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Sample records for dora-maira massif italian

  1. The Dora-Maira Unit (Italian Cottian Alps): a reservoir of ornamental stones locally and worldwide employed since Roman age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, Alessandro; Cadoppi, Paola; Antonella Dino, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    The Dora-Maira is a geological unit belonging to the Penninic Domain of the Western Alps (NW Italy), which covers over 1000 km2 from the Susa to the Maira valleys, in the inner part of the Cottian Alps. It consists of different superposed complexes made of micaschists, fine-grained gneisses, quartzites, impure and dolomitic marbles, metabasites and various types of orthogneisses deriving from metamorphic transformation, during alpine orogeny, of a Palaeozoic upper continental crust and its Mesozoic carbonate cover. Thanks to the presence of different varieties of rocks, the Dora-Maira Unit can be considered as a reservoir of ornamental stones, locally employed, since Roman age, for military and religious buildings. Furthermore, these materials were used in Piedmont region for the construction of important historical palaces (17th and 18th centuries). Several varieties of gneisses, quartzites and marbles, exploited in the past and up to now, come from the Paleozoic basement. The most famous variety of gneiss is the so called "Luserna stone", a leucocratic gneiss characterized by a mylonitic fabric deriving from highly differentiated granitoids of Permian age. The first traces of Luserna Stone exploitation arise to the medieval age in the Pellice Valley). This material was widely employed in Turin, from Savoia kingdom period up to know. The very peculiar and precious application of Luserna stone were: Royal Palace and Venaria Reale Palace, Mole Antonelliana. Recently, it has been employed for the construction of Turin Metro stations (launched in 2006). Other varieties of orthogneisses, not yet exploited, are: Borgone and Vaie Stones, Villarfocchiardo and Cumiana Stones. They were used for the realization of the columns characterising the façade of several churches in Turin and in the piers of different bridges over the Po River. Another gneiss variety, with dioritic composition, is the Malanaggio Stone employed in the Fenestrelle Fortress. As for the palaeozoic

  2. Fluid composition and evolution in coesite-bearing rocks (Dora-Maira massif, Western Alps): implications for element recycling during subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippot, Pascal; Chevallier, Pierre; Chopin, Christian; Dubessy, Jean

    1995-08-01

    Fluid inclusions and F, Cl concentration of hydrous minerals were analysed in the coesite-pyrope quartzite, the interlayered jadeite quartzite and their country-rock gneiss from the Dora-Maira massif using a combination of microthermometry, Raman spectrometry, synchrotron X-ray microfiuorescence and electron microprobe analysis. Three populations of fluid inclusions were recognized texturally and can be related to distinct metamorphic stages. A low-salinity aqueous fluid occurs in the retrogressed country gneiss and as late secondary inclusions in jadeite quartzite and chloritized pyrope. An earlier secondary population is found in matrix quartz of the jadeite- and pyro-pe-quartzites. This population can be related to the early decompression and so to incipient breakdown of garnet into phlogopite-bearing assemblages. The inclusion fluid is highly saline (up to 84 wt% equivalent NaCl) and contains Na, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn as major cations. In pyrope quartzite, additional K was found in these brines, which locally coexist with CO2-rich inclusions. The oldest fluid inclusions are preserved in kyanite grains included in fresh pyrope and in pyrope itself. In pyrope, all inclusions have decrepitated and contain magnesite, an Mg-phosphate, sheet-silicate(s), a chloride and an opaque phase, with no fluid preser ved. In contrast, the kyanite inclusions in pyrope preserve primary H2O-CO2 low-salinity fluid inclusions, probably owing to the low compressibility of the kyanite inclusions and host garnet. In spite of in-situ re-equilibration, these inclusions can be interpreted as relics of the dehydration fluid that attended pyrope growth. These correlations between textural and chemical fluid inclusion data and metamorphic stages are consistent with the fluid composition calculated from the halogen content of different generations of phlogopite and biotite. The preservation of different fluid compositions, both in time and space, is evidence for local control and possibly origin

  3. The pyrope-coesite rocks and their country rocks at Parigi, Dora Maira Massif, Western Alps: detailed petrography, mineral chemistry and PT-path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertl, H.-P.; Schreyer, W.; Chopin, C.

    1991-07-01

    Both the coarse- and fine-grained varieties of the partly coesite-bearing pyrope-quartzites, their interlayered jadeite-kyanite rocks, and the biotite-phengite gneiss country rock common to all of them were subjected to detailed petrographic and textural studies in order to determine the sequence of crystallisation of their mineral constituents, which were also studied analytically by microprobe. Prior to pyrope and coesite growth, the Mg-rich metapelites were talc-kyanite-chlorite-rutile-ellenbergerite schists which — upon continued prograde metamorphism — developed first pyrope megacrysts in silica-deficient local environments at the expense of chlorite + talc + kyanite, and subsequently the smaller pyrope crystals with coesite inclusions from reacting talc + kyanite. Based on geobarometrically useful mineral inclusions as well as on experimentally determined phase relations, a prograde PT-path — simplified for water activity = 1 — is constructed which passes through the approximate PT-conditions 16 kbar and 560° C, 29 kbar and 720° C, and finally up to 37 kbar at about 800° C, where the Mg-rich metapelite was a pyrope-coesite rock with phengite, kyanite, and talc still present. During the retrograde path, pyrope was altered metasomatically either into phlogopite + kyanite + quartz or, at a later stage, to chlorite + muscovite + quartz. Both assemblages yield PT-constraints, the latter about 7 9 kbar, 500 600° C. The country rock gneisses have also endured high-pressures of at least 15 kbar, but they provide mostly constraints on the lowest portion of the uplift conditions within the greenschist facies (about 5 kbar, 450° C). Microprobe data are presented for the following minerals: pyrope, ellenbergerite, dumortierite (unusually MgTi-rich), jadeite, vermiculite (formed after Na-phlogopite?), paragonite, and for several generations of phengite, chlorite, talc, phlogopite, dravite, and glaucophane in the high-pressure rocks, as well as for biotite, chlorite, phengites, epidote, garnet, albite, and K-feldspar in the country rock gneisses. An outstanding open problem identified in this study is the preservation of minerals as inclusions within kyanite and pyrope beyond their PT-stability limits.

  4. Magmatic/metasomatic amphibole in the mantle: evidence from the Balmuccia lherzolite massif, Ivrea zone, western Italian Alps

    SciTech Connect

    Shervais, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Amphibole and mica are the most important alkali-rich phases stable under mantle P-T conditions, and constitute the primary source of the alkalis needed to form basaltic magmas. Yet, the origin and distribution of these phases in the upper mantle is poorly understood. The Balmuccia lherzolite massif is a small slice of subcontinental mantle in the western Alps that intruded granulite facies lower crust 250 m.y. ago, and was exposed during the Alpine orogeny. Amphibole (HB) ranging in composition from Ti-pargasite to kaersutite in a minor but widespread accessory phase in the lherzolite, in websterite and bronzite dikes of the Cr-Di suite, and in pyroxenite and gabbro dikes of the Al-Aug suite. Textural and compositional relations show that HB in the Cr-Di and Al-Aug suite dikes formed by crystallization of residual magma, or by reaction between this magma and earlier formed phases (primarily spinel). Hb also occurs in thin (1-2 cm) veins of hornblendite and pyroxene hornblendite, and in the HB-enriched wallrock adjacent to these veins. Similar Hb veins in the Lherz massif have been shown to form from an alkali and water-enriched residual magma derived by filter pressing of Al-Aug pyroxenites. This origin is not possible at Balmuccia because the Hb veins have higher Ti, Cr, K/Na and Mgnumbers than any accessory Hb in Al-Aug suite dikes. Fractionation trends in the veins are controlled by HB. This requires that the HB veins formed from a separate and distinct parent magma that metasomatically enriched the lherzolite on a local scale. However, remelting of the widespread pyroxenite dikes may constitute a more important source of alkalis than the rare HB-rich veins.

  5. Strong lateral variations of S-wave velocity in the upper mantle across the western Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Chao; Pedersen, Helle; Paul, Anne; Zhao, Liang

    2016-04-01

    Absolute S-wave velocity gives more insight into temperature and mineralogy than relative P-wave velocity variations (ΔV p/ V p) imaged by teleseismic traveltime tomography. Moreover, teleseismic P-wave tomography has poor vertical but good horizontal resolution. By contrast, the inversion of surface waves dispersion data gives absolute S-wave velocity with a good vertical but relatively poor horizontal resolution. However, the horizontal resolution of surface wave imaging can be improved by using closely spaced stations in mini-arrays. In this work, we use Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion data to measure absolute S-wave velocities beneath the CIFALPS profile across the French-Italian western Alps. We apply the array processing technique proposed by Pedersen et al. (2003) to derive Rayleigh wave phase dispersion curves between 20 s and 100 s period in 15 mini-arrays along the CIFALPS line. We estimate a 1-D S-wave velocity model at depth 50-150 km beneath each mini-array by inverting the dispersion curves jointly with receiver functions. The joint inversion helps separating the crustal and mantle contributions in the inversion of dispersion curves. Distinct lithospheric structures and marked lateral variations are revealed beneath the study region, correlating well with regional geological and tectonic features. The average S-wave velocity from 50 to 150 km depth beneath the CIFALPS area is ˜4.48km/s, almost the same as in model AK135, indicating a normal upper mantle structure in average. Lateral variations are dominated by relatively low velocities (˜4.4km/s) in the mantle of the European plate, very low velocities (4.0km/s, i.e. approximately 12% lower than AK135) beneath the Dora Maira internal crystalline massif and high velocities (˜ 5.0km/s, i.e. 12% higher than AK135) beneath the Po plain. The lateral variations of S-wave velocity perturbation show the same features as the P wave tomography (Zhao et al., submitted), but with different amplitudes

  6. A geological explanation for intraplate earthquake clustering complexity: The zeolite-bearing fault/fracture networks in the Adamello Massif (Southern Italian Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, E. D.; Holdsworth, R. E.; Imber, J.; Bistacchi, A.; Di Toro, G.

    2014-09-01

    Interconnected networks of faults and veins filled with hydrothermal minerals such as zeolite are widespread in many orogenic terrains. These fractures commonly form at relatively low temperatures (e.g. <200 °C) late in the tectonic history and represent significant phases of fluid flow and mineralisation during exhumation. Zeolite-bearing fractures spatially associated with the Gole Larghe Fault Zone in the Southern Italian Alps are preserved along an interconnected network of variably orientated pre-existing structures. They show evidence of repeated episodes of hydraulic tensile fracturing and small magnitude (total offsets <5 m) shear displacements. We use geological observations and Coulomb stress modelling to propose that repeated seismogenic rupturing of larger offset faults led to local stress transfer and reactivation of widely distributed smaller pre-existing structures in the wall rocks. The differing orientations of the pre-existing features within what is assumed to have been a single regional stress field led to the simultaneous development of reverse, strike-slip and extensional faults. The kinematic diversity and cyclic nature of the hydraulically-assisted deformation suggest that the mineralised fracture systems represent a geological manifestation of intraplate micro-earthquake clusters associated with fluid migration episodes in the upper crust. Our observations highlight the role of crustal fluids and structural reactivation during earthquakes.

  7. Craddock Massif and Vinson Massif remeasured

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gildea, Damien; Splettstoesser, John F.

    2007-01-01

    The highest peak in Antarctica, the Vinson Massif (78º35’S, 85º25’W), is at an elevation of 4892 m (16,046 ft), as determined in 2004. Measurements of the elevation have fluctuated over the years, from its earliest surveyed elevation of 5140 m (16,859 ft), to its present height. Vinson Massif and three of its near neighbors in the Sentinel Range of the Ellsworth Mountains are the highest peaks in Antarctica, making them a favorite objective of mountaineers. Well over 1,100 people have climbed Vinson since the first ascent by a team in the 1966-67 austral summer. The range is composed of Crashsite quartzite, making the Sentinel’s very resistant to erosion. Very accurate elevations have been achieved annually by GPS mapping done by a climbing team sponsored by the Omega Foundation, active in Antarctica since 1998. The Craddock Massif now includes Mt. Craddock, the ninth highest peak in Antarctica, at 4368 m (14,327 ft). Both are named for Campbell Craddock*, a U.S. geologist active in Antarctic research beginning in 1959-60.

  8. Kondyor Massif, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is neither an impact crater nor a volcano. It is a perfect circular intrusion, about 10 km in diameter with a topographic ridge up to 600 m high. The Kondyor Massif is located in Eastern Siberia, Russia, north of the city of Khabarovsk. It is a rare form of igneous intrusion called alkaline-ultrabasic massif and it is full of rare minerals. The river flowing out of it forms placer mineral deposits. Last year 4 tons of platinum were mined there. A remarkable and very unusual mineralogical feature of the deposit is the presence of coarse crystals of Pt-Fe alloy, coated with gold. This 3-D perspective view was created by draping a simulated natural color ASTER composite over an ASTER-derived digital elevation model.

    The image was acquired on June 10, 2006, and is located at 57.6 degrees north latitude, 134.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. Conceptual design and first results of a combined electrical resistivity and induced polarization monitoring at the Aiguille du Midi rock permafrost summit (Mont Blanc Massif, French/Italian Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krautblatter, M.; Verleysdonk, S.; Flores-Orozco, A.; Kemna, A.; Deline, P.; Ravanel, L.; Pogliotti, P.; Coviello, V.; Malet, E.

    2009-04-01

    Monitoring of systemic changes in high mountain rock permafrost proves to be of increasing significance. The association with ongoing and future climate change raises the need for monitoring schemes to enable modelling of future scenarios. Due to the high degree of tourist utilisation and the good accessibility via cable car, the Aiguille du Midi represents the ideal premises to establish a long-term monitoring site. At 3842 m a.s.l. the steep granite summit offers access to all aspects in combination with persistent ice in the rock face and different rock mechanical settings. The geophysical monitoring presented here integrates into the framework of the French-Italian PERMAdataROC project and is presently considered for the EU co-funded project PermaNET (Permafrost long-term monitoring network: www.permanet-alpinespace.eu). ERT and IP were conducted along three transects at the Aiguille du Midi in December 2008. Two transects were installed along galleries and in the rock faces that are accessible from the public platform at 3770 m a.s.l.. A further transect was installed by abseiling from the summit to the steep north and south face. The southern limb of the transect goes past the meteorological station installed in a vertical rock section. All transects were measured with a Syscal Pro device with high voltages of 800 V and we applied 48 steel electrodes per transect placed firmly in drilled holes. For optimum coverage we developed a high-resolution ERT protocol with approximately 3000 dipole-dipole measurements per array and 200 cross-borehole type measurements. Time domain IP was measured alongside to check chargeability of clefts with fine-grained fillings. Simultaneously, a survey of all important clefts was made to reference chargeability values. Both ERT and IP measurements were recorded in normal and reciprocal orientation and are used to define the error levels inherent in the measurements. A smoothness-constrained Occam's inversion is then adjusted to

  10. The tectonics of anorthosite massifs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seyfert, C. K.

    1981-01-01

    Anorthosite massifs developed approximately 1.4 to 1.5 billion years ago along an arch which developed parallel to a zone of continental separation as a block which included North America, Europe, and probably Asia separated from a block which included parts of South America, Africa, India, and Australia. Anorthosite massifs also developed at the same time along a belt which runs through the continents which comprise Gondwanaland (South America), Africa, India, Australia, and Antarctica. This was a zone of continental separation which subsequently became a zone of continental collision about 1.2 billion years ago. The northern anorthosite belt also parallels an orogenic belt which was active between 1.8 and 1.7 billion years ago. Heat generated during this mountain building period helped in the formation of the anorthosites.

  11. Teaching Business Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trivelli, Remo J.

    The University of Rhode Island's business Italian course is an advanced language course whose focus is the Italian business world and its reflection of values, customs, and traditions. The course begins with presentations on salient features of contemporary Italian, such as syntactical simplification and nominalization, and how the social,…

  12. Why Study Italian?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Charles

    1978-01-01

    One studies Italian for the same reason one studies any language--to become educated. Even more than for art and music, Italian is necessary for literature. Dante must be read, and in the original. Further, we study Italian to know our cultural roots and heritage. (AMH)

  13. The Lassell Massif - a Silicic Lunar Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, J.; Robinson, M. S.; Stopar, J. D.; Glotch, T. D.; Hawke, B. R.; Lawrence, S. J.; Jolliff, B. L.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Paige, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Lunar volcanic processes were dominated by mare-producing basaltic extrusions. However, limited occurrences of non-mare, geochemically evolved (Si-enriched) volcanic deposits have long been suspected on the basis of spectral anomalies (red spots), landform morphologies, and the occurrence of minor granitic components in Apollo sample suites [e.g., 1-5]. The LRO Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (Diviner) measured thermal emission signatures considered diagnostic of highly silicic rocks in several red spot areas [6,7], within the Marius domes [8], and from the Compton-Belkovich feature on the lunar farside [9]. The present study focuses on the Lassell massif red spot (14.73°S, 350.97°E) located in northeastern Mare Nubium near the center of Alphonsus A crater. Here we use Diviner coverage co-projected with Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) images [10] and digital elevation models to characterize the Lassell massif geomorphology and composition. Localized Diviner signatures indicating relatively high silica contents correlate with spatially distinct morphologic features across the Lassell massif. These features include sub-kilometer scale deposits with clear superposing relationships between units of different silica concentrations. The zone with the strongest signal corresponds to the southern half of the massif and the Lassell G and K depressions (formerly thought to be impact craters [11]). These steep-walled pits lack any obvious raised rims or ejecta blankets that would identify them as impact craters; they are likely explosive volcanic vents or collapse calderas. This silica-rich area is contained within the historic red spot area [4], but does not appear to fully overlap with it, implying compositionally distinct deposits originating from the same source region. Low-reflectance deposits, exposed by impact craters and mass wasting across the massif, suggest either basaltic pyroclastics or minor late-stage extrusion of basaltic lavas through vents

  14. Geochemistry of carbonatites of the Tomtor massif

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kravchenko, S.M.; Czamanske, G.; Fedorenko, V.A.

    2003-01-01

    Carbonatites compose sheet bodies in a 300-m sequence of volcanic lamproites, as well as separate large bodies at depths of >250-300 m. An analysis of new high-precision data on concentrations of major, rare, and rare earth elements in carbonatites shows that these rocks were formed during crystallization differentiation of a carbonatite magma, which resulted in enrichment of the later melt fractions in rare elements and was followed by autometasomatic and allometasomatic hydrothermal processes. Some independent data indicate that the main factor of ore accumulation in the weathered rock zone (also known as the "lower ore horizon" comprising metasomatized volcanics with interbedded carbonatites) was hydrothermal addition of Nb and REEs. The giant size of the Tomtor carbonatite-nepheline syenite massif caused advanced magma differentiation, extensive postmagmatic metasomatism and recrystallization of host rocks, and strong enrichment of carbonatites in incompatible rare and rare earth elements (except for Ta, Zr, Ti, K, and Rb) compared to the rocks of many other carbonatite massifs. We suggest that a wide range of iron contents in carbonatites-2 can be related to extensive magnetite fractionation at the magmatic stage in different parts of the huge massif. Copyright ?? 2003 by MAIK "Nauka/Interperiodica" (Russia).

  15. The Genesis of tectonically and hydrothermally controlled industry mineral deposits: A geochemical and structural study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wölfler, Anke; Prochaska, Walter; Henjes-Kunst, Friedhelm; Fritz, Harald

    2010-05-01

    The study aims to investigate the role of hydrothermal fluids in the formation of talc and magnesite deposits. These deposits occur in manifold geological and tectonical settings such as stockworks and veins within ultramafite hostrocks and monomineralic lenses within marine platform sediments. Along shear zones talc mineralizations may occur as a result of tectonical and hydrothermal activity. To understand the role of the fluids for the genesis of the mineralization, deposits in different geological and tectonical settings are investigated: Talc mineralization within in magnesite in low-grade palaeozoic nappe complexes (Gemerska Poloma, Slovakia): The magnesite body lies within the Gemer unit of the Inner Carpathians consisting of Middle Triassic metacarbonates and Upper Triassic pelagic limestones and radiolarites. The talc mineralization is bound to crosscutting veins. Two metamorphic events can be distinguished, one during Variscan orogeny and one related to the Alpine orogeny leading to the formation of talc along faults in an Mg carbonate body (Radvanec et al, 2004).The origin of the fluids as well as the tectonic events leading to the mineralization is still widely unknown. Talc mineralization in shearzones within Palaeozoic meta sedimentary rocks (Sa Matta, Sardinia): Variscan granitoids intruded Palaeozoic meta sedimentary rocks and were overprinted be NE striking tectonic structures that host talc mineralizations. The origin of Mg and fluids leading to the mineralization is still not answered satisfactorily (Grillo and Prochaska, 2007) and thus a tectonic model for the genesis of the talc deposit is missing. Talc mineralization within UHP pre-Alpine continental crust (Val Chisone, Italy): The talc deposit forms part of the Dora-Maira Massif. Geologicaly the massif derived from a Variscan basement that includes post-Variscan intrusions. The talc mineralization occurs as a sheetlike, conformable body. A possible tectonic emplacement of talc along shear

  16. Experimental and Modeling Studies of Massif Anorthosites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longhi, John

    1999-01-01

    This termination report covers the latter part of a single research effort spanning several grant cycles. During this time there was a single title, "Experimental and Modeling Studies of Massif Anorthosites", but there were several contract numbers as the mode and location of NASA contract administration changed. Initially, the project was funded as an increment to the PI's other grant, "Early Differentiation of the Moon: Experimental and Modeling Studies", but subsequently it became an independent grant. Table 1 contains a brief summary of the dates and contract numbers.

  17. Mineral inclusions in rutile: A novel recorder of HP-UHP metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Emma; Storey, Craig; Bruand, Emilie; Schertl, Hans-Peter; Alexander, Bruce D.

    2016-07-01

    The ability to accurately constrain the secular record of high- and ultra-high pressure metamorphism on Earth is potentially hampered as these rocks are metastable and prone to retrogression, particularly during exhumation. Rutile is among the most widespread and best preserved minerals in high- and ultra-high pressure rocks and a hitherto untested approach is to use mineral inclusions within rutile to record such conditions. In this study, rutiles from three different high- and ultrahigh-pressure massifs have been investigated for inclusions. Rutile is shown to contain inclusions of high-pressure minerals such as omphacite, garnet and high silica phengite, as well as diagnostic ultrahigh-pressure minerals, including the first reported occurrence of exceptionally preserved monomineralic coesite in rutile from the Dora-Maira massif. Chemical comparison of inclusion and matrix phases show that inclusions generally represent peak metamorphic assemblages; although rare prograde phases such as titanite, omphacite and corundum have also been identified implying that rutile grows continuously during prograde burial and traps mineralogic evidence of this evolution. Pressure estimates obtained from mineral inclusions, when used in conjunction with Zr-in-rutile thermometry, can provide additional constraints on the metamorphic conditions of the host rock. This study demonstrates that rutile is an excellent repository for high- and ultra-high pressure minerals and that the study of mineral inclusions in rutile may profoundly change the way we investigate and recover evidence of such events in both detrital populations and partially retrogressed samples.

  18. Italian 102 Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazzarino, Graziana

    This workbook was prepared as a supplement to "Basic Italian" by C. Speroni and C. L. Golino, lessons 20-35. It reflects a typical second-semester program at the University of Colorado. Although each lesson deals with the specific grammar, vocabulary and subject matter used in the respective lessons of "Basic Italian," the workbook can be used…

  19. Lead isotope study of orogenic lherzolite massifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamelin, Bruno; Allègre, Claude J.

    1988-12-01

    Orogenic lherzolites allow for almost "in-situ" observation of mantle isotopic heterogeneities on a restricted geographical scale, in contrast to basalts for which melting processes have averaged original mantle compositions over uncertain scales. Pb isotopes from whole rocks and clinopyroxenes from the massifs of Lherz (Pyrenees), Lanzo (Alps), Beni Bousera (Morocco) and Zabargad (Red Sea) show internal heterogeneities that encompass the entire range of variation observed in oceanic basalts. Some depleted lherzolites have a very unradiogenic composition similar to that of the most depleted ridge tholeiites. Pyroxenites from mafic layers generally have more radiogenic compositions, some of them comparable to the most radiogenic oceanic island results. The isotopic differences between lherzolites and pyroxenites vanish where layers are very closely spaced ( < 2 cm). In this case, the lherzolites may have equilibrated with the more Pb-rich pyroxenites through solid-state diffusion under mantle conditions. These results directly illustrate the smallest scales at which Pb isotopic heterogeneity may survive within the mantle. The genesis of these heterogeneities are discussed within the framework of the "marble cake" mantle model [1], where lherzolites are residues left over after oceanic crust extraction, whereas pyroxenites represent either basaltic or cumulate portions of the oceanic crust, reinjected by subduction and stretched by solid-state mixing during mantle convection. The Pb isotope data suggest that each massif was involved in several cycles of convective overturn, segregation and reinjection of the oceanic crust, during periods well over 1 Ga. If the upper mantle is made of interlayered radiogenic and unradiogenic layers, basalt heterogeneities may result from preferential melt-extraction from different layers depending on the degree of melting, as well as from large-scale, plume-related mantle heterogeneities. Orogenic lherzolites therefore allow direct

  20. The Italian activist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanzaro, Michele

    2012-02-01

    Italian theoretical physicist Giorgio Parisi has been an outspoken critic of Silvio Berlusconi's lack of support for science. He talks about how physics may fare under the new administration led by the economist Mario Monti.

  1. Spatial thermal radiometry contribution to the Massif armoricain and the Massif central (France) litho-structural study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scanvic, J. Y. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Although the limited number of images received did not permit construction of a thermal inertia map, important geological details were obtained in the areas of lithology and tectonics. Interpretation of day, night, and seasonal imagery resulted in differentiating broad calcareous and dolomitic units in the Causse Plateau. In the Massif amoricain, some granite massifs were delineated which were not observed by LANDSAT. Neotectonic faults were also revealed.

  2. Long-lasting transcurrent tectonics in SW Alps evidenced by Neogene to present-day stress fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauve, Victorien; Plateaux, Romain; Rolland, Yann; Sanchez, Guillaume; Bethoux, Nicole; Delouis, Bertrand; Darnault, Romain

    2014-05-01

    The SW Alps are an active orogen undergoing intra-mountainous extension and peripheral compression. We discuss the significance of syn-orogenic extension based on a comparison of paleo-stress derived from fault-slip data inversion reflecting the long-term (< 12 Ma) evolution of SW Alps and the present-day stress state obtained by the inversion of the focal mechanisms of the last 30-years seismicity. The resulting stress states of long-term and active tectonic regimes are in good agreement, showing that extension accompanies strike-slip and reverse faulting in the southern part of the belt. The extensional deformation regime is limited to specific tectonic domains that can be interpreted as ‘transitional' between pure strike-slip segments where the deformation concentrates on inherited ductile shear zones that were formed between 32° and 20 Ma ago. We thus propose that the extensional deformation in the SW Alps can be defined as a local deformation in a pull-apart type domain (High Durance - Jausiers area) or above slowly exhuming internal massifs (Dora Maira - Ivrea Body) along a curved boundary between the slowly rotating Apulian block and the relatively immobile Western Europe. The transcurrent fault system merges into a compressional front along the Mediterranean - Ligurian coast mainly to the east of San Remo.

  3. A lichenometric growth curve in the French Alps: Ailefroide and Veneon valleys; Massif des Ecrins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pech, P.; Jomelli, V.; Baumgart-Kotarba, M.; Bravard, J. P.; Chardon, M.; Jacob, N.; Kedzia, S.; Kotarba, A.; Raczkowska, Z.; Tsao, C.

    2003-11-01

    Today there is only one lichenometric curve in the French Alps for the Haute Ubaye valley. This study presents a growth curve constructed for Rhizocarpon subgenus Rhizocarpon of the Ailefroide and Veneon valleys, which are located in the Massif des Ecrins. In order to establish this curve, we used the modal values from tests carried out on the five largest lichens, the mean values of the five largest lichens and each single biggest lichen. The last two methods have been rejected for statistical and theoretical reasons. The 27 dated points on which the curve is based have a shared and homogeneous set-up on the period corresponding to the last 150 years. Fourteen points come from man-made structures and 13 from moraines. According to our results, two separate curves have been drawn corresponding to two climatic mountainous ranges: a low lichen factor (20.7 mm/100 years) for forest ranges and a mean lichen factor (28.47 mm/100 years) for alpine belts (above 2000 m a.s.l.). The differences in lichen growth rates are caused by methodological and environmental differences. In comparison with the two existing curves near the Massif des Ecrins, one in the Haute Ubaye and the other in the Val d'Aosta (Italian Alps), our lichen factors are very low. This may be due to the fine-grained texture of the local granites, low solar radiation and dry conditions during the summer. This variation in the lichen factor confirms the need to establish growth curves for each specific geographic and altitudinal range.

  4. Italian in the Modern World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adorno, Elvira, Ed.

    This booklet of 15 reprinted letters sent in response to a query concerning the actual use of Italian in the United States designates various areas of professional application. Some reference to current Italian publications is included. It is hoped that these letters will help promote the study of Italian in American schools. (RL)

  5. Ordovician chitinozoan biozonation of the Brabant Massif, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, J; Verniers, J

    2000-12-01

    Chitinozoans from seven Ordovician units (Abbaye de Villers, Tribotte, Rigenée, Ittre, Bornival, and Brutia formations and a new unnamed unit, here provisionally called the Asquempont unit) belonging to the mainly concealed Brabant Massif, Belgium are described herein. Fifty-six samples were taken from rocks cropping out at the south-eastern rim of the massif in the Orneau, Dyle-Thyle and Senne-Sennette valleys. Microfossil preservation is moderate to poor, and the chitinozoans occur in low numbers. Taxonomically, the recovered chitinozoans are distributed into 29 taxa, some placed under open nomenclature. Together with earlier published graptolite and acritarch data, the analysis of the chitinozoan assemblages resulted in an improved chronostratigraphy of the investigated formations. We propose a local chitinozoan biozonation with 11 zones for the Brabant Massif. The oldest investigated units yielded chitinozoans typical for North Gondwana, and younger units (starting in the middle Caradoc), yielded some taxa also common in Baltica. As the Brabant Massif formed part of the microcontinent Avalonia, the chitinozoan assemblages recovered from the massif support the inferred drifting of Avalonia from high latitudes towards middle latitudes in the Ordovician as was suggested earlier.

  6. I Can Speak Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The guide presents content and techniques for teaching conversational Italian in the elementary grades. It contains an introductory section and 20 units for classroom instruction. The introduction includes notes on the overall objectives of the course, general guidelines on classroom procedure, and specific techniques for use of the materials…

  7. Know Your Laws. Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.

    This Italian language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult students with law they will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three…

  8. Thematic Issue: Italian Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Michael, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    In 1964, when the "living" theatre appeared to be dying in New York, theater in Italy began changing from an author-oriented to a performance-oriented, nonliterary form. The articles in this document trace the historical development of Italian theatre and analyze current dramas which demonstrate the diversity of approaches and the energy…

  9. Zirconology of serpentinites from Nyashevo massif (Southern Urals)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnobaev, A. A.; Valizer, P. M.; Anfilogov, V. N.; Medvedeva, E. V.; Busharina, S. V.; Murdasova, N. M.

    2016-12-01

    Zircons in serpentinites from Nyashevo massif of the Ilmenogorskii complex were dated for the first time by means of the SHRIMP technique. The maximum date of 1892 ± 23 Ma for the zircons accounts for the minimum age of their mantle substrate probably constituting the restite residue. The date is comparable to those for metamorphic rocks of the Selyankino group, as well as of fenite-sand amphibolites of the Ilmenogorskii complex. The Upper Ordovician age limit of 443 ± 12 Ma is adequate for formation of the massif and conforms to the age of the Buldym massif and miaskites. The Early Permian dates of zircons (275.8 ± 2.1 Ma) represent late shear processes in the Ilmenogorskii complex.

  10. Massification to Marketization of Higher Education: Private University Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Jashim Uddin

    2016-01-01

    Massification of higher education is a contemporary phenomenon, and Bangladesh is an excellent example of massification in the sector. With increased alertness worldwide among nations, policy-makers and development bodies, massification of higher education is a requirement of time. Increasing number of youth also contribute to the phenomenon…

  11. Ordovician magmatism in the Lévézou massif (French Massif Central): tectonic and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotout, Caroline; Pitra, Pavel; Poujol, Marc; Van Den Driessche, Jean

    2017-03-01

    New U-Pb dating on zircon yielded ca. 470 Ma ages for the granitoids from the Lévézou massif in the southern French Massif Central. These new ages do not support the previous interpretation of these granitoids as syn-tectonic intrusions emplaced during the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous thrusting. The geochemical and isotopic nature of this magmatism is linked to a major magmatic Ordovician event recorded throughout the European Variscan belt and related to extreme thinning of continental margins during a rifting event or a back-arc extension. The comparable isotopic signatures of these granitoids on each side of the eclogite-bearing leptyno-amphibolitic complex in the Lévézou massif, together with the fact that they were emplaced at the same time, strongly suggest that these granitoids were originally part of a single unit, tectonically duplicated by either isoclinal folding or thrusting during the Variscan tectonics.

  12. Ordovician magmatism in the Lévézou massif (French Massif Central): tectonic and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotout, Caroline; Pitra, Pavel; Poujol, Marc; Van Den Driessche, Jean

    2016-08-01

    New U-Pb dating on zircon yielded ca. 470 Ma ages for the granitoids from the Lévézou massif in the southern French Massif Central. These new ages do not support the previous interpretation of these granitoids as syn-tectonic intrusions emplaced during the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous thrusting. The geochemical and isotopic nature of this magmatism is linked to a major magmatic Ordovician event recorded throughout the European Variscan belt and related to extreme thinning of continental margins during a rifting event or a back-arc extension. The comparable isotopic signatures of these granitoids on each side of the eclogite-bearing leptyno-amphibolitic complex in the Lévézou massif, together with the fact that they were emplaced at the same time, strongly suggest that these granitoids were originally part of a single unit, tectonically duplicated by either isoclinal folding or thrusting during the Variscan tectonics.

  13. (222)Rn activity concentration differences in groundwaters of three Variscan granitoid massifs in the Sudetes (NE Bohemian Massif, SW Poland).

    PubMed

    Przylibski, Tadeusz A; Gorecka, Joanna

    2014-08-01

    Based on research conducted in three Variscan granitoid massifs located within the crystalline Bohemian Massif, the authors confirmed that the higher the degree of their erosional dissection, the smaller the concentration of (222)Rn in groundwaters circulating in these massifs. This notion implies that radon waters and high-radon waters, from which at least some of the dissolved radon should be removed before feeding them as drinking water to the water-supply system, could be expected in granitoid massifs which have been poorly exposed by erosion. At the same time, such massifs must be taken into account as the areas of possible occurrence of radon medicinal waters, which in some countries can be used for balneotherapy in health resorts. Slightly eroded granitoid massifs should be also regarded as very probable radon prone areas or areas of high radon potential.

  14. Pre-School Education in the Massif Central (France).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serna, Emile

    This paper lists and tentatively assesses three experiments in preschool education in rural areas in France, and outlines the Massif Central development program which draws extensively on these experiments. In Experiment I, a peripatetic teacher worked with young children, concentrating on speech activities in four different single-class schools.…

  15. Massification and the Large Lecture Theatre: From Panic to Excitement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvanitakis, James

    2014-01-01

    In this article I examine the role of the contemporary university in light of the mass increase in class sizes that has occurred on an international scale. While we may look nostalgically back to a time when lectures numbered a few hundred students and tutorials had as few as ten, massification at undergraduate level is an inescapable fact of…

  16. Towards Responsible Massification: Some Pointers for Supporting Lecturers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albertyn, Ruth M; Machika, Pauline; Troskie-de Bruin, Christel

    2016-01-01

    Teaching large classes poses many challenges to lecturers where massification is a reality in higher education. There are implications for both teaching and effective learning in this context. The need for accountability to learners in education provision served as motivation for a study of large classes in the largest faculty of one university…

  17. Massification in Higher Education: Large Classes and Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornsby, David J.; Osman, Ruksana

    2014-01-01

    In introducing the special issue on "Large Class Pedagogy: Opportunities and Challenges of Massification" the present editorial takes stock of the emerging literature on this subject. We seek to contribute to the massificaiton debate by considering one result of it: large class teaching in higher education. Here we look to large classes…

  18. Oral Tradition of Italian-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Lucia Chiavola

    The assimilation of Italians into American culture led to the loss of the Italian language, and an oral tradition of Italian peasants in which Italian feminist philosophy was grounded. The legends, parables, and proverbs told by these Italian women challenged the teachings of Catholicism, perpetuating an underground religious tradition which…

  19. Italian Polar Metadata System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, S.; Nativi, S.; Leone, C.; Migliorini, S.; Mazari Villanova, L.

    2012-04-01

    Italian Polar Metadata System C.Leone, S.Longo, S.Migliorini, L.Mazari Villanova, S. Nativi The Italian Antarctic Research Programme (PNRA) is a government initiative funding and coordinating scientific research activities in polar regions. PNRA manages two scientific Stations in Antarctica - Concordia (Dome C), jointly operated with the French Polar Institute "Paul Emile Victor", and Mario Zucchelli (Terra Nova Bay, Southern Victoria Land). In addition National Research Council of Italy (CNR) manages one scientific Station in the Arctic Circle (Ny-Alesund-Svalbard Islands), named Dirigibile Italia. PNRA started in 1985 with the first Italian Expedition in Antarctica. Since then each research group has collected data regarding biology and medicine, geodetic observatory, geophysics, geology, glaciology, physics and atmospheric chemistry, earth-sun relationships and astrophysics, oceanography and marine environment, chemistry contamination, law and geographic science, technology, multi and inter disciplinary researches, autonomously with different formats. In 2010 the Italian Ministry of Research assigned the scientific coordination of the Programme to CNR, which is in charge of the management and sharing of the scientific results carried out in the framework of the PNRA. Therefore, CNR is establishing a new distributed cyber(e)-infrastructure to collect, manage, publish and share polar research results. This is a service-based infrastructure building on Web technologies to implement resources (i.e. data, services and documents) discovery, access and visualization; in addition, semantic-enabled functionalities will be provided. The architecture applies the "System of Systems" principles to build incrementally on the existing systems by supplementing but not supplanting their mandates and governance arrangements. This allows to keep the existing capacities as autonomous as possible. This cyber(e)-infrastructure implements multi-disciplinary interoperability following

  20. Fluid circulation systems in the Alpine External Crystalline Massifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutoux, Alexandre; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Verlaguet, Anne; Lacombe, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    At mid-crustal levels, rock permeability is believed to be very low except in active fault/shear zones. In sedimentary rocks undergoing tectonic burial during collisional shortening, fluid flow is thus considered to be a small-scale process restricted to the sedimentary unit, until the fluid system locally opens during strain localization in fault/shear zones. During the Alpine collision, the European proximal passive margin (Dauphinois/Helvetic domains, including the External Crystalline Massifs, ECM: Aar, Mont Blanc, Aiguilles Rouges, Oisans massifs) was buried at mid-crustal depth under the internal units and was subsequently shortened and exhumed with contrasting kinematics. Indeed, some of the main tectonic units are sedimentary nappes detached from their basement while other are linked to main basement shear zones. In this context, many studies of fluid system evolution have been published, mainly focused on the largest tectonic units (e.g., Morcles nappe) and/or on thrust/shear zones with large displacement (e.g., Glarus thrust). In this contribution, we focused on tectonic structures located in the Oisans massif where small amount of shortening occurred (smaller than in the northern ECM, Mont Blanc and Aar). We performed geochemical and microthermometric analyses on calcite + quartz vein and host-rock samples to document and discuss the fluid source and pathway, the scale of circulation and the fluid-rock interactions. The fluid system in the Oisans ECM is compared to the fluid systems in other ECM and can be considered as an early and/or less shortened analogue. In the Oisans massif cover, the fluid system is generally closed, except locally above the main basement shear zones where signatures of basement-derived fluids were identified by trace element analysis. In contrast, in the Mont Blanc massif, fluids were channelized in the main basement shear zones, while in the Morcles nappe (i.e., the presumable cover of the Mont Blanc), deep fluids may have been

  1. The Languages of Italian Canadians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1995-01-01

    Examines the transplantation of dialects of Italian abroad, particularly to Canada. Argues that any discussion of the language of immigrants from Italy has to start from the premise that they brought their dialect, not Italian, to their new home. Conclusions indicate that "Italo-Canadian" shares many linguistic characteristics with…

  2. Italian families and family interventions.

    PubMed

    Casacchia, Massimo; Roncone, Rita

    2014-06-01

    In Italy, as in many countries, relatives are closely involved in caring for persons with physical and mental disorders. The Italian scenario lends itself to routine involvement of family members in psychiatric treatment because, despite becoming smaller and smaller, Italian families keep close ties, and men and women do not leave the parental home until relatively late. The authors describe the impact of international family psychosocial research on the Italian mental health services (MHSs) and the main psychosocial interventions currently in use, including family psychoeducational interventions and the "Milan family therapy approach." They also highlight the contribution Italian researchers have given to the study of important variables in integrated mental disorder care, such as family burden of care, relatives' attitudes, family functioning, and satisfaction with the MHSs. Finally, they discuss the difficulties of implementing and disseminating family interventions within the Italian MHS, despite the growing evidence of their effectiveness.

  3. K-alkaline rocks and lamproites of Tomtor massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladykin, Nikolai

    2015-04-01

    Tomtor massif of the largest volcano-plutonic deep alkaline-carbonatite massifs world central type. Area of massif occupy 240 km2 and carbonatites stock is 40 km2. The super large deposit of Nb, TR, Y, Sc, Sr ,REE (Frolov et al. 2001)is found within the massif. The numerical publication are devoted to the ore mineralization there. But the geological struc-ture of the massif and the chemistry of its constituting rocks are not well understood. We obtained new ages based on U-Pb zircon and mica Ar-Ar method (Kotov, Vladykin et al. 2014 Vladykin et al. 2015). The massif was created in 2 stages: 700 and 400 Ma. We (Vla-dykin et al 1998) found rocks of lamproite series and proposed a new scheme of magmatism and the ore.genesis (Vladykin 2007, 2009). Biotite - pyroxenite, peridotite originated in first stage and then intruded iolites, nepheline and alkali syenite. Syenites occupy 70% of -massif and contain 12-13% K2O and 2-4% Na2O showing the K-alkaline-ultramafic nature of Tomtor volcano-plutonic massif (Vladykin 2009). The first stage was accomplished by nelsonitov calcite, dolomite and ankerite carbonatites. Second stage (400Ma) volcanics picrite - lamproite veins and eruptive breccias meli-lite, melanephelinites, tinguaites appered. These rocks are cut by carbonatites of second stage. It was finished by intensive explosive eruption of a silicate (lamproite) tuffs lavobrec-cia kimberlite formed Ebelyakhdiamondiferous placer, melilite rocks in diatremes (feeders), as well as carbonate-phosphate (kamaforite) explosive tuffs with siderite ores. This carbona-tite complex is preserved within the subsidence caldera. Tuff eruption in conjunction with gas and hydrothermal activity determined its rare metal mineralization. These rocks contain to: Nb- 21%, TR-15%, Y-1.5%, Sc-1%, Zr- 0,5% Zn-, Sr-6%, Ti-8%, Ba-4%, V - 8000 ppm, Be- 300 ppm, Ga- 80 ppm, Cr- 1200ppm, Ni- 230 ppm, Mo- 145 ppm, Pb- 4300 ppm, Th- 1500 ppm, U-193 ppm. Picrite - olivine (rare leucite) lamproite and

  4. The Apollo 17 samples: The Massifs and landslide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham

    1992-01-01

    More than 50 kg of rock and regolith samples, a little less than half the total Apollo 17 sample mass, was collected from the highland stations at Taurus-Littrow. Twice as much material was collected from the North Massif as from the South Massif and its landslide (the apparent disproportionate collecting at the mare sites is mainly a reflection of the large size of a few individual basalt samples). Descriptions of the collection, documentation, and nature of the samples are given. A comprehensive catalog is currently being produced. Many of the samples have been intensely studied over the last 20 years and some of the rocks have become very familiar and depicted in popular works, particularly the dunite clast (72415), the troctolite sample (76535), and the station 6 boulder samples. Most of the boulder samples have been studied in Consortium mode, and many of the rake samples have received a basic petrological/geochemical characterization.

  5. Miocene mass-transport sediments, Troodos Massif, Cyprus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lord, A.R.; Harrison, R.W.; BouDagher-Fadel, M.; Stone, B.D.; Varol, O.

    2009-01-01

    Sediment mass-transport layers of submarine origin on the northern and southern flanks of the Troodos ophiolitic massif are dated biostratigraphically as early Miocene and late Miocene, respectively and therefore represent different seismogenic events in the uplift and erosional history of the Troodos terrane. Analysis of such events has potential for documenting Miocene seismic and uplift events regionally in the context of changing stress field directions and plate vectors through time. ?? 2009 The Geologists' Association.

  6. The French Atlantic littoral and the Massif Armoricain, part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verger, F. (Principal Investigator); Scanvic, J. Y.; Monget, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results: (1) An original map of lineaments of the Armorican Massif and the Vendean platform was prepared. (2) Validity of spatial information through comparison with maps of various kinds, such as geological, geophysical, morphological, etc., was verified. (3) It was confirmed that LANDSAT images, in many cases, reflect data on deep phenomena which were only accessible geophysically and by means of borings. Tectonic domains were outlined, and known lineaments were extended.

  7. The Lassell massif-A silicic lunar volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, J. W.; Robinson, M. S.; Stopar, J. D.; Glotch, T. D.; Hawke, B. Ray; van der Bogert, C. H.; Hiesinger, H.; Lawrence, S. J.; Jolliff, B. L.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Giguere, T. A.; Paige, D. A.

    2016-07-01

    Lunar surface volcanic processes are dominated by mare-producing basaltic extrusions. However, spectral anomalies, landform morphology, and granitic or rhyolitic components found in the Apollo sample suites indicate limited occurrences of non-mare, geochemically evolved (Si-enriched) volcanic deposits. Recent thermal infrared spectroscopy, high-resolution imagery, and topographic data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) show that most of the historic "red spots" and other, less well-known locations on the Moon, are indeed silica rich (relative to basalt). Here we present a geologic investigation of the Lassell massif (14.65°S, 350.96°E) near the center of Alphonsus A basin in Mare Nubium, where high-silica thermal emission signals correspond with morphological indications of viscous (possibly also explosive) extrusion, and small-scale, low-reflectance deposits occur in a variety of stratigraphic relationships. Multiple layers with stair-step lobate forms suggest different eruption events or pulsing within a single eruption. Absolute model ages derived from crater size-frequency distributions (CSFDs) indicate that the northern parts of the massif were emplaced at ∼4 Ga, before the surrounding mare. However, CSFDs also indicate the possibility of more recent resurfacing events. The complex resurfacing history might be explained by either continuous resurfacing due to mass wasting and/or the emplacement of pyroclastics. Relatively low-reflectance deposits are visible at meter-scale resolutions (below detection limits for compositional analysis) at multiple locations across the massif, suggestive of pyroclastic activity, a quenched flow surface, or late-stage mafic materials. Compositional evidence from 7-band UV/VIS spectral data at the kilometer-scale and morphologic evidence for possible caldera collapse and/or explosive venting support the interpretation of a complex volcanic history for the Lassell massif.

  8. Detachment Shear Zone of the Atlantis Massif Oceanic Core Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karson, J.; Fruh-Green, G.; Kelley, D.; Yoerger, D.; Jakuba, M.

    2005-12-01

    Near-bottom investigations of the cross section of the Atlantis Massif exposed in a major tectonic escarpment along the Atlantis Transform Fault provide an unprecedented view of the internal structure of the footwall domain of an oceanic core complex. Integrated direct observations, photogeology, and imaging define a mylonitic, low-angle detachment shear zone (DSZ) along the crest of the massif. The shear zone may project beneath the nearby, corrugated upper surface of the massif. The DSZ and related structures are inferred to be responsible for the unroofing of lower crustal gabbros and upper mantle peridotites by extreme, localized tectonic extension during seafloor spreading over the past 2 m.y. Strongly foliated serpentinites and talc-amphibole schists of the DSZ are about 100 m thick and can be traced continuously for at least 3 km in the spreading direction. Foliated DSZ rocks grade structurally downward into more massive basement rocks that lack a pervasive low-temperature deformation fabric. The main DSZ and underlying basement rocks are cut by discrete, anastomosing normal-slip, shear zones. Widely spaced, steeply dipping, normal faults cut all the older structures and localize serpentinization-driven hydrothermal outflow at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field. A thin (few meters) sequence of sedimentary breccias grading upward into pelagic limestones directly overlies the DSZ and may record a history of progressive rotation of the shear zone from an earlier moderately dipping attitude into its present, gently dipping orientation during lateral spreading and uplift.

  9. Non-Standard Italian Dialect Heritage Speakers' Acquisition of Clitic Placement in Standard Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examines the acquisition of object clitic placement in Standard Italian by heritage speakers (HSs) of non-standard Italian dialects. It compares two different groups of Standard Italian learners--Northern Italian dialect HSs and Southern Italian dialect HSs--whose heritage dialects contrast with each other in clitic word order.…

  10. Italian Volcano Supersites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, G.

    2011-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are among the geohazards that may have a substantial economic and social impact, even at worldwide scale. Large populated regions are prone to volcanic hazards worldwide. Even local phenomena may affect largely populated areas and in some cases even megacities, producing severe economic losses. On a regional or global perspective, large volcanic eruptions may affect the climate for years with potentially huge economic impacts, but even relatively small eruptions may inject large amounts of volcanic ash in the atmosphere and severely affect air traffic over entire continents. One of main challenges of the volcanological community is to continuously monitor and understand the internal processes leading to an eruption, in order to give substantial contributions to the risk reduction. Italian active volcanoes constitute natural laboratories and ideal sites where to apply the cutting-edge volcano observation systems, implement new monitoring systems and to test and improve the most advanced models and methods for investigate the volcanic processes. That's because of the long tradition of volcanological studies resulting into long-term data sets, both in-situ and from satellite systems, among the most complete and accurate worldwide, and the large spectrum of the threatening volcanic phenomena producing high local/regional/continental risks. This contribution aims at presenting the compound monitoring systems operating on the Italian active volcanoes, the main improvements achieved during the recent studies direct toward volcanic hazard forecast and risk reductions and the guidelines for a wide coordinated project aimed at applying the ideas of the GEO Supersites Initiative at Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei / Vesuvius areas.

  11. An Xrootd Italian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccali, T.; Donvito, G.; Diacono, D.; Marzulli, G.; Pompili, A.; Della Ricca, G.; Mazzoni, E.; Argiro, S.; Gregori, D.; Grandi, C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Lista, L.; Fabozzi, F.; Barone, L. M.; Santocchia, A.; Riahi, H.; Tricomi, A.; Sgaravatto, M.; Maron, G.

    2014-06-01

    The Italian community in CMS has built a geographically distributed network in which all the data stored in the Italian region are available to all the users for their everyday work. This activity involves at different level all the CMS centers: the Tier1 at CNAF, all the four Tier2s (Bari, Rome, Legnaro and Pisa), and few Tier3s (Trieste, Perugia, Torino, Catania, Napoli, ...). The federation uses the new network connections as provided by GARR, our NREN (National Research and Education Network), which provides a minimum of 10 Gbit/s to all the sites via the GARR-X[2] project. The federation is currently based on Xrootd[1] technology, and on a Redirector aimed to seamlessly connect all the sites, giving the logical view of a single entity. A special configuration has been put in place for the Tier1, CNAF, where ad-hoc Xrootd changes have been implemented in order to protect the tape system from excessive stress, by not allowing WAN connections to access tape only files, on a file-by-file basis. In order to improve the overall performance while reading files, both in terms of bandwidth and latency, a hierarchy of xrootd redirectors has been implemented. The solution implemented provides a dedicated Redirector where all the INFN sites are registered, without considering their status (T1, T2, or T3 sites). An interesting use case were able to cover via the federation are disk-less Tier3s. The caching solution allows to operate a local storage with minimal human intervention: transfers are automatically done on a single file basis, and the cache is maintained operational by automatic removal of old files.

  12. Understanding Italian American cultural norms.

    PubMed

    Rozendal, N

    1987-02-01

    The components of Italian American culture in many ways provide a striking contrast to current American beliefs, values, and living habits. The challenge to the psychiatric nurse lies in maximizing the strengths of this culture to enhance the individual's ability to be what he or she can and chooses to be within the Italian culture and within the broader context of contemporary American society. By being culturally well informed and sensitive, and sharing goals and expectations with clients (Louie), the psychiatric nurse will be accepted and trusted to provide the kind of high quality care that will ultimately have a positive impact on the mental health status of Italian Americans.

  13. Mohorovicic discontinuity depth analysis beneath North Patagonian Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Dacal, M. L.; Tocho, C.; Aragón, E.

    2013-05-01

    The North Patagonian Massif is a 100000 km2, sub-rectangular plateau that stands out 500 to 700 m higher in altitude than the surrounding topography. The creation of this plateau took place during the Oligocene through a sudden uplift without noticeable internal deformation. This quite different mechanical response between the massif and the surrounding back arc, the short time in which this process took place and a regional negative Bouguer anomaly in the massif area, raise the question about the isostatic compensation state of the previously mentioned massif. In the present work, a comparison between different results about the depth of the Mohorovicic discontinuity beneath the North Patagonian Massif and a later analysis is made. It has the objective to analyze the crustal thickness in the area to contribute in the determination of the isostatic balance and the better understanding of the Cenozoic evolution of the mentioned area. The comparison is made between four models; two of these were created with seismic information (Feng et al., 2006 and Bassin et al., 2000), another model with gravity information (Barzaghi et al., 2011) and the last one with a combination of both techniques (Tassara y Etchaurren, 2011). The latter was the result of the adaptation to the work area of a three-dimensional density model made with some additional information, mainly seismic, that constrain the surfaces. The work of restriction and adaptation of this model, the later analysis and comparison with the other three models and the combination of both seismic models to cover the lack of resolution in some areas, is presented here. According the different models, the crustal thickness of the study zone would be between 36 and 45 Km. and thicker than the surrounding areas. These results talk us about a crust thicker than normal and that could behave as a rigid and independent block. Moreover, it can be observed that there are noticeable differences between gravimetric and seismic

  14. Massification without Equalisation: The Politics of Higher Education, Graduate Employment and Social Mobility in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Siu-yau

    2016-01-01

    This article explains why the massification of higher education in Hong Kong has, contrary to the predictions of received wisdom, failed to enhance the upward social mobility of the youth in the city. Building upon recent literature in political science, it argues that massification can take different forms, which in turn determine the effects of…

  15. Social Class Barriers of the Massification of Higher Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ru-Jer, Wang

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the rapid growth of higher education in Taiwan has led to an essential shift from education for the elite to the massification of higher education. Although this massification is making higher education more accessible, one of the main concerns is whether opportunities for higher education are the same among all social classes in…

  16. Higher Education, Changing Labour Market and Social Mobility in the Era of Massification in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho; Wu, Alfred M.

    2016-01-01

    This article attempts to investigate the relationship between the massification of higher education, labour market and social mobility in contemporary China. Though only a short period of time has elapsed from elite to mass education, China's higher education has been characterised as a wide, pervasive massification process. Similar to other East…

  17. Zirconology of ultrabasic rocks of the Karabash massif (Southern Urals)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnobaev, A. A.; Valizer, P. M.; Anfilogov, V. N.; Sergeev, S. A.; Rusin, A. I.; Busharina, S. V.; Medvedeva, E. V.

    2016-07-01

    Dating of zircon (SHRIMP) from dunite and harzburgite of the Karabash massif was carried out for the first time. Relics of ancient crystals (1940 ± 30 Ma in harzburgite, 1860 ± 16 Ma in dunite) provide evidence for the Paleoproterozoic age of the protolith. The morphological peculiarities of zircon crystals allow us to assume differentiation of the magmatic source 1720 m. y. ago. The major variety of zircons indicates stages of metamorphic evolution in the Neoproterozoic (530-560 Ma) and Early-Late Ordovician (440-480 Ma).

  18. [Italian Thesaurus of Bioethics, TIB].

    PubMed

    Navarini, Claudia; Poltronieri, Elisabetta

    2004-01-01

    The article aims at illustrating the characteristics and functions of a monolingual thesaurus, focusing on the Italian Thesaurus of Bioethics (Thesaurus Italiano di Bioetica, TIB) the controlled vocabulary used to index and retrieve documents within SIBIL (Italian Online Bioethics Information System). TIB includes controlled terms (descriptors) translated from the Bioethics Thesaurus adopted by the Kennedy Institute of Ethics of the Georgetown University of Washington and revised according to the Italian context of study and scientific debate in the field of bioethics. The overall amount of TIB terms consists in over 1600 headings. Methods to link thesaurus terms hierarchically, by association and by showing synonyms as recommended in ISO standards are applied with reference to descriptors drawn from TIB. Future plans to make the English version of TIB available online within European networks are also illustrated, aiming at spreading information relating to bioethics at an international level.

  19. The promotion of geotourism in protected areas: a proposal of itinerary through the Matese Massif (Campania and Molise regions, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosskopf, Carmen Maria; Filocamo, Francesca; Amato, Vincenzo; Cesarano, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    The Matese Massif is a ca. 1000 km2 wide and NW-SE elongated carbonate relief, located in the inner sector of the Southern Apennine chain. It has a tabular setting with steep structural slopes bordering the central high mountain sector including its major peaks and is crossed from approximately west to east by the border between Campania and Molise regions. The Matese Mountains represent a key area for the comprehension of the geological and tectonic evolution of the Southern Apennines since Mesozoic times. Its long-term geomorphological evolution has been controlled by Quaternary tectonics and climate variations that have allowed the temporary or permanent establishment of various environments and morphodynamics. Deposits and landforms originated by glacial, periglacial, karst and fluvial processes, along with a rich assemblage of tectonic-structural features and landforms of complex origin have given origin to a geological heritage of exceptional value. The geosites actually censured within the Campanian sector of Matese are reported in the Geosites Map of Campania, available at the website of Campania Region and partly included in the Italian Geosites Inventory of ISPRA. The geosites of the Molise sector have been recently assessed within the geosite inventory carried out by Molise University. They are reported in the Geosites Map of Molise, available at the website of Molise Region, and partly included in the ISPRA's National Inventory of Geosites. The Matese area is largely included in protected areas: the Campania portion falls within the Matese Regional Park, established in 2002, while most of the Molise sector falls in the extensive ZPS/SIC IT72222287. To better protect and exploit the unique natural and geological heritage of the Matese Massif, numerous initiatives aimed at the establishment of the National Park of Matese have continued for several years and very recent attempts to promote the Matese Geopark have been made, but unfortunately without any

  20. Analysis of the October-November 2010 seismic swarm in the Sampeyre area (Piedmont, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barani, S.; Spallarossa, D.; Scafidi, D.; Ferretti, G.; De Ferrari, R.; Pasta, M.

    2012-04-01

    During the period October-November 2010, the area surrounding Sampeyre (Piedmont, Italy) was affected by an intense seismic activity, which evolved into an earthquake swarm. The whole seismic crisis lasted approximately one month, from October 13 to November 12, 2010. During this period, approximately 550 earthquakes were recorded and localized by the Regional Seismic network of Northwestern Italy - RSNI (http://www.dipteris.unige.it/geofisica/) in the study area. However, including the micro seismicity (i.e., earthquakes with negative magnitude) detected by the nearest stations, the number of events goes up to approximately 3800. Among these events, 179 exceeded a local magnitude (Ml) of 1.0 but only two exceeded Ml = 3.0 (the major event has a magnitude of 3.2). Of note, these two earthquakes occurred close to each other on two consecutive days, precisely on October 23 and 24. The Sampeyre area is located in the inner part of the Dora Maira crystalline massif, which corresponds to the northern Tethyan margin (part of the stretched European continental crust) exhumed during the collision of the Eurasia and Africa plates. The Dora Maira massif consists of three main geological units of high-grade metamorphic rocks (gneiss, schists, eclogites): the Sanfront-Pinerolo unit, the Vanesca unit, and the Dronero-Sampeyre unit. The earthquake swarm took place in this area, more likely in the continental crust (bulk crust) at a depth comprised between 5 km and 20 km. Analyzing various seismic sections, however, clearly indicates that higher magnitude events were confined between of 10 km and 15 km. Focusing on the temporal evolution of the Sampeyre swarm reveals that most of the earthquakes occurred during the first 15 days since the beginning of the crisis. This period of intense activity was followed by an evident decay in the occurrence rate. A subsequent peak of activity was recorded on November 11, when more than 40 events were generated in the area. In order to find

  1. Italian/Italiano. Resource Guides for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jenny

    This resource guide, intended for current prospective teachers of Italian, is designed as a source of information and inspiration for Italian instructors at all educational levels. The first of the guide's 11 chapters provides a brief general introduction to this book. Chapter 2 looks at the status of and rationale for Italian language instruction…

  2. Italian neurology: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Federico, Antonio

    Summary This short history of the Italian Society of Neurology focuses on its founders and leading personalities. The article also considers the present and the future of Italian neurology, emphasising in particular the scientific impact of Italian neurological research on the main international journals and the activities undertaken to increase the role of neurologists. PMID:21729588

  3. Intrusion level of granitic massifs along the Hercynian belt: balancing the eroded crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneresse, J. L.

    1999-06-01

    Hercynian granitoid intrusions form a long (3200 km) belt comparable in size to other batholiths in the world. Six massifs have been selected which encompass Cabeza de Araya (Extremadura, Spain), Guitiriz (Galicia, Spain), Pontivy and Mortagne (Brittany, France), La Marche (Massif Central, France) and Fichtelgebirge (Bavaria, Germany). Detailed gravity surveys over these massifs and subsequent inversion provide their shape at depth. Correlation of the deeper zones with internal structures determine the place of the root zones. The shape of the massifs is examined along the strike of the chain. The emplacement of individual massifs is controlled by local tectonics. Most granites are not deeply rooted, but one massif (Cabeza de Araya, Spain) shows a root zone presently as deep as 14 km. Most have about half of their volume in the first 3 km below the present surface. Estimates of the magma volume transferred result in 1500 km 3 issued from one specific feeder, yielding a total of 70,000 km 3 of magma intruded all along the chain. The depth of emplacement of the granitic massifs does not show any significant trend along the strike of the chain. The shallower massifs in the French Massif Central correspond to more deeply eroded areas in the center of the chain. Their root zone, as well as the change in the dip of the walls, are presently observed at depths ranging between 4 and 6 km in Hercynian granites. Both variations are interpreted as being related to the brittle/ductile transition at the time of emplacement. Gross thermal considerations place the transition at its former place during magma emplacement, indicating that the upper crust has not been eroded by more than 6-8 km. This estimate severely contrasts with models involving a doubled crust.

  4. Remote sensing of Italian volcanos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianchi, R.; Casacchia, R.; Coradini, A.; Duncan, A. M.; Guest, J. E.; Kahle, A.; Lanciano, P.; Pieri, D. C.; Poscolieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a July 1986 remote sensing campaign of Italian volcanoes are reviewed. The equipment and techniques used to acquire the data are described and the results obtained for Campi Flegrei and Mount Etna are reviewed and evaluated for their usefulness for the study of active and recently active volcanoes.

  5. Nonverbal Communication among Italian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri-Bernardoni, Joseph M.

    Participant observation and author introspection were used to collect data in this study of nonverbal communication among Italian Americans in three large American cities. Discussion is given to kinesics (gestures and signs), haptics (touch), proxemics (interiors of homes, exteriors of homes, and spatial arrangements at a wedding dinner), and…

  6. Education and Italian Regional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Liberto, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the connection between growth and human capital in a convergence regression for the panel of Italian regions. We include measures of average primary, secondary and tertiary education. We find that increased education seems to contribute to growth only in the South. Decomposing total schooling into its three constituent…

  7. GENERATIVE RULES FOR ITALIAN PHONOLOGY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DI PIETRO, ROBERT J.

    TWO MODELS OF DESCRIPTION, GENERATIVE AND NONGENERATIVE, ARE APPLIED TO THE PHONOLOGY OF ITALIAN TO DETERMINE WHICH OF THE TWO OFFERS A SIMPLER YET MORE COMPREHENSIVE STATEMENT. THE NONGENERATIVE MODEL IS GIVEN IN A LISTING OF PHONEMES AND A BRIEF STATEMENT OF THE PHONOTACTICS AND ALLOPHONICS. THE GENERATIVE MODEL STATES THE FACTS IN 11 REWRITE…

  8. Structural geology investigation on Massif Central and Parisian Basin (France)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weecksteen, G. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Band 5 gives the most information concerning the fracturing in the Massif Central and Parisian Basins. Band 6 and 7 show the fractures emphasized by forest boundaries and by the linear trace of water courses. The most remarkable information drawn from the preliminary investigation of two ERTS-1 images covering two different landscapes, a regular relief of shelving plateau bounded by cuestas having a sedimentary origin and a mountainous region built in crystalline and volcanic rocks, is that the deep structural elements under a thick sedimentary cover can be translated on the surface by indirect criteria. MSS imagery has permitted the Metz fault to be extended towards the west and shows clearly, through land use on the Rhone Valley fluvial deposit, the continuation towards the east of the carboniferous basin of St. Etienne.

  9. Structural investigations in the Massif-Central, France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scanvic, J. Y.

    1974-01-01

    This survey covered the French Massif-Central (where crystalline and volcanic rocks outcrop) and its surrounding sedimentaries, Bassin de Paris, Bassin d'Aquitaine and Rhodanian valley. One objective was the mapping of fracturing and the surveying of its relationship with known ore deposits. During this survey it was found that ERTS imagery outlines lithology in some sedimentary basins. On the other hand, in a basement area, under temperature climate conditions, lithology is rarely expressed. These observations can be related to the fact that band 5 gives excellent results above sedimentary basins in France and generally band 7 is the most useful in a basement area. Several examples show clearly the value of ERTS imagery for mapping linear features and circular structures. All the main fractures are identified with the exception of new ones found both in sedimentaries and basement areas. Other interesting findings concern sun elevation which, stereoscopic effect not being possible, simulates relief in a better way under certain conditions.

  10. Experimental Study on Fluid Distribution at Ultra-High Metamorphic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mönicke, K.; Burchard, M.; Duyster, J.; Maresch, W. V.; Röller, K.; Stöckhert, B.

    2001-12-01

    Ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks record deep subduction of continental crust. Insight into their rheological behavior at UHP metamorphic conditions is important for the understanding of the mechanical state and the kinematics within subduction zones. Amazingly, many exhumed UHP metamorphic rocks do not show evidence of significant deformation. Thus, it has been proposed that deformation is localized in low-strength zones controlled by partially wetting interstitial fluids [1]. Experimental results [2] show that at UHP metamorphic conditions only one homogenous fluid phase with variable composition exists, whose density and viscosity should be intermediate between those of conventional aqueous solutions and hydrous melts. Inclusions of such supercritical fluid have been recently described from a natural UHP metamorphic rock [3]. Motivated by these findings, experiments using a piston-cylinder apparatus were performed to study the fluid distribution in various rock types at pressures of 3.5 GPa and temperatures between 900 ° C and 600 ° C. Starting materials were natural UHP metamorphic specimens of (1) S-type granitic biotite-phengite-gneiss and (2) pyrope-quartzite, both from the Dora Maira Massif (Western Alps, Italy) and (3) a diamond-bearing garnet-mica-gneiss with granodioritic bulk composition from the Saxonian Erzgebirge (Germany), all with 2 wt.% water added. The supercritical fluids formed in these experiments can be quenched to form a silicic glass with demixing of an aqueous solution without changing the UHP fluid topology significantly. The shape of the fluid-filled interstices is irregular and complex, resulting in a low volume/interface area ratio and a potential of high stress concentration at the edges of wedge-shaped offshoots. We propose that the distribution of supercritical fluids has a pronounced effect on the strength of cool subducted crust, allowing deformation by grain boundary sliding and dissolution precipitation creep, or

  11. Petrogenesis of massif anorthosites: a perspective from St. Urbain, Quebec

    SciTech Connect

    Gromet, L.P.; Dymek, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    The St. Urbain massif is a post-orogenic anorthosite pluton (approx. 500 km/sup 2/) emplaced within the central high-grade granulite terrain of the Grenville structural province. In contrast to other Grenville anorthosites, primary magmatic features are largely preserved. The massif consists predominantly of andesine anorthosite (AA) of remarkable purity containing abundant plagioclase megacrysts. AA has high K/sub 2/O (approx. 2 wgt.%), very high Sr contents (approx. 1200 ppm) and highly fractionated, low REE contents. Features of AA provide the following insights into anorthosite origins: (1) Crystallization from anorthositic magmas, as evidenced by early crystallization of abundant antiperthitic plag, and igneous emplacement of AA dikes and veins into older, unrelated labradorite anorthosite; (2) in situ crystallization of pyroxene after plag, with no direct evidence of earlier crystallization of mafic minerals from a basaltic parent magma; (3) limited differentiation during crystallization, indicated by small variation in plag and opx and limited variations in plag Sr and REE contents; (4) the involvement of water, suggested by the late igneous crystallization of biotite and the localized grain-boundary replacement of plag by calcic myrmekite (An/sub 80/ + qtz). (5) high temperature, relatively oxidizing conditions, indicated by magmatic hemoilmenite +/- rutile and rare ferropseudobrookite in AA and associated ores. AA crystallized from highly feldspathic, relatively oxidized, somewhat hydrous parent magma with little trapped melt. The development of a hyperfeldspathic parent magma with the requisite geochemical features can be ascribed to hydrous partial melting of mafic (to intermediate) rocks at deep crustal or greater depths, leaving a garnetiferous residue.

  12. Structural and kinematic evolution of a Miocene to Recent sinistral restraining bend: the Montejunto massif, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Michael L.

    1999-01-01

    The Montejunto massif lies in the apex of a large-scale restraining bend at the southern termination of a sinistral transpressive fault system, in the Lusitanian basin of Portugal. Cenozoic deformation within the Montejunto massif initiated with southerly directed thrusting along the southern boundary of the massif, in association with the development of the E-W oriented Montejunto anticline, probably during the Langhian. Deformation switched to the northern boundary of the massif, in association with a change to NW-directed thrusting and continued development of the Montejunto anticline. The youngest set of structures within the massif is related to the sinistral reactivation of the Arieiro fault system, and steeply inclined bedding. This late phase of deformation represents the accommodation of a component of sinistral displacement across the restraining bend along mechanical anisotropies formed during this progressive Cenozoic deformation event. Variation in the kinematic style of the Main Arieiro fault is related to the angle ( α) between the fault plane and the displacement vector. Where α≈20°, abrupt pene-contemporaneous switches in displacement direction are recorded along the fault, whereas strike-slip kinematics predominate where α<20°. The timing of deformation events in the Montejunto massif is uncertain. However, correlation with the established Cenozoic Africa/Europe plate convergence directions may provide potential temporal constraints.

  13. Cenozoic rejuvenation events of Massif Central topography (France): Insights from cosmogenic denudation rates and river profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivetti, Valerio; Godard, Vincent; Bellier, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    The French Massif Central is a part of the Hercynian orogenic belt that currently exhibits anomalously high topography. The Alpine orogenesis, which deeply marked Western European topography, involved only marginally the Massif Central, where Cenozoic faulting and short-wavelength crustal deformation is limited to the Oligocene rifting. For this reason the French Massif Central is a key site to study short- and long-term topographic response in a framework of slow tectonic activity. In particular the origin of the Massif Central topography is a topical issue still debated, where the role of mantle upwelling is invoked by different authors. Here we present a landscape analysis using denudation rates derived from basin-averaged cosmogenic nuclide concentrations coupled with longitudinal river profile analysis. This analysis allows us to recognize that the topography of the French Massif Central is not fully equilibrated with the present base level and in transient state. Our data highlight the coexistence of out-of-equilibrium river profiles, incised valleys, and low cosmogenically derived denudation rates ranging between 40 mm/kyr and 80 mm/kyr. Addressing this apparent inconsistency requires investigating the parameters that may govern erosion processes under conditions of reduced active tectonics. The spatial distribution of denudation rates coupled with topography analysis enabled us to trace the signal of the long-term uplift history and to propose a chronology for the uplift evolution of the French Massif Central.

  14. The Astronomy Olympiad italian experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandrelli, S.; Giacomini, L.

    2011-10-01

    The International Astronomy Olympiad (IAO) is an internationally annual astronomy scientific-educating event, born in 1996, which includes an intellectual competition between students aged between 14 and 17. In Italy, the Olympiad is coorganized since 2007 by INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) and SAiT (Società Astronomica Italiana) becoming every year a more visible and global event in the italian scenario (in 2011, INAF institutes participating to the local activities were 13). Unluckily, the Italian Committee of the Olympiads cannot involve directly nor rely on schools, since astronomy is no longer part of the scholastic programs. For this reason, the Committee needed to develop in the last years a non traditional mediatic approach that allowed in 2011 to reach a participation of more than 500 teenagers to the Olympics. We will give an overview of the Astronomy Olympics project in Italy and of this non conventional mediatic approach.

  15. Driving forces push Italian exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Steven, R.R.

    1982-03-01

    The Italian offshore is one of the most active in Europe. Although it cannot be compared with the North Sea in terms of hydrocarbon production or potential, Italy is expending a great deal of effort in order to reduce imported oil and gas from the current level of around 90% of total domestic consumption of 147 million tons of oil equivalent a year. The drilling program, major targets, and development of new oil fields are discussed briefly. (JMT)

  16. New Italian device registration requirements.

    PubMed

    Donawa, Maria

    2008-01-01

    A medical device manufacturer located outside Europe was informed by an Italian distributor that the European Authorised Representative must designate the distributor as the authorised entity when registering the manufacturer's devices in Italy in a new online data bank. This is incorrect. This article discusses the new requirements for registering medical devices in Italy, together with the steps in the registration process and common problems encountered.

  17. Somatotype of elite Italian gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Massidda, Myosotis; Toselli, Stefania; Brasili, Patricia; Calò, Carla M

    2013-09-01

    The somatotyping method is especially helpful in sports in which the body could directly influence the biomechanics of movements and the performance's results. The purpose of this study was to determine the somatotype of elite Italian gymnasts and to compare it in terms of competition levels. The sample comprised 64 elite gymnasts (42 females (F), somatotype 1.4-4.4-3.2; and 22 males (M), somatotype 1.6-6.3-2.1) belonging to the Italian National Artistic Gymnastic Team (2007) at different competition levels: Allieve, Junior, and Senior. Mean whole somatotypes, by competition levels, were not significantly different in both sexes (Female gymnasts: Allieve, 1.3-4.6-3.3; Junior, 1.3-4.2-3.6; Senior, 1.7-4.2-2.7; Male gymnasts: Junior, 1.5-6.3-2.5; Senior, 1.7-6.3-1.6). Male Junior gymnasts exhibited greater ectomorphy than Senior athletes (F1,20 = 7.75, p < 0.01). Compared to other elite athletes male and female gymnasts tend to be less endomorphic and more mesomorphic. This study highlighted the peculiarities of the somatotype of Italian elite gymnasts and their strong homogeneity, evident also from the low values of somatotype attitudinal mean (SAM). The results emphasize the need for a specific somatotype to reach an elite level in sport and the need to integrate the somatotype analysis between the scientific instruments for selecting talent also in artistic gymnastics.

  18. P-wave Receiver Functions reveal the Bohemian Massif crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampfova Exnerova, Hana; Plomerova, Jaroslava; Vecsey, Ludek

    2015-04-01

    In this study we present initial results of P-wave Receiver Functions (RF) calculated from broad-band waveforms of teleseismic events recorded by temporary and permanent stations in the Bohemian Massif (BM, Central Europe). Temporary arrays BOHEMA I (2001-2003), BOHEMA II (2004-2005) and BOHEMA III (2005-2006) operated during passive seismic experiments oriented towards studying velocity structure of the lithosphere and the upper mantle. Receiver Functions show relative response of the Earth structure under a seismic station and nowadays represent frequently-used method to retrieve structure of the crust, whose knowledge is needed in various studies of the upper mantle. The recorded waveforms are composites of direct P and P-to-S converted waves that reverberate in the structure beneath the receiver (Ammon, 1997). The RFs are sensitive to seismic velocity contrast and are thus suited to identifying velocity discontinuities in the crust, including the Mohorovičić discontinuity (Moho). Relative travel-time delays of the converted phases detected in the RFs are transformed into estimates of discontinuity depths assuming external information on the vp/vs and P velocity. To evaluate RFs we use the Multiple-taper spectral correlation (MTC) method (Park and Levin, 2000) and process signals from teleseismic events at epicentral distances of 30 - 100° with magnitude Mw > 5.5. Recordings are filtered with Butterworth band-pass filter of 2 - 8 s. To select automatically signals which are strong enough, we calculate signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) in two steps. In the first step we calculate SNR for signals from intervals (-1s, 3s)/(-10s, -2s), where P-arrival time represent time zero. In the second step we broaden the intervals and calculate SNR for (-1s, 9s)/(-60s, -2s). We also employ forward modelling of the RFs using Interactive Receiver Functions Forward Modeller (IRFFM) (Tkalčić et al., 2010) to produce, in the first step, one-dimensional velocity models under

  19. Pyroxenites - Melting or Migration?: Evidence from the Balmuccia massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sossi, Paolo; O'Neill, Hugh

    2014-05-01

    The recognition of pyroxenites in the mantle, combined with their lower solidus temperatures than peridotite, have been proposed as contributors to melting (Pertermann and Hirschmann, 2003; Sobolev et al, 2005; 2007). Geochemical fingerprints of this process invoke an unspecified 'pyroxenite' as the putative source. In reality, mantle pyroxenites are diverse (Downes, 2007), requiring that their mode of origin and compositional variability be addressed. Due to the excellent preservation and exposure of the Balmuccia massif, it has become an archetype for orogenic peridotites, providing information on their composition, field relationships and metamorphic history (Shervais and Mukasa, 1991; Hartmann and Wedepohl, 1993; Rivalenti et al., 1995; Mazzucchelli et al., 2009). The Balmuccia massif consists of fertile lherzolite with subordinate harzburgite and dunite and is riddled with pyroxenite bands, which fall into two suites - Chrome-Diopside (Cr-Di) and Aluminous-Augite (Al-Aug), a pairing present in most massif peridotites. Two-pyroxene thermometry gives temperatures of 850±25°C at 1-1.5 GPa, 500°C lower than asthenospheric mantle at that pressure, meaning they do not preserve their original, high temperature mineralogy. Decimetre-sized Cr-Di bands (≡75% CPX, 25% OPX) occur as initially Ol-free and bound by refractory dunite, but, as the bands are rotated into the plane of foliation, they mechanically incorporate olivine. Al-Aug veins (60% CPX, 25% OPX, 15% Sp) discordantly cut the body, intruding lherzolites which show enrichments in Fe, Al and Ti adjacent to the dykes. Both the Cr-Di suite and the Al-Aug series have indistinguishable Sr-, Nd-isotopic compositions to the host peridotite (Mukasa and Shervais, 1999). The major element compositions of pyroxenes in the Cr-Di bands and those in the surrounding peridotites are identical. Together with isotopic evidence, this suggests a local source, not only chemically but spatially, where a very low degree melt (

  20. Language Policy and Planning: The Case of Italian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geraci, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Italian Sign Language (LIS) is the name of the language used by the Italian Deaf community. The acronym LIS derives from Lingua italiana dei segni ("Italian language of signs"), although nowadays Italians refers to LIS as Lingua dei segni italiana, reflecting the more appropriate phrasing "Italian sign language." Historically,…

  1. The Octahedral Sheet of Metamorphic 2M 1-Phengites: a Combined EMPA And AXANES Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cibin, G.; Cinque, G.; Marcelli, A.; Mottana, A.; Sassi, R.

    2009-05-12

    Two types of metamorphic phengites are known: one is linked to high pressure and is 3T; the other is 2M{sub 1}, and its composition is linked to rock-compositional constraints. This work investigates the octahedral sheet crystal-chemical differences between the two phengite types. Seven dioctahedral micas were studied: (1) one 3T phengite from an ultrahigh-pressure metagranitoid in the Dora Maira massif, Italy (P {approx} 4.3 GPa, T {approx} 730 C); (2) five 2M{sub 1} phengites from medium-P orthogneisses in the Eastern Alps metamorphic basement, Italy (P {le} 0.7 GPa, T {approx} 500-600 C); and (3) one 2M{sub 1} ferroan muscovite from pegmatite in Antarctica (P {le} 0.2 GPa, T {approx}500 C). All micas display significant extents of celadonite substitution. In particular, the 2M{sub 1}-phengite formulae (calculated on the basis of 11 O) have 0.68 < {sup IV}Al < 0.82 atoms per formula unit (apfu); octahedral atoms are dominated by Al (1.6-1.8 apfu), with minor and variable Fe (0.20-0.35 apfu) and Mg (0.05-0.17 apfu), and very minor Ti, Mn, and Cr. Total octahedral occupancies are slightly above 2.00 apfu, i.e., there seems to be partial occupancy of the third M site. For all micas, we recorded XAFS spectra on mosaics of carefully separated flakes oriented flat on a plastic support that could be rotated so as to account for the polarization of the synchrotron radiation beam, and we processed them on the basis of the AXANES theory. Spectra show angle-dependent absorption variations for Al and Fe, which can be deconvoluted and fitted by dichroic effects. Pre-edges consistently show most Fe to be Fe{sup 3+} and little angle-dependent intensity variations. The 2M{sub 1}-ferroan muscovite from Antarctica displays the same AXANES behavior as 2M{sub 1}-phengites. By contrast, the ultrahigh-pressure 3T-phengite from Dora Maira (having {sup IV}Al = 0.42 apfu, and Al and Mg as the dominant octahedral constituents) has XAFS spectra that differ significantly. Not only is the

  2. Opera in the Italian Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Salvatore

    1989-01-01

    Describes class activities for incorporating and teaching about opera into the Italian language instruction classroom, focusing on the enhancement of cultural knowledge and understanding that opera offers. (CB)

  3. Preliminary hydrochemical study of Ronda ultramafic massif (South Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadillo, Iñaki; Urresti, Begoña; Jiménez, Pablo; Martos, Sergio; José Durán, Juan; Benavente, José; Carrasco, Francisco; Pedrera, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    During 2015 more than 70 springs related to the peridotite outcrops of the Ronda mountainous massif, South Spain, have been identified. The field work included "in situ" measurements of physical-chemical parameters (T, EC, pH), and water sampling for major components and stable isotopes of water and DIC. The hydrogeochemical study allowed us to characterize different flow systems: (1) springs with very low to medium electrical conductivities (200-700 μS/cm) and pH below 9.0, and (2) springs with EC above 700 μS/cm and pH above 9.0. The first group of springs are supposed to be linked with surface and subsurface flows. The hydrogeochemical reactions that determine their composition are characterized by the low solubility of minerals, atmospheric CO2 (open system) and active serpentinization reactions that supplies hundreds of ppm of Mg2+. All of them are waters of HCO3-Mg or HCO3-Mg-Na type. The second group of springs drains water with EC above 700 μS/cm and pH over 9. In general, these springs are associated to deep flows connected to regional faults or major tectonic features. Deeper flow enhances water-rock interaction and time of contact, so this system evolves towards a closed system to O2 and CO2. All these waters are old or older than the first group and show reducing features and are of Na-Cl or OH-Ca type.

  4. Deforestation Along the Maya Mountain Massif Belize-Guatemala Border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicas, S. D.; Omine, K.; Arevalo, B.; Ford, J. B.; Sugimura, K.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years trans-boundary incursions from Petén, Guatemala into Belize's Maya Mountain Massif (MMM) have increased. The incursions are rapidly degrading cultural and natural resources in Belize's protected areas. Given the local, regional and global importance of the MMM and the scarcity of deforestation data, our research team conducted a time series analysis 81 km by 12 km along the Belize-Guatemalan border adjacent to the protected areas of the MMM. Analysis drew on Landsat imagery from 1991 to 2014 to determine historic deforestation rates. The results indicate that the highest deforestation rates in the study area were -1.04% and -6.78% loss of forested area per year in 2012-2014 and 1995-1999 respectively. From 1991 to 2014, forested area decreased from 96.9 % to 85.72 % in Belize and 83.15 % to 31.52 % in Guatemala. During the study period, it was clear that deforestation rates fluctuated in Belize's MMM from one time-period to the next. This seems linked to either a decline in deforestation rates in Guatemala, the vertical expansion of deforestation in Guatemalan forested areas and monitoring. The results of this study urge action to reduce incursions and secure protected areas and remaining forest along the Belize-Guatemalan border.

  5. Crustal structure of the northern Menderes Massif, western Turkey, imaged by joint gravity and magnetic inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessner, Klaus; Gallardo, Luis A.; Wedin, Francis; Sener, Kerim

    2016-10-01

    In western Anatolia, the Anatolide domain of the Tethyan orogen is exposed in one of the Earth's largest metamorphic core complexes, the Menderes Massif. The Menderes Massif experienced a two-stage exhumation: tectonic denudation in the footwall of a north-directed Miocene extensional detachment, followed by fragmentation by E-W and NW-SE-trending graben systems. Along the northern boundary of the core complex, the tectonic units of the Vardar-Izmir-Ankara suture zone overly the stage one footwall of the core complex, the northern Menderes Massif. In this study, we explore the structure of the upper crust in the northern Menderes Massif with cross-gradient joint inversion of gravity and aeromagnetic data along a series of 10-km-deep profiles. Our inversions, which are based on gravity and aeromagnetic measurements and require no geological and petrophysical constraints, reveal the salient features of the Earth's upper crust. We image the northern Menderes Massif as a relatively homogenous domain of low magnetization and medium to high density, with local anomalies related to the effect of interspersed igneous bodies and shallow basins. In contrast, both the northern and western boundaries of the northern Menderes Massif stand out as domains where dense mafic, metasedimentary and ultramafic domains with a weak magnetic signature alternate with low-density igneous complexes with high magnetization. With our technique, we are able to delineate Miocene basins and igneous complexes, and map the boundary between intermediate to mafic-dominated subduction-accretion units of the suture zone and the underlying felsic crust of the Menderes Massif. We demonstrate that joint gravity and magnetic inversion are not only capable of imaging local and regional changes in crustal composition, but can also be used to map discontinuities of geodynamic significance such as the Vardar-Izmir-Ankara suture and the West Anatolia Transfer Zone.

  6. Health Information in Italian (italiano): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → Italian (italiano) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/italian.html Health Information in Italian (italiano) To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  7. Monitoring surface displacements of glaciers with ground based photogrammetry: insights from Planpincieux Glacier, Grandes Jorasses massif, Mont Blanc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manconi, Andrea; Dell'Anese, Federico; Giordan, Daniele; Allasia, Paolo; Curtaz, Michèle; Vagliasindi, Marco; Bertolo, Davide

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring the spatial and temporal evolution of glaciers modifications in a climate change scenario is a major scientific problem. The Italian side of the Grandes Jorasses massif, Mont Blanc, is historically known for the occasional activation of icefalls events from the frontal part of the glaciers located on that area. The Planpincieux Glacier (PG) is a "polythermal" glacier, meaning that the liquid water present at the contact between ice and the bedrock in the lower part of the glacier itself plays an important role in its dynamics. Under these conditions icefalls might occur in a sudden and barely predictable manner. In this scenario, an accurate analysis of its morphological evolution is crucial; however, one of the major problems on PG is the limited access to perform direct measurements. For this reason, remote sensing has been identified as the more convenient approach to achieve quantitative measurements of surficial modifications. An experimental monitoring station was installed on August 2013 in order to monitor the surface displacements at PG. The monitoring station is located on the opposite side of the valley, at the top of the Mt. de la Saxe, ca. 3.5 km away from the target under investigation. Monitoring includes: (i) a surveillance module, based on a medium resolution digital camera, observing large part of the slope; (ii) a photogrammetric module, based on a high resolution digital camera equipped with a 300 mm optical zoom, pointed to the PG front. Digital images acquired by the monitoring station are acquired with a revisit time of 1-hour, and analyzed by considering change-detection and pixel-offset techniques. This approach allows to evaluate surface changes over time, as well as to retrieve quantitative measurements of the glacier displacements. Here we present the results after one year of monitoring, and we discuss how the combination of different remote sensing techniques can be exploited for a better understanding of the glacier

  8. The Italian National Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The Italian National Seismic Network is composed by about 400 stations, mainly broadband, installed in the Country and in the surrounding regions. About 110 stations feature also collocated strong motion instruments. The Centro Nazionale Terremoti, (National Earthquake Center), CNT, has installed and operates most of these stations, although a considerable number of stations contributing to the INGV surveillance has been installed and is maintained by other INGV sections (Napoli, Catania, Bologna, Milano) or even other Italian or European Institutions. The important technological upgrades carried out in the last years has allowed for significant improvements of the seismic monitoring of Italy and of the Euro-Mediterranean Countries. The adopted data transmission systems include satellite, wireless connections and wired lines. The Seedlink protocol has been adopted for data transmission. INGV is a primary node of EIDA (European Integrated Data Archive) for archiving and distributing, continuous, quality checked data. The data acquisition system was designed to accomplish, in near-real-time, automatic earthquake detection and hypocenter and magnitude determination (moment tensors, shake maps, etc.). Database archiving of all parametric results are closely linked to the existing procedures of the INGV seismic monitoring environment. Overall, the Italian earthquake surveillance service provides, in quasi real-time, hypocenter parameters which are then revised routinely by the analysts of the Bollettino Sismico Nazionale. The results are published on the web page http://cnt.rm.ingv.it/ and are publicly available to both the scientific community and the the general public. This presentation will describe the various activities and resulting products of the Centro Nazionale Terremoti. spanning from data acquisition to archiving, distribution and specialised products.

  9. Communities in Italian corporate networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccardi, Carlo; Calatroni, Lisa; Bertoni, Fabio

    2010-11-01

    The community structure of two real-world financial networks, namely the board network and the ownership network of the firms of the Italian Stock Exchange, is analyzed by means of the maximum modularity approach. The main result is that both networks exhibit a strong community structure and, moreover, that the two structures overlap significantly. This is due to a number of reasons, including the existence of pyramidal groups and directors serving in several boards. Overall, this means that the “small world” of listed companies is actually split into well identifiable “continents” (i.e., the communities).

  10. Syllabic Effects in Italian Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tagliapietra, Lara; Fanari, R.; Collina, S.; Tabossi, P.

    2009-01-01

    Two cross-modal priming experiments tested whether lexical access is constrained by syllabic structure in Italian. Results extend the available Italian data on the processing of stressed syllables showing that syllabic information restricts the set of candidates to those structurally consistent with the intended word (Experiment 1). Lexical…

  11. Slavic and Italian Canadian Attitudes towards Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Michael G.

    Predicting that Italian Canadians would hold attitudes of greater hostility and anxiety toward authority than Slavic Canadians, this study, using 58 part-time summer students (29 Italians and 29 Slavs) at three universities in Canada, analyzed the subjects' responses to the five-response option Likert type scale. Results confirmed the early…

  12. Secondary Predicates in Italian and English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merlo, Paola

    An analysis of the nature of secondary predicates takes a comparative approach, using Italian and English. Distributional properties and extraction facts are accounted for, and an explanation for the fact that resultatives are not allowed in Romance languages is sought on the basis of Italian evidence. It is argued that the semantic distinction…

  13. Assessing the Cost Efficiency of Italian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Salerno, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    This study uses Data Envelopment Analysis to evaluate the cost efficiency of 52 Italian public universities. In addition to being one of the first such cost studies of the Italian system, it explicitly takes into account the internal cost structure of institutions' education programs; a task not prevalent in past Data Envelopment Analysis studies…

  14. A Treasure Chest of Nanogranites: the Bohemian Massif (Central Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, S.; O'Brien, P. J.; Walczak, K.; Wunder, B.; Ziemann, M. A.; Hecht, L.

    2014-12-01

    Despite 150 years of investigation of the Bohemian Massif (Central Europe), it is only recently that the investigation of old and new samples displayed the occurrence of tiny portions of crystallized anatectic melt in regional migmatites. These vestiges of magma, called "nanogranites", are natural probes of the partial melting processes in the crust. Original melt composition and water content can be directly analyzed after piston cylinder re-homogenization. When compared to classic re-melting experiments, nanogranites are ideal "natural" experimental charges of anatectic melt. They are encapsulated in peritectic garnet immediately after production - both phases are products of the same partial melting reaction. Sheltered inside garnet, they remain unaffected by the physico-chemical changes which affected the host migmatites during their slow cooling, unlike leucosomes and anatexis-related plutons. Five different case studies of nanogranite-bearing high-grade rocks have been identified so far: three in metapelites from the Moldanubian Zone, and two in metagranitoids from the Granulitgebirge and Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome. Their characterization provides insights into how the continental crust melts at different depths, from shallow levels to mantle depths, during different moments of its metamorphic history (prograde vs. decompressional melting). For example, the investigation and experimental re-melting of nanogranites from Grt+Ky leucogranulites (Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome) recently provided evidence of prograde melting of metagranitoids under eclogite-facies conditions (T≥875°C and P~2.7 GPa), close to the stability field of coesite. The melt generated is granitic, hydrous (6 wt% H2O) and metaluminous (ASI=1.03), and is at the moment the "deepest" glass obtained through re-homogenization of primary polycrystalline inclusions in natural rocks. This work confirms that nanogranites in migmatites 1) are a powerful tool to constrain anatexis in natural rocks, and 2) can

  15. Somatotype of Italian rugby players.

    PubMed

    Casagrande, G; Viviani, F

    1993-03-01

    Our aim was to collect lacking first-hand data on Italian rugby players. The Heath/Carter anthropometric somatotype method was applied to 28 "A" League performers (RP) aged 25 +/- 3.9 years of age. Their somatotypes and dimensions were compared with those found in previous studies on athletes involved in the same sporting activity, with data collected on 25 "sedentary" young Italians, and with Bailey et al.'s study on Canadians (1982). On average, the RP group resulted as being endomorphic mesomorphs (3.1 +/- 1.1 - 5.6 +/- 1.3 - 1.4 +/- 1.1), a result that is congruent with international data. They differed significantly from the balanced mesomorph CG (2.3 +/- 1.0 - 4.5 +/- 1.2 - 2.5 +/- 1.4) for all the measurements taken, apart from bi-epycondylar width. The peculiar somatotype scores found are congruent with the needs of rugby, an aerobic-anaerobic discipline which requires performers with great muscular power associated with a capacity to furnish energy, mainly through the anaerobic metabolism.

  16. Italian Rett database and biobank.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Katia; Meloni, Ilaria; Scala, Elisa; Ariani, Francesca; Caselli, Rossella; Pescucci, Chiara; Longo, Ilaria; Artuso, Rosangela; Bruttini, Mirella; Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta; Speciale, Caterina; Causarano, Vincenza; Hayek, Giuseppe; Zappella, Michele; Renieri, Alessandra; Mari, Francesca

    2007-04-01

    Rett syndrome is the second most common cause of severe mental retardation in females, with an incidence of approximately 1 out of 10,000 live female births. In addition to the classic form, a number of Rett variants have been described. MECP2 gene mutations are responsible for about 90% of classic cases and for a lower percentage of variant cases. Recently, CDKL5 mutations have been identified in the early onset seizures variant and other atypical Rett patients. While the high percentage of MECP2 mutations in classic patients supports the hypothesis of a single disease gene, the low frequency of mutated variant cases suggests genetic heterogeneity. Since 1998, we have performed clinical evaluation and molecular analysis of a large number of Italian Rett patients. The Italian Rett Syndrome (RTT) database has been developed to share data and samples of our RTT collection with the scientific community (http://www.biobank.unisi.it). This is the first RTT database that has been connected with a biobank. It allows the user to immediately visualize the list of available RTT samples and, using the "Search by" tool, to rapidly select those with specific clinical and molecular features. By contacting bank curators, users can request the samples of interest for their studies. This database encourages collaboration projects with clinicians and researchers from around the world and provides important resources that will help to better define the pathogenic mechanisms underlying Rett syndrome.

  17. Epilepsy and vaccinations: Italian guidelines.

    PubMed

    Pruna, Dario; Balestri, Paolo; Zamponi, Nelia; Grosso, Salvatore; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Romeo, Antonino; Franzoni, Emilio; Osti, Maria; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Longhi, Riccardo; Verrotti, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Reports of childhood epilepsies in temporal association with vaccination have had a great impact on the acceptance of vaccination programs by health care providers, but little is known about this possible temporal association and about the types of seizures following vaccinations. For these reasons the Italian League Against Epilepsy (LICE), in collaboration with other Italian scientific societies, has decided to generate Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy. The aim of Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy is to present recent unequivocal evidence from published reports on the possible relationship between vaccines and epilepsy in order to provide information about contraindications and risks of vaccinations in patients with epilepsy. The following main issues have been addressed: (1) whether contraindications to vaccinations exist in patients with febrile convulsions, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies; and (2) whether any vaccinations can cause febrile seizures, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination (MMR) increase significantly the risk of febrile seizures. Recent observations and data about the relationships between vaccination and epileptic encephalopathy show that some cases of apparent vaccine-induced encephalopathy could in fact be caused by an inherent genetic defect with no causal relationship with vaccination.

  18. A Library Response to the Massification of Higher Education: The Case of the University of Zambia Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanyengo, Christine Wamunyima

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at the challenges that libraries in Africa face in responding to massification of higher education by discussing the University of Zambia library's response in library and information resources provision. As a result of massification of higher education, libraries have been forced not only to employ new and different strategies to…

  19. Critical Reflection on the Massification of Higher Education in Korea: Consequences for Graduate Employment and Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeom, Min-ho

    2016-01-01

    The paper critically reviews the results of Korean massification in higher education (HE) and focuses on the consequences related to graduate employment. By analysing statistical data and reviewing related articles, this study explores the process of the massification of HE, investigates major factors influencing the expansion, and analyses and…

  20. Geomorphological and sedimentological evidences in the Western Massif of Picos de Europa since the Last Glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Fernández, Jesus; Oliva, Marc; Cruces, Anabela; Lopes, Vera; Conceição Freitas, Maria; García-Hernández, Cristina; Nieuwendam, Alexandre; López-Sáez, José Antonio; Gallinar, David; Geraldes, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    The Western Massif of Picos de Europa includes some of the highest peaks of the Cantabrian Mountains. However, the environmental evolution in this massif since the Last Glaciation is still poorly understood. This research provides a new geochronological approach to the sequence of environmental events occurred here since the maximum expansion of glaciers during the last Pleistocene glaciation. The distribution of the glacial landforms suggests four main stages regarding the environmental evolution in the massif: maximum glacial advance, phase of second maximum glacial expansion, Late Glacial and Little Ice Age. A 5.4-m long sedimentological section retrieved from the kame terrace of Belbín, in a mid-height area of the massif, complements the geomorphological interpretation and provides a continuous paleoenvironmental sequence from this area since the Last Glaciation until nowadays. This section suggests that the maximum glacial expansion occurred at a minimum age of 37.2 ka cal BP, significantly prior to the global Last Glacial Maximum. Subsequently, a new glacial expansion occurred around 18.7-22.5 ka cal BP. The melting of the glaciers after this phase generated a shallow lake in the Belbín depression. Lake sediments do not reveal the occurrence of a cold stage during the Late Glacial, whilst, at higher locations, moraine complexes were formed suggesting a glacier readvance. The terrestrification of this lake started at 8 ka cal BP, when Belbín changed to a peaty environment. At 5 ka cal BP human occupation started at the high lands of the massif according to the existence of charcoal particles in the section. The presence of moraines in the highest northern cirques evidences the last phase with formation of small glaciers in the Western Massif of Picos de Europa, corresponding to the Little Ice Age cold event. Since then, the warming climate has led to the melting of these glaciers.

  1. Geochemistry of alkali syenites from the Budun massif and their petrogenetic properties (Ol'khon Island)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makrygina, V. A.; Suvorova, L. F.; Zarubina, O. V.; Bryanskii, N. V.

    2016-07-01

    The first data on the geochemistry of the alkali syenite massif in Cape Budun of Ol'khon Island, where it makes contact in the south with the Khuzir gabbroid massif, are presented. Syenites occur among granite gneisses of the Sharanur dome and, like its granites, are enriched with Zr and REEs, but depleted in other trace elements. They contain anorthoclase, corundum, rare nepheline, zircon, and hercynite and are accompanied by desilicified pegmatites. Their unusual geochemical properties allow the assumption that alkaline magmas resulted from the interaction between basic and granitoid melts.

  2. Structural geology and sedimentology of the Sermat Quartzites, Strandja Massif, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazıcı, Müge; Natal'in, Boris A.

    2015-04-01

    The Strandja Massif, NW Turkey, is the eastern continuation of the Rhodope Massif in Bulgaria. The massif is generally correlated with the Hercynian orogenic belt that was later modified by the Cimmerian orogeny. The basement of the massif is composed by various kinds of gneisses and schists, which are intruded by the metagranites. In the studied area, the Cambrian K-feldspar metagranites are unconformably overlain by metaclastics, where both units have fault contacts with volcano-sedimentary rocks. The metagranite intrusions yield Carboniferous U-Pb zircon ages (Natal'in et al., 2012a). All of them constitute the basement of the Strandja Massif. Cambrian age of metagranites and their subduction related nature as well as the subduction related nature of the Carboniferous igneous rocks suggest a prolong evolution of the Strandja Massif (Natal'in et al., 2012a). The Cambrian metagranites are unconformably overlain by a metasedimetary cover unit, which is known in the literature as the Şermat Quartzite of presumably Permo-Triassic age (Çağlayan and Yurtsever, 1998). In the studied region, detrital zircons extracted from quartzites show that their depositional age is not younger than the Ordovician (Natal'in et al., 2012a). The basement of the Strandja Massif is subjected to the epidote-amphibolite-greenschist facies of metamorphism and high strain deformation in the late Jurassic - early Cretaceous times. The Şermat Quartzite forms a transgressive sequence, which starts with metaconglomerates, metasandstones and grades up to quartz-sericite schists. The thickness of bedding changes from thin to medium with parallel bedding planes, containing lens-shaped bodies of massive quartzites. The late Jurassic - early Cretaceous foliation (S1) is generally parallel to the primary bedding plane. Foliations and lineations consistently dip to the northeast and kinematic indicators suggest a tectonic transport in the same direction. High strain in the Şermat Quartzite

  3. The Massification of Higher Education in the UK: Aspects of Service Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannakis, Mihalis; Bullivant, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    This article explores several aspects of service quality for the provision of higher education. Alongside the trend of the massification of higher education over the past two decades, higher education institutions are required to review quality across a range of outputs, besides teaching and learning. The study was undertaken within the…

  4. Unique paragenesis of cerium and yttrium allanites in tourmalinite of the Severny massif (Chukotka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, V. I.; Marin, Yu. B.

    2016-07-01

    A description of hydrothermal allanite-(Y) and its unique association with allanite-(Ce) from tourmaline metasomatic rock of the Severny granite massif in Chukotka is presented in the article. Examination of the composition of metasomatic rims in allanite-(Y) allowed us to estimate the limit of isomorphic replacement in allanite of Y and heavy lanthanides by LREE, reaching 25%.

  5. New Insights On The Seismotectonics of The French Central Massif and Western France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazabraud, Y.; Bethoux, N.; Guilbert, J.

    Nowadays, the increase of the number of seismological stations distributed through- out France, allows a re-evaluation of the regional sismotectonics, in particular by pre- cise localisation and computation of focal mecanisms even for small magnitude earth- quakes (Nicolas et al., 1998, Bethoux et al. 1998, Sue et al., 1999; Baroux et al., 2000; Rigo et al., 1999, Souriau et al.,1998). Thanks to the LDG code "FUSION", we have mixed the bulletin data available from several networks, for the French Central massif and Western France, from January 1962 to October 2001. Then, we have divided our study area in different zones: the western Central Massif, a volcanic province (Chaine des Puys), an eocene graben (Limagne), a sedimentary basin (Bassin de Paris), and also the Charente region and the Armorican massif. Using the VELEST code (Kissling et al., 1994), we have obtain for each of those areas, a minimum 1D model (Kissling et al., 1994) which allows to improve the location of the hypocenters. These new hypocenter distributions are correlated with geological structures, and it is possible to associate swarns of events to faults recognized on the field. Some new focal mecha- nisms are computed. Then, an inversion of focal solutions available for each zone al- lows to deduce the regional stress field. Those informations will allow a re-evaluation of the seismotectonics of the northern Central Massif and Western France. In particu- lar, we propose a qualitative analysis of the major faults activity.

  6. Higher Education "Massification" and Challenges to the Professoriate: Do Academics' Conceptions of Quality Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akalu, Girmaw A.

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring and assuring the quality of higher education have become dominant policy discourses in many jurisdictions across the globe. Yet, the pressures of massification and its attendant problems mean that academics now have increasingly demanding roles to improve student learning, particularly so in systems ravaged by a paucity of resources. The…

  7. Time of formation and genesis of yttrium-zirconium mineralization in the Sakharjok massif, Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrin, V. R.; Skublov, S. G.; Balashov, Yu. A.; Lyalina, L. M.; Rodionov, N. V.

    2014-12-01

    The Kola geotectonic province in the northeastern Fennoscandian Shield accommodates a significant number of alkaline rock massifs differing in age. They are of mantle and mantle-crustal origin (alkali and nepheline syenites, carbonatites) and related to crustal sources (Neoarchean alkali granites). Among them, the Neoarchean Sakharjok nepheline syenite massif is related to the oldest intrusions of this kind bearing yttrium-zirconium mineralization. The crystallization of alkali syenite pertaining to the first intrusive phase of the intrusive Sakharjok massif is dated to 2645 ± 7 Ma, and this implies that this syenite postdated alkali granites (2.66-2.67 Ga). To date the yttrium-zirconium ore, we applied the local U-Pb method to zircon crystals occurring in the mineralized block hosted in nepheline syenite. The earliest fragments of zircon crystallized 1832 ± 7 Ma ago; the age of metamorphism is estimated at 1784 ± 13 Ma. These dates indicate the Paleoproterozoic age of the yttrium-zirconium mineralization, which was formed as a product of fluid reworking of the Neoarchean nepheline syenite of the Sakharjok massif.

  8. Reforming Higher Education in Hong Kong towards Post-Massification: The First Decade and Challenges Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Calvin

    2011-01-01

    The process of reforming Hong Kong's higher education sector commenced in 2001, and the system moved into the post-massification era. Within five years, the post-secondary participation rate for the 17-20 age cohort had increased to 66 per cent. This target was achieved much earlier than the Government had planned. More educational opportunities…

  9. The Dongbo and Purang ultramafic massifs in the Yarlung Zangbo suture zone of Tibet: Prospects for large chromite deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, F.; Yang, J.; Li, Y.; Liu, Z.; Liu, F.; Xu, X.

    2012-12-01

    Many ultramafic massifs occur along the Neo-Tethyan Yarlung Zangbo suture zone between the Indian and Eurasian plates, and the Dongbo and Purang ultramafic massifs in the western part of the zone are two of the largest. Both of them consist mainly of high-Mg harzburgite (with low pyroxene contents) and dunite with minor lherzolite. Mineral compositions of olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and chromite, as well as whole-rock petrochemistry indicate that these are typical Alpine-type mantle peridotites. Chromium spinels in the lherzolite have Cr#s (=100 x Cr/(Cr+Al)) of 20-30, showing an affinity with abyssal peridotites, whereas those in the harzburgites have Cr#s ranging from 20 to 75, implying later melt-rock reaction. Based on the mineralogy and geochemistry of the rocks, the Dongbo and Purang massifs are interpreted as fragments of MORB lithosphere that were modified in a later SSZ setting. Many massive chromite ores and zones of disseminated mineralization are present in the two massifs, and chromite ores have Cr#s 70-80, similar to those of the hosting dunite. The petrological features and metallogenic environment of the Dongbo and Purang massifs are very similar to those of the Luobusa peridotite massif, which hosts the largest chromite deposit in China. Thus, we propose that the Purang and Dongbo massifs are two potential locations for significant chromite deposits.

  10. [Gastrointestinal system tumors in Italian emigrants].

    PubMed

    Balzi, D; Geddes, M; Buiatti, E

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we present the risk of death for stomach, colon, rectum and pancreas cancers in Italian migrants to Canada, Argentina, Australia, France and England and Wales. Estimations of relative risks (RR) in Italian migrants, in residents in Italy and in Southern Italy relative to the local born in the host country are shown. Relative risks in Italian migrants to Australia were analysed also by duration of stay in the host country. The Italian migrants' cancer profile in intermediate between the origin and the host population: a reduction of risk of death for stomach cancer and an increase of risk for colorectal cancers are the main results. The results are discussed taking into account the analysis by duration of residence and the pattern of food prevalent in the different countries considered.

  11. Alomar and Marinetti: Catalan and Italian Futurism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litvak de Perez de la Dehesa, Lil

    1972-01-01

    Suggests that a lecture on Futurism delivered in Catalan at the Ateneo in Barcelona on June 18, 1904, by Gabriel Alomar probably was the greatest influence on F. T. Marinetti and Italian Futurism. (DS)

  12. The history of Italian psychiatry during Fascism.

    PubMed

    Piazzi, Andrea; Testa, Luana; Del Missier, Giovanni; Dario, Mariopaolo; Stocco, Ester

    2011-09-01

    Specific features characterized Italian psychiatry during Fascism (1922-45), distinguishing it from Nazi psychiatry and giving rise to different operational outcomes, so we have investigated the state of Italian psychiatry during this period. We review the historical situation that preceded it and describe the social and health policies that Fascism introduced following new legislative and regulatory acts. We examine the preventive and therapeutic role played by psychiatry (the electric shock was an Italian invention) and, thanks to the Enciclopedia Italiano published during those years, we are able to highlight psychiatry's relationship to psychology, psychoanalysis, philosophy and religion. The shortcomings of Italian psychiatric research and practice are also seen in terms of what the State failed to do rather than what it did.

  13. Niklas - a Hitherto Unknown Deep Magmatic Massif in the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybakov, M.; Voznesensky, V.; Ben-Avraham, Z.

    2004-12-01

    A Niklas massif was discovered recompiling the gravity and magnetic maps and interpreting in 3-D mode all the available data in the area around Eratosthenes Seamount (ESM). The updated datasets clearly show two partially superimposed magnetic dipoles, which also correspond well to disturbances in the gravity field. The pronounced Eratosthenes magnetic anomaly (EMA) is only the positive part of the southeastern dipole. There is no large gravity anomaly here, however the specific gravity pattern corresponds to the magnetic body. The northwestern `magnetic dipole coincides with a prominent (about of 100mGal) gravity high that was recently delineated by Russian geophysicists. Such grav/mag combination allowed us to interpret the anomalies as being caused by a hitherto unknown dense and magnetic body which we have named the Niklas massif. The parameters and depth of causative bodies were calculated by inverse programs and forward modeling using the seismic refraction and reflection constraints. The reliability of the final model was verified using forward modeling. The magnetic data were interpreted by assuming an induced magnetization as the main magnetizing factor. The final model consists of two large compact features oriented NE-SW and located south of the Cyprian arc,as the Eratosthenes and Niklas bodies. The gravity and magnetic pattern of the Niklas is typical for the ophiolite massifs of the Eastern Mediterranean and Southern Turkey (Troodos, Hatay, Antalya). Based on this likeness we assume the Niklas composed by dense and magnetic ophyolites. This large (~100*75km) deep-seated (~7km) thick (~7km) massif is located ~95km southwest of Cyprus. We consider the Niklas as the south-most fragment of the large allochthonous ophiolite thrust slab including the Troodos massif. The tectonic situations of the Niklas area and the central segment of the Cyprian Arc are similar to that of the Eastern Taurus, Bayer-Bassit and Hatay areas. Interaction of the large Late

  14. Crustal structure of the Bohemian Massif in the light of seismic refraction data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrubcova, Pavla

    2010-05-01

    The Bohemian Massif is one of the largest stable outcrops of pre-Permian rocks in Central and Western Europe. It forms the easternmost part of the Variscan Belt, which developed approximately between 500 and 250 Ma during a stage of large-scale crustal convergence, collision of continental plates and microplates, and possibly also subduction. It consists mainly of low- to high-grade metamorphic and plutonic Palaeozoic rocks. The area of the Bohemian Massif can be subdivided into various tectonostratigraphic units separated by faults, shear zones or thrusts trending roughly in a SW-NE direction, and reflecting varying influence of the Cadomian and Variscan orogenies: the Saxothuringian, Teplá-Barrandian, Moldanubian and Moravo-Silesian. Geographically, it comprises the area of the Czech Republic, partly Austria, Germany and Poland. While the post-collisional history of the Variscan Bohemian Massif is relatively clear, the kinematics of plate movements before and during collision is still subject of debates. To investigate such a complex structure, the Bohemian Massif has been covered by a network of seismic experiments as a result of a massive international cooperative effort in central Europe. Detailed analyses of the data from the main profiles of the CELEBRATION 2000, ALP 2002, and SUDETES 2003 refraction and wide-angle reflection seismic experiments show crustal and uppermost mantle structure of the massif and delimit the continuation of various tectonic units in depth. The differences in seismic velocities reflect, to some extent, the structural variances and give some indications for tracing of crust-forming processes during individual tectonic events. Lower crust in the Saxothuringian exhibits complicated structure, ranging from a highly reflective lower crustal layer above Moho with a strong velocity contrast at the top of this layer. Another possible explanation can be a double Moho or the Moho with some lateral topography. This complicated lower crust

  15. Evolution of stocks and massifs from burial of salt sheets, continental slope, northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Seni, S.J. )

    1991-03-01

    Salt structures in a 4000-km{sup 2} region of the continental slope, the northeast Green Canyon area, include stocks, massifs, remnant structures, and an allochthonous sheet. Salt-withdrawal basins include typical semicircular basins and an extensive linear trough that is largely salt-free. Counterregional growth faults truncate the landward margin of salt sheets that extend 30-50 km to the Sigsbee Escarpment. The withdrawal basins, stocks, and massifs occur within a large graben between an east-northeast-trending landward zone of shelf-margin growth faults and a parallel trend of counterregional growth faults located 48-64 km basinward. The graben formed by extension and subsidence as burial of the updip portion of a thick salt sheet produced massifs and stocks by downbuilding. Differential loading segmented the updip margin of the salt sheet into stocks and massifs separated by salt-withdrawal basins. Initially, low-relief structures evolved by trap-door growth as half-graben basins buried the salt sheet. Remnant-salt structures and a turtle-structure anticline overlay a salt-weld disconformity in sediments formerly separated by a salt sheet. Age of sediments below the weld is inferred to be be late Miocene to early Pliocene (4.6-5.3 Ma); age of sediments above the weld is late Pliocene (2.8-3.5 Ma). The missing interval of time (1-2.5 Ma) is the duration between emplacement of the salt sheet and burial of the sheet. Sheet extrusion began in the late Miocene to early Pliocene, and sheet burial began in the late Pliocene in the area of the submarine trough to early Pleistocene in the area of the massifs.

  16. Paleomagnetic results from Cenozoic volcanics of Lusatia, NW Bohemian Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnabl, P.; Cajz, V.; Tietz, O.; Buechner, J.; Suhr, P.; Pecskay, Z.; Cizkova, K.

    2013-05-01

    Lusatia is situated in the NE continuation of the Ohre Rift (OR) behind Lusatian Overtrust. Compared to the neighbouring volcanic complex of the České stredohorí Mts. (CS) inside the OR. The scattered occurrences of basaltic bodies in Lusatia are spread on wider area. This can be caused by different tectonic development of the regions and from derived erosional conditions. The Lusatian Overtrust, high-order tectonic structure running across the course of the OR, separates Lusatian region into two different geological areas where Cretaceous sediments or granodiorites of Lusatian Massif represent the country rock of the Cenozoic volcanism, respectively. The age of volcanic activity ranges from 19 to 33 Ma, it's proved by newly obtained Ar-Ar data from Freiberg and K-Ar data from Debrecen. Forty two scattered remnants of Cenozoic volcanic products were sampled to get paleomagnetic data. The superficial volcanics with detectable geological position and volcanology were chosen preferentially, several dykes and separate vents were sampled as well. Paleomagnetic research was processed on more than 500 samples which were demagnetized using alternate field in the range 0-80 mT. Q-ratio was counted to prevent the lightning influence - solitary volcanic occurrences build positive morphology and thus, they are prone to be targeted by lightnings. The values of Q-ratio predominantly span from 0.1 to 7.0; those samples having the value over 10, were excluded for evaluation. The mean paleomagnetic direction (MPD) was acquired from several samples on each sampling site. Declination and Inclination show values of 11.8 deg and 62.7 deg (α95 = 9.3 deg) for normal polarity, or 182.1 deg and -59.2 deg (α95 = 6.1 deg) for reverse polarity, respectively,The corresponding paleolatitude of 41.9 deg was counted from the Inclination. This is 1000 km to the South, compared to recent position. The dispersions of the MPD are relatively wide. This coincides well with the idea of long

  17. Occurrence of springs in massifs of crystalline rocks, northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Fernando António Leal; Alencoão, Ana Maria Pires

    2002-02-01

    An inventory of artesian springs emerging from fractures (fracture springs) was conducted in the Pinhão River Basin and Morais Massif, northern Portugal, comprising an area of approximately 650 km2. Over 1,500 springs were identified and associated with geological domains and fracture sets. Using cross-tabulation analysis, spring distributions by fracture sets were compared among geological environments, and the deviations related to differences in rock structure and, presumably, to differences in deformational histories. The relation between spring frequencies and rock structures was further investigated by spectral determination, the model introduced in this study. Input data are the spring frequencies and fracture lengths in each geological domain, in addition to the angles between fracture strikes and present-day stress-field orientation (θ). The model's output includes the so-called intrinsic densities, a parameter indexing spring occurrence to factors such as fracture type and associated deformational regime and age. The highest densities (12.2 springs/km of lineament) were associated with young shear fractures produced by brittle deformation, and the lowest (0.1) with old tensional and ductile fractures. Spectral determination also relates each orientation class to a dominant structural parameter: where spring occurrence is controlled by θ, the class is parallel to the present-day stress-field orientation; where the control is attributed to the length of fractures, the spring occurrence follows the strike of large-scale normal faults crossing the region. Résumé. Un inventaire des sources artésiennes émergeant de fractures (sources de fractures) a été réalisé dans le bassin de la rivière Pinhão et dans le massif de Morais, dans le nord du Portugal, dans une région couvrant environ 650 km2. Plus de 1,500 sources ont été identifiées et associées à des domaines géologiques et à des ensembles de fractures. Grâce à une analyse de tableaux

  18. Pronominal Objects in English-Italian and Spanish-Italian Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serratrice, Ludovica; Sorace, Antonella; Filiaci, Francesca; Baldo, Michela

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of typological relatedness, language of the community, and age, in predicting similarities and differences between English-Italian, Spanish-Italian bilingual children and their monolingual child and adult counterparts in the acceptability of pre- and postverbal object pronouns in [[plus or minus]focus] contexts in…

  19. Research of dynamical Characteristics of slow deformation Waves as Massif Responses on Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Oleg; Shipeev, Oleg

    2013-04-01

    The research of massif state with use of approaches of open system theory [1-3] was developed for investigation the criterions of dissipation regimes for real rock massifs, which are under heavy man-caused influence. For realization of that research we used the data of seismic catalogue of Tashtagol mine. As a result of the analyze of that data we defined character morphology of phase trajectories of massif response, which was locally in time in a stable state: on the phase plane with coordinates released by the massif during the dynamic event energy E and lg(dE/dt) there is a local area as a ball of twisted trajectories and some not great bursts from that ball, which are not greater than 105 joules. In some time intervals that burst can be larger, than 105 joules, achieving 106 joules and yet 109 joules. [3]. Evidently there are two reciprocal depend processes: the energy accumulation in the attracted phase trajectories area and resonance fault of the accumulated energy. But after the fault the system returns again to the same attracted phase trajectories area. For analyzing of the thin structure of the chaotic area we decided to add the method of processing of the seismic monitoring data by new parameters. We shall consider each point of explosion as a source of seismic or deformation waves. Using the kinematic approach of seismic information processing we shall each point of the massif response use as a time point of the first arrival of the deformation wave for calculation of the wave velocity, because additionally we know the coordinates of the fixed response and the coordinates of explosion. The use of additional parameter-velocity of slow deformation wave propagation allowed us with use method of phase diagrams identify their hierarchic structure, which allow us to use that information for modeling and interpretation the propagation seismic and deformation waves in hierarchic structures. It is researched with use of that suggested processing method the thin

  20. Long lasting paleolandscapes stability of the French Massif Central during the Mesozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricordel-Prognon, C.; Thiry, M.; Theveniaut, H.; Lagroix, F.

    2009-04-01

    Regional geodynamical evolution is mainly constrained by the sedimentary record in the basins. Usually, little is known about geodynamics of the peripheral areas and even less on the evolution of the basement areas. Continental unconformities are essential to estimate erosion rates of basement and to model the crustal dynamics that control subsidence of surrounding sedimentary basins but also uplift and erosion on their edges. Dating such unconformities has always been the stumbling block while it is a prerequisite to constrain geodynamical models. Paleomagnetism has been proven as a suitable tool to date ferrugineous paleoweathering features. The method has been applied to paleoweathering occurrences resting on the Massif Central crystalline basement as well as to paleoweathering features affecting the crystalline basement itself. The remanence measurements were obtained at the Paleomagnetic Laboratory of the Institut Physique du Globe de Paris and data analyses were carried out using PaleoMac 5 software (Cogné, 2003). Relative dating of the paleoweathering profiles have been acquired by comparing the recorded paleomagnetic poles from the analysed samples to the apparent polar wandering path of the Eurasian plate (Edel et Duringer, 1997 ; Besse and Courtillot, 2003). Thick red kaolinitic formations rest locally on the Massif Central basement. They are generally bounded by the Tertiary grabens and buried by the Oligocene formations. Thus these azoic red formations have classically been ascribed to the "Siderolithic" formations of Eocene-Oligocene age. They show many pedogenic features (termites burrows, illuviation and hydromorphic features and nodules) and strong relationships with paleolandscape organisation (leaned against fault scarps, infilling paleovalleys, etc.). Macro and micromorphological arrangements show that these formations are in situ paleosols. Paleomagnetic ages range from 160 Ma (Late Jurassic) in the centre of the Massif Central to 140 Ma (Early

  1. Petrological and geochemical evolution of the Tolbachik volcanic massif, Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churikova, Tatiana G.; Gordeychik, Boris N.; Iwamori, Hikaru; Nakamura, Hitomi; Ishizuka, Osamu; Nishizawa, Tatsuji; Haraguchi, Satoru; Miyazaki, Takashi; Vaglarov, Bogdan S.

    2015-12-01

    Data on the geology, petrography, and geochemistry of Middle-Late-Pleistocene rocks from the Tolbachik volcanic massif (Kamchatka, Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes) are presented and compared with rocks from the neighboring Mount Povorotnaya, Klyuchevskaya group basement, and Holocene-historical Tolbachik monogenetic cones. Two volcanic series of lavas, middle-K and high-K, are found in the Tolbachik massif. The results of our data analysis and computer modeling of crystallization at different P-T-H2O-fO2 conditions allow us to reconstruct the geochemical history of the massif. The Tolbachik volcanic massif started to form earlier than 86 ka based on K-Ar dating. During the formation of the pedestal and the lower parts of the stratovolcanoes, the middle-K melts, depleted relative to NMORB, fractionated in water-rich conditions (about 3% of H2O). At the Late Pleistocene-Holocene boundary, a large fissure zone was initiated and the geodynamical regime changed. Upwelling associated with intra-arc rifting generated melting from the same mantle source that produced magmas more enriched in incompatible trace elements and subduction components; these magmas are high-K, not depleted relative to N-MORB melts with island arc signatures and rift-like characteristics. The fissure opening caused degassing during magma ascent, and the high-K melts fractionated at anhydrous conditions. These high-K rocks contributed to the formation of the upper parts of stratovolcanoes. At the beginning of Holocene, the high-K rocks became prevalent and formed cinder cones and associated lava fields along the fissure zone. However, some features, including 1975-1976 Northern Breakthrough, are represented by middle-K high-Mg rocks, suggesting that both middle-K and high-K melts still exist in the Tolbachik system. Our results show that fractional crystallization at different water conditions and a variably depleted upper mantle source are responsible for all observed variations in rocks within

  2. Scorpions from the Mitaraka Massif in French Guiana. II. Description of a new species of Ananteris Thorell, 1891 (Scorpiones: Buthidae).

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R

    2016-01-01

    A new remarkable species belonging to the genus Ananteris Thorell, 1891 (Buthidae) is described from the Mitaraka Massif in French Guiana, a site located near the borders of French Guiana, Brazil, and Suriname. The description of this new species brings further evidence about the biogeographic patterns of distribution presented by most species of the genus Ananteris, which are highly endemic in most biogeographic realms of South America, including the Tepuys and Inselberg Massifs.

  3. Questionable research practices among italian research psychologists

    PubMed Central

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Veldkamp, Coosje L. S.; Albiero, Paolo; Cubelli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    A survey in the United States revealed that an alarmingly large percentage of university psychologists admitted having used questionable research practices that can contaminate the research literature with false positive and biased findings. We conducted a replication of this study among Italian research psychologists to investigate whether these findings generalize to other countries. All the original materials were translated into Italian, and members of the Italian Association of Psychology were invited to participate via an online survey. The percentages of Italian psychologists who admitted to having used ten questionable research practices were similar to the results obtained in the United States although there were small but significant differences in self-admission rates for some QRPs. Nearly all researchers (88%) admitted using at least one of the practices, and researchers generally considered a practice possibly defensible if they admitted using it, but Italian researchers were much less likely than US researchers to consider a practice defensible. Participants’ estimates of the percentage of researchers who have used these practices were greater than the self-admission rates, and participants estimated that researchers would be unlikely to admit it. In written responses, participants argued that some of these practices are not questionable and they have used some practices because reviewers and journals demand it. The similarity of results obtained in the United States, this study, and a related study conducted in Germany suggest that adoption of these practices is an international phenomenon and is likely due to systemic features of the international research and publication processes. PMID:28296929

  4. North Massif lithologies and chemical compositions viewed from 2-4 mm particles of soil sample 76503

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Kaylynn M.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Korotev, Randy L.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1992-01-01

    We identify the lithologic and compositional components of soil 76503 based on INAA of 243 2-4-mm particles and 72 thin sections from these and associated 1-2-mm particles (76502). We present a statistical distribution of the major compositional types as the first step of a detailed comparative study of the North and South Massifs. The soil sample was collected well away from any boulder and is more representative of typical North Massif material than any single large rock or boulder sample. So far, our examination of the 76503 particles has provided a better definition of precursor igneous lithologies and their petrogenetic relationships. It has enabled us to refine the nature of mixing components for the North Massif less than 1-mm fines. It has confirmed the differences in lithologies and their proportions between materials of the North and South Massifs; e.g., the North Massif is distinguished by the absence of a 72275-type KREEP component, the abundance of a highly magnesian igneous component, and the absence of certain types of melt compositions found in the South Massif samples.

  5. Two types of noble metal mineralization in the Kaalamo massif (Karelia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashchenko, V. I.; Ruchyev, A. M.; Golubev, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    Noble metal mineralization of the syngenetic (Southern Kaalamo) and epigenetic (Surisuo) types are defined in the Kaalamo massif. The ƩPt, Pd, Au content is as high as 0.9-1.1 g/t. Syngenetic mineralization started at the late magmatic stage (at around 800°C) gradually evolving to cease during the hydrothermal-metasomatic stage (<271°C). Epigenetic mineralization was formed at temperatures ranging from 500 to <230°C in zones of intense shear deformations and low-temperature metasomatosis during the collisional stage of the Svecofennian tectono-magmatic cycle (approximately 1.85 Ga ago). Taking into consideration the geological position of the Kaalamo massif in the Raakhe-Ladoga metallogenic zone with widely developed intense shear dislocations, the epigenetic mineralization type seems to be more promising with respect to noble metals.

  6. Metagenomic identification of active methanogens and methanotrophs in serpentinite springs of the Voltri Massif, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Christopher N.; Hyer, Alex; Twing, Katrina I.; Longino, August A.; Lang, Susan Q.; Lilley, Marvin D.; Früh-Green, Gretchen L.; Schrenk, Matthew O.

    2017-01-01

    The production of hydrogen and methane by geochemical reactions associated with the serpentinization of ultramafic rocks can potentially support subsurface microbial ecosystems independent of the photosynthetic biosphere. Methanogenic and methanotrophic microorganisms are abundant in marine hydrothermal systems heavily influenced by serpentinization, but evidence for methane-cycling archaea and bacteria in continental serpentinite springs has been limited. This report provides metagenomic and experimental evidence for active methanogenesis and methanotrophy by microbial communities in serpentinite springs of the Voltri Massif, Italy. Methanogens belonging to family Methanobacteriaceae and methanotrophic bacteria belonging to family Methylococcaceae were heavily enriched in three ultrabasic springs (pH 12). Metagenomic data also suggest the potential for hydrogen oxidation, hydrogen production, carbon fixation, fermentation, and organic acid metabolism in the ultrabasic springs. The predicted metabolic capabilities are consistent with an active subsurface ecosystem supported by energy and carbon liberated by geochemical reactions within the serpentinite rocks of the Voltri Massif. PMID:28149702

  7. The Sidi Mohamed peridotites (Edough Massif, NE Algeria): Evidence for an upper mantle origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobir, Soraya Hadj; Oberhänsli, Roland

    2013-12-01

    The Hercynian Edough massif is the easternmost crystalline massif of the Algerian coast. It consists of two tectonically superposed units composed of micaschists, gneisses, and peridotite. This study concentrates on the small and isolated Sidi Mohamed peridotite outcrop area (0.03 km2). The Sidi Mohamed peridotite is composed mainly of harzburgites (Mg-rich olivine and orthopyroxene as major minerals). The Ni (2051-2920 ppm), Cr (2368-5514 ppm) and MgO (~28-35 wt.%) whole-rock composition and the relative depletion in Nb make these harzburgites comparable to depleted peridotites related to a subduction zone. We suggest that the Sidi Mohamed ultramafic body was derived directly from the upper mantle and tectonically incorporated into the gneiss units of the Edough metamorphic core complex in a subduction environment.

  8. Syllables in the processing of spoken Italian.

    PubMed

    Tabossi, P; Collina, S; Mazzetti, M; Zoppello, M

    2000-04-01

    Five experiments explored the role of the syllable in the processing of spoken Italian. According to the syllabic hypothesis, the sublexical unit used by speakers of Romance languages to segment speech and access the lexicon is the syllable. However, languages with different degrees of acoustic-phonetic transparency give rise to syllabic effects that vary in robustness. It follows from this account that speakers of phonologically similar languages should behave in a similar way. By exploiting the similarities between Spanish and Italian, the authors tested this prediction in Experiments 1-4. Indeed, Italian listeners were found to produce syllabic effects similar to those observed in Spanish listeners. In Experiment 5, the predictions of the syllabic hypothesis with respect to lexical access were tested. The results corroborated these predictions. The findings are discussed in relation to current models of speech processing.

  9. Re-Os isotopic evidence for a lower crustal origin of massif-type anorthosites

    PubMed

    Schiellerup; Lambert; Prestvik; Robins; McBride; Larsen

    2000-06-15

    Massif-type anorthosites are large igneous complexes of Proterozoic age. They are almost monomineralic, representing vast accumulations of plagioclase with subordinate pyroxene or olivine and Fe-Ti oxides--the 930-Myr-old Rogaland anorthosite province in southwest Norway represents one of the youngest known expressions of such magmatism. The source of the magma and geodynamic setting of massif-type anorthosites remain long-standing controversies in Precambrian geology, with no consensus existing as to the nature of the parental magmas or whether these magmas primarily originate in the Earth's mantle or crust. At present, massif-type anorthosites are believed to have crystallized from either crustally contaminated mantle-derived melts that have fractionated olivine and pyroxenes at depth or primary aluminous gabbroic to jotunitic melts derived from the lower continental crust. Here we report rhenium and osmium isotopic data from the Rogaland anorthosite province that strongly support a lower crustal source for the parental magmas. There is no evidence of significantly older crust in southwest Scandinavia and models invoking crustal contamination of mantle-derived magmas fail to account for the isotopic data from the Rogaland province. Initial osmium and neodymium isotopic values testify to the melting of mafic source rocks in the lower crust with an age of 1,400-1,550 Myr.

  10. Origin and significance of tourmalinites and tourmaline-bearing rocks of Menderes Massif, western Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yücel-Öztürk, Yeşim; Helvacı, Cahit; Palmer, Martin R.; Ersoy, E. Yalçın; Freslon, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    In the western central portion of Anatolia lies the Menderes Massif - a large metamorphic crystalline complex made of Neoproterozoic to Precambrian basement rocks overlain by Palaeozoic to early Tertiary metasedimentary rocks, and with a multistage metamorphic evolution developed from the late Neo-Proterozoic to Eocene. We have undertaken a study of the petrology, geochemistry and boron isotope composition of these tourmaline occurrences aiming to constrain the processes responsible for the enrichment of boron and other fluid mobile elements in the Menderes Massif. The dispersed tourmaline has chemical and boron isotope compositions typical of a continental crust setting, but while some of the tourmalinites display similar signatures, others have heavier boron isotope compositions (up to + 7.5‰). We suggest that the tourmalinites with continental characteristics formed part of the original Pan African basement rocks, whereas those with heavier δ11B signatures formed by later metamorphism during the Alpine orogeny, possibly through interaction with subduction-like fluids. This proposed process may also have been coincident with metasomatism of the lithospheric mantle beneath the massif, which is known to have experienced multistage metasomatism and enrichment history up to Neogene time.

  11. Crystal structure of modular sodium-rich and low-iron eudialyte from Lovozero alkaline massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenberg, K. A.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Aksenov, S. M.

    2016-09-01

    The structure of the sodium-rich representative of the eudialyte group found by A.P. Khomyakov at the Lovozero massif (Kola Peninsula) is studied by X-ray diffraction. The trigonal cell parameters are: a = 14.2032(1) and c = 60.612(1) Å, V = 10589.13 Å3, space group R3m. The structure is refined to the final R = 5.0% in the anisotropic approximation of atomic displacement parameters using 3742|F| > 3σ( F). The idealized formula ( Z = 3) is Na37Ca10Mn2FeZr6Si50(Ti, Nb)2O144(OH)5Cl3 · H2O. Like other 24-layer minerals of the eudialyte group, this mineral has a modular structure. Its structure contains two modules, namely, "alluaivite" (with an admixture of "eudialyte") and "kentbrooksite," called according to the main structural fragments of alluaivite, eudialyte, and kentbrooksite. The mineral found at the Lovozero alkaline massif shows some chemical and symmetry-structural distinctions from the close-in-composition labyrinthite modular mineral from the Khibiny massif. The difference between the minerals stems from different geochemical conditions of mineral formation in the two regions.

  12. Geological mapping of the Rainbow Massif, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 36°14'N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ildefonse, B.; Fouquet, Y.; Hoisé, E.; Dyment, J.; Gente, P.; Thibaud, R.; Bissessur, D.; Yatheesh, V.; Momardream 2008 Scientific Party*, T.

    2008-12-01

    The Rainbow hydrothermal field at 36°14'N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is one of the few known sites hosted in ultramafic basement. The Rainbow Massif is located along the non-transform offset between the AMAR and South AMAR second-order ridge segments, and presents the characteristic dome morphology of oceanic core complexes, although no corrugated surface has been observed so far. One of the objectives of Cruises MOMAR DREAM (July 2007, R/V Pourquoi Pas ?; Aug-Sept 2008, R/V Atalante) was to study the petrological and structural context of the hydrothermal system at the scale of the Rainbow Massif. Our geological sampling complements previous ones achieved during Cruises FLORES (1997) and IRIS (2001), and consisted in dredge hauls, and submersible dives by manned submersible Nautile and ROV Victor. The tectonics of the Rainbow Massif is dominated by a N-S trending fault pattern on the western flank of the massif, and a series of SW-NW ridges on its northeastern side. The active hydrothermal site is located in the area were these two systems crosscut. The most abundant recovered rock type is peridotite (harzburgite and dunite) that presents a variety of serpentinization styles and intensity, and a variety of deformation styles (commonly undeformed, sometimes displaying ductile or brittle foliations). Serpentinites are frequently oxidized. Some peridotite samples have melt impregnation textures. Massive chromitite was recovered in one dredge haul. Variously evolved gabbroic rocks were collected as discrete samples or as centimeter to decimeter-thick dikes in peridotites. Basalts and fresh basaltic glass were also sampled in talus and sediments on the southwestern and northeastern flanks of the massif. Our sampling is consistent with the lithological variability encountered in oceanic core complexes along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and Southwest Indian Ridge. The stockwork of the hydrothermal system has been sampled on the western side of the present-day hydrothermal

  13. Evidence for Neotethys rooted within the Vardar suture zone from the Voras Massif, northernmost Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Sally A. M.; Robertson, Alastair H. F.

    2004-03-01

    Three conflicting models are currently proposed for the location and tectonic setting of the Eurasian continental margin and adjacent Tethys ocean in the Balkan region during Mesozoic-Early Tertiary time. Model 1 places the Eurasian margin within the Rhodope zone relatively close to the Moesian platform. A Tethyan oceanic basin was located to the south bordering a large "Serbo-Pelagonian" microcontinent. Model 2 correlates an integral "Serbo-Pelagonian" continental unit with the Eurasian margin and locates the Tethys further southwest. Model 3 envisages the Pelagonian zone and the Serbo-Macedonian zone as conjugate continental units separated by a Tethyan ocean that was sutured in Early Tertiary time to create the Vardar zone of northern Greece and former Yugoslavia. These published alternatives are tested in this paper based on a study of the tectono-stratigraphy of a completely exposed transect located in the Voras Mountains of northernmost Greece. The outcrop extends across the Vardar zone, from the Pelagonian zone in the west to the Serbo-Macedonian zone in the east. Within the Voras Massif, six east-dipping imbricate thrust sheets are recognised. Of these, Units 1-4 correlate with the regional Pelagonian zone in the west (and related Almopias sub-zone). By contrast, Units 5-6 show a contrasting tectono-stratigraphy and correlate with the Paikon Massif and the Serbo-Macedonian zone to the east. These units form a stack of thrust sheets, with Unit 1 at the base and Unit 6 at the top. Unstacking these thrust sheets places ophiolitic units between the Pelagonian zone and the Serbo-Macedonian zone, as in Model 3. Additional implications are, first, that the Paikon Massif cannot be seen as a window of Pelagonian basement, as in Model 1, and, secondly, Jurassic andesitic volcanics of the Paikon Massif locally preserve a gneissose continental basement, ruling out a recently suggested origin as an intra-oceanic arc. We envisage that the Almopias (Vardar) ocean rifted

  14. Mapping of the Ronda peridotite massif (Spain) from AVIRIS spectro-imaging survey: A first attempt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinet, P. C.; Chabrillat, S.; Ceuleneer, G.

    1993-01-01

    In both AVIRIS and ISM data, through the use of mixing models, geological boundaries of the Ronda massif are identified with respect to the surrounding rocks. We can also yield first-order vegetation maps. ISM and AVIRIS instruments give consistent results. On the basis of endmember fraction images, it is then possible to discard areas highly vegetated or not belonging to the peridotite massif. Within the remaining part of the mosaic, spectro-mixing analysis reveals spectral variations in the peridotite massif between the well-exposed areas. Spatially organized units are depicted, related to differences in the relative depth of the absorption band at 1 micron, and it may be due to a different pyroxene content. At this stage, it is worth noting that, although mineralogical variations observed in the rocks are at a sub-pixel scale for the airborne analysis, we see an emerging spatial pattern in the distribution of spectral variations across the massif which might be prevailingly related to mineralogy. Although it is known from fieldwork that the Ronda peridotite massif exhibits mineralogical variations at local scale in the content of pyroxene, and at regional scale in different mineral facies, ranging from garnet-, to spinel- to plagioclase-lherzolites, no attempt has been done yet to produce a synoptic map relating the two scales of analysis. The present work is a first attempt to reach this objective, though a lot more work is still required. In particular, for the purpose of mineralogical interpretation, it is critical to relate the airborne observation to field work and laboratory spectra of Ronda rocks already obtained, with the use of image endmembers and associated reference endmembers. Also, the pretty rough linear mixing model used here is taken as a 'black-box' process which does not necessarily apply correctly to the physical situation at the sub-pixel level. One may think of using the ground-truth observations bearing on the sub-pixel statistical

  15. Face Orientations in Reacting to Accusatory Complaints: Italian L1, English L1, and Italian as a Community Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frescura, Marina

    A study investigated the linguistic behavior of three groups of speakers in reacting to accusatory complaints: (1) native speakers of Italian residing in Italy (SI); (2) native speakers of Canadian English residing in Toronto (CE); and (3) speakers of Italian residing in Toronto, first-generation immigrants, defined as speakers of Italian as a…

  16. Geotectonics characteristics and their relation with gas-oil pool formation of the Dongsha fault-uplifted massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaoshu; Wei, Changxing; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Shukang; Chen, Senqiang

    1992-09-01

    The Dongsha fault-uplifted massif (for convenience, Dongsha massif from here on) is located in the northern continental shelf-slope of the South China Sea, where the water depth is 100 400 m. The massif is considered to be a part of the large-scale fault-uplifted zone directed NE and separating the Pearl River Mouth Basin into northern and southern graben areas. The sedimentary cover of the Pearl River Mouth Graben consists mainly of a 7000 10000 m thick Tertiary system. A large-scale uplift occurred in the Dongsha fault-uplifted zone during Paleocene-Eocene, when the lower structural layer (lower Tertiary) existed only in the small depressions of the fault-uplifted zone. The formation and evolution of the Dongsha fault-uplifted zone could be divided into: 1) the base-ment formation stage (J2-K1); 2) the slowly uplifted stage (K2-E{2/2}; 3) the weathering and erosion stage (E{2/3}-E{3/1}) 4) the integrated subsidence stage (E{3/2}-N{1/2}) and 5) the last uplifted stage (N{1/3}-Q). The formation of the oil and gas pools of the Dongsha massif was obviously controlled by the formation and evolution of the massif. In the region of the massif, there are good reservoirs and caprocks, many channels for gas-oil migration, and a series of structural and organic reef traps. In addition, because the massif is higher than its adjacent depressions, it became a major place where the gas and oil concentrate from the surrounding depressions. All the above factors are favorable for the formation of large oil-gas pools in the Dongsha fault-uplifted zone.

  17. Garzon Massif basement tectonics: A geopyhysical study, Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakioglu, Kadir Baris

    The mechanics and kinematics of basement tectonic uplifts, such as the Laramide Rocky Mountain orogeny, remain poorly understood and controversial. The debate continues in part because of the limited number of well-documented present day analogs. The Garzon Massif rising between the Upper Magdalena Valley and the Llanos Basin of Colombia is an active basement uplift with well, seismic, gravity, and magnetic data available. In the past 10 Ma, PreCambrian age granitic rocks of the Garzon Massif have been uplifted and displaced against Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments of the Upper Magdalena Valley along the Garzon fault. Aerogravimetric data calibrated by well data and 2D seismic data were used to model the geometry of the Garzon fault and the top of basement (Saldana Fm) in 2 dimensions. The density models provide an independent estimate of fault orientation. A high density airborne gravity and magnetic survey were flown over the Garzon fault in 2000, including 2,663 line km along 1 x 5 and 1 x 4 km flight lines at elevations of 2564 and 4589 m above mean sea level. An initial depth model was derived from the well logs, seismic reflection profile, and down-hole velocity surveys. Airborne gravity data was used to produce a Bouguer anomaly gravity map. Average rock densities were estimated from density logs, seismic velocities, and formation rock types. The regional gravity field was estimated and 2-dimensional forward models were constructed with average densities from the wells, seismic velocities, and rock types, and the initial depth model. Since the model fit is dependent on the density assumed for the Garzon Massif rocks, multiple densities and dip angles were tested. The gravity analysis indicates that the Garzon fault is a basement thrust fault dipping at a shallow angle under the Massif. Best-fit models show a true dip of 12 to 17 degrees to the southeast. A regional density and magnetic susceptibility model of the entire Massif is consistent with dense

  18. Hypermedia in the Teaching of Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanne, Signe Marie

    1993-01-01

    Results of a two-year project (L'Italiano interattivo) conducted in collaboration with the Norwegian Computing Centre for the Humanities to produce learner-directed Italian courseware are reported. The SuperCard-developed program allows students to work with video, exercises, grammar, dictionary, or transcripts. (Author/LB)

  19. Informatics Education in Italian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellettini, Carlo; Lonati, Violetta; Malchiodi, Dario; Monga, Mattia; Morpurgo, Anna; Torelli, Mauro; Zecca, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the state of informatics education in the Italian secondary schools, highlighting how the learning objectives set up by the Ministry of Education are difficult to meet, due to the fact that the subject is often taught by teachers not holding an informatics degree, the lack of suitable teaching material and the expectations…

  20. Written language abilities in deaf Italians.

    PubMed

    Fabbretti, D; Volterra, V; Pontecorvo, C

    1998-01-01

    Written texts produced by 10 Italian deaf native signers in four different writing tasks were analyzed. Data analysis focused on linguistic and orthographic nonstandard forms. The written production of deaf subjects with deaf parents (DD) was compared to the written production in two control groups: a group of 10 hearing subjects with deaf parents (HD) and a group of 10 subjects who have had no contact with deaf people or sign language (HH). The results duplicate findings from previous studies. Deaf subjects display a pattern of selective difficulty with Italian grammatical morphology, especially with free-standing function words. The four different writing tasks used in the present study yield results indicating that text type does influence our assessment of deaf writing abilities. A comparison of the texts written by deaf native signers with those of two hearing groups confirms the view that difficulties in the acquisition of written Italian are best explained by deafness itself, not by the influence of a previously acquired Sign Language, and that the specific difficulties with grammatical morphology displayed by our deaf subjects cannot be attributed solely to their limited experience with written Italian.

  1. Opera: A Natural Component of Italian Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Keith

    1998-01-01

    Presents ideas for a special unit about opera that can be used in high school or college Italian courses. Offers a rationale for using opera, discusses opera in terms of multiple intelligences, explains the integration of an opera unit into regular curriculum, and describes how to develop an opera unit and what concepts to teach. (SM)

  2. Stereotype and Identity: The Italian Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Sorte, Michael A.

    When analyzing the question of ehtnic identity, it is crucial to pay attention to oral history and biographical material: ethnicity is not so much a collective phenomenon as an individual one. For example, much has been written about Italian migration to the United States, but the lives of the ordinary immigrants and the rich detail of their…

  3. Stress Assignment in Reading Italian Polysyllabic Pseudowords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulpizio, Simone; Arduino, Lisa S.; Paizi, Despina; Burani, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In 4 naming experiments we investigated how Italian readers assign stress to pseudowords. We assessed whether participants assign stress following distributional information such as stress neighborhood (the proportion and number of existent words sharing orthographic ending and stress pattern) and whether such distributional information affects…

  4. Priming Lexical Stress in Reading Italian Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulpizio, Simone; Job, Remo; Burani, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments using a lexical priming paradigm investigated how stress information is processed in reading Italian words. In both experiments, prime and target words either shared the stress pattern or they had different stress patterns. We expected that lexical activation of the prime would favour the assignment of congruent stress to the…

  5. Lexical Stress Assignment in Italian Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paizi, Despina; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; Burani, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Stress assignment to Italian polysyllabic words is unpredictable, because stress is neither marked nor predicted by rule. Stress assignment, especially to low frequency words, has been reported to be a function of stress dominance and stress neighbourhood. Two experiments investigate stress assignment in sixth-grade, skilled and dyslexic, readers.…

  6. Self-Employment among Italian Female Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosti, Luisa; Chelli, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the gender impact of tertiary education on the probability of entering and remaining in self-employment. Design/methodology/approach: A data set on labour market flows produced by the Italian National Statistical Office is exploited by interviewing about 62,000 graduate and non-graduate…

  7. Linguistic and Cognitive Skills in Sardinian–Italian Bilingual Children

    PubMed Central

    Garraffa, Maria; Beveridge, Madeleine; Sorace, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a study which tested receptive Italian grammatical competence and general cognitive abilities in bilingual Italian–Sardinian children and age-matched monolingual Italian children attending the first and second year of primary school in the Nuoro province of Sardinia, where Sardinian is still widely spoken. The results show that across age groups the performance of Sardinian–Italian bilingual children is in most cases indistinguishable from that of monolingual Italian children, in terms of both Italian language skills and general cognitive abilities. However, where there are differences, these emerge gradually over time and are mostly in favor of bilingual children. PMID:26733903

  8. The use of ground based photogrammetry for the monitoring of seasonal movement of a glacier: the case study of Planpincieux Glacier, Grandes Jorasses massif, Mont Blanc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordan, Daniele; Dell'Anese, Federico; Allasia, Paolo; Vagliasindi, Marco; Motta, Elena

    2016-04-01

    In September 2013, an experimental low cost monitoring station has been installed on the top of Mt. de La Saxe (Val Ferret, Aosta Valley, NW of Italy) to monitor the Planpincieux Glacier, located on the Italian side of Mont Blanc Massif. This system is based on two commercial APS-C DSLR cameras equipped with a 297 mm and 120 mm optical zoom respectively. Every hour cameras automatically acquire pictures of the lower part of the glacier, which showed to be the most active. The available dataset is analyzed using both change-detection and pixel-offset techniques, to detect the main surface changes over time, as well as to retrieve quantitative measurements of the glacier displacements. The system is able to work throughout the year. The available dataset has been used to analyze the daily evolution of the lower part of the glacier over the May-November period (when the glacier is free from snow) both in 2014 and 2015. The pixel-offset approach allows to measure the displacement of different parts of the glacier and to describe its seasonal evolution. Furthermore, change detection algorithm allows highlighting sudden changes of the scene, usually due to icefalls. The available dataset shows that the displacement rate of the glacier increases during the warm season, that in 2014 it was higher than in 2015, and that it was distributed in a different way. Actually, in 2015, the maximum rate was reached in August, whereas in 2014 the measured summer velocity was lower but it lasted over the months of July, August and September. The results have been validated using different ground based SARs, both in 2014 and 2015. Here we present the results of a three years monitoring, demonstrating the efficiency of pixel-offset and change-detection techniques for contactless monitoring of unreachable glacier surfaces. Furthermore, we present cross-analysis, considering displacements vs. weather measurements, in order to understand glaciers dynamics.

  9. Biodiversity impact of the aeolian periglacial geomorphologic evolution of the Fontainebleau Massif (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiry, M.; Liron, M. N.

    2009-04-01

    Landscape features The geomorphology of the Fontainebleau Massif is noteworthy for its spectacular narrow ridges, up to 10 km long and 0.5 km wide, armored by tightly cemented sandstone lenses and which overhang sandy depressions of about 50m. Denudation of the sandstone pans lead to a highly contrasted landscape, with sandstone ridges ("platières") towering sandy depressions ("vallées") and limestone plateaus ("monts"). This forms the geological frame of the spectacular sceneries of the Fontainebleau Massif (Thiry & Liron, 2007). Nevertheless, there is little know about the erosive processes that have built-up these landscapes. Periglacial processes, and among them aeolian ones, appear significant in the development of the Fontainebleau Massif physiography. The periglacial aeolian geomorphology Dunes and dune fields are known since long and cover about 15% to 25% of the Fontainebleau Massif. The aeolian dunes developed as well on the higher parts of the landscape, as well as in the lower parts of the landscape. The dunes are especially well developed in the whole eastern part of the massif, whereas the western part of the massif is almost devoid of dunes. Nevertheless, detailed mapping shows that dunes can locally be found in the western district, they are of limited extension, restricted to the east facing backslope of outliers. Loamy-sand covers the limestone plateaus of the "monts". The loam cover is of variable thickness: schematically thicker in the central part of the plateaus, where it my reach 3 m; elsewhere it may thin down to 0,20-0,30 m, especially at the plateau edges. Blowout hollows are "negative" morphologies from where the sand has been withdrawed. Often these blowouts are decametric sized and well-delimited structures. Others, more complex structures, are made up of several elongated hectometric hollows relaying each other from and which outline deflation corridor more than 1 km long. A characteristic feature of these blowout hollows is the

  10. Metamorphic evolution of pelitic-semipelitic granulites in the Kon Tum massif (south-central Vietnam)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tích, Vu Van; Leyreloup, Andrey; Maluski, Henry; Lepvrier, Claude; Lo, Chinh-hua; Vượng, Nguyễn V.

    2013-09-01

    Pelitic and semipelitic anatectic granulites form one of the major lithological units in Kan Nack complex of the Kon Tum massif (in south-central Vietnam), which comprises HT metamorphic and magmatic rocks including granulites and charnockites is classically regarded as the older part of the Gondwana-derived Indosinia terrain. Metamorphic evolution study of pelitic granulite, the most abundant among granulites exposed in this massif, facilitates to understand that tectonic setting take place during the Indosinian time. The paragenetic assemblages, mineral chemistry, thermobarometry and P-T evolution path of pelitic-semipelitic granulites from Kon Tum massif has been studied in detail. Petrographic feature demonstrates that the pelitic granulite experienced prograde history, from pregranulitic conditions in the amphibolite facies up to the peak granulitic assemblages. Successive prograde reactions led to the temperature-climax giving rise to assemblages with cordierite-hercynite and cordierite-hercynite-K-feldspar. Then, as attested by the mineralogic association occurring in cordieritic coronas, these rocks have been affected by retrograde conditions coeval with a decrease of the pressure. Thermobarometic results show that the highest temperature obtained by ksp/pl thermometry is 850 °C and the highest pressure obtained by GASP (Garnet Alumino-Silicate Plagioclase) is 7.8 kbar. The obtained clockwise P-T evolution path involving heating decompression, then nearly isothermal decompression and nearly isobar cooling conditions shows that high temperature-low pressure metamorphism of the studied pelitic anatectic granulites of Kan Nack complex occurred possibly in extensional setting during the Indosinian orogeny of 260-240 Ma in age.

  11. Catalog of Apollo 17 rocks. Volume 1: Stations 2 and 3 (South Massif)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham

    1993-01-01

    The Catalog of Apollo 17 Rocks is a set of volumes that characterize each of 334 individually numbered rock samples (79 larger than 100 g) in the Apollo 17 collection, showing what each sample is and what is known about it. Unconsolidated regolith samples are not included. The catalog is intended to be used by both researchers requiring sample allocations and a broad audience interested in Apollo 17 rocks. The volumes are arranged geographically, with separate volumes for the South Massif and Light Mantle, the North Massif, and two volumes for the mare plains. Within each volume, the samples are arranged in numerical order, closely corresponding with the sample collection stations. The present volume, for the South Massif and Light Mantle, describes the 55 individual rock fragments collected at Stations two, two-A, three, and LRV-five. Some were chipped from boulders, others collected as individual rocks, some by raking, and a few by picking from the soil in the processing laboratory. Information on sample collection, petrography, chemistry, stable and radiogenic isotopes, rock surface characteristics, physical properties, and curatorial processing is summarized and referenced as far as it is known up to early 1992. The intention has been to be comprehensive: to include all published studies of any kind that provide information on the sample, as well as some unpublished information. References which are primarily bulk interpretations of existing data or mere lists of samples are not generally included. Foreign language journals were not scrutinized, but little data appears to have been published only in such journals. We have attempted to be consistent in format across all of the volumes, and have used a common reference list that appears in all volumes. Where possible, ages based on Sr and Ar isotopes have been recalculated using the 'new' decay constants recommended by Steiger and Jager; however, in many of the reproduced diagrams the ages correspond with the

  12. Thermal and structural evolution of the external Western Alps: Insights from (U-Th-Sm)/He thermochronology and RSCM thermometry in the Aiguilles Rouges/Mont Blanc massifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutoux, A.; Bellahsen, N.; Nanni, U.; Pik, R.; Verlaguet, A.; Rolland, Y.; Lacombe, O.

    2016-06-01

    In the Western Alps, the External Crystalline Massifs (ECM) are key places to investigate the kinematics and thermal structure of a collisional crustal wedge, as their paleo-brittle/ductile transition is now exhumed at the surface. New (U-Th-Sm)/He data on zircon and new Raman Spectroscopy on Carbonaceous Material (RSCM) data from the Aiguilles Rouges and the Mont Blanc massifs, coupled to HeFTy thermal modeling, constrain the thermal evolution and exhumation of the massifs. In the cover of the Aiguilles Rouges massif, we found that the maximal temperature was about 320 °C (+/- 25 °C), close to the maximal temperature reached in the cover of the Mont Blanc massif ( 350 °C +/- 25 °C). We show that, after a fast heating period, the thermal peak lasted 10-15 Myrs in the Mont Blanc massif, and probably 5-10 Myrs in the Aiguilles Rouges massif. This thermal peak is synchronous with crustal shortening documented in the basement. (U-Th-Sm)/He data and thermal modeling point toward a coeval cooling of both massifs, like other ECM, at around 18 Ma +/- 1 Ma. This cooling was related to an exhumation due to the initiation of frontal crustal ramps below the ECM, quite synchronously along the Western Alps arc.

  13. Isotopic age and heterogeneous sources of gabbro‒anorthosites from the Patchemvarek massif, Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrevsky, A. B.; Lvov, A. P.

    2016-07-01

    New U‒Pb (SHRIMP II) data on the age (2661.8 ± 7.1 Ma) and isotopic (Sm‒Nd) composition of the Patchemvarek gabbro‒anorthosite massif located in the junction zone between the Neoarchean Kolmozero-Voron'ya greenstone belt and Keivy paragneiss structure are discussed. The established age and geological‒tectonic position of gabbro‒anorthosites allow the prognostic metallogenic estimate of Ti‒V‒Fe mineralization to be extended to the entire Kolmozero-Voron'ya‒Keivy infrastructural zone of the Kola‒Norwegian province of the Fennoscandian shield.

  14. Recycled gabbro signature in Upper Cretaceous Magma within Strandja Massif: NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulusoy, Ezgi; Kagan Kadioglu, Yusuf

    2016-04-01

    Basic magma intrusions within plate interiors upwelling mantle plumes have chemical signatures that are distinct from mid-ocean ridge magmas. When a basic magma interact with continental crust or with the felsic magma, the compositions of both magma changes, but there is no consensus as to how this interaction occurs. Here we analyse the mineral behavior and trace element signature of gabbroic rocks of the samples collected from the Strandja Massif. Srednogorie magmatic arc is a part of Apuseni- Banat-Timok-Srednogorie magmatic belt and formed by subduction and closure of the Tethys Ocean during Upper Cretaceous times. Upper Cretaceous magmatic rocks cutting Strandja Massif in NW Turkey belong to eastern edge of Srednogorie Magmatic arc. Upper Cretacous magmatic rocks divided into four subgroup in Turkey part of Strandja massif: (I) granitic rocks, (II) monzonitic rock, (III) syenitic rocks and (IV) gabbroic rocks. Gabbroic rocks outcropped around study area in phaneritic - equigranular texture. According to mineralogic - petrographic studies gabbros have mainly holocrystalline texture and ophitic to subophitic texture composed of plagioclase, amphibole, pyroxene, and rarely olivine and opaque minerals. Also because of special conditions there have been pegmatitic texture on mafic minerals with euhedral form up to 3 cm in size and orbicular texture which reach 15cm in size and rounded - elliptical form. Confocal Raman Spectroscopy studies reveals that plagioclase are ranging in composition from labradorite to bytownite, the pyroxene are ranging in composition from diopside to augite acting with uralitization processes and the olivine are generally in the composition of forsterite. Petrographic and mineralogical determination reveals some metasomatic magmatic epidote presence. Confocal Raman Spectroscopy studies on anhydrous minerals within gabbroic rocks shows affect of hydrous process because of magma mixing. The gabbroic rocks have tholeiitic and changed towards

  15. Deglaciation and post-glacial environmental evolution in the Western Massif of Picos de Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Oliva, Marc; García, Cristina; López-Sáez, José Antonio; Gallinar, David; Geraldes, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    This study examines the process of deglaciation of the Western Massif of Picos de Europa through field work, geomorphological mapping, sedimentary records and absolute datings of 14C. This massif has several peaks over 2,400 m a.s.l. (Peña Santa de Castilla, 2,596 m; Torre Santa María, 2,486 m; Torre del Mediu, 2,467 m). It is composed mainly by Carboniferous limestones. This area has been intensively affected by karstic dissolution, Quaternary glaciers and fluvio-torrential processes (Miotke, 1968; Moreno et al, 2010; Ruiz-Fernández et al, 2009; Ruiz-Fernández, 2013). At present day, periglacial processes are active at the highest elevations (Ruiz-Fernández, 2013). We have identified four main glacial stages regarding the deglaciation of the massif: (i) maximum advance corresponding to the Last Glaciation, (ii) retreat and stabilization after the maximum advance, (iii) Late Glacial, and (iv) Little Ice Age. Sedimentological studies also contribute data to the understanding of the chronological framework of these environmental changes. The datings of the bottom sediments in two long sequences (8 and 5.4 m) provided a minimum age of 18,075 ± 425 cal BP for the maximum advance stage and 11,150 ± 900 cal BP for retreat and stabilization in the phase following the maximum advance. The ongoing analyses of these sequences at very high resolution will provide new knowledge about the environmental conditions prevailing since the deglaciation of the massif. References Miotke, F.D. (1968). Karstmorphologische studien in der glazial-überformten Höhenstufe der Picos de Europa, Nordspanien. Hannover, Selbtverlag der Geografischen Gessellschaft, 161 pp. Moreno, A., Valero, B.L., Jiménez, M., Domínguez, M.J., Mata, M.P., Navas, A., González, P., Stoll, H., Farias, P., Morellón, M., Corella, J.P. & Rico, M. (2010). The last deglaciation in the Picos de Europa National Park (Cantabrian Mountains, Northern Spain). Journal of Quaternary Science, 25 (7), 1076-1091. Ruiz

  16. Degassing and redox effects in the magma chamber of the Guli massif (Polar Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchikov, I. D.; Kogarko, L. N.; Kuzmin, D. V.

    2012-04-01

    The Guli massif occupies a large area between the Maymecha and Kotui Rivers at the boundary of the Siberian platform with the Khatanga trough. It has a roughly oval shape of 35-45 km, and, including the two-thirds obscured by Quaternary deposits, has an area of 1500-1600 km2. The Guli massif, like many of the other alkaline-ultrabasic intrusions, is a composite, multi-stage pluton. The predominant rocks of the massif are dunites, which occupy about 60% of the total area, and a range of melanocratic alkaline rocks, which extend over about 30%. The other rock types, including melilitolite, ijolite, alkaline syenite and carbonatite, occupy less than 10% of the area. Dunite intrusives were cut by numerous bodies of Ti-Fe ore pyroxenite (kosvite) that are composed mainly of pyroxene and titanomagnetite with accessory apatite and titanite, and form about 10% of the volume of the dunites. Among the volcanics and dyke rocks in the area surrounding the Guli massif olvine-rich meimechites play substantial role. Variations of Mg# of olivines from dunite indicat presence of cryptic layering, whereas evolution of spinels from chromites to titanomagnetites in less magnesian varieties indicate gradual transition from dunites to kosvites. Original layering is obscured by intense folding. Trace-element diagram normalized to pyrolite and Lu shows that interstitial material present between olivines of dunites is identical to meimechites. This implies that primary magma of the Guli intrusion had meimechite composition. Some zoned olivines show regular decrease in Ni and increase in Mn from core to margin, whereas variation of Ca content in the same grains pass through several maxima and minima. This reflects accumulation of both Ca and CO2 in the residual melt with episodic loss of CO2 leading to the increase in the activity of CaO. Eventually this process leads to the formation of melilite-bearing rocks, alkaline magmas and carbonatites. In many samples of kosvites Ni content in

  17. Syllabic effects in Italian lexical access.

    PubMed

    Tagliapietra, Lara; Fanari, R; Collina, S; Tabossi, P

    2009-12-01

    Two cross-modal priming experiments tested whether lexical access is constrained by syllabic structure in Italian. Results extend the available Italian data on the processing of stressed syllables showing that syllabic information restricts the set of candidates to those structurally consistent with the intended word (Experiment 1). Lexical access, however, takes place as soon as possible and it is not delayed till the incoming input corresponds to the first syllable of the word. And, the initial activated set includes candidates whose syllabic structure does not match the intended word (Experiment 2). The present data challenge the early hypothesis that in Romance languages syllables are the units for lexical access during spoken word recognition. The implications of the results for our understanding of the role of syllabic information in language processing are discussed.

  18. Great landslide events in Italian artificial reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panizzo, A.; de Girolamo, P.; di Risio, M.; Maistri, A.; Petaccia, A.

    2005-09-01

    The empirical formulations to forecast landslide generated water waves, recently defined in the framework of a research program funded by the Italian National Dam Office RID (Registro Italiano Dighe), are here used to study three real cases of subaerial landslides which fell down italian artificial reservoirs. It is well known that impulse water waves generated by landslides constitute a very dangerous menace for human communities living in the shoreline of the artificial basin or downstream the dam. In 1963, the menace became tragedy, when a 270 millions m3 landslide fell down the Vajont reservoir (Italy), generated an impulse wave which destroyed the city of Longarone, and killed 2000 people. The paper is aimed at presenting the very satisfactorily reproduction of the events at hand by using forecasting formulations.

  19. Internet addiction disorder: an Italian study.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Giovanni; Caci, Barbara; D'Amico, Antonella; Di Blasi, Marie

    2007-04-01

    The Italian version of the Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT) was administered online to a sample of Italian chatters (n = 236) who were different in terms of gender, age, and occupation. Results revealed that young users are more at-risk subjects for Internet addiction than adults, perceiving a compromised social and individual quality of their life that led them to make a compensatory usage of the Internet. Similarly, employed users perceive their social and individual quality of life as more compromised by the Internet than students. Moreover, subjects who declared spending much time online obtained IAT scores higher than others in all the IAT subscales. Finally, nightly users are more at-risk subjects for developing an Internet addiction disorder, diminishing their individual quality of life and disabling their time control.

  20. The Italian Dementia National Plan. Commentary.

    PubMed

    Di Fiandra, Teresa; Canevelli, Marco; Di Pucchio, Alessandra; Vanacore, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The Italian Dementia National Plan was formulated in October 2014 by the Italian Ministry of Health in close cooperation with the regions, the National Institute of Health and the three major national associations of patients and carers. The main purpose of this strategy was to provide directive indications for promoting and improving interventions in the dementia field, not limiting to specialist and therapeutic actions, but particularly focusing on the support of patients and families throughout the pathways of care. Four main objectives are indicated: 1) promote health- and social-care interventions and policies; 2) create/strengthen the integrated network of services for dementia based on an integrated approach; 3) implement strategies for promoting appropriateness and quality of care; and 4) improve the quality of life of persons with dementia and their families by supporting empowerment and stigma reduction. These objectives and the pertaining actions are described in the present paper.

  1. The Italian contribution to the CSES satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, Livio

    2016-04-01

    We present the Italian contribution to the CSES (China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite) mission. The CSES satellite aims at investigating electromagnetic field, plasma and particles in the near-Earth environment in order to study in particular seismic precursors, particles fluxes (from Van Allen belts, cosmic rays, solar wind, etc.), anthropogenic electromagnetic pollution and more in general the atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling mechanisms that can affect the climate changes. The launch of CSES - the first of a series of several satellite missions - is scheduled by the end of 2016. The CSES satellite has been financed by the CNSA (China National Space Agency) and developed by CEA (China Earthquake Administration) together with several Chinese research institutes and private companies such as the DFH (that has developed the CAST2000 satellite platform). Italy participates to the CSES satellite mission with the LIMADOU project funded by ASI (Italian Space Agency) in collaboration with the Universities of Roma Tor Vergata, Uninettuno, Trento, Bologna and Perugia, as well as the INFN (Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics), INGV (Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology) and INAF-IAPS (Italian National Institute of Astrophysics and Planetology). Many analyses have shown that satellite observations of electromagnetic fields, plasma parameters and particle fluxes in low Earth orbit may be useful in order to study the existence of electromagnetic emissions associated with the occurrence of earthquakes of medium and high magnitude. Although the earthquakes forecasting is not possible today, it is certainly a major challenge - and perhaps even a duty - for science in the near future. The claims that the reported anomalies (of electromagnetic, plasma and particle parameters) are seismic precursors are still intensely debated and analyses for confirming claimed correlations are still lacking. In fact, ionospheric currents, plasma

  2. Haemoglobin Hasharon in a north Italian community.

    PubMed Central

    Alberti, R; Mariuzzi, G M; Marinucci, M; Bruni, E; Tenteri, L

    1975-01-01

    A survey of haemoglobin variants undertakin in an Italian community (Polesine) has revealed the presence of haemoglobin Hasharon (alpha2 47 Asp yields His beta2) in 108 subjects from 40 families. The variant accounted for 30 to 40% of the total haemoglobin. In subjects doubly heterozygous for Hb Hasharon and beta thalassaemia, the proportion was 17 to 19%. Though there was some evidence that the variant was unstable in vitro, there was no obvious haemoglobinopathy in vivo. Images PMID:1177281

  3. Residential construction cost: An Italian survey.

    PubMed

    Canesi, Rubina; Marella, Giuliano

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports data describing development projects for new buildings according to construction costs in North-East Italy. A survey was carried out on local companies undertaking new residential development projects in two Italian regions (Veneto and Lombardy). The aim of this survey was to record new real estate construction projects, collecting both technical and socio-economic cost features. It is extremely difficult to collect such data for the Italian real estate construction sector, due to its lack of transparency, so that the novelty for the Italian scenario is the dataset itself. Another interest perspective of this survey is that socio-economic characteristics were also recorded; they are often studied in urban economics, but are usually related to property purchase prices and values, not to construction costs. The data come from an analysis of Canesi and Marella regarding the relationship between the trend of construction costs and the socio-economic conditions of the reference setting, such as the mean years of schooling of the workforce, housing market trends, and average per capita income.

  4. Itineraries and specificities of Italian medical anthropology.

    PubMed

    Seppilli, Tullio

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes the birth (or rebirth) of Italian medical anthropology around the middle of the 1950s, and its subsequent complex development up to the present. During this fairly long process, the author played a role that was probably of some importance, that of both a direct witness and active participant. Here these developments are briefly reviewed, in an attempt to single out some of the stimuli and the most significant occasions that have happened, their theoretical and methodological reference points, the main lines of research that have been tackled along the way, as well as the 'social demand' and the 'social use' that have integrated and oriented the practice of the new discipline within the horizon of some of the more general problems of Italian society. In outlining here the profile of and the various events in Italian medical anthropology, this paper takes into account the fact that, although a medical anthropology with that name and the disciplinary set-up that are now internationally attributed to it began in Italy only in the mid-1950s, important lines of research to which we would today attach that name had been undertaken long ago.

  5. Pharmacovigilance and the italian medicines agency.

    PubMed

    Pimpinella, Giuseppe; Tartaglia, Loriana

    2013-12-01

    The new European Union (EU) regulations on pharmacovigilance require that the national systems are strengthened in order to fit the new requirements. The Italian Pharmacovigilance System, coordinated by the Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA), is made by local and regional structures. In 2007, a program for funding active pharmacovigilance projects in the Italian Regions was established by the National law. The AIFA is responsible for the preparation of guidelines aimed at the identification of research areas and for the approval of the projects submitted by the regions. In April 2012, the AIFA started a program of visits at the regional pharmacovigilance centers (RPCs), aimed at monitoring their performances, evaluating the quality of the activities in order to understand the main differences and discrepancies and with a view to start a program of harmonization of the procedures in place. The outcome of the visits program highlighted major differences among the quality management systems of the various centers; hence, AIFA has decided to launch an initiative to promote in the next months the harmonization of procedures. The synergy among AIFA, regional structures, RPCs, and local structure responsible for pharmacovigilance is needed in order to establish a robust pharmacovigilance system working in full compliance with the provisions of the new EU legislation.

  6. New species from the Galoka and Kalabenono massifs: two unknown and severely threatened mountainous areas in NW Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Callmander, Martin W.; Rakotovao, Charles; Razafitsalama, Jeremi; Phillipson, Peter B.; Buerki, Sven; Hong-Wa, Cynthia; Rakotoarivelo, Nivo; Andriambololonera, Sylvie; Koopman, Margaret M.; Johnson, David M.; Deroin, Thierry; Ravoahangy, Andriamandranto; Solo, Serge; Labat, Jean-Noël; Lowry, Porter P.

    2011-01-01

    The Galoka mountain chain, comprising principally the Galoka and Kalabenono massifs, situated at the northern edge of the Sambirano Region in NW Madagascar is an area that was virtually unknown botanically. It was visited three times between 2005 and 2007 as part of a floristic inventory. Both massifs contain the last remaining primary forests in the Galoka chain, which extends parallel to the coastline from South of Ambilobe to North of Ambanja. Several new species have been discovered amongst the collections, eight of which are described here. PMID:21857767

  7. Sources of Mesoproterozoic igneous rocks and formation time of the continental crust of the Kokchetav Massif (Northern Kazakhstan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretyakov, A. A.; Kovach, V. P.; Degtyarev, K. E.; Shatagin, K. N.

    2016-12-01

    Within the Kokchetav massif (Northern Kazakhstan), Mesoproterozoic granites and acid volcanics are widespread: these are the youngest Precambrian igneous rocks forming basement of the region. The Nd isotopic characteristics (ɛNd( t)-4.4 ÷-9.6, t Nd(DM) 2.1-2.6 Ga) obtained for these rocks indicate that the source of their melts was the Early Precambrian continental crust. Thus, the continental crust of the Kokchetav Massif had basically been formed by the beginning of the Mesoproterozoic and during the Late Precambrian: later it became a source for the granitoid melts.

  8. MASSIF-1: a beamline dedicated to the fully automatic characterization and data collection from crystals of biological macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Bowler, Matthew W.; Nurizzo, Didier; Barrett, Ray; Beteva, Antonia; Bodin, Marjolaine; Caserotto, Hugo; Delagenière, Solange; Dobias, Fabian; Flot, David; Giraud, Thierry; Guichard, Nicolas; Guijarro, Mattias; Lentini, Mario; Leonard, Gordon A.; McSweeney, Sean; Oskarsson, Marcus; Schmidt, Werner; Snigirev, Anatoli; von Stetten, David; Surr, John; Svensson, Olof; Theveneau, Pascal; Mueller-Dieckmann, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    MASSIF-1 (ID30A-1) is an ESRF undulator beamline operating at a fixed wavelength of 0.969 Å (12.8 keV) that is dedicated to the completely automatic characterization of and data collection from crystals of biological macromolecules. The first of the ESRF Upgrade MASSIF beamlines to be commissioned, it has been open since September 2014, providing a unique automated data collection service to academic and industrial users. Here, the beamline characteristics and details of the new service are outlined. PMID:26524320

  9. Utilization of digital LANDSAT imagery for the study of granitoid bodies in Rondonia: Case example of the Pedra Branca massif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Almeidafilho, R.; Payolla, B. L.; Depinho, O. G.; Bettencourt, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of digital multispectral MSS-LANDSAT images enhanced through computer techniques and enlarged to a video scale of 1:100.000, show the main geological and structura features of the Pedra Branca granitic massif in Rondonia. These are not observed in aerial photographs or adar images. Field work shows that LANDSAT photogeological units correspond to different facies of granitic rocks in the Pedra Branca massif. Even under the particular characteristics of Amazonia (Tropical Forest, deep weathering, and Quaternary sedimentary covers), an adequate utilization of orbital remote sensing images can be important tools for the orientation of field works.

  10. Composition, coagulation properties and Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese yield of Italian Brown and Italian Friesian herd milks.

    PubMed

    Malacarne, Massimo; Summer, Andrea; Fossa, Enrico; Formaggioni, Paolo; Franceschi, Piero; Pecorari, Mauro; Mariani, Primo

    2006-05-01

    The authors report the results of a study aimed at the comparison of the basic chemical composition, the main protein fractions distribution, rennet coagulation properties and Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese yield of vat milk from Italian Brown and Italian Friesian herds. Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese factories which manufacture milk separately from Italian Brown herds and Italian Friesian herds were used in the study. Thirteen cheesemaking trials were performed at 10 different commercial cheese factories. The study was carried out from March to October 2003. For each cheesemaking trial in each factory, approximately 1100 kg milk from Italian Brown cows and from Italian Friesian cows were processed in parallel. The animals involved in the study came from farms with comparable management practices, size, location, number of lactation and days in milking. Each vat contained milk obtained by combining milk collected during the evening milking (partially skimmed milk by natural creaming) and the following morning milking (full-cream milk), from at least 2 dairy herds. Milk from Italian Brown cows is characterised by a higher casein content (27.1 v. 23.7 g/kg; P < or = 0.0001) than Italian Friesian cows' milk. Curd firming time (k20) of Italian Brown cows' milk was markedly lower than that of Italian Friesian cows' milk (6.6 v. 10.0 min; P < or = 0.001). This implies a higher rate of aggregation of para-casein micelles for Italian Brown cows' milk. The coagulum of Italian Brown cows' milk had better rheological properties and lower losses of fat in the cheese whey. Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese yield at 24 h was also higher for Italian Brown cows' milk, + 0.99 kg cheese for every 100 kg vat milk.

  11. Luserna Stone: A nomination for "Global Heritage Stone Resource"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primavori, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Luserna Stone (Pietra di Luserna) is the commercial name of a grey-greenish leucogranitic orthogneiss, probably from the Lower Permian Age, that outcrops in the Luserna-Infernotto basin (Cottian Alps, Piedmont, NW Italy) on the border between the Turin and Cuneo provinces. Geologically speaking, it pertains to the Dora-Maira Massif that represents a part of the ancient European margin annexed to the Cottian Alps during the Alpine orogenesis; from a petrographic point of view, it is the metamorphic result of a late-Ercinian leucogranitic rock transformation. Lithological features and building applications allow the recognition of two main varieties: 1) a micro-augen gneiss with very regular schistosity planes with centimetric spacing and easy split workability, known as Splittable facies; 2) a micro-Augen gneiss characterized by lower schistosity and poor split, suitable for blocks cutting machines (diamond wires, gang-saws, traditional saws), known as Massive facies. A third, rare, white variety also exists, called "Bianchetta". Luserna stone extends over an area of approximately 50 km2, where more than fifty quarries are in operation, together with a relevant number of processing plants and artisanal laboratories. The stone is quarried and processed since almost the Middle Age, and currently represents one of the three most important siliceous production cluster in Italy (together with the Ossola and Sardegna Island granites). Some characteristics of this stone - such as the relevant physical-mechanical properties, an intrinsic versatility and its peculiar splittability - have made it one of the most widely used stone materials in Italy and in the countries surrounding the North Western border of Italy. Apart from its intrinsic geological, petrographic, commercial and technical properties, several issues related to the Luserna Stone are considered to be of relevant importance for its designation as a Global Heritage Stone Resource, such as the distinctive mark on

  12. Surface exposure dating with cosmogenic 10Be of Late Holocene rock avalanches onto glaciers in the Mont Blanc massif, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deline, Philip; Akçar, Naki; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Kubik, Peter W.

    2013-04-01

    Rock avalanching represents a potential high risk for growing infrastructure and people living in high mountain areas. This hazardous process is due to steep slopes, high relief, intensive rock fracturing, seismicity, paraglacial control, periglacial climatic conditions and the presence and interaction of snow, glaciers, and permafrost. The timing of rock avalanche recurrence intervals and the recognition of their spatial extension are essential. Very steep and elevated slopes on the Italian flank of the Mont Blanc massif are prone to rock avalanches (RAs) which travel onto glaciers. Whereas small RAs occurred in the Glacier du Miage basin during the 20th Century (the latest in July 2012), large RAs (volume > 1 M m3) travelled repeatedly onto Glaciers de Triolet, Frébouge, and la Brenva during the late Holocene The nature of the granitic deposit which largely overlaps the bottom of the upper Val Ferret over 2 km has been discussed since the 19th century. This extensive deposit was attributed to either glacial, or a September 12th 1717 AD rock avalanche, or a complex mixture of glacial, earlier RA and 1717 RA origin. Surface exposure dating of 16 boulders of the deposit shows that the 1717 RA, covering the whole upper Ferret valley floor, was one of the largest late Holocene RAs of the Alps, with a rock volume of 10-15 M m3 and a likely similar volume of glacier ice travelling more than 7 km downvalley. Two main RA deposits are lying downstream of the Glacier de Frébouge: a sheet of granite boulders with an open-work structure covers the south side of the Val Ferret, which ran > 100 m up the opposite metasedimentary side of the valley; a smaller RA deposit is located at the south and east margins of the large Frébouge polygenic fan. Surface exposure dating of 7 granite boulders of these deposits could in particular confirm whether the larger RA occurred sometime between 991 and 1154 AD, as suggested by a radiocarbon-dated piece of wood. Large RAs (volume > 2 M m3

  13. Representation of the serial killer on the Italian Internet.

    PubMed

    Villano, P; Bastianoni, P; Melotti, G

    2001-10-01

    The representation of serial killers was examined from the analysis of 317 Web pages in the Italian language to study how the psychological profiles of serial killers are described on the Italian Internet. The correspondence analysis of the content of these Web pages shows that in Italy the serial killer is associated with words such as "monster" and "horror," which suggest and imply psychological perversion and aberrant acts. These traits are peculiar for the Italian scenario.

  14. New radiocarbon chronology of a late Holocene landslide event in the Mont Blanc massif, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdas, Irka; Sojc, Ursula; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Akçar, Naki; Deline, Philip

    2016-04-01

    The Ferret valley Arp Nouva peat bog located in the Mont Blanc massif was critically evaluated since previously published radiocarbon dates have led to controversial conclusions on the formation of the swamp. Radiocarbon dating of roots from three pits of up to 1 m depth was applied to discuss the question whether the historical documented rock avalanche occurring in AD 1717 overran the peat bog or formed it at a later stage. Our results indicate that the rock avalanche formed the Arp Nouva peat bog by downstream blockage of the Bellecombe torrent. Furthermore, careful sample preparation with consequent separation of roots from the bulk peat sample provides possible explanation for the too old 14C ages of bulk peat samples dated previously (Deline and Kirkbride, 2009 and references therein). This work demonstrates that a combined geomorphological and geochronological approach is the most reliable way to reconstruct landscape evolution, especially in light of apparent chronological problems. The key to successful 14C dating is a careful sample selection and the identification of material that might be not ideal for chronological reconstructions. References Deline, Philip, and Martin P. Kirkbride. "Rock avalanches on a glacier and morainic complex in Haut Val Ferret (Mont Blanc Massif, Italy)".Geomorphology 103 (2009): 80-92.

  15. Structure and metamorphism of the Gran Paradiso massif, western Alps, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwer, F. M.; Vissers, R. L. M.; Lamb, W. M.

    2002-05-01

    The pressure-temperature-time trajectory and structural history of high-pressure rocks presently exposed in the Gran Paradiso massif provide constraints on the processes that caused their thermal evolution and exhumation. High-pressure metamorphism of the rocks is found to have culminated at temperatures around 525 °C and pressures of 12 to 14 kbar. After high-pressure metamorphism, the rocks cooled during initial decompression, while undergoing top-to-the-west shear on chlorite-bearing shear bands and larger scale shear zones. Biotite-bearing shear bands and larger shear zones related to top-to-the-east deformation affected the Gran Paradiso massif during reheating to temperatures of around 550 °C at 6 to 7 kbar. Further exhumation occurred at relatively high temperatures. A potentially viable explanation of the observed stage of reheating before final cooling and exhumation is breakoff of a subducting slab in the upper mantle, allowing advective heat transfer to the base of the crust. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00410-001-0357-6.

  16. Thermochronology and tectonics of the Mérida Andes and the Santander Massif, NW South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Lelij, Roelant; Spikings, Richard; Mora, Andrés

    2016-04-01

    New apatite U-Pb and multiphase 40Ar/39Ar data constrain the high to medium temperature (~ 500 °C-~ 300 °C) thermal histories of igneous and metamorphic rocks exposed in the Mérida Andes of Venezuela, and new apatite and zircon fission track data constrain the ~ 500 °C-~ 60 °C thermal histories of pre-Jurassic igneous and metamorphic rocks of the adjacent Santander Massif of Colombia. Computed thermal history envelopes using apatite U-Pb dates and grain size information from an Early Palaeozoic granodiorite in the Mérida Andes suggest that it cooled from > 500 °C to < 350 °C between ~ 266 Ma and ~ 225 Ma. Late Permian to Triassic cooling is also recorded in Early Palaeozoic granitoids and metasedimentary rocks in the Mérida Andes by numerous new muscovite and biotite 40Ar/39Ar plateau dates spanning 257.1 ± 1.0 Ma to 205.1 ± 0.8 Ma. This episode of cooling is not recognised in the Santander Massif, where 40Ar/39Ar data suggest that some Early Palaeozoic rocks cooled below ~ 320 °C in the Early Palaeozoic. However, most data from pre-Jurassic rocks reveal a regional heat pulse at ~ 200 Ma during the intrusion of numerous shallow granitoids, resulting in temperatures in excess of ~ 520 °C, obscuring late Palaeozoic histories. The generally accepted timing of amalgamation of Pangaea along the Ouachita-Marathon suture pre-dates Late Permian to Triassic cooling recorded in basement rocks of the Mérida Andes by > 30 Ma, and its effect on rocks preserved in north-western South America is unknown. We interpret late Permian to Triassic cooling in the Mérida Andes to be driven by exhumation. Previous studies have suggested that a short phase of shortening and anatexis is recorded at ~ 253 Ma in the Maya Block, which may have been adjacent to the basement rocks of the Mérida Andes in the Late Permian. The coeval onset of exhumation in the Mérida Andes may be a result of increased coupling in the magmatic arc, which was located along the western margin of

  17. A Paleozoic anorthosite massif related to rutile-bearing ilmenite ore deposits, south of the Polochic fault, Chiapas Massif Complex, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisneros, A.; Ortega-Gutiérrez, F.; Weber, B.; Solari, L.; Schaaf, P. E.; Maldonado, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Chiapas Massif Complex in the southern Maya terrane is mostly composed of late Permian igneous and meta-igneous rocks. Within this complex in southern Mexico and in the adjacent San Marcos Department of Guatemala, south of the Polochic fault, several small outcrops (~10 km2) of a Phanerozoic andesine anorthosite massif were found following an E-W trend similar to the Polochic-Motagua Fault System. Such anorthosites are related to rutile-bearing ilmenite ore deposits and hornblendite-amphibolite bands (0.1-3 meters thick). The anorthosites show recrystallization and metamorphic retrogression (rutile with titanite rims), but no relicts of high-grade metamorphic minerals such as pyroxene or garnet have been found. In Acacoyagua, Chiapas, anorthosites are spatially related to oxide-apatite rich mafic rocks; in contrast, further to the west in Motozintla, they are related to monzonites. Zircons from these monzonites yield a Permian U-Pb age (271.2×1.4 Ma) by LA-MC-ICPMS. Primary mineral assemblage of the anorthosites include mostly medium to fine-grained plagioclase (>90%) with rutile and apatite as accessory minerals, occasionally with very low amounts of quartz. Massive Fe-Ti oxide lenses up to tens of meters in length and few meters thick are an ubiquitous constituent of these anorthosites and their mineralogy include ilmenite (with exsolution lamellae of Ti-magnetite), rutile, magnetite, clinochlore, ×spinel, ×apatite, ×zircon and srilankite (Ti2ZrO6, first finding of this phase in Mexico). Rutile occurs within the massive ilmenite in two morphological types: (1) fine-grained (5-40 μm) rutile along ilmenite grain boundaries or fractures, and (2) coarse-grained rutile (<5 mm) as discrete grains, whereas magnetite and srilankite only appear as small grains along ilmenite boundaries. Zircon is present as discontinuously aligned small grains (10-40 μm) forming rims around many rutile and ilmenite grains. Attempts to date zircon rims by U-Pb using LA

  18. Possible petrogenetic associations among igneous components in North Massif soils: Evidence in 2-4 MM soil particles from 76503

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.; Bishop, Kaylynn M.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1992-12-01

    Studies of Apollo 17 highland igneous rocks and clasts in breccias from the North and South Massifs have described magnesian troctolite, norite, anorthositic gabbro, dunite, spinel cataclasites, and granulitic lithologies that may have noritic anothosite or anorthositic norite/gabbro as igneous precursors, and have speculated on possible petrogenetic relationships among these rock types. Mineral compositions and relative proportions of plagioclase and plagioclase-olivine particles in samples 76503 indicate that the precursor lithology of those particles were troctolitic anorthosite, not troctolite. Mineral and chemical compositions of more pyroxene-rich, magnesian breccias and granulites in 76503 indicate that their precursor lithology was anorthositic norite/gabbro. The combination of mineral compositions and whole-rock trace-element compositional trends supports a genetic relationship among these two groups as would result from differentiation of a single pluton. Although highland igneous lithologies in Apollo 17 materials have been described previously, the proportions of different igneous lithologies present in the massifs, their frequency of association, and how they are related are not well known. We consider the proportions of, and associations among, the igneous lithologies found in a North Massif soil, which may represent those of the North Massif or a major part of it.

  19. Has Massification of Higher Education Led to More Equity? Clues to a Reflection on Portuguese Education Arena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Massification is an undeniable phenomenon in the higher education arena. However, there have been questions raised regarding the extent to which a mass system really corresponds to an effective democratisation not only of access, but also of success. With regards to access, this article intends, through a brief analysis of the expansion of higher…

  20. Massification, Bureaucratization and Questing for "World-Class" Status: Higher Education in China since the Mid-1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngok, Kinglun

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to review the latest developments of the higher education sector in China since the mid-1990s by focusing on the expansion of university education. Design/methodology/approach: It is argued that while massification of higher education is an important indication of the progress in China's higher education system, the…

  1. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of post-collisional ultrapotassic syenites and granites from southernmost Brazil: the Piquiri Syenite Massif.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Lauro V S; Plá-Cid, Jorge; Bitencourt, Maria de Fátima; Stabel, Larissa Z

    2008-06-01

    The Piquiri Syenite Massif, southernmost Brazil, is part of the post-collisional magmatism related to the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano-Pan-African Orogenic Cycle. The massif is about 12 km in diameter and is composed of syenites, granites, monzonitic rocks and lamprophyres. Diopside-phlogopite, diopside-biotite-augite-calcic-amphibole, are the main ferro-magnesian paragenesis in the syenitic rocks. Syenitic and granitic rocks are co-magmatic and related to an ultrapotassic, silica-saturated magmatism. Their trace element patterns indicate a probable mantle source modified by previous, subduction-related metasomatism. The ultrapotassic granites of this massif were produced by fractional crystallization of syenitic magmas, and may be considered as a particular group of hypersolvus and subsolvus A-type granites. Based upon textural, structural and geochemical data most of the syenitic rocks, particularly the fine-grained types, are considered as crystallized liquids, in spite of the abundance of cumulatic layers, schlieren, and compositional banding. Most of the studied samples are metaluminous, with K2O/Na2O ratios higher than 2. The ultrapotassic syenitic and lamprophyric rocks in the Piquiri massif are interpreted to have been produced from enriched mantle sources, OIB-type, like most of the post-collisional shoshonitic, sodic alkaline and high-K tholeiitic magmatism in southernmost Brazil. The source of the ultrapotassic and lamprophyric magmas is probably the same veined mantle, with abundant phlogopite + apatite + amphibole that reflects a previous subduction-related metasomatism.

  2. Possible petrogenetic associations among igneous components in North Massif soils: Evidence in 2-4 mm soil particles from 76503

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.; Bishop, Kaylynn M.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1992-01-01

    Studies of Apollo 17 highland igneous rocks and clasts in breccias from the North and South Massifs have described magnesian troctolite, norite, anorthositic gabbro, dunite, spinel cataclasites, and granulitic lithologies that may have noritic anothosite or anorthositic norite/gabbro as igneous precursors, and have speculated on possible petrogenetic relationships among these rock types. Mineral compositions and relative proportions of plagioclase and plagioclase-olivine particles in samples 76503 indicate that the precursor lithology of those particles were troctolitic anorthosite, not troctolite. Mineral and chemical compositions of more pyroxene-rich, magnesian breccias and granulites in 76503 indicate that their precursor lithology was anorthositic norite/gabbro. The combination of mineral compositions and whole-rock trace-element compositional trends supports a genetic relationship among these two groups as would result from differentiation of a single pluton. Although highland igneous lithologies in Apollo 17 materials have been described previously, the proportions of different igneous lithologies present in the massifs, their frequency of association, and how they are related are not well known. We consider the proportions of, and associations among, the igneous lithologies found in a North Massif soil, which may represent those of the North Massif or a major part of it.

  3. The Dilemma and Solutions for the Conflicts between Equality and Excellence in the Massification of Higher Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiou-Huai, Wang

    2012-01-01

    Equality and excellence are two core values underlying many educational endeavors; however, they are often in conflict and controversy. This article intends to examine the dilemma created by such controversies in the context of massification of higher education in Taiwan and attempt to provide solutions from both the theoretical and policy…

  4. Comprenhensive Program of Engineering and Geologic Surveys for Designing and Constructing Radioactive Waste Storage Facilities in Hard Rock Massifs

    SciTech Connect

    Gupalo, T; Milovidov, V; Prokopoca, O; Jardine, L

    2002-12-27

    Geological, geophysical, and engineering-geological research conducted at the 'Yeniseisky' site obtained data on climatic, geomorphologic, geological conditions, structure and properties of composing rock, and conditions of underground water recharge and discharge. These results provide sufficient information to make an estimate of the suitability of locating a radioactive waste (R W) underground isolation facility at the Nizhnekansky granitoid massif

  5. Italian Sixteenth-Century Italian Writing Books and the Scribal Reality in Verona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Richard W.

    1986-01-01

    Uses evidence of common writings found in the Rosenthal Collection of North Italian Documents at the University of Chicago to determine that the type of hand written script most popular in sixteenth century Verona was not the "cancellaresca" found in most copy books, but rather the italic and mercantilist scripts. (SKC)

  6. Physicochemical parameters of the melts participating in the formation of chromite ore hosted in the Klyuchevsky ultramafic massif, the Central Urals, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonov, V. A.; Ivanov, K. S.; Smirnov, V. N.; Kovyazin, S. V.

    2009-04-01

    The results of melt inclusion study are reported for chromites of the Klyuchevsky ultramafic massif, which is the most representative of all Ural ultramafic massifs localized beyond the Main Ural Fault Zone. The massif is composed of a dunite-harzburgite complex (tectonized mantle peridotite) and a dunite-wehrlite-clinopyroxenite-gabbro complex (layered portion of the ophiolitic section). The studied Kozlovsky chromite deposit is located in the southeastern part of the Klyuchevsky massif and hosted in serpentinized dunite as a series of lenticular bodies and layers up to 7-8 m thick largely composed of disseminated and locally developed massive ore. Melt inclusions have been detected in chromites of both ore types. The heated and then quenched into glass melt inclusions and host minerals were analyzed on a Camebax-Micro microprobe. The glasses of melt inclusions contain up to 1.06 wt % Na2O + K2O and correspond to melts of normal alkalinity. In SiO2 content (49-56 wt %), they fit basalt and basaltic andesite. The melt inclusions are compared with those from chromites of the Nurali massif in the southern Urals and the Karashat massif in southern Tuva. The physicochemical parameters of magmatic systems related to the formation of disseminated and massive chromite ores of the Klyuchevsky massif are different. The former are characterized by a wider temperature interval (1185-1120°C) in comparison with massive chromite ore (1160-1140°C).

  7. Crustal segments in the North Patagonian Massif, Patagonia: An integrated perspective based on Sm-Nd isotope systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Dopico, Carmen I.; López de Luchi, Mónica G.; Rapalini, Augusto E.; Kleinhanns, Ilka C.

    2011-03-01

    New insights on the Paleozoic evolution of the continental crust in the North Patagonian Massif are presented based on the analysis of Sm-Nd systematics. New evidence is presented to constrain tectonic models for the origin of Patagonia and its relations with the South American crustal blocks. Geologic, isotopic and tectonic characterization of the North Patagonian Massif and comparison of the Nd parameters lead us to conclude that: (1) The North Patagonian Massif is a crustal block with bulk crustal average ages between 2.1 and 1.6 Ga TDM (Nd) and (2) At least three metamorphic episodes could be identified in the Paleozoic rocks of the North Patagonian Massif. In the northeastern corner, Famatinian metamorphism is widely identified. However field and petrographic evidence indicate a Middle to Late Cambrian metamorphism pre-dating the emplacement of the ca. 475 Ma granitoids. In the southwestern area, are apparent 425-420 Ma (?) and 380-360 Ma metamorphic peaks. The latter episode might have resulted from the collision of the Antonia terrane; and (3) Early Paleozoic magmatism in the northeastern area is coeval with the Famatinian arc. Nd isotopic compositions reveal that Ordovician magmatism was associated with attenuated crust. On the southwestern border, the first magmatic recycling record is Devonian. Nd data shows a step by step melting of different levels of the continental crust in the Late Palaeozoic. Between 330 and 295 Ma magmatism was likely the product of a crustal source with an average 1.5 Ga TDM (Nd). Widespread magmatism represented by the 295-260 Ma granitoids involved a lower crustal mafic source, and continued with massive shallower-acid plutono volcanic complexes which might have recycled an upper crustal segment of the Proterozoic continental basement, resulting in a more felsic crust until the Triassic. (4) Sm-Nd parameters and detrital zircon age patterns of Early Paleozoic (meta)-sedimentary rocks from the North Patagonian Massif and those

  8. [Sickness Impact Profile: the Italian version].

    PubMed

    Bertolotti, G; Vidotto, G; Baiardi, P; Carone, M; Sommaruga, M; Zotti, A M

    2001-01-01

    The Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) is one of the questionnaires most widely used for the generic evaluation of functional health status. Besides measuring functional status or quality of life, it is also a precious font of information for the psychologist in the inpatient-rehabilitative context when planning an intervention focused on the most dysfunctional areas indicated by the subject. In producing the Italian version of the SIP, attention was duly paid in the translation to maintain equivalence in terms of idioms, grammar and syntax, so as to render it free of erroneous translations or possible. misunderstandings. Since the SIP employs "weighted" items, in order to obtain the weights corresponding to each individual statement a 3-phase procedure was followed: A) each subject "judge" was asked to express on a scale his/her own dysfunctionality judgement for each item; B) statements with the highest and lowest mean weight for each category were identified; C) the same "judges" were then asked to reclassify the statements which had obtained the highest and lowest weights, respectively, on a scale of 15 equidistant intervals; subsequently the same subjects completed the SIP a second time (retest). Results show that the judges were coherent in their estimation of the specific weights for each item. In the judges' second completion of the SIP it was found that the majority of the test-retest correlations fell almost always within the r = 0.70-0.90 range. Moreover, given the marginal difference between Italian and United States weights, both methods may be used for the calculation of the scores. One thus concludes that the SIP questionnaire can be applied in the Italian context.

  9. The geochemical atlas of Italian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vivo, Benedetto; Cicchella, Domenico; Albanese, Stefano; Dinelli, Enrico; Giaccio, Lucia; Lima, Annamaria; Valera, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    The geochemical Atlas of Italian agricultural and grazing land soils was carried out as part of GEMAS project whose objective was to characterize soils of rural areas of the whole Europe. Soil samples were collected at an average sampling density of 1 site per 2500 km2. Two different sample types were collected: (1) 121 agricultural soils (Ap) on regularly ploughed land to a depth of 20 cm and (2) 121 grazing land soils (Gr) (land under permanent grass cover) to a depth of 10 cm. All soil samples were air dried, sieved to <2 mm, homogenised and finally split into 10 sub-samples. Both sample types (Ap and Gr) were analysed at the BGR for a suite of 41 elements by WD-XRFS. The same samples were also analysed after AR and MMI extractions by a combination of ICP-AES and ICP-MS for 53 elements. In addition, other parameters were determined: pH, TOC, total carbon and total sulphur, LOI, CEC, Sr-isotopes, Pb-isotopes, MIR-spectra. By means of a GIS software, georeferenced data of the Italian territory were used to produce the geochemical maps of all the analysed elements for both agricultural and grazing land soils. Specifically, for each element and sampling media a map reporting interpolated data and graduated dots was produced; univariate statistics and graphs were also associated to each map. The Atlas also contain: 5 maps for regional variability of factor scores of elemental associations resulting from R-mode factor analysis and 15 baseline and land use maps for some selected elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, Zn) following the Italian intervention criteria.

  10. Italian hybrid and fission reactors scenario analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ciotti, M.; Manzano, J.; Sepielli, M.

    2012-06-19

    Italy is a country where a long tradition of studies both in the fission and fusion field is consolidated; nevertheless a strong public opinion concerned with the destination of the Spent Nuclear Fuel hinders the development of nuclear power. The possibility to a severe reduction of the NSF mass generated from a fleet of nuclear reactors employing an hypothetical fusionfission hybrid reactor has been investigated in the Italian framework. The possibility to produce nuclear fuel for the fission nuclear reactors with the hybrid reactor was analyzed too.

  11. Italian payload development status for Columbus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loria, A.; Mirra, C.

    1992-07-01

    Starting from a brief historical background, ideas and concepts for Italian payloads development for Columbus are reported. Ongoing efforts on precursor missions proposals analysis and future activities are also briefly depicted. These include a microgravity program to define the first steps necessary for future payload building. The following facilities are outlined: boiling; two phase; combustion; fluidized bed. The expectation for the future is to continue in the development of the instruments and facilities depicted in order to be able to allocate part of them for the beginning of the Columbus space station operations.

  12. Italian and French Experiments on Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, WM

    1920-01-01

    Given here are the results of experiments conducted by Colonel Costanzi of the Italian Army to determine the influence of the surrounding building in which a wind tunnel was installed on the efficiency of the installation, and how the efficiency of the installation was affected by the design of the tunnel. Also given are the results of a series of experiments by Eiffel on 34 models of tunnels of different dimensions. This series of experiments was started in order to find out if, by changing the shape of the nozzle or of the diffuser of the large tunnel at Auteuil, the efficiency of the installation could be improved.

  13. Italian Validation of Homophobia Scale (HS)

    PubMed Central

    Ciocca, Giacomo; Capuano, Nicolina; Tuziak, Bogdan; Mollaioli, Daniele; Limoncin, Erika; Valsecchi, Diana; Carosa, Eleonora; Gravina, Giovanni L; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Homophobia Scale (HS) is a valid tool to assess homophobia. This test is self-reporting, composed of 25 items, which assesses a total score and three factors linked to homophobia: behavior/negative affect, affect/behavioral aggression, and negative cognition. Aim The aim of this study was to validate the HS in the Italian context. Methods An Italian translation of the HS was carried out by two bilingual people, after which an English native translated the test back into the English language. A psychologist and sexologist checked the translated items from a clinical point of view. We recruited 100 subjects aged18–65 for the Italian validation of the HS. The Pearson coefficient and Cronbach's α coefficient were performed to test the test–retest reliability and internal consistency. Main Outcome Measures A sociodemographic questionnaire including the main information as age, geographic distribution, partnership status, education, religious orientation, and sex orientation was administrated together with the translated version of HS. Results The analysis of the internal consistency showed an overall Cronbach's α coefficient of 0.92. In the four domains, the Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.90 in behavior/negative affect, 0.94 in affect/behavioral aggression, and 0.92 in negative cognition, whereas in the total score was 0.86. The test–retest reliability showed the following results: the HS total score was r = 0.93 (P < 0.0001), behavior/negative affect was r = 0.79 (P < 0.0001), affect/behavioral aggression was r = 0.81 (P < 0.0001), and negative cognition was r = 0.75 (P < 0.0001). Conclusions The Italian validation of the HS revealed the use of this self-report test to have good psychometric properties. This study offers a new tool to assess homophobia. In this regard, the HS can be introduced into the clinical praxis and into programs for the prevention of homophobic behavior. PMID:26468384

  14. The Italian Strong Motion Network (RAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Giovanni; Ammirati, Alfredo; de Nardis, Rita; Filippi, Luisa; Gallo, Antonella; Lavecchia, Giusy; Sirignano, Sebastiano; Zambonelli, Elisa; Nicoletti, Mario

    2014-05-01

    A network for the strong motion monitoring of the territory allows recording data that provide an excellent opportunity to study the source, path, and site effects on the ground motions, specifically in near source area, for updating seismic hazard map and consequently construction codes and earthquake resistant design. Strong motion data also help to increase the effective preparation and response to seismic emergencies and the ability of a community to quickly recover from the damages of an earthquake contributes to lower the seismic risk usually measured in term of casualties and economic losses. The Italian network for monitoring the strong movement of the national territory (RAN) is the result of a fruitful cooperation over the last 16 years between the Italian government, the regions and local authorities and now counts more than 500 stations. Over the years, as a priority the DPC has focused mainly on the expansion of the network in terms of the number of measurement points and technological improvement of instrumentation as well as the data transmission system. A data acquisition centre was implemented in which the Antelope software collects, processes and archives, automatically, the data of the RAN and of the external strong motion networks that contribute to the database of the RAN. Recently the DPC has dedicated specific resources to improve the response of the network, in particular, in case of emergency. The efficiency of the network on a daily basis is not less than 95% and temporary networks were installed in the epicentral area within 24 hours after the earthquake and connected to the data acquisition centre in Rome. A fast seismic data analysis is essential to provide useful information to Authorities which make decisions immediately after a strong earthquake occurrence. During a strong earthquake, the modern accelerometers are the only instruments which can provide near source high-quality data that are important both for scientific and for civil

  15. Exploring the Notion That Subduction Erosion Has Removed or Submerged Costa Rica's Early Tertiary Arc Massifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, D. W.

    2007-05-01

    Arc igneous rocks of Paleocene, Eocene, and Oligocene age are widely exposed in the southern, coastal region of Panama (Lissinna et al., EGU abstract, 2006). These rocks intrude or overlie mafic basement rock of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) of Late Cretaceous age that extends to the east to underlie the Caribbean Basin and form the Caribbean plate. Immediately west of Panama, in coastal Costa Rica, exposures of CLIP basement are not intruded or overlain by arc magmatic rocks of early Tertiary age. EXPLANATIONS: Potentially, the early Tertiary subduction zone that dipped beneath the Pacific margin of Panama did not extend to the west, thus no arc magmatism occurred where Costa Rica presently exists. Alternatively, the subduction zone bordering the Pacific edge of the CLIP extended below Costa Rica but former exposures of early Tertiary arc magmatic rocks piled there have been erosionally removed or buried beneath Miocene and younger arc massifs of interior mountain belts. EXPLORING A SUBDUCTION EROSION EXPLANATION Onshore and offshore evidence documents that subduction erosion thins and truncates the submerged rock framework of the Middle and South America forearc. The eroded (removed) material is transported toward and into the mantle within the subduction channel separating the upper plate of the forearc and lower plate of the subducting oceanic crust. The long-term (greater than 10 Myr) rate of truncation (i. e., migration of the trench toward a fixed, onshore reference) averages 2 to 3 km/Myr. Because of the subduction of the aseismic Cocos Ridge beneath Costa Rica, during at least the past 4 to 5 Myr the rate of truncation at this margin has been much higher. It is proposed that during the past 50 Myr subduction erosion has truncated the Costa Rica forearc by at least 100 km and either obliterated or deeply submerged arc massifs of early Tertiary age. Their exposed presence to the east in neighboring Panama reflects the circumstance that since

  16. A geophysical model of the Variscan orogenic root (Bohemian Massif): Implications for modern collisional orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Alexandra; Edel, Jean-Bernard; Schulmann, Karel; Tomek, Čestmir; Lexa, Ondrej

    2011-05-01

    A new model of the structure and composition of the Variscan crust in the Bohemian Massif is proposed based on 3D gravity modelling, geological data, seismic refraction (CEL09) and reflection (9HR) sections. The Bohemian Massif crust is characterized by a succession of positive and negative anomalies of about 60-80 km wavelength for nearly constant Moho depths. The south-western part of the Bohemian Massif displays a large negative Bouguer anomaly corresponding to high grade rocks (granulites and migmatites) of the Palaeozoic crustal root represented by the Moldanubian domain. The adjacent Neo-Proterozoic Bruno-Vistulian microcontinent displays an important gravity high reflecting mafic and intermediate medium grade metamorphic and magmatic rocks. The deep crustal boundary between the root domain and the Bruno-Vistulian microcontinent is represented by a strong gradient located 50 to 70 km westwards from the surface boundary between these units indicating that the high density basement rocks are covered by a thin sheet of low density granulites and migmatites. North-west from the Moldanubian domain occurs an important gravity high corresponding to the Neo-Proterozoic basement of the Teplá-Barrandian Unit limited in the north by southeast dipping reflectors of the Teplá suture which is characterized by high density eclogites and ultramafics. The footwall of the suture corresponds to low density felsic crust of the Saxothuringian basement. The reflection and refraction seismics and gravity modelling suggest a complex lithological structure of the Moldanubian domain marked by a low density 5-10 km thick lower crustal layer located above the Moho, a 5-10 km thick heavy mafic layer, a 10 km thick mid-crustal layer of intermediate density and a locally developed 2-5 km thick low density layer at the surface. The low density lower crust correlates well with low P-wave velocities in the range 6.0-6.4 km s- 1 in the CEL09 section. This complex geophysical structure and

  17. The Front of the Aar Massif: A Crustal-Scale Ramp Anticline?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herwegh, Marco; Mock, Samuel; Wehrens, Philip; Baumberger, Roland; Berger, Alfons; Wangenheim, Cornelia; Glotzbach, Christoph; Kissling, Edi

    2015-04-01

    The front of the Aar Massif (Swiss Central Alps) is characterized by Paleozoic basement rocks exposed at altitudes of more than 4600m above sea level, followed by a steeply north dipping Mesozoic sedimentary cover and overlying Helvetic nappes. The sediments turn into subhorizontal orientations just few kilometers to the N, where the top of the basement is situated at depths of about 7000m below sea level. What is the origin of this vertical jump of about 12000m of the basement rocks over such short horizontal distances? Recent structural investigations at the Basement-Cover contact indicate a complex structural evolution involving reactivation of extensional faults and inversion of half-grabens during early compressional stages. In the internal parts of the Aar Massif a general steepening of the faults resulted with progressive compression. In the northern frontal part, however, a new spaced cleavage evolved, which is dipping with 20-30° to the SE. In places, the new cleavage in the basement rocks is intense and pervasive and correlates with a steepening of the basement-cover contact and its offsets of several tens to hundreds of meters. Hence strain is strongly partitioned in a large number of high strain zones, which cover a cumulative thickness of at least 2000m, eventually even much more considering subsurface continuation. The Mesozoic sediments affected by this large-scale deformation zone are either intensely ductile folded in the case of limestones or faulted and imbricated in the case of dolomites. These differences in deformation style result from the deformation conditions of about < 250-300°C, where calcite still deforms in a ductile manner, while dolomite and crystalline basement preferentially undergo brittle deformation in combination of dissolution-precipitation processes. In a large-scale point of view, we suggest that the high strain domain in the crystalline basement in fact represents a crustal-scale several kilometers wide shear zone, which

  18. Additional Constraints on the Shallow Seismic Velocity Structure of the Atlantis Massif Oceanic Core Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henig, A. S.; Blackman, D. K.; Harding, A. J.; Kent, G. M.; Canales, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    We investigate the detailed structure of the uppermost ~km of Atlantis Massif, an oceanic core complex at 30°N on the Mid Atlantic Ridge, using pre-existing multichannel seismic data. The Synthetic On- Bottom Experiment (SOBE) method that we employ downward continues both the shots and receivers to a depth just above the seafloor. This allows us to pick refracted arrivals recorded on the streamer at very-near offset, providing constraints from rays that are received within the 300-2000 m range that was unavailable to earlier studies where standard shot gathers had been analyzed. Thus, we can better model the upper few hundred meters of the section which, in turn, adds confidence for determining the deeper (400-1500 m) structure. New work on a ridge-parallel line has been added to last year's work on a cross-axis line over the Central Dome of the massif. Tomographic results are similar for these crossing lines: a thin (100-150 m) low velocity (< 3 km/s) layer caps the dome; high horizontal gradients (>1.25 s-1) occur in local (1-2 km wide) regions within these 6-8 km long subsections of the MCS lines analyzed to date; and very high vertical velocity gradients, greater than 3.75 s-1, occur within the km just below the exposed detachment in these areas. We obtain general agreement with Canales et al., 2008, results over the Central Dome but our models suggest a finer scale lateral heterogeneity. We have begun analysis of additional and extended MCS lines over the domal core of the massif and our priority for this presentation is to assess the detailed structure of the Southern Ridge. In at least some areas the thin, low velocity layer contrasts sufficiently with underlying material that a clear refracted arrival is visible in supergathers. We will determine whether the low velocity layer persists over the whole dome or if it is restricted to the Central Dome. An important question is whether its thickness on the Southern Ridge, if it exists there, differs from that

  19. Episodic early Miocene anatexis in the Ama Drime Massif, southern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.; Zeng, L.; Liu, J.; Gao, L.; Xie, K.

    2010-12-01

    Cenozoic India-Asia collision resulted in profound crustal shortening and thickening that produced the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau. However, extensional tectonics, represented by the E-W trending south Tibetan detachment system (STDS) and N-S trending normal faults, has been a salient feature of Himalayan geology since the Miocene. To the north of the Ama Drime Massif, the STDS is crosscut by N-S trending normal faults, which indicates that the earlier extensional deformation was overprinted by the E-W extension. In response to the extension, the Ama Drime Massif has experienced rapid exhumation and partial melting of fertile rocks due to decompressional melting. Near the northern tip of the Ama Drime Massif, SHRIMP ziron U/Pb data from leucogranites indicate two episodes of melting at 21.0±0.7 Ma and 15.8±0.1 Ma, respectively. These leucogranites have (1) high SiO2 (>72 wt%), Al2O3 (>12 wt%), and A/CNK (>1.0); (2) high Rb and low Sr, thus high Rb/Sr ratios (>1.0); (3) high contents of total REE, and substantial negative Eu anomalies; and (4) high initial Sr (87Sr/86Sr =0.7621~0.8845) and low Nd (ɛNd(i) =-20.2~-13.0) isotopic compositions. As compared with those in the metapelite and granitic gneiss, these leucogranites could be produced from anatexis of a source mixed of metapelite with granitic gneiss. In addition, SHRIMP zircon U/Pb analyses on the granitic gneiss, garnet amphibolite and garnet pyroxenite yield 206Pb/238U ages at 22.6±1.6 Ma, 21.4±2.7 Ma and 16.0±0.2 Ma, respectively, which might represent timing of partial melting or retrograde metamorphic reaction due to the extension-related decompression. These new data suggest two episodes of crustal anatexis at ~21-22 Ma and ~16 Ma, respectively. The existence of two metamorphic episodes indicates that the older melting was associated with a high-grade metamorphism, whereas the younger was associated with a widespread retrograde metamorphism. Exhumation of deeply subducted crustal material not only

  20. The Triassic reworking of the Yunkai massif (South China): EMP monazite and U-Pb zircon geochronologic evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng-Hong; Liu, Yung-Hsin; Lee, Chi-Yu; Sano, Yuji; Zhou, Han-Wen; Xiang, Hua; Takahata, Naoto

    2017-01-01

    Geohistory of the Yunkai massif in South China Block is important in understanding the geodynamics for the build-up of this block during the Phanerozoic orogenies. To investigate this massif, we conduct EMP monazite and U-Pb zircon geochronological determinations on mineral inclusions and separate for seventeen samples in four groups, representing metamorphic rocks from core domain, the Gaozhou Complex (amphibolite facies, NE-striking) and the Yunkai Group (greenschist facies, NW-striking) of this massif and adjacent undeformed granites. Some EMP monazite ages are consistent with the NanoSIMS results. Monazite inclusions, mostly with long axis parallel to the cleavage of platy and elongated hosts, give distinguishable age results for NW- and NE-trending deformations at 244-236 Ma and 236-233 Ma, respectively. They also yield ages of 233-230 Ma for core domain gneissic granites and 232-229 Ma for undefomed granites. Combining U-Pb zircon ages of the same group, 245 Ma and 230 Ma are suggested to constrain the time of two phases of deformation. Aside from ubiquity of Triassic ages in studied rocks, ages of detrital monazite in the meta-sandstone match the major U-Pb zircon age clusters of the metamorphic rock that are largely concentrated at Neoproterozoic (1.0-0.9 Ga) and Early Paleozoic (444-431 Ma). Based on these geochronological data, Triassic is interpreted as representing the time for recrystallization of these host minerals on the Early Paleozoic protolith, and the also popular Neoproterozoic age is probably inherited. With this context, Yunkai massif is regarded as a strongly reactivated Triassic metamorphic terrain on an Early Paleozoic basement which had incorporated sediments with Neoproterozoic provenances. Triassic tectonic evolution of the Yunkai massif is suggested to have been controlled by converging geodynamics of the South China and Indochina Blocks as well as mafic magma emplacement related to the Emeishan large igneous province (E-LIP).

  1. Detachment shear zone of the Atlantis Massif core complex, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 30°N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karson, J. A.; Früh-Green, G. L.; Kelley, D. S.; Williams, E. A.; Yoerger, D. R.; Jakuba, M.

    2006-06-01

    Near-bottom investigations of the cross section of the Atlantis Massif exposed in a major tectonic escarpment provide an unprecedented view of the internal structure of the footwall domain of this oceanic core complex. Integrated direct observations, sampling, photogeology, and imaging define a mylonitic, low-angle detachment shear zone (DSZ) along the crest of the massif. The shear zone may project beneath the nearby, corrugated upper surface of the massif. The DSZ and related structures are inferred to be responsible for the unroofing of upper mantle peridotites and lower crustal gabbroic rocks by extreme, localized tectonic extension during seafloor spreading over the past 2 m.y. The DSZ is characterized by strongly foliated to mylonitic serpentinites and talc-amphibole schists. It is about 100 m thick and can be traced continuously for at least 3 km in the tectonic transport direction. The DSZ foliation arches over the top of the massif in a convex-upward trajectory mimicking the morphology of the top of the massif. Kinematic indicators show consistent top-to-east (toward the MAR axis) tectonic transport directions. Foliated DSZ rocks grade structurally downward into more massive basement rocks that lack a pervasive outcrop-scale foliation. The DSZ and underlying basement rocks are cut by discrete, anastomosing, normal-slip, shear zones. Widely spaced, steeply dipping, normal faults cut all the older structures and localize serpentinization-driven hydrothermal outflow at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field. A thin (few meters) sequence of sedimentary breccias grading upward into pelagic limestones directly overlies the DSZ and may record a history of progressive rotation of the shear zone from a moderately dipping attitude into its present, gently dipping orientation during lateral spreading and uplift.

  2. Thematic mapping of likely target areas for the occurence of cassiterite in the Serra do Mocambo (GO) granitic massifs using LANDSAT 2 digital imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almeidofilho, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The applicability of LANDSAT/MSS images, enhanced by computer derived techniques, as essential tools in mineral research was investigated and the Serra do Mocambo granitic massif was used as illustration. Given the peculiar factors founded in this area, orbital imagery permitted the delineation of potential target areas of mineralization occurrences, associated to albitized/greisenized types. Follow up prospection for primary tin deposits in this granitic massif should be restricted to the delineated areas which are less than 5% of the total superficial area of the massif.

  3. Practicing Reflexivity in the Study of Italian Migrants in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seganti, Francesca Romana

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the centrality of reflexivity in qualitative research through examples from my study on the role new media play in the lives of Italians in London. My hypothesis was that Italians were "in transit" in London and they were using new media to build "temporary" communities. I conducted in-depth interviews…

  4. Divergent Thinking in Italian Students with and without Reading Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Pinto, Giuliana; Donfrancesco, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have explored the relationship between dyslexia and creativity, but results have been rather mixed. This study examines whether Italian dyslexic children are more creative than their peers without a reading impairment. One hundred ninety Italian children aged between 9 and 13 participated in this study, divided into two groups:…

  5. An Italian Social Learning Experience in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieri, Michelle; Diamantini, Davide; Paini, Germano

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses on an experience of social learning realized in six Italian high schools in the 2012-2013 academic year. In this experience we used ThinkTag Smart, a new learning platform, to train 400 students. After an introduction concerning Information and Communication Technologies in Italian schools, this contribution will describe the…

  6. Italian Developmental Dyslexic and Proficient Readers: Where Are the Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barca, Laura; Burani, Cristina; Di Filippo, Gloria; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi

    2006-01-01

    Italian dyslexic children are characterized by a pervasive reading speed deficit, with relatively preserved accuracy. This pattern has been associated with predominant use of the nonlexical reading procedure. However, there is no evidence of a deficit in the lexical route of Italian dyslexics. We investigated both lexical and nonlexical reading…

  7. Italian in Malta: A Socio-Educational Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruana, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution I present an overview of Italian in Malta, the third language of Malta, focusing on the role of this language within educational institutions and other domains of society. Italian was one of Malta's official languages till 1936 and, historically, it was used mainly within administrative and cultural spheres of society. Contact…

  8. Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and corn (Zea mays)competition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Italian ryegrass is an annual/biennial grass that is typically used as a pasture crop or a cover crop along roadsides, rights-of-way, and industrial areas. Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Italian ryegrass populations have been documented around the world, mostly in orchard and vineyard situations. The fir...

  9. 75 FR 64611 - Italian American Heritage and Culture Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... Proclamation 8585--Italian American Heritage and Culture Month, 2010 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0... and Culture Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In the five... Italian American Heritage and Culture Month, we recognize the rich heritage of Americans of...

  10. Identity Formation in Adolescents from Italian, Mixed, and Migrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Fermani, Alessandra; Pojaghi, Barbara; Meeus, Wim

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare identity formation in adolescents from Italian (n = 261), mixed (n = 100), and migrant families (n =148). Participants completed the Italian version of the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale that assesses identity processes in educational and relational domains. Within a variable-centered…

  11. Real and Perceived Employability: A Comparison among Italian Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caricati, Luca; Chiesa, Rita; Guglielmi, Dina; Mariani, Marco Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The research undertaken for this article aims to analyse the correspondence between perceived employability and the actual national employment rate among Italian students and graduates undertaking different courses in a large Italian university. Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey of 2087 students in 19 faculties, and compared…

  12. Genre and Function in the Italian Business Letter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiler, Mary Ann; Victor, David A.

    A study compared and contrasted the use of openings, summational closings, and closures in Italian and U.S. business letters to examine the role of culture in international business communication. It is argued that the Italian business letter should be studied in a functional intra-cultural perspective where its meaning creates and maintains…

  13. Strategic Management Accounting in Universities: The Italian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Arnaboldi, Michela; Azzone, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of management accounting in four major Italian universities, which have been struggling to build their strategy in a context of significant change. Following many OECD countries the Italian government has been changing its higher education system by giving more autonomy to universities. These changes pose a…

  14. Gesture and Identity in the Teaching and Learning of Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltier, Ilaria Nardotto; McCafferty, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the use of mimetic gestures of identity by foreign language teachers of Italian and their students in college classes as a form of meaning-making. All four of the teachers were found to use a variety of Italian gestures as a regular aspect of their teaching and presentation of self. Students and teachers also were found to…

  15. Italian Registry of Congenital Bleeding Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Giampaolo, Adele; Abbonizio, Francesca; Arcieri, Romano; Hassan, Hamisa Jane

    2017-01-01

    In Italy, the surveillance of people with bleeding disorders is based on the National Registry of Congenital Coagulopathies (NRCC) managed by the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità). The NRCC collects epidemiological and therapeutic data from the 54 Hemophilia Treatment Centers, members of the Italian Association of Hemophilia Centres (AICE). The number of people identified with bleeding disorders has increased over the years, with the number rising from approx. 7000 in 2000 to over 11,000 in 2015. The NRCC includes 4020 patients with hemophilia A and 859 patients with hemophilia B. The prevalence of the rare type 3 vWD is 0.20/100,000 inhabitants. Less common congenital bleeding disorders include the following deficiencies: Factor I (fibrinogen), Factor II (prothrombin), Factor V, Factor VII, Factor X, Factor XI and Factor XIII, which affect 1953 patients. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection affects 1561 patients, more than 200 of whom have two infections (HCV + HIV). Estimated hemophilia-related drug consumption in 2015 was approx. 550 million IU of FVIII for hemophilia A patients and approx. 70 million IU of FIX for hemophilia B patients. The NRCC, with its bleeding disorder data set, is a tool that can provide answers to fundamental questions in public health, monitoring care provision and drug treatment, as well as facilitating clinical and epidemiological research. PMID:28335488

  16. The Italian Tau/charm project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enrica Biagini, Maria

    2014-06-01

    A τ/charm Factory, an e + e- collider with very high luminosity at the 2-4.6 GeV center of mass energy, to be built on the Rome University at Tor Vergata campus, was studied by the Consortium Nicola Cabibbo Laboratory and the INFN Frascati Laboratories. This project is the natural evolution of the flagship Italian project SuperB Factory, funded by the Italian Government in 2010 with a budget that turned out to be insufficient to cover the total costs of the project. The study of rare events at the τ/charm energy was already planned as a Phase-II of SuperB [1]. This design keeps all the unique features of SuperB, including the polarization of the electron beam, with the possibility to take data in a larger energy range, with reduced accelerator dimensions and construction and operation costs. A Report on the accelerator design has been published in September 2013 [2].

  17. Italian occupational health: concepts, conflicts, implications.

    PubMed Central

    Reich, M R; Goldman, R H

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines Italy's worker-based model for occupational health, especially its key concepts and its relation to social conflict. It briefly reviews the history of three approaches to occupational health in Italy: university-based, industry-based, and government-based. It then analyzes the worker-based approach, which emerged in the late 1960s and early 1970s as worker groups and trade unions mobilized around new concepts of occupational health. Five key concepts are discussed: the workers' homogeneous group; workers' subjectivity; the use of contract language; the development of local occupational health institutions; and the use of occupational hazard risk maps. The analysis illustrates how the social processes of mobilization and institutionalization affected the ideas and structures of Italian occupational health. Worker mobilization in Italy produced ideological changes in the nation's occupational health system, institutional changes in universities and governments, and legislative changes at national and local levels. The institutionalization of reforms, however, created new conflicts and problems and tended to restrict worker participation and promote expert intervention. The paper concludes with a brief outline of the history of occupational health approaches in the United States and then discusses the implications of the five Italian concepts for US occupational health policy. PMID:6380322

  18. Mineral compositions of plutonic rocks from the Lewis Hills massif, Bay of Islands ophiolite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Susan E.; Elthon, Don

    1988-01-01

    Mineral compositions of residual and cumulate rocks from the Lewis Hills massif of the Bay of Islands ophiolite complex are reported and interpreted in the context of magnetic processes involved in the geochemical evolution of spatially associated diabase dikes. The mineral compositions reflect greater degrees of partial melting than most abyssal peridotites do and appear to represent the most depleted end of abyssal peridotite compositions. Subsolidus equilibration between Cr-Al spinal and olivine generally has occurred at temperatures of 700 to 900 C. The spinel variations agree with the overall fractionation of basaltic magmas producing spinels with progressively lower Cr numbers. The compositions of clinopyroxenes suggest that the fractionation of two different magma series produced the various cumulate rocks.

  19. Crystal structure of hydrogen-bearing vuonnemite from the Lovozero alkaline massif

    SciTech Connect

    Rastsvetaeva, R. K. Aksenov, S. M.; Verin, I. A.; Lykova, I. S.

    2011-05-15

    Hydrogen-bearing vuonnemite from the Shkatulka hyperagpaitic pegmatite (the Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula) was studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The triclinic unit-cell parameters are as follows: a = 5.4712(1) Angstrom-Sign , b = 7.1626(1) Angstrom-Sign , c = 14.3702(3) Angstrom-Sign , {alpha} = 92.623(2) Degree-Sign , {beta} = 95.135(1) Degree-Sign , {gamma} = 90.440(1) Degree-Sign , sp. gr. P1, R = 3.4%. The Na{sup +} cations and H{sub 2}O molecules are ordered in sites between the packets. The water molecules are hydrogen bonded to the PO{sub 4} tetrahedra.

  20. Chemical dating of zircon from granitic pegmatite of the Shartash Massif (Central Urals)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votyakov, S. L.; Pribavkin, S. V.; Zamyatin, D. A.

    2016-09-01

    Using techniques of microprobe analysis and Raman microspectroscopy, a study of the composition, structure, and age of high-uranium zircon from the Sharatash intrusion pegmatite was performed. The presence of a number of zones in crystals having different physicochemical characteristics has been revealed. The Id-e zones affected by a radiation dose of (30-130) × 1018 α-dec/g were completely amorphized, and their chemical isochron age was estimated at 311.4 ± 7.1 Ma: this is interpreted as the time of zircon formation in the pegmatite. The age of uraninite coupled with zircon is 317.1 ± 2.3 Ma. These dating results clarify the formation time of the final phase (pegmatite) of the Shartash intrusion and determine the upper age limit of hydrothermal gold mineralization (Berezovsk deposit) associated with the granite massif.

  1. Application of GIS technologies to monitor secondary radioactive contamination in the Delegen mountain massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipbeki, O.; Kabzhanova, G.; Kurmanova, G.; Alipbekova, Ch.

    2016-06-01

    The territory of the Degelen mountain massif is located within territory of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and it is an area of ecological disaster. Currently there is a process of secondary radioactive contamination that is caused by geodynamic processes activated at the Degelen array, violation of underground hydrological cycles and as a consequence, water seepage into the tunnels. One of the methods of monitoring of geodynamic processes is the modern technology of geographic information systems (GIS), methods of satellite radar interferometry and high accuracy satellite navigation system in conjunction with radioecological methods. This paper discusses on the creation of a GIS-project for the Degelen array, facilitated by quality geospatial analysis of the situation and simulation of the phenomena, in order to maximize an objective assessment of the radiation situation in this protected area.

  2. Sm-Nd dating of fluorite from the worldclass Montroc fluorite deposit, southern Massif Central, France

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munoz, M.; Premo, W.R.; Courjault-Rade, P.

    2005-01-01

    A three-point Sm-Nd isotope isochron on fluorite from the very large Montroc fluorite vein deposit (southern Massif Central, France) defines an age of 111??13 Ma. Initial ??Nd of -8.6 and initial 87Sr/86Sr of ???0.71245 suggest an upper crustal source of the hydrothermal system, in agreement with earlier work on fluid inclusions which indicated a basinal brine origin. The mid-Cretaceous age of ???111 Ma suggests the Albian/Aptian transition as the most likely period for large-scale fluid circulation during a regional extensional tectonic event, related to the opening of the North Atlantic ocean. ?? Springer-Verlag 2004.

  3. Geochemical characteristics of rare earth elements in soil of the Ditru Massif, Eastern Carpathians, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ion, Adriana

    2013-04-01

    The present paper describes the level of rare earth elements in soils developed from Ditrău massif area for evaluating of the background of these elements and accurate assessment of environmental impact. Also this paper contributed to understanding the important role of parent rocks in pedogenic processes. The Ditrău Alkaline Massif represent an intrusion body with a internal zonal structure, which was emplaced into pre-Alpine metamorphic rocks of the Bucovinian nappe complex close the Neogene - Quaternary volcanic arc of the Calimani-Guurghiu- Harghita Mountain chain. The center of massif was formed by nepheline syenite, which is surrounded by syenite and monazonite. North-western and north-eastern marginal sectors are composed of hornblende gabbro/hornblendite, alkali diorite, monzodiorite, monzosyenites and alkali granite. Small discrete ultramafic bodies (kaersutite-bearing peridotite, olivine, pyroxenite and hornblendite) and alkali gabbros occur in the Jolotca area. All this rocks are cut by late-stage dykes with a large variety of composition including tinguaite, phonolite, nepheline syenite, microsyenite, and aplite. The types of soils predominant in this zone are lithosoils. These soils are shallow developed, have low content in organic matter and reflects mineralogical and geochemical composition of the bedrock. The soil samples were collected from 70 location for all type of representative rocks (approximately 10 soil sampling points for each type of rock). The samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The pH values of these samples varied from 3.6 to 7.3, in general, the soils from massif area are acid or weakly acidic. The pH controls the abundance of REE in soil, the concentration of REE increases with decreasing pH values. In soil samples analyzed the contents of REE follow the order: Ce > La > Nd > Pr > Sm > Eu > Gd > Dy > Yb > Er > Tb > Ho >Tm. ∑ REE varied from 52.59 μg g-1 to 579.2 μg g-1 , the average

  4. Spatial coincidence of rapid inferred erosion with young metamorphic massifs in the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlayson, David P.; Montgomery, David R.; Hallet, Bernard

    2002-03-01

    A spatially distributed rate-of-erosion index (EI) based on models of bedrock river incision documents a strong spatial correspondence between areas of high erosion potential and young metamorphic massifs as well as structural highs throughout the Himalayas. The EI is derived from slopes and drainage areas calculated from a hydrologically corrected digital elevation model (GTOPO30) combined with precipitation data (IIASA) to generate synthetic annual stream discharges. These variables drive three generalized process models to produce EI maps that, while differing in detail, provide an internally consistent, spatially continuous index of large-scale erosion rates. The large spatial variation in potential erosion rates in the Himalayas suggested by the EI patterns contrasts with the uniform convergence of the Indian subcontinent. If these EI gradients persist through time, they support the emerging view of a positive feedback between localized, rapid erosion and upward advection of lower crust.

  5. Physical-Chemical Factors Affecting the Low Quality of Natural Water in the Khibiny Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazukhina, Svetlana; Masloboev, Vladimir; Chudnenko, Konstantin; Maksimova, Viktoriia; Belkina, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    One peculiarity of the Khibiny Massif is its spatial location. Rising over 1000 m above the surrounding hilly land and thus obstructing the passage of air masses, it promotes condensation and accumulation of surface and underground water. Annual precipitation here amounts to 600-700 mm in the valleys and up to 1600 mm on mountainous plateaus. Using this water for drinking and household purposes is problematic due to excess Al and F concentrations and high pH values. Now it is known that in its profile, the Massif is represented by three hydrogeological subzones: the upper (aerated), medium and lower ones. The upper subzone spreads throughout the Massif and is affected by the local drainage network and climatic conditions. The medium subzone is permanently saturated with underground water flowing horizontally to sites of discharge at the level of local river valleys and lakes. The fissure-vein water in the lower subzone is confined to tectonic fractures and faults in the so far underexplored, deeper parts of the Massif. Being abundant, this water ascends under high pressure. At places, water has been observed spurting from as deep as 700 m, and even 960 m. In the latter case, the temperature of ascending water was higher than 18 centigrade (Hydrogeology of the USSR, V. 27, 1971). This work was undertaken to reveal the nature of the low quality of water in the Khibiny by using physical-chemical modeling (software package Selector, Chudnenko, 2010). Processes of surface and underground water formation in the Khibiny were examined within a physical-chemical model (PCM) of the "water-rock-atmosphere-hydrogen" system. In a multi-vessel model used, each vessel represented a geochemical level of the process interpreted as spatiotemporal data - ξ (Karpov, 1981). The flow reactor consisted of 4 tanks. In the first tank, water of the Kuniok River (1000 L) interacted with atmosphere and an organic substance. The resulting solution proceeded to tanks 2-4 containing with

  6. Oxidation state of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Massif Central,France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uenver-Thiele, L.; Woodland, A. B.; Downes, H.; Altherr, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Tertiary and Quaternary volcanism of the French Massif Central sampled the underlying subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) in the form of xenoliths over a wide geographic area of ~20.000km2. Such an extensive distribution of xenoliths provides an unique opportunity to investigate regional variations in mantle structure and composition. On the basis of textural and geochemical differences, Lenoir et al. (2000) and later Downes et al. (2003) identified two distinct domains in the SCLM lying north and south of latitude 45° 30' N, respectively. The northern domain is relatively refractory, but has experienced pervasive enrichment of LREE. The southern domain is generally more fertile, exhibiting depletion in LREE. A metasomatic overprint has developed to variable extents in many xenolith suites. The different histories of these two juxtaposed blocks of SCLM should also be reflected in their oxidation state, with local variations also to be expected due to metasomatic interactions. For example, if carbonate-melt metasomatism played a role in the LREE enrichment of the northern domain (Lenoir et al. 2000; Downes et al. 2003), then such mantle should be relatively oxidised. Since surprisingly little redox data are currently available, we are undertaking a study to determine the oxidation state of the SCLM beneath the Massif Central over the largest geographical area possible. All xenoliths investigated are spinel peridotites, mostly with protogranular textures (although some samples are porphyroclastic or equigranular). Most samples are nominally anhydrous although minor amphibole is present in some xenolith suites. Major element compositions of the individual minerals were determined by microprobe. Two-pyroxene temperatures (BKN) range from 750° to ~1200° C. Ferric iron contents of spinel were determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy and gave a range of Fe3+/ Fetot from 0.191 to 0.418, with a conservative uncertainty of ±0.02. These data were used to calculate

  7. Cenozoic denudation of the Menderes Massif and its geodynamic framework: slab tear or not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessner, Klaus; Gallardo, Luis; Markwitz, Vanessa; Ring, Uwe; Thomson, Stuart

    2014-05-01

    Despite having experienced similar rates of convergence during the Alpine Orogeny, the Hellenides and Anatolides display fundamental differences in crust and mantle structure across a region that broadly coincides with the Aegean coastline of the Anatolian peninsula. The Menderes Massif experienced early Miocene tectonic denudation and surface uplift in the footwall of a north-directed extensional detachment system, followed by late Miocene to recent fragmentation by E-W and NW-SE trending graben systems, resulting in one of Earth's largest metamorphic core complexes. Based on the interpretation of geological and geophysical data we propose that the tectonic denudation of the Menderes Massif was caused by late Oligocene/early Miocene lithosphere scale transtension along the boundary of the Adriatic and Anatolian lithospheric domains, when rollback of the Aegean slab affected the Aegean-Menderes section of the Tethyan Orogen. In addition to previously hypothesized crustal discontinuities, gravity data, earthquake locations and seismic velocity anomalies highlight a north-south oriented boundary in the upper mantle between a fast slab below the Aegean and a slow asthenospheric region below western Turkey. As an alternative to the common interpretation of this discontinuity representing the western edge of a slab tear, we propose that the change in lithospheric structure is the result of how different lithosphere domains responded to roll-back: relatively slow removal of lithospheric mantle below western Anatolia versus trench retreat in the rapidly extending Aegean Sea region. Our findings highlight the significance of lateral variations in subduction-collision systems for the formation of continental plateaux and metamorphic core complexes.

  8. Isotopic geochronology and biostratigraphy of Riphean deposits of the Anabar Massif, North Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitseva, T. S.; Semikhatov, M. A.; Gorokhov, I. M.; Sergeev, V. N.; Kuznetsov, A. B.; Ivanovskaya, T. A.; Melnikov, N. N.; Konstantinova, G. V.

    2016-11-01

    The structure of Riphean deposits developed on the western slope of the Anabar Massif is described with analysis of their depositional environments, distribution of stromatolite assemblages and organic-walled and silicified microfossils through sections, and evolution of views on stratigraphic significance of some of these assemblages. The investigation included complex mineralogical, geochemical, structural, and isotopic‒geochronological study of globular phyllosilicates (GPS) of the glauconite‒illite series from paleontologically well substantiated Riphean sequences (Ust'-Il'ya and Yusmastakh formations of the Billyakh Group) of the Anabar Massif in the Kotuikan River basin. Isotopic dating of monomineral size and density fractions of GPS from the Billyakh Group was performed in combination with simulation of the distribution of octahedral cations and comparison of the results obtained with Mössbauer spectrometry data. The applied approach is based on an assumption that the formation and transformation of Rb‒Sr and K‒Ar systems in GPS are synchronous with stages in their structural evolution, which are determined by the geological and geochemical processes during depositional history. Such an approach combined with the mineralogical and structural analysis contributes to correct interpretation of stratigraphic significance of isotopic data. The results obtained provide grounds for the conclusion that isotopic dates of GPS from the Ust'-Il'ya (Rb‒Sr, 1485 ± 13 Ma; K‒Ar, 1459 ± 20 Ma) and Yusmastakh (Rb‒Sr, 1401 ± 10 Ma; K‒Ar, 1417 ± 44 Ma) formations mark the stage of early diagenesis of sediments and are suitable for estimating the age of formations in question.

  9. Fluid Evolution in the Nepheline Syenites of the Ditrau Alkaline Massif, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, A.; Bodnar, R. J.; Szabo, C.

    2004-12-01

    The Ditrau Alkaline Massif (Romania) is situated in the central part of the Eastern Carpathians, as an intrusion in the Bukovina nappe system of the Mesozoic crystalline zone. Nepheline syenites are the most abundant rocks occurring in the central and eastern part of the Massif, and representing the youngest intrusion of the complex. The nepheline syenite is composed of perthitic feldspars, nepheline, biotite, amphibole, pyroxene and titanite as primary minerals, and sodalite, cancrinite, calcite, analcite as secondary minerals formed at the expense of nepheline. Petrographic observations and fluid inclusion studies were performed on nepheline syenites in order to examine the effect of residual magmatic fluids on the alteration of nepheline to secondary minerals listed above. The alteration of nepheline to secondary minerals is obvious from textural relationships and comparison of the compositions of the minerals. Fluid inclusion studies provide evidence for the role of highly saline fluids in the incongruent transformation reactions (nepheline to sodalite and/or cancrinite and/or analcite). The fluids, in most cases, can be modeled by the H2O-NaCl system with various NaCl contents; however inclusions with more complex fluid (containing also K, Ca, CO3, etc. besides H2O and NaCl) composition are abundant in the nepheline. The alteration process is supported by the presence of fluid inclusions in cancrinite, showing lower salinity compared to those in nepheline. During the crystallization period of the nepheline syenites the rock was in equilibrium with a salty solution whose salinity increased with time, mostly by the loss of H2O to produce H2O-bearing minerals like amphiboles and micas. One possible interpretation of the fluid inclusions and textural observations is that nepheline alteration to sodalite, cancrinite and analcite was associated with increasing salinity of the fluids with time.

  10. Fluid evolution in the nepheline syenites of the Ditrău Alkaline Massif, Transylvania, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, András; Bodnar, Robert J.; Szabó, Csaba; Pál-Molnár, Elemér

    2007-05-01

    The Ditrău Alkaline Massif is an intrusion into the Bucovina nappe system that is part of the Mesozoic crystalline zone located in Transylvania, Romania, in the Eastern Carpathians. Nepheline syenites are the most abundant rocks in the central and eastern part of the Massif, and represent the last major intrusion of the complex. Fluid inclusions in nepheline, aegirine and albite were trapped at magmatic conditions on or below the H 2O-saturated nepheline syenite solidus at about 400-600 °C and 2.5-5 kbars. Early nepheline, and to a lesser extent albite, were altered by highly saline fluids to produce cancrinite, sodalite and analcime, during this process cancrinite also trapped fluid inclusions. The fluids, in most cases, can be modeled by the H 2O-NaCl system with varying salinity; however inclusions with more complex fluid composition (containing K, Ca, CO 3, etc., in addition to NaCl) are common. Raman spectroscopic analyses of daughter minerals confirm the presence of alkali-carbonate fluids in some of the earliest inclusions in nepheline, aegirine and albite. During crystallization, the melts exsolved a high salinity, carbonate-rich magmatic fluid that evolved to lower salinity as crystallization progressed. Phases that occur early in the paragenesis contain high-salinity inclusions while late phases contain low-salinity inclusions. The salinity trend is consistent with experimental data for the partitioning of chlorine between silicic melt and exsolved aqueous fluid at about 2.0 kbars. The activity of water ( aH 2O ) in the melt increases during crystallization, resulting in the formation of hydrous phases during late-stage crystallization of the nepheline syenites.

  11. Origin of mafic and ultramafic cumulates from the Ditrău Alkaline Massif, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pál-Molnár, Elemér; Batki, Anikó; Almási, Enikő; Kiss, Balázs; Upton, Brian G. J.; Markl, Gregor; Odling, Nicholas; Harangi, Szabolcs

    2015-12-01

    Mafic-ultramafic cumulates enclosed in gabbroic-dioritic rocks form part of the Mesozoic Ditrău Alkaline Massif in the Eastern Carpathians, Romania. The poikilitic olivine- and pyroxene-rich and nearly mono mineralic hornblendite rocks display typical cumulate textures with early crystallised olivine (Fo75-73), diopside and augite. In the early stages of their genesis the amphibole was intercumulus whilst in later stages it acquired cumulus status as the fractionating magma evolved. Using major and trace element compositions of minerals and whole-rock samples the origin of these cumulates is determined and the parental magma composition and depth of emplacement are calculated. Cumulus clinopyroxene has more primitive composition than intercumulus amphibole suggesting closed system fractionation for the evolution of poikilitic olivine- and pyroxene-rich cumulates. The evolution of the amphibole-rich mesocumulates is more clearly the result of closed system crystallisation dominated by the precipitation of clinopyroxene and amphibole cumulus crystals. Lamprophyre dykes of the Ditrău Alkaline Massif are proposed to reflect multiple basanitic parental magma batches from which the cumulus olivine and clinopyroxene crystallised. Relative to these dykes the calculated equilibrium melts for intercumulus amphibole in the cumulates was more primitive whilst that for the cumulus amphibole was more evolved. The calculated crystallisation temperature and pressure of ~ 1000-1050 °C and ~ 0.7 GPa, based on the composition of the amphiboles, indicate crystallisation at lower crustal depths. Rare earth element compositions are consistent with an intra-plate tectonic setting.

  12. Investigating K-feldspar Luminescence Thermochronometry for Application in the Mont Blanc Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, R.; King, G. E.; Herman, F.; Valla, P.

    2015-12-01

    Luminescence dating has the potential to quantify the recent exhumation history of mountain ranges as a low-temperature thermochronometer. During rock exhumation, electrons get trapped through exposure to ionizing radiation whilst elevated temperatures cause thermally stimulated detrapping. The resulting luminescence signals measured in the laboratory can be used to constrain rock thermal histories through modelling of the kinetic parameters of electron trapping and detrapping. Here, we investigate and model laboratory kinetic processes of the luminescence of K-feldspar and assess their extrapolation over geological timescales. Samples were taken from the actively eroding Mont Blanc massif in the European Alps, along a 12 km long tunnel with ambient temperatures of 10-35 °C. In this setting rapid exhumation rates have been found during the last 2 million years (up to ~2 km/Myr), however, we intend to increase the temporal resolution to sub-Quaternary timescales using luminescence thermochronometry. Infra-red stimulated luminescence signals at 50 °C (IR50) and at 225 °C (post-IR IRSL225) of K-feldspar extracted from Mont Blanc tunnel samples were measured and our first results reveal a thermal signature from which rock cooling rates can be derived. Isothermal decay experiments show non-exponential decay, but interestingly, experiments with a range of regenerative doses reveal first-order kinetics. The observed thermal decay pattern is well-described by a model based on a physically plausible distribution of the density of states. Ultimately, we intend to use the IR50 and post-IR IRSL225 signals of K-feldspar as dual thermochronometers to determine the late-Quaternary cooling history of the Mont Blanc massif. Moreover, the luminescence signals may give insights into local thermal field evolution, before the influence of postglacial hydrothermal flow.

  13. Homogeneous /sup 18/O enrichment of the Marcy Anorthosite Massif, Adirondack Mountains, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.; Valley, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Marcy Anorthosite Massif in the Adirondack Mountains, New York, is a composite intrusion that was metamorphosed to granulite facies at approx. 1.1 Ga. The massif is dominantly anorthosite but ranges from anorthosite (1-10% mafics) to oxide-rich pyroxenite layers (up to 98% mafics). In the St Regis Quad (SRQ) systematic variations in the percentage of mafics (POM) roughly parallel the foliation and increase toward the contacts (Davis, 1971). In 47 SRQ samples studied the POM varies from 2-25%; garnet ranges from 0-11%, pyroxene from <1-16% and oxides from <1-8%. Percent phenocrysts varies between 1-80. The Port Kent-Westport Unit (PKW) and an associated hybrid unit show significantly greater textural variability. The POM Varies from 1-50%; garnet ranges from 0-18%, pyroxene from 0-15%, oxides from 0-3% and phenocrysts vary from 0-80%. A total of 28 unaltered plagioclase phenocrysts have been analyzed for delta/sup 18/O: in 13 SRQ samples delta/sup 18/O = 9.0-9.8 (x=9.4. sigma=0.2) and in 15 samples from the PKW and hybrid units values of delta/sup 18/O=8.5-10.5 (x=9.5.sigma0.5). No correlations exist between the modal parameters and delta/sup 18/O. The results from SRQ demonstrate an extreme homogeneity suggesting for the first time a pristine magmatic character which is supported by the virtual absence of metasedimentary inclusions. This contrasts with PKW where inclusions are common and delta/sup 18/O values are more heterogeneous. Further analyses will evaluate the possibility of an anomalous source region as a cause of the /sup 18/O enrichment in the anorthosite.

  14. Proterozoic massif anorthosites and related rocks in Labrador: the anorthosite-charnockite connection

    SciTech Connect

    Emslie, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    Massif anorthosites of Labrador are closely associated in space and time with voluminous, felsic, fayalite- and ferrous pyroxene-bearing igneous rocks. These include charnockites, monzonites, biotite-hornblende granites, and locally syenites. Igneous charnockites form major parts of some of the granitic complexes. In Mistastin batholith for example, charnockitic assemblages comprise about 35% of a total area of 6500 sq. km. Feldspar pairs and coexisting fayalite-opx-qtz in these rocks indicate P and T near 3.5 kb, 750/sup 0/C, assumed to represent near solidus equilibration. Diorites and monzonites intruded by charnockite have mesoperthites implying crystallization T>900/sup 0/C presumably recording earlier stages of crystallization. Oxide and silicate assemblages indicate redox conditions between FMQ and WM oxygen buffers and water pressures well below Ptotal. Younger biotite-hornblende granites and quartz syenites lack Ti-mt. but retain fayalite suggesting that magmatic crystallization was largely closed to water and oxygen. Initial Sr isotope ratios in charnockite-granite suites of central labrador support derivation of the magmas largely or entirely from crustal source rocks. Compositions of mafic silicates and plagioclase, associated Fe-Ti oxide concentrations, trace elements and Sr isotopes in massif anorthosites are in accord with the rocks being crystallization products of substantially fractionated, originally more mafic, mantle magmas. Close association of high temperature, water-poor, reduced crustal melts is consistent with a fusion process in which heat supply and oxygen buffering were controlled by fractional crystallization of a substantial body of mafic magma subjacent to continental crust.

  15. Fluid flow and polymetallic sulfide mineralization in the Kettara shear zone (Jebilet Massif, Variscan Belt, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'diaye, I.; Essaifi, A.; Dubois, M.; Lacroix, B.; Goodenough, K. M.; Maacha, L.

    2016-07-01

    The Kettara shear zone is a regional wrench shear zone within the Jebilet massif of Western Morocco, part of the Variscan orogenic belt. This massif is characterized by bimodal magmatism, largely intrusive, and by a number of polymetallic massive sulfide deposits. A syntectonic mafic-ultramafic intrusion and an adjacent, deformed pyrrhotite-rich massive sulfide deposit are located within a 'compressional jog' of the shear zone. Hydrothermal alteration in both the intrusion and the wall rocks adjacent to the deposit is characterized by syntectonic replacement processes leading to formation of chlorite-schists and quartz ± calcite veins. Fluid inclusions in mineralized (pyrrhotite-bearing) quartz veins from the wall rocks adjacent to the deposit and in veins associated with chlorite-schists within the intrusion indicate a prevalence of H2O-CO2-CH4-N2 and H2O-salt fluid systems. In the mineralized veins the fluid shows reducing conditions, with gas dominated by CH4 and N2 and salinities around 7.5 wt% NaCl, whereas in the chlorite shear zones fluid is CO2 dominated and salinities are higher than 23 wt% NaCl. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of chlorite and quartz are similar and demonstrate involvement of metamorphic water in both the deposit and the intrusion. The data are consistent with a regional metamorphic fluid flow through the Kettara shear zone. The migrating metamorphic fluids were reduced in the organic matter-rich host rocks leading to deposition of sulfides in the mineralized veins. There are two possible hypotheses for the origin of these mineralized veins: either they were formed during deformation and remobilization of a syn-sedimentary massive sulfide deposit, or they were formed synchronously with the sulfide deposit during development of the Kettara shear zone.

  16. Cancrinite from nepheline syenite (mariupolite) of the Oktiabrski massif, SE Ukraine, and its growth history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumańska-Słowik, Magdalena; Pieczka, Adam; Heflik, Wiesław; Sikorska, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    Secondary cancrinite, (Na5.88K< 0.01)∑ 5.88(Ca0.62 Fe0.01Mn0.01Zn< 0.01 Mg< 0.01)∑ 0.64[Si6.44Al 5.56O24](CO3)0.67(OH)0.26(F< 0.01,Cl< 0.01)·2.04H2O), was found as accessory component of mariupolite (albite-aegirine nepheline syenite) from the Oktiabrski massif in the Donbass (SE Ukraine). It probably crystallized from a subsolidus reaction involving nepheline (and sodalite?) and calcite dissolved in the aqueous-carbonic fluid at the maximum temperature of 930 °C, decreasing to hydrothermal conditions. It is depleted in sodium, calcium and carbon, what results in the occurrence of vacant positions at both cationic and anionic sites. Ca-deficient cancrinite crystallized from the same hydrothermal Si-undersaturated fluids enriched in the ions such as Na+, Ca2 +, Cl-, F-, HCO3-, which formed calcite, sodalite, natrolite and fluorite. It has dark-red CL colours with patchy zoning, what indicates the variable/diverse fluid composition during its formation. In the CL spectrum of cancrinite only one broad emission band at 410 nm is observed, which can be attributed to O* center (the recombination of a free electron with an O- hole center). The formation of secondary CO3-rich species, i.e. cancrinite and calcite in mariupolite suggests that redox conditions in the Oktiabrski massif were oxidizing at the postmagmatic stage.

  17. Cancrinite from nepheline syenite (mariupolite) of the Oktiabrski massif, SE Ukraine, and its growth history.

    PubMed

    Dumańska-Słowik, Magdalena; Pieczka, Adam; Heflik, Wiesław; Sikorska, Magdalena

    2016-03-15

    Secondary cancrinite, (Na5.88K<0.01)∑5.88(Ca0.62 Fe0.01Mn0.01Zn<0.01 Mg<0.01)∑0.64[Si6.44Al 5.56O24](CO3)0.67(OH)0.26(F<0.01,Cl<0.01)·2.04H2O), was found as accessory component of mariupolite (albite-aegirine nepheline syenite) from the Oktiabrski massif in the Donbass (SE Ukraine). It probably crystallized from a subsolidus reaction involving nepheline (and sodalite?) and calcite dissolved in the aqueous-carbonic fluid at the maximum temperature of 930 °C, decreasing to hydrothermal conditions. It is depleted in sodium, calcium and carbon, what results in the occurrence of vacant positions at both cationic and anionic sites. Ca-deficient cancrinite crystallized from the same hydrothermal Si-undersaturated fluids enriched in the ions such as Na(+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), F(-), HCO3(-), which formed calcite, sodalite, natrolite and fluorite. It has dark-red CL colours with patchy zoning, what indicates the variable/diverse fluid composition during its formation. In the CL spectrum of cancrinite only one broad emission band at 410 nm is observed, which can be attributed to O* center (the recombination of a free electron with an O(-) hole center). The formation of secondary CO3-rich species, i.e. cancrinite and calcite in mariupolite suggests that redox conditions in the Oktiabrski massif were oxidizing at the postmagmatic stage.

  18. The Size and Composition of the Productive Holophrastic Lexicon: German-Italian Bilingual Acquisition vs. Italian Monolingual Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klammler, Astrid; Schneider, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the natural and simultaneous first language acquisition of a German-Italian bilingual boy and an Italian monolingual girl from 1;8 to 2;1 are analyzed and compared. The investigation focuses on the rate of acquisition and the size and composition of the productive lexicons. At the end of the observation period, the bilingual…

  19. Volcanic evolution of the submarine super volcano, Tamu Massif of Shatsky Rise: New insights from Formation MicroScanner logging imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, Masako; Iturrino, Gerardo; Evans, Helen F.

    2015-01-01

    Massif, the southernmost plateau of Shatsky Rise, is recently reported as the largest single volcano known on Earth. This work seeks to understand the type of volcanism necessary to form such an anomalously large single volcano by integrating core and high-resolution wireline logging data. In particular, resistivity imagery obtained by the Formation MicroScanner, in Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Hole U1347A, located on the eastern flank of Tamu Massif, was used to construct a logging-based volcanostratigraphy. This model revealed two different volcanic stages formed Tamu Massif: (i) the core part of the massif's basaltic basement was formed by a "construction phase" of volcanism with cyclic eruption events from a steady state magma supply and (ii) the very topmost basaltic section was formed by a "depositional phase" of volcanism during which long-traveling lava flows were deposited from a distant eruption center.

  20. Goethe's Italian Journey and the geological landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coratza, Paola; Panizza, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Over 220 years ago Johann Wolfgang von Goethe undertook a nearly two-years long and fascinating journey to Italy, a destination dreamed for a long time by the great German writer. During his journey from Alps to Sicily Goethe reflects on landscape, geology, morphology of "Il Bel Paese", sometimes providing detailed descriptions and acute observations concerning the great and enduring laws by which the earth and all within it are governed. He was an observer, with the eye of the geologist and landscape painter, as he himself stated, and therefore he had a 360 degree focus on all parts of the territory. From the Brenner Pass to Sicily, Goethe reflects on landscape, contrasting morphologies, the genesis of territories, providing detailed descriptions useful for reconstructing the conditions of the territory and crops of the late 18th century. His diary is a description of the impressions he received from the country and its people, mingled with reflections upon art, science and literature. Goethe studied mineralogical and geological phenomena and drew up notes on the life of the people, the climate and the plants. On various scientific occasions and, in particular, within the framework of the Italian Association "Geologia & Turismo", of the Working Group "Geomorphosites" of the International Association of Geomorphologists and the International Year of Planet Earth, the opportunity to re-examine Goethe's travels in Italy from a geological viewpoint was recognised. In the present paper an attempt was made to reproduce the geotourism itinerary ante litteram of the writer to Italy, one of the most important tourist destination worldwide, thanks to its rich cultural and natural heritage and the outstanding aesthetic qualities of the complex natural landscape. This project was essentially conceived with a twofold purpose. First of all, an attempt was made to reproduce the journey of a great writer, as an example of description of landscape perceived and described as

  1. [The representation of Italian psychiatry in Italian Treccani Encyclopedia in 1930's].

    PubMed

    Piazzi, Andrea; Piazzi, Gioia; Testa, Luana; Coccanari dè Fornari, Maria Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    The article reconstruct the situation of Italian psychiatry around 1930, using as unusual sources the pages of the Enciclopedia Italiana di Scienze, Lettere e Arti. This important work, conceived in 1925 and finished in 1937, is due - as well known - to the strong interest of Giovanni Gentile and to his capacity to involve in the project a great part of Italian intellectual world, without any ideological preclusion. The section devoted to Medical Sciences, including Psychiatry, was directed by Nicola Pende (1880-1970) and Giacinto Viola (1870-1943). A prevalent positivistic approach to science is well testified by their specific attention to preventive and social medicine, researches in Genetics and in biotypological constitutions. Psycopathological and psycological lemmas are very limited, underlying the medical disinterest towards contemporary philosophy and psycology.

  2. Subcontinental rift initiation and ocean-continent transitional setting of the Dinarides and Vardar zone: Evidence from the Krivaja-Konjuh Massif, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faul, Ulrich H.; Garapić, Gordana; Lugović, Boško

    2014-08-01

    The Dinaride and Vardar zone ophiolite belts extend from the south-eastern margins of the Alps to the Albanian and Greek ophiolites. Detailed sampling of the Krivaja-Konjuh massif, one of the largest massifs in the Dinaride belt, reveals fertile compositions and an extensive record of deformation at spinel peridotite facies conditions. High Na2O clinopyroxene and spinel-orthopyroxene symplectites after garnet indicate a relatively high pressure, subcontinental origin of the southern and western part of Krivaja, similar to orogenic massifs such as Lherz, Ronda and the Eastern Central Alpine peridotites. Clinopyroxene and spinel compositions from Konjuh show similarities with fertile abyssal peridotite. In the central parts of the massif the spinel lherzolites contain locally abundant patches of plagioclase, indicating impregnation by melt. The migrating melt was orthopyroxene undersaturated, locally converting the peridotites to massive olivine-rich troctolites. Massive gabbros and more evolved gabbro veins cross-cutting peridotites indicate continued melt production at depth. Overall we infer that the massif represents the onset of rifting and early stages of formation of a new ocean basin. In the south of Krivaja very localized chromitite occurrences indicate that much more depleted melts with supra-subduction affinity traversed the massif that have no genetic relationship with the peridotites. This indicates that volcanics with supra-subduction affinity at the margins of the Krivaja-Konjuh massif record separate processes during closure of the ocean basin. Comparison with published compositional data from other Balkan massifs shows that the range of compositions within the Krivaja-Konjuh massif is similar to the compositional range of the western massifs of the Dinarides. The compositions of the Balkan massifs show a west to east gradient, ranging from subcontinental on the western side of the Dinarides to depleted mid-ocean ridge/arc compositions in the Vardar

  3. An Early Neoproterozoic gabbro-granite association in the Bureya Continental Massif (Central Asian fold belt): First geochemical and geochronological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, A. A.; Ovchinnikov, R. O.; Kudryashov, N. M.; Sorokina, A. P.

    2016-12-01

    The fact that gneissose granites and gabbros of the Nyatygran Complex in the Bureya Continental Massif are not Palaeoproterozoic in age, as previously thought, but Neoproterozoic, 933 Ma is proved. New data with the first direct evidence of Early Neoproterozoic magmatism in continental massifs composing the Bureya-Jiamusi Superterrane are given. At the moment, the obtained age estimates are the oldest for the magmatic rocks of this superterrane.

  4. ILISI® digital index of the Italian scientific literature of nursing.

    PubMed

    Stievano, Alessandro; Bonfigli, Alessandra; Fanfera, Edvige; Finocchi, Giovanna; Montevecchi, Alessandro; Nappini, Patrizia; Tallarita, Fabrizio; Turci, Carlo; Rocco, Gennaro

    2011-04-01

    The IPASVI Rome Nursing Board-Centre of Excellence-began the project of building a free accessed database, Ilisi®, where the main Italian nursing and health-related journals could be consulted (including the few peer reviewed, at international level, Italian journals of nursing). Today, it includes the abstracts of more than 2700 articles from 2004 of about 25 Italian journals of nursing and/or related to nursing disciplines. The Ilisi® project has got with Thisi-Italian thesaurus of nursing science-a controlled vocabulary specifically built for nursing science, its tool of feasibility. This project was developed to foster nursing scholarship in Italy and to offer a free controlled database for all stakeholders (students, nurses, other health professionals, and scholars). The abstracts of the articles of these Italian journals are a tool for lifelong learning and constitute a patrimony for nursing science even at a wider level if this patrimony could be translated in English that will be a further step of the project. The project group who developed this database is going to value Italian nursing literature production and implement an electronic tool that, in the near future, might be used by all students and healthcare professionals in the world. Besides, with this project scientific productions by Italian students, nurses could be encouraged. More of them need to be trained in the use of the most frequently used databases, and Ilisi® could be a good training experience for them.

  5. Body composition analysis for healthy Italian vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Siani, V; Mohamed, E I; Maiolo, C; Di Daniele, N; Ratiu, A; Leonardi, A; De Lorenzo, A

    2003-10-01

    The elementary nutritional needs of vegetarians are totally, or in great part, supplied by vegetarian food; thus the body composition of vegetarians could differ from that of omnivorous persons. The objective of the present study was to compare healthy Italian vegetarians to healthy omnivorous individuals in terms of body composition, determined using dual X-ray absorptiometry. The study population consisted of 20 vegetarians [mean age (+/-SD), 34.78+/-15.07 years; mean BMI, 22.41+/-2.15 kg/m(2)] and 10 omnivorous persons matched for age and BMI. We found no significant differences between the two groups in terms of fat mass, lean body mass, soft tissue, bone mineral content, or bone mineral density. These findings suggest that the vegetarian diet does not induce negative alterations in body composition.

  6. Word reading and picture naming in Italian.

    PubMed

    Bates, E; Burani, C; D'Amico, S; Barca, L

    2001-10-01

    Results from two separate norming studies of lexical access in Italian were merged, permitting a comparison of word-reading and picture-naming latencies and the factors that predict each one for an overlapping subsample of 128 common nouns. Factor analysis of shared lexical predictors yielded four latent variables: a frequency factor, a semantic factor, a length factor, and a final factor dominated by frication on the initial phoneme. Age of acquisition (AoA) loaded highly on the first two factors, suggesting that it can be split into separate sources of variance. Regression analyses using factor scores as predictors showed that word reading and picture naming are both influenced by the frequency/AoA factor. The semantics/AoA factor influenced only picture naming, whereas the length and frication factors influenced only word reading. Generalizability of these results to other languages is discussed, including potential effects of cross-language differences in orthographic transparency.

  7. Italian for Business and Communication: Research Methodology and Creation of a Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iandoli, Louis J.

    This paper discusses the development and content of a third-year Italian course entitled "Italian for Business and Communication," taught at Bentley College in Waltham, Massachusetts. Since there are few texts that focus on business Italian, the instructor conducted on-site research at three Italian companies in Milan. Observations and…

  8. Communication about vaccinations in Italian websites

    PubMed Central

    Tafuri, Silvio; Gallone, Maria S; Gallone, Maria F; Zorico, Ivan; Aiello, Valeria; Germinario, Cinzia

    2014-01-01

    Babies’ parents and people who look for information about vaccination often visit anti-vaccine movement’s websites, blogs by naturopathic physicians or natural and alternative medicine practitioners. The aim of this work is to provide a quantitative analysis on the type of information available to Italian people regarding vaccination and a quality analysis of websites retrieved through our searches. A quality score was created to evaluate the technical level of websites. A research was performed through Yahoo, Google, and MSN using the keywords “vaccine” and “vaccination,” with the function “OR” in order to identify the most frequently used websites. The 2 keywords were input in Italian, and the first 15 pages retrieved by each search engine were analyzed. 149 websites were selected through this methodology. Fifty-three per cent of the websites belonged to associations, groups, or scientific companies, 32.2% (n = 48) consisted of a personal blog and 14.8% (n = 22) belonged to some of the National Health System offices. Among all analyzed websites, 15.4% (n = 23) came from anti-vaccine movement groups. 37.6% reported webmaster name, 67.8% webmaster e-mail, 28.6% indicated the date of the last update and 46.6% the author’s name. The quality score for government sites was higher on average than anti-vaccine websites; although, government sites don’t use Web 2.0 functions, as the forums. National Health System institutions who have to promote vaccination cannot avoid investing in web communication because it cannot be managed by private efforts but must be the result of Public Health, private and scientific association, and social movement synergy. PMID:24607988

  9. New insights into the history and origin of the southern Maya block, SE Mexico: U-Pb-SHRIMP zircon geochronology from metamorphic rocks of the Chiapas massif

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weber, Bodo; Iriondo, Alexander; Premo, Wayne R.; Hecht, Lutz; Schaaf, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The histories of the pre-Mesozoic landmasses in southern México and their connections with Laurentia, Gondwana, and among themselves are crucial for the understanding of the Late Paleozoic assembly of Pangea. The Permian igneous and metamorphic rocks from the Chiapas massif as part of the southern Maya block, México, were dated by U–Pb zircon geochronology employing the SHRIMP (sensitive high resolution ion microprobe) facility at Stanford University. The Chiapas massif is composed of deformed granitoids and orthogneisses with inliers of metasedimentary rocks. SHRIMP data from an anatectic orthogneiss demonstrate that the Chiapas massif was part of a Permian (∼ 272 Ma) active continental margin established on the Pacific margin of Gondwana after the Ouachita orogeny. Latest Permian (252–254 Ma) medium- to high-grade metamorphism and deformation affected the entire Chiapas massif, resulting in anatexis and intrusion of syntectonic granitoids. This unique orogenic event is interpreted as the result of compression due to flat subduction and accretionary tectonics. SHRIMP data of zircon cores from a metapelite from the NE Chiapas massif yielded a single Grenvillian source for sediments. The majority of the zircon cores from a para-amphibolite from the SE part of the massif yielded either 1.0–1.2 or 1.4–1.5 Ga sources, indicating provenance from South American Sunsás and Rondonian-San Ignacio provinces.

  10. Diffusion and applications of musculoskeletal ultrasound in Italian Rheumatology Units.

    PubMed

    Iagnocco, A; Ceccarelli, F; Cuomo, G; Delle Sedie, A; Filippou, G; Filippucci, E; Grassi, W; Porta, F; Sakellariou, Garifallia

    2013-03-28

    The Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Study Group of the Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR) was founded during the 68th SIR Congress, on November 2011. The request of activation of this group was based on the increasing interest and the widespread diffusion of ultrasound in the scientific rheumatology community and on the solid experience of some Italian rheumatologists in the field. The aims of the Study Group are to stimulate the applications and use of ultrasound in the clinical practice at the level of the Italian rheumatology units and, in addition, to develop research projects at a national level...

  11. Petrological Characterization of the Triassic Paleosurface in the Northern Bohemian Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Kouakou; Thiry, Medard; Szuszkiewicz, Adam; Turniak, Krzysztof

    2010-05-01

    ‘Albitization' is a widespread alteration process affecting sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks. Albitized facies usually show a pinkish to red colour, depending on the degree of alteration. The main mineralogical process of this phenomenon is the pseudomorphic replacement of the primary Ca-Na plagioclases by secondary albite (Na). During this replacement biotite is often transformed to chlorite and inclusions of hematite, apatite, titanite, and calcite develop. So far, albitization has been systematically regarded as caused by magmatic derived hydrothermal brines, alkaline metasomatism reactions (Cathelineau, 1986; Petersson and Eliasson, 1997), or as a low grade metamorphic facies (Boles and Coombs, 1977). Recent studies in the Morvan Massif granites (Ricordel et al., 2007; Parcerisa et al., 2009) showed that the albitization there is related to the Triassic paleosurface. The decrease of this alteration with depth and its paleomagnetic age support the link of the albitization to the Triassic paleosurface. Furthermore, the petrographic data suggest the import of sodium by weathering solutions. The enrichement in Na+ of the fluids that triggered this alteration is probably linked to the Triassic salt deposits. Albitised pinkish facies have been recognized in the northern part of the Bohemian Massif (Polish Sudetes). Typical igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Klodzko area (southern Poland) are granites, granodiorites, schists, amphibolite, and gneisses, mostly of Paleozoic age. Three sites in the Klodzko area were sampled in detail from N to S: (1) Laski quarry, (2) Laski village, and (3) Chwalislaw. Here, the occurrence of the albitization is well developed and specific in its mineralogical paragenesis. Throughout the sample sites different albitization stages can be observed. The most albitized and therefore reddish facies can be found at the Laski village granite that consists of primary quartz and K-feldspar, biotite, and development of secondary

  12. A MASSIF Effort To Determine The Mass-Luminosity Relation for Stars of Various Ages, Metallicities, and Evolution States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Todd J.; Beedict, G. Fritz; Gies, Douglas R.; Golimowski, David A.; Ianna, Philip A.; Mason, Brian; McArthur, Barbara; Nelan, Edmund; Torres, Guillermo

    2004-01-01

    The MASSIF (Masses and Stellar Systems with Interferometry) Team will use SIM to investigate the mass content of the Galaxy - from huge stars to barely glimmering brown dwarfs, and from hot white dwarfs to exotic black holes. We will target various samples of the Galactic population to determine and relate the fundamental characteristics of mass, luminosity, age, composition, and multiplicity - attributes that together yield an extensive understanding of the stars. Our samples will include distant clusters that span a factor of 5000 in age, and commonplace stars and substellar objects that lurk near the Sun. The principal goals of the MASSIF Key Project are to (1) define the mass-luminosity relation for main sequence stars in five fundamental clusters so that effects of age and metallicity can be mapped (Trapezium, TW Hydrae, Pleiades, Hyades, and M67), and (2) determine accurate masses for representative examples of nearly every type of star, stellar descendant or brown dwarf in the Galaxy.

  13. The Galicia-Ossa-Morena Zone: Proposal for a new zone of the Iberian Massif. Variscan implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Ricardo; Díez Fernández, Rubén; Rubio Pascual, Francisco J.; Sánchez Martínez, Sonia; Martín Parra, Luis Miguel; Matas, Jerónimo; González del Tánago, José; Jiménez-Díaz, Alberto; Fuenlabrada, Jose M.; Andonaegui, Pilar; Garcia-Casco, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Correlation of a group of allochthonous terranes (referred to as basal, ophiolitic and upper units) exposed in the NW and SW of the Iberian Massif, is used to propose a new geotectonic zone in the southern branch of the Variscan Orogen: the Galicia-Ossa-Morena Zone. Recent advances in SW Iberia identify most of the former Ossa-Morena Zone as another allochthonous complex of the Iberian Massif, the Ossa-Morena Complex, equivalent to the Cabo Ortegal, Órdenes, Malpica-Tui, Bragança and Morais complexes described in NW Iberia. The new geotectonic zone and its counterparts along the rest of the Variscan Orogen constitute an Internal Variscan Zone with ophiolites and units affected by high-P metamorphism. The Galicia-Ossa-Morena Zone includes a Variscan suture and pieces of continental crust bearing the imprint of Ediacaran-Cambrian events related to the activity of peri-Gondwanan magmatic arcs (Cadomian orogenesis). In the Iberian Massif, the general structure of this geotectonic zone represents a duplication of the Gondwanan platform, the outboard sections being juxtaposed on top of domains located closer to the mainland before amalgamation. This interpretation offers an explanation that overcomes some issues regarding the differences between the stratigraphic and paleontological record of the central and southern sections of the Iberian Massif. Also, equivalent structural relationships between other major geotectonic domains of the rest of the Variscan Orogen are consistent with our interpretation and allow suspecting similar configurations along strike of the orogen. A number of issues may be put forward in this respect that potentially open new lines of thinking about the architecture of the Variscan Orogen.

  14. Scorpions from the Mitaraka Massif in French Guiana: Description of one new genus and species (Scorpiones: Chactidae).

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R

    2016-01-01

    A new genus and species, Spinochactas mitaraka gen. n., sp. n. (Chactidae) are described from the Mitaraka Massif in French Guiana, a site located near the borders of French Guiana, Brazil, and Suriname. The description of the new genus and species brings further evidence of the biogeographic pattern of distribution presented by some elements of the family Chactidae endemic to the Tepuys or to the Inselberg formations of South America.

  15. The Arequipa Massif of Peru: New SHRIMP and isotope constraints on a Paleoproterozoic inlier in the Grenvillian orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casquet, C.; Fanning, C. M.; Galindo, C.; Pankhurst, R. J.; Rapela, C. W.; Torres, P.

    2010-01-01

    The enigmatic Arequipa Massif of southwestern Peru is an outcrop of Andean basement that underwent Grenville-age metamorphism, and as such it is important for the better constraint of Laurentia-Amazonia ties in Rodinia reconstruction models. U-Pb SHRIMP zircon dating has yielded new evidence on the evolution of the Massif between Middle Paleoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic. The oldest rock-forming events occurred in major orogenic events between ca. 1.79 and 2.1 Ga (Orosirian to Rhyacian), involving early magmatism (1.89-2.1 Ga, presumably emplaced through partly Archaean continental crust), sedimentation of a thick sequence of terrigenous sediments, UHT metamorphism at ca. 1.87 Ga, and late felsic magmatism at ca. 1.79 Ga. The Atico sedimentary basin developed in the Late-Mesoproterozoic and detrital zircons were fed from a source area similar to the high-grade Paleoproterozoic basement, but also from an unknown source that provided Mesoproterozoic zircons of 1200-1600 Ma. The Grenville-age metamorphism was of low- P type; it both reworked the Paleoproterozoic rocks and also affected the Atico sedimentary rocks. Metamorphism was diachronous: ca. 1040 Ma in the Quilca and Camaná areas and in the San Juán Marcona domain, 940 ± 6 Ma in the Mollendo area, and between 1000 and 850 Ma in the Atico domain. These metamorphic domains are probably tectonically juxtaposed. Comparison with coeval Grenvillian processes in Laurentia and in southern Amazonia raises the possibility that Grenvillian metamorphism in the Arequipa Massif resulted from extension and not from collision. The Arequipa Massif experienced Ordovician-Silurian magmatism at ca. 465 Ma, including anorthosites formerly considered to be Grenvillian, and high-T metamorphism deep within the magmatic arc. Focused retrogression along shear zones or unconformities took place between 430 and 440 Ma.

  16. Lower Pliensbachian caldera volcanism in high-obliquity rift systems in the western North Patagonian Massif, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedini, Leonardo; Gregori, Daniel; Strazzere, Leonardo; Falco, Juan I.; Dristas, Jorge A.

    2014-12-01

    In the Cerro Carro Quebrado and Cerro Catri Cura area, located at the border between the Neuquén Basin and the North Patagonian Massif, the Garamilla Formation is composed of four volcanic stages: 1) andesitic lava-flows related to the beginning of the volcanic system; 2) basal massive lithic breccias that represent the caldera collapse; 3) voluminous, coarse-crystal rich massive lava-like ignimbrites related to multiple, steady eruptions that represent the principal infill of the system; and, finally 4) domes, dykes, lava flows, and lava domes of rhyolitic composition indicative of a post-collapse stage. The analysis of the regional and local structures, as well as, the architectures of the volcanic facies, indicates the existence of a highly oblique rift, with its principal extensional strain in an NNE-SSW direction (˜N10°). The analyzed rocks are mainly high-potassium dacites and rhyolites with trace and RE elements contents of an intraplate signature. The age of these rocks (189 ± 0.76 Ma) agree well with other volcanic sequences of the western North Patagonian Massif, as well as, the Neuquén Basin, indicating that Pliensbachian magmatism was widespread in both regions. The age is also coincident with phase 1 of volcanism of the eastern North Patagonia Massif (188-178 Ma) represented by ignimbrites, domes, and pyroclastic rocks of the Marifil Complex, related to intraplate magmatism.

  17. Pan-African high-pressure metamorphism in the Precambrian basement of the Menderes Massif, western Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candan, O.; Dora, O. Ö.; Oberhänsli, R.; Çetinkaplan, M.; Partzsch, J. H.; Warkus, F. C.; Dürr, S.

    The Menderes Massif is made up of Pan-African basement and a Paleozoic to Early Tertiary cover sequence imbricated by Late Alpine deformation. The Precambrian basement comprises primarily medium- to high-grade schists, paragneisses, migmatites, orthogneisses, metagranites, charnockites, and metagabbros. High-pressure relics in the Pan-African basement are divided into two groups: eclogites and eclogitic metagabbros. The mineral assemblage in the eclogites is omphacite (Jd 44)-garnet-clinozoisite-rutile. The eclogites occur as pods and boudinaged layers in the basement schists and paragneisses. Inclusions found in the cores of the garnets indicate a medium-pressure protolith. The eclogitic metagabbros are closely related to Precambrian gabbroic stocks. The igneous texture and relic magmatic phases are preserved in these high-pressure rocks, which are characterized by the mineral assemblage omphacite (Jd 25)-garnet-rutile+/-kyanite. The P-T conditions of the Pan-African high-pressure metamorphism in the eclogites are estimated to be 644°C with a minimum pressure of approximately 15 kbar. The eclogites are partly to completely retrograded to garnet amphibolites by a Barrovian-type overprint which developed under isothermal decompression conditions. For this post-eclogitic event, the P-T estimates are 7 kbar and 623°C. The eclogite relics provide strong support for a correlation of the Menderes Massif with the Bitlis Massif in terms of common Pan-African high-pressure evolution.

  18. Geology and Tectonic Evolution of the Kazdaǧ Massif (NW Anatolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdoğan, B.; Akay, E.; Hasözbek, A.; Satır, M.; Siebel, W.

    2009-04-01

    In the northwestern part of Anatolia along the Izmir-Ankara Suture Zone, the Kazdağ and Uludağ metamorphic massifs form an E-W trending belt between the Sakarya Continent in the north and the Menderes Massif in the south. Internal succession of these two massifs have been described as metamorphic complexes consisting of various kinds of micaschists, quartz mica schist, gneisses, amphibolites and marbles. In the Kazdağ metamorphics, metaophiolites have been described additionally (Okay et al., 1991; Yaltırak and Okay, 1994; Okay et al., 1996; Duru et al., 2004). These metamorphic complexes were considered to form the basement of the Sakarya Continent tectonically overlain by the Early Permian (Topuz et al., 2004) to Late Triassic (Okay and Monie, 1997; Okay et al., 2002) Karakaya Complex. This old basement and the Karakaya Complex were suggested to be unconformably overlain by Liassic and younger platform limestones and detritals (Altıner et al., 1991). In the literature, it has also been suggested that the Kazdağ Massif had experienced polyphase metamorphism, first during Carboniferous time, second during Early Triassic and third during Tertiary (Bingöl, 1971; Okay et al., 1996; Okay and Satır, 2000). In this study we mapped the Kazdağ Massif on 1/25000 scale, studied its internal stratigraphy and structures and performed some petrologic analyses and radiogenic age determinations. Stratigraphically in the lower part of the Kazdağ metamorphic sequence, there is a part of an oceanic crust represented by metaultramafic rocks and gabbroic metacumulates. Geochemistry of these banded metagabbros show a mid-oceanic affinity. This oceanic crust is overlain, along an unconformity, by a platform type marble succession. At the base of the marbles, there is a basal conglomerate, clasts of which derived from the underlying ultramafic sequence. Thick white marble sequence is overlain along a gradational boundary with a metadetrital succession consisting of quartz mica

  19. Dichotomy of The Messada Pluton, Serbo-Macedonian Massif, Greece: From Rifting to Subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilatos, Charalampos

    2016-10-01

    The Messada pluton is a mafic intrusion that is located about 12 km SW of Serres town, (Macedonia Greece) that intrudes the two mica, biotite and the augen gneisses of the Vertiskos formation (Serbo-Macedonian massif). The aim of this study is to investigate, define and evaluate the geochemical characteristics of the pluton in order to determine the geotectonic environment in which the parental magma has been formed. The Mesada pluton is a mid to coarse grained intrusion presenting petrographic variety from diorite and quartz diorite to tonalite and granodiorite. The variety in petrography reflects its chemical inhomogeneity in major and trace elements. It is suggested that parts of pluton have been formed by distinctly different types of magmas originated in diverse geotectonic settings. Those parts of quartz diorite and tonalite composition, present similar geochemical characteristics, LILE/HFSE ratios and negative Nb, but no Ti anomalies in their primitive mantle normalized trace elements spider grams. They exhibit higher HFS values than those of granodioritic composition. Moreover, their ORG normalized spider grams not only suggest that they have been evolved by a common parental magma, but also present the typical characteristics of a “crust dominated” within plate pluton that may have been formed in an early stage during rifting, prior to a subsequent subduction episode. This interpretation may be in accordance with the suggestion for the Gondwanian origin of the more silicic Triassic rift related meta-granites (e.g. Arnea plutonic complex) of the Serbo-Macedonian massif. In contrary; the parts of Mesada pluton of granodioritic composition, exhibit a calc-alkaline to high K calc-alkaline magmatic suite and present higher LILE/HFSE and LREE/HREE ratios, related to a higher crustal component contribution for the magma genesis. Furthermore, their primitive mantle normalized spider grams’ present negative anomalies at Nb and Ti. These characteristics

  20. Seismotectonic significance of the 2008-2010 Walloon Brabant seismic swarm in the Brabant Massif, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Noten, Koen; Lecocq, Thomas; Shah, Anjana K.; Camelbeeck, Thierry

    2015-08-01

    Between 12 July 2008 and 18 January 2010 a seismic swarm occurred close to the town of Court-Saint-Etienne, 20 km SE of Brussels (Belgium). The Belgian network and a temporary seismic network covering the epicentral area established a seismic catalogue in which magnitude varies between ML -0.7 and ML 3.2. Based on waveform cross-correlation of co-located earthquakes, the spatial distribution of the hypocentre locations was improved considerably and shows a dense cluster displaying a 200 m-wide, 1.5-km long, NW-SE oriented fault structure at a depth range between 5 and 7 km, located in the Cambrian basement rocks of the Lower Palaeozoic Anglo-Brabant Massif. Waveform comparison of the largest events of the 2008-2010 swarm with an ML 4.0 event that occurred during swarm activity between 1953 and 1957 in the same region shows similar P- and S-wave arrivals at the Belgian Uccle seismic station. The geometry depicted by the hypocentral distribution is consistent with a nearly vertical, left-lateral strike-slip fault taking place in a current local WNW-ESE oriented local maximum horizontal stress field. To determine a relevant tectonic structure, a systematic matched filtering approach of aeromagnetic data, which can approximately locate isolated anomalies associated with hypocentral depths, has been applied. Matched filtering shows that the 2008-2010 seismic swarm occurred along a limited-sized fault which is situated in slaty, low-magnetic rocks of the Mousty Formation. The fault is bordered at both ends with obliquely oriented magnetic gradients. Whereas the NW end of the fault is structurally controlled, its SE end is controlled by a magnetic gradient representing an early-orogenic detachment fault separating the low-magnetic slaty Mousty Formation from the high-magnetic Tubize Formation. The seismic swarm is therefore interpreted as a sinistral reactivation of an inherited NW-SE oriented isolated fault in a weakened crust within the Cambrian core of the Brabant

  1. Sulfur mineralogy and geochemistry of serpentinites and gabbros of the Atlantis Massif (IODP Site U1309)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delacour, Adélie; Früh-Green, Gretchen L.; Bernasconi, Stefano M.

    2008-10-01

    In-situ uplifted portions of oceanic crust at the central dome of the Atlantis Massif (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 30°N) were drilled during Expeditions 304 and 305 of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) and a 1.4 km section of predominantly gabbroic rocks with minor intercalated ultramafic rocks were recovered. Here we characterize variations in sulfur mineralogy and geochemistry of selected samples of serpentinized peridotites, olivine-rich troctolites and diverse gabbroic rocks recovered from Hole 1309D. These data are used to constrain alteration processes and redox conditions and are compared with the basement rocks of the southern wall of the Atlantis Massif, which hosts the Lost City Hydrothermal Field, 5 km to the south. The oceanic crust at the central dome is characterized by Ni-rich sulfides reflecting reducing conditions and limited seawater circulation. During uplift and exhumation, seawater interaction in gabbroic-dominated domains was limited, as indicated by homogeneous mantle-like sulfur contents and isotope compositions of gabbroic rocks and olivine-rich troctolites. Local variations from mantle compositions are related to magmatic variability or to interaction with seawater-derived fluids channeled along fault zones. The concomitant occurrence of mackinawite in olivine-rich troctolites and an anhydrite vein in a gabbro provide temperature constraints of 150-200 °C for late circulating fluids along local brittle faults below 700 m depth. In contrast, the ultramafic lithologies at the central dome represent domains with higher seawater fluxes and higher degrees of alteration and show distinct changes in sulfur geochemistry. The serpentinites in the upper part of the hole are characterized by high total sulfide contents, high δ34S sulfide values and low δ34S sulfate values, which reflect a multistage history primarily controlled by seawater-gabbro interaction and subsequent serpentinization. The basement rocks at the central dome record lower

  2. Cl-rich hydrous mafic mineral assemblages in the Highiș massif, Apuseni Mountains, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, Bernard; Tatu, Mihai

    2016-08-01

    The Guadalupian (Mid-Permian) Highiș massif (Apuseni Mountains, Romania) displays a bimodal igneous suite of mafic (gabbro, diorite) and A-type felsic (alkali feldspar granite, albite granite, and hybrid granodiorite) rocks. Amphibole is widespread throughout the suite, and yields markedly high chlorine contents. Three groups are identified: Cl-rich potassic hastingsite (2.60-3.40 wt% Cl) within A-type felsic rocks and diorite, mildly Cl-rich pargasite to hornblende (0.80-1.90 wt% Cl) within gabbro, and low F-Cl hornblende within gabbro and hybrid granodiorite. Coexisting biotite is either Cl-rich within diorite, or F-Cl-poor to F-rich within A-type felsic rocks. Chlorine and fluorine are distributed in both mafic phases, according to the F-Fe and Cl-Mg avoidance rules. The low-Ti contents suggest subsolidus compositions. Cl-rich amphibole within diorite and A-type felsic rocks yields a restricted temperature range - from 575 °C down to 400 °C, whereas mildly Cl-rich amphibole within gabbro displays the highest range - from 675 to 360 °C. Temperatures recorded by Cl-rich biotite within diorite range from 590 to 410 °C. Biotite within A-type felsic rocks yields higher temperatures than amphibole: the highest values- from 640 to 540 °C - are recorded in low-F-Cl varieties, whereas the lowest values- from 535 to 500 °C - are displayed by F-rich varieties. All data point to halogen-rich hydrothermal fluids at upper greenschist facies conditions percolating through fractures and shear zones and pervasively permeating the whole Highiș massif, with F precipitating as interstitial fluorite and Cl incorporating into amphibole, during one, or possibly several, hydrothermal episodes that would have occurred during a ~ 150 My-long period of time extending from the Guadalupian (Mid-Permian) to the Albian (Mid-Cretaceous).

  3. CRE dating on the scarps of large landslides affecting the Belledonne massif ( French Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebrouc, V.; Baillet, L.; Schwartz, S.; Jongmans, D.; Gamond, J. F.; Bourles, D.; Le Roux, O.; Carcaillet, J.; Braucher, R.

    2012-04-01

    The southwestern edge of the Belledonne Massif (French Alps) consists of micaschists unconformably covered with Mesozoic sediments and Quaternary deposits. The morphology corresponds to a glacial plateau (Mont Sec plateau) bordered by steep slopes (around 40°), where moraines and peat bog subsist. The massif is incised by the East-West trending Romanche valley that was shaped by several cycles of quaternary glaciations and deglaciations. Slopes are affected by several active or past large scale rock mass instabilities. Cosmic Ray Exposure (CRE) dating was applied on the head scarps of three large landslides, one of which being the active Séchilienne landslide whose headscarp was already dated by Leroux et al. [2009]. Dating results suggest a concomitant initiation of these instabilities at about 7 ± 2 10Be ka, thousands years after the total downwastage of the valley. A different kinematic behaviour was however observed on two contiguous landslides for which continuous exposure profiles were obtained. On the Séchilienne landslide, 23 samples were collected from internal and lateral scarps, as well as on polished bedrock surfaces, with the aim of dating the internal kinematics of the landslide. Preliminary dating results obtained on polished surfaces and near the top of the scarps show unexpected low 10Be concentrations, suggesting the existence of thin moraine or peat bog deposits masking the bedrock, which have been subsequently eroded. The minimum thickness of these deposits was estimated assuming a constant denudation rate over time. Exposure date profiles show that the studied lateral and internal scarps were initiated at the same period as the Sechilienne headscarp. An increase in the exposure rate was also observed between 2 and 1 ka, in agreement with that evidenced along the headscarp. Forty other samples have been collected in the landslide to corroborate these results. Reference Le Roux, O., S. Schwartz , J.-F. Gamond, D. Jongmans, D. Bourles, R

  4. Methane Seepage at Hyperalkaline Springs in the Ronda Peridotite Massif (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etiope, G.; Vadillo, I.; Whiticar, M. J.; Marques, J. M.; Carreira, P. M.; Tiago, I.; Benavente, J.; Jimenez, P.; Urresti, B.

    2014-12-01

    Methane-rich, hyperalkaline spring waters and bubbling pools have been sampled in the Ronda peridotite massif in southern Spain. Water chemistry (T: 17.1-21.5 ºC; pH: 10.7-11.7; DO: <2 mg/L; Ca-OH facies) is characteristic of present-day serpentinization. Dissolved CH4 concentrations range from 0.1 to 3.2 mg/L. CH4 stable C and H isotope ratios suggest a dominant abiotic origin in two natural spring sites (delta13C: -13 to -29 ‰ VPDB; delta2H: -309 to -333 ‰ VSMOW) and a mixed biotic-abiotic origin in springs with artificial water delivery systems (i.e., pipes or fountains; delta13C: -44 to -69 ‰; delta2H: -180 to -319 ‰). At the natural springs, gas is mainly released through bubbles close to the water outlet (CH4 flux ~1 kg/day by individual bubble trains), and subordinately by microseepage from the ground, even at distances of ~100 m from the bubble-spring site (flux of 10's, up to 97, mg CH4 m-2day-1). Gas seepage is strictly controlled by faults. Under-saturation of CH4 in water, bubbling and seepage location suggest that CH4 is not exclusively transported to the surface by hyperalkaline water, but it follows autonomous migration pathways along faults. Similar 'dry' seepage of abiotic gas was observed in the Philippines, New Zealand, Turkey and Italy. Like other land-based serpentinization systems, the Ronda peridotite massif is characterized by low heat flow (<40 mW/m2), with temperatures <60°C at depths of 1.5 km. At these low T and high pH conditions, CO32- is the only available carbon source dissolved in the water, and unlikely contributes to catalysed Fischer-Tropsch Type reactions. Methane production from CO2 hydrogenation in a gas phase system (unsaturated fractured rocks) cannot be excluded. The presence of ruthenium-enriched chromitites in the Ronda peridotites may support the hypothesis that CH4 is produced by CO2 hydrogenation catalyzed by Ru minerals, even at temperatures below 100°C, as demonstrated in recent laboratory experiments

  5. Late Carboniferous remagnetisation of Palaeozoic rocks in the NE Rhenish Massif, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwing, A.; Bachtadse, V.; Soffel, H. C.

    During stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetisation experiments on Devonian and Lower Carboniferous carbonate and clastic rocks from the north-eastern part of the Rhenish Massif, Germany, three components of magnetisation (A, B, C) are identified. Component A is a recent viscous overprint that parallels the local present day geomagnetic field. Component B is mainly observed from 260 up to 550 °C during thermal demagnetisation and is carried by magnetite. In two localities, where red siltstones and red carbonate rocks were sampled, component B is stable up to 670 °C, indicating the presence of hematite. Three clusters of in situ B directions can be identified, which are controlled by the tectonic position of the sampling areas. These are from NW to SE: the Remscheid anticline (RA), the Lüdenscheid syncline (LS) and the Attendorn and Wittgenstein synclines (AS/WS). Standard and inclination-only fold tests, using parametric resampling, yield optimal statistical parameters at increasing amounts of untilting ranging from 0% in the South up to 57% in the North of the NE Rhenish Massif. Despite the variations in optimal untilting, the resulting site mean directions of component B do not differ significantly in inclination. These results are interpreted to reflect the acquisition of magnetisation during progressive northward migration of the deformation front in Late Carboniferous times. The resulting palaeolatitudes (RA: 1°S +2°-3°; LS: 2°S +3°-2°; AS/WS: 1°S +3°-4°) are in good agreement with the predicted position of the sampling area in the Late Carboniferous, as derived from a published Apparent Polar Wander Path for Baltica and Laurentia. The unblocking temperature spectra and the synfolding nature of B yield strong evidence that chemical processes, possibly driven by fluid migration during orogenesis, caused this remagnetisation. A third component C was observed in zones of tight folding with steeply dipping to overturned bedding planes and is

  6. A Bibliography of Italian Studies in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherubini, Jon C., Comp.

    1977-01-01

    This quarterly bibliography of Italian studies in North America includes books, bibliographies, and reviews of comparative literature studies, translations, and publications on art, music, philosophy, history, cinema, and sociology, which are closely related to literature. (SW)

  7. [Organizational models in the Italian nephrology, dialysis and transplantation network].

    PubMed

    Manno, Carlo; Zuccalà, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the Italian Society of Nephrology discusses the recent statement of the Italian National Government regarding the 'The definition of the structure and technological standards of hospital health care' and suggests a new model of organization of the Italian Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation Network. In particular, the Italian Society of Nephrology proposes the presence of a nephrologist as part of the Emergency Hospital Network, to oversee all extracorporeal replacement treatments taking place in Intensive Care Units. Finally, this article recommends the cooperation of the nephrologist with primary health care teams and general practitioners as a move to prevent the complications of chronic kidney disease, thus improving short-term and long-term survival outcomes and reducing the costs to the National Health System.

  8. An Investigation of Piagetian Stages in Italian Secondary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Violino, Paolo; Di Giacomo, Beatrice Semino

    1981-01-01

    Reports results of a study examining the Piagetian stages of Italian secondary school students in which student responses to three puzzles were analyzed. Compares results with studies done in the United States and the United Kingdom. (CS)

  9. Phonological devices in poems by English and Italian children.

    PubMed

    Dowker, A; Pinto, G

    1993-10-01

    Poems were elicited from 133 English children between two and six and 171 Italian children between three and seven, using a similar technique, and the results were compared. Both groups produced large numbers of poems. There were great similarities and some differences. The majority of poems in both samples contained phonological devices (mostly rhyme and alliteration) and the proportion was higher (87%) in the Italian sample than in the English sample (59%). The proportion of poems that contained rhyme was close to 45% in each sample, with no consistent age difference in either sample. About one-third of Italian poems and just over a fifth of English poems contained alliteration. The frequency of alliteration declined with age in the English sample but not in the Italian sample. Possible reasons for the differences between the samples are considered. It is argued that the similarities are more important, and their theoretical implications are discussed.

  10. Italian law on assisted conception: clinical and research implications.

    PubMed

    Manna, Claudio; Nardo, Luciano G

    2005-11-01

    The Italian law 40/2004 regulating the use of assisted conception will remain on the statutes after the failure of the referendum in June 2005. Italy is now one of the most restrictive countries in the world in the field of assisted conception. It is thought that the new regulations, which have already increased 'reproductive tourism' in Italian subfertile couples, will also have clinical and research implications.

  11. [The decoration of Italian Renaissance drug jars after engravings].

    PubMed

    Drey, R E

    1994-01-01

    Although Italian drug jar painters generally devised original compositions for the ornamentation of their products, on occasion they derived their subjects from printed sources. Printed sources used by drug jar artists of the Renaissance include wood-engraved Italian tarot cards and wood-engraved illustrations by Hans Sebald Beham and Bernard Salomon in miniature bibles published in the sixteenth century in Frankfurt and in Lyons respectively.

  12. Dall'italo-austrliano all'italiano: apprendmento linguistico fra gli scolari della seconda generazione (From Italian-Australian to Italian: Language Acquisition among the Students of the Second Generation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubino, Antonia

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the results of research to determine the success of the efforts currently being made in schools to teach pure Italian to the second generation of Italians in Australia in order to replace Italian Australian, a mixture of Italian dialects, Italian, and English. 33 references. (CFM)

  13. Scientific research of Italian neurologists from 2008 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Tinazzi, Michele; Toni, Danilo; Veronese, Marco; Ajena, Domenico; Cruccu, Giorgio; Calabresi, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    Quantifying the number of publications is the easiest way to estimate the scientific production of a country in any scientific field. The aim of this article is to provide information about the scientific production from 2008 to 2011 of Italian neurologists and to compare it with scientific production data of other countries. The analysis regarded the research in Web of Science, in the Subject Category Clinical Neurology, of the publications published from 2008 to 2011, with at least one Italian author belonging to a scientific Italian institution. The overall data, their quality and scientific impact were compared with those of the first 15 world countries for scientific production. We observed that even if the Gross National Product of Italy registered a slight and gradual reduction from 2008 to 2011, the neurological scientific production of Italian neurologists showed an increase in the number of papers, maintaining the fifth position in these four years after USA, Germany, England and Japan. Moreover, dividing the neurological journals in quartiles according to the impact factor, we observed constant increase of the numbers of Italian publications in the highest quartile journals during the considered period. These data suggest that from 2008 to 2011 Italian neurologists have increased the number of publications, also improving the quality of works.

  14. Internal structure of the Aar Massif: What can we learn in terms of exploration for deep geothermal energy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herwegh, Marco; Baumberger, Roland; Wehrens, Philip; Schubert, Raphael; Berger, Alfons; Maeder, Urs; Spillmann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The successful use of deep geothermal energy requires 3D flow paths, which allow an efficient heat exchange between the surrounding host rocks and the circulating fluids. Recent attempts to exploit this energy resource clearly demonstrate that the new technology is facing sever problems. Some major problems are related to the prediction of permeability, the 3D structure of the flow paths and the mechanical responses during elevated fluid pressures at depths of several kilometers. Although seemingly new in a technical perspective, nature is facing and solving similar problems since the beginning of the Alpine orogeny. Based on detailed studies in the Hasli Valley (Aar Massif) we can demonstrate that deformation and fluid flow are strongly localized along mechanical anisotropies (e.g. lithological variations, brittle and ductile faults). Some of them already evolved during Variscan and post-Variscan times. Interestingly, these inherited structures are reactivated over and over again during the Alpine orogeny. Their reactivation occurred at depths of ~13-15 km with elevated temperatures (400-475°C) and involved both ductile and brittle deformation processes. Brittle deformation in form of hydrofracking was always present due to the circulating fluids. It is this process, which was and still is responsible for seismic activity. With progressive uplift and exhumation of the Aar Massif, ductile deformation structures became replaced by brittle cataclasites and fault gouges during fault activity at shallower crustal levels. Existing hydrotest data from the Grimsel Test Site (Nagra's underground research laboratory) indicate that these brittle successors of the ductile shear zones are domains of enhanced recent fluid percolation. Note that although being exposed today, the continuation of these fault structures are still active at depth in both brittle and ductile deformation modes, a fact that can be inferred from recent uplift rates and the active seismicity. On the

  15. Petrographic, geochemical and isotopic evidence of crustal assimilation processes in the Ponte Nova alkaline mafic-ultramafic massif, SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzone, Rogério Guitarrari; Montecinos Munoz, Patricio; Enrich, Gaston Eduardo Rojas; Alves, Adriana; Ruberti, Excelso; Gomes, Celsode Barros

    2016-09-01

    Crustal assimilation plus crystal fractionation processes of different basanite magma batches control the evolution of the Ponte Nova cretaceous alkaline mafic-ultramafic massif in SE Brazil. This massif is composed of several intrusions, the main ones with a cumulate character. Disequilibrium features in the early-crystallized phases (e.g., corrosion and sieve textures in cores of clinopyroxene crystals, spongy-cellular-textured plagioclase crystals, gulf corrosion texture in olivine crystals) and classical hybridization textures (e.g., blade biotite and acicular apatite crystals) provide strong evidence of open-system behavior. All samples are olivine- and nepheline-normative rocks with basic-ultrabasic and potassic characters and variable incompatible element enrichments. The wide ranges of whole-rock 87Sr/86Sri and 143Nd/144Ndi ratios (0.70432-0.70641 and 0.512216-0.512555, respectively) are indicative of crustal contribution from the Precambrian basement host rocks. Plagioclase and apatite 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70422-0.70927) obtained for the most primitive samples of each intrusion indicate disequilibrium conditions from early- to principal-crystallization stages. Isotope mixing-model curves between the least contaminated alkaline basic magma and heterogeneous local crustal components indicate that each intrusion of the massif is differentiated from the others by varied degrees of crustal contribution. The primary mechanisms of crustal contribution to the Ponte Nova massif involve the assimilation of host rock xenoliths during the development of the chamber environment and the assimilation of partial melts from the surrounding host rocks. Thermodynamic models using the melts algorithm indicate that parental alkaline basic magmas can be strongly affected by contamination processes subsequently to their initial stages of crystallization when there is sufficient energy to assimilate partial melts of crustal host rocks. The assimilation processes are considered to

  16. Isotope Sm-Nd age of the paleoproterozoic PGE-bearing Monchetundra massif trachytoid gabbronorites (Fennoscandian shield)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunakkuzin, Evgeniy; Bayanova, Tamara; Serov, Pavel; Borisenko, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Monchetundra massif is located in the central part of the Kola Peninsula (Russia) and it is the south-eastern part of the Main Ridge Intrusion. Monchetundra massif together with well-known layered mafic-ultramafic PGE-bearing intrusions in the Fennoscandian shield such as the Fedorovo-Pansky complex, the mt. Generalskaya, the Monchepluton is of interest as a target for the PGE prospecting (Mitrofanov et al. 2006; Nerovich et al., 2009; Grokhovskaya et al., 2003). According to some previously researchers (Nazimova, Rayan, 2008, Nerovich et al., 2009, Layered intrusions…p.1, 2004) rocks of the Monchetundra massif is subdivided into two to five syngenetic zones. Hence the last isotope-geochronological and isotope-geochemical data revealed that the massif includes at least four groups of mafic rocks distinguished by formation ages (Bayanova et al., 2010). The aim of this work is to present Sm-Nd dating results of trachytoid gabbronorites, which are the second mafic rocks group in the Monchetundra massif. The Sm-Nd investigations for these rocks were carried out for the first time. The second group of mafic rocks comprises of medium-grained and coarse-grained mesocratic gabbronorites of trachytoid texture, with they characterized by well-preserved primary magmatic minerals and gabbro-ophitic texture. The U-Pb ages on single zircon-baddeleyite for these rocks recently obtained (2505 ± 6 Ma, 2501 ± 8 Ma, 2504.4±2.7 Ma and 2507.5±7.7 Ma (Layered intrusions…p.1., 2004, Borisenko et al., 2013)). Two samples of trachytoid gabbronorites were selected to study these rocks by Sm-Nd isotopic method. Mineral isochrons plotted from plagioclase, ortho- and clinopyroxene and whole-rock minerals gave ages of 2496±27 (MSWD = 0.9; ɛNd = -1.6±0.5) and 2492±55 Ma (MSWD = 0.5; ɛNd = -1.7±0.5). The new Sm-Nd ages obtained are close to the U-Pb data on zircons and baddeleyites for this rocks group and consider as oridin of second mafic rocks group. All investigations are

  17. Problemi di comunicazione interculturale tra Italiani e parlanti di italiano in Nord America (Intercultural Communication Problems Between Italians and Speakers of Italian in North America).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balboni, Paolo E.

    2001-01-01

    Examines intercultural communication between Italians and speakers of Italian in North America. Argues intercultural communicative competence comprises three elements: deep cultural values or "mental software"; non-verbal means of communication; and language. Offers advice to teachers of Italian who want to help their students develop…

  18. Adjusting stream-sediment geochemical maps in the Austrian Bohemian Massif by analysis of variance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J.C.; Hausberger, G.; Schermann, O.; Bohling, G.

    1995-01-01

    The Austrian portion of the Bohemian Massif is a Precambrian terrane composed mostly of highly metamorphosed rocks intruded by a series of granitoids that are petrographically similar. Rocks are exposed poorly and the subtle variations in rock type are difficult to map in the field. A detailed geochemical survey of stream sediments in this region has been conducted and included as part of the Geochemischer Atlas der Republik O??sterreich, and the variations in stream sediment composition may help refine the geological interpretation. In an earlier study, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was applied to the stream-sediment data in order to minimize unwanted sampling variation and emphasize relationships between stream sediments and rock types in sample catchment areas. The estimated coefficients were used successfully to correct for the sampling effects throughout most of the region, but also introduced an overcorrection in some areas that seems to result from consistent but subtle differences in composition of specific rock types. By expanding the model to include an additional factor reflecting the presence of a major tectonic unit, the Rohrbach block, the overcorrection is removed. This iterative process simultaneously refines both the geochemical map by removing extraneous variation and the geological map by suggesting a more detailed classification of rock types. ?? 1995 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  19. Saldanha Massif, Mid-Atlantic Ridge: A Controlled Source EM Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, M. C.; Santos, F.; Dzhatieva, Z.; Dias, A.; Marques, A. F.; Silva, N.; de Nijs, I.

    2005-12-01

    In November-December 2004 a controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) survey was carried out on the axis of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge during cruise Charles Darwin 167. The work is centred on a non-transform offset between the FAMOUS and AMAR segments, at 36 34' North. Here, a prominent feature is the Saldanha massif: a dome of unroofed mantle rocks, consisting largely of serpentised peridotites, and at whose summit significant low-temperature hydrothermal venting has been documented. Our objective is to determine the distribution of electrical resistivity and hence porosity over a volume of ~ 10 km x 10 km x 3 km vertically, in order to constrain the degree of penetration of seawater into the crust and uppermost mantle; to contrast the porosity structure here with volcanically hosted systems away from segment boundaries elsewhere on the MAR; and to constrain models of non-volcanic heat sources and hydrothermal circulation in ultramafic settings at slow spreading ridges. In addition to the CSEM survey we obtained swath bathymetry, gravity and magnetic data; water column physical properties and seafloor current data; and a number of dredge and gravity core samples. We shall present details of the data and samples, together with our preliminary analysis of the results.

  20. Boiling fluids in a region of rapid uplift, Nanga Parbat Massif, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craw, D.; Koons, P. O.; Winslow, D.; Chamberlain, C. P.; Zeitler, P.

    1994-12-01

    The Nanga Parbat massif of northern Pakistan is currently undergoing rapid uplift (approx. 5-10 mm/a), resulting in near-surface elevated temperatures. Numerous quartz veins cut geologically young structures (less than 2 Ma), attesting to widespread young fluid flow. Fluid inclusions in quartz veins are predominantly low density water vapor (down to 0.05 mg/cu m), with some low density carbon dioxide vapor, and the fluid is predominantly meteoric in origin. Fluid inclusions provide evidence for boiling near to the critical points for water and for 5 wt% NaCl solution (up to 410 C). Head-driven meteoric water was convecting in fracture permeability under hydrostatic pressures which followed the boiling point-depth curve and near-boiling springs emanate from the surface. Hydrostatic pressures persisted to depths of about 6 km below the topographic surface, or near to sea level, where the brittle-ductile transition is inferred to lie. Numerical modeling of conductive heat flow in an area of high relief during rapid uplift indicates that the shape of the near-surface conductive geotherm is significantly influenced by topographic relief. Reasonable approximations for topgraphy at Nanga Parbat produce a conductive geotherm which implies high, near-surface geothermal gradients (greater than 100 C/km, and the isotherms describe a giant pillar of heat. Above about 4 km, fluid temperature is greater than conductive rock temperature in permeable zones which carry convecting boiling meteoric fluid.

  1. The Montagne Noire migmatitic dome emplacement (French Massif Central): new insights from petrofabric and AMS studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Nicolas; Faure, Michel; Chen, Yan

    2009-11-01

    In the southern French Massif Central, the Montagne Noire axial zone is a NE-SW elongated granite-migmatite dome emplaced within Visean south-verging recumbent folds and intruded by syn- to late-migmatization granitoids. The tectonic setting of this dome is still disputed, thus several models have been proposed. In order to better understand the emplacement mechanism of this dome, petrofabric and Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) studies have been carried out. In the granites and migmatites that form the dome core, magmatic texture and to a lesser extent weak solid-state texture are dominant. As a paramagnetic mineral, biotite is the main carrier of the magnetic susceptibility. On the basis of 135 AMS sites, the magnetic fabrics appear as independent of the lithology but related to the dome architecture. Coupling our results with previous structural and geochronological studies, allows us to propose a new emplacement model. Between 340-325 Ma, the Palaeozoic series underwent a compressional deformation represented by nappes and recumbent folds involving the thermal event leading to partial melting. Until ˜325-310 Ma, the dome emplacement was assisted by diapiric processes. An extensional event took place at ˜300 Ma, after the emplacement of the late to post-migmatitic granitic plutons. In the northeast side of the dome, a brittle normal-dextral faulting controlled the opening of the Graissessac coal basin.

  2. First insights on the molybdenum-copper Bled M'Dena complex (Eglab massif, Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagraa, Karima; Salvi, Stefano; Béziat, Didier; Debat, Pierre; Kolli, Omar

    2017-03-01

    Molybdenum-Copper showings in the Eglab massif (eastern part of the Reguibat rise of Algeria), are found in quartz-monzodiorite and granodiorite of the Bled M'Dena complex, a Paleoproterozoic circular structure of ∼5 km in diameter, comprising volcanic and intrusive suites. The latter consist of quartz-diorite, quartz-monzodiorite and granodiorite with a metaluminous normative composition. They display an "adakitic character" with moderate light rare-earth element (LREE) enrichment, minor Eu anomalies, high Sr/Y ratio and low Yb concentration, suggestive of a hydrous, arc magma of volcanic-arc affinity. The mineralization occurs mostly in quartz + molybdenite + chalcopyrite stockwork veins marked by widespread propylitic alteration along the selvages. Molybdenite and chalcopyrite are commonly associated with calcite, which precipitated at relatively late stages of the hydrothermal alteration. Fluid inclusions related to the mineralization stage, range from aqueous to aqueous-carbonic to solid bearing. The latter inclusions have the highest homogenization temperature (up to ∼400 °C), are salt saturated, and commonly contain molybdenite and/or chalcopyrite crystals. The petrology and geochemistry of the host rocks, the style of the hydrothermal alteration, the ore mineral associations, and the characteristics of the fluid inclusions, are all coherent in indicating that the Bled M'Dena represents a Paleoproterozoic porphyry style Mo mineralization, which is far unreported in the African continent.

  3. Raman imaging of fluid inclusions in garnet from UHPM rocks (Kokchetav massif, Northern Kazakhstan).

    PubMed

    Korsakov, Andrey V; Dieing, Thomas; Golovin, Aleksandr V; Toporski, Jan

    2011-10-01

    Confocal Raman imaging of fluid inclusions in garnet porphyroblasts from diamond-grade metamorphic calc-silicate rocks from the Kumdy-Kol microdiamond deposit (Kokchetav Massif, Northern Kazakhstan) reveals that these fluid inclusions consist of almost pure water with different step-daughter phases (e.g., calcite, mica and rare quartz). These fluid inclusions are characterized by negative crystal shape of the host-garnet and they exclusively occur within the core of garnet porphyroblasts. These observations are consistent with their primary origin, most likely at ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic conditions. The euhedral newly formed garnet, different in color and composition, was found to be associated with these fluid inclusions. It is proposed that newly formed garnet and water fluid inclusions appear by reaction between the hydrous fluid and the garnet-host. These fluid inclusions provide an unequivocal record of almost pure H(2)O fluids, indicating water-saturated conditions within subducted continental crust during prograde stage and/or ultrahigh-P metamorphism.

  4. Polyphase wrench tectonics in the southern french Massif Central: kinematic inferences from pre- and syntectonic granitoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, Jean-Yves; Faure, Michel; Ledru, Patrick

    1996-03-01

    In the Variscan French Massif Central, the South Limousin area consists of low- to medium-grade metamorphic rocks intruded by two granitic bodies. The structural and textural analyses of these plutons undertaken in parallel with the structural analysis of their host rocks allow us to characterize and to date different stages in the tectonic evolution of this area. This study shows that the South Limousin area experienced successivelly two strike-slip events along two geographically distinct shear zones, from north to south the left-lateral Estivaux and the right-lateral South Limousin strike-slip faults, respectively. These ductile faults subdivide the South Limousin into three structural units, from north to south they are the Upper Gneiss unit, Thiviers-Payzac unit .and Génis unit. The two granitic bodies intrude the Thiviers-Payzac unit only. The younger Estivaux granite is a syntectonic pluton which emplaced during left-lateral wrenching. 40Ar/39Ar dates from biotites indicate an Early Carboniferous age (346 ± 3 Ma). The older granite is a pretectonic body. It is the Ordovician “Saut du Saumon” augen orthogneiss in which detailed structural analyses show the polyphase nature of the solid-state deformation. Our microtectonic data indicate that the right-lateral motions overprint the left-lateral ones and produce apparently symmetrical fabrics.

  5. Polyphase wrench tectonics in the southern french Massif Central: kinematic inferences from pre- and syntectonic granitoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, Jean-Yves; Faure, Michel; Ledru, Patrick

    In the Variscan French Massif Central, the South Limousin area consists of low- to medium-grade metamorphic rocks intruded by two granitic bodies. The structural and textural analyses of these plutons undertaken in parallel with the structural analysis of their host rocks allow us to characterize and to date different stages in the tectonic evolution of this area. This study shows that the South Limousin area experienced successivelly two strike-slip events along two geographically distinct shear zones, from north to south the left-lateral Estivaux and the right-lateral South Limousin strike-slip faults, respectively. These ductile faults subdivide the South Limousin into three structural units, from north to south they are the Upper Gneiss unit, Thiviers-Payzac unit and Génis unit. The two granitic bodies intrude the Thiviers-Payzac unit only. The younger Estivaux granite is a syntectonic pluton which emplaced during left-lateral wrenching. 40Ar/39Ar dates from biotites indicate an Early Carboniferous age (346+/-3Ma). The older granite is a pretectonic body. It is the Ordovician "Saut du Saumon" augen orthogneiss in which detailed structural analyses show the polyphase nature of the solid-state deformation. Our microtectonic data indicate that the right-lateral motions overprint the left-lateral ones and produce apparently symmetrical fabrics.

  6. A large and complete Jurassic geothermal field at Claudia, Deseado Massif, Santa Cruz, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, Diego M.; Campbell, Kathleen A.

    2014-04-01

    Late Jurassic geothermal deposits at Claudia, Argentinean Patagonia, are among the largest (40 km2) and most varied in the Deseado Massif, a 60,000 km2 volcanic province hosting precious metals (Au, Ag) mineralization generated during diffuse back arc spreading and opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. Both siliceous sinter and travertine occur in the same stratigraphic sequence. Deposits range from those interpreted as fluvially reworked hydrothermal silica gels, to extensive apron terraces, to a clustering of high-temperature subaerial vent mounds. Paleoenvironmentally diagnostic textures of sinters include wavy laminated, bubble mat and nodular fabrics, and for travertines comprise fossil terracette rims, wavy laminated, bubble mat, spherulitic, oncoidal, and peloidal fabrics. Of special note is the presence of relatively large (to 25 cm high), inferred subaqueous "Conophyton" structures in travertines, which serve as analogs for some Precambrian stromatolites and imply the presence of relatively deep pools maintained by voluminous spring discharges. The Claudia geothermal field is geographically and geologically linked to the Cerro Vanguardia epithermal project (total resource of ~ 7.8 million ounces Au equivalent) via proximity, similar veins, and structural linkages, making it an especially large and relevant prospect for the region. The combined Claudia-Cerro Vanguardia hydrothermal system likely represents a fortuitous alignment of focused fluid flow and structure conducive to forming a giant epithermal ore deposit, with respect to size, ore concentration and potentially duration, in the Late Jurassic of Patagonia.

  7. The limnology and biology of the Dufek Massif, Transantarctic Mountains 82° South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, Dominic A.; Convey, Peter; Verleyen, Elie; Vyverman, Wim; McInnes, Sandra J.; Sands, Chester J.; Fernández-Carazo, Rafael; Wilmotte, Annick; De Wever, Aaike; Peeters, Karolien; Tavernier, Ines; Willems, Anne

    2010-08-01

    Very little is known about the higher latitude inland biology of continental Antarctica. In this paper we describe the limnology and biology of the Dufek Massif, using a range of observational, microscopic and molecular methods. Here two dry valleys are home to some of the southernmost biota on Earth. Cyanobacteria were the dominant life forms, being found in lakes and ponds, in hypersaline brines, summer melt water, relict pond beds and in exposed terrestrial habitats. Their species diversity was the lowest yet observed in Antarctic lakes. Green algae, cercozoa and bacteria were present, but diatoms were absent except for a single valve; likely windblown. Mosses were absent and only one lichen specimen was found. The Metazoa included three microbivorous tardigrades ( Acutuncus antarcticus, Diphascon sanae and Echiniscus (cf) pseudowendti) and bdelloid rotifer species, but no arthropods or nematodes. These simple faunal and floral communities are missing most of the elements normally present at lower latitudes in the Antarctic which is probably a result of the very harsh environmental conditions in the area.

  8. AMS 14C Dates for Extinct Lemurs from Caves in the Ankarana Massif, Northern Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Elwyn L.; Burney, David A.; Chatrath, Prithijit S.; Godfrey, Laurie R.; Jungers, William L.; Rakotosamimanana, Berthe

    1995-03-01

    An extensive late Quaternary fauna, including many extinct giant lemurs, has been collected recently in a 110+-km system of caves in the Ankarana Massif of northern Madagascar. AMS 14C dates for the acid-insoluble (collagen/gelatin) fraction of bones of the giant lemur Megaladapis (26,150 ± 400 and 12,760 ± 70 yr B.P.) confirm its presence in the area during the late Pleistocene and provide the first Pleistocene 14 C ages from bones of the extinct megafauna of the island. The first date from bones of the recently described extinct Babakotia radofilai (4400 ± 60 yr B.P.) shows that it was present in northern Madagascar in mid-Holocene times. A comparatively recent age of 1020 ± 50 yr B.P. for the extinct Archaeolemur indicates survival of this genus for at least a millennium after the first direct evidence for humans in Madagascar. This suggests that the island's "extinction window" may have represented a longer time span than would have been expected under the Blitzkrieg model of late Quaternary extinctions. A mid-Holocene age (4560 ± 70 yr B.P.) for a bone sample of the small extant lemur Hapalemur simus indicates that the disappearance of this now-restricted species from the Ankarana occurred after this date. New data from the Ankarana and other sites on the island add to the consensus that major biotic changes occurred on Madagascar in the late Holocene.

  9. Light - Shadow Interactions in Italian Medieval Churches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Incerti, Manuela

    In the relationship between architecture and the sky, it is possible to identify three different design issues. The first regards the alignment of buildings with visible points on the horizon that coincide with the rising or setting of a celestial body (sun, planets, stars, or moon) on particular dates during the astronomical year (or liturgical year for sacred buildings). The second is the relationship between planimetric design and the design of the elevations. We are all familiar today with several "light effects", which sometimes have almost hierophanic characteristics that, on certain days of the year, were used to engross, captivate, and amaze the spectator. Contrary to the first two issues, the third comes after the design and building stages and concerns the question of decorative elements. It is reasonable to believe that many years after the works were terminated, certain wall finishings were chosen over others, such as painted frescoes or statues. Whoever did this was fully aware, thanks to direct observation, that such decoration would be struck by a single ray of light on a specific day. This chapter examines light-shadow interactions in some Italian medieval churches.

  10. Biological dosimetry in Russian and Italian astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, O.; Durante, M.; Gialanella, G.; Grossi, G.; Pugliese, M.; Scampoli, P.; Snigiryova, G.; Obe, G.

    Large uncertainties are associated with estimates of equivalent dose and cancer risk for crews of longterm space missions. Biological dosimetry in astronauts is emerging as a useful technique to compare predictions based on quality factors and risk coefficients with actual measurements of biological damage in-flight. In the present study, chromosomal aberrations were analyzed in one Italian and eight Russian cosmonauts following missions of different duration on the MIR and the international space station (ISS). We used the technique of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to visualize translocations in chromosomes 1 and 2. In some cases, an increase in chromosome damage was observed after flight, but no correlation could be found between chromosome damage and flight history, in terms of number of flights at the time of sampling, duration in space and extra-vehicular activity. Blood samples from one of the cosmonauts were exposed in vitro to 6 MeV X-rays both before and after the flight. An enhancement in radiosensitivity induced by the spaceflight was observed.

  11. Acoustics of Italian Historical Opera Houses.

    PubMed

    Prodi, Nicola; Pompoli, Roberto; Martellotta, Francesco; Sato, Shin-ichi

    2015-08-01

    Opera houses represent a large group of performance spaces characterized by great complexity and, at the same time, versatility with respect to different usage (from opera to symphonic music and ballet). This kind of building originated in Italy during the 17th century and later spread across the country and then Europe and the rest of the world, slowly evolving into modern theatre shapes. As a consequence of the changes undergone by the interior space, the original acoustic features, which likely influenced many composers, experienced important variations. Thanks to acoustic measurement campaigns inside Italian Historical Opera Houses, promoted by National and Regional Projects, the distinctive features of these spaces were investigated in comparison to modern spaces. In this work, the newly acquired data are merged with data in the literature in order to present and discuss some of the distinctive acoustic features of historical spaces as regards their original function. Moreover, specific issues such as listening in stalls and boxes and the criteria governing the preference judgment of listeners are considered. The concept and the crucial role of the balance between stage and pit sources are also discussed by means of previous literature studies.

  12. The new Italian code of medical ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Fineschi, V; Turillazzi, E; Cateni, C

    1997-01-01

    In June 1995, the Italian code of medical ethics was revised in order that its principles should reflect the ever-changing relationship between the medical profession and society and between physicians and patients. The updated code is also a response to new ethical problems created by scientific progress; the discussion of such problems often shows up a need for better understanding on the part of the medical profession itself. Medical deontology is defined as the discipline for the study of norms of conduct for the health care professions, including moral and legal norms as well as those pertaining more strictly to professional performance. The aim of deontology is therefore, the in-depth investigation and revision of the code of medical ethics. It is in the light of this conceptual definition that one should interpret a review of the different codes which have attempted, throughout the various periods of Italy's recent history, to adapt ethical norms to particular social and health care climates. PMID:9279746

  13. The French-Italian Concordia Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekarnia, Djamel; Frenot, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Concordia is a French-Italian permanent station located at Dome C, Antarctica. The station provides accommodation for up to 16 people over winter and more than 70 scientists and technicians during the austral summer. The scientific projects implemented at Concordia are strictly dependent on the characteristics of the site: a) the presence of a 3 300 m thick ice cap that allows access to the planet's climate archives and the reconstruction of glacial-interglacial cycles over more than 800 000 years; b) a particularly stable pure and dry atmosphere ideal for astronomy observations and for research on the chemical composition of the atmosphere; c) a distant location from coastal perturbations favourable to magnetic and seismological observatories to complement a poor world data network in the southern hemisphere; and d) a small totally isolated group of people confined to the station over a long winter, offering an opportunity for a range of medical and psychological studies useful to prepare long duration deep space missions. We will address the main characteristics of this station and its interest for science.

  14. The new Italian code of medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Fineschi, V; Turillazzi, E; Cateni, C

    1997-08-01

    In June 1995, the Italian code of medical ethics was revised in order that its principles should reflect the ever-changing relationship between the medical profession and society and between physicians and patients. The updated code is also a response to new ethical problems created by scientific progress; the discussion of such problems often shows up a need for better understanding on the part of the medical profession itself. Medical deontology is defined as the discipline for the study of norms of conduct for the health care professions, including moral and legal norms as well as those pertaining more strictly to professional performance. The aim of deontology is therefore, the in-depth investigation and revision of the code of medical ethics. It is in the light of this conceptual definition that one should interpret a review of the different codes which have attempted, throughout the various periods of Italy's recent history, to adapt ethical norms to particular social and health care climates.

  15. Antibiotic resistance: Italian awareness survey 2016.

    PubMed

    Prigitano, Anna; Romanò, Luisa; Auxilia, Francesco; Castaldi, Silvana; Tortorano, Anna M

    2017-03-09

    Antimicrobial resistance has become a public health priority worldwide. The WHO conducted a survey concerning the personal use of antibiotics, knowledge of appropriate use and awareness of the issue of resistance. A similar survey was conducted in Italy involving 666 young university students and 131 seniors attending courses of the University of the third age. Antibiotics seem to be taken with moderate frequency and appropriately: 30% of respondents took them in the past six months and 94% took these drugs only prescribed by a doctor, in the correct dose and for the proper duration. Notable confusion concerning the conditions treatable with antibiotics was detected (only 30% indicated gonorrhea, and 30-40% believed that antibiotics should be employed for fever, cold, and flu), while 94% of participants seemed aware of the problem of antibiotic resistance. Most of the respondents identified the behaviors that can reduce the phenomenon of resistance (regular handwashing and use of antibiotics only when prescribed and needed). The results of our survey, that involved people of high level of instruction and living in urban areas of northern regions, cannot be extended to all the Italian population. However, they provide valid elements to promote initiatives aimed to a more aware use of antibiotics.

  16. Analysis of some Italian lemon liquors (limoncello).

    PubMed

    Andrea, Versari; Nadia, Natali; Teresa, Russo Maria; Andrea, Antonelli

    2003-08-13

    The chemical composition of several commercial Italian Limoncellos, lemon-peel-based alcoholic beverages, was studied by chromatographic techniques. These methods allowed a rapid monitoring of Limoncello, giving information on quality markers and possible adulteration of the product. Quantitative data for more than 60 compounds are reported. Limoncellos were characterized by the presence of selected volatile (terpenes, aldehydes, alcohols) and nonvolatile compounds (psoralens, coumarins, phenolics, carbohydrates and acids). On the basis of their composition, the samples were grouped by PCA analysis in two sets; the first group showed a composition similar to lemon essential oils, with a high content of b-pinene, myrcene, trans-a-bergamottene, and b-bisabolene, and a low content in neral and geranial. The composition of the second group suggested the occurrence of oxidative phenomena and/or the addition of flavors. The presence of ethyl acetate, acetaldehyde, 2-methyl-1-propanol and glycerol showed that a fermentation probably occurred in the sugar syrup used to dilute the Limoncello after the extraction process.

  17. [Significance of mobbing in Italian law].

    PubMed

    Bollani, A

    2008-01-01

    The author analyzes the juridical profile that the phenomenon of mobbing assumes within the Italian legal system, emphasizing that the English term of current usage does not designate any specific legal entity as such but simply refers, in summary fashion, to deeds and behaviours that need to be qualified according to the law in vigour. The normative frame of reference for mobbing is found in article 2087 of the Civil code, which states, as an open, teleologically oriented norm, the employer's obligation to safeguard the moral person of the employee; hence the onus is on the interpreter, essentially, to evaluate if there has been, in actual fact, a contravention of this safeguarded legal right. The author then discusses profiles that intersect with mobbing (or behaviours perceived as such) drawing on other cases regulated by the law such as the safeguarding of professionality (art. 2103 of the Civil code), and underlines that often mobbing ends by being construed as a mere accompaniment to, if not duplication of, other typical cases. Finally, the author discusses aspects of the judicial process related to the allegation and proof of the facts constituting the offence, and to the damage, in its various non patrimonial components.

  18. Gender and lexical access in Italian.

    PubMed

    Bates, E; Devescovi, A; Pizzamiglio, L; D'Amico, S; Hernandez, A

    1995-08-01

    Two new procedures were employed to investigate the effects of semantic and grammatical gender on lexical access in Italian and to investigate the interaction of gender with other factors that are known to influence lexical access in other languages. The gender-monitoring task requires a conscious decision about the gender of each noun, whereas the word repetition task does not require explicit attention to gender. In both tasks, single words are presented out of context, under speeded conditions. Both procedures proved to be sensitive indices of word recognition, with reaction times that are closely tied to the point at which words can be uniquely identified (although some processing before and after the uniqueness point was seen). In both tasks, reaction times were strongly affected by phonological factors (e.g., length, number of syllables, and presence of frication on the initial consonant). Phonological transparency of gender marking had a reliable effect on gender monitoring but had no effect on word repetition, suggesting that explicit attention to gender may be a factor affecting utilization of this phonological cue. Semantic factors (including semantic gender) had no effect on performance. Frequency and age of acquisition had very small effects when other factors were controlled. Implications for current models of lexical access are discussed, with special reference to the role of gender.

  19. Observed Seismic Vulnerability of Italian Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Rota, Maria; Magenes, Guido; Penna, Andrea; Strobbia, Claudio L.

    2008-07-08

    A very large database of post-earthquake building inspections carried out after the main Italian events of the last 30 years has been processed in order to derive fragility curves for 23 building typologies, mostly referring to masonry structures. The records (more than 91000) of this very complete and homogeneous dataset have been converted into a single damage scale with five levels of damage, plus the case of no damage. For each affected municipality a value of PGA and Housner Intensity (I{sub H}) has been evaluated using attenuation laws. Damage probability matrices have been then extracted. These experimental data have been fitted through lognormal fragility curves using an advanced nonlinear regression algorithm also taking into account the relative reliability of each point by the bootstrap technique. The significant concentration of experimental data at low levels of ground motion, associated to the selected analytical expression, determine the peculiar shape of some of the curves, with a very steep initial branch followed by an almost horizontal curve for increasing values of ground motion. Explanations and possible solutions are discussed.

  20. Markers of Deception in Italian Speech

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Katelyn; Villar, Gina; Arciuli, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Lying is a universal activity and the detection of lying a universal concern. Presently, there is great interest in determining objective measures of deception. The examination of speech, in particular, holds promise in this regard; yet, most of what we know about the relationship between speech and lying is based on the assessment of English speaking participants. Few studies have examined indicators of deception in languages other than English. The world’s languages differ in significant ways, and cross-linguistic studies of deceptive communications are a research imperative. Here we review some of these differences amongst the world’s languages, and provide an overview of a number of recent studies demonstrating that cross-linguistic research is a worthwhile endeavor. In addition, we report the results of an empirical investigation of pitch, response latency, and speech rate as cues to deception in Italian speech. True and false opinions were elicited in an audio-taped interview. A within-subjects analysis revealed no significant difference between the average pitch of the two conditions; however, speech rate was significantly slower, while response latency was longer, during deception compared with truth-telling. We explore the implications of these findings and propose directions for future research, with the aim of expanding the cross-linguistic branch of research on markers of deception. PMID:23162502

  1. Hardcore smoking among Italian men and women.

    PubMed

    Ferketich, Amy K; Gallus, Silvano; Colombo, Paolo; Pacifici, Roberta; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2009-04-01

    Hardcore smokers are described as heavy smokers who have not attempted to quit and have no future intentions to quit. The objectives of this study were to characterize hardcore and nonhardcore smokers in Italy. The data for this analysis were collected from 3057 Italians aged 15 years and older in March and April 2007 who were randomly selected to be representative of the population. Hardcore smoking, defined as consuming 15 or more cigarettes per day with no earlier quit attempts and no future intention to quit, was examined in individuals who were aged 26 years and older. Hardcore smokers were compared with their nonhardcore counterparts with respect to sociodemographic and smoking characteristics, perceived stress, and attitudes and beliefs about smoking. The smoking prevalence overall was 23.5% (27.9% among males and 19.3% among females). An estimated 7.8% of individuals were hardcore smokers (9.7% among males and 6% among females), which translates into 33.1% of all smokers in Italy. Age at smoking initiation, occupation (among males), home smoking rules, and perceived stress (among females) distinguished hardcore from nonhardcore smokers. This is the highest prevalence of hardcore smoking that has been reported in the literature to date. This reflects the general attitude toward smoking cessation in Italy. Although the indoor smoking ban has helped to reduce the rate of smoking, it is clearly not enough. Stronger tobacco control measures are warranted.

  2. Lithologic Distribution and Geologic History of the Apollo 17 Site: The Record in Soils and Small Rock Particles from the Highland Massifs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.; Rockow, Kaylynn M.; Korotev, Randy L.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1996-01-01

    Through analysis by instrumental neutron activation (INAA) of 789 individual lithic fragments from the 2 mm-4 mm grain-size fractions of five Apollo 17 soil samples (72443, 72503, 73243, 76283, and 76503) and petrographic examination of a subset, we have determined the diversity and proportions of rock types recorded within soils from the highland massifs. The distribution of rock types at the site, as recorded by lithic fragments in the soils, is an alternative to the distribution inferred from the limited number of large rock samples. The compositions and proportions of 2 mm-4 mm fragments provide a bridge between compositions of less than 1 mm fines and types and proportions of rocks observed in large collected breccias and their clasts. The 2 mm-4 mm fraction of soil from South Massif, represented by an unbiased set of lithic fragments from station-2 samples 72443 and 72503, consists of 71% noritic impact-melt breccia, 7% Incompatible-Trace-Element-(ITE)-poor highland rock types (mainly granulitic breccias), 19% agglutinates and regolith breccias, 1% high-Ti mare basalt, and 2% others (very-low-Ti (VLT) basalt, monzogabbro breccia, and metal). In contrast, the 2 mm - 4 mm fraction of a soil from the North Massif, represented by an unbiased set of lithic fragments from station-6 sample 76503, has a greater proportion of ITE-poor highland rock types and mare-basalt fragments: it consists of 29% ITE-poor highland rock types (mainly granulitic breccias and troctolitic anorthosite), 25% impact-melt breccia, 13% high-Ti mare basalt, 31 % agglutinates and regolith breccias, 1% orange glass and related breccia, and 1% others. Based on a comparison of mass- weighted mean compositions of the lithic fragments with compositions of soil fines from all Apollo 17 highland stations, differences between the station-2 and station-6 samples are representative of differences between available samples from the two massifs. From the distribution of different rock types and their

  3. MITA: An Italian minisatellite for small missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falvella, M. C.; Crisconio, M.; Lupi, T.; Sabatini, P.; Valentini, G.; Viola, F.

    On July 15th 2000 the first MITA (Italian Advanced Technology Minisatellite) was launched from Plesetsk (Russia) by a Cosmos rocket as a piggy-back of the CHAMP satellite. The main purpose of the first MITA mission is its in-flight validation. Furthermore the scientific payload NINA-2 of INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) and the technological payload MTS-AOMS (Micro Tech Sensor for Attitude and Orbit Measurement System) were embarked. The NINA-2 goal is the survey of galactic and solar cosmic rays at 450 km altitude. MTS is an ESA multi-tasking autonomous sensor based on Active Pixel Sensor (star and horizon sensor), Angular Rate Sensor and Magnetic Field Sensor. In this paper the main MITA bus characteristics are reported, together with the description of the launch and the first commissioning phase. The first mission nominal orbit is circular, with a 450 Km altitude and a 87° inclination. The satellite attitude is nadir pointing, 3 axes stabilised. Spacecraft mass is 169.9 Kg. Two fixed solar panels provide an average power of 85 W EOL. The configuration of the satellite main body is based on a cubic shape module, made of Aluminium beams and honeycomb panels. The Mission Control Center is placed in Rome, while the TT&C stations are in Cordoba (Argentina) and, only during the commissioning phase, in Malindi (Kenia); Malindi TT&C station will then be replaced by Fucino (Italy). Since the contacts between spacecraft and the TT&C stations do not occur every orbit, the satellite on board S/W was designed in order to reach the nominal mode without telecommand from ground.

  4. Dirty or Tidy ? Contrasting peraluminous granites in a collapsing Orogen: Examples from the French Massif Central

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villaros, Arnaud; Pichavant, Michel; Moyen, Jean-François; Cuney, Michel; Deveaud, Sarah; Gloaguen, Eric; Melleton, Jérémie

    2013-04-01

    Post collisional collapse commonly enhances crustal melting. Such melting typically produces peraluminous granitic magmas. In the French Massif Central, a mid-crustal segment of the western Variscan belt, two large granitic bodies were produced during the collapse of the Variscan Belt. The St Sylvestre Leucogranitic Complex (SSyL) in the western part of the Massif Central and the Velay Migmatitic Complex (VMC) in the Eastern part. Although these two complexes are formed in similar geodynamic context they present meaningful petrological and geochemical differences. The VMC (~305 Ma) is clearly intrusive in migmatitic terranes. The migmatitic host recorded two successive melting events M3 (720 °C and 5kb) dated between 335 and 315 Ma and M4 (850°C and 4 kb) dated at 305 Ma. The compositions of the VMC are strictly H2O-undersaturated and ranges from leucogranitic to granodioritic. Three main successive granite types have been distinguished (1) A heterogeneous banded biotite granite, (2) A main biotite-cordierite granite, where cordierite can be prismatic, as cockade or pseudomorphic (3) a late magmatic with large K-feldspar phenocryst and prismatic cordierite. The compositions of the VMC granites are quite similar to typical Australian S-type granites in the sense that they also show a positive correlation between ferromagnesian abundance and aluminosity. The SSyL (~320 Ma) is intrusive in upper greenschist facies to upper amphibolite migmatitic metasediment and orthogneiss (~3kb). The compositional variety observed in the SSyL suggests a continuous trend from a moderately mafic, peraluminous magma (cd- and sill- granite) to a H2O saturated granite ("two-mica" granite) facies and finally to an extremely felsic, H2O-saturated magma. Three granitic units have been recognized in the SSyL: (1) the western "Brame Unit" composed of the less evolved cd- and sill- granite facies (2) the central "St Sylvestre Unit", composed mainly by U-rich two-mica granite, intruded by two

  5. The Kokchetav Massif, Kazakhstan: "Type locality" of diamond-bearing UHP metamorphic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertl, H.-P.; Sobolev, N. V.

    2013-02-01

    After the discovery of metamorphic coesite in crustal rocks from the Western Alps (Italy) and the Western gneiss region (Norway) in the mid 1980s of the last century, metamorphic diamond was observed only a few years later "in situ" in the Kokchetav Massif (Kazakhstan). Findings of such coesite- and diamond-bearing ultrahigh pressure metamorphic (UHP) rocks with protoliths formed or embedded in crustal levels and subsequently experienced PT-conditions within or even higher than the coesite stability field have dramatically changed our geodynamic view of orogenetic processes. These occurrences provide evidence that crustal rocks were subducted into mantle depths and exhumed to the surface. Recent studies even suggest continental subduction to depths exceeding 300 km. These rocks have been extensively studied and many new and important observations have been made. Thus far, more than 350 papers have been published on various aspects of Kokchetav UHP rocks. The Kokchetav Massif of northern Kazakhstan is part of one of the largest suture zones in Central Asia and contains slices of HP and UHP metamorphic rocks. Classical UHP rocks mainly occur in the Kumdy Kol, Barchi Kol and Kulet areas, and include a large variety of lithologies such as calcsilicate rocks, eclogite, gneisses, schists, marbles of various compositions, garnet-pyroxene-quartz rocks, and garnet peridotite. Most of them contain microdiamonds; some of which reach a grain size of 200 μm. Most diamond grains show cuboid shapes but in rare cases, diamonds within clinozoisite gneiss from Barchi Kol occur as octahhedral form. Microdiamonds contain highly potassic fluid inclusions, as well as solid inclusions like carbonates, silicates and metal sulfides, which favour the idea of diamond formation from a C-O-H bearing fluid. Nitrogen isotope data and negative δ13C values of Kokchetav diamonds indicate a metasedimentary origin. PT-estimates of Kokchetav UHP rocks yield peak metamorphic conditions of at least 43

  6. Garnet from diamondiferous metamorphic rocks of Kokchetav massif, Kazakhstan as a peak pressure recorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, N. V.; Palyanov, Y. N.; Shatsky, V. S.; Sokol, A. G.; Tomilenko, A. A.

    2003-12-01

    Garnet is a key mineral coexisting with diamond both in kimberlite (as xenocrysts, in diamondiferous garnet peridotites and eclogites, as inclusions in diamond) and in UHP metamorphic rocks of Kokchetav massif (diamondiferous gneisses, garnet-pyroxene rocks, dolomitic marbles and diamond facies eclogites). In UHPM rocks garnets are of particular importance as inclusions in zircons protected from retrograde metamorphism. Diamond formation conditions in eclogitic (E-type) upper mantle environment are estimated based upon Grt-Cpx thermometry and coesite barometry (e.g. Sobolev et al., PNAS, 2000, 97:11875) at P=5.5-6.0 GPa and T=1000-1300° C. These data are supported by diamond synthesis in carbonate-silicate fluid (e.g. Palyanov et al., Nature, 1999, 400: 417). E-type garnet may dissolve up to 0.3 wt.% Na2O (Sobolev, Lavrentyev, Contr. Min. Petr., 1971, 31:1) depending on pressure and Na2O contents in coexisting pyroxene and melts (fluids). Majorite component (pyroxene solid solution) was reported in rare garnets from diamonds (e.g. Moore, Gurney, Nature, 1985, 318:553) and UHP conditions were experimentally confirmed for such garnets (Irifune, Phys. Eart. Pl. Int., 1987, 45:324; Gasparik, Phys. Chem. Min., 2002, 29:170; Luth, Am. Miner., 1997, 82:1198). Garnets from Kokchetav diamondiferous metamorphic rocks demonstrate considerably lower Na2O solubility (up to 0.2 wt.% in rare samples) and absence of majorite component. However, coexisting pyroxenes may contain up to 50 mol.% jadeite. Several UHP experiments performed with Kokchetav eclogites and dolomitic marbles using a split-sphere apparatus resulted in detection of up to 0.3-0.4 wt.% Na2O in newly formed eclogitic garnets at P=5.7 and 7.0 GPa, T=1400 and 1700° C respectively. Majorite component was also determined in newly formed garnets reaching about 5% with Si (pfu)=3.05-3.06. Similar garnets without Na2O were also obtained in UHP experiments with diamondiferous dolomitic marbles (e.g. Palyanov et al

  7. Serpentinite Carbonation in the Pollino Massif (southern Italy) for CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmela Dichicco, Maria; Mongelli, Giovanni; Paternoster, Michele; Rizzo, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic gas emissions are projected to change future climates with potentially nontrivial impacts (Keller et al., 2008 and references therein) and the impacts of the increased CO2 concentration are, among others, the greenhouse effect, the acidification of the surface of the ocean and the fertilization of ecosystems (e.g. Huijgen and Comans, 2003). Geologic Sequestration into subsurface rock formations for long-term storage is part of a process frequently referred to as "carbon capture and storage" or CCS. A major strategy for the in situ geological sequestration of CO2 involves the reaction of CO2 with Mg-silicates, especially in the form of serpentinites, which are rocks: i) relatively abundant and widely distributed in the Earth's crust, and ii) thermodynamically convenient for the formation of Mg-carbonates (e.g., Brown et al., 2011). In nature, carbonate minerals can form during serpentinization or during hydrothermal carbonation and weathering of serpentinites whereas industrial mineral carbonation processes are commonly represented by the reaction of olivine or serpentine with CO2 to form magnesite + quartz ± H2O (Power et al., 2013). Mineral carbonation occurs naturally in the subsurface as a result of fluid-rock interactions within serpentinite, which occur during serpentinization and carbonate alteration. In situ carbonation aims to promote these reactions by injecting CO2 into porous, subsurface geological formations, such as serpentinite-hosted aquifers. In the northern sector of the Pollino Massif (southern Italy) extensively occur serpentinites (Sansone et. al., 2012) and serpentinite-hosted aquifers (Margiotta et al., 2012); both serpentinites and serpentinite-hosted aquifers are the subject of a comprehensive project devoted to their possible use for in situ geological sequestration of CO2. The serpentinites derived from a lherzolitic and subordinately harzburgitic mantle, and are within tectonic slices in association with metadolerite dykes

  8. Distribution patterns, properties and ages of Pleistocene periglacial slope deposits in the eastern Rhenish Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Daniela; Scholten, Thomas; Felix-Henningsen, Peter; Kadereit, Annette

    2010-05-01

    Pleistocene periglacial slope deposits (PPSD) cover almost continuously the low mountain areas of Germany. They are interpreted as the result of frost weathering, gelisolifluction, cryoturbation, meltwater outwash processes and loess incorporation. Four types of PPSD are distinguished in the German classification system: A Basal Layer consists entirely of debris of the underlying rock, which it usually directly overlies. It occurs in almost every relief position, and several Basal Layers may have formed on top of each other. An Intermediate Layer contains varying proportions of loess. It is only found in relief positions favourable for loess accumulation and preservation. Its position within a vertical sequence of PPSD is usually on top of a Basal Layer. An Upper Layer consists of a mixture of rock debris and loess, and contains generally a lower amount of loess than a possibly underlying Intermediate Layer. It has a remarkably steady thickness of around 50 cm, as confirmed in many studies. The Top Layer is mostly restricted to the surroundings of outcrops of particularly resistant rock in higher regions and mainly consists of rock debris. PPSD were investigated in the eastern Westerwald area, at the eastern edge of the Rhenish Massif, Germany. Parent rock, exposition, position and shape of slope were expected to be factors influencing the occurrence, thickness and properties of the different types of PPSD. Therefore, profiles were excavated on the main rock types in the area, which are shale, quartzite and diabase. On each rock type, profiles were studied along catenas in NW, SW, SE and NE exposition, each catena including a profile in upper, middle and footslope position. In upper slope positions on shale an Upper Layer covers directly the rock, independent of exposition. In downslope direction, still above the mid slope profiles, a Basal Layer appears between the Upper Layer and the rock. In upper slope positions on quartzite, a Basal Layer is already present

  9. The evaluation of homophobia in an Italian sample.

    PubMed

    Lingiardi, Vittorio; Falanga, Simona; D'Augelli, Anthony R

    2005-02-01

    Homophobia has not been systematically studied by Italian social scientists. This study was an initial investigation of the nature of homophobia among Italians, using an Italian version of a scale measuring the construct, and investigated personality and other factors related to homophobia. We examined (1) whether a male military personnel group had more homophobic attitudes than a group of comparably aged male university students; (2) whether personal characteristics and personality factors were correlated with homophobia; and (3) whether there were gender differences in homophobia between male and female university students. Male officers of the Italian Marine Corps were compared to male university students of the same age with respect to homophobia and personality characteristics. In addition, a sample of male university students was compared to female students. The instruments used were the Italian versions of the Modern Homophobia Scale (MHS) and the 16 Personality Factor Inventory (16 PF). Results showed significantly higher homophobia among the military personnel than among male students. Consistent with previous research, male university students demonstrated more negative attitudes towards gay and lesbian people than female students.

  10. The structural evolution of dunite and chromite ore from the Kharcheruz Massif, the Polar Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshov, A. I.; Yurichev, A. N.

    2016-03-01

    The Kharcheruz block of the Syumkeu ultramafic massif is a southern fragment of the Khadata ophiolitic belt, which closes the ophiolites of the Polar Urals in the north. The block, striking in the latitudinal direction, is sheetlike in shape and primarily composed of dunite with nearly latitudinal zones of chromite mineralization. The dunites are subject to ductile deformation various in intensity, and this variability is displayed in their heterogeneous structure and texture. The following microstructural types are distinguished by the variety and intensity of their deformation: protogranular → mesogranular → porphyroclastic → porphyrolath → mosaic. The petrostructural patterns of olivines pertaining to the above types reflect conditions of ductile deformation. Protogranular dunite is formed as a product of pyroxene decomposition in mantle harzburgite accompanied by annealing recrystallization at a temperature above 1000°C. Mesogranular dunite is formed as a product of high-temperature plastic flow by means of translation sliding in olivine and diffuse creep at a temperature dropping from 1000 to 650°C and at a low rate (<10-6 s-1). Cr-spinel segregates into linear zones of disseminated chromite mineralization within zones of bedding-plane plastic flow. Porphyroclastic and mosaic dunites are formed under conditions of intense deformation at a temperature of 500-750°C and at a significant rate (>10-6 s-1). Dunite is deformed by means of syntectonic recrystallization and subordinate translation gliding. Linear zones of disseminated mineralization undergo destruction thereby, with the formation of lenticular chromitite bodies from which ductile olivine is squeezed out with the formation of densely impregnated and massive ores.

  11. The magmatic history of the Vetas-California mining district, Santander Massif, Eastern Cordillera, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantilla Figueroa, Luis C.; Bissig, Thomas; Valencia, Víctor; Hart, Craig J. R.

    2013-08-01

    The Vetas-California Mining District (VCMD), located in the central part of the Santander Massif (Colombian Eastern Cordillera), based on U-Pb dating of zircons, records the following principal tectono-magmatic events: (1) the Grenville Orogenic event and high grade metamorphism and migmatitization between ˜1240 and 957 Ma; (2) early Ordovician calc-alkalic magmatism, which was synchronous with the Caparonensis-Famatinian Orogeny (˜477 Ma); (3) middle to late Ordovician post-collisional calc-alkalic magmatism (˜466-436 Ma); (4) late Triassic to early Jurassic magmatism between ˜204 and 196 Ma, characterized by both S- and I-type calc-alkalic intrusions and; (5) a late Miocene shallowly emplaced intermediate calc-alkaline intrusions (10.9 ± 0.2 and 8.4 ± 0.2 Ma). The presence of even younger igneous rocks is possible, given the widespread magmatic-hydrothermal alteration affecting all rock units in the area. The igneous rocks from the late Triassic-early Jurassic magmatic episodes are the volumetrically most important igneous rocks in the study area and in the Colombian Eastern Cordillera. They can be divided into three groups based on their field relationships, whole rock geochemistry and geochronology. These are early leucogranites herein termed Alaskites-I (204-199 Ma), Intermediate rocks (199-198 Ma), and late leucogranites, herein referred to as Alaskites-II (198-196 Ma). This Mesozoic magmatism is reflecting subtle changes in the crustal stress in a setting above an oblique subduction of the Panthalassa plate beneath Pangea. The lower Cretaceous siliciclastic Tambor Formation has detrital zircons of the same age populations as the metamorphic and igneous rocks present in the study area, suggesting that the provenance is related to the erosion of these local rocks during the late Jurassic or early Cretaceous, implying a local supply of sediments to the local depositional basins.

  12. The rare earth element potential of kaolin deposits in the Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhn, S.; Frimmel, H. E.; Pašava, J.

    2014-12-01

    Four kaolin deposits in the Bohemian Massif were studied in order to assess the potential for the recovery of rare earth elements (REE) as by-products from the residue after extraction and refining of the raw kaolin. The behaviour of REE + Y during kaolinitization was found to be largely a function of pre-alteration mineralogy. In the examples studied, i.e. granite-derived deposits of Kriechbaum (Austria) and Božičany, and arkose-derived deposits of Kaznějov and Podbořany (all Czech Republic), the REE + Y are predominantly hosted by monazite which has remained unaffected by kaolinitization. The overall REE + Y content of the variably kaolinitized rocks is strongly dependent on their genesis. While ion adsorption plays only a minor role in the concentration of REE + Y in the studied kaolinitized rocks, the processing and refining of the raw kaolin leads to residues that are enriched in REE + Y by a factor of up to 40. The use of a magnetic separator and a hydrocyclone in the processing of the raw material can yield REE + Y contents of as much as 0.77 wt%. Although this value compares well with the REE + Y concentration in some potentially economic REE + Y projects elsewhere, the overall tonnage of the (REE + Y)-enriched residue is by far not sufficient to consider economic extraction of REE + Y as by-product. Our results are most probably applicable also to other kaolin deposits derived from the weathering of Hercynian basement granites elsewhere (e.g. in Saxonia and Bavaria, Germany). Overall, the potential for REE + Y production as by-product from kaolin mining has to be regarded as minimal.

  13. Variable viral and grazer control of prokaryotic growth efficiency in temperate freshwater lakes (French Massif Central).

    PubMed

    Ram, A S Pradeep; Palesse, S; Colombet, J; Sabart, M; Perriere, F; Sime-Ngando, T

    2013-11-01

    The effects of viral lysis and heterotrophic nanoflagellate grazing (top down forces) on prokaryotic mortality and their subsequent impact on their metabolism were estimated in the upper euphotic and deeper aphotic depth of 11 freshwater lakes located in the French Massif Central. The standing stocks of viruses (VA) and heterotrophic nanoflagellate (HNF) varied significantly (p < 0.05) with sampled depth. VA was substantially (twofold on an average) and significantly higher (p < 0.03) at the aphotic compared to euphotic depth, whereas the reverse was true (p < 0.02) for HNF. Among the prokaryote subgroup, high nucleic acid content prokaryotes explained for significant variability in the total VA and served as principle host target for viral proliferation. Like standing stocks, flagellate grazing and viral infection rates also followed similar patterns. In the investigated lakes, the mechanism for regulating prokaryotic production varied with sampled depth from grazing control in the euphotic to control due to viral lysis in the aphotic. We also tested the hypothesis of top down control on prokaryotic growth efficiency (PGE, which we used as an index of prokaryotic physiological and energetic status at the community level) at both depths. Overall, among the studied lakes, PGE varied widely (4-51 %) with significantly (p < 0.05) lower values in the aphotic (mean = 18 ± 4 %) than euphotic depth (mean = 32 ± 9 %). Contrasting observations on the top down control of PGE between sampled depths were observed. The presence of grazers was found to stimulate PGE at the euphotic, whereas viruses through their lytic infection had a strong negative impact on PGE at the aphotic depth. Such observed differences in PGE and the mechanism controlling prokaryotic production with depth could eventually have strong implication on carbon and nutrient flux patterns in the studied lakes.

  14. Microstructural evolution of the Yugu peridotites in the Gyeonggi Massif, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M.; Jung, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Yugu peridotite is the largest and freshest ultramafic body in the Gyeonggi Massif, Korean Peninsula, which potentially has a tectonic affinity to the eastward extension of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu collision belt in China. In spite of its tectonic and rheological importance, only few mineralogical and petrological studies have been reported from Yugu peridotite. In order to understand the microstructural evolution of the Yugu peridotites, we conducted a detailed analysis of the microstructures and petro-fabrics. The majority of Yugu peridotite body is significantly serpentinized, and it consists predominantly of spinel harzburgite together with minor lherzolite, dunite, and clinopyroxenite. We collected peridotites from mainly two areas (northwestern and southwestern parts) of the Yugu ultramafic body, and all samples are spinel harzburgites consisting of olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, spinel, and amphibole. These samples have similar mineralogy except for the varied amount of clinopyroxene and amphibole. These mineral contents are generally increasing from proto-mylonite peridotites to mylonite peridotites. Based on microstructural characteristics of highly deformed peridotites (especially grain-size of olivine), we classified the samples into four textural types, which are proto-mylonite, proto-mylonite to mylonite transition, mylonite, and ultra-mylonite. Depending on the texture of specimen, it is found that the lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) of olivine varies from A-type (proto-mylonite) via D-type like (mylonite) to E-type (ultra-mylonite). The fabric strength of olivine (M-index and J-index) systematically decreases with decreasing grain-size of olivine from proto-mylonite via mylonite to ultra-mylonite. The cause of fabric evolution in the Yugu peridotites will be discussed.

  15. Conventional U-Pb dating versus SHRIMP of the Santa Barbara Granite Massif, Rondonia, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparrenberger, I.; Bettencourt, Jorge S.; Tosdal, R.M.; Wooden, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The Santa Ba??rbara Granite Massif is part of the Younger Granites of Rondo??nia (998 - 974 Ma) and is included in the Rondo??nia Tin Province (SW Amazonian Craton). It comprises three highly fractionated metaluminous to peraluminous within-plate A-type granite units emplaced in older medium-grade metamorphic rocks. Sn-mineralization is closely associated with the late-stage unit. U-Pb monazite conventional dating of the early-stage Serra do Cicero facies and late-stage Serra Azul facies yielded ages of 993 ?? 5 Ma and 989 ?? 13 Ma, respectively. Conventional multigrain U-Pb isotope analyses of zircon demonstrate isotopic disturbance (discordance) and the preservation of inherited older zircons of several different ages and thus yield little about the ages of Sn-granite magmatism. SHRIMP U-Pb ages for the Santa Ba??rbara facies association yielded a 207Pb/206Pb weighted-mean age of 978 ?? 13 Ma. The textural complexity of the zircon crystals of the Santa Ba??rbara facies association, the variable concentrations of U, Th and Pb, as well as the mixed inheritance of zircon populations are major obstacles to using conventional multigrain U-Pb isotopic analyses. Sm-Nd model ages and ??Nd (T) values reveal anomalous isotopic data, attesting to the complex isotopic behaviour within these highly fractionated granites. Thus, SHRIMP U-Pb zircon and conventional U-Pb monazite dating methods are the most appropriate to constrain the crystallization age of the Sn-bearing granite systems in the Rondo??nia Tin Province.

  16. Alpine thermal events in the central Serbo-Macedonian Massif (southeastern Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antić, Milorad D.; Kounov, Alexandre; Trivić, Branislav; Wetzel, Andreas; Peytcheva, Irena; von Quadt, Albrecht

    2016-07-01

    The Serbo-Macedonian Massif (SMM) represents a crystalline belt situated between the two diverging branches of the Eastern Mediterranean Alpine orogenic system, the northeast-vergent Carpatho-Balkanides and the southwest-vergent Dinarides and the Hellenides. We have applied fission-track analysis on apatites and zircons, coupled with structural field observations in order to reveal the low-temperature evolution of the SMM. Additionally, the age and geochemistry of the Palaeogene igneous rocks (i.e. Surdulica granodiorite and dacitic volcanic rocks) were determined by the LA-ICPMS U-Pb geochronology of zircons and geochemical analysis of main and trace elements in whole-rock samples. Three major cooling stages have been distinguished from the late Early Cretaceous to the Oligocene. The first stage represents rapid cooling through the partial annealing zones of zircon and apatite (300-60 °C) during the late Early to early Late Cretaceous (ca. 110-ca. 90 Ma). It is related to a post-orogenic extension following the regional nappe-stacking event in the Early Cretaceous. Middle to late Eocene (ca. 48-ca. 39 Ma) cooling is related to the formation of the Crnook-Osogovo-Lisets extensional dome and its exhumation along low-angle normal faults. The third event is related to regional cooling following the late Eocene magmatic pulse. During this pulse, the areas surrounding the Surdulica granodiorite (36 ± 1 Ma) and the slightly younger volcanic bodies (ca. 35 Ma) have reached temperatures higher than the apatite closure temperature (120 °C) but lower than ca. 250 °C. The geochemistry of the igneous samples reveals late- to post-orogenic tectonic setting during magma generation.

  17. Geology and structure of diamond-bearing rocks of the Kokchetav massif (Kazakhstan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzhinetskaya, Larissa F.; Braun, Tatjana V.; Sheshkel, Georgy G.; Podkuiko, Yuri A.

    1994-05-01

    Two crustal settings for microdiamond formation have been described from eclogite-bearing metamorphic areas: (1) the economic concentration of microdiamonds in metasedimentary gneisses and calc-silicate rocks (northern Kazakhstan); and (2) microdiamonds recently found in eclogite, garnet-pyroxenite and jadeitite from Dabie Shan Mountain, eastern China. The latter occurrence is interpreted to be the product of ultra-high-pressure metamorphism in a Mesozoic collision zone. There are, however, a number of discrepancies between the geological, structural and geochemical data for Kazakhstan microdiamond deposits and an interpretation in terms of a deep subduction zone model. The geodynamic setting of the Kokchetav massif can be defined as a continental rise prism environment related to a passive continental margin where rifting predominated during early Palaeozoic orogeny. The Kumdikol microdiamond province is closely associated with a tectonic melange zone involved in ductile to semi-ductile shearing abundant in graphite. Microdiamonds of the Kumdikol area have a dual setting in the rocks. They appear to be included not only in refractory garnet and zircon but also in almost all rock-forming minerals as biotite, phlogopite, diopside, quartz and secondary sericite-chlorite and sericite-chlorite-calcite aggregates after garnet, pyroxene and plagioclase (?), and in spite of "softness" of the host phases microdiamonds are well preserved. On the other hand, the ore body extends along the shear zone and high concentrations of the microdiamonds within it are distributed without any lithological control along the local S-C surfaces of the main Kumdikol strike-slip shear zone. This duality of microdiamond settings in absence of practically all ultra-high-pressure minerals except diamond itself, weakens the interpretation of this occurrence in terms of very deep subduction and very fast uplift and exhumation during 15-10 Ma according to recent geochronological data. These

  18. Geometry and thermal structure of the Menderes Massif Core Complex (Western Turkey), implications for thermal evolution of Hellenic subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Vincent; Jolivet, Laurent; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Tuduri, Johann; Bouchot, Vincent; Beccaletto, Laurent; Lahfid, Abdeltif

    2016-04-01

    The eastern Mediterranean region is one of the most promising geothermal areas, with more than 250 geothermal fields discovered in Turkey (Parlaktuna, 2013), in a region of active tectonics and volcanism. Although the potential of these deep geothermal resources has not been systematically investigated yet, the geothermal activity of the western Turkey area is the most recent signature of the high heat flow (120-140 mW/m²; Aydin, 2005, from Teczan, 1995). Based on Turkish data, 2084 MWt are being utilized for direct applications and most of the energy originates from the Menderes Massif (Baba et al., 2015). This large-scale thermal anomaly at the surface is correlated to a long wavelength east-west increase of surface heat flow that could reflect the thermal state of Aegean subduction zone at depth. In order to better understand and characterize the possible connections between large-scale mantle dynamics and surface processes in space and time, we study the structure and thermal evolution of the Menderes Massif. Both the acceleration of the Aegean extension in the Middle Miocene and the recent escape of Anatolia have been proposed to result from several slab tearing events, the first one being located below western Turkey and the Eastern Aegean Sea. These events have triggered the formation of metamorphic complexes with contrasted exhumation P-T paths. While the extension in the Aegean domain is well-characterized with high-temperature domes in the center and east, the succession of several metamorphic events in the Menderes Massif and their significance in terms of geodynamics is still debated. Hence, the exhumation history is key to understanding the temporal and spatial distribution of the thermal signature of the Hellenic slab and its tearing/detachment. The Menderes Massif displays a large variety of metamorphic facies, from the Barrovian type metamorphism in the Eocene (the Main Menderes Metamorphism) to the coeval (?) HP-LT metamorphism on the southernmost

  19. Rockfall hazard assessment by means of the magnitude-frequency curves in the Montserrat Massif (central Catalonia, Spain): first insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janeras, Marc; Domènech, Guillem; Pons, Judit; Prat, Elisabet; Buxó, Pere

    2016-04-01

    Montserrat Massif is located about 50 km North-West of Barcelona (Catalonia, North-Eastern Spain). The rock massif is constituted by an intercalation of conglomerate and fine layers of siltstones due to the Montserrat fan-delta sedimentation within the Eocene age. The current relief is consequence of the several depositional episodes and the later tectonic uplift, leading to stepped slopes up to 250 m high, and a total height difference close to 1000 m. Montserrat Mountain has been a pilgrimage place since the settlement of the monastery, around the year 1025, and a spot of touristic interest, mostly within the last 150 years, when the first rack railway was inaugurated to reach the sanctuary. The amount of 2.4 M visitors in 2014 reveals the potential risk derived from rockfalls. To assess and mitigate this risk, a plan funded by the Catalan government is currently under development. Three rockfall mechanisms and magnitude ranges have been identified (Janeras et al. 2011): 1) physicochemical weathering causing the detachment of pebbles and aggregates (0.0001 - 0.1 m3); 2) thermic-induced tensions responsible for the generation of slabs and plates (0.1 - 10 m3); and 3) intersection of structural joints within the rock mass resulting in blocks of 10 - 10,000 m3. In order to quantify the rockfall hazard, a magnitude-frequency analysis has been performed starting from an event-based inventory gathered from field surveillance and historical research. A methodology has been applied to take the maximum profit of only 30 registers with information on volume and date. The massif has been split into several domains with sampling homogeneity. For each one, there have been defined several periods of time during which, all the rockfall events of a given volume have been recorded. Thus, the magnitude-frequency relationship, for each domain, has been calculated. Results show that the curves are well fitted by a power law with exponents ranging from -0.59 to -0.68 for magnitudes

  20. Management of hemodynamically unstable pelvic trauma: results of the first Italian consensus conference (cooperative guidelines of the Italian Society of Surgery, the Italian Association of Hospital Surgeons, the Multi-specialist Italian Society of Young Surgeons, the Italian Society of Emergency Surgery and Trauma, the Italian Society of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care, the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, the Italian Society of Emergency Medicine, the Italian Society of Medical Radiology -Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology- and the World Society of Emergency Surgery).

    PubMed

    Magnone, Stefano; Coccolini, Federico; Manfredi, Roberto; Piazzalunga, Dario; Agazzi, Roberto; Arici, Claudio; Barozzi, Marco; Bellanova, Giovanni; Belluati, Alberto; Berlot, Giorgio; Biffl, Walter; Camagni, Stefania; Campanati, Luca; Castelli, Claudio Carlo; Catena, Fausto; Chiara, Osvaldo; Colaianni, Nicola; De Masi, Salvatore; Di Saverio, Salomone; Dodi, Giuseppe; Fabbri, Andrea; Faustinelli, Giovanni; Gambale, Giorgio; Capponi, Michela Giulii; Lotti, Marco; Marchesi, Gianmariano; Massè, Alessandro; Mastropietro, Tiziana; Nardi, Giuseppe; Niola, Raffaella; Nita, Gabriela Elisa; Pisano, Michele; Poiasina, Elia; Poletti, Eugenio; Rampoldi, Antonio; Ribaldi, Sergio; Rispoli, Gennaro; Rizzi, Luigi; Sonzogni, Valter; Tugnoli, Gregorio; Ansaloni, Luca

    2014-03-07

    Hemodynamically Unstable Pelvic Trauma is a major problem in blunt traumatic injury. No cosensus has been reached in literature on the optimal treatment of this condition. We present the results of the First Italian Consensus Conference on Pelvic Trauma which took place in Bergamo on April 13 2013. An extensive review of the literature has been undertaken by the Organizing Committee (OC) and forwarded to the Scientific Committee (SC) and the Panel (JP). Members of them were appointed by surgery, critical care, radiology, emergency medicine and orthopedics Italian and International societies: the Italian Society of Surgery, the Italian Association of Hospital Surgeons, the Multi-specialist Italian Society of Young Surgeons, the Italian Society of Emergency Surgery and Trauma, the Italian Society of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care, the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, the Italian Society of Emergency Medicine, the Italian Society of Medical Radiology, Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology and the World Society of Emergency Surgery. From November 2012 to January 2013 the SC undertook the critical revision and prepared the presentation to the audience and the Panel on the day of the Conference. Then 3 recommendations were presented according to the 3 submitted questions. The Panel voted the recommendations after discussion and amendments with the audience. Later on a email debate took place until December 2013 to reach a unanimous consent. We present results on the 3 following questions: which hemodynamically unstable patient needs an extraperitoneal pelvic packing? Which hemodynamically unstable patient needs an external fixation? Which hemodynamically unstable patient needs emergent angiography? No longer angiography is considered the first therapeutic maneuver in such a patient. Preperitoneal pelvic packing and external fixation, preceded by pelvic binder have a pivotal role in the management of these patients

  1. Management of hemodynamically unstable pelvic trauma: results of the first Italian consensus conference (cooperative guidelines of the Italian Society of Surgery, the Italian Association of Hospital Surgeons, the Multi-specialist Italian Society of Young Surgeons, the Italian Society of Emergency Surgery and Trauma, the Italian Society of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care, the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, the Italian Society of Emergency Medicine, the Italian Society of Medical Radiology -Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology- and the World Society of Emergency Surgery)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hemodynamically Unstable Pelvic Trauma is a major problem in blunt traumatic injury. No cosensus has been reached in literature on the optimal treatment of this condition. We present the results of the First Italian Consensus Conference on Pelvic Trauma which took place in Bergamo on April 13 2013. An extensive review of the literature has been undertaken by the Organizing Committee (OC) and forwarded to the Scientific Committee (SC) and the Panel (JP). Members of them were appointed by surgery, critical care, radiology, emergency medicine and orthopedics Italian and International societies: the Italian Society of Surgery, the Italian Association of Hospital Surgeons, the Multi-specialist Italian Society of Young Surgeons, the Italian Society of Emergency Surgery and Trauma, the Italian Society of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care, the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, the Italian Society of Emergency Medicine, the Italian Society of Medical Radiology, Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology and the World Society of Emergency Surgery. From November 2012 to January 2013 the SC undertook the critical revision and prepared the presentation to the audience and the Panel on the day of the Conference. Then 3 recommendations were presented according to the 3 submitted questions. The Panel voted the recommendations after discussion and amendments with the audience. Later on a email debate took place until December 2013 to reach a unanimous consent. We present results on the 3 following questions: which hemodynamically unstable patient needs an extraperitoneal pelvic packing? Which hemodynamically unstable patient needs an external fixation? Which hemodynamically unstable patient needs emergent angiography? No longer angiography is considered the first therapeutic maneuver in such a patient. Preperitoneal pelvic packing and external fixation, preceded by pelvic binder have a pivotal role in the management of these patients

  2. Relationship between Bajo Pobre and Chon Aike formations (Deseado Massif, Patagonia, Argentina):a melt inclusions study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busà, T.; Bellieni, G.; Fernandez, R.; Hecheveste, H.; Piccirillo, E. M.

    2003-04-01

    The Deseado Massif covers the centre-east of the Santa Cruz Province, in the extra-Andean Patagonia. Although the Deseado Massif is mainly composed of silicic volcanic rocks (Chon Aike Formation, CA; 151.5 ±0.5 - 177.8 ±0.4 Ma), mafic and intermediate volcanites (Bajo Pobre Formation, BP; 152.7 ±0.5 and 164 ±0.3 Ma) outcrop largely in the central part of the Massif. In this paper quarz-trapped melt inclusions (rhyolitic in composition) from selected samples of the BP and the CA are analysed. On the basis of major elements content, for BP the sequence from andesite (BP whole rock) to ryholite (trapped as inclusions in quartz) can be modelled by simple fractional crystallisation of ortho- and clinopyroxene, plagioclase, quartz and apatite. As regards trace elements, a good calculated/measured ratio (around 1 ±0.2) is obtained assuming only a relatively high apatite fractionation. Since the apatite fractionation amount is not acceptable for major elements, the evolution of BP Formation cannot be modelled by a simple process of fractional crystallisation, and a contamination process probably occurred. The sequence from BP to CA cannot be modelled by fractional crystallisation. 30% batch melting of BP andesite (BP whole rock) produces a magma from which the CA ryholites (trapped as inclusions in quartz) can be obtained by Rayleigh fractional crystallisation of ortho- and clinopyroxene, plagioclase, magnetite, quartz, apatite and small amounts of zircon and minor allanite. Since the latter one was not observed in the analysed sample, a contamination process during magma evolution cannot be completely excluded. Finally, on the basis of the different trace elements concentration (Nb anomaly, different content in LILE, B/Be and B/Nb), it is possible to suppose that, at the time of the BP and CA emplacement, a changing in the tectonic setting, from subduction to a lithospheric extension, was active.

  3. Drilling constraints on lithospheric accretion and evolution at Atlantis Massif, Mid-Atlantic Ridge 30°N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, D. K.; Ildefonse, B.; John, B. E.; Ohara, Y.; Miller, D. J.; Abe, N.; Abratis, M.; Andal, E. S.; Andreani, M.; Awaji, S.; Beard, J. S.; Brunelli, D.; Charney, A. B.; Christie, D. M.; Collins, J.; Delacour, A. G.; Delius, H.; Drouin, M.; Einaudi, F.; EscartíN, J.; Frost, B. R.; Früh-Green, G.; Fryer, P. B.; Gee, J. S.; Godard, M.; Grimes, C. B.; Halfpenny, A.; Hansen, H.-E.; Harris, A. C.; Tamura, A.; Hayman, N. W.; Hellebrand, E.; Hirose, T.; Hirth, J. G.; Ishimaru, S.; Johnson, K. T. M.; Karner, G. D.; Linek, M.; MacLeod, C. J.; Maeda, J.; Mason, O. U.; McCaig, A. M.; Michibayashi, K.; Morris, A.; Nakagawa, T.; Nozaka, T.; Rosner, M.; Searle, R. C.; Suhr, G.; Tominaga, M.; von der Handt, A.; Yamasaki, T.; Zhao, X.

    2011-07-01

    Expeditions 304 and 305 of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program cored and logged a 1.4 km section of the domal core of Atlantis Massif. Postdrilling research results summarized here constrain the structure and lithology of the Central Dome of this oceanic core complex. The dominantly gabbroic sequence recovered contrasts with predrilling predictions; application of the ground truth in subsequent geophysical processing has produced self-consistent models for the Central Dome. The presence of many thin interfingered petrologic units indicates that the intrusions forming the domal core were emplaced over a minimum of 100-220 kyr, and not as a single magma pulse. Isotopic and mineralogical alteration is intense in the upper 100 m but decreases in intensity with depth. Below 800 m, alteration is restricted to narrow zones surrounding faults, veins, igneous contacts, and to an interval of locally intense serpentinization in olivine-rich troctolite. Hydration of the lithosphere occurred over the complete range of temperature conditions from granulite to zeolite facies, but was predominantly in the amphibolite and greenschist range. Deformation of the sequence was remarkably localized, despite paleomagnetic indications that the dome has undergone at least 45° rotation, presumably during unroofing via detachment faulting. Both the deformation pattern and the lithology contrast with what is known from seafloor studies on the adjacent Southern Ridge of the massif. There, the detachment capping the domal core deformed a 100 m thick zone and serpentinized peridotite comprises ˜70% of recovered samples. We develop a working model of the evolution of Atlantis Massif over the past 2 Myr, outlining several stages that could explain the observed similarities and differences between the Central Dome and the Southern Ridge.

  4. Downward continued multichannel seismic refraction analysis of Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex, 30°N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henig, A. S.; Blackman, D. K.; Harding, A. J.; Canales, J.-P.; Kent, G. M.

    2012-05-01

    Detailed seismic refraction results show striking lateral and vertical variability of velocity structure within the Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex (OCC), contrasting notably with its conjugate ridge flank. Multichannel seismic (MCS) data are downward continued using the Synthetic On Bottom Experiment (SOBE) method, providing unprecedented detail in tomographic models of the P-wave velocity structure to subseafloor depths of up to 1.5 km. Velocities can vary up to 3 km/s over several hundred meters and unusually high velocities (˜5 km/s) are found immediately beneath the seafloor in key regions. Correlation within situand dredged rock samples, video and records from submersible dives, and a 1.415 km drill core, allow us to infer dominant lithologies. A high velocity body(ies) found to shoal near to the seafloor in multiple locations is interpreted as gabbro and is displaced along isochrons within the OCC, indicating a propagating magmatic source as the origin for this pluton(s). The western two-thirds of the Southern Ridge is capped in serpentinite that may extend nearly to the base of our ray coverage. The distribution of inferred serpentinite indicates that the gabbroic pluton(s) was emplaced into a dominantly peridotitic host rock. Presumably the mantle host rock was later altered via seawater penetration along the detachment zone, which controlled development of the OCC. The asymmetric distribution of seismic velocities and morphology of Atlantis Massif are consistent with a detachment fault with a component of dip to the southeast. The lowest velocities observed atop the eastern Central Dome and conjugate crust are most likely volcanics. Here, an updated model of the magmatic and extensional faulting processes at Atlantis Massif is deduced from the seismic results, contributing more generally to understanding the processes controlling the formation of heterogeneous lithosphere at slow-rate spreading centers.

  5. Episodic exhumation and relief growth in the Mont Blanc massif, Western Alps from numerical modelling of thermochronology data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glotzbach, C.; van der Beek, P. A.; Spiegel, C.

    2011-04-01

    The Pliocene-Quaternary exhumational and topographic evolution of the European Alps and its potential climatic and tectonic controls remain a subject of controversy. Here, we apply inverse numerical thermal-kinematic modelling to a spatially dense thermochronological dataset (apatite fission-track and (U-Th)/He) of both tunnel and surface samples across the Mont Blanc massif in the Western Alps, complemented by new zircon fission-track data, in order to better quantify its Neogene exhumation and relief history. Age-elevation relationships and modelling results show that an episodic exhumation scenario best fits the data. Initiation of exhumation in the Mont Blanc massif at 22 ± 2 Ma with a rate of 0.8 ± 0.15 km/Myr is probably related to NW-directed thrusting during nappe emplacement. Exhumation rates decrease at 6 ± 2 Ma to values of 0.15 ± 0.65 km/Myr, which we interpret to be the result of a general decrease in convergence rates and/or extensive exposure of less erodible crystalline basement rocks from below more easily erodible Mesozoic sediments. Finally, local exhumation rates increase up to 2.0 ± 0.6 km/Myr at 1.7 ± 0.8 Ma. Modelling shows that this recent increase in local exhumation can be explained by valley incision and the associated increase in relief at 0.9 ± 0.8 Ma, leading to erosional unloading, isostatic rebound and additional rock uplift and exhumation. Given the lack of tectonic activity as evidenced by constant thermochronological ages along the tunnel transect, we suggest that the final increase in exhumation and relief in the Mont Blanc massif is the result of climate change, with the initiation of mid-Pleistocene glaciations leading to rapid valley incision and related local exhumation.

  6. Geological and geochemical reconnaissance in the central Santander Massif, Departments of Santander and Norte de Santander, Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, James George

    1976-01-01

    The central Santander Massif is composed of Precambrian Bucaramanga Gneiss and pre-Devonian Silgara Formation intruded by Mesozoic quartz diorite, quartz monzonite, and alaskite and Cretaceous or younger porphyry. Triassic (Bocas Formation), Jurassic (Jordan and Giron Formations).and Cretaceous (Tambor, Rosa Blanca, Paja, Tablazo, Simiti, La Luna, and Umir Formations) sedimentary rocks overlie the metamorphic rocks and are younger than most of the intrusions. A geological and geochemical reconnaissance of part of the central Santander Massif included the Vetas and California gold districts. At Vetas the gold is generally in brecciated aphanitic quartz and phyllonite. Dark-gray material in the ore may be graphite. The ore veins follow steep west-northwest- and north-northeast-striking fracture zones. No new gold deposits were found. Additional geochemical studies should concentrate on western Loma Pozo del Rey and on improvement of the gold extraction process. At California the gold is in pyritiferous quartz veins and quartz breccia. Ore containing black sooty material (graphite?) is highly radioactive. Some of the mineralization is post-Lower Cretaceous. Soil samples indicate that gold deposits lie under the thick blanket of soil on the ridges above the zone of mining. Three principal gold targets are outlined by gold and associated minerals in pan concentrates. The close relation of gold and copper anomalies suggests that copper may be useful as a pathfinder for gold elsewhere in the region. Based on occurrences of gold or high concentrations of pyrite or chalcopyrite in pan concentrates and on analytical data, eight potential gold targets are outlined in the central massif. Reconnaissance of the surrounding region is warranted.

  7. U-Pb dating and composition of inclusions in zircon from ophiolitic gabbro of the Klyuchevsk massif (Middle Urals): Results and geological interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, V. N.; Ivanov, K. S.; Koroteev, V. A.; Erokhin, Yu. V.; Khiller, V. V.

    2016-06-01

    The U-Pb (SHRIMP) dating of zircon from the layered complex of ophiolitic gabbro in the Klyuchevsk massif yielded an age of 456 ± 6 Ma corresponding within the limits of error to zircon dates obtained for other petrographic varieties from this massif. The investigation of the composition of silicate inclusions in dated zircon grains revealed that they are represented by typical metamorphic minerals: albite, zoisite, and secondary amphiboles. The data indicate that zircon was crystallized during metamorphic transformations of gabbroids and its U-Pb age (Late Ordovician-Silurian) is characteristic of all rocks in the ophiolite association of the Klyuchevsk massif indicating the age of metamorphism, not their formation time.

  8. The migmatite-gneiss complex of the Chuya-Kendyktas sialic massif (Southern Kazakhstan): Structure and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretyakov, A. A.; Degtyarev, K. E.; Kovach, V. P.; Kotov, A. B.; Salnikova, E. B.; Pilitsyna, A. V.; Yakovleva, S. Z.

    2016-03-01

    A migmatite-gneiss complex made up of paraand orthogneisses and crystalline schists with bodies of ultrametagenic tonalites is distinguished in the basement of the northwestern part of the Chuya-Kendyktas Massif. ID-TIMS dating of accessory zircon from orthogneisses and ultrametagenic tonalites in combination with LA-ICP-MS analyses of detrital zircons from garnet-biotite paragneisses showed that the migmatite-gneiss complex was formed after protoliths with an age within 800-770 Ma and completed its evolution in the first half of the Neoproterozoic.

  9. Thermal history and extensional exhumation of a high-temperature crystalline complex (Hırkadağ Massif, Central Anatolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Côme; Kalijn Peters, M.; Wehrens, Philip C.; Brouwer, Fraukje M.; van Roermund, Herman L. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex (CACC) is a large continental domain exposed in central Turkey that was affected by high temperature metamorphism during the Late Cretaceous. As a result of this event, Paleozoic sediments became metamorphosed, initially under Barrovian conditions, then overprinted locally by high temperature-low pressure metamorphism, and intruded by widespread batholiths. In this study we focus on the crystalline Hırkadağ Massif located in the central part of the CACC, where we applied an integrated approach involving metamorphic, structural and geochronological analysis in order to elucidate its tectonic history from burial to exhumation. Our metamorphic study reveals that conditions of metamorphism reached ~ 7-8 kbar/700 °C and were relatively homogeneous at the scale of the Hırkadağ Massif. Coeval with the regional metamorphism, the rocks were intensely deformed as reflected by isoclinal folding, the development of a pervasive foliation and top-to-the-SE shearing. This was followed by decompression to pressures of ~ 3-4 kbar at 800 °C, which may be linked to the emplacement of local granodioritic intrusions at ~ 77 Ma. Subsequent cooling of the Hırkadağ high-grade metamorphic and intrusive rocks is indicated by 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages of 68.8 ± 0.9 Ma (biotite) and 67.0 ± 1.2 Ma (potassium feldspar). Evidence for tectonic exhumation has been identified within the marbles at the NE margin of the Hırkadağ Massif, in the form of discrete protomylonitic and mylonitic shear bands showing a consistent N40-60 top-to-NE sense of shear. Further east, the contact between brecciated mylonitic marbles and non-metamorphic conglomerates preserves the typical structural features of an upper-crustal detachment fault. Restoration of the Hırkadağ Massif and the CACC to their late Cretaceous configuration suggests that the LP-HT metamorphism, magmatism and extensional structures evolved as a result of the development and exhumation of a ~ N

  10. New structural field data on the timing and kinematics of deformation and exhumation of the Mont Blanc massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egli, Daniel; Mancktelow, Neil

    2010-05-01

    The Mont Blanc massif is one of the external crystalline massifs, which represent the basement of the former European continental margin and therefore belong to the Helvetic domain. It mainly consists of polymetamorphic Late Proterozoic to Early Paleozoic gneisses intruded by the Variscan Mont Blanc granite (Von Raumer et al. 1993). The timing and kinematics of deformation and exhumation of the Mont Blanc massif is a controversial topic and various models have been proposed. Low-temperature thermochronology studies provide an extensive data set for estimating exhumation rates in Neogene times (e.g. Seward & Mancktelow 1994; Leloup et al. 2005; Glotzbach et al. 2008), but detailed structural studies to critically asses and constrain the proposed kinematic models are largely lacking. Glotzbach et al. (2008) show that the exhumation is episodic, with rates changing from relatively fast (~2.5 km/Ma before 6 Ma) to a slow phase (<0.5 km/Ma between 6 and 3.5 Ma), in turn followed by acceleration to ~1 km/Ma after 3 Ma. Our study presents new structural data from the south-eastern side of the Mont Blanc massif and the adjacent sediments and addresses the tectonic evolution and late stage exhumation history of the massif. The goal is to assess the importance of tectonics versus climate for controlling exhumation, as well as to establish the overall geometry of uplift (2D pop-up, 3D dextral transpressive model, large scale backfolding). A major back-thrust was proposed by previous authors ("Mont Blanc back-thrust", e.g. Leloup et al. 2005, Rolland et al. 2007), characterized as a relatively steeply north-west dipping thrust bringing the Mont Blanc basement back over the tectonostratigraphically higher Helvetic and Ultrahelvetic metasediments. 40Ar¬-39Ar dating of white micas interpreted to have grown during movement on the Mont Blanc back-thrust indicates an initiation of movement around 16 Ma (Rolland et al. 2007). Leloup et al. (2005) suggest a reactivation of this

  11. Chrome spinels and accessory mineralization in the weathering crust of the Vladimir deposit, Varshavsky ultramafic massif, southern Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankushev, M. N.; Zaykov, V. V.; Kotlyarov, V. A.; Romanenko, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents the characteristics of chrome spinels from an ore-bearing packet of the Vladimir chromite deposit. Three main types of chrome spinels are distinguished by morphology and chemical composition: medium-chrome ore-forming, high-chrome transformed, and low-chrome relict accessory. The significant role of weathering conditions is expressed in alteration of accessory chrome spinel. The formation of high-chrome spinels is explained by the hydrothermal effect of the Varshavsky granitoid massif with accompanying dikes and talc-carbonate metasomatic rocks. Characteristic accessory minerals are represented by native gold and nickel, millerite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, maucherite, PGE sulfides, and picroilmenite.

  12. Acoustic method for defining the stress state of a rock massif based on solution of the seismic inverse problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, L. A.; Nazarova, L. A.; Romenskii, E. I.; Tcheverda, V. A.; Epov, M. I.

    2016-02-01

    A method for estimating the stress-strain state of a rock massif in the vicinity of underground facilities is substantiated. This method is based on solution of the boundary inverse problem of defining the components of an external stress field from the acoustic sounding data. The acoustic sounding data used are the arrival times of diving head longitudinal waves, recorded in a long mine shaft. Numerical experiments have revealed the optimal arrangement of the recording network and the limited relative error in the input data, which, taken together, provide for solvability of the inverse problem.

  13. Quantification of low elevation relief vertical movements from global sea level curves and scattered marine deposits (Armorican Massif, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessin, Paul; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Bauer, Hugues; Schroëtter, Jean-Michel

    2016-04-01

    Amplitudes of vertical movements, amount of burial or of denudation are often too low or too old to be quantified from thermochronological or cosmogenic isotopes methods. This is the case for the vertical movements experienced by European Variscan basements of low relief during Cenozoic times. Some of these basements bear scattered thin Cenozoic marine sediments. Thus, we proposed to quantify Cenozoic vertical movements from i) current elevation of well dated marine sediments scattered on these basements, corrected from their bathymetry of deposition provided by their sedimentary facies and ii) elevation of global sea level at time of sediment deposition from a new compilation of available curves. This compilation highlights that i) curve which takes into account ocean basin volume change are consistent for the ca. 100 to 40 Ma "greenhouse" period whereas ii) curves based on coreholes backstripping methods better reflect global sea level changes since ca. 40 Ma. For their respective time intervals, both are in accordance with curves which together take into account ocean water volume and ocean basin volume changes. We quantify Cenozoic vertical movements of the Armorican Massif showcase. This massif is French Variscan basement of low relief (elevation < 420 m), two times buried then exhumed during Jurassic to Paleocene times, which bears numerous Cenozoic remnants of marine sediments of four periods: Bartonian, Rupelian, Langhian-Serravalian and Piacezian-Gelasian. We evidence a tree-step history of Cenozoic vertical movements and deformation: i) 38-34 Ma: a phase of near stability of the massif related to no to low deformation period for the Western Europe; ii) 30-16 Ma: a phase of low subsidence which coeval to a long wavelength subsidence of Western Europe which is proposed to be mantle-driven (dynamic topography); iii) 3.5-0 Ma: an overall bulging phase of the massif related to Apulia-Eurasia convergences due to Africa-Apulia and Iberia plates convergence which

  14. Research the dynamical characteristics of slow deformation waves as a rock massif response to explosions during its outworking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Oleg; Shipeev, Oleg

    2015-04-01

    As a result of long-term natural geomechanics and geophysical observation data on mines of complex ore rocks, generalization of the non-linear reaction of rock massif to heavy dynamic influences have been established. In addition, pendulum type waves have been observed and the sources of them have been located inside geoblocks of different hierarchic levels (Oparin et al., 2010). At the same time, these waves propagate with wide low (compared with seismic waves) velocity values (Kurlenja et al., 1993; Oparin et al., 2006). Research into the massif state with the use of the dynamic systems theory approach (Naimark et al., 2009; Chulichkov, 2003; Hachay et al., 2010) has been developed to ascertain the criteria of dissipative regimes changing for real rock massifs, which are under heavy man-caused influence. To realize such research we used the data from the seismic record of the Tashtagol mine for the two-year period from June 2006 up to June 2008. We used the space-time coordinates for all dynamic massif event responses, which occurred during that period inside the mine space and for the explosions - values fixed by seismic station energy (Hachay et al., 2010). The phase diagrams of the massif state for the northern and southern parts of the mine space were plotted in coordinates Ev(t) and d(Ev(t))/dt, t - time - in parts of 24 hours, Ev - the dissipated massive seismic energy - in joules. Hachay et al., (2010) analysed the morphology of seismic response phase trajectories on the explosion influences during different serial intervals in the southern part of the mine. In that period, according to data for different explosions in the mine, the majority of the total energy had been injected into the southern part of the mine. Moreover, at the end of 2007, just in the southern part, the strongest rock burst during the whole history of the working mine happened. We developed a new processing method of seismological information in real, which we can use directly in the

  15. Developing professionalism in Italian medical students: an educational framework

    PubMed Central

    Consorti, Fabrizio; Notarangelo, Mariagiovanna; Potasso, Laura; Toscano, Emanuele

    2012-01-01

    Developing and assessing professionalism in medical students is an international challenge. This paper, based on preliminary research at the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry of the University Sapienza of Rome, Italy, briefly summarizes the main issues and experiences in developing professionalism among Italian undergraduate medical students. It concludes with a proposed framework suited to the Italian medical curricula. In our educational system, professionalism is defined as the context of medical expertise, the combination of rules, conditions, and meanings in which the act of health care occurs, as well as the ability of critical reflection on technical expertise. It is a multidimensional construct of ethical, sociocultural, relational, and epistemological competencies, requiring a wide range of tools for assessment. With reference to Italian versions of validated tools of measure, vignettes, videos, and a student’s portfolio of reflective writings, this paper outlines the manner in which education for professionalism is embedded in the existing curriculum and overall framework of assessment. PMID:23762002

  16. Immigration policy and birth weight: Positive externalities in Italian law.

    PubMed

    Salmasi, Luca; Pieroni, Luca

    2015-09-01

    A decade ago, the political party of the Italian center-right voted a law restricting immigration. The law became effective in early 2005, when the Italian parliament approved the decree for its application, but one of its articles, granting amnesty for illegal immigrant workers, became immediately effective in July 2002. As a result, 650,000 immigrants were granted the status of foreign nationals in Italy. In this paper, we examine whether the increase in the prevalence of "regular immigrants" has led to an improvement in health outcomes of babies born to migrant women, measured in terms of birth weight. Two hitherto unexploited birth sample surveys published by Italian Institute of Statistics were used for this study. Our estimates show that regularized immigration reduced the probability of low birth weight.

  17. Il francese, lingua facile per gli studenti italiani? (French, An Easy Language for Italian Students?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabasino, Francesca Villani

    1978-01-01

    Argues that the similarities between Italian and French are not as substantial as they seem and that they don't necessarily facilitate the language-learning process. The types of errors made by Italians learning French are analyzed. (CFM)

  18. The Italian Constitutional Court modifies Italian legislation on assisted reproduction technology.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Gianaroli, Luca

    2010-03-01

    On 8 May 2009, the Italian Constitutional Court declared, at least in part, that the law regulating assisted reproduction technology in Italy (Law 40/04) is unconstitutional. The most important theoretical point made by the Court is that the law does not provide unlimited protection to embryos, since it admits that some of them may not produce a viable fetus. Embryo protection is therefore limited by the imperative to ensure a concrete possibility to achieve a successful pregnancy. The Court also reaffirmed the need to empower the attending physician with the means to carry out a full evaluation. At present, the situation is not clear and, theoretically, requires a new intervention by Parliament. This, however, is unlikely.

  19. 'The Italian job?': comparing theory of mind performance in British and Italian children.

    PubMed

    Lecce, Serena; Hughes, Claire

    2010-11-01

    Cross-cultural research on theory of mind is relatively recent and largely restricted to comparisons of children from Western versus non-Western samples; much less is known about variation within Western cultures. This study compared 5- to 6-year-olds from Britain and Italy (matched for age, verbal age, gender, and maternal education; N = 140), on tests tapping children's understanding of 1st and 2nd order false belief and mixed emotions. Overall, British children outperformed Italian children; group differences were clearest for tests of false-belief understanding. These results are discussed in relation to contrasts in family talk about mental states, schooling, language comprehension, and cultural factors in Britain and Italy.

  20. Design of short Italian sentences to assess near vision performance

    PubMed Central

    Calossi, Antonio; Boccardo, Laura; Fossetti, Alessandro; Radner, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop and validate 28 short Italian sentences for the construction of the Italian version of the Radner Reading Chart to simultaneously measure near visual acuity and reading speed. Methods 41 sentences were constructed in Italian language, following the procedure defined by Radner, to obtain “sentence optotypes” with comparable structure and with the same lexical and grammatical difficulty. Sentences were statistically selected and used in 211 normal, non-presbyopic, native Italian-speaking persons. The most equally matched sentences in terms of reading speed and number of reading errors were selected. To assess the validity of the reading speed results obtained with the 28 selected short sentences, we compared the reading speed and reading errors with the average obtained by reading two long 4th-grade paragraphs (97 and 90 words) under the same conditions. Results The overall mean reading speed of the tested persons was 189 ± 26 wpm. The 28 sentences more similar in terms of reading times were selected, achieving a coefficient of variation (the relative SD) of 2.2%. The reliability analyses yielded an overall Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.98. The correlation between the short sentences and the long paragraph was high (r = 0.85, P < 0.0001). Conclusions The 28 short single Italian sentences optotypes were highly comparable in syntactical structure, number, position, and length of words, lexical difficulty, and reading length. The resulting Italian Radner Reading Chart is precise (high consistency) and practical (short sentences) and therefore useful for research and clinical practice to simultaneously measure near reading acuity and reading speed. PMID:25323641

  1. Biogenic Amines in Italian Pecorino Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Visciano, Pierina; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations, and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (∼62.000t of production in 2010). Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes’ milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or pasteurized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA). Bacterial amino acid decarboxylase activity and BA content have to be investigated within the complex microbial community of raw milk cheese for different cheese technologies. The results emphasize the necessity of controlling the indigenous bacterial population responsible for high production of BA and the use of competitive adjunct cultures could be suggested. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA’s in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, water activity, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge), and the presence of cofactor (pyridoxal phosphate, availability of aminases and deaminases). In fact physico-chemical parameters seem to favor biogenic amine-positive microbiota; both of these environmental factors can easily be modulated, in order to control growth of undesirable microorganisms. Generally, the total content of BA’s in Pecorino cheeses can range from about 100

  2. Two-stage fluid flow and element transfers in shear zones during collision burial-exhumation cycle: Insights from the Mont Blanc Crystalline Massif (Western Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, Y.; Rossi, M.

    2016-11-01

    The Mont-Blanc Massif was intensely deformed during the Alpine orogenesis: in a first stage of prograde underthrusting at c. 30 Ma and in a second stage of uplift and exhumation at 22-11 Ma. Mid-crustal shear zones of 1 mm-50 m size, neighbouring episyenites (quartz-dissolved altered granite) and alpine veins, have localised intense fluid flow, which produced substantial changes in mineralogy and whole-rock geochemistry. Four main metamorphic zones are oriented parallel to the strike of the massif: (i) epidote, (ii) chlorite, (iii) actinolite-muscovite ± biotite and (iv) muscovite ± biotite. In addition, phlogopite-bearing shear zones occur in the chlorite zone, and calcite-bearing shear zones are locally found in the muscovite zone. The initial chemical composition of the granitic protolith is relatively constant at massif scale, which allows investigating compositional changes related to shear zone activity, and subsequent volume change and elements mobility. The variations of whole-rock composition and mineral chemistry in shear zones reflect variations in fluid/rock ratios and fluid's chemistry, which have produced specific mineral reactions. Estimated time-integrated fluid fluxes are of the order of 106 m3/m2. The mineral assemblages that crystallised upon these fluid-P-T conditions are responsible for specific major and trace element enrichments. The XFe (Fe/Fe + Mg) pattern of shear zone phyllosilicates and the δ13C pattern of vein calcite both show a bell-type pattern across the massif with high values on the massif rims and low values in the centre of the massif. These low XFe and δ13C values are explained by down temperature up-flow of a Fe-Mg-CO2-rich and silica-depleted fluid during stage 1, while the massif was underthrusting. These produced phlogopite, chlorite and actinolite precipitation and quartz hydrolysis, resulting in strong volume losses. In contrast, during stage 2 (uplift), substantial volume gains occurred on the massif rims due to the

  3. Italian river crossing; Horizontal drilling meets pipeline project criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    The River Piave flows out of the Italian Alps, crossing the Veneto farmlands on its way to the Adriatic Sea. It is an important commerce-carrying waterway. SNAM, the Italian state gas pipeline company, wanted to install a 22-in. pipeline across the Piave just north of Venice. The method chosen for crossing the river had to meet several important criteria. InArc had used its river crossing method on seven previous SNAM projects and recommended the Piave crossing should be drilled. This paper describes the use of this horizontal drilling method for this application.

  4. Dissociation in Italian conjugations: a single-route account.

    PubMed

    Eddington, David

    2002-01-01

    Say and Clahsen (S and C) report an experiment involving assignment of past participle suffixes to nonce words in Italian. Their evidence suggests a dual-route model that assigns the theme vowel of the 1st conjugation, while storing it lexically in other conjugations. However, these nonce words were assigned suffixes by a computer algorithm that determined the past participle of the nonce items on the basis of phonological similarity to existing inflected forms. The outcome of the simulation mirrors that of the subjects closely, suggesting that the dissociations found by S and C are not adequate evidence for a dual-route model of Italian stem formation.

  5. The Italian neurological schools of the twentieth century

    PubMed Central

    Bonavita, Vincenzo

    Summary This lecture is not a historical lecture, but rather a journey through the “story” of neurology in Italy from its “prehistoric” beginning in the 19th century. The birth of a neurological school is that magical moment in which a founder attracts disciples: the more capable this founder is of transmitting methodology and allowing his pupils intellectual freedom, the longer his memory will live on. On the basis of this idea, the scientific biography of a few leading Italian neurologists of the 20th century is outlined, starting from Leonardo Bianchi, founder of the Italian Neurological Society in 1907. PMID:21729589

  6. The systematic status of the Italian wolf Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowak, R.M.; Federoff, N.E.

    2002-01-01

    In the past, the gray wolf Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758, has been recognized in Italy as either the subspecies lupus or italicus. It has also been postulated that this population has undergone introgression from the domestic dog Canis familiaris. In order to clarify these issues, multistatistical analyses were made of 10 skull measurements of 34 full grown male wolves from the Italian Peninsula, 91 other male Eurasian wolves, and 20 domestic dogs. The analyses, together with other morphological evidence and prior genetic research, support recognition of the Italian wolf as a separate subspecies, Canis lupus italicus. The same evidence indicates that the subspecies has not been affected through hybridization with the domestic dog.

  7. Updated Italian checklist of Soldier Flies (Diptera, Stratiomyidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An updated checklist for Stratiomyidae of Italy is presented. Previous knowledge and information are put together in a comprehensive way, integrated also with results obtained by sampling with Malaise traps in some of the test areas of the LIFE+ project ManFor C.BD. At the time of writing, with 91 known species, the Italian fauna of Stratiomyidae is the richest in Europe. Neopachygaster meromelas (Dufour, 1841) and Zabrachia minutissima (Zetterstedt, 1838) are new to the Italian fauna. A comprehensive key to the European species of Chorisops Rondani, 1856 is given. PMID:24146573

  8. The "BUONGIORNO" project: burnout syndrome among young Italian radiation oncologists.

    PubMed

    Ciammella, Patrizia; De Bari, Berardino; Fiorentino, Alba; Franco, Pierfrancesco; Cavuto, Silvio; Alongi, Filippo; Livi, Lorenzo; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo

    2013-10-01

    Few data exist about the prevalence of burnout syndrome among young radiation oncologists. A national survey to assess its prevalence among junior members (under 40 yrs of age) of the Italian Society of Radiation Oncology was conducted. One hundred and twelve young radiation oncologists completed the questionnaire: the prevalence of burnout syndrome was 35%, and it was related to the presence of different personal, organizational, and work-related aspects, with an impact also on the private life (p<.005). Burnout syndrome is relatively common among young Italian radiation oncologists, and specific educational tools to help improve the management of workload and stress are needed.

  9. The Italian DPC: infrastructure and operations for the Italian contribution to the Gaia data processing and analysis consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messineo, R.; Morbidelli, R.; Martino, M.; Pigozzi, E.; Mulone, A. F.; Vecchiato, A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes the design and the implementation of the Italian Data Processing Centre multi-tier software and hardware infrastructure, built by ALTEC and funded by ASI, to support the Italian participation to the Gaia data processing tasks. In particular the paper focuses on the software and hardware architectural choices adopted to manage both big data volumes and complex operations scenarios. The DPCT system has been designed as an integrated system whit the capability to manage all data processing pipeline phases: data receiving, data processing, data extraction, data archiving and data sending. In addition, the DPCT system includes also data access and analysis tools allowing Italian scientists to be active system users during operations.

  10. Do Italian Dyslexic Children Use the Lexical Reading Route Efficiently? An Orthographic Judgment Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Angelelli, Paola; Notarnicola, Alessandra; Luzzatti, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    The study uses an orthographic judgment task to evaluate the efficiency of the lexical reading route in Italian dyslexic children. It has been suggested that Italian dyslexic children rely prevalently on the sub-word-level routine for reading. However, it is not easy to test the lexical reading route in Italian directly because of the lack of…

  11. Contrastive Analysis for Italian Learners of English: An Exploration of Lexical Interference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croce, Marcella; Schoener, Wendy

    1982-01-01

    Discusses an English test the authors designed to determine areas of interference between the lexical systems of Italian and English. Fourteen Italian students were asked to complete two multiple-choice vocabulary exercises, correct vocabulary items in a short reading passage, and translate a dialog from Italian into English. The complete test and…

  12. Communication Attitude of Italian Children Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardini, Simona; Vanryckeghem, Martine; Brutten, Gene J.; Cocco, Luisella; Zmarich, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this factorial study was to establish normative data for the Italian version of the Communication Attitude Test (CAT) in order to determine whether or not the speech-associated attitude reported by Italian children who stutter (CWS) differs significantly from that of their nonstuttering peers (CWNS). Toward this end, the Italian CAT…

  13. Prime frasi d'inglese [Basic Phrases in English]. An Italian-English Phrase Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butovsky, Lillian; McHugh, John

    This book of Italian-English phrases intended for Italian-speaking immigrants is divided into two main sections. Part One contains the grammatical section, a pronunciation guide, and basic words and phrases a newly arrived Italian-speaking person would need to get along in an English speaking environment. Grammatical notes in Part One indicate…

  14. Waiting for the Market: Where Is the Italian University System Heading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minelli, Eliana; Rebora, Gianfranco; Turri, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the factors limiting marketisation in Italian higher education. The analysis was conducted by adopting Jongbloed's framework. Using empirical data on the Italian higher education system, it is shown that only a small amount of funds are allocated to Italian universities based on market mechanisms. The analysis shows that the…

  15. Portrait of STS-46 Italian Payload Specialist Franco Malerba taken at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Italian Payload Specialist Franco Malerba, seated and wearing a navy blue flight suit, poses with model of Tethered Satellite System (TSS) and the Italian and United States flags. The TSS-1 is a NASA and Italian Space Agency (ASI) joint effort that will fly aboard OV-104 during STS-46.

  16. Fractionation of highly siderophile and chalcogen elements during magma transport in the mantle: Constraints from pyroxenites of the Balmuccia peridotite massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zaicong; Becker, Harry

    2015-06-01

    Sulfide segregation from sulfur saturated basic magmas affects the compositions of chalcophile elements such as the highly siderophile elements (HSE) and the chalcogens S, Se, Te to variable extent. Whether this process predominantly occurs in the lower crust or in the mantle and how segregation of liquid sulfide and accumulation affects concentrations and ratios of these elements at different mantle depths and in presumed primitive basic magmas remains uncertain. Abundances of the HSE, S, Se and Te and Os isotopes in websterites and spinel clinopyroxenites of the Balmuccia peridotite massif (Ivrea-Verbano Zone, Italian Alps) provide new insight on sulfide segregation and the compositional change of melt and peridotite during magma transport in the mantle. Balmuccia websterites and clinopyroxenites formed from late Paleozoic and Mesozoic melt influx into stretched continental lithospheric mantle of the Ivrea-Verbano Zone, respectively. The HSE and chalcogen element compositions of websterites and clinopyroxenites reflect the segregation and accumulation of sulfide melt from S saturated silicate melts with different abundances and ratios of chalcogens and the HSE. The pyroxenites display large variations in abundances of the platinum group elements (PGE) and Te whereas abundances of less chalcophile elements S, Se and Re are much less variable. The fractionation between the PGE and fractionation of Re/Os, S/Se and Se/Te in the mantle pyroxenites are consistent with sulfide melt-silicate melt partitioning with a sequence of apparent coefficients of DPGE > DAu ⩾ DTe > DSe ⩾ DS ≈ DRe. Concentrations in ocean ridge basalts and in gabbros of the lower oceanic crust are also consistent with such fractionation. Websterites which have formed during refertilization of depleted peridotites display ratios of the HSE and moderately suprachondritic initial 187Os/188Os similar to interstitial sulfides of refertilized peridotites. These compositions are different from

  17. Late Ordovician (post-Sardic) rifting branches in the North Gondwanan Montagne Noire and Mouthoumet massifs of southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javier Álvaro, J.; Colmenar, Jorge; Monceret, Eric; Pouclet, André; Vizcaïno, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Upper Ordovician-Lower Devonian rocks of the Cabrières klippes (southern Montagne Noire) and the Mouthoumet massif in southern France rest paraconformably or with angular discordance on Cambrian-Lower Ordovician strata. Neither Middle-Ordovician volcanism nor associated metamorphism is recorded, and the subsequent Middle-Ordovician stratigraphic gap is related to the Sardic phase. Upper Ordovician sedimentation started in the rifting branches of Cabrières and Mouthoumet with deposition of basaltic lava flows and lahar deposits (Roque de Bandies and Villerouge formations) of continental tholeiite signature (CT), indicative of continental fracturing. The infill of both rifting branches followed with the onset of (1) Katian (Ka1-Ka2) conglomerates and sandstones (Glauzy and Gascagne formations), which have yielded a new brachiopod assemblage representative of the Svobodaina havliceki Community; (2) Katian (Ka2-Ka4) limestones, marlstones, and shales with carbonate nodules, reflecting development of bryozoan-echinoderm meadows with elements of the Nicolella Community (Gabian and Montjoi formations); and (3) the Hirnantian Marmairane Formation in the Mouthoumet massif that has yielded a rich and diverse fossil association representative of the pandemic Hirnantia Fauna. The sealing of the subaerial palaeorelief generated during the Sardic phase is related to Silurian and Early Devonian transgressions leading to onlapping patterns and the record of high-angle discordances.

  18. Generation and evolution processes of Paleoproterozoic massive-type Sancheong anorthosite complex, Yeongnam massif, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Deok-Seon

    2016-04-01

    The Paleoproterozoic (˜1.87-1.79 Ga) Sancheong anorthosite complex in the Jirisan province of the Yeongnam massif, Korea, consists of massive-type and foliation-type Sancheong anorthosite (SA), Fe-Ti ore body (FTO), and mafic granulite (MG). We report their characteristics and interrelation on foliations, occurrences, lithofacies, composition minerals, suggesting the generation and evolution processes of the Sancheong anorthosite complex with the origin of their foliations. The main characteristics and interrelation are as follows: multilayer structures of FTO, straight-, anastomosing-, uneven-types FTO and MG veins derived from blocking associate with size reduction of SA, gradual or irregular boundaries of SA blocks, FTO and MG showing bulbous lobate margins and comb structures between SA blocks, flow foliations and linear arrangements of FTO and MG, discontinuous shear zone of SA, orientation of FTO and MG foliations parallel to the boundaries of SA blocks, predominance of FTO and MG foliations toward the boundaries of SA blocks, flow folding structures of FTO and MG foliation, lithfacies change of MG into FTO by the injection of MG into SA, and very similar assemblage of mafic minerals and chemical composition of ilmenite and almost equal occurrence and foliation features between FTO and MG. Such evidences indicate that the SA, FTO, MG foliations are magmatic foliations which were formed in a not fully congealed state of SA from the results of the fracturing of partly congealed SA, the injection and flow of FTO and MG melts into the fractured SA, the dynamic intercompaction between them. It also implies that the SA, FTO, MG were not formed from the intrusion and differentiation of magmas which were different from each other in genesis and age but from the multiple fractionation and polybaric crystallization of the coeval and cogenetic magma. Our new model suggests that the Sancheong anorthosite complex was generated and evolved as following sequence: the

  19. Ssismic Methodologies Applied To The Characterization Of Fractured Rock Massifs: Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, D.; Carbonell, R.; Flecha, I.; Palomeras, I.; Font-Capo, J.; Vazquez-Sune, E.; Perez-Estaun, A.

    2007-05-01

    The detailed characterization of fractured media in the shallow subsurface is becoming important. The detailed knowledge of the fracture network is mandatory in any hydrogeological model to constrain the potential pathways for water circulation. The geophysical methodolgies can provide a detailed image of the fractured rock and also the 3D distribution of physical properties. Two case studies are discussed in this work. The characterization of fractures in a waste disposal site and, the design and construction of a subway tunnel. In the first case, a multiseismic experiment was carried out in an old abandoned uranium mine. 2D and 3D seismic experiments including VSP, surface seismic reflection and travel time seismic tomography provided a 3D image of the internal structure of a granitic massif for hydrogeological studies of the preferred paths for the migration of contaminants. The tectonic stability of the site was also addressed by means of seismic measurements. The joint interpretation of all the available data enabled the interpretation of the low velocity anomalies in the 3D seismic tomography image as the fragile fractures and the alteration associated to them. A 3D image of the geometry of the heterogeneous weathered surface layer was also obtained. This surface is controlled by the complex network of faults and dykes observed in the area. The second case study involves 2D and 3D seismic experiments to aid the horizontal drilling of tunnels for a new subway line in Barcelona (Spain). Seismic data acquisition in a densely populated city is very difficult. The street layout determines the geometry of the acquisition experiments. The instrumentation can not always be located on the surface projection of the tunnel trace, therefore, pseudo 3D acquisition is required, deploying the instrumentation were it is possible. Furthermore, the shallow subsurface features extremely heterogeneous "weathered" layer of variable thickness (building fundations, sewage system

  20. Cordierite monzogranites of the Hercynian Iberian Massif: experimental indicators for a hybrid origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Moreno, O.; Castro, A.; Corretgé, L. G.; Klimm, K.; Holtz, F.

    2003-04-01

    Cordierite-bearing monzogranites form one of the three main groups of granitic rocks in the Hercynian Iberian massif, together with peraluminous leucogranites and biotite granodiorites. The moderate calcium contents (CaO up to 1,21wt%) as well as the low Sr initial isotope ratio of these monzogranite rocks cannot be explained by a pure crustal origin as in the case of the peraluminous leucogranites. The composition of the "most mafic" rock (a cordierite monzogranite) of the Cabeza de Araya pluton (Cáceres, Spain) was chosen to synthesize a glass used in a series of crystallization experiments at different conditions. Phase relations found in these experiments do not reproduce the natural mineral assemblage for the ferromagnesian phases at pressures ranging from 200 to 600 MPa and temperatures from 700 °C to 975 °C, independently on water activity (from water-undersaturated to -saturated conditions with initial H2O in the system: 2wt%, 4wt% and 6wt%). Cordierite failed to crystallize and pyroxenes and hercynitic spinel, which are never found in these rocks in nature, crystallized in our experiments. Oxygen fugacity in the experiments is below the QFM buffer, which may be close to natural conditions of genesis of these granites due to the presence of graphite in the metasediments that may be the crustal protolith. These results are not in agreement with the clearly magmatic features of cordierite crystals in the natural monzogranite. Seeds of natural cordierite crystals (#Mg0= 0,50) were added to the synthetic glass to check for possible nucleation problems of cordierite in the experiments but cordierite was systematically dissolved in the melts at high temperature. Reaction of the cordierite seeds with melt to form plagioclase (up to An60) could be observed in an experiment (750 °C/ 200 MPa/ initial 4wt% H2O) (Crd + Ca-rich melt -> Pl). Our experimental results can only be explained if we consider that the cordierite monzogranites never were a primary liquid, in

  1. Anatomy of an extensional shear zone in the mantle, Lanzo massif, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczmarek, Mary-Alix; Tommasi, AndréA.

    2011-08-01

    Analysis of the microstructures in the km-scale mantle shear zone that separates the northern and the central parts of the Lanzo peridotite massif provides evidence of an evolution in time and space of deformation processes accommodating shearing in the shallow mantle within an extensional setting. This shear zone displays an asymmetric distribution of deformation facies. From south to north, gradual reorientation of the foliation of coarse porphyroclastic plagioclase-bearing peridotites is followed by development of protomylonites, mylonites, and mm-scale ultramylonite bands. A sharp grain size gradient marks the northern boundary. Early deformation under near-solidus conditions in the south is recorded by preservation of weakly deformed interstitial plagioclase and almost random clinopyroxene and plagioclase crystal orientations. Feedback between deformation and melt transport probably led to melt focusing and strain weakening in the shear zone. Overprint of melt-rock reaction microstructures by solid-state deformation and decrease in recrystallized grain size in the protomylonites and mylonites indicate continued deformation under decreasing temperature. Less enriched peridotite compositions and absence of ultramafic dykes or widespread melt-impregnation microstructures north of the shear zone and clinopyroxene and amphibole enrichment in the mylonites and ultramylonites suggest that the shear zone acted as both a thermal barrier and a high-permeability channel for late crystallizing fluids. These observations, together with chemical data indicating faster cooling of central Lanzo relative to the northern body, corroborate that this shear zone is a mantle detachment fault. All deformation facies have crystal preferred orientations consistent with deformation by dislocation creep with dominant activation of the (010)[100] and (100)[001] systems in olivine and orthopyroxene, respectively. Dynamic recrystallization produces dispersion of olivine CPO but not a

  2. Apatite-hosted melt inclusions in Damiao massif anorthosite complex, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Veksler, I. V.; Zhang, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Models for the nelsonite formation are currently highly contentious, with liquid immiscibility and fractional crystallization as frequently proposed formation mechanisms. The nelsonites in the Damiao massif anorthosite complex in the North China Craton and experimental evidence are revisited for the existence of silica-free CaO-FeO-Fe2O3-TiO2-P2O5 immiscible nelsonitic liquids. Our results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) demonstrate that nelsonite with the composition of one-third apatite and two-thirds Fe-Ti oxides by weight completely melts well above 1450 ºC, which is in good agreement with numerous experimental studies of the CaO-P2O5-FexO system in connection to metallurgy. Thus, the composition cannot be molten at temperatures relevant for crystallization of the Damiao magma. A review of experimental studies of liquid immiscibility and analyses of natural immiscible glasses show that all the liquids on the Fe- and P-rich side of the miscibility gap have at least 20 wt. % of aluminosilicate components. Main results of this study come from the analyses of apatite-hosted melt inclusions in Damiao nelsonite. The inclusions range from ~3 to 200 μm in diameter. They are ubiquitous and meet all the morphological criteria of primary melt inclusions crystallised into assemblages of daughter minerals. Almost all of them contain vermiculite and chlorite, and some contain biotite, amphibole, phlogopite and Fe-Ti oxides. Out of dozens analysed inclusions, only three have high contents of SiO2 (62.1-73.8 wt. %) and low contents of FeO (0.25-2.35 wt. %). Bulk compositions of other inclusions show large variations in SiO2 (20.79-50.16 wt. %) and FeOt (13.44-32.78 wt. %). With a few exceptions, the inclusions are very low in CaO (0.04-1.51 wt. %, and high in Al2O3 (10-21.17 wt. %). Despite the high Fe content, the compositions differ from those of the typical immiscible Fe-rich melts. It appears that the cumulus apatite crystallised from Fe-rich, hydrated

  3. Palaeomagnetic constraints on the evolution of the Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 30°N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, A.; Pressling, N.; Gee, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    Oceanic core complexes expose lower crustal and upper mantle rocks on the seafloor by tectonic unroofing in the footwalls of large-slip detachment faults. They represent a fundamental component of the seafloor spreading system at slow and ultraslow axes. One of the most extensively studied oceanic core complexes is Atlantis Massif, located at 30°N at the intersection of the Atlantis Transform Fault and the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR). The central dome of the massif exposes the corrugated detachment fault surface and was drilled during IODP Expedition 304/305 (Hole U1309D). This sampled a 1.4 km faulted and complexly layered footwall section dominated by gabbroic lithologies with minor ultramafic rocks. Palaeomagnetic analyses demonstrate that the gabbroic sequences at Atlantis Massif carry highly stable remanent magnetizations that provide valuable information on the evolution of the section. Thermal demagnetization experiments recover high unblocking temperature components of reversed polarity (R1) throughout the gabbroic sequences. Correlation of structures observed on oriented borehole (FMS) images and those recorded on unoriented core pieces allows reorientation of R1 remanences. The mean remanence direction in true geographic coordinates constrains the tectonic rotation experienced by the Atlantis Massif footwall, indicating a 46°±6° counterclockwise around a MAR-parallel horizontal axis trending 011°±6°. The detachment fault therefore initiated at a steep dip of >50° and then rotated flexurally to its present day low angle geometry (consistent with a 'rolling-hinge' model for detachment evolution). In a number of intervals, the gabbros exhibit a complex remanence structure with the presence of additional intermediate temperature normal (N1) and lower temperature reversed (R2) polarity components, suggesting an extended period of remanence acquisition during different polarity intervals. Sharp break-points between different polarity components suggest

  4. Palaeomagnetic constraints on the evolution of the Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 30°N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, A.; Pressling, N.; Gee, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    Oceanic core complexes expose lower crustal and upper mantle rocks on the seafloor by tectonic unroofing in the footwalls of large-slip detachment faults. They represent a fundamental component of the seafloor spreading system at slow and ultraslow axes. One of the most extensively studied oceanic core complexes is Atlantis Massif, located at 30°N at the intersection of the Atlantis Transform Fault and the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR). The central dome of the massif exposes the corrugated detachment fault surface and was drilled during IODP Expedition 304/305 (Hole U1309D). This sampled a 1.4 km faulted and complexly layered footwall section dominated by gabbroic lithologies with minor ultramafic rocks. Palaeomagnetic analyses demonstrate that the gabbroic sequences at Atlantis Massif carry highly stable remanent magnetizations that provide valuable information on the evolution of the section. Thermal demagnetization experiments recover high unblocking temperature components of reversed polarity (R1) throughout the gabbroic sequences. Correlation of structures observed on oriented borehole (FMS) images and those recorded on unoriented core pieces allows reorientation of R1 remanences. The mean remanence direction in true geographic coordinates constrains the tectonic rotation experienced by the Atlantis Massif footwall, indicating a 46°±6° counterclockwise around a MAR-parallel horizontal axis trending 011°±6°. The detachment fault therefore initiated at a steep dip of >50° and then rotated flexurally to its present day low angle geometry (consistent with a 'rolling-hinge' model for detachment evolution). In a number of intervals, the gabbros exhibit a complex remanence structure with the presence of additional intermediate temperature normal (N1) and lower temperature reversed (R2) polarity components, suggesting an extended period of remanence acquisition during different polarity intervals. Sharp break-points between different polarity components suggest

  5. Stop and Fricative Devoicing in European Portuguese, Italian and German.

    PubMed

    Pape, Daniel; Jesus, Luis M T

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a cross-linguistic production study of devoicing for European Portuguese (EP), Italian, and German. We recorded all stops and fricatives in four vowel contexts and two word positions. We computed the devoicing of the time-varying patterns throughout the stop and fricative duration. Our results show that regarding devoicing behaviour, EP is more similar to German than Italian. While Italian shows almost no devoicing of all phonologically voiced consonants, both EP and German show strong and consistent devoicing through the entire consonant. Differences in consonant position showed no effect for EP and Italian, but were significantly different for German. The height of the vowel context had an effect for German and EP. For EP, we showed that a more posterior place of articulation and low vowel context lead to significantly more devoicing. However, in contrast to German, we could not find an influence of consonant position on devoicing. The high devoicing for all phonologically voiced stops and fricatives and the vowel context influence are a surprising new result. With respect to voicing maintenance, EP is more like German than other Romance languages.

  6. A Bibliography of Italian Studies in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherubini, Jon C., Comp.

    1977-01-01

    This quarterly bibliography includes books, articles, bibliographies and reviews published here or abroad by scholars residing in the United States or Canada. Coverage includes comparative literature studies; translations; publications on art, music, philosophy, history, cinema, and sociology; and studies pertinent to the Italian-American…

  7. New Mafia: Black, Hispanic,and Italian Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ianni, Francis A. J.

    1974-01-01

    To research the nature of organized crime in America a major study using anthropological field work techniques was undertaken: although we focused on the patterns of blacks and Hispanic crime activists, previous research on Italian-American patterns was utilized for comparison. (Author/JM)

  8. The Rasch Model for Evaluating Italian Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camminatiello, Ida; Gallo, Michele; Menini, Tullio

    2010-01-01

    In 1997 the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) launched the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) for collecting information about 15-year-old students in participating countries. Our study analyses the PISA 2006 cognitive test for evaluating the Italian student performance in mathematics, reading…

  9. New Languages and New Consumers: Changing Italian "Media-Scapes"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milic, Enrico Maria

    2006-01-01

    This research aims to point out some of the behavior, interests, and relationships within the public sphere of young Italian users of the Internet. The topics of analysis were the motivations of the users in expressing themselves through their blogs, their online and offline behavior towards what is offered by the ruling class for consumption,…

  10. Renaissance and Italian Literature in World Literature Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paolucci, Anne

    1977-01-01

    Shows how the giants of the Renaissance, from Dante to Shakespeare and Cervantes, can be taught so that they illustrate the dialectic of the cultural experience that produced them, and how the masterpieces of Italian literature can be used to suggest both national and universal qualities. (Editor/RK)

  11. An Exploratory Study of Sustainable Development at Italian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vagnoni, Emidia; Cavicchi, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to outline the current status of the implementation of sustainability practices in the context of Italian public universities, highlighting the strengths and gaps. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a qualitative approach, an exploratory study design has been outlined using the model of Glavic and Lukman (2007) focusing…

  12. Visual Creativity across Cultures: A Comparison between Italians and Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Nakatani, Chie; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2017-01-01

    Culture-related differences in visual creativity were investigated, comparing Italian and Japanese participants in terms of divergent (figural completion task) and product-oriented thinking (figural combination task). Visual restructuring ability was measured as the ability to reinterpret ambiguous figures and was included as a covariate. Results…

  13. Cognitive Profiles of Italian Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobia, Valentina; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate verbal and nonverbal cognitive deficits in Italian students with developmental dyslexia. The performances of 32 dyslexic students, 64 age-matched typically reading controls, and 64 reading age-matched controls were compared on tests of lexical knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming,…

  14. Italian Education beyond Hierarchy: Governance, Evaluation and Headship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimaldi, Emiliano; Serpieri, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the changes introduced in the Italian education system after the 1997 School Autonomy reform. Looking at the complex interplay between global influences and processes of local inflection, the work explores the degree to which we are witnessing a significant shift towards a new mode of governance and the interplay between…

  15. Clay Corner: Italian Inspiration...An Interview with Susan Snyder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Harriet

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Susan Snyder, a ceramic artist who produces pottery inspired by Italian designs from the 13th to 18th centuries. Presents her discussion of topics such as her development as an artist, techniques used when creating her art, and her thoughts on the importance of art education. (CMK)

  16. Career Decision-Making Profiles of Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Nota, Laura; Soresi, Salvatore; Gati, Itamar

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to test the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the "Career Decision-Making Profile" ("CDMP") questionnaire with a sample of 1,835 adolescents. Gati, Landman, Davidovitch, Asulin-Peretz, and Gadassi suggested that the way individuals make career decisions should not be described…

  17. Negative Items and Negation Strategies in Nonnative Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernini, Giuliano

    2000-01-01

    Acquisition of negation in Italian as a second language (L2) is investigated on the basis of the longitudinal data of five learners with different first languages in the framework of a functional approach focusing on the semantic and pragmatic principles governing the organization of learner varieties and the process of their complexification.…

  18. Effectiveness of Picture Books for Italian Instruction at Japanese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yomo, Minoru; Uni, Kazuhito; Moore, Danièle; Kiyose, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the use of children's picture books to teach English has been increasing in Japan. An advantage of these books is the high proportion of basic vocabulary they include. Can picture books also be useful for teaching Japanese students Italian and increasing their motivation? The present study analyses the effectiveness of employing a…

  19. Group-Based Life Design Counseling in an Italian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Maree, Jacobus Gideon

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of group-based Life Design Counseling using the Career-Story Interview. Written exercises were used to implement the seven topics in the Career-Story Interview. The present study employed an experimental design that involved two groups of Italian entrepreneurs from the agricultural and trade sectors, namely an…

  20. Phonological and Lexical Reading in Italian Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsolini, Margherita; Fanari, Rachele; Cerracchio, Sara; Famiglietti, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    In this study we explore the development of phonological and lexical reading in dyslexic children. We tested a group of 14 Italian children who have been diagnosed with dyslexia and whose reading age is end of grade 1. We compared this group with a group of 70 typically developing children who have been tested for reading at the end of grade 1.…

  1. Context-Sensitive Rules and Word Naming in Italian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barca, Laura; Ellis, Andrew W.; Burani, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines the role of orthographic complexity on Italian children's word reading. Two experiments are reported in which elementary school children (3rd and 5th graders) read aloud words containing simple or contextual letter-sound conversion rules. In Experiment 1, both groups of participants read words containing contextual rules…

  2. Discourse Strategies of Italian and English Sales Promotion Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergaro, Carla

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a contrastive study on rhetorical differences between Italian and English sales promotion letters. It is assumed that cultural differences affect discourse genres traditionally considered as standardized, ritual or even formulaic, written business communication being a case in point. It was our goal to investigate how…

  3. Cognitive Counselling Intervention: Treatment Effectiveness in an Italian University Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strepparava, Maria Grazia; Bani, Marco; Zorzi, Federico; Corrias, Deborah; Dolce, Rossella; Rezzonico, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Offering counselling to students is increasingly considered as a key academic service. However, the reduction of resources allocated to Italian universities emphasises the need to assess the quality of interventions. This paper presents data reporting the effectiveness of a university counselling service. A sample of 45 undergraduate students…

  4. Prosodic and Lexical Marking of Contrast in L2 Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turco, Giuseppina; Dimroth, Christine; Braun, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the second language (L2) acquisition of pragmatic categories that are not as consistently and frequently encoded in the L2 than in the first language (L1). Experiment 1 showed that Italian speakers linguistically highlighted affirmative polarity contrast (e.g. "The child ate the candies" following after "The child…

  5. Drinking Motives and Alcoholic Beverage Preferences among Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano, Federica; Bina, Manuela; Giannotta, Fabrizia; Ciairano, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Although drinking motives have been largely studied, research taking into account the Mediterranean drinking culture and focusing on motives specifically associated to adolescents' developmental tasks is lacking. For these reasons the study investigates drinking motives in a group of Italian adolescents and their relationships with drunkenness and…

  6. Codeswitching as a Tool in Teaching Italian in Malta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauci, Hertian; Camilleri Grima, Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of teacher codeswitching in the teaching of Italian in Malta. The analysis of teacher codeswitching shows that the learners' first language (L1), Maltese, is used as a pedagogical tool to enhance language learning. Teachers frequently resort to Maltese to provide more learner-friendly explanations of grammatical…

  7. Gene deletion in an Italian haemophilia B subject.

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, F; del Senno, L; Barbieri, R; Buzzoni, D; Gambari, R; Marchetti, G; Conconi, F; Panicucci, F; Positano, M; Pitruzzello, S

    1985-01-01

    DNA from 20 Italian haemophilia B patients was analysed by the Southern blotting technique and hybridisation to a factor IX cDNA probe. A large deletion of factor IX gene was detected in one patient with antibodies to the infused factor; the EcoRI pattern of the other 19 subjects examined was normal. Images PMID:4045960

  8. The Use of Learning Contracts in an Italian University Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedeli, Monica; Giampaolo, Mario; Coryell, Joellen E.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study illustrates the implementation of Malcolm Knowles's 1986 model of learning contracts in a current Italian University context. The study attempted to improve and adapt the tool to a master's degree course at the University of Padua. Three professors conducted the integrated course, making extensive efforts to share the aims…

  9. Italian in the Colleges and Universities of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striano, Antonio, Comp.; Adorno, Elvira, Ed.

    This comprehensive guide to Italian study programs in American colleges, universities, specialized schools, and study abroad programs contains five major sections: (1) colleges, universities, and specialized schools offering introductory courses, minor, major, M.A., and Ph.D. programs; (2) colleges and universities offering graduate programs…

  10. Dating, Sexual Activity, and Well-Being in Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciairano, Silvia; Bonino, Silvia; Kliewer, Wendy; Miceli, Renato; Jackson, Sandy

    2006-01-01

    Associations among dating, sexual activity, gender, and adjustment were investigated in 2,273 Italian adolescents (54% female, ages 14 to 19 years) attending public high schools. After controlling for age and type of school attended, both being in a dating relationship and being male were associated with less alienation, more positive views of the…

  11. Entrepreneurship Education in Italian Universities: Trend, Situation and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iacobucci, Donato; Micozzi, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of the present situation and recent evolution of entrepreneurship education in Italian universities and to discuss whether these courses and curricula match the demand for entrepreneurial competences. Design/methodology/approach: The empirical analysis is based on a census of…

  12. Experimental analysis of the Italian coffee pot ``moka''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianino, Concetto

    2007-01-01

    I describe an experiment involving the moka Italian coffee pot. The pot is an ingenious device for making coffee that uses the liquid-vapor equation of state of the water and Darcy's law of linear filtration. The filtration coefficient of coffee is measured and a steam engine model is used to estimate the efficiency of the coffee pot.

  13. English, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese? Code Choice and Austrian Export

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavric, Eva; Back, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with how "export oriented Austrian companies effect code choice in their business relationships with customers from Romance language speaking countries". The focus lies on the most widespread Romance languages, therefore on French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese speaking customers.The question of code choice in export…

  14. Italian, Ukrainian or Russian? Language and Identity in Crimea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocale, Paola

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of fieldwork conducted among the small Italian minority living in Kerch, a coastal town in Crimea, between 2012 and 2013. After introducing the socio-historical background and the current situation of the minority, it presents and discusses the attitudes of members of the community towards the different languages…

  15. Accountability, Italian style: how to reply to government pressure?

    PubMed Central

    Mauro, Marianna; Talarico, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    The current paper addresses the complex issue of accountability by focusing on Italian public hospitals and teaching hospitals; it aims to analyze Italian health care organizations’ strategies for responding to the pressure generated by regulations. In particular, in the last few years, Italian hospitals and teaching hospitals have been obliged to implement or improve their accountability instruments in response to a new regulation (known as the Brunetta reform, Legislative Decree number 150/2009). The Legislative Decree aims to measure and assess the results of each public administration unit in terms of efficiency of the human resources, satisfaction level of the final users, and transparency of its action. Despite the initial consensus on the necessity to make the decision process in health care visible and transparent, health care organizations find it difficult to demonstrate accountability. The present paper summarizes the evidence on the degree of compliance to the reform requirements and will allow an in-depth understanding of Italian health organizations’ attitudes toward accountability. This study will help policymakers understand the degree of acceptance and application of the new reforms and assess whether the law/regulations may be effective drivers for disseminating a culture of transparency and accountability. PMID:26396548

  16. Degree Flexibility and University Drop-out: The Italian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Pietro, Giorgio; Cutillo, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    How to reduce university drop-out is a topic of increasing concern. Although several measures have been the subject of numerous debates, little attention has been given to those impacting on the duration, structure and content of the supply of university education. This paper looks at the Italian experience to see what can be learnt about the…

  17. 1. 133842 PACIFIC AVE. ITALIANATE BUILDING ON LEFT IS THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 1338-42 PACIFIC AVE. ITALIANATE BUILDING ON LEFT IS THE CITIZENS BANK AND THE IRVING BUILDING (1888-89). A HOMOGENEOUS DESIGN FOR THREE SEPERATE PROPERTY OWNERS, DESIGNED BY CARL AUGUST DARMER. - Union Depot Area Study, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  18. [The contribution of the Italian association of cancer registries (AIRTUM)].

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    The study of cluster requires the ability to identify, with accuracy and completeness, the health events of interest and their geographical location and time of occurrence. For rare and complex diseases, such as childhood cancers, it is possible to observe a significant health migration from the place of residence, which makes the detection even more complex. The best tool to identify these rare diseases is represented by cancer registries (CRs). In fact, CRs collect, through many sources, information related to tumours that arise in the population resident in their areas of activity. The number of the sources of information has increased thanks to the computerization of health services. The availability of multiple sources of information increases the completeness of data collection overcoming the limits of a single source, and makes it possible to describe the diagnostic-therapeutic course and the outcome of the cases. Among all data sources, for childhood cancers the model 1.01, which summarize the clinical information of the cases treated in one of the Italian Association of paediatric haematology and oncology (AIEOP) centres, is relevant. Moreover, CRs produce reliable and comparable data due to the use of international rules and classifications for the definition of the topography and morphology of cancer, for the date of diagnosis, and for quality checks. In Italy, the Italian association of cancer registries (AIRTUM) coordinates the activities of 45 population CRs, both general and specialized (by age or tumour type). AIRTUM involves a population of over 6.7 million citizens under the age of 20 years, approximately 60% of the total resident population. AIRTUM plays a role of coordination, support, and harmonization for Italian CRs through training, accreditation, and a shared database, it promotes and participates in national and international collaboration involving scientific societies (AIEOP, Italian Association of medical oncology - AIOM, Italian

  19. The Italian Dystonia Registry: rationale, design and preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Defazio, Giovanni; Esposito, M; Abbruzzese, G; Scaglione, C L; Fabbrini, G; Ferrazzano, G; Peluso, S; Pellicciari, R; Gigante, A F; Cossu, G; Arca, R; Avanzino, L; Bono, F; Mazza, M R; Bertolasi, L; Bacchin, R; Eleopra, R; Lettieri, C; Morgante, F; Altavista, M C; Polidori, L; Liguori, R; Misceo, S; Squintani, G; Tinazzi, M; Ceravolo, R; Unti, E; Magistrelli, L; Coletti Moja, M; Modugno, N; Petracca, M; Tambasco, N; Cotelli, M S; Aguggia, M; Pisani, A; Romano, M; Zibetti, M; Bentivoglio, A R; Albanese, A; Girlanda, P; Berardelli, A

    2017-02-18

    The Italian Dystonia Registry is a multicenter data collection system that will prospectively assess the phenomenology and natural history of adult-onset dystonia and will serve as a basis for future etiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic studies. In the first 6 months of activity, 20 movement disorders Italian centres have adhered to the registry and 664 patients have been recruited. Baseline historical information from this cohort provides the first general overview of adult-onset dystonia in Italy. The cohort was characterized by a lower education level than the Italian population, and most patients were employed as artisans, builders, farmers, or unskilled workers. The clinical features of our sample confirmed the peculiar characteristics of adult-onset dystonia, i.e. gender preference, peak age at onset in the sixth decade, predominance of cervical dystonia and blepharospasm over the other focal dystonias, and a tendency to spread to adjacent body parts, The sample also confirmed the association between eye symptoms and blepharospasm, whereas no clear association emerged between extracranial injury and dystonia in a body site. Adult-onset dystonia patients and the Italian population shared similar burden of arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, dyslipidemia, and hypothyroidism, while hyperthyroidism was more frequent in the dystonia population. Geographic stratification of the study population yielded no major difference in the most clinical and phenomenological features of dystonia. Analysis of baseline information from recruited patients indicates that the Italian Dystonia Registry may be a useful tool to capture the real world clinical practice of physicians that visit dystonia patients.

  20. An Overview of Ten Italian Horse Breeds through Mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Capodiferro, Marco Rosario; Capomaccio, Stefano; Buttazzoni, Luca; Biggio, Giovanni Paolo; Cherchi, Raffaele; Albertini, Emidio; Olivieri, Anna; Cappelli, Katia; Achilli, Alessandro; Silvestrelli, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Background The climatic and cultural diversity of the Italian Peninsula triggered, over time, the development of a great variety of horse breeds, whose origin and history are still unclear. To clarify this issue, analyses on phenotypic traits and genealogical data were recently coupled with molecular screening. Methodology To provide a comprehensive overview of the horse genetic variability in Italy, we produced and phylogenetically analyzed 407 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control-region sequences from ten of the most important Italian riding horse and pony breeds: Bardigiano, Esperia, Giara, Lipizzan, Maremmano, Monterufolino, Murgese, Sarcidano, Sardinian Anglo-Arab, and Tolfetano. A collection of 36 Arabian horses was also evaluated to assess the genetic consequences of their common use for the improvement of some local breeds. Conclusions In Italian horses, all previously described domestic mtDNA haplogroups were detected as well as a high haplotype diversity. These findings indicate that the ancestral local mares harbored an extensive genetic diversity. Moreover, the limited haplotype sharing (11%) with the Arabian horse reveals that its impact on the autochthonous mitochondrial gene pools during the final establishment of pure breeds was marginal, if any. The only significant signs of genetic structure and differentiation were detected in the geographically most isolated contexts (i.e. Monterufolino and Sardinian breeds). Such a geographic effect was also confirmed in a wider breed setting, where the Italian pool stands in an intermediate position together with most of the other Mediterranean stocks. However, some notable exceptions and peculiar genetic proximities lend genetic support to historical theories about the origin of specific Italian breeds. PMID:27054850

  1. Determination of Granite Rock Massif Weathering and Cracking of Surface Layers in the Oldest Parts of Medieval Mine Depending on Used Mining Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lednická, Markéta; Kaláb, Zdeněk

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the use of selected non-destructive testing methods for the purpose of specifying information on weathering and cracking of surface layers of granite rock massif in the medieval Jeroným Mine (the Czech Republic). This mine has been declared the National Heritage Site of the Czech Republic and its opening as a mining museum to the public is gradually prepared. Geological and geomechanical evaluation documents the possibility to find all kinds of weathering grades of rock massif in this mine. Two non-destructive methods have been tested, namely the measurement of ultrasonic pulse velocity and the measurement of Schmidt hammer rebound value. Field measurements were performed in two selected galleries to verify the application of such methods in specific conditions of underground spaces. Used mining method is one of the parameters later influencing cracking of rock massif. In selected galleries, two different mining methods were used which means that a part of a gallery profile was mined out by hand tools in the Middle Ages and another part of the profile was later mined out by blasting. Measurements in these galleries have enabled to analyse the influence of used mining methods on cracking of rock massif in the impaired zone, and, consequently, on ongoing weathering processes in those zones.

  2. Active Faulting within the Atlantis Massif at 30°N Mid-Atlantic Ridge Located by an Ocean Bottom Seismograph Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, J. J.; Smith, D. K.; Collins, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Atlantis Massif, located at the intersection of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) spreading axis and the Atlantis transform fault at 30N, is an oceanic core complex. Slip along the detachment fault for the last 1.5-2 Ma has brought lower crust and mantle rocks to the seafloor and has led to one of the most striking topographic features on the MAR. Hydroacoustic data collected between 1999 and 2003 indicate seismicity at the top of the Atlantis Massif, mostly on the southeastern section; little seismic activity was hydroacoustically detected at the adjacent ridge axis. In 2005, five short-period ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) were deployed at the Atlantis Massif in a pilot experiment to determine if there was active faulting within the massif and if the seismicity rate within the massif was higher than that beneath the rift valley as suggested by the hydroacoustic data. The analysis of the first six months of OBS data indicates that the majority of seismicity is associated with normal faults beneath the spreading axis, and composed of a relatively constant background seismicity rate and two large aftershock sequences. The OBS array captured 5 teleseismic events with magnitudes between 4.0 and 4.5. The aftershock sequences, following two of the M 4 earthquakes are located in the axial valley close to the ridge-transform intersection. They make up more than half of the detected earthquakes. Omori's law of aftershock decay is clearly demonstrated by both aftershock sequences. In addition, the OBS data indicate active faulting within the Atlantis Massif. These events are located in the same region as the hydroacoustic seismicity suggesting that the hydroacoustically-derived locations could indeed represent earthquake epicenters. Analysis of a cluster of earthquakes on the 1500-m-high north-facing scarp of the South Ridge section of the massif indicates a normal fault with an orientation that is either ridge parallel or ridge perpendicular. Data analysis to date cannot

  3. New data for paleoprotherozoic PGE-bearing anorthosite of Kandalaksha massif (Baltic shield): U-Pb and Sm-Nd ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steshenko, Ekaterina; Bayanova, Tamara; Serov, Pavel

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this researches were to study the isotope U-Pb age of zircon and rutile and Sm-Nd (rock forming and sulphide minerals) on Kandalaksha anorthosite massif due to study of polimetamorphic history. In marginal zone firstly have been obtained the presence of sulphide mineralization with PGE (Chashchin, Petrov , 2013). Kandalaksha massif is located in the N-E part of Baltic shield and consists of three parts. Marginal zone (mesocratic metanorite) lies at the base of the massif. Main zone is composed of leucocratic metagabbro. The upper zone is alteration of mataanorthosite and leucocratic metagabbro. All rocks were subjected to granulate polymetamorphism. Two fractions of single grains from anorthosite of the massif gave precise U-Pb age, which is equal to 2450± 3 Ma. Leucocratic gabbro-norite were dated by U-Pb method, with age up to 2230 ± 10 Ma. This age reflects the time of granulite metamorphism according to data of (Mitrofanov, Nirovich, 2003). Two fractions of rutile have been analyzed by U-Pb method and reflect age of 1700 ± 10 Ma. It is known that the closure temperature of U-Pb system rutile is 400-450 ° C (Mezger et.al., 1989), thus cooling processes of massif rocks to these temperatures was about 1.7 Ga. These data reflect one of the stages of metamorphic alteration of the massif. Three stages of metamorphism are distinguished by Sm-Nd method. Isotope Sm-Nd dating on Cpx-WR line gives the age of 2311 Ma which suggested of high pressure granulite metamorphism. Moreover Cpx-Pl line reflect the age 1908 Ma of low pressure granulite metamorphism. Also two-points (Grt-Rt) Sm-Nd isochrone yield the age 1687 Ma of the last metamorphic alterations in Kandalaksha anorthosite massif. Model Sm-Nd age of the leucocratic gabbro-norite is 2796 Ma with positive ɛNd (+0.32). It means that the source of gabbro-norite was mantle reservoir. All investigations are devoted to memory of academician PAS F. MItrofanov which was a leader of scientific school for

  4. Use of Digital Elevation Models to understand map landforms and history of the magmatism Khibiny Massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesalova, Elena; Asavin, Alex

    2016-04-01

    This work presents an improved geomorphological methodology that uses 3D model of relief, remotely-sensed data, geological, geophysical maps and tools of Geographical Information Systems. On the basis of maps of 1: 50,000 and 1: 200,000 the Digital Elevation model (DEM) of Khibiny massif was developed. We used software ARC / INFO v10.2 ESRI. A DEM was used for analyzing landform by extracting the slope gradient, curvature, valley pro?les, slope, aspect and so on. The results were gradually re?ned from the interpretation of satellite imagery and geological map Geomorphological analysis will allow us to determine spatial regularities in inner massive construction. We try to found areas where gas emissions (CH4/H2) enrich, according to morphometry, geology, tectonic and other environments. The main regional blocks were de?ned by different morphological evidences: impression zone, similar to subsidence caldera; uplift zone, domed area (located in the highest part of massif and zone of intersection of main faults) and others. It says that there are the few stages in the development of the Khibiny massif. There is no common concept of the consequence of intrudes magmatic phases now. And we hope that our geomorphical analysis take a new evidences about this problems. Locations of the blocks' borders (tectonic zones) were recognized by lineament analysis of valleys and tectonic faults presented in relief. Erosion system is represented by valleys of 4 ranks. It inherits the zone of tectonic disturbances 3 groups of faults were recognized: 1) Global lineament system cross whole peninsula - existing before Khibiny massif intrusion; 2) Faults associated with the formation of the intrusive phases sequence and magma differentiation and with later collision history during magma cooling; 3) Crack system related to neotectonic process. We believed that if different magmatic phases intrude in similar tectonic environment, the common spatial system of faults will be formed. Really we

  5. Structural constraints on the evolution of Atlantis Massif based on results from IODP Expedition 304/305

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirth, G.; Escartin, J.; Grimes, C.; Halfpenny, A.; Hayman, N.; Hirose, T.; Michibayashi, K.; Suhr, G.

    2005-12-01

    Structural observations made on the 1400 m section of core drilled at Site U1309 during IODP Expedition 304/305 provide new insights into deformation processes active during the formation and exhumation of Atlantis Massif (30o N Mid-Atlantic Ridge). In general, magmatic deformation fabrics are rather weak and were recorded in only 22 percent of the core. High strain crystal-plastic deformation was recorded in only 3 percent of the core. Crystal-plastic deformation is restricted to clearly defined, mostly granulite grade shear zones ranging in width from a few millimeters to a few meters. These shear zones are most prevalent in the upper 320 meters below seafloor (mbsf). Fiber-orientations on some late greenschist grade vein sets are subhorizontal (particularly below ~300 mbsf) indicating strike-slip movement during their formation. The upper 170 mbsf are marked by a high, but downhole-decreasing intensity of cataclasis, numerous nominally undeformed diabase intrusions, pervasive greenschist-grade alteration and a near-present day orientation of the paleomagnetic inclination. By contrast, below ~170 mbsf paleomagnetic data indicate significant rotation of the footwall at temperatures less than ~580oC (i.e., the Curie temperature). Models for the formation and exhumation of the Central Dome of Atlantis Massif need to account for the following observations. (1) There is little magmatic deformation associated with the igneous history. This observation suggests that the plutons were "shielded" from deformation owing to emplacement within the mantle lithosphere. (2) There is little evidence for deformation at amphibolite facies. Deformation fabrics in the shallow part of Holes U1309B and U1309D suggest that faulting responsible for exhumation initiated at lower amphibolite to greenschist grade conditions. These observations indicate that the footwall cooled considerably between pluton emplacement and exhumation. (3) At face value, the relative paucity of high temperature

  6. Extinction vulnerability of tropical montane endemism from warming and upslope displacement: a preliminary appraisal for the highest massif in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    RAXWORTHY, CHRISTOPHER J; PEARSON, RICHARD G; RABIBISOA, NIRHY; RAKOTONDRAZAFY, ANDRY M; RAMANAMANJATO, JEAN-BAPTISTE; RASELIMANANA, ACHILLE P; WU, SHENGHAI; NUSSBAUM, RONALD A; STONE, DÁITHÍ A

    2008-01-01

    One of the predicted biological responses to climate warming is the upslope displacement of species distributions. In the tropics, because montane assemblages frequently include local endemics that are distributed close to summits, these species may be especially vulnerable to experiencing complete habitat loss from warming. However, there is currently a dearth of information available for tropical regions. Here, we present a preliminary appraisal of this extinction threat using the herpetological assemblage of the Tsaratanana Massif in northern Madagascar (the island's highest massif), which is rich with montane endemism. We present meteorological evidence (individual and combined regional weather station data and reanalysis forecast data) for recent warming in Madagascar, and show that this trend is consistent with recent climate model simulations. Using standard moist adiabatic lapse rates, these observed meteorological warming trends in northern Madagascar predict upslope species displacement of 17–74 m per decade between 1993 and 2003. Over this same period, we also report preliminary data supporting a trend for upslope distribution movements, based on two surveys we completed at Tsaratanana. For 30 species, representing five families of reptiles and amphibians, we found overall mean shifts in elevational midpoint of 19–51 m upslope (mean lower elevation limit 29–114 m; mean upper elevation limit −8 to 53 m). We also found upslope trends in mean and median elevational observations in seven and six of nine species analysed. Phenological differences between these surveys do not appear to be substantial, but these upslope shifts are consistent with the predictions based on meteorological warming. An elevational range displacement analysis projects complete habitat loss for three species below the 2 °C ‘dangerous’ warming threshold. One of these species is not contracting its distribution, but the other two were not resampled in 2003. A preliminary

  7. Apatite Fission Track Thermochronology of Khibina Massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia): Implications for post-Devonian Tectonics of the NE Fennoscandia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselovskiy, R. V.; Thomson, S. N.; Arzamastsev, A.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal history of the Kola Peninsula area of NE Fennoscandia remains almost fully unknown because of absence of any thermochronological data such as apatite and/or zircon fission track or (U-Th)/He ages. In order to fill this gap and to constrain the post-Devonian erosion and exhumation history of this region, we present the results of apatite fission track (AFT) dating of eleven samples selected from the cores taken from different depths of the northern part of the Khibina intrusive massif. This alkaline magmatic complex is located at the center of Kola Peninsula and formed at about 370 Ma (Kramm and Kogarko, 1994). Samples were analyzed from depths between +520 to -950 meters and yielded AFT ages between 290-268 Ma with an average age uncertainty (1σ) of ±30 Ma. Mean track lengths (MTL) lie between 12.5-14.4 μm. We used the most reliable AFT ages and distribution of MTL in two samples, corresponding to depths of +280 and -920 m, to conduct inverse time-temperature modelling of the Khibina massif. Thermal histories that best predict the measured data show three stages: (1) 290-250 Ma - rapid cooling from >110°C to 70°C/50°C for lower/upper sample correspondingly; (2) 250-50 Ma - a stable temperature stage; (3) 50-0 Ma - slightly increased cooling rates down to modern temperatures. We propose that the first cooling stage is related to late-Hercynian orogenesis; the second cooling stage may be associated with tectonics accompanying with opening of Arctic oceanic basin. The obtained data show that geothermal gradient at the center of Kola Peninsula has remained close to the modern value of 20°C/km for at least the last 250 Myr. AFT data show that the Khibina massif has been exhumed not more then 5-6 km in the last 290 Myr. This study was funded by grants 15-35-20599, 15-05-02116, 15-05-01860 and 13-05-01033 from the Russian Foundation of Basic Research, grant 3.38.224.2015 from the St. Petersburg State University, grant 14.Z50.31.0017 from the Government

  8. Mantle refertilization by melts of crustal-derived garnet pyroxenite: Evidence from the Ronda peridotite massif, southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, Claudio; Garrido, Carlos J.; Bosch, Delphine; Bodinier, Jean-Louis; Gervilla, Fernando; Hidas, Károly

    2013-01-01

    Geochemical studies of primitive basalts have documented the presence of crustal-derived garnet pyroxenite in their mantle sources. The processes whereby melts with the signature of garnet pyroxenite are produced in the mantle are, however, poorly understood and somewhat controversial. Here we investigate a natural example of the interaction between melts of garnet pyroxenite derived from recycled plagioclase-rich crust and surrounding mantle in the Ronda peridotite massif. Melting of garnet pyroxenite at ˜1.5 GPa generated spinel websterite residues with MREE/HREE fractionation and preserved the positive Eu anomaly of their garnet pyroxenite precursor in whole-rock and clinopyroxene. Reaction of melts from garnet pyroxenite with depleted surrounding peridotite generated secondary fertile spinel lherzolite. These secondary lherzolites differ from common spinel lherzolite from Ronda and elsewhere by their lower-Mg# in clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene and olivine, lower-Cr# in spinel and higher whole-rock Al2O3, CaO, Sm/Yb and FeO* at a given SiO2. Remarkably, secondary spinel lherzolite shows the geochemical signature of ghost plagioclase in the form of positive Eu and Sr anomalies in whole-rock and clinopyroxene, reflecting the transfer of a low-pressure crustal imprint from recycled pyroxenite to hybridized peridotite. Garnet pyroxenite melting and melt-peridotite interaction, as shown in the Ronda massif, may explain how the signature of subducted or delaminated crust is transferred to the mantle and how a garnet pyroxenite component is introduced into the source region of basalts. The efficiency of these processes in conveying the geochemical imprint of crustal-derived garnet pyroxenite to extruded lavas depends on the reactivity of pyroxenite melt with peridotite and the mantle permeability, which may be controlled by prior refertilization reactions similar to those documented in the Ronda massif. Highly fertile heterogeneities produced by pyroxenite

  9. Mineralogy and ore fluid chemistry of the Roc Blanc Ag deposit, Jebilet Hercynian massif, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essarraj, Samira; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Cathelineau, Michel; Tarantola, Alexandre; Leisen, Mathieu; Hibti, Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    The Roc Blanc Ag deposit is located about 20 km north of Marrakesh city (Morocco) in the Jebilet Hercynian massif. The ore bodies consist of N-S to NE-SW quartz (±carbonates) veins hosted by the Sarhlef marine sediments. These series, deposited in a Devonian-Carboniferous rift basin context, were deformed during the Hercynian orogeny, and submitted to low-grade regional metamorphism. Two major stages of fluid circulation and metal deposition are distinguished on the basis of mineralogical and paleo-fluid studies carried out on quartz and dolomite (microthermometry, Raman spectroscopy, LA-ICP-MS on individual inclusions, and O, H stable isotope data): (i) an early Fe-As stage, characterized by the circulation of metamorphic aqueous-carbonic fluids, under P-T conditions lower than 200 MPa ± 20 MPa and 400 °C respectively, along N-S structures; (ii) the ore stage, characterized by the circulation of a Na-Mg-K ± Ca high salinity brine, poor in gas but rich in metals such as Fe, Sr, Ba, Zn, Pb, ± Cu (salinity ranging from 19.6 wt% to likely more than 30 wt% NaCl equiv.) and the deposition of a sphalerite/dolomite-calcite assemblage; such a fluid likely evolved to a Na-K-(Ca-Mg)-Ag brine, with significant Pb and Sb concentrations and lower Sr, Ba and Zn concentrations than in the preceding fluid (salinity up to 19.4 wt% NaCl equiv.). The Ag content of the second mineralizing brine ranges from 0.9 mmol/kg to 9.4 mmol/kg solution (100 ppm-1000 ppm), whereas the base metal brine is generally Ag poor (up to 1.3 mmol/kg solution: 140 ppm). Dilution of the Ag brine by low salinity fluids (<6 wt% NaCl equiv., and Th from 130° to 230 °C) seems to be the main driving mechanism for the Ag ore deposition at Roc Blanc, with a possible involvement of cooling and reduction reactions in black schists. Base metal and Ag fluids may have circulated at average temperatures around 200 ± 30 °C or slightly higher and under hydrostatic pressures, along dominant E-W structures. The ore

  10. The Kokchetav Massif, Kazakhstan: "Type locality" of diamond-bearing UHP metamorphic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertl, H.; Sobolev, N. V.

    2012-12-01

    Since the first discovery of in situ metamorphic diamond in the Kokchetav Massif in 1990, numerous scientists from different disciplines paid special attention to petrological and geochemical features, geodynamics and the mechanism of deep subduction and exhumation of UHP rocks. This discovery was a trigger for an intense search of further possible diamondiferous UHP terranes worldwide, successfully documented by numerous new findings. Thus far, more than 350 papers have been published on various aspects of the Kokchetav UHP rocks. A compilation of the most important and far-reaching implications are outlined here. PT-estimates yield peak metamorphic conditions of at least 43 kbar at temperatures of about 950-1000°C. Zircon separates show inherited Proterozoic cores and mantle with the peak of UHP metamorphism at about 537-530 Ma. Several Ar-Ar-ages on micas scatter around 529-528 and 521-517 Ma and reflect different stages of the exhumation history. Migmatization occurred during exhumation at about 526-520 Ma. Microdiamonds which reach a grain size of 300 micrometers, contain highly potassic fluid inclusions as well as solid inclusions like carbonates, different silicates and metal sulfides, which favours the idea of a diamond formation from a C-O-H bearing fluid. Nitrogen isotope data and negative δ13C values of Kokchetav diamonds indicate a metasedimentary origin. δ18O studies on garnet and clinopyroxene of a layered calcsilicate are ruling out a primitive mantle protolith; similar studies on eclogite indicate their basaltic protolith to have experienced water-rock interaction prior to UHP metamorphism. A number of unique mineralogical findings have been made. K-feldspar exsolutions in clinopyroxene demonstrate that potassium can be incorporated into the clinopyroxene structure under upper mantle pressures. Other significant observations are coesite exsolutions in titanite, quartz-rods in clinopyroxene, the discovery of K-tourmaline as well as new minerals

  11. Carbonates in mantle xenoliths from French Massif Central: inference for carbonatite-related metasomatism.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Christiane; Deloule, Etienne

    2016-04-01

    Mantle xenoliths from the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) frequently display evidence of metasomatism by melts or fluids of variable composition, e.g. alkali-basaltic, alkali-carbonate or carbonate melts. Carbonate-bearing mantle xenoliths are particularly interesting as highly mobile carbonate melts are likely prominent metasomatic agents of the mantle. This study presents detailed petrographic descriptions and major and trace element compositions of minerals in protogranular spinel lherzolites from the Mont Coupet occurrence (Devès province, French Massif Central), with focus on the carbonate phases to discuss their possible link to carbonatite melt. Two representative samples are described here. MC9 shows no evidence for infiltration of the host basanitic magma. Carbonates occur (1) as large (100 μm - 200 μm) anhedral crystals in interstitial pockets at triple point of primary olivine grains, (2) in a few cross-cutting veins (up to 200 μm width), (3) along grain boundaries and (4) in composite carbonate-silicate pockets from well-developed reaction zones, in which carbonates fill globular vesicles. The reaction zone contains secondary subhedral to euhedral phases: Al- and Ti-rich clinopyroxene, Ca-rich olivine, Cr-rich spinel and quenched plagioclase and relict sieved-textured primary spinel. MC2 shows carbonate-bearing thin (< 50 μm width) interconnected veinlets and only a few poorly-developed reaction zones around primary spinel. Large carbonate crystals (1), as in sample MC9, occur associated with (2) fibrous carbonate with a well-formed meniscus at the boundary between the two carbonate types. In some reaction zones the carbonate patches (3) show well-developed concentric carbonate structures, similar to those observed in the globular vesicles from the host basanite. In sample MC9, the carbonate is an alkali-free Mg-poor calcite (XCa = 0.95 - 0.98; with 0.5 - 1.8 wt. % MgO) whatever the occurrence. In sample MC2, carbonates are Mg

  12. Guidelines for asbestos remediation at Italian superfund sites.

    PubMed

    Paglietti, F; Malinconico, S; Di Molfetta, V; Giangrasso, M

    2012-01-01

    Asbestos is now banned in 52 countries. Although Italy banned asbestos in 1992, up until that date it had been one of the main producer nations of asbestos and asbestos-containing materials, and asbestos-related contamination is still widespread in the country. To reduce asbestos-related health effects, Italy has adopted many laws and regulations regarding exposure thresholds and remediation tools. Even so, there are legislative gaps that are making it difficult to manage related risks especially in the operative phase. The lack of standard procedures at a national level regarding emergency shutdown and remediation as well as reference thresholds for specific risk situations creates difficulties and different actions when dealing with the cleanup of Italian asbestos superfund sites. The authors propose operative guidelines for asbestos remediation at Italian superfund sites. INAIL, the reference national organization for asbestos-related matters, acting as an advisor to a number of state, regional, and local authorities, examined the main asbestos-related risk situations in Italy and proposed the most appropriate actions to take. The detailed analysis of many actual cases of risk, in part through inspections and the management of cleanup actions at asbestos Italian superfund sites, resulted in proposals to modify existing procedures and thresholds, which were subsequently discussed with all national, regional, and local scientific bodies. After more than two years of work and discussion at a national level, INAIL-DIPIA-Asbestos Group drafted new Guidelines for Asbestos Remediation at Italian Superfund sites, and officially submitted them to the Environment Ministry. The Ministry then adopted the document in regard to all asbestos Italian superfunds. This recently released document is also a useful reference for contaminated sites at a regional and local level. The operative Guidelines for Asbestos Remediation at Italian Superfund sites may also be of use at an

  13. Validation of Italian multiple sclerosis quality of life 54 questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Solari, A.; Filippini, G.; Mendozzi, L.; Ghezzi, A.; Cifani, S.; Barbieri, E.; Baldini, S.; Salmaggi, A.; Mantia, L. L.; Farinotti, M.; Caputo, D.; Mosconi, P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Health related quality of life (HRQOL) inventories are multi-dimensional measures of patient-centred health status developed for clinical research. The MS quality of life 54 (MSQOL-54) is an MS-specific HRQOL inventory originally devised for English speaking patients. It consists of a core measure, the 36-item short form health survey (SF-36) previously adapted into Italian, and 18 additional items exploring domains relevant to patients with MS (MS-18 module). The authors translated and culturally adapted into Italian the MS-18 module of the MSQOL-54 questionnaire, and clinically validated the whole questionnaire.
METHODS—The MS-18 module was translated following the methodology of the International Quality of Life Assessment (IQOLA) project. The MSQOL-54 was validated in 204 consecutive patients with MS seen between April and September 1997 at three participating centres. The questionnaire was explained by the physician who also administered the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and mini mental status scale examination, and the patient filled in the MSQOL-54 and Beck depression inventory questionnaires (BDI), with assistance if required. The contribution of impairments and disabilities to MSQOL-54 scores were assessed, and mean scores were compared with normative data for the general Italian population, and with the original sample of United States MS patients.
RESULTS—The mean age of the 204 patients was 42 years; mean EDSS score was 4.5 (range 0-8.5). Patients' participation in the assessment was satisfactory, and all scales satisfied the usual psychometric standards. The characteristics of the United States sample matched those of our patients in all but gender (72% United States patients v 52% Italian patients were women), and education (90% United States patients and 44% Italian patients completed high school); MSQOL-54 profiles were also similar. The EDSS was significantly associated with the physical health composite but not with

  14. The Cenozoic history of the Armorican Massif: New insights from the deep CDB1 borehole (Rennes Basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Hugues; Bessin, Paul; Saint-Marc, Pierre; Châteauneuf, Jean-Jacques; Bourdillon, Chantal; Wyns, Robert; Guillocheau, François

    2016-05-01

    Borehole CDB1 (675.05 m) crosses the deepest Cenozoic sedimentary basin of the Armorican Massif, the Rennes Basin, to reach the underlying basement at a depth of 404.92 m, made up of the Late Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian Brioverian Group, weathered down to 520 m depth. The basin's Cenozoic deposits are divided into seven formations, ranging from Early-Middle Bartonian to Late Pliocene in age. Coastal sediments at the very base, along with a thick Priabonian lacustrine episode, imply a major revision of the regional palaeogeography, whilst a very steady and low-energy lacustrine-palustrine environment throughout the Priabonian and Early Rupelian argue for an aggradational system associated with uniform subsidence. Palynological assemblages attest to environmental and climatic changes through the Eocene and Early Oligocene, in accordance with regional and global trends (Eocene-Oligocene Transition).

  15. Palaeomagnetic constraints on the evolution of the Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 30°N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Antony; Pressling, Nicola; Gee, Jeffrey; John, Barbara; MacLeod, Christopher

    2010-05-01

    Oceanic core complexes expose lower crustal and upper mantle rocks on the seafloor by tectonic unroofing in the footwalls of large-slip detachment faults. They represent a fundamental component of the seafloor spreading system at slow and ultraslow axes. For example, recent analyses suggest that detachment faults may underlie more than 50% of the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and may take up most of the overall plate divergence at times when magma supply to the ridge system is reduced. The most extensively studied oceanic core complex is Atlantis Massif, located at 30°N on the MAR. This forms an inside-corner bathymetric high at the intersection of the Atlantis Transform Fault and the MAR. The central dome of the massif exposes the corrugated detachment fault surface and was drilled during IODP Expedition 304/305. This sampled a 1.4 km faulted and complexly layered footwall section dominated by gabbroic lithologies with minor ultramafic rocks. The core (Hole U1309D) reflects the interplay between magmatism and deformation prior to, during, and subsequent to a period of footwall displacement and denudation associated with slip on the detachment fault. Palaeomagnetic analyses demonstrate that the gabbroic sequences at Atlantis Massif carry highly stable remanent magnetizations that provide valuable information on the evolution of the section. Thermal demagnetization experiments recover high unblocking temperature components of reversed polarity (R1) throughout the gabbroic sequences. In a number of intervals, however, the gabbros exhibit a complex remanence structure with the presence of intermediate temperature normal (N1) and lower temperature reversed (R2) polarity components, suggesting an extended period of remanence acquisition during different polarity intervals. Sharp break-points between different polarity components suggest that they were acquired by a thermal mechanism. There appears to be no correlation between remanence structure and either the igneous

  16. Multiple Feldspar replacement in Hercynian granites of the Montseny-Guilleries Massif (Catalan Coastal Ranges, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fàbrega, Carles; Parcerisa, David; Gómez-Gras, David

    2013-04-01

    The core of the Montseny-Guilleries Massif (Catalan Coastal Ranges) is mainly composed by late-Hercynian granitoids (leucogranites and granodiorites) intruded within Cambrian to Carnoniferous metasediments. The granites are unconformably covered by Triassic (Buntsandstein) and Paleocene red beds at the western boundary, preserving a continuous outcrop of the Permo-Triassic unconformity for about 20 km. In the southwestern Montseny-Guilleries Massif the granites are covered by the Buntsandstein red sandstones that overlain a peneplain paleorelief called the Permo-Triassic palaeosurface. Beneath the palaeosurface the granite displays a characteristic pink colouration. This pink alteration is characterized by precipitation of minute heamatite crystals and albitization of pristine plagioclases (mostly labradorite). The secondary albite is pseudomorphic (mono- or polycrystalline), optically continuous, non-luminiscent, contains widespread microporosity and displays compositions about Ab98. These features are typical of low temperature replacive feldspars (Kastner and Siever, 1979). Albitization of plagioclases is almost total close to the Permo-Triassic palaeosurface and progressively decreases towards depth, displaying a 150-200 m thick alteration profile. The formation of this profile was controlled by fluid circulation along macro- and microfractures and crystal boundaries. Inside the plagioclase crystals fluid pathways were microfractures, twinning and cleavage planes and crystalline defects. The secondary albite holds widespread unconnected micron-size porosity often filled by Fe-oxides. The reaction front is sharp and displays an abrupt composicional change (Ab65 to Ab98) at micron scale. Porosity only appears to be connected at this reaction front surface. The geometrical arrangement of this alterations suggest that albitization was a shallow process related with Na-rich descending fluids linked to the Permo-Triassic palaeosurface, in a similar way to

  17. First findings of monocrystalline aragonite inclusions in garnet from diamond-grade UHPM rocks (Kokchetav Massif, Northern Kazakhstan).

    PubMed

    Korsakov, Andrey V; Vandenabeele, Peter; Perraki, Maria; Moens, Luc

    2011-10-01

    The presence of aragonite inclusions in garnet from diamond-grade metamorphic rocks from the Kokchetav Massif, Northern Kazakhstan was identified for the first time by means of Raman analyses and mapping. Aragonite appears within the inclusions up to 50 μm in size as a single crystal. These inclusions have rounded shape. The grain boundary between the host-garnet is smooth. No cracks occur around the aragonite inclusions. No significant shift in the main aragonite Raman band was measured. These observations indicate that residual pressure within the inclusion is minor. These findings imply either non-UHPM origin of the host garnet or significant plastic deformation of host minerals during retrograde stage. These features should be taken into account for recovery peak metamorphic conditions and modeling of exhumation processes of UHPM complexes.

  18. Platinum potential of mafic-ultramafic massifs in the western part of the Dambuka ore district (Upper Amur Region, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, A. V.; Stepanov, V. A.; Moiseenko, V. G.

    2016-02-01

    New data on the Pt potential of mafic-ultramafic massifs of the Khani-Maya, Uldegit, and Dzhalta complexes in the western part of the Dambuka ore district are discussed. The Khani-Maya Complex is represented by metamorphosed gabbro, gabbronorites, gabbro anorthosites, subordinate pyroxenites, hornblendites, and peridotites. The Uldegit Complex is composed of pyroxenites, hornblendites, gabbro, gabbronorites, norites, troctolites, peridotites, dunites, actinolite-tremolites, serpentinites, anthophyllites, and tremolite-plagioclase rocks. The Dzhalta Complex is formed of peridotites, gabbro, eclogitized gabbro, hornblendites, cortlandites, and pyroxenites. All these complexes differ from each other by the concentrations of Ni, Cu, Co, Au, and platinoids depending on the composition of the constituting rocks and the presence of sulfide minerals.

  19. 190Pt-4He age of PGE ores in the Alkaline-Ultramafic Kondyor Massif (Khabarovsk District, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochalov, A. G.; Yakubovich, O. V.; Bortnikov, N. S.

    2016-08-01

    A new 190Pt-4He method for dating isoferroplatinum has been developed at the Institute of Precambrian Geology and Geochronology, Russian Academy of Sciences. Here we publish the first results of dating of isoferroplatinum from the main mineralogical and geochemical types of PGE mineralization in dunite. The obtained 190Pt-4He age of isoferroplatinum is 129 ± 6 Ma. The gained 190Pt-4He age of isoferroplatinum specimens of different genesis (magmatic, fluid-metamorphogenic, and metasomatic) from the Kondyor Massif indicates that the PGM mineralization took place synchronously and successively with evolution of primarily picrite, followed by subalkaline and alkaline melts of the Mesozoic tectonic-magmatic activation of the Aldan Shield.

  20. Behavior of iron-group elements, oxybarometry, and genesis of unique chromite deposits in the Kempirsai massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashchukhin, I. S.; Votyakov, S. L.

    2009-04-01

    Ultramafic rocks and high-Cr chromite ore from the Almaz-Zhemchuzhina deposit, the largest in the Main ore field of the Kempirsai massif, have been studied. The detailed mineralogical and geochemical examination of deep structure test and exploratory boreholes allowed us to establish the rough stratification of ultramafic rocks and to demonstrate the position of unique chromite deposits in the generalized vertical section of the southeastern Kempirsai massif. From top to bottom, a barren harzburgite-lherzolite series gives way to an ore-bearing dunite-harzburgite complex with the largest chromite deposits, including the unique Almaz-Zhemchuzhina deposit, in its upper portion and then to pyroxene-free dunite densely impregnated with chromite in the upper part and containing sparsely disseminated chromite at its base. The lower unit is composed of a barren lherzolite-harzburgite series transformed into blastomylonites near the contact with dunite, suggesting a tectonically doubled section in the southeastern part of the massif. The synore asymmetric geochemical zoning developed in the course of formation of chromite deposits as a result of removal of oreforming iron-group elements from the underlying and wall ultramafic rocks into the overlying rocks. Host rocks with disturbed initial proportions of Cr, Fe, Ni, and Mn, together with orebodies, made up ore-bearing zones no less than 1 km in thickness and subdivided into supra-, inter-, and subore subzones. The subore and wall rocks are characterized by partial loss (wt %) of Cr2O3(0.1), NiO (0.04), FeOtot(0.5), and MnO (0.02) and their removal into the interore and supraore (0.03 NiO) subzones. Thus, the subore ultramafic rocks served as a source of ore-forming components, while the interore zone with orebodies occurring therein served as a zone of discharge of these components. Using Mössbauer spectroscopy, the crystal chemistry of iron ions was studied in a representative selection of Cr-spinel samples from rocks

  1. The origin of summit basins on the Aleutian Ridge: implications for block rotation of an arc massif ( Pacific).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, E.L.; Childs, J. R.; Scholl, D. W.

    1988-01-01

    It is proposed that many summit basins along the Aleutian Arc form from the clockwise rotation of blocks of the arc massic. Summit basins are arc-parallel grabens or half-grabens formed within the arc massif and are commonly located near or along the axis of late Cenozoic volcanism. Geomorphically, the Aleutian Arc appears to consist of contiguous rhombic blocks of varying size, 10's to 100's of km in length. Presents a model for block rotation that involves translation of blocks parallel to an arc. It is suggested that block rotation, which appears to have accelerated in late Cenozoic time, is linked to: 1) a shift in the Euler pole for the Pacific plate; 2) the consequential start-up of late Cenozoic volcanism; 3) improved interplate coupling instigated by sediment flooding of the Aleutian Trench; and 4) westward subduction of NE striking segments of the inactive Kula-Pacific Ridge.-from Authors

  2. Cross-border radon index map 1:100 000 Lausitz - Jizera - Karkonosze - Region (northern part of the Bohemian Massif).

    PubMed

    Barnet, Ivan; Pacherová, Petra; Preusse, Werner; Stec, Bartosz

    2010-10-01

    The first cross-border map describing the radon (Rn) risk from bedrock was assembled in the northern part of the Bohemian Massif at a scale 1:100 000. The map covers the area of Lausitz (Germany), Karkonosze (Czech Republic and Poland) and Jizera (Czech Republic). The map is based on 818 measurements of soil gas Rn in rock types of Precambrian to Mesozoic age with variable geology. Geographic information system (GIS) processing enabled a good coincidence of soil gas Rn concentrations between data from all three countries in lithologically adjacent rock types as well as the direct correlation to georeferenced indoor Rn values, which was tested using the Czech indoor Rn data. The method of data processing can contribute to assembling the European Geogenic Radon Map.

  3. Local tomography and focal mechanisms in the south-western Alps: Comparison of methods and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicole, Béthoux; Christian, Sue; Anne, Paul; Jean, Virieux; Julien, Fréchet; François, Thouvenot; Marco, Cattaneo

    2007-03-01

    We investigate how focal solutions and hypocenter locations may depend on the ray tracing algorithm and the strategy of velocity inversion. Using arrival times from a temporary seismological network in the south-western Alps, a local earthquake tomography has been performed by Paul et al. [Paul, A., Cattaneo, M., Thouvenot, F., Spallarossa, D., Béthoux, N., and Fréchet, J., 2001. A three-dimensional crustal velocity model of the south-western Alps from local earthquake tomography. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 19367-19390.] with the method developed by Thurber [Thurber, C.H., 1993. Local earthquake tomography: velocity and Vp/Vs-Theory, in Seismic Tomography: Theory and practice, Iyer, H.M., and Irahara eds., Chapman and Hall, New York, 563-583.]. Another inversion of the same data set is performed here using a different tomography code relying on a shooting paraxial method and cubic interpolation of velocities. The resulting images display the same main features, although Thurber's code appears to be more robust in regions with scarce ray coverage and strong velocity contrasts. Concerning hypocenter location in Piemont units, one major result is the concentration of hypocenters at the boundary between the mantle wedge of the Ivrea body and the European crust. Forty-six focal mechanisms are shown that were computed using both the take-off angles in the minimum 1-D model and in the 3-D velocity structures resulting from the two inversions. The sets of focal solutions are very similar, proving the reliability and the coherency of the focal solutions. The widespread extension in the core of the western Alps is confirmed whereas a few compressive solutions are found east of the Piemont units. These results constrain the sharp change of stress tensor and evidence a decoupling of strain beneath the east of Dora Maira massif up to beneath the north of Argentera massif. On a geodynamical point of view seismicity and focal mechanism distribution are compatible with the present

  4. Statistical adaptation of ALADIN RCM outputs over the French alpine massifs - application to future climate and snow cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousselot, M.; Durand, Y.; Giraud, G.; Mérindol, L.; Dombrowski-Etchevers, I.; Déqué, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, snowpack scenarios are modelled across the French Alps using dynamically downscaled variables from the ALADIN Regional Climate Model (RCM) for the control period (1961-1990) and three emission scenarios (SRES B1, A1B and A2) by the mid- and late of the 21st century (2021-2050 and 2071-2100). These variables are statistically adapted to the different elevations, aspects and slopes of the alpine massifs. For this purpose, we use a simple analogue criterion with ERA40 series as well as an existing detailed climatology of the French Alps (Durand et al., 2009a) that provides complete meteorological fields from the SAFRAN analysis model. The resulting scenarios of precipitation, temperature, wind, cloudiness, longwave and shortwave radiation, and humidity are used to run the physical snow model CROCUS and simulate snowpack evolution over the massifs studied. The seasonal and regional characteristics of the simulated climate and snow cover changes are explored, as is the influence of the scenarios on these changes. Preliminary results suggest that the Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) of the snowpack will decrease dramatically in the next century, especially in the Southern and Extreme Southern part of the Alps. This decrease seems to result primarily from a general warming throughout the year, and possibly a deficit of precipitation in the autumn. The magnitude of the snow cover decline follows a marked altitudinal gradient, with the highest altitudes being less exposed to climate change. Scenario A2, with its high concentrations of greenhouse gases, results in a SWE reduction roughly twice as large as in the low-emission scenario B1 by the end of the century. This study needs to be completed using simulations from other RCMs, since a multi-model approach is essential for uncertainty analysis.

  5. Middle Proterozoic emplacement and deformation of metanorthosite and related rocks in the northeastern Marcy massif, Adirondack Mountains, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Fakundiny, R.H. ); Muller, P.D. . Dept. of Earth Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Geologic mapping in the Elizabethtown and Mount Marcy 15 foot quadrangles in the northeastern Adirondack Mountains has shown that Middle Proterozoic anorthosite suite rocks of the Marcy massif were intruded in at least two temporally distinguishable episodes separated by a period of localized ductile shearing. Strain was concentrated in a 100 m to > 1 km thick zone consisting mainly of metamorphosed gabbroic anorthosite, ferrodiorite, and ferrosyenite gneiss with subordinate granite gneiss, calc-silicate gneiss, amphibolite, and marble. This zone of flat to steeply-dipping layered gneisses, designated the Elizabethtown ductile deformation zone (EDDZ) for exposures along Rt 9 south of Elizabethtown, appears to extend from Lake Champlain on the east to at least Lake Placid on the west. Its upper boundary is most clearly evident where it occurs in olivine metagabbro bodies of Jay and Iron Mountain. Massive metagabbro is sheared and recrystallized into amphibolite gneiss. The lower boundary of the zone is more difficult to map, but commonly lies within contaminated metamorphosed gabbroic anorthosite and ferrodiorite gneiss that characterize the margins of the massif in the area. Rocks of the EDDZ display pervasive mesoscopic S and LS fabrics, but exhibit totally recrystallized microtextures. Kinematic indicators such as winged porphyroclasts and S-C fabrics are sporadically developed and provide a regionally ambiguous sense of shear. The authors favor a regional extension origin for the fabrics. Mineral assemblages defining the EDDZ fabrics are consistent with granulite facies conditions during shear-zone development and suggest a lower crustal position. Mapping suggests that the younger anorthosite intrusions were mainly domical and generated a chaotic contact zone typified by block structure and dikes of ferrodiorite, ferromonzonite, and ferrosyenite.

  6. Temporal evolution of mineralization events in the Bohemian Massif inferred from the Re-Os geochronology of molybdenite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, Lukáš; Haluzová, Eva; Creaser, Robert A.; Pašava, Jan; Veselovský, František; Breiter, Karel; Erban, Vojtěch; Drábek, Milan

    2016-10-01

    Molybdenite is a common mineral accompanying Sn-W, Au, and base metal mineralizations located in different geotectonic units of the Bohemian Massif, but it is also widespread in granitoids and/or related quartz veins/pegmatites forming disseminated Mo mineralization. Thirty Re-Os ages were obtained for molybdenite samples from the Bohemian Massif to provide constraints on the timing and duration of mineralization event(s) within the framework of previously published geochronological data for the host and/or associated rocks. The obtained data for Sn-W-(Li) deposits in the Erzgebirge metallogenetic province indicate the predominance of one and/or multiple short-time mineralization events taking place between ˜319 and 323 Ma, with the exception of the Krupka deposit associated with the Altenberg-Teplice caldera where the data may suggest prolonged activity until ˜315 Ma. The ages of the Pb-Zn-(Au-Mo) Hůrky u Rakovníka and Fe-Cu-As Obří důl mineralizations from the exocontacts of the Čistá pluton and Krkonoše-Jizera Plutonic Complex, respectively, provide evidence for synchronous emplacement of the ore and the associated granitic rocks. In contrast, the Padrť Fe-As-Mo mineralization postdates the age of the associated Padrť granite. Disseminated Mo mineralization in Cadomian and Variscan granitoids and/or related to quartz veins/pegmatites provides Re-Os ages that overlap with the previously published geochronological data for the host rocks, suggesting coeval evolution. Molybdenite samples from the Sázava suite granites of the Central Bohemian Plutonic Complex (CBPC) have resolvable younger ages than their host granites, but similar to the age of spatially related Au mineralization which is associated with the latest evolution of the CBPC.

  7. Endolithic microbial communities in carbonate precipitates from serpentinite-hosted hyperalkaline springs of the Voltri Massif (Ligurian Alps, Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Quéméneur, Marianne; Palvadeau, Alexandra; Postec, Anne; Monnin, Christophe; Chavagnac, Valérie; Ollivier, Bernard; Erauso, Gaël

    2015-09-01

    The Voltri Massif is an ophiolitic complex located in the Ligurian Alps close to the city of Genova (Northern Italy) where several springs discharge high pH (up to 11.7), low salinity waters produced by the active serpentinization of the ultramafic basement. Mixing of these hyperalkaline waters with the river waters along with the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide forms brownish carbonate precipitates covering the bedrock at the springs. Diverse archaeal and bacterial communities were detected in these carbonate precipitates using 454 pyrosequencing analyses of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Archaeal communities were dominated by members of potential methane-producing and/or methane-oxidizing Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales (Euryarchaeota) together with ammonia-oxidizing Nitrososphaerales (Thaumarchaeota) similar to those found in other serpentinization-driven submarine and terrestrial ecosystems. Bacterial communities consisted of members of the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Verrucomicrobia phyla, altogether accounting for 92.2% of total retrieved bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences. Amongst Bacteria, potential chemolithotrophy was mainly associated with Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria classes, including nitrogen-fixing, methane-oxidizing or hydrogen-oxidizing representatives of the genera Azospirillum, Methylosinus, and Hydrogenophaga/'Serpentinomonas', respectively. Besides, potential chemoorganotrophy was attributed mainly to representatives of Actinobacteria and Planctomycetales phyla. The reported 16S rRNA gene data strongly suggested that hydrogen, methane, and nitrogen-based chemolithotrophy can sustain growth of the microbial communities inhabiting the carbonate precipitates in the hyperalkaline springs of the Voltri Massif, similarly to what was previously observed in other serpentinite-hosted ecosystems.

  8. Unravelling the effects of melt depletion and secondary infiltration on mantle Re-Os isotopes beneath the French Massif Central

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J.; Gannoun, A.; Burton, K. W.; Schiano, P.; Rogers, N. W.; Alard, O.

    2010-01-01

    Spinel lherzolite xenoliths from Mont Briançon, French Massif Central, retain evidence for multiple episodes of melt depletion and melt/fluid infiltration (metasomatism). Evidence for primary melt depletion is still preserved in the co-variation of bulk-rock major elements (MgO 38.7-46.1 wt.%; CaO 0.9-3.6 wt.%), and many samples yield unradiogenic bulk-rock Os isotope ratios ( 187Os/ 188Os = 0.11541-0.12626). However, many individual xenoliths contain interstitial glasses and melt inclusions that are not in equilibrium with the major primary minerals. Incompatible trace element mass balance calculations demonstrate that metasomatic components comprise a significant proportion of the bulk-rock budget for these elements in some rocks, ranging to as much as 25% of Nd and 40% of Sr Critically, for Re-Os geochronology, melt/fluid infiltration is accompanied by the mobilisation of sulfide. Consequently, bulk-rock isotope measurements, whether using lithophile (e.g. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd) or siderophile (Re-Os) based isotope systems, may only yield a perturbed and/or homogenised average of these multiple events. Osmium mass balance calculations demonstrate that bulk-rock Os in peridotite is dominated by contributions from two populations of sulfide grain: (i) interstitial, metasomatic sulfide with low [Os] and radiogenic 187Os/ 188Os, and (ii) primary sulfides with high [Os] and unradiogenic 187Os/ 188Os, which have been preserved within host silicate grains and shielded from interaction with transient melts and fluid. The latter can account for >97% of bulk-rock Os and preserve geochronological information of the melt from which they originally precipitated as an immiscible liquid. The Re-depletion model ages of individual primary sulfide grains preserve evidence for melt depletion beneath the Massif Central from at least 1.8 Gyr ago despite the more recent metasomatic event(s).

  9. The AstroBID: Searching through the Italian Astronomical Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirella, E. O.; Gargano, M.; Gasperini, A.; Mandrino, A.; Randazzo, D.; Zanini, V.

    2015-04-01

    The scientific heritage held in the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), made up of rare and modern books, instruments, and archival documents spanning from the 15th to the early 20th century, marks the milestones in the history of astronomy in Italy. To promote this history of this historical collection, the Libraries and Historical Archives Service and the Museums Service of INAF have developed a project aimed at creating a single web portal: Polvere di stelle. I beni culturali dell'astronomia italiana (Stardust. The cultural heritage of the Italian astronomy). This portal searches for data coming from the libraries, the instruments collections and the historical archives, regarding the heritage of the Italian Observatories. The BID (Books, Instruments, Documents) of the project is the creation of a multimedia web facility, which allows the public to make simultaneous searches on the three different types of materials.

  10. Italian psychology under protection: Agostino Gemelli between Catholicism and fascism.

    PubMed

    Foschi, Renato; Giannone, Anna; Giuliani, Alessia

    2013-05-01

    Between the 1930s and 1940s, Agostino Gemelli (1878-1959) was the main Italian psychologist; he accepted and promoted an empirical conception of psychology influenced by neo-Thomism. The views of Gemelli were a landmark for many psychologists and psychological models in Catholic universities. Gemelli, moreover, throughout his scientific activity, continued ongoing work of expertise in matters concerning science, morality, and psychology. He was a Franciscan monk but also an officer of the Italian air force, a psychologist, and a rector. During the period of fascist rule in Italy, Gemelli sought compromise solutions to foster the survival of psychological institutions. Around his story, contrasting interpretations have emerged. The aim of this article is to look at Agostino Gemelli as an important historical subject to understand the ways in which scientific enterprises and institutions are likely to be influenced by political regimes and by the dogmatic and intolerant milieu. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Italian norms for the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C.

    PubMed

    De Pascalis, V; Bellusci, A; Russo, P M

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents norms for an Italian translation of the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C; Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1962). Archival data on hypnosis research subjects recruited over a 10-year period of research on hypnosis were pooled, resulting in an aggregate sample of 356 participants (263 female and 93 male). Score distribution, item difficulty levels, and reliability of the SHSS:C were computed. Of this group, 218 subjects were administered the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility approximately 3 weeks prior to administration of the SHSS:C. The remaining 138 subjects received only the SHSS:C. Results suggest that the Italian version of the SHSS:C is a reliable and valid measure.

  12. The Italian reaction to the Giubilini and Minerva paper.

    PubMed

    Mori, Maurizio

    2013-05-01

    From 28 February to the end of March 2012, the Italian media reacted fiercely to the Giubilini and Minerva paper published in the Journal of Medical Ethics a few days earlier. The first article viewed the proposal as analogous to 'barbaric invasions', but in a first stage of the debate it could be seen as a case of the usual controversy between Catholics and secularists. Then emotive reactions prevailed and a flood of papers expressed strong opposition to 'infanticide'. The authors were even deemed insane; the fact that both are Italian certainly increased interest in the subject as well as surprise at their proposal, which some reckoned to be an insult to their 'national identity'. Even freedom of academic research and discussion was put in question, and defenders of free debate were accused of being supporters of the theory of infanticide.

  13. "Clothed in triple blues": sorting out the Italian blues.

    PubMed

    Bimler, David; Uusküla, Mari

    2014-04-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the "similarity sorting" procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data can be regarded as low-resolution similarity judgments. Here we analyze sorting data from speakers of Italian, Russian, and English, applying multidimensional scaling to delineate the boundaries between perceptual categories while highlighting differences between the three populations. Stimuli were 55 color swatches, predominantly from the blue region. Results suggest that at least two Italian words for "blue" are basic, a similar situation to Russian, in contrast to English where a single "blue" term is basic.

  14. Italian IGCC project sets pace for new refining era

    SciTech Connect

    Del Bravo, R.; Starace, F.; Chellini, I.M.; Chiantore, P.V.

    1996-12-09

    A joint venture company, api Energia S.p.A., is starting construction of a 280 mw integrated gasification combined cycle plant (IGCC) that will generate electricity for the Italian grid and steam in a refinery on Italy` Adriatic coast. The refinery will supply the heavy residue for the gasifiers. This is one of the three IGCC plants planned for construction in Italy following the liberalization of the electricity production sector there and the introduction of specific government decrees that regulate the exchange and wheeling of electricity. By the year 2000, approximately 1,300 mw of electricity produced by heavy residues with IGCC will be put on the Italian grid. The paper describes the project, its sponsors plant configuration for gasification, the combined cycle power plant, auxiliary systems, the economics, and contracts.

  15. Physico-chemical conditions of crystallization of the Guli ulrabasic massif (North Part of the Siberian Platform): evidence from melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonov, Vladimir; Vasiliev, Yuri; Kotlyarov, Alexey; Stupakov, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    Conditions of formation of the Guli ultrabasic massif (Maimecha Kotui Province in the North Part of the Siberian Platform) attract attention of numerous researchers. For the solution of genetic problems of various rocks from this ultramafic complex the data on melt inclusions in minerals has been earlier used (Sokolov et al., 1999; Rass, Plechov, 2000; Sokolov, 2003; Panina, 2006). At the same time, formation of dunites, occupying the main volume of the Guli massif, remain almost not considered by means of thermobarogeochemical methods and the role of magmatic processes in this case is not ascertained. As a result of melt inclusions study in the Cr-spinel the new data on physical and chemical parameters of dunite crystallization in the Guli ulrabasic massif was obtained. On the ratio (Na2O + K2O) - SiO2 the majority of analyses of glasses and calculated compositions of inclusions settle down in the field of subalkaline series. On the diagram MgO - SiO2 bulk chemical compositions of inclusions (with the magnesium content of 19-28 wt. %) correspond to picrites and picrite-basalts. They are in close association with the data on inclusions in the Cr-spinel from dunites of Konder (Siberian Platform) and Nizhnii Tagil (Ural Mountains) platinum-bearing ultrabasic massifs and also are situated near to the field of inclusions in the olivine phenocrysts from meimechites (Maimecha Kotui Province in the North Part of the Siberian Platform). Similarity of melt inclusions in the Cr-spinel from the dunite of the Guli massif and in the olivine from meimechites is established on the variety of petrochemical components - Al2O3, CaO, Na2O, K2O. The calculated compositions of inclusions from dunites coincide mostly with the data on inclusions from meimechites, while glasses of inclusions from Cr-spinel contain less titan and magnesium. As a whole for the melts of the Maimecha Kotui Province (that form both dunites of the Guli massif and meimechites) much higher contents of TiO2 (from

  16. SN-1 and NEMO: the Italian cabled observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, P.; Beranzoli, L.; Calore, D.; D'Anna, G.; Gasparoni, F.; NEMO Collaboration Team

    2003-04-01

    A fruitful synergy between Geophysics, Environmental Sciences, Nuclear Physics and Marine Technology has started through ongoing projects within different Italian research frameworks. The Neutrino Mediterranean Observatory (NEMO) project, funded by INFN, aims at the realization of a deep-sea experiment for the detection of cosmic neutrinos using an array of towers equipped by photosensors. To test the technological solutions proposed for the realization of the project, the Laboratiori Nazionali del Sud have set up an underwater Test Site off-shore Catania. A 25 km long submarine electro-optical cable was deployed in September 2001, in order to supply power from land and receive data from the underwater site located at a depth of 2000 m. A shore station has also been realize inside the Catania port area. In October 2001, Submarine Network-1 (SN-1), the first Italian deep-sea multidisciplinary observatory for geophysical and environmental monitoring was deployed at a depth of 2105 m, in the area of the Ibleo-maltese escarpment, in proximity of the marine tail of the NEMO cable. SN-1, funded by the Italian Gruppo Nazionale di Difesa dai Terremoti and coordinated by INGV, is presently operating in local mode storing measurements on hard disks and is powered by lithium batteries with an autonomy of approximately 200 days. In the view of mutual assistance, the coordinator institutions of NEMO and SN-1 have agreed that part of the optic fibres and power lines of the NEMO-1 underwater cable be made available to power SN-1 from land and to transfer in real time the signals acquired by the geophysical and environmental sensor packages of SN-1. On this latter's side, time series of environmental parameters useful for the analysis and interpretation of NEMO-1 detections will be available. A description of the two projects and of the 'state of the art' will be given and the benefits of the development of a submarine Italian prone site will be pointed out.

  17. Typical homicide ritual of the Italian Mafia (incaprettamento)

    PubMed

    Fineschi, V; Dell'Erba, A S; Di Paolo, M; Procaccianti, P

    1998-03-01

    Certain methods of homicide used by the Italian Mafia are intended to have an admonitory significance. One such method is the so-called "incaprettamento." This study analyzes 18 cases of homicidal ligature strangulation in which the body was found in this typical position. The circumstances of the crime and the macroscopic and microscopic evidence were evaluated to determine whether or not the ligatures on the wrists and ankles were placed antemortem or postmortem.

  18. Grabber arm mechanism for the Italian Research Interim Stage (IRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turci, Edmondo

    1987-01-01

    Two deployable arms, named grabbers, were designed and manufactured to provide lateral stability of the perigee spinning stage which will be deployed from the Space Shuttle cargo bay. The spinning stage is supported by a spin table on a cradle at its base. The Italian Research Interim Stage (IRIS) is designed to carry satellites of intermediate mass up to 900 kg. The requirements are defined and the mechanism is described. Functional test results are presented.

  19. Determination of 15 organophosphorus pesticides in Italian raw milk.

    PubMed

    Gazzotti, Teresa; Sticca, Patrizia; Zironi, Elisa; Lugoboni, Barbara; Serraino, Andrea; Pagliuca, Giampiero

    2009-02-01

    A study was conducted on raw cow's milk to measure the residues of 15 organophosphorus pesticides used as dairy cattle ectoparasiticides or as insecticides in crops used for animal feed. For this purpose a previously devised method was improved and validated. The samples were collected directly from tank trucks during delivery of 3,974 tonnes of raw milk at nine Italian dairy plants. Approximately 4.4% of the 298 samples analyzed contained residues only in traces. The main pollutant was chlorpyriphos.

  20. The Italian stroke-app: ICTUS3R.

    PubMed

    Baldereschi, Marzia; Di Carlo, Antonio; Piccardi, Benedetta; Inzitari, Domenico

    2016-06-01

    Any strategy to reduce stroke burden involves crucial inputs from individuals (risk reduction, rapid recognition and response to symptoms onset) which imply a certain level of stroke knowledge. Health-related applications (apps) have been identified as a novel platform for dissemination of health information to the public. Only few apps about stroke are currently available with scientifically valid information, none of them are available in Italian. We developed the first and only Italian stroke app, ICTUS3R. We also pilot tested ICTUS3R in terms of its usage during the first 12 months following release (October 30, 2014). ICTUS3R was developed in collaboration with communication experts, stroke leaders and web producers. ICTUS3R was pilot tested in terms of number and distribution of downloads. Data about 1 year usage were anonymously collected from ICTUS 3R release on October 30, 2014. ICTUS3R includes a stroke screening tool, information how to react in case of suspected stroke, and information about risk factors including personal stroke risk calculator. ICTUS 3R web site was visited 36,242 times. Mean session duration was over 2 min. The 48 % of downloads were by individuals aged 25-44 years, 12 % by individuals ≥55 years. ICTUS3R downloads were distributed across all the Italian provinces, in varying proportions. The 4.3 % of downloads were done outside Italy. ICTUS3R can be an important contribution to stroke management and prevention, it proved to be well received for dissemination of stroke information among Italians. Its use could contribute to reduce stroke burden in Italy.

  1. New records of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) for the Italian fauna

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Matthias; Diller, Erich; Schwarz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract New distributional records on 55 ichneumonids (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) from Italy are provided. Of these, 47 species are new for Italy, including representatives of the subfamily Diacritinae and of the tribes Zimmeriini (Ichneumoninae) and Pseudorhyssini (Poemeniinae); six species are new for Sardinia, one for Sicily and one for the Italian mainland. The hitherto unknown female of Baranisobas hibericus Heinrich, 1972 (Ichneumoninae) is described. PMID:26175609

  2. [The Italian armed forces health service during the Great War].

    PubMed

    De Caro, Walter; Marucci, Anna Rita; Sansoni, Julita

    2014-06-01

    The Great War had a huge impact on Italian society. The organisation of the armed forces health service faced extreme difficulties due to the extensive loss of life of an almost exclusively terrestrial war. In this context, the role of the medical staff and nursing staff was essential, as the example of the volunteer Red Cross nurses testifies. However, this conflict revealed the need to improve the training of the nursing staff, as was the case in Anglo-Saxon countries.

  3. Legionella contamination in hot water of Italian hotels.

    PubMed

    Borella, Paola; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Stampi, Serena; Stancanelli, Giovanna; Romano-Spica, Vincenzo; Triassi, Maria; Marchesi, Isabella; Bargellini, Annalisa; Tatò, Daniela; Napoli, Christian; Zanetti, Franca; Leoni, Erica; Moro, Matteo; Scaltriti, Stefania; Ribera D'Alcalà, Gabriella; Santarpia, Rosalba; Boccia, Stefania

    2005-10-01

    A cross-sectional multicenter survey of Italian hotels was conducted to investigate Legionella spp. contamination of hot water. Chemical parameters (hardness, free chlorine concentration, and trace element concentrations), water systems, and building characteristics were evaluated to study risk factors for colonization. The hot water systems of Italian hotels were strongly colonized by Legionella; 75% of the buildings examined and 60% of the water samples were contaminated, mainly at levels of > or =10(3) CFU liter(-1), and Legionella pneumophila was the most frequently isolated species (87%). L. pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from 45.8% of the contaminated sites and from 32.5% of the hotels examined. When a multivariate logistic model was used, only hotel age was associated with contamination, but the risk factors differed depending on the contaminating species and serogroup. Soft water with higher chlorine levels and higher temperatures were associated with L. pneumophila serogroup 1 colonization, whereas the opposite was observed for serogroups 2 to 14. In conclusion, Italian hotels, particularly those located in old buildings, represent a major source of risk for Legionnaires' disease due to the high frequency of Legionella contamination, high germ concentration, and major L. pneumophila serogroup 1 colonization. The possible role of chlorine in favoring the survival of Legionella species is discussed.

  4. Attitudes towards honey among Italian consumers: A choice experiment approach.

    PubMed

    Cosmina, Marta; Gallenti, Gianluigi; Marangon, Francesco; Troiano, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Honey is becoming increasingly popular with consumers for its nutritional benefits as well as many other functions. The objective of this article is to determine which factors influence consumers' purchase intentions and to assess the importance of certain honey characteristics to enable identification of the constituents of an ideal honey profile. This information will lead to satisfaction of consumers' preferences and formulation of marketing strategies that support honey makers. We applied a choice experiment to the Italian honey market to define the preferences and the willingness to pay for key characteristics of the product. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted in 2014 (January-July) among Italian consumers; it was completed by 427 respondents. A latent class model was estimated and four classes were identified, with different preferences, illustrating that respondents seem to be heterogeneous honey consumers. Results suggest the "organic" attribute was more important than others factors, such as the place where the honey was produced (landscape), but less important than the country of origin; local Italian honey was preferred to foreign honey. Respondents showed a higher willingness to pay (WTP) for honey from their country of origin versus the production method used. Our results suggest that while organic beekeeping might be an important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication is not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by consumers.

  5. Site Characterization of Italian Strong Motion Recording Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Scasserra, Giuseppe; Lanzo, Giuseppe; Stewart, Jonathan P.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2008-07-08

    A dataset of site conditions at 101 Italian ground motion stations with recorded motions has been compiled that includes geologic characteristics and seismic velocities. Geologic characterization is derived principally from local geologic investigations by ENEL that include detailed mapping and cross sections. For sites lacking such detailed geologic characterization, the geology maps of the by Servizio Geologico d'Italia are used. Seismic velocities are extracted from the literature and the files of consulting engineers, geologists and public agencies for 33 sites. Data sources utilized include post earthquake site investigations (Friuli and Irpinia events), microzonation studies, and miscellaneous investigations performed by researchers or consulting engineers/geologists. Additional seismic velocities are measured by the authors using the controlled source spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) method for 18 sites that recorded the 1997-1998 Umbria Marche earthquake sequence. The compiled velocity measurements provide data for 51 of the 101 sites. For the remaining sites, the average seismic velocity in the upper 30 m (V{sub s30}) is estimated using a hybrid approach. For young Quaternary alluvium, V{sub s30} an existing empirical relationship for California sites by Wills and Clahan (2006) is used, which we justify by validating this relationship against Italian data. For Tertiary Limestone and Italian Mesozoic rocks, empirical estimates of V{sub s30} are developed using the available data. This work is also presented in Scasserra et al. (2008: JEE, in review)

  6. Italian normative data for the Battery for Visuospatial Abilities (TERADIC).

    PubMed

    Trojano, Luigi; Siciliano, Mattia; Pedone, Roberto; Cristinzio, Chiara; Grossi, Dario

    2015-08-01

    Battery for Visuospatial Abilities (BVA, known in Italy as TeRaDiC) has been developed to analyse putative basic skills involved in drawing and to plan and monitor outcomes after rehabilitation of visuoconstructional disorders. It encompasses eight tasks assessing both simple "perceptual" abilities, such as line length and line orientation judgments and complex "representational" abilities, such as mental rotation. The aim of present study was to provide normative values for BVA collected in a wide sample of healthy Italian subjects. Three hundred seventeen healthy Italian subjects (173 women and 144 men) of different age classes (age range, 40-95 years) and education level (from primary to university), with a normal score on Mini Mental State Examination, completed BVA/TeRaDiC. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly influenced performance on most tests of the BVA/TeRaDiC; only line length judgment was not affected by educational level. Gender significantly affected line orientation judgment and mental rotation, with an advantage for males in both tests. From the derived linear equations, a correction grid for adjusting BVA/TeRaDiC raw scores was built. Using a non-parametric technique, inferential cut-off scores were determined and equivalent scores computed. The present study provided Italian normative data for the BVA/TeRaDiC useful for both clinical and research purposes.

  7. Exon deletions of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in Italian hyperphenylalaninemics

    PubMed Central

    Calì, Francesco; Ruggeri, Giuseppa; Vinci, Mirella; Meli, Concetta; Carducci, Carla; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Pozzessere, Simone; Schinocca, Pietro; Ragalmuto, Alda; Chiavetta, Valeria; Miccichè, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    A consistent finding of many studies describing the spectrum of mutant phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) alleles underlying hyperphenylalaninemia is the impossibility of achieving a 100% mutation ascertainment rate using conventional gene-scanning methods. These methods include denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC), and direct sequencing. In recent years, it has been shown that a significant proportion of undetermined alleles consist of large deletions overlapping one or more exons. These deletions have been difficult to detect in compound heterozygotes using gene-scanning methods due to a masking effect of the non-deleted allele. To date, no systematic search has been carried out for such exon deletions in Italian patients with phenylketonuria or mild hyperphenylalaninemia. We used multiplex ligation- dependent probe amplification (MLPA), comparative multiplex dosage analysis (CMDA), and real-time PCR to search for both large deletions and duplications of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in Italian hyperphenylalaninemia patients. Four deletions removing different phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene exons were identified in 12 patients. Two of these deletions involving exons 4-5-6-7-8 (systematic name c.353-?_912 + ?del) and exon 6 (systematic name c.510-?_706 + ?del) have not been reported previously. In this study, we show that exon deletion of the PAH gene accounts for 1.7% of all mutant PAH alleles in Italian hyperphenylalaninemics. PMID:19946181

  8. Conscientious Objection to Animal Experimentation in Italian Universities.

    PubMed

    Baldelli, Ilaria; Massaro, Alma; Penco, Susanna; Bassi, Anna Maria; Patuzzo, Sara; Ciliberti, Rosagemma

    2017-03-13

    In Italy, Law 413/1993 states that public and private Italian Institutions, including academic faculties, are obliged to fully inform workers and students about their right to conscientious objection to scientific or educational activities involving animals, hereafter written as "animal CO". However, little monitoring on the faculties' compliance with this law has been performed either by the government or other institutional bodies. Based on this premise, the authors have critically reviewed the existing data and compared them with those emerging from their own investigation to discuss limitations and inconsistencies. The results of this investigation revealed that less than half of Italian academic faculties comply with their duty to inform on animal CO. Non-compliance may substantially affect the right of students to make ethical choices in the field of animal ethics and undermines the fundamental right to express their own freedom of thought. The Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research, ethics committees and animal welfare bodies should cooperate to make faculties respect this law. Further research is needed to better understand the reasons for the current trend, as well as to promote the enforcement of Law 413/1993 with particular regard to information on animal CO.

  9. Residues of antibacterial drugs in honey from the Italian market.

    PubMed

    Baggio, A; Gallina, A; Benetti, C; Mutinelli, F

    2009-01-01

    Antibacterial drugs are used worldwide for the control of American and, less often, European foulbrood. Their administration is mostly uncontrolled and applied without approved protocols and instructions for use as well as precautionary recommendations. Consequently, this practice is responsible for the contamination of beehive products and contributes to the problem of food safety. According to this situation, 4672 analyses were carried out on 5303 honeys collected from 2001 to 2007. These samples were investigated for antibacterial residues of tetracyclines, sulphonamides, streptomycin, chloramphenicol and tylosin. Honeys were classified according to their origin: imported honey and honey from the Italian market. In the last group (only for samples collected from 2001 to 2004), another type of honey was distinguished: that of local honey. A total of 6.3% of all samples were positive for the antibacterial drugs analysed; in particular, 6.8% of imported honeys and 6.1% of honeys on the Italian market. Only 1.7% of local honey had antibacterial residues. These results are indicative of a rather frequent presence of antibacterial drug residues in both Italian and imported honeys. Furthermore, the data showed that among the active substances analysed, sulphonamides are the most used antibacterial substance followed by tetracyclines, streptomycin, tylosin, and chloramphenicol. Finally, a continuous monitoring programme is needed, accompanied by an education programme to beekeepers on proper hive management.

  10. Italian nurses' experience of stalking: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Maran, Daniela Acquadro; Varetto, Antonella; Zedda, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    A literature analysis shows that nurses are at greater risk of being stalked both by ex-partners and acquaintances (such as colleagues and patients) and by unknown stalkers. The aim of this study was to explore Italian nurses' experience of stalking. A copy of the Italian modified version of the Networking for Surviving Stalking (NSS) Questionnaire on Stalking, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and State Trait Inventory (STAI) Y1-Y2 scales were distributed to 2,000 nurses working in 4 Italian state hospitals. There were 765 nurses who returned the questionnaire (38.4%), 107 of whom had been victims (14.0%). On average, victims had been stalked for more than 12 months by an acquaintance (41.1%), whose behavior included unwanted communications, following, control, and threatening behavior. The coping strategies used most involved offensive and interactional tactics. Stalking has both emotional and physical consequences for victims, although depression levels were not as high as we expected (BDI M = 11.05, SD = 8.84; STAI Y1 M = 42.11, SD = 11.75; STAIY2 M = 44.04, SD = 12.90). The need to adopt legal, organizational, and individual strategies is also discussed.

  11. Soloist evaluations of six Old Italian and six new violins

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Claudia; Curtin, Joseph; Poitevineau, Jacques; Borsarello, Hugues; Wollman, Indiana; Tao, Fan-Chia; Ghasarossian, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Many researchers have sought explanations for the purported tonal superiority of Old Italian violins by investigating varnish and wood properties, plate tuning systems, and the spectral balance of the radiated sound. Nevertheless, the fundamental premise of tonal superiority has been investigated scientifically only once very recently, and results showed a general preference for new violins and that players were unable to reliably distinguish new violins from old. The study was, however, relatively small in terms of the number of violins tested (six), the time allotted to each player (an hour), and the size of the test space (a hotel room). In this study, 10 renowned soloists each blind-tested six Old Italian violins (including five by Stradivari) and six new during two 75-min sessions—the first in a rehearsal room, the second in a 300-seat concert hall. When asked to choose a violin to replace their own for a hypothetical concert tour, 6 of the 10 soloists chose a new instrument. A single new violin was easily the most-preferred of the 12. On average, soloists rated their favorite new violins more highly than their favorite old for playability, articulation, and projection, and at least equal to old in terms of timbre. Soloists failed to distinguish new from old at better than chance levels. These results confirm and extend those of the earlier study and present a striking challenge to near-canonical beliefs about Old Italian violins. PMID:24711376

  12. Soloist evaluations of six Old Italian and six new violins.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Claudia; Curtin, Joseph; Poitevineau, Jacques; Borsarello, Hugues; Wollman, Indiana; Tao, Fan-Chia; Ghasarossian, Thierry

    2014-05-20

    Many researchers have sought explanations for the purported tonal superiority of Old Italian violins by investigating varnish and wood properties, plate tuning systems, and the spectral balance of the radiated sound. Nevertheless, the fundamental premise of tonal superiority has been investigated scientifically only once very recently, and results showed a general preference for new violins and that players were unable to reliably distinguish new violins from old. The study was, however, relatively small in terms of the number of violins tested (six), the time allotted to each player (an hour), and the size of the test space (a hotel room). In this study, 10 renowned soloists each blind-tested six Old Italian violins (including five by Stradivari) and six new during two 75-min sessions--the first in a rehearsal room, the second in a 300-seat concert hall. When asked to choose a violin to replace their own for a hypothetical concert tour, 6 of the 10 soloists chose a new instrument. A single new violin was easily the most-preferred of the 12. On average, soloists rated their favorite new violins more highly than their favorite old for playability, articulation, and projection, and at least equal to old in terms of timbre. Soloists failed to distinguish new from old at better than chance levels. These results confirm and extend those of the earlier study and present a striking challenge to near-canonical beliefs about Old Italian violins.

  13. Genomic characterization of Italian Clostridium botulinum group I strains.

    PubMed

    Giordani, Francesco; Fillo, Silvia; Anselmo, Anna; Palozzi, Anna Maria; Fortunato, Antonella; Gentile, Bernardina; Azarnia Tehran, Domenico; Ciammaruconi, Andrea; Spagnolo, Ferdinando; Pittiglio, Valentina; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Auricchio, Bruna; De Medici, Dario; Lista, Florigio

    2015-12-01

    Clostridium botulinum is a gram-positive bacterium capable of producing the botulinum neurotoxin, a powerful poison that causes botulism, a severe neuroparalytic disease. Its genome has been sequenced entirely and its gene content has been analyzed. To date, 19 full genomes and 64 draft genomes are available. The geographical origin of these genomes is predominantly from the US. In the present study, 10 Italian genomes of C. botulinum group I were analyzed and compared with previously sequenced group I genomes, in order to genetically characterize the Italian population of C. botulinum group I and to investigate the phylogenetic relationships among different lineages. Using the suites of software ClonalFrame and ClonalOrigin to perform genomic analysis, we demonstrated that Italian C. botulinum group I population is phylogenetically heterogeneous encompassing different and distant lineages including overseas strains, too. Moreover, a high recombination rate was demonstrated in the evolution of C. botulinum group I species. Finally, genome sequencing of the strain 357 led us to identify a novel botulinum neurotoxin subtype, F8.

  14. CNAO--The Italian Centre for Light-Ion Therapy.

    PubMed

    Amaldi, Ugo

    2004-12-01

    In 1991 the author involved the Italian institute of nuclear physics (INFN) in R&D work in the field of hadrontherapy. In 1992 the TERA Foundation was created with the purpose of forming and employing people fully devoted to the design, promotion and construction of hadrontherapy centres in Italy and in Europe. The present contribution describes the main project of TERA, the CNAO (Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica), and the status of its construction in Pavia. The Italian Centre is based on the optimised medical synchrotron designed in the framework of the "Proton Ion Medical Machine Study" (PIMMS) carried out at CERN from 1996 to 2000 with CERN, the Med-AUSTRO project, Oncology 2000 (Prague) and TERA as partners. In the following years TERA introduced modifications and improvements in the original PIMMS design producing what is now dubbed the PIMMS/TERA design. Since 2001 the construction of CNAO has been endorsed by the Italian government to the CNAO Foundation formed by five major hospitals, seated in Milan and Pave, and by TERA. Since 2003 INFN is an Institutional Participant. The site chosen at the beginning of 2003 (37,000 m2) is in the close vicinities of one of the five hospitals, the San Matteo University Hospital of Pave. The construction plan foresees the treatment of the first patient at the end of 2007.

  15. Bioethics and the Italian National Bioethics Committee: historical highlights.

    PubMed

    Conti, A A

    2016-01-01

    Though the term "bioethics" was coined in 1970-1, it was immediately after World War II that there emerged the idea that the voluntary consent of human beings was absolutely mandatory for medical interventions to be ethically acceptable. The 1964 Declaration of Helsinki asserted that only an explicit consent could morally and ethically justify research on human beings. In the 1978 "Encyclopedia of Bioethics", the US author Warren T. Reich defined bioethics as the systematic study of human behaviour in the fields of health care and life sciences, and carefully differentiated the epistemological profile of bioethics from that of traditional medical ethics deriving from the Hippocratic Oath. An institutional milestone in the Italian evolution of bioethical knowledge and competence was the foundation of the Italian National Bioethics Committee (NBC), established in 1990. The NBC, which answers to the Council of Ministers, provides methodological support to the Italian Government in the field of bioethical issues, elaborating legislative acts and also furnishing information and consultation for other bodies and associations and for the general public. The activity of the NBC is clearly discernible in its free and user-friendly website. Today, the Internet is often the first repository where individuals and patients look for bioethical information. Given that the quality of this information is extremely variable and not infrequently unreliable, initiatives such as that of the above mentioned NBC website are particularly useful and precious both for health care operators and the entire community.

  16. Italian Validation of the 12-Item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale

    PubMed Central

    Solaro, C.; Trabucco, E.; Signori, A.; Cella, M.; Messmer Uccelli, M.; Brichetto, G.; Cavalla, P.; Gironi, M.; Patti, F.; Prosperini, L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Gait impairment is commonly in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). The 12-item MS walking scale (MSWS-12) assesses patients' measurement of walking quality. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the MSWS-12 for the Italian population with MS. Methods. Six MS out-patient clinics across Italy enrolled subjects between June 2013 and December 2013. Construct validity of MSWS-12 was determined by examining correlations with the Italian version of the EDSS, the timed 25-foot walk (T25FW), and the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Results. 321 MS subjects were enrolled. Mean age was 47.55 years and mean disease duration was 13.8 years. Mean EDSS score was 4.46. 185 subjects had a relapsing-remitting course, 92 were secondary progressive, 43 were primary progressive, and 1 had a clinically isolated syndrome. The mean total score of the MSWS-12 was 49.6 (SD: 31) with values ranging between 0 and 100. Correlations between the MSWS-12 with age, disease duration, and disease course were found but not with gender. Values of the MSWS-12/IT were significantly related to EDSS (0.71), to the T25FW (0.65), and to the FSS (0.51). Conclusion. MSWS-12/IT has been adapted and validated, it is a reliable and reproducible scale for Italian patients with MS. PMID:25883806

  17. [A survey on diet manuals in Italian hospitals].

    PubMed

    Donini, L M; Riti, M; Castellaneta, E; Ceccarelli, P; Civale, C; Passaretti, S; del Balzo, V; Cannella, C

    2009-01-01

    Hospital catering is very important to counteract the onset of malnutrition due to either undernutrition or overnutrition and for dietetic treatment. The aim of the study was to evaluate nutritional quality of the hospital dietetic manual used in some Italian hospitals and to analyze the role of the institutional Catering Service and of the Department of Clinical Nutrition. A survey has been carried out, in some Italian hospitals, using a questionnaire to point out the characteristics of hospitals, the typology of catering service, of the diets and of the staff of the Department of Clinical Nutrition. Only 22% of the hospitals has answered; three Italian regions (Umbria, Molise, Basilicata) are completely missing; -each hospital has a specific dietetic manual in most cases completely different from structure and nutritional quality point of view; the staff acting in this field is absolutely insufficient in term of numerousness and of professional typologies. Hospital in-patients are not homogeneous as for age, dietary needs and diseases, so it's necessary to treat them with an ad hoc nutritional intervention not established in advance in a dietetic manual; if from an organisation point of view it is necessary to have such a dietetic manual, it has to be based on nutritional guidelines and recommended dietary allowances.

  18. Microsatellite markers reveal multiple origins for Italian weedy rice

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Annabelle; Fogliatto, Silvia; Nick, Peter; Ferrero, Aldo; Vidotto, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Weedy rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the major issues of rice cultivation worldwide. In Italy, it infests about 70% of the total rice area. Different Weedy Rice populations can be distinguished based on variable morphological and physiological traits; however, little is known about genetic differentiation and origin of Italian weedy rice populations. The objective of this study was to genetically and morphologically characterize and compare different Italian weedy rice populations selected on the basis of different phenotypes. The main Italian rice territory was divided into 10 geographical areas in which 40 weedy rice populations were collected and grouped according to the awn traits. All the individuals of the populations were morphologically characterized according to plant and seed traits. Genetic characterization was performed using 19 SSR markers on all the collected accessions, and several rice cultivars, including some very old (late 19th century), nowadays are no longer cultivated. ANOVA showed that morphological plant and seed traits were significantly affected by the collection area and awnedness group. The importance of the awn morphology was also reflected in the Bayesian clustering where, despite a relatively low genetic diversity, the clusters displayed different awn types. An UPGMA dendrogram confirmed the clusters detected in STRUCTURE analysis and also revealed a grouping of certain old cultivars with the weedy rice, suggesting a common origin. PMID:24363904

  19. Snow line altitude evolution in the Franco-Italian Alps over the 1984-2010 period reconstructed using optical remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabatel, A.; Dedieu, J.; Letréguilly, A.; Thibert, E.; Six, D.; Vincent, C.

    2011-12-01

    For mid-latitude mountain glaciers, the snow line altitude (SLA) at the end of the hydrological year is a good indicator of the equilibrium line altitude and thus of the annual mass balance. This enables SLA evolution to be reconstructed for long time periods from remote sensing data, as the snow line is generally easy to identify using aerial photographs and satellite images. Consequently, this enables researchers to study the climate-glacier relationship at the massif scale, particularly in remote areas where no direct measurements are available. In this study, we present series of reconstructed SLA for approximately 50 glaciers in the Franco-Italian Alps over the period 1984-2010. More than 130 images have been used, registred by the following satellites: Landsat 4TM, 5TM, 7 ETM+, SPOT 1 to 5 and ASTER, with spatial resolutions ranging between 2.5 and 30 m. To facilitate the identification of the snow line on the Landsat and SPOT-ASTER images, we used a combination of the spectral bands 542 and 431, respectively, with radiometric thresholds for bands 2, 4 and 1, 3. On each image, the snow line has been manually delineated. Its average altitude has been calculated for only the central part of the glaciers to avoid border effects on the glacier banks, which could generate snow line position dependence on local conditions (shadows from surrounding slopes, additional snow input by avalanches or due to wind drift). A comparison between SLA time-series and in-situ measurements of glacier mass balance was set for three French glaciers where direct mass balance measurements are available over the whole time-period (Argentière, Saint Sorlin and Gébroulaz glaciers). Results show high correlation (0.74 < r2 < 0.98, p < 0.01, n = 27), underlying the quality of the SLA dataset and strenghtening the interest of the SLA as a key indicator of the climate-glacier relationship. Considering the complete time period, the average SLA of the studied glaciers has increased by about

  20. The role of the Mesozoic orogen-parallel displacement in the kinematic history of the Strandja Massif (Thrace region, NW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toraman, E.; Natalin, B.; Sunal, G.

    2003-04-01

    The NW-SE trending Stranja Massif occupies the NE part of the Thrace region (Turkey) and continues across the state border in Bulgaria. Available tectonic models on the evolution of this massif imply a large-scale Mesozoic thrusting that have affected both the Paleozoic basement of the massif and its Triassic to Lower Jurassic sedimentary cover. In order to clarify kinematic history of the Mesozoic deformation we performed structural studies of a region stretching across the basement/cover contact. The basement consists of amphibolitic facies ortho- and paragneises intruded by Early Permian granites (271 Ma) which were deformed in the Mesozoic. Quartz-rich metaconglomerate, sandstones and minor shale passing upward into limestone constitute the sedimentary cover. The cover rocks reveal pervasive deformation in greenschist facies. Near the contact, the deformational style of basement rocks and the cover is similar. At least three distinct deformation phases have been identified in the Mesozoic rocks. The first deformation phase (D1) is penetrative for all of the units. It resulted in formation of foliations (S1), mineral and stretching lineations (L1). The S1 foliations strike to the NE and dip approximately 30° to the SE. The L1 lineations plunge to the SE and dip approximately 15° to the SE. Kinematic criteria related to the L1 lineation indicate top-to-NW sense of shear. The second deformation phase (D2) created open folds (F2), zonal cleavage (S2) and brittle faults. The half wavelength of the F2 folds vary from meters to kilometers and the S2 cleavage appears only in the cores of some F2 folds. Hinges of the F2 folds are parallel to the L1 lineations. All of the D2 structures were formed due to the NE-SW directed compression. The youngest, (D3) deformation produced NE-striking strike-slip faults and E-W-striking thrusts. Orientation of these faults fit the stress field of the previous episode. Thrusts indicate the northward movement. In previous models

  1. Spelling Acquisition in English and Italian: A Cross-Linguistic Study.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, Chiara V; Romani, Cristina; Burani, Cristina; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    We examined the spelling acquisition in children up to late primary school of a consistent orthography (Italian) and an inconsistent orthography (English). The effects of frequency, lexicality, length, and regularity in modulating spelling performance of the two groups were examined. English and Italian children were matched for both chronological age and number of years of schooling. Two-hundred and seven Italian children and 79 English children took part in the study. We found greater accuracy in spelling in Italian than English children: Italian children were very accurate after only 2 years of schooling, while in English children the spelling performance was still poor after 5 years of schooling. Cross-linguistic differences in spelling accuracy proved to be more persistent than the corresponding ones in reading accuracy. Orthographic consistency produced not only quantitative, but also qualitative differences, with larger frequency and regularity effects in English than in Italian children.

  2. Conscientious Objection to Animal Experimentation in Italian Universities

    PubMed Central

    Baldelli, Ilaria; Massaro, Alma; Penco, Susanna; Bassi, Anna Maria; Patuzzo, Sara; Ciliberti, Rosagemma

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary This paper examines the trend of Italian academic faculties in complying with the obligation to inform university students of their right to exercise their conscientious objection to scientific or educational activities involving animals, hereafter written as “animal CO”, as established by Law 413/1993, “Norme sull’obiezione di coscienza alla sperimentazione animale” (“Rules on conscientious objection to animal experimentation”), thereafter “Law 413/1993”. Despite an increasing interest in the principles of animal ethics by the international community, this law is still largely disregarded more than 20 years after its enactment. The Ethics Committees, Animal Welfare Committees, as well as the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research should preside over and monitor the Universities’ compliance with the duty to disclose animal CO. Abstract In Italy, Law 413/1993 states that public and private Italian Institutions, including academic faculties, are obliged to fully inform workers and students about their right to conscientious objection to scientific or educational activities involving animals, hereafter written as “animal CO”. However, little monitoring on the faculties’ compliance with this law has been performed either by the government or other institutional bodies. Based on this premise, the authors have critically reviewed the existing data and compared them with those emerging from their own investigation to discuss limitations and inconsistencies. The results of this investigation revealed that less than half of Italian academic faculties comply with their duty to inform on animal CO. Non-compliance may substantially affect the right of students to make ethical choices in the field of animal ethics and undermines the fundamental right to express their own freedom of thought. The Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research, ethics committees and animal welfare bodies should cooperate to make

  3. Martian alkaline basites chemically resemble basic rocks of the Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G.

    " (syenite, granite) for Mars [5]. Actually the martian missions successively discovered andesite, dacite, low-Fe highlands. Now "Spirit" has found on a small outlier of highlands -Columbia Hills -a batch of thinly layered gently dipping light rocks that surely are not impact melts as at very short distance there is a sharp transition from light Fe-poor to ultrabasic rocks (on opposite slopes of this small hill) [6]. This layered sequence of more or less altered and weathered rocks resembles differentiated sequences of Lovozero and other alkaline and UB-alkaline massifs of Kola Peninsula (though fresh and much richer in alkalis). Here we compare compositions of alkaline basic rocks of Columbia Hills (dyke or sill [4]) with that of basic volcanics and a later dyke at Lovozero. 5 analyses in wt.%: 1-Backstay (tra1 chybasalt) & 2-Irvine (basalt) of CH, 3-augiteporphyrite, 4-essexite-porphyrite, 5- alkali- lamprophyre dyke of Lovozero. SiO2 -49.9, 47.7, 45.78, 48.09, 41.57; TiO2 - 0.93, 1.07, 7.80, 2.35, 2.92; Al2 O3 -13.2; 10.8, 8.08; 13.74; 11.77; Fe2 O3 -3.40, 7.79 (4.99), 5.90, 6.00, 4.53; FeO -10.6, 12.5 (15.0), 8.65, 7.60, 8.28; MnO -0.25, 0.37, 0.12, 0.17, 0.28; MgO -8.36, 10.8, 7.61, 7.19, 10.59; CaO -6.09, 6.12, 10.73, 8.77, 11.24; Na2 O -4.02, 2.72, 2.80, 2.84, 3.63; K2 O -1.02, 0.69, 1.97, 2.09, 1.38. Compositional similarities between basites occurring in alkaline conditions on both planets can be found. References: [1] Kochemasov G.G. (1999) Theorems of wave planetary tectonics // Geophys. Res. Abstr., v. 1, # 3, 700; [2] Gellert R. et al. (2006) JGR Planets, v. 111, #E2, EO2505; [3] Squyres S.W. et al. (2006) JGR Planets, v.111, #E2, EO2511; [4] McSween H.Y. et al. (2006) JGR Planets, submitted ; [5] Kochemasov G. G. (1995) Golombek M.P., Edgett K.S., Rice J.W. Jr. (Eds). Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop II: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field trips to the Channeled Scabland, Washington. LPI Tech. Rpt. 95-01. Pt.1.LPI, Houston, 1995, 63 pp.; [6

  4. Post-Hercynian subvolcanic magmatism in the Serre Massif (Central-Southern Calabria, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, V.; Cirrincione, R.; Fiannacca, P.; Mazzoleni, P.; Tranchina, A.

    2009-04-01

    In the Serre Massif (Central-Southern Calabria, Italy) dykes and subvolcanic bodies intrude diffusively both Hercynian metamorphic rocks and late-Hercynian granitoids. They range in composition from basaltic andesites to dacite-rhyodacites and can be ascribed to the extensive magmatic activity that affects the entire Hercynian orogenic belt in late Paleozoic - early Mesozoic time. The geodinamic framework of the magmatic activity is still matter of debate, nevertheless most authors agree in correlating magmatism both to the late-orogenic collapse of the Hercynian belt and to the lithosphere thinning responsible for the subsequent continental rifting. In this work, we propose a petrogenetic model for acidic to basic hypabissal bodies from southern Calabria in order to define the nature of sources, discriminate magmatic processes and supply a contribution in the geodynamic reconstruction of the Late Palaeozoic in the Calabria-Peloritani Orogen. In relation to their geochemical affinity, studied dykes have been divided in two groups: a medium- to high-K calc-alkaline and a tholeiitic one. Dykes belonging to the former group, andesitic and dacitic-rhyodacitic in composition, show typical features of subduction-related magmatism, such as LILE and LREE enrichments, depletions in HFSE, peaks in Rb, Th and Ce, accentuated troughs in Ba, Nb-Ta, P and Ti (White and Dupré, 1986; McCulloch and Gamble, 1991), contrasting with the late Hercynian collisional context. On the other side, features typical of intra-plate magmatic activity, such as a moderate enrichment in Ta, Nb, Ce, P, Zr, Hf and Sm relative to MORB composition are also present in studied rocks (Shimizu & Arculus, 1975; Pearce, 1982). REE-patterns are strongly to weakly fractionated for the andesitic rocks (Lan/Ybn = 10.03-13.98) and the dacitic-rhyodacitic ones (Lan/Ybn = 6.00 to 2.82), respectively. The latter rocks exhibit a very slight negative Eu anomaly, whereas no Eu anomaly is recognizable in the andesite

  5. The Italian Submarine Force in the Battle of the Atlantic: Left in the Dark

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-12

    THE ITALIAN SUBMARINE FORCE IN THE BATTLE OF THE ATLANTIC: LEFT IN THE DARK A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S...TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Italian Submarine Force in the Battle of the Atlantic: Left in the Dark 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...APPROVAL PAGE Name of Candidate: LCDR Kevin M. Moeller Thesis Title: The Italian Submarine Force in the Battle of the Atlantic: Left in the Dark

  6. The Armorican Massif (Western France) - A buried relief two times exhumed in response to Iberia-Eurasia movements (Early Cretaceous, base of Cenozoic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessin, Paul; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Bauer, Hugues; Schroëtter, Jean-Michel

    2014-05-01

    The Armorican Massif is an outcropping Variscan basement located in Western France. The age of its exhumation is debated, as most of the outcropping European basements: Is this relief a remnant of the planation of the Variscan Belt or a buried and then exhumed relief at time of the North-Atlantic (Biscay Bay) opening during Early Cretaceous or/and during the Africa-Eurasia convergence? We performed a geomorphological study (based on DEM analysis and field controls) of the different landforms of the Armorican Massif. The dating of those relief forms is based on their geometrical relationships with the weatherings and dated preserved sediments. Our results allow to propose a model of evolution of the Armorican Massif and of its relief for the Mesozoic to Cenozoic period and underscore four main points: (1) The Armorican relief preserved old landforms - planation surfaces (mainly pediments and pediplains) - of Triassic (?) to Early Cretaceous age buried by Jurassic and Upper Cretaceous (chalk) carbonate platforms. (2) Those paleo-landforms were exhumed at two periods (i) Early Cretaceous in response to the opening of the Biscay Bay and (ii) Upermost Cretaceous-Paleocene at time of the Iberia-Eurasia increasing of convergence. (3) A major planation surface - called the Armorican Surface - result from the Early Cretaceous physical and chemical (laterite) erosion when the Armorican Massif was the North rift shoulder of the Biscay Bay. This planation surface is later deformed (buckling?) and eroded during Uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene. (4) During Paleogene times, a last generation of pediments is shaped and then flooded by the Mid-Miocene eustatic sea-level rise. (5) The Armorican relief and landforms is later incised by rivers, (i) during Upper Miocene to Pliocene and (ii) at the Early to Middle Pleistocene transition with the incision of the present-day valleys in both response to uplift (Apulia-Eurasia convergence) and climate (precipitation) change.

  7. Quantitatively structural control of the karst based on speleological cave survey data: Cabeza Llerosos massif (Picos de Europa, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, D.; Jiménez-Sánchez, M.; García-Sansegundo, J.; Borreguero, M.; Sendra, G.

    2012-04-01

    Speleological cave survey characterizes each cave passage by a 3D line (called shot survey) defined by its length, direction and dipping. This line represents the three-dimensional geometry of the karst system and cave passage scale and can be statistically analyzed and compared with the geometry of the massif discontinuities. The aim of this work is to establish the quantitative influence of the structural geology in caves based on the comparison between cave survey data, joint and bedding measurements with stereographic projection. 15 km of cave surveys from Cabeza Llerosos massif (Picos de Europa, Northern Spain) were chosen to illustrate the method. The length of the cavities range between 50 to 4,438 m and their depth is up to 738 m. The methodology of work includes: 1) cave survey collection from caving reports; 2) geological mapping and cross-sections with cavities projection;3) data collection of bedding and joints in caves and near outcrops;4) definition of families of joints and bedding planes by stereographic projection; 5) definition of groups of cave passages from stereographic projection (based on their directions and dipping) and 6) comparison between bedding, families of joints and cave survey data by stereographic projection. Seven families of joints have been defined in all the area of study. The joint families are: J1) sub-vertical, J2) N63/68SE, J3) N29E/46NW, J4) N52E/72NW, J5) N129E/17NE, J6) N167E/57NE and J7) N180E/26E; the bedding is N30-55/60-80NE. Five groups of cave passages have been defined. "A" group of cave passage is formed by sub-vertical series; it is represented by the 61 % of all the cave passages and is conditioned by the joint families J1, J3, J4 and J6, as well as their intersections. "B" group is formed by N10W-N10E/3-20N galleries; it corresponds with the 13 % of the series and is controlled by the intersection between families J5 and J6. "C" group is defined by N20-70E/0-50NE passages; it is represented by the 13 % of the

  8. Mass flux into the Nanga Parbat-Haramosh massif: Orogen-parallel transport, lower crustal flow, or both?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whipp, D. M.; Beaumont, C.; Braun, J.

    2011-12-01

    Relative to most of the Himalaya, the Nanga Parbat-Haramosh massif requires an additional mass flux into its base to balance extreme rates of surface denudation (>10 mm/a) over the last ~2-3 Ma. One proposed source is middle to lower crustal flow into the massif (e.g., Zeitler et al., 2001), which while likely inactive elsewhere along strike, may be sustainable by very rapid surface denudation, a high geothermal gradient, and thermal weakening of rocks beneath the syntaxes. An alternative source is orogen-parallel (OP) transport due to oblique convergence and strain partitioning along the Himalayan arc (e.g., Seeber and Pêcher, 1998). Several observations including (1) predominantly orogen-normal slip on the frontal thrusts deduced from seismic events, (2) OP extension accommodated on orogen-normal structures, and (3) distributed and segmented strike-slip faulting trending parallel to the arc are consistent with strain partitioning and OP mass transport. A key question is can this mechanism supply sufficient mass to the Nanga Parbat syntaxis, or is local channel flow required? We explore mass transport into the western Himalayan syntaxis region using lithospheric-scale 3D mechanical and coupled thermo-mechanical models of an arcuate orogen. The crust is either frictional plastic or power-law viscous, with a constant low viscosity lower crust present in some experiments. Applied velocity boundary conditions are transmitted to the base of the crust by a strong frictional plastic mantle lithosphere, and mantle detachment/subduction drives formation of a bivergent, arcuate orogen. To assess the magnitude of mass transport from strain partitioning, we first explore purely mechanical experiments featuring a 5-km-high Tibet-like plateau above a weak lower crust and with a frictional plastic decollement that dips at 10° beneath the incipient orogen, similar to the Himalayan basal detachment. Preliminary results show gravitational feedback from the plateau drives

  9. GPS Velocity Field in Bangladesh: Delta Subsidence, Seasonal Water Loading and Shortening Across the Burma Accretionary Prism and Shillong Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckler, M. S.; Mondal, D. R.; Nooner, S. L.; Akhter, S. H.; Seeber, L.; Bettadpur, S. V.; Sazedul Karim, C.; Howe, M.; Masson, F.; Maurin, T.; Rangin, C.

    2013-12-01

    We installed a suite of 25 GPS receivers between 2003 to 2012 covering the deltaic country of Bangladesh, which lies near the junction of the Indian Shield, the Himayalan collision belt and the Indo-Burman wedge. The crust of the Indian Shield thins southeastward in Bengal Basin across the hinge zone of an Early Cretaceous continental margin. The thin continental and/or oceanic crust of the Bengal Basin beyond the hinge zone is overlain by the southwest prograding Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD) creating a total sediment thickness of ≥16 km. The GBD is formed by the convergence of these great rivers which together supply >1GT/y of sediment. Their flow, the second largest on earth, is strongly seasonal and causes widespread flooding during the summer monsoon. The heavily-sedimented GBD is being overridden from the north by the Shillong Massif, a 2-km high basement-cored anticlinorium exposing Indian Shield, and from the east by the accretionary prism of the Indo-Burma wedge. The soft, oblique collision of the Burma platelet with the Bengal Basin and the GBD has built a large accretionary prism that widens northwards to 250-300 km. The prism extends westward up to half way across the GBD. The outer folds and thrust front are blind due to burial by the rapid sedimentation of the GBD. The GPS data in Bangladesh cover the frontal region of this unusual subaerial accretionary prism, while observations from India and Myanmar provide velocities for more internal parts of the system. The GPS velocities provide data on multiple processes taking place in the region. The vertical component shows both long-term and seasonal signals. The horizontal components quantify the shortening and lateral motion between the GBD and both the Indo-Burman wedge and Shillong Massif. The Indo-Burman convergence is oblique and partitioned into multiple strike-slip faults and a large number of thrust folds, presumably rooted into a basal megathrust.. The velocity gradients across the

  10. Incidence of mass movement processes after an historical episode of heavy snowfall in the Asturian Massif (Northern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Hernandez, Cristina; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Gallinar, David

    2015-04-01

    This research examines a mass movement event caused in the context of the Great Blizzard of 1888, one of the most severe recorded blizzards in the history of Europe, whose implications go far beyond. In the Asturian Massif the episode consisted in four linked and consecutive snowstorms that took place between the 14th of February 1888 and the 8th of April 1888, creating snow covers with a depth ranging between 5 and 7 m, snow avalanches and flooding, causing dozens of deaths and large material damage. The Asturian Massif belongs to the Atlantic-climate area and is composed mainly by sedimentary and metamorphic paleozoic rocks. Many sectors of the Massif are between 1.000 and 2.000 m a.s.l., and its topography is characterized by a great height difference and steep slopes. Because of the lack of deep soils suitable for farming, the main traditional activity has been livestock keeping, and goods traffic. We have devised a method that enables the reconstruction of this event on the basis of nivo-meteorogical conditions, geographical location and socio-economic impact. The mass movement episode has been studied through the issues of 6 newspapers published in Asturias between the 20th of January and 30th of May 1888, the ancient meteorological station data of the University of Oviedo, and field work. A logical database structure has been designed with the aim to store and cross the information for statistical analysis. Thirty six mass movement worthy of consideration were documented, 28 of them causing material damage (six homes destroyed and at least 22 interruptions with the traffic flow on roads, highways and railways). Ten high- and mid-elevation mountain municipalities were affected by mass movement. We must consider that only the most important events, or those that happened in crowded places, have been considered by the newspapers, so the total number of mass movements should be considered as a minimum figure. We have got to identify and classify 27 of them; 16

  11. Genesis and significance of the silico-aluminous nodules in the Ordovician of the Montagne Noire and the Massif Armoricain (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becq-Giraudon, Jean-François; Bouillé, Suzanne; Chauvel, Jean-Jacques

    1992-04-01

    Siliceous nodules of the Arenigian of the Montagne Noire (southern France) and the Massif Armoricain (western France) are made up of quartz, illite and chlorite with secondary apatite and, less frequently, dolomite. Diffractometrical and geochemical data indicate that the chlorite is a chamosite (trioctahedral 2:1 chlorite), whose development may be accompanied by that of apatite and diminution of illite. Three types of nodules are defined: Type 1, siliceous nodules, with more than 85% of SiO 2, very frequent in the Montagne Noire; Type II, nodules made of a micaceous siltstone with chlorite matrix, abundant in the Massif Armoricain but present also in the Montagne Noire; Type III, chloritic nodules with a finely globular structure, especially developed in the Massif armoricain but observed in the Montagne Noire as well. The nodules are always poorer in illite than their host sediments and often show traces of the initial sediments. Their formation occurs after the deposition and prior to the development of foliation. The frequent presence of undistorted fossil remains suggests an early formation linked to the physico-chemical modifications occurring in an unconsolidated sediment around a decaying organism. The post-depositional mineralogical evolution should have started with an illite/dolomite assemblage and end up with a chamosite-dominant one, under cold climatic conditions. The simultaneous presence of the three types of nodules in the same formation, or even in the same beds, shows that this mineralogical differentiation is not strictly related to the diagenetic and metamorphic transformation of this material.

  12. Cenozoic volcanism in the Bohemian Massif in the context of P- and S-velocity high-resolution teleseismic tomography of the upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plomerová, Jaroslava; Munzarová, Helena; Vecsey, Luděk.; Kissling, Eduard; Achauer, Ulrich; Babuška, Vladislav

    2016-08-01

    New high-resolution tomographic models of P- and S-wave isotropic-velocity perturbations for the Bohemian upper mantle are estimated from carefully preprocessed travel-time residuals of teleseismic P, PKP and S waves recorded during the BOHEMA passive seismic experiment. The new data resolve anomalies with scale lengths 30-50 km. The models address whether a small mantle plume in the western Bohemian Massif is responsible for this geodynamically active region in central Europe, as expressed in recurrent earthquake swarms. Velocity-perturbations of the P- and S-wave models show similar features, though their resolutions are different. No model resolves a narrow subvertical low-velocity anomaly, which would validate the "baby-plume" concept. The new tomographic inferences complement previous studies of the upper mantle beneath the Bohemian Massif, in a broader context of the European Cenozoic Rift System (ECRIS) and of other Variscan Massifs in Europe. The low-velocity perturbations beneath the Eger Rift, observed in about 200km-broad zone, agree with shear-velocity models from full-waveform inversion, which also did not identify a mantle plume beneath the ECRIS. Boundaries between mantle domains of three tectonic units that comprise the region, determined from studies of seismic anisotropy, represent weak zones in the otherwise rigid continental mantle lithosphere. In the past, such zones could have channeled upwelling of hot mantle material, which on its way could have modified the mantle domain boundaries and locally thinned the lithosphere.

  13. The last stages of the Avalonian-Cadomian arc in NW Iberian Massif: isotopic and igneous record for a long-lived peri-Gondwanan magmatic arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andonaegui, Pilar; Arenas, Ricardo; Albert, Richard; Sánchez Martínez, Sonia; Díez Fernández, Rubén; Gerdes, Axel

    2016-06-01

    The upper allochthonous units of NW Iberian Massif contain an extensive Cambrian magmatism (c. 500 Ma), covering felsic to mafic compositions. The magmatic activity generated large massifs of granitoids and gabbros, with calc-alkaline and tholeiitic compositions respectively. Petrological and geochemical features of these massifs are characteristic of volcanic arc. The plutons intruded siliciclastic sedimentary series deposited in the periphery of the West Africa Craton. U-Pb/Hf isotopic compositions of detrital zircon in the siliciclastic host series, indicate continental arc activity between c. 750 Ma and c. 500 Ma. It was characterized by a large variety of isotopic sources, including from very old continental input, even Archean, to the addition of a significant amount of juvenile mafic material. These isotopic sources experienced an extensive mixing that explains the composition and isotopic features (εHft from - 50 until + 15) of the represented Cambrian plutons. The Cambrian igneous rocks of the upper units of NW Iberia are related to the latest activity of the Avalonian-Cadomian arc. From the Middle Cambrian arc activity in the periphery of Gondwana was replaced by pronounced extension associated with the development of continental rifting, which finally led to separation of the microcontinent Avalonia. Subsequent drifting of Avalonia to the North caused progressive opening one of the main Paleozoic ocean, the Rheic Ocean.

  14. High frequency measurement of P- and S-wave velocities on crystalline rock massif surface - methodology of measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhelm, Jan; Slavík, Lubomír

    2014-05-01

    For the purpose of non-destructive monitoring of rock properties in the underground excavation it is possible to perform repeated high-accuracy P- and S-wave velocity measurements. This contribution deals with preliminary results gained during the preparation of micro-seismic long-term monitoring system. The field velocity measurements were made by pulse-transmission technique directly on the rock outcrop (granite) in Bedrichov gallery (northern Bohemia). The gallery at the experimental site was excavated using TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) and it is used for drinking water supply, which is conveyed in a pipe. The stable measuring system and its automatic operation lead to the use of piezoceramic transducers both as a seismic source and as a receiver. The length of measuring base at gallery wall was from 0.5 to 3 meters. Different transducer coupling possibilities were tested namely with regard of repeatability of velocity determination. The arrangement of measuring system on the surface of the rock massif causes better sensitivity of S-transducers for P-wave measurement compared with the P-transducers. Similarly P-transducers were found more suitable for S-wave velocity determination then P-transducers. The frequency dependent attenuation of fresh rock massif results in limited frequency content of registered seismic signals. It was found that at the distance between the seismic source and receiver from 0.5 m the frequency components above 40 kHz are significantly attenuated. Therefore for the excitation of seismic wave 100 kHz transducers are most suitable. The limited frequency range should be also taken into account for the shape of electric impulse used for exciting of piezoceramic transducer. The spike pulse generates broad-band seismic signal, short in the time domain. However its energy after low-pass filtration in the rock is significantly lower than the energy of seismic signal generated by square wave pulse. Acknowledgments: This work was partially

  15. Microstructures of deformed grains in the augen gneisses of southern Menderes Massif (western Turkey) and their tectonic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkurt, E.; Park, R. G.

    mylonitic augen gneisses in this part of the southern Menderes Massif are broadly consistent with fabric development under upper-greenschist- to lower-amphibolite-facies conditions, rather than almandine-amphibolite facies, as was previously believed. This supports the previous contention of the authors that the protoliths of augen gneisses are younger granitoids and do not represent an exposed Precambrian Pan-African basement in the Menderes Massif.

  16. Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic dynamics of the Bohemian Massif inferred from the paleostress history of the Lusatian Fault Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coubal, Miroslav; Málek, Jiří; Adamovič, Jiří; Štěpančíková, Petra

    2015-07-01

    An analysis of fault-slip data from the Lusatian Fault Belt, limiting the Lusatian Block of the Bohemian Massif in the SW, yielded parameters of eight successive paleostress patterns, Late Cretaceous to Plio-Pleistocene in age. These patterns were linked with specific stages in fault kinematics and fault-belt deformation. They include (1) α1, NE- to NNE-directed compression in a reverse fault regime (σ3 vertical) associated with major thrusting and drag zone formation in the latest Cretaceous, preceded by pre-drag origin of deformation bands α0; (2) αβ1-2, WNW-directed extension associated with emplacement of polzenite-group volcanics (≈80-61 Ma) and influx of hydrothermal fluids, overlapping in time with α1; (3) α2, N-directed compression in a reverse fault regime, probably Paleocene in age, associated with thrusting and intensive shear faulting in adjacent parts of blocks; (4) αβ3, Early Oligocene W- to WNW-directed extension in a regime of strike-slip faulting (σ2 vertical), probably connected with an emplacement of phonolitic magmas and influx of hydrothermal fluids; (5) α3, NNW-directed compression associated with activation of transverse/oblique faults of the fault belt, close in age to αβ3 with unclear mutual superposition; (6) β, Late Oligocene-Early Miocene multi-stage N- to NE-directed extension in a normal fault regime, specific to the Bohemian Massif, responsible for downfaulting of the hangingwall block; (7) γ, Mid to Late Miocene NE-directed compression in a reverse fault regime associated with thrusting; (8) δ, Pliocene (to Pleistocene?) NW- to NNW-directed compression in a strike-slip regime, associated with transverse faulting in the fault belt. The identified paleostress patterns show a good correlation with the hitherto identified paleostress fields transmitted to the Alpine foreland and refine the temporal sequence of paleostress states, especially in the post-Lower Miocene period.

  17. Tectonic and geochronology of the Rehamna massif (Morocco) in the frame of the Alleghanian-Variscan orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopin, Francis; Corsini, Michel; Schulmann, Karel; El Houicha, Mohammed; Edel, Jean-Bernard; Ghienne, Jean-François

    2013-04-01

    The Rehamna massif is situqted in the Morocco variscan belt, where there is a strong lack of modern geochonological datas. Furthermore, the timing and mode of formation of this massif remains highly debated. In a form of a metamorphic by weakly metamorphosed supracrustal units, its core presents amphibolite facies rocks pervasively deformed. In this study, are presented the structural pattern of the dome and the timing of its growth, in conjunction with syn- to late- variscan magmatism. According to this structural and 40Ar/39Ar geochronological study, a new tectonic model is proposed for this part of the orogen. It is then replaced at the orogenic scale. The first tectonometamorphic record is a SW-SSW vergent nappe stacking. In the core of the dome, it is expressed by top-to-the-south intense shearing in subhorizontal fabrics associated with prograde barrowian metamorphism, where it can reach the Std stability field within early Cambrian to Devono-Carboniferous metasedimentary rocks (Central and Eastern Rehamna), forming the orogenic infrastructure. Upon it, this SSW directed shortening is also well visible, developing an ~ E-W trending overturned anticline made of Lower Palaeozoic supracrustal sediments. This event, older than 295 Ma, is then associated with syn-convergent buckling and exhumation of the formerly orogenic infrastructure, whereas superstructure is detached from it. Then, an WNW-ESE shortening is responsible for an heterogeneous deformation orthogonal to the previous one. In the Central Rehamna, this superposition is marked by the development of a circular subdome, the folding of isogrades and development of subvertical clivage for which the intensity increases in front of the westward rigid Cambrian coastal block. More easterly, in the deeper part of the Eastern Rehamna, the Devono-Carboniferous metasedimentary rocks experienced heterogeneous reworking marked by localized NNE-SSW subvertical to moderaly dipping clivage. Associated metamorphic

  18. A geophysical model of lower crustal structure of the Palaezoic crustal root (Bohemian Massif): implications for modern collisional orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Alexandra; Edel, Jean Bernard; Schulmann, Karel; Tomek, Cestmir; Lexa, Ondrej

    2010-05-01

    A new model of the structure and composition of Variscan crust is proposed based on 3D gravity modelling, geological data, seismic refraction (CEL09) and reflection (9HR) sections. The Bohemian Massif crust is characterized by succession of positive and negative anomalies of about 60 - 80 km wavelength for nearly constant Moho depths. The southwestern part of the Bohemian Massif displays a large negative Bouguer anomaly corresponding to high grade rocks (granulites, migmatites) of the Palaeozoic crustal root represented by the Moldanubian domain. Adjacent Neo-Proterozoic Brunia microcontinent displays important gravity high corresponding to mafic and intermediate medium grade metamorphic and magmatic rocks. However, the strong gradient marking deep crustal boundary between the root domain and the Brunia microcontinent is located 50 to 70 km westwards from the surface boundary between these units suggesting that in this area the high density basement rocks are covered by thin sheet of low density granulites and migmatites. NW from the Moldanubain domain occurs an important gravity high corresponding to the Neo-Proterozoic basement of the Teplá-Barrandian Unit limited in the north by southeast dipping reflectors of the Teplá suture which is characterized by high density eclogites and ultramafics. The footwall of the suture corresponds to low density felsic crust of the Saxothuringian basement. The reflection and refraction seismics and gravity modelling suggest a complex lithological structure of the Moldanubian domain marked by low density 5 - 10 km thick lower crustal layer located above MOHO, 5 - 10 km thick heavy mafic layer, 10 km thick mid-crustal layer of intermediate density and locally developed 2 - 5 km thick low density layer at the surface. The low density lower crust correlates well with low P velocities in the range 6.0-6.4 km-sec in the CEL09 section. This complex geophysical structure and surface geology are interpreted as a result of partial

  19. Groundwater hydrodynamics of ancient fan deltas: The case of Sant Llorenç del Munt Massif (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anglés, Marc; Folch, Albet; Oms, Oriol; Maestro, Eudald; Mas-Pla, Josep

    2014-05-01

    Hydrogeological models based on well-exposed mountain massifs permitt to constrain the geological factors affecting water circulation and water-rock interaction. Our study adresses the question of how sudden lateral rock changes (sedimentologic facies evolution) affect hydrodinamics in the case of ancient fan deltas. A robust model for the Sant Llorenç del Munt massif (Eocene, Barcelona province) has been defined after the integration of geology (stratigraphy, sedimentology, mapping and integration of subsurface data) and groundwater hydrology (pumping tests, major ions hydrochemistry and environmental isotopes). Ten lito-hidrostratigraphic units have been recognized, which correspond to different sedimentary environments and have a distinctive response to water circulation and water-rock interaction. A remarkable point of this case study is that the size of the whole sedimentary system is considered, i.e. the lateral expansion of flow (lateral permeability barriers) is fully contrained. In terms of hydrogeology, hydraulic conductivity due to fracturing provide poor aquifers in 4 rock types. 5 hydrochemical groups have been established which allow explaining the evolution of the flow throughout the fan delta. Together with isotopic and stratigraphic data the main recharge areas have been determined. Flow dynamics throughout the system combines both surface runoff and subsurface flow. In proximal alluvial conglomerates, groundwater runs both vertically (fractures) and horizontally (fractured and karstified levels). Some features that are generally overlooked in hydrogeological studies (such as conglomerate petrology) are crucial for fracturation and karstic development. Laterally, conglomerates evolve to impermeable mudstones with sandstones (alluvial fan fringe). However, some conglomerates prograding locally reach distal (marine) sediments and recharge the fractured delta front sandstones aquifers that are also refilled by runoff waters. The end sediments

  20. Age, petrogenesis, and tectonic setting of the Permian bimodal volcanic rocks in the eastern Jiamusi Massif, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Jun-Hui; Ge, Wen-Chun; Yang, Hao; Wang, Zhi-Hui; Dong, Yu; Liu, Xi-Wen; Ji, Zheng

    2017-02-01

    We present new in situ zircon U-Pb and Hf isotope, whole-rock geochemical, and Sr-Nd isotopic data for volcanic rocks from the Jiejinkou and Baoqing areas in the eastern Jiamusi Massif. These volcanic rocks are bimodal and consist of basalts, basaltic andesites, rhyolites, and rhyolitic tuffs that can be subdivided into mafic and silicic groups. Zircon U-Pb dating by LA-ICP-MS indicates that these volcanic rocks were erupted between the Early and Middle Permian (290-267 Ma). The mafic rocks in this area have positive εNd(t) (+0.07 to +6.43) values, and are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and depleted in heavy REE, Nb, and Ta. From these rocks, the meta-basalt of Jinlu and basaltic andesite of Taipinggou and Haojiatun were derived from parental magmas generated by the partial melting of depleted mantle wedge material that was metasomatized by subduction-related melts. These magmas then underwent variable degrees of fractional crystallization and assimilated insignificant amounts of crustal material. The meta-basalt of Liming likely originated from the metasomatized mantle-derived melts hybridized by the convective asthenosphere during the evolution of the magmas. In comparison, the silicic rocks have negative εNd(t) and variable zircon εHf(t) values, are enriched in the large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and LREE, and are depleted in high-field-strength elements (e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti), yielding arc-like geochemical signatures. The geochemical and zircon εHf(t) characteristics of Jiangfeng and Longtouqiao rhyolites are indicative of formation from magmas generated by the partial melting of mafic lower crustal material, whereas the Liming meta-rhyolite was probably produced from a source involving some depleted mantle components. The bimodal volcanic rocks provide convincing evidence that the Early-Middle Permian volcanism in the Jiamusi Massif occurred in an extensional environment probably associated with slab break-off during the westward

  1. Survey on attitudes of Italian pediatricians toward cough

    PubMed Central

    Zanasi, Alessandro; Morcaldi, Luigi; Cazzato, Salvatore; Mazzolini, Massimiliano; Lecchi, Marzia; Morselli-Labate, Antonio Maria; Mastroroberto, Marianna; Dal Negro, Roberto W

    2017-01-01

    Context Children’s cough is a daily concern for most pediatricians. The management of both acute and chronic cough requires a systematic and comprehensive approach. Despite the approved protocols for management, the pediatric assessment of cough and the corresponding prescribing attitude frequently do not fit these protocols, which can be affected by parental suggestions – sometimes substantially. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate both the perception and the behavior of a representative sample of Italian pediatricians toward cough in real life. Methods A specific questionnaire consisting of 18 questions was prepared. The questionnaire was completed by 300 pediatricians (all members of PAIDOSS: Italian National Observatory on Health of Childhood and Adolescence) who represented ~300,000 children. Results A vast majority of children have cough throughout the year (99.3% of respondents have cough during autumn/winter and 64.7% in spring/summer). Allergic disease is the most frequent suspected cause of chronic cough in children (53%), and this is supported by the high demand for consultations: 73% seek the opinion of allergologists, 62% of otorhinolaryngologists and only 33% of pulmonologists. The majority of pediatricians (92%) reported that they prescribe therapy in acute cough regardless of cough guidelines. Moreover, the survey pointed out the abuse of aerosol therapy (26% in acute cough and 38% in chronic cough) and of antibiotics prescription (22% in acute cough and 42% in chronic cough). Conclusion Our survey suggests that some Italian pediatricians’ therapeutic attitudes should be substantially improved in order to achieve better management of cough in children and to minimize the burden of cough. PMID:28352199

  2. Influenza vaccination coverage among medical residents: an Italian multicenter survey.

    PubMed

    Costantino, Claudio; Mazzucco, Walter; Azzolini, Elena; Baldini, Cesare; Bergomi, Margherita; Biafiore, Alessio Daniele; Bianco, Manuela; Borsari, Lucia; Cacciari, Paolo; Cadeddu, Chiara; Camia, Paola; Carluccio, Eugenia; Conti, Andrea; De Waure, Chiara; Di Gregori, Valentina; Fabiani, Leila; Fallico, Roberto; Filisetti, Barbara; Flacco, Maria E; Franco, Elisabetta; Furnari, Roberto; Galis, Veronica; Gallea, Maria R; Gallone, Maria F; Gallone, Serena; Gelatti, Umberto; Gilardi, Francesco; Giuliani, Anna R; Grillo, Orazio C; Lanati, Niccolò; Mascaretti, Silvia; Mattei, Antonella; Micò, Rocco; Morciano, Laura; Nante, Nicola; Napoli, Giuseppe; Nobile, Carmelo Giuseppe; Palladino, Raffaele; Parisi, Salvatore; Passaro, Maria; Pelissero, Gabriele; Quarto, Michele; Ricciardi, Walter; Romano, Gabriele; Rustico, Ennio; Saponari, Anita; Schioppa, Francesco S; Signorelli, Carlo; Siliquini, Roberta; Trabacchi, Valeria; Triassi, Maria; Varetta, Alessia; Ziglio, Andrea; Zoccali, Angela; Vitale, Francesco; Amodio, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    Although influenza vaccination is recognized to be safe and effective, recent studies have confirmed that immunization coverage among health care workers remain generally low, especially among medical residents (MRs). Aim of the present multicenter study was to investigate attitudes and determinants associated with acceptance of influenza vaccination among Italian MRs. A survey was performed in 2012 on MRs attending post-graduate schools of 18 Italian Universities. Each participant was interviewed via an anonymous, self-administered, web-based questionnaire including questions on attitudes regarding influenza vaccination. A total of 2506 MRs were recruited in the survey and 299 (11.9%) of these stated they had accepted influenza vaccination in 2011-2012 season. Vaccinated MRs were older (P = 0.006), working in clinical settings (P = 0.048), and vaccinated in the 2 previous seasons (P<0.001 in both seasons). Moreover, MRs who had recommended influenza vaccination to their patients were significantly more compliant with influenza vaccination uptake in 2011-2012 season (P<0.001). "To avoid spreading influenza among patients" was recognized as the main reason for accepting vaccination by less than 15% of vaccinated MRs. Italian MRs seem to have a very low compliance with influenza vaccination and they seem to accept influenza vaccination as a habit that is unrelated to professional and ethical responsibility. Otherwise, residents who refuse vaccination in the previous seasons usually maintain their behaviors. Promoting correct attitudes and good practice in order to improve the influenza immunization rates of MRs could represent a decisive goal for increasing immunization coverage among health care workers of the future.

  3. Molecular epidemiology of Italian clinical Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii isolates.

    PubMed

    Cogliati, Massimo; Zamfirova, Ralika R; Tortorano, Anna Maria; Viviani, Maria Anna

    2013-07-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans variety grubii is the major etiological agent of cryptococcal meningitis in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The current PCR-based molecular methods are not sufficient to discriminate among the different populations of this yeast. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the genotypes of the Italian clinical C. neoformans var. grubii isolates by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 53 isolates, each representative of a single case, were studied. Genotyping was performed using the ISHAM Cryptococcus MLST consensus scheme and the results were compared to the publically available global C. neoformans var. grubii MLST dataset. A total of 16 genotypes were identified; 14 were new genotypes, one was identical to sequence type (ST) ST81, which had been previously reported from Thailand, and one to ST23 already identified in Uganda, the USA and Korea. Sequence type ST61 was the most numerous, including 16 isolates. Network phylogenetic analysis showed that the Italian isolates could be divided into at least three clusters with similarities with those recovered in Africa, Asia and Americas. Distribution of the STs among the isolates could not be correlated to the hospital in which they were recovered or to the HIV status of the patients. The majority of the isolates belonged to the molecular type VNI; three belonged to the rare molecular type VNII and one to the VNB group, which until now had not been described in Europe. The results reveal that the Italian C. neoformans var. grubii population presents a distinct variability, displaying a high number of new genotypes, and probably recombines sexually.

  4. Validity of the Italian version of Khalfa's questionnaire on hyperacusis.

    PubMed

    Fioretti, A; Tortorella, F; Masedu, F; Valenti, M; Fusetti, M; Pavaci, S

    2015-04-01

    The present study aims to evaluate and validate the Italian version of Khalfa's questionnaire on hyperacusis (HQ). We recruited 117 patients (64 men, 53 women, mean age 53 years, range 14-88) with tinnitus for at least 3 months as a primary disorder. All patients completed the THI and the Italian version of the HQ and underwent audiometry, pitch and loudness tinnitus matching, otoacoustic emissions with distortion products (DPOAE) and uncomfortable loudness level (ULL). The overall performance of the tests was evaluated and compared using the area under the RO C curve (AUC) relative to the tests. The cut-off of the HQ was calculated. We also assessed the Cronbach's alpha (αC) for the HQ and its three major dimensions (attentional - αC1, emotional - αC2 and social - αC3). Statistical analysis showed no correlation between DPOAE, audiometry, ULL and gender. We observed a high correlation (p < 0.05) between hyperacusis and ULL described by the Spearman's ρ index (rs = 0.72). We found a cut-off of 16 indicative of hyperacusis comparing the area under the RO C curve (AUC) of HQ and audiometry, taken as a diagnostic reference, (sensitivity = 67.9% and specificity = 72.2%). The reliability of HQ was confirmed by a high αC = 0.89. The αC for the single dimensional scales were, respectively, αC1 = 0.73, αC2 = 0.72 and αC3 = 0.81. The Italian version of the HQ is recommended for proper and complete classification of patients with tinnitus and hyperacusis. From our study, we found a cut-off of 16 instead of the cut-off of 28 described as very high by other authors. Moreover, ULL was an important variable and can be discriminating in the evaluation of hyperacusis.

  5. Significant findings concerning the production of Italian Renaissance lustred majolica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padeletti, G.; Fermo, P.

    2013-12-01

    In the present paper the main results obtained, over a period of more than ten years, from a series of studies concerning the characterization of Italian Renaissance lustred majolicas (from Gubbio and Deruta, Umbria, Italy) are presented. Lustre decoration is a well-known technique, consisting in the application of a thin metallic iridescent film, containing silver and copper nanoparticles, over a previously glazed ceramic object. The technique had its origin in Persia (IX century), was imported by Moorish in Spain, and then developed in central Italy during the Renaissance period. Numerous analytical techniques (among which, ETASS, XRD, UV-Vis, SEM-EDX) have been employed for the characterization of lustred ceramic shards, allowing one to acquire information on both lustre chemical composition and nanostructure. In this way it was shown how some technological parameters, such as the firing conditions, are mandatory to obtain the final result. The presence of a specific marker of the lustre Italian production, i.e., cosalite (Pb2Bi2S5), has been also highlighted. From the study of the ceramic body composition (by means of XRD and ICP-OES and in particular of chemometric techniques) acquired on more than 50 ceramic shards it was possible to discriminate between Deruta and Gubbio production, in this way allowing one to assign objects of uncertain provenance to a specific site. Finally, the most interesting results obtained studying excellent lustred masterpieces from Renaissance belonging to important museums are here presented. In particular, with the use of nondestructive techniques (PIXE, RBS, and portable XRD), the production of Mastro Giorgio Andreoli from Gubbio was investigated. By means of the same analytical approach, one of the first examples of lustre in Italy (the famous Baglioni's albarello) was examined, and the controversial question of its attribution to Italian production was scientifically faced.

  6. From simplicity towards complexity: the Italian multidimensional approach to obesity.

    PubMed

    Donini, Lorenzo M; Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Caretto, Antonio; Lucchin, Lucio; Melchionda, Nazario; Nisoli, Enzo; Sbraccia, Paolo; Lenzi, Andrea; Cuzzolaro, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is the result of a complex interplay among several factors leading to medical, functional and psychosocial consequences that markedly reduce life expectancy and impair quality of life. Is obesity itself a disease? Is obesity a brain disease? Who should treat obesity? This paper is a narrative review aimed to describe and to argue the prevalent position of some major Italian scientific and academic institutions dealing with obesity. According to the recent statements and recommendations published by the Italian Society for Obesity (SIO) and the Italian Society for the Study of Eating Disorders (SISDCA), the management of obese patients should include five main levels of care: (1) primary care, (2) outpatient treatment, (3) intensive outpatient treatment, (4) residential rehabilitative treatment, and (5) hospitalization. Ideally, patients suffering from obesity need a multidimensional evaluation intended to design an individualized treatment plan applying different procedures and therapeutic strategies (diet, physical activity and functional rehabilitation, educational therapy, cognitive-behavior therapy, drug therapy, and bariatric surgery). This thorough approach should address not only weight loss but also quality of weight loss, medical and psychiatric comorbidity, psychosocial problems, and physical disability. Such management of obesity requires an effective multiprofessional team, while health services have to overcome a number of administrative and organizational barriers that do not account for diseases requiring resources and professionals from different areas of medicine. Integrating several competences in a team-based approach demands specific education, skills and expertise. As for other diseases, the principles of complexity theory may offer a model useful to implement both teamwork and care delivery for patients with obesity.

  7. [A preliminary appraisal of the new Italian immigration law].

    PubMed

    Bonetti, P

    1998-01-01

    Italian Law no. 40, of March 6, 1998, on immigration and foreigners, which entered into force on March 27, 1998, is a complex and detailed document. The objectives of the law were a more efficacious programming of the immigrant labor flow; the increase of prevention and containment of illegal immigration; and the expansion of the measures for effective integration of foreigners with regular permits to stay. The new law also provides annual planning for the immigration flow on the basis of an appropriate quota established by the government. Various types of wages are also determined for menial jobs and every year Italians and foreigners with regular residence permits may apply within the first 60 days from the publication of the annual quota for these jobs. The new law is extremely strict in the matter of prevention and containment of illegal immigration dealing with not only new arrivals at the border, but also with those already illegally in the country. Temporary centers are also set up for their accommodation (but no longer than 30 days) until the expulsions are carried out. The part allowing public security authorities to accompany foreigners to the border for expulsion without prior judiciary review is in violation of the constitutional premise of personal freedom. An illegal alien may also be penalized by immediate expulsion from the country and prohibition of re-entry for at least 5 years. It was estimated that there were 200,000 illegal aliens in Italy in 1998. They are supposed to be expelled within 15 days, although this can be appealed in the case of minors, pregnant women or women with children less than 6 months old, the persecuted, or persons living with Italian citizens. Another new feature is the residency card.

  8. Dietary fats and cholesterol in italian infants and children.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, C; Riva, E; Scaglioni, S; Marangoni, F; Radaelli, G; Giovannini, M

    2000-11-01

    The fat intake of Italian infants has peculiar characteristics that begin quite early because their mothers' milk has a monounsaturated fat content (45%) at the upper limit of the values found in Europe. Comparison studies in breast-fed and formula-fed infants were conducted to evaluate growth and developmental correlates and differences in fat intakes in the early months of life. Breast-fed infants have higher blood lipid concentrations at 4 mo of age than do formula-fed infants. The addition of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) and cholesterol to formulas for term infants may affect concentrations of circulating blood lipids as well as the LCPUFA composition of the lipids during the breast-feeding period. The addition of LCPUFAs does not seem to affect the growth rate of formula-fed infants. Although an initial benefit of LCPUFA feeding on eye-hand coordination was observed, this effect was not sustained; by 24 mo, different feeding groups had similar developmental scores. Other peculiarities of the Italian experience are presented, including body weights from infancy to early childhood in 147 children, the nutrient densities of different diets in Italian schoolchildren, and the effects of nutritional education on dietary intakes. The diets of these children were high in animal protein and supplied approximately 30-35% of energy from fats throughout childhood. Both the dietary protein intakes at 1 y of age and parental body mass indexes were associated with 5-y body mass index values. Classroom education may be useful to lower the plasma lipid concentrations in healthy, primary school-age children. It is not known whether this early modification can be maintained and whether it influences the later development of cardiovascular disorders.

  9. GPS Disciplined Oscillators for Traceability to the Italian Time Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordara, Franco; Pettiti, Valerio

    1996-01-01

    The Istituo Elettrotecnico Nazionale (IEN) is one of the Italian primary institutes which is responsible for the accreditation of secondary laboratories belong to the national calibration system (SNT) established by law in 1991. The Times and Frequency Department that has accredited in this frame 14 calibration centers for frequency, performs also the remote calibration of their reference oscillators by means of different synchronization systems. The problem of establishing the traceability of the national time standard of the Global Positioning System (GPS) disciplined oscillators has been investigated and the results obtained are reported.

  10. Wolfe's part in the Italian Risorgimento and his skin graft.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Philip J

    2012-09-01

    A little known episode in the history of plastic surgery occurred during the Italian Risorgimento 150 years ago. Dr. J. R. Wolfe, who described the full-thickness graft which bears his name, was involved with Garibaldi in the war to unite Italy. He crossed swords with an English nurse, Jessie White Mario, and was thrown into prison. The events were recorded in the Lancet as "A Neapolitan Outrage." This article gives the details of the sad story and goes on to describe the first attempts at full-thickness grafting to correct ectropion. Wolfe was not the first to carry out this procedure and the name of Lawson is rarely remembered.

  11. Features of the Italian National Inventory of Chemical Substances.

    PubMed

    Binetti, R; Marcello, I

    1994-01-01

    The Italian National Inventory of Chemical Substances (Inventario nazionale delle sostanze chimiche, INSC), a factual data bank on chemical toxicology produced by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), consists of a computerized system on existing chemicals developed for routinary and emergency needs. Historical background, current status and future direction of INSC are discussed. The structure and the feature of INSC are briefly examined. Aspects of retrieval of information and the criteria for the inclusion of data and priority selection are also considered.

  12. [Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese immigration: Chile 1860-1930].

    PubMed

    Gutierrez Roldan, H G

    1989-12-01

    "The paper refers to the amount and some characteristics of the Spanish, Italian and Portuguese immigration to Chile during the period 1860-1930. It is compared with [movements to] Argentina, Brazil, Cuba and Uruguay.... Different information sources are used and in spite of data weakness, the low preference for Chile of the European migratory flows is ratified as compared with those to Argentina.... It is pointed out that the migratory flows to Latin America, in particular to Chile, are associated, on the one hand, with the favourable... European [immigration] policy in this country and on the other hand with the huge European emigration overseas during that period." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  13. Autoimmune haematological disorders in two Italian children with Kabuki syndrome.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Paola; Lassandro, Giuseppe; Sangerardi, Maria; Faienza, Maria Felicia; Valente, Federica; Martire, Baldassarre

    2014-01-25

    Kabuki syndrome (also called Niikawa-Kuroki syndrome) is a rare genetic disease described for the first time in Japan, characterised by anomalies in multiple organ systems and often associated with autoimmune disorders and impaired immune response. We herein report the clinical history, the therapeutic approach and the outcome of two children with Kabuki syndrome who developed autoimmune haematological disorders (haemolytic anaemia and immune thrombocytopenia). Factors regarding differential diagnosis and interventions in better management of this syndrome and its complications are discussed. This is the first report of Italian children with autoimmune haematological disorders complicating Kabuki syndrome.

  14. Built environment and wellbeing in Italian psychiatric wards.

    PubMed

    Plantamura, Francesca; Capolongo, Stefano; Oberti, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    The healthcare built environment has effects on patient's wellbeing. These effects are even heavier on sensitive patient such as psychiatric ones. Therefore the environment design can be a key factor in promoting the patients' well-being and the care process. This paper investigates how this vision is influencing the design of psychiatric facilities in the Italian context, known for its radical innovation of mental health services due to Law 180 (1978). The article identifies the current built environment issues of the psychiatric ward, the design indications available and the possible future actions to meet the needs of users and to improve wellbeing and care process.

  15. Selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Italian environment.

    PubMed

    Miniero, Roberto; De Felip, Elena; Magliuolo, Mariella; Ferri, Fabiola; Di Domenico, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The ratification of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is a departure point for several considerations on their presence in environmental matrices. In this paper, the Italian situation is presented with emphasis on the most toxic compounds--chemicals with dioxin-like toxic action, and the activity in the area of interest of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità. Biotic, as well as abiotic matrices have been taken in consideration and, where possible, a comparation between their contamination levels with the levels reported on similar matrices by other European countries has been reported.

  16. Marco Polo : an Italian Mission Scoring a lot of Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Pippo, Simonetta; Bracciaferri, Fabio M.

    2002-01-01

    The first astronaut of the European Astronaut Corps of Italian nationality, Roberto Vittori, will fly on a Soyuz capsule at the end of April 2002, opening a new era of space flight. The mission, sponsored by the Italian Space Agency, has been developed in the framework of an ESA- ROSAVIAKOSMOS agreement, reached in order to give European astronauts additional possibilities to fly. It's the first mission of this kind. In addition to that, this is the real first time in which a Soyuz mission is in the hands of two cosmonauts, and one of them is non Russian. On the same flight, in fact, Mark Shuttleworth, the second tourist in the history of space activities, is going to fly, performing also a set of scientific experiments. Marco Polo is also the first mission in which the two Agencies, ASI and ESA, are developing a joint commercialisation program, devoted to attire sponsors for improving research and development activities in the Human Spaceflight area. This will allow the two agencies to improve also the quality of life on Earth. A comprehensive scientific program is also foreseen accompanying Vittori on board, mainly in the field of life science. Experiments devoted to neurophysiology, arms rehabilitation, test of new materials for dressing in space, evaluation of the behaviour of the Nobel Prize Montalcini discovery named NGF (Nerve Growth Factor) will be performed on board. A R&D payload for Blood Pressure Measurements could have in the future commercial spin-off. In addition, a possible institutional sponsorship of the World Health Organization is under discussion. It will be the real first time in which a space mission gets this kind of sponsorship, and this strictly related to the World Health Day this year, devoted in promoting health throughout movement, i.e. "Move for Health". The Italian Space Agency proposed a joint combination of the two slogans, coupling the "Move for Health" message with the Italian "Space for Health" one. This is because of the Marco

  17. Hieronymi Fracastorii: the Italian scientist who described the "French disease"*

    PubMed Central

    Pesapane, Filippo; Marcelli, Stefano; Nazzaro, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Girolamo Fracastoro was a true Italian Renaissance man: he excelled in literature, poetry, music, geography, geology, philosophy, astronomy and, of course, medicine to the point that made Charles-Edward Armory Winslow define him as "a peak unequaled by anyone between Hippocrates and Pasteur". In 1521 Fracastoro wrote the poem "Syphilis Sive de Morbo Gallico" in which was established the use of the term "syphilis" for this terrible and inexplicably transmitted disease, often referred to as "French disease" by the people of the time and by Fracastoro himself. PMID:26560214

  18. The NEOShield-2 EU project: the Italian contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotto, E.; Ieva, S.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Di Paola, A.; Cortese, M.; Speziali, R.; Lazzarin, M.; Bertini, I.; Magrin, S.; Perna, D.; Perozzi, E.; Micheli, M.

    The NEOShield-2 (2015-2017) project has been recently approved by the European Commission in the framework of the Horizon 2020 programme with the aim i) to study specific technologies and instruments to conduct close approach missions to NEOs or to undertake mitigation demonstration, and ii) to acquire in-depth information of physical properties of the population of small NEOs (50-300 m), in order to design mitigation missions and assess the consequences of an impact on Earth. The Italian scientific community is widely involved in this project.

  19. Nota didattica sulle forme pronominali toniche dell'italiano (Pedagogical Note on the Disjunctive Pronoun Forms in Italian)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefanini, Ruggero

    1976-01-01

    Presents a scheme directed towards Italian language Teaching Assistants teaching subject and object pronouns, and discusses the etymology and diachronic development of these forms. (Text is in Italian.) (AM)

  20. Development of a Comprehensive Plan for Scientific Research, Exploration, and Design: Creation of an Undergroung Radioactive Waste Isloation Facility at the Nizhnekansky Rock Massif

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J

    2005-06-15

    ISTC Partner Project No.2377, ''Development of a General Research and Survey Plan to Create an Underground RW Isolation Facility in Nizhnekansky Massif'', funded a group of key Russian experts in geologic disposal, primarily at Federal State Unitary Enterprise All-Russian Design and Research Institute of Engineering Production (VNIPIPT) and Mining Chemical Combine Krasnoyarsk-26 (MCC K-26) (Reference 1). The activities under the ISTC Partner Project were targeted to the creation of an underground research laboratory which was to justify the acceptability of the geologic conditions for ultimate isolation of high-level waste in Russia. In parallel to this project work was also under way with Minatom's financial support to characterize alternative sections of the Nizhnekansky granitoid rock massif near the MCC K-26 site to justify the possibility of creating an underground facility for long-term or ultimate isolation of radioactive waste (RW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). (Reference 2) The result was a synergistic, integrated set of activities several years that advanced the geologic repository site characterization and development of a proposed underground research laboratory better than could have been expected with only the limited funds from ISTC Partner Project No.2377 funded by the U.S. DOE-RW. There were four objectives of this ISTC Partner Project 2377 geologic disposal work: (1) Generalize and analyze all research work done previously at the Nizhnekansky granitoid massif by various organizations; (2) Prepare and issue a declaration of intent (DOI) for proceeding with an underground research laboratory in a granite massif near the MCC K-26 site. (The DOI is similar to a Record of Decision in U.S. terminology). (3) Proceeding from the data obtained as a result of scientific research and exploration and design activities, prepare a justification of investment (JOI) for an underground research laboratory in as much detail as the available site characterization