using a new technique based on the ratios of prominent lines of highly ionized Fe and resonance lines of He-like and H-like ions we have determined the temperature structure and chemical composition of the emitting plasma in both coronae. Both stars have coronae that are relatively Ne-rich and Fe-poor similar to the abundances found from high-resolution spectra of other active stars. We compare and constrast the two coronae in the context of outer atmosphere structure and the rich emerging pattern of coronal abundance anomalies.

  5. Acquisition of Flavescence Dorée Phytoplasma by Scaphoideus titanus Ball from Different Grapevine Varieties.

    PubMed

    Galetto, Luciana; Miliordos, Dimitrios E; Pegoraro, Mattia; Sacco, Dario; Veratti, Flavio; Marzachì, Cristina; Bosco, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Flavescence dorée (FD) is a threat for wine production in the vineyard landscape of Piemonte, Langhe-Roero and Monferrato, Italy. Spread of the disease is dependent on complex interactions between insect, plant and phytoplasma. In the Piemonte region, wine production is based on local cultivars. The role of six local grapevine varieties as a source of inoculum for the vector Scaphoideus titanus was investigated. FD phytoplasma (FDP) load was compared among red and white varieties with different susceptibility to FD. Laboratory-reared healthy S. titanus nymphs were caged for acquisition on infected plants to measure phytoplasma acquisition efficiency following feeding on different cultivars. FDP load for Arneis was significantly lower than for other varieties. Acquisition efficiency depended on grapevine variety and on FDP load in the source plants, and there was a positive interaction for acquisition between variety and phytoplasma load. S. titanus acquired FDP with high efficiency from the most susceptible varieties, suggesting that disease diffusion correlates more with vector acquisition efficiency than with FDP load in source grapevines. In conclusion, although acquisition efficiency depends on grapevine variety and on FDP load in the plant, even varieties supporting low FDP multiplication can be highly susceptible and good sources for vector infection, while poorly susceptible varieties may host high phytoplasma loads. PMID:27649162

  6. Acquisition of Flavescence Dorée Phytoplasma by Scaphoideus titanus Ball from Different Grapevine Varieties.

    PubMed

    Galetto, Luciana; Miliordos, Dimitrios E; Pegoraro, Mattia; Sacco, Dario; Veratti, Flavio; Marzachì, Cristina; Bosco, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Flavescence dorée (FD) is a threat for wine production in the vineyard landscape of Piemonte, Langhe-Roero and Monferrato, Italy. Spread of the disease is dependent on complex interactions between insect, plant and phytoplasma. In the Piemonte region, wine production is based on local cultivars. The role of six local grapevine varieties as a source of inoculum for the vector Scaphoideus titanus was investigated. FD phytoplasma (FDP) load was compared among red and white varieties with different susceptibility to FD. Laboratory-reared healthy S. titanus nymphs were caged for acquisition on infected plants to measure phytoplasma acquisition efficiency following feeding on different cultivars. FDP load for Arneis was significantly lower than for other varieties. Acquisition efficiency depended on grapevine variety and on FDP load in the source plants, and there was a positive interaction for acquisition between variety and phytoplasma load. S. titanus acquired FDP with high efficiency from the most susceptible varieties, suggesting that disease diffusion correlates more with vector acquisition efficiency than with FDP load in source grapevines. In conclusion, although acquisition efficiency depends on grapevine variety and on FDP load in the plant, even varieties supporting low FDP multiplication can be highly susceptible and good sources for vector infection, while poorly susceptible varieties may host high phytoplasma loads.

  7. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey: Multiplicity and Dynamics of the Massive Stars in 30 Dor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, H.; Dunstall, P. R.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Walborn, N. R.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S. E.; Dufton, P. L.; Evans, C. J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Taylor, W. D.; Vink, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    We present the first results on the multiplicity and dynamics of the OB star population in 30 Dor obtained in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. Based on their radial velocity (RV) variations, we have identified over 100 O-type and about 160 B-type spectroscopic binaries. The observed spectroscopic binary fraction for the O and B stars in our sample is of the order 30-35%. Preliminary considerations on the binary detection rate suggest a true spectroscopic binary fraction of the order of 50%. The overall RV dispersion (σRV) of the O stars in the complete sample is about 10 km s-1 but we note that the NGC 2060 and NGC 2070 regions show slightly different dynamical properties. We identified 17 O-type runaway candidates that show deviating RVs. One third of these candidates are On/nn/nnn stars, indicating a large rotational velocity. We show that the fast rotators have different RV properties than the average of the sample and are distributed throughout the field. This suggests a link between large rotation rate and peculiar RVs and, ultimately, the runaway phenomenon. Using the O stars observed within 25″(˜ 6 pc) from the core of R136, we obtain a preliminary upper limit of 7.5 km s-1 to σdyn. Given that this value has yet to be corrected down for contributions of non-detected long period binaries, this indicates that R136 is possibly a dynamically stable cluster.

  8. Determination of the bond-angle distribution in vitreous B{sub 2}O{sub 3} by {sup 11}B double rotation (DOR) NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, I.; Howes, A.P.; Parkinson, B.G.; Anupold, T.; Samoson, A.; Brown, S.P.; Harrison, P.F.; Holland, D.; Dupree, R.

    2009-09-15

    The B-O-B bond angle distributions for both ring and non-ring boron sites in vitreous B{sub 2}O{sub 3} have been determined by {sup 11}B double rotation (DOR) NMR and multiple-quantum (MQ) DOR NMR. The [B{sub 3}O{sub 6}] boroxol rings are observed to have a mean internal B-O-B angle of 120.0+-0.7 deg. with a small standard deviation, sigma{sub R}=3.2+-0.4 deg., indicating that the rings are near-perfect planar, hexagonal structures. The rings are linked predominantly by non-ring [BO{sub 3}] units, which share oxygens with the boroxol ring, with a mean B{sub ring}-O-B{sub non-ring} angle of 135.1+-0.6 deg. and sigma{sub NR}=6.7+-0.4 deg. In addition, the fraction of boron atoms, f, which reside in the boroxol rings has been measured for this sample as f=0.73+-0.01. - Graphical abstract: Connectivities and B-O-B bond angle distributions of ring and non-ring boron atoms in v-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} have been determined by {sup 11}B double rotation (DOR) NMR, multiple-quantum (MQ) DOR NMR and spin-diffusion DOR. Near-perfect planar, hexagonal [B{sub 3}O{sub 6}] boroxol rings are shown to be present. Display Omitted

  9. The Secret Lives of Cepheids: Discovery of Strong FUV Emissions in the Classical Cepheids Polaris and beta Dor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Scott G.; Guinan, E. F.; Evans, N. R.

    2006-12-01

    We report on the surprising recent discovery of strong FUV emissions in two bright, nearby Classical Cepheids from analyses of FUSE archival observations. Polaris (V = +1.98, F7 Ib-II, P = 3.97-d; d 132-pc) and beta Dor (V = +3.77, F6 Ia; P = 9.84-d; d 350-pc) are currently the only two Cepheids to have been observed with FUSE, and beta Dor is the only one to have multiple spectra. The FUSE wavelength region is ideal for such a study since it is uncontaminated by the continua of these F supergiants. Both Cepheids show strong C III (977, 1176) and O VI (1032, 1038) emissions, indicative of 50,000 500,000 K plasma, well above the photospheric temperatures. Also, more remarkably, beta Dor displays variability in the FUV emission strengths which appears to be correlated to its 9.84-d pulsation period. This phenomenon has never before been observed in Cepheids. The FUV studies are presented along with our recent Chandra X-ray observation of Polaris, in which an X-ray detection (log Lx = 28.8 ergs/sec) was found. Further FUV/X-ray observations have been proposed with FUSE/XMM to unambiguously determine the origin and nature of the observed high energy emissions from the targets, possibly arising from warm winds, shocks, or pulsationally induced magnetic activity. The initial results of this study will be discussed, along with their impact on understanding the structure, heating, dynamics and possible magnetic activity of Cepheid (and related Hybrid Star) atmosphere. We gratefully acknowledge support for this project from NASA grant Chandra-GO6-7011A and NSF grant AST05-07542.

  10. Magnetic field estimates from the synchrotron X-ray shell of 30 Dor C, the first TeV superbubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavanagh, P.; Vink, J.; Sasake, M.; Maggi, P.; Haberl, F.; Filipovic, M.

    2016-06-01

    Superbubbles are powered by the stellar winds and subsequent supernovae of a massive stellar population and are often argued as strong candidates for Galactic cosmic-ray acceleration sites. The recent detection of TeV gamma-rays from 30 Dor C in the Large Magellanic Cloud by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) has shown that superbubbles can and do accelerate particles up to very high cosmic-ray energies, and are a new and important source class in TeV astronomy. However, the dominant production mechanism (i.e., hadronic or leptonic) is still unclear. The answer to this question is locked in the unique synchrotron X-ray shell of 30 Dor C. The widths of the synchrotron emission regions are directly related to the magnetic field, which is a crucial parameter assessing dominant gamma-ray emission mechanism. In this talk we will present a study of the synchrotron emission region widths in 30 Dor C using several hundred ks of archival X-ray data from XMM-Newton. We constructed radial emission profiles from various regions of the synchrotron shell, fitted emission models to determine the widths, and derived B-field values in the downstream regions using appropriate models. The resulting low B-field estimates, of the order of a few micro G, favour a leptonic origin for the gamma-ray emission. Hadronic cosmic rays are likely to be accelerated as well, but the low density inside the bubble suppresses their emissivity.

  11. Long-term outcome of laparoscopic Heller-Dor surgery for esophageal achalasia: possible detrimental role of previous endoscopic treatment.

    PubMed

    Portale, Giuseppe; Costantini, Mario; Rizzetto, Christian; Guirroli, Emanuela; Ceolin, Martina; Salvador, Renato; Ancona, Ermanno; Zaninotto, Giovanni

    2005-12-01

    Laparoscopic Heller myotomy has recently emerged as the treatment of choice for esophageal achalasia. Previous unsuccessful treatments (pneumatic dilations or botulinum toxin [BT] injections) can make surgery more difficult, causing a higher risk of mucosal perforation and jeopardizing the outcome. The study goal was to evaluate the effects of prior endoscopic treatments on laparoscopic Heller myotomy. Between January 1992 and February 2005, 248 patients (130 males and 118 females; median age, 43 years) underwent a laparoscopic Heller-Dor operation for achalasia: 203 underwent primary surgery (group A), 19 had been previously treated with pneumatic dilations (group B), and 26 had BT injections (alone [22] or with dilations [4] (group C)). Median duration of the operation and rate of intraoperative mucosal lesions were not different in the three groups. Median follow-up was 41 months. The 5-year actuarial of control of dysphagia was similar in groups A (86%) and B (94%), whereas only 75% of group C patients were symptom free at 5 years (P = 0.02). On logistic regression analysis, prior treatment with two BT injections or BT combined with dilation was associated with poor outcome of surgery. Further, dilations for surgical failure patients were effective in 80% of group A but in only 33% of group B or C patients. Heller-Dor surgery is safe and effective as a primary or a second-line treatment (after pneumatic dilations or BT injections) for achalasia. However, long-term results seem less satisfactory in patients previously treated with BT.

  12. Theoretical study of homonuclear J coupling between quadrupolar spins: single-crystal, DOR, and J-resolved NMR.

    PubMed

    Perras, Frédéric A; Bryce, David L

    2014-05-01

    The theory describing homonuclear indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling (J) interactions between pairs of quadrupolar nuclei is outlined and supported by numerical calculations. The expected first-order multiplets for pairs of magnetically equivalent (A2), chemically equivalent (AA'), and non-equivalent (AX) quadrupolar nuclei are given. The various spectral changeovers from one first-order multiplet to another are investigated with numerical simulations using the SIMPSON program and the various thresholds defining each situation are given. The effects of chemical equivalence, as well as quadrupolar coupling, chemical shift differences, and dipolar coupling on double-rotation (DOR) and J-resolved NMR experiments for measuring homonuclear J coupling constants are investigated. The simulated J coupling multiplets under DOR conditions largely resemble the ideal multiplets predicted for single crystals, and a characteristic multiplet is expected for each of the A2, AA', and AX cases. The simulations demonstrate that it should be straightforward to distinguish between magnetic inequivalence and equivalence using J-resolved NMR, as was speculated previously. Additionally, it is shown that the second-order quadrupolar-dipolar cross-term does not affect the splittings in J-resolved experiments. Overall, the homonuclear J-resolved experiment for half-integer quadrupolar nuclei is demonstrated to be robust with respect to the effects of first- and second-order quadrupolar coupling, dipolar coupling, and chemical shift differences.

  13. A Spatial Study of X-ray Properties in Superbubble 30 Dor C with XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babazaki, Yasunori; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; SANO, Hidetoshi; Yoshiike, Satoshi; Fukuda, Tatsuya; Maruyama, Shohei; Fujii, Kosuke; Fukui, Yasuo; Tawara, Yuzuru; Matsumoto, Hironori

    2015-08-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Galaxy are believed to be most likely accelerators of cosmic-rays (CRs) in an energy range less than 3×10^15 eV. Thus SNRs emit synchrotron X-rays by high-energy electrons. Sano et al. (2014) investigated spatially-resolved X-ray spectral properties of a shell-type SNR RX1713.77-3946 which shows strong non-thermal X-ray emissions. A large variation in the photon index is found and the photon index tends to be hard with increasing an interstellar gas density, suggesting that CR electrons are efficiently accelerated in denser interstellar gas environments. Few studies have focused on a photon index variation in superbubbles which possess 100-1000 pc diameter shells of swept-up interstellar materials containing hot (~10^6 K) shock-heated gas. The superbubble 30 Dor C in the Large Magellanic Cloud is one of the best targets for examining the photon index variation, because 30 Dor C is by far strong non-thermal X-ray emissions, and thus provides an ideal laboratory for probing non-thermal emission mechanisms in the supperbubble. We investigated X-ray spectral properties of the superbubble with a high spatial resolution of on the order of 10 pc. Consequently, the spectra in the west region of 30 Dor C can be described with a combination of absorbed thermal and non-thermal models while the spectra in the east region can be fitted with an absorbed non-thermal model. The photon index and intensity in 2-10 keV show variations of 2.0-3.5 and (0.6-8.0) × 10^-7 erg/s/cm^2, respectively. The temperature of the thermal component ranges from ~0.1 to ~0.3 keV. We will discuss an interaction between the hot gas and an interstellar gas using mutiwavelength data.

  14. V2653 Ophiuchii with a pulsating component and Ppuls - Porb, Ppuls - g correlations for γ Dor type pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakırlı, Ö.; Ibanoglu, C.

    2016-05-01

    We present new spectroscopic observations of the double-lined eclipsing binary V2653 Ophiuchii. The photometric observations obtained by ASAS were analyzed and combined with the analysis of radial velocities for deriving the absolute parameters of the components. Masses and radii were determined for the first time as Mp = 1.537 ± 0.021 M⊙ and Rp = 2.215 ± 0.055 R⊙, Ms = 1.273 ± 0.019 M⊙ and Rs = 2.000 ± 0.056 R⊙ for the components of V2653 Oph. We estimate an interstellar reddening of 0.15 ± 0.08 mag and a distance of 300 ± 50 pc for the system, both supporting the membership of the open cluster Collinder 359. Using the out-of-eclipse photometric data we have made frequency analysis and detected a periodic signal at 1.0029 ± 0.0019 c/d. This frequency and the location of the more massive star on the HR diagram lead to classification of a γ Dor type variable. Up to date only eleven γ Dor type pulsators in the eclipsing binaries have been discovered. For six out of 11 systems, the physical parameters were determined. Although a small sample, we find empirical relations that Ppuls ∝ Porb0.43 and Ppuls ∝ g-0.83. While the pulsation periods increase with longer orbital periods, they decrease with increasing surface gravities of pulsating components and gravitational pull exerted by the companions. We present, briefly, the underlying physics behind the correlations we derived.

  15. [Prince Liev Nikoláievitch Míchkin ("The Idiot", Fiódor Dostoevsky) and the interictal personality syndrome of temporal lobe epilepsy].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Leonardo Cruz; Mendes, Mirian Fabíola Studart Gurgel

    2004-06-01

    Russian romancist Fiódor Dostoevsky's composition, besides its extraordinary literary value, has a special importance for neurologists and epileptologists. The writer, who suffered of epilepsy, transmitted in his texts the epileptic's universe and how the patient is perceived by the society. His novels had great influence on how epilepsy is perceived by western culture. The romance "The Idiot" has as protagonist Prince Liev Nikoláievitch Míchkin, a epileptic with remarkable personality. Considering the propose made by Geschwind-Waxman (1975) of a interictal personality syndrome in temporal lobe epilepsy, this article intends to discuss the behavioral alterations in epileptic patient, from Míchkin, the main character in Fiódor Dostoevsky's "The Idiot".

  16. Metabolic Consequences of Infection of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. "Modra frankinja" with Flavescence Dorée Phytoplasma.

    PubMed

    Prezelj, Nina; Covington, Elizabeth; Roitsch, Thomas; Gruden, Kristina; Fragner, Lena; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Chersicola, Marko; Vodopivec, Maja; Dermastia, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Flavescence dorée, caused by the quarantine phytoplasma FDp, represents the most devastating of the grapevine yellows diseases in Europe. In an integrated study we have explored the FDp-grapevine interaction in infected grapevines of cv. "Modra frankinja" under natural conditions in the vineyard. In FDp-infected leaf vein-enriched tissues, the seasonal transcriptional profiles of 14 genes selected from various metabolic pathways showed an FDp-specific plant response compared to other grapevine yellows and uncovered a new association of the SWEET17a vacuolar transporter of fructose with pathogens. Non-targeted metabolome analysis from leaf vein-enriched tissues identified 22 significantly changed compounds with increased levels during infection. Several metabolites corroborated the gene expression study. Detailed investigation of the dynamics of carbohydrate metabolism revealed significant accumulation of sucrose and starch in the mesophyll of FDp-infected leaves, as well as significant up-regulation of genes involved in their biosynthesis. In addition, infected leaves had high activities of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and, more significantly, sucrose synthase. The data support the conclusion that FDp infection inhibits phloem transport, resulting in accumulation of carbohydrates and secondary metabolites that provoke a source-sink transition and defense response status. PMID:27242887

  17. WISEP J004701.06+680352.1: AN INTERMEDIATE SURFACE GRAVITY, DUSTY BROWN DWARF IN THE AB DOR MOVING GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Gizis, John E.; Allers, Katelyn N.; Liu, Michael C.; Harris, Hugh C.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy

    2015-02-01

    We present spectroscopy, astrometry, and photometry of the brown dwarf WISEP J004701.06+680352.1 (W0047+68), an unusually red field L dwarf at a distance of 12.2 ± 0.4 pc. The three-dimensional space motion identifies it as a member of the AB Dor Moving Group, an identification supported by our classification of W0047+68 as intermediate surface gravity (INT-G) using the Allers and Liu near-infrared classification system. This moving group membership implies near-solar metallicity, age ∼100-125 Myr, M ≈ 0.018 M {sub ☉}, and log g ≈ 4.5; the thick condensate clouds needed to explain the infrared spectrum are, therefore, a result of surface gravity that is lower than that of ordinary field brown dwarfs. From the observed luminosity and evolutionary model radius, we find T {sub eff} ≈ 1300 K, a temperature normally associated with early T dwarfs. Thick clouds are also used to explain the spectral properties of directly imaged giant planets, and we discuss the successes and challenges for such substellar models in matching the observed optical and infrared spectra. W0047+68 shows that cloud thickness is more sensitive to intermediate surface gravity than in most models. We also present a trigonometric parallax of the dusty L6 dwarf 2MASS J21481628+4003593. It lies at 8.060 ± 0.036 parsecs; its astrometry is consistent with the view that it is older and metal-rich.

  18. WISEP J004701.06+680352.1: An Intermediate Surface Gravity, Dusty Brown Dwarf in the AB Dor Moving Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizis, John E.; Allers, Katelyn N.; Liu, Michael C.; Harris, Hugh C.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy

    2015-02-01

    We present spectroscopy, astrometry, and photometry of the brown dwarf WISEP J004701.06+680352.1 (W0047+68), an unusually red field L dwarf at a distance of 12.2 ± 0.4 pc. The three-dimensional space motion identifies it as a member of the AB Dor Moving Group, an identification supported by our classification of W0047+68 as intermediate surface gravity (INT-G) using the Allers & Liu near-infrared classification system. This moving group membership implies near-solar metallicity, age ~100-125 Myr, M ≈ 0.018 M ⊙, and log g ≈ 4.5; the thick condensate clouds needed to explain the infrared spectrum are, therefore, a result of surface gravity that is lower than that of ordinary field brown dwarfs. From the observed luminosity and evolutionary model radius, we find T eff ≈ 1300 K, a temperature normally associated with early T dwarfs. Thick clouds are also used to explain the spectral properties of directly imaged giant planets, and we discuss the successes and challenges for such substellar models in matching the observed optical and infrared spectra. W0047+68 shows that cloud thickness is more sensitive to intermediate surface gravity than in most models. We also present a trigonometric parallax of the dusty L6 dwarf 2MASS J21481628+4003593. It lies at 8.060 ± 0.036 parsecs; its astrometry is consistent with the view that it is older and metal-rich.

  19. DOR – a Database of Olfactory Receptors – Integrated Repository for Sequence and Secondary Structural Information of Olfactory Receptors in Selected Eukaryotic Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Nagarathnam, Balasubramanian; Karpe, Snehal D; Harini, Krishnan; Sankar, Kannan; Iftekhar, Mohammed; Rajesh, Durairaj; Giji, Sadasivam; Archunan, Govidaraju; Balakrishnan, Veluchamy; Gromiha, M Michael; Nemoto, Wataru; Fukui, Kazhuhiko; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2014-01-01

    Olfaction is the response to odors and is mediated by a class of membrane-bound proteins called olfactory receptors (ORs). An understanding of these receptors serves as a good model for basic signal transduction mechanisms and also provides important clues for the strategies adopted by organisms for their ultimate survival using chemosensory perception in search of food or defense against predators. Prior research on cross-genome phylogenetic analyses from our group motivated the addressal of conserved evolutionary trends, clustering, and ortholog prediction of ORs. The database of olfactory receptors (DOR) is a repository that provides sequence and structural information on ORs of selected organisms (such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Mus musculus, and Homo sapiens). Users can download OR sequences, study predicted membrane topology, and obtain cross-genome sequence alignments and phylogeny, including three-dimensional (3D) structural models of 100 selected ORs and their predicted dimer interfaces. The database can be accessed from http://caps.ncbs.res.in/DOR. Such a database should be helpful in designing experiments on point mutations to probe into the possible dimerization modes of ORs and to even understand the evolutionary changes between different receptors. PMID:25002814

  20. The occurrence of non-pulsating stars in the γ Dor and δ Sct pulsation instability regions: Results from Kepler quarter 14–17 data

    DOE PAGES

    Guzik, J. A.; Bradley, P. A.; Jackiewicz, J.; Molenda-Zakowicz, J.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Kinemuchi, K.

    2015-04-21

    In this study, the high precision long time-series photometry of the NASA Kepler spacecraft provides an excellent means to discover and characterize variability in main-sequence stars, and to make progress in interpreting the pulsations to derive stellar interior structure and test stellar models. For stars of spectral types A–F, the Kepler data revealed a number of surprises, such as more hybrid pulsating Sct and Dor pulsators than expected, pulsators lying outside of the instability regions predicted by theory, and stars that were expected to pulsate, but showed no variability. In our 2013 Astronomical Review article, we discussed the statistics ofmore » variability for 633 faint (Kepler magnitude 14–16) spectral type A–F stars observed by Kepler during Quarters 6–13 (June 2010–June 2012).« less

  1. The occurrence of non-pulsating stars in the γ Dor and δ Sct pulsation instability regions: Results from Kepler quarter 14–17 data

    SciTech Connect

    Guzik, J. A.; Bradley, P. A.; Jackiewicz, J.; Molenda-Zakowicz, J.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Kinemuchi, K.

    2015-04-21

    In this study, the high precision long time-series photometry of the NASA Kepler spacecraft provides an excellent means to discover and characterize variability in main-sequence stars, and to make progress in interpreting the pulsations to derive stellar interior structure and test stellar models. For stars of spectral types A–F, the Kepler data revealed a number of surprises, such as more hybrid pulsating Sct and Dor pulsators than expected, pulsators lying outside of the instability regions predicted by theory, and stars that were expected to pulsate, but showed no variability. In our 2013 Astronomical Review article, we discussed the statistics of variability for 633 faint (Kepler magnitude 14–16) spectral type A–F stars observed by Kepler during Quarters 6–13 (June 2010–June 2012).

  2. Aquisição de Estreptococos Mutans e Desenvolvimento de Cárie Dental em Primogênitos

    PubMed Central

    NOCE, Erica; RUBIRA, Cassia Maria Fischer; da Silva ROSA, Odila Pereira; da SILVA, Salete Moura Bonifácio; BRETZ, Walter Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo Avaliar o momento de aquisição de estreptococos mutans (EM), desenvolvimento de cárie dental e as variáveis a eles associadas no decorrer de 23 meses, em primogênitos de famílias de baixo nível socioeconômico, desde os sete meses de idade. Método A amostra foi selecionada com base em mães densamente colonizadas por EM, incluindo todos os membros de 14 famílias que conviviam na mesma casa. Foram envolvidos no estudo 14 mães, pais e primogênitos e 8 parentes, na maioria avós. Exames clínicos e radiográficos iniciais determinaram os índices de cárie e condição periodontal dos adultos. Contagens de EM foram feitas em todos os adultos nas duas primeiras visitas. Nas crianças foram avaliados os níveis de EM, o número de dentes e de cáries, em quatro visitas. Resultados A prevalência de EM nos adultos foi alta, estando ausente em apenas um dos pais. EM foram detectados em 1, 2, 3 e 10 crianças, respectivamente nas visitas #1, 2, 3 e 4. A cárie dental foi detectada em apenas três crianças na última visita (aos 30 meses de idade), as quais apresentaram escores de EM significantemente maiores que as crianças sem cárie, na mesma visita. Conclusão Exclusivamente a condição social de baixa renda e mães densamente colonizadas por EM não são sinônimo de colonização precoce e alta atividade de cárie em crianças cuidadas em casa. O desenvolvimento de cárie está significantemente associado a escores elevados de EM nas crianças. PMID:22022218

  3. EMS Student Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogle, Patrick

    This student guide is one of a series of self-contained materials for students enrolled in an emergency medical services (EMS) training program. Discussed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: the purpose and history of EMS professionals; EMS training, certification and examinations (national and state certification and…

  4. EM International. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  5. Population-based study of ovarian cancer in Côte d'Or: prognostic factors and trends in relative survival rates over the last 20 years

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this population-based study was to assess independent prognostic factors in ovarian cancer using relative survival (RS) and to investigate changes in RS rates from 1982 to 2005. Methods Data on 748 patients with ovarian cancer were provided by the Côte d'Or gynaecologic cancer registry. The RS was estimated using a generalized linear model with a Poisson error structure. Relative survival and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were described at the following specific time points 1, 3 and 5 years. The effect of prognostic factors on survival was assessed with multivariate analyses of RS. Results The median follow-up was 12 years. The RS rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 81%, 55% and 44%, respectively. As compared with the period 1982-1989, an improvement in survival was found for the period 1998-2005: HR = 0.52[0.40-0.67]. Women who lived in urban areas had better RS: HR = 0.82[0.67-0.99]. Patients with epithelial types of ovarian cancer other than mucinous or endometrioid cancer had worse RS than those with serous histology. Age ≥ 70 years was associated with lower survival. Conclusions Period of diagnosis, stage at diagnosis, histology, place of residence and age were independent prognostic factors for survival in ovarian cancer. An improvement in the survival rate was observed after 1998 but a significant improvement was limited to advanced stage cancers. PMID:21067600

  6. H2, HD, and CO at the edge of 30 Dor in the LMC: The line of sight to Sk-69 246

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluhm, H.; de Boer, K. S.

    2001-11-01

    FUSE and IUE observations of Sk-69 246, a WN 6 star to the north of 30 Dor, reveal the existence of LMC interstellar gas in at least 3 velocity components. In one of these components FUSE spectra show strong absorption by molecular hydrogen with a column density of log N(H_2)=19.6. We investigate the physical conditions in this cloud, which is probably located near the H Ii region surrounding Sk-69 246. HD and CO with column densities of ~ 13.9 and 13.0, respectively, are detected. The N(CO)-to-N(H2) ratio is consistent with values found in the Galaxy. From the population of the rotational levels of H2 we derive a gas temperature of 72 K and a radiation field U 3x10-15 erg s-1 cm-3 at 1000 Å. The fractional abundance f=2N(H2)/[N(ion {HI})+2N(H2)] ~0.07 is rather high for an E(B-V) <~ 0.1. Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, available in the public archive. FUSE is operated for NASA by the Johns Hopkins University under NASA contract NAS5-32985.

  7. Metabolic Consequences of Infection of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. “Modra frankinja” with Flavescence Dorée Phytoplasma

    PubMed Central

    Prezelj, Nina; Covington, Elizabeth; Roitsch, Thomas; Gruden, Kristina; Fragner, Lena; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Chersicola, Marko; Vodopivec, Maja; Dermastia, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Flavescence dorée, caused by the quarantine phytoplasma FDp, represents the most devastating of the grapevine yellows diseases in Europe. In an integrated study we have explored the FDp–grapevine interaction in infected grapevines of cv. “Modra frankinja” under natural conditions in the vineyard. In FDp-infected leaf vein-enriched tissues, the seasonal transcriptional profiles of 14 genes selected from various metabolic pathways showed an FDp-specific plant response compared to other grapevine yellows and uncovered a new association of the SWEET17a vacuolar transporter of fructose with pathogens. Non-targeted metabolome analysis from leaf vein-enriched tissues identified 22 significantly changed compounds with increased levels during infection. Several metabolites corroborated the gene expression study. Detailed investigation of the dynamics of carbohydrate metabolism revealed significant accumulation of sucrose and starch in the mesophyll of FDp-infected leaves, as well as significant up-regulation of genes involved in their biosynthesis. In addition, infected leaves had high activities of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and, more significantly, sucrose synthase. The data support the conclusion that FDp infection inhibits phloem transport, resulting in accumulation of carbohydrates and secondary metabolites that provoke a source-sink transition and defense response status. PMID:27242887

  8. A Novel Bacteroidetes Symbiont Is Localized in Scaphoideus titanus, the Insect Vector of Flavescence Dorée in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Marzorati, Massimo; Alma, Alberto; Sacchi, Luciano; Pajoro, Massimo; Palermo, Simona; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Raddadi, Noura; Balloi, Annalisa; Tedeschi, Rosemarie; Clementi, Emanuela; Corona, Silvia; Quaglino, Fabio; Bianco, Piero Attilio; Beninati, Tiziana; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2006-01-01

    Flavescence dorée (FD) is a grapevine disease that afflicts several wine production areas in Europe, from Portugal to Serbia. FD is caused by a bacterium, “Candidatus Phytoplasma vitis,” which is spread throughout the vineyards by a leafhopper, Scaphoideus titanus (Cicadellidae). After collection of S. titanus specimens from FD-contaminated vineyards in three different areas in the Piedmont region of Italy, we performed a survey to characterize the bacterial microflora associated with this insect. Using length heterogeneity PCR with universal primers for bacteria we identified a major peak associated with almost all of the individuals examined (both males and females). Characterization by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis confirmed the presence of a major band that, after sequencing, showed a 97 to 99% identity with Bacteroidetes symbionts of the “Candidatus Cardinium hertigii” group. In addition, electron microscopy of tissues of S. titanus fed for 3 months on phytoplasma-infected grapevine plants showed bacterial cells with the typical morphology of “Ca. Cardinium hertigii.” This endosymbiont, tentatively designated ST1-C, was found in the cytoplasm of previtellogenic and vitellogenic ovarian cells, in the follicle cells, and in the fat body and salivary glands. In addition, cell morphologies resembling those of “Ca. Phytoplasma vitis” were detected in the midgut, and specific PCR assays indicated the presence of the phytoplasma in the gut, fat body and salivary glands. These results indicate that ST1-C and “Ca. Phytoplasma vitis” have a complex life cycle in the body of S. titanus and are colocalized in different organs and tissues. PMID:16461701

  9. Estudo em microondas do aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em explosões solares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosal, A. C.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação rápida e intensa do brilho que ocorre nas chamadas regiões ativas da atmosfera, constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética. Os modelos de explosões solares atuais, discutidos na literatura, apresentam características de aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em ambientes magnéticos simplificados. Neste trabalho, nos propusemos a separar a emissão dos elétrons aprisionados da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação apenas a partir da emissão em microondas, melhorando portanto o controle sobre o conjunto de parâmetros inferidos. A emissão em microondas da população em precipitação é bastante fraca e portanto da nossa base de dados de 130 explosões observadas pelo Rádio Polarímetro de Nobeyama, em sete freqüências, apenas para 32 foi possível separar as duas componentes de emissão com uma boa razão sinal/ruído. A partir de estudos das escalas de tempo das emissões devidas à variação gradual da emissão no aprisionamento e da variação rápida da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação foi possível obter a separação utilizando um filtro temporal nas emissões resultantes. Em nossa análise destas explosões estudamos os espectros girossincrotrônicos da emissão gradual, a qual associamos provir do topo dos arcos magnéticos e da emissão de variação rápida associada aos elétrons em precipitação. Estes espectros foram calculados e dos quais inferimos que a indução magnética efetiva do topo e dos pés foi em média, Btopo = 236 G e Bpés = 577 G, inferidas das freqüências de pico dos espectros em ntopo = 11,8 GHz e npés = 14,6 GHz com leve anisotropia (pequeno alargamento espectral). O índice espectral da distribuição não-térmica de elétrons d, inferido do índice espectral de fótons da emissão em regime opticamente fino, foi de dtopo = 3,3 e dpés = 3,9. Estes parâmetros são típicos da maioria das análises realizadas em ambiente único de

  10. EMS in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Ramalanjaona, Georges; Brogan, Gerald X

    2009-02-01

    Mauritius lies in the southwest Indian Ocean about 1250 miles from the African coast and 500 miles from Madagascar. Mauritius (estimated population 1,230,602) became independent from the United Kingdom in 1968 and has one of the highest GDP per capita in Africa. Within Mauritius there is a well established EMS system with a single 999 national dispatch system. Ambulances are either publicly or privately owned. Public ambulances are run by the Government (SAMU). Megacare is a private subscriber only ambulance service. The Government has recently invested in new technology such as telemedicine to further enhance the role of EMS on the island. This article describes the current state of EMS in Mauritius and depicts its development in the context of Government effort to decentralise and modernise the healthcare system.

  11. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  12. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  13. EPA LABORATORIES IMPLEMENT EMS PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper highlights the breadth and magnitude of carrying out an effective Environmental Management System (EMS) program at the U.S. EPA's research and development laboratories. Federal research laboratories have unique operating challenges compared to more centralized industr...

  14. On the Nature of the Prototype Luminous Blue Variable Ag Carinae. I. Fundamental Parameters During Visual Minimum Phases and Changes in the Bolometric Luminosity During the S-Dor Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groh, J. H.; Hillier, D. J.; Damineli, A.; Whitelock, P. A.; Marang, F.; Rossi, C.

    2009-06-01

    We present a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the luminous blue variable (LBV) AG Carinae (AG Car) during the last two visual minimum phases of its S-Dor cycle (1985-1990 and 2000-2003). The analysis reveals an overabundance of He, N, and Na, and a depletion of H, C, and O, on the surface of the AG Car, indicating the presence of a CNO-processed material. Furthermore, the ratio N/O is higher on the stellar surface than in the nebula. We found that the minimum phases of AG Car are not equal to each other, since we derived a noticeable difference between the maximum effective temperature achieved during 1985-1990 (22, 800 K) and 2000-2001 (17,000 K). Significant differences between the wind parameters in these two epochs were also noticed. While the wind terminal velocity was 300 km s-1 in 1985-1990, it was as low as 105 km s-1 in 2001. The mass-loss rate, however, was lower from 1985-1990 (1.5 × 10-5 M sun yr-1) than from 2000-2001 (3.7 × 10-5 M sun yr-1). We found that the wind of AG Car is significantly clumped (f sime 0.10-0.25) and that clumps must be formed deep in the wind. We derived a bolometric luminosity of 1.5 × 106 L sun during both minimum phases which, contrary to the common assumption, decreases to 1.0 × 106 L sun as the star moves toward the maximum flux in the V band. Assuming that the decrease in the bolometric luminosity of AG Car is due to the energy used to expand the outer layers of the star, we found that the expanding layers contain roughly 0.6-2 M sun. Such an amount of mass is an order of magnitude lower than the nebular mass around AG Car, but is comparable to the nebular mass found around lower-luminosity LBVs and to that of the Little Homunculus of Eta Car. If such a large amount of mass is indeed involved in the S Dor-type variability, we speculate that such instability could be a failed Giant Eruption, with several solar masses never becoming unbound from the star. Based on observations made with the 1.6 m telescope at the

  15. The Shocking Truth about Cepheids: The Secret X-ray Lives of Classical Cepheids: Origin of Pulsed FUV and X-Ray Emissions of delta Cep and beta Dor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruby, John; Engle, Scott G.; Guinan, Edward F.

    2016-01-01

    The Cepheid variable stars (delta Cep) and (beta Dor) have shown FUV spectral emission features from hot (10,000- 300,000 K) plasma that correlate with the phasing of their pulsations.(see Engle et al. 2014). These FUV spectral emissions that include NV 1240, OI 1305,C II 1335A, Si IV 1400A, and He II 1640 show peaks prior to the maximum optical brightness (during the "piston" phase of the pulsation that is observed to be in phase with the stellar pulsations, but the observed X-ray emission occurs near minimum light (near 0.4-0.5P) during the maximum radius and coolest phase of the star. Cepheid stars are an integral part of the cosmic distance ladder, due to their Period-Luminosity relationship (the Leavitt Law). Understanding the dynamics of Cepheid stars, especially with respect to FUV and X-ray emissions, is necessary to be confident in assertions derived from the cosmic distance ladder, including establishing the Hubble Constant to more accurate values.Presented here is a possible explanation for the pulsation period-related observed UV and X-ray emissions of these Cepheids. Using stellar interior and atmosphere models, conditions found in the ionization zone and outer atmosphere of these stars may be conducive to shocks being formed that are capable of temperatures great enough to produce x-ray emission. The mechanics of these shocks and their propagation in the atmosphere of the stars can potentially explain both the apparent pulsation-phased peaks for the FUV, as well as the pulsation-phase dependent (currently unexplained) X-ray emissions.This research was supported by NASA Grants: HST grant HST-GO-13019-A, XMM-Newton grant NNX14AAF12G, andChandra Grant GO-15202X. We are very thankful for this support.

  16. Busca de estruturas em grandes escalas em altos redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, N. V.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Cypriano, E.

    2003-08-01

    A busca por estruturas em grandes escalas (aglomerados de galáxias, por exemplo) é um ativo tópico de pesquisas hoje em dia, pois a detecção de um único aglomerado em altos redshifts pode por vínculos fortes sobre os modelos cosmológicos. Neste projeto estamos fazendo uma busca de estruturas distantes em campos contendo pares de quasares próximos entre si em z Â3 0.9. Os pares de quasares foram extraídos do catálogo de Véron-Cetty & Véron (2001) e estão sendo observados com os telescópios: 2,2m da University of Hawaii (UH), 2,5m do Observatório de Las Campanas e com o GEMINI. Apresentamos aqui a análise preliminar de um par de quasares observado nos filtros i'(7800 Å) e z'(9500 Å) com o GEMINI. A cor (i'-z') mostrou-se útil para detectar objetos "early-type" em redshifts menores que 1.1. No estudo do par 131046+0006/J131055+0008, com redshift ~ 0.9, o uso deste método possibilitou a detecção de sete objetos candidatos a galáxias "early-type". Num mapa da distribuição projetada dos objetos para 22 < i' < 25 observou-se que estas galáxias estão localizadas próximas a um dos quasares e há indícios de que estejam aglomeradas dentro de um área de ~ 6 arcmin2. Se esse for o caso, estes objetos seriam membros de uma estrutura em grande escala. Um outro argumento em favor dessa hipótese é que eles obedecem uma relação do tipo Kormendy (raio equivalente X brilho superficial dentro desse raio), como a apresentada pelas galáxias elípticas em z = 0.

  17. A distribuição de velocidades na linha de visada em galáxias barradas vistas de face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Com o objetivo de realizar um estudo cinemático da componente vertical de barras em galáxias, obtivemos espectros de fenda longa de alta razão S/N ao longo dos eixos maior e menor de 14 galáxias barradas vistas de face, nos telescópios de 1.52m do ESO em La Silla, Chile, e de 2.3m do Steward Observatory em Kitt Peak, Arizona. Estes dados nos permitiram determinar a distribuição de velocidades das estrelas ao longo do eixo vertical das barras e discos destes sistemas, tanto no centro como em pontos que distam cerca de 5 e 20 segundos de arco do núcleo, correspondendo a distâncias de cerca de 0.7 e 2.8 kpc, respectivamente. Desta forma, a variação radial da distribuição de velocidades também pôde ser avaliada. Este tipo de análise tem raros exemplos na literatura por ser caro em termos de tempo de telescópio. Entretanto, é de fácil justificativa, considerando que traz novas informações que podem ser utilizadas para aperfeiçoar modelos teóricos acerca da formação e evolução de galáxias. Um algoritmo por nós desenvolvido foi utilizado para obter as distribuições de velocidades como Gaussianas generalizadas (polinômios de Gauss-Hermite), o que traz um ingrediente a mais neste tipo de estudo que, tradicionalmente, se utiliza de Gaussianas puras, uma hipótese nem sempre razoável. Apresentaremos os resultados deste trabalho, que incluem um diagnóstico para a identificação de barras recém formadas, e testes para o modelo isotérmico de discos. Mostraremos que: (i) a escolha das estrelas padrão em velocidade, e dos parâmetros da Gaussiana, deve ser muito bem justificada já que tem influência significativa nos resultados; (ii) muitas galáxias apresentam uma depressão na dispersão de velocidades na região central, que pode estar associada a um disco interno; e (iii) a dispersão de velocidades é constante ao longo da barra, nos eixos maior e menor, mas cai substancialmente quando se passa da barra para o disco.

  18. The National EMS Research strategic plan.

    PubMed

    Sayre, Michael R; White, Lynn J; Brown, Lawrence H; McHenry, Susan D

    2005-01-01

    One of the eight major recommendations put forth by the National EMS Research Agenda Implementation Project in 2002 was the development of an emergency medical services (EMS) research strategic plan. Using a modified Delphi technique along with a consensus conference approach, a strategic plan for EMS research was created. The plan includes recommendations for concentrating efforts by EMS researchers, policy makers, and funding resources with the ultimate goal of improving clinical outcomes. Clinical issues targeted for additional research efforts include evaluation and treatment of patients with asthma, acute cardiac ischemia, circulatory shock, major injury, pain, acute stroke, and traumatic brain injury. The plan calls for developing, evaluating, and validating improved measurement tools and techniques. Additional research to improve the education of EMS personnel as well as system design and operation is also suggested. Implementation of the EMS research strategic plan will improve both the delivery of services and the care of individuals who access the emergency medical system.

  19. DOE/EM Criticality Safety Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Westfall, Robert Michael; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2011-02-01

    The issue of nuclear criticality safety (NCS) in Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE/EM) fissionable material operations presents challenges because of the large quantities of material present in the facilities and equipment that are committed to storage and/or material conditioning and dispositioning processes. Given the uncertainty associated with the material and conditions for many DOE/EM fissionable material operations, ensuring safety while maintaining operational efficiency requires the application of the most-effective criticality safety practices. In turn, more-efficient implementation of these practices can be achieved if the best NCS technologies are utilized. In 2002, DOE/EM-1 commissioned a survey of criticality safety technical needs at the major EM sites. These needs were documented in the report Analysis of Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Supporting the Environmental Management Program, issued May 2002. Subsequent to this study, EM safety management personnel made a commitment to applying the best and latest criticality safety technology, as described by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). Over the past 7 years, this commitment has enabled the transfer of several new technologies to EM operations. In 2008, it was decided to broaden the basis of the EM NCS needs assessment to include not only current needs for technologies but also NCS operational areas with potential for improvements in controls, analysis, and regulations. A series of NCS workshops has been conducted over the past years, and needs have been identified and addressed by EM staff and contractor personnel. These workshops were organized and conducted by the EM Criticality Safety Program Manager with administrative and technical support by staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report records the progress made in identifying the needs, determining the approaches for addressing these needs, and assimilating new NCS technologies into EM

  20. EM international activities. February 1997 highlights

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    EM International Highlights is a brief summary of on-going international projects within the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM). This document contains sections on: Global Issues, activities in Western Europe, activities in central and Eastern Europe, activities in Russia, activities in Asia and the Pacific Rim, activities in South America, activities in North America, and International Organizations.

  1. School Budget Hold'em Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "School Budget Hold'em" is a game designed to help school districts rethink their budgeting process. It evolved out of Education Resource Strategies' (ERS) experience working with large urban districts around the country. "School Budget Hold'em" offers a completely new approach--one that can turn the budgeting process into a long-term visioning…

  2. EMS: part three. Preventive medicine for EMS maladies

    SciTech Connect

    Hyfantis, J.F.

    1983-05-01

    Shakeout problems in the fast-growing field of energy-management systems (EMS) are gorwing pains and neither unexpected nor insoluble. A National Bureau of Standards (NBS) survey found user complaints ranging from problems with food spoilage to poorly trained service people. But blame can be placed on users, manufacturers, and distributors. Involving operators and managers in load-control strategies can alleviate some problems and save some money. Allowing for realistic testing time in the installation phase can also save in the long run, as will initiating a maintenance schedule and maintaining operating logs. Software maintenance can present a serious problem. Another NBS study result indicates there is perceptible improvement in system performance when good training accompanies installation, particularly when the training is provided at the user facility. User education is probably the best key to avoiding most of the potential pitfalls. 2 figures, 2 tables.

  3. EM International, July 1994, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking out and leveraging foreign technology, data, and resources in keeping with EM`s mandate to protect public health and the environment through the safe and cost-effective remediation of the Department`s nuclear weapons sites. EM works closely with foreign governments, industry, and universities to obtain innovative environmental technologies, scientific and engineering expertise, and operations experience that will support EM`s objectives. Where appropriate, these international resources are used to manage the more urgent risks at our sites, secure a safe workplace, help build consensus on critical issues, and strengthen our technology development program. Through international agreements EM engages in cooperative exchange of information, technology, and individuals. Currently, we are managing agreements with a dozen countries in Europe, Latin America, and Asia. These agreements focus on environmental restoration, waste management, transportation of radioactive wastes, and decontamination and decommissioning. This publication contains the following articles: in situ remediation integrated program; in-situ characterization and inspection of tanks; multimedia environmental pollutant assessment system (MEPAS); LLNL wet oxidation -- AEA technology. Besides these articles, this publication covers: EU activities with Russia; technology transfer activities; and international organization activities.

  4. Project X RFQ EM Design

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, Gennady; Hoff, Matthew; Li, Derun; Staples, John; Virostek, Steve; /LBNL

    2012-05-09

    Project X is a proposed multi-MW proton facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The Project X front-end would consist of an H- ion source, a low-energy beam transport (LEBT), a CW 162.5 MHz radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a medium-energy beam transport (MEBT). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and FNAL collaboration is currently developing the designs for various components in the Project X front end. This paper reports the detailed EM design of the CW 162.5 MHz RFQ that provides bunching of the 1-10 mA H- beam with acceleration from 30 keV to 2.1 MeV.

  5. Unified Data Resource for CryoEM

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Catherine L.

    2010-01-01

    3D cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction methods are uniquely able to reveal structures of many important macromolecules and macromolecular complexes. EMDataBank.org, a joint effort of the Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe), the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (RCSB), and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI), is a “one-stop shop” resource for global deposition and retrieval of cryoEM map, model and associated metadata. The resource unifies public access to the two major EM Structural Data archives: EM Data Bank (EMDB) and Protein Data Bank (PDB), and facilitates use of EM structural data of macromolecules and macromolecular complexes by the wider scientific community. PMID:20888470

  6. EMS offshore. A new horizon for paramedics.

    PubMed

    Mallard, A S

    1991-10-01

    The difficulty in getting medical aid to offshore drilling platforms can be a source of life-threatening delays. Recently, some companies have charted new waters by actually stationing EMS crews on their rigs.

  7. EMS offshore. A new horizon for paramedics.

    PubMed

    Mallard, A S

    1991-10-01

    The difficulty in getting medical aid to offshore drilling platforms can be a source of life-threatening delays. Recently, some companies have charted new waters by actually stationing EMS crews on their rigs. PMID:10116023

  8. EMS adaptation for climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, C.; Chang, Y.; Wen, J.; Tsai, M.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to find an appropriate scenario of pre-hospital transportation of an emergency medical service (EMS) system for burdensome casualties resulting from extreme climate events. A case of natural catastrophic events in Taiwan, 88 wind-caused disasters, was reviewed and analyzed. A sequential-conveyance method was designed to shorten the casualty transportation time and to promote the efficiency of ambulance services. A proposed mobile emergency medical center was first constructed in a safe area, but nearby the disaster area. The Center consists of professional medical personnel who process the triage of incoming patients and take care of casualties with minor injuries. Ambulances in the Center were ready to sequentially convey the casualties with severer conditions to an assigned hospital that is distant from the disaster area for further treatment. The study suggests that if we could construct a spacious and well-equipped mobile emergency medical center, only a small portion of casualties would need to be transferred to distant hospitals. This would reduce the over-crowding problem in hospital ERs. First-line ambulances only reciprocated between the mobile emergency medical center and the disaster area, saving time and shortening the working distances. Second-line ambulances were highly regulated between the mobile emergency medical center and requested hospitals. The ambulance service of the sequential-conveyance method was found to be more efficient than the conventional method and was concluded to be more profitable and reasonable on paper in adapting to climate change. Therefore, additional practical work should be launched to collect more precise quantitative data.

  9. Evolução temporal da explosão solar de 06 de junho de 2000 apresentando estruturas finas em rádio freqüências

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, F. C. R.; Sawant, H. S.; Cecatto, J. R.; Caracini, A. G.; Vats, H. O.; Karlický, M.; Meszarosova, H.

    2003-08-01

    Em 06 de junho de 2000 (~15: 00-17: 00 UT), o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS) registrou uma explosão solar intensa no intervalo de freqüência de (1000-2000) MHz, com alta resolução temporal (100 ms) e espectral (5 MHz). A atividade solar relacionada a esta explosão associada à região ativa (AR) 9026 e classificada como X2.3 foi grande. O Ondrejov Observatory registrou rádio emissões até 4,5 GHz. O satélite SOHO registrou uma série de erupções solares, incluindo uma Ejeção de Massa Coronal (CME) tipo "full-halo" (~15: 54 UT). Explosões tipo II/IV também foram registradas. Na faixa de ondas decimétricas, este evento apresentou dois picos distintos (~15: 21 UT e ~16: 42 UT). O primeiro pico coincide com a explosão registrada em raios-X moles (GOES) e em raios-X duros (Yohkoh). Os espectros dinâmicos com alta resolução do BSS revelaram várias estruturas finas, principalmente emissões tipo "zebra" e "fibra", rádio pulsações, emissões tipo III e do único caso de emissões "zebra" harmônicas observado na faixa decimétrica. Neste trabalho, analisamos a evolução temporal e o comportamento global do evento de 06 de junho de 2000, com ênfase na identificação e associação da ocorrência de cada tipo de estrutura fina registrada em rádio com cada etapa da explosão. Resultados preliminares mostraram que, na fase pré-flare, as estruturas finas apresentaram taxa de deriva negativa (~ 70-190 MHz/s). As emissões tipo "zebra" concentram-se na fase de descida do primeiro pico impulsivo e na de subida do segundo pico. Enquanto que as emissões tipo "fibra" ocorrem em ambas fases, mas preferivelmente durante a fase de descida. Os resultados serão apresentados e discutidos.

  10. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  11. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  12. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  13. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  14. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  15. Processing of Cryo-EM Movie Data.

    PubMed

    Ripstein, Z A; Rubinstein, J L

    2016-01-01

    Direct detector device (DDD) cameras dramatically enhance the capabilities of electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) due to their improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE) relative to other detectors. DDDs use semiconductor technology that allows micrographs to be recorded as movies rather than integrated individual exposures. Movies from DDDs improve cryo-EM in another, more surprising, way. DDD movies revealed beam-induced specimen movement as a major source of image degradation and provide a way to partially correct the problem by aligning frames or regions of frames to account for this specimen movement. In this chapter, we use a self-consistent mathematical notation to explain, compare, and contrast several of the most popular existing algorithms for computationally correcting specimen movement in DDD movies. We conclude by discussing future developments in algorithms for processing DDD movies that would extend the capabilities of cryo-EM even further.

  16. Processing of Cryo-EM Movie Data.

    PubMed

    Ripstein, Z A; Rubinstein, J L

    2016-01-01

    Direct detector device (DDD) cameras dramatically enhance the capabilities of electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) due to their improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE) relative to other detectors. DDDs use semiconductor technology that allows micrographs to be recorded as movies rather than integrated individual exposures. Movies from DDDs improve cryo-EM in another, more surprising, way. DDD movies revealed beam-induced specimen movement as a major source of image degradation and provide a way to partially correct the problem by aligning frames or regions of frames to account for this specimen movement. In this chapter, we use a self-consistent mathematical notation to explain, compare, and contrast several of the most popular existing algorithms for computationally correcting specimen movement in DDD movies. We conclude by discussing future developments in algorithms for processing DDD movies that would extend the capabilities of cryo-EM even further. PMID:27572725

  17. Risk Communication Within the EM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Edelson, M.

    2003-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at Rocky Flats, Colorado and in Ohio. Each of these sites has areas of extensive radioactive and chemical contamination, numerous surplus facilities that require decontamination and removal, while some have special nuclear material that requires secure storage. The EM program has been criticized for being ineffective (1) and has been repeatedly reorganized to address perceived shortcomings. The most recent reorganization was announced in 2001 to become effective at the beginning of the 2003 Federal Fiscal Year (i.e., October 2002). It was preceded by a ''top to bottom'' review (TTBR) of the program (2) that identified several deficiencies that were to be corrected as a result of the reorganization. One prominent outcome of the TTBR was the identification of ''risk reduction'' as an organizing principle to prioritize the activities of the new EM program. The new program also sought to accelerate progress by identifying a set of critical activities at each site that could be accelerated and result in more rapid site closure, with attendant risk, cost, and schedule benefits. This paper investigates how the new emphasis on risk reduction in the EM program has been communicated to EM stakeholders and regulators. It focuses on the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) as a case study and finds that there is little evidence for a new emphasis on risk reduction in EM communications with RFETS stakeholders. Discussions between DOE and RFETS stakeholders often refer to ''risk,'' but the word serves as a placeholder for other concepts. Thus ''risk'' communication

  18. [Acute gastroenteritis by Cambylobacter spp: a retrospective study of a paediatric emergency department].

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana Teresa; Couto, Catarina; Romão, Patrícia; Melo, Isabel Saraiva de; Braga, Manuela; Diogo, José; Calhau, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A infeção por Campylobacter é a principal causa de gastroenterite aguda bacteriana pediátrica na União Europeia.Objetivos: Conhecer a prevalência de isolamento deste agente nas crianças admitidas na urgência com gastroenterite aguda que realizaram coprocultura, caracterizando a microbiologia, epidemiologia, clínica, terapêutica e complicações associadas.Material e Métodos: Casuística por consulta dos processos dos doentes admitidos na Urgência Pediátrica dum hospital distrital, durante 30 meses, com o diagnóstico de gastroenterite aguda e isolamento em coprocultura de Campylobacter.Resultados: Das 216 coproculturas efetuadas, 98 (45%) foram positivas. Identificámos Campylobacter spp. em 49 (50%) doentes. Destes, 30 (61%) eram do género feminino. A mediana de idades foi 23 meses. Catorze doentes tinham idade inferior a um ano, 25 entre um e cinco anos e 10 idade superior a cinco anos. Verificámos diarreia aquosa em cinco (10%) doentes, diarreia com sangue em 44 (90%), sangue e muco em 14 (29%), febre em 23 (47%), dor abdominal em 14 (29%) e vómitos em 11 (22%). Registámos um caso de sépsis. Internámos cinco doentes. Oito doentes foram medicados com azitromicina.Discussão: Esta é a maior casuística nacional publicada de gastroenterite aguda a Campylobacter em idade pediátrica e a primeira no sul do país. Campylobacter foi a principal bactéria identificada, associada maioritariamente a doença auto-limitada. Contudo, há a considerar formas de infeção graves. O aumento da resistência às quinolonas é preocupante.Conclusão: A utilização criteriosa da coprocultura permite a identificação etiológica na gastrenterite aguda bacteriana. O crescente aumento dos casos de Campylobacter diagnosticados reforça a necessidade de maior controlo das medidas de higiene na manipulação dos alimentos.

  19. Modelling and design for PM/EM magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, D.; Kirk, J. A.; Anand, D. K.; Johnson, R. G.; Zmood, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    A mathematical model of a permanent magnet/electromagnet (PM/EM) radially active bearing is presented. The bearing is represented by both a reluctance model and a stiffness model. The reluctance model analyzes the magnetic circuit of the PM/EM bearings. By combining the two models, the performance of the bearing can be predicted given geometric dimensions, permanent magnet strength, and the parameters of the EM coils. The overall bearing design including the PM and EM design is subject to the performance requirement and physical constraints. A study of these requirements and constraints is discussed. The PM design is based on the required magnetic flux for proper geometric dimensions and magnet strength. The EM design is based on the stability and force slew rate consideration, and dictates the number of turns for the EM coils and the voltage and current of the power amplifier. An overall PM/EM bearing design methodology is proposed and a case study is also demonstrated.

  20. Correlação de longo alcance em sistemas binários de raios-x usando remoção de flutuações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Moret, M. A.; Zebende, G. F.; Nogueira, E., Jr.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho é proposta uma metodologia de analise de series temporais de fontes astrofísicas, baseada no método proposto por Peng et al. (1994) e Liu et al. (1999), o qual consiste na idéia de que uma série temporal correlacionada pode ser mapeada por um processo de busca de auto-similaridades em diversas escalas de tempo n. Removendo as eventuais tendências e integrando o sinal observado, é obtida uma medida do desvio médio quadrático das flutuações do sinal integrado F(n)~na, onde a representa o fator de escala associado com a auto-similaridade da correlação de longo alcance do sinal. Baseado nos valores obtidos de a, é possível distinguir entre os casos de sinais não-correlacionados, tipo ruído branco (a = 0,5), sinal anti-persistentes (a < 0,5) e sinal persistente (a > 0,5). Usando esta metodologia, foram analisadas 129 curvas de luz de sistemas binários de raios-X, provenientes do banco de dados públicos de observações feitas pelo instrumento All Sky Monitor, a bordo do satélite Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (ASM-RXTE). Foram identificadas a presença de a'0,5 em mais de 90% dos sistemas estudados, implicando em dizer que as flutuações de intensidade observadas apresentam correlação de auto-similaridade, sem entretanto, indícios de apresentarem uma escala de tempo característica das flutuações de intensidade. Sistemas onde são observadas erupções (flares), apresentam sistematicamente a > 0,5, característica esta, possivelmente associada com persistência das flutuações de densidade de disco ou taxa de acréscimo de massa. Os sistemas com curvas de luz onde nao são observadas as erupções apresentam uma distribuição normal centrada em a~0,62+/-0,10. Referências ¾ Peng, C.-K., Buldyrev, S.V., Havlin, S., Simons, M., Stanley, H.E., e Goldberg, A.L., Phys. Rev. E, (49), 1685 (1994). ¾ Liu, Y., Gopikrishnan, P., Cizeau, P., Meyer, M., Peng,C.-K., e Stanley, H.E., Phys. Rev. E, (60), 1390 (1999).

  1. The E-MS Algorithm: Model Selection with Incomplete Data

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jiming; Nguyen, Thuan; Rao, J. Sunil

    2014-01-01

    We propose a procedure associated with the idea of the E-M algorithm for model selection in the presence of missing data. The idea extends the concept of parameters to include both the model and the parameters under the model, and thus allows the model to be part of the E-M iterations. We develop the procedure, known as the E-MS algorithm, under the assumption that the class of candidate models is finite. Some special cases of the procedure are considered, including E-MS with the generalized information criteria (GIC), and E-MS with the adaptive fence (AF; Jiang et al. 2008). We prove numerical convergence of the E-MS algorithm as well as consistency in model selection of the limiting model of the E-MS convergence, for E-MS with GIC and E-MS with AF. We study the impact on model selection of different missing data mechanisms. Furthermore, we carry out extensive simulation studies on the finite-sample performance of the E-MS with comparisons to other procedures. The methodology is also illustrated on a real data analysis involving QTL mapping for an agricultural study on barley grains. PMID:26783375

  2. Crosshole EM in steel-cased boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Lee, K.H.; Becker, A.; Spies, B.; Wang, B.

    1996-07-01

    The application of crosshole EM methods through steel well-casing was investigated in theoretical, laboratory and field studies. A numerical code was developed that calculates the attenuation and phase delay of an EM dipole signal propagated through a steel well casing lodged in a homogeneous medium. The code was validated with a scale model and used for sensitivity studies of casing and formation properties. Finally, field measurements were made in an oil field undergoing waterflooding. Our most important findings are that (1) crosshole surveys are feasible using a well pair with one metallic and one non-metallic casing. (2) The casing effect seems be localized within the pipe section that includes the sensor. (3) The effects of the casing can be corrected using simple means and (4) crosshole field data that are sensitive to both formation and casing were acquired in a working environment.

  3. Generation and identification of Arabidopsis EMS mutants.

    PubMed

    Qu, Li-Jia; Qin, Genji

    2014-01-01

    EMS mutant analysis is a routine experiment to identify new players in a specific biological process or signaling pathway using forward genetics. It begins with the generation of mutants by treating Arabidopsis seeds with EMS. A mutant with a phenotype of interest (mpi) is obtained by screening plants of the M2 generation under a specific condition. Once the phenotype of the mpi is confirmed in the next generation, map-based cloning is performed to locate the mpi mutation. During the map-based cloning, mpi plants (Arabidopsis Columbia-0 (Col-0) ecotype background) are first crossed with Arabidopsis Landsberg erecta (Ler) ecotype, and the presence or absence of the phenotype in the F1 hybrids indicates whether the mpi is recessive or dominant. F2 plants with phenotypes similar to the mpi, if the mpi is recessive, or those without the phenotype, if the mpi is dominant, are used as the mapping population. As few as 24 such plants are selected for rough mapping. After finding one marker (MA) linked to the mpi locus or mutant phenotype, more markers near MA are tested to identify recombinants. The recombinants indicate the interval in which the mpi is located. Additional recombinants and molecular markers are then required to narrow down the interval. This is an iterative process of narrowing down the mapping interval until no further recombinants or molecular markers are available. The genes in the mapping interval are then sequenced to look for the mutation. In the last step, the wild-type or mutated gene is cloned to generate binary constructs. Complementation or recapitulation provides the most convincing evidence in determining the mutation that causes the phenotype of the mpi. Here, we describe the procedures for generating mutants with EMS and analyzing EMS mutations by map-based cloning.

  4. Leukocyte Recognition Using EM-Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colunga, Mario Chirinos; Siordia, Oscar Sánchez; Maybank, Stephen J.

    This document describes a method for classifying images of blood cells. Three different classes of cells are used: Band Neutrophils, Eosinophils and Lymphocytes. The image pattern is projected down to a lower dimensional sub space using PCA; the probability density function for each class is modeled with a Gaussian mixture using the EM-Algorithm. A new cell image is classified using the maximum a posteriori decision rule.

  5. Evaluation of the Ems Estuary ecosystem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baretta, J. W.; Ruardij, P.

    1987-11-01

    An ecosystem model is used to calculate and summarize carbon budgets within the Ems Estuary, The Netherlands. The similarity between model calculations and field data is established using a validation procedure. Model results show that the seaward boundary concentration for suspended matter is important in determining whether an estuary is an importer or exporter of carbon. Lowered boundary concentrations of suspended matter enhance pelagic primary production, but reduce sedimentation and hence the carbon flux from pelagic to benthic systems.

  6. TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coustenis, A.; Atreya, S.K.; Balint, T.; Brown, R.H.; Dougherty, M.K.; Ferri, F.; Fulchignoni, M.; Gautier, D.; Gowen, R.A.; Griffith, C.A.; Gurvits, L.I.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Leese, M.R.; Lunine, J.I.; McKay, C.P.; Moussas, X.; Muller-Wodarg, I.; Neubauer, F.; Owen, T.C.; Raulin, F.; Sittler, E.C.; Sohl, F.; Sotin, C.; Tobie, G.; Tokano, T.; Turtle, E.P.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Waite, J.H.; Baines, K.H.; Blamont, J.; Coates, A.J.; Dandouras, I.; Krimigis, T.; Lellouch, E.; Lorenz, R.D.; Morse, A.; Porco, C.C.; Hirtzig, M.; Saur, J.; Spilker, T.; Zarnecki, J.C.; Choi, E.; Achilleos, N.; Amils, R.; Annan, P.; Atkinson, D.H.; Benilan, Y.; Bertucci, C.; Bezard, B.; Bjoraker, G.L.; Blanc, M.; Boireau, L.; Bouman, J.; Cabane, M.; Capria, M.T.; Chassefiere, E.; Coll, P.; Combes, M.; Cooper, J.F.; Coradini, A.; Crary, F.; Cravens, T.; Daglis, I.A.; de Angelis, E.; De Bergh, C.; de Pater, I.; Dunford, C.; Durry, G.; Dutuit, O.; Fairbrother, D.; Flasar, F.M.; Fortes, A.D.; Frampton, R.; Fujimoto, M.; Galand, M.; Grasset, O.; Grott, M.; Haltigin, T.; Herique, A.; Hersant, F.; Hussmann, H.; Ip, W.; Johnson, R.; Kallio, E.; Kempf, S.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kofman, W.; Koop, R.; Kostiuk, T.; Krupp, N.; Kuppers, M.; Lammer, H.; Lara, L.-M.; Lavvas, P.; Le, Mouelic S.; Lebonnois, S.; Ledvina, S.; Li, J.; Livengood, T.A.; Lopes, R.M.; Lopez-Moreno, J. -J.; Luz, D.; Mahaffy, P.R.; Mall, U.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Marty, B.; McCord, T.; Salvan, C.M.; Milillo, A.; Mitchell, D.G.; Modolo, R.; Mousis, O.; Nakamura, M.; Neish, C.D.; Nixon, C.A.; Mvondo, D.N.; Orton, G.; Paetzold, M.; Pitman, J.; Pogrebenko, S.; Pollard, W.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rannou, P.; Reh, K.; Richter, L.; Robb, F.T.; Rodrigo, R.; Rodriguez, S.; Romani, P.; Bermejo, M.R.; Sarris, E.T.; Schenk, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitz, N.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Selig, A.; Sicardy, B.; Soderblom, L.; Spilker, L.J.; Stam, D.; Steele, A.; Stephan, K.; Strobel, D.F.; Szego, K.; Szopa,

    2009-01-01

    TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call, and accepted for further studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon (Montgolfi??re) and possibly several landing probes to be delivered through the atmosphere. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2008.

  7. Test beam performance of CDF plug upgrade EM calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Y.; CDF Upgrade Group

    1998-01-01

    CDF Plug Upgrade(tile-fiber) EM Calorimeter performed resolution of 15%/{radical}E{circle_plus}0.7% with non-linearity less than 1% in a energy range of 5-180 GeV at Fermilab Test Beam. Transverse uniformity of inside-tower-response of the EM Calorimeter was 2.2% with 56 GeV positron, which was reduced to 1.0% with response map correction. We observed 300 photo electron/GeV in the EM Calorimeter. Ratios of EM Calorimeter response to positron beam to that to {sup 137}Cs Source was stable within 1% in the period of 8 months.

  8. 2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

  9. Communication - An Effective Tool for Implementing ISO 14001/EMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Damewood; Bowen Huntsman

    2004-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) received ISO 14001/EMS certification in June 2002. Communication played an effective role in implementing ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL. This paper describes communication strategies used during the implementation and certification processes. The INEEL achieved Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) and Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Star status in 2001. ISMS implemented a formal process to plan and execute work. VPP facilitated worker involvement by establishing geographic units at various facilities with employee points of contact and management champions. The INEEL Environmental Management System (EMS) was developed to integrate the environmental functional area into its ISMS and VPP. Since the core functions of ISMS, VPP, and EMS are interchangeable, they were easy to integrate. Communication is essential to successfully implement an EMS. (According to ISO 14001 requirements, communication interacts with 12 other elements of the requirements.) We developed communication strategies that integrated ISMS, VPP, and EMS. For example, the ISMS, VPP, and EMS Web sites communicated messages to the work force, such as “VPP emphasizes the people side of doing business, ISMS emphasizes the system side of doing business, and EMS emphasizes the systems to protect the environment; but they all define work, identify and analyze hazards, and mitigate the hazards.” As a result of this integration, the work force supported and implemented the EMS. In addition, the INEEL established a cross-functional communication team to assist with implementing the EMS. The team included members from the Training and Communication organizations, VPP office, Pollution Prevention, Employee and Media Relations, a union representative, facility environmental support, and EMS staff. This crossfunctional team used various communication strategies to promote our EMS to all organization levels and successfully implemented EMS

  10. EM threat analysis for wireless systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, R. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Mariano, Robert J.; Schniter, P. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Gupta, I. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory)

    2006-06-01

    Modern digital radio systems are complex and must be carefully designed, especially when expected to operate in harsh propagation environments. The ability to accurately predict the effects of propagation on wireless radio performance could lead to more efficient radio designs as well as the ability to perform vulnerability analyses before and after system deployment. In this report, the authors--experts in electromagnetic (EM) modeling and wireless communication theory--describe the construction of a simulation environment that is capable of quantifying the effects of wireless propagation on the performance of digital communication.

  11. 7 CFR 1945.35 - Special EM loan training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Designation Staff to the State to assist the State Director in conducting a training meeting(s) with State... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Special EM loan training. 1945.35 Section 1945.35...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.35 Special EM loan...

  12. 7 CFR 1945.20 - Making EM loans available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Making EM loans available. 1945.20 Section 1945.20...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.20 Making EM loans available... consideration by the Secretary in making determinations under § 1945.6(c)(3) of this subpart. The State...

  13. 7 CFR 1945.20 - Making EM loans available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Making EM loans available. 1945.20 Section 1945.20...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.20 Making EM loans available... consideration by the Secretary in making determinations under § 1945.6(c)(3) of this subpart. The State...

  14. 7 CFR 1945.20 - Making EM loans available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Making EM loans available. 1945.20 Section 1945.20...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.20 Making EM loans available... consideration by the Secretary in making determinations under § 1945.6(c)(3) of this subpart. The State...

  15. CryoEM at IUCrJ: a new era

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Sriram; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Henderson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this overview, we briefly outline recent advances in electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and explain why the journal IUCrJ, published by the International Union of Crystallography, could provide a natural home for publications covering many present and future developments in the cryoEM field. PMID:26870375

  16. 7 CFR 759.6 - EM to be made available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... designations. When production losses meet the requirements in § 759.5 and the county has been designated as a disaster area for that reason, or when the discretionary exception to production losses for EM under § 759... eligible producers can receive EM loans. (2) Physical loss notification. When only qualifying...

  17. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K.; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-01-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5–4.5 Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders’ overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite. PMID:26988127

  18. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-05-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5-4.5Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders' overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite.

  19. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-05-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5-4.5Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders' overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite. PMID:26988127

  20. Electromagnetic optimization of EMS-MAGLEV systems

    SciTech Connect

    Andriollo, M.; Martinelli, G.; Morini, A.; Tortella, A.

    1998-07-01

    In EMS-MAGLEV high-speed transport systems, devices for propulsion, levitation and contactless on-board electric power transfer are combined in a single electromagnetic structure. The strong coupling among the windings affects the performance of each device and requires the utilization of numerical codes. The paper describes an overall optimization procedure, based on a suitable mathematical model of the system, which takes into account several items of the system performance. The parameters of the model are calculated by an automated sequence of FEM analyses of the configuration. Both the linear generator output characteristics and the propulsion force ripple are improved applying the procedure to a reference configuration. The results are compared with the results obtained by a sequence of partial optimizations operating separately on two different subsets of the geometric parameters.

  1. Online EM with weight-based forgetting.

    PubMed

    Celaya, Enric; Agostini, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    In the online version of the EM algorithm introduced by Sato and Ishii ( 2000 ), a time-dependent discount factor is introduced for forgetting the effect of the old estimated values obtained with an earlier, inaccurate estimator. In their approach, forgetting is uniformly applied to the estimators of each mixture component depending exclusively on time, irrespective of the weight attributed to each unit for the observed sample. This causes an excessive forgetting in the less frequently sampled regions. To address this problem, we propose a modification of the algorithm that involves a weight-dependent forgetting, different for each mixture component, in which old observations are forgotten according to the actual weight of the new samples used to replace older values. A comparison of the time-dependent versus the weight-dependent approach shows that the latter improves the accuracy of the approximation and exhibits much greater stability. PMID:25710091

  2. Online EM with weight-based forgetting.

    PubMed

    Celaya, Enric; Agostini, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    In the online version of the EM algorithm introduced by Sato and Ishii ( 2000 ), a time-dependent discount factor is introduced for forgetting the effect of the old estimated values obtained with an earlier, inaccurate estimator. In their approach, forgetting is uniformly applied to the estimators of each mixture component depending exclusively on time, irrespective of the weight attributed to each unit for the observed sample. This causes an excessive forgetting in the less frequently sampled regions. To address this problem, we propose a modification of the algorithm that involves a weight-dependent forgetting, different for each mixture component, in which old observations are forgotten according to the actual weight of the new samples used to replace older values. A comparison of the time-dependent versus the weight-dependent approach shows that the latter improves the accuracy of the approximation and exhibits much greater stability.

  3. Processing of Structurally Heterogeneous Cryo-EM Data in RELION.

    PubMed

    Scheres, S H W

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes algorithmic advances in the RELION software, and how these are used in high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure determination. Since the presence of projections of different three-dimensional structures in the dataset probably represents the biggest challenge in cryo-EM data processing, special emphasis is placed on how to deal with structurally heterogeneous datasets. As such, this chapter aims to be of practical help to those who wish to use RELION in their cryo-EM structure determination efforts. PMID:27572726

  4. Processing of Structurally Heterogeneous Cryo-EM Data in RELION.

    PubMed

    Scheres, S H W

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes algorithmic advances in the RELION software, and how these are used in high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure determination. Since the presence of projections of different three-dimensional structures in the dataset probably represents the biggest challenge in cryo-EM data processing, special emphasis is placed on how to deal with structurally heterogeneous datasets. As such, this chapter aims to be of practical help to those who wish to use RELION in their cryo-EM structure determination efforts.

  5. Application of the Chameleon Model to EM Field Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2008-01-01

    The Chameleon scalar field model proposed by Khoury and Weltman presents an alternative mechanism for circumventing the constraints from local tests of gravity by mediating a fifth force for cosmological expansion, which could result in experimental signatures detectable through modest improvements of current laboratory set-ups in the vicinity of oscillating matter. In this paper, the oscillation of a dielectric by a crossed EM field is investigated in light of the Chameleon model. An EM excited Chameleon field-force equation is developed and compared to several EM experiments using the Barium Titanate based dielectric material.

  6. Environmental Education and Development Division (EM-522). Annual report, Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Education and Development Division (EM-522) is one of three divisions within the Office of Technology Integration and Environmental Education and Development (EM-52) in Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) Office of Technology Development (EM-50). The primary design criterion for EM-522 education activities is directly related to meeting EM`s goal of environmental compliance on an accelerated basis and cleanup of the 1989 inventory of inactive sites and facilities by the year 2019. Therefore, EM-522`s efforts are directed specifically toward stimulating knowledge and capabilities to achieve the goals of EM while contributing to DOE`s overall goal of increasing scientific, mathematical, and technical literacy and competency. This report discusses fiscal year 1993 activities.

  7. 7 CFR 759.6 - EM to be made available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture under the Plant Protection Act or the animal quarantine laws, as defined in section 2509 of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, automatically authorizes EM for production...

  8. Antibody-based affinity cryo-EM grid.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guimei; Li, Kunpeng; Jiang, Wen

    2016-05-01

    The Affinity Grid technique combines sample purification and cryo-Electron Microscopy (cryo-EM) grid preparation into a single step. Several types of affinity surfaces, including functionalized lipids monolayers, streptavidin 2D crystals, and covalently functionalized carbon surfaces have been reported. More recently, we presented a new affinity cryo-EM approach, cryo-SPIEM, which applies the traditional Solid Phase Immune Electron Microscopy (SPIEM) technique to cryo-EM. This approach significantly simplifies the preparation of affinity grids and directly works with native macromolecular complexes without need of target modifications. With wide availability of high affinity and high specificity antibodies, the antibody-based affinity grid would enable cryo-EM studies of the native samples directly from cell cultures, targets of low abundance, and unstable or short-lived intermediate states.

  9. E.M. and Hadronic Shower Simulation with FLUKA

    SciTech Connect

    Battistoni, G.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ranft, J.; Rubbia, A.; Sala, P.R.; /INFN, Milan /SLAC /CERN /Siegen U. /Zurich, ETH

    2005-10-03

    A description of the main features of e.m. and hadronic shower simulation models used in the FLUKA code is summarized and some recent applications are discussed. The general status of the FLUKA project is also reported.

  10. Near-atomic-resolution cryo-EM for molecular virology.

    PubMed

    Hryc, Corey F; Chen, Dong-Hua; Chiu, Wah

    2011-08-01

    Electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is a technique in structural biology that is widely used to solve the three-dimensional structures of macromolecular assemblies, close to their biological and solution conditions. Recent improvements in cryo-EM and single-particle reconstruction methodologies have led to the determination of several virus structures at near-atomic resolution (3.3 - 4.6 Å). These cryo-EM structures not only resolve the Cα backbones and side-chain densities of viral capsid proteins, but also suggest functional roles that the protein domains and some key amino acid residues play. This paper reviews the recent advances in near-atomic-resolution cryo-EM for probing the mechanisms of virus assembly and morphogenesis.

  11. NASA EM Followup of LIGO-Virgo Candidate Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Lindy L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a strategy for a follow-up of LIGO-Virgo candidate events using offline survey data from several NASA high-energy photon instruments aboard RXTE, Swift, and Fermi. Time and sky-location information provided by the GW trigger allows for a targeted search for prompt and afterglow EM signals. In doing so, we expect to be sensitive to signals which are too weak to be publicly reported as astrophysical EM events.

  12. Reducing stress factors in EMS: report of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Brownstone, J E; Shatoff, D K; Duckro, P N

    1983-01-01

    The existence of stress, coping with stress, and the effects of stress in Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are highly current and hotly debated subjects. This article describes in part the results of a national survey of 25 EMS systems in 24 large metropolitan areas. The portion of the survey reported here focused on sources of stress and programs available to promote more effective coping with stres. Results are discussed generally and in terms of the services' organizational affiliations.

  13. EM Telemetry Tool for Deep Well Drilling Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey M. Gabelmann

    2005-11-15

    This final report discusses the successful development and testing of a deep operational electromagnetic (EM) telemetry system, produced under a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. This new electromagnetic telemetry system provides a wireless communication link between sensors deployed deep within oil and gas wells and data acquisition equipment located on the earth's surface. EM based wireless telemetry is a highly appropriate technology for oil and gas exploration in that it avoids the need for thousands of feet of wired connections. In order to achieve the project performance objectives, significant improvements over existing EM telemetry systems were made. These improvements included the development of new technologies that have improved the reliability of the communications link while extending operational depth. A key element of the new design is the incorporation of a data-fusion methodology which enhances the communication receiver's ability to extract very weak signals from large amounts of ambient environmental noise. This innovative data-fusion receiver based system adapts advanced technologies, not normally associated with low-frequency communications, and makes them work within the harsh drilling environments associated with the energy exploration market. Every element of a traditional EM telemetry system design, from power efficiency to reliability, has been addressed. The data fusion based EM telemetry system developed during this project is anticipated to provide an EM tool capability that will impact both onshore and offshore oil and gas exploration operations, for conventional and underbalanced drilling applications.

  14. A HF EM installation allowing simultaneous whole body and deep local EM hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Mazokhin, V N; Kolmakov, D N; Lucheyov, N A; Gelvich, E A; Troshin, I I

    1999-01-01

    The structure and main features of a HF EM installation based upon a new approach for creating electromagnetic fields destined for whole body (WBH) and deep local (DLH) hyperthermia are discussed. The HF EM field, at a frequency of 13.56 MHz, is created by a coplanar capacity type applicator positioned under a distilled water filled bolus that the patient is lying on. The EM energy being released directly in the deep tissues ensures effective whole body heating to required therapeutic temperatures of up to 43.5 degrees C, whereas the skin temperature can be maintained as low as 39-40.5 degrees C. For DLH, the installation is equipped with additional applicators and a generator operating at a frequency of 40.68 MHz. High efficiency of the WBH applicator makes it possible to carry out the WBH procedure without any air-conditioning cabin. Due to this, a free access to the patient's body during the WBH treatment is provided and a simultaneous WBH/DLH or WBH/LH procedure by means of additional applicators is possible. Controllable power output in the range of 100-800 W at a frequency of 13.56 MHz and 50-350 W at a frequency of 40.68 MHz allows accurate temperature control during WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures. SAR patterns created by the WBH and DLH applicators in a liquid muscle phantom and measured by means of a non-perturbing E-dipole are investigated. The scattered EM field strength measured in the vicinity of the operating installation during the WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures does not exceed security standards. Examples of temperature versus time graphs in the course of WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures in clinics are presented. The installation is successfully used in leading oncological institutions of Russia and Belarus, though combined WBH/DLH procedures are evidently more complicated and demand thorough planning and temperature measurements to avoid overheating. PMID:10458570

  15. A History and Informal Assessment of the <em>Slacker Astronomyem> Podcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Aaron; Gay, Pamela; Searle, Travis; Brissenden, Gina

    Slacker Astronomyem> is a weekly podcast that covers a recent astronomical news event or discovery. The show has a unique style consisting of irreverent, over-the-top humor combined with a healthy dose of hard science. According to our demographic analysis, the combination of this style and the unique podcasting distribution mechanism allows the show to reach audiences younger and busier than those reached via traditional channels. We report on the successes and challenges of the first year of the show, and provide an informal assessment of its role as a source for astronomical news and concepts for its approximately 15,500 weekly listeners.

  16. Databases and Archiving for CryoEM.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, A; Lawson, C L

    2016-01-01

    CryoEM in structural biology is currently served by three public archives-EMDB for 3DEM reconstructions, PDB for models built from 3DEM reconstructions, and EMPIAR for the raw 2D image data used to obtain the 3DEM reconstructions. These archives play a vital role for both the structural community and the wider biological community in making the data accessible so that results may be reused, reassessed, and integrated with other structural and bioinformatics resources. The important role of the archives is underpinned by the fact that many journals mandate the deposition of data to PDB and EMDB on publication. The field is currently undergoing transformative changes where on the one hand high-resolution structures are becoming a routine occurrence while on the other hand electron tomography is enabling the study of macromolecules in the cellular context. Concomitantly the archives are evolving to best serve their stakeholder communities. In this chapter, we describe the current state of the archives, resources available for depositing, accessing, searching, visualizing and validating data, on-going community-wide initiatives and opportunities, and challenges for the future. PMID:27572735

  17. DOE EM industry programs robotics development

    SciTech Connect

    Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD and D, as well as testing and evaluation for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. Robotic systems reduce worker exposure to the absolute minimum, while providing proven, cost-effective, and, for some applications, the only acceptable technique for addressing challenging problems. Development of robotic systems for remote operations occurs in three main categories: tank waste characterization and retrieval; decontamination and dismantlement; and characterization, mapping, and inspection systems. In addition, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has some other projects which fall under the heading of supporting R and D. The central objective of all FETC robotic projects is to make robotic systems more attractive by reducing costs and health risks associated with the deployment of robotic technologies in the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. This will be accomplished through development of robots that are cheaper, faster, safer, and more reliable, as well as more straightforward to modify/adapt and more intuitive to operate with autonomous capabilities and intelligent controls that prevent accidents and optimize task execution.

  18. Elected medical staff leaders: who needs 'em?

    PubMed

    Thompson, R E

    1994-03-01

    Authority, influence, and power are not synonyms. In working with elected medical staff leaders, a physician executive who chooses to exert authority may soon find him- or herself relatively powerless. But one who chooses to downplay authority, to influence through persuasion, and to coach leaders to lead effectively soon generates support for his or her ideas. The need to coax, cajole, explain, persuade, and "seek input" frustrates many leaders in all kinds of organizations. It would be much easier just to order people about. It's so tempting to think: "Who needs 'em? I'm the 'chief physician.' I know what needs to be done. Let's weigh anchor, take her out, and do what it takes to sail those rough, uncharted seas." If you really enjoy sailing a large ship in rough seas without a crew, go right ahead. Or if you think it makes sense to run an organization with only an executive staff and no knowledgeable middle managers, by all means let clinician leaders know that, now that you're aboard, they're just window-dressing. If you can make this approach work, well and good. Your life will be much less complicated, each day will have far fewer frustrations, and progress toward established goals will be much faster. However, given the reality of traditionally thinking physicians, it would be best to keep an up-dated resume in the locked lower left-hand drawer of your desk.

  19. Persistent topology for cryo-EM data analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we introduce persistent homology for the analysis of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps. We identify the topological fingerprint or topological signature of noise, which is widespread in cryo-EM data. For low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) volumetric data, intrinsic topological features of biomolecular structures are indistinguishable from noise. To remove noise, we employ geometric flows that are found to preserve the intrinsic topological fingerprints of cryo-EM structures and diminish the topological signature of noise. In particular, persistent homology enables us to visualize the gradual separation of the topological fingerprints of cryo-EM structures from those of noise during the denoising process, which gives rise to a practical procedure for prescribing a noise threshold to extract cryo-EM structure information from noise contaminated data after certain iterations of the geometric flow equation. To further demonstrate the utility of persistent homology for cryo-EM data analysis, we consider a microtubule intermediate structure Electron Microscopy Data (EMD 1129). Three helix models, an alpha-tubulin monomer model, an alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin model, and an alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin dimer model, are constructed to fit the cryo-EM data. The least square fitting leads to similarly high correlation coefficients, which indicates that structure determination via optimization is an ill-posed inverse problem. However, these models have dramatically different topological fingerprints. Especially, linkages or connectivities that discriminate one model from another, play little role in the traditional density fitting or optimization but are very sensitive and crucial to topological fingerprints. The intrinsic topological features of the microtubule data are identified after topological denoising. By a comparison of the topological fingerprints of the original data and those of three models, we found that the third model is

  20. Emergency medical service (EMS): A unique flight environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. Jay

    1993-01-01

    The EMS flight environment is unique in today's aviation. The pilots must respond quickly to emergency events and often fly to landing zones where they have never been before . The time from initially receiving a call to being airborne can be as little as two to three minutes. Often the EMS pilot is the only aviation professional on site, they have no operations people or other pilots to aid them in making decisons. Further, since they are often flying to accident scenes, not airports, there is often complete weather and condition information. Therefore, the initial decision that the pilot must make, accepting or declining a flight, can become very difficult. The accident rate of EMS helicopters has been relatively high over the past years. NASA-Ames research center has taken several steps in an attempt to aid EMS pilots in their decision making and situational awareness. A preflight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed to aid pilots in their decision making, and was tested at an EMS service. The resutls of the study were promising and a second version incorporating the lessons learned is under development. A second line of research was the development of a low cost electronic chart display (ECD). This is a digital map display to help pilots maintain geographical orientation. Another thrust was undertaken in conjunction with the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). This involved publicizing the ASRS to EMS pilots and personnel, and calling each of the reporters back to gather additional information. This paper will discuss these efforts and how they may positively impact the safety of EMS operations.

  1. Persistent topology for cryo-EM data analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we introduce persistent homology for the analysis of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps. We identify the topological fingerprint or topological signature of noise, which is widespread in cryo-EM data. For low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) volumetric data, intrinsic topological features of biomolecular structures are indistinguishable from noise. To remove noise, we employ geometric flows that are found to preserve the intrinsic topological fingerprints of cryo-EM structures and diminish the topological signature of noise. In particular, persistent homology enables us to visualize the gradual separation of the topological fingerprints of cryo-EM structures from those of noise during the denoising process, which gives rise to a practical procedure for prescribing a noise threshold to extract cryo-EM structure information from noise contaminated data after certain iterations of the geometric flow equation. To further demonstrate the utility of persistent homology for cryo-EM data analysis, we consider a microtubule intermediate structure Electron Microscopy Data (EMD 1129). Three helix models, an alpha-tubulin monomer model, an alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin model, and an alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin dimer model, are constructed to fit the cryo-EM data. The least square fitting leads to similarly high correlation coefficients, which indicates that structure determination via optimization is an ill-posed inverse problem. However, these models have dramatically different topological fingerprints. Especially, linkages or connectivities that discriminate one model from another, play little role in the traditional density fitting or optimization but are very sensitive and crucial to topological fingerprints. The intrinsic topological features of the microtubule data are identified after topological denoising. By a comparison of the topological fingerprints of the original data and those of three models, we found that the third model is

  2. Degradation of Benzodiazepines after 120 Days of EMS Deployment

    PubMed Central

    McMullan, Jason T.; Jones, Elizabeth; Barnhart, Bruce; Denninghoff, Kurt; Spaite, Daniel; Zaleski, Erin; Silbergleit, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction EMS treatment of status epilepticus improves outcomes, but the benzodiazepine best suited for EMS use is unclear, given potential high environmental temperature exposures. Objective To describe the degradation of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam as a function of temperature exposure and time over 120 days of storage on active EMS units. Methods Study boxes containing vials of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam were distributed to 4 active EMS units in each of 2 EMS systems in the southwestern United States during May–August 2011. The boxes logged temperature every minute and were stored in EMS units per local agency policy. Two vials of each drug were removed from each box at 30-day intervals and underwent high-performance liquid chromatography to determine drug concentration. Concentration was analyzed as mean (and 95%CI) percent of initial labeled concentration as a function of time and mean kinetic temperature (MKT). Results 192 samples were collected (2 samples of each drug from each of 4 units per city at 4 time-points). After 120 days, the mean relative concentration (95%CI) of diazepam was 97.0% (95.7–98.2%) and of midazolam was 99.0% (97.7–100.2%). Lorazepam experienced modest degradation by 60 days (95.6% [91.6–99.5%]) and substantial degradation at 90 days (90.3% [85.2-95.4%]) and 120 days (86.5% [80.7–92.3%]). Mean MKT was 31.6°C (95%CI 27.1–36.1). Increasing MKT was associated with greater degradation of lorazepam, but not midazolam or diazepam. Conclusions Midazolam and diazepam experienced minimal degradation throughout 120 days of EMS deployment in high-heat environments. Lorazepam experienced significant degradation over 120 days and appeared especially sensitive to higher MKT exposure. PMID:24548058

  3. Colloidal Oatmeal <em>(Avena Sativa)em> Improves Skin Barrier Through Multi-Therapy Activity.

    PubMed

    Ilnytska, Olha; Kaur, Simarna; Chon, Suhyoun; Reynertson, Kurt A; Nebus, Judith; Garay, Michelle; Mahmood, Khalid; Southall, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Oats (Avena sativa) are a centuries-old topical treatment for a variety of skin barrier conditions, including dry skin, skin rashes, and eczema; however, few studies have investigated the actual mechanism of action for the skin barrier strengthening activity of colloidal oatmeal. Four extracts of colloidal oatmeal were prepared with various solvents and tested in vitro for skin barrier related gene expression and activity. Extracts of colloidal oatmeal were found to induce the expression of genes related to epidermal differentiation, tight junctions and lipid regulation in skin, and provide pH-buffering capacity. Colloidal oatmeal boosted the expression of multiple target genes related to skin barrier, and resulted in recovery of barrier damage in an in vitro model of atopic dermatitis. In addition, an investigator-blinded study was performed with 50 healthy female subjects who exhibited bilateral moderate to severe dry skin on their lower legs. Subjects were treated with a colloidal oatmeal skin protectant lotion. Clinically, the colloidal oatmeal lotion showed significant clinical improvements in skin dryness, moisturization, and barrier. Taken together, these results demonstrate that colloidal oatmeal can provide clinically effective benefits for dry and compromised skin by strengthening skin barrier.

    <em>J Drugs Dermatolem>. 2016;15(6):684-690. PMID:27272074

  4. Colloidal Oatmeal <em>(Avena Sativa)em> Improves Skin Barrier Through Multi-Therapy Activity.

    PubMed

    Ilnytska, Olha; Kaur, Simarna; Chon, Suhyoun; Reynertson, Kurt A; Nebus, Judith; Garay, Michelle; Mahmood, Khalid; Southall, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Oats (Avena sativa) are a centuries-old topical treatment for a variety of skin barrier conditions, including dry skin, skin rashes, and eczema; however, few studies have investigated the actual mechanism of action for the skin barrier strengthening activity of colloidal oatmeal. Four extracts of colloidal oatmeal were prepared with various solvents and tested in vitro for skin barrier related gene expression and activity. Extracts of colloidal oatmeal were found to induce the expression of genes related to epidermal differentiation, tight junctions and lipid regulation in skin, and provide pH-buffering capacity. Colloidal oatmeal boosted the expression of multiple target genes related to skin barrier, and resulted in recovery of barrier damage in an in vitro model of atopic dermatitis. In addition, an investigator-blinded study was performed with 50 healthy female subjects who exhibited bilateral moderate to severe dry skin on their lower legs. Subjects were treated with a colloidal oatmeal skin protectant lotion. Clinically, the colloidal oatmeal lotion showed significant clinical improvements in skin dryness, moisturization, and barrier. Taken together, these results demonstrate that colloidal oatmeal can provide clinically effective benefits for dry and compromised skin by strengthening skin barrier.

    <em>J Drugs Dermatolem>. 2016;15(6):684-690.

  5. FitEM2EM--tools for low resolution study of macromolecular assembly and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Frankenstein, Ziv; Sperling, Joseph; Sperling, Ruth; Eisenstein, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    Studies of the structure and dynamics of macromolecular assemblies often involve comparison of low resolution models obtained using different techniques such as electron microscopy or atomic force microscopy. We present new computational tools for comparing (matching) and docking of low resolution structures, based on shape complementarity. The matched or docked objects are represented by three dimensional grids where the value of each grid point depends on its position with regard to the interior, surface or exterior of the object. The grids are correlated using fast Fourier transformations producing either matches of related objects or docking models depending on the details of the grid representations. The procedures incorporate thickening and smoothing of the surfaces of the objects which effectively compensates for differences in the resolution of the matched/docked objects, circumventing the need for resolution modification. The presented matching tool FitEM2EMin successfully fitted electron microscopy structures obtained at different resolutions, different conformers of the same structure and partial structures, ranking correct matches at the top in every case. The differences between the grid representations of the matched objects can be used to study conformation differences or to characterize the size and shape of substructures. The presented low-to-low docking tool FitEM2EMout ranked the expected models at the top. PMID:18974836

  6. FitEM2EM--tools for low resolution study of macromolecular assembly and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Frankenstein, Ziv; Sperling, Joseph; Sperling, Ruth; Eisenstein, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    Studies of the structure and dynamics of macromolecular assemblies often involve comparison of low resolution models obtained using different techniques such as electron microscopy or atomic force microscopy. We present new computational tools for comparing (matching) and docking of low resolution structures, based on shape complementarity. The matched or docked objects are represented by three dimensional grids where the value of each grid point depends on its position with regard to the interior, surface or exterior of the object. The grids are correlated using fast Fourier transformations producing either matches of related objects or docking models depending on the details of the grid representations. The procedures incorporate thickening and smoothing of the surfaces of the objects which effectively compensates for differences in the resolution of the matched/docked objects, circumventing the need for resolution modification. The presented matching tool FitEM2EMin successfully fitted electron microscopy structures obtained at different resolutions, different conformers of the same structure and partial structures, ranking correct matches at the top in every case. The differences between the grid representations of the matched objects can be used to study conformation differences or to characterize the size and shape of substructures. The presented low-to-low docking tool FitEM2EMout ranked the expected models at the top.

  7. Learning when to Hold'em and When to Fold'em: ERS's Budget Hold'em Game Facilitates the Budget Development Process in Memphis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2010

    2010-01-01

    If your school district is facing a budget issue, it might surprise you to learn that the solution might very well lie in a game of cards. That certainly was the case earlier this year for the city schools of Memphis, Tennessee. The game is called Budget Hold'em, and it was developed by Education Resource Strategies (ERS) of Watertown,…

  8. Refinement of Atomic Structures Against cryo-EM Maps.

    PubMed

    Murshudov, G N

    2016-01-01

    This review describes some of the methods for atomic structure refinement (fitting) against medium/high-resolution single-particle cryo-EM reconstructed maps. Some of the tools developed for macromolecular X-ray crystal structure analysis, especially those encapsulating prior chemical and structural information can be transferred directly for fitting into cryo-EM maps. However, despite the similarities, there are significant differences between data produced by these two techniques; therefore, different likelihood functions linking the data and model must be used in cryo-EM and crystallographic refinement. Although tools described in this review are mostly designed for medium/high-resolution maps, if maps have sufficiently good quality, then these tools can also be used at moderately low resolution, as shown in one example. In addition, the use of several popular crystallographic methods is strongly discouraged in cryo-EM refinement, such as 2Fo-Fc maps, solvent flattening, and feature-enhanced maps (FEMs) for visualization and model (re)building. Two problems in the cryo-EM field are overclaiming resolution and severe map oversharpening. Both of these should be avoided; if data of higher resolution than the signal are used, then overfitting of model parameters into the noise is unavoidable, and if maps are oversharpened, then at least parts of the maps might become very noisy and ultimately uninterpretable. Both of these may result in suboptimal and even misleading atomic models.

  9. International Space Station (ISS) Emergency Mask (EM) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Hahn, Jeffrey; Fowler, Michael; Young, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The Emergency Mask (EM) is considered a secondary response emergency Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) designed to provide respiratory protection to the International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers in response to a post-fire event or ammonia leak. The EM is planned to be delivered to ISS in 2012 to replace the current air purifying respirator (APR) onboard ISS called the Ammonia Respirator (AR). The EM is a one ]size ]fits ]all model designed to fit any size crewmember, unlike the APR on ISS, and uses either two Fire Cartridges (FCs) or two Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) 3M(Trademark). Ammonia Cartridges (ACs) to provide the crew with a minimum of 8 hours of respiratory protection with appropriate cartridge swap ]out. The EM is designed for a single exposure event, for either post ]fire or ammonia, and is a passive device that cannot help crewmembers who cannot breathe on their own. The EM fs primary and only seal is around the wearer fs neck to prevent a crewmember from inhaling contaminants. During the development of the ISS Emergency Mask, several design challenges were faced that focused around manufacturing a leak free mask. The description of those challenges are broadly discussed but focuses on one key design challenge area: bonding EPDM gasket material to Gore(Registered Trademark) fabric hood.

  10. Breaking Cryo-EM Resolution Barriers to Facilitate Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Merk, Alan; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Banerjee, Soojay; Falconieri, Veronica; Rao, Prashant; Davis, Mindy I; Pragani, Rajan; Boxer, Matthew B; Earl, Lesley A; Milne, Jacqueline L S; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2016-06-16

    Recent advances in single-particle cryoelecton microscopy (cryo-EM) are enabling generation of numerous near-atomic resolution structures for well-ordered protein complexes with sizes ≥ ∼200 kDa. Whether cryo-EM methods are equally useful for high-resolution structural analysis of smaller, dynamic protein complexes such as those involved in cellular metabolism remains an important question. Here, we present 3.8 Å resolution cryo-EM structures of the cancer target isocitrate dehydrogenase (93 kDa) and identify the nature of conformational changes induced by binding of the allosteric small-molecule inhibitor ML309. We also report 2.8-Å- and 1.8-Å-resolution structures of lactate dehydrogenase (145 kDa) and glutamate dehydrogenase (334 kDa), respectively. With these results, two perceived barriers in single-particle cryo-EM are overcome: (1) crossing 2 Å resolution and (2) obtaining structures of proteins with sizes < 100 kDa, demonstrating that cryo-EM can be used to investigate a broad spectrum of drug-target interactions and dynamic conformational states.

  11. Refinement of Atomic Structures Against cryo-EM Maps.

    PubMed

    Murshudov, G N

    2016-01-01

    This review describes some of the methods for atomic structure refinement (fitting) against medium/high-resolution single-particle cryo-EM reconstructed maps. Some of the tools developed for macromolecular X-ray crystal structure analysis, especially those encapsulating prior chemical and structural information can be transferred directly for fitting into cryo-EM maps. However, despite the similarities, there are significant differences between data produced by these two techniques; therefore, different likelihood functions linking the data and model must be used in cryo-EM and crystallographic refinement. Although tools described in this review are mostly designed for medium/high-resolution maps, if maps have sufficiently good quality, then these tools can also be used at moderately low resolution, as shown in one example. In addition, the use of several popular crystallographic methods is strongly discouraged in cryo-EM refinement, such as 2Fo-Fc maps, solvent flattening, and feature-enhanced maps (FEMs) for visualization and model (re)building. Two problems in the cryo-EM field are overclaiming resolution and severe map oversharpening. Both of these should be avoided; if data of higher resolution than the signal are used, then overfitting of model parameters into the noise is unavoidable, and if maps are oversharpened, then at least parts of the maps might become very noisy and ultimately uninterpretable. Both of these may result in suboptimal and even misleading atomic models. PMID:27572731

  12. Analyses of Subnanometer Resolution Cryo-EM Density Maps

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Matthew L.; Baker, Mariah R.; Hryc, Corey F.; DiMaio, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Today, electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) can routinely achieve subnanometer resolutions of complex macromolecular assemblies. From a density map, one can extract key structural and functional information using a variety of computational analysis tools. At subnanometer resolution, these tools make it possible to isolate individual subunits, identify secondary structures, and accurately fit atomic models. With several cryo-EM studies achieving resolutions beyond 5 Å, computational modeling and feature recognition tools have been employed to construct backbone and atomic models of the protein components directly from a density map. In this chapter, we describe several common classes of computational tools that can be used to analyze and model subnanometer resolution reconstructions from cryo-EM. A general protocol for analyzing subnanometer resolution density maps is presented along with a full description of steps used in analyzing the 4.3 Å resolution structure of Mm-cpn. PMID:20888467

  13. EMS-induced cytomictic variability in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, P; Kumar, G

    2011-01-01

    Seeds of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) were subjected to three treatment durations (3h, 5h and 7h) of 0.5 % Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS). Microsporogenesis was carried out in the control as well as in the treated materials. EMS treated plants showed interesting feature of partial inter-meiocyte chromatin migration through channel formation, beak formation or direct cell fusion. Another interesting feature noticed during the study was the fusion among tetrads due to wall dissolution. The phenomenon of cytomixis was recorded at nearly all the stages of microsporogenesis connecting from a few to several meiocytes. Other abnormalities such as laggards, precocious movement, bridge and non-disjunction of chromosomes were also recorded but in very low frequencies. The phenomenon of cytomixis increased along with the increase in treatment duration of EMS. Cells with these types of cytomictic disturbances may probably result in uneven formation of gametes or zygote, heterogenous sized pollen grains or even loss of fertility in future.

  14. Virus particle dynamics derived from CryoEM studies.

    PubMed

    Doerschuk, Peter C; Gong, Yunye; Xu, Nan; Domitrovic, Tatiana; Johnson, John E

    2016-06-01

    The direct electron detector has revolutionized electron cryo-microscopy (CryoEM). Icosahedral virus structures are routinely produced at 4Å resolution or better and the approach has largely displaced virus crystallography, as it requires less material, less purity and often produces a structure more rapidly. Largely ignored in this new era of CryoEM is the dynamic information in the data sets that was not available in X-ray structures. Here we review an approach that captures the dynamic character of viruses displayed in the CryoEM ensemble of particles at the moment of freezing. We illustrate the approach with a simple model, briefly describe the details and provide a practical application to virus particle maturation. PMID:27085980

  15. Recent technical advancements enabled atomic resolution CryoEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueming, Li

    2016-01-01

    With recent breakthroughs in camera and image processing technologies single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (CryoEM) has suddenly gained the attention of structural biologists as a powerful tool able to solve the atomic structures of biological complexes and assemblies. Compared with x-ray crystallography, CryoEM can be applied to partially flexible structures in solution and without the necessity of crystallization, which is especially important for large complexes and assemblies. This review briefly explains several key bottlenecks for atomic resolution CryoEM, and describes the corresponding solutions for these bottlenecks based on the recent technical advancements. The review also aims to provide an overview about the technical differences between its applications in biology and those in material science. Project supported by Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, China.

  16. The effective molarity (EM)--a computational approach.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Rafik

    2010-08-01

    The effective molarity (EM) for 12 intramolecular S(N)2 processes involving the formation of substituted aziridines and substituted epoxides were computed using ab initio and DFT calculation methods. Strong correlation was found between the calculated effective molarity and the experimentally determined values. This result could open a door for obtaining EM values for intramolecular processes that are difficult to be experimentally provided. Furthermore, the calculation results reveal that the driving forces for ring-closing reactions in the two different systems are proximity orientation of the nucleophile to the electrophile and the ground strain energies of the products and the reactants.

  17. Geospatial Analysis of Pediatric EMS Run Density and Endotracheal Intubation

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Matthew; Loker, William; Warden, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The association between geographic factors, including transport distance, and pediatric emergency medical services (EMS) run clustering on out-of-hospital pediatric endotracheal intubation is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if endotracheal intubation procedures are more likely to occur at greater distances from the hospital and near clusters of pediatric calls. Methods This was a retrospective observational study including all EMS runs for patients less than 18 years of age from 2008 to 2014 in a geographically large and diverse Oregon county that includes densely populated urban areas near Portland and remote rural areas. We geocoded scene addresses using the automated address locator created in the cloud-based mapping platform ArcGIS, supplemented with manual address geocoding for remaining cases. We then use the Getis-Ord Gi spatial statistic feature in ArcGIS to map statistically significant spatial clusters (hot spots) of pediatric EMS runs throughout the county. We then superimposed all intubation procedures performed during the study period on maps of pediatric EMS-run hot spots, pediatric population density, fire stations, and hospitals. We also performed multivariable logistic regression to determine if distance traveled to the hospital was associated with intubation after controlling for several confounding variables. Results We identified a total of 7,797 pediatric EMS runs during the study period and 38 endotracheal intubations. In univariate analysis we found that patients who were intubated were similar to those who were not in gender and whether or not they were transported to a children’s hospital. Intubated patients tended to be transported shorter distances and were older than non-intubated patients. Increased distance from the hospital was associated with reduced odds of intubation after controlling for age, sex, scene location, and trauma system entry status in a multivariate logistic regression. The

  18. Speaker verification using combined acoustic and EM sensor signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Gable, T J; Holzrichter, J F

    2000-11-10

    Low Power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference. This greatly enhances the quality and quantity of information for many speech related applications. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J. Acoustic. SOC. Am . 103 ( 1) 622 (1998). By combining the Glottal-EM-Sensor (GEMS) with the Acoustic-signals, we've demonstrated an almost 10 fold reduction in error rates from a speaker verification system experiment under a moderate noisy environment (-10dB).

  19. Low Bandwidth Vocoding using EM Sensor and Acoustic Signal Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Holzrichter, J F; Larson, P E

    2001-10-25

    Low-power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference [1]. By combining these data with the corresponding acoustic signal, we've demonstrated an almost 10-fold bandwidth reduction in speech compression, compared to a standard 2.4 kbps LPC10 protocol used in the STU-III (Secure Terminal Unit, third generation) telephone. This paper describes a potential EM sensor/acoustic based vocoder implementation.

  20. Waste fuel, EMS may save plant $1M yearly

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, J.

    1982-05-24

    A mixture of paper trash and coal ash fueling an Erie, Pa. General Electric plant and a Network 90 microprocessor-based energy-management system (EMS) to optimize boiler efficiency will cost about $3 million and have a three-to-four-year payback. Over half the savings will come from the avoided costs of burning plant-generated trash. The EMS system will monitor fuel requirements in the boiler and compensate for changes in steam demand. It will also monitor plant electrical needs and control the steam diverted for cogeneration. (DCK)

  1. A emissão em 8mm e as bandas de Merrill-Sanford em estrelas carbonadas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello, A. B.; Lorenz-Martins, S.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas carbonadas possuem bandas moleculares em absorção no visível e, no infravermelho (IR) as principais características espectrais se devem a emissão de grãos. Recentemente foi detectada a presença de bandas de SiC2 (Merrill-Sanford, MS) em emissão sendo atribuída à presença de um disco rico em poeira. Neste trabalho analisamos uma amostra de 14 estrelas carbonadas, observadas no telescópio de 1.52 m do ESO em 4 regiões espectrais diferentes, a fim de detectar as bandas de MS em emissão. Nossa amostra é composta de estrelas que apresentam além da emissão em 11.3 mm, outra em 8 mm. Esta última emissão, não usual nestes objetos, tem sido atribuída ou a moléculas de C2H2, ou a um composto sólido ainda indefinido. A detecção de emissões de MS e aquelas no IR, simultaneamente, revelaria um cenário mais complexo que o habitualmente esperado para os ventos destes objetos. No entanto como primeiro resultado, verificamos que as bandas de Merrill-Sanford encontram-se em absorção, não revelando nenhuma conexão com a emissão a 8 mm. Assim, temos duas hipóteses: (a) a emissão a 8 mm se deve à molécula C2H2 ou (b) essa emissão é resultado da emissão térmica de grãos. Testamos a segunda hipótese modelando a amostra com grãos não-homogêneos de SiC e quartzo, o qual emite em aproximadamente 8mm. Este grão seria produzido em uma fase evolutiva anterior a das carbonadas (estrelas S) e por terem uma estrutura cristalina são destruídos apenas na presença de campos de radiação ultravioleta muito intensos. Os modelos para os envoltórios utilizam o método de Monte Carlo para descrever o problema do transporte da radiação. As conclusões deste trabalho são: (1) as bandas de Merrill-Sanford se encontram em absorção, sugerindo um cenário usual para os ventos das estrelas da amostra; (2) neste cenário, a emissão em 8 mm seria resultado de grãos de quartzo com mantos de SiC, indicando que o quartzo poderia sobreviver a fase

  2. A modified EM algorithm for estimation in generalized mixed models.

    PubMed

    Steele, B M

    1996-12-01

    Application of the EM algorithm for estimation in the generalized mixed model has been largely unsuccessful because the E-step cannot be determined in most instances. The E-step computes the conditional expectation of the complete data log-likelihood and when the random effect distribution is normal, this expectation remains an intractable integral. The problem can be approached by numerical or analytic approximations; however, the computational burden imposed by numerical integration methods and the absence of an accurate analytic approximation have limited the use of the EM algorithm. In this paper, Laplace's method is adapted for analytic approximation within the E-step. The proposed algorithm is computationally straightforward and retains much of the conceptual simplicity of the conventional EM algorithm, although the usual convergence properties are not guaranteed. The proposed algorithm accommodates multiple random factors and random effect distributions besides the normal, e.g., the log-gamma distribution. Parameter estimates obtained for several data sets and through simulation show that this modified EM algorithm compares favorably with other generalized mixed model methods.

  3. Functionalized anatomical models for EM-neuron Interaction modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, Esra; Cassará, Antonino Mario; Montanaro, Hazael; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    The understanding of interactions between electromagnetic (EM) fields and nerves are crucial in contexts ranging from therapeutic neurostimulation to low frequency EM exposure safety. To properly consider the impact of in vivo induced field inhomogeneity on non-linear neuronal dynamics, coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling is required. For that purpose, novel functionalized computable human phantoms have been developed. Their implementation and the systematic verification of the integrated anisotropic quasi-static EM solver and neuronal dynamics modeling functionality, based on the method of manufactured solutions and numerical reference data, is described. Electric and magnetic stimulation of the ulnar and sciatic nerve were modeled to help understanding a range of controversial issues related to the magnitude and optimal determination of strength-duration (SD) time constants. The results indicate the importance of considering the stimulation-specific inhomogeneous field distributions (especially at tissue interfaces), realistic models of non-linear neuronal dynamics, very short pulses, and suitable SD extrapolation models. These results and the functionalized computable phantom will influence and support the development of safe and effective neuroprosthetic devices and novel electroceuticals. Furthermore they will assist the evaluation of existing low frequency exposure standards for the entire population under all exposure conditions.

  4. Texas Hold 'em Online Poker: A Further Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopley, Anthony A. B.; Dempsey, Kevin; Nicki, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Playing Texas Hold 'em Online Poker (THOP) is on the rise. However, there is relatively little research examining factors that contribute to problem gambling in poker players. The aim of this study was to extend the research findings of Hopley and Nicki (2010). The negative mood states of depression, anxiety and stress were found to be linked to…

  5. Signs and Guides: Wayfinding Alternatives for the EMS Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Johanna H.

    Concerned with increasing the accessibility of the collection of the Engineering/Math Sciences (EMS) Library at the University of California at Los Angeles through the use of self guidance systems, this practical study focused on the problem context, general library guides, and library signage in reviewing the literature, and conducted a survey of…

  6. A shape constrained MAP-EM algorithm for colorectal segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huafeng; Li, Lihong; Song, Bowen; Han, Fangfang; Liang, Zhengrong

    2013-02-01

    The task of effectively segmenting colon areas in CT images is an important area of interest in medical imaging field. The ability to distinguish the colon wall in an image from the background is a critical step in several approaches for achieving larger goals in automated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). The related task of polyp detection, the ability to determine which objects or classes of polyps are present in a scene, also relies on colon wall segmentation. When modeling each tissue type as a conditionally independent Gaussian distribution, the tissue mixture fractions in each voxel via the modeled unobservable random processes of the underlying tissue types can be estimated by maximum a posteriori expectation-maximization (MAP-EM) algorithm in an iterative manner. This paper presents, based on the assumption that the partial volume effect (PVE) could be fully described by a tissue mixture model, a theoretical solution to the MAP-EM segmentation algorithm. However, the MAP-EM algorithm may miss some small regions which also belong to the colon wall. Combining with the shape constrained model, we present an improved algorithm which is able to merge similar regions and reserve fine structures. Experiment results show that the new approach can refine the jagged-like boundaries and achieve better results than merely exploited our previously presented MAP-EM algorithm.

  7. Airborne EM for geothermal and hydrogeological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menghini, A.; Manzella, A.; Viezzoli, A.; Montanari, D.; Maggi, S.

    2012-12-01

    Within the "VIGOR" project, aimed at assessing the geothermal potential of four regions in southern Italy, Airborne EM data have been acquired, modeled and interpreted. The system deployed was SkyTEM, a time-domain helicopter electromagnetic system designed for hydrogeophysical, environmental and mineral investigations. The AEM data provide, after data acquisition, analysis, processing, and modeling, a distribution volume of electrical resistivity, spanning an investigation depth from ground surface of few hundred meters, depending on resistivity condition. Resistivity is an important physical parameter for geothermal investigation, since it proved to be very effective in mapping anomalies due to hydrothermal fluid circulation, which usually has high salt content and produces clayey alteration minerals. Since the project required, among other issues, to define geothermal resources at shallow level, it was decided to perform a test with an airborne electromagnetic geophysical survey, to verify the advantages offered by the system in covering large areas in a short time. The geophysical survey was carried out in Sicily, Italy, in late 2011, over two test sites named "Termini" and "Western Sicily". The two areas were chosen on different basis. "Termini" area is covered by extensive geological surveys, and was going to be investigated also by means of electrical tomography in its northern part. Since geological condition of Sicily, even at shallow depth, is very complex, this area provided a good place for defining the resistivity values of the main geological units outcropping in the region. "Termini" survey has been also an occasion to define relations between resistivity distribution, lithological units and thermal conductivity. The "Western Sicily" area cover the main thermal manifestations of western Sicily, and the research target was to establish whether they are characterized by common hydrogeological or tectonic features that could be mapped by resistivity

  8. <em>An Amphibious Magnetotelluric Investigation of the Cascadian Seismogenic and ETS zones.em>

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parris, B. A.; Livelybrooks, D.; Bedrosian, P.; Egbert, G. D.; Key, K.; Schultz, A.; Cook, A.; Kant, M.; Wogan, N.; Zeryck, A.

    2015-12-01

    The amphibious Magnetotelluric Observations of Cascadia using a Huge Array (MOCHA) experiment seeks to address unresolved questions about the seismogenic locked zone and down-dip transition zone where episodic tremor and slip (ETS) originates. The presence of free fluids is thought to be one of the primary controls on ETS behavior within the Cascadia margin. Since the bulk electrical conductivity in the crust and mantle can be greatly increased by fluids, magnetotelluric(MT) observations can offer unique insights on the fluid distribution and its relation to observed ETS behavior. Here we present preliminary results from the 146 MT stations collected for the MOCHA project. MOCHA is unique in that it is the first amphibious array of MT stations occupied to provide for 3-D interpretation of conductivity structure of a subduction zone. The MOCHA data set comprises 75 onshore stations and 71 offshore stations, accumulated over a two-year period, and located on an approximate 25km grid, spanning from the trench to the Eastern Willamette Valley, and from central Oregon into middle Washington. We present the results of a series of east-west (cross-strike) oriented, two-dimensional inversions created using the MARE2DEM software that provide an initial picture of the conductivity structure of the locked and ETS zones and its along strike variations. Our models can be used to identify correlations between ETS occurrence rates and inferred fluid concentrations. Our modeling explores the impact of various parameterizations on 2-D inversion results, including inclusion of a smoothness penalty reduction along the inferred slab interface. This series of 2-D inversions can then be used collectively to help make and guide an a priori 3-D inversion. In addition we will present a preliminary 3-D inversion of the onshore stations created using the ModEM software. We are currently working on modifying ModEM to support inversion of offshore data. The more computationally intensive 3-D

  9. The B and Be States of the Star EM Cepheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, Diana; Marchev, Dragomir; Sigut, T. A. A.; Dimitrov, Dinko

    2016-09-01

    We present 11 yr of high-resolution, spectroscopic observations for the star EM Cep. EM Cep switches between B and Be star states, as revealed by the level of Hα emission, but spends most of its time in the B star state. EM Cep has been considered to be an eclipsing, near-contact binary of nearly equal-mass B stars in order to reproduce regular photometric variations; however, this model is problematic due to the lack of any observed Doppler shift in the spectrum. Our observations confirm that there are no apparent Doppler shifts in the wide spectral lines Hα and He i λ6678 in either the B or Be star states. The profiles of He i λ6678 typically exhibited a filled-in absorption core, but we detected weak emission in this line during the highest Be state. Given the lack of observed Doppler shifts, we model EM Cep as an isolated Be star with a variable circumstellar disk. We can reproduce the observed Hα emission profiles over the 11 yr period reasonably well with disk masses on the order of 3{--}10× {10}-11 {M}* in the Be state with the circumstellar disk seen at an inclination of 78° to the line of sight. From a disk ejection episode in 2014, we estimate a mass-loss rate of ≈ 3× {10}-9 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1. The derived disk density parameters are typical of those found for the classical Be stars. We therefore suggest that the EM Cep is a classical Be star and that its photometric variations are the result of β Cep or nonradial pulsations.

  10. Signals Attenuation and Application of EM-MWD in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R.; Liu, H.; Yang, Q.; Li, J.; Wu, D.

    2012-12-01

    In the course of drilling utilizes directional well and horizontal well, it is indispensable to master timely and exact geological guide information, and offering services for such complicated drilling is electromagnetic Measurement While Drilling (EM-MWD) which can measure guide data of drilling tool in the hole and formation data while drilling. This knowledge allows the directional driller to make appropriate mechanical corrections in drill string orientation that will allow the advancing drill bit to hit an intended subsurface target area. Based on electromagnetic field theory, the paper has studied the propagation particularity and attenuation regularity that the signals of electromagnetic wave for EM-MWD transmit in stratum. The paper also gives a brief introduction of the containing, the work principle and the main technology parameter of EM-MWD. To check up the performance of EM-MWD, the field test of 5 wells were carried out in Shengli Oilfield and Liaohe Oilfield. Numerical simulation results indicate the signal attenuation will be added with the decrease of the stratum resistibility. In the frequency range from 1 to 10 Hz the stratum absorptivity is tiny and does not add noticeably with the increase of the electromagnetic wave frequency and the decrease of the stratum resistibility. In the frequency range from 1 to 10000 Hz the stratum absorptivity does not increase noticeably with the decrease of the dielectric constant of the stratum. Field test demonstrate that EM-MWD receives successfully signal emitted from depth underground 1600 meters in Shengli oilfield and 2400 meters in Liaohe oilfield. Our results indicate that numerical simulation methods are comparable to field test.

  11. The B and Be States of the Star EM Cepheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, Diana; Marchev, Dragomir; Sigut, T. A. A.; Dimitrov, Dinko

    2016-09-01

    We present 11 yr of high-resolution, spectroscopic observations for the star EM Cep. EM Cep switches between B and Be star states, as revealed by the level of Hα emission, but spends most of its time in the B star state. EM Cep has been considered to be an eclipsing, near-contact binary of nearly equal-mass B stars in order to reproduce regular photometric variations; however, this model is problematic due to the lack of any observed Doppler shift in the spectrum. Our observations confirm that there are no apparent Doppler shifts in the wide spectral lines Hα and He i λ6678 in either the B or Be star states. The profiles of He i λ6678 typically exhibited a filled-in absorption core, but we detected weak emission in this line during the highest Be state. Given the lack of observed Doppler shifts, we model EM Cep as an isolated Be star with a variable circumstellar disk. We can reproduce the observed Hα emission profiles over the 11 yr period reasonably well with disk masses on the order of 3{--}10× {10}-11 {M}* in the Be state with the circumstellar disk seen at an inclination of 78° to the line of sight. From a disk ejection episode in 2014, we estimate a mass-loss rate of ≈ 3× {10}-9 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1. The derived disk density parameters are typical of those found for the classical Be stars. We therefore suggest that the EM Cep is a classical Be star and that its photometric variations are the result of β Cep or nonradial pulsations.

  12. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P < 0.05) compared to compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P < 0.05) than in the compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction. PMID:23390930

  13. Application of Electromagnetic (EM) Separation Technology to Metal Refining Processes: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lifeng; Wang, Shengqian; Dong, Anping; Gao, Jianwei; Damoah, Lucas Nana Wiredu

    2014-12-01

    Application of electromagnetic (EM) force to metal processing has been considered as an emerging technology for the production of clean metals and other advanced materials. In the current paper, the principle of EM separation was introduced and several schemes of imposing EM field, such as DC electric field with a crossed steady magnetic field, AC electric field, AC magnetic field, and traveling magnetic field were reviewed. The force around a single particle or multi-particles and their trajectories in the conductive liquid under EM field were discussed. Applications of EM technique to the purification of different liquid metals such as aluminum, zinc, magnesium, silicon, copper, and steel were summarized. Effects of EM processing parameters, such as the frequency of imposed field, imposed magnetic flux density, processing time, particle size, and the EM unit size on the EM purification efficiency were discussed. Experimental and theoretical investigations have showed that the separation efficiency of inclusions from the molten aluminum using EM purification could as high as over 90 pct. Meanwhile, the EM purification was also applied to separate intermetallic compounds from metal melt, such as α-AlFeMnSi-phase from the molten aluminum. And then the potential industrial application of EM technique was proposed.

  14. Effects of caffeine or EDTA post-treatment on EMS mutagenesis in soybean.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B; Gu, A; Deng, X; Geng, Y; Lu, Z

    1995-04-01

    Seeds of soybean cultivar LD4 were mutagenically treated with EMS (0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 0.9, 1.5 and 1.8%) for 3 h only or plus caffeine (50 mM) or EDTA (1 mM) post-treatment for 5 h. The experimental results indicated that: (1) of the different concentrations of EMS treatment, the M2 mutation frequency induced with 0.6% EMS was the highest (9.7%). When the EMS concentration was over 0.9%, the mutation frequency decreased rapidly. (2) Of the EMS treatments plus caffeine or EDTA post-treatment, the mutagenic effect of 0.6% EMS was the best for inducing morphological variations. Caffeine post-treatment decreased notably the mutation frequency of EMS treatment; when concentrations of EMS were very high (1.5% and 1.8%), mutation frequencies of EDTA post-treatment were still 5.0% and 4.88%, but no mutants were found in EMS treatment or plus caffeine post-treatment. (3) In the M2 mutation spectrum, 11 kinds of mutant types were observed in EMS treatment or plus caffeine or EDTA post-treatment. Relative frequencies of some mutant types (growth period, plant height, grain size, leaf shape and sterility, etc.) were similar among the three treatments, but EDTA post-treatment could change the relative frequencies of yield characteristics (number of pods and grains, grain weight/plant) induced by EMS treatment only.

  15. Development of the Emergency Medical Services Role Identity Scale (EMS-RIS).

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Elizabeth A; Siebert, Darcy; Siebert, Carl

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the theoretically grounded Emergency Medical Services Role Identity Scale (EMS-RIS), which measures four domains of EMS role identity. The EMS-RIS was developed using a mixed methods approach. Key informants informed item development and the scale was validated using a representative probability sample of EMS personnel. Factor analyses revealed a conceptually consistent, four-factor solution with sound psychometric properties as well as evidence of convergent and discriminant validities. Social workers work with EMS professionals in crisis settings and as their counselors when they are distressed. The EMS-RIS provides useful information for the assessment of and intervention with distressed EMS professionals, as well as how role identity may influence occupational stress. PMID:25760489

  16. Similarity-regulation of OS-EM for accelerated SPECT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaissier, P. E. B.; Beekman, F. J.; Goorden, M. C.

    2016-06-01

    Ordered subsets expectation maximization (OS-EM) is widely used to accelerate image reconstruction in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Speedup of OS-EM over maximum likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) is close to the number of subsets used. Although a high number of subsets can shorten reconstruction times significantly, it can also cause severe image artifacts such as improper erasure of reconstructed activity if projections contain few counts. We recently showed that such artifacts can be prevented by using a count-regulated OS-EM (CR-OS-EM) algorithm which automatically adapts the number of subsets for each voxel based on the estimated number of counts that the voxel contributed to the projections. While CR-OS-EM reached high speed-up over ML-EM in high-activity regions of images, speed in low-activity regions could still be very slow. In this work we propose similarity-regulated OS-EM (SR-OS-EM) as a much faster alternative to CR-OS-EM. SR-OS-EM also automatically and locally adapts the number of subsets, but it uses a different criterion for subset regulation: the number of subsets that is used for updating an individual voxel depends on how similar the reconstruction algorithm would update the estimated activity in that voxel with different subsets. Reconstructions of an image quality phantom and in vivo scans show that SR-OS-EM retains all of the favorable properties of CR-OS-EM, while reconstruction speed can be up to an order of magnitude higher in low-activity regions. Moreover our results suggest that SR-OS-EM can be operated with identical reconstruction parameters (including the number of iterations) for a wide range of count levels, which can be an additional advantage from a user perspective since users would only have to post-filter an image to present it at an appropriate noise level.

  17. Em polypeptide and its messenger RNA levels are modulated by abscisic acid during embryogenesis in wheat.

    PubMed

    Williamson, J D; Quatrano, R S; Cuming, A C

    1985-10-15

    The effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on the expression of the 'early-methionine-labeled' (Em) polypeptide was examined in cultured, immature wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) embryos and in developing embryos in planta. A complementary DNA (cDNA) library was constructed from poly(A)-rich RNA from immature embryos cultured in the presence of ABA. ABA-enhanced sequences were first identified by differential colony-blot hybridization, and then verified using RNA slot-blot analysis. Dot-blot hybridization showed that one clone, p1015, was homologous to the previously isolated Em cDNA, pWG432. Electrophoretic analysis of the hybrid-select translation product of p1015 confirmed its identity as an Em sequence. Comparison of the p1015 cDNA insert size and the Em message size, from northern blot analysis, showed that p1015 contained about 87% of the Em sequence. RNA slot-blot analysis and protein electrophoresis showed that Em message, but not Em protein, accumulated at a low, basal level in immature embryos in the absence of ABA. Neither Em message nor Em protein was seen in three-day germinated seedlings. Steady-state levels of Em message and protein increased in immature embryos in the presence of ABA, both in culture and in planta. Regulation appeared to be primarily at the level of transcription or specific message stability. Regulation may also involve specific protein stability, since synthesis of Em protein continued in immature embryos in the absence of ABA, but Em protein did not accumulate in detectable amounts. We conclude that ABA specifically modulates Em message and protein levels in immature embryos, but is probably not responsible for the embryogenic specificity of Em expression.

  18. Magen David Adom--the EMS in Israel.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Daniel Y; Sorene, Eliot

    2008-01-01

    Israel is a small country with a population of around 7 million. The sole EMS provider for Israel is Magen David Adom (MDA) (translated as 'Red Shield of David'). MDA also carries out the functions of a National Society (similar to the Red Cross) and provides all the blood and blood product services for the country. Nationwide, the organisation responds to over 1000 emergency calls a day and uses doctors, paramedics, emergency medical technicians and volunteers. Local geopolitics has meant that MDA has to be prepared for anything from everyday emergency calls to suicide bombings and regional wars. MDA also prides itself in being able to rapidly assemble and dispatch mobile aid teams to scenes of international disasters. Such a broad range of activities is unusual for a single EMS organisation. PMID:17767990

  19. Magen David Adom--the EMS in Israel.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Daniel Y; Sorene, Eliot

    2008-01-01

    Israel is a small country with a population of around 7 million. The sole EMS provider for Israel is Magen David Adom (MDA) (translated as 'Red Shield of David'). MDA also carries out the functions of a National Society (similar to the Red Cross) and provides all the blood and blood product services for the country. Nationwide, the organisation responds to over 1000 emergency calls a day and uses doctors, paramedics, emergency medical technicians and volunteers. Local geopolitics has meant that MDA has to be prepared for anything from everyday emergency calls to suicide bombings and regional wars. MDA also prides itself in being able to rapidly assemble and dispatch mobile aid teams to scenes of international disasters. Such a broad range of activities is unusual for a single EMS organisation.

  20. Advanced communication infrastructure for pre-hospital EMS care.

    PubMed

    Orthner, Helmuth; Mazza, Giovanni; Mazza, Giovanni Giorgio; Shenvi, Rohit; Battles, Marcie

    2008-11-06

    The traditional communication infrastructure of the pre-hospital Emergency Medical System (EMS) is limited to voice communication using radio or cell phone technologies. With the emergence of 3rd Generation wireless networks (3G) and enhanced mobile devices capable of data communication (e.g., mobile tablets, PDAs with cell phones, or cell phones with PDA capabilities), the voice communication can be enhanced with interactive data messaging and perhaps even with interactive video communication. However, video requires substantially more bandwidth which 4th Generation (4G) systems are promising. However, their availability is limited. We present an infrastructure that allows dynamic selection of the best data transport mode in the pre-hospital EMS environment.

  1. Superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) system for Grumman Maglev concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalsi, Swarn S.

    1994-01-01

    The Grumman developed Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev system has the following key characteristics: a large operating airgap--40 mm; levitation at all speeds; both high speed and low speed applications; no deleterious effects on SC coils at low vehicle speeds; low magnetic field at the SC coil--less than 0.35 T; no need to use non-magnetic/non-metallic rebar in the guideway structure; low magnetic field in passenger cabin--approximately 1 G; low forces on the SC coil; employs state-of-the-art NbTi wire; no need for an active magnet quench protection system; and lower weight than a magnet system with copper coils. The EMS Maglev described in this paper does not require development of any new technologies. The system could be built with the existing SC magnet technology.

  2. Range Condition and ML-EM Checkerboard Artifacts

    PubMed Central

    You, Jiangsheng; Wang, Jing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2007-01-01

    The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm for the maximum likelihood (ML) image reconstruction criterion generates severe checkerboard artifacts in the presence of noise. A classical remedy is to impose an a priori constraint for a penalized ML or maximum a posteriori probability solution. The penalty reduces the checkerboard artifacts and also introduces uncertainty because a priori information is usually unknown in clinic. Recent theoretical investigation reveals that the noise can be divided into two components: one is called null-space noise and the other is range-space noise. The null-space noise can be numerically estimated using filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm. By the FBP algorithm, the null-space noise annihilates in the reconstruction while the range-space noise propagates into the reconstructed image. The aim of this work is to investigate the relation between the null-space noise and the checkerboard artifacts in the ML-EM reconstruction from noisy projection data. Our study suggests that removing the null-space noise from the projection data could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the projection data and, therefore, reduce the checkerboard artifacts in the ML-EM reconstructed images. This study reveals an in-depth understanding of the different noise propagations in analytical and iterative image reconstructions, which may be useful to single photon emission computed tomography, where the noise has been a major factor for image degradation. The reduction of the ML-EM checkerboard artifacts by removing the null-space noise avoids the uncertainty of using a priori penalty. PMID:18449363

  3. Generalized single-particle cryo-EM--a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Frank, Joachim

    2016-02-01

    This is a brief account of the earlier history of single-particle cryo-EM of biological molecules lacking internal symmetry, which goes back to the mid-seventies. The emphasis of this review is on the mathematical concepts and computational approaches. It is written as the field experiences a turning point in the wake of the introduction of digital cameras capable of single electron counting, and near-atomic resolution can be reached even for smaller molecules. PMID:26566976

  4. A Bayesian View on Cryo-EM Structure Determination

    PubMed Central

    Scheres, Sjors H.W.

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) structure determination by single-particle analysis of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) images requires many parameters to be determined from extremely noisy data. This makes the method prone to overfitting, that is, when structures describe noise rather than signal, in particular near their resolution limit where noise levels are highest. Cryo-EM structures are typically filtered using ad hoc procedures to prevent overfitting, but the tuning of arbitrary parameters may lead to subjectivity in the results. I describe a Bayesian interpretation of cryo-EM structure determination, where smoothness in the reconstructed density is imposed through a Gaussian prior in the Fourier domain. The statistical framework dictates how data and prior knowledge should be combined, so that the optimal 3D linear filter is obtained without the need for arbitrariness and objective resolution estimates may be obtained. Application to experimental data indicates that the statistical approach yields more reliable structures than existing methods and is capable of detecting smaller classes in data sets that contain multiple different structures. PMID:22100448

  5. EMS-induced cytomictic variability in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, P; Kumar, G

    2011-01-01

    Seeds of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) were subjected to three treatment durations (3h, 5h and 7h) of 0.5 % Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS). Microsporogenesis was carried out in the control as well as in the treated materials. EMS treated plants showed interesting feature of partial inter-meiocyte chromatin migration through channel formation, beak formation or direct cell fusion. Another interesting feature noticed during the study was the fusion among tetrads due to wall dissolution. The phenomenon of cytomixis was recorded at nearly all the stages of microsporogenesis connecting from a few to several meiocytes. Other abnormalities such as laggards, precocious movement, bridge and non-disjunction of chromosomes were also recorded but in very low frequencies. The phenomenon of cytomixis increased along with the increase in treatment duration of EMS. Cells with these types of cytomictic disturbances may probably result in uneven formation of gametes or zygote, heterogenous sized pollen grains or even loss of fertility in future. PMID:21950142

  6. The US DOE-EM International Program - 13004

    SciTech Connect

    Elmetti, Rosa R.; Han, Ana M.; Williams, Alice C.

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) conducts international collaboration activities in support of U.S. policies and objectives regarding the accelerated risk reduction and remediation of environmental legacy of the nations' nuclear weapons program and government sponsored nuclear energy research. The EM International Program supported out of the EM Office of the Associate Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary pursues collaborations with foreign government organizations, educational institutions and private industry to assist in identifying technologies and promote international collaborations that leverage resources and link international experience and expertise. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, the International Program awarded eight international collaborative projects for work scope spanning waste processing, groundwater and soil remediation, deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) and nuclear materials disposition initiatives to seven foreign organizations. Additionally, the International Program's scope and collaboration opportunities were expanded to include technical as well as non-technical areas. This paper will present an overview of the on-going tasks awarded in FY 2012 and an update of upcoming international activities and opportunities for expansion into FY 2013 and beyond. (authors)

  7. Improving EM&V for Energy Efficiency Programs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes the objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy Uniform Methods Project to bring consistency to energy savings calculations in U.S. energy efficiency programs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining gross energy savings from energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. They have been written by technical experts within the field and reviewed by industry experts. Current EM&V practice allows for multiple methods for calculating energy savings. These methods were developed to meet the needs of energy efficiency program administrators and regulators. Although they served their original objectives well, they have resulted in inconsistent and incomparable savings results - even for identical measures. The goal of the Uniform Methods Project is to strengthen the credibility of energy savings determinations by improving EM&V, increasing the consistency and transparency of how energy savings are determined.

  8. Conjoined Use of EM and NMR in RNA Structure Refinement

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zhou; Schwieters, Charles D.; Tang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    More than 40% of the RNA structures have been determined using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. NMR mainly provides local structural information of protons and works most effectively on relatively small biomacromolecules. Hence structural characterization of large RNAs can be difficult for NMR alone. Electron microscopy (EM) provides global shape information of macromolecules at nanometer resolution, which should be complementary to NMR for RNA structure determination. Here we developed a new energy term in Xplor-NIH against the density map obtained by EM. We conjointly used NMR and map restraints for the structure refinement of three RNA systems — U2/U6 small-nuclear RNA, genome-packing motif (ΨCD)2 from Moloney murine leukemia virus, and ribosome-binding element from turnip crinkle virus. In all three systems, we showed that the incorporation of a map restraint, either experimental or generated from known PDB structure, greatly improves structural precision and accuracy. Importantly, our method does not rely on an initial model assembled from RNA duplexes, and allows full torsional freedom for each nucleotide in the torsion angle simulated annealing refinement. As increasing number of macromolecules can be characterized by both NMR and EM, the marriage between the two techniques would enable better characterization of RNA three-dimensional structures. PMID:25798848

  9. Minimum-distortion isometric shape correspondence using EM algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sahillioğlu, Yusuf; Yemez, Yücel

    2012-11-01

    We present a purely isometric method that establishes 3D correspondence between two (nearly) isometric shapes. Our method evenly samples high-curvature vertices from the given mesh representations, and then seeks an injective mapping from one vertex set to the other that minimizes the isometric distortion. We formulate the problem of shape correspondence as combinatorial optimization over the domain of all possible mappings, which then reduces in a probabilistic setting to a log-likelihood maximization problem that we solve via the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. The EM algorithm is initialized in the spectral domain by transforming the sampled vertices via classical Multidimensional Scaling (MDS). Minimization of the isometric distortion, and hence maximization of the log-likelihood function, is then achieved in the original 3D euclidean space, for each iteration of the EM algorithm, in two steps: by first using bipartite perfect matching, and then a greedy optimization algorithm. The optimal mapping obtained at convergence can be one-to-one or many-to-one upon choice. We demonstrate the performance of our method on various isometric (or nearly isometric) pairs of shapes for some of which the ground-truth correspondence is available.

  10. SubspaceEM: A Fast Maximum-a-posteriori Algorithm for Cryo-EM Single Particle Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Dvornek, Nicha C.; Sigworth, Fred J.; Tagare, Hemant D.

    2015-01-01

    Single particle reconstruction methods based on the maximum-likelihood principle and the expectation-maximization (E–M) algorithm are popular because of their ability to produce high resolution structures. However, these algorithms are computationally very expensive, requiring a network of computational servers. To overcome this computational bottleneck, we propose a new mathematical framework for accelerating maximum-likelihood reconstructions. The speedup is by orders of magnitude and the proposed algorithm produces similar quality reconstructions compared to the standard maximum-likelihood formulation. Our approach uses subspace approximations of the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) data and projection images, greatly reducing the number of image transformations and comparisons that are computed. Experiments using simulated and actual cryo-EM data show that speedup in overall execution time compared to traditional maximum-likelihood reconstruction reaches factors of over 300. PMID:25839831

  11. Inhomogeneous Media 3D EM Modeling with Integral Equation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di, Q.; Wang, R.; An, Z.; Fu, C.; Xu, C.

    2010-12-01

    In general, only the half space of earth is considered in electromagnetic exploration. However, for the long bipole source, because the length is close to the height of ionosphere and also most offsets between source and receivers are equal or larger than the height of ionosphere, the effect of ionosphere on the electromagnetic (EM) field should be considered when observation is carried at a very far (about several thousands kilometers) location away from the source. At this point the problem becomes one which should contain ionosphere, atmosphere and earth that is “earth-ionosphere” case. There are a few of literatures to report the electromagnetic field results which is including ionosphere, atmosphere and earth media at the same time. We firstly calculate the electromagnetic fields with the traditional controlled source (CSEM) configuration using integral equation (IE) method for a three layers earth-ionosphere model. The modeling results agree well with the half space analytical results because the effect of ionosphere for this small scale bipole source can be ignorable. The comparison of small scale three layers earth-ionosphere modeling and half space analytical resolution shows that the IE method can be used to modeling the EM fields for long bipole large offset configuration. In order to discuss EM fields’ characteristics for complicate earth-ionosphere media excited by long bipole source in the far-field and wave-guide zones, we first modeled the decay characters of electromagnetic fields for three layers earth-ionosphere model. Because of the effect of ionosphere, the earth-ionosphere electromagnetic fields’ decay curves with given frequency show that there should be an extra wave guide zone for long bipole artificial source, and there are many different characters between this extra zone and far field zone. They are: 1) the amplitudes of EM fields decay much slower; 2) the polarization patterns change; 3) the positions better to measure Zxy and

  12. Modeling of MHD edge containment in strip casting with ELEKTRA and CaPS-EM codes

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, F. C.

    2000-01-12

    This paper presents modeling studies of magnetohydrodynamics analysis in twin-roll casting. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and ISPAT Inland Inc. (Inland), formerly Inland Steel Co., have worked together to develop a three-dimensional (3-D) computer model that can predict eddy currents, fluid flows, and liquid metal containment of an electromagnetic (EM) edge containment device. The model was verified by comparing predictions with experimental results of liquid metal containment and fluid flow in EM edge dams (EMDs) that were designed at Inland for twin-roll casting. This mathematical model can significantly shorten casting research on the use of EM fields for liquid metal containment and control. The model can optimize the EMD design so it is suitable for application, and minimize expensive time-consuming full-scale testing. Numerical simulation was performed by coupling a 3-D finite-element EM code (ELEKTRA) and a 3-D finite-difference fluids code (CaPS-EM) to solve heat transfer, fluid flow, and turbulence transport in a casting process that involves EM fields. ELEKTRA can predict the eddy-current distribution and the EM forces in complex geometries. CaPS-EM can model fluid flows with free surfaces. The computed 3-D magnetic fields and induced eddy currents in ELEKTRA are used as input to temperature- and flow-field computations in CaPS-EM. Results of the numerical simulation compared well with measurements obtained from both static and dynamic tests.

  13. Emergency medical services and "psych calls": Examining the work of urban EMS providers.

    PubMed

    Prener, Christopher; Lincoln, Alisa K

    2015-11-01

    Emergency medical technicians and paramedics form the backbone of the United States' Emergency Medical Service (EMS) system. Despite the frequent involvement of EMS with people with mental health and substance abuse problems, the nature and content of this work, as well as how EMS providers think about this work, have not been fully explored. Using data obtained through observations and interviews with providers at an urban American EMS agency, this paper provides an analysis of the ways in which EMS providers interact with people with mental illness and substance abuse problems, as well as providers' experiences with the mental health care system. Results demonstrate that EMS providers share common beliefs and frustrations about "psych calls" and the types of calls that involve people with behavioral health problems. In addition, providers described their understandings of the ways in which people with mental health and substance use problems "abuse the system" and the consequences of this abuse. Finally, EMS providers discuss the system-level factors that impact their work and specific barriers and challenges to care. These results suggest that additional work is needed to expand our understanding of the role of EMS providers in the care of people with behavioral health problems and that mental health practitioners and policy makers should include consideration of the important role of EMS and prehospital care in providing community-based supports for people with behavioral health needs. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Volta phase plate cryo-EM of the small protein complex Prx3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshouei, Maryam; Radjainia, Mazdak; Phillips, Amy J.; Gerrard, Juliet A.; Mitra, Alok K.; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Danev, Radostin

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-EM of large, macromolecular assemblies has seen a significant increase in the numbers of high-resolution structures since the arrival of direct electron detectors. However, sub-nanometre resolution cryo-EM structures are rare compared with crystal structure depositions, particularly for relatively small particles (<400 kDa). Here we demonstrate the benefits of Volta phase plates for single-particle analysis by time-efficient cryo-EM structure determination of 257 kDa human peroxiredoxin-3 dodecamers at 4.4 Å resolution. The Volta phase plate improves the applicability of cryo-EM for small molecules and accelerates structure determination.

  15. Perda de massa em ventos empoeirados de estrelas supergigantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidotto, A. A.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.

    2003-08-01

    Em praticamente todas as regiões do diagrama HR, as estrelas apresentam evidências observacionais de perda de massa. Na literatura, pode-se encontrar trabalhos que tratam tanto do diagnóstico da perda de massa como da construção de modelos que visam explicá-la. O amortecimento de ondas Alfvén tem sido utilizado como mecanismo de aceleração de ventos homogêneos. Entretanto, sabe-se que os envelopes de estrelas frias contêm grãos sólidos e moléculas. Com o intuito de estudar a interação entre as ondas Alfvén e a poeira e a sua conseqüência na aceleração do vento estelar, Falceta-Gonçalves & Jatenco-Pereira (2002) desenvolveram um modelo de perda de massa para estrelas supergigantes. Neste trabalho, apresentamos um estudo do modelo acima proposto para avaliar a dependência da taxa de perda de massa com alguns parâmetros iniciais como, por exemplo, a densidade r0, o campo magnético B0, o comprimento de amortecimento da onda L0, seu fluxo f0, entre outros. Sendo assim, aumentando f0 de 10% a partir de valores de referência, vimos que aumenta consideravelmente, enquanto que um aumento de mesmo valor em r0, B0 e L0 acarreta uma diminuição em .

  16. EM-Based Multiuser Detection in Fast Fading Multipath Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borran, Mohammad Jaber; Aazhang, Behnaam

    2002-12-01

    We address the problem of multiuser detection in fast fading multipath environments for DS-CDMA systems. In fast fading scenarios, temporal variations of the channel cause significant performance degradation even with the Rake receiver. We use a previously introduced time-frequency (TF) Rake receiver based on a canonical formulation of the channel and signals to simultaneously combat fading and multipath effects. This receiver uses the Doppler spread caused by rapid time-varying channel as another means of diversity. In dealing with multiaccess interference and as an attempt to avoid the prohibitive computational complexity of the optimum maximum-likelihood (ML) detector, we use the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to derive an approximate ML detector. The new detector turns out to have an iterative structure very similar to the well-known multistage detector with some extra parameters. At the two extreme values of these parameters, the EM detector reduces to either one-shot TF Rake or generalized multistage detector. For the intermediate values of the parameters, it combines the two estimates to obtain a better decision for the bits of the users. Because of using the EM algorithm, this detector has better convergence properties than the multistage detector; the bit estimates always converge, and if an appropriate initial vector is used, they converge to the global maximizer of the likelihood function. As a result, the new detector provides significantly improved performance while maintaining the low complexity of the multistage detector. Our simulation results confirm the expected performance improvements compared to the base case of the TF Rake as well as the multistage detector used with the TF Rake.

  17. EM-21 Retrieval Knowledge Center: Waste Retrieval Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, Andrew P.; Rinker, Michael W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Minichan, Richard L.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Martin, Bruce A.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Saldivar, Eloy; Mullen, O Dennis; Chapman, Noel F.; Wells, Beric E.; Gibbons, Peter W.

    2009-04-10

    EM-21 is the Waste Processing Division of the Office of Engineering and Technology, within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). In August of 2008, EM-21 began an initiative to develop a Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) to provide the DOE, high level waste retrieval operators, and technology developers with centralized and focused location to share knowledge and expertise that will be used to address retrieval challenges across the DOE complex. The RKC is also designed to facilitate information sharing across the DOE Waste Site Complex through workshops, and a searchable database of waste retrieval technology information. The database may be used to research effective technology approaches for specific retrieval tasks and to take advantage of the lessons learned from previous operations. It is also expected to be effective for remaining current with state-of-the-art of retrieval technologies and ongoing development within the DOE Complex. To encourage collaboration of DOE sites with waste retrieval issues, the RKC team is co-led by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Two RKC workshops were held in the Fall of 2008. The purpose of these workshops was to define top level waste retrieval functional areas, exchange lessons learned, and develop a path forward to support a strategic business plan focused on technology needs for retrieval. The primary participants involved in these workshops included retrieval personnel and laboratory staff that are associated with Hanford and Savannah River Sites since the majority of remaining DOE waste tanks are located at these sites. This report summarizes and documents the results of the initial RKC workshops. Technology challenges identified from these workshops and presented here are expected to be a key component to defining future RKC-directed tasks designed to facilitate tank waste retrieval solutions.

  18. Covariance Matrix Estimation for the Cryo-EM Heterogeneity Problem*

    PubMed Central

    Katsevich, E.; Katsevich, A.; Singer, A.

    2015-01-01

    In cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), a microscope generates a top view of a sample of randomly oriented copies of a molecule. The problem of single particle reconstruction (SPR) from cryo-EM is to use the resulting set of noisy two-dimensional projection images taken at unknown directions to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the molecule. In some situations, the molecule under examination exhibits structural variability, which poses a fundamental challenge in SPR. The heterogeneity problem is the task of mapping the space of conformational states of a molecule. It has been previously suggested that the leading eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of the 3D molecules can be used to solve the heterogeneity problem. Estimating the covariance matrix is challenging, since only projections of the molecules are observed, but not the molecules themselves. In this paper, we formulate a general problem of covariance estimation from noisy projections of samples. This problem has intimate connections with matrix completion problems and high-dimensional principal component analysis. We propose an estimator and prove its consistency. When there are finitely many heterogeneity classes, the spectrum of the estimated covariance matrix reveals the number of classes. The estimator can be found as the solution to a certain linear system. In the cryo-EM case, the linear operator to be inverted, which we term the projection covariance transform, is an important object in covariance estimation for tomographic problems involving structural variation. Inverting it involves applying a filter akin to the ramp filter in tomography. We design a basis in which this linear operator is sparse and thus can be tractably inverted despite its large size. We demonstrate via numerical experiments on synthetic datasets the robustness of our algorithm to high levels of noise. PMID:25699132

  19. Epidemiology of major incidents: an EMS study from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A major incident is defined as an event that owing to the number of casualties has the potential to overwhelm the available resources. This paper attempts to describe the incidence and epidemiology of major incidents dealt with by a government-run emergency medical service (EMS) in the Punjab province of Pakistan, a developing country in South Asia. A major incident in this EMS is defined as any incident that produces three or more patients, or any incident in which extraordinary resources are needed. Methods All the calls received by an EMS Rescue 1122 were studied over a 6-month period. Calls that were defined as major incidents were identified, and further details were sought from the districts regarding these incidents. Questions specifically asked were the type of incident, time of the incident, response time for the incident, the resources needed, and the number of dead and injured casualties. Retrospective data were collected from the submitted written reports. Results Road traffic crashes (RTCs) emerged as the leading cause of a major incident in the province of Punjab and also led to the greatest number of casualties, followed by fire incidents. The total number of casualties was 3,380, out of which 73.7% were RTC victims. There was a high rate of death on the scene (10.4%). Certain other causes of major incidents also emerged, including violence, gas explosions and drowning. Conclusion Road traffic crashes are the most common cause of a major incident in developing countries such as Pakistan. Injury prevention initiatives need to focus on RTCs. PMID:21798011

  20. The effective molarity (EM) puzzle in proton transfer reactions.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Rafik

    2009-08-01

    The DFT and HF calculation results for the proton transfer reactions of three different systems reveal that the reaction mechanism (transfer of a proton to a nucleophile) is largely determined by the distance between the two reactive centers (r). Systems with relatively large r values tend to abstract a proton from a molecule of water, whereas, these with a relatively small r values prefer to be engaged intramolecularly and their interaction with water is only via hydrogen bonding. Further, the results indicate that the effective molarity (logEM) for an intramolecular process is strongly correlated with the distance between the two reacting centers (r) in accordance with Menger's "spatiotemporal hypothesis".

  1. EMS Bill of Rights: what every patient deserves.

    PubMed

    Meador, Steven R; Slovis, Corey M; Wrenn, Keith D

    2003-03-01

    Every EMT, paramedic, supervisor and EMS medical director must stress that our job is to treat every patient the way we'd like to be treated or the way we'd want one of our family members treated. Those charged with supervision must ensure that EMTs and paramedics receive the support and training necessary to allow adherence to the 10 objectives outlined in this article. Quality-assurance reviews, quality-improvement programs, provider comments and complaints from the public must all be used to improve the care we deliver. Prehospital care should be constantly improving the delivery of excellent, life-saving care.

  2. On the EM algorithm for overdispersed count data.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, G J

    1997-03-01

    In this paper, we consider the use of the EM algorithm for the fitting of distributions by maximum likelihood to overdispersed count data. In the course of this, we also provide a review of various approaches that have been proposed for the analysis of such data. As the Poisson and binomial regression models, which are often adopted in the first instance for these analyses, are particular examples of a generalized linear model (GLM), the focus of the account is on the modifications and extensions to GLMs for the handling of overdispersed count data. PMID:9185291

  3. Theme park EMS. It's no Mickey Mouse operation.

    PubMed

    Philips, J H

    1995-07-01

    In a single shift, they can rescue someone trapped in a time warp, perform CPR while menacing monsters look over their shoulders or calmly watch as a motorboat chase ends in a huge ball of fire. It's just another routine day for EMS providers in America's theme parks, where getting ready for unusual calls is the norm. JEMS went behind the scenes with theme park responders to explore the unique challenges of their service environment. What we found was a group of super-dedicated professionals who place genuine hospitality right alongside quality patient care. PMID:10143711

  4. Single-particle cryo-EM at crystallographic resolution

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yifan

    2015-01-01

    Until only a few years ago, single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) was usually not the first choice for many structural biologists due to its limited resolution in the range of nanometer to subnanometer. Now, this method rivals X-ray crystallography in terms of resolution and can be used to determine atomic structures of macromolecules that are either refractory to crystallization or difficult to crystallize in specific functional states. In this review, I discuss the recent breakthroughs in both hardware and software that transformed cryo-microscopy, enabling understanding of complex biomolecules and their functions at atomic level. PMID:25910205

  5. State of the Art in EM Field Computation

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, C.; Akcelik, V.; Candel, A.; Chen, S.; Folwell, N.; Ge, L.; Guetz, A.; Jiang, H.; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.-Q.; Li, Z.; Prudencio, E.; Schussman, G.; Uplenchwar, R.; Xiao, L.; Ko, K.; /SLAC

    2006-09-25

    This paper presents the advances in electromagnetic (EM) field computation that have been enabled by the US DOE SciDAC Accelerator Science and Technology project which supports the development and application of a suite of electromagnetic codes based on the higher-order finite element method. Implemented on distributed memory supercomputers, this state of the art simulation capability has produced results which are of great interest to accelerator designers and with realism previously not possible with standard codes. Examples from work on the International Linear Collider (ILC) project are described.

  6. Covariance Structure Model Fit Testing under Missing Data: An Application of the Supplemented EM Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Li; Lee, Taehun

    2009-01-01

    We apply the Supplemented EM algorithm (Meng & Rubin, 1991) to address a chronic problem with the "two-stage" fitting of covariance structure models in the presence of ignorable missing data: the lack of an asymptotically chi-square distributed goodness-of-fit statistic. We show that the Supplemented EM algorithm provides a convenient…

  7. Method for evaluating compatibility of commercial electromagnetic (EM) microsensor tracking systems with surgical and imaging tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafis, Christopher; Jensen, Vern; von Jako, Ron

    2008-03-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) tracking systems have been successfully used for Surgical Navigation in ENT, cranial, and spine applications for several years. Catheter sized micro EM sensors have also been used in tightly controlled cardiac mapping and pulmonary applications. EM systems have the benefit over optical navigation systems of not requiring a line-of-sight between devices. Ferrous metals or conductive materials that are transient within the EM working volume may impact tracking performance. Effective methods for detecting and reporting EM field distortions are generally well known. Distortion compensation can be achieved for objects that have a static spatial relationship to a tracking sensor. New commercially available micro EM tracking systems offer opportunities for expanded image-guided navigation procedures. It is important to know and understand how well these systems perform with different surgical tables and ancillary equipment. By their design and intended use, micro EM sensors will be located at the distal tip of tracked devices and therefore be in closer proximity to the tables. Our goal was to define a simple and portable process that could be used to estimate the EM tracker accuracy, and to vet a large number of popular general surgery and imaging tables that are used in the United States and abroad.

  8. Global Convergence of the EM Algorithm for Unconstrained Latent Variable Models with Categorical Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Convergence of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to a global optimum of the marginal log likelihood function for unconstrained latent variable models with categorical indicators is presented. The sufficient conditions under which global convergence of the EM algorithm is attainable are provided in an information-theoretic context by…

  9. Developing State and National Evaluation Infrastructures- Guidance for the Challenges and Opportunities of EM&V

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.

    2011-06-24

    Evaluating the impacts and effectiveness of energy efficiency programs is likely to become increasingly important for state policymakers and program administrators given legislative mandates and regulatory goals and increasing reliance on energy efficiency as a resource. In this paper, we summarize three activities that the authors have conducted that highlight the expanded role of evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V): a study that identified and analyzed challenges in improving and scaling up EM&V activities; a scoping study that identified issues involved in developing a national efficiency EM&V standard; and lessons learned from providing technical assistance on EM&V issues to states that are ramping up energy efficiency programs. The lessons learned are summarized in 13 EM&V issues that policy makers should address in each jurisdiction and which are listed and briefly described. The paper also discusses how improving the effectiveness and reliability of EM&V will require additional capacity building, better access to existing EM&V resources, new methods to address emerging issues and technologies, and perhaps foundational documents and approaches to improving the credibility and cross jurisdictional comparability of efficiency investments. Two of the potential foundational documents discussed are a national EM&V standard or resource guide and regional deemed savings and algorithm databases.

  10. Fabrication and EM shielding properties of electrospining PANi/MWCNT/PEO fibrous membrane and its composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhichun; Jiang, Xueyong; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, Polyaniline-based fibrous membranes were fabricated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and polyethylene oxide (PEO) by the electrospinning method. And then PANi/PEO/MWCNT fibrous membranes reinforced epoxy based nanocomposite was then fabricated. The morphology and electrical properties of PANi /MWCNT /PEO fibrous membrane was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The morphologies of the membranes indicate that the electrospining method can fabricate well nano structures fibrous membrane. The EM properties of the composite reinforced with the electrospining fibrous membrane were measured by vector network analyzer. The results show that the permittivity real, image parts and permeability real part of the composite increase by filling with PANI/PEO and PANI/CNT/PEO membrane. The EM shielding and absorb performance is base on the dielectric dissipation. And different membranes made of different materials show different EM parameter, and different EM shielding performance, which can be used to the EM shielding and stealth material design and fabrication.

  11. Data-adaptive Shrinkage via the Hyperpenalized EM Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Boonstra, Philip S.; Taylor, Jeremy M. G.; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2015-01-01

    We propose an extension of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, called the hyperpenalized EM (HEM) algorithm, that maximizes a penalized log-likelihood, for which some data are missing or unavailable, using a data-adaptive estimate of the penalty parameter. This is potentially useful in applications for which the analyst is unable or unwilling to choose a single value of a penalty parameter but instead can posit a plausible range of values. The HEM algorithm is conceptually straightforward and also very effective, and we demonstrate its utility in the analysis of a genomic data set. Gene expression measurements and clinical covariates were used to predict survival time. However, many survival times are censored, and some observations only contain expression measurements derived from a different assay, which together constitute a difficult missing data problem. It is desired to shrink the genomic contribution in a data-adaptive way. The HEM algorithm successfully handles both the missing data and shrinkage aspects of the problem. PMID:26834856

  12. The Search for Gravitational Wave EM Counterparts with Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennea, Jamie; Evans, Phil; Swift GW follow-up Team

    2016-04-01

    We present the plan to search for electromagnetic counterparts of Gravitational Waves (GWs) discovered during the current and upcoming runs of the LIGO and Virgo detectors. As we enter a period where the sensitivity of the current generation of GW detectors approaches a high probability of the first detection of a real GW signal, confirmation of the reality of these triggers will be greatly improved if an EM counterpart can be found. Swift’s ability to rapidly respond to high priority target-of-opportunity observations, it’s multi-wavelength capabilities and low overhead observing make it a seemingly ideal follow-up facility. However comparing the size of the expected GW error regions with the fields of view of the Swift XRT and UVOT telescopes, we find that covering the large GW error regions would require a unreasonably large number of pointings. We present our method of meeting this challenge, by both reducing the problem using Galaxy targeting, and by operating Swift in an entirely new way in order to cover the still large number of fields needed to chase down the EM counterpart before it disappears.

  13. Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    The HVAC Controls Evaluation Protocol is designed to address evaluation issues for direct digital controls/energy management systems/building automation systems (DDC/EMS/BAS) that are installed to control heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in commercial and institutional buildings. (This chapter refers to the DDC/EMS/BAS measure as HVAC controls.) This protocol may also be applicable to industrial facilities such as clean rooms and labs, which have either significant HVAC equipment or spaces requiring special environmental conditions. This protocol addresses only HVAC-related equipment and the energy savings estimation methods associated with installing such control systems as an energy efficiency measure. The affected equipment includes: Air-side equipment (air handlers, direct expansion systems, furnaces, other heating- and cooling-related devices, terminal air distribution equipment, and fans); Central plant equipment (chillers, cooling towers, boilers, and pumps). These controls may also operate or affect other end uses, such as lighting, domestic hot water, irrigation systems, and life safety systems such as fire alarms and other security systems. Considerable nonenergy benefits, such as maintenance scheduling, system component troubleshooting, equipment failure alarms, and increased equipment lifetime, may also be associated with these systems. When connected to building utility meters, these systems can also be valuable demand-limiting control tools. However, this protocol does not evaluate any of these additional capabilities and benefits.

  14. Contactless ultrasonic treatment of melts using EM induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojarevics, V.; Djambazov, G.; Lebon, G. S. B.; Pericleous, K. A.

    2015-06-01

    Ultrasound Treatment (UT) is commonly used in light alloys during solidification to refine microstructure, or disperse immersed particles. A sonotrode probe introduced into the melt generates sound waves that are strong enough to produce cavitation of dissolved gases. The same method cannot be used in high temperature melts, or for highly reactive alloys, due to probe erosion and melt contamination. An alternative, contactless method of generating sound waves is proposed and investigated theoretically in this paper, using electromagnetic (EM) induction. In addition to strong vibration, the EM induction currents generate strong stirring in the melt that aids distribution of the UT effect to large volumes of material. In a typical application, the same induction coil surrounding the crucible used to melt the alloy may be adopted for UT with suitable frequency tuning. Alternatively - or in addition - a top coil may be used. For industrial use, instead of multiple sonotrodes as has been the practice in scaling up, modelling shows that one simply has to alter the coil geometry and current to suit. To reach sinusoidal pressure fluctuations suitable for cavitation it may be necessary to tune the induction coil frequency for resonance, given the crucible dimensions.

  15. The EM fields in the Solid Generated by a Fault in a Porous Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, H.; Huang, Q.; Chen, X.

    2015-12-01

    Electrokinetic effect, as one of the most possible generation mechanisms of the seismo-electromagnetic phenomenons associated with natural earthquakes, has interested many researchers. Besides, it is also considered as a potential tool for the water/oil exploration. Recently, we numerically investigated the electromagnetic (EM) fields due to the electrokinetic effect in mixed layered model. The mixed model comprises not only porous layers but also solid layers. We firstly tested a two-layer mixed model. The numerical results show that, in addition to the radiation EM fields, another kind of evanescent EM fields can be generated by the seismic waves arriving at the interface with incident angles greater the critical angle. The evanescent EM fields decay faster than the radiation EM fields when getting away from the interface. For the seismic frequency band, the evanescent EM fields in the solid are still measurable at a distance of, e.g., 2km to the interface. We then tested a eight-layer mixed model. The top and bottom layers are solid and the other layers are porous. A finite fault of 20x10km is located in the porous region. The focal depth is 8km. The applied source time function is a ramp fuction with an arise time of 0.8s. Point stacking method was used to compute the wave-fields caused by the finite fault. Our nuemrical results show that, this model can generate the EM fields before the arrival of seismic waves as well as the residual EM fields. Both the two kinds of EM fields have been observed in field observations. There is a possibility that the anomalous EM activities before big earthquakes may be caused by the fluid flow in the shallow Earth as a result of the stress changes.

  16. The EM SSAB Annual Work Plan Process: Focusing Board Efforts and Resources - 13667

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Ralph

    2013-07-01

    One of the most daunting tasks for any new member of a local board of the Environmental Management Site Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB) is to try to understand the scope of the clean-up activities going on at the site. In most cases, there are at least two or three major cleanup activities in progress as well as monitoring of past projects. When planning for future projects is added to the mix, the list of projects can be long. With the clean-up activities involving all major environmental media - air, water, soils, and groundwater, new EM SSAB members can find themselves totally overwhelmed and ineffective. Helping new members get over this initial hurdle is a major objective of EM and all local boards of the EM SSAB. Even as members start to understand the size and scope of the projects at a site, they can still be frustrated at the length of time it takes to see results and get projects completed. Many project and clean-up timelines for most of the sites go beyond 10 years, so it's not unusual for an EM SSAB member to see the completion of only 1 or 2 projects over the course of their 6-year term on the board. This paper explores the annual work planning process of the EM SSAB local boards, one tool that can be used to educate EM SSAB members into seeing the broader picture for the site. EM SSAB local work plans divide the site into projects focused on a specific environmental issue or media such as groundwater and/or waste disposal options. Projects are further broken down into smaller segments by highlighting major milestones. Using these metrics, local boards of the EM SSAB can start to quantify the effectiveness of the project in achieving the ultimate goal of site clean-up. These metrics can also trigger board advice and recommendations for EM. At the beginning of each fiscal year, the EM SSAB work plan provides a road map with quantifiable checkpoints for activities throughout the year. When the work plans are integrated with site-specific, enforceable

  17. EM Structure-Based Accelerators Working Group Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, W.D.; Lidia, S.M.

    2004-12-07

    This Working Group (WG) focused on EM Structure-Based Accelerators, which covers a broad area of mechanisms and experiments. Topics covered included dielectric wakefield accelerators (DWA), photonic bandgap accelerators (PBGA), inverse free electron lasers (IFEL), vacuum laser accelerators (VLA), other novel schemes, and supporting analysis and modeling. In addition, this WG was tasked at the Workshop with developing conceptual (strawman) designs for a 1-GeV accelerator system based upon any of the experimentally-proven approaches covered in this WG. Two strawmen designs were developed based upon IFELs and DWAs. The presentations given and strawmen designs indicate great progress has been made in many areas. Proof-of-principle experiments will occur shortly in PBGA and VLA. Other well-proven devices, such as IFELs, are becoming accepted as 'workhorse' providers of microbunches.

  18. Kaisen. EMS as theater of the streets. Part two.

    PubMed

    Dernocoeur, K; Taigman, M

    1991-03-01

    Passing an EMT or paramedic course is a considerable achievement, as you have had to acquire a huge and fascinating volume of medical knowledge. But, did the program teach you acting skills? Acting? Whoever said that EMS professionals need to know anything about acting? We submit that you do; prehospital workers can gain many unanticipated benefits by using various acting skills and tactics in the field. One such benefit is the avoidance of the "complacency trap," or the boredom that can develop if you adopt the viewpoint that one crisis is much like another. But, more importantly, you will be more effective at delivering prehospital care, and you'll have a lot more fun on the job.

  19. Kaisen. EMS as theater of the streets. Part two.

    PubMed

    Dernocoeur, K; Taigman, M

    1991-03-01

    Passing an EMT or paramedic course is a considerable achievement, as you have had to acquire a huge and fascinating volume of medical knowledge. But, did the program teach you acting skills? Acting? Whoever said that EMS professionals need to know anything about acting? We submit that you do; prehospital workers can gain many unanticipated benefits by using various acting skills and tactics in the field. One such benefit is the avoidance of the "complacency trap," or the boredom that can develop if you adopt the viewpoint that one crisis is much like another. But, more importantly, you will be more effective at delivering prehospital care, and you'll have a lot more fun on the job. PMID:10110186

  20. Three penalized EM-type algorithms for PET image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yueyang; Zhang, Tie

    2012-06-01

    Based on Bayes theory, Green introduced the maximum a posteriori (MAP) algorithm to obtain a smoothing reconstruction for positron emission tomography. This algorithm is flexible and convenient for most of the penalties, but it is hard to guarantee convergence. For a common goal, Fessler penalized a weighted least squares (WLS) estimator by a quadratic penalty and then solved it with the successive over-relaxation (SOR) algorithm, however, the algorithm was time-consuming and difficultly parallelized. Anderson proposed another WLS estimator for faster convergence, on which there were few regularization methods studied. For three regularized estimators above, we develop three new expectation maximization (EM) type algorithms to solve them. Unlike MAP and SOR, the proposed algorithms yield update rules by minimizing the auxiliary functions constructed on the previous iterations, which ensure the cost functions monotonically decreasing. Experimental results demonstrated the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  1. Telescópio de patrulhamento solar em 12 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utsumi, F.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    O telescópio de patrulhamento solar é um instrumento dedicado à observação de explosões solares com início de suas operações em janeiro de 2002, trabalhando próximo ao pico de emissão do espectro girossincrotrônico (12 GHz). Trata-se de um arranjo de três antenas concebido para a detecção de explosões e determinação em tempo real da localização da região emissora. Porém, desde sua implementação em uma montagem equatorial movimentada por um sistema de rotação constante (15 graus/hora) o rastreio apresentou pequenas variações de velocidade e folgas nas caixas de engrenagens. Assim, tornou-se necessária a construção de um sistema de correção automática do apontamento que era de fundamental importância para os objetivos do projeto. No segundo semestre de 2002 empreendemos uma série de tarefas com o objetivo de automatizar completamente o rastreio, a calibração, a aquisição de dados, controle de ganhos, offsets e transferência dos dados pela internet através de um projeto custeado pela FAPESP. O rastreio automático é realizado através de um inversor que controla a freqüência da rede de alimentação do motor de rastreio podendo fazer micro-correções na direção leste-oeste conforme os radiômetros desta direção detectem uma variação relativa do sinal. Foi adicionado também um motor na direção da declinação para correção automática da variação da direção norte-sul. Após a implementação deste sistema a precisão do rastreio melhorou para um desvio máximo de 30 segundos de arco, o que está muito bom para este projeto. O Telescópio se encontra em funcionamento automático desde março de 2003 e já conta com várias explosões observadas após a conclusão desta fase de automação. Estamos apresentando as explosões mais intensas do período e com as suas respectivas posições no disco solar.

  2. Imaging protein three-dimensional nanocrystals with cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Nederlof, Igor; Li, Yao Wang; van Heel, Marin; Abrahams, Jan Pieter

    2013-05-01

    Flash-cooled three-dimensional crystals of the small protein lysozyme with a thickness of the order of 100 nm were imaged by 300 kV cryo-EM on a Falcon direct electron detector. The images were taken close to focus and to the eye appeared devoid of contrast. Fourier transforms of the images revealed the reciprocal lattice up to 3 Å resolution in favourable cases and up to 4 Å resolution for about half the crystals. The reciprocal-lattice spots showed structure, indicating that the ordering of the crystals was not uniform. Data processing revealed details at higher than 2 Å resolution and indicated the presence of multiple mosaic blocks within the crystal which could be separately processed. The prospects for full three-dimensional structure determination by electron imaging of protein three-dimensional nanocrystals are discussed. PMID:23633595

  3. Speech articulator measurements using low power EM-wave sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Burnett, G.C.; Ng, L.C.; Lea, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    Very low power electromagnetic (EM) wave sensors are being used to measure speech articulator motions as speech is produced. Glottal tissue oscillations, jaw, tongue, soft palate, and other organs have been measured. Previously, microwave imaging (e.g., using radar sensors) appears not to have been considered for such monitoring. Glottal tissue movements detected by radar sensors correlate well with those obtained by established laboratory techniques, and have been used to estimate a voiced excitation function for speech processing applications. The noninvasive access, coupled with the small size, low power, and high resolution of these new sensors, permit promising research and development applications in speech production, communication disorders, speech recognition and related topics. {copyright} {ital 1998 Acoustical Society of America.}

  4. EM Properties of Magnetic Minerals at RADAR Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stillman, D. E.; Olhoeft, G. R.

    2005-01-01

    Previous missions to Mars have revealed that Mars surface is magnetic at DC frequency. Does this highly magnetic surface layer attenuate RADAR energy as it does in certain locations on Earth? It has been suggested that the active magnetic mineral on Mars is titanomaghemite and/or titanomagnetite. When titanium is incorporated into a maghemite or magnetite crystal, the Curie temperature can be significantly reduced. Mars has a wide range of daily temperature fluctuations (303K - 143K), which could allow for daily passes through the Curie temperature. Hence, the global dust layer on Mars could experience widely varying magnetic properties as a function of temperature, more specifically being ferromagnetic at night and paramagnetic during the day. Measurements of EM properties of magnetic minerals were made versus frequency and temperature (300K- 180K). Magnetic minerals and Martian analog samples were gathered from a number of different locations on Earth.

  5. Detection of karst structures using airborne EM and VLF

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, L.P. Nyquist, J.E.; Carpenter, P.J.

    1994-12-31

    Through the combined use of multi-frequency helicopter electromagnetic and VLF data, it is possible to detect and delineate a wide variety of karst structures and possibly to assess their interconnectedness. Multi-frequency EM Can detect karst features if some element of the structure is conductive. This conductive aspect may derive from thick, moist soils in the depression commonly associated with a doline, from conductive fluids in the cavity, or from conductive sediments in the cavity if these occupy a significant portion of it. Multiple loop configurations may also increase the likelihood of detecting karst features. Preliminary evidence indicates total field VLF measurements may be able to detect interconnected karst pathways, so long as the pathways are water or sediment filled. Neither technique can effectively detect dry, resistive air-filled cavities.

  6. Integrated EM & Thermal Simulations with Upgraded VORPAL Software

    SciTech Connect

    D.N. Smithe, D. Karipides, P. Stoltz, G. Cheng, H. Wang

    2011-03-01

    Nuclear physics accelerators are powered by microwaves which must travel in waveguides between room-temperature sources and the cryogenic accelerator structures. The ohmic heat load from the microwaves is affected by the temperature-dependent surface resistance and in turn affects the cryogenic thermal conduction problem. Integrated EM & thermal analysis of this difficult non-linear problem is now possible with the VORPAL finite-difference time-domain simulation tool. We highlight thermal benchmarking work with a complex HOM feed-through geometry, done in collaboration with researchers at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory, and discuss upcoming design studies with this emerging tool. This work is part of an effort to generalize the VORPAL framework to include generalized PDE capabilities, for wider multi-physics capabilities in the accelerator, vacuum electronics, plasma processing and fusion R&D fields, and we will also discuss user interface and algorithmic upgrades which facilitate this emerging multiphysics capability.

  7. EM modeling of RF drive in DTL tank 4

    SciTech Connect

    Kurennoy, Sergey S.

    2012-06-19

    A 3-D MicroWave Studio model for the RF drive in the LANSCE DTL tank 4 has been built. Both eigensolver and time-domain modeling are used to evaluate maximal fields in the drive module and RF coupling. The LANSCE DTL tank 4 has recently been experiencing RF problems, which may or may not be related to its replaced RF coupler. This situation stimulated a request by Dan Rees to provide EM modeling of the RF drive in the DTL tank 4 (T4). Jim O'Hara provided a CAD model that was imported into the CST Microwave Studio (MWS) and after some modifications became a part of a simplified MWS model of the T4 RF drive. This technical note describes the model and presents simulation results.

  8. DOE-EM-45 PACKAGING OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE COURSE

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R.; England, J.

    2010-05-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory - Savannah River Packaging Technology (SRNL-SRPT) delivered the inaugural offering of the Packaging Operations and Maintenance Course for DOE-EM-45's Packaging Certification Program (PCP) at the University of South Carolina Aiken on September 1 and 2, 2009. Twenty-nine students registered, attended, and completed this training. The DOE-EM-45 Packaging Certification Program (PCP) sponsored the presentation of a new training course, Packaging Maintenance and Operations, on September 1-2, 2009 at the University of South Carolina Aiken (USC-Aiken) campus in Aiken, SC. The premier offering of the course was developed and presented by the Savannah River National Laboratory, and attended by twenty-nine students across the DOE, NNSA and private industry. This training informed package users of the requirements associated with handling shipping containers at a facility (user) level and provided a basic overview of the requirements typically outlined in Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) Chapters 1, 7, and 8. The course taught packaging personnel about the regulatory nature of SARPs to help reduce associated and often costly packaging errors. Some of the topics covered were package contents, loading, unloading, storage, torque requirements, maintaining records, how to handle abnormal conditions, lessons learned, leakage testing (including demonstration), and replacement parts. The target audience for this course was facility operations personnel, facility maintenance personnel, and field quality assurance personnel who are directly involved in the handling of shipping containers. The training also aimed at writers of SARP Chapters 1, 7, and 8, package designers, and anyone else involved in radioactive material packaging and transportation safety. Student feedback and critiques of the training were very positive. SRNL will offer the course again at USC Aiken in September 2010.

  9. Development of MPD thruster EM for a space test. [Engineering model

    SciTech Connect

    Shiina, K.; Suzuki, H.; Uematsu, K.; Ohtsuka, T.; Toki, K. Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Kanagawa )

    1990-01-01

    An engineering model (EM) of MPD thruster has been developed for a space test on board the first Space Flyer Unit (SFU-1). A thermal vacuum test was conducted, and the following results were obtained: (1) a thermal mathematical model of MPD thruster EM was established, (2) sizing data of thruster heaters were obtained, and (3) thermal characteristics of the MPD thruster EM were confirmed to meet the requirement. The data are going to be reflected in designing a protoflight model of MPD thruster. 8 refs.

  10. Analytical laboratory quality assurance guidance in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This document introduces QA guidance pertaining to design and implementation of laboratory procedures and processes for collecting DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) ESAA (environmental sampling and analysis activities) data. It addresses several goals: identifying key laboratory issues and program elements to EM HQ and field office managers; providing non-prescriptive guidance; and introducing environmental data collection program elements for EM-263 assessment documents and programs. The guidance describes the implementation of laboratory QA elements within a functional QA program (development of the QA program and data quality objectives are not covered here).

  11. EMS Provider Assessment of Vehicle Damage Compared to a Professional Crash Reconstructionist

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, E. Brooke; Cushman, Jeremy T.; Blatt, Alan; Lawrence, Richard; Shah, Manish N.; Swor, Robert; Brasel, Karen; Jurkovich, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the accuracy of EMS provider assessments of motor vehicle damage, when compared to measurements made by a professional crash reconstructionist. Methods EMS providers caring for adult patients injured during a motor vehicle crash and transported to the regional trauma center in a midsized community were interviewed upon ED arrival. The interview collected provider estimates of crash mechanism of injury. For crashes that met a preset severity threshold, the vehicle’s owner was asked to consent to having a crash reconstructionist assess their vehicle. The assessment included measuring intrusion and external auto deformity. Vehicle damage was used to calculate change in velocity. Paired t-test and correlation were used to compare EMS estimates and investigator derived values. Results 91 vehicles were enrolled; of these 58 were inspected and 33 were excluded because the vehicle was not accessible. 6 vehicles had multiple patients. Therefore, a total of 68 EMS estimates were compared to the inspection findings. Patients were 46% male, 28% admitted to hospital, and 1% died. Mean EMS estimated deformity was 18” and mean measured was 14”. Mean EMS estimated intrusion was 5” and mean measured was 4”. EMS providers and the reconstructionist had 67% agreement for determination of external auto deformity (kappa 0.26), and 88% agreement for determination of intrusion (kappa 0.27) when the 1999 Field Triage Decision Scheme Criteria were applied. Mean EMS estimated speed prior to the crash was 48 mph±13 and mean reconstructionist estimated change in velocity was 18 mph±12 (correlation -0.45). EMS determined that 19 vehicles had rolled over while the investigator identified 18 (kappa 0.96). In 55 cases EMS and the investigator agreed on seatbelt use, for the remaining 13 cases there was disagreement (5) or the investigator was unable to make a determination (8) (kappa 0.40). Conclusions This study found that EMS providers are good at estimating

  12. Integration of artificial intelligence applications in the EMS: Issues and solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bann, J.; Irisarri, G.; Kirschen, D.; Miller, B.; Mokhtari, S.

    1996-02-01

    This paper discusses the issues which must be addressed when integrating Artificial Intelligence (AI) and, in particular, expert system applications in an Energy Management System (EMS) environment. It is argued that these issues can be resolved by creating an environment which supports all the interfaces between the Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications and the EMS. This environment should also be responsible for maintaining a model of the power system common to all the AI applications. Once this environment has been created, AI applications can be easily plugged into the EMS. The design of such an environment is described and case studies of its implementation are provided to illustrate its flexibility.

  13. Integration of artificial intelligence applications in the EMS: Issues and solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bann, J.; Irisarri, G.; Kirschen, D.; Miller, B.; Mokhtari, S.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses the issues which must be addressed when integrating Artificial Intelligence (AI) and, in particular, expert system applications in an Energy Management System (EMS) environment. It is argued that these issues can be resolved by creating an environment which supports all the interfaces between the Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications and the EMS. This environment should also be responsible for maintaining a model of the power system common to all the AI applications. Once this environment has been created, AI applications can be easily plugged into the EMS. The design of such an environment is described and case studies of its implementation are provided to illustrate its flexibility.

  14. 7. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATIONS FOR E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS QUARTERS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATIONS FOR E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS QUARTERS. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  15. Factors that Influence the Formation and Stability of Thin, Cryo-EM Specimens.

    PubMed

    Glaeser, Robert M; Han, Bong-Gyoon; Csencsits, Roseann; Killilea, Alison; Pulk, Arto; Cate, Jamie H D

    2016-02-23

    Poor consistency of the ice thickness from one area of a cryo-electron microscope (cryo-EM) specimen grid to another, from one grid to the next, and from one type of specimen to another, motivates a reconsideration of how to best prepare suitably thin specimens. Here we first review the three related topics of wetting, thinning, and stability against dewetting of aqueous films spread over a hydrophilic substrate. We then suggest that the importance of there being a surfactant monolayer at the air-water interface of thin, cryo-EM specimens has been largely underappreciated. In fact, a surfactant layer (of uncontrolled composition and surface pressure) can hardly be avoided during standard cryo-EM specimen preparation. We thus suggest that better control over the composition and properties of the surfactant layer may result in more reliable production of cryo-EM specimens with the desired thickness.

  16. Sampling quality assurance guidance in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This document introduces quality assurance guidance pertaining to the design and implementation of sampling procedures and processes for collecting environmental data for DOE`s Office of EM (Environmental Restoration and Waste Management).

  17. The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 S&T Roadmap Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-02-11

    The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 Science and Technology Roadmap Project is a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management-funded initiative designed to develop new methods, strategies and technology for characterizing, modeling, remediating, and monitoring soils and groundwater contaminated with metals, radionuclides, and chlorinated organics. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by EM-20 Roadmap Project staff.

  18. Effects of Loaded Squat Exercise with and without Application of Superimposed EMS on Physical Performance

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, Nicolas; Zinner, Christoph; Doermann, Ulrike; Kleinoeder, Heinz; Mester, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a multiple set squat exercise training intervention with superimposed electromyostimulation (EMS) on strength and power, sprint and jump performance. Twenty athletes from different disciplines participated and were divided into two groups: strength training (S) or strength training with superimposed EMS (S+E). Both groups completed the same training program twice a week over a six week period consisting of four sets of the 10 repetition maximum of back squats. Additionally, the S+E group had EMS superimposed to the squat exercise with simultaneous stimulation of leg and trunk muscles. EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual pain threshold to ensure dynamic movement. Strength and power of different muscle groups, sprint, and vertical jump performance were assessed one week before (pre), one week after (post) and three weeks (re) following the training period. Both groups showed improvements in leg press strength and power, countermovement and squat jump performance and pendulum sprint (p < 0.05), with no changes for linear sprint. Differences between groups were only evident at the leg curl machine with greater improvements for the S+E group (p < 0.05). Common squat exercise training and squat exercise with superimposed EMS improves maximum strength and power, as well as jumping abilities in athletes from different disciplines. The greater improvements in strength performance of leg curl muscles caused by superimposed EMS with improvements in strength of antagonistic hamstrings in the S+E group are suggesting the potential of EMS to unloaded (antagonistic) muscle groups. Key points Similar strength adaptations occurred after a 6 week 10 RM back squat exercise program with superimposed EMS (S+E) and 10 RM back squat exercise (S) alone. Specific adaptations for S+E at the leg curl muscles were evident. S and S+E improved SJ, CMJ and pendulum sprint performance. No improvement occurred in linear

  19. Estudo comparativo entre estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias deficientes em hidrogênio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolino, W. L. F.; de Araújo, F. X.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos neste trabalho o resultado de um estudo das principais características espectrais das estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias (ECNP) deficientes em hidrogênio. A origem e a evolução dessas estrelas ainda constitui um problema em aberto na evolução estelar. Geralmente esses objetos são divididos em [WCE], [WCL] e [WELS]. Os tipos [WCE] e [WCL] apresentam um espectro típico de uma estrela Wolf-Rayet carbonada de população I e as [WELS] apresentam linhas fracas de carbono e oxigênio em emissão. Existem evidências que apontam a seguinte sequência evolutiva : [WCL] = > [WCE] = > [WELS] = > PG 1159 (pré anã-branca). No entanto, tal cenário apresenta falhas como por exemplo a falta de ECNP entre os tipos [WCL] e [WCE]. Baseados em uma amostra de 24 objetos obtida no telescópio de 1.52m em La Silla, Chile (acordo ESO/ON), ao longo do ano 2000, apresentamos os resultados da comparação das larguras equivalentes de diversas linhas relevantes entre os tipos [WCL], [WCE] e [WELS]. Verificamos que nossos dados estão de acordo com a sequência evolutiva. Baseado nas linhas de C IV, conseguimos dividir pela primeira vez as [WELS] em dois grupos principais. Além disso, os dados reforçam a afirmação de que as [WCE] são as estrelas que possuem a maior temperatura entre as ECNP deficientes em hidrogênio. Discutimos ainda, a escassez de dados disponíveis na literatura e a necessidade da obtenção de parametros físicos para estes objetos.

  20. Sobre o uso das séries de Puiseux em mecanica celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O. I.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho é apresentada uma demonstração do uso dos diferentes desenvolvimentos em séries para as equações de perturbação em Mecânica Celeste no marco Hamiltoniano. Em trabalhos clássicos como os de Poincaré (Poincaré, 1893) por exemplo, já esta planteado o uso de potências não inteiras no pequeno parâmetro, o que evidencia a não analiticidade das funções quando uma ressonância ocorre. Nestes trabalhos os desenvolvimentos são na raíz quadrada da massa de Júpiter (o pequeno parâmetro). Mais recentemente (Ferraz-Mello, 1985) outros tipos de desenvolvimentos foram aplicados modificando substancialmente as ordens de grandeza e a velocidade de convergência das séries. Com esta abordagem, os desenvolvimentos foram expressados em termos da raíz cúbica do pequeno parâmetro. Neste trabalho apresentamos um enfoque geral, onde os diferentes tipos de desenvolvimentos em séries de Puiseux (Valiron, 1950) são obtidos a partir da aplicação de Teorema de Preparação de Weierstrass (Goursat, 1916) considerando a equação de Hamilton-Jacobi como uma equação algébrica. Os resultados são aplicados ao problema restrito dos três corpos em ressonância de primeira ordem e, dependendo da grandeza da excentricidade do asteróide em relação à de Júpiter, obtemos os diferentes desenvolvimentos, em raíz quadrada ou raíz cúbica da massa de Júpiter.

  1. Self-assembled monolayers improve protein distribution on holey carbon cryo-EM supports

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, Joel R.; Rao, Prashant; Kumar, Janesh; Chittori, Sagar; Banerjee, Soojay; Pierson, Jason; Mayer, Mark L.; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Poor partitioning of macromolecules into the holes of holey carbon support grids frequently limits structural determination by single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Here, we present a method to deposit, on gold-coated carbon grids, a self-assembled monolayer whose surface properties can be controlled by chemical modification. We demonstrate the utility of this approach to drive partitioning of ionotropic glutamate receptors into the holes, thereby enabling 3D structural analysis using cryo-EM methods. PMID:25403871

  2. EMS Provider Attitudes and Perceptions of Enrolling Patients without Consent in Prehospital Emergency Research.

    PubMed

    Jasti, Jamie; Fernandez, Antonio R; Schmidt, Terri A; Lerner, E Brooke

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the attitudes and opinions of a broad population of EMS providers on enrolling patients in research without consent. A survey was conducted in 2010 of all EMS providers who participated in the National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians (NREMT) reregistration process, which included half of all registered providers. Each reregistration packet included our optional survey, which had nine 6-point Likert scale questions concerning their opinion of research studies without consent as well as 8 demographic questions. Responses were collapsed to agree and disagree and then analyzed using descriptive statistics with 99% confidence intervals. A total of 65,993 EMS providers received the survey and 23,832 (36%) participated. Most respondents agreed (98.4%, 99%CI: 98.2-98.6) that EMS research is important, but only 30.9% (99%CI: 30.1-31.6) agreed with enrolling patients without their consent when it is important to learn about a new treatment. Only 46.6% (99%Cl: 45.7-47.4) were personally willing to be enrolled in a study without their consent. A majority (68.5% [99%Cl: 67.7-69.3]) of respondents believed that EMS providers should have the individual right to refuse to enroll patients in EMS research. While the majority of respondents agreed that EMS research is important, considerably less agree with enrolling patients without consent and less than half would be willing to be enrolled in a study without their consent. Prior to starting an Exception from Informed Consent (EFIC) study, researchers should discuss with EMS providers their perceptions of enrolling patients without consent and address their concerns.

  3. The development of cryo-EM into a mainstream structural biology technique

    PubMed Central

    Nogales, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has emerged over the last two decades as a technique capable of studying challenging systems that otherwise defy structural characterization. Recent technical advances have resulted in a ‘quantum leap’ in applicability, throughput and achievable resolution that has gained this technique worldwide attention. Here I discuss some of the major historical landmarks in the development of the cryo-EM field, ultimately leading to its present success. PMID:27110629

  4. Pre-flight risk assessment in emergency medical service (EMS) helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    A preflight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed at NASA-Ames Research Center for civil EMS operations to assist pilots in making a decision objectively to accept or decline a mission. The ability of the SAFE system to predict risk profiles was examined at an EMS operator. Results of this field study showed that the usefulness of SAFE was largely dependent on the type of mission flown.

  5. Single-particle cryo-EM data acquisition by using direct electron detection camera.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shenping; Armache, Jean-Paul; Cheng, Yifan

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) were largely facilitated by the application of direct electron detection cameras. These cameras feature not only a significant improvement in detective quantum efficiency but also a high frame rate that enables images to be acquired as 'movies' made of stacks of many frames. In this review, we discuss how the applications of direct electron detection cameras in cryo-EM have changed the way the data are acquired.

  6. Effects of Loaded Squat Exercise with and without Application of Superimposed EMS on Physical Performance.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Nicolas; Zinner, Christoph; Doermann, Ulrike; Kleinoeder, Heinz; Mester, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a multiple set squat exercise training intervention with superimposed electromyostimulation (EMS) on strength and power, sprint and jump performance. Twenty athletes from different disciplines participated and were divided into two groups: strength training (S) or strength training with superimposed EMS (S+E). Both groups completed the same training program twice a week over a six week period consisting of four sets of the 10 repetition maximum of back squats. Additionally, the S+E group had EMS superimposed to the squat exercise with simultaneous stimulation of leg and trunk muscles. EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual pain threshold to ensure dynamic movement. Strength and power of different muscle groups, sprint, and vertical jump performance were assessed one week before (pre), one week after (post) and three weeks (re) following the training period. Both groups showed improvements in leg press strength and power, countermovement and squat jump performance and pendulum sprint (p < 0.05), with no changes for linear sprint. Differences between groups were only evident at the leg curl machine with greater improvements for the S+E group (p < 0.05). Common squat exercise training and squat exercise with superimposed EMS improves maximum strength and power, as well as jumping abilities in athletes from different disciplines. The greater improvements in strength performance of leg curl muscles caused by superimposed EMS with improvements in strength of antagonistic hamstrings in the S+E group are suggesting the potential of EMS to unloaded (antagonistic) muscle groups. Key pointsSimilar strength adaptations occurred after a 6 week 10 RM back squat exercise program with superimposed EMS (S+E) and 10 RM back squat exercise (S) alone.Specific adaptations for S+E at the leg curl muscles were evident.S and S+E improved SJ, CMJ and pendulum sprint performance.No improvement occurred in linear sprint

  7. ModEM: A modular system for inversion of elecgtromagnetic geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egbert, G. D.; Kelbert, A.; Meqbel, N.; Weng, A.

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a modular system of computer codes for inversion of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical data (ModEM). ModEM allows for rapid adaptation of inversion algorithms developed for one purpose (e.g., three-dimensional magnetotellurics (MT)) to other EM problems (e.g., controlled source EM). The modular approach can also simplify maintenance of the inversion code, as well as development of new capabilities -- e.g., allowing for new data types such as the inter-site transfer functions in MT, or modifying model regularization. Basic data objects (model parameters, solution vectors, data vectors) are treated as abstract data types, with a standard set of methods developed for each class, including creation and destruction, and, as appropriate, linear algebra or other vector space methods. Operators required for gradient computations are developed as mappings between these basic object classes. Only these abstract data objects and mappings are manipulated by higher level Jacobian and inversion routines, with no reference to the problem specific details required for a specific EM method, or for the numerical implementation of the forward solver. Required problem-specific components are instantiated at the lowest levels of the system, with details hidden from generic top-level routines by an interface layer. Parallelization using MPI has been implemented at the top level, and is thus applicable to any problem embedded in ModEM. To illustrate the flexibility of the system, we consider applications to two- and three-dimensional MT inversion, as well as simple controlled source EM problems.

  8. Fusion to a homo-oligomeric scaffold allows cryo-EM analysis of a small protein.

    PubMed

    Coscia, Francesca; Estrozi, Leandro F; Hans, Fabienne; Malet, Hélène; Noirclerc-Savoye, Marjolaine; Schoehn, Guy; Petosa, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Recent technical advances have revolutionized the field of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). However, most monomeric proteins remain too small (<100 kDa) for cryo-EM analysis. To overcome this limitation, we explored a strategy whereby a monomeric target protein is genetically fused to a homo-oligomeric scaffold protein and the junction optimized to allow the target to adopt the scaffold symmetry, thereby generating a chimeric particle suitable for cryo-EM. To demonstrate the concept, we fused maltose-binding protein (MBP), a 40 kDa monomer, to glutamine synthetase, a dodecamer formed by two hexameric rings. Chimeric constructs with different junction lengths were screened by biophysical analysis and negative-stain EM. The optimal construct yielded a cryo-EM reconstruction that revealed the MBP structure at sub-nanometre resolution. These findings illustrate the feasibility of using homo-oligomeric scaffolds to enable cryo-EM analysis of monomeric proteins, paving the way for applying this strategy to challenging structures resistant to crystallographic and NMR analysis. PMID:27485862

  9. Operation Protective Edge - A Unique Challenge for a Civilian EMS Agency.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Eli; Strugo, Refael; Wacht, Oren

    2015-10-01

    During July through August 2014, Operation Protective Edge, a military conflict between Israel and the Hamas regime in Gaza, dramatically affected both populations. Magen David Adom (MDA), the Israeli national Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and a member of the Red Cross, faced a unique challenge during the conflict: to continue providing crucial service to the entire civilian population of Israel, which was under constant missile threat. This challenge included not only providing immediate care for routine EMS calls under missile threat, but also preparing and delivering immediate care to civilians injured in attacks on major cities, as well as small communities, in Israel. This task is a challenge for a civilian EMS agency that normally operates in a non-military environment, yet, in an instant, must enhance its capability to respond to a considerable threat to its population. During Operation Protective Edge, MDA provided care for 842 wounded civilians and utilized a significant amount of its resources. Providing EMS services for a civilian population in a mixed civilian/military scenario is a challenging task on a national level for an EMS system, especially when the threat lasts for weeks. This report describes MDA's preparedness and operations during Operation Protective Edge, and the unique EMS challenges and dilemmas the agency faced.

  10. Visualizing Proteins and Macromolecular Complexes by Negative Stain EM: from Grid Preparation to Image Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Booth, David S.; Avila-Sakar, Agustin; Cheng, Yifan

    2011-01-01

    Single particle electron microscopy (EM), of both negative stained or frozen hydrated biological samples, has become a versatile tool in structural biology 1. In recent years, this method has achieved great success in studying structures of proteins and macromolecular complexes 2, 3. Compared with electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM), in which frozen hydrated protein samples are embedded in a thin layer of vitreous ice 4, negative staining is a simpler sample preparation method in which protein samples are embedded in a thin layer of dried heavy metal salt to increase specimen contrast 5. The enhanced contrast of negative stain EM allows examination of relatively small biological samples. In addition to determining three-dimensional (3D) structure of purified proteins or protein complexes 6, this method can be used for much broader purposes. For example, negative stain EM can be easily used to visualize purified protein samples, obtaining information such as homogeneity/heterogeneity of the sample, formation of protein complexes or large assemblies, or simply to evaluate the quality of a protein preparation. In this video article, we present a complete protocol for using an EM to observe negatively stained protein sample, from preparing carbon coated grids for negative stain EM to acquiring images of negatively stained sample in an electron microscope operated at 120kV accelerating voltage. These protocols have been used in our laboratory routinely and can be easily followed by novice users. PMID:22215030

  11. An Uncertainty Analysis for Predicting Soil Profile Salinity Using EM Induction Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jingyi; Monteiro Santos, Fernando; Triantafilis, John

    2016-04-01

    Proximal soil sensing techniques such as electromagnetic (EM) induction have been used to identify and map the areal variation of average soil properties. However, soil varies with depth owing to the action of various soil forming factors (e.g., parent material and topography). In this work we collected EM data using an EM38 and EM34 meter along a 22-km transect in the Trangie District, Australia.We jointly inverted these data using EM4Soil software and compare our 2-dimensional model of true electrical conductivity (sigma - mS/m) with depth against measured electrical conductivity of a saturated soil-paste extract (ECe - dS/m) at depth of 0-16 m. Through the use of a linear regression (LR) model and by varying forward modelling algorithms (cumulative function and full solution), inversion algorithms (S1 and S2), and damping factor (lambda) we determined a suitable electromagnetic conductivity image (EMCI) which was optimal when using the full solution, S2 and lambda = 0.6. To evaluate uncertainty of the inversion process and the LR model, we conducted an uncertainty analysis. The distribution of the model misfit shows the largest uncertainty caused by inversion (mostly due to EM34-40) occurs at deeper profiles while the largest uncertainty of the LR model occurs where the soil profile is most saline. These uncertainty maps also illustrate us how the model accuracy can be improved in the future.

  12. Fusion to a homo-oligomeric scaffold allows cryo-EM analysis of a small protein.

    PubMed

    Coscia, Francesca; Estrozi, Leandro F; Hans, Fabienne; Malet, Hélène; Noirclerc-Savoye, Marjolaine; Schoehn, Guy; Petosa, Carlo

    2016-08-03

    Recent technical advances have revolutionized the field of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). However, most monomeric proteins remain too small (<100 kDa) for cryo-EM analysis. To overcome this limitation, we explored a strategy whereby a monomeric target protein is genetically fused to a homo-oligomeric scaffold protein and the junction optimized to allow the target to adopt the scaffold symmetry, thereby generating a chimeric particle suitable for cryo-EM. To demonstrate the concept, we fused maltose-binding protein (MBP), a 40 kDa monomer, to glutamine synthetase, a dodecamer formed by two hexameric rings. Chimeric constructs with different junction lengths were screened by biophysical analysis and negative-stain EM. The optimal construct yielded a cryo-EM reconstruction that revealed the MBP structure at sub-nanometre resolution. These findings illustrate the feasibility of using homo-oligomeric scaffolds to enable cryo-EM analysis of monomeric proteins, paving the way for applying this strategy to challenging structures resistant to crystallographic and NMR analysis.

  13. Using Molecular Simulation to Model High-Resolution Cryo-EM Reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Kirmizialtin, Serdal; Loerke, Justus; Behrmann, Elmar; Spahn, Christian M T; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y

    2015-01-01

    An explosion of new data from high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) studies has produced a large number of data sets for many species of ribosomes in various functional states over the past few years. While many methods exist to produce structural models for lower resolution cryo-EM reconstructions, high-resolution reconstructions are often modeled using crystallographic techniques and extensive manual intervention. Here, we present an automated fitting technique for high-resolution cryo-EM data sets that produces all-atom models highly consistent with the EM density. Using a molecular dynamics approach, atomic positions are optimized with a potential that includes the cross-correlation coefficient between the structural model and the cryo-EM electron density, as well as a biasing potential preserving the stereochemistry and secondary structure of the biomolecule. Specifically, we use a hybrid structure-based/ab initio molecular dynamics potential to extend molecular dynamics fitting. In addition, we find that simulated annealing integration, as opposed to straightforward molecular dynamics integration, significantly improves performance. We obtain atomistic models of the human ribosome consistent with high-resolution cryo-EM reconstructions of the human ribosome. Automated methods such as these have the potential to produce atomistic models for a large number of ribosome complexes simultaneously that can be subsequently refined manually.

  14. Cryo-EM Data Are Superior to Contact and Interface Information in Integrative Modeling.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Sjoerd J; Chauvot de Beauchêne, Isaure; Schindler, Christina E M; Zacharias, Martin

    2016-02-23

    Protein-protein interactions carry out a large variety of essential cellular processes. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is a powerful technique for the modeling of protein-protein interactions at a wide range of resolutions, and recent developments have caused a revolution in the field. At low resolution, cryo-EM maps can drive integrative modeling of the interaction, assembling existing structures into the map. Other experimental techniques can provide information on the interface or on the contacts between the monomers in the complex. This inevitably raises the question regarding which type of data is best suited to drive integrative modeling approaches. Systematic comparison of the prediction accuracy and specificity of the different integrative modeling paradigms is unavailable to date. Here, we compare EM-driven, interface-driven, and contact-driven integrative modeling paradigms. Models were generated for the protein docking benchmark using the ATTRACT docking engine and evaluated using the CAPRI two-star criterion. At 20 Å resolution, EM-driven modeling achieved a success rate of 100%, outperforming the other paradigms even with perfect interface and contact information. Therefore, even very low resolution cryo-EM data is superior in predicting heterodimeric and heterotrimeric protein assemblies. Our study demonstrates that a force field is not necessary, cryo-EM data alone is sufficient to accurately guide the monomers into place. The resulting rigid models successfully identify regions of conformational change, opening up perspectives for targeted flexible remodeling.

  15. New Developments in the Technology Readiness Assessment Process in US DOE-EM - 13247

    SciTech Connect

    Krahn, Steven; Sutter, Herbert; Johnson, Hoyt

    2013-07-01

    A Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) is a systematic, metric-based process and accompanying report that evaluates the maturity of the technologies used in systems; it is designed to measure technology maturity using the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) scale pioneered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the 1980's. More recently, DoD has adopted and provided systematic guidance for performing TRAs and determining TRLs. In 2007 the GAO recommended that the DOE adopt the NASA/DoD methodology for evaluating technology maturity. Earlier, in 2006-2007, DOE-EM had conducted pilot TRAs on a number of projects at Hanford and Savannah River. In March 2008, DOE-EM issued a process guide, which established TRAs as an integral part of DOE-EM's Project Management Critical Decision Process. Since the development of its detailed TRA guidance in 2008, DOE-EM has continued to accumulate experience in the conduct of TRAs and the process for evaluating technology maturity. DOE has developed guidance on TRAs applicable department-wide. DOE-EM's experience with the TRA process, the evaluations that led to recently developed proposed revisions to the DOE-EM TRA/TMP Guide; the content of the proposed changes that incorporate the above lessons learned and insights are described. (authors)

  16. An erythromycin derivative, EM-523, induces motilin-like gastrointestinal motility in dogs.

    PubMed

    Inatomi, N; Satoh, H; Maki, Y; Hashimoto, N; Itoh, Z; Omura, S

    1989-11-01

    The effect of an erythromycin derivative, EM-523, on gastrointestinal motility was investigated in conscious dogs and compared with that of motilin cisapride, trimebutine and metoclopramide. In the fasting state, EM-523 given i.v. or i.d. at 3 micrograms/kg or more induced contractions in the stomach that migrated along the small intestine. The pattern of the contractions was very similar to that induced by motilin. In the digestive state, EM-523 increased the amplitude of gastric contractions. Cisapride and metoclopramide increased gastrointestinal motility both in the fasting and digestive states; however, their contractile pattern was different from that of EM-523. Trimebutine did not induce gastric motility in the fasting state but rather decreased gastric motility in the digestive state. The contractions induced by EM-523 and motilin were inhibited by atropine but were not affected by naloxone, suggesting that the cholinergic pathway is important in the exertion of their action. These results indicate that EM-523 mimics motilin in stimulating gastrointestinal motility and that this agent may be useful treat gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric stasis, gastroesophageal reflux, and postoperative ileus, and so forth. PMID:2810120

  17. Fusion to a homo-oligomeric scaffold allows cryo-EM analysis of a small protein

    PubMed Central

    Coscia, Francesca; Estrozi, Leandro F.; Hans, Fabienne; Malet, Hélène; Noirclerc-Savoye, Marjolaine; Schoehn, Guy; Petosa, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Recent technical advances have revolutionized the field of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). However, most monomeric proteins remain too small (<100 kDa) for cryo-EM analysis. To overcome this limitation, we explored a strategy whereby a monomeric target protein is genetically fused to a homo-oligomeric scaffold protein and the junction optimized to allow the target to adopt the scaffold symmetry, thereby generating a chimeric particle suitable for cryo-EM. To demonstrate the concept, we fused maltose-binding protein (MBP), a 40 kDa monomer, to glutamine synthetase, a dodecamer formed by two hexameric rings. Chimeric constructs with different junction lengths were screened by biophysical analysis and negative-stain EM. The optimal construct yielded a cryo-EM reconstruction that revealed the MBP structure at sub-nanometre resolution. These findings illustrate the feasibility of using homo-oligomeric scaffolds to enable cryo-EM analysis of monomeric proteins, paving the way for applying this strategy to challenging structures resistant to crystallographic and NMR analysis. PMID:27485862

  18. EM techniques for archaeological laboratory experiments: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; De Martino, Gregory; Giampaolo, Valeria; Raffaele, Luongo; Perciante, Felice; Rizzo, Enzo

    2015-04-01

    The electromagnetic techniques (EM) are based on the investigation of subsoil geophysical parameters and in the archaeological framework they involve in studying contrasts between the buried cultural structures and the surrounding materials. Unfortunately, the geophysical contrast between archaeological features and surrounding soils sometimes are difficult to define due to problems of sensitivity and resolution both related on the characteristic of the subsoil and the geophysical methods. For this reason an experimental activity has been performed in the Hydrogeosite laboratory addressed on the assessment of the capability of geophysical techniques to detect archeological remains placed in the humid/saturated subsoil. At Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA, a large scale sand-box is located, consisting on a pool shape structures of 230m3 where archaeological remains have been installed . The remains are relative to a living environment and burial of Roman times (walls, tombs, roads, harbour, etc.) covered by sediments. In order to simulate lacustrine and wetland condition and to simulate extreme events (for example underwater landslide, fast natural erosion coast, etc.) the phreatic level was varied and various acquisitions for the different scenarios were performed. In order to analyze the EM behavior of the buried small archaeological framework, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomographies were performed. With GPR, analysis in time domain and frequency domain were performed and coupled to information obtained through resistivity analysis with the support of numerical simulations used to compare the real data with those modeled. A dense grid was adopted for 400 and 900 MHz e-m acquisitions in both the directions, the maximum depth of investigation was limited and less than 3 meters. The same approach was used for ERT acquisition where different array are employed, in particular 3D configuration was used to carry out a 3D resistivity

  19. Abundâncias em estrelas de Bário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. M.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas de Bário apresentam linhas intensas de elementos produzidos pelo processos (ex: Ba, Y, Sr, Zr) e bandas intensas de CN, C2 e CH. A hipótese mais aceita sobre a origem deste grupo peculiar é a de que essas estrelas façam parte de sistemas binários, tendo recebido material enriquecido em elementos pesados da companheira mais evoluída. Apresentamos neste trabalho uma análise detalhada de uma amostra de estrelas desta classe, incluindo determinação de parâmetros atmosféricos e cálculo de abundâncias. As temperaturas efetivas foram determinadas a partir de dados fotométricos obtidos com o Fotrap instalado no telescópio Zeiss do LNA (Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica) (B-V, V-I, R-I, V-R), e coletados na literatura nos catálogos Hipparcos (B-V), 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey) (V-K) e The General Catalogue Photometric Data (sistema Geneva). Obtivemos uma faixa de temperaturas de 4400 £ Tef £ 6500. As metalicidades foram determinadas a partir de linhas de Fe I e Fe II, estando os resultados no intervalo -1 £ [Fe/H] £ +0.1. O log g foi determinado pelo equilíbrio de ionização e pela relação com a magnitude bolométrica, a temperatura e a massa, sendo os resultados na faixa 1.5 £ log g £ 4.5. As distâncias utilizadas foram determinadas com o auxílio das paralaxes Hipparcos, e as massas determinadas por modelos de isócronas. Os espectros utilizados foram obtidos com o espectrógrafo FEROS no Telescópio de 1,5m do ESO (European Southern Observatory). As abundâncias foram calculadas por meio de síntese espectral de linhas individuais incluindo elementos alfa, pico do Fe, s e r. Encontramos um excesso de elementos pesados em relação ao Fe, como esperado para estrelas de Bário.

  20. Tide-driven fluid mud transport in the Ems estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Marius; Maushake, Christian; Winter, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The Ems estuary, located at the border between The Netherlands and Germany, experienced a significant change of the hydrodynamic regime during the past decades, as a result of extensive river engineering. With the net sediment transport now being flood-oriented, suspended sediment concentrations have increased dramatically, inducing siltation and formation of fluid mud layers, which, in turn, influence hydraulic flow properties, such as turbulence and the apparent bed roughness. Here, the process-based understanding of fluid mud is essential to model and predict mud accumulation, not only regarding the anthropogenic impact, but also in view of the expected changes of environmental boundary conditions, i.e., sea level rise. In the recent past, substantial progress has been made concerning the understanding of estuarine circulation and influence of tidal asymmetry on upstream sediment accumulation. While associated sediment transport formulations have been implemented in the framework of numerical modelling systems, in-situ data of fluid mud are scarce. This study presents results on tide-driven fluid mud dynamics, measured during four tidal cycles aside the navigation channel in the Ems estuary. Lutoclines, i.e., strong vertical density gradients, were detected by sediment echo sounder (SES). Acoustic Doppler current profiles (ADCP) of different acoustic frequencies were used to determine hydrodynamic parameters and the vertical distribution of suspended sediment concentrations in the upper part of the water column. These continuous profiling measurements were complemented by CTD, ADV, and OBS casts. SES and ADCP profiles show cycles of fluid mud entrainment during accelerating flow, and subsequent settling, and the reformation of a lutocline during decelerating flow and slack water. Significant differences are revealed between flood and ebb phase. Highest entrainment rates are measured at the beginning of the flood phase, associated with strong current shear and

  1. Cryo-EM Structure Determination Using Segmented Helical Image Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fromm, S A; Sachse, C

    2016-01-01

    Treating helices as single-particle-like segments followed by helical image reconstruction has become the method of choice for high-resolution structure determination of well-ordered helical viruses as well as flexible filaments. In this review, we will illustrate how the combination of latest hardware developments with optimized image processing routines have led to a series of near-atomic resolution structures of helical assemblies. Originally, the treatment of helices as a sequence of segments followed by Fourier-Bessel reconstruction revealed the potential to determine near-atomic resolution structures from helical specimens. In the meantime, real-space image processing of helices in a stack of single particles was developed and enabled the structure determination of specimens that resisted classical Fourier helical reconstruction and also facilitated high-resolution structure determination. Despite the progress in real-space analysis, the combination of Fourier and real-space processing is still commonly used to better estimate the symmetry parameters as the imposition of the correct helical symmetry is essential for high-resolution structure determination. Recent hardware advancement by the introduction of direct electron detectors has significantly enhanced the image quality and together with improved image processing procedures has made segmented helical reconstruction a very productive cryo-EM structure determination method.

  2. TRLFS: Analysing spectra with an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinborn, A.; Taut, S.; Brendler, V.; Geipel, G.; Flach, B.

    2008-12-01

    A new approach for fitting statistical models to time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) spectra is presented. Such spectra result from counting emitted photons in defined intervals. Any photon can be described by emission time and wavelength as observable attributes and by component and peak affiliation as hidden ones. Understanding the attribute values of the emitted photons as drawn from a probability density distribution, the model estimation problem can be described as a statistical problem with incomplete data. To solve the maximum likelihood task, an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is derived and tested. In contrast to the well known least squares method, the advantage of the new approach is its ability to decompose the spectrum into its components and peaks using the revealed hidden attributes of the photons as well as the ability to decompose a background-superimposed spectrum into the exploitable signal of the fluorescent chemical species and the background. This facilitates new possibilities for evaluation of the resulting model parameters. The simultaneous detection of temporal and spectral model parameters provides a mutually consistent description of TRLFS spectra.

  3. Primary Mechanism of EM Interaction with the Live Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musakhanyan, Viktor

    There is a prevailing opinion that the theoretical explanation of electromagnetic (EM) fields influence on live organisms is impossible to explain theoretically and even the play between parameters of waves and tissues is unknown to us. The explanation of mechanism of this influence is vitally important owing to the development of new types of electronic devices operating in different frequency ranges and due to the still continuing controversy about their adverse health effect. It is shown that the application of newly developed procedure of shutting-on of the interaction of charged particles with electromagnetic fields allows explaining their influence on live tissue by origination of macroscopic polarization currents due to the joint action of electric and magnetic components of electromagnetic waves. The currents originate in the case of resonance between the proper frequency of the medium and of frequency of external electromagnetic fields. Thus, the experiments to measure these polarization currents can provide information about dangerous frequency ranges and these ranges, with maximal polarization currents, should be excluded during construction of electronic devices.

  4. PREFACE: EmQM13: Emergent Quantum Mechanics 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    These proceedings comprise the invited lectures of the second international symposium on Emergent Quantum Mechanics (EmQM13), which was held at the premises of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna, Austria, 3-6 October 2013. The symposium was held at the ''Theatersaal'' of the Academy of Sciences, and was devoted to the open exploration of emergent quantum mechanics, a possible ''deeper level theory'' that interconnects three fields of knowledge: emergence, the quantum, and information. Could there appear a revised image of physical reality from recognizing new links between emergence, the quantum, and information? Could a novel synthesis pave the way towards a 21st century, ''superclassical'' physics? The symposium provided a forum for discussing (i) important obstacles which need to be overcome as well as (ii) promising developments and research opportunities on the way towards emergent quantum mechanics. Contributions were invited that presented current advances in both standard as well as unconventional approaches to quantum mechanics. The EmQM13 symposium was co-organized by Gerhard Grössing (Austrian Institute for Nonlinear Studies (AINS), Vienna), and by Jan Walleczek (Fetzer Franklin Fund, USA, and Phenoscience Laboratories, Berlin). After a very successful first conference on the same topic in 2011, the new partnership between AINS and the Fetzer Franklin Fund in producing the EmQM13 symposium was able to further expand interest in the promise of emergent quantum mechanics. The symposium consisted of two parts, an opening evening addressing the general public, and the scientific program of the conference proper. The opening evening took place at the Great Ceremonial Hall (Grosser Festsaal) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, and it presented talks and a panel discussion on ''The Future of Quantum Mechanics'' with three distinguished speakers: Stephen Adler (Princeton), Gerard 't Hooft (Utrecht) and Masanao Ozawa (Nagoya). The articles contained in

  5. Specimen Preparation for High-Resolution Cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Passmore, L A; Russo, C J

    2016-01-01

    Imaging a material with electrons at near-atomic resolution requires a thin specimen that is stable in the vacuum of the transmission electron microscope. For biological samples, this comprises a thin layer of frozen aqueous solution containing the biomolecular complex of interest. The process of preparing a high-quality specimen is often the limiting step in the determination of structures by single-particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). Here, we describe a systematic approach for going from a purified biomolecular complex in aqueous solution to high-resolution electron micrographs that are suitable for 3D structure determination. This includes a series of protocols for the preparation of vitrified specimens on various supports, including all-gold and graphene. We also describe techniques for troubleshooting when a preparation fails to yield suitable specimens, and common mistakes to avoid during each part of the process. Finally, we include recommendations for obtaining the highest quality micrographs from prepared specimens with current microscope, detector, and support technology. PMID:27572723

  6. Cryo-EM Structure Determination Using Segmented Helical Image Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fromm, S A; Sachse, C

    2016-01-01

    Treating helices as single-particle-like segments followed by helical image reconstruction has become the method of choice for high-resolution structure determination of well-ordered helical viruses as well as flexible filaments. In this review, we will illustrate how the combination of latest hardware developments with optimized image processing routines have led to a series of near-atomic resolution structures of helical assemblies. Originally, the treatment of helices as a sequence of segments followed by Fourier-Bessel reconstruction revealed the potential to determine near-atomic resolution structures from helical specimens. In the meantime, real-space image processing of helices in a stack of single particles was developed and enabled the structure determination of specimens that resisted classical Fourier helical reconstruction and also facilitated high-resolution structure determination. Despite the progress in real-space analysis, the combination of Fourier and real-space processing is still commonly used to better estimate the symmetry parameters as the imposition of the correct helical symmetry is essential for high-resolution structure determination. Recent hardware advancement by the introduction of direct electron detectors has significantly enhanced the image quality and together with improved image processing procedures has made segmented helical reconstruction a very productive cryo-EM structure determination method. PMID:27572732

  7. Orthogonalizing EM: A design-based least squares algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Shifeng; Dai, Bin; Huling, Jared; Qian, Peter Z. G.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an efficient iterative algorithm, intended for various least squares problems, based on a design of experiments perspective. The algorithm, called orthogonalizing EM (OEM), works for ordinary least squares and can be easily extended to penalized least squares. The main idea of the procedure is to orthogonalize a design matrix by adding new rows and then solve the original problem by embedding the augmented design in a missing data framework. We establish several attractive theoretical properties concerning OEM. For the ordinary least squares with a singular regression matrix, an OEM sequence converges to the Moore-Penrose generalized inverse-based least squares estimator. For ordinary and penalized least squares with various penalties, it converges to a point having grouping coherence for fully aliased regression matrices. Convergence and the convergence rate of the algorithm are examined. Finally, we demonstrate that OEM is highly efficient for large-scale least squares and penalized least squares problems, and is considerably faster than competing methods when n is much larger than p. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. PMID:27499558

  8. Monitoring Survivability and Infectivity of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDv) in the Infected On-Farm Earthen Manure Storages (EMS)

    PubMed Central

    Tun, Hein M.; Cai, Zhangbin; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv) has caused major epidemics, which has been a burden to North America’s swine industry. Low infectious dose and high viability in the environment are major challenges in eradication of this virus. To further understand the viability of PEDv in the infected manure, we longitudinally monitored survivability and infectivity of PEDv in two open earthen manure storages (EMS; previously referred to as lagoon) from two different infected swine farms identified in the province of Manitoba, Canada. Our study revealed that PEDv could survive up to 9 months in the infected EMS after the initial outbreak in the farm. The viral load varied among different layers of the EMS with an average of 1.1 × 105 copies/ml of EMS, independent of EMS temperature and pH. In both studied EMS, the evidence of viral replication was observed through increased viral load in the later weeks of the samplings while there was no new influx of infected manure into the EMS, which was suggestive of presence of potential alternative hosts for PEDv within the EMS. Decreasing infectivity of virus over time irrespective of increased viral load suggested the possibility of PEDv evolution within the EMS and perhaps in the new host that negatively impacted virus infectivity. Viral load in the top layer of the EMS was low and mostly non-infective suggesting that environmental factors, such as UV and sunlight, could diminish the replicability and infectivity of the virus. Thus, frequent agitation of the EMS that could expose virus to UV and sunlight might be a potential strategy for reduction of PEDv load and infectivity in the infected EMS. PMID:27014197

  9. Overexpression of OsEm1 encoding a group I LEA protein confers enhanced drought tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Lai, Yongmin; Wu, Xi; Wu, Gang; Guo, Changkui

    2016-09-16

    Drought is the greatest threat for crops, including rice. In an effort to identify rice genes responsible for drought tolerance, a drought-responsive gene OsEm1 encoding a group I LEA protein, was chosen for this study. OsEm1 was shown at vegetative stages to be responsive to various abiotic stresses, including drought, salt, cold and the hormone ABA. In this study, we generated OsEm1-overexpressing rice plants to explore the function of OsEm1 under drought conditions. Overexpression of OsEm1 increases ABA sensitivity and enhances osmotic tolerance in rice. Compared with wild type, the OsEm1-overexpressing rice plants showed enhanced plant survival ratio at the vegetative stage; moreover, over expression of OsEm1 in rice increased the expression of other LEA genes, including RAB16A, RAB16C, RAB21, and LEA3, likely protecting organ integrity against harsh environments. Interestingly, the elevated level of OsEm1 had no different phenotype compared with wild type under normal condition. Our findings suggest that OsEm1 is a positive regulator of drought tolerance and is potentially promising for engineering drought tolerance in rice. PMID:27524243

  10. Prevention and Immunotherapy of Secondary Murine Alveolar Echinococcosis Employing Recombinant EmP29 Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Boubaker, Ghalia; Hemphill, Andrew; Huber, Cristina Olivia; Spiliotis, Markus; Babba, Hamouda; Gottstein, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by infection with the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. An increasing understanding of immunological events that account for the metacestode survival in human and murine AE infection prompted us to undertake explorative experiments tackling the potential of novel preventive and/or immunotherapeutic measures. In this study, the immunoprotective and immunotherapeutic ability of recombinant EmP29 antigen (rEmP29) was assessed in mice that were intraperitoneally infected with E. multilocularis metacestodes. For vaccination, three intraperitoneal injections with 20μg rEmP29 emulsified in saponin adjuvants were applied over 6 weeks. 2 weeks after the last boost, mice were infected, and at 90 days post-infection, rEmP29-vaccinated mice exhibited a median parasite weight that was reduced by 75% and 59% when compared to NaCl- or saponin–treated control mice, respectively. For immunotherapeutical application, the rEmP29 (20μg) vaccine was administered to experimentally infected mice, starting at 1 month post-infection, three times with 2 weeks intervals. Mice undergoing rEmP29 immunotherapy exhibited a median parasite load that was reduced by 53% and 49% when compared to NaCl- and saponin–treated control mice, respectively. Upon analysis of spleen cells, both, vaccination and treatment with rEmP29, resulted in low ratios of Th2/Th1 (IL-4/IFN-γ) cytokine mRNA and low levels of mRNA coding for IL-10 and IL-2. These results suggest that reduction of the immunosuppressive environment takes place in vaccinated as well as immunotreated mice, and a shift towards a Th1 type of immune response may be responsible for the observed increased restriction of parasite growth. The present study provides the first evidence that active immunotherapy may present a sustainable route for the control of AE. PMID:26053794

  11. EM-54 Technology Development In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) as an element of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. EM manages remediation of all DOE sites as well as wastes from current operations. The goal of the EM program is to minimize risks to human health, safety and the environment, and to bring all DOE sites into compliance with Federal, state, and local regulations by 2019. EM-50 is charged with developing new technologies that are safer, more effective and less expensive than current methods. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (the subject of this report) is part of EM-541, the Environmental Restoration Research and Development Division of EM-54. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: Significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces; in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP tends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years.

  12. Assessing the environmental performance of construction materials testing using EMS: An Australian study.

    PubMed

    Dejkovski, Nick

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the audit findings of the waste management practices at 30 construction materials testing (CMT) laboratories (constituting 4.6% of total accredited CMT laboratories at the time of the audit) that operate in four Australian jurisdictions and assesses the organisation's Environmental Management System (EMS) for indicators of progress towards sustainable development (SD). In Australia, waste indicators are 'priority indicators' of environmental performance yet the quality and availability of waste data is poor. National construction and demolition waste (CDW) data estimates are not fully disaggregated and the contribution of CMT waste (classified as CDW) to the national total CDW landfill burden is difficult to quantify. The environmental and human impacts of anthropogenic release of hazardous substances contained in CMT waste into the ecosphere can be measured by construing waste indicators from the EMS. An analytical framework for evaluating the EMS is developed to elucidate CMT waste indicators and assess these indicators against the principle of proportionality. Assessing against this principle allows for: objective evaluations of whether the environmental measures prescribed in the EMS are 'proportionate' to the 'desired' (subjective) level of protection chosen by decision-makers; and benchmarking CMT waste indicators against aspirational CDW targets set by each Australian jurisdiction included in the audit. Construed together, the EMS derived waste indicators and benchmark data provide a composite indicator of environmental performance and progress towards SD. The key audit findings indicate: CMT laboratories have a 'poor' environmental performance (and overall progress towards SD) when EMS waste data are converted into indicator scores and assessed against the principle of proportionality; CMT waste recycling targets are lower when benchmarked against jurisdictional CDW waste recovery targets; and no significant difference in the average

  13. OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

  14. Designing ergonomic interventions for EMS workers: concept generation of patient-handling devices.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Karen M; Reichelt, Paul A; Lavender, Steven A; Gacki-Smith, Jessica; Hattle, Sally

    2008-11-01

    Fire service personnel and private ambulance paramedics suffer musculoskeletal injuries as they lift and carry patients while performing emergency medical services (EMS). Engineering changes, such as the design of new EMS patient-handling devices, offer a potential intervention opportunity for combating this problem. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to generate beginning ideas for the design of new EMS patient-handling devices that were framed within the contextual reality of the end user firefighter/paramedics. Guided by an ecological model of musculoskeletal injuries in the fire service, focus groups were conducted with 25 firefighter/paramedics from 13 suburban fire departments. Based on their availability, participants were assigned to one of three groups with each group focusing on a different EMS patient-handling scenario. Each group participated in two focus group sessions: one session to brainstorm ideas for devices and a second session to validate sketches of their design ideas. The sketches were professionally drawn by an industrial designer who attended all focus group sessions. Sketches, photos, videotapes, and written transcripts were content analyzed to describe the phenomena of interest. The ideas centered on EMS devices for lateral transfers, bed-to-stairchair transfers, and stair descent transport, and served as the starting point for the development of EMS devices in subsequent phases of a mixed method research study. The outcomes of this study were an improved understanding of the contextual issues that need to be considered in designing EMS patient handling devices and a set of industrial design sketches that served as a starting point for subsequent development of the devices. End user acceptance criteria for the devices included: affordability, portability/compactness, durability, operability including being quickly ready for use, and cleanability.

  15. Assessing the environmental performance of construction materials testing using EMS: An Australian study.

    PubMed

    Dejkovski, Nick

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the audit findings of the waste management practices at 30 construction materials testing (CMT) laboratories (constituting 4.6% of total accredited CMT laboratories at the time of the audit) that operate in four Australian jurisdictions and assesses the organisation's Environmental Management System (EMS) for indicators of progress towards sustainable development (SD). In Australia, waste indicators are 'priority indicators' of environmental performance yet the quality and availability of waste data is poor. National construction and demolition waste (CDW) data estimates are not fully disaggregated and the contribution of CMT waste (classified as CDW) to the national total CDW landfill burden is difficult to quantify. The environmental and human impacts of anthropogenic release of hazardous substances contained in CMT waste into the ecosphere can be measured by construing waste indicators from the EMS. An analytical framework for evaluating the EMS is developed to elucidate CMT waste indicators and assess these indicators against the principle of proportionality. Assessing against this principle allows for: objective evaluations of whether the environmental measures prescribed in the EMS are 'proportionate' to the 'desired' (subjective) level of protection chosen by decision-makers; and benchmarking CMT waste indicators against aspirational CDW targets set by each Australian jurisdiction included in the audit. Construed together, the EMS derived waste indicators and benchmark data provide a composite indicator of environmental performance and progress towards SD. The key audit findings indicate: CMT laboratories have a 'poor' environmental performance (and overall progress towards SD) when EMS waste data are converted into indicator scores and assessed against the principle of proportionality; CMT waste recycling targets are lower when benchmarked against jurisdictional CDW waste recovery targets; and no significant difference in the average

  16. Rock 'Em, Sock 'Em!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2011-01-01

    K-12-level competitive robotics is growing in popularity around the country and worldwide. According to one of the leading organizers of these events, FIRST--For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology--250,000 students from 56 countries take part in its competitions. FIRST Tech Challenge (FTC) is a yearly event the organization puts…

  17. Pre-flight risk assessment in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Emergency Medical Service (EMS) industry has been the subject of several television and newspaper articles (Harvey and Jensen, 1987) which emphasized the negative aspects, (e.g., fatalities and high accident rates), rather than the life saving services performed. Until recently, the accident rate of the EMS industry has been five times as high as that of other civil helicopters. This high accident rate has been coupled with the dramatic rise in the number of programs. The industry has built from a single service at its inception in 1972, to over 180 in 1987 (Spray, 1987), to the point that 93 percent of the contiguous U.S. is now covered by some type of EMS service. These factors prompted the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) to study the accidents that occurred between May 11, 1978 and December 3, 1986 (NTSB, 1988). The NTSB report concluded that 'Sound pilot judgment is central to safe flight operations.' They further stated that '... factors unique to EMS helicopter operations--such as the influence of the mission itself, program competition, and EMS program management perspectives--can drastically influence pilot judgment during the EMS mission.' One of the most difficult decisions that a pilot must make is whether to accept or decline a mission. A pre-flight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed at NASA-Ames Research Center for civil EMS operations to aid pilots in making this decision objectively. The ability of the SAFE system to predict mission risk profiles was tested at an EMS facility. The results of this field study demonstrated that the usefulness of SAFE was highly dependent on the type of mission flown. SAFE is now being modified so that it can 'learn' with each mission flown. For example, after flying a mission to a particular site, an EMS pilot would input information about this mission into the system, such as new buildings, wires, or approach procedures. Then, the next time a pilot flew a similar mission or one to the same

  18. Does contamination buildup limit throughput for automated cryoEM?

    PubMed

    Cheng, Anchi; Fellmann, Denis; Pulokas, James; Potter, Clinton S; Carragher, Bridget

    2006-06-01

    The development of automated systems for data acquisition in cryo electron microscopy has enabled the possibility of acquiring very large number of images from a single specimen grid. We have demonstrated that over images of 250,000 single particles can be acquired in a 24 h period. This has raised questions as to whether contamination buildup on the specimen limits the quality of the data that can be acquired during these long duration experiments and also whether the data acquisition session could be extended to allow acquisition of more than 1,000,000 particles. We report here a systematic characterization of contamination of specimens maintained for long periods of time at liquid nitrogen temperatures using standard side entry cryo stages. As part of this characterization we developed a more reliable method for accurately estimating specimen ice thickness. Using the method, we were able to calibrate image contrast against ice thickness under a variety of magnifications, objective aperture positions, and defoci, and demonstrated the strong dependence of the calibration curve on these parameters. The results show the anti-contamination aperture is, as expected, critical to the prevention of contamination and that loading film into the microscope dramatically increases the contamination rate, particularly in the first 3 h after the insertion of the film box. In the absence of film, we were able to reproducibly demonstrate that the contamination rate can be limited to a rate of approximately 1 angstrom/h providing reassurance that contamination will not be a major limiting factor for long term cryoEM experiments if a CCD camera is used for the imaging.

  19. Elimination of error factors, affecting EM and seismic inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magomedov, M.; Zuev, M. A.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

    2013-12-01

    EM or seismic data inversions are affected by many factors, which may conceal the responses from target objects. We address here the contributions from the following effects: 1) Pre-survey spectral sensitivity factor. Preliminary information about a target layer can be used for a pre-survey estimation of the required frequency domain and signal level. A universal approach allows making such estimations in real time, helping the survey crew to optimize an acquisition process. 2) Preliminary velocities' identification and their dispersions for all the seismic waves, arising in a stratified media became a fast working tool, based on the exact analytical solution. 3) Vertical gradients effect. For most layers the log data scatter, requiring an averaging pattern. A linear gradient within each representative layer is a reasonable compromise between required inversion accuracy and forward modeling complexity. 4) An effect from the seismic source's radial component becomes comparable with vertical part for explosive sources. If this effect is not taken into account, a serious modeling error takes place. This problem has an algorithmic solution. 5) Seismic modeling is often based on different representations for a source formulated either for a force or to a potential. The wave amplitudes depend on the formulation, making an inversion result sensitive to it. 6) Asymmetrical seismic waves (modified Rayleigh) in symmetrical geometry around liquid fracture come from S-wave and merge with the modified Krauklis wave at high frequencies. A detail analysis of this feature allows a spectral range optimization for the proper wave's extraction. 7) An ultrasonic experiment was conducted to show different waves appearance for a super-thin water-saturated fracture between two Plexiglas plates, being confirmed by comparison with theoretical computations. 8) A 'sandwich effect' was detected by comparison with averaged layer's effect. This opens an opportunity of the shale gas direct

  20. Incubator embedded cell culture imaging system (EmSight) based on Fourier ptychographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinho; Henley, Beverley M; Kim, Charlene H; Lester, Henry A; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-08-01

    Multi-day tracking of cells in culture systems can provide valuable information in bioscience experiments. We report the development of a cell culture imaging system, named EmSight, which incorporates multiple compact Fourier ptychographic microscopes with a standard multiwell imaging plate. The system is housed in an incubator and presently incorporates six microscopes. By using the same low magnification objective lenses as the objective and the tube lens, the EmSight is configured as a 1:1 imaging system that, providing large field-of-view (FOV) imaging onto a low-cost CMOS imaging sensor. The EmSight improves the image resolution by capturing a series of images of the sample at varying illumination angles; the instrument reconstructs a higher-resolution image by using the iterative Fourier ptychographic algorithm. In addition to providing high-resolution brightfield and phase imaging, the EmSight is also capable of fluorescence imaging at the native resolution of the objectives. We characterized the system using a phase Siemens star target, and show four-fold improved coherent resolution (synthetic NA of 0.42) and a depth of field of 0.2 mm. To conduct live, long-term dopaminergic neuron imaging, we cultured ventral midbrain from mice driving eGFP from the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter. The EmSight system tracks movements of dopaminergic neurons over a 21 day period. PMID:27570701

  1. New Advances for a joint 3D inversion of multiple EM methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meqbel, N. M.; Ritter, O.

    2013-12-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) methods are routinely applied to image the subsurface from shallow to regional structures. Individual EM methods differ in their sensitivities towards resistive and conductive structures as well as in their exploration depths. Joint 3D inversion of multiple EM data sets can result in significantly better resolution of subsurface structures than the individual inversions. Proper weighting between different EM data is essential, however. We present a recently developed weighting algorithm to combine magnetotelluric (MT), controlled source EM (CSEM) and DC-geoelectric (DC) data. It is well known that MT data are mostly sensible to regional conductive structures, whereas, CSEM and DC data are more suitable to recover more shallow and resistive structures. Our new scheme is based on weighting individual components of the total data gradient after each model update. Norms of each data residual are used to assess how much weight individual components of the total data gradient must have to achieve an equal contribution of all data sets in the inverse model. A numerically efficient way to search for appropriate weighting factors could be established by applying a bi-diagonalization procedure to the sensitivity matrix. Thereby, the original inverse problem can be projected onto a smaller dimension in which the search of weighting factors is numerically cheap. We demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed weighting schemes and explore the model domain with synthetic data sets.

  2. dbEM: A database of epigenetic modifiers curated from cancerous and normal genomes

    PubMed Central

    Singh Nanda, Jagpreet; Kumar, Rahul; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a database called dbEM (database of Epigenetic Modifiers) to maintain the genomic information of about 167 epigenetic modifiers/proteins, which are considered as potential cancer targets. In dbEM, modifiers are classified on functional basis and comprise of 48 histone methyl transferases, 33 chromatin remodelers and 31 histone demethylases. dbEM maintains the genomic information like mutations, copy number variation and gene expression in thousands of tumor samples, cancer cell lines and healthy samples. This information is obtained from public resources viz. COSMIC, CCLE and 1000-genome project. Gene essentiality data retrieved from COLT database further highlights the importance of various epigenetic proteins for cancer survival. We have also reported the sequence profiles, tertiary structures and post-translational modifications of these epigenetic proteins in cancer. It also contains information of 54 drug molecules against different epigenetic proteins. A wide range of tools have been integrated in dbEM e.g. Search, BLAST, Alignment and Profile based prediction. In our analysis, we found that epigenetic proteins DNMT3A, HDAC2, KDM6A, and TET2 are highly mutated in variety of cancers. We are confident that dbEM will be very useful in cancer research particularly in the field of epigenetic proteins based cancer therapeutics. This database is available for public at URL: http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/dbem. PMID:26777304

  3. Single-Particle Cryo-EM of the Ryanodine Receptor Channel in an Aqueous Environment.

    PubMed

    Baker, Mariah R; Fan, Guizhen; Serysheva, Irina I

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are tetrameric ligand-gated Ca(2+) release channels that are responsible for the increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration leading to muscle contraction. Our current understanding of RyR channel gating and regulation is greatly limited due to the lack of a high-resolution structure of the channel protein. The enormous size and unwieldy shape of Ca(2+) release channels make X-ray or NMR methods difficult to apply for high-resolution structural analysis of the full-length functional channel. Single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is one of the only effective techniques for the study of such a large integral membrane protein and its molecular interactions. Despite recent developments in cryo-EM technologies and break-through single-particle cryo-EM studies of ion channels, cryospecimen preparation, particularly the presence of detergent in the buffer, remains the main impediment to obtaining atomic-resolution structures of ion channels and a multitude of other integral membrane protein complexes. In this review we will discuss properties of several detergents that have been successfully utilized in cryo-EM studies of ion channels and the emergence of the detergent alternative amphipol to stabilize ion channels for structure-function characterization. Future structural studies of challenging specimen like ion channels are likely to be facilitated by cryo-EM amenable detergents or alternative surfactants.

  4. Description and comparison of algorithms for correcting anisotropic magnification in cryo-EM images.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianhua; Brubaker, Marcus A; Benlekbir, Samir; Rubinstein, John L

    2015-11-01

    Single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) allows for structures of proteins and protein complexes to be determined from images of non-crystalline specimens. Cryo-EM data analysis requires electron microscope images of randomly oriented ice-embedded protein particles to be rotated and translated to allow for coherent averaging when calculating three-dimensional (3D) structures. Rotation of 2D images is usually done with the assumption that the magnification of the electron microscope is the same in all directions. However, due to electron optical aberrations, this condition is not met with some electron microscopes when used with the settings necessary for cryo-EM with a direct detector device (DDD) camera. Correction of images by linear interpolation in real space has allowed high-resolution structures to be calculated from cryo-EM images for symmetric particles. Here we describe and compare a simple real space method, a simple Fourier space method, and a somewhat more sophisticated Fourier space method to correct images for a measured anisotropy in magnification. Further, anisotropic magnification causes contrast transfer function (CTF) parameters estimated from image power spectra to have an apparent systematic astigmatism. To address this problem we develop an approach to adjust CTF parameters measured from distorted images so that they can be used with corrected images. The effect of anisotropic magnification on CTF parameters provides a simple way of detecting magnification anisotropy in cryo-EM datasets.

  5. Cryo-EM studies of the structure and dynamics of vacuolar-type ATPases.

    PubMed

    Mazhab-Jafari, Mohammad T; Rubinstein, John L

    2016-07-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has significantly advanced our understanding of molecular structure in biology. Recent innovations in both hardware and software have made cryo-EM a viable alternative for targets that are not amenable to x-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cryo-EM has even become the method of choice in some situations where x-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy are possible but where cryo-EM can determine structures at higher resolution or with less time or effort. Rotary adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) are crucial to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. These enzymes couple the synthesis or hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate to the use or production of a transmembrane electrochemical ion gradient, respectively. However, the membrane-embedded nature and conformational heterogeneity of intact rotary ATPases have prevented their high-resolution structural analysis to date. Recent application of cryo-EM methods to the different types of rotary ATPase has led to sudden advances in understanding the structure and function of these enzymes, revealing significant conformational heterogeneity and characteristic transmembrane α helices that are highly tilted with respect to the membrane. In this Review, we will discuss what has been learned recently about rotary ATPase structure and function, with a particular focus on the vacuolar-type ATPases.

  6. Description and comparison of algorithms for correcting anisotropic magnification in cryo-EM images.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianhua; Brubaker, Marcus A; Benlekbir, Samir; Rubinstein, John L

    2015-11-01

    Single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) allows for structures of proteins and protein complexes to be determined from images of non-crystalline specimens. Cryo-EM data analysis requires electron microscope images of randomly oriented ice-embedded protein particles to be rotated and translated to allow for coherent averaging when calculating three-dimensional (3D) structures. Rotation of 2D images is usually done with the assumption that the magnification of the electron microscope is the same in all directions. However, due to electron optical aberrations, this condition is not met with some electron microscopes when used with the settings necessary for cryo-EM with a direct detector device (DDD) camera. Correction of images by linear interpolation in real space has allowed high-resolution structures to be calculated from cryo-EM images for symmetric particles. Here we describe and compare a simple real space method, a simple Fourier space method, and a somewhat more sophisticated Fourier space method to correct images for a measured anisotropy in magnification. Further, anisotropic magnification causes contrast transfer function (CTF) parameters estimated from image power spectra to have an apparent systematic astigmatism. To address this problem we develop an approach to adjust CTF parameters measured from distorted images so that they can be used with corrected images. The effect of anisotropic magnification on CTF parameters provides a simple way of detecting magnification anisotropy in cryo-EM datasets. PMID:26087140

  7. Incubator embedded cell culture imaging system (EmSight) based on Fourier ptychographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinho; Henley, Beverley M.; Kim, Charlene H.; Lester, Henry A.; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-01-01

    Multi-day tracking of cells in culture systems can provide valuable information in bioscience experiments. We report the development of a cell culture imaging system, named EmSight, which incorporates multiple compact Fourier ptychographic microscopes with a standard multiwell imaging plate. The system is housed in an incubator and presently incorporates six microscopes. By using the same low magnification objective lenses as the objective and the tube lens, the EmSight is configured as a 1:1 imaging system that, providing large field-of-view (FOV) imaging onto a low-cost CMOS imaging sensor. The EmSight improves the image resolution by capturing a series of images of the sample at varying illumination angles; the instrument reconstructs a higher-resolution image by using the iterative Fourier ptychographic algorithm. In addition to providing high-resolution brightfield and phase imaging, the EmSight is also capable of fluorescence imaging at the native resolution of the objectives. We characterized the system using a phase Siemens star target, and show four-fold improved coherent resolution (synthetic NA of 0.42) and a depth of field of 0.2 mm. To conduct live, long-term dopaminergic neuron imaging, we cultured ventral midbrain from mice driving eGFP from the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter. The EmSight system tracks movements of dopaminergic neurons over a 21 day period. PMID:27570701

  8. Cryo-EM studies of the structure and dynamics of vacuolar-type ATPases.

    PubMed

    Mazhab-Jafari, Mohammad T; Rubinstein, John L

    2016-07-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has significantly advanced our understanding of molecular structure in biology. Recent innovations in both hardware and software have made cryo-EM a viable alternative for targets that are not amenable to x-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cryo-EM has even become the method of choice in some situations where x-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy are possible but where cryo-EM can determine structures at higher resolution or with less time or effort. Rotary adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) are crucial to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. These enzymes couple the synthesis or hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate to the use or production of a transmembrane electrochemical ion gradient, respectively. However, the membrane-embedded nature and conformational heterogeneity of intact rotary ATPases have prevented their high-resolution structural analysis to date. Recent application of cryo-EM methods to the different types of rotary ATPase has led to sudden advances in understanding the structure and function of these enzymes, revealing significant conformational heterogeneity and characteristic transmembrane α helices that are highly tilted with respect to the membrane. In this Review, we will discuss what has been learned recently about rotary ATPase structure and function, with a particular focus on the vacuolar-type ATPases. PMID:27532044

  9. Cryo-EM studies of the structure and dynamics of vacuolar-type ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Mazhab-Jafari, Mohammad T.; Rubinstein, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has significantly advanced our understanding of molecular structure in biology. Recent innovations in both hardware and software have made cryo-EM a viable alternative for targets that are not amenable to x-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cryo-EM has even become the method of choice in some situations where x-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy are possible but where cryo-EM can determine structures at higher resolution or with less time or effort. Rotary adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) are crucial to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. These enzymes couple the synthesis or hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate to the use or production of a transmembrane electrochemical ion gradient, respectively. However, the membrane-embedded nature and conformational heterogeneity of intact rotary ATPases have prevented their high-resolution structural analysis to date. Recent application of cryo-EM methods to the different types of rotary ATPase has led to sudden advances in understanding the structure and function of these enzymes, revealing significant conformational heterogeneity and characteristic transmembrane α helices that are highly tilted with respect to the membrane. In this Review, we will discuss what has been learned recently about rotary ATPase structure and function, with a particular focus on the vacuolar-type ATPases. PMID:27532044

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectroscopy of five γ Dor variables (Fekel+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekel, F. C.; Henry, G. W.; Pourbaix, D.

    2016-10-01

    From 2001 through 2011 we obtained observations at the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) with the coude feed telescope and coude spectrograph. The vast majority were acquired with a TI CCD detector, and those spectrograms are centered at 6430Å, cover a wavelength range of 84Å and have a resolution of 0.21Å. In 2004 September and October three spectra (one for HD17310 and two for HD19684) were obtained in the blue, centered at 4500Å. They cover the same wavelength range and have the same resolution as the red wavelength spectra. The TI CCD was unavailable in 2008 September, so a Tektronics CCD, designated T1KA, was used instead. With that CCD the spectrum was centered at 6400Å. Although the wavelength range covered by the chip increased to 172Å, the resolution decreased to 0.35Å. Beginning in 2010 September we acquired spectra with a CCD, consisting of a 2600*4000 array of 12μm pixels, that was made by Semiconductor Technology Associates and designated STA2. With STA2 the spectrum was once again centered at 6430Å, and the much larger size of the detector produced a wavelength range of 336Å. The spectrograph slit was set so that the STA2 spectra have the same resolution as those acquired with the TI CCD although there is some worsening of the resolution at both ends of the STA2 spectra. Our KPNO spectra have signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) of 50-100. Starting in 2006, we collected additional spectrograms with the Tennessee State University (TSU) 2m Automatic Spectroscopic Telescope (AST) and a fiber-fed echelle spectrograph, situated at Fairborn Observatory near Washington Camp in the Patagonia Mountains of southeastern Arizona. Through 2011 June the detector was a 2048*4096 SITe ST-002A CCD with 15μm pixels. These AST echelle spectrograms have 21 orders that cover the wavelength range 4920-7100Å, and most have an average resolution of 0.17Å, although a few have a slightly lower resolution of 0.24Å. The S/N ranged from 30 to 50 at 6000Å. In the summer of 2011 the SITe CCD detector and its dewar were replaced by a Fairchild 486 CCD with 4K*4K 15μm pixels and a new dewar. This larger CCD results in echelle spectrograms that have 48 orders that span the wavelength range 3800-8260Å. Because different diameter fibers were used at various times, the resolution for these spectra was either 0.24 or 0.4Å, which resulted in S/N that ranged from 60 to 100 at 6000Å. (7 data files).

  11. Seismically induced shale diapirism: the Mine d'Or section, Vilaine estuary, Southern Brittany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet-Lanoe, B.; Hibsch, C.; Csontos, L.; Jegouzo, S.; Hallégouët, B.; Laurent, M.; Maygari, A.; Mercier, D.; Voinchet, P.

    2009-07-01

    The Pénestin section (southern Brittany) presents large regular undulations, commonly interpreted as evidence of periglacial pingos. It is an upper Neogene palaeoestuary of the Vilaine River reactivated during the middle Quaternary (middle terrace). It is incised into a thick kaolinitic saprolite and deformed by saprolite diapirs. This paper presents the arguments leading to a mechanistic interpretation of the deformations at Pénestin. Neither recent transpressive tectonics nor diagnostic evidence of periglacial pingo have been found despite evidence for a late paleo-permafrost. The major deformational process is shale diapirism, initially triggered by co-seismic water supply, with further loading and lateral spreading on an already deformed and deeply weathered basement, which allowed the shale diapirism to develop. Deformations are favoured by the liquefaction of the saprolite and a seaward mass movement and recorded, rather distant, effects of an earthquake (c. 280 ka B.P.) resulting from the progressive subsidence of the southern Armorican margin. These deformations triggered by an earthquake are similar to those induced by classical shale diapirism. They are probably common in tectonically active continental environments with shallow water table.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VLTS. OVz stars in 30 Dor (Sabin-Sanjulian+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabin-Sanjulian, C.; Simon-Diaz, S.; Herrero, A.; Walborn, N. R.; Puls, J.; Maiz Apellaniz, J.; Evans, C. J.; Brott, I.; de Koter, A.; Garcia, M.; Markova, N.; Najarro, F.; Ramirez-Agudelo, O. H.; Sana, H.; Taylor, W. D.; Vink, J. S.

    2014-10-01

    OVz stars, a subclass of O-type dwarfs characterized by having HeIIλ4686 stronger in absorption than any other helium line in their blue-violet spectra, have been suggested to be on or near the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS). If their youth were confirmed, they would be key objects with which to advance our knowledge of the physical properties of massive stars in the early stages of their lives. We test the hypothesis of OVz stars being at a different (younger) evolutionary stage than are normal O-type dwarfs. We have performed the first comprehensive quantitative spectroscopic analysis of a statistically meaningful sample of OVz and OV stars in the same star-forming region, exploiting the large number of OVz stars identified by the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We obtained the stellar and wind parameters of 38 OVz stars (and a control sample of 46 OV stars) using the FASTWIND stellar atmosphere code and the IACOB-GBAT, a grid-based tool developed for automated quantitative analysis of optical spectra of O stars. In the framework of a differential study, we compared the physical and evolutionary properties of both samples, locating the stars in the logg vs. logTeff, logQ vs. logTeff, and logL/L⊙ vs. logTeff diagrams. We also investigated the predictions of the FASTWIND code regarding the OVz phenomenon. (3 data files).

  13. FUV Spectroscopy of the sdOB Primary of the Eclipsing Binary System AA Dor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleig, J.; Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J. W.

    AADor is an eclipsing, close, post common-envelope binary (PCEB). We present a detailed spectral analysis of its sdOB primary based on observations obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). Due to a strong contamination by interstellar absorption, we had to model both, the stellar spectrum as well as the interstellar line absorption in order to reproduce the FUV observation well and to determine the photospheric parameters precisely.

  14. Transport du cuivre à travers un film mince d'or protecteur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillet, M.; Guglielmacci, J. M.; Benhenda, S.; Pech, T.

    Thin gold films were deposited by "sputtering" onto thick copper substrate. The crystalline structure and topography of the deposits were investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. A scanning Auger microanalysis was performed on the surface and in depth on the gold deposit before and after heating. The observations reveal that the copper arrives at the gold surface especially via holes. The transport rate of the copper via theses holes is very fast compared to the diffusion via grain boundaries. The origin of the holes is discussed: they result of strains due to the gold epitaxial growth on copper grains.

  15. EM algorithm applied for estimating non-stationary region boundaries using electrical impedance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khambampati, A. K.; Rashid, A.; Kim, B. S.; Liu, Dong; Kim, S.; Kim, K. Y.

    2010-04-01

    EIT has been used for the dynamic estimation of organ boundaries. One specific application in this context is the estimation of lung boundaries during pulmonary circulation. This would help track the size and shape of lungs of the patients suffering from diseases like pulmonary edema and acute respiratory failure (ARF). The dynamic boundary estimation of the lungs can also be utilized to set and control the air volume and pressure delivered to the patients during artificial ventilation. In this paper, the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is used as an inverse algorithm to estimate the non-stationary lung boundary. The uncertainties caused in Kalman-type filters due to inaccurate selection of model parameters are overcome using EM algorithm. Numerical experiments using chest shaped geometry are carried out with proposed method and the performance is compared with extended Kalman filter (EKF). Results show superior performance of EM in estimation of the lung boundary.

  16. Direct and indirect measures of speech articulator motions using low power EM sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T; Burnett, G; Gable, T; Holzrichter, J F; Ng, L

    1999-05-12

    Low power Electromagnetic (EM) Wave sensors can measure general properties of human speech articulator motions, as speech is produced. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J.Acoust.Soc.Am. 103 (1) 622 (1998). Experiments have demonstrated extremely accurate pitch measurements (< 1 Hz per pitch cycle) and accurate onset of voiced speech. Recent measurements of pressure-induced tracheal motions enable very good spectra and amplitude estimates of a voiced excitation function. The use of the measured excitation functions and pitch synchronous processing enable the determination of each pitch cycle of an accurate transfer function and, indirectly, of the corresponding articulator motions. In addition, direct measurements have been made of EM wave reflections from articulator interfaces, including jaw, tongue, and palate, simultaneously with acoustic and glottal open/close signals. While several types of EM sensors are suitable for speech articulator measurements, the homodyne sensor has been found to provide good spatial and temporal resolution for several applications.

  17. Evaluation model calculations with the water reactor analysis package (WRAP-EM)

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, M.V.; Beranek, F.

    1982-01-01

    The Water Reactor Analysis Package-Evaluation Model (WRAP-EM) is a modular system of computer codes designed to provide the safety analyst with the capability of performing complete loss-of-coolant calculations for both pressurized- and boiling-water reactor systems. The system provides a licensing-type calculation capability and thus contains most of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission-Approved EM options, as described in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 50, Appendix K. All phases of an accident (blowdown, refill, and reflood) are modeled. The WRAP consists of modified versions of five preexisting codes (RELAP4/MOD5, GAPCON, FRAP, MOXY, and NORCOOL), the necessary interfaces to permit automatic transition from one code to the next during the transient calculations, plus a host of user-convenience features to aid the analyst faced with a multitude of EM calculations. The WRAP has been verified against both calculated and experimental results.

  18. Physics-based simulation of EM and SM in TSV-based 3D IC structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kteyan, Armen; Sukharev, Valeriy; Zschech, Ehrenfried

    2014-06-19

    Evolution of stresses in through-silicon-vias (TSVs) and in the TSV landing pad due to the stress migration (SM) and electromigration (EM) phenomena are considered. It is shown that an initial stress distribution existing in a TSV depends on its architecture and copper fill technology. We demonstrate that in the case of proper copper annealing the SM-induced redistribution of atoms results in uniform distributions of the hydrostatic stress and concentration of vacancies along each segment. In this case, applied EM stressing generates atom migration that is characterized by kinetics depending on the preexisting equilibrium concentration of vacancies. Stress-induced voiding in TSV is considered. EM induced voiding in TSV landing pad is analyzed in details.

  19. An Introduction to Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Pre-Hospital Phase. Emergency Medical Services Orientation, Lesson Plan No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Derrick P.

    Designed for use with interested students at high schools, community colleges, and four-year colleges, this lesson plan was developed to provide an introduction to the pre-hospital phase of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and to serve as a recruitment tool for the EMS Program at Kapiolani Community College (KCC) in Hawaii. The objectives of the…

  20. Factor Analysis with EM Algorithm Never Gives Improper Solutions when Sample Covariance and Initial Parameter Matrices Are Proper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adachi, Kohei

    2013-01-01

    Rubin and Thayer ("Psychometrika," 47:69-76, 1982) proposed the EM algorithm for exploratory and confirmatory maximum likelihood factor analysis. In this paper, we prove the following fact: the EM algorithm always gives a proper solution with positive unique variances and factor correlations with absolute values that do not exceed one, when the…

  1. Mass Gathering Medical Care: Resource Document for the National Association of EMS Physicians Position Statement.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Brian; Nafziger, Sarah; Milsten, Andrew; Luk, Jeffrey; Yancey, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Mass gatherings are heterogeneous in terms of size, duration, type of event, crowd behavior, demographics of the participants and spectators, use of recreational substances, weather, and environment. The goals of health and medical services should be the provision of care for participants and spectators consistent with local standards of care, protection of continuing medical service to the populations surrounding the event venue, and preparation for surge to respond to extraordinary events. Pre-event planning among jurisdictional public health and EMS, acute care hospitals, and event EMS is essential, but should also include, at a minimum, event security services, public relations, facility maintenance, communications technicians, and the event planners and organizers. Previous documented experience with similar events has been shown to most accurately predict future needs. Future work in and guidance for mass gathering medical care should include the consistent use and further development of universally accepted consistent metrics, such as Patient Presentation Rate and Transfer to Hospital Rate. Only by standardizing data collection can evaluations be performed that link interventions with outcomes to enhance evidence-based EMS services at mass gatherings. Research is needed to evaluate the skills and interventions required by EMS providers to achieve desired outcomes. The event-dedicated EMS Medical Director is integral to acceptable quality medical care provided at mass gatherings; hence, he/she must be included in all aspects of mass gathering medical care planning, preparations, response, and recovery. Incorporation of jurisdictional EMS and community hospital medical leadership, and emergency practitioners into these processes will ensure that on-site care, transport, and transition to acute care at appropriate receiving facilities is consistent with, and fully integrated into the community's medical care system, while fulfilling the needs of event

  2. Análise da medição do raio solar em ultravioleta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraiva, A. C. V.; Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Costa, J. E. R.; Selhorst, C. L.; Simões, P. J. A.

    2003-08-01

    A medição acurada do raio solar em qualquer banda do espectro eletromagnético é de relevância na formulação e calibração de modelos da estrutura e atmosfera solar. Esses modelos atribuem emissão do contínuo do Sol calmo em microondas à mesma região da linha Ha do Hell. Apresentamos a medição do raio solar em UV com imagens do EIT (Extreme Ultraviolet Image Telescope) entre 1996 e 2002, no comprimento de onda 30,9 nm (Ha do Hell), que se forma na região de transição/cromosfera solar. A técnica utilizada para o cálculo do raio UV foi baseada na transformada Wavelet B3spline. Fizemos um banco de dados com 1 imagem por dia durante o período citado. Obtivemos como resultado o raio médio da ordem de 975.61" e uma diminuição do mesmo para o período citado variando em média -0,45" /ano. Comparamos estes dados com os valores obtidos pelo ROI (Radio Observatório de Itapetinga) em 22/48 GHz e Nobeyama Radio Heliograph em 17 GHz mostrando que os raios médios são muito próximos o que indica que a região de formação nessas freqüências é a mesma conforme os modelos. Comparamos os resultados também com outros índices de atividade solar.

  3. Recidivism Among Licensed-Released Prisoners Who Participated in the EM Program in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shoham, Efrat; Yehosha-Stern, Shirley; Efodi, Rotem

    2015-08-01

    Toward the end of 2006, a pilot program was launched in Israel wherein licensed-released prisoners were put under electronic monitoring (EM). In addition to EM, the pilot program, operated by the Prisoners' Rehabilitation Authority, provides programs of occupational supervision and personal therapy and is designed to allow for early release of those prisoners who, without increased supervision, would have been found unsuitable for early release. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether participation in the EM program among licensed-released prisoners in Israel might bring about lessened recidivism. For that matter, rates of arrests and incarceration were examined during a follow-up period of up to 4 years, among the entirety of licensed-released prisoners participating in the EM program between the years 2007 and 2009 (n = 155). To compare recidivism rates, a control group was assembled from among the entirety of released prisoners who were found unsuitable for early release in judicial conditions, and had therefore served the full term of their incarceration, to be released between the years 2005 and 2006 (a period of time during which an EM program was not yet operated among licensed-released prisoners in Israel). Study findings clearly show that while among the control group, 42% of released prisoners were re-incarcerated, at the end of a 4-year follow-up period, only 15% among the study group had returned to prison. These findings can be explained by combining the Social Control theory and the Self-Control theory which consider the period of time under EM program and the occupational and familial integration tools for reducing criminal connections and enhancing pro-social behavior. PMID:24510371

  4. Influence of motivations for seeking ISO 14001 certification on perceptions of EMS effectiveness in China.

    PubMed

    Fryxell, Gerald E; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung; Chung, Shan Shan

    2004-02-01

    This study examines the motivations of mainland Chinese facilities in seeking ISO 14001 certification and examines the linkages between these motivations and self-reports of the effectiveness of major environmental management system (EMS) components. In a sample of 128 facilities in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, the main drivers for certification were reported to be to ensure regulatory compliance, to enhance the firm's reputation, and to improve environmental performance, in that order. Although motivation to achieve cost reductions were least emphasized, a broad range of motivations appears to be considered in the decision to seek certification to ISO 14001. Regression models linking these motivations to the EMS components suggests that internal motivations have an influence on most EMS components. One interesting exception to this, however, is that no significant relationship was observed between internal motivations and the promulgation of environmental objectives and targets. The relationships associated with external motivations for certification (i.e., those in response to customer and other stakeholder pressures) and EMS components, on the other hand, are weaker and tend to occur earlier in the process cycle. No significant relationships were found between motivations to reduce costs and perceptions of the effectiveness of EMS components. Overall, these findings suggest that ISO 14001, as currently being implemented in mainland China, may have a modestly useful role when used in combination with other policy mechanisms to move the Chinese economy toward more sustainable practices. It is asserted that the ISO standard could provide even greater benefits if Chinese registrars were more proactive in developing EMS in conjunction with even more rigorous third-party audits.

  5. Mass Gathering Medical Care: Resource Document for the National Association of EMS Physicians Position Statement.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Brian; Nafziger, Sarah; Milsten, Andrew; Luk, Jeffrey; Yancey, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Mass gatherings are heterogeneous in terms of size, duration, type of event, crowd behavior, demographics of the participants and spectators, use of recreational substances, weather, and environment. The goals of health and medical services should be the provision of care for participants and spectators consistent with local standards of care, protection of continuing medical service to the populations surrounding the event venue, and preparation for surge to respond to extraordinary events. Pre-event planning among jurisdictional public health and EMS, acute care hospitals, and event EMS is essential, but should also include, at a minimum, event security services, public relations, facility maintenance, communications technicians, and the event planners and organizers. Previous documented experience with similar events has been shown to most accurately predict future needs. Future work in and guidance for mass gathering medical care should include the consistent use and further development of universally accepted consistent metrics, such as Patient Presentation Rate and Transfer to Hospital Rate. Only by standardizing data collection can evaluations be performed that link interventions with outcomes to enhance evidence-based EMS services at mass gatherings. Research is needed to evaluate the skills and interventions required by EMS providers to achieve desired outcomes. The event-dedicated EMS Medical Director is integral to acceptable quality medical care provided at mass gatherings; hence, he/she must be included in all aspects of mass gathering medical care planning, preparations, response, and recovery. Incorporation of jurisdictional EMS and community hospital medical leadership, and emergency practitioners into these processes will ensure that on-site care, transport, and transition to acute care at appropriate receiving facilities is consistent with, and fully integrated into the community's medical care system, while fulfilling the needs of event

  6. EMS transports patients to clinics--seeks to relieve ED crowding.

    PubMed

    2010-07-01

    With most EDs overcrowded and with no relief in sight, ED managers will take all the help they can get. In some areas of the country, the local EMS providers are looking to offer some relief by transporting less urgent patients to alternative sites such as urgent care clinics. EDs assist in the development of program protocols and processes. ED nurses are considered for consultation on whether a patient can appropriately be seen in a less urgent setting. EMS providers must be trained on the requirements patients must fulfill to be transported to an ED PMID:20608479

  7. Denoising of human speech using combined acoustic and em sensor signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Burnett, G C; Holzrichter, J F; Gable, T J

    1999-11-29

    Low Power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference. This greatly enhances the quality and quantify of information for many speech related applications. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J. Acoustic. Soc. Am. 103 (1) 622 (1998). By using combined Glottal-EM- Sensor- and Acoustic-signals, segments of voiced, unvoiced, and no-speech can be reliably defined. Real-time Denoising filters can be constructed to remove noise from the user's corresponding speech signal.

  8. Label-Free Visualization of Ultrastructural Features of Artificial Synapses via Cryo-EM

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The ultrastructural details of presynapses formed between artificial substrates of submicrometer silica beads and hippocampal neurons are visualized via cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The silica beads are derivatized by poly-d-lysine or lipid bilayers. Molecular features known to exist at presynapses are clearly present at these artificial synapses, as visualized by cryo-EM. Key synaptic features such as the membrane contact area at synaptic junctions, the presynaptic bouton containing presynaptic vesicles, as well as microtubular structures can be identified. This is the first report of the direct, label-free observation of ultrastructural details of artificial synapses. PMID:22860164

  9. Use of the AIC with the EM algorithm: A demonstration of a probability model selection technique

    SciTech Connect

    Glosup, J.G.; Axelrod M.C.

    1994-11-15

    The problem of discriminating between two potential probability models, a Gaussian distribution and a mixture of Gaussian distributions, is considered. The focus of our interest is a case where the models are potentially non-nested and the parameters of the mixture model are estimated through the EM algorithm. The AIC, which is frequently used as a criterion for discriminating between non-nested models, is modified to work with the EM algorithm and is shown to provide a model selection tool for this situation. A particular problem involving an infinite mixture distribution known as Middleton`s Class A model is used to demonstrate the effectiveness and limitations of this method.

  10. Rotating-bed reactor as a power source for EM gun applications

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.; Botts, T.; Stickley, C.M.; Meth, S.

    1980-01-01

    Electromagnetic gun applications of the Rotating Bed Reactor (RBR) are examined. The RBR is a compact (approx. 1 m/sup 3/), (up to several thousand MW(th)), high-power reactor concept, capable of producing a high-temperature (up to approx. 300/sup 0/K) gas stream with a MHD generator coupled to it, the RBR can generate electric power (up to approx. 1000 MW(e)) in the pulsed or cw modes. Three EM gun applications are investigated: a rail gun thruster for orbit transfer, a rapid-fire EM gun for point defense, and a direct ground-to-space launch. The RBR appears suitable for all applications.

  11. Study on rheo-diecasting process of 7075R alloys by SA-EMS melt homogenized treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhihua, G.; Jun, X.; Zhifeng, Z.; Guojun, L.; Mengou, T.

    2016-03-01

    An advanced melt processing technology, spiral annular electromagnetic stirring (SA-EMS) based on the annular electromagnetic stirring (A-EMS) process was developed for manufacturing Al-alloy components with high integrity. The SA-EMS process innovatively combines non-contact electromagnetic stirring and a spiral annular chamber with specially designed profiles to in situ make high quality melt slurry, and intensive forced shearing can be achieved under high shear rate and high intensity of turbulence inside the spiral annular chamber. In this paper, the solidification microstructure and hardness of 7075R alloy die-casting connecting rod conditioned by the SA-EMS melt processing technology were investigated. The results indicate that, the SA-EMS melt processing technology exhibited superior grain refinement and remarkable structure homogeneity. In addition, it can evidently enhance the mechanical performance and reduce the crack tendency.

  12. Detecção inesperada de efeitos de lentes fracas em grupos de galáxias pouco luminosos em raios-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, R.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Cypriano, E. S.; Lengruber, L. L.; Cuevas, H.; Ramirez, A.

    2003-08-01

    Obtivemos, como parte do programa de verificação científica do GMOS Sul, imagens profundas de três grupos de galáxias: G97 e G102 (z~0,4) e G124 (z = 0,17). Esses alvos foram selecionados a partir do catálogo de fontes extensas de Vikhlinin (1998), por terem luminosidades em raios X menores que 3´1043 ergs s-1, valor cerca de uma ou duas ordens de grandeza inferior ao de aglomerados de galáxias. O objetivo primário dessas observações é o estudo da evolução de galáxias em grupos. Grupos são ambientes menos densos que aglomerados, contêm a grande maioria das galáxias do Universo mas que, até o momento, foram estudados detalhadamente apenas no Universo local (z~0). Com esses dados efetuamos uma análise estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes gravitacionais fracas) como forma de inferir o conteúdo e a distribuição de massa nesses grupos apesar de que, em princípio, esse efeito não deveria ser detectado uma vez que os critérios de seleção adotados previlegiam sistemas de baixa massa. De fato, para G124 obtivemos apenas um limite superior para sua massa que é compatível com sua luminosidade em raios X. De modo contrário e surpreendente, os objetos G102 e G097, aparentam ter massas que resultariam em dispersões de velocidade maiores que 1000 km s-1, muito maiores do que se espera para grupos de galáxias. Com efeito, para G097 obtivemos, a partir de dados do satélite XMM, uma estimativa para a temperatura do gás intragrupo de kT = 2,6 keV, que é tipica de sistemas com dispersões de velocidade de ~ 600 km s-1, bem característica de grupos. Essas contradições aparentes entre lentes fracas e raios X podem ser explicadas de dois modos: i) a massa obtida por lentes estaria sobreestimada devido à superposição de estruturas massivas ao longo da linha de visada ou ii) a temperatura do gás do meio intra-grupo reflete o potencial gravitacional de estruturas menores que estariam se fundindo para formar uma

  13. 6. PHOTOCOPY, FOUNDATION AND FLOOR PLAN DRAWING OF E.M. BARRACKS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. PHOTOCOPY, FOUNDATION AND FLOOR PLAN DRAWING OF E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS QUARTERS. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  14. 3D time-domain airborne EM modeling for an arbitrarily anisotropic earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Changchun; Qi, Yanfu; Liu, Yunhe

    2016-08-01

    Time-domain airborne EM data is currently interpreted based on an isotropic model. Sometimes, it can be problematic when working in the region with distinct dipping stratifications. In this paper, we simulate the 3D time-domain airborne EM responses over an arbitrarily anisotropic earth with topography by edge-based finite-element method. Tetrahedral meshes are used to describe the abnormal bodies with complicated shapes. We further adopt the Backward Euler scheme to discretize the time-domain diffusion equation for electric field, obtaining an unconditionally stable linear equations system. We verify the accuracy of our 3D algorithm by comparing with 1D solutions for an anisotropic half-space. Then, we switch attentions to effects of anisotropic media on the strengths and the diffusion patterns of time-domain airborne EM responses. For numerical experiments, we adopt three typical anisotropic models: 1) an anisotropic anomalous body embedded in an isotropic half-space; 2) an isotropic anomalous body embedded in an anisotropic half-space; 3) an anisotropic half-space with topography. The modeling results show that the electric anisotropy of the subsurface media has big effects on both the strengths and the distribution patterns of time-domain airborne EM responses; this effect needs to be taken into account when interpreting ATEM data in areas with distinct anisotropy.

  15. Lessons in Generative Design, Publishing, and Circulation: What EM-Journal's First Year Has Taught Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosinski, Jana; Lonsdale, Chelsea; Morrison, Becky; Mueller, Derek; Nannini, Adam

    2013-01-01

    "EM-Journal" is a flexibly refereed online journal featuring writing produced by students of Eastern Michigan University. The journal showcases a variety of documents (articles, essays, reports, etc.) written and designed by students enrolled in EMU's First-Year Writing (FYW) program, in selected Writing Intensive (WI) courses affiliated with the…

  16. Are you under stress in EMS. Understanding the slippery slope of burnout and PTSD.

    PubMed

    Collopy, Kevin T; Kivlehan, Sean M; Snyder, Scott R

    2012-10-01

    Burnout and PTSD are closely linked and often underreported in EMS. EMS classrooms do little or nothing to prepare providers for the inherent emotional stresses of emergency response and the "thick skin" culture of EMS may make many providers apprehensive about sharing their true feelings. Burnout is triggered by many of the same stresses that lead to the symptoms of PTSD and providers experiencing burnout that doesn't resolve within a few weeks may actually be experiencing PTSD. Be mindful of yourself and your fellow coworkers, particularly after a very traumatic response. And remember traumatic responses don't need to be as dramatic as Sept. 11, New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina or the Aurora, CO shootings to bother an EMS worker. In contrast, these are the calls where providers often receive the most attention. Instead, watch for the new father who just performed CPR on an infant the same age as his own, or the provider who just watched his or her friend die following a motor vehicle collision. Pay attention to yourself and colleagues, and be responsible and honest with yourself and others about when coping strategies are enough, and when they aren't. Finally, don't ever be afraid to seek help.

  17. New Jersey's EMS response to Superstorm Sandy: a case study of the emergency management assistance compact.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Terry; Christensen, Kenneth; Cortacans, Henry P

    2014-06-01

    In the United States, understanding the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) is critical to responding to a natural disaster or manmade event. Recently, the State of New Jersey responded to Superstorm Sandy and implemented the EMAC system by requesting ambulances to aid in the Emergency Medical Services response. New Jersey's response to Superstorm Sandy was unprecedented in that this storm affected the entire state and EMS community. New Jersey's EMS community and infrastructure were impacted greatly, despite years of planning and preparation for such an event. Once received, out-of-state EMS resources were integrated into New Jersey's emergency management and EMS systems. In this report, each phase of the EMAC in New Jersey is explored, from how the response was coordinated to how it ultimately was executed. The state coordinated its response on multiple levels and, as such, tested the practical applicability of the EMAC process and employed best practices and solutions to issues that arose. These best practices and solutions may prove invaluable for any state or territory that may activate the EMAC system for emergency medical service resources.

  18. Back strength and flexibility of EMS providers in practicing prehospital providers.

    PubMed

    Crill, Matthew T; Hostler, David

    2005-06-01

    In the execution of prehospital care duties, an EMS provider may be required to carry equipment and patients over long distances or over multiple flights of stairs at any time of the day. At a minimum, a prehospital provider must have sufficient lower back strength and hamstring flexibility to prevent musculoskeletal injury while lifting. This study administered fitness assessments related to the occupational activities of the prehospital provider with the purpose of describing the incidence of occupational back injury and percentage of providers with known risk factors for back injury. Ninety subjects were tested during a regional EMS conference. Men were significantly taller and heavier than women and had significantly less hamstring flexibility. Body Mass Index was 30.7 +/- 7.2 in men and 28 +/- 5.7 in women. However, no significant differences were noted in an extension test of back strength. When surveyed, 47.8% of subjects reported a back injury in the previous 6 months but only 39.1% of these injuries were sustained while performing EMS duties. While only 13% of these injuries resulted in missed work, 52.2% reported their injury interfered with their daily activities. In spite of the physical nature of the profession, EMS providers in our sample were significantly overweight according to their Body Mass Index and may lack sufficient back strength and flexibilityfor safe execution of their duties. This group of professionals may be at risk for occupational injury and should be targeted for interventions to improve strength and flexibility.

  19. An EM Algorithm for Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Process Factor Analysis Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Taehun

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is developed and implemented to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters and the associated standard error estimates characterizing temporal flows for the latent variable time series following stationary vector ARMA processes, as well as the parameters defining the…

  20. Saudi EMS Students' Perception of and Attitudes toward Their Preparedness for Disaster Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrazeeni, Daifallah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disasters led not only to the loss of life and destruction of public infrastructures, but also resulted in consequent healthcare delivery concerns. Disaster preparedness is considered one of the key steps in emergency management. EMS students had very scanty knowledge, attitude and practices about disaster preparedness and mitigation.…

  1. Are you under stress in EMS. Understanding the slippery slope of burnout and PTSD.

    PubMed

    Collopy, Kevin T; Kivlehan, Sean M; Snyder, Scott R

    2012-10-01

    Burnout and PTSD are closely linked and often underreported in EMS. EMS classrooms do little or nothing to prepare providers for the inherent emotional stresses of emergency response and the "thick skin" culture of EMS may make many providers apprehensive about sharing their true feelings. Burnout is triggered by many of the same stresses that lead to the symptoms of PTSD and providers experiencing burnout that doesn't resolve within a few weeks may actually be experiencing PTSD. Be mindful of yourself and your fellow coworkers, particularly after a very traumatic response. And remember traumatic responses don't need to be as dramatic as Sept. 11, New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina or the Aurora, CO shootings to bother an EMS worker. In contrast, these are the calls where providers often receive the most attention. Instead, watch for the new father who just performed CPR on an infant the same age as his own, or the provider who just watched his or her friend die following a motor vehicle collision. Pay attention to yourself and colleagues, and be responsible and honest with yourself and others about when coping strategies are enough, and when they aren't. Finally, don't ever be afraid to seek help. PMID:23097838

  2. The Role of Journals in Building up Communities: The Experience of "Ciência em Tela"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Isabel; de Souza Barros, Susana

    2015-01-01

    "Ciência em Tela" is an open access Brazilian science teacher education online journal that has been published twice a year since 2008 and which encourages the participation of professionals with different backgrounds and the submission of a variety of textual genres, besides research papers. Another feature is that the journal includes…

  3. Injury risks of EMS responders: evidence from the National Fire Fighter Near-Miss Reporting System

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jennifer A; Davis, Andrea L; Barnes, Brittany; Lacovara, Alicia V; Patel, Reema

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We analysed near-miss and injury events reported to the National Fire Fighter Near-Miss Reporting System (NFFNMRS) to investigate the workplace hazards and safety concerns of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) responders in the USA. Methods We reviewed 769 ‘non-fire emergency event’ reports from the NFFNMRS using a mixed methods approach. We identified 185 emergency medical calls and analysed their narrative text fields. We assigned Mechanism of Near-Miss/Injury and Nature of Injury codes and then tabulated frequencies (quantitative). We coded major themes regarding work hazards and safety concerns reported by the EMS responders (qualitative). Results Of the 185 emergency medical calls, the most commonly identified Mechanisms of Near-Miss/Injury to EMS responders was Assaults, followed by Struck-by Motor Vehicle, and Motor Vehicle Collision. The most commonly identified weapon used in an assault was a firearm. We identified 5 major domains of workplace hazards and safety concerns: Assaults by Patients, Risks from Motor Vehicles, Personal Protective Equipment, Relationships between Emergency Responders, and Policies, Procedures and Practices. Conclusions Narrative text from the NFFNMRS is a rich source of data that can be analysed quantitatively and qualitatively to provide insight into near-misses and injuries sustained by EMS responders. Near-miss reporting systems are critical components for occupational hazard surveillance. PMID:26068510

  4. DeepPicker: A deep learning approach for fully automated particle picking in cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Gong, Huichao; Liu, Gaochao; Li, Meijing; Yan, Chuangye; Xia, Tian; Li, Xueming; Zeng, Jianyang

    2016-09-01

    Particle picking is a time-consuming step in single-particle analysis and often requires significant interventions from users, which has become a bottleneck for future automated electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM). Here we report a deep learning framework, called DeepPicker, to address this problem and fill the current gaps toward a fully automated cryo-EM pipeline. DeepPicker employs a novel cross-molecule training strategy to capture common features of particles from previously-analyzed micrographs, and thus does not require any human intervention during particle picking. Tests on the recently-published cryo-EM data of three complexes have demonstrated that our deep learning based scheme can successfully accomplish the human-level particle picking process and identify a sufficient number of particles that are comparable to those picked manually by human experts. These results indicate that DeepPicker can provide a practically useful tool to significantly reduce the time and manual effort spent in single-particle analysis and thus greatly facilitate high-resolution cryo-EM structure determination. DeepPicker is released as an open-source program, which can be downloaded from https://github.com/nejyeah/DeepPicker-python. PMID:27424268

  5. A tailored ML-EM algorithm for reconstruction of truncated projection data using few view angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yanfei; Zeng, Gengsheng L.

    2013-06-01

    Dedicated cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) systems have the advantage of high speed and sensitivity at no loss, or even a gain, in resolution. The potential drawbacks of these dedicated systems are data truncation by the small field of view (FOV) and the lack of view angles. Serious artifacts, including streaks outside the FOV and distortion in the FOV, are introduced to the reconstruction when using the traditional emission data maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (ML-EM) algorithm to reconstruct images from the truncated data with a small number of views. In this note, we propose a tailored ML-EM algorithm to suppress the artifacts caused by data truncation and insufficient angular sampling by reducing the image updating step sizes for the pixels outside the FOV. As a consequence, the convergence speed for the pixels outside the FOV is decelerated. We applied the proposed algorithm to truncated analytical data, Monte Carlo simulation data and real emission data with different numbers of views. The computer simulation results show that the tailored ML-EM algorithm outperforms the conventional ML-EM algorithm in terms of streak artifacts and distortion suppression for reconstruction from truncated projection data with a small number of views.

  6. Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM): Background and Applications of Data Automation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM) project demonstrates the development of a comprehensive set of open source software tools that overcome obstacles to accessing data needed by automating the process of populating model input data sets with environmental data available fr...

  7. DeepPicker: A deep learning approach for fully automated particle picking in cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Gong, Huichao; Liu, Gaochao; Li, Meijing; Yan, Chuangye; Xia, Tian; Li, Xueming; Zeng, Jianyang

    2016-09-01

    Particle picking is a time-consuming step in single-particle analysis and often requires significant interventions from users, which has become a bottleneck for future automated electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM). Here we report a deep learning framework, called DeepPicker, to address this problem and fill the current gaps toward a fully automated cryo-EM pipeline. DeepPicker employs a novel cross-molecule training strategy to capture common features of particles from previously-analyzed micrographs, and thus does not require any human intervention during particle picking. Tests on the recently-published cryo-EM data of three complexes have demonstrated that our deep learning based scheme can successfully accomplish the human-level particle picking process and identify a sufficient number of particles that are comparable to those picked manually by human experts. These results indicate that DeepPicker can provide a practically useful tool to significantly reduce the time and manual effort spent in single-particle analysis and thus greatly facilitate high-resolution cryo-EM structure determination. DeepPicker is released as an open-source program, which can be downloaded from https://github.com/nejyeah/DeepPicker-python.

  8. New Jersey's EMS response to Superstorm Sandy: a case study of the emergency management assistance compact.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Terry; Christensen, Kenneth; Cortacans, Henry P

    2014-06-01

    In the United States, understanding the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) is critical to responding to a natural disaster or manmade event. Recently, the State of New Jersey responded to Superstorm Sandy and implemented the EMAC system by requesting ambulances to aid in the Emergency Medical Services response. New Jersey's response to Superstorm Sandy was unprecedented in that this storm affected the entire state and EMS community. New Jersey's EMS community and infrastructure were impacted greatly, despite years of planning and preparation for such an event. Once received, out-of-state EMS resources were integrated into New Jersey's emergency management and EMS systems. In this report, each phase of the EMAC in New Jersey is explored, from how the response was coordinated to how it ultimately was executed. The state coordinated its response on multiple levels and, as such, tested the practical applicability of the EMAC process and employed best practices and solutions to issues that arose. These best practices and solutions may prove invaluable for any state or territory that may activate the EMAC system for emergency medical service resources. PMID:24844291

  9. 6. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATION DRAWING FOR E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATION DRAWING FOR E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS QUARTERS. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 2, North end of base, southeast of Barracks No. 1 & northeast of Mess Hall, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  10. 12 Years of Action Learning at EM Normandie: Monitored Field Projects as Regular Pedagogical Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anger, Sophie Gay; Hachard, Virginie

    2011-01-01

    The Master Grande Ecole curriculum at EM Normandie School is organized around junior consulting projects and real problem solving activities aiming at bridging the gap between classroom knowledge and professional competencies. Since the 90's, students are involved in regular consulting activities for local and national companies following the…

  11. Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) Status and Compliance Requirements for EM Consolidated Business Center Contracts - 13204

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, P.C.; Moe, M.A.; Hombach, W.G.; Urdangaray, R.

    2013-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has developed a web-accessible database to collect actual cost data from completed EM projects to support cost estimating and analysis. This Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) database was initially deployed in early 2009 containing the cost and parametric data from 77 decommissioning, restoration, and waste management projects completed under the Rocky Flats Closure Project. In subsequent years we have added many more projects to ECAS and now have a total of 280 projects from 8 major DOE sites. This data is now accessible to DOE users through a web-based reporting tool that allows users to tailor report outputs to meet their specific needs. We are using it as a principal resource supporting the EM Consolidated Business Center (EMCBC) and the EM Applied Cost Engineering (ACE) team cost estimating and analysis efforts across the country. The database has received Government Accountability Office review as supporting its recommended improvements in DOE's cost estimating process, as well as review from the DOE Office of Acquisition and Project Management (APM). Moving forward, the EMCBC has developed a Special Contract Requirement clause or 'H-Clause' to be included in all current and future EMCBC procurements identifying the process that contractors will follow to provide DOE their historical project data in a format compatible with ECAS. Changes to DOE O 413.3B implementation are also in progress to capture historical costs as part of the Critical Decision project closeout process. (authors)

  12. Analysis of lipid nanoparticles by Cryo-EM for characterizing siRNA delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Randy; Dogdas, Belma; Keough, Edward; Haas, R Matthew; Wepukhulu, Wickliffe; Krotzer, Steven; Burke, Paul A; Sepp-Lorenzino, Laura; Bagchi, Ansuman; Howell, Bonnie J

    2011-01-17

    Lipid nanoparticles are self-assembling, dynamic structures commonly used as carriers of siRNA, DNA, and small molecular therapeutics. Quantitative analysis of particle characteristics such as morphological features can be very informative as biophysical properties are known to influence biological activity, biodistribution, and toxicity. However, accurate characterization of particle attributes and population distributions is difficult. Cryo-Electron Microscopy (Cryo-EM) is a leading characterization method and can reveal diversity in particle size, shape and lamellarity, however, this approach is traditionally used for qualitative review or low throughput image analysis due to inherent EM micrograph contrast characteristics and artifacts in the images which limit extraction of quantitative feature values. In this paper we describe the development of a semiautomatic image analysis framework to facilitate reliable image enhancement, object segmentation, and quantification of nanoparticle attributes in Cryo-EM micrographs. We apply this approach to characterize two formulations of siRNA-loaded lipid nanoparticles composed of cationic lipid, cholesterol, and poly(ethylene glycol)-lipid, where the formulations differ only by input component ratios. We found Cryo-EM image analysis provided reliable size and morphology information as well as the detection of smaller particle populations that were not detected by standard dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis.

  13. EMS runs for suspected opioid overdose: Implications for surveillance and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, Amy; Weir, Brian; Hazzard, Frank; Olsen, Yngvild; McWilliams, Junette; Fields, Julie; Gaasch, Wade

    2013-01-01

    Objective Opioid (including prescription opiate) abuse and overdose rates in the US have surged in the past decade. The dearth and limitations of opioid abuse and overdose surveillance systems impede the development of interventions to address this epidemic. We explored evidence to support the validity of emergency medical services (EMS) data on naloxone administration as a possible proxy for estimating incidence of opioid overdose. Methods We reviewed data from Baltimore City Fire Department EMS patient records matched with dispatch records over a thirteen month time period (2008-2009), and census 2008 data. We calculated incidence rates and patient demographic and temporal patterns of naloxone administration, and examined patient evaluation data associated with naloxone administration. Results were compared to the demographic distributions of the EMS patient and city population and to prior study findings. Results Of 116,910 EMS incidents during the study period for patients 15 years and older, EMS providers administered naloxone 1,297 times (1.1% of incidents), an average of 100 administrations per month. Overall incidence was 1.87 administrations per 1,000 population per year. Findings indicated naloxone administration peaked in summer months (31% of administrations), weekends (32%), and late afternoon (4-5:00pm [8%]); and there was a trend toward peaking in the first week of the month. The incidence of suspected opioid overdose was highest among males, whites, and those in the 45-54 year age group. Findings on temporal patterns were comparable to findings from prior studies. Demographic patterns of suspected opioid overdose were similar to medical examiner reports of demographic patterns of fatal drug or alcohol related overdoses in Baltimore in 2008-9 (88% of which involved opioids). The findings on patient evaluation data suggest some inconsistencies with previously recommended clinical indications of opioid overdose. Conclusions While our findings suggest

  14. Astronomia para/com crianças carentes em Limeira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Oliveira, V. C.

    2003-08-01

    Em 2001, o Instituto Superior de Ciências Aplicadas (ISCA Faculdades de Limeira) iniciou um projeto pelo qual o Observatório do Morro Azul empreendeu uma parceria com o Centro de Promoção Social Municipal (CEPROSOM), instituição mantida pela Prefeitura Municipal de Limeira para atender crianças e adolescentes carentes. O CEPROSOM contava com dois projetos: Projeto Centro de Convivência Infantil (CCI) e Programa Criança e Adolescente (PCA), que atendiam crianças e adolescentes em Centros Comunitários de diversas áreas da cidade. Esses projetos têm como prioridades estabelecer atividades prazerosas para as crianças no sentido de retirá-las das ruas. Assim sendo, as crianças passaram a ter mais um tipo de atividade - as visitas ao observatório. Este painel descreve as várias fases do projeto, que envolveu: reuniões de planejamento, curso de Astronomia para as orientadoras dos CCIs e PCAs, atividades relacionadas a visitas das crianças ao Observatório, proposta de construção de gnômons e relógios de Sol nos diversos Centros Comunitários de Limeira e divulgação do projeto na imprensa. O painel inclui discussões sobre a aprendizagem de crianças carentes, relatos que mostram a postura das orientadoras sobre a pertinência do ensino de Astronomia, relatos do monitor que fez o atendimento no Observatório e o que o número de crianças atendidas representou para as atividades da instituição desde o início de suas atividades e, em particular, em 2001. Os resultados são baseados na análise de relatos das orientadoras e do monitor do Observatório, registros de visitas e matérias da imprensa local. Conclui com uma avaliação do que tal projeto representou para as Instituições participantes. Para o Observatório, em particular, foi feita uma análise com relação às outras modalidades de atendimentos que envolvem alunos de escolas e público em geral. Também é abordada a questão do compromisso social do Observatório na educação do

  15. Ambiente e formação estelar em galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateus, A., Jr.; Sodré, L., Jr.

    2003-08-01

    Estudamos o ambiente de galáxias com formação estelar inicialmente a partir de uma amostra limitada em volume proveniente do 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. Discriminamos as galáxias com formação estelar com base em distintas classes espectrais, utilizando para esta classificação as larguras equivalentes das linhas [OII]l3727 e Hd. O ambiente é caracterizado pela densidade espacial local de galáxias. Mostramos que a fração de galáxias com formação estelar é bastante reduzida em ambientes densos, enquanto a de galáxias passivas aumenta nestas regiões. Por outro lado, quando analisamos a fração de galáxias que apresentam um surto recente de formação estelar, notamos que ela independe do ambiente, sendo que em regiões mais densas alguns destes objetos apresentam distorções em sua morfologia. Estes resultados são confrontados com a análise da dependência ambiental da taxa de formação estelar, estimada pela emissão em Ha, de uma amostra extraída do Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Um declínio gradual da formação estelar também é observado nesta análise, sugerindo que as interações por efeitos de maré sejam responsáveis pela redução da formação estelar em ambientes densos através da remoção do reservatório de gás das galáxias. No entanto, estas interações também podem induzir surtos de formação estelar nas galáxias, além de peculiaridades morfológicas observadas nos objetos que habitam regiões mais densas.

  16. Quality assurance guidance for field sampling and measurement assessment plates in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This document is one of several guidance documents developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). These documents support the EM Analytical Services Program (ASP) and are based on applicable regulatory requirements and DOE Orders. They address requirements in DOE Orders by providing guidance that pertains specifically to environmental restoration and waste management sampling and analysis activities. DOE 5700.6C Quality Assurance (QA) defines policy and requirements to establish QA programs ensuring that risks and environmental impacts are minimized and that safety, reliability, and performance are maximized. This is accomplished through the application of effective management systems commensurate with the risks imposed by the facility and the project. Every organization supporting EM`s environmental sampling and analysis activities must develop and document a QA program. Management of each organization is responsible for appropriate QA program implementation, assessment, and improvement. The collection of credible and cost-effective environmental data is critical to the long-term success of remedial and waste management actions performed at DOE facilities. Only well established and management supported assessment programs within each EM-support organization will enable DOE to demonstrate data quality. The purpose of this series of documents is to offer specific guidance for establishing an effective assessment program for EM`s environmental sampling and analysis (ESA) activities.

  17. Fabrication of carbon films with ∼ 500nm holes for cryo-EM with a direct detector device.

    PubMed

    Marr, Chelsea R; Benlekbir, Samir; Rubinstein, John L

    2014-01-01

    Single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) is often performed using EM grids coated with a perforated or holey layer of amorphous carbon. Regular arrays of holes enable efficient cryo-EM data collection and several methods for the production of micropatterned holey-carbon film coated grids have been described. However, a new generation of direct detector device (DDD) electron microscope cameras can benefit from hole diameters that are smaller than currently available. Here we extend a previously proposed method involving soft lithography with a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamp for the production of holey-carbon film coated EM grids. By incorporating electron-beam (e-beam) lithography and modifying the procedure, we are able to produce low-cost high-quality holey-carbon film coated EM grids with ∼500nm holes spaced 4μm apart centre-to-centre. We demonstrate that these grids can be used for cryo-EM. Furthermore, we show that by applying image shifts to obtain movies of the carbon regions beside the holes after imaging the holes, the contrast transfer function (CTF) parameters needed for calculation of high-resolution cryo-EM maps with a DDD can be obtained efficiently.

  18. Fabrication of carbon films with ∼ 500nm holes for cryo-EM with a direct detector device.

    PubMed

    Marr, Chelsea R; Benlekbir, Samir; Rubinstein, John L

    2014-01-01

    Single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) is often performed using EM grids coated with a perforated or holey layer of amorphous carbon. Regular arrays of holes enable efficient cryo-EM data collection and several methods for the production of micropatterned holey-carbon film coated grids have been described. However, a new generation of direct detector device (DDD) electron microscope cameras can benefit from hole diameters that are smaller than currently available. Here we extend a previously proposed method involving soft lithography with a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamp for the production of holey-carbon film coated EM grids. By incorporating electron-beam (e-beam) lithography and modifying the procedure, we are able to produce low-cost high-quality holey-carbon film coated EM grids with ∼500nm holes spaced 4μm apart centre-to-centre. We demonstrate that these grids can be used for cryo-EM. Furthermore, we show that by applying image shifts to obtain movies of the carbon regions beside the holes after imaging the holes, the contrast transfer function (CTF) parameters needed for calculation of high-resolution cryo-EM maps with a DDD can be obtained efficiently. PMID:24269484

  19. Echinococcus multilocularis phosphoglucose isomerase (EmPGI): a glycolytic enzyme involved in metacestode growth and parasite-host cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Stadelmann, Britta; Spiliotis, Markus; Müller, Joachim; Scholl, Sabrina; Müller, Norbert; Gottstein, Bruno; Hemphill, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    In Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes, the surface-associated and highly glycosylated laminated layer, and molecules associated with this structure, is believed to be involved in modulating the host-parasite interface. We report on the molecular and functional characterisation of E. multilocularis phosphoglucose isomerase (EmPGI), which is a component of this laminated layer. The EmPGI amino acid sequence is virtually identical to that of its homologue in Echinococcus granulosus, and shares 64% identity and 86% similarity with human PGI. Mammalian PGI is a multi-functional protein which, besides its glycolytic function, can also act as a cytokine, growth factor and inducer of angiogenesis, and plays a role in tumour growth, development and metastasis formation. Recombinant EmPGI (recEmPGI) is also functionally active as a glycolytic enzyme and was found to be present, besides the laminated layer, in vesicle fluid and in germinal layer cell extracts. EmPGI is released from metacestodes and induces a humoral immune response in experimentally infected mice, and vaccination of mice with recEmPGI renders these mice more resistant towards secondary challenge infection, indicating that EmPGI plays an important role in parasite development and/or in modulating the host-parasite relationship. We show that recEmPGI stimulates the growth of isolated E. multilocularis germinal layer cells in vitro and selectively stimulates the proliferation of bovine adrenal cortex endothelial cells but not of human fibroblasts and rat hepatocytes. Thus, besides its role in glycolysis, EmPGI could also act as a factor that stimulates parasite growth and potentially induces the formation of novel blood vessels around the developing metacestode in vivo.

  20. National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and Implementation Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller Consulting, Inc.; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; Galawish, Elsia

    2011-02-04

    This report is a scoping study that identifies issues associated with developing a national evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) standard for end-use, non-transportation, energy efficiency activities. The objectives of this study are to identify the scope of such a standard and define EM&V requirements and issues that will need to be addressed in a standard. To explore these issues, we provide and discuss: (1) a set of definitions applicable to an EM&V standard; (2) a literature review of existing guidelines, standards, and 'initiatives' relating to EM&V standards as well as a review of 'bottom-up' versus 'top-down' evaluation approaches; (3) a summary of EM&V related provisions of two recent federal legislative proposals (Congressman Waxman's and Markey's American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 and Senator Bingaman's American Clean Energy Leadership Act of 2009) that include national efficiency resource requirements; (4) an annotated list of issues that that are likely to be central to, and need to be considered when, developing a national EM&V standard; and (5) a discussion of the implications of such issues. There are three primary reasons for developing a national efficiency EM&V standard. First, some policy makers, regulators and practitioners believe that a national standard would streamline EM&V implementation, reduce costs and complexity, and improve comparability of results across jurisdictions; although there are benefits associated with each jurisdiction setting its own EM&V requirements based on their specific portfolio and evaluation budgets and objectives. Secondly, if energy efficiency is determined by the US Environmental Protection Agency to be a Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for avoiding criteria pollutant and/or greenhouse gas emissions, then a standard can be required for documenting the emission reductions resulting from efficiency actions. The third reason for a national EM&V standard is that such a standard is

  1. Ondas de choque em jatos de quasares e objetos BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, F. E.; Botti, L. C. L.

    2003-08-01

    Este trabalho é parte de um projeto que vem sendo realizado há dois anos no CRAAM, cujos objetivos principais são analisar e aplicar um modelo generalizado de ondas de choque em jatos relativísticos de plasma, presentes em quasares e objetos BL Lacertae, para explicar a variabilidade observada nestes objetos. O método consiste em uma decomposição de curvas de luz em séries de explosões similares, em várias freqüências, baseando-se em uma evolução espectro-temporal média das explosões. A partir da evolução média, um ajuste de cada explosão é feito com base em equações empíricas, modificando-se apenas parâmetros específicos de cada explosão. Inicialmente o modelo foi aplicado ajustando-se as curvas de luz a explosões delineadas por uma evolução do choque em três estágios, segundo a predominância do processo de emissão: síncrotron, Compton e adiabático. Entretanto, nesta nova fase de projeto, visando uma parametrização mais concisa, uma otimização do algoritmo de ajuste e uma convergência mais rápida, a formulação para cada evento foi assumida com uma evolução em apenas dois estágios: subida e descida. Isto possibilitou uma ótima delineação das curvas de luz das fontes OV236, OJ287, 3C273 e BL Lac, entre 1980 e 2000, nas freqüências 4.8, 8.0, 14.5 e 22 GHz, utilizando-se dados do Observatório da Universidade de Michigan, do Observatório do Itapetinga (Atibaia SP) e do Observatório Metsähovi. Como conclusões importantes, verificou-se que: os parâmetros ajustados descrevem o comportamento do jato; os valores do índice que descreve a expansão do jato sugerem que o mesmo se expande de uma forma não-cônica; o campo magnético é turbulento atrás da frente de choque; e as peculiaridades das explosões são devidas à influência de grandezas tais como o coeficiente da distribuição espectral de energia dos elétrons, a intensidade de campo magnético e o fator de feixe Doppler, no início do choque.

  2. BSSDATA - um programa otimizado para filtragem de dados em radioastronomia solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinon, A. R. F.; Sawant, H. S.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Stephany, S.; Preto, A. J.; Dobrowolski, K. M.

    2003-08-01

    A partir de 1998, entrou em operação regular no INPE, em São José dos Campos, o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS). O BSS é dedicado às observações de explosões solares decimétricas com alta resolução temporal e espectral, com a principal finalidade de investigar fenômenos associados com a liberação de energia dos "flares" solares. Entre os anos de 1999 e 2002, foram catalogadas, aproximadamente 340 explosões solares classificadas em 8 tipos distintos, de acordo com suas características morfológicas. Na análise detalhada de cada tipo, ou grupo, de explosões solares deve-se considerar a variação do fluxo do sol calmo ("background"), em função da freqüência e a variação temporal, além da complexidade das explosões e estruturas finas registradas superpostas ao fundo variável. Com o intuito de realizar tal análise foi desenvolvido o programa BSSData. Este programa, desenvolvido em linguagem C++, é constituído de várias ferramentas que auxiliam no tratamento e análise dos dados registrados pelo BSS. Neste trabalho iremos abordar as ferramentas referentes à filtragem do ruído de fundo. As rotinas do BSSData para filtragem de ruído foram testadas nos diversos grupos de explosões solares ("dots", "fibra", "lace", "patch", "spikes", "tipo III" e "zebra") alcançando um bom resultado na diminuição do ruído de fundo e obtendo, em conseqüência, dados onde o sinal torna-se mais homogêneo ressaltando as áreas onde existem explosões solares e tornando mais precisas as determinações dos parâmetros observacionais de cada explosão. Estes resultados serão apresentados e discutidos.

  3. 200 city survey. JEMS 2001 annual report on EMS operational & clinical trends in large, urban areas.

    PubMed

    Cady, Geoff

    2002-02-01

    This year's survey offered examples of evolving partnerships between the public and EMS providers with a growing number of systems implementing PAD programs. The apparent influence of a communication center's managing agency on prioritization strategies is concerning. However, further study is needed. EMS managers must pay careful attention to comm center practices and technology to ensure their ability to support response prioritization and the efficient management of EMS resources. The small reduction in the use of hot response (lights and siren) to every request for service is disappointing in light of medical literature and position statements that condemn this practice. Resource response can be safely prioritized using today's EMD protocol systems. Prioritization and changing response [figure: see text] time requirements to address impending revenue and service demand changes will require additional standardization of methodologies and reporting of response times to relate this measure to other system performance indicators (e.g., patient morbidity/mortality, cost, customer satisfaction, etc.). The future presents a difficult road for system administrators. However, the adoption of a growing number of information-management tools and changes in procedures and dispatch processes offer potential solutions. The increased use of hand-held computers or personal digital assistant (PDAs) to gather and provide information and the almost universal use of CAD will aid providers in performing the research necessary to change response time performance requirements, improving EMS system efficiency. Use of this technology will also likely improve patient care and reimbursement through more timely and accurate reporting and analysis. The medical director's role will be critical to ensuring potential changes don't compromise patient care. Obtaining a better understanding of how much time can safely elapse between the time of the 9-1-1 call and when patient-care activities

  4. EM23, A Natural Sesquiterpene Lactone from Elephantopus mollis, Induces Apoptosis in Human Myeloid Leukemia Cells through Thioredoxin- and Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongyu; Li, Manmei; Wang, Guocai; Shao, Fangyuan; Chen, Wenbo; Xia, Chao; Wang, Sheng; Li, Yaolan; Zhou, Guangxiong; Liu, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Elephantopus mollis (EM) is a traditional herbal medicine with multiple pharmacological activities. However, the efficacy of EM in treating human leukemia is currently unknown. In the current study, we report that EM23, a natural sesquiterpene lactone isolated from EM, inhibits the proliferation of human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) K562 cells and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) HL-60 cells by inducing apoptosis. Translocation of membrane-associated phospholipid phosphatidylserines, changes in cell morphology, activation of caspases, and cleavage of PARP were concomitant with this inhibition. The involvement of the mitochondrial pathway in EM23-mediated apoptosis was suggested by observed disruptions in mitochondrial membrane potential. Mechanistic studies indicated that EM23 caused a marked increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a ROS scavenger, almost fully reversed EM23-mediated apoptosis. In EM23-treated cells, the expression levels of thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxinreductase (TrxR), two components of the Trx system involved in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis, were significantly down-regulated. Concomitantly, Trx regulated the activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and its downstream regulatory targets, the p38, JNK, and ERK MAPKs. EM23-mediated activation of ASK1/MAPKs was significantly inhibited in the presence of NAC. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-mediated activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was suppressed by EM23, as suggested by the observed blockage of p65 nuclear translocation, phosphorylation, and reversion of IκBα degradation following EM23 treatment. Taken together, these results provide important insights into the anticancer activities of the EM component EM23 against human CML K562 cells and AML HL-60 cells. PMID:27064563

  5. EM23, A Natural Sesquiterpene Lactone from Elephantopus mollis, Induces Apoptosis in Human Myeloid Leukemia Cells through Thioredoxin- and Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyu; Li, Manmei; Wang, Guocai; Shao, Fangyuan; Chen, Wenbo; Xia, Chao; Wang, Sheng; Li, Yaolan; Zhou, Guangxiong; Liu, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Elephantopus mollis (EM) is a traditional herbal medicine with multiple pharmacological activities. However, the efficacy of EM in treating human leukemia is currently unknown. In the current study, we report that EM23, a natural sesquiterpene lactone isolated from EM, inhibits the proliferation of human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) K562 cells and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) HL-60 cells by inducing apoptosis. Translocation of membrane-associated phospholipid phosphatidylserines, changes in cell morphology, activation of caspases, and cleavage of PARP were concomitant with this inhibition. The involvement of the mitochondrial pathway in EM23-mediated apoptosis was suggested by observed disruptions in mitochondrial membrane potential. Mechanistic studies indicated that EM23 caused a marked increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a ROS scavenger, almost fully reversed EM23-mediated apoptosis. In EM23-treated cells, the expression levels of thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxinreductase (TrxR), two components of the Trx system involved in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis, were significantly down-regulated. Concomitantly, Trx regulated the activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and its downstream regulatory targets, the p38, JNK, and ERK MAPKs. EM23-mediated activation of ASK1/MAPKs was significantly inhibited in the presence of NAC. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-mediated activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was suppressed by EM23, as suggested by the observed blockage of p65 nuclear translocation, phosphorylation, and reversion of IκBα degradation following EM23 treatment. Taken together, these results provide important insights into the anticancer activities of the EM component EM23 against human CML K562 cells and AML HL-60 cells. PMID:27064563

  6. On the convergence of EM-like algorithms for image segmentation using Markov random fields.

    PubMed

    Roche, Alexis; Ribes, Delphine; Bach-Cuadra, Meritxell; Krüger, Gunnar

    2011-12-01

    Inference of Markov random field images segmentation models is usually performed using iterative methods which adapt the well-known expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for independent mixture models. However, some of these adaptations are ad hoc and may turn out numerically unstable. In this paper, we review three EM-like variants for Markov random field segmentation and compare their convergence properties both at the theoretical and practical levels. We specifically advocate a numerical scheme involving asynchronous voxel updating, for which general convergence results can be established. Our experiments on brain tissue classification in magnetic resonance images provide evidence that this algorithm may achieve significantly faster convergence than its competitors while yielding at least as good segmentation results.

  7. [Antibiotic resistance of important infection sources in 1996 in Weser-Ems].

    PubMed

    Klarmann, D

    1997-08-01

    An overview of the antibiotic resistance of important bacteria of infectious disease in 1996 in the district of Weser-Ems in Lower Sexonie among farm animals, dogs and cats is given. The bacteria isolated from different materials as animal body, organ, droppings, milk, swabs from nose, cervix or other source and their resistance pattern were listed belonging to species and localisation of their isolation. By means of different counts of isolation one can see the importance of the isolated bacteria at the ITT, Institut für Tierzucht, Tierhaitung und Tiergesundheit, of the Landwirtschaftskammer Weser-Ems in Oldenburg. The development of resistance of bacteria obtained from dairy cows with mastitis and in general some important antibiotics like cefoperazon, ceftiofur and enrofloxacine is shown. Furthermore more detailed instructions to the method of microbiological resistance testing, the broth microdilution method, are given. PMID:9324462

  8. Speech Articulator and User Gesture Measurements Using Micropower, Interferometric EM-Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J F; Ng, L C

    2001-02-06

    Very low power, GHz frequency, ''radar-like'' sensors can measure a variety of motions produced by a human user of machine interface devices. These data can be obtained ''at a distance'' and can measure ''hidden'' structures. Measurements range from acoustic induced, 10-micron amplitude vibrations of vocal tract tissues, to few centimeter human speech articulator motions, to meter-class motions of the head, hands, or entire body. These EM sensors measure ''fringe motions'' as reflected EM waves are mixed with a local (homodyne) reference wave. These data, when processed using models of the system being measured, provide real time states of interface positions or other targets vs. time. An example is speech articulator positions vs. time in the user's body. This information appears to be useful for a surprisingly wide range of applications ranging from speech coding synthesis and recognition, speaker or object identification, noise cancellation, hand or head motions for cursor direction, and other applications.

  9. Speech Articulator and User Gesture Measurements Using Micropower, Interferometric EM-Sensore

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J.F.

    2000-09-15

    Very low power, GHz frequency, ''radar-like'' sensors can measure a variety of motions produced by a human user of machine interface devices. These data can be obtained ''at a distance'' and can measure ''hidden'' structures. Measurements range from acoustic induced 10-micron amplitude vibrations of vocal tract tissues, to few centimeter human speech articulator motions, to meter-class motions of the head, hands, or entire body. These EM sensors measure ''fringe motions' as reflected EM waves are mixed with a local (homodyne) reference wave. These data, when processed using models of the system being measured, provide real time states of interface positions vs. time. An example is speech articulator positions vs. time in the user's body. This information appears to be useful for a surprisingly wide range of applications ranging from speech coding and recognition, speaker or object identification, noise cancellation, hand or head motions for cursor direction, and other applications.

  10. Helicopter EMS Transport Outcomes Literature: Annotated Review of Articles Published 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Brandon S.; Pogue, Korby A.; Williams, Emily; Hatfield, Jesse; Thomas, Matthew; Arthur, Annette; Thomas, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    Helicopter EMS (HEMS) and its possible association with outcomes improvement continues to be a subject of discussion. As is the case with other scientific discourse, debate over HEMS usefulness should be framed around an evidence-based assessment of the relevant literature. In an effort to facilitate the academic pursuit of assessment of HEMS utility, in late 2000 the National Association of EMS Physicians' (NAEMSP) Air Medical Task Force prepared annotated bibliographies of the HEMS-related outcomes literature. As a result of that work, two review articles, one covering HEMS use in nontrauma and the other in trauma, published in 2002 in Prehospital Emergency Care surveyed HEMS outcomes-related literature published between 1980 and mid-2000. The project was extended with two subsequent reviews covering the literature through 2006. This review continues the series, outlining outcomes-associated HEMS literature for the three-year period 2007 through the first half of 2011. PMID:22288016

  11. Reconstruction of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) images based on the expectation maximum (EM) method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Huaxiang; Cui, Ziqiang; Yang, Chengyi

    2012-11-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) calculates the internal conductivity distribution within a body using electrical contact measurements. The image reconstruction for EIT is an inverse problem, which is both non-linear and ill-posed. The traditional regularization method cannot avoid introducing negative values in the solution. The negativity of the solution produces artifacts in reconstructed images in presence of noise. A statistical method, namely, the expectation maximization (EM) method, is used to solve the inverse problem for EIT in this paper. The mathematical model of EIT is transformed to the non-negatively constrained likelihood minimization problem. The solution is obtained by the gradient projection-reduced Newton (GPRN) iteration method. This paper also discusses the strategies of choosing parameters. Simulation and experimental results indicate that the reconstructed images with higher quality can be obtained by the EM method, compared with the traditional Tikhonov and conjugate gradient (CG) methods, even with non-negative processing.

  12. High-Resolution Macromolecular Structure Determination by MicroED, a cryo-EM Method.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, J A; Gonen, T

    2016-01-01

    Microelectron diffraction (MicroED) is a new cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) method capable of determining macromolecular structures at atomic resolution from vanishingly small 3D crystals. MicroED promises to solve atomic resolution structures from even the tiniest of crystals, less than a few hundred nanometers thick. MicroED complements frontier advances in crystallography and represents part of the rebirth of cryo-EM that is making macromolecular structure determination more accessible for all. Here we review the concept and practice of MicroED, for both the electron microscopist and crystallographer. Where other reviews have addressed specific details of the technique (Hattne et al., 2015; Shi et al., 2016; Shi, Nannenga, Iadanza, & Gonen, 2013), we aim to provide context and highlight important features that should be considered when performing a MicroED experiment.

  13. Selecting gravitational wave events for EM follow-up in the advanced detector era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Min-A.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Gravitational wave sources with emissions in the frequency band detectable by ground-based instruments may have electromagnetic (EM) counterparts. The EM counterpart could help confirm the existence of the gravitational wave signature and provide complementary information regarding the source event. However, observable emissions are transient, requiring rapid communication between observing partners and members of the LSC (LIGO Scientific Collaboration) and Virgo in order to be captured. During the past year, we developed and began testing software known as the VOEvent Approval Processor that oversees the selection of events and generation of alerts to be sent to GCN for distribution. This talk will cover how VOEvent Approval Processor has been tested, thus far, and what kind of work is still to be done for its use in the advanced detector era. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the U.S. National Science Foundation through Grants PHY-1068549 and PHY-1404121.

  14. Denoising and covariance estimation of single particle cryo-EM images.

    PubMed

    Bhamre, Tejal; Zhang, Teng; Singer, Amit

    2016-07-01

    The problem of image restoration in cryo-EM entails correcting for the effects of the Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) and noise. Popular methods for image restoration include 'phase flipping', which corrects only for the Fourier phases but not amplitudes, and Wiener filtering, which requires the spectral signal to noise ratio. We propose a new image restoration method which we call 'Covariance Wiener Filtering' (CWF). In CWF, the covariance matrix of the projection images is used within the classical Wiener filtering framework for solving the image restoration deconvolution problem. Our estimation procedure for the covariance matrix is new and successfully corrects for the CTF. We demonstrate the efficacy of CWF by applying it to restore both simulated and experimental cryo-EM images. Results with experimental datasets demonstrate that CWF provides a good way to evaluate the particle images and to see what the dataset contains even without 2D classification and averaging.

  15. Comparing EM Models to RCS Measurements for Building-Penetration Radar

    SciTech Connect

    Fasenfest, B; Ueberschaer, R

    2007-05-18

    For the DARPA VisiBuilding program, SRI International and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are using a variety of electromagnetic (EM) simulation codes and measurement techniques to analyze how radar pulses interact with building structures and materials. Of primary interest is how interior wall and corner reflections are delayed, attenuated, and dispersed by the exterior wall materials. In this paper, we compare microwave frequency-domain radar cross section (RCS) chamber measurements of scale models of simple buildings to finite-element and finite-difference full-wave time-domain and ray-tracing models. The ability to accurately reconstruct the building from these models is compared with the reconstruction from chamber measurements. We observe that careful attention to the spatial sampling in the EM models is essential to achieving good reconstruction at the higher frequencies.

  16. High-Resolution Macromolecular Structure Determination by MicroED, a cryo-EM Method.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, J A; Gonen, T

    2016-01-01

    Microelectron diffraction (MicroED) is a new cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) method capable of determining macromolecular structures at atomic resolution from vanishingly small 3D crystals. MicroED promises to solve atomic resolution structures from even the tiniest of crystals, less than a few hundred nanometers thick. MicroED complements frontier advances in crystallography and represents part of the rebirth of cryo-EM that is making macromolecular structure determination more accessible for all. Here we review the concept and practice of MicroED, for both the electron microscopist and crystallographer. Where other reviews have addressed specific details of the technique (Hattne et al., 2015; Shi et al., 2016; Shi, Nannenga, Iadanza, & Gonen, 2013), we aim to provide context and highlight important features that should be considered when performing a MicroED experiment. PMID:27572734

  17. The 3.8 Å resolution cryo-EM structure of Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Sirohi, Devika; Chen, Zhenguo; Sun, Lei; Klose, Thomas; Pierson, Theodore C; Rossmann, Michael G; Kuhn, Richard J

    2016-04-22

    The recent rapid spread of Zika virus and its unexpected linkage to birth defects and an autoimmune neurological syndrome have generated worldwide concern. Zika virus is a flavivirus like the dengue, yellow fever, and West Nile viruses. We present the 3.8 angstrom resolution structure of mature Zika virus, determined by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The structure of Zika virus is similar to other known flavivirus structures, except for the ~10 amino acids that surround the Asn(154) glycosylation site in each of the 180 envelope glycoproteins that make up the icosahedral shell. The carbohydrate moiety associated with this residue, which is recognizable in the cryo-EM electron density, may function as an attachment site of the virus to host cells. This region varies not only among Zika virus strains but also in other flaviviruses, which suggests that differences in this region may influence virus transmission and disease.

  18. Considerations for safe EMS transport of patients infected with Ebola virus.

    PubMed

    Lowe, John J; Jelden, Katelyn C; Schenarts, Paul J; Rupp, Lloyd E; Hawes, Kingdon J; Tysor, Benjamin M; Swansiger, Raymond G; Schwedhelm, Shelly S; Smith, Philip W; Gibbs, Shawn G

    2015-01-01

    The Nebraska Biocontainment Unit through the Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha, Nebraska, recently received patients with confirmed Ebola virus from West Africa. The Nebraska Biocontainment Unit and Omaha Fire Department's emergency medical services (EMS) coordinated patient transportation from airport to the high-level isolation unit. Transportation of these highly infectious patients capitalized on over 8 years of meticulous planning and rigorous infection control training to ensure the safety of transport personnel as well as the community during transport. Although these transports occurred with advanced notice and after confirmed Ebola virus disease (EVD) diagnosis, approaches and key lessons acquired through this effort will advance the ability of any EMS provider to safely transport a confirmed or suspected patient with EVD. Three critical areas have been identified from our experience: ambulance preparation, appropriate selection and use of personal protective equipment, and environmental decontamination. PMID:25380073

  19. Structure and conformational states of the bovine mitochondrial ATP synthase by cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Anna; Rohou, Alexis; Schep, Daniel G; Bason, John V; Montgomery, Martin G; Walker, John E; Grigorieff, Nikolaus; Rubinstein, John L

    2015-10-06

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the chemical energy currency of biology, is synthesized in eukaryotic cells primarily by the mitochondrial ATP synthase. ATP synthases operate by a rotary catalytic mechanism where proton translocation through the membrane-inserted FO region is coupled to ATP synthesis in the catalytic F1 region via rotation of a central rotor subcomplex. We report here single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) analysis of the bovine mitochondrial ATP synthase. Combining cryo-EM data with bioinformatic analysis allowed us to determine the fold of the a subunit, suggesting a proton translocation path through the FO region that involves both the a and b subunits. 3D classification of images revealed seven distinct states of the enzyme that show different modes of bending and twisting in the intact ATP synthase. Rotational fluctuations of the c8-ring within the FO region support a Brownian ratchet mechanism for proton-translocation-driven rotation in ATP synthases.

  20. Rotating ned reactor as a power source for em gun applications

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.; Botts, T.; Stickley, C.M.; Meth, S.

    1982-01-01

    Electromagnetic gun applications of the Rotating Bed Reactor (RBR) are examined. The RBR is a compact (approximately 1 m/sup 3/), (up to several thousand MW(th), high-power reactor concept, capable of producing a high-temperature (up to approximately 3000/degree/K) gas stream with a MHD generator coupled to it. The RBR can generate electric power (up to approximately 1000 MW(e)) in the pulsed or cw modes. Three EM gun applications are investigated: a rail gun thruster for orbit transfer, a rapid-fire EM gun for point defense, and a direct ground-to-space launch. The RBR appears suitable for all applications. 4 refs.

  1. System concept definition of the Grumman superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proise, M.

    1994-01-01

    Grumman, under contract to the Army Corps of Engineers, completed a System Concept Definition (SCD) study to design a high-speed 134 m/s (300 m.p.h.) magnetically levitated (Maglev) transportation system. The primary development goals were to design a Maglev that is safe, reliable, environmentally acceptable, and low-cost. The cost issue was a predominant one, since previous studies have shown that an economically viable Maglev system (one that is attractive to investors for future models of passenger and/or freight transportation) requires a cost that is about $12.4 M/km ($20 Million per mile). The design is based on the electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system using superconducting iron-core magnets mounted along both sides of the vehicle. The EMS system has several advantages compared to the electrodynamic suspension (EDS) Maglev systems such as low stray magnetic fields in the passenger cabin and the surrounding areas, uniform load distribution along the full length of the vehicle, and small pole pitch for smoother propulsion and ride comfort. It is also levitated at all speeds and incorporates a wrap-around design of safer operation. The Grumman design has all the advantages of an EMS system identified above, while eliminating (or significantly improving) drawbacks associated with normal magnet powered EMS systems. Improvements include larger gap clearance, lighter weight, lower number of control servos, and higher off line switching speeds. The design also incorporates vehicle tilt (plus or minus 9 deg) for higher coordinated turn and turn out speed capability.

  2. Ab Initio Modeling of the Herpesvirus VP26 Core Domain Assessed by CryoEM Density

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Matthew L; Jiang, Wen; Wedemeyer, William J; Rixon, Frazer J; Baker, David; Chiu, Wah

    2006-01-01

    Efforts in structural biology have targeted the systematic determination of all protein structures through experimental determination or modeling. In recent years, 3-D electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) has assumed an increasingly important role in determining the structures of these large macromolecular assemblies to intermediate resolutions (6–10 Å). While these structures provide a snapshot of the assembly and its components in well-defined functional states, the resolution limits the ability to build accurate structural models. In contrast, sequence-based modeling techniques are capable of producing relatively robust structural models for isolated proteins or domains. In this work, we developed and applied a hybrid modeling approach, utilizing cryoEM density and ab initio modeling to produce a structural model for the core domain of a herpesvirus structural protein, VP26. Specifically, this method, first tested on simulated data, utilizes the cryoEM density map as a geometrical constraint in identifying the most native-like models from a gallery of models generated by ab initio modeling. The resulting model for the core domain of VP26, based on the 8.5-Å resolution herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) capsid cryoEM structure and mutational data, exhibited a novel fold. Additionally, the core domain of VP26 appeared to have a complementary interface to the known upper-domain structure of VP5, its cognate binding partner. While this new model provides for a better understanding of the assembly and interactions of VP26 in HSV-1, the approach itself may have broader applications in modeling the components of large macromolecular assemblies. PMID:17069457

  3. EMS helicopter incidents reported to the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda J.; Reynard, William D.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this evaluation were to: Identify the types of safety-related incidents reported to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) helicopter operations; Describe the operational conditions surrounding these incidents, such as weather, airspace, flight phase, time of day; and Assess the contribution to these incidents of selected human factors considerations, such as communication, distraction, time pressure, workload, and flight/duty impact.

  4. Disentangling conformational states of macromolecules in 3D-EM through likelihood optimization.

    PubMed

    Scheres, Sjors H W; Gao, Haixiao; Valle, Mikel; Herman, Gabor T; Eggermont, Paul P B; Frank, Joachim; Carazo, Jose-Maria

    2007-01-01

    Although three-dimensional electron microscopy (3D-EM) permits structural characterization of macromolecular assemblies in distinct functional states, the inability to classify projections from structurally heterogeneous samples has severely limited its application. We present a maximum likelihood-based classification method that does not depend on prior knowledge about the structural variability, and demonstrate its effectiveness for two macromolecular assemblies with different types of conformational variability: the Escherichia coli ribosome and Simian virus 40 (SV40) large T-antigen.

  5. [Study on spatial variability of soil salinity based on spectral indices and EM38 readings].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ya-kun; Yang, Jin-song; Li, Xiao-ming

    2009-04-01

    Taking Feng-qiu County as a case of soil salinization widely existing in the semiarid region, the spatial variability of soil salinity was investigated by using remote sensing and EM (electromagnetic induction) technologies in the present study. Descriptive statistics was applied to soil salinity data interpreted from EM38 measurements using field sampling method. Spectral indices (soil index and plant index) were derived from 25-resolution Landsat TM image taken in April 2005, and proved to be significantly correlated with soil salinity interpreted by EM38 readings. Regression models were further established between the interpreted soil electrical conductivity and spectral indices (soil index and plant index), and'spatial distribution patterns across the study area were finally mapped based on the above regression models. Results indicated that soil salinity at each soil layer is from 0.259 to 0.572 and exhibits the moderate spatial variability owing to compound impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Spatial distribution maps of soil salinity were obtained with the application of plant index, soil index and EM38 measurements. It was shown that soil salinization, mainly located in the north and south of the study area, exhibited obvious trend effect. Salinity at surface soil was the greatest and showed the trend of a decrease at subsoil layer and then an increase at deep layer in the whole soil profile. The accuracy of the predictions was tested using 40 soil sampled points. The root mean square error (RMSE) of calibration for soil salinity in each layer was 0.094, 0.052, 0.071 and 0.067 ds x m(-1) respectively, showing that the precision is ideal. The change trends of RMSE were the same as soil salinity in soil profile. The trends indicated that soil salinity had effect on the salinity prediction by spectral indices, and showed better accuracy at low soil salinity.

  6. System concept definition of the Grumman superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proise, M.

    1994-05-01

    Grumman, under contract to the Army Corps of Engineers, completed a System Concept Definition (SCD) study to design a high-speed 134 m/s (300 m.p.h.) magnetically levitated (Maglev) transportation system. The primary development goals were to design a Maglev that is safe, reliable, environmentally acceptable, and low-cost. The cost issue was a predominant one, since previous studies have shown that an economically viable Maglev system (one that is attractive to investors for future models of passenger and/or freight transportation) requires a cost that is about $12.4 M/km ($20 Million per mile). The design is based on the electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system using superconducting iron-core magnets mounted along both sides of the vehicle. The EMS system has several advantages compared to the electrodynamic suspension (EDS) Maglev systems such as low stray magnetic fields in the passenger cabin and the surrounding areas, uniform load distribution along the full length of the vehicle, and small pole pitch for smoother propulsion and ride comfort. It is also levitated at all speeds and incorporates a wrap-around design of safer operation. The Grumman design has all the advantages of an EMS system identified above, while eliminating (or significantly improving) drawbacks associated with normal magnet powered EMS systems. Improvements include larger gap clearance, lighter weight, lower number of control servos, and higher off line switching speeds. The design also incorporates vehicle tilt (plus or minus 9 deg) for higher coordinated turn and turn out speed capability.

  7. The sky's the limit. How to plan your career in EMS.

    PubMed

    Roell, F

    1992-08-01

    Contrary to popular opinion, it is possible to make EMS a career. The key is deciding that the field of prehospital care is where you ultimately want to be and planning where you want to go and what you want to do within the field. Follow these tips on becoming an EMT, moving up to paramedic and, finally, deciding whether to become a manager, and find out for yourself that the sky really is the limit.

  8. Quantum theory of extended particle dynamics in the presence of EM radiation-reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremaschini, Claudio; Tessarotto, Massimo

    2015-08-01

    In this paper a trajectory-based relativistic quantum wave equation is established for extended charged spinless particles subject to the action of the electromagnetic (EM) radiation-reaction (RR) interaction. The quantization pertains the particle dynamics, in which both the external and self EM fields are treated classically. The new equation proposed here is referred to as the RR quantum wave equation. This is shown to be an evolution equation for a complex scalar quantum wave function and to be realized by a first-order PDE with respect to a quantum proper time s . The latter is uniquely prescribed by representing the RR quantum wave equation in terms of the corresponding quantum hydrodynamic equations and introducing a parametrization in terms of Lagrangian paths associated with the quantum fluid velocity. Besides the explicit proper time dependence, the theory developed here exhibits a number of additional notable features. First, the wave equation is variational and is consistent with the principle of manifest covariance. Second, it permits the definition of a strictly positive 4-scalar quantum probability density on the Minkowski space-time, in terms of which a flow-invariant probability measure is established. Third, the wave equation is non-local, due to the characteristic EM RR retarded interaction. Fourth, the RR wave equation recovers the Schrödinger equation in the non-relativistic limit and the customary Klein-Gordon wave equation when the EM RR is negligible or null. Finally, the consistency with the classical RR Hamilton-Jacobi equation is established in the semi-classical limit.

  9. FLOYDS Classification of ASASSN-14em as a SN Ia Around Max

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcavi, I.; Valenti, S.; Howell, D. A.; Hosseinzadeh, G.

    2014-07-01

    We obtained a spectrum of ASASSN-14em (ATel #6342) on 2014 July 26.3 (UT) with the robotic FLOYDS spectrograph mounted on the Faulkes Telescope North. Using Superfit (Howell et al. 2005, ApJ, 634, 1190) and SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), we find good matches to spectra of Type Ia supernovae near maximum light at the redshift of the host galaxy (z=0.03).

  10. Model Selection Criteria for Missing-Data Problems Using the EM Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Joseph G.; Zhu, Hongtu; Tang, Niansheng

    2009-01-01

    We consider novel methods for the computation of model selection criteria in missing-data problems based on the output of the EM algorithm. The methodology is very general and can be applied to numerous situations involving incomplete data within an EM framework, from covariates missing at random in arbitrary regression models to nonignorably missing longitudinal responses and/or covariates. Toward this goal, we develop a class of information criteria for missing-data problems, called ICH,Q, which yields the Akaike information criterion and the Bayesian information criterion as special cases. The computation of ICH,Q requires an analytic approximation to a complicated function, called the H-function, along with output from the EM algorithm used in obtaining maximum likelihood estimates. The approximation to the H-function leads to a large class of information criteria, called ICH̃(k),Q. Theoretical properties of ICH̃(k),Q, including consistency, are investigated in detail. To eliminate the analytic approximation to the H-function, a computationally simpler approximation to ICH,Q, called ICQ, is proposed, the computation of which depends solely on the Q-function of the EM algorithm. Advantages and disadvantages of ICH̃(k),Q and ICQ are discussed and examined in detail in the context of missing-data problems. Extensive simulations are given to demonstrate the methodology and examine the small-sample and large-sample performance of ICH̃(k),Q and ICQ in missing-data problems. An AIDS data set also is presented to illustrate the proposed methodology. PMID:19693282

  11. Profiling the Local Seebeck Coefficient with Nanometer Resolution Using Scanning Thermoelectric Microscopy (SThEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yen-Hsiang; Walrath, Jenna; Goldman, Rachel

    2013-03-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) devices offer a method of recovering waste heat through solid state conversion of heat to electricity. Nanostructured thermoelectric materials may provide the key to increased efficiencies, which are sensitive to the Seebeck coefficients (S) However, traditional bulk measurement techniques can only provide a spatially averaged measurement of S over the whole sample, which can hardly investigate the effects of nanostructures on S on the nanoscale. A novel technique known as scanning thermoelectric microscopy (SThEM) has recently been developed to measure induced thermal voltages with nanometer resolution In SThEM, an unheated scanning tunneling microscopy tip acts as a high-resolution voltmeter probe to measure the thermally-induced voltage, V, in a heated sample. Here we present a local S measurement using SThEM across an InGaAs P-N junction. The thermovoltage shows an abrupt change of sign within 10 nanometers, which reveals nanometer spatial resolution. We will discuss local S measurements of AlAs/GaAs superlattices (SLs) with various SL periods and compare the local S with scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements, which will reveal how local electronic states influence thermoelectric properties. This material is based upon work primarily supported by DOE under grant No. DE-FG02-06 and ER46339 the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-PI0000012.

  12. Application of Fuzzy Logic to EMS-type Magnetically Levitated Railway Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusagawa, Shinichi; Baba, Jumpei; Shutoh, Katsuhiko; Masada, Eisuke

    A type of the magnetically levitated railway system with the electro-magnetic suspension system (EMS), which is named HSST system, will be put into revenue service as an urban transport in Nagoya, Japan at the beginning of April 2005. To extend its operational velocity higher than 200km/h for applications in other cities, the design of its EMS system is reexamined for improvement of riding comfort and performances of a train. In order to achieve these objectives, the multipurpose optimization on the basis of the genetic algorithm is applied for the design of EMS-type magnetically levitated vehicle, control parameters of which are optimized both to follow the rail exactly in high-speed and to provide enough riding comfort to passengers. However, the ability to follow sharp irregularities of the rail and to cope with high frequency noises in the gap length control system should be coordinated with riding comfort. The fuzzy logic is introduced into the dynamic control loop and verified to solve the problem. Far better coordination is obtained between the vehicle performances and riding comfort of passengers in high-speed against such various rail conditions. The levitation control with fuzzy logic is shown to be useful for the critical design problem as the high-speed maglev railways.

  13. Particle migration analysis in iterative classification of cryo-EM single-particle data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Shen, Bingxin; Frank, Joachim

    2014-12-01

    Recently developed classification methods have enabled resolving multiple biological structures from cryo-EM data collected on heterogeneous biological samples. However, there remains the problem of how to base the decisions in the classification on the statistics of the cryo-EM data, to reduce the subjectivity in the process. Here, we propose a quantitative analysis to determine the iteration of convergence and the number of distinguishable classes, based on the statistics of the single particles in an iterative classification scheme. We start the classification with more number of classes than anticipated based on prior knowledge, and then combine the classes that yield similar reconstructions. The classes yielding similar reconstructions can be identified from the migrating particles (jumpers) during consecutive iterations after the iteration of convergence. We therefore termed the method "jumper analysis", and applied it to the output of RELION 3D classification of a benchmark experimental dataset. This work is a step forward toward fully automated single-particle reconstruction and classification of cryo-EM data.

  14. Discos de acresção em sistemas Be-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes de Oliveira, R.; Janot-Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Alguns fenômenos de outbursts em Be-X sugerem a existência, mesmo que temporária, de um disco de acresção quando da passagem do objeto compacto pelo periastro orbital. Neste trabalho avaliamos a possibilidade de formação do disco de acresção em sistemas Be+estrela de neutrons e Be+anã branca, e a influência da excentricidade orbital na ocorrência deste fenômeno. Utilizamos a expressão analítica para o momento angular específico da matéria constituinte de um meio em expansão lenta, como é o caso do disco circunstelar das estrelas Be, proposta por Wang(1981), sob a condição básica de que o raio de circularização deva ser maior do que o raio de Alfvén. Concluímos que existe um limite para o período orbital do sistema acima do qual não é possível a formação do disco de acresção, e que este valor aumenta para sistemas com excentricidade orbital maior.

  15. Crosshole EM for oil field characterization and EOR monitoring: Field examples

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Schenkel, C.; Torres-Verdin, C.; Lee, Ki Ha; Tseng, Hung-Wen

    1994-09-01

    Crosshole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetic (EM) imaging is applied to reservoir characterization and steam flood monitoring in a central California oil field. Steam was injected into three stacked, eastward-dipping, unconsolidated oil sands within the upper 200 in. The steam plume is expected to develop as an ellipse aligned with the regional northwest-southeast strike. EM measurements were made from two flberglass-cased observation wells straddling the steam injector on a northeast-southwest profile. Field data were collected before the initiation of a steam drive to map the distribution of the oil sands and then six months after the steam was injected to monitor the progress of the steam chest. Resisitivity images derived from the EM data collected before steam injection clearly delineate the distribution and dipping structure on the target oil sands. Difference images from data collected before and after steam flooding indicate that the steam chest has developed only in the deeper oil sands, and it has preferentially migrated eastward. Surface-to-borehole measurements were useful in mapping the distribution of the major oil sands, but they were insensitive to resisitivity changes in the early stages of the steam flood.

  16. The decision to add a second hospital-based EMS helicopter.

    PubMed

    Friedman, R; Leicht, M J; Brotman, S

    1989-11-01

    An analysis of the first seven years of performance of our hospital-based emergency medical services (EMS) helicopter was conducted to evaluate the possible need for a second aircraft. A survey of seven hospitals currently operating two or more helicopters resulted in a consensus that one helicopter can effectively perform only 70 to 90 flights per month. The number of requests for our helicopter service has increased 148% from 610 to 1,512 in seven years while the number of completed missions has increased only 92% from 486 (40.5/month) to 935 (78/month). Requests denied due to inclement weather (265 in 1988) cannot be captured with a second visual-flight-rated (VFR) EMS helicopter; however, those missed due to maintenance requirements of the helicopter and overlapping requests (232 in 1988) can be captured. The need for a second aircraft exists when the number of requests for the service grows while the number of captured flights plateaus. Our data and industry survey suggests this will occur at 75 captured flights per month. Affordability and continued overall growth of trauma and other critical care referrals to the base hospital(s) is mandatory. This study provides a model for hospital-based EMS helicopter operators to apply to the decision whether to add a second aircraft. PMID:10296622

  17. Engineering Analyses of NCSX Modular Coil and Its Supporting Structure for EM Loads

    SciTech Connect

    H.M. Fan; D. Williamson

    2003-10-30

    NCSX modular coil is a major parts of the NCSX coil systems that surround the highly shaped plasma and vacuum vessel. The flexible copper cable conductors are used to form modular coil on both sides of the ''tee'' beam, which is cast inside the supporting shell structure. The Engineering analyses comprise sequentially coupled-field analyses that include an electromagnetic analysis to calculate the magnetic fields and EM forces, and a structural analysis to evaluate the structural responses. In the sequential EM-structural analysis, nodal forces obtained from the EM analysis were applied as ''nodal force'' loads in the subsequent stress analysis using the identical nodal points and elements. The shell model was imported directly from Pro/ENGINEER files in order to obtain an accurate structural representation. The Boolean operations provided by the ANSYS preprocessor were then applied to subdivide the solid model for more desirable finite element meshing. Material properties of the modular coil were based on test results. Analyses using the ANSYS program to evaluate structural responses of the complicated modular coil systems provided a clear understanding of the structural behaviors and the directions for improving the structural design.

  18. Cryo-EM: A Unique Tool for the Visualization of Macromolecular Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Nogales, Eva; Scheres, Sjors H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is an expanding structural biology technique that has recently undergone a quantum leap progression in its achievable resolution and its applicability to the study of challenging biological systems. Because crystallization is not required, only small amounts of sample are needed, and, because images can be classified in a computer, the technique has the potential to deal with compositional and conformational mixtures. Therefore, cryo-EM can be used to investigate complete and fully functional macromolecular complexes in different functional states, providing a richness of biological insight. In this review we underlie some of the principles behind the cryo-EM methodology of single particle analysis and discuss some recent results of its application to challenging systems of paramount biological importance. We place special emphasis on new methodological developments that are leading to an explosion of new studies, many of which are reaching resolutions that could only be dreamed of only a couple of years ago. PMID:26000851

  19. Using Cryo-EM to Map Small Ligands on Dynamic Metabolic Enzymes: Studies with Glutamate Dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Borgnia, Mario J; Banerjee, Soojay; Merk, Alan; Matthies, Doreen; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Rao, Prashant; Pierson, Jason; Earl, Lesley A; Falconieri, Veronica; Subramaniam, Sriram; Milne, Jacqueline L S

    2016-06-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) methods are now being used to determine structures at near-atomic resolution and have great promise in molecular pharmacology, especially in the context of mapping the binding of small-molecule ligands to protein complexes that display conformational flexibility. We illustrate this here using glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), a 336-kDa metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of glutamate. Dysregulation of GDH leads to a variety of metabolic and neurologic disorders. Here, we report near-atomic resolution cryo-EM structures, at resolutions ranging from 3.2 Å to 3.6 Å for GDH complexes, including complexes for which crystal structures are not available. We show that the binding of the coenzyme NADH alone or in concert with GTP results in a binary mixture in which the enzyme is in either an "open" or "closed" state. Whereas the structure of NADH in the active site is similar between the open and closed states, it is unexpectedly different at the regulatory site. Our studies thus demonstrate that even in instances when there is considerable structural information available from X-ray crystallography, cryo-EM methods can provide useful complementary insights into regulatory mechanisms for dynamic protein complexes.

  20. Hadron calorimeter performance with a PbWO4 EM compartment

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1996-01-01

    The CMS detector[1] at the LHC has chosen PbWO4 in order to achieve the superior photon energy resolution which is crucial in searching for the 2 photon decay of low mass Higgs bosons. The hadronic compartment is thought to be Cu absorber, since one is immersed in a 4 T magnetic field, read out by scintillator tiles coupled to wavelength shifter (WLS) fibers. The combined performance of this calorimeter is of interest in the study of jets and missing transverse energy (neutrino, SUSY signatures). For this reason, a test was made of the electromagnetic (EM) compartment combined with a reasonable approximation to the baseline HCAL ``barrel`` calorimeter. Data was taken in the H4 CERN beamline. The EM compartment was a 7 {times} 7 square array of PbWO4 crystals, which for the purposes of this study are considered as a single readout in depth (or ``compartment``) [2]. The HCAL module consisted of large scintillator plates with 24 individual longitudinal readout channels. The EM compartment was followed by 10 Cu plates each 3 cm thick, followed by 9 Cu plates each 6 cm thick. This set of absorber plates represented the HCAL compartments inside the coil. The coil itself [1] was approximated as Al and Fe plates, of a total thickness of about 1.4 absorption lengths. The coil mockup was sampled and then followed by 4 plates of 8 cm thick Cu, each with an individual readout which represented a test of the ``Tailcatcher`` concept.

  1. EM algorithm in estimating the 2- and 3-parameter Burr Type III distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Nor Hidayah Binti; Khalid, Zarina Binti Mohd

    2014-07-01

    The Burr Type III distribution has been applied in the study of income, wage and wealth. It is suitable to fit lifetime data since it has flexible shape and controllable scale parameters. The popularity of Burr Type III distribution increases because it has included the characteristics of other distributions such as logistic and exponential. Burr Type III distribution has two categories: First a two-parameter distribution which has two shape parameters and second a three-parameter distribution which has a scale and two shape parameters. Expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm method is selected in this paper to estimate the two- and three-parameter Burr Type III distributions. Complete and censored data are simulated based on the derivation of pdf and cdf in parametric form of Burr Type III distributions. Then, the EM estimates are compared with estimates from maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) approach through mean square error. The best approach results in estimates with a higher approximation to the true parameters are determined. The result shows that the EM algorithm estimates perform better than the MLE estimates for two- and three-parameter Burr Type III distributions in the presence of complete and censored data.

  2. Using Cryo-EM to Map Small Ligands on Dynamic Metabolic Enzymes: Studies with Glutamate Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Borgnia, Mario J.; Banerjee, Soojay; Merk, Alan; Matthies, Doreen; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Rao, Prashant; Pierson, Jason; Earl, Lesley A.; Falconieri, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) methods are now being used to determine structures at near-atomic resolution and have great promise in molecular pharmacology, especially in the context of mapping the binding of small-molecule ligands to protein complexes that display conformational flexibility. We illustrate this here using glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), a 336-kDa metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of glutamate. Dysregulation of GDH leads to a variety of metabolic and neurologic disorders. Here, we report near-atomic resolution cryo-EM structures, at resolutions ranging from 3.2 Å to 3.6 Å for GDH complexes, including complexes for which crystal structures are not available. We show that the binding of the coenzyme NADH alone or in concert with GTP results in a binary mixture in which the enzyme is in either an “open” or “closed” state. Whereas the structure of NADH in the active site is similar between the open and closed states, it is unexpectedly different at the regulatory site. Our studies thus demonstrate that even in instances when there is considerable structural information available from X-ray crystallography, cryo-EM methods can provide useful complementary insights into regulatory mechanisms for dynamic protein complexes. PMID:27036132

  3. Design and modeling of an on-silicon spiral inductor library using improved EM simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goni-Iturri, A.; Khemchandani, S. L.; del Pino, F. J.; Garcia, J.; Gonzalez, B.; Hernandez, A.

    2005-06-01

    This paper deals with the design and modeling of integrated spiral inductors for RF applications by means of a general purpose Electromagnetic (EM) simulator. These tools allow optimizing flexibly the inductor layout structure. The inductor performance can be obtained by using a three-dimensional design tool or a two-dimensional one. Planar 2-D or so called 2.5-Ds simulators are faster and accept complex coil geometries. We have used one of these simulators, the Advanced Design System planar EM simulator, Momentum, from Agilent. The inductor quality factor (Q) is limited, among other phenomena, by the series resistance of the metal traces and the substrate losses. Therefore the simulator requires an accurate set up of the process and simulator parameters and a correct algorithm to model metal thickness to rely on simulation results. In this paper we analyze and compare these different approaches. A high-quality factor inductor library on a 0.35 μm SiGe technology at 5 GHz is also designed in this work using the proper simulator set up. Nine of the inductors have been fabricated and measured to test the simulator reliability. Measurements taken over a frequency range from 500 MHz to 10GHz show a good agreement with 2.5-EM simulations.

  4. Using Cryo-EM to Map Small Ligands on Dynamic Metabolic Enzymes: Studies with Glutamate Dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Borgnia, Mario J; Banerjee, Soojay; Merk, Alan; Matthies, Doreen; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Rao, Prashant; Pierson, Jason; Earl, Lesley A; Falconieri, Veronica; Subramaniam, Sriram; Milne, Jacqueline L S

    2016-06-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) methods are now being used to determine structures at near-atomic resolution and have great promise in molecular pharmacology, especially in the context of mapping the binding of small-molecule ligands to protein complexes that display conformational flexibility. We illustrate this here using glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), a 336-kDa metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of glutamate. Dysregulation of GDH leads to a variety of metabolic and neurologic disorders. Here, we report near-atomic resolution cryo-EM structures, at resolutions ranging from 3.2 Å to 3.6 Å for GDH complexes, including complexes for which crystal structures are not available. We show that the binding of the coenzyme NADH alone or in concert with GTP results in a binary mixture in which the enzyme is in either an "open" or "closed" state. Whereas the structure of NADH in the active site is similar between the open and closed states, it is unexpectedly different at the regulatory site. Our studies thus demonstrate that even in instances when there is considerable structural information available from X-ray crystallography, cryo-EM methods can provide useful complementary insights into regulatory mechanisms for dynamic protein complexes. PMID:27036132

  5. VLBA Observations of SN 2001em: Supernova, Misdirected Gamma-Ray Burster, or Both?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockdale, C. J.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Weiler, K. W.; Sramek, R. A.; Panagia, N.; Rupen, M. P.; Paczynski, B.; Weiler, K. W.

    2004-12-01

    We present Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations of Supernova (SN) 2001em. Initially detected on September 15, 2001 (Papenkova & Li 2001) and classified as a type Ic SN on October 20, 2001 (Filippenko & Chornock 2001), SN 2001em was later reclassified as a Type IIn SN (Soderberg, Frail, & Wieringa 2004). SN 2001em was not well studied until a Very Large Array 3.6 cm radio search of type Ib/Ic SNe within 100 Mpc detected radio emission in excess of 1028 erg s-1 Hz-1 (for 80 Mpc distance) in mid October 2003 (Stockdale et al. 2004). This is roughly 50 times more radio luminous than SN 1998bw was at a comparable age. X-ray emission was detected by Pooley & Lewin (2004) in excess of 1041 erg s-1 (for 80 Mpc distance), making it one of the brightest X-ray SNe ever observed. We measured this source in July 2004 with the VLBA at 3.6 cm in an attempt to determine if radio structure was present. We present our new results and discuss their implications at this meeting.

  6. Uma grade de perfis teóricos para estrelas massivas em transição

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, C. M. P.; Machado, M. A.

    2003-08-01

    Na XXVIII Reunião Anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (2002) apresentamos uma grade de perfis calculados de acordo com os pontos da trajetória evolutiva de metalicidade solar, Z = 0.02 e taxa de perda de massa () padrão, para estrelas com massa inicial de 25, 40, 60, 85 e 120 massas solares. Estes perfis foram calculados com o auxílio de um código numérico adequado para descrever os ventos de objetos massivos, supondo simetria esférica, estacionaridade e homogeneidade. No presente trabalho, apresentamos a complementação da grade com os perfis teóricos relativos às trajetórias de Z = 0.02 com taxa de perda de massa dobrada em relação a padrão (2´), e de metalicidade Z = 0.008. Para cada ponto das três trajetórias obtemos os perfis teóricos de Ha, Hb, Hg e Hd, e como esperado eles se apresentam em pura emissão, pura absorção ou em P-Cygni. Para valores de taxa de perda de massa muito baixos (~10-7) não há formação de linhas, o que é visto nos primeiros pontos em todas as trajetórias. Em geral, para um mesmo ponto a componente de emissão diminui e a absorção aumenta de Ha para Hd. É verificado que as trajetórias com Z = 0.02 e padrão possuem menos circuitos (loops) do que as com metalicidade Z = 0.02 e 2´ padrão, e seus perfis são, em geral, menos intensos. Em relação a trajetória de Z = 0.008, verifica-se menos circuitos e maior variação em luminosidade, e seus perfis mostram-se em, algumas trajetórias, mais intensos. Verificamos também que, pontos distintos em uma mesma trajetória, apresentam perfis diferentes para valores similares de luminosidade e temperatura efetiva. Sendo assim, uma grade de perfis teóricos parece ser útil para fornecer uma informação preliminar sobre o estágio evolutivo de uma estrela massiva.

  7. Flutuações da temperatura eletrônica em NGC 2438 e NGC 2440

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbe, A. C.; Copetti, M. V. F.

    2003-08-01

    Tradicionalmente, as abundâncias em nebulosas planetárias e regiões HII têm sido obtidas de linhas excitadas colisionalmente, as quais são fortemente dependentes da temperatura eletrônica. Alternativamente, as abundâncias químicas podem ser determinadas de linhas de recombinação, as quais são quase independententes da temperatura eletrônica. Entretanto, consideráveis diferenças têm sido encontradas entre estes dois métodos. Estas discrepâncias têm sido atribuídas às flutuações espaciais da temperatura eletrônica. Entretanto, as magnitudes necessárias de flutuações de temperatura eletrônica são consideravelmente mais altas do que aquelas preditas pelos modelos padrões de fotoionização e os mecânismos físicos que poderiam explicar as grandes flutuações de temperatura são desconhecidas. Desta forma, o estudo de variações da temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII e nebulosas planetárias tem ganho um renovado interesse. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados preliminares de um estudo observacional sobre variações internas da temperatura eletrônica nas nebulosas planetárias NGC 2440 e NGC 2438. Analisamos dados espectrofotométricos de fenda longa, com alta razão sinal-ruído, na faixa de 3300-6800 Å, com o espectrógrafo Cassegrain Boller & Chivens acoplado ao telescópio de 1.52 m do European Southern Observatory (ESO). Temperaturas eletrônicas foram derivadas da razão [OIII](l4959+l5007)/l4363 em diferentes posições em cada nebulosa planetária. Flutuações da temperatura eletrônica foram detectadas e suas magnitudes foram estimadas em NGC 2440 e NGC 2438.

  8. Cryo-EM Imaging of DNA-PK DNA Damage Repair Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Phoebe L. Stewart

    2005-06-27

    Exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation causes DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that must be repaired for cell survival. Higher eukaryotes respond to DSBs by arresting the cell cycle, presumably to repair the DNA lesions before cell division. In mammalian cells, the nonhomologous end-joining DSB repair pathway is mediated by the 470 kDa DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) together with the DNA-binding factors Ku70 and Ku80. Mouse knock-out models of these three proteins are all exquisitely sensitive to low doses of ionizing radiation. In the presence of DNA ends, Ku binds to the DNA and then recruits DNA-PKcs. After formation of the complex, the kinase activity associated with DNA-PKcs becomes activated. This kinase activity has been shown to be essential for repairing DNA DSBs in vivo since expression of a kinase-dead form of DNA-PKcs in a mammalian cell line that lacks DNA-PKcs fails to complement the radiosensitive phenotype. The immense size of DNA-PKcs suggests that it may also serve as a docking site for other DNA repair proteins. Since the assembly of the DNA-PK complex onto DNA is a prerequisite for DSB repair, it is critical to obtain structural information on the complex. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and single particle reconstruction methods provide a powerful way to image large macromolecular assemblies at near atomic (10-15 ?) resolution. We have already used cryo-EM methods to examine the structure of the isolated DNA-PKcs protein. This structure reveals numerous cavities throughout the protein that may allow passage of single or double-stranded DNA. Pseudo two-fold symmetry was found for the monomeric protein, suggesting that DNA-PKcs may interact with two DNA ends or two Ku heterodimers simultaneously. Here we propose to study the structure of the cross-linked DNA-PKcs/Ku/DNA complex. Difference imaging with our published DNA-PKcs structure will enable us to elucidate the architecture of the complex. A second

  9. Expert witness qualifications and ethical guidelines for emergency medical services litigation: resource document for the National Association of EMS Physicians position statement.

    PubMed

    Maggiore, W Ann Winnie; Kupas, Douglas F; Glushak, Cai

    2011-01-01

    The clinical provision of medical care by emergency medical services (EMS) providers in the out-of-hospital environment and the operation of EMS systems to provide that care are unique in the medical arena. There is a substantive difference in the experience of individuals who provide medical care in the out-of-hospital setting and the experience of those who provide similar care in the hospital or other clinical settings. Furthermore, physicians who provide medical direction for EMS personnel have a clinical and oversight relationship with EMS personnel. This relationship uniquely qualifies EMS medical directors to provide expert opinions related to care provided by nonphysician EMS personnel. Physicians without specific EMS oversight experience are not uniformly qualified to provide expert opinion regarding the provision of EMS. This resource document reviews the current issues in expert witness testimony in cases involving EMS as these issues relate to the unique qualifications of the expert witness, the standard of care, and the ethical expectations. PMID:21539461

  10. Direct imaging electron microscopy (EM) methods in modern structural biology: overview and comparison with X-ray crystallography and single-particle cryo-EM reconstruction in the studies of large macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Miyaguchi, Katsuyuki

    2014-10-01

    Determining the structure of macromolecules is important for understanding their function. The fine structure of large macromolecules is currently studied primarily by X-ray crystallography and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (EM) reconstruction. Before the development of these techniques, macromolecular structure was often examined by negative-staining, rotary-shadowing and freeze-etching EM, which are categorised here as 'direct imaging EM methods'. In this review, the results are summarised by each of the above techniques and compared with respect to four macromolecules: the ryanodine receptor, cadherin, rhodopsin and the ribosome-translocon complex (RTC). The results of structural analysis of the ryanodine receptor and cadherin are consistent between each technique. The results obtained for rhodopsin vary to some extent within each technique and between the different techniques. Finally, the results for RTC are inconsistent between direct imaging EM and other analytical techniques, especially with respect to the space within RTC, the reasons for which are discussed. Then, the role of direct imaging EM methods in modern structural biology is discussed. Direct imaging methods should support and verify the results obtained by other analytical methods capable of solving three-dimensional molecular architecture, and they should still be used as a primary tool for studying macromolecule structure in vivo.

  11. Involvement of Hydrogen Peroxide in the Differentiation of Clonal HD-11EM Cells Into Osteoclast-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Steinbeck, Marla J.; Kim, Jung-Keun; Trudeau, Mathew J.; Hauschka, Peter V.; Karnovsky, Morris J.

    2010-01-01

    The present study uses the osteoclast precursor clonal line, HD-11EM, to study the potential of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in mediating the differentiation of HD-11EM into osteoclast-like cells. HD-11EM cells are a newly established clonal cell line that, in response to 1α,25-(OH)2D3, differentiate into osteoclast-like cells that are multinucleated (more than three nuclei), express tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), and excavate resorption pits when cultured on dentin slices in the presence of osteoblasts (Hsia et al., 1995, J. Bone Miner. Res., 10(Suppl 1):S424; Hsia, and Hauschka, 1997, unpublished data). Here we demonstrate that HD-11EM express the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase specific cytochrome b558 subunits, and that stimulation of HD-11EM with 1 or 10 nM 1α,25-(OH)2D3 increases the extracellular release of H2O2 within 5–10 min. Ours is the first report that stimulation of a cell with 1α,25-(OH)2D3 enhances the activation of NADPH-oxidase and increases the basal release of superoxide and the formation of its dismutation product, H2O2. To determine the possible involvement of H2O2 in the differentiation of HD-11EM, these cells were exposed to glucose/glucose oxidase. This enzyme system was used to deliver a pure and continuous source of H2O2 in nanomole amounts consistent with quantities produced by HD-11EM in response to 1α,25-(OH)2D3. Both 1α,25-(OH)2D3 and the exogenously generated H2O2 stimulated a dose- and time-dependent increase in TRAP activity/cell and the number of multinucleated cells 24–48 hr after treatment. Northern analysis confirmed an increase in expression of TRAP mRNA in response to either 1α,25-(OH)2D3 or H2O2. Decreases in cell proliferation and v-myc mRNA were also observed in response to these agents. Taken together, our findings indicate that production of H2O2 by HD-11EM is an important local factor involved in differentiation of HD-11EM into osteoclast-like cells, and suggest

  12. Orexigenic effects of endomorphin-2 (EM-2) related to decreased CRH gene expression and increased dopamine and norepinephrine activity in the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Luigi; Ferrante, Claudio; Orlando, Giustino; Recinella, Lucia; Leone, Sheila; Chiavaroli, Annalisa; Di Nisio, Chiara; Shohreh, Rugia; Manippa, Fabio; Ricciuti, Adriana; Mollica, Adriano; Vacca, Michele

    2013-10-01

    Endomorphin-1 (EM-1) and endomorphin-2 (EM-2) are opioid peptides which are selective partial agonists of μ-opioid receptor. We studied the effects of EM-2 injected into the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus on feeding behavior and gene expression of orexigenic [agouti-related peptide (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and orexin-A] and anorexigenic [cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC)] peptides in male Wistar rats fed a standard laboratory diet. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of EM-2 on dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) steady state concentrations, in the hypothalamus. 64 rats (16 for each group of treatment) were injected into the ARC, at 9.00 am, with either vehicle or EM-2 (0.50-0.75 μmol/kg) or EM-2 (0.50 μmol/kg) plus β-funaltrexamine (0.20 μmol/kg). Food intake was recorded through 24h following injection, and hypothalamic DA, NE, 5-HT levels and neuropeptide gene expression were evaluated 24h after EM-2 administration. Compared to vehicle, EM-2 significantly increased food intake, throughout 24h post-injection. Furthermore, EM-2 treatment led to a significant increase of DA and NE concentrations and a decrease of CRH mRNA levels. On the other hand, β-funaltrexamine administration reverted both feeding stimulatory and neuromodulatory effects induced by EM-2. We can conclude that the orexigenic effect of μ-opioid receptor activation by EM-2 could be related to both inhibition of CRH and stimulation of dopamine and norepinephrine levels, in the hypothalamus.

  13. Spatial performance of RegEM climate field reconstruction techniques in a realistic pseudoproxy context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Emile-Geay, J.; Guillot, D.

    2011-12-01

    Several methods of climate field reconstructions (CFRs) have been introduced in the past few years to estimate past climate variability from proxy data over the Common Era. The pseudoproxy framework has become a tool of choice for assessing the relative merits of such methods. Here we compare four variants of the RegEM algorithm [Schneider, 2001], using a pseudoproxy network mimicking the key spatio-temporal characteristics of the network of Mann et al., 2008 (hereinafter M08); the methods are (1) RegEM TTLS (2) RegEM iTTLS (3) GraphEM and (4) RegEM iRIDGE. To ensure continuity with previous work [Smerdon et al. 2011], pseudoproxy series are designed as a white-noise degraded version of the simulated temperature field [Amman et al. 2007] over 850-1980 C.E. colocated with 1138 M08 proxies. We use signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of: ∞ (no noise), 1.0, 0.5 and 0.25, to simulate differences in proxy quality. Two novelties in pseudoproxy design are introduced here: (1) the decrease in proxy availability over time follows that found in M08, (2) a realistic case where the SNR is empirically derived from correlations between each M08 proxy and the HadCRUT3v temperature field. It is found that this realistic SNR is clustered around 0.3, but ranges from 0.1 to 0.8. Verification statistics such as RE, CE, r2, bias, standard deviation ratio and RMSE are presented for each method at each SNR level. The results show that all methods perform relatively well at SNR levels higher than 0.5, but display drastically different performances at lower SNR levels. Compared with results using pseudoproxy network of Mann et al., 1998, (hereinafter MBH98), the reconstruction skill of the M08 network is relatively improved, in line with the findings of Smerdon et al., 2011. Overall, we find that GraphEM and iTTLS tend to produce more robust estimates of the temperature field at low SNR levels than other schemes, while preserving a higher amount of variance in the target field. Ammann, C. M., F

  14. População nuclear e extranuclear em rádio-galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimann, D. I.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Quintana, H.; Alloin, D.; Hunstead, R.; Wisotzki, L.

    2003-08-01

    A natureza do contínuo UV/ótico em rádio-galáxias é muito importante para o seu entendimento. Em baixos redshifts existem evidências de que muitas delas são dominadas no ótico por luz de estrelas velhas, características de galáxias early-type e em altos redshifts a característica dominante é um excesso de luz no UV, freqüentemente associado com estruturas que estão alinhadas aos eixos das estruturas rádio em grande escala. Inicialmente esse excesso foi interpretado como devido a episódios intensos de formação estelar nas galáxias hospedeiras. Entretanto, as descobertas dos alinhamentos entre as estruturas UV e rádio modificaram essa idéia. Foi proposto que a formação estelar é iniciada pela passagem do jato rádio através do meio interestelar das galáxias hospedeiras. A natureza do excesso UV começou a ser compreendida em um estudo detalhado do continuo ótico da 3C321, onde se concluiu que o contínuo desta galáxia tem origem multicomponente, com contribuições de populações velhas e intermediárias, de luz espalhada oriunda de um quasar obscurecido e do contínuo nebular. No presente trabalho estudamos a população nuclear e extranuclear de uma amostra de 24 rádio-galáxias, utilizando espectros óticos de fenda longa, com alta razão sinal/ruído. Através do método de síntese espectral de populações estelares, foram estimadas as contribuições de populações estelares de diferentes idades (e de um contínuo tipo lei de potência devido a um AGN, FC) para a luz integrada das galáxias, em 4020Å. As principais conclusões deste trabalho são: apenas quatro dos objetos estudados têm contribuições significativas (maiores do que 10%) das populações de 100 milhões de anos ou mais jovens (ou de FC) ao longo da região espacial estudada (6 kpc centrais); nenhuma das rádio-galáxias de tipo FRI estudadas tem contribuição significativa destas populações ao longo desta região; duas (de oito) de tipo FRII tem contribui

  15. Tritium contamination at EG&G/EM in North Las Vegas, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Sowell, C.V.; Arent, L.J.

    1996-06-01

    The tritium contamination discovered at the EG&G Energy Measurements (EG&G/EM) facility in North Las Vegas, Nevada, on 20 April 1995, could have been averted by good health physics practices and/or adequate management oversight. Scandium tritide (ScT{sub 3}) targets were installed for use in sealed tube neutron generators at EG&G/EM. In addition, EG&G/EM was also storing zirconium tritide (ZrT{sub 3}) and titanium tritide (TiT{sub 3}) foils. Since the targets were classified as sealed sources, the appropriate administrative and engineering control measures such as relocating targets/sources, air monitoring, bioassay, waste stream management, labeling/posting and training were not implemented. In all there were six unreported incidents of tritium contamination from March 1994 to July 1995. Swipe surveys revealed areas exceeding the action level of 10,000 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} by up to three orders of magnitude. After reclassifying the targets as unsealed sources, a bioassay program was instituted, and the results were higher than expected for three employees. The doses assigned to the three individuals working in the contaminated area were 35, 58, and 61 mrem committed effective dose equivalent. Though the doses were low, the decontamination costs were in excess of $350,000.00. An investigation, was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office to analyze the events that led to the tritium contamination and recommend actions to prevent recurrence. Event and causal factor charting, Project Evaluation Tree (PET) analysis techniques, and root cause analysis, were used to evaluate management systems, causal sequences, and systems factors contributing to the tritium release.

  16. Two-dimensional simulations of explosive eruptions of Kick-em Jenny and other submarine volcanos

    SciTech Connect

    Gisler, Galen R.; Weaver, R. P.; Mader, Charles L.; Gittings, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    Kick-em Jenny, in the Eastern Caribbean, is a submerged volcanic cone that has erupted a dozen or more times since its discovery in 1939. The most likely hazard posed by this volcano is to shipping in the immediate vicinity (through volcanic missiles or loss-of-buoyancy), but it is of interest to estimate upper limits on tsunamis that might be produced by a catastrophic explosive eruption. To this end, we have performed two-dimensional simulations of such an event in a geometry resembling that of Kick-em Jenny with our SAGE adaptive mesh Eulerian multifluid compressible hydrocode. We use realistic equations of state for air, water, and basalt, and follow the event from the initial explosive eruption, through the generation of a transient water cavity and the propagation of waves away from the site. We find that even for extremely catastrophic explosive eruptions, tsunamis from Kick-em Jenny are unlikely to pose significant danger to nearby islands. For comparison, we have also performed simulations of explosive eruptions at the much larger shield volcano Vailuluu in the Samoan chain, where the greater energy available can produce a more impressive wave. In general, however, we conclude that explosive eruptions do not couple well to water waves. The waves that are produced from such events are turbulent and highly dissipative, and don't propagate well. This is consistent with what we have found previously in simulations of asteroid-impact generated tsunamis. Non-explosive events, however, such as landslides or gas hydrate releases, do couple well to waves, and our simulations of tsunamis generated by subaerial and sub-aqueous landslides demonstrate this.

  17. An E-M algorithm and testing strategy for multiple-locus haplotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J.C.; Williams, R.C.; Urbanek, M.

    1995-03-01

    This paper gives an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to obtain allele frequencies, haplotype frequencies, and gametic disequilibrium coefficients for multiple-locus systems. It permits high polymorphism and null alleles at all loci. This approach effectively deals with the primary estimation problems associated with such systems; that is, there is not a one-to-one correspondence between phenotypic and genotypic categories, and sample sizes tend to be much smaller than the number of phenotypic categories. The EM method provides maximum-likelihood estimates and therefore allows hypothesis tests using likelihood ratio statistics that have X{sup 2} distributions with large sample sizes. We also suggest a data resampling approach to estimate test statistic sampling distributions. The resampling approach is more computer intensive, but it is applicable to all sample sizes. A strategy to test hypotheses about aggregate groups of gametic disequilibrium coefficients is recommended. This strategy minimizes the number of necessary hypothesis tests while at the same time describing the structure of equilibrium. These methods are applied to three unlinked dinucleotide repeat loci in Navajo Indians and to three linked HLA loci in Gila River (Pima) Indians. The likelihood functions of both data sets are shown to be maximized by the EM estimates, and the testing strategy provides a useful description of the structure of gametic disequilibrium. Following these applications, a number of simulation experiments are performed to test how well the likelihood-ratio statistic distributions are approximated by X{sup 2} distributions. In most circumstances X{sup 2} grossly underestimated the probability of type I errors. However, at times they also overestimated the type 1 error probability. Accordingly, we recommend hypothesis tests that use the resampling method. 41 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Detecting leachate plumes and groundwater pollution at Ruseifa municipal landfill utilizing VLF-EM method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Tarazi, E.; Abu Rajab, J.; Al-Naqa, A.; El-Waheidi, M.

    2008-09-01

    A Very Low Frequency-Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) survey was carried out in two sites of domestic waste of old and recent landfills. The landfill structures lie on a major highly fractured limestone aquifer of shallow groundwater less than 30 m, which is considered as the main source of fresh water in Amman-Zarqa region. A total of 18 VLF-EM profiles were conducted with length ranges between 250 and 1500 m. Hydrochemical and biochemical analysis of water samples, taken from wells in the region, has also been conducted. The integrated results of previous DC resistivity method of the same study area and the outcomes of the 2-D tipper inversion of VLF-EM data proved the efficiency of this method in locating shallow and deep leachate plume with resistivity less than 20 Ω m, and enabling the mapping of anomalous bodies and their extensions down to 40 m depth. The sign of groundwater contamination was noticed in many surrounding wells resulting in the high number of fecal coliform bacteria and total coliform bacteria and the increase in inorganic parameters such as chloride (Cl). The pollution of groundwater wells in the landfill area is attributed to the leachate bodies which flow through the upper part of Wadi Es Sir (A7) or Amman-Wadi Es Sir Aquifer (B2/A7). Furthermore, several structural features were detected and the direction of local groundwater movement has been determined. The structural features have been found to have critical effects on the flowing of leachate plume towards north-northeast and west-southwest of the potable aquifer in the area.

  19. The ISO 14001 EMS Implementation Process and Its Implications: A Case Study of Central Japan.

    PubMed

    Mohammed

    2000-02-01

    / This study aims to investigate the ISO 14001 implementation process and its implications for regional environmental management. The region of Central Japan (known as Chubu in Japanese, which literally means center) was chosen for this case study. The study focuses on selected issues such as the: (1) trends and motives of private firms in the implementation of an ISO 14001-based environmental management system (EMS); (2) obstacles during system implementation; (3) role of the system in enhancing environmental performance within the certified organization; and (4) relation between the major stakeholders, local citizens, governments, and firms after adopting the system. To achieve these objectives, a questionnaire survey was mailed to all certified firms in the region. A 58% response was achieved overall. The results show that the main aims behind the adoption of ISO 14001 by firms in the Chubu region are to improve the environmental aspects within the enterprises and to enhance the employees' environmental awareness and capacity. The results have also shown that the ISO 14001-based EMS has had a great effect on a firm's environmental status as certified firms have claimed that natural resources such as fuel, water, and paper consumption have been more efficiently managed after adopting the system. Implementation of the system causes the firms to consider the role of the local people and the government in more effectively involving the local people in the firm's daily environmental activities. It also helps to enhance the environmental awareness among the local people. Adopting the system also promotes a better relation within the enterprises affiliated to the same group, such as more attention given by the parent firms (head offices) towards other firms working for the same group, or branches-mainly small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)-in the field of EMS. Finally, the results show that firms give serious consideration to their final products' impacts on the

  20. The ISO 14001 EMS implementation process and its implications: A case study of Central Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed, Matouq

    2000-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the ISO 14001 implementation process and its implications for regional environmental management. The region of Central Japan was chosen for this case study. The study focuses on selected issues such as the: (1) trends and motives of private firms in the implementation of an ISO 14001-based environmental management system (EMS); (2) obstacles during system implementation; (3) role of the system in enhancing environmental performance within the certified organization; and (4) relation between the major stakeholders, local citizens, governments, and firms after adopting the system. To achieve these objectives, a questionnaire survey was mailed to all certified firms in the region. A 58% response was achieved overall. The results show that the main aims behind the adoption of ISO 14001 by firms in the Bhubu region are to improve the environmental aspects within the enterprises and to enhance the employees' environmental awareness and capacity. The results have also shown that the ISO 14001-based EMS has had a great effect on a firm's environmental status as certified firms have claimed that natural resources such as fuel, water, and paper consumption have been more efficiently managed after adopting the system. Implementation of the system causes the firms to consider the role of the local people and the government in more effectively involving the local people in the firm's daily environmental awareness among the local people. Adopting the system also promotes a better relation within the enterprises affiliated to the same group, such as more attention given by the parent firms towards other firms working for the same group, or branches--mainly small and medium sized enterprises--in the field of EMS. Finally, the results show that firms give serious consideration to their final products' impacts on the environment. In other words, attention is given to life cycle analysis (LCA) among certified firms.

  1. ANÁLISE DA INSERÇÃO DOS TEMAS DE HUMANIDADES E ÉTICA, COM METODOLOGIA DE APRENDIZAGEM BASEADA EM PROBLEMAS, EM CURRICULO MÉDICO INTEGRADO EM ESCOLA PÚBLICA NO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando; Silveira, Carla; Guiotti, Murilo

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Realizar uma análise da inserção da ética e humanidades no currículo do Curso de Medicina da Escola Superior em Ciências da Saúde - ESCS, escola pública do Distrito Federal, Brasil, de forma a contribuir com o processo de gestão curricular. Metodologia O Estudo é de coorte e documental. Foram pesquisados 37 termos relacionados à ética e 36 referentes à humanização nos objetivos educacionais e conteúdo dos módulos temáticos, habilidades e atitudes e interação ensino-serviço-comunidade, de 1a a 4a série e no programa do internato no currículo (ano 2006) e no projeto pedagógico do Curso de Medicina (2001). Resultados Maior inserção da humanização, ética e bioética na 1a e 2a série, quando comparado à inserção na 3a e 4a série e no internato, (IC95%-α=0,034, pvalue=0,007). Unidade de habilidades e atitudes: freqüência das 3 temáticas no currículo da 1a a 4a séries (IC95%-α=0,026, pvalue=0,013). Quando comparada a inserção entre o internato e as quatro primeiras séries, observa-se que nestas a inserção da temática humanização é superior (IC95%-α=0,042, pvalue=0,029). Conclusão O currículo desenvolvido no ano de 2006 na ESCS apresentou correlação com o projeto pedagógico do curso e contemplou a temática de forma abrangente, em todas as séries e internato. PMID:20396594

  2. 2009 DOE-EM LONG-TERM MONITORING TECHNICAL FORUM SUMMARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.

    2009-09-30

    The U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has the responsibility for cleaning up 60 sites in 22 states that were associated with the legacy of the nation's nuclear weapons program and other research and development activities. These sites are unique and many of the technologies needed to successfully disposition the associated wastes have yet to be developed or would require significant re-engineering to be adapted for future EM cleanup efforts. In 2008, the DOE-EM Engineering and Technology Program (EM-22) released the Engineering and Technology Roadmap in response to Congressional direction and the need to focus on longer term activities required for the completion of the aforementioned cleanup program. One of the strategic initiatives included in the Roadmap was to enhance long term performance monitoring as defined by 'Develop and deploy cost effective long-term strategies and technologies to monitor closure sites (including soil, groundwater, and surface water) with multiple contaminants (organics, metals and radionuclides) to verify integrated long-term cleanup performance'. To support this long-term monitoring (LTM) strategic initiative, EM 22 and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) organized and held an interactive symposia, known as the 2009 DOE-EM Long-Term Monitoring Technical Forum, to define and prioritize LTM improvement strategies and products that could be realized within a 3 to 5 year investment time frame. This near-term focus on fundamental research would then be used as a foundation for development of applied programs to improve the closure and long-term performance of EM's legacy waste sites. The Technical Forum was held in Atlanta, GA on February 11-12, 2009, and attended by 57 professionals with a focus on identifying those areas of opportunity that would most effectively advance the transition of the current practices to a more effective strategy for the LTM paradigm. The meeting format

  3. Computer science. Heads-up limit hold'em poker is solved.

    PubMed

    Bowling, Michael; Burch, Neil; Johanson, Michael; Tammelin, Oskari

    2015-01-01

    Poker is a family of games that exhibit imperfect information, where players do not have full knowledge of past events. Whereas many perfect-information games have been solved (e.g., Connect Four and checkers), no nontrivial imperfect-information game played competitively by humans has previously been solved. Here, we announce that heads-up limit Texas hold'em is now essentially weakly solved. Furthermore, this computation formally proves the common wisdom that the dealer in the game holds a substantial advantage. This result was enabled by a new algorithm, CFR(+), which is capable of solving extensive-form games orders of magnitude larger than previously possible.

  4. A Memory-Based Approach to Two-Player Texas Hold'em

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Jonathan; Watson, Ian

    A Case-Based Reasoning system, nicknamed SARTRE, that uses a memory-based approach to play two-player, limit Texas Hold'em is introduced. SARTRE records hand histories from strong players and attempts to re-use this information to handle novel situations. SARTRE'S case features and their representations are described, followed by the results obtained when challenging a world-class computerised opponent. Our experimental methodology attempts to address how well SARTRE'S performance can approximate the performance of the expert player, who SARTRE originally derived the experience-base from.

  5. AmeriFlux US-Ha1 Harvard Forest EMS Tower (HFR1)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Munger, J. William [Harvard University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ha1 Harvard Forest EMS Tower (HFR1). Site Description - The Harvard Forest tower is on land owned by Harvard University. The site is designated as an LTER site. Most of the surrounding area was cleared for agrigulture during European settlement in 1600-1700. The site has been regrowing since before 1900 (based on tree ring chronologies) and is now predominantly red oak and red maple, with patches of mature hemlock stand and individual white pine. Overstory trees were uprooted by hurricane in 1938. Climate measurements have been made at Harvard Forest since 1964.

  6. Advanced Metering Plan for Monitoring Energy and Potable Water Use in PNNL EMS4 Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, Jason E.; Olson, Norman J.; Berman, Marc J.; Schielke, Dale R.

    2011-08-17

    This updated Advanced Metering Plan for monitoring whole building energy use in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) EMS4 buildings on the PNNL campus has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005), Section 103, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 430.2B, and Metering Best Practices, A Guide to Achieving Utility Resource Efficiency, Federal Energy Management Program, October 2007 (Sullivan et al. 2007). The initial PNNL plan was developed in July 2007 (Olson 2007), updated in September 2008 (Olson et al. 2008), updated in September 2009 (Olson et al. 2009), and updated again in August 2010 (Olson et al. 2010).

  7. Use of low power EM radar sensors for speech articulator measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Burnett, G.C.

    1997-05-14

    Very low power electromagnetic (EM) wave sensors are being used to measure speech articulator motions such as the vocal fold oscillations, jaw, tongue, and the soft palate. Data on vocal fold motions, that correlate well with established laboratory techniques, as well as data on the jaw, tongue, and soft palate are shown. The vocal fold measurements together with a volume air flow model are being used to perform pitch synchronous estimates of the voiced transfer functions using ARMA (autoregressive moving average) techniques. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Liposomes on a streptavidin crystal: a system to study membrane proteins by cryo-EM

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liguo; Sigworth, Fred J.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we describe the preparation of cryo-EM specimens for random spherically-constrained (RSC) single-particle reconstruction of membrane proteins. The specimen consists of liposomes into which the purified membrane protein is reconstituted at low density. The substrate is a 2D streptavidin crystal, which serves as an affinity surface that tethers the liposomes, which are doped with biotinylated lipids; the crystal also can serve as an image-quality and image-calibration reference. After subtraction of the crystal and lipid membrane contributions to the image, the remaining particle images can be used for 3D reconstruction. PMID:20887857

  9. A Generalized Fast Frequency Sweep Algorithm for Coupled Circuit-EM Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyang, G; Jandhyala, V; Champagne, N; Sharpe, R; Fasenfest, B J; Rockway, J D

    2004-12-14

    An Asymptotic Wave Expansion (AWE) technique is implemented into the EIGER computational electromagnetics code. The AWE fast frequency sweep is formed by separating the components of the integral equations by frequency dependence, then using this information to find a rational function approximation of the results. The standard AWE method is generalized to work for several integral equations, including the EFIE for conductors and the PMCHWT for dielectrics. The method is also expanded to work for two types of coupled circuit-EM problems as well as lumped load circuit elements. After a simple bisecting adaptive sweep algorithm is developed, dramatic speed improvements are seen for several example problems.

  10. Evolução temporal de discos circunstelares em estrelas Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, M. V. M.; Leister, N. V.; Levenhagen, R. S.

    2003-08-01

    A pesquisa do mecanismo que leva uma estrela do tipo Be a perder massa e formar um envelope circunstelar, nomeado como fenômeno Be, é uma questão em aberto, intrigante, e que adquire contornos interessantes em face às informações espectroscópicas de alta resolução. Nesta última década, consolida-se a idéia de que a forma destes envelopes é de tipo discóide, obedecendo a uma lei Kepleriana de velocidades, e mais ainda, recentemente há evidências de que a distribuição de matéria nestes discos pode assumir um caráter de anel. Medidas de algumas dimensões de discos circunstelares puderam ser obtidas pela análise de espectros de alta resolução e alta relação sinal-ruído para as estrelas Be: alpha Eri (HD 10144, B3Vpe), omicron And (HD 217675, B6IIIpe), e eta Cen (HD el972, B1.5Vne), no período dos anos de 1991 a 2001. Alguns modelos clássicos de envelope predizem uma distribuição de massa que decresce suavemente a partir da superfície estelar. Entretanto, considerando que a separação de picos de emissão em perfis de linhas do HeI e H-alpha, alargados por efeitos cinemáticos, é função do raio estelar e da velocidade rotacional projetada (vsini); nossos resultados sugerem a presença de um anel de matéria circunstelar, que aparece logo após a ejeção do material fotosférico, imediatamente acima da superfície estelar, e que se expande para raios maiores ao longo do tempo, eventualmente desconectando-se da superfície por uma região de densidade de matéria mínima. Tais interpretações revivem a idéia de que anéis de matéria circunstelar podem ser os responsáveis por algumas variabilidades em perfis de linhas de emissão, como as variações V/R.

  11. Fatal accident due to anti-personnel ARGES EM01 rifle grenade explosion.

    PubMed

    Pavlidis, Pavlos; Karakasi, Valeria; Birbilis, Theodossios-A

    2016-06-01

    During the process of unsealing an old ammunition box in order to destroy it, a 42-year-old ammunition technician was fatally injured due to an anti-personnel ARGES EM01-type rifle grenade detonation. The explosion took place in the victim's hands, in point-blank range. This report aimed to show the anatomical position, the severity and the dispersion extent of the multiple injuries in the human body due to the detonation, and draw firm conclusions regarding the position of the human body and the circumstances prevailing at the moment of the explosion. PMID:27321291

  12. I Get By With A Little Help From My Friends: Enhancing PTA Sensitivity to GWs With EM Counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Justin; Burke-Spolaor, S.

    2014-01-01

    Gravitational Waves (GWs) are tiny ripples in the fabric of space-time predicted by Einstein’s theory of General Relativity. Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) offer a unique opportunity to detect low frequency GWs in the near future. Such a detection would be complementary to both LIGO and and future space based GW efforts. In the low (1e-9 - 1e-7 Hz) frequency band, the expected source of GWs is a stochastic background resulting from the ensemble of supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) formed during the merger of galaxies, and possibly a few nearby/massive sources that will be individually resolvable. In this talk we will discuss the interplay between EM and GW observations of SMBMBs and will answer two questions: (i) How will an independent EM observation of an SMBHB increase the GW detection significance with PTAs? and (ii) How will this independent EM observation improve GW parameter estimation with PTAs?

  13. Sensitive and Specific Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of Human Alveolar Echinococcosis with the Monoclonal Antibody Em2G11

    PubMed Central

    Tappe, Dennis; Stark, Lorenz; Grüner, Beate; Buttenschoen, Klaus; Hillenbrand, Andreas; Juchems, Markus; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Kern, Petra; Seitz, Hanns M.; Möller, Peter; Rausch, Robert L.; Deplazes, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by the metacestode stage of Echinococcus multilocularis. Differential diagnosis with cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by E. granulosus and AE is challenging. We aimed at improving diagnosis of AE on paraffin sections of infected human tissue by immunohistochemical testing of a specific antibody. Methodology/Principal Findings We have analysed 96 paraffin archived specimens, including 6 cutting needle biopsies and 3 fine needle aspirates, from patients with suspected AE or CE with the monoclonal antibody (mAb) Em2G11 specific for the Em2 antigen of E. multilocularis metacestodes. In human tissue, staining with mAb Em2G11 is highly specific for E. multilocularis metacestodes while no staining is detected in CE lesions. In addition, the antibody detects small particles of E. multilocularis (spems) of less than 1 µm outside the main lesion in necrotic tissue, liver sinusoids and lymphatic tissue most probably caused by shedding of parasitic material. The conventional histological diagnosis based on haematoxylin and eosin and PAS stainings were in accordance with the immunohistological diagnosis using mAb Em2G11 in 90 of 96 samples. In 6 samples conventional subtype diagnosis of echinococcosis had to be adjusted when revised by immunohistology with mAb Em2G11. Conclusions/Significance Immunohistochemistry with the mAb Em2G11 is a new, highly specific and sensitive diagnostic tool for AE. The staining of small particles of E. multilocularis (spems) outside the main lesion including immunocompetent tissue, such as lymph nodes, suggests a systemic effect on the host. PMID:23145198

  14. The non-antibiotic macrolide EM900 inhibits rhinovirus infection and cytokine production in human airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Lusamba Kalonji, Nadine; Nomura, Kazuhiro; Kawase, Tetsuaki; Ota, Chiharu; Kubo, Hiroshi; Sato, Takeya; Yanagisawa, Teruyuki; Sunazuka, Toshiaki; Ōmura, Satoshi; Yamaya, Mutsuo

    2015-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of macrolides may be associated with a reduced frequency of exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, because the long-term use of antibiotics may promote the growth of drug-resistant bacteria, the development of a treatment to prevent COPD exacerbation with macrolides that do not exert anti-bacterial effects is necessary. Additionally, the inhibitory effects of nonantibiotic macrolides on the replication of rhinovirus (RV), which is the major cause of COPD exacerbation, have not been demonstrated. Primary cultures of human tracheal epithelial cells and nasal epithelial cells were pretreated with the nonantibiotic macrolide EM900 for 72 h prior to infection with a major group RV type 14 rhinovirus (RV14) and were further treated with EM900 after infection. Treatment with EM900 before and after infection reduced RV14 titers in the supernatants and viral RNA within the cells. Moreover, cytokine levels, including interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, were reduced in the supernatants following RV14 infection. Treatment with EM900 before and after infection also reduced the mRNA and protein expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), which is the receptor for RV14, after infection and reduced the activation of the nuclear factor kappa-B protein p50 in nuclear extracts after infection. Pretreatment with EM900 reduced the number and fluorescence intensity of the acidic endosomes through which RV RNA enters the cytoplasm. Thus, pretreatment with EM900 may inhibit RV infection by reducing the ICAM-1 levels and acidic endosomes and thus modulate the airway inflammation associated with RV infections. PMID:26462747

  15. BCL::EM-Fit: rigid body fitting of atomic structures into density maps using geometric hashing and real space refinement.

    PubMed

    Woetzel, Nils; Lindert, Steffen; Stewart, Phoebe L; Meiler, Jens

    2011-09-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) can visualize large macromolecular assemblies at resolutions often below 10Å and recently as good as 3.8-4.5 Å. These density maps provide important insights into the biological functioning of molecular machineries such as viruses or the ribosome, in particular if atomic-resolution crystal structures or models of individual components of the assembly can be placed into the density map. The present work introduces a novel algorithm termed BCL::EM-Fit that accurately fits atomic-detail structural models into medium resolution density maps. In an initial step, a "geometric hashing" algorithm provides a short list of likely placements. In a follow up Monte Carlo/Metropolis refinement step, the initial placements are optimized by their cross correlation coefficient. The resolution of density maps for a reliable fit was determined to be 10 Å or better using tests with simulated density maps. The algorithm was applied to fitting of capsid proteins into an experimental cryoEM density map of human adenovirus at a resolution of 6.8 and 9.0 Å, and fitting of the GroEL protein at 5.4 Å. In the process, the handedness of the cryoEM density map was unambiguously identified. The BCL::EM-Fit algorithm offers an alternative to the established Fourier/Real space fitting programs. BCL::EM-Fit is free for academic use and available from a web server or as downloadable binary file at http://www.meilerlab.org.

  16. High-resolution soft x-ray spectrometry using the electron-multiplying charge-coupled device (EM-CCD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, David J.; Tutt, James H.; Soman, Matthew R.; Holland, Andrew D.; Murray, Neil J.; Schmitt, Bernd; Schmitt, Thorsten

    2013-09-01

    The Electron-Multiplying Charge-Coupled Device (EM-CCD) shares a similar structure to the CCD except for the inclusion of a gain register that multiplies signal before the addition of read-noise, offering sub-electron effective readnoise at high frame-rates. EM-CCDs were proposed for the dispersive spectrometer on the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) to bring sub-300 eV X-rays above the noise, increasing the science yield. The high-speed, low-noise performance of the EMCCD brought added advantages of reduced dark current and stray-light per frame, reducing cooling and filtering requirements. To increase grating efficiency, several diffracted spectral orders were co-located so the inherent energy resolution of the detector was required for order separation. Although the spectral resolution of the EM-CCD is degraded by the gain process, it was shown that the EM-CCD could achieve the required separation. The RIXS spectrometer at the Advanced Resonant Spectroscopy beamline (ADRESS) of the Swiss Light Source (SLS) at the Paul Scherrer Institute currently uses a CCD, with charge spreading between pixels limiting the spatial resolution to 24 μm (FWHM). Through improving the spatial resolution below 5 μm alongside upgrading the grating, a factor of two energy resolution improvement could theoretically be made. With the high-speed, low-noise performance of the EM-CCD, photon-counting modes could allow the use of centroiding techniques to improve the resolution. Using various centroiding techniques, a spatial resolution of 2 μm (FWHM) has been achieved experimentally, demonstrating the benefits of this detector technology for soft X-ray spectrometry. This paper summarises the use of EM-CCDs from our first investigations for IXO through to our latest developments in ground-based testing for synchrotron-research and looks beyond to future possibilities.

  17. MOM3D/EM-ANIMATE - MOM3D WITH ANIMATION CODE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaeffer, J. F.

    1994-01-01

    MOM3D (LAR-15074) is a FORTRAN method-of-moments electromagnetic analysis algorithm for open or closed 3-D perfectly conducting or resistive surfaces. Radar cross section with plane wave illumination is the prime analysis emphasis; however, provision is also included for local port excitation for computing antenna gain patterns and input impedances. The Electric Field Integral Equation form of Maxwell's equations is solved using local triangle couple basis and testing functions with a resultant system impedance matrix. The analysis emphasis is not only for routine RCS pattern predictions, but also for phenomenological diagnostics: bistatic imaging, currents, and near scattered/total electric fields. The images, currents, and near fields are output in form suitable for animation. MOM3D computes the full backscatter and bistatic radar cross section polarization scattering matrix (amplitude and phase), body currents and near scattered and total fields for plane wave illumination. MOM3D also incorporates a new bistatic k space imaging algorithm for computing down range and down/cross range diagnostic images using only one matrix inversion. MOM3D has been made memory and cpu time efficient by using symmetric matrices, symmetric geometry, and partitioned fixed and variable geometries suitable for design iteration studies. MOM3D may be run interactively or in batch mode on 486 IBM PCs and compatibles, UNIX workstations or larger computers. A 486 PC with 16 megabytes of memory has the potential to solve a 30 square wavelength (containing 3000 unknowns) symmetric configuration. Geometries are described using a triangular mesh input in the form of a list of spatial vertex points and a triangle join connection list. The EM-ANIMATE (LAR-15075) program is a specialized visualization program that displays and animates the near-field and surface-current solutions obtained from an electromagnetics program, in particular, that from MOM3D. The EM-ANIMATE program is windows based and

  18. Left-handed-media simulation and transmission of EM waves in subwavelength split-ring-resonator-loaded metallic waveguides.

    PubMed

    Marqués, R; Martel, J; Mesa, F; Medina, F

    2002-10-28

    At microwave frequencies, hollow metallic waveguides behave in certain aspects as a "one-dimensional plasma." This feature will be advantageously used for simulating the propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves in left-handed metamaterials provided the hollow waveguide is periodically loaded with split ring resonators. It will be shown that EM transmission in this structure is feasible within a certain frequency band even if the transverse dimensions of the waveguide are much smaller than the associated free-space wavelength. This effect can be qualitatively and quantitatively explained by the left-handed metamaterial theory, thus providing a new experimental validation for such a theory.

  19. Microwave absorbance properties of zirconium–manganese substituted cobalt nanoferrite as electromagnetic (EM) wave absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Kishwar Rehman, Sarish

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • Good candidates for EM materials with low reflectivity. • Good candidates for broad bandwidth at microwave frequency. • Microwave absorbing bandwidth was modulated simply by manipulating the Zr–Mn. • Higher the Zr–Mn content, the higher absorption rates for the electromagnetic radiation. • The predicted reflection loss shows that this can be used for thin ferrite absorber. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline Zr–Mn (x) substituted Co ferrite having chemical formula CoFe{sub 2−2x}Zr{sub x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 4} (x = 0.1–0.4) was prepared by co-precipitation technique. Combining properties such as structural, electrical, magnetic and reflection loss characteristics. Crystal structure and surface morphology of the calcined samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By using two point probe homemade resistivity apparatus to find resistivity of the sample. Electromagnetic (EM) properties are measured through RF impedance/materials analyzer over 1 MHz–3 GHz. The room-temperature dielectric measurements show dispersion behavior with increasing frequency from 100 Hz to 3 MHz. Magnetic properties confirmed relatively strong dependence of saturation magnetization on Zr–Mn composition. Curie temperature is also found to decrease linearly with addition of Zr–Mn. Furthermore, comprehensive analysis of microwave reflection loss (RL) is carried out as a function of substitution, frequency, and thickness. Composition accompanying maximum microwave absorption is suggested.

  20. Estimating loop length from CryoEM images at medium resolutions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background De novo protein modeling approaches utilize 3-dimensional (3D) images derived from electron cryomicroscopy (CryoEM) experiments. The skeleton connecting two secondary structures such as α-helices represent the loop in the 3D image. The accuracy of the skeleton and of the detected secondary structures are critical in De novo modeling. It is important to measure the length along the skeleton accurately since the length can be used as a constraint in modeling the protein. Results We have developed a novel computational geometric approach to derive a simplified curve in order to estimate the loop length along the skeleton. The method was tested using fifty simulated density images of helix-loop-helix segments of atomic structures and eighteen experimentally derived density data from Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB). The test using simulated density maps shows that it is possible to estimate within 0.5Å of the expected length for 48 of the 50 cases. The experiments, involving eighteen experimentally derived CryoEM images, show that twelve cases have error within 2Å. Conclusions The tests using both simulated and experimentally derived images show that it is possible for our proposed method to estimate the loop length along the skeleton if the secondary structure elements, such as α-helices, can be detected accurately, and there is a continuous skeleton linking the α-helices. PMID:24565041

  1. Singularity-free Green's function for EM sources embedded in a stratified medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Ai-Hua; Liu, Yun-He; Yin, Chang-Chun; Jia, Ding-Yu

    2016-03-01

    We present a method to unify the calculation of Green's functions for an electromagnetic (EM) transmitting source embedded in a homogeneous stratified medium. A virtual interface parallel to layer interfaces is introduced through the source location. The potentials for Green's function are derived by decomposing the partial wave solutions to Helmholtz's equations into upward and downward within boundaries. The amplitudes of the potentials in each stratum are obtained recursively from the initial amplitudes at the source level. The initial amplitudes are derived by coupling with the transmitting sources and following the discontinuity of the tangential electric and magnetic fields at the source interface. Only the initial terms are related to the transmitting sources and thus need to be modified for different transmitters, whereas the kernel connected with the stratified media stays unchanged. Hence, the present method can be easily applied to EM transmitting sources with little modification. The application of the proposed method to the marine controlled-source electromagnetic method (MCSEM) demonstrates its simplicity and flexibility.

  2. Type IIP supernovae as cosmological probes: A SEAM distance to SN1999em

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, E.; Nugent, Peter E.; Branch, David; Hauschildt, Peter H.

    2004-06-01

    Because of their intrinsic brightness, supernovae make excellent cosmological probes. We describe the spectral-fitting expanding atmosphere method (SEAM) for obtaining distances to Type IIP supernovae (SNe IIP) and present a distance to SN 1999em for which a Cepheid distance exists. Our models give results consistent with the Cepheid distance, even though we have not attempted to tune the underlying hydrodynamical model but have simply chosen the best fits. This is in contradistinction to the expanding photosphere method (EPM), which yields a distance to SN 1999em that is 50 percent smaller than the Cepheid distance. We emphasize the differences between the SEAM and the EPM. We show that the dilution factors used in the EPM analysis were systematically too small at later epochs. We also show that the EPM blackbody assumption is suspect. Since SNe IIP are visible to redshifts as high as z {approx}< 6, with the James Webb Space Telescope, the SEAM may be a valuable probe of the early universe.

  3. [Research on remote sensing monitoring of soil salinization based on measured hyperspectral and EM38 data].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Ding, Jian-Li; Kelimul, Ardak; Zhang, Fang; Lei, Lei

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, the delta oasis between the Weigan River and the Kuqa River was selected as our study area. Firstly, the measured hyperspectral data related to different soil salinization extent was combined with electromagnetic induction instrument (EM38) in order to establish a soil salinization monitoring model; Secondly, by using the scaling transformation method, the model was adopted to calibrate the soil salinity index calculated from Landsat-TM images. Thirdly, the calibrated Landsat-TM images were used for the retrieval of regional soil salinity, and the retrieved data was verified based on the measured data. We found that at wavelengths of 456, 533, 686 and 1 373 nm, the interpretated data of EM38 were highly correlated with soil spectral reflectance (obtained via first order differentiation transformation of the spectra). Additionally, the soil salinity index model constructed from the combination of 456, 686 and 1 373 nm waveband was the best model among the different saliniza tion monitoring models. The authors' conclusion is that with R2 = 0.799 3 (p < 0.01), extracting the salinity information at regional scale by combining the electromagnetic and multispectral data performed better than those monitoring models with only salinity index extracted from multispectral remote sensing method (R2 = 0.587 4, p < 0 01). Our findings provides scientific bases for the future studies related to more accurate monitoring and prediction of soil salinization.

  4. Cryo-EM structure of the large subunit of the spinach chloroplast ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tofayel; Yin, Zhan; Bhushan, Shashi

    2016-01-01

    Protein synthesis in the chloroplast is mediated by the chloroplast ribosome (chloro-ribosome). Overall architecture of the chloro-ribosome is considerably similar to the Escherichia coli (E. coli) ribosome but certain differences are evident. The chloro-ribosome proteins are generally larger because of the presence of chloroplast-specific extensions in their N- and C-termini. The chloro-ribosome harbours six plastid-specific ribosomal proteins (PSRPs); four in the small subunit and two in the large subunit. Deletions and insertions occur throughout the rRNA sequence of the chloro-ribosome (except for the conserved peptidyl transferase center region) but the overall length of the rRNAs do not change significantly, compared to the E. coli. Although, recent advancements in cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) have provided detailed high-resolution structures of ribosomes from many different sources, a high-resolution structure of the chloro-ribosome is still lacking. Here, we present a cryo-EM structure of the large subunit of the chloro-ribosome from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) at an average resolution of 3.5 Å. High-resolution map enabled us to localize and model chloro-ribosome proteins, chloroplast-specific protein extensions, two PSRPs (PSRP5 and 6) and three rRNA molecules present in the chloro-ribosome. Although comparable to E. coli, the polypeptide tunnel and the tunnel exit site show chloroplast-specific features. PMID:27762343

  5. Improved random-starting method for the EM algorithm for finite mixtures of regressions.

    PubMed

    Schepers, Jan

    2015-03-01

    Two methods for generating random starting values for the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm are compared in terms of yielding maximum likelihood parameter estimates in finite mixtures of regressions. One of these methods is ubiquitous in applications of finite mixture regression, whereas the other method is an alternative that appears not to have been used so far. The two methods are compared in two simulation studies and on an illustrative data set. The results show that the alternative method yields solutions with likelihood values at least as high as, and often higher than, those returned by the standard method. Moreover, analyses of the illustrative data set show that the results obtained by the two methods may differ considerably with regard to some of the substantive conclusions. The results reported in this article indicate that in applications of finite mixture regression, consideration should be given to the type of mechanism chosen to generate random starting values for the EM algorithm. In order to facilitate the use of the proposed alternative method, an R function implementing the approach is provided in the Appendix of the article.

  6. Emergency Incident Rehabilitation: Resource Document to the Position Statement of the National Association of EMS Physicians.

    PubMed

    Hostler, David; McEntire, Serina J; Rittenberger, Jon C

    2016-01-01

    Position Statement: Emergency Incident Rehabilitation The National Association of EMS Physicians® believes that: Emergency operations and training conducted while wearing protective clothing and respirators is physiologically and cognitively demanding. The heat stress and fatigue created by working in protective clothing and respirators creates additional risk of illness/injury for the public safety provider. Emergency incident rehabilitation provides a structured rest period for rehydration and correction of abnormal body core temperature following work in protective clothing and respirators. Emergency incident rehab should be conducted at incidents (e.g. fireground, hazardous materials, and heavy rescue emergencies) and trainings involving activities that may lead to exceeding safe levels of physical and mental exertion. Emergency incident rehabilitation is incident care, not fitness for duty, and meant to reduce physiologic strain and prepare the responder to return to duty at the current incident and for the remainder of the shift. EMS should play a role in emergency incident rehabilitation with providers trained to understand the physiologic response of healthy individuals to environmental, exertional, and cognitive stress and implement appropriate mitigation strategies. An appropriately qualified physician should have oversight over the creation and implementation of emergency incident rehabilitation protocols and may be separate from the roles and responsibilities of the occupational medicine physician. There are no peer-reviewed data related to cold weather rehabilitation. Future studies should address this limitation to the literature. PMID:26847801

  7. Varying-energy CT imaging method based on EM-TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ping; Han, Yan

    2016-11-01

    For complicated structural components with wide x-ray attenuation ranges, conventional fixed-energy computed tomography (CT) imaging cannot obtain all the structural information. This limitation results in a shortage of CT information because the effective thickness of the components along the direction of x-ray penetration exceeds the limit of the dynamic range of the x-ray imaging system. To address this problem, a varying-energy x-ray CT imaging method is proposed. In this new method, the tube voltage is adjusted several times with the fixed lesser interval. Next, the fusion of grey consistency and logarithm demodulation are applied to obtain full and lower noise projection with a high dynamic range (HDR). In addition, for the noise suppression problem of the analytical method, EM-TV (expectation maximization-total Jvariation) iteration reconstruction is used. In the process of iteration, the reconstruction result obtained at one x-ray energy is used as the initial condition of the next iteration. An accompanying experiment demonstrates that this EM-TV reconstruction can also extend the dynamic range of x-ray imaging systems and provide a higher reconstruction quality relative to the fusion reconstruction method.

  8. On the impact of salinity observations on state estimates in Ems Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pein, Johannes Ulrich; Grayek, Sebastian; Schulz-Stellenfleth, Johannes; Stanev, Emil Vassilev

    2016-02-01

    The hydrodynamics of Ems Estuary are dominated by tides and their interaction with buoyancy forcing. Such an environment is challenging for any effort to bring together observations and model results. In this study, we investigate how salinity measurements in the Ems Estuary affect the reconstruction of the salinity field. Similar to the traditional observing system experiments, the impact of specific observational arrays is simulated in the framework of statistical experiments. The experimental algorithm mainly relies on the model covariance matrix. Each experiment results in an estimate of the reconstruction error. The analysed observation configurations involve single and multiple, as well as stationary and non-stationary observing arrays. Generally, the reconstruction of the ocean state improves with increasing the density of observations. It appears that certain locations are more favourable for reconstruction than others. In fact, the regions separating the main dynamical realms resist strongest to the reconstruction effort. Extending the covariance matrix by the temporal cross-covariances between the model grid points enables to evaluate the impact of observations taken from a moving platform. This approach further improves the outcome of the experiments, resulting in reconstruction errors near zero with the exception of the tidal river. The cross-covariance information is able to tackle even the irregular dynamics arising on the border between the different physical regimes.

  9. Unsupervised classification algorithm based on EM method for polarimetric SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Michelli, J. I.; Hurtado, M.; Areta, J. A.; Muravchik, C. H.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we develop an iterative classification algorithm using complex Gaussian mixture models for the polarimetric complex SAR data. It is a non supervised algorithm which does not require training data or an initial set of classes. Additionally, it determines the model order from data, which allows representing data structure with minimum complexity. The algorithm consists of four steps: initialization, model selection, refinement and smoothing. After a simple initialization stage, the EM algorithm is iteratively applied in the model selection step to compute the model order and an initial classification for the refinement step. The refinement step uses Classification EM (CEM) to reach the final classification and the smoothing stage improves the results by means of non-linear filtering. The algorithm is applied to both simulated and real Single Look Complex data of the EMISAR mission and compared with the Wishart classification method. We use confusion matrix and kappa statistic to make the comparison for simulated data whose ground-truth is known. We apply Davies-Bouldin index to compare both classifications for real data. The results obtained for both types of data validate our algorithm and show that its performance is comparable to Wishart's in terms of classification quality.

  10. Application of the high-resolution EM method in the investigation of B Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lanfang; He, Zhanxiang; Wang, Xuben; Zhang, Xizhe; Yang, Lunkai

    2005-09-01

    A successful case history of exploring for concealed structure using the high-resolution EM method in the investigation of the West-East Gas Pipeline Project’s B Tunnel is presented in this paper. The high frequency electromagnetic image system named STRATAGEM EH4, operating at frequencies ranging from 90 KHz to lHz, was used for data acquisition. The orthogonal components of the electromagnetic field were measured during the field acquisition and the relevant electromagnetic attributes of the object body were extracted from the electromagnetic data. Hybrid sources, consisting of natural and full tensor-controlled sources, were utilized to produce high-quality electromagnetic field data. B Tunnel lies in the western part of Hubei province, at depths of less than 200 m. The geologic setting of B tunnel is very complex. Following an initial geologic investigation, an outcrop considered to be a bedrock interface by investigators, collapsed during tunneling operations. A second investigation applied high-resolution EM and seismic refraction methods to reveal a more complex geologic structure along the tunnel route. The predicted rock classes and fault were encountered during the subsequent tunneling operations.

  11. Because Muncie's Densities Are Not Manhattan's: Using Geographical Weighting in the EM Algorithm for Areal Interpolation

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Jonathan P.; Van Riper, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Areal interpolation transforms data for a variable of interest from a set of source zones to estimate the same variable's distribution over a set of target zones. One common practice has been to guide interpolation by using ancillary control zones that are related to the variable of interest's spatial distribution. This guidance typically involves using source zone data to estimate the density of the variable of interest within each control zone. This article introduces a novel approach to density estimation, the geographically weighted expectation-maximization (GWEM) algorithm, which combines features of two previously used techniques, the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm and geographically weighted regression. The EM algorithm provides a framework for incorporating proper constraints on data distributions, and using geographical weighting allows estimated control-zone density ratios to vary spatially. We assess the accuracy of GWEM by applying it with land-use/land-cover ancillary data to population counts from a nationwide sample of 1980 United States census tract pairs. We find that GWEM generally is more accurate in this setting than several previously studied methods. Because target-density weighting (TDW)—using 1970 tract densities to guide interpolation—outperforms GWEM in many cases, we also consider two GWEM-TDW hybrid approaches, and find them to improve estimates substantially. PMID:24653524

  12. Instabilidade de Kelvin-Helmholtz em Raios Cometários

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, O. T.; Shigueoka, H.; Voelzke, M. R.

    1995-08-01

    Raios cometários são estruturas finas e longas da cauda de cometas do Tipo I (ou de plasma). Como eles apresentam simetria cilíndrica, admitem modelos MHD simples. Este trabalho explora essa possibilidade, apresentando um estudo sistemático da estabilidade e das oscilações de raios cometários na aproximação de plasma homogêneo. O critério de estabilidade, combinado com dados observacionais de perturbações (ondas, hélices, rupturas etc), constitui um importante diagnóstico da velocidade do plasma cometário em relação ao vento solar circundante, contribuindo assim para esclarecer questões fundamentais, tais como, o papel da instabilidade de Kelvin-Helmholtz na aceleração do plasma cometário, a propagação, conversão de modos e amortecimento de certas ondas do espectro MHD nos raios cometários. Os resultados deste estudo nortearão a análise de um grande número de imagens do Cometa Halley arquivadas em CD-ROM pela equipe dos fenômenos de grande escala do International Halley W!

  13. [Research on remote sensing monitoring of soil salinization based on measured hyperspectral and EM38 data].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Ding, Jian-Li; Kelimul, Ardak; Zhang, Fang; Lei, Lei

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, the delta oasis between the Weigan River and the Kuqa River was selected as our study area. Firstly, the measured hyperspectral data related to different soil salinization extent was combined with electromagnetic induction instrument (EM38) in order to establish a soil salinization monitoring model; Secondly, by using the scaling transformation method, the model was adopted to calibrate the soil salinity index calculated from Landsat-TM images. Thirdly, the calibrated Landsat-TM images were used for the retrieval of regional soil salinity, and the retrieved data was verified based on the measured data. We found that at wavelengths of 456, 533, 686 and 1 373 nm, the interpretated data of EM38 were highly correlated with soil spectral reflectance (obtained via first order differentiation transformation of the spectra). Additionally, the soil salinity index model constructed from the combination of 456, 686 and 1 373 nm waveband was the best model among the different saliniza tion monitoring models. The authors' conclusion is that with R2 = 0.799 3 (p < 0.01), extracting the salinity information at regional scale by combining the electromagnetic and multispectral data performed better than those monitoring models with only salinity index extracted from multispectral remote sensing method (R2 = 0.587 4, p < 0 01). Our findings provides scientific bases for the future studies related to more accurate monitoring and prediction of soil salinization. PMID:24059201

  14. Cryo-EM visualization of an exposed RGD epitope on adenovirus that escapes antibody neutralization.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, P L; Chiu, C Y; Huang, S; Muir, T; Zhao, Y; Chait, B; Mathias, P; Nemerow, G R

    1997-01-01

    Interaction of the adenovirus penton base protein with alpha v integrins promotes virus entry into host cells. The location of the integrin binding sequence Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) on human type 2 adenovirus (Ad2) was visualized by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and image reconstruction using a mAb (DAV-1) which recognizes a linear epitope, IRGDTFATR. The sites for DAV-1 binding corresponded to the weak density above each of the five 22 A protrusions on the adenovirus penton base protein. Modeling of a Fab fragment crystal structure into the adenovirus-Fab cryo-EM density indicated a large amplitude of motion for the Fab and the RGD epitope. An unexpected finding was that Fab fragments, but not IgG antibody molecules, inhibited adenovirus infection. Steric hindrance from the adenovirus fiber and a few bound IgG molecules, as well as epitope mobility, most likely prevent binding of IgG antibodies to all five RGD sites on the penton base protein within the intact virus. These studies indicate that the structure of the adenovirus particle facilitates interaction with cell integrins, whilst restricting binding of potentially neutralizing antibodies. PMID:9135136

  15. Workforce planning for DOE/EM: Assessing workforce demand and supply

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.E.; Ulibarri, C.A.

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has committed to bringing its facilities into regulatory compliance and restoring the environment of sites under its control by the year 2019. Responsibility for accomplishing this goal is vested with the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). Concerns regarding the availability of workers with the necessary technical skills and the prospect of retraining workers from other programs within DOE or other industries are addressed in this report in several ways. First, various workforce projections relevant to EM occupations are compared to determine common findings and resolve inconsistencies. Second, case studies, interviews, and published data are used to examine the potential availability of workers for these occupations via occupational mobility, training/retraining options, and salary adjustments. Third, demand and supply factors are integrated in a framework useful for structuring workforce analyses. The analyses demonstrate that workforce skills are not anticipated to change due to the change in mission; science, engineering, and technician occupations tend to be mobile within and across occupational categories; experience and on-the-job training are more crucial to issues of worker supply than education; and, the clarity of an organization`s mission, budget allocation process, work implementation and task assignment systems are critical determinants of both workforce need and supply. DOE is encouraged to create a more stable platform for workforce planning by resolving organizational and institutional hindrances to accomplishing work and capitalizing on workforce characteristics besides labor {open_quotes}supply{close_quotes} and demographics.

  16. Need a University Adopt a Formal Environmental Management System?: Progress without an EMS at a Small University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellerberg, Ian F.; Buchan, Graeme D.; Englefield, Russell

    2004-01-01

    What system does a university need to optimise its progress to sustainability? Discusses the gradation of approaches possible for a university as it strives to improve its environmental performance. Argues that an environmental policy plus mechanisms for its implementation can be adequate, and endorsement of a single formal EMS need not be…

  17. The Dynamic Dielectric at a Brain Functional Site and an EM Wave Approach to Functional Brain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, X. P.; Xia, Q.; Qu, D.; Wu, T. C.; Yang, D. G.; Hao, W. D.; Jiang, X.; Li, X. M.

    2014-01-01

    Functional brain imaging has tremendous applications. The existing methods for functional brain imaging include functional Magnetic Resonant Imaging (fMRI), scalp electroencephalography (EEG), implanted EEG, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET), which have been widely and successfully applied to various brain imaging studies. To develop a new method for functional brain imaging, here we show that the dielectric at a brain functional site has a dynamic nature, varying with local neuronal activation as the permittivity of the dielectric varies with the ion concentration of the extracellular fluid surrounding neurons in activation. Therefore, the neuronal activation can be sensed by a radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) wave propagating through the site as the phase change of the EM wave varies with the permittivity. Such a dynamic nature of the dielectric at a brain functional site provides the basis for an RF EM wave approach to detecting and imaging neuronal activation at brain functional sites, leading to an RF EM wave approach to functional brain imaging. PMID:25367217

  18. Implementation of a direct install 3-pole type EM transducer in round window niche for implantable middle ear hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Ho; Lim, Hyung-Gyu; Jung, Eui Sung; Wei, Qun; Seong, Ki Woong; Lee, Jyung Hyun; Lee, Seung-Ha; Cho, Jin Ho

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1980's, various types of implantable hearing aids using unique means for delivering acoustic power to the inner ear have been developed. Recently, implantable hearing aids that stimulate the round window by the middle ear transducer have received great attention because it reduces loading effect at the ossicular chain. In this study, we have implemented a direct install 3-pole type EM transducer in round window niche for implantable middle ear hearing aid. The 3-pole type EM transducer consists of two permanent magnets and three coils and exhibit structural features that minimize leakage flux, thereby permitting high efficiency and low magnetic field interference. The stapes velocity was measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer in response to the round window stimulation from the transducer. To verify the usefulness of the 3-pole type EM transducer, we compared the stapes vibration characteristics produced by the transducer and those from a sound source. The magnitude of stapes velocity due to the round window stimulation at 1 mArms was equivalent to that of stapes velocity at 94 dB SPL sound stimulation. Thus, the evaluation study shows that the 3-pole type EM transducer is suitable for implantable hearing devices.

  19. The Contributions of E.M. Tiffany and the FFA Creed to Leadership Development within the FFA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, James J.; Velez, Jonathan J.

    2008-01-01

    The FFA Creed by E.M. Tiffany has influenced the lives of countless FFA members. However, the creed has received little attention in terms of its origin. A creed is a foundational component for many organizations. It serves to establish collective vision and goals with the intent of providing purpose and direction to the individual as well as the…

  20. Implementation of a direct install 3-pole type EM transducer in round window niche for implantable middle ear hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Ho; Lim, Hyung-Gyu; Jung, Eui Sung; Wei, Qun; Seong, Ki Woong; Lee, Jyung Hyun; Lee, Seung-Ha; Cho, Jin Ho

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1980's, various types of implantable hearing aids using unique means for delivering acoustic power to the inner ear have been developed. Recently, implantable hearing aids that stimulate the round window by the middle ear transducer have received great attention because it reduces loading effect at the ossicular chain. In this study, we have implemented a direct install 3-pole type EM transducer in round window niche for implantable middle ear hearing aid. The 3-pole type EM transducer consists of two permanent magnets and three coils and exhibit structural features that minimize leakage flux, thereby permitting high efficiency and low magnetic field interference. The stapes velocity was measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer in response to the round window stimulation from the transducer. To verify the usefulness of the 3-pole type EM transducer, we compared the stapes vibration characteristics produced by the transducer and those from a sound source. The magnitude of stapes velocity due to the round window stimulation at 1 mArms was equivalent to that of stapes velocity at 94 dB SPL sound stimulation. Thus, the evaluation study shows that the 3-pole type EM transducer is suitable for implantable hearing devices. PMID:25226951

  1. Single-Particle Cryo-EM and 3D Reconstruction of Hybrid Nanoparticles with Electron-Dense Components.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guimei; Yan, Rui; Zhang, Chuan; Mao, Chengde; Jiang, Wen

    2015-10-01

    Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), accompanied with 3D reconstruction, is a broadly applicable tool for the structural characterization of macromolecules and nanoparticles. Recently, the cryo-EM field has pushed the limits of this technique to higher resolutions and samples of smaller molecular mass, however, some samples still present hurdles to this technique. Hybrid particles with electron-dense components, which have been studied using single-particle cryo-EM yet with limited success in 3D reconstruction due to the interference caused by electron-dense elements, constitute one group of such challenging samples. To process such hybrid particles, a masking method is developed in this work to adaptively remove pixels arising from electron-dense portions in individual projection images while maintaining maximal biomass signals for subsequent 2D alignment, 3D reconstruction, and iterative refinements. As demonstrated by the success in 3D reconstruction of an octahedron DNA/gold hybrid particle, which has been previously published without a 3D reconstruction, the devised strategy that combines adaptive masking and standard single-particle 3D reconstruction approach has overcome the hurdle of electron-dense elements interference, and is generally applicable to cryo-EM structural characterization of most, if not all, hybrid nanomaterials with electron-dense components.

  2. The dynamic dielectric at a brain functional site and an EM wave approach to functional brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, X P; Xia, Q; Qu, D; Wu, T C; Yang, D G; Hao, W D; Jiang, X; Li, X M

    2014-11-04

    Functional brain imaging has tremendous applications. The existing methods for functional brain imaging include functional Magnetic Resonant Imaging (fMRI), scalp electroencephalography (EEG), implanted EEG, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET), which have been widely and successfully applied to various brain imaging studies. To develop a new method for functional brain imaging, here we show that the dielectric at a brain functional site has a dynamic nature, varying with local neuronal activation as the permittivity of the dielectric varies with the ion concentration of the extracellular fluid surrounding neurons in activation. Therefore, the neuronal activation can be sensed by a radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) wave propagating through the site as the phase change of the EM wave varies with the permittivity. Such a dynamic nature of the dielectric at a brain functional site provides the basis for an RF EM wave approach to detecting and imaging neuronal activation at brain functional sites, leading to an RF EM wave approach to functional brain imaging.

  3. A Behavior Analytic Approach to Exploratory Motor Behavior: How Can Caregivers Teach EM Behavior to Infants with Down Syndrome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Sara M.; Jones, Emily A.

    2014-01-01

    Impairment in exploratory motor (EM) behavior is part of the Down syndrome behavioral phenotype. Exploratory motor behavior may be a pivotal skill for early intervention with infants with Down syndrome. Exploratory motor impairments are often attributed to general delays in motor development in infants with Down syndrome. A behavior analytic…

  4. General formalism for the efficient calculation of derivatives of EM frequency-domain responses and derivatives of the misfit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, Oleg; Kuvshinov, Alexei

    2010-04-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) studies of the Earth have advanced significantly over the past few years. This progress was driven, in particular, by new developments in the methods of 3-D inversion of EM data. Due to the large scale of the 3-D EM inverse problems, iterative gradient-type methods have mostly been employed. In these methods one has to calculate multiple times the gradient of the penalty function-a sum of misfit and regularization terms-with respect to the model parameters. However, even with modern computational capabilities the straightforward calculation of the misfit gradients based on numerical differentiation is extremely time consuming. Much more efficient and elegant way to calculate the gradient of the misfit is provided by the so-called `adjoint' approach. This is now widely used in many 3-D numerical schemes for inverting EM data of different types and origin. It allows the calculation of the misfit gradient for the price of only a few additional forward calculations. In spite of its popularity we did not find in the literature any general description of the approach, which would allow researchers to apply this methodology in a straightforward manner to their scenario of interest. In the paper, we present formalism for the efficient calculation of the derivatives of EM frequency-domain responses and the derivatives of the misfit with respect to variations of 3-D isotropic/anisotropic conductivity. The approach is rather general; it works with single-site responses, multisite responses and responses that include spatial derivatives of EM field. The formalism also allows for various types of parametrization of the 3-D conductivity distribution. Using this methodology one can readily obtain appropriate formulae for the specific sounding methods. To illustrate the concept we provide such formulae for a number of EM techniques: geomagnetic depth sounding (GDS), conventional and generalized magnetotellurics, the magnetovariational method, horizontal

  5. Estudo de soluções locais e cosmológicas em teorias do tipo tensor-escalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva E Costa, S.

    2003-08-01

    Teorias do tipo tensor-escalar são a mais simples extensão possí vel da Relatividade Geral. Nessas teorias, cujo modelo padrão é a teoria de Brans-Dicke, a curvatura do espaço-tempo, descrita por componentes tensoriais, aparece acoplada a um campo escalar que, de certo modo, representa uma variação na constante de acoplamento da gravitação. Tais teorias apresentam soluções locais e cosmológicas que, em determinados limites, recaem nas apresentadas pela Relatividade Geral, mas que em outros limites trazem novidades, tais como conseqüências observacionais da evolução de flutuações primordiais distintas daquelas previstas pela Relatividade Geral (ver, por ex., Nagata et al., PRD 66, p. 103510 (2002)). Graças a esta possibilidade de trazer à luz novidades em relação à gravitação, teorias do tipo tensor-escalar podem ser vistas como um interessante campo alternativo de pesquisas para soluções dos problemas de massa faltante (ou escura) e/ou energia escura. Seguindo tal linha, este trabalho, ainda em sua fase inicial, apresenta soluções gerais de teorias do tipo tensor-escalar para diversas situações, verificando-se em que consiste a divergência dessas soluções dos casos tradicionais possí veis na Relatividade Geral. Como exemplos das soluções aqui apresentadas pode-se destacar uma expressão geral para diferentes soluções cosmológicas englobando diferentes tipos de matéria (representados por diferentes equações de estado), e a expressão para uma solução local representando um buraco negro com rotação, similar à solução de Kerr da Relatividade Geral. Por fim, é importante ressaltar que, embora aqui apresentem-se poucos resultados novos, na literatura sobre o assunto a maior parte das soluções apresentadas limita-se a uns poucos casos especí ficos, tal como soluções cosmológicas apenas com curvatura nula, e que mesmo as soluções disponí veis são, em geral, pouco divulgadas e, portanto, pouco conhecidas, e

  6. Identifying Salinity Sources and Quantifying Salinity Loads Along Two Texas Streams Using Stream-axis Airborne EM and Focused Hydrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paine, J. G.; Collins, E. W.; Nance, H. S.; Niemann, K.

    2005-12-01

    We delineated natural and oil-field salinity sources that degrade water quality in the upper Colorado River (west Texas) and Petronila Creek (Texas coast) by combining multi-frequency airborne EM measurements of apparent ground conductivity with chemical analyses of surface water at key stream locations. To reduce the cost of high-resolution airborne surveying over such large areas, we first flew along the stream axes and then examined preliminary results in the field to identify likely salinized stream segments. We then flew more detailed surveys over these areas rather than over the entire basin. Stream-axis EM data also helped identify water-sampling locations upstream and downstream from each salinized segment. We used these data to calculate salinity loads and discriminate among possible natural and oil-field salinity sources. We acquired stream-axis airborne EM data along 437 km of the upper Colorado River and its major tributaries using a Geophex GEM-2A instrument operating at five frequencies between 450 Hz and 39 kHz. Increases in chloride, sulfate, and total salinity loading in the upper Colorado River basin between Lake Thomas and Ivie Reservoir occur along eleven segments of elevated apparent conductivity identified from airborne EM data. Each segment encompasses areas of baseflow salinity contributions to the stream from natural dissolution of evaporite minerals in the Permian basin, from oil-field produced water, or both. Analyses of surface water confirm increases salinity loading associated with each segment. Airborne EM data acquired on the coast along Petronila Creek and within a corridor centered on it revealed three stream segments with elevated ground conductivity. Increases in chloride, sulfate, and total salinity loading are attributed to shallow baseflow contributions along the three segments. Using airborne EM and hydrochemistry data, we interpret the dominant salinization mechanism within the two upstream segments to be historic discharge

  7. Evolução química em galáxias compactas azuis (BCGs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanfranchi, G. A.; Matteucci, F.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho, a formação estelar e evolução quí mica em galáxias Compactas Azuis (Blue Compact Galaxies - BCGs) foram estudadas através da comparação de previsões de modelos de evolução quí mica a várias razões de abundância quí mica observadas nestas galáxias. Modelos detalhados com recentes dados de nucleossí ntese e que levam em consideração o papel desempenahdo por supernovas de ambos os tipos (II e Ia) na evolução galáctica foram desenvolvidos para as BCGs permitindo seguir a evolução de vários elementos quí micos (H, D, He, C, N, O, Mg, Si, S, Ca, e Fe). O modelo é caracterizado pelas prescrições adotadas para a formação estelar, a qual ocorre em vários surtos de atividade separados por longos perí odos quiescentes. Após ajustar os melhores modelos aos dados observacionais, as previsões destes modelos foram comparadas também a razões de abundância observadas em sistemas Damped Lyman alpha (DLAs) e a origem do N (primária ou secundária) foi discutida. Alguns dos resultados obtidos são: i) as razões de abundância observadas nas BCGs são reproduzidas por modelos com 2 a 7 surtos de formação estelar com eficiência entre n = 0.2-0.9 Gano-1; ii) os baixos valores de N/O observados nestas galáxias são um resultado natural de uma formação estelar em surtos; iii) os modelos para BCGs podem reproduzir os dados dos DLAs, iv) uma quantidade "baixa" de N primário produzido em estrelas de alta massa pode ser uma explicação para os baixos valores de [N/a] observados em DLAs.

  8. Electromagnetic (EM) earthquake precursor transmission and detection regarding experimental field and laboratory results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth B., II; Saxton, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    increased, variable geometry. The blocks were all successfully fractured with expansionary cement netting consecutive and identical EM emission results very similar to the Timpson pre-earthquake results. Cored granite made up the largest amount of rock test types, due to the large volume occurring as basement rock. EM transmission in the ELF range ascending from depth was theorized to follow paths of least resistance via faults and other fracture spaces than actual penetration through solid rock, which may attenuate both signal strength and frequency response. Fault geometry, fracture orientation/termination, and subsurface reflection may make epicenter determinations problematic; however, EM emissions will continually occur and be detectable with further signal analyses in refining epicentral locations.

  9. CO2 Washout Testing of the REI and EM-ACES Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kate; Norcross, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. The objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 in the Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES) across a range of workloads and flow rates for which ground testing is nominally performed. Three subjects were tested in each suit. In all but one case, each subject performed the test twice to allow for comparison between tests. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects wore the suit while resting, performing arm ergometry, and walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 500 to 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow was varied at 6, 5 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the air outlet from the suit. Real-time metabolic rate was used to adjust the arm ergometer or treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. In both suits, inspired CO2 was primarily affected by the metabolic rate of the subject, with increased metabolic rate resulting in increased inspired ppCO2. Suit flow rate also affected inspired ppCO2, with decreased flow causing small increases in inspired ppCO2. The effect of flow was more evident at metabolic rates greater than or equal to 2000 BTU/hr. Results were consistent between suits, with

  10. Georeferencing natural disaster impact footprints : lessons learned from the EM-DAT experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallemacq, Pascaline; Guha Sapir, Debarati

    2014-05-01

    The Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT) contains data about the occurrence and consequences of all the disasters that have taken place since 1900. The main objectives of the database are to serve the purposes of humanitarian action at national and international levels; to aid decision making for disaster preparedness, as well as providing an objective base for vulnerability assessments and priority setting. EM-DAT records data on the human and economic impacts for each event as well as the location of said event. This is recorded as text data, namely the province, department, county, district, or village. The first purpose of geocoding (or georeferencing) the EM-DAT database is to transform the location data from text format into code data. The GAUL (Global Administrative Unit Layers) database (FAO) is used as a basis to identify the geographic footprint of the disaster, ideally to the second administrative level and add a unique code for each affected unit. Our first step has involved georeferencing earthquakes since the location of these is precise. The second purpose is to detail the degree of precision of georeferencing. The application and benefits of georeferencing are manifold. The geographic information of the footprint of past (after 2000) and future natural disasters permits the location of vulnerable areas with a GIS system and to cross data from different sources. It will allow the study of different elements such as the extent of a disaster and its human and economic consequences; the exposure and vulnerability of the population in space and time and the efficiency of mitigation measures. In addition, any association between events and external factors can be identified (e.g.: is the famine located at the same places as drought?) and precision of the information in the disaster report can be evaluated. Besides this, these maps will provide valuable communication support since maps have a high communication power and are easily understandable by the

  11. CO2 Washout Testing of the REI and EM-ACES Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn C.; Norcross, Jason

    2012-01-01

    When a space suit is used during ground testing, adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout must be provided for the suited subject. Symptoms of acute CO2 exposure depend on partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), metabolic rate of the subject, and other factors. This test was done to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 in the Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES) for a range of workloads and flow rates for which ground testing is nominally performed. Three subjects were tested in each suit. In all but one case, each subject performed the test twice. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects wore the suit while resting, performing arm ergometry, and walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of about 500 to 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow was varied between 6, 5, and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored in real time by gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the suit air outlet. Real-time metabolic rate was used to adjust the arm ergometer or treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. In both suits, inspired CO2 was affected mainly by the metabolic rate of the subject: increased metabolic rate significantly (P < 0.05) increased inspired ppCO2. Decreased air flow caused small increases in inspired ppCO2. The effect of flow was more evident at metabolic rates . 2000 BTU/hr. CO2 washout values of the EM-ACES were slightly but not significantly better than those of the REI suit. Regression equations were developed for each suit to predict the mean inspired ppCO2 as a function of metabolic rate and suit flow rate. This paper provides detailed descriptions of the test hardware, methodology, and results as well as implications for future

  12. CryoEM and mutagenesis reveal that the smallest capsid protein cements and stabilizes Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus capsid.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xinghong; Gong, Danyang; Xiao, Yuchen; Wu, Ting-Ting; Sun, Ren; Zhou, Z Hong

    2015-02-17

    With just one eighth the size of the major capsid protein (MCP), the smallest capsid protein (SCP) of human tumor herpesviruses--Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)--is vital to capsid assembly, yet its mechanism of action is unknown. Here, by cryoEM of KSHV at 6-Å resolution, we show that SCP forms a crown on each hexon and uses a kinked helix to cross-link neighboring MCP subunits. SCP-null mutation decreased viral titer by 1,000 times and impaired but did not fully abolish capsid assembly, indicating an important but nonessential role of SCP. By truncating the C-terminal half of SCP and performing cryoEM reconstruction, we demonstrate that SCP's N-terminal half is responsible for the observed structure and function whereas the C-terminal half is flexible and dispensable. Serial truncations further highlight the critical importance of the N-terminal 10 aa, and cryoEM reconstruction of the one with six residues truncated localizes the N terminus of SCP in the cryoEM density map and enables us to construct a pseudoatomic model of SCP. Fitting of this SCP model and a homology model for the MCP upper domain into the cryoEM map reveals that SCP binds MCP largely via hydrophobic interactions and the kinked helix of SCP bridges over neighboring MCPs to form noncovalent cross-links. These data support a mechanistic model that tumor herpesvirus SCP reinforces the capsid for genome packaging, thus acting as a cementing protein similar to those found in many bacteriophages.

  13. BCL::EM-Fit: Rigid body fitting of atomic structures into density maps using geometric hashing and real space refinement

    PubMed Central

    Woetzel, Nils; Lindert, Steffen; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Meiler, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Cryo-Electron Microscopy can visualize large macromolecular assemblies at resolutions often below 10 Å and recently as good as 3.8–4.5 Å. These density maps provide important insights into the biological functioning of molecular machineries such as viruses or the ribosome, in particular if atomic-resolution crystal structures or models of individual components of the assembly can be placed into the density map. The present work introduces a novel algorithm termed BCL::EM-Fit that accurately fits atomic-detail structural models into medium resolution density maps. In an initial step, a “geometric hashing” algorithm provides a short list of likely placements. In a follow up Monte Carlo/Metropolis refinement step, the initial placements are optimized by their cross correlation coefficient. The resolution of density maps for a reliable fit was determined to be 10 Å or better using tests with simulated density maps. The algorithm was applied to fitting of capsid proteins into an experimental cryoEM density map of human adenovirus at a resolution of 6.8 and 9.0 Å, and fitting of the GroEL protein at 5.4 Å. In the process, the handedness of the cryoEM density map was unambiguously identified. The BCL::EM-Fit algorithm offers an alternative to the established Fourier/Real space fitting programs. BCL::EM-Fit is free for academic use and available from a webserver or as downloadable binary file at http://www.meilerlab.org. PMID:21565271

  14. Chemoprevention of Familial Adenomatous Polyposis by Bromo-noscapine (EM011) in the ApcMin/+ Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shiwang; Ghaleb, Amr M.; He, Jing; Bughani, Usha; Bialkowska, Agnieszka B.; Yang, Vincent W.; Joshi, Harish C.

    2011-01-01

    Germline mutation of the tumor suppressor gene, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), is responsible for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) with nearly 100% risk for colon cancer at an early age. Although FAP is involved in only 1% of all colon cancer cases, over 80% of sporadic cancers harbor somatic mutations of APC. We show here that bromo-onoscapine (EM011), a rationally-designed synthetic derivative of a natural non-toxic tubulin-binding alkaloid-noscapine, that reduces the dynamics of microtubules, causes a reversible G2/M arrest in wild type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), but an aberrant exit from a brief mitotic block, followed by apoptosis in MEFs after APC deletion with siRNA. Furthermore, both β-catenin levels and activity fell to half the original levels with a concomitant reduction of cell proliferation-inducing cyclin D1, c-Myc, and induction of cytostatic protein p21 prior to caspase-3 activation. Additionally, we show a statistically significant reduction in the number of newly emerging intestinal polyps (to 35% compared with untreated mice) as well as the mean size of polyps (to 42% compared with untreated mice) in EM011-treated ApcMin/+ mice as compared to their sham-treated control littermates. The remaining polyps in the EM011 treated group of ApcMin/+ mice showed evidence of elevated apoptosis as revealed by immunohistochemistry. We failed to detect any evidence of histopathological and hematological toxicities following EM011 treatment. Taken together, our data are persuasive that a clinical trial of EM011 is possible for the prevention/amelioration of polyposis in FAP patients. PMID:22052467

  15. Test of 3D CT reconstructions by EM + TV algorithm from undersampled data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evseev, Ivan; Ahmann, Francielle; da Silva, Hamilton P.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Yevseyeva, Olga; Klock, Márgio C. L.

    2013-05-01

    Computerized tomography (CT) plays an important role in medical imaging for diagnosis and therapy. However, CT imaging is connected with ionization radiation exposure of patients. Therefore, the dose reduction is an essential issue in CT. In 2011, the Expectation Maximization and Total Variation Based Model for CT Reconstruction (EM+TV) was proposed. This method can reconstruct a better image using less CT projections in comparison with the usual filtered back projection (FBP) technique. Thus, it could significantly reduce the overall dose of radiation in CT. This work reports the results of an independent numerical simulation for cone beam CT geometry with alternative virtual phantoms. As in the original report, the 3D CT images of 128×128×128 virtual phantoms were reconstructed. It was not possible to implement phantoms with lager dimensions because of the slowness of code execution even by the CORE i7 CPU.

  16. System architecture and market aspects of an European Land Mobile Satellite System via EMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananasso, F.; Mistretta, I.

    1992-03-01

    The paper describes an implementation scenario of a Land Mobile Satellite System via the EMS (European Mobile System) payload embarked on Italsat F-2. Some emphasis is given on market issues aiming at singling out business niches of Land Mobile Satellite Services (LMSS) in Europe. Other crucial issues exist such as: the alternate/competitive systems, the problems of interworking with other existing and/or planned systems, the definition of network architecture that better fits the user requirements, the marketing strategy and, last but not least, the financial evaluation of the project. The paper, on the basis of a study performed by Telespazio on behalf of ESA, discusses some of these issues with emphasis on competitive market aspects.

  17. Test of 3D CT reconstructions by EM + TV algorithm from undersampled data

    SciTech Connect

    Evseev, Ivan; Ahmann, Francielle; Silva, Hamilton P. da

    2013-05-06

    Computerized tomography (CT) plays an important role in medical imaging for diagnosis and therapy. However, CT imaging is connected with ionization radiation exposure of patients. Therefore, the dose reduction is an essential issue in CT. In 2011, the Expectation Maximization and Total Variation Based Model for CT Reconstruction (EM+TV) was proposed. This method can reconstruct a better image using less CT projections in comparison with the usual filtered back projection (FBP) technique. Thus, it could significantly reduce the overall dose of radiation in CT. This work reports the results of an independent numerical simulation for cone beam CT geometry with alternative virtual phantoms. As in the original report, the 3D CT images of 128 Multiplication-Sign 128 Multiplication-Sign 128 virtual phantoms were reconstructed. It was not possible to implement phantoms with lager dimensions because of the slowness of code execution even by the CORE i7 CPU.

  18. Super ready: how a regional approach to Super Bowl EMS paid off.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Terry; Cortacans, Henry P

    2014-07-01

    The Super Bowl and its associated activities represent one of the largest special events in the world. Super Bowl XLVIII was geographically unique because the NFL's and Super Bowl Host Committee's activities, venues and events encompassed two states and fell across numerous jurisdictions within six counties (Bergen, Hudson, Morris, Essex, Middlesex, and Manhattan).This Super Bowl was the first to do this. EMS was one of the largest operational components during this event. Last and most important, it is the people and relationships that make any planning initiative and event a success. Sit down and have a cup a coffee with your colleagues, partners and neighbors in and out of state to discuss your planning initiatives. Do it early-it will make your efforts less painful should an event of this magnitude come to a city near you! PMID:25181868

  19. Solar wind-magnetosphere interaction as simulated by a 3D, EM particle code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buneman, O.; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Neubert, T.

    1993-01-01

    The results of simulating the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction with a three dimensional, electromagnetic (EM) particle code are presented. Hitherto such global simulations were done with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) codes while lower dimensional particle or hybrid codes served to account for microscopic processes and such transport parameters as have to be introduced ad hoc in MHD. The kinetic model combines macroscopic and microscopic tasks. It relies only on the Maxwell curl equations and the Lorentz equation for particles. The preliminary results are for an unmagnetized solar wind plasma streaming past a dipolar magnetic field. The results show the formation of a bow shock and a magnetotail, the penetration of energetic particles into cusp and radiation belt regions, and dawn to dusk asymmetries.

  20. Altered lipid accumulation in Nannochloropsis salina CCAP849/3 following EMS and UV induced mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Beacham, T.A.; Macia, V. Mora; Rooks, P.; White, D.A.; Ali, S.T.

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have potential as a chemical feed stock in a range of industrial applications. Nannochloropsis salina was subject to EMS mutagenesis and the highest lipid containing cells selected using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Assessment of growth, lipid content and fatty acid composition identified mutant strains displaying a range of altered traits including changes in the PUFA content and a total FAME increase of up to 156% that of the wild type strain. Combined with a reduction in growth this demonstrated a productivity increase of up to 76%. Following UV mutagenesis, lipid accumulation of the mutant cultures was elevated to more than 3 fold that of the wild type strain, however reduced growth rates resulted in a reduction in overall productivity. Changes observed are indicative of alterations to the regulation of the omega 6 Kennedy pathway. The importance of these variations in physiology for industrial applications such as biofuel production is discussed. PMID:26753128

  1. Adjustment method for embedded metrology engine in an EM773 series microcontroller.

    PubMed

    Blazinšek, Iztok; Kotnik, Bojan; Chowdhury, Amor; Kačič, Zdravko

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the problems of implementation and adjustment (calibration) of a metrology engine embedded in NXP's EM773 series microcontroller. The metrology engine is used in a smart metering application to collect data about energy utilization and is controlled with the use of metrology engine adjustment (calibration) parameters. The aim of this research is to develop a method which would enable the operators to find and verify the optimum parameters which would ensure the best possible accuracy. Properly adjusted (calibrated) metrology engines can then be used as a base for variety of products used in smart and intelligent environments. This paper focuses on the problems encountered in the development, partial automatisation, implementation and verification of this method.

  2. Investigation of assumptions underlying current safety guidelines on EM-induced nerve stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, Esra; Vogiatzis Oikonomidis, Ioannis; Iacono, Maria Ida; Angelone, Leonardo M.; Kainz, Wolfgang; Kuster, Niels

    2016-06-01

    An intricate network of a variety of nerves is embedded within the complex anatomy of the human body. Although nerves are shielded from unwanted excitation, they can still be stimulated by external electromagnetic sources that induce strongly non-uniform field distributions. Current exposure safety standards designed to limit unwanted nerve stimulation are based on a series of explicit and implicit assumptions and simplifications. This paper demonstrates the applicability of functionalized anatomical phantoms with integrated coupled electromagnetic and neuronal dynamics solvers for investigating the impact of magnetic resonance exposure on nerve excitation within the full complexity of the human anatomy. The impact of neuronal dynamics models, temperature and local hot-spots, nerve trajectory and potential smoothing, anatomical inhomogeneity, and pulse duration on nerve stimulation was evaluated. As a result, multiple assumptions underlying current safety standards are questioned. It is demonstrated that coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling involving realistic anatomies is valuable to establish conservative safety criteria.

  3. Identifying conformational states of macromolecules by eigen-analysis of resampled cryo-EM images

    PubMed Central

    Penczek, Pawel A.; Kimmel, Marek; Spahn, Christian M.T.

    2012-01-01

    Summary We present the codimensional PCA, a novel and straightforward method for resolving sample heterogeneity within a set of cryo-EM 2D projection images of macromolecular assemblies. The method employs Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of resmapled 3D structures computed using subsets of 2D data obtained with a novel hypergeometric sampling scheme. PCA provides us with a small subset of dominating “eingevolumes” of the system, whose reprojections are compared with experimental projection data to yield their factorial coordinates constructed in a common framework of the 3D space of the macromolecule. Codimensional PCA is unique in the dramatic reduction of dimensionality of the problem, which facilitates rapid determination of both the plausible number of conformers in the sample and their 3D structures. We applied the codimensional PCA to a complex data set of T. thermophilus 70S ribosome, and we identified four major conformational states and visualized high mobility of the stalk base region. PMID:22078558

  4. The EM Method in a Probabilistic Wavelet-Based MRI Denoising

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Human body heat emission and others external causes can interfere in magnetic resonance image acquisition and produce noise. In this kind of images, the noise, when no signal is present, is Rayleigh distributed and its wavelet coefficients can be approximately modeled by a Gaussian distribution. Noiseless magnetic resonance images can be modeled by a Laplacian distribution in the wavelet domain. This paper proposes a new magnetic resonance image denoising method to solve this fact. This method performs shrinkage of wavelet coefficients based on the conditioned probability of being noise or detail. The parameters involved in this filtering approach are calculated by means of the expectation maximization (EM) method, which avoids the need to use an estimator of noise variance. The efficiency of the proposed filter is studied and compared with other important filtering techniques, such as Nowak's, Donoho-Johnstone's, Awate-Whitaker's, and nonlocal means filters, in different 2D and 3D images. PMID:26089959

  5. Reservoir characterization and process monitoring with EM methods. 1993 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.

    1994-09-01

    During the past four years at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) the authors have applied the EM induction method to the problem of thermal front tracking during EOR operations. During this past year, they have also turned their attention to the larger, but related, problem of petroleum reservoir characterization. As in the past, this research is a collaborative effort. The main focus of activities at LLNL is hardware development, field measurement and geological interpretation of the results. The authors are dependent on others for theoretical and software development, geological information and the availability of sites to test field systems. Collaborative interdependency serves to make research dollars stretch further and allows completion of the tasks in a timely manner. In this annual report the authors discuss the progress in the development of numerical modeling codes, describe improvements to the field system and present some field results.

  6. Markov Chain Monte Carlo Sampling Methods for 1D Seismic and EM Data Inversion

    2008-09-22

    This software provides several Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling methods for the Bayesian model developed for inverting 1D marine seismic and controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data. The current software can be used for individual inversion of seismic AVO and CSEM data and for joint inversion of both seismic and EM data sets. The structure of the software is very general and flexible, and it allows users to incorporate their own forward simulation codes and rockmore » physics model codes easily into this software. Although the softwae was developed using C and C++ computer languages, the user-supplied codes can be written in C, C++, or various versions of Fortran languages. The software provides clear interfaces for users to plug in their own codes. The output of this software is in the format that the R free software CODA can directly read to build MCMC objects.« less

  7. Cryo-EM structure of the activated NAIP2-NLRC4 inflammasome reveals nucleated polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liman; Chen, Shuobing; Ruan, Jianbin; Wu, Jiayi; Tong, Alexander B.; Yin, Qian; Li, Yang; David, Liron; Lu, Alvin; Wang, Wei Li; Marks, Carolyn; Ouyang, Qi; Zhang, Xinzheng; Mao, Youdong; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The NLR family apoptosis inhibitory proteins (NAIPs) bind conserved bacterial ligands, such as the bacterial rod protein PrgJ, and recruit NLR family CARD-containing protein 4 (NLRC4) as the inflammasome adapter to activate innate immunity. We found that the PrgJ-NAIP2-NLRC4 inflammasome is assembled into multisubunit disk-like structures through a unidirectional adenosine triphosphatase polymerization, primed with a single PrgJ-activated NAIP2 per disk. Cryo–electron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstruction at subnanometer resolution revealed a ~90° hinge rotation accompanying NLRC4 activation. Unlike in the related heptameric Apaf-1 apoptosome, in which each subunit needs to be conformationally activated by its ligand before assembly, a single PrgJ-activated NAIP2 initiates NLRC4 polymerization in a domino-like reaction to promote the disk assembly. These insights reveal the mechanism of signal amplification in NAIP-NLRC4 inflammasomes. PMID:26449474

  8. Energy Management System (EMS) study, Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Volume 1 of 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare three different types of energy management systems and determine which system would be most effective in each of a variety of different buildings. The three systems chosen for this analysis are the FM Relay (FMR), Power Line Carrier (PLC), and Direct Digital Control (DDC) systems. The analysis performed was based upon five buildings of different function, occupancy, and scheduling as well as different types of mechanical systems. The recommendations listed in this report are applied over the entire Installation using the criteria listed for evaluating each building. This study develops the recommended strategies for applying energy management systems (EMS) to many of the buildings at Ft. Belvoir.

  9. Final Report. Supplementary comparison of 50/60 Hz energy SIM.EM-S7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carranza, R.; Campos, S.; Castruita, A.; Nelson, T.; Ribeiro, A. M.; So, E.; Spaggiari, A.; Slomovitz, D.; Izquierdo, D.; Postigo, H.; Díaz, H.; Sanchez, H.; Gonzalez, J.; Ramos, R.; Zipaquira, A.

    2016-01-01

    From 2010 to 2012, a key comparison of energy standards at 50/60 Hz was conducted in the SIM region. The comparison included measurements of active and reactive energy at three frequencies, aiming at providing support to high accuracy measurement needs of reactive energy. This work presents the results of the SIM.EM-S7 supplementary comparison. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  10. Relation Between Basophilia and Fine Structure of Cytoplasm in the Fungus Allomyces macrogynus Em

    PubMed Central

    Blondel, Benigna; Turian, Gilbert

    1960-01-01

    In a fungus, Allomyces macrogynus Em., staining tests have revealed changes in the location of cytoplasmic basophilia following different phases of the developmental cycle. These variations in location were used to observe which fine structures correspond to basophile and non-basophile areas of the cytoplasm. Hyphae, gametangia, zygotes, and plants were fixed at various developmental stages in OsO4, pH 6.1, and embedded in vestopal. Sections were examined in the electron microscope. Comparison of basophile and non-basophile cytoplasms leads to the conclusion that cytoplasmic particles of 150 to 200 A in diameter are responsible for basophilia. The possibility of these particles being ribosomes is discussed and confirmed. The present paper also describes some observations on the fine structure of other cellular components of this fungus, such as nuclei, mitochondria, various granules, and flagella. PMID:13801597

  11. Cryo-EM structure of the activated NAIP2-NLRC4 inflammasome reveals nucleated polymerization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liman; Chen, Shuobing; Ruan, Jianbin; Wu, Jiayi; Tong, Alexander B; Yin, Qian; Li, Yang; David, Liron; Lu, Alvin; Wang, Wei Li; Marks, Carolyn; Ouyang, Qi; Zhang, Xinzheng; Mao, Youdong; Wu, Hao

    2015-10-23

    The NLR family apoptosis inhibitory proteins (NAIPs) bind conserved bacterial ligands, such as the bacterial rod protein PrgJ, and recruit NLR family CARD-containing protein 4 (NLRC4) as the inflammasome adapter to activate innate immunity. We found that the PrgJ-NAIP2-NLRC4 inflammasome is assembled into multisubunit disk-like structures through a unidirectional adenosine triphosphatase polymerization, primed with a single PrgJ-activated NAIP2 per disk. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstruction at subnanometer resolution revealed a ~90° hinge rotation accompanying NLRC4 activation. Unlike in the related heptameric Apaf-1 apoptosome, in which each subunit needs to be conformationally activated by its ligand before assembly, a single PrgJ-activated NAIP2 initiates NLRC4 polymerization in a domino-like reaction to promote the disk assembly. These insights reveal the mechanism of signal amplification in NAIP-NLRC4 inflammasomes. PMID:26449474

  12. Resonant photon-graviton conversion in EM fields: From earth to heaven

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.

    1994-09-01

    Gravitational radiation from high energy particles in modern accelerators is reviewed. We point out that the most effective way for laboratory production and detection of gravitons is through resonant photon-graviton conversion in a strong external EM field. Specific example using crystal channels for the {gamma} {yields} g {yields} {gamma} process is given, where the physical parameters needed for such a test appears to be reasonable. As another application of this effect in astrophysics, we show that the coupling between the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) and the primordial magnetic field can induce a frequency-independent fluctuation in the photon flux. Using the observed CMBR fluctuation, we derive a bound on the primordial field strength. The effect can also convert the relic gravitons into photons. For the string cosmology it gives a new bound on the Hubble parameter at the Big Bang.

  13. Cryo-EM structure of a native, fully glycosylated, cleaved HIV-1 envelope trimer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Hyun; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Ward, Andrew B

    2016-03-01

    The envelope glycoprotein trimer (Env) on the surface of HIV-1 recognizes CD4(+) T cells and mediates viral entry. During this process, Env undergoes substantial conformational rearrangements, making it difficult to study in its native state. Soluble stabilized trimers have provided valuable insights into the Env structure, but they lack the hydrophobic membrane proximal external region (MPER, an important target of broadly neutralizing antibodies), the transmembrane domain, and the cytoplasmic tail. Here we present (i) a cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of a clade B virus Env, which lacks only the cytoplasmic tail and is stabilized by the broadly neutralizing antibody PGT151, at a resolution of 4.2 angstroms and (ii) a reconstruction of this form of Env in complex with PGT151 and MPER-targeting antibody 10E8 at a resolution of 8.8 angstroms. These structures provide new insights into the wild-type Env structure. PMID:26941313

  14. Effects of Dielectric Values and Substrate Materials on Electromagnetic (EM) Absorption in Human Head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Misran, Norbahiah

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to considered possible discrepancy in electromagnetic (EM) fascination in the human head. Commercially available software CST Microwave Studio based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was adopted in this study. In this calculation, the conductivity and permittivity of all tissues were increased from 10 to 20% except using if not the same revelation conditions. Familiar cellular phone frequencies of 835, 900, and 1900 MHz were investigated in this research. The rise of up to 20% in conductivity, permittivity and varied substrate material always caused a SAR variation of 30.42% for SAR 1 g and 23.75% for SAR 10 g at 835 MHz, variation of 22.41% for SAR 1 g and 21.96% for SAR 10 g at 900 MHz and variation of 11.96% for SAR 1 g and 14.29% for SAR 10 g at 1900 MHz respectively.

  15. The air quality monitoring program for the 1100-EM-1 remedial investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, C.S.; Laws, G.L.

    1990-09-01

    Air quality monitoring for the remedial investigation of the Hanford Site's 1100-EM-1 operable unit was conducted in the spring and fall of 1989 and during January 1990. The monitoring program was divided into two phases. The first phase examined the air quality impact of routine atmospheric emissions at three of the operable unit's waste sites before the beginning of intrusive remedial investigation activities. The second phase of monitoring examined the air quality impact of routine atmospheric emissions from two of the operable unit's waste sites during intrusive remedial investigation activities. Each phase of the program consisted of a series of monitoring events that measured pollutant concentrations at key locations upwind and downwind of individual waste sites. During each monitoring event, sampling was conducted to determine the air concentrations of a wide variety of volatile organic compounds and semivolatile organic compounds. Monitoring for heavy metals and asbestos was also conducted during some monitoring events. 8 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. RELION: Implementation of a Bayesian approach to cryo-EM structure determination

    PubMed Central

    Scheres, Sjors H.W.

    2012-01-01

    RELION, for REgularized LIkelihood OptimizatioN, is an open-source computer program for the refinement of macromolecular structures by single-particle analysis of electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) data. Whereas alternative approaches often rely on user expertise for the tuning of parameters, RELION uses a Bayesian approach to infer parameters of a statistical model from the data. This paper describes developments that reduce the computational costs of the underlying maximum a posteriori (MAP) algorithm, as well as statistical considerations that yield new insights into the accuracy with which the relative orientations of individual particles may be determined. A so-called gold-standard Fourier shell correlation (FSC) procedure to prevent overfitting is also described. The resulting implementation yields high-quality reconstructions and reliable resolution estimates with minimal user intervention and at acceptable computational costs. PMID:23000701

  17. Super ready: how a regional approach to Super Bowl EMS paid off.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Terry; Cortacans, Henry P

    2014-07-01

    The Super Bowl and its associated activities represent one of the largest special events in the world. Super Bowl XLVIII was geographically unique because the NFL's and Super Bowl Host Committee's activities, venues and events encompassed two states and fell across numerous jurisdictions within six counties (Bergen, Hudson, Morris, Essex, Middlesex, and Manhattan).This Super Bowl was the first to do this. EMS was one of the largest operational components during this event. Last and most important, it is the people and relationships that make any planning initiative and event a success. Sit down and have a cup a coffee with your colleagues, partners and neighbors in and out of state to discuss your planning initiatives. Do it early-it will make your efforts less painful should an event of this magnitude come to a city near you!

  18. CryoEM and image sorting for flexible protein/DNA complexes.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Seth A; Stewart, Phoebe L

    2014-07-01

    Intrinsically disordered regions of proteins and conformational flexibility within complexes can be critical for biological function. However, disorder, flexibility, and heterogeneity often hinder structural analyses. CryoEM and single particle image processing techniques offer the possibility of imaging samples with significant flexibility. Division of particle images into more homogenous subsets after data acquisition can help compensate for heterogeneity within the sample. We present the utility of an eigenimage sorting analysis for examining two protein/DNA complexes with significant conformational flexibility and heterogeneity. These complexes are integral to the non-homologous end joining pathway, and are involved in the repair of double strand breaks of DNA. Both complexes include the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and biotinylated DNA with bound streptavidin, with one complex containing the Ku heterodimer. Initial 3D reconstructions of the two DNA-PKcs complexes resembled a cryoEM structure of uncomplexed DNA-PKcs without additional density clearly attributable to the remaining components. Application of eigenimage sorting allowed division of the DNA-PKcs complex datasets into more homogeneous subsets. This led to visualization of density near the base of the DNA-PKcs that can be attributed to DNA, streptavidin, and Ku. However, comparison of projections of the subset structures with 2D class averages indicated that a significant level of heterogeneity remained within each subset. In summary, image sorting methods allowed visualization of extra density near the base of DNA-PKcs, suggesting that DNA binds in the vicinity of the base of the molecule and potentially to a flexible region of DNA-PKcs.

  19. Supernova 2012aw - a high-energy clone of archetypal Type IIP SN 1999em

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Subhash; Kumar, Brijesh; Sutaria, Firoza; Kumar, Brajesh; Roy, Rupak; Bhatt, V. K.; Pandey, S. B.; Chandola, H. C.; Sagar, Ram; Misra, Kuntal; Chakraborti, Sayan

    2013-08-01

    We present densely sampled UBVRI/griz photometric and low-resolution (6-10 Å) optical spectroscopic observations from 4 to 270 d after explosion of a newly discovered Type II SN 2012aw in a nearby (˜9.9 Mpc) galaxy M95. The light-curve characteristics of apparent magnitudes, colours, bolometric luminosity and the presence and evolution of prominent spectral features are found to have striking similarity with the archetypal IIP SNe 1999em, 1999gi and 2004et. The early time observations of SN 2012aw clearly detect minima in the light curve of V, R and I bands near 37 d after explosion and this we suggest to be an observational evidence for emergence of recombination phase. The mid-plateau MV magnitude (-16.67 ± 0.04) lies in between the bright (˜-18) and subluminous (˜-15) IIP SNe. The mass of nickel is 0.06 ± 0.01 M⊙. The SYNOW modelling of spectra indicate that the value and evolution of the photospheric velocity is similar to SN 2004et, but about ˜600 km s-1 higher than that of SNe 1999em and 1999gi at comparable epochs. This trend is more apparent in the line velocities of Hα and Hβ. A comparison of ejecta velocity properties with that of existing radiation-hydrodynamical simulations indicate that the energy of explosion lies in the range 1-2 × 1051 ergs; a further comparison of nebular phase [O I] doublet luminosity with SNe 2004et and 1987A indicate that the mass of progenitor star is about 14 to 15 M⊙. The presence of high-velocity absorption features in the mid-to-late plateau and possibly in early phase spectra show signs of interaction between ejecta and the circumstellar matter; being consistent with its early time detection at X-ray and radio wavebands.

  20. Crosshole EM for oil field characterization and EOR monitoring: Field examples from Lost Hills, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Schenkel, C.; Wratcher, M.; Lambert, I.; Torres-Verdin, C.; Tseng H.W.

    1996-07-16

    A steamflood recently initiated by Mobil Development and Production U.S. at the Lost Hills No 3 oil field in California is notable for its shallow depth and the application of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques to monitor the subsurface steam flow. Steam was injected into three stacked eastward-dipping unconsolidated oil sands at depths from 60 to 120 m; the plume is expected to develop as an ellipsoid aligned with the regional northwest-southeast strike. Because of the shallow depth of the sands and the high viscosity of the heavy oil, it is important to track the steam in the unconsolidated sediments for both economic and safety reasons. Crosshole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetic imaging were applied for reservoir characterization and steamflood monitoring. The crosshole EM data were collected to map the interwell distribution of the high-resistivity oil sands and to track the injected steam and hot water. Measurements were made in two fiberglass-cased observation wells straddling the steam injector on a northeast-southwest profile. Field data were collected before the steam drive, to map the distribution of the oil sands, and then 6 and 10 months after steam was injected, to monitor the expansion of the steam chest. Resistivity images derived from the collected data clearly delineated the distribution and dipping structure of the target oil sands. Difference images from data collected before and during steamflooding indicate that the steam chest has developed only in the middle and lower oil sands, and it has preferentially migrated westward in the middle oil sand and eastward in the deeper sand. Surface-to-borehole field data sets at Lost Hills were responsive to the large-scale subsurface structure but insufficiently sensitive to model steam chest development in the middle and lower oil sands. As the steam chest develops further, these data will be of more use for process monitoring.

  1. Alignment of cryo-EM movies of individual particles by optimization of image translations.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, John L; Brubaker, Marcus A

    2015-11-01

    Direct detector device (DDD) cameras have revolutionized single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). In addition to an improved camera detective quantum efficiency, acquisition of DDD movies allows for correction of movement of the specimen, due to both instabilities in the microscope specimen stage and electron beam-induced movement. Unlike specimen stage drift, beam-induced movement is not always homogeneous within an image. Local correlation in the trajectories of nearby particles suggests that beam-induced motion is due to deformation of the ice layer. Algorithms have already been described that can correct movement for large regions of frames and for >1 MDa protein particles. Another algorithm allows individual <1 MDa protein particle trajectories to be estimated, but requires rolling averages to be calculated from frames and fits linear trajectories for particles. Here we describe an algorithm that allows for individual <1 MDa particle images to be aligned without frame averaging or linear trajectories. The algorithm maximizes the overall correlation of the shifted frames with the sum of the shifted frames. The optimum in this single objective function is found efficiently by making use of analytically calculated derivatives of the function. To smooth estimates of particle trajectories, rapid changes in particle positions between frames are penalized in the objective function and weighted averaging of nearby trajectories ensures local correlation in trajectories. This individual particle motion correction, in combination with weighting of Fourier components to account for increasing radiation damage in later frames, can be used to improve 3-D maps from single particle cryo-EM. PMID:26296328

  2. High Fill-Out, Extreme Mass Ratio Overcontact Binary Systems. VIII. EM Piscium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, S.-B.; He, J.-J.; Soonthornthum, B.; Liu, L.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Li, L.-J.; Liao, W. P.; Dai, Z.-B.

    2008-11-01

    CCD photometric observations of the newly discovered close binary, EM Piscium, obtained from 2006 December 4 to 2008 January 7, are presented. The light curves are symmetric and show complete eclipses with an eclipse duration of 54 minutes. When comparing the present light curves with those published by González-Rojas et al., it is found that the depths of the two minima of the light curve have been interchanged, and the positive O'Connell effect has disappeared. The symmetric light curves in R and I bands were analyzed with the 2003 version of the W-D code. It is found that EM Piscium is a high fill-out overcontact binary system (f = 95.3 ± 2.7%) with an extreme mass ratio of q = 0.1487, suggesting that it is on the late evolutionary stage of late-type tidal-locked binaries. Based on the nine instances of light minimum that we determined and those published by previous investigators, it is discovered that the orbital period shows a cyclic period variation with a period of 3.3 years, while it undergoes a continuously rapid increase at a rate of dP/dt = +3.97 × 10-6 days year-1. The cyclic period reveals the presence of a tertiary companion, which may play an important role for the formation and evolution of the overcontact binary by drawing angular momentum from the central system via Kozai oscillation or a combination of Kozai cycle and tidal friction. The high fill-out, the extreme mass ratio, and the rapid period increase may suggest that the binary system is quickly evolving into a rapid-rotating single star.

  3. EM-navigated catheter placement for gynecologic brachytherapy: an accuracy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrtash, Alireza; Damato, Antonio; Pernelle, Guillaume; Barber, Lauren; Farhat, Nabgha; Viswanathan, Akila; Cormack, Robert; Kapur, Tina

    2014-03-01

    Gynecologic malignancies, including cervical, endometrial, ovarian, vaginal and vulvar cancers, cause significant mortality in women worldwide. The standard care for many primary and recurrent gynecologic cancers consists of chemoradiation followed by brachytherapy. In high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, intracavitary applicators and /or interstitial needles are placed directly inside the cancerous tissue so as to provide catheters to deliver high doses of radiation. Although technology for the navigation of catheters and needles is well developed for procedures such as prostate biopsy, brain biopsy, and cardiac ablation, it is notably lacking for gynecologic HDR brachytherapy. Using a benchtop study that closely mimics the clinical interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy procedure, we developed a method for evaluating the accuracy of image-guided catheter placement. Future bedside translation of this technology offers the potential benefit of maximizing tumor coverage during catheter placement while avoiding damage to the adjacent organs, for example bladder, rectum and bowel. In the study, two independent experiments were performed on a phantom model to evaluate the targeting accuracy of an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system. The procedure was carried out using a laptop computer (2.1GHz Intel Core i7 computer, 8GB RAM, Windows 7 64-bit), an EM Aurora tracking system with a 1.3mm diameter 6 DOF sensor, and 6F (2 mm) brachytherapy catheters inserted through a Syed-Neblett applicator. The 3D Slicer and PLUS open source software were used to develop the system. The mean of the targeting error was less than 2.9mm, which is comparable to the targeting errors in commercial clinical navigation systems.

  4. Multifrequency crosshole EM imaging for reservoir characterization. FY 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.H.

    1995-06-01

    Electrical conductivity of sedimentary rocks is controlled by the porosity, hydraulic permeability, temperature, saturation, and the pore fluid conductivity. These rock parameters play important roles in the development and production of hydrocarbon (petroleum and natural gas) resources. For these reasons, resistivity well logs have long been used by geologists and reservoir engineers in petroleum industries to map variations in pore fluid, to distinguish between rock types, and to determine completion intervals in wells. Reservoir simulation and process monitoring rely heavily on the physical characteristics of the reservoir model. Over a period of three years (1991-1993) there was an initial phase of crosshole EM technique development via an informal partnership between LLNL and LBL. Researchers developed field instrumentation to apply to oil field for monitoring EOR thermal processes. Specifically, a prototype single-frequency instrumentation was developed and with this system we have conducted field surveys in four separate locations. Theory and software were developed to interpret these data by providing subsurface images of the electrical conductivity. In spite of our initial success in developing practical EM techniques, we still had severe instrumentation limitations and shortcomings in interpretation for other than simple structures. The field equipment was designed to work only at a single frequency at a time and the transmitter must be opened to change frequencies. The equipment was also significantly noiser at higher frequencies. For high-resolution applications we need to take full advantage of the resolution inherent in the data. The development of a high-resolution subsurface conductivity imaging methods would have benefits far beyond the petroleum application. Such techniques would be very useful in environmental applications, mineral and geothermal exploration and for civil engineering applications.

  5. EM-Navigated Catheter Placement for Gynecologic Brachytherapy: An Accuracy Study

    PubMed Central

    Mehrtash, Alireza; Damato, Antonio; Pernelle, Guillaume; Barber, Lauren; Farhat, Nabgha; Viswanathan, Akila; Cormack, Robert; Kapur, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Gynecologic malignancies, including cervical, endometrial, ovarian, vaginal and vulvar cancers, cause significant mortality in women worldwide. The standard care for many primary and recurrent gynecologic cancers consists of chemoradiation followed by brachytherapy. In high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, intracavitary applicators and/or interstitial needles are placed directly inside the cancerous tissue so as to provide catheters to deliver high doses of radiation. Although technology for the navigation of catheters and needles is well developed for procedures such as prostate biopsy, brain biopsy, and cardiac ablation, it is notably lacking for gynecologic HDR brachytherapy. Using a benchtop study that closely mimics the clinical interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy procedure, we developed a method for evaluating the accuracy of image-guided catheter placement. Future bedside translation of this technology offers the potential benefit of maximizing tumor coverage during catheter placement while avoiding damage to the adjacent organs, for example bladder, rectum and bowel. In the study, two independent experiments were performed on a phantom model to evaluate the targeting accuracy of an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system. The procedure was carried out using a laptop computer (2.1GHz Intel Core i7 computer, 8GB RAM, Windows 7 64-bit), an EM Aurora tracking system with a 1.3mm diameter 6 DOF sensor, and 6F (2 mm) brachytherapy catheters inserted through a Syed-Neblett applicator. The 3D Slicer and PLUS open source software were used to develop the system. The mean of the targeting error was less than 2.9mm, which is comparable to the targeting errors in commercial clinical navigation systems. PMID:25076828

  6. Pattern of esophageal eosinophilic infiltration in patients with achalasia and response to Heller myotomy and Dor fundoplication.

    PubMed

    Cools-Lartigue, J; Chang, S-Y; Mckendy, K; Mayrand, S; Marcus, V; Fried, G M; Ferri, L E

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is now recognized as a common cause of dysphagia. Eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus has also been associated with other conditions, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD); however, the incidence, pattern, and clinical significance of eosinophilic infiltration in achalasia are poorly documented. We sought to characterize this histological finding in patients undergoing Heller myotomy (HM) for achalasia. Ninety-six patients undergoing laparoscopic HM for primary achalasia between 1999 and 2008 were identified from a prospective database. Serial mid and distal per-endoscopic esophageal biopsies taken from patients before and after surgery were assessed for the presence of elevated intraepithelial eosinophils (EIEs). Slides from patients with reports suggestive of EIE were reviewed independently by two pathologists, and the highest eosinophil count/high-power field (eos/hpf) was recorded. Dysphagia scores (0 = none to 5 = severe dysphagia), GERD health-related quality of life scores (0 = best to 45 = worst), and 24-hour pH results were compared before and 3 months after surgery. We related the highest eos to the symptoms and response to HM. Data are presented as median (range). Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test determined significance, *P < 0.05. Of 96 patients with achalasia, 50 had undergone pre-HM biopsies revealing EIE in 17/50 (34%), with a median of 3 eos/hpf (1-21). Two patients were found to have superimposed esophageal candidiasis. One patient met the pathologic criteria for EoE. Twenty-five of 50 (50%) postoperative biopsies demonstrated a median of 5 eos/hpf (1-62) for a total of 28/50 patients (56%) with EIE in either the preoperative or postoperative period. Four patients (8%) met the pathologic criteria for EoE, and two demonstrated persistent esophageal candidiasis. A decrease in eosinophils was found in 6/28 patients (21%) from 3/hpf (1-21) to 0.5/hpf (0-4). Increase in eosinophils was found in 22/28 patients (79%) from 0.5/hpf (0-8) to 5/hpf (1-62). Preoperative and postoperative dysphagia scores were available in 23 patients. Dysphagia scores improved in 22/23 patients. (3 [0-5] to 0 [0-2])*. Preoperative and postoperative GERD scores were available in 21 patients. GERD scores improved in 20/21 patients (10 [3-38] to 2 [2-14])*. Four of 13 patients (30.7%) demonstrated significant reflux in the postoperative period. No difference in clinical response to HM was detected between patients with preoperative EIE compared with patients with no EIE. No correlation between postoperative esophageal pH and eos was observed. A significant number of patients with achalasia demonstrate esophageal eosinophilic infiltration even at numbers demonstrable in patients with EoE (8% 4/50). While the interaction between achalasia and esophageal eosinophilic infiltration needs further investigation, this does not represent a distinct clinical entity. Thus, the presence of esophageal eosinophils in patients presenting with dysphagia should not preclude further work-up for other etiologies, including achalasia. PMID:22891632

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VFTS. O-type stellar content of 30 Dor (Walborn+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walborn, N. R.; Sana, H.; Simon-Diaz, S.; Maiz Apellaniz, J.; Taylor, W. D.; Evans, C. J.; Markova, N.; Lennon, D. J.; de Koter, A.

    2014-06-01

    Detailed spectral classifications are presented for 352 O-B0 stars in the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey ESO Large Programme, of which 213 O-type are judged of sufficiently high quality for further morphological analysis. Among them, six subcategories of special interest are distinguished. (1) Several new examples of the earliest spectral types O2-O3 have been found, while a previously known example has been determined to belong to the nitrogen-rich ON2 class. (2) A group of extremely rapidly rotating main-sequence objects has been isolated, including the largest vsini values known, the spatial and radial-velocity distributions of which suggest ejection from the two principal ionizing clusters NGC 2070 and NGC 2060. (3) Several new examples of the evolved, rapidly rotating Onfp class show similar evidence, although at least some of them are spectroscopic binaries. (4) No fewer than 48 members of the Vz category, hypothesized to be on or near the zero-age main sequence, are found in this sample; in contrast to the rapid rotators, they are strongly concentrated to the ionizing clusters and a newly recognized region of current and recent star formation to the north, supporting their interpretation as very young objects, as do their relatively faint absolute magnitudes. (5) A surprisingly large fraction of the main-sequence spectra belong to the recently recognized V((fc)) class, with CIII emission lines of similar strength to the usual NIII in V((f)) spectra, although a comparable number of the latter are also present, as well as six objects with very high-quality data but no trace of either emission feature, presenting new challenges to physical interpretations. (6) Two mid-O Vz and three late-O giant/supergiant spectra with morphologically enhanced nitrogen lines have been detected. Absolute visual magnitudes have been derived for each star with individual extinction laws, and composite Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams provide evidence of the multiple generations present in this field. Spectroscopic binaries, resolved visual multiples, and possible associations with X-ray sources are noted. Astrophysical and dynamical analyses of this unique dataset underway will provide new insights into the evolution of massive stars and starburst clusters. (2 data files).

  8. Paleontology and physical stratigraphy of the USGS-Pregnall No. 1 core (DOR-208), Dorchester County, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, L.E.; Bybell, L.M.; Gohn, G.S.; Frederiksen, N.O.

    1997-01-01

    Pregnall No. 1, a 346-ft-deep corehole in northern Dorchester County, South Carolina, recovered sediments of late Paleocene, middle and late Eocene, and late Oligocene age. The core bottomed in the Chicora Member of the Williamsburg Formation (Black Mingo Group) of late Paleocene age (calcareous nannofossil Zones NP 7/8 (?) and NP 9). The Chicora (346 to 258 ft depth) consists of two contrasting lithologic units, a lower siliciclastic section of terrigenous sand, silt, and clay, and an upper carbonate section of moldic pelecypod limestone. The Chicora is overlain unconformably by the middle Eocene Moultrie Member of the Santee Limestone (Orangeburg Group). The Moultrie (258.0 to 189.4 ft) consists primarily of bryozoan-pelecypod-peloid packstones and grainstones, which are assigned to calcareous nannofossil Zone NP 16. Unconformably above the Moultrie are the locally shelly, microfossiliferous limestones of the Cross Member of the Santee Limestone (Orangeburg Group), which are assigned to middle Eocene Zone NP 17 and upper Eocene Zone NP 18. The Cross Member (189.4 to 90.9 ft) is unconformably overlain by a very thin, basal section of the upper Eocene Harleyville Formation (Cooper Group). The thin Harleyville section consists of fossiliferous limestone, primarily pelecypod-foraminifer-peloid packstones (90.9 to 85.8 ft), and is assigned to Zone NP 18, although samples from thicker Harleyville sections in the region typically are assigned to upper Eocene Zone NP 19/20. The Harleyville is overlain unconformably by the upper Oligocene Ashley Formation (Cooper Group). The Ashley Formation (85.8 to 30.0 ft) consists of a relatively homogeneous section of calcareous, microfossiliferous, silty and sandy clays assigned to Zones NP 24 and NP 25 (?). Neogene and (or) Quaternary deposits present in the upper 30 ft of the Pregnall section are assigned provisionally to an unnamed unit (30 to 22 ft) and to the Waccamaw Formation(?)(22 to 0 ft).

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. 30 Dor luminous stars (Doran+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, E. I.; Crowther, P. A.; de Koter, A.; Evans, C. J.; McEvoy, C.; Walborn, N. R.; Bastian, N.; Bestenlehner, J. M.; Grafener, G.; Herrero, A.; Kohler, K.; Maiz Apellaniz, J.; Najarro, F.; Puls, J.; Sana, H.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Taylor, W. D.; van Loon, J. T.; Vink, J. S.

    2013-08-01

    A census was compiled of all the hot luminous stars within the central 10 arcminutes of 30 Doradus. Candidate hot luminous stars were selected from a series of photometric catalogues, using a set of criteria explained in the paper. All stars meeting this photometric criteria are listed in Tabled1.dat. In addition, Table D1 includes all known Wolf-Rayet and Of/WN stars in the region, which may not have been selected due to photometric effects. Spectral Types were then matched to as many of the candidate stars in Tabled1.dat as possible. Stellar parameters were determined for all stars with the following spectral types: W-R, Of/WN, O-type, B-supergiant, B-giant B1I or earlier, B-dwarf, B0.5V or earlier. These parameters are listed in Tabled2.dat. Parameters of all O-type and B-type stars were derived through various calibrations. Parameters of W-R and Of/WN stars were based on previous work or various template models explained in the paper. (2 data files).

  10. NLTE spectral analysis of the sdOB primary of the eclipsing binary system LB 3459 (AA Dor)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, T.

    2000-04-01

    We present a spectral analysis of the sdOB primary star of the binary system LB 3459 based on high-resolution high-S/N optical and UV spectra. The metal abundances are determined by means of state-of-the-art NLTE model atmospheres. We determined Teffw42 and log gw{5.2} within very small error limits. The He (1/125 solar), C (1/265), N (1/33), O (1/12), and Si (1/5) abundances appear strongly depleted while that of Fe and Ni are roughly solar and Mg is strongly enriched by a factor of 6. The spectroscopic distance to LB 3459 is d = 396 pc. The mass of the primary component of LB 3459 is 0.330 M_sun derived from comparisons with theoretical models for sdO stars in the log T_eff - \\log g plane. The mass of the secondary is then 0.066 M_sun derived from the mass function. There remains some disagreement between the radius derived from log g and the above mass, and that derived from analysis of the radial-velocity curve and the eclipse curves. LB 3459 is a close binary system which had experienced a common envelope (CE) phase during its evolution. It fits in the ``low mass case B'' scenario of Iben & Livio (1993) and the secondary is a brown dwarf. The spectroscopically determined rotational velocity of the primary is v_rot = 34 ± 10 km* sec-1. Thus even bound rotation (v_rot = 45.7 km* sec-1) cannot be ruled out. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile (proposals 55.D-0319, 56.C-0165) and on data retrieved from the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) Final Archive.

  11. Design and synthesis of novel bivalent ligands (MOR and DOR) by conjugation of enkephalin analogues with 4-anilidopiperidine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Deekonda, Srinivas; Wugalter, Lauren; Rankin, David; Largent-Milnes, Tally M; Davis, Peg; Wang, Yue; Bassirirad, Neemah M; Lai, Josephine; Kulkarni, Vinod; Vanderah, Todd W; Porreca, Frank; Hruby, Victor J

    2015-10-15

    We describe the design and synthesis of novel bivalent ligands based on the conjugation of 4-anilidopiperidine derivatives with enkephalin analogues. The design of non-peptide analogues is explored with 5-amino substituted (tetrahydronaphthalen-2yl) methyl containing 4-anilidopiperidine derivatives, while non-peptide-peptide ligands are explored by conjugating the C-terminus of enkephalin analogues (H-Xxx-DAla-Gly-Phe-OH) to the amino group of 4-anilidopiperidine small molecule derivatives with and without a linker. These novel bivalent ligands are evaluated for biological activities at μ and δ opioid receptors. They exhibit very good affinities at μ and δ opioid receptors, and potent agonist activities in MVD and GPI assays. Among these the lead bivalent ligand 17 showed excellent binding affinities (0.1 nM and 0.5 nM) at μ and δ opioid receptors respectively, and was found to have very potent agonist activities in MVD (56 ± 5.9 nM) and GPI (4.6 ± 1.9 nM) assays. In vivo the lead bivalent ligand 17 exhibited a short duration of action (<15 min) comparable to 4-anilidopiperidine derivatives, and moderate analgesic activity. The ligand 17 has limited application against acute pain but may have utility in settings where a highly reversible analgesic is required. PMID:26323872

  12. Queda dos homicídios em São Paulo, Brasil: uma análise descritiva

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Vicentin, Diego; Nery, Marcelo Batista; de Lima, Renato Sérgio; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, e Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo Descrever a evolução da mortalidade por homicídios no Município de São Paulo segundo tipo de arma, sexo, raça ou cor, idade e áreas de exclusão/inclusão social entre 1996 e 2008. Métodos Estudo ecológico de série temporal. Os dados sobre óbitos ocorridos no Município foram coletados da base de dados do Programa de Aprimoramento das Informações sobre Mortalidade, seguindo a Classificação Internacional de Doenças, Décima Revisão (CID-10). Foram calculadas as taxas de mortalidade por homicídio (TMH) para a população total, por sexo, raça ou cor, faixa etária, tipo de arma e área de exclusão/inclusão social. As TMH foram padronizadas por idade pelo método direto. Foram calculados os percentuais de variação no período estudado. Para as áreas de exclusão/inclusão social foram calculados os riscos relativos de morte por homicídio. Resultados As TMH apresentaram queda de 73,7% entre 2001 e 2008. Foi observada redução da TMH em todos os grupos analisados, mais pronunciada em homens (−74,5%), jovens de 15 a 24 anos (−78,0%) e moradores de áreas de exclusão social extrema (−79,3%). A redução ocorreu, sobretudo, nos homicídios cometidos com armas de fogo (−74,1%). O risco relativo de morte por homicídio nas áreas de exclusão extrema (tendo como referência áreas com algum grau de exclusão social) foi de 2,77 em 1996, 3,9 em 2001 e 2,13 em 2008. Nas áreas de alta exclusão social, o risco relativo foi de 2,07 em 1996 e 1,96 em 2008. Conclusões Para compreender a redução dos homicídios no Município, é importante considerar macrodeterminantes que atingem todo o Município e todos os subgrupos populacionais e microdeterminantes que atuam localmente, influenciando de forma diferenciada os homicídios com armas de fogo e os homicídios na população jovem, no sexo masculino e em residentes em áreas de alta exclusão social. PMID:21390415

  13. Investigation of the enantiomerization barriers of the phthalimidone derivatives EM12 and lenalidomide by dynamic electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Walz, Sarah; Weis, Sylvia; Franz, Mareike; Rominger, Frank; Trapp, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    The phthalimidone derivatives EM12 and lenalidomide, which are both structurally related to thalidomide, are highly interesting drugs and very recently lenalidomide attracted great attention as an antitumor and immune-modulating drug in the therapy for multiple myeloma. EM12 and lenalidomide are chiral, and the stereogenic carbon C-3 in the piperidine-2,6-dione moiety of these phthalimidone derivatives is prone to interconversion due to keto-enol tautomerization. The knowledge of the enantiomerization barrier is mandatory for pharmacokinetic studies and to develop a tailored therapy using the enantiopure or racemic drug. Here, we used dynamic EKC in combination with direct-calculation methods to determine the enantiomerization barriers of EM12 and lenalidomide. The separations of the enantiomers of EM12 and lenalidomide were performed in 50 mM aqueous disodium hydrogen phosphate buffer at pH 8 and 50 mM aqueous sodium tetraborate buffer at pH 9.3, respectively, using 20 mg/mL heptakis-(2,3-diacetyl-6-sulfato)-β-CD as a chiral additive. Enantiomerization of the compounds during the electrokinetic chromatographic separation resulted in pronounced plateau formation between the well-separated enantiomers. Peak form analysis of the experimentally obtained interconversion profiles yielded the enantiomerization rate constants k1 of EM12 and lenalidomide as well as the kinetic activation parameters ΔG(‡), ΔH(‡‡), and ΔS(‡) of enantiomerization by the evaluation of temperature-dependent measurements. The enantiomerization barrier ΔG(‡) was determined to be 98.3 ± 1.0 kJ/mol; the activation parameters ΔH(‡) = 46.1 ± 2.4 kJ/mol and ΔS(‡) = -170 ± 61 J/(K·mol) for EM12 and ΔG(‡) = 91.5 ± 1.0 kJ/mol, ΔH(‡) = 62.4 ± 5.4 kJ/mol, and ΔS(‡) = -98 ± 7 J/(K·mol) for lenalidomide. These findings were corroborated by density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/3-21G level of theory of the ground state and intermediates considering an

  14. Estudo espectral em raios-X duros de fontes do tipo Z com o HEXTE/RXTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, F.; Heindl, W. A.; Rothschild, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de um estudo espectral em raios-X de fontes do tipo Z. As fontes do tipo Z são binárias de raios-X de baixa massa (BXBM) com campo magnético intermediário (B~109G). Esta classe de fontes é composta por apenas 6 fontes Galácticas (a saber: ScoX-1, 9, 7, CygX-2, 5 e 0). A nossa análise se concentra na faixa de raios-X duros (E ~ 20keV), até cerca de 200keV, faixa ótima de operação do telescópio "High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment" (HEXTE), um dos três telescópios de raios-X à bordo do Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). Nossa motivação para tal estudo, uma busca de caudas em raios-X duros em fontes do tipo Z, foi o pouco conhecimento sobre a emissão nesta faixa de energia das referidas fontes quando comparadas, por exemplo, as fontes do tipo atoll (também BXBM). Apresentam-se a análise/redução de dados e explicita-se a maneira como o HEXTE mede o ru1do de fundo. Especial atenção é direcionada a este item devido a localização das fontes do tipo Z e também ao problema de contaminação por fontes próximas. Com exceção de ScoX-1, nenhuma cauda em raios-X duros foi encontrada para as outras fontes, a despeito de resultados de detecção dessas caudas em algumas fontes pelo satélite BeppoSAX. As interpretações deste resultado serão apresentadas. Do ponto de vista deste estudo, nós deduzimos que a produção de caudas de raios-X duros em fontes do tipo Z é um processo disparado quando, pelo menos, uma condição é satisfeita: o brilho da componente térmica do espectro precisa estar acima de um certo valor limiar de ~4´1036ergs-1.

  15. Integrating palliative care in the out-of-hospital setting: four things to jump-start an EMS-palliative care initiative.

    PubMed

    Lamba, Sangeeta; Schmidt, Terri A; Chan, Garrett K; Todd, Knox H; Grudzen, Corita R; Weissman, David E; Quest, Tammie E

    2013-01-01

    Emergency medical service (EMS) is frequently called to care for a seriously ill patient with a life-threatening or life-limiting illness. The seriously ill include both the acutely injured patients (for example in mass casualty events) and those who suffer from advanced stages of a chronic disease (for example severe malignant pain). EMS therefore plays an important role in delivering realistic, appropriate, and timely care that is consistent with the patient's wishes and in treating distressing symptoms in those who are seriously ill. The purpose of this article is to; 1) review four case scenarios that relate to palliative care and may be commonly encountered in the out-of-hospital setting and 2) provide a road map by suggesting four things to do to start an EMS-palliative care initiative in order to optimize out-of-hospital care of the seriously ill and increase preparedness of EMS providers in these difficult situations. PMID:23968313

  16. Helicopter EM (ZTEM-VTEM) survey results over the Nuqrah copper-lead-zinc-gold SEDEX massive sulphide deposit in the Western Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legault, Jean M.; Izarra, Carlos; Prikhodko, Alexander; Zhao, Shengkai; Saadawi, Emad M.

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic and electromagnetic (EM) results from two helicopter EM surveys, a time-domain (VTEM) and AFMAG (ZTEM), are compared over the Nuqrah sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) massive sulphide deposits in the Western Arabian Shield of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The magnetic and EM data from both surveys map the major controlling structures that host the Nuqrah North and South deposits. Neither Nuqrah deposits stand out as distinctive aeromagnetic anomalies, but both EM surveys define the massive sulphide mineralised vent and bedded portions of the SEDEX orebodies. ZTEM is interpreted to be more capable in defining the larger, lower conductance and less mineralised distal portions of the SEDEX system. The modelled ZTEM also defines a down-dip extension of the Nuqrah South zone below a depth of 750 m.

  17. Structure of the E. coli ribosome-EF-Tu complex at <3 Å resolution by Cs-corrected cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Niels; Neumann, Piotr; Konevega, Andrey L; Bock, Lars V; Ficner, Ralf; Rodnina, Marina V; Stark, Holger

    2015-04-23

    Single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has recently made significant progress in high-resolution structure determination of macromolecular complexes due to improvements in electron microscopic instrumentation and computational image analysis. However, cryo-EM structures can be highly non-uniform in local resolution and all structures available to date have been limited to resolutions above 3 Å. Here we present the cryo-EM structure of the 70S ribosome from Escherichia coli in complex with elongation factor Tu, aminoacyl-tRNA and the antibiotic kirromycin at 2.65-2.9 Å resolution using spherical aberration (Cs)-corrected cryo-EM. Overall, the cryo-EM reconstruction at 2.9 Å resolution is comparable to the best-resolved X-ray structure of the E. coli 70S ribosome (2.8 Å), but provides more detailed information (2.65 Å) at the functionally important ribosomal core. The cryo-EM map elucidates for the first time the structure of all 35 rRNA modifications in the bacterial ribosome, explaining their roles in fine-tuning ribosome structure and function and modulating the action of antibiotics. We also obtained atomic models for flexible parts of the ribosome such as ribosomal proteins L9 and L31. The refined cryo-EM-based model presents the currently most complete high-resolution structure of the E. coli ribosome, which demonstrates the power of cryo-EM in structure determination of large and dynamic macromolecular complexes.

  18. EM-ANIMATE: A Computer Program for Displaying and Animating Electromagnetic Near-Field and Surface-Current Solutions: Video Supplement to NASA Technical Memorandum 4539

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hom, Kam W.

    1994-01-01

    In this video, several examples of electromagnetic field and surface-current animation sequences are shown to demonstrate the visualization capabilities of the EM-ANIMATE computer program. These examples show the animation of total and scattered electric near fields from test bodies of a flat plate, a corner reflector, and a sphere. These test cases show the electric-field behavior caused by different scattering mechanisms through the animation of electromagnetic data from the EM-ANIMATE routine.

  19. A study of the strategic alliance for EMS industry: the application of a hybrid DEA and GM (1, 1) approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chia Nan; Nguyen, Nhu Ty; Tran, Thanh Tuyen; Huong, Bui Bich

    2015-01-01

    Choosing a partner is a critical factor for success in international strategic alliances, although criteria for partner selection vary between developed and transitional markets. This study aims to develop effective methods to assist enterprise to measure the firms' operation efficiency, find out the candidate priority under several different inputs and outputs, and forecast the values of those variables in the future. The methodologies are constructed by the concepts of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and grey model (GM). Realistic data in four consecutive years (2009-2012) a total of 20 companies of the Electronic Manufacturing Service (EMS) industry that went public are completely collected. This paper tries to help target company-DMU1-to find the right alliance partners. By our proposed approach, the results show the priority in the recent years. The research study is hopefully of interest to managers who are in manufacturing industry in general and EMS enterprises in particular. PMID:25821859

  20. Cryo-EM reveals the conformation of a substrate analogue in the human 20S proteasome core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Fonseca, Paula C. A.; Morris, Edward P.

    2015-07-01

    The proteasome is a highly regulated protease complex fundamental for cell homeostasis and controlled cell cycle progression. It functions by removing a wide range of specifically tagged proteins, including key cellular regulators. Here we present the structure of the human 20S proteasome core bound to a substrate analogue inhibitor molecule, determined by electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) and single-particle analysis at a resolution of around 3.5 Å. Our map allows the building of protein coordinates as well as defining the location and conformation of the inhibitor at the different active sites. These results open new prospects to tackle the proteasome functional mechanisms. Moreover, they also further demonstrate that cryo-EM is emerging as a realistic approach for general structural studies of protein-ligand interactions.

  1. Electron counting and beam-induced motion correction enable near atomic resolution single particle cryoEM

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueming; Mooney, Paul; Zheng, Shawn; Booth, Chris; Braunfeld, Michael B.; Gubbens, Sander; Agard, David A.; Cheng, Yifan

    2013-01-01

    In recent work with large high symmetry viruses, single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) has reached the milestone of determining near atomic resolution structures by allowing direct fitting of atomic models into experimental density maps. However, achieving this goal with smaller particles of lower symmetry remains extraordinarily challenging. Using a newly developed single electron counting detector, we confirm that electron beam induced motion significantly degrades resolution and, importantly, show how the combination of rapid readout and nearly noiseless electron counting allow image blurring to be corrected to subpixel accuracy. Thus, intrinsic image information can be restored to high resolution (Thon rings visible to ~3 Å). Using this approach we determined a 3.3 Å resolution structure of a ~700 kDa protein with D7 symmetry showing clear side chain density. Our method greatly enhances image quality and data acquisition efficiency - key bottlenecks in applying near atomic resolution cryoEM to a broad range of protein samples. PMID:23644547

  2. População estelar jovem em galáxias irregulares próximas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, T. A.; Telles, E.

    2003-08-01

    A análise do conteúdo estelar de galáxias próximas através da fotometria das suas estrelas resolvidas nos fornece informações importantes sobre a história de formação estelar e os processos de formação estelar em galáxias, que estão diretamente ligados ao estudo de evolução de galáxias. Quando nenhuma estrela puder ser resolvida o método mais poderoso consiste na análise do conteúdo estelar integrado das galáxias através das suas cores integradas em conjunto com informação espectroscópica que combinados com modelos de síntese evolutiva podem restringir simultaneamente a função de massa inicial (IMF) e a taxa de formação estelar (SFR). Nesse contexto, galáxias do tipo tardio, em particular, irregulares, são relevantes por várias razões: elas são objetos relativamente simples, com alta atividade de formação estelar e são objetos relativamente jovens (geralmente apresentam baixas abundâncias de elementos pesados e grande quantidade de gás). Apresentamos uma análise fotométrica de uma amostra de 7 galáxias do tipo tardio do universo local (NGC 2366, NGC 4395, NGC 4656, NGC 4214, NGC 4236, HOII, IC2574) que foram observadas com uma boa resolução espacial nas bandas B, V e R no telescópio Isaac Newton de 2.5m de Roque de los Muchachos nas Ilhas Canárias, Espanha. A distribuição espacial da população estelar jovem dessas galáxias é discutida sobre os pontos de vista dos íindices de cor integrados e dos seus diagramas cor magnitude, que comparados com isócronas teóricas, nos fornecem informações sobre os eventos de formação estelar, como por exemplo, indicações sobre a idade dos mesmos. As principais conclusões do trabalho podem ser resumidas em: (i) As galáxias irregulares possuem formação estelar recente (FE) espalhada ocorrendo nos últimos 50 Manos; (ii) A formação estelar em galáxias irregulares não é auto-propagante em escalas globais ( > 100 pc) ; (iii) A FE pode ser auto-regulável em escalas

  3. Cryo-EM reveals the conformation of a substrate analogue in the human 20S proteasome core.

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, Paula C A; Morris, Edward P

    2015-07-02

    The proteasome is a highly regulated protease complex fundamental for cell homeostasis and controlled cell cycle progression. It functions by removing a wide range of specifically tagged proteins, including key cellular regulators. Here we present the structure of the human 20S proteasome core bound to a substrate analogue inhibitor molecule, determined by electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) and single-particle analysis at a resolution of around 3.5 Å. Our map allows the building of protein coordinates as well as defining the location and conformation of the inhibitor at the different active sites. These results open new prospects to tackle the proteasome functional mechanisms. Moreover, they also further demonstrate that cryo-EM is emerging as a realistic approach for general structural studies of protein-ligand interactions.

  4. Optimization of the EMS process parameters in compocasting of high-wear-resistant Al-nano-TiC composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsipour, Majid; Pahlevani, Zahra; Shabani, Mohsen Ostad; Mazahery, Ali

    2016-04-01

    Understanding of the electromagnetic stirrer (EMS) process parameters-wear relation in nanocomposite is required for further creation of tailored modifications of process in accordance with the demands for various applications. This study depicts the performance of hybrid algorithm for optimization of the parameters in EMS compocasting of nano-TiC-reinforced Al-Si alloys. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) coupled with particle swarm optimization (PSO) was applied to find the optimum combination of the inputs including mold temperature, mix time, impeller speed, powder temperature, cast temperature and average particle size. The optimized condition was obtained in minimization of objective function. The objective function is calculated by ANFIS and then minimized by PSO. The optimized parameters were used to produce semisolid cast aluminum matrix composites reinforced with nano-TiC particles. The optimized nanocomposites were then studied for their tribological properties.

  5. A study of the strategic alliance for EMS industry: the application of a hybrid DEA and GM (1, 1) approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chia Nan; Nguyen, Nhu Ty; Tran, Thanh Tuyen; Huong, Bui Bich

    2015-01-01

    Choosing a partner is a critical factor for success in international strategic alliances, although criteria for partner selection vary between developed and transitional markets. This study aims to develop effective methods to assist enterprise to measure the firms' operation efficiency, find out the candidate priority under several different inputs and outputs, and forecast the values of those variables in the future. The methodologies are constructed by the concepts of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and grey model (GM). Realistic data in four consecutive years (2009-2012) a total of 20 companies of the Electronic Manufacturing Service (EMS) industry that went public are completely collected. This paper tries to help target company-DMU1-to find the right alliance partners. By our proposed approach, the results show the priority in the recent years. The research study is hopefully of interest to managers who are in manufacturing industry in general and EMS enterprises in particular.

  6. Retinoic acid down-regulates the expression of EmH-3 homeobox-containing gene in the freshwater sponge Ephydatia muelleri.

    PubMed

    Nikko, E; Van de Vyver, G; Richelle-Maurer, E

    2001-06-01

    The effects of retinoic acid (RA), a common morphogen and gene expression regulator in vertebrates, were studied in the freshwater sponge Ephydatia muelleri, both on morphogenesis and on the expression of EmH-3 homeobox-containing gene. At 0.3 microM, RA had no noticeable influence on sponge development, slightly up-regulating EmH-3 expression. In contrast, in sponges reared in 10, 8 microM and to a lesser extent 2 microM RA, there was a strong down-regulation of EmH-3 expression after hatching. This induced modifications in cell composition and morphology, greatly disturbing normal development. Archaeocytes kept the features found in newly hatched sponges while choanocytes and a functional aquiferous system were completely absent. The inhibition of morphogenesis and down-regulation of EmH-3 expression were reversible when sponges were no longer subjected to RA. After RA removal, EmH-3 expression returned to the high values found in untreated sponges, archaeocytes differentiated into choanocytes and sponges achieved a normal development. These results clearly show that, in freshwater sponges, the most primitive metazoan, RA may also act as a morphogen, regulating the expression of a homeobox-containing gene. They demonstrate that the expression of EmH-3 is necessary for the differentiation of archaeocytes into choanocytes and hence for the formation of a complete functional aquiferous system.

  7. EM23, a natural sesquiterpene lactone, targets thioredoxin reductase to activate JNK and cell death pathways in human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shao, Fang-Yuan; Wang, Sheng; Li, Hong-Yu; Chen, Wen-Bo; Wang, Guo-Cai; Ma, Dong-Lei; Wong, Nai Sum; Xiao, Hao; Liu, Qiu-Ying; Zhou, Guang-Xiong; Li, Yao-Lan; Li, Man-Mei; Wang, Yi-Fei; Liu, Zhong

    2016-02-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) are the active constituents of a variety of medicinal plants and found to have potential anticancer activities. However, the intracellular molecular targets of SLs and the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been well elucidated. In this study, we observed that EM23, a natural SL, exhibited anti-cancer activity in human cervical cancer cell lines by inducing apoptosis as indicated by caspase 3 activation, XIAP downregulation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mechanistic studies indicated that EM23-induced apoptosis was mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the knockdown of thioredoxin (Trx) or thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) resulted in a reduction in apoptosis. EM23 attenuated TrxR activity by alkylation of C-terminal redox-active site Sec498 of TrxR and inhibited the expression levels of Trx/TrxR to facilitate ROS accumulation. Furthermore, inhibition of Trx/TrxR system resulted in the dissociation of ASK1 from Trx and the downstream activation of JNK. Pretreatment with ASK1/JNK inhibitors partially rescued cells from EM23-induced apoptosis. Additionally, EM23 inhibited Akt/mTOR pathway and induced autophagy, which was observed to be proapoptotic and mediated by ROS. Together, these results reveal a potential molecular mechanism for the apoptotic induction observed with SL compound EM23, and emphasize its putative role as a therapeutic agent for human cervical cancer. PMID:26758418

  8. Investigation on High Performance of 10m Semi Anechoic Chamber by using Open-Top Hollow Pyramidal Hybrid EM Wave Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Hiroshi; Saito, Toshifumi; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Nishikata, Atsuhiro; Hashimoto, Osamu

    The emission radiated from electric and electronic equipments is evaluated through OATS. Recently, it is not fully prepared the environment for OATS because of a variety of communication radiation sources (e.g., digital television broadcast and cellular phone station). Therefore, the EM anechoic chambers are becoming more and more important as EMI test site. On the other hand, the EM anechoic chambers are needed high performance in order to cut down EMI countermeasure cost and calculate the antenna factor. The objective of this paper is mainly to present the EM wave absorber design in order to obtain within ±2dB against the theoretical site attenuation values in the 10m semi anechoic chamber at 30MHz to 300MHz. We get the necessary reflectivity of EM wave absorber by the basic site attenuation equation. We design the open-top hollow pyramidal new hybrid EM wave absorber consisted of 180cm long dielectric loss foam and ferrite tiles. Then, we design the 10m semi anechoic chamber by using the ray-tracing simulation and construct it in the size of L24m×W15.2m×H11.2m. More over, we measure the site attenuation of the constructed 10m semi anechoic chamber by using the broadband calculable dipole antennas. As the result, we confirm the validity of the designed open-top hollow pyramidal new hybrid EM wave absorber.

  9. GIO-EMS and International Collaboration in Satellite based Emergency Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucera, Jan; Lemoine, Guido; Broglia, Marco

    2013-04-01

    During the last decade, satellite based emergency mapping has developed into a mature operational stage. The European Union's GMES Initial Operations - Emergency Management Service (GIO-EMS), is operational since April 2012. It's set up differs from other mechanisms (for example from the International Charter "Space and Major Disasters"), as it extends fast satellite tasking and delivery with the value adding map production as a single service, which is available, free of charge, to the authorized users of the service. Maps and vector datasets with standard characteristics and formats ranging from post-disaster damage assessment to recovery and disaster prevention are covered by this initiative. Main users of the service are European civil protection authorities and international organizations active in humanitarian aid. All non-sensitive outputs of the service are accessible to the public. The European Commission's in-house science service Joint Research Centre (JRC) is the technical and administrative supervisor of the GIO-EMS. The EC's DG ECHO Monitoring and Information Centre acts as the service's focal point and DG ENTR is responsible for overall service governance. GIO-EMS also aims to contribute to the synergy with similar existing mechanisms at national and international level. The usage of satellite data for emergency mapping has increased during the last years and this trend is expected to continue because of easier accessibility to suitable satellite and other relevant data in the near future. Furthermore, the data and analyses coming from volunteer emergency mapping communities are expected to further enrich the content of such cartographic products. In the case of major disasters the parallel activity of more providers is likely to generate non-optimal use of resources, e.g. unnecessary duplication; whereas coordination may lead to reduced time needed to cover the disaster area. Furthermore the abundant number of geospatial products of different

  10. Fast 3D-EM reconstruction using Planograms for stationary planar positron emission mammography camera.

    PubMed

    Motta, A; Guerra, A Del; Belcari, N; Moehrs, S; Panetta, D; Righi, S; Valentini, D

    2005-12-01

    At the University of Pisa we are building a PEM prototype, the YAP-PEM camera, consisting of two opposite 6 x 6 x 3 cm3 detector heads of 30 x 30 YAP:Ce finger crystals, 2 x 2 x 30 mm3 each. The camera will be equipped with breast compressors. The acquisition will be stationary. Compared with a whole body PET scanner, a planar Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) camera allows a better, easier and more flexible positioning around the breast in the vicinity of the tumor: this increases the sensitivity and solid angle coverage, and reduces cost. To avoid software rejection of data during the reconstruction, resulting in a reduced sensitivity, we adopted a 3D-EM reconstruction which uses all of the collected Lines Of Response (LORs). This skips the PSF distortion given by data rebinning procedures and/or Fourier methods. The traditional 3D-EM reconstruction requires several times the computation of the LOR-voxel correlation matrix, or probability matrix {p(ij)}; therefore is highly time-consuming. We use the sparse and symmetry properties of the matrix {p(ij)} to perform fast 3D-EM reconstruction. Geometrically, a 3D grid of cubic voxels (FOV) is crossed by several divergent 3D line sets (LORs). The symmetries occur when tracing different LORs produces the same p(ij) value. Parallel LORs of different sets cross the FOV in the same way, and the repetition of p(ij) values depends on the ratio between the tube and voxel sizes. By optimizing this ratio, the occurrence of symmetries is increased. We identify a nucleus of symmetry of LORs: for each set of symmetrical LORs we choose just one LOR to be put in the nucleus, while the others lie outside. All of the possible p(ij) values are obtainable by tracking only the LORs of this nucleus. The coordinates of the voxels of all of the other LORs are given by means of simple translation rules. Before making the reconstruction, we trace the LORs of the nucleus to find the intersecting voxels, whose p(ij) values are computed and

  11. On implementation of EM-type algorithms in the stochastic models for a matrix computing on GPU

    SciTech Connect

    Gorshenin, Andrey K.

    2015-03-10

    The paper discusses the main ideas of an implementation of EM-type algorithms for computing on the graphics processors and the application for the probabilistic models based on the Cox processes. An example of the GPU’s adapted MATLAB source code for the finite normal mixtures with the expectation-maximization matrix formulas is given. The testing of computational efficiency for GPU vs CPU is illustrated for the different sample sizes.

  12. Jems 2010 Hot Products 40 innovative new products introduced at the 28th annual EMS Today Conference & Exposition.

    PubMed

    Hildwine, Fran

    2010-06-01

    In March, a team of product reviewers scoured the EMS Today 2010 conference exhibit hall, evaluating the hottest new products on display by nearly 300 exhibitors. The team was impressed by the technological innovations, clinical tools and educational products on display. After careful review, they selected the hottest new products, shown here in random order for your review. Look for additional coverage of many other products reviewed in upcoming JEMS Hands On columns.

  13. Numerical tsunami hazard assessment of the submarine volcano Kick 'em Jenny in high resolution are

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondin, Frédéric; Dorville, Jean-Francois Marc; Robertson, Richard E. A.

    2016-04-01

    Landslide-generated tsunami are infrequent phenomena that can be potentially highly hazardous for population located in the near-field domain of the source. The Lesser Antilles volcanic arc is a curved 800 km chain of volcanic islands. At least 53 flank collapse episodes have been recognized along the arc. Several of these collapses have been associated with underwater voluminous deposits (volume > 1 km3). Due to their momentum these events were likely capable of generating regional tsunami. However no clear field evidence of tsunami associated with these voluminous events have been reported but the occurrence of such an episode nowadays would certainly have catastrophic consequences. Kick 'em Jenny (KeJ) is the only active submarine volcano of the Lesser Antilles Arc (LAA), with a current edifice volume estimated to 1.5 km3. It is the southernmost edifice of the LAA with recognized associated volcanic landslide deposits. The volcano appears to have undergone three episodes of flank failure. Numerical simulations of one of these episodes associated with a collapse volume of ca. 4.4 km3 and considering a single pulse collapse revealed that this episode would have produced a regional tsunami with amplitude of 30 m. In the present study we applied a detailed hazard assessment on KeJ submarine volcano (KeJ) form its collapse to its waves impact on high resolution coastal area of selected island of the LAA in order to highlight needs to improve alert system and risk mitigation. We present the assessment process of tsunami hazard related to shoreline surface elevation (i.e. run-up) and flood dynamic (i.e. duration, height, speed...) at the coast of LAA island in the case of a potential flank collapse scenario at KeJ. After quantification of potential initial volumes of collapse material using relative slope instability analysis (RSIA, VolcanoFit 2.0 & SSAP 4.5) based on seven geomechanical models, the tsunami source have been simulate by St-Venant equations-based code

  14. Study of pre-seismic kHz EM emissions by means of complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasis, Georgios; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Eftaxias, Konstantinos

    2010-05-01

    The field of study of complex systems holds that the dynamics of complex systems are founded on universal principles that may used to describe disparate problems ranging from particle physics to economies of societies. A corollary is that transferring ideas and results from investigators in hitherto disparate areas will cross-fertilize and lead to important new results. It is well-known that the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistical mechanics works best in dealing with systems composed of either independent subsystems or interacting via short-range forces, and whose subsystems can access all the available phase space. For systems exhibiting long-range correlations, memory, or fractal properties, non-extensive Tsallis statistical mechanics becomes the most appropriate mathematical framework. As it was mentioned a central property of the magnetic storm, solar flare, and earthquake preparation process is the possible occurrence of coherent large-scale collective with a very rich structure, resulting from the repeated nonlinear interactions among collective with a very rich structure, resulting from the repeated nonlinear interactions among its constituents. Consequently, the non-extensive statistical mechanics is an appropriate regime to investigate universality, if any, in magnetic storm, solar flare, earthquake and pre-failure EM emission occurrence. A model for earthquake dynamics coming from a non-extensive Tsallis formulation, starting from first principles, has been recently introduced. This approach leads to a Gutenberg-Richter type law for the magnitude distribution of earthquakes which provides an excellent fit to seismicities generated in various large geographic areas usually identified as "seismic regions". We examine whether the Gutenberg-Richter law corresponding to a non-extensive Tsallis statistics is able to describe the distribution of amplitude of earthquakes, pre-seismic kHz EM emissions (electromagnetic earthquakes), solar flares, and magnetic storms. The

  15. Xyz Airborne Time Domain Em: P-Them Test in Reid Mahaffy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrov, A.

    2012-12-01

    The vertical axis transmitter loop and receiver coil combination is widely used in Airborne Time-Domain EM systems. In such configurations the largest portion of the transmitter magnetic moment, which is distributed in a vertical direction, is transmitted to the subsurface, and the strongest vertical response from underground conductors is acquired with a vertical axis (Z) receiver coil. However, the horizontal axis (X and Y) components carry valuable information about target body geometry and their borders/edges. Most Airborne Time Domain systems currently in use are configured such that the X component is aligned with the flight direction. At typical survey speeds (60 to 80 kph) towed bird systems may expect to be subject to vibration that results in movement of horizontal and vertical receiver's axis from its desired nominal position. The mechanical design of the P-THEM transmitter and receiver is based on Bernard Kremer's (THEM Geophysics) developments finished and improved by Pico Envirotec Inc. The P-THEM system consists of a loop-transmitter assembly, powered by a motor generator and a 3-axis (XYZ) coil receiver attached at the midpoint of a tow cable between transmitter and a helicopter. The suspension system of the receiver coils assembly allows the Z-coil to remain horizontal at all the time during the flight. Pico Envirotec has developed methodology to recalculate the data from three axis of the receiver that allows mechanical vibration influence to be eliminated from the acquired data. The recalculated X-component gives very useful information for interpretation of the observation results. The P-THEM system has been test flown over the Reid Mahaffy geological test site located in Northern Ontario in Canada. The test site, created by the Ontario Geological Survey, contains the main conductor formed with three sub-vertical sliced conductive bodies. Three lines (L30, L40 and L50) over the test site have been flown in North and South direction with the P

  16. Hydrothermal Venting at Kick'Em Jenny Submarine Volcano (West Indies)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, S.; Croff Bell, K. L.; Dondin, F. J. Y.; Roman, C.; Smart, C.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Ballard, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Kick'em Jenny is a frequently-erupting, shallow submarine volcano located ~8 km off the northwest coast of Grenada in the West Indies. The last eruption took place in 2001 but did not breach the sea surface. Focused and diffuse hydrothermal venting is taking place mainly within a small (~100 x 100 m) depression within the 300 m diameter crater of the volcano at depths of about 265 meters. Near the center of the depression clear fluids are being discharged from a focused mound-like vent at a maximum temperature of 180o C with the simultaneous discharge of numerous bubble streams. The gas consists of 93-96% CO2 with trace amounts of methane and hydrogen. A sulfur component likely contributes 1-4% of the gas total. Gas flux measurements on individual bubble streams ranged from 10 to 100 kg of CO2 per day. Diffuse venting with temperatures 5 to 35o C above ambient occurs throughout the depression and over large areas of the main crater. These zones are extensively colonized by reddish-yellow bacterial mats with the production of loose Fe-oxyhydroxides largely as a surface coating and in some cases, as fragile spires up to several meters in height. A high-resolution photo mosaic of the crater depression was constructed using the remotely operated vehicle Hercules on cruise NA039 of the E/V Nautilus. The image revealed prominent fluid flow patterns descending the sides of the depression towards the base. We speculate that the negatively buoyant fluid flow may be the result of second boiling of hydrothermal fluids at Kick'em Jenny generating a dense saline component that does not rise despite its elevated temperature. Increased density may also be the result of high dissolved CO2 content of the fluids, although we were not able to measure this directly. The low amount of sulphide mineralization on the crater floor suggests that deposition may be occurring mostly subsurface, in accord with models of second boiling mineralization from other hydrothermal vent systems.

  17. EM Earthquake Precursor Detection Associated with Fluid Injection for Hydraulic Fracturing and Tectonic Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth B., II

    2015-04-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine an earthquake forecasting method and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but only two seemed to take shape with the most interesting one requiring a magnetometer of a unique design. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, results have had wide variability and problems still reside with what exactly is forecastable and the investigative direction of a true precursor. After a number of custom rock experiments, the two hypotheses were thoroughly tested to correlate the EM wave model. The first hypothesis involved sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio wave generation. The second hypothesis resulted best with highly reproducible data, radio wave generation and detection, and worked numerous times with each laboratory test administered. In addition, internally introduced force on a small scale stressed a number of select rock types to emit radio waves well before catastrophic failure, and failure always went to completion. Comparatively, at a larger scale, highly detailed studies were procured to establish legitimate wave guides from potential hypocenters to epicenters and map the results, accordingly. Field testing in Southern California from 2006 to 2011 and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013 was conducted for detecting similar, laboratory generated, radio wave sources. At the Southern California field sites, signals were detected in numerous directions with varying amplitudes; therefore, a reactive approach was investigated in hopes of detecting possible aftershocks from large, tectonically related M5.0+ earthquakes. At the Timpson

  18. Vínculos observacionais para o processo-S em estrelas gigantes de Bário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiljanic, R. H. S.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; da Silva, L.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas de bário são gigantes vermelhas de tipo GK que apresentam excessos atmosféricos dos elementos do processo-s. Tais excessos são esperados em estrelas na fase de pulsos térmicos do AGB (TP-AGB). As estrelas de bário são, no entanto, menos massivas e menos luminosas que as estrelas do AGB, assim, não poderiam ter se auto-enriquecido. Seu enriquecimento teria origem em uma estrela companheira, inicialmente mais massiva, que evolui pelo TP-AGB, se auto-enriquece com os elementos do processo-s e transfere material contaminado para a atmosfera da atual estrela de bário. A companheira evolui então para anã branca deixando de ser observada diretamente. As estrelas de bário são, portanto, úteis como testes observacionais para teorias de nucleossíntese pelo processo-s, convecção e perda de massa. Análises detalhadas de abundância com dados de alta qualidade para estes objetos são ainda escassas na literatura. Neste trabalho construímos modelos de atmosferas e, procedendo a uma análise diferencial, determinamos parâmetros atmosféricos e evolutivos de uma amostra de dez gigantes de bário e quatro normais. Determinamos seus padrões de abundância para Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu e Gd, concluindo que algumas estrelas classificadas na literatura como gigantes de bário são na verdade gigantes normais. Comparamos dois padrões médios de abundância, para estrelas com grandes excessos e estrelas com excessos moderados, com modelos teóricos de enriquecimento pelo processo-s. Os dois grupos de estrelas são ajustados pelos mesmos parâmetros de exposição de nêutrons. Tal resultado sugere que a ocorrência do fenômeno de bário com diferentes intensidades não se deve a diferentes exposições de nêutrons. Discutimos ainda efeitos nucleossintéticos, ligados ao processo-s, sugeridos na literatura para os elementos Cu, Mn, V e Sc.

  19. Integrated induction coil and fluxgate magnetometers for EM analysis and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanstein, T.; Strack, K.; Jiang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The concept of a full field array electromagnetic system is an ideal tool to support hydrocarbon and geothermal E & P as well as various engineering monitoring applications. Some of the key questions are defining the reservoir, mapping of the fractures and reservoir depletion monitoring. The reservoirs are all too often relative thin and give an anomalous electromagnetic (EM) response, which is often small in amplitude and challenging for the EM measuring system. A digital fluxgate magnetometer (32-bit) is connected to the KMS magnetotelluric acquisition system with analogue induction coils and electrodes to extend the range of application of a single recording site. Since the noise level is above that of the induction coil for periods shorter than 20 s, the apparent resistivity is biased. For longer periods the apparent resistivity is consistent and eventually better than the induction coil. However, phase and tipper are not biased and agree well with the induction data even for shorter periods. This allows us to develop algorithms that significantly extend the range of application of the fluxgate beyond what was done in the past. The highest frequency of the fluxgate magnetometer is about 180 Hz and the hightest sampling of the FG-board is 4 kHz.The different induction coils and fluxgate magnetometer have intensively been tested in the magnetic chamber and at the field test site near Houston for noise performance by parallel recordings. They show that even in an environment with high cultural noise, the specification can be met. In Northeast China, a 30-day monitoring test with MT was carried out for seismologic applications. Acquisitition schedule included different recordings times and sampling rates. Daily, the data was collected and processed via the internet from either Europe or the US. Even with long recording, we still had to select the time windows for data averaging and coherences are not a good threshhold criteria in this case. During another MT

  20. Expecting the unexpected: A mixed methods study of violence to EMS responders in an urban fire department

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Brittany; Davis, Andrea L.; Wright, Jasmine; Widman, Shannon; LeVasseur, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Struck by injuries experienced by females were observed to be higher compared to males in an urban fire department. The disparity was investigated while gaining a grounded understanding of EMS responder experiences from patient‐initiated violence. Methods A convergent parallel mixed methods design was employed. Using a linked injury dataset, patient‐initiated violence estimates were calculated comparing genders. Semi‐structured interviews and a focus group were conducted with injured EMS responders. Results Paramedics had significantly higher odds for patient‐initiated violence injuries than firefighters (OR 14.4, 95%CI: 9.2–22.2, P < 0.001). Females reported increased odds of patient‐initiated violence injuries compared to males (OR = 6.25, 95%CI 3.8–10.2), but this relationship was entirely mediated through occupation (AOR = 1.64, 95%CI 0.94–2.85). Qualitative data illuminated the impact of patient‐initiated violence and highlighted important organizational opportunities for intervention. Conclusions Mixed methods greatly enhanced the assessment of EMS responder patient‐initiated violence prevention. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:150–163, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26725756