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Sample records for dora-maira massif italian

  1. Seismicity without a fault ? Structural evidence from pseudotachylites in the UHP Dora Maira Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zechmeister, M.; Ferre, E. C.; Geissman, J. W.; Cosca, M.; Caby, R.; Frima, C.; Ward, C.

    2004-12-01

    The Dora Maira massif, in the Italian Alps, is a world famous example of ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphism of crustal rocks with peak pressure of ca 3 GPa (depth ≈ 100 km) at about 35 My. Exhumation began shortly after the peak of metamorphism. The UHP rocks had equilibrated at a temperature of 250° C around 30 My. Pseudotachylite veins (1 to 20 mm thick) formed parallel to the syn-exhumation mylonitic foliation and were dated at 20.1 ± 0.5 Ma by Ar/Ar method. The geochronologic data suggests that the pseudotachylite veins formed at depths shallower than ≈ 10 km. These veins are found mainly in gently dipping medium grained phengite/coesite bearing orthogneiss. The generation veins are parallel to the foliation, constant in thickness and up to several tens of meters in length. Injection veins are less common and generally only a few cm in length. Structural mapping of UHP mylonitic gneisses and surrounding rocks reveals the dominance of high ductile strain, a puzzling lack of localized cataclastic deformation and the absence of fault associated with the pseudotachylite veins. The pseudotachylite veins are concentrated along a 50 m wide, foliation-parallel corridor. Conversely, the two major faults along which the UHP rocks were exhumed are > 500 m away from the pseudotachylite-bearing rocks and do not contain pseudotachylite veins. The formation of these pseudotachylite veins is clearly related to exhumation history of UHP rocks. The formation of pseudotachylite results from frictional melting as shown by microstructural criteria including corroded quartz grains and spherulitic microstructures. The localized heat source required for melting the UHP orthogneisses along narrow bands is attributed to frictional heat produced along the foliation plane. Fault-related pseudotachylite studies and friction experiments have shown that seismic strain rates (in the order of s-1) are required to maintain heat along the fault plane. At slower strain rates, heat would

  2. Thermomechanical constraints for the buoyancy-driven exhumation of the ultrahigh-pressure unit of the Dora-Maira Massif (Western Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalholz, Stefan M.; Schenker, Filippo L.

    2015-04-01

    The exhumation of UltraHigh-Pressure (UHP) rock units and their incorporation into orogenic wedges exhibiting significantly smaller peak pressures is still incompletely understood. The Dora-Maira Massif in the Western Alps includes the Brosassco-Isasca unit (BIU) whose metamorphic conditions peak at ~40 kbar and ~730 ˚C. Current estimates suggest decompression from the peak conditions to ~10 kbar within ~2 Ma. The BIU has a thickness of ~1 km and a width between 10 and 20 km. The BIU is sandwiched between the San Schiaffredo unit (below) and the Rocca-Soleil unit (above) which both exhibit significantly lower peak metamorphic conditions of ~15 kbar and ~530 ˚C. All three units are usually considered to be from the same pre-alpine paleogeographic domain (i.e. Briançonnais domain). Assuming that metamorphic peak pressures were close to the lithostatic pressure, the San Schiaffredo and Rocca Solei units were buried to ~50 km and the BIU to ~130 km. The exhumation of UHP units is usually explained by buoyancy-driven flow, and two models are frequently considered: 1) Overall return flow of rocks within a distinct subduction channel and 2) upward flow of individual, lighter rock units within a heavier material (termed Stokes flow). However, both models fail to explain the formation of the Dora-Maira Massif and the BIU because model 1) predicts considerably larger volumes of UHP rocks than observed in the Dora-Maira Massif, and model 2) usually incorporates the UHP unit in the overriding plate and not within the orogenic wedge. Here, we present simple two-dimensional thermomechanical numerical models of exhumation by Stokes flow. We performed systematic simulations for linear viscous flow without temperature to constrain the general conditions for which exhumation by Stokes flow is applicable to the Dora-Maira Massif and the BIU. We assumed a dip of the subduction zone of 45 degrees. This requires that the UHP rocks not only exhume vertically by 80 km but also move

  3. A Dynamic Pressure Component in UHP Whiteschists from the Dora-Maira Massif (Western Alps, Italy) Revealed By Pressure-Induced Incipient Amorphization of Quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frezzotti, M. L.; Palmeri, R.; Godard, G.; Ferrando, S.; Compagnoni, R.

    2014-12-01

    We report the micro-Raman evidence for pressure-induced incipient amorphization of quartz in the UHP Brossasco-Isasca Unit (Dora-Maira Massif, Italian western Alps). Fifteen quartz inclusions in garnet were studied that comprise single crystals and aggregates of two-to-four crystals, along with one matrix crystal in a strain shadow. Palisade quartz, from coesite inversion, is also observed in garnet. The straight alignment of inclusions in prograde garnet indicates that quartz grew during garnet growth at about 650°C and 2.8 GPa, from HP to UHP metamorphic conditions. In single quartz crystals, disordering of lattice and densification (i.e., diaplectic glass) are revealed by two additional bands in Raman spectra: the former at 480 cm-1, derived from tetrahedral densified SiO2 amorphous phase composed of four-membered rings, and the latter at 605 cm-1, from defect structures involving partially broken SiO2 bonds. At the P-T metamorphic conditions of garnet growth, coesite is the thermodynamically stable form of crystalline silica. The existence of a lower enthalpy configuration, however, is a necessary but not sufficient condition for phase transition at constant pressure. If a kinetically accessible path is not available for the transition to ensue, metastable denser amorphous phase is formed instead. Amorphization of α-quartz requires experimental (or theoretical) lithostatic (hydrostatic) pressures > 15 GPa, while in presence of deviatoric stresses (i.e., non-lithostatic conditions), required pressures are lowered down to ≤ 5 GPa, at room temperature. Previous numerical geodynamic models suggested that in UHP terranes tectonic overpressure, greater than up to 0.3 GPa the lithostatic one, may be locally present (Gerya et al., 2008, Lithos, 103, 236-256). Our study confirms the presence of transitory pressure deviations from lithostatic values during prograde UHP metamorphism on a time scale that allows minerals to record these pressures.

  4. Geochemistry of Coesite-Bearing Pyrope Quartzites and Related Rocks From the Dora Maira Massif, Western Alps: New Results and the Enigma of the Jadeite-Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertl, H.

    2008-12-01

    In contrast to the extensive petrological and geochronological work on the various ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks of the coesite-bearing unit of the Dora Maira Massif, there is still a deficiency of basic geochemical data. A complete suite of geochemical data for pyrope quartzites, various intercalations of phengite-schists and jadeite-bearing rocks, as well as country rock gneisses from different localities within the southern Dora Maira Massiv is now available, which was studied in detail in order to establish the nature of the different protoliths and their primary relationships (Schertl and Schreyer, 2008; see also Chopin, 1984 and Compagnoni and Hirajima, 2001). Typically, the pyrope quartzites are high in Mg and strongly depleted in Na, Ca, Fe, Cu, P, Rb, Ba, Sr against their country rock gneisses which essentially exhibit a granitic bulk composition. The country rocks have a peraluminous chemistry; they generally are corundum normative and best attributed to S-type granites. Trace element contents of phengite-schist inclusions in pyrope quartzite confirm their close relationship to the granitic country rocks. Internal variations of Na, Ca versus K, Mg are matched by Rb, Ba and Sr, which is in line with some phengite-schists to contain higher amounts of phengite or higher amounts of jadeite-pseudomorphs, respectively. The origin of the jadeite-rich rocks is still a matter of debate. Jadeite-bearing layers and jadeite quartzite forming conformable bands and boudins within pyrope quartzite differ generally by their lower contents in K, Mg, Rb and higher contents in Na, Fe, Ca, Mn, P and Zn. Earlier suggestions that these layers represent former melts seem unlikely in the view of their almost constant mass behaviour for SiO2 and Al2O3 relative to the surrounding pyrope quartzites. The present study indicates that the pyrope quartzites were formed metasomatically whereas an evaporitic nature of the protolith can be ruled out. Discrimination plots

  5. The Dora-Maira Unit (Italian Cottian Alps): a reservoir of ornamental stones locally and worldwide employed since Roman age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, Alessandro; Cadoppi, Paola; Antonella Dino, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    The Dora-Maira is a geological unit belonging to the Penninic Domain of the Western Alps (NW Italy), which covers over 1000 km2 from the Susa to the Maira valleys, in the inner part of the Cottian Alps. It consists of different superposed complexes made of micaschists, fine-grained gneisses, quartzites, impure and dolomitic marbles, metabasites and various types of orthogneisses deriving from metamorphic transformation, during alpine orogeny, of a Palaeozoic upper continental crust and its Mesozoic carbonate cover. Thanks to the presence of different varieties of rocks, the Dora-Maira Unit can be considered as a reservoir of ornamental stones, locally employed, since Roman age, for military and religious buildings. Furthermore, these materials were used in Piedmont region for the construction of important historical palaces (17th and 18th centuries). Several varieties of gneisses, quartzites and marbles, exploited in the past and up to now, come from the Paleozoic basement. The most famous variety of gneiss is the so called "Luserna stone", a leucocratic gneiss characterized by a mylonitic fabric deriving from highly differentiated granitoids of Permian age. The first traces of Luserna Stone exploitation arise to the medieval age in the Pellice Valley). This material was widely employed in Turin, from Savoia kingdom period up to know. The very peculiar and precious application of Luserna stone were: Royal Palace and Venaria Reale Palace, Mole Antonelliana. Recently, it has been employed for the construction of Turin Metro stations (launched in 2006). Other varieties of orthogneisses, not yet exploited, are: Borgone and Vaie Stones, Villarfocchiardo and Cumiana Stones. They were used for the realization of the columns characterising the façade of several churches in Turin and in the piers of different bridges over the Po River. Another gneiss variety, with dioritic composition, is the Malanaggio Stone employed in the Fenestrelle Fortress. As for the palaeozoic

  6. Fluid composition and evolution in coesite-bearing rocks (Dora-Maira massif, Western Alps): implications for element recycling during subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippot, Pascal; Chevallier, Pierre; Chopin, Christian; Dubessy, Jean

    1995-08-01

    Fluid inclusions and F, Cl concentration of hydrous minerals were analysed in the coesite-pyrope quartzite, the interlayered jadeite quartzite and their country-rock gneiss from the Dora-Maira massif using a combination of microthermometry, Raman spectrometry, synchrotron X-ray microfiuorescence and electron microprobe analysis. Three populations of fluid inclusions were recognized texturally and can be related to distinct metamorphic stages. A low-salinity aqueous fluid occurs in the retrogressed country gneiss and as late secondary inclusions in jadeite quartzite and chloritized pyrope. An earlier secondary population is found in matrix quartz of the jadeite- and pyro-pe-quartzites. This population can be related to the early decompression and so to incipient breakdown of garnet into phlogopite-bearing assemblages. The inclusion fluid is highly saline (up to 84 wt% equivalent NaCl) and contains Na, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn as major cations. In pyrope quartzite, additional K was found in these brines, which locally coexist with CO2-rich inclusions. The oldest fluid inclusions are preserved in kyanite grains included in fresh pyrope and in pyrope itself. In pyrope, all inclusions have decrepitated and contain magnesite, an Mg-phosphate, sheet-silicate(s), a chloride and an opaque phase, with no fluid preser ved. In contrast, the kyanite inclusions in pyrope preserve primary H2O-CO2 low-salinity fluid inclusions, probably owing to the low compressibility of the kyanite inclusions and host garnet. In spite of in-situ re-equilibration, these inclusions can be interpreted as relics of the dehydration fluid that attended pyrope growth. These correlations between textural and chemical fluid inclusion data and metamorphic stages are consistent with the fluid composition calculated from the halogen content of different generations of phlogopite and biotite. The preservation of different fluid compositions, both in time and space, is evidence for local control and possibly origin

  7. UHP-Metamorphic Pyrope Quartzites From Dora Maira: Cathodoluminescence of Silica and Twinning of Coesite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertl, H.; Medenbach, O.; Neuser, R. D.

    2005-12-01

    Since the first discovery of metamorphic coesite in ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) rocks from the Dora Maira Massif/Western Alps, much attention was drawn on its characteristics: the paragenesis, influence of OH on the kinetics of the coesite-quartz transition, present day overpressure in coesite inclusions, features like palisade-quartz as typical breakdown product, experimental studies on the rheology of polycrystalline coesite, oxygen isotope signatures, etc. Here we would like to focus on the cathodoluminescence (CL) of coesite and its breakdown products. Since luminescence is triggered even by minor differences in composition or structure of a mineral, in this study the CL microscope is employed not only as a powerful tool to distinguish between different mineral phases but also to characterize different generations of a coesite breakdown product. A second topic concerns the twinning of coesite which is very rarely observed in nature. The investigations were made on pyrope quartzite previously representing a pyrope coesitite at UHP metamorphic conditions (Chopin, 1984; Schertl et al., 1991). Main constituent phases are pyrope, quartz, phengite, talc, and kyanite with minor amounts of coesite and jadeite. The rock can be subdivided in a fine-grained type containing pyropes up to about 1.5 cm and a coarse-grained type with pyrope crystals up to 25 cm. The boundaries between both types are irregular, but they exhibit significant differences concerning their mineral inclusions: inclusions of coesite/quartz (in paragenesis with kyanite and phengite) are only observed in small pyropes whereas in big pyropes no silica phase occurs. Typical mineral inclusions in big pyropes essentially are kyanite, talc, and chlorite with minor amounts of ellenbergerite, Mg-dumortierite and sodic amphibole. Coesite typically shows bluish-green luminescence colours, whereas palisade-like quartz as breakdown product (interpreted to be formed at high temperatures) surrounding coesite is

  8. LILE-Enriched fluids generated at UHP Conditions in Dora-Maira Whiteschists (Western Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrando, S.; Frezzotti, M.; Petrelli, M.; Compagnoni, R.

    2008-12-01

    We report SEM-EDS, WDS, micro-Raman, IR-synchrotron-radiation imaging, and LA-ICP-MS data on minerals and multiphase solid inclusions (MSI) in equilibrium at UHP peak in Dora-Maira whiteschists. These rocks consist of pyrope-rich garnet, quartz/coesite, phengite, kyanite, talc, chlorite, and minor Mg-rich minerals. Three generations of pyrope occur: 1) prograde reddish megablasts (10-20 cm across); 2) zoned porphyroblasts (2-10 cm across) with prograde core and peak rim; and 3) peak smaller crystals (<2 cm across). Peak assemblage consists of pyrope (Prp82-98Alm1-16), coesite, phengite (Si=3.55-3.58 a.p.f.u.), kyanite, talc, and accessory rutile, zircon and monazite. P-T conditions of UHP peak have been estimated to be 4.3 GPa and 730°C. The fluid phase present at UHP conditions may be inferred from primary MSI (10-30 microns across) within peak pyrope, which contain Mg-Chl, Na-K-Phl, Cl-rich Ap, Zn-rich Py, and chlorides as daughter minerals, Tlc and Mgs as step-daughter minerals, and Rt, Zrn and Mnz as incidentally-trapped minerals. IR-synchrotron- radiation reveals the presence of an aqueous fluid in the inclusions and a significant water diffusion from MSI to host pyrope. Trace elements and REE patterns collected by LA-ICP-MS show substantial enrichment in LILE and depletion in HFSE in these fluids. Possible mechanisms for LILE-enriched fluid generation during the growth of pyrope at UHP conditions in the Dora Maira whiteschists are discussed.

  9. UV-laser ablation 40Ar/39Ar dating of pseudotachylite provides time constraints on exhumation of coesite-bearing Dora Maira whiteschists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosca, M.; Caby, R.

    2003-04-01

    At or near the roof of the coesite-bearing ultra high pressure (UHP) unit in the Dora Maira Massif, Italy, a ca. 50 m thick, gently west dipping (ca 15^o) band of gneissic rock containing cataclasite, protomylonite, and pseudotachylite is exposed over more than 1 km along an EW section. All kinematic critera observed in the gneiss, including late stage ductile deformation and later brittle structures and fault zones, are consistent with top-to-the west extensional shear. The youngest observable textural features are pseudotachylite veins up to 1 cm thick rooting in composite (ultramylonite/cataclasite/pseudotachylite) bands roughly parallel to the mylonitic foliation. Some pseudotachylite intrudes fractures within the gneiss at angles roughly perpendicular to the foliation. A polished thick section of a 1 cm band of pseudotachylite was prepared and analyzed by in situ UV-laser ablation 40Ar/39Ar dating. Different parts of the pseudotachylite yield analytically indistinguishable (2s) ages with a weighted mean of 20.1 ± 0.5 Ma. These data are consistent with recent zircon fission track ages from the gneiss (29.9 ± 1.4 Ma, Gebauer et al., 1997), and provide unequivocal evidence that the UHP rocks were in a near-surface position at this time. The pseudotachylite thus appears to represent a late manifestation of the rapid exhumation, which has been estimated at 2.0 to 2.4 cm/a for these rocks (Gebauer et al. 1997). Pseudotachylites form by localized deformation at high slip rates (> 0.1 m/s). The ˜1 cm thick pseudotachylite from the border of the UHP rocks represents significant localized deformation and melting, probably indicating that, even at relatively shallow crustal depths, exhumation of the UHP rocks may have occurred by discontinuous displacements of large magnitude.

  10. Magmatic/metasomatic amphibole in the mantle: evidence from the Balmuccia lherzolite massif, Ivrea zone, western Italian Alps

    SciTech Connect

    Shervais, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Amphibole and mica are the most important alkali-rich phases stable under mantle P-T conditions, and constitute the primary source of the alkalis needed to form basaltic magmas. Yet, the origin and distribution of these phases in the upper mantle is poorly understood. The Balmuccia lherzolite massif is a small slice of subcontinental mantle in the western Alps that intruded granulite facies lower crust 250 m.y. ago, and was exposed during the Alpine orogeny. Amphibole (HB) ranging in composition from Ti-pargasite to kaersutite in a minor but widespread accessory phase in the lherzolite, in websterite and bronzite dikes of the Cr-Di suite, and in pyroxenite and gabbro dikes of the Al-Aug suite. Textural and compositional relations show that HB in the Cr-Di and Al-Aug suite dikes formed by crystallization of residual magma, or by reaction between this magma and earlier formed phases (primarily spinel). Hb also occurs in thin (1-2 cm) veins of hornblendite and pyroxene hornblendite, and in the HB-enriched wallrock adjacent to these veins. Similar Hb veins in the Lherz massif have been shown to form from an alkali and water-enriched residual magma derived by filter pressing of Al-Aug pyroxenites. This origin is not possible at Balmuccia because the Hb veins have higher Ti, Cr, K/Na and Mgnumbers than any accessory Hb in Al-Aug suite dikes. Fractionation trends in the veins are controlled by HB. This requires that the HB veins formed from a separate and distinct parent magma that metasomatically enriched the lherzolite on a local scale. However, remelting of the widespread pyroxenite dikes may constitute a more important source of alkalis than the rare HB-rich veins.

  11. Fault mechanics at the base of the continental seismogenic zone: Insights from geochemical and mechanical analyses of a crustal-scale transpressional fault from the Argentera crystalline massif, French-Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclère, Henri; Lacroix, Brice; Fabbri, Olivier

    2014-09-01

    Faulting mechanics is examined by combining geochemical and mechanical analyses from a key exposure of a major fault zone crossing the Argentera crystalline massif (French-Italian Alps). The analyses are carried out on co-genetic and syn-tectonic quartz and chlorite extension veins and shear veins associated with late stage deformation in the fault zone. Paleothermometry based on chlorite compositions gives formation temperatures of 300 °C ± 20 °C, that is near the base of the seismogenic zone. δ18O values of quartz and δD and δ18O values of chlorite indicate that veins crystallized from a metamorphic fluid. In parallel, a mechanical analysis based on the Mohr-Coulomb theory shows that the pore fluid factor λv required to simultaneously reactivate the studied fault and to open the extension veins was close to a lithostatic value (λv ˜ 1). Comparisons with the 2003-2004 Ubaye seismic swarm, having occurred in the continuity of the studied fault zone, suggest that the base of the seismogenic zone may act as a limit separating an upper permeable reservoir saturated with meteoric waters under hydrostatic to supra-hydrostatic pressures from a lower low-permeability reservoir containing metamorphic waters under lithostatic pressure. This study suggests that overpressured fluids can be released upwards in the brittle crust by shear-enhanced permeability and can trigger earthquakes.

  12. Partial re-equilibration of highly siderophile elements and the chalcogens in the mantle: A case study on the Baldissero and Balmuccia peridotite massifs (Ivrea Zone, Italian Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zaicong; Becker, Harry; Gawronski, Timo

    2013-05-01

    primitive mantle values, whereas Au, Re and S are somewhat depleted. The good linear correlation of S with Al2O3 in both suites reflects sulfide removal controlled by sulfur solubility in silicate melt, or co-precipitation with pyroxenes and spinel, and indicates very similar bulk partition coefficients for S and Al. S/Se and Se/Te in the lherzolites change little with decreasing Al2O3. Results for BM lherzolites are consistent with sulfide-silicate melt partitioning as the dominant control on abundances of the HSE, S, Se and Te during low to moderate degrees of melt extraction (DPt > DPd > DTe ⩾ DSe ⩾ DS ≈ DRe). Replacive dunites at Balmuccia have low abundances of Re, Au, Pd and chalcogens, but variable and higher abundances of Os, Ir and Ru, high S/Se and Se/Te, yet 187Os/188Os similar to BM lherzolites. The residual HSE and chalcogen compositions differ from those in dunites of subduction-related ophiolites. The composition and contact relations of the BM dunites with the host rocks likely reflect focused flow of sulfur-undersaturated melt after open system melting and re-equilibration of the lherzolites. The compositional record of the Balmuccia massif thus reflects the composition of different types of melts and their interaction with the peridotites at different P-T conditions.

  13. Craddock Massif and Vinson Massif remeasured

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gildea, Damien; Splettstoesser, John F.

    2007-01-01

    The highest peak in Antarctica, the Vinson Massif (78º35’S, 85º25’W), is at an elevation of 4892 m (16,046 ft), as determined in 2004. Measurements of the elevation have fluctuated over the years, from its earliest surveyed elevation of 5140 m (16,859 ft), to its present height. Vinson Massif and three of its near neighbors in the Sentinel Range of the Ellsworth Mountains are the highest peaks in Antarctica, making them a favorite objective of mountaineers. Well over 1,100 people have climbed Vinson since the first ascent by a team in the 1966-67 austral summer. The range is composed of Crashsite quartzite, making the Sentinel’s very resistant to erosion. Very accurate elevations have been achieved annually by GPS mapping done by a climbing team sponsored by the Omega Foundation, active in Antarctica since 1998. The Craddock Massif now includes Mt. Craddock, the ninth highest peak in Antarctica, at 4368 m (14,327 ft). Both are named for Campbell Craddock*, a U.S. geologist active in Antarctic research beginning in 1959-60.

  14. Kondyor Massif, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is neither an impact crater nor a volcano. It is a perfect circular intrusion, about 10 km in diameter with a topographic ridge up to 600 m high. The Kondyor Massif is located in Eastern Siberia, Russia, north of the city of Khabarovsk. It is a rare form of igneous intrusion called alkaline-ultrabasic massif and it is full of rare minerals. The river flowing out of it forms placer mineral deposits. Last year 4 tons of platinum were mined there. A remarkable and very unusual mineralogical feature of the deposit is the presence of coarse crystals of Pt-Fe alloy, coated with gold. This 3-D perspective view was created by draping a simulated natural color ASTER composite over an ASTER-derived digital elevation model.

    The image was acquired on June 10, 2006, and is located at 57.6 degrees north latitude, 134.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  15. Fission track thermochronology: Methods and applications in tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    Time, temperature and the kinetics of reactions are the basic ingredients in this study of thermal history analysis. Unraveling the timing of geological events using absolute dating systems based on radioactive decay is not a trivial task, ages given by most radiometric dating techniques (e.g. fission track analysis) are apparent ages, related to cooling through some characteristic temperature range. Regional thermal history is fundamentally linked with tectonic history. The Dora Maira massif in the Western Alps provides an example of a pressure-temperature-time history well constrained by metamorphic petrology and radiometric dating. Simple models of conductive cooling and erosion are used to successfully model the thermal history of these ultra-high pressure rocks and shed light on possible tectonic scenarios for their origin. Numerical modeling suggests that continued refrigeration of the Dora Maira rocks by subducting lithosphere is not required to produce the observed metamorphic mineral assemblages. Fission track analysis, synthesis of results from other dating techniques, thermal modeling and metamorphic petrology are used to constrain the magnitude of cooling during extension in the Mojave Desert, California. Cooling paths constructed using fission track ages on apatite, zircon and sphene and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages on biotite, hornblende and phlogopite reveal the contrast in modes of cooling between upper and lower plate rocks. Upper plate rocks show no evidence for the rapid cooling that affected lower plate rocks during the Miocene extension in the region.

  16. Italian Clippings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Nigel J.

    1999-01-01

    Many languages use vast numbers of words borrowed from English, and modified (clipped) to use the first part of the word only. The paper provides examples, mainly from Italian, examining the linguistic reasons for such clipped forms and presents several clipped Italian terms used in English, noting that the same thing can happen in reverse. (SMN)

  17. The tectonics of anorthosite massifs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seyfert, C. K.

    1981-01-01

    Anorthosite massifs developed approximately 1.4 to 1.5 billion years ago along an arch which developed parallel to a zone of continental separation as a block which included North America, Europe, and probably Asia separated from a block which included parts of South America, Africa, India, and Australia. Anorthosite massifs also developed at the same time along a belt which runs through the continents which comprise Gondwanaland (South America), Africa, India, Australia, and Antarctica. This was a zone of continental separation which subsequently became a zone of continental collision about 1.2 billion years ago. The northern anorthosite belt also parallels an orogenic belt which was active between 1.8 and 1.7 billion years ago. Heat generated during this mountain building period helped in the formation of the anorthosites.

  18. Subduction of European continental crust to 70 km depth imaged in the Western Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Anne; Zhao, Liang; Guillot, Stéphane; Solarino, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The first conclusive evidence in support of the burial (and exhumation) of continental crust to depths larger than 90 km was provided by the discovery of coesite-bearing metamorphic rocks in the Dora Maira massif of the Western Alps (Chopin, 1984). Since then, even though similar outcrops of exhumed HP/UHP rocks have been recognized in a number of collisional belts, direct seismic evidences for subduction of continental crust in the mantle of the upper plate remain rare. In the Western Alps, the greatest depth ever recorded for the European Moho is 55 km by wide-angle seismic reflection (ECORS-CROP DSS Group, 1989). In an effort to image the European Moho at greater depth, and unravel the very complex lithospheric structure of the W-Alps, we have installed the CIFALPS temporary seismic array across the Southwestern Alps for 14 months (2012-2013). The almost linear array runs from the Rhône valley (France) to the Po plain (Italy) across the Dora Maira massif where exhumed HP/UHP metamorphic rocks of continental origin were first discovered. We used the receiver function processing technique that enhances P-to-S converted waves at velocity boundaries beneath the array. The receiver function records were migrated to depth using 4 different 1-D velocity models to account for the strongest structural changes along the profile. They were then stacked using the classical common-conversion point technique. Beneath the Southeast basin and the external zones, the obtained seismic section displays a clear converted phase on the European Moho, dipping gently to the ENE from ~35 km at the western end of the profile, to ~40 km beneath the Frontal Penninic thrust (FPT). The Moho dip then noticeably increases beneath the internal zones, while the amplitude of the converted phase weakens. The weak European Moho signal may be traced to 70-75 km depth beneath the eastern Dora Maira massif and the westernmost Po plain. At shallower level (20-40 km), we observe a set of strong

  19. Italian Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Annibale, Bruno; Carabotti, Marilia; Cuomo, Rosario

    2016-10-01

    Diverticular disease (DD) is a widespread condition, however limited evidences are available about its management and complications. In the last years, an Italian Consensus Conference promoted by GRIMAD (Gruppo Italiano Malattia Diverticolare, Italian Group on Diverticular Diseases) and a Guideline, by Italian Society of Colorectal Surgery (SICCR) were published. The aim of the Consensus was to provide clinical recommendation for appropriate definition, diagnosis, and management of DD, in particular 4 areas of interest were identified, namely: (i) definition and epidemiology, (ii) pathophysiology, (iii) diagnosis, and (iv) medical and surgical treatment. A total of 55 statements graded according to different level of evidence and strength of recommendation were approved. However, if we consider the grade of recommendation, their strength remains suboptimal, with only 3 statements with grade of evidence A in the area of diagnosis. The Clinical guidelines by SICCR focus mainly on acute diverticulitis, and surgical treatment of complicated DD. One of the main topic analyzed, is represented by the management of the acute uncomplicated diverticulitis, in particular about the use of antibiotics and need of hospitalization. Despite the presence of many recent European and western country guidelines, there is a lack of robust data on epidemiology, risk factors, and medical and surgical management of DD, calling the need of further studies aimed to obtain an evidence-based approach in this condition. PMID:27622363

  20. Teaching Business Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trivelli, Remo J.

    The University of Rhode Island's business Italian course is an advanced language course whose focus is the Italian business world and its reflection of values, customs, and traditions. The course begins with presentations on salient features of contemporary Italian, such as syntactical simplification and nominalization, and how the social,…

  1. Why Study Italian?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Charles

    1978-01-01

    One studies Italian for the same reason one studies any language--to become educated. Even more than for art and music, Italian is necessary for literature. Dante must be read, and in the original. Further, we study Italian to know our cultural roots and heritage. (AMH)

  2. The Lassell Massif - a Silicic Lunar Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, J.; Robinson, M. S.; Stopar, J. D.; Glotch, T. D.; Hawke, B. R.; Lawrence, S. J.; Jolliff, B. L.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Paige, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Lunar volcanic processes were dominated by mare-producing basaltic extrusions. However, limited occurrences of non-mare, geochemically evolved (Si-enriched) volcanic deposits have long been suspected on the basis of spectral anomalies (red spots), landform morphologies, and the occurrence of minor granitic components in Apollo sample suites [e.g., 1-5]. The LRO Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (Diviner) measured thermal emission signatures considered diagnostic of highly silicic rocks in several red spot areas [6,7], within the Marius domes [8], and from the Compton-Belkovich feature on the lunar farside [9]. The present study focuses on the Lassell massif red spot (14.73°S, 350.97°E) located in northeastern Mare Nubium near the center of Alphonsus A crater. Here we use Diviner coverage co-projected with Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) images [10] and digital elevation models to characterize the Lassell massif geomorphology and composition. Localized Diviner signatures indicating relatively high silica contents correlate with spatially distinct morphologic features across the Lassell massif. These features include sub-kilometer scale deposits with clear superposing relationships between units of different silica concentrations. The zone with the strongest signal corresponds to the southern half of the massif and the Lassell G and K depressions (formerly thought to be impact craters [11]). These steep-walled pits lack any obvious raised rims or ejecta blankets that would identify them as impact craters; they are likely explosive volcanic vents or collapse calderas. This silica-rich area is contained within the historic red spot area [4], but does not appear to fully overlap with it, implying compositionally distinct deposits originating from the same source region. Low-reflectance deposits, exposed by impact craters and mass wasting across the massif, suggest either basaltic pyroclastics or minor late-stage extrusion of basaltic lavas through vents

  3. Geochemistry of carbonatites of the Tomtor massif

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kravchenko, S.M.; Czamanske, G.; Fedorenko, V.A.

    2003-01-01

    Carbonatites compose sheet bodies in a 300-m sequence of volcanic lamproites, as well as separate large bodies at depths of >250-300 m. An analysis of new high-precision data on concentrations of major, rare, and rare earth elements in carbonatites shows that these rocks were formed during crystallization differentiation of a carbonatite magma, which resulted in enrichment of the later melt fractions in rare elements and was followed by autometasomatic and allometasomatic hydrothermal processes. Some independent data indicate that the main factor of ore accumulation in the weathered rock zone (also known as the "lower ore horizon" comprising metasomatized volcanics with interbedded carbonatites) was hydrothermal addition of Nb and REEs. The giant size of the Tomtor carbonatite-nepheline syenite massif caused advanced magma differentiation, extensive postmagmatic metasomatism and recrystallization of host rocks, and strong enrichment of carbonatites in incompatible rare and rare earth elements (except for Ta, Zr, Ti, K, and Rb) compared to the rocks of many other carbonatite massifs. We suggest that a wide range of iron contents in carbonatites-2 can be related to extensive magnetite fractionation at the magmatic stage in different parts of the huge massif. Copyright ?? 2003 by MAIK "Nauka/Interperiodica" (Russia).

  4. Tertiary carbonate development on the Shenhu Massif, South China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, N.L. ); Siemann-Gartmann, S. )

    1994-07-01

    The Shenhu Massif lies between the Zhu III Depression to the northwest, the Kaiping/Baiyun depressions to the northeast, and the Xisha Basin to the south. Major faulting began in the Paleocene, and initial basins formed on and around the Shenhu Massif during this time. Continental coarse clastics, derived from the massif area, filled the basins prior to the middle Oligocene though larger, deeper basins may have contained lacustrine environments. During the marine incursion from the middle Oligocene and until the early Miocene, coarse clastics were deposited adjacent to exposed basement areas, fine marine clastics were deposited on the massif, carbonate buildups formed along the massif rim, and carbonate platforms developed from the massif edge back into the shallow-water high-massif interior. In mid-lower Miocene, the carbonate areas were reduced in size and replaced by shales. Carbonate deposition as layers and mounds was reestablished over much of the Shenhu Massif in the early and middle Miocene. Prodelta shales in the east Shenhu Massif area and coarser clastics present in clinoforms in the Baiyun Depression are the distal components of a southerly prograding delta system located to the north. Carbonates continued to develop along the southeast side of the west Shenhu Massif during the latter part of the middle Miocene, but fine clastics dominated the rest of the area except in the Kaiping/Baiyun Depression where coarser clastics from the delta were deposited. Amoco and its partners, Nanhai West Oil Co. and Kerr-McGee Co., have begun evaluation of the Shenhu Massif area with the drilling of a Miocene carbonate buildup, the Amoco 23-1 Baodao prospect.

  5. Experimental and Modeling Studies of Massif Anorthosites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longhi, John

    1999-01-01

    This termination report covers the latter part of a single research effort spanning several grant cycles. During this time there was a single title, "Experimental and Modeling Studies of Massif Anorthosites", but there were several contract numbers as the mode and location of NASA contract administration changed. Initially, the project was funded as an increment to the PI's other grant, "Early Differentiation of the Moon: Experimental and Modeling Studies", but subsequently it became an independent grant. Table 1 contains a brief summary of the dates and contract numbers.

  6. Italienischunterricht (Italian Instruction).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moine, Virgile; And Others

    1965-01-01

    This issue of "Schulpraxis," a Swiss journal for language teaching, is devoted to Italian instruction in Switzerland. It includes: (1) an interpretation of the poem "Le morte chitarre" by Salvatore Quasimodo, conducted in a girls' school in German Switzerland, (2) a presentation of principles for an Italian textbook to be based on modern…

  7. The Genesis of tectonically and hydrothermally controlled industry mineral deposits: A geochemical and structural study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wölfler, Anke; Prochaska, Walter; Henjes-Kunst, Friedhelm; Fritz, Harald

    2010-05-01

    The study aims to investigate the role of hydrothermal fluids in the formation of talc and magnesite deposits. These deposits occur in manifold geological and tectonical settings such as stockworks and veins within ultramafite hostrocks and monomineralic lenses within marine platform sediments. Along shear zones talc mineralizations may occur as a result of tectonical and hydrothermal activity. To understand the role of the fluids for the genesis of the mineralization, deposits in different geological and tectonical settings are investigated: Talc mineralization within in magnesite in low-grade palaeozoic nappe complexes (Gemerska Poloma, Slovakia): The magnesite body lies within the Gemer unit of the Inner Carpathians consisting of Middle Triassic metacarbonates and Upper Triassic pelagic limestones and radiolarites. The talc mineralization is bound to crosscutting veins. Two metamorphic events can be distinguished, one during Variscan orogeny and one related to the Alpine orogeny leading to the formation of talc along faults in an Mg carbonate body (Radvanec et al, 2004).The origin of the fluids as well as the tectonic events leading to the mineralization is still widely unknown. Talc mineralization in shearzones within Palaeozoic meta sedimentary rocks (Sa Matta, Sardinia): Variscan granitoids intruded Palaeozoic meta sedimentary rocks and were overprinted be NE striking tectonic structures that host talc mineralizations. The origin of Mg and fluids leading to the mineralization is still not answered satisfactorily (Grillo and Prochaska, 2007) and thus a tectonic model for the genesis of the talc deposit is missing. Talc mineralization within UHP pre-Alpine continental crust (Val Chisone, Italy): The talc deposit forms part of the Dora-Maira Massif. Geologicaly the massif derived from a Variscan basement that includes post-Variscan intrusions. The talc mineralization occurs as a sheetlike, conformable body. A possible tectonic emplacement of talc along shear

  8. The Italian activist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanzaro, Michele

    2012-02-01

    Italian theoretical physicist Giorgio Parisi has been an outspoken critic of Silvio Berlusconi's lack of support for science. He talks about how physics may fare under the new administration led by the economist Mario Monti.

  9. Mineral inclusions in rutile: A novel recorder of HP-UHP metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Emma; Storey, Craig; Bruand, Emilie; Schertl, Hans-Peter; Alexander, Bruce D.

    2016-07-01

    The ability to accurately constrain the secular record of high- and ultra-high pressure metamorphism on Earth is potentially hampered as these rocks are metastable and prone to retrogression, particularly during exhumation. Rutile is among the most widespread and best preserved minerals in high- and ultra-high pressure rocks and a hitherto untested approach is to use mineral inclusions within rutile to record such conditions. In this study, rutiles from three different high- and ultrahigh-pressure massifs have been investigated for inclusions. Rutile is shown to contain inclusions of high-pressure minerals such as omphacite, garnet and high silica phengite, as well as diagnostic ultrahigh-pressure minerals, including the first reported occurrence of exceptionally preserved monomineralic coesite in rutile from the Dora-Maira massif. Chemical comparison of inclusion and matrix phases show that inclusions generally represent peak metamorphic assemblages; although rare prograde phases such as titanite, omphacite and corundum have also been identified implying that rutile grows continuously during prograde burial and traps mineralogic evidence of this evolution. Pressure estimates obtained from mineral inclusions, when used in conjunction with Zr-in-rutile thermometry, can provide additional constraints on the metamorphic conditions of the host rock. This study demonstrates that rutile is an excellent repository for high- and ultra-high pressure minerals and that the study of mineral inclusions in rutile may profoundly change the way we investigate and recover evidence of such events in both detrital populations and partially retrogressed samples.

  10. Italian protesters win concessions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2008-12-01

    Thousands of researchers and students who have taken to the streets in protest at reforms of Italian universities and public research institutes have won some limited concessions from the government. The protesters had argued that the reforms, which include significant budget cuts, would further weaken a research base that is already short of resources. The Italian government maintains that its reforms are necessary to modernize a university system that is corrupt and inefficient, but has reversed some of the cuts.

  11. Spatial thermal radiometry contribution to the Massif armoricain and the Massif central (France) litho-structural study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scanvic, J. Y. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Although the limited number of images received did not permit construction of a thermal inertia map, important geological details were obtained in the areas of lithology and tectonics. Interpretation of day, night, and seasonal imagery resulted in differentiating broad calcareous and dolomitic units in the Causse Plateau. In the Massif amoricain, some granite massifs were delineated which were not observed by LANDSAT. Neotectonic faults were also revealed.

  12. The present-day strain partitioning of the Western Alps and its relationships with the crustal scale geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, S.; Lardeaux, J. M.; Tricart, P.; Paul, A.; Béthoux, N.; Masson, F.

    2003-04-01

    In the orogenic belt, the combination of the geological data (tectonic, petrologic and kinematic analysis) with the geophysical imagery of the crust (regional seismicity, local earthquake tomography and gravimetry) allows to obtain crustal scale models coherent with the present-day deformation. In this way, the recent pluridisciplinary studies performed in the framework of " Geo-France 3D Alpes " show an important syn-convergence strain-partitioning at the scale of the western alpine belt. In the internal domain, this strain-partitioning, corresponds to extensional tectonics combinated with important strike-slip components while the external domain and the Po plain, located at the periphery, record an important shortening accomodated in surface by thrust and strike-slip faults. In order to understand the alpine present-day strain pattern, we propose and discuss a new crustal-scale cross-section performed along the Pelvoux-Dora Maira transect. The proeminent features of this crustal-scale geometry are : -the existence of a slice of cold and rigid mantle of Apulian origin beneath the Dora Maira massif. This rigid mantle is truncated in two distinct bodies by a system of deeply-rooted vertical faults related to the Insubric line. -these two main bodies of mantle acted as indenters driving the decoupling of the European crust and at least a part of the exhumation of the high-pressure metamorphic units. -the deep architecture is characterized by the stacking of crustal slices detached from the European lithosphere. Some of these slices represent tectonic extrusions within the overlying Piemont Schistes lustrés. -the Monviso eclogitized ophiolites are plunging up to 20 km depth below the Piemont schistes lustrés. In this geometrical model, the decoupling of the mantle identor drives the crustal-scale strain-partitioning of the western Alps. Indeed, the lower part of the rigid mantle transfers the compression onto the european foreland and is responsible for the present

  13. Italian in the Modern World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adorno, Elvira, Ed.

    This booklet of 15 reprinted letters sent in response to a query concerning the actual use of Italian in the United States designates various areas of professional application. Some reference to current Italian publications is included. It is hoped that these letters will help promote the study of Italian in American schools. (RL)

  14. Horizontal Strain Field for the Bohemian Massif, Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, V.; Pichl, R.; Schenkova, Z.; Marek, T.

    2010-12-01

    The horizontal strain field of the Bohemian Massif, central Europe, was assessed from GNSS data monitored on permanent stations of the Geodynamic Network of the Academy of Science of the Czech Republic (GEONAS) and of the Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre (CZEPOS). For every area a representative motion velocity was determined. Their comparison with general motions of the Eurasian plate ascertained by the NNR-NUVEL-1A model gave deviations characterizing recent influence of the Alps to the northern geological units, in our case the Bohemian Massif. From these motions a regional pattern of the horizontal strain field for the Bohemian Massif had been calculated. It was found that (i) the northern part of the Massif is under dominant E-W extensions and (ii) slight contractions were detected for the NNE-SSW direction in eastern regions of the Massif. Obtained results will be presented and discussed from a viewpoint of the Alpine structural unit actions to surrounding geological units.

  15. Seismic tomography of the Massif Central - The plume story revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granet, Michel; Achauer, Ulrich; Barruol, Guilhem

    2010-05-01

    Picking up on the earlier ideas from the 70', that there might be a mantle plume beneath the Massif Central, and following extensive seismological and petrological field work in the French Massif Central in the beginning of the 1990's a small-scale plume beneath the volcanic zone in the central part of the Massif Central, ascending from asthenospheric depths was postulated (Granet et al., 1995 a, b). Including Bouguer gravity and petrophysical modelling arguments this fascinating idea was further established and the name "baby-plume" was created for this kind of phenomena (Sobolev et al., 1997). However, the southeastern end and the depth extension of this plume structure could not be properly established, due to the limited aperture of the seismic arrays used at the time. This triggered a new research program, called TRACK, with the aim of tracking the traces of supposed small-scale continental mantle plume structures by integrated seismological methods. Part of Track was a new seismological field experiment carried out in central-southern part of the Massif Central in 1998/99, with seismic tomography and the study of seismic anisotropy at its core. The joint analysis of both data-sets suggests that the plume deflects to the South-East with depth, in accordance with the flow pattern suggested from SKS-splitting (Barruol and Granet,2002). In this paper we will present the new results (size and depth extent) of the mantle plume beneath the Massif Central and discuss the geodynamic implications.

  16. Know Your Laws. Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.

    This Italian language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult students with law they will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of the…

  17. Thematic Issue: Italian Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Michael, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    In 1964, when the "living" theatre appeared to be dying in New York, theater in Italy began changing from an author-oriented to a performance-oriented, nonliterary form. The articles in this document trace the historical development of Italian theatre and analyze current dramas which demonstrate the diversity of approaches and the energy and…

  18. Ordovician magmatism in the Lévézou massif (French Massif Central): tectonic and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotout, Caroline; Pitra, Pavel; Poujol, Marc; Van Den Driessche, Jean

    2016-08-01

    New U-Pb dating on zircon yielded ca. 470 Ma ages for the granitoids from the Lévézou massif in the southern French Massif Central. These new ages do not support the previous interpretation of these granitoids as syn-tectonic intrusions emplaced during the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous thrusting. The geochemical and isotopic nature of this magmatism is linked to a major magmatic Ordovician event recorded throughout the European Variscan belt and related to extreme thinning of continental margins during a rifting event or a back-arc extension. The comparable isotopic signatures of these granitoids on each side of the eclogite-bearing leptyno-amphibolitic complex in the Lévézou massif, together with the fact that they were emplaced at the same time, strongly suggest that these granitoids were originally part of a single unit, tectonically duplicated by either isoclinal folding or thrusting during the Variscan tectonics.

  19. (222)Rn activity concentration differences in groundwaters of three Variscan granitoid massifs in the Sudetes (NE Bohemian Massif, SW Poland).

    PubMed

    Przylibski, Tadeusz A; Gorecka, Joanna

    2014-08-01

    Based on research conducted in three Variscan granitoid massifs located within the crystalline Bohemian Massif, the authors confirmed that the higher the degree of their erosional dissection, the smaller the concentration of (222)Rn in groundwaters circulating in these massifs. This notion implies that radon waters and high-radon waters, from which at least some of the dissolved radon should be removed before feeding them as drinking water to the water-supply system, could be expected in granitoid massifs which have been poorly exposed by erosion. At the same time, such massifs must be taken into account as the areas of possible occurrence of radon medicinal waters, which in some countries can be used for balneotherapy in health resorts. Slightly eroded granitoid massifs should be also regarded as very probable radon prone areas or areas of high radon potential. PMID:24657989

  20. (222)Rn activity concentration differences in groundwaters of three Variscan granitoid massifs in the Sudetes (NE Bohemian Massif, SW Poland).

    PubMed

    Przylibski, Tadeusz A; Gorecka, Joanna

    2014-08-01

    Based on research conducted in three Variscan granitoid massifs located within the crystalline Bohemian Massif, the authors confirmed that the higher the degree of their erosional dissection, the smaller the concentration of (222)Rn in groundwaters circulating in these massifs. This notion implies that radon waters and high-radon waters, from which at least some of the dissolved radon should be removed before feeding them as drinking water to the water-supply system, could be expected in granitoid massifs which have been poorly exposed by erosion. At the same time, such massifs must be taken into account as the areas of possible occurrence of radon medicinal waters, which in some countries can be used for balneotherapy in health resorts. Slightly eroded granitoid massifs should be also regarded as very probable radon prone areas or areas of high radon potential.

  1. Oral Tradition of Italian-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Lucia Chiavola

    The assimilation of Italians into American culture led to the loss of the Italian language, and an oral tradition of Italian peasants in which Italian feminist philosophy was grounded. The legends, parables, and proverbs told by these Italian women challenged the teachings of Catholicism, perpetuating an underground religious tradition which…

  2. Massification in Higher Education: Large Classes and Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornsby, David J.; Osman, Ruksana

    2014-01-01

    In introducing the special issue on "Large Class Pedagogy: Opportunities and Challenges of Massification" the present editorial takes stock of the emerging literature on this subject. We seek to contribute to the massificaiton debate by considering one result of it: large class teaching in higher education. Here we look to large classes…

  3. Entrepreneurship and Image Management in Higher Education: Pillars of Massification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, Joan; Belanger, Charles H.

    2004-01-01

    Mass higher education has taken hold in the developed nations, and a widely held belief exists that higher education is a "right." With massification have emerged two notable trends: an entrepreneurial emphasis fuelled by the revenue-cost squeeze ensuing from reduced and realigned government funding; and a quest for differentiation through "Image…

  4. ESO from an Italian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, M.

    Italy joined the European Southern Observatory (ESO) 30 years ago. This membership has allowed Italian scientists and engineers to exploit the superior facilities provided by ESO and to successfully participate to their development and construction. Some of the effects on Italian astrophysics of these thirty years of membership and collaboration are briefly summarized. A few examples of high impact results obtained by Italians with the ESO telescopes are given for the fields of resolved stellar populations and galaxy evolution.

  5. Italian Polar Metadata System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, S.; Nativi, S.; Leone, C.; Migliorini, S.; Mazari Villanova, L.

    2012-04-01

    Italian Polar Metadata System C.Leone, S.Longo, S.Migliorini, L.Mazari Villanova, S. Nativi The Italian Antarctic Research Programme (PNRA) is a government initiative funding and coordinating scientific research activities in polar regions. PNRA manages two scientific Stations in Antarctica - Concordia (Dome C), jointly operated with the French Polar Institute "Paul Emile Victor", and Mario Zucchelli (Terra Nova Bay, Southern Victoria Land). In addition National Research Council of Italy (CNR) manages one scientific Station in the Arctic Circle (Ny-Alesund-Svalbard Islands), named Dirigibile Italia. PNRA started in 1985 with the first Italian Expedition in Antarctica. Since then each research group has collected data regarding biology and medicine, geodetic observatory, geophysics, geology, glaciology, physics and atmospheric chemistry, earth-sun relationships and astrophysics, oceanography and marine environment, chemistry contamination, law and geographic science, technology, multi and inter disciplinary researches, autonomously with different formats. In 2010 the Italian Ministry of Research assigned the scientific coordination of the Programme to CNR, which is in charge of the management and sharing of the scientific results carried out in the framework of the PNRA. Therefore, CNR is establishing a new distributed cyber(e)-infrastructure to collect, manage, publish and share polar research results. This is a service-based infrastructure building on Web technologies to implement resources (i.e. data, services and documents) discovery, access and visualization; in addition, semantic-enabled functionalities will be provided. The architecture applies the "System of Systems" principles to build incrementally on the existing systems by supplementing but not supplanting their mandates and governance arrangements. This allows to keep the existing capacities as autonomous as possible. This cyber(e)-infrastructure implements multi-disciplinary interoperability following

  6. A "Quiz" on Italian Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Giuseppe Antonio

    1940-01-01

    The cultural achievements of Italy are utilized to spur interest in the study of Italian. A weekly, multiple-choice type quiz posted on the Italian bulletin board questions curious passers-by in the areas of fine arts, literature, science, geography, history, and miscellaneous items. Sample items of this motivational device follow a description of…

  7. The Apollo 17 samples: The Massifs and landslide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham

    1992-01-01

    More than 50 kg of rock and regolith samples, a little less than half the total Apollo 17 sample mass, was collected from the highland stations at Taurus-Littrow. Twice as much material was collected from the North Massif as from the South Massif and its landslide (the apparent disproportionate collecting at the mare sites is mainly a reflection of the large size of a few individual basalt samples). Descriptions of the collection, documentation, and nature of the samples are given. A comprehensive catalog is currently being produced. Many of the samples have been intensely studied over the last 20 years and some of the rocks have become very familiar and depicted in popular works, particularly the dunite clast (72415), the troctolite sample (76535), and the station 6 boulder samples. Most of the boulder samples have been studied in Consortium mode, and many of the rake samples have received a basic petrological/geochemical characterization.

  8. K-alkaline rocks and lamproites of Tomtor massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladykin, Nikolai

    2015-04-01

    Tomtor massif of the largest volcano-plutonic deep alkaline-carbonatite massifs world central type. Area of massif occupy 240 km2 and carbonatites stock is 40 km2. The super large deposit of Nb, TR, Y, Sc, Sr ,REE (Frolov et al. 2001)is found within the massif. The numerical publication are devoted to the ore mineralization there. But the geological struc-ture of the massif and the chemistry of its constituting rocks are not well understood. We obtained new ages based on U-Pb zircon and mica Ar-Ar method (Kotov, Vladykin et al. 2014 Vladykin et al. 2015). The massif was created in 2 stages: 700 and 400 Ma. We (Vla-dykin et al 1998) found rocks of lamproite series and proposed a new scheme of magmatism and the ore.genesis (Vladykin 2007, 2009). Biotite - pyroxenite, peridotite originated in first stage and then intruded iolites, nepheline and alkali syenite. Syenites occupy 70% of -massif and contain 12-13% K2O and 2-4% Na2O showing the K-alkaline-ultramafic nature of Tomtor volcano-plutonic massif (Vladykin 2009). The first stage was accomplished by nelsonitov calcite, dolomite and ankerite carbonatites. Second stage (400Ma) volcanics picrite - lamproite veins and eruptive breccias meli-lite, melanephelinites, tinguaites appered. These rocks are cut by carbonatites of second stage. It was finished by intensive explosive eruption of a silicate (lamproite) tuffs lavobrec-cia kimberlite formed Ebelyakhdiamondiferous placer, melilite rocks in diatremes (feeders), as well as carbonate-phosphate (kamaforite) explosive tuffs with siderite ores. This carbona-tite complex is preserved within the subsidence caldera. Tuff eruption in conjunction with gas and hydrothermal activity determined its rare metal mineralization. These rocks contain to: Nb- 21%, TR-15%, Y-1.5%, Sc-1%, Zr- 0,5% Zn-, Sr-6%, Ti-8%, Ba-4%, V - 8000 ppm, Be- 300 ppm, Ga- 80 ppm, Cr- 1200ppm, Ni- 230 ppm, Mo- 145 ppm, Pb- 4300 ppm, Th- 1500 ppm, U-193 ppm. Picrite - olivine (rare leucite) lamproite and

  9. Miocene mass-transport sediments, Troodos Massif, Cyprus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lord, A.R.; Harrison, R.W.; BouDagher-Fadel, M.; Stone, B.D.; Varol, O.

    2009-01-01

    Sediment mass-transport layers of submarine origin on the northern and southern flanks of the Troodos ophiolitic massif are dated biostratigraphically as early Miocene and late Miocene, respectively and therefore represent different seismogenic events in the uplift and erosional history of the Troodos terrane. Analysis of such events has potential for documenting Miocene seismic and uplift events regionally in the context of changing stress field directions and plate vectors through time. ?? 2009 The Geologists' Association.

  10. The Lassell massif-A silicic lunar volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, J. W.; Robinson, M. S.; Stopar, J. D.; Glotch, T. D.; Hawke, B. Ray; van der Bogert, C. H.; Hiesinger, H.; Lawrence, S. J.; Jolliff, B. L.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Giguere, T. A.; Paige, D. A.

    2016-07-01

    Lunar surface volcanic processes are dominated by mare-producing basaltic extrusions. However, spectral anomalies, landform morphology, and granitic or rhyolitic components found in the Apollo sample suites indicate limited occurrences of non-mare, geochemically evolved (Si-enriched) volcanic deposits. Recent thermal infrared spectroscopy, high-resolution imagery, and topographic data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) show that most of the historic "red spots" and other, less well-known locations on the Moon, are indeed silica rich (relative to basalt). Here we present a geologic investigation of the Lassell massif (14.65°S, 350.96°E) near the center of Alphonsus A basin in Mare Nubium, where high-silica thermal emission signals correspond with morphological indications of viscous (possibly also explosive) extrusion, and small-scale, low-reflectance deposits occur in a variety of stratigraphic relationships. Multiple layers with stair-step lobate forms suggest different eruption events or pulsing within a single eruption. Absolute model ages derived from crater size-frequency distributions (CSFDs) indicate that the northern parts of the massif were emplaced at ∼4 Ga, before the surrounding mare. However, CSFDs also indicate the possibility of more recent resurfacing events. The complex resurfacing history might be explained by either continuous resurfacing due to mass wasting and/or the emplacement of pyroclastics. Relatively low-reflectance deposits are visible at meter-scale resolutions (below detection limits for compositional analysis) at multiple locations across the massif, suggestive of pyroclastic activity, a quenched flow surface, or late-stage mafic materials. Compositional evidence from 7-band UV/VIS spectral data at the kilometer-scale and morphologic evidence for possible caldera collapse and/or explosive venting support the interpretation of a complex volcanic history for the Lassell massif.

  11. The French Atlantic littoral and the Massif Armoricain, part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verger, F. (Principal Investigator); Scanvic, J. Y.; Monget, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results: (1) An original map of lineaments of the Armorican Massif and the Vendean platform was prepared. (2) Validity of spatial information through comparison with maps of various kinds, such as geological, geophysical, morphological, etc., was verified. (3) It was confirmed that LANDSAT images, in many cases, reflect data on deep phenomena which were only accessible geophysically and by means of borings. Tectonic domains were outlined, and known lineaments were extended.

  12. Complete Alpine reworking of the northern Menderes Massif, western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenki-Tok, B.; Expert, M.; Işık, V.; Candan, O.; Monié, P.; Bruguier, O.

    2016-07-01

    This study focuses on the petrology, geochronology and thermochronology of metamorphic rocks within the northern Menderes Massif in western Turkey. Metasediments belonging to the cover series of the Massif record pervasive amphibolite-facies metamorphism culminating at ca. 625-670 °C and 7-9 kbars. U-Th-Pb in situ ages on monazite and allanite from these metapelites record crustal thickening and nappe stacking associated with the internal imbrication of the Anatolide-Taurides platform during the Eocene. In addition, new 39Ar/40Ar single muscovite grain analyses on deformed rocks were performed in three localities within the northern Menderes Massif and ages range from 19.8 to 25.5 Ma. These mylonites may be related to both well-known detachments, Simav to the north and Alaşehir to the south, which accommodate Oligo-Miocene exhumation of the Menderes core complex. U-Th-Pb data on monazite grains (22.2 ± 0.2 Ma) from migmatites emplaced within the Simav detachment confirm these ages.

  13. Non-Standard Italian Dialect Heritage Speakers' Acquisition of Clitic Placement in Standard Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examines the acquisition of object clitic placement in Standard Italian by heritage speakers (HSs) of non-standard Italian dialects. It compares two different groups of Standard Italian learners--Northern Italian dialect HSs and Southern Italian dialect HSs--whose heritage dialects contrast with each other in clitic word order.…

  14. An Xrootd Italian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccali, T.; Donvito, G.; Diacono, D.; Marzulli, G.; Pompili, A.; Della Ricca, G.; Mazzoni, E.; Argiro, S.; Gregori, D.; Grandi, C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Lista, L.; Fabozzi, F.; Barone, L. M.; Santocchia, A.; Riahi, H.; Tricomi, A.; Sgaravatto, M.; Maron, G.

    2014-06-01

    The Italian community in CMS has built a geographically distributed network in which all the data stored in the Italian region are available to all the users for their everyday work. This activity involves at different level all the CMS centers: the Tier1 at CNAF, all the four Tier2s (Bari, Rome, Legnaro and Pisa), and few Tier3s (Trieste, Perugia, Torino, Catania, Napoli, ...). The federation uses the new network connections as provided by GARR, our NREN (National Research and Education Network), which provides a minimum of 10 Gbit/s to all the sites via the GARR-X[2] project. The federation is currently based on Xrootd[1] technology, and on a Redirector aimed to seamlessly connect all the sites, giving the logical view of a single entity. A special configuration has been put in place for the Tier1, CNAF, where ad-hoc Xrootd changes have been implemented in order to protect the tape system from excessive stress, by not allowing WAN connections to access tape only files, on a file-by-file basis. In order to improve the overall performance while reading files, both in terms of bandwidth and latency, a hierarchy of xrootd redirectors has been implemented. The solution implemented provides a dedicated Redirector where all the INFN sites are registered, without considering their status (T1, T2, or T3 sites). An interesting use case were able to cover via the federation are disk-less Tier3s. The caching solution allows to operate a local storage with minimal human intervention: transfers are automatically done on a single file basis, and the cache is maintained operational by automatic removal of old files.

  15. ACROSTUDY: the Italian experience.

    PubMed

    Grottoli, S; Maffei, P; Bogazzi, F; Cannavò, S; Colao, A; Ghigo, E; Gomez, R; Graziano, E; Monterubbianesi, M; Jonsson, P; De Marinis, L

    2015-02-01

    ACROSTUDY is a world-wide non-interventional, post marketing surveillance study performed to monitor the safety and outcomes of pegvisomant (PEG) in clinical practice. We report data from acromegaly patients who have been included in the Italian ACROSTUDY registry. The data of 341 acromegaly patients (171 males) were available for analysis using data freeze (12/9/2012). Patients were enrolled in 25 Italian endocrine centres. Before and during PEG treatment IGF-I, liver enzymes, metabolic parameters, and pituitary MRI were assessed. Before PEG, 54.3% patients had been treated with medical therapy and surgery, 22.9% medical therapy only, and 15.8% medical plus radiation and surgical therapy. 199 adverse events were reported in 98 patients (28.7%). Serious adverse events were documented in 29 patients (8.5%). 71.1% of patients had no significant change in tumor volume. Central MRI reading was performed in 34 patients; in 7 patients, an increase in tumor volume was found. Hormonal efficacy progressively increased since the start of PEG. After 6 years, normal IGF-I levels were found in 70.9% of patients (mean daily dose 18.1 mg). 87.1% of patients were treated with daily PEG although in 8.8% of patients, it was administered 2-6 times per week and in 3.8% with weekly injections. 74.8% received a PEG dose 10-15 mg/daily. PEG is a drug with a favorable safety profile which is efficacious also considering that in Italy it is currently available as third-line therapy. PMID:25150035

  16. Mohorovicic discontinuity depth analysis beneath North Patagonian Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Dacal, M. L.; Tocho, C.; Aragón, E.

    2013-05-01

    The North Patagonian Massif is a 100000 km2, sub-rectangular plateau that stands out 500 to 700 m higher in altitude than the surrounding topography. The creation of this plateau took place during the Oligocene through a sudden uplift without noticeable internal deformation. This quite different mechanical response between the massif and the surrounding back arc, the short time in which this process took place and a regional negative Bouguer anomaly in the massif area, raise the question about the isostatic compensation state of the previously mentioned massif. In the present work, a comparison between different results about the depth of the Mohorovicic discontinuity beneath the North Patagonian Massif and a later analysis is made. It has the objective to analyze the crustal thickness in the area to contribute in the determination of the isostatic balance and the better understanding of the Cenozoic evolution of the mentioned area. The comparison is made between four models; two of these were created with seismic information (Feng et al., 2006 and Bassin et al., 2000), another model with gravity information (Barzaghi et al., 2011) and the last one with a combination of both techniques (Tassara y Etchaurren, 2011). The latter was the result of the adaptation to the work area of a three-dimensional density model made with some additional information, mainly seismic, that constrain the surfaces. The work of restriction and adaptation of this model, the later analysis and comparison with the other three models and the combination of both seismic models to cover the lack of resolution in some areas, is presented here. According the different models, the crustal thickness of the study zone would be between 36 and 45 Km. and thicker than the surrounding areas. These results talk us about a crust thicker than normal and that could behave as a rigid and independent block. Moreover, it can be observed that there are noticeable differences between gravimetric and seismic

  17. Higher Education, Changing Labour Market and Social Mobility in the Era of Massification in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho; Wu, Alfred M.

    2016-01-01

    This article attempts to investigate the relationship between the massification of higher education, labour market and social mobility in contemporary China. Though only a short period of time has elapsed from elite to mass education, China's higher education has been characterised as a wide, pervasive massification process. Similar to other East…

  18. Massification without Equalisation: The Politics of Higher Education, Graduate Employment and Social Mobility in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Siu-yau

    2016-01-01

    This article explains why the massification of higher education in Hong Kong has, contrary to the predictions of received wisdom, failed to enhance the upward social mobility of the youth in the city. Building upon recent literature in political science, it argues that massification can take different forms, which in turn determine the effects of…

  19. Social Class Barriers of the Massification of Higher Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ru-Jer, Wang

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the rapid growth of higher education in Taiwan has led to an essential shift from education for the elite to the massification of higher education. Although this massification is making higher education more accessible, one of the main concerns is whether opportunities for higher education are the same among all social classes in…

  20. Zirconology of ultrabasic rocks of the Karabash massif (Southern Urals)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnobaev, A. A.; Valizer, P. M.; Anfilogov, V. N.; Sergeev, S. A.; Rusin, A. I.; Busharina, S. V.; Medvedeva, E. V.

    2016-07-01

    Dating of zircon (SHRIMP) from dunite and harzburgite of the Karabash massif was carried out for the first time. Relics of ancient crystals (1940 ± 30 Ma in harzburgite, 1860 ± 16 Ma in dunite) provide evidence for the Paleoproterozoic age of the protolith. The morphological peculiarities of zircon crystals allow us to assume differentiation of the magmatic source 1720 m. y. ago. The major variety of zircons indicates stages of metamorphic evolution in the Neoproterozoic (530-560 Ma) and Early-Late Ordovician (440-480 Ma).

  1. Petrogenetic characteristics of mafic-ultramafic massifs in Nizhne-Derbinsk complex (East Sayan Mountains)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkasova, T.; Chernishov, A.; Goltsova, Yu; Timkin, T.; Abramova, R.

    2015-11-01

    The article describes the results of petrographic, petrochemical, petrofabric, mineralogical and geochemical studies of the major rock groups potentially Cu, Ni, Pt ore- bearing mafic-ultramafic massifs in the Nizhne- Derbinsk complex (Eastern Sayan Mountains). Based on the data interpretation the investigated massifs can be classified as peridotite- pyroxenite-gabbronorite formation of geosynclinal regime in Altai-Sayan folding area. Significant massif deformation occurred during the final post-consolidation formation stage. The petrographic features of gabbro and petrofabric patterns of the rock-forming minerals in the Burlakski and Nizhne-Derbinsk massifs indicated the fact that massifs were involved in the accretion-collisional development stage of the Central Asian folding belt during the final formation stages the Nizhne-Derbinsk complex.

  2. Exotic crustal components at the northern margin of the Bohemian Massif-Implications from Usbnd Thsbnd Pb and Hf isotopes of zircon from the Saxonian Granulite Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagawe, Anja; Gärtner, Andreas; Linnemann, Ulf; Hofmann, Mandy; Gerdes, Axel

    2016-06-01

    The Saxonian Granulite Massif is located at the northern margin of the Saxo-Thuringian Zone of the peri-Gondwana Bohemian Massif. Eight felsic and mafic granulites were studied with respect to their geochemistry and Usbnd Pb zircon geochronology. The felsic granulites are interpreted to be derived from continental crust of possible granitoid composition. An origin from depleted mantle sources with IAT to MORB composition can be assumed for the mafic granulites. The peak of metamorphism is thought to be timed at about 340 Ma, while several earlier metamorphic events are supposed to have occurred at about 355-360, 370-375, 405, and 450 Ma. They reveal a complex and polyphased geologic evolution of the Saxonian Granulite Massif. Protolith emplacement likely took place at c. 450 and 494 Ma. Hf isotopic data suggest Mesoproterozoic crustal ages at least for parts of the massif. As these crustal ages are exotic for the Bohemian Massif, their origin has to be searched elsewhere. Potential source areas could be Amazonia and Baltica, of which the latter is the one preferred. Furthermore, a composite architecture with at least two components-the felsic granulites with Mesoproterozoic crustal model ages, and the mafic granulites of potential island arc origin-is hypothesised. Their amalgamation to the recent appearance of the Saxonian Granulite Massif is likely bracketed between 375 and 340 Ma.

  3. Mesoscopic faults in the Bregaglia (Bergell) massif, Central Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passerini, P.; Sguazzoni, G.; Marcucci, M.

    1991-11-01

    The strike, direction of dip and pitch of the striae along mesoscopic faults in the Oligocene granodiorite-tonalite of Val Masino-Val Bregaglia (Bergell) are analysed. Most fault planes are steeply dipping, and show strike-slip or oblique-slip motion. Dominant strikes are NNW or NNE. A relative chronology of fault sets is suggested based on the presence of different minerals (chlorite and epidote) on fault planes. The pattern of mesoscopic faults in the Val Masino-Val Bregaglia massif does not follow the earlier tectonic trends of the Pennidic nappe edifice, nor even the trend of the nearby section of the Insubric Line considered at both regional and mesoscopic scales. The mesoscopic analysis of the Val Masino-Val Bregaglia massif thus reveals a fault system largely oblique to the major Alpine lineaments. The observed fault pattern does not reveal traces of thrusting referable to late Alpine orogenic phases, and can be related to subsequent deformation, dominated by strike-slip movements; this pattern does not match the traditional schemes of extensional dip-slip faulting following orogenesis. It records a stage of tectonic evolution which follows nappe emplacement, yet it precedes vertical or extensional post-orogenic tectonics.

  4. [Italian Thesaurus of Bioethics, TIB].

    PubMed

    Navarini, Claudia; Poltronieri, Elisabetta

    2004-01-01

    The article aims at illustrating the characteristics and functions of a monolingual thesaurus, focusing on the Italian Thesaurus of Bioethics (Thesaurus Italiano di Bioetica, TIB) the controlled vocabulary used to index and retrieve documents within SIBIL (Italian Online Bioethics Information System). TIB includes controlled terms (descriptors) translated from the Bioethics Thesaurus adopted by the Kennedy Institute of Ethics of the Georgetown University of Washington and revised according to the Italian context of study and scientific debate in the field of bioethics. The overall amount of TIB terms consists in over 1600 headings. Methods to link thesaurus terms hierarchically, by association and by showing synonyms as recommended in ISO standards are applied with reference to descriptors drawn from TIB. Future plans to make the English version of TIB available online within European networks are also illustrated, aiming at spreading information relating to bioethics at an international level.

  5. The promotion of geotourism in protected areas: a proposal of itinerary through the Matese Massif (Campania and Molise regions, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosskopf, Carmen Maria; Filocamo, Francesca; Amato, Vincenzo; Cesarano, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    The Matese Massif is a ca. 1000 km2 wide and NW-SE elongated carbonate relief, located in the inner sector of the Southern Apennine chain. It has a tabular setting with steep structural slopes bordering the central high mountain sector including its major peaks and is crossed from approximately west to east by the border between Campania and Molise regions. The Matese Mountains represent a key area for the comprehension of the geological and tectonic evolution of the Southern Apennines since Mesozoic times. Its long-term geomorphological evolution has been controlled by Quaternary tectonics and climate variations that have allowed the temporary or permanent establishment of various environments and morphodynamics. Deposits and landforms originated by glacial, periglacial, karst and fluvial processes, along with a rich assemblage of tectonic-structural features and landforms of complex origin have given origin to a geological heritage of exceptional value. The geosites actually censured within the Campanian sector of Matese are reported in the Geosites Map of Campania, available at the website of Campania Region and partly included in the Italian Geosites Inventory of ISPRA. The geosites of the Molise sector have been recently assessed within the geosite inventory carried out by Molise University. They are reported in the Geosites Map of Molise, available at the website of Molise Region, and partly included in the ISPRA's National Inventory of Geosites. The Matese area is largely included in protected areas: the Campania portion falls within the Matese Regional Park, established in 2002, while most of the Molise sector falls in the extensive ZPS/SIC IT72222287. To better protect and exploit the unique natural and geological heritage of the Matese Massif, numerous initiatives aimed at the establishment of the National Park of Matese have continued for several years and very recent attempts to promote the Matese Geopark have been made, but unfortunately without any

  6. The Teacher of Italian and the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallock, Ann H.

    This paper presents a case-study of the successful nine-month plan with which Tulane University guaranteed the growth and continuation of its Italian program. The paper provides a blueprint for the teacher of Italian on any campus who wishes to strengthen the position of his Italian program in this era when dwindling federal, state and university…

  7. Petrogenesis of Variscan lamproites of the Bohemian Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krmíček, Lukáš; Romer, Rolf L.; Glodny, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Paleozoic convergence of Laurussia and Gondwana-derived terranes with subduction of oceanic and continental crust of various compositions metasomatized the local mantle, a process which eventually led to a highly heterogeneous lithospheric mantle beneath the European Variscides. The eastern termination of the European Variscides (Moldanubian and Saxo-Thuringian zones of the Bohemian Massif in the Czech Republic, Austria, Germany, and Poland) is unusual as within a small area, the mantle had been modified by material from several subduction zones. Along the eastern border of the Bohemian Massif, mantle-derived dyke intrusions of peralkaline, perpotassic, and ultrapotassic compositions occur. The rocks are distinguished by mineral associations with K-amphibole and Fe-microcline and correspond mineralogically to a new variety of silica-rich lamproites. Lamproites from the Moldanubian Zone contain characteristic Ba-Ti-Zr accessory minerals (e.g., baotite, benitoite, hollandite), whereas lamproites from the Saxo-Thuringian Zone lack these minerals. Variscan lamproites from the Bohemian Massif sampled lithospheric mantle, whose chemical signature reflects extreme depletion (low CaO and Al2O3 contents) followed by strong metasomatic enrichment by material released from the subducted rocks, giving rise to crust-like trace element pattern, variably radiogenic Sr and unradiogenic Nd isotopic compositions, crustal Pb isotopic compositions, and a wide range of δ7Li ratios ranging from markedly positive to highly negative values. The metasomatic component is variably prominent in the lamproites, depending on the extent of partial melting, and the nature of the source of the metasomatic component. Preferential melting of the metasomatically enriched lithospheric mantle with stable K-amphibole resulted in lamproitic melts with very negative δ7Li values, which correlate positively with the peralkalinity, HFSE contents, and lower ɛNd of these rocks. Both, higher degree of

  8. Education and Italian Regional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Liberto, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the connection between growth and human capital in a convergence regression for the panel of Italian regions. We include measures of average primary, secondary and tertiary education. We find that increased education seems to contribute to growth only in the South. Decomposing total schooling into its three constituent…

  9. Nonverbal Communication among Italian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri-Bernardoni, Joseph M.

    Participant observation and author introspection were used to collect data in this study of nonverbal communication among Italian Americans in three large American cities. Discussion is given to kinesics (gestures and signs), haptics (touch), proxemics (interiors of homes, exteriors of homes, and spatial arrangements at a wedding dinner), and…

  10. Structural investigations in the Massif-Central, France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scanvic, J. Y.

    1974-01-01

    This survey covered the French Massif-Central (where crystalline and volcanic rocks outcrop) and its surrounding sedimentaries, Bassin de Paris, Bassin d'Aquitaine and Rhodanian valley. One objective was the mapping of fracturing and the surveying of its relationship with known ore deposits. During this survey it was found that ERTS imagery outlines lithology in some sedimentary basins. On the other hand, in a basement area, under temperature climate conditions, lithology is rarely expressed. These observations can be related to the fact that band 5 gives excellent results above sedimentary basins in France and generally band 7 is the most useful in a basement area. Several examples show clearly the value of ERTS imagery for mapping linear features and circular structures. All the main fractures are identified with the exception of new ones found both in sedimentaries and basement areas. Other interesting findings concern sun elevation which, stereoscopic effect not being possible, simulates relief in a better way under certain conditions.

  11. Structural geology investigation on Massif Central and Parisian Basin (France)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weecksteen, G. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Band 5 gives the most information concerning the fracturing in the Massif Central and Parisian Basins. Band 6 and 7 show the fractures emphasized by forest boundaries and by the linear trace of water courses. The most remarkable information drawn from the preliminary investigation of two ERTS-1 images covering two different landscapes, a regular relief of shelving plateau bounded by cuestas having a sedimentary origin and a mountainous region built in crystalline and volcanic rocks, is that the deep structural elements under a thick sedimentary cover can be translated on the surface by indirect criteria. MSS imagery has permitted the Metz fault to be extended towards the west and shows clearly, through land use on the Rhone Valley fluvial deposit, the continuation towards the east of the carboniferous basin of St. Etienne.

  12. Petrogenesis of massif anorthosites: a perspective from St. Urbain, Quebec

    SciTech Connect

    Gromet, L.P.; Dymek, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    The St. Urbain massif is a post-orogenic anorthosite pluton (approx. 500 km/sup 2/) emplaced within the central high-grade granulite terrain of the Grenville structural province. In contrast to other Grenville anorthosites, primary magmatic features are largely preserved. The massif consists predominantly of andesine anorthosite (AA) of remarkable purity containing abundant plagioclase megacrysts. AA has high K/sub 2/O (approx. 2 wgt.%), very high Sr contents (approx. 1200 ppm) and highly fractionated, low REE contents. Features of AA provide the following insights into anorthosite origins: (1) Crystallization from anorthositic magmas, as evidenced by early crystallization of abundant antiperthitic plag, and igneous emplacement of AA dikes and veins into older, unrelated labradorite anorthosite; (2) in situ crystallization of pyroxene after plag, with no direct evidence of earlier crystallization of mafic minerals from a basaltic parent magma; (3) limited differentiation during crystallization, indicated by small variation in plag and opx and limited variations in plag Sr and REE contents; (4) the involvement of water, suggested by the late igneous crystallization of biotite and the localized grain-boundary replacement of plag by calcic myrmekite (An/sub 80/ + qtz). (5) high temperature, relatively oxidizing conditions, indicated by magmatic hemoilmenite +/- rutile and rare ferropseudobrookite in AA and associated ores. AA crystallized from highly feldspathic, relatively oxidized, somewhat hydrous parent magma with little trapped melt. The development of a hyperfeldspathic parent magma with the requisite geochemical features can be ascribed to hydrous partial melting of mafic (to intermediate) rocks at deep crustal or greater depths, leaving a garnetiferous residue.

  13. Serpentinization and Life: Motivations for Drilling the Atlantis Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frueh-Green, G. L.; Lang, S. Q.; Brazelton, W. J.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2014-12-01

    The Atlantis Massif, located at the intersection of the Atlantis transform fault and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 30°N, is one of the best-studied oceanic core complexes (OCCs) and is the target of IODP Expedition 357 late 2015. Drilling will address two exciting discoveries in ridge research: off-axis, serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal activity and carbonate precipitation, exemplified by the Lost City hydrothermal field, and the significance of tectono-magmatic processes in forming heterogeneous and variably serpentinized lithosphere as key components of slow spreading ridges. Serpentinization reactions at moderate- to low-temperatures result in alkaline fluids, characterized by elevated concentrations of abiotic hydrogen, methane and low molecular weight hydrocarbons, and which lead to precipitation of carbonate and brucite upon mixing with seawater. These highly reactive systems have major consequences for lithospheric cooling, global geochemical cycles, carbon sequestration and microbial activity. However, little is known about the nature and distribution of microbial communities in subsurface ultramafic environments and the potential for a hydrogen-based deep biosphere in areas of active serpentinization and fluid circulation. The continuous flux of reduced compounds provides abundant thermodynamic energy to drive chemolithoautotrophy, however, carbon availability may be limited in these high pH environments and represent a challenge for microbial growth. Here we review serpentinization processes as fundamental to understanding the evolution of oceanic lithosphere and discuss open questions related to the impact of serpentinization on the subsurface biosphere. Motivations for drilling the shallow subseafloor of the Atlantis Massif include: (1) exploring the extent and activity of the subsurface biosphere in young ultramafic and mafic seafloor; (2) quantifying the role of serpentinization in driving hydrothermal systems, in sustaining microbiological communities

  14. Cenozoic rejuvenation events of Massif Central topography (France): Insights from cosmogenic denudation rates and river profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivetti, Valerio; Godard, Vincent; Bellier, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    The French Massif Central is a part of the Hercynian orogenic belt that currently exhibits anomalously high topography. The Alpine orogenesis, which deeply marked Western European topography, involved only marginally the Massif Central, where Cenozoic faulting and short-wavelength crustal deformation is limited to the Oligocene rifting. For this reason the French Massif Central is a key site to study short- and long-term topographic response in a framework of slow tectonic activity. In particular the origin of the Massif Central topography is a topical issue still debated, where the role of mantle upwelling is invoked by different authors. Here we present a landscape analysis using denudation rates derived from basin-averaged cosmogenic nuclide concentrations coupled with longitudinal river profile analysis. This analysis allows us to recognize that the topography of the French Massif Central is not fully equilibrated with the present base level and in transient state. Our data highlight the coexistence of out-of-equilibrium river profiles, incised valleys, and low cosmogenically derived denudation rates ranging between 40 mm/kyr and 80 mm/kyr. Addressing this apparent inconsistency requires investigating the parameters that may govern erosion processes under conditions of reduced active tectonics. The spatial distribution of denudation rates coupled with topography analysis enabled us to trace the signal of the long-term uplift history and to propose a chronology for the uplift evolution of the French Massif Central.

  15. The Astronomy Olympiad italian experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandrelli, S.; Giacomini, L.

    2011-10-01

    The International Astronomy Olympiad (IAO) is an internationally annual astronomy scientific-educating event, born in 1996, which includes an intellectual competition between students aged between 14 and 17. In Italy, the Olympiad is coorganized since 2007 by INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) and SAiT (Società Astronomica Italiana) becoming every year a more visible and global event in the italian scenario (in 2011, INAF institutes participating to the local activities were 13). Unluckily, the Italian Committee of the Olympiads cannot involve directly nor rely on schools, since astronomy is no longer part of the scholastic programs. For this reason, the Committee needed to develop in the last years a non traditional mediatic approach that allowed in 2011 to reach a participation of more than 500 teenagers to the Olympics. We will give an overview of the Astronomy Olympics project in Italy and of this non conventional mediatic approach.

  16. Formation of the arc of the Western Alps and Alps-Apennines transition in the light of new geophysical data on the lithospheric architecture around the Ligurian knot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissling, E.; Bousquet, R.; Ford, M.; Schmid, S.

    2012-04-01

    suture zone strikes oblique across major tectonic boundaries at the surface. In the northern part of the Western Alps it follows the Insubric line where wedging of the Ivrea body into the stack of the Penninic units is still minor (ECORS-CROP profile). Southwards, however, the Ivrea mantle, its top descending to mid crustal depth, wedges far SW-wards underneath Penninic units (profile Argentera-Dora Maira massif, even reaching external Briançonnais units at its SE end in the Ligurian Alps SE of Cuneo. Hence, oroclinal bending during stage 3 also affected the southern part of the Ivrea mantle wedge and is responsible for the southward continuously increasing amount of shortening on the internal side of the Alps, associated with underthrusting of this mantle wedge below Dora Maira massif. We argue that this stage 3 oroclinal bending and SW-directed "underthrusting" of the Ivrea wedge, associated with the counter-clockwise rotation and backthrusting of the southern Western Alpine supra-crustal flakes, is the result of NE to N-directed slab roll back of the Adria plate rather than plate convergence.

  17. Driving forces push Italian exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Steven, R.R.

    1982-03-01

    The Italian offshore is one of the most active in Europe. Although it cannot be compared with the North Sea in terms of hydrocarbon production or potential, Italy is expending a great deal of effort in order to reduce imported oil and gas from the current level of around 90% of total domestic consumption of 147 million tons of oil equivalent a year. The drilling program, major targets, and development of new oil fields are discussed briefly. (JMT)

  18. Language Policy and Planning: The Case of Italian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geraci, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Italian Sign Language (LIS) is the name of the language used by the Italian Deaf community. The acronym LIS derives from Lingua italiana dei segni ("Italian language of signs"), although nowadays Italians refers to LIS as Lingua dei segni italiana, reflecting the more appropriate phrasing "Italian sign language." Historically, Italy's linguistic…

  19. Somatotype of elite Italian gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Massidda, Myosotis; Toselli, Stefania; Brasili, Patricia; Calò, Carla M

    2013-09-01

    The somatotyping method is especially helpful in sports in which the body could directly influence the biomechanics of movements and the performance's results. The purpose of this study was to determine the somatotype of elite Italian gymnasts and to compare it in terms of competition levels. The sample comprised 64 elite gymnasts (42 females (F), somatotype 1.4-4.4-3.2; and 22 males (M), somatotype 1.6-6.3-2.1) belonging to the Italian National Artistic Gymnastic Team (2007) at different competition levels: Allieve, Junior, and Senior. Mean whole somatotypes, by competition levels, were not significantly different in both sexes (Female gymnasts: Allieve, 1.3-4.6-3.3; Junior, 1.3-4.2-3.6; Senior, 1.7-4.2-2.7; Male gymnasts: Junior, 1.5-6.3-2.5; Senior, 1.7-6.3-1.6). Male Junior gymnasts exhibited greater ectomorphy than Senior athletes (F1,20 = 7.75, p < 0.01). Compared to other elite athletes male and female gymnasts tend to be less endomorphic and more mesomorphic. This study highlighted the peculiarities of the somatotype of Italian elite gymnasts and their strong homogeneity, evident also from the low values of somatotype attitudinal mean (SAM). The results emphasize the need for a specific somatotype to reach an elite level in sport and the need to integrate the somatotype analysis between the scientific instruments for selecting talent also in artistic gymnastics. PMID:24308228

  20. Pyroxenites - Melting or Migration?: Evidence from the Balmuccia massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sossi, Paolo; O'Neill, Hugh

    2014-05-01

    The recognition of pyroxenites in the mantle, combined with their lower solidus temperatures than peridotite, have been proposed as contributors to melting (Pertermann and Hirschmann, 2003; Sobolev et al, 2005; 2007). Geochemical fingerprints of this process invoke an unspecified 'pyroxenite' as the putative source. In reality, mantle pyroxenites are diverse (Downes, 2007), requiring that their mode of origin and compositional variability be addressed. Due to the excellent preservation and exposure of the Balmuccia massif, it has become an archetype for orogenic peridotites, providing information on their composition, field relationships and metamorphic history (Shervais and Mukasa, 1991; Hartmann and Wedepohl, 1993; Rivalenti et al., 1995; Mazzucchelli et al., 2009). The Balmuccia massif consists of fertile lherzolite with subordinate harzburgite and dunite and is riddled with pyroxenite bands, which fall into two suites - Chrome-Diopside (Cr-Di) and Aluminous-Augite (Al-Aug), a pairing present in most massif peridotites. Two-pyroxene thermometry gives temperatures of 850±25°C at 1-1.5 GPa, 500°C lower than asthenospheric mantle at that pressure, meaning they do not preserve their original, high temperature mineralogy. Decimetre-sized Cr-Di bands (≡75% CPX, 25% OPX) occur as initially Ol-free and bound by refractory dunite, but, as the bands are rotated into the plane of foliation, they mechanically incorporate olivine. Al-Aug veins (60% CPX, 25% OPX, 15% Sp) discordantly cut the body, intruding lherzolites which show enrichments in Fe, Al and Ti adjacent to the dykes. Both the Cr-Di suite and the Al-Aug series have indistinguishable Sr-, Nd-isotopic compositions to the host peridotite (Mukasa and Shervais, 1999). The major element compositions of pyroxenes in the Cr-Di bands and those in the surrounding peridotites are identical. Together with isotopic evidence, this suggests a local source, not only chemically but spatially, where a very low degree melt (

  1. Low pressure granulites from the Bohemian Massif, Upper Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorger, Dominik; Daghighi, Donia; Simic, Katica; Pichler, Ruth; Schwaiger, Christian; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Linner, Manfred; Iglseder, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Low pressure granulite facies rocks are commonly found in the Bohemian Massif in Upper Austria. They belong to the Moldanubian Unit and were metamorphosed during the last stage of the Variscan orogeny. The investigated granulites from the Donau valley (west of Linz), Lichtenberg (northwest of Linz), Sauwald (south of the river Danube) and Bad Leonfelden zone comprise mainly migmatic paragneisses. Most of these rocks underwent high degrees of melting forming meta- and diatexites (''Perlgneise)''. Al-rich metapelites with partly cm-sized garnet porphyroblasts, which are suitable for precise PT and PT-path determinations, can be found in some localities of this unit. In this study samples taken along the Danube valley between Linz and Wilhering, from Lichtenberg and from Bad Leonfelden (north of Linz) were sampled and investigated petrographically in detail. Since garnets are rare and usually consumed by cordierite, a sample with large garnets was investigated in detail. A chemical zoning profile across the c. 1cm large garnet displayed elevated Ca contents (Xgrs=0.06) in the central part which decreased discontinuously towards the rim to Xgrs=0.02. Almandine, pyrope and spessartine components do not show any pronounced zoning pattern. Most of the smaller garnet grains in other samples are also homogeneous in composition with a slight Xalm increase and Xprp decrease at the rims, typical for retrograde diffusional zoning. The cordierite-garnet-sillimanite-granulites as well as some mafic granulites were used for geothermobarometry. Metamorphic conditions of around 770°C to 850°C and 0.5-0.6 GPa could be obtained, which are similar to the values obtained by Tropper et al. (2006). P. Tropper I. Deibl F. Finger R. Kaindl (2006). P-T-t evolution of spinel-cordierite-garnet gneisses from the Sauwald Zone (Southern Bohemian Massif, Upper Austria): is there evidence for two independent late-Variscan low-P / high-T events in the Moldanubian Unit? Int J Earth Sci (Geol

  2. Experimental Study on Fluid Distribution at Ultra-High Metamorphic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mönicke, K.; Burchard, M.; Duyster, J.; Maresch, W. V.; Röller, K.; Stöckhert, B.

    2001-12-01

    Ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks record deep subduction of continental crust. Insight into their rheological behavior at UHP metamorphic conditions is important for the understanding of the mechanical state and the kinematics within subduction zones. Amazingly, many exhumed UHP metamorphic rocks do not show evidence of significant deformation. Thus, it has been proposed that deformation is localized in low-strength zones controlled by partially wetting interstitial fluids [1]. Experimental results [2] show that at UHP metamorphic conditions only one homogenous fluid phase with variable composition exists, whose density and viscosity should be intermediate between those of conventional aqueous solutions and hydrous melts. Inclusions of such supercritical fluid have been recently described from a natural UHP metamorphic rock [3]. Motivated by these findings, experiments using a piston-cylinder apparatus were performed to study the fluid distribution in various rock types at pressures of 3.5 GPa and temperatures between 900 ° C and 600 ° C. Starting materials were natural UHP metamorphic specimens of (1) S-type granitic biotite-phengite-gneiss and (2) pyrope-quartzite, both from the Dora Maira Massif (Western Alps, Italy) and (3) a diamond-bearing garnet-mica-gneiss with granodioritic bulk composition from the Saxonian Erzgebirge (Germany), all with 2 wt.% water added. The supercritical fluids formed in these experiments can be quenched to form a silicic glass with demixing of an aqueous solution without changing the UHP fluid topology significantly. The shape of the fluid-filled interstices is irregular and complex, resulting in a low volume/interface area ratio and a potential of high stress concentration at the edges of wedge-shaped offshoots. We propose that the distribution of supercritical fluids has a pronounced effect on the strength of cool subducted crust, allowing deformation by grain boundary sliding and dissolution precipitation creep, or

  3. A key extensional metamorphic complex reviewed and restored: The Menderes Massif of western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.

    2010-09-01

    This paper provides a review of the structure and metamorphism of the Menderes Massif in western Turkey, and subsequently a map-view restoration of its Neogene unroofing history. Exhumation of this massif — among the largest continental extensional provinces in the world — is generally considered to have occurred along extensional detachments with a NE-SW stretching direction. Restoration of the early Miocene history, however, shows that these extensional detachments can only explain part of the exhumation history of the Menderes Massif, and that NE-SW stretching can only be held accountable for half, or less, of the exhumation. Restoration back to ˜ 15 Ma is relatively straightforward, and is mainly characterised by a previously reported 25-30° vertical axis rotation difference between the northern Menderes Massif, and the Southern Menderes Massif and overlying HP nappes, Lycian Nappes and Bey Dağları about a pivot point close to Denizli. To the west of this pole, the rotation was accommodated by exhumation of the Central Menderes core complex since middle Miocene times, and to the east probably by shortening. At the end of the early Miocene, the Menderes Massif formed a rectangular, NE-SW trending tectonic window of ˜ 150 × 100 km. Geochronology suggests unroofing between ˜ 25 and 15 Ma. The north-eastern Menderes Massif was exhumed along the early Miocene Simav detachment, over a distance of ≤ 50 km. The accommodation of the remainder of the exhumation is enigmatic, but penetrative NE-SW stretching lineations throughout the Menderes Massif suggest a prominent role of NE-SW extension. This, however, requires that the eastern margin of the Menderes Massif, bordering a region without significant extension, is a transform fault with an offset of ˜ 150 km, cutting through the Lycian Nappes. For this, there is no evidence. The Lycian Nappes — a non-metamorphic stack of sedimentary thrust slices and an overlying ophiolite and ophiolitic mélange

  4. Gender in Italian-German Bilinguals: A Comparison with German L2 Learners of Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchi, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    This study compares mastery of gender assignment and agreement in Italian by adult Italian-German bilinguals who have acquired two languages simultaneously (2L1), and by adult German highly proficient second language learners (L2ers) of Italian. Our data show that incompleteness in bilingual acquisition and in second language (L2) acquisition…

  5. Crustal structure of the northern Menderes Massif, western Turkey, imaged by joint gravity and magnetic inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessner, Klaus; Gallardo, Luis A.; Wedin, Francis; Sener, Kerim

    2016-05-01

    In western Anatolia, the Anatolide domain of the Tethyan orogen is exposed in one of the Earth's largest metamorphic core complexes, the Menderes Massif. The Menderes Massif experienced a two-stage exhumation: tectonic denudation in the footwall of a north-directed Miocene extensional detachment, followed by fragmentation by E-W and NW-SE-trending graben systems. Along the northern boundary of the core complex, the tectonic units of the Vardar-Izmir-Ankara suture zone overly the stage one footwall of the core complex, the northern Menderes Massif. In this study, we explore the structure of the upper crust in the northern Menderes Massif with cross-gradient joint inversion of gravity and aeromagnetic data along a series of 10-km-deep profiles. Our inversions, which are based on gravity and aeromagnetic measurements and require no geological and petrophysical constraints, reveal the salient features of the Earth's upper crust. We image the northern Menderes Massif as a relatively homogenous domain of low magnetization and medium to high density, with local anomalies related to the effect of interspersed igneous bodies and shallow basins. In contrast, both the northern and western boundaries of the northern Menderes Massif stand out as domains where dense mafic, metasedimentary and ultramafic domains with a weak magnetic signature alternate with low-density igneous complexes with high magnetization. With our technique, we are able to delineate Miocene basins and igneous complexes, and map the boundary between intermediate to mafic-dominated subduction-accretion units of the suture zone and the underlying felsic crust of the Menderes Massif. We demonstrate that joint gravity and magnetic inversion are not only capable of imaging local and regional changes in crustal composition, but can also be used to map discontinuities of geodynamic significance such as the Vardar-Izmir-Ankara suture and the West Anatolia Transfer Zone.

  6. Crustal structure of the northern Menderes Massif, western Turkey, imaged by joint gravity and magnetic inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessner, Klaus; Gallardo, Luis A.; Wedin, Francis; Sener, Kerim

    2016-10-01

    In western Anatolia, the Anatolide domain of the Tethyan orogen is exposed in one of the Earth's largest metamorphic core complexes, the Menderes Massif. The Menderes Massif experienced a two-stage exhumation: tectonic denudation in the footwall of a north-directed Miocene extensional detachment, followed by fragmentation by E-W and NW-SE-trending graben systems. Along the northern boundary of the core complex, the tectonic units of the Vardar-Izmir-Ankara suture zone overly the stage one footwall of the core complex, the northern Menderes Massif. In this study, we explore the structure of the upper crust in the northern Menderes Massif with cross-gradient joint inversion of gravity and aeromagnetic data along a series of 10-km-deep profiles. Our inversions, which are based on gravity and aeromagnetic measurements and require no geological and petrophysical constraints, reveal the salient features of the Earth's upper crust. We image the northern Menderes Massif as a relatively homogenous domain of low magnetization and medium to high density, with local anomalies related to the effect of interspersed igneous bodies and shallow basins. In contrast, both the northern and western boundaries of the northern Menderes Massif stand out as domains where dense mafic, metasedimentary and ultramafic domains with a weak magnetic signature alternate with low-density igneous complexes with high magnetization. With our technique, we are able to delineate Miocene basins and igneous complexes, and map the boundary between intermediate to mafic-dominated subduction-accretion units of the suture zone and the underlying felsic crust of the Menderes Massif. We demonstrate that joint gravity and magnetic inversion are not only capable of imaging local and regional changes in crustal composition, but can also be used to map discontinuities of geodynamic significance such as the Vardar-Izmir-Ankara suture and the West Anatolia Transfer Zone.

  7. Deforestation Along the Maya Mountain Massif Belize-Guatemala Border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicas, S. D.; Omine, K.; Arevalo, B.; Ford, J. B.; Sugimura, K.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years trans-boundary incursions from Petén, Guatemala into Belize's Maya Mountain Massif (MMM) have increased. The incursions are rapidly degrading cultural and natural resources in Belize's protected areas. Given the local, regional and global importance of the MMM and the scarcity of deforestation data, our research team conducted a time series analysis 81 km by 12 km along the Belize-Guatemalan border adjacent to the protected areas of the MMM. Analysis drew on Landsat imagery from 1991 to 2014 to determine historic deforestation rates. The results indicate that the highest deforestation rates in the study area were -1.04% and -6.78% loss of forested area per year in 2012-2014 and 1995-1999 respectively. From 1991 to 2014, forested area decreased from 96.9 % to 85.72 % in Belize and 83.15 % to 31.52 % in Guatemala. During the study period, it was clear that deforestation rates fluctuated in Belize's MMM from one time-period to the next. This seems linked to either a decline in deforestation rates in Guatemala, the vertical expansion of deforestation in Guatemalan forested areas and monitoring. The results of this study urge action to reduce incursions and secure protected areas and remaining forest along the Belize-Guatemalan border.

  8. Preliminary hydrochemical study of Ronda ultramafic massif (South Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadillo, Iñaki; Urresti, Begoña; Jiménez, Pablo; Martos, Sergio; José Durán, Juan; Benavente, José; Carrasco, Francisco; Pedrera, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    During 2015 more than 70 springs related to the peridotite outcrops of the Ronda mountainous massif, South Spain, have been identified. The field work included "in situ" measurements of physical-chemical parameters (T, EC, pH), and water sampling for major components and stable isotopes of water and DIC. The hydrogeochemical study allowed us to characterize different flow systems: (1) springs with very low to medium electrical conductivities (200-700 μS/cm) and pH below 9.0, and (2) springs with EC above 700 μS/cm and pH above 9.0. The first group of springs are supposed to be linked with surface and subsurface flows. The hydrogeochemical reactions that determine their composition are characterized by the low solubility of minerals, atmospheric CO2 (open system) and active serpentinization reactions that supplies hundreds of ppm of Mg2+. All of them are waters of HCO3-Mg or HCO3-Mg-Na type. The second group of springs drains water with EC above 700 μS/cm and pH over 9. In general, these springs are associated to deep flows connected to regional faults or major tectonic features. Deeper flow enhances water-rock interaction and time of contact, so this system evolves towards a closed system to O2 and CO2. All these waters are old or older than the first group and show reducing features and are of Na-Cl or OH-Ca type.

  9. Organic matter in rocks of certain alkalic massifs of Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Petersil'e, I.A.; Andreeva, E.D.; Sveshnikova, E.V.

    1983-01-01

    Parts of certain alkalic intrusive massifs contain up to 63 cc methane per kilogram of rock, with smaller amounts of heavier hydrocarbon gases, bitumen, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The authors argue that the hydrocarbons cannot have come from assimilated limestone, because the igneous rocks contain much more of these gases than do the enclosing limestones. Likewise, the hydrocarbons cannot have been introduced by late solutions because they are much lower in hydrothermal and metasomatic facies than in primary minerals of the high temperature intrusive facies. Hydrocarbons are not stable at magmatic temperatures; the authors conclude that these must have formed in the presence of natural catalysts during slow cooling below 500/sup 0/C, in accordance with industrial synthesis of hydrocarbons. The C/sup 12//C/sup 13/ ratio of the bitumens is in the range for ordinary petroleum, suggesting that they formed at relatively low temperature, but the carbon of the gaseous hydrocarbons is lighter, which may indicate that they formed at somewhat higher temperatures.

  10. Tephrochronology of the Mont-Dore volcanic Massif (Massif Central, France): new 40Ar/39Ar constraints on the Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomade, Sébastien; Pastre, Jean-François; Nehlig, Pierre; Guillou, Hervé; Scao, Vincent; Scaillet, Stéphane

    2014-03-01

    The Mont-Dore Massif (500 km2), the youngest stratovolcano of the French Massif Central, consists of two volcanic edifices: the Guéry and the Sancy. To improve our knowledge of the oldest explosive stages of the Mont-Dore Massif, we studied 40Ar/39Ar-dated (through single-grain laser and step-heating experiments) 11 pyroclastic units from the Guéry stratovolcano. We demonstrate that the explosive history of the Guéry can be divided into four cycles of explosive eruption activity between 3.09 and 1.46 Ma (G.I to G.IV). We have also ascertained that deposits associated with the 3.1-3.0-Ma rhyolitic activity, which includes the 5-km3 "Grande Nappe" ignimbrite, are not recorded in the central part of the Mont-Dore Massif. All the pyroclastites found in the left bank of the Dordogne River belong to a later explosive phase (2.86-2.58 Ma, G.II) and were channelled down into valleys or topographic lows where they are currently nested. This later activity also gave rise to most of the volcanic products in the Perrier Plateau (30 km east of the Mont-Dore Massif); three quarters of the volcano-sedimentary sequence (up to 100 m thick) was emplaced within less than 20 ky, associated with several flank collapses in the northeastern part of the Guéry. The age of the "Fournet flora" (2.69 ± 0.01 Ma) found within an ash bed belonging to G.II suggests that temperate forests already existed in the French Massif Central before the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary. The Guéry's third explosive eruption activity cycle (G.III) lasted between 2.36 and 1.91 Ma. It encompassed the Guéry Lake and Morangie pumice and ash deposits, as well as seven other important events recorded as centimetric ash beds some 60 to 100 km southeast of the Massif in the Velay region. We propose a general tephrochronology for the Mont-Dore stratovolcano covering the last 3.1 My. This chronology is based on 44 40Ar/39Ar-dated events belonging to eight explosive eruption cycles each lasting between 100 and 200

  11. The Italian National Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The Italian National Seismic Network is composed by about 400 stations, mainly broadband, installed in the Country and in the surrounding regions. About 110 stations feature also collocated strong motion instruments. The Centro Nazionale Terremoti, (National Earthquake Center), CNT, has installed and operates most of these stations, although a considerable number of stations contributing to the INGV surveillance has been installed and is maintained by other INGV sections (Napoli, Catania, Bologna, Milano) or even other Italian or European Institutions. The important technological upgrades carried out in the last years has allowed for significant improvements of the seismic monitoring of Italy and of the Euro-Mediterranean Countries. The adopted data transmission systems include satellite, wireless connections and wired lines. The Seedlink protocol has been adopted for data transmission. INGV is a primary node of EIDA (European Integrated Data Archive) for archiving and distributing, continuous, quality checked data. The data acquisition system was designed to accomplish, in near-real-time, automatic earthquake detection and hypocenter and magnitude determination (moment tensors, shake maps, etc.). Database archiving of all parametric results are closely linked to the existing procedures of the INGV seismic monitoring environment. Overall, the Italian earthquake surveillance service provides, in quasi real-time, hypocenter parameters which are then revised routinely by the analysts of the Bollettino Sismico Nazionale. The results are published on the web page http://cnt.rm.ingv.it/ and are publicly available to both the scientific community and the the general public. This presentation will describe the various activities and resulting products of the Centro Nazionale Terremoti. spanning from data acquisition to archiving, distribution and specialised products.

  12. Communities in Italian corporate networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccardi, Carlo; Calatroni, Lisa; Bertoni, Fabio

    2010-11-01

    The community structure of two real-world financial networks, namely the board network and the ownership network of the firms of the Italian Stock Exchange, is analyzed by means of the maximum modularity approach. The main result is that both networks exhibit a strong community structure and, moreover, that the two structures overlap significantly. This is due to a number of reasons, including the existence of pyramidal groups and directors serving in several boards. Overall, this means that the “small world” of listed companies is actually split into well identifiable “continents” (i.e., the communities).

  13. Evidence for polymetamorphic garnet growth in the Çine (southern Menderes) Massif, Western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, C. B.; Catlos, E. J.; Sorensen, S. S.; Çemen, I.; Hancer, M.

    2008-07-01

    Garnet-based thermobarometry is often used to develop models for the evolution of the Menderes Massif, a key Aegean metamorphic core complex. Here we present X-ray element maps and high-contrast backscattered electron (BSE) and cathodoluminescence (CL) images from a garnet-bearing rock from the Çine (southern Menderes) Massif. The images document a polymetamorphic history as plagioclase and garnet grains show distinct cores and rims. The sample contains matrix monazite in reaction with allanite. The garnet in the sample is likely not in equilibrium with its matrix minerals. This is evidenced by BSE images that document compositional variability in both core and rim zoning and tracks of bright streaks extending from rim to core. We propose that some garnet that is now present in the Menderes Massif formed due to collision during Cambro-Ordovician and may have recrystallized during subsequent collisional and extensional events. These processes led to non-equilibrium compositions and can result in spurious pressure-temperature (P-T) calculations. To establish the feasibility of the P-T estimates of rocks from the Çine Massif for input into tectonic models for the region, more than one sample from single outcrops should be analyzed. Rocks within the Çine Massif have been suggested to display inverted metamorphism, an increase in T towards structurally higher levels. Based on the garnet documented here, we propose that the inverted metamorphism may be a consequence of apparent P-T rather than a real phenomenon.

  14. Horizontal strain field of the Bohemian Massif determined from GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenkova, Z.; Talich, M.; Schenk, V.

    2011-12-01

    Permanent GNSS and campaign GPS data monitored on several geodynamic networks located in the territory of the Bohemian Massif, Central Europe, allowed site movements to be determined. To constrain the first image of regional strain field for this territory a 2-D numerical modeling based on the theory of continuum mechanics under an assumption of homogeneity of the area was applied and site movements, i.e. displacement vectors, were taken as calculation inputs. This approach represents a purely geometric solution. Further attention was paid to influences of regional geological discontinuities of the Massif, by means of an evaluation of their mechanical decoupling along major faults and/or fault zones that play an important role in the distribution of the regional and local motions and stress patterns. The particular analysis of the behavior of tectonic zones in the Bohemian Massif was performed. Fundamental source of the mobility of these zones depends directly on sizes and directions of existing northward movements of structural blocks of the Alpine orogenic system. It was found that common horizontal strain field of the Bohemian Massif displays significant E-W extensions in the eastern and western parts of the Massif and mild N-S compressions in its central part. Additional analyses of the strain field pattern and its numerical uncertainties will be discussed from the viewpoint of data processing and knowledge of geological structures.

  15. Paleoproterozoic anorogenic granitoids of the Zheltav sialic massif (Southern Kazakhstan): Structural position and geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretyakov, A. A.; Degtyarev, K. E.; Sal'nikova, E. B.; Shatagin, K. N.; Kotov, A. B.; Ryazantsev, A. V.; Pilitsyna, A. V.; Yakovleva, S. Z.; Tolmacheva, E. V.; Plotkina, Yu. V.

    2016-01-01

    The basement of the Zheltav sialic massif (Southern Kazakhstan) is composed of different metamorphic rocks united into the Anrakhai Complex. In the southeastern part of the massif, these rocks form a large antiform with the core represented by amphibole and clinopyroxene gneissic granite varieties. By their chemical composition, dominant amphibole (hastingsite) gneissic granites correspond to subalkaline granites, while their petroand geochemical properties make them close to A-type granites. The U-Pb geochronological study of accessory zircons yielded an age of 1841 ± 6 Ma, which corresponds to the crystallization age of melts parental for protoliths of amphibole gneissic granites of the Zheltav Massif. Thus, the structural-geological and geochronological data make it possible to define the Paleoproterozoic (Staterian) stage of anorogenic magmatism in the Precambrian history of the Zheltav Massif. The combined Sm-Nd isotopic—geochronological data and age estimates obtained for detrital zircons indicate the significant role of the Paleoproterozoic tectono-magmatic stage in the formation of the Precambrian continental crust of sialic massifs in Kazakhstan and northern Tien Shan.

  16. [Naples: the historic capital of Italian paediatrics].

    PubMed

    Farnetani, I; Farnetani, F

    2008-06-01

    No other Italian city has contributed to the birth and development of paediatrics more than Naples. This is why it can be considered the historic capital of Italian paediatrics. Here are the main reasons: Luigi Somma was the first professor of Italian paediatrics whereas Francesco Fede was the first president of the Italian Paediatrics Association. Neapolitan paediatricians have been the most numerous amongst the founder members. The first three Italian journals of paediatrics were founded in Naples as well as the journal ''La Pediatria'' which was the most distributed and long-lasting journal in this field. Moreover, Neapolitans have been the most numerous presidents of the Italian Paediatrics Association, while Rocco Jemma was the one who remained the longest in charge. ''Rocco Jemma's school'' taught not only to most professors in paediatrics who afterwards taught in most Italian universities, but also four out of five paediatricians who took charge of the position as president. The first regional department of the Italian Paediatrics Association was founded in Naples as well as the Association of Nipiology.

  17. From Immigrants to Ethnics: The Italian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelli, Humbert S.

    A sociological, political, and cultural history of Italians in America, this book's chapters discuss (1) Italian explorers, intellectuals, and artisans who participated in the settlement and establishment of the United States; (2) socioeconomic conditions in nineteenth century Italy that led to mass emigration; (3) the distribution of Italian…

  18. Syllabic Effects in Italian Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tagliapietra, Lara; Fanari, R.; Collina, S.; Tabossi, P.

    2009-01-01

    Two cross-modal priming experiments tested whether lexical access is constrained by syllabic structure in Italian. Results extend the available Italian data on the processing of stressed syllables showing that syllabic information restricts the set of candidates to those structurally consistent with the intended word (Experiment 1). Lexical…

  19. Secondary Predicates in Italian and English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merlo, Paola

    An analysis of the nature of secondary predicates takes a comparative approach, using Italian and English. Distributional properties and extraction facts are accounted for, and an explanation for the fact that resultatives are not allowed in Romance languages is sought on the basis of Italian evidence. It is argued that the semantic distinction…

  20. The ECDL Programme in Italian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calzarossa, Maria Carla; Ciancarini, Paolo; Maresca, Paolo; Mich, Luisa; Scarabottolo, Nello

    2007-01-01

    The European Computer Driving Licence (ECDL) programme aims at testing practical skills and competences in using ICT tools. This paper presents the results of a monitoring exercise aimed at analyzing the impact of the ECDL programme in the Italian Universities. The ECDL programme, adopted in most Italian Universities since the year 2000, has…

  1. Assessing the Cost Efficiency of Italian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Salerno, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    This study uses Data Envelopment Analysis to evaluate the cost efficiency of 52 Italian public universities. In addition to being one of the first such cost studies of the Italian system, it explicitly takes into account the internal cost structure of institutions' education programs; a task not prevalent in past Data Envelopment Analysis studies…

  2. Epilepsy and vaccinations: Italian guidelines.

    PubMed

    Pruna, Dario; Balestri, Paolo; Zamponi, Nelia; Grosso, Salvatore; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Romeo, Antonino; Franzoni, Emilio; Osti, Maria; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Longhi, Riccardo; Verrotti, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Reports of childhood epilepsies in temporal association with vaccination have had a great impact on the acceptance of vaccination programs by health care providers, but little is known about this possible temporal association and about the types of seizures following vaccinations. For these reasons the Italian League Against Epilepsy (LICE), in collaboration with other Italian scientific societies, has decided to generate Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy. The aim of Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy is to present recent unequivocal evidence from published reports on the possible relationship between vaccines and epilepsy in order to provide information about contraindications and risks of vaccinations in patients with epilepsy. The following main issues have been addressed: (1) whether contraindications to vaccinations exist in patients with febrile convulsions, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies; and (2) whether any vaccinations can cause febrile seizures, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination (MMR) increase significantly the risk of febrile seizures. Recent observations and data about the relationships between vaccination and epileptic encephalopathy show that some cases of apparent vaccine-induced encephalopathy could in fact be caused by an inherent genetic defect with no causal relationship with vaccination.

  3. Italian Rett database and biobank.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Katia; Meloni, Ilaria; Scala, Elisa; Ariani, Francesca; Caselli, Rossella; Pescucci, Chiara; Longo, Ilaria; Artuso, Rosangela; Bruttini, Mirella; Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta; Speciale, Caterina; Causarano, Vincenza; Hayek, Giuseppe; Zappella, Michele; Renieri, Alessandra; Mari, Francesca

    2007-04-01

    Rett syndrome is the second most common cause of severe mental retardation in females, with an incidence of approximately 1 out of 10,000 live female births. In addition to the classic form, a number of Rett variants have been described. MECP2 gene mutations are responsible for about 90% of classic cases and for a lower percentage of variant cases. Recently, CDKL5 mutations have been identified in the early onset seizures variant and other atypical Rett patients. While the high percentage of MECP2 mutations in classic patients supports the hypothesis of a single disease gene, the low frequency of mutated variant cases suggests genetic heterogeneity. Since 1998, we have performed clinical evaluation and molecular analysis of a large number of Italian Rett patients. The Italian Rett Syndrome (RTT) database has been developed to share data and samples of our RTT collection with the scientific community (http://www.biobank.unisi.it). This is the first RTT database that has been connected with a biobank. It allows the user to immediately visualize the list of available RTT samples and, using the "Search by" tool, to rapidly select those with specific clinical and molecular features. By contacting bank curators, users can request the samples of interest for their studies. This database encourages collaboration projects with clinicians and researchers from around the world and provides important resources that will help to better define the pathogenic mechanisms underlying Rett syndrome.

  4. A Treasure Chest of Nanogranites: the Bohemian Massif (Central Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, S.; O'Brien, P. J.; Walczak, K.; Wunder, B.; Ziemann, M. A.; Hecht, L.

    2014-12-01

    Despite 150 years of investigation of the Bohemian Massif (Central Europe), it is only recently that the investigation of old and new samples displayed the occurrence of tiny portions of crystallized anatectic melt in regional migmatites. These vestiges of magma, called "nanogranites", are natural probes of the partial melting processes in the crust. Original melt composition and water content can be directly analyzed after piston cylinder re-homogenization. When compared to classic re-melting experiments, nanogranites are ideal "natural" experimental charges of anatectic melt. They are encapsulated in peritectic garnet immediately after production - both phases are products of the same partial melting reaction. Sheltered inside garnet, they remain unaffected by the physico-chemical changes which affected the host migmatites during their slow cooling, unlike leucosomes and anatexis-related plutons. Five different case studies of nanogranite-bearing high-grade rocks have been identified so far: three in metapelites from the Moldanubian Zone, and two in metagranitoids from the Granulitgebirge and Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome. Their characterization provides insights into how the continental crust melts at different depths, from shallow levels to mantle depths, during different moments of its metamorphic history (prograde vs. decompressional melting). For example, the investigation and experimental re-melting of nanogranites from Grt+Ky leucogranulites (Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome) recently provided evidence of prograde melting of metagranitoids under eclogite-facies conditions (T≥875°C and P~2.7 GPa), close to the stability field of coesite. The melt generated is granitic, hydrous (6 wt% H2O) and metaluminous (ASI=1.03), and is at the moment the "deepest" glass obtained through re-homogenization of primary polycrystalline inclusions in natural rocks. This work confirms that nanogranites in migmatites 1) are a powerful tool to constrain anatexis in natural rocks, and 2) can

  5. A Library Response to the Massification of Higher Education: The Case of the University of Zambia Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanyengo, Christine Wamunyima

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at the challenges that libraries in Africa face in responding to massification of higher education by discussing the University of Zambia library's response in library and information resources provision. As a result of massification of higher education, libraries have been forced not only to employ new and different strategies to…

  6. Critical Reflection on the Massification of Higher Education in Korea: Consequences for Graduate Employment and Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeom, Min-ho

    2016-01-01

    The paper critically reviews the results of Korean massification in higher education (HE) and focuses on the consequences related to graduate employment. By analysing statistical data and reviewing related articles, this study explores the process of the massification of HE, investigates major factors influencing the expansion, and analyses and…

  7. The Octahedral Sheet of Metamorphic 2M 1-Phengites: a Combined EMPA And AXANES Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cibin, G.; Cinque, G.; Marcelli, A.; Mottana, A.; Sassi, R.

    2009-05-12

    Two types of metamorphic phengites are known: one is linked to high pressure and is 3T; the other is 2M{sub 1}, and its composition is linked to rock-compositional constraints. This work investigates the octahedral sheet crystal-chemical differences between the two phengite types. Seven dioctahedral micas were studied: (1) one 3T phengite from an ultrahigh-pressure metagranitoid in the Dora Maira massif, Italy (P {approx} 4.3 GPa, T {approx} 730 C); (2) five 2M{sub 1} phengites from medium-P orthogneisses in the Eastern Alps metamorphic basement, Italy (P {le} 0.7 GPa, T {approx} 500-600 C); and (3) one 2M{sub 1} ferroan muscovite from pegmatite in Antarctica (P {le} 0.2 GPa, T {approx}500 C). All micas display significant extents of celadonite substitution. In particular, the 2M{sub 1}-phengite formulae (calculated on the basis of 11 O) have 0.68 < {sup IV}Al < 0.82 atoms per formula unit (apfu); octahedral atoms are dominated by Al (1.6-1.8 apfu), with minor and variable Fe (0.20-0.35 apfu) and Mg (0.05-0.17 apfu), and very minor Ti, Mn, and Cr. Total octahedral occupancies are slightly above 2.00 apfu, i.e., there seems to be partial occupancy of the third M site. For all micas, we recorded XAFS spectra on mosaics of carefully separated flakes oriented flat on a plastic support that could be rotated so as to account for the polarization of the synchrotron radiation beam, and we processed them on the basis of the AXANES theory. Spectra show angle-dependent absorption variations for Al and Fe, which can be deconvoluted and fitted by dichroic effects. Pre-edges consistently show most Fe to be Fe{sup 3+} and little angle-dependent intensity variations. The 2M{sub 1}-ferroan muscovite from Antarctica displays the same AXANES behavior as 2M{sub 1}-phengites. By contrast, the ultrahigh-pressure 3T-phengite from Dora Maira (having {sup IV}Al = 0.42 apfu, and Al and Mg as the dominant octahedral constituents) has XAFS spectra that differ significantly. Not only is the

  8. The composition of fluids generated during deep continental subduction estimated from fluid inclusions in UHP rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrando, S.; Frezzotti, M.; Compagnoni, R.

    2009-12-01

    Composition and provenance of slab-derived hydrous fluids and melts represent a key parameter in understanding the geochemical variations of subduction-related magmas. Chemical and physical characteristics of the slab components may be strongly reliant upon both the thermal structure of the mantle wedge, and the nature of the subducted lithosphere. While fluids are well known to play a key role in element recycling during subduction of oceanic crust, it is less clear how dehydration and/or melting occur during subduction of continental crust. A direct approach to get information on the nature of fluids is provided by fluid inclusion analysis. Two examples of peak fluid inclusions in UHP metamorphic rocks from the Su-Lu Terrane (China) and the Dora-Maira Massif (Alps) are discussed. In the Su-Lu terrane, primary multiphase solid (MS) inclusions within UHP quartzites represent fluids internally generated through dehydration reactions at pressure above 3.5 GPa. Inclusions contain paragonite, muscovite, sulfates, carbonates, phosphates, and oxides. Calculated compositions indicate aqueous fluids (H2O = 25 - 50 wt %) containing tens of wt % of Si, Al, and alkalies. Trace element patterns show enrichments in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE; K, Sr, Rb, Cs, Ba, Pb, U) and light rare earth elements (LREE). In the Dora-Maira whiteschists, MS inclusions formed at 730°C and ≤ 4GPa have rather complex compositions and consist of Mg-chlorite, Na-phlogopite, Cl-rich apatite, Zn-rich pyrite, and chlorides, with subordinate talc and magnesite. Although water is absent, IR-synchrotron-radiation mapping revealed significant H+ diffusion from MS inclusions to host garnet. Peak aqueous solutions are Si, Al, and Na-rich, and contain significant amounts of Mg, Ca, P, S, and LILE, supporting an open system fluid generation with significant contribution from external brines derived from dehydration of oceanic lithosphere during subduction. Although the studied rocks have been

  9. Geomorphological and sedimentological evidences in the Western Massif of Picos de Europa since the Last Glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Fernández, Jesus; Oliva, Marc; Cruces, Anabela; Lopes, Vera; Conceição Freitas, Maria; García-Hernández, Cristina; Nieuwendam, Alexandre; López-Sáez, José Antonio; Gallinar, David; Geraldes, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    The Western Massif of Picos de Europa includes some of the highest peaks of the Cantabrian Mountains. However, the environmental evolution in this massif since the Last Glaciation is still poorly understood. This research provides a new geochronological approach to the sequence of environmental events occurred here since the maximum expansion of glaciers during the last Pleistocene glaciation. The distribution of the glacial landforms suggests four main stages regarding the environmental evolution in the massif: maximum glacial advance, phase of second maximum glacial expansion, Late Glacial and Little Ice Age. A 5.4-m long sedimentological section retrieved from the kame terrace of Belbín, in a mid-height area of the massif, complements the geomorphological interpretation and provides a continuous paleoenvironmental sequence from this area since the Last Glaciation until nowadays. This section suggests that the maximum glacial expansion occurred at a minimum age of 37.2 ka cal BP, significantly prior to the global Last Glacial Maximum. Subsequently, a new glacial expansion occurred around 18.7-22.5 ka cal BP. The melting of the glaciers after this phase generated a shallow lake in the Belbín depression. Lake sediments do not reveal the occurrence of a cold stage during the Late Glacial, whilst, at higher locations, moraine complexes were formed suggesting a glacier readvance. The terrestrification of this lake started at 8 ka cal BP, when Belbín changed to a peaty environment. At 5 ka cal BP human occupation started at the high lands of the massif according to the existence of charcoal particles in the section. The presence of moraines in the highest northern cirques evidences the last phase with formation of small glaciers in the Western Massif of Picos de Europa, corresponding to the Little Ice Age cold event. Since then, the warming climate has led to the melting of these glaciers.

  10. Geochemistry of alkali syenites from the Budun massif and their petrogenetic properties (Ol'khon Island)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makrygina, V. A.; Suvorova, L. F.; Zarubina, O. V.; Bryanskii, N. V.

    2016-07-01

    The first data on the geochemistry of the alkali syenite massif in Cape Budun of Ol'khon Island, where it makes contact in the south with the Khuzir gabbroid massif, are presented. Syenites occur among granite gneisses of the Sharanur dome and, like its granites, are enriched with Zr and REEs, but depleted in other trace elements. They contain anorthoclase, corundum, rare nepheline, zircon, and hercynite and are accompanied by desilicified pegmatites. Their unusual geochemical properties allow the assumption that alkaline magmas resulted from the interaction between basic and granitoid melts.

  11. Biodiversity impact of the aeolian periglacial geomorphologic evolution of the Fontainebleau Massif (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiry, M.; Liron, M. N.

    2009-04-01

    Landscape features The geomorphology of the Fontainebleau Massif is noteworthy for its spectacular narrow ridges, up to 10 km long and 0.5 km wide, armored by tightly cemented sandstone lenses and which overhang sandy depressions of about 50m. Denudation of the sandstone pans lead to a highly contrasted landscape, with sandstone ridges ("platières") towering sandy depressions ("vallées") and limestone plateaus ("monts"). This forms the geological frame of the spectacular sceneries of the Fontainebleau Massif (Thiry & Liron, 2007). Nevertheless, there is little know about the erosive processes that have built-up these landscapes. Periglacial processes, and among them aeolian ones, appear significant in the development of the Fontainebleau Massif physiography. The periglacial aeolian geomorphology Dunes and dune fields are known since long and cover about 15% to 25% of the Fontainebleau Massif. The aeolian dunes developed as well on the higher parts of the landscape, as well as in the lower parts of the landscape. The dunes are especially well developed in the whole eastern part of the massif, whereas the western part of the massif is almost devoid of dunes. Nevertheless, detailed mapping shows that dunes can locally be found in the western district, they are of limited extension, restricted to the east facing backslope of outliers. Loamy-sand covers the limestone plateaus of the "monts". The loam cover is of variable thickness: schematically thicker in the central part of the plateaus, where it my reach 3 m; elsewhere it may thin down to 0,20-0,30 m, especially at the plateau edges. Blowout hollows are "negative" morphologies from where the sand has been withdrawed. Often these blowouts are decametric sized and well-delimited structures. Others, more complex structures, are made up of several elongated hectometric hollows relaying each other from and which outline deflation corridor more than 1 km long. A characteristic feature of these blowout hollows is the

  12. Structural geology and sedimentology of the Sermat Quartzites, Strandja Massif, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazıcı, Müge; Natal'in, Boris A.

    2015-04-01

    The Strandja Massif, NW Turkey, is the eastern continuation of the Rhodope Massif in Bulgaria. The massif is generally correlated with the Hercynian orogenic belt that was later modified by the Cimmerian orogeny. The basement of the massif is composed by various kinds of gneisses and schists, which are intruded by the metagranites. In the studied area, the Cambrian K-feldspar metagranites are unconformably overlain by metaclastics, where both units have fault contacts with volcano-sedimentary rocks. The metagranite intrusions yield Carboniferous U-Pb zircon ages (Natal'in et al., 2012a). All of them constitute the basement of the Strandja Massif. Cambrian age of metagranites and their subduction related nature as well as the subduction related nature of the Carboniferous igneous rocks suggest a prolong evolution of the Strandja Massif (Natal'in et al., 2012a). The Cambrian metagranites are unconformably overlain by a metasedimetary cover unit, which is known in the literature as the Şermat Quartzite of presumably Permo-Triassic age (Çağlayan and Yurtsever, 1998). In the studied region, detrital zircons extracted from quartzites show that their depositional age is not younger than the Ordovician (Natal'in et al., 2012a). The basement of the Strandja Massif is subjected to the epidote-amphibolite-greenschist facies of metamorphism and high strain deformation in the late Jurassic - early Cretaceous times. The Şermat Quartzite forms a transgressive sequence, which starts with metaconglomerates, metasandstones and grades up to quartz-sericite schists. The thickness of bedding changes from thin to medium with parallel bedding planes, containing lens-shaped bodies of massive quartzites. The late Jurassic - early Cretaceous foliation (S1) is generally parallel to the primary bedding plane. Foliations and lineations consistently dip to the northeast and kinematic indicators suggest a tectonic transport in the same direction. High strain in the Şermat Quartzite

  13. Occurrence of springs in massifs of crystalline rocks, northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Fernando António Leal; Alencoão, Ana Maria Pires

    2002-02-01

    An inventory of artesian springs emerging from fractures (fracture springs) was conducted in the Pinhão River Basin and Morais Massif, northern Portugal, comprising an area of approximately 650 km2. Over 1,500 springs were identified and associated with geological domains and fracture sets. Using cross-tabulation analysis, spring distributions by fracture sets were compared among geological environments, and the deviations related to differences in rock structure and, presumably, to differences in deformational histories. The relation between spring frequencies and rock structures was further investigated by spectral determination, the model introduced in this study. Input data are the spring frequencies and fracture lengths in each geological domain, in addition to the angles between fracture strikes and present-day stress-field orientation (θ). The model's output includes the so-called intrinsic densities, a parameter indexing spring occurrence to factors such as fracture type and associated deformational regime and age. The highest densities (12.2 springs/km of lineament) were associated with young shear fractures produced by brittle deformation, and the lowest (0.1) with old tensional and ductile fractures. Spectral determination also relates each orientation class to a dominant structural parameter: where spring occurrence is controlled by θ, the class is parallel to the present-day stress-field orientation; where the control is attributed to the length of fractures, the spring occurrence follows the strike of large-scale normal faults crossing the region. Résumé. Un inventaire des sources artésiennes émergeant de fractures (sources de fractures) a été réalisé dans le bassin de la rivière Pinhão et dans le massif de Morais, dans le nord du Portugal, dans une région couvrant environ 650 km2. Plus de 1,500 sources ont été identifiées et associées à des domaines géologiques et à des ensembles de fractures. Grâce à une analyse de tableaux

  14. The Massification of Higher Education in the UK: Aspects of Service Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannakis, Mihalis; Bullivant, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    This article explores several aspects of service quality for the provision of higher education. Alongside the trend of the massification of higher education over the past two decades, higher education institutions are required to review quality across a range of outputs, besides teaching and learning. The study was undertaken within the…

  15. Unique paragenesis of cerium and yttrium allanites in tourmalinite of the Severny massif (Chukotka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, V. I.; Marin, Yu. B.

    2016-07-01

    A description of hydrothermal allanite-(Y) and its unique association with allanite-(Ce) from tourmaline metasomatic rock of the Severny granite massif in Chukotka is presented in the article. Examination of the composition of metasomatic rims in allanite-(Y) allowed us to estimate the limit of isomorphic replacement in allanite of Y and heavy lanthanides by LREE, reaching 25%.

  16. Structure, age, and ore potential of the Burpala rare-metal alkaline massif, northern Baikal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladykin, N. V.; Sotnikova, I. A.; Kotov, A. B.; Yarmolyuk, V. V.; Sal'nikova, E. B.; Yakovleva, S. Z.

    2014-07-01

    The Burpala alkaline massif is a unique geological object. More than 50 Zr, Nb, Ti, Th, Be, and REE minerals have been identified in rare-metal syenite of this massif. Their contents often reach tens of percent, and concentrations of rare elements in rocks are as high as 3.6% REE, 4% Zr, 0.5% Y, 0.5% Nb, 0.5% Th, and 0.1% U. Geological and geochemical data show that all rocks in the Burpala massif are derivatives of alkaline magma initially enriched in rare elements. These rocks vary in composition from shonkinite, melanocratic syenite, nepheline and alkali syenites to alaskite and alkali granite. The extreme products of magma fractionation are rare-metal pegmatites, apatite-fluorite rocks, and carbonatites. The primary melts were related to the enriched EM-2 mantle source. The U-Pb zircon ages of pulaskite (main intrusive phase) and rare-metal syenite (vein phase) are estimated at 294 ± 1 and 283 ± 8 Ma, respectively. The massif was formed as a result of impact of the mantle plume on the active continental margin of the Siberian paleocontinent.

  17. Time of formation and genesis of yttrium-zirconium mineralization in the Sakharjok massif, Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrin, V. R.; Skublov, S. G.; Balashov, Yu. A.; Lyalina, L. M.; Rodionov, N. V.

    2014-12-01

    The Kola geotectonic province in the northeastern Fennoscandian Shield accommodates a significant number of alkaline rock massifs differing in age. They are of mantle and mantle-crustal origin (alkali and nepheline syenites, carbonatites) and related to crustal sources (Neoarchean alkali granites). Among them, the Neoarchean Sakharjok nepheline syenite massif is related to the oldest intrusions of this kind bearing yttrium-zirconium mineralization. The crystallization of alkali syenite pertaining to the first intrusive phase of the intrusive Sakharjok massif is dated to 2645 ± 7 Ma, and this implies that this syenite postdated alkali granites (2.66-2.67 Ga). To date the yttrium-zirconium ore, we applied the local U-Pb method to zircon crystals occurring in the mineralized block hosted in nepheline syenite. The earliest fragments of zircon crystallized 1832 ± 7 Ma ago; the age of metamorphism is estimated at 1784 ± 13 Ma. These dates indicate the Paleoproterozoic age of the yttrium-zirconium mineralization, which was formed as a product of fluid reworking of the Neoarchean nepheline syenite of the Sakharjok massif.

  18. Massification of University Education in Nigeria: Private Participation and Cost Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahunanya, S.; Chineze, U.; Nnennaya, I.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the massification of university education in Nigeria as a result of the reforms in the education subsector that led to private participation in the provision of university education from 1999. The question of the study hinges on the percentage of access and if the increased number of universities has led to increased…

  19. The history of Italian psychiatry during Fascism.

    PubMed

    Piazzi, Andrea; Testa, Luana; Del Missier, Giovanni; Dario, Mariopaolo; Stocco, Ester

    2011-09-01

    Specific features characterized Italian psychiatry during Fascism (1922-45), distinguishing it from Nazi psychiatry and giving rise to different operational outcomes, so we have investigated the state of Italian psychiatry during this period. We review the historical situation that preceded it and describe the social and health policies that Fascism introduced following new legislative and regulatory acts. We examine the preventive and therapeutic role played by psychiatry (the electric shock was an Italian invention) and, thanks to the Enciclopedia Italiano published during those years, we are able to highlight psychiatry's relationship to psychology, psychoanalysis, philosophy and religion. The shortcomings of Italian psychiatric research and practice are also seen in terms of what the State failed to do rather than what it did.

  20. Niklas - a Hitherto Unknown Deep Magmatic Massif in the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybakov, M.; Voznesensky, V.; Ben-Avraham, Z.

    2004-12-01

    A Niklas massif was discovered recompiling the gravity and magnetic maps and interpreting in 3-D mode all the available data in the area around Eratosthenes Seamount (ESM). The updated datasets clearly show two partially superimposed magnetic dipoles, which also correspond well to disturbances in the gravity field. The pronounced Eratosthenes magnetic anomaly (EMA) is only the positive part of the southeastern dipole. There is no large gravity anomaly here, however the specific gravity pattern corresponds to the magnetic body. The northwestern `magnetic dipole coincides with a prominent (about of 100mGal) gravity high that was recently delineated by Russian geophysicists. Such grav/mag combination allowed us to interpret the anomalies as being caused by a hitherto unknown dense and magnetic body which we have named the Niklas massif. The parameters and depth of causative bodies were calculated by inverse programs and forward modeling using the seismic refraction and reflection constraints. The reliability of the final model was verified using forward modeling. The magnetic data were interpreted by assuming an induced magnetization as the main magnetizing factor. The final model consists of two large compact features oriented NE-SW and located south of the Cyprian arc,as the Eratosthenes and Niklas bodies. The gravity and magnetic pattern of the Niklas is typical for the ophiolite massifs of the Eastern Mediterranean and Southern Turkey (Troodos, Hatay, Antalya). Based on this likeness we assume the Niklas composed by dense and magnetic ophyolites. This large (~100*75km) deep-seated (~7km) thick (~7km) massif is located ~95km southwest of Cyprus. We consider the Niklas as the south-most fragment of the large allochthonous ophiolite thrust slab including the Troodos massif. The tectonic situations of the Niklas area and the central segment of the Cyprian Arc are similar to that of the Eastern Taurus, Bayer-Bassit and Hatay areas. Interaction of the large Late

  1. Serial correlation in the Italian futures market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Simone; Reno, Roberto

    2005-05-01

    We study the serial correlation of high-frequency intraday returns on the Italian stock index futures (FIB30) in the period 2000-2002. We adopt three different methods of analysis: the spectral density via Fast Fourier Transform, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and the Variance Ratio test. We find that intraday autocorrelation is mostly negative for time scales lower than 20 minutes, but we support the efficiency of the Italian futures market.

  2. Evolution of stocks and massifs from burial of salt sheets, continental slope, northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Seni, S.J. )

    1991-03-01

    Salt structures in a 4000-km{sup 2} region of the continental slope, the northeast Green Canyon area, include stocks, massifs, remnant structures, and an allochthonous sheet. Salt-withdrawal basins include typical semicircular basins and an extensive linear trough that is largely salt-free. Counterregional growth faults truncate the landward margin of salt sheets that extend 30-50 km to the Sigsbee Escarpment. The withdrawal basins, stocks, and massifs occur within a large graben between an east-northeast-trending landward zone of shelf-margin growth faults and a parallel trend of counterregional growth faults located 48-64 km basinward. The graben formed by extension and subsidence as burial of the updip portion of a thick salt sheet produced massifs and stocks by downbuilding. Differential loading segmented the updip margin of the salt sheet into stocks and massifs separated by salt-withdrawal basins. Initially, low-relief structures evolved by trap-door growth as half-graben basins buried the salt sheet. Remnant-salt structures and a turtle-structure anticline overlay a salt-weld disconformity in sediments formerly separated by a salt sheet. Age of sediments below the weld is inferred to be be late Miocene to early Pliocene (4.6-5.3 Ma); age of sediments above the weld is late Pliocene (2.8-3.5 Ma). The missing interval of time (1-2.5 Ma) is the duration between emplacement of the salt sheet and burial of the sheet. Sheet extrusion began in the late Miocene to early Pliocene, and sheet burial began in the late Pliocene in the area of the submarine trough to early Pleistocene in the area of the massifs.

  3. PGE mineralization of dunite-wehrlite massifs at the Gutara-Uda interfluve, Eastern Sayan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekhonoshin, A. S.; Tolstykh, N. D.; Podlipsky, M. Yu.; Kolotilina, T. B.; Vishnevsky, A. V.; Benedyuk, Yu. P.

    2013-05-01

    The Pt-Pd and Au-Ag mineralization hosted in both wehrlite without visible links to sulfide mineralization (dispersed assemblage of the Tartai massif) and disseminated Cu-Ni sulfide ore (ore assemblage of the Ognit massif) was found in dunite-wehrlite massifs localized in the fold framework of the Siberian Craton. The Pt minerals in both assemblages comprise sperrylite (PtAs2) and secondary Pt-Fe-Ni alloys in the Ognit massif and Pt-Fe-Cu and Pt-Cu alloys in the Tartai massif. The Pd minerals are widespread in the ore assemblages as compounds with Te, Sb, and Bi, whereas in the dispersed assemblage Pd is concentrated primarily in Pd-Cu-Sb compounds. Both assemblages are characterized by similar substitution of sperrylite with orcelite (Ni5 - xAs2) and then with secondary Pt-Fe-Ni or Pt-Fe-Cu and Pt-Cu alloys; the occurrence of Au-Ag alloys with prevalence of Ag over Au; and replacement of them with auricupride (Cu3Au) at the late stage. Sperrylite in both assemblages contains Ir impurities, while the Pd minerals contain Cu and Ni admixtures, which are typical of mineral assemblages related to the ultramafic intrusions with nickel specialization. PGM were formed under a low sulfur fugacity and high As, Bi, and Sb activities. The postmagmatic fluids affected the primary mineral assemblages under reductive conditions, and this effect resulted in replacement of sperrylite with Ni arsenide (orcelite) and Pt-Fe-Ni and Pt-Fe-Cu alloys; Ni and Cu sulfides were replaced with awaruite and native copper.

  4. Paleomagnetic results from Cenozoic volcanics of Lusatia, NW Bohemian Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnabl, P.; Cajz, V.; Tietz, O.; Buechner, J.; Suhr, P.; Pecskay, Z.; Cizkova, K.

    2013-05-01

    Lusatia is situated in the NE continuation of the Ohre Rift (OR) behind Lusatian Overtrust. Compared to the neighbouring volcanic complex of the České stredohorí Mts. (CS) inside the OR. The scattered occurrences of basaltic bodies in Lusatia are spread on wider area. This can be caused by different tectonic development of the regions and from derived erosional conditions. The Lusatian Overtrust, high-order tectonic structure running across the course of the OR, separates Lusatian region into two different geological areas where Cretaceous sediments or granodiorites of Lusatian Massif represent the country rock of the Cenozoic volcanism, respectively. The age of volcanic activity ranges from 19 to 33 Ma, it's proved by newly obtained Ar-Ar data from Freiberg and K-Ar data from Debrecen. Forty two scattered remnants of Cenozoic volcanic products were sampled to get paleomagnetic data. The superficial volcanics with detectable geological position and volcanology were chosen preferentially, several dykes and separate vents were sampled as well. Paleomagnetic research was processed on more than 500 samples which were demagnetized using alternate field in the range 0-80 mT. Q-ratio was counted to prevent the lightning influence - solitary volcanic occurrences build positive morphology and thus, they are prone to be targeted by lightnings. The values of Q-ratio predominantly span from 0.1 to 7.0; those samples having the value over 10, were excluded for evaluation. The mean paleomagnetic direction (MPD) was acquired from several samples on each sampling site. Declination and Inclination show values of 11.8 deg and 62.7 deg (α95 = 9.3 deg) for normal polarity, or 182.1 deg and -59.2 deg (α95 = 6.1 deg) for reverse polarity, respectively,The corresponding paleolatitude of 41.9 deg was counted from the Inclination. This is 1000 km to the South, compared to recent position. The dispersions of the MPD are relatively wide. This coincides well with the idea of long

  5. Occurrence of springs in massifs of crystalline rocks, northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Fernando António Leal; Alencoão, Ana Maria Pires

    2002-02-01

    An inventory of artesian springs emerging from fractures (fracture springs) was conducted in the Pinhão River Basin and Morais Massif, northern Portugal, comprising an area of approximately 650 km2. Over 1,500 springs were identified and associated with geological domains and fracture sets. Using cross-tabulation analysis, spring distributions by fracture sets were compared among geological environments, and the deviations related to differences in rock structure and, presumably, to differences in deformational histories. The relation between spring frequencies and rock structures was further investigated by spectral determination, the model introduced in this study. Input data are the spring frequencies and fracture lengths in each geological domain, in addition to the angles between fracture strikes and present-day stress-field orientation (θ). The model's output includes the so-called intrinsic densities, a parameter indexing spring occurrence to factors such as fracture type and associated deformational regime and age. The highest densities (12.2 springs/km of lineament) were associated with young shear fractures produced by brittle deformation, and the lowest (0.1) with old tensional and ductile fractures. Spectral determination also relates each orientation class to a dominant structural parameter: where spring occurrence is controlled by θ, the class is parallel to the present-day stress-field orientation; where the control is attributed to the length of fractures, the spring occurrence follows the strike of large-scale normal faults crossing the region. Résumé. Un inventaire des sources artésiennes émergeant de fractures (sources de fractures) a été réalisé dans le bassin de la rivière Pinhão et dans le massif de Morais, dans le nord du Portugal, dans une région couvrant environ 650 km2. Plus de 1,500 sources ont été identifiées et associées à des domaines géologiques et à des ensembles de fractures. Grâce à une analyse de tableaux

  6. The First Italian Radar Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbo, M.; di Martino, M.; Saba, L.; Montebugnoli, S.; Righini, S.; Poppi, S.; Orlati, A.; Ostro, S.; Cevolani, G.

    Radar is a uniquely powerful source of information about physical properties and orbits of solar system bodies, such as sizes, shapes, albedos, surface textures and bulk features. We discuss a project which aims at using the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) as radar system for physical studies of planetary targets, and in particular of near-Earth Aster- oids (NEAs). Within the feasibility study of this project, we discuss the results of the first italian radar experiment, which has been performed in bistatic mode with the joint collabo- ration Goldstone (California)-Medicina (Bologna). We have successfully observed the NEA 1998 WT24 on December 2001. Besides the physical study of 1998 WT24, the goals of this project were to test the existing technical facilities and capabilities for crucial radar follow-up observations of near- Earth Asteroids and thus to transfer the acquired skills to SRT radar project. The case and future prospects for an SRT based planetary radar project in Europe is reviewed.

  7. Pronominal Objects in English-Italian and Spanish-Italian Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serratrice, Ludovica; Sorace, Antonella; Filiaci, Francesca; Baldo, Michela

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of typological relatedness, language of the community, and age, in predicting similarities and differences between English-Italian, Spanish-Italian bilingual children and their monolingual child and adult counterparts in the acceptability of pre- and postverbal object pronouns in [[plus or minus]focus] contexts in…

  8. Research of dynamical Characteristics of slow deformation Waves as Massif Responses on Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Oleg; Shipeev, Oleg

    2013-04-01

    The research of massif state with use of approaches of open system theory [1-3] was developed for investigation the criterions of dissipation regimes for real rock massifs, which are under heavy man-caused influence. For realization of that research we used the data of seismic catalogue of Tashtagol mine. As a result of the analyze of that data we defined character morphology of phase trajectories of massif response, which was locally in time in a stable state: on the phase plane with coordinates released by the massif during the dynamic event energy E and lg(dE/dt) there is a local area as a ball of twisted trajectories and some not great bursts from that ball, which are not greater than 105 joules. In some time intervals that burst can be larger, than 105 joules, achieving 106 joules and yet 109 joules. [3]. Evidently there are two reciprocal depend processes: the energy accumulation in the attracted phase trajectories area and resonance fault of the accumulated energy. But after the fault the system returns again to the same attracted phase trajectories area. For analyzing of the thin structure of the chaotic area we decided to add the method of processing of the seismic monitoring data by new parameters. We shall consider each point of explosion as a source of seismic or deformation waves. Using the kinematic approach of seismic information processing we shall each point of the massif response use as a time point of the first arrival of the deformation wave for calculation of the wave velocity, because additionally we know the coordinates of the fixed response and the coordinates of explosion. The use of additional parameter-velocity of slow deformation wave propagation allowed us with use method of phase diagrams identify their hierarchic structure, which allow us to use that information for modeling and interpretation the propagation seismic and deformation waves in hierarchic structures. It is researched with use of that suggested processing method the thin

  9. Long lasting paleolandscapes stability of the French Massif Central during the Mesozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricordel-Prognon, C.; Thiry, M.; Theveniaut, H.; Lagroix, F.

    2009-04-01

    Regional geodynamical evolution is mainly constrained by the sedimentary record in the basins. Usually, little is known about geodynamics of the peripheral areas and even less on the evolution of the basement areas. Continental unconformities are essential to estimate erosion rates of basement and to model the crustal dynamics that control subsidence of surrounding sedimentary basins but also uplift and erosion on their edges. Dating such unconformities has always been the stumbling block while it is a prerequisite to constrain geodynamical models. Paleomagnetism has been proven as a suitable tool to date ferrugineous paleoweathering features. The method has been applied to paleoweathering occurrences resting on the Massif Central crystalline basement as well as to paleoweathering features affecting the crystalline basement itself. The remanence measurements were obtained at the Paleomagnetic Laboratory of the Institut Physique du Globe de Paris and data analyses were carried out using PaleoMac 5 software (Cogné, 2003). Relative dating of the paleoweathering profiles have been acquired by comparing the recorded paleomagnetic poles from the analysed samples to the apparent polar wandering path of the Eurasian plate (Edel et Duringer, 1997 ; Besse and Courtillot, 2003). Thick red kaolinitic formations rest locally on the Massif Central basement. They are generally bounded by the Tertiary grabens and buried by the Oligocene formations. Thus these azoic red formations have classically been ascribed to the "Siderolithic" formations of Eocene-Oligocene age. They show many pedogenic features (termites burrows, illuviation and hydromorphic features and nodules) and strong relationships with paleolandscape organisation (leaned against fault scarps, infilling paleovalleys, etc.). Macro and micromorphological arrangements show that these formations are in situ paleosols. Paleomagnetic ages range from 160 Ma (Late Jurassic) in the centre of the Massif Central to 140 Ma (Early

  10. Long lasting paleolandscapes stability of the French Massif Central during the Mesozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricordel-Prognon, C.; Thiry, M.; Theveniaut, H.; Lagroix, F.

    2009-04-01

    Regional geodynamical evolution is mainly constrained by the sedimentary record in the basins. Usually, little is known about geodynamics of the peripheral areas and even less on the evolution of the basement areas. Continental unconformities are essential to estimate erosion rates of basement and to model the crustal dynamics that control subsidence of surrounding sedimentary basins but also uplift and erosion on their edges. Dating such unconformities has always been the stumbling block while it is a prerequisite to constrain geodynamical models. Paleomagnetism has been proven as a suitable tool to date ferrugineous paleoweathering features. The method has been applied to paleoweathering occurrences resting on the Massif Central crystalline basement as well as to paleoweathering features affecting the crystalline basement itself. The remanence measurements were obtained at the Paleomagnetic Laboratory of the Institut Physique du Globe de Paris and data analyses were carried out using PaleoMac 5 software (Cogné, 2003). Relative dating of the paleoweathering profiles have been acquired by comparing the recorded paleomagnetic poles from the analysed samples to the apparent polar wandering path of the Eurasian plate (Edel et Duringer, 1997 ; Besse and Courtillot, 2003). Thick red kaolinitic formations rest locally on the Massif Central basement. They are generally bounded by the Tertiary grabens and buried by the Oligocene formations. Thus these azoic red formations have classically been ascribed to the "Siderolithic" formations of Eocene-Oligocene age. They show many pedogenic features (termites burrows, illuviation and hydromorphic features and nodules) and strong relationships with paleolandscape organisation (leaned against fault scarps, infilling paleovalleys, etc.). Macro and micromorphological arrangements show that these formations are in situ paleosols. Paleomagnetic ages range from 160 Ma (Late Jurassic) in the centre of the Massif Central to 140 Ma (Early

  11. Petrological and geochemical evolution of the Tolbachik volcanic massif, Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churikova, Tatiana G.; Gordeychik, Boris N.; Iwamori, Hikaru; Nakamura, Hitomi; Ishizuka, Osamu; Nishizawa, Tatsuji; Haraguchi, Satoru; Miyazaki, Takashi; Vaglarov, Bogdan S.

    2015-12-01

    Data on the geology, petrography, and geochemistry of Middle-Late-Pleistocene rocks from the Tolbachik volcanic massif (Kamchatka, Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes) are presented and compared with rocks from the neighboring Mount Povorotnaya, Klyuchevskaya group basement, and Holocene-historical Tolbachik monogenetic cones. Two volcanic series of lavas, middle-K and high-K, are found in the Tolbachik massif. The results of our data analysis and computer modeling of crystallization at different P-T-H2O-fO2 conditions allow us to reconstruct the geochemical history of the massif. The Tolbachik volcanic massif started to form earlier than 86 ka based on K-Ar dating. During the formation of the pedestal and the lower parts of the stratovolcanoes, the middle-K melts, depleted relative to NMORB, fractionated in water-rich conditions (about 3% of H2O). At the Late Pleistocene-Holocene boundary, a large fissure zone was initiated and the geodynamical regime changed. Upwelling associated with intra-arc rifting generated melting from the same mantle source that produced magmas more enriched in incompatible trace elements and subduction components; these magmas are high-K, not depleted relative to N-MORB melts with island arc signatures and rift-like characteristics. The fissure opening caused degassing during magma ascent, and the high-K melts fractionated at anhydrous conditions. These high-K rocks contributed to the formation of the upper parts of stratovolcanoes. At the beginning of Holocene, the high-K rocks became prevalent and formed cinder cones and associated lava fields along the fissure zone. However, some features, including 1975-1976 Northern Breakthrough, are represented by middle-K high-Mg rocks, suggesting that both middle-K and high-K melts still exist in the Tolbachik system. Our results show that fractional crystallization at different water conditions and a variably depleted upper mantle source are responsible for all observed variations in rocks within

  12. Scorpions from the Mitaraka Massif in French Guiana. II. Description of a new species of Ananteris Thorell, 1891 (Scorpiones: Buthidae).

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R

    2016-01-01

    A new remarkable species belonging to the genus Ananteris Thorell, 1891 (Buthidae) is described from the Mitaraka Massif in French Guiana, a site located near the borders of French Guiana, Brazil, and Suriname. The description of this new species brings further evidence about the biogeographic patterns of distribution presented by most species of the genus Ananteris, which are highly endemic in most biogeographic realms of South America, including the Tepuys and Inselberg Massifs. PMID:27156170

  13. Scorpions from the Mitaraka Massif in French Guiana. II. Description of a new species of Ananteris Thorell, 1891 (Scorpiones: Buthidae).

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R

    2016-01-01

    A new remarkable species belonging to the genus Ananteris Thorell, 1891 (Buthidae) is described from the Mitaraka Massif in French Guiana, a site located near the borders of French Guiana, Brazil, and Suriname. The description of this new species brings further evidence about the biogeographic patterns of distribution presented by most species of the genus Ananteris, which are highly endemic in most biogeographic realms of South America, including the Tepuys and Inselberg Massifs.

  14. North Massif lithologies and chemical compositions viewed from 2-4 mm particles of soil sample 76503

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Kaylynn M.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Korotev, Randy L.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1992-01-01

    We identify the lithologic and compositional components of soil 76503 based on INAA of 243 2-4-mm particles and 72 thin sections from these and associated 1-2-mm particles (76502). We present a statistical distribution of the major compositional types as the first step of a detailed comparative study of the North and South Massifs. The soil sample was collected well away from any boulder and is more representative of typical North Massif material than any single large rock or boulder sample. So far, our examination of the 76503 particles has provided a better definition of precursor igneous lithologies and their petrogenetic relationships. It has enabled us to refine the nature of mixing components for the North Massif less than 1-mm fines. It has confirmed the differences in lithologies and their proportions between materials of the North and South Massifs; e.g., the North Massif is distinguished by the absence of a 72275-type KREEP component, the abundance of a highly magnesian igneous component, and the absence of certain types of melt compositions found in the South Massif samples.

  15. Œdème vulvaire massif pendant la grossesse: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    El Hassani, Moulay Elmehdi; Kassidi, Farid; Benabdejlil, Youssef; Kouach, Jaouad; Moussaoui, Driss Rahali; Dehayni, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    L’œdème vulvaire massif est rare pendant la grossesse, mais requiert une attention particulière car il peut se greffer de complications maternelles et fœtales. Il peut être associé à plusieurs pathologies spécifiques ou non spécifiques à la grossesse dont le diagnostic fait appel obligatoirement à un interrogatoire et un examen clinique minutieux, puis à un bilan biologique standard. Le traitement doit être étiologique chaque fois que possible à coté du traitement symptomatique. Cette situation peut nécessiter un accouchement par césarienne. En dehors du risque potentiel de nécrose tissulaire et du risque exceptionnel de décès maternel associé à l’œdème vulvaire massif du post-partum l’évolution est favorable sous traitement bien conduit. PMID:25922627

  16. Significance of the Early Jurassic Garamilla formation in the western Nordpatagonian Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedini, Leonardo; Gregori, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    By means of facial, stratigraphic, petrographic, geochemical and geochronological studies we characterize the Garamilla Formation, cropping out in the western Nordpatagonian Massif. The studies of these volcanic rocks reveal an Early Jurassic volcanic episode formed by three volcanic units that change from normal calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline series. Other geochemical features reveal a progressive change from an initial subduction-related volcanism to one intraplate-related volcanism. This volcanic episode is temporally and geochemically equivalent to those volcanic units located in half-grabens in several areas of the Neuquén Basin. The volcanic units were erupted into different structural designs. A portion of its depocenter was interpreted as a transtensional half-graben, whereas the other exhibits a trapdoor structure. The lineament trends that bound the volcanic system were also recognized in western Nordpatagonian Massif, and were assigned to the Gondwanide Orogeny.

  17. Two types of noble metal mineralization in the Kaalamo massif (Karelia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashchenko, V. I.; Ruchyev, A. M.; Golubev, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    Noble metal mineralization of the syngenetic (Southern Kaalamo) and epigenetic (Surisuo) types are defined in the Kaalamo massif. The ƩPt, Pd, Au content is as high as 0.9-1.1 g/t. Syngenetic mineralization started at the late magmatic stage (at around 800°C) gradually evolving to cease during the hydrothermal-metasomatic stage (<271°C). Epigenetic mineralization was formed at temperatures ranging from 500 to <230°C in zones of intense shear deformations and low-temperature metasomatosis during the collisional stage of the Svecofennian tectono-magmatic cycle (approximately 1.85 Ga ago). Taking into consideration the geological position of the Kaalamo massif in the Raakhe-Ladoga metallogenic zone with widely developed intense shear dislocations, the epigenetic mineralization type seems to be more promising with respect to noble metals.

  18. Petrology of a stratified boulder from South Massif, Taurus-Littrow. [Apollo 17 lunar rock sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeser, D. B.; Marvin, U. B.; Wood, J. A.; Wolfe, R. W.; Bower, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    Boulder 1 from Station 2 at the foot of South Massif is unique in being the only stratified boulder sampled by the Apollo 17 astronauts. Our studies of two of the four specimens that were collected from separate layers show that the boulder is composed of glass-poor, fragment-rich breccias which are aggregates of differentially annealed terra material, mainly ANT, but including basaltic troctolite, pigeonite basalt, granitic particles, dark breccia-rimmed anorthositic clasts, and a KREEPless norite that has not been recognized elsewhere at the Apollo 17 site. The boulder appears to derive from the uppermost blue-gray layer on South Massif, which we believe consists of ejecta deposited from a single large impact event (possibly the one which excavated the Serenitatis Basin).

  19. Parameters determining the portion of energy radiated during dynamic unloading of a section of rock massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adushkin, V. V.; Kocharyan, G. G.; Ostapchuk, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    Presented are the main results of laboratory experiments aimed at studing the regularities of transition of the cumulated deformation energy to the kinetic one when a block exhibits stick-slip along model fracture filled with geomaterials with different properties. It was shown that even a small variation of material composition of the fault principal slip zone may result in a significant variation of the portion of seismic energy radiated during dynamic unloading of the enclosing rock massif.

  20. Crustal Structure at the vicinity of Nigde Massif and Central Anatolian Fault Zone from Magnetotelluric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tank, B.; Sandvol, E. A.; Karas, M.; Ozaydin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Three magnetotelluric (MT) profiles were constructed to examine the electrical resistivity strucuture of a metamorphic core complex renown as Niğde massif and a northeast - southwest aligned fault zone (Central Anatolian Fault Zone, CAFZ) bounding this massif on the east in Central Anatolia. Nigde massif is a crystalline dome close to Inner-Tauride suture at the southern part of Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex. The sinistral CAFZ (in the south it is called Ecemis fault) is a ~700 km long, 2 to 80 km wide zone with an offset of 60 to 80 km. Northwest-southeast aligned Tuz Gölü (Salt Lake) and Derinkuyu faults are other major features that shape up the study area. A three-dimensional numerical modeling routine based on data-space modeling (WSINV3DMT) was used to invert the MT data collected at 85 high quality soundings. A mesh with 76 x 74 x 40 (7 layers for air) cells was used during the inversions. The resulting models suggest that (i) there is a low conductivity dome-like anomaly that coincides with the Nigde massif (presumably matches with Uckapili granite). (ii) Beneath this low conductivity anomaly there is a deeper (>20 km) high conductivity zone caused by partial melting (iii) Ecemis fault near Pozanti appears as a low to high conductivity interface. (iv) Likewise, Tuz Gölü and Derinkuyu faults appear as a low to high conductivity interfaces representing barriers for fluid flow (v) Adana basin sediments show high conductivity values (vi) Mt. Hasan and Mt. Karaca and the volcanic complexes in between them show highly conductive features in their roots, but (vi) older Mt. Erciyes lacks such a deep conductor.

  1. The deformation of the Egersund Ogna anorthosite massif, south Norway: finite-element modelling of diapirism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnichon, J. D.; Havenith, H.; Hoffer, B.; Charlier, R.; Jongmans, D.; Duchesne, J. C.

    1999-03-01

    This paper aims at testing the mechanical relevance of the petrological model of anorthosite massif diapiric emplacement. The Egersund-Ogna massif (S. Norway) is of particular interest because recent petrological and geochronological data constrain the initial geometry, emplacement conditions and timing (about 2 m.y.). The formation of this anorthosite massif is in agreement with the classical petrological model, in which accumulation of plagioclase takes place in a deep-seated magma chamber at the crust-mantle limit, from which masses of plagioclase separate and rise through the lower crust up to the final level of emplacement at mid-crustal depths. The Egersund-Ogna massif also displays a foliated inner margin, in which strain ellipsoids have been reconstructed by investigating at 51 sites the deformation of megacrysts of high-alumina orthopyroxene. Based on these petrological data, a model made up of one rigid layer (upper granitic crust) and three viscous layers (lower part of the granitic crust, noritic lower crust and anorthosite) has been built up. The upper crust behaviour is represented by an elastoplastic law and the viscous layers obey elastic-viscoplastic laws with Newtonian viscosity. An inverse density gradient is considered between the lower crust ( d=3.00) and the anorthosite ( d=2.75), the loading consisting only in gravity. The modelling is carried out under axisymmetrical conditions, using the LAGAMINE finite-element code coupled with an automatic re-meshing algorithm designed to deal with large strains in complex structures. The results show that, from a mechanical point of view, the diapirism model is a robust and consistent assumption for the emplacement of anorthosites, because realistic diapir and rim-syncline shapes are obtained. Moreover, the numerically obtained emplacement time (about 2.5 m.y.) is in agreement with the available geochronological data, and the computed strain field is coherent with field measurements, especially regarding

  2. Post-orogenic Extension in NW Anatolia as Indicated by Neogene Exhumation of the Kazdag Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavazza, W.; Okay, A. I.; Zattin, M.

    2006-12-01

    The Kazdag massif is an amphibolite facies metamorphic core complex in NW Anatolia. Apatite fission-track analyses indicate that exhumation of the basement rocks of Kazdag covers a time span between 22 and 11 Ma (i.e. early-middle Miocene), with a cluster of ages at 17-14 Ma. Structural analysis of remnants of low- angle shear zones, high-angle normal faults and strike-slip faults, as well as stratigraphic analysis of upper- plate sedimentary successions, point to a two-stage structural evolution of the massif. The first stage comprised a continuum of chronologically overlapping mechanisms, from late Oligocene-early Miocene low- angle detachment faulting to early Miocene development of small supradetachment grabens filled with a mixture of epiclastic, volcaniclastic and volcanic rocks (Kucukkuyu Fm.). This phase encompassed much of the rapid thermal evolution of the massif, including the emplacement of a suite of granitoid stocks with cooling ages around 21 Ma. Younger fission-track ages are aligned along the borders of the massif, substantiating the notion of a progressive, bivergent denudation along opposing detachment faults whose remnants are still visible. The second stage (Plio-Quaternary) was dominated by strike-slip faulting related to the westward propagation of the North Anatolian fault system and seemingly reactivated Miocene normal faults. This later stage did not have a components of vertical (normal) movement large enough to affect the distribution of fission-track ages, although along the southern flank of Kazdag such vertical component is responsible for the development of the Edremit Gulf, with extensional structural offset in the order of 4,000+ meters. The thermochronological data presented here confirm that widespread extensional tectonism in westernmost Anatolia occurred during early-middle Miocene time.

  3. Timing and Style of Deformation in the Floresta Massif, Axial Eastern Cordillera, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, J.; Stockli, D. F.; Mora, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Floresta Massif is one of the largest exposures of Paleozoic and Pre-Cambrian rocks in the Eastern Cordillera. Estimates for the age of onset of shortening-related deformation in the Eastern Cordillera range from late Cretaceous to late Miocene (e.g., Hoorn et al., 1995; Bayona et al., 2008; Parra et al., 2009). The massif is typically interpreted as being exhumed along a high-angle reverse fault (the Soapaga fault) that reactivated Mesozoic extensional structures (e.g., Kammer and Sanchez, 2006). We examined these dual linked issued with new zircon U/Th-He (ZHe) data, new geological mapping and previously published apatite fission track (AFT) data from the Floresta Massif and the associated footwall strata. Previously, an overturned Paleozoic - Cretaceous sequence was mapped emplaced on Tertiary strata along the Soapaga fault. However, new geologic mapping identifies two previously unrecognized thrusts which place, from west to east, Paleozoic strata on Jurassic strata (Fault 3), Jurassic strata on Cretaceous strata (Fault 2) and Cretaceous strata on Tertiary strata (along the previously identified Fault 1). These results are confirmed by AFT and ZHe data. ZHe ages show no resetting in the Tertiary footwall strata, but show partial resetting in the Cretaceous strata and full resetting in the Jurassic and Paleozoic strata. Similarly, AFT data show older ages in the Cretaceous strata than in the Jurassic or Paleozoic strata. Fully reset ZHe ages from Jurassic strata show that exhumation of the Floresta Massif was ongoing by at least the early Oligocene (~ 30 Ma). However, this deformation post-dates an older episode of deformation associated with partially reset ZHe ages in the Cretaceous strata. Based on a decrease in lag time in detrital ZHe data, we infer that the earlier episode of deformation occurred in the mid - late Eocene (45 - 35 Ma).

  4. Mineralogy and geochemistry of the Tartai massif, East Siberian metallogenic province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podlipsky, M. Yu.; Mekhonoshin, A. S.; Tolstykh, N. D.; Vishnevskiy, A. V.; Polyakov, G. V.

    2015-05-01

    The Tartai ultramafic-mafic massif is located in the central part of the East Siberian metallogenic (PGE-Cu-Ni) province (728-712 Ma), which constitutes part of the southern margin of the Siberian craton. This dunite-peridotite-pyroxenite-gabbro massif is the host to low-sulfide PGE-Cu-Ni mineralization. The massif was formed by fractional crystallization of picritic magmas and is composed of wehrlite, dunite, plagiowehrlite, and olivine melanogabbro. The composition of olivine varies from Fo89.9 in dunite to Fo83 in melanocratic olivine gabbro; clinopyroxene is esentially augite. Chrome-spinels crystallized at a low degree of oxidation and have a high iron content. Disseminated sulfide mineralization (pentlandite and heazlewoodite) with high PGE concentrations was identified in wehrlites. Pentlandite is enriched in Fe and Co and depleted in S. These features and the association pentlandite with heazlewoodite suggest that the sulfide mineralization was formed over a wide temperature range (600-400°C) at low sulfur activity (log fS2 from -16 to -9). PGM are represented by Ir-bearing sperrylite, Pd-Cu-Sb panning compounds of variable compositions, Pt-Fe-Cu and Pt-Cu alloys. The evolutionary trend of the ore system was from essentially Ni compositions at the early magmatic stage during formation of disseminated mineralization toward Cu-rich composition at the post-magmatic stage. The PGM assemblage from heavy concentrate haloes differs from bedrock-hosted mineralization in its wider variety of mineral species and the presence of refractory platinoids. Sperrylite from heavy concentrate haloes of the Tartai massif serves as a reliable prospecting guide for bedrock-hosted sulfide Cu-Ni deposits.

  5. Re-Os isotopic evidence for a lower crustal origin of massif-type anorthosites

    PubMed

    Schiellerup; Lambert; Prestvik; Robins; McBride; Larsen

    2000-06-15

    Massif-type anorthosites are large igneous complexes of Proterozoic age. They are almost monomineralic, representing vast accumulations of plagioclase with subordinate pyroxene or olivine and Fe-Ti oxides--the 930-Myr-old Rogaland anorthosite province in southwest Norway represents one of the youngest known expressions of such magmatism. The source of the magma and geodynamic setting of massif-type anorthosites remain long-standing controversies in Precambrian geology, with no consensus existing as to the nature of the parental magmas or whether these magmas primarily originate in the Earth's mantle or crust. At present, massif-type anorthosites are believed to have crystallized from either crustally contaminated mantle-derived melts that have fractionated olivine and pyroxenes at depth or primary aluminous gabbroic to jotunitic melts derived from the lower continental crust. Here we report rhenium and osmium isotopic data from the Rogaland anorthosite province that strongly support a lower crustal source for the parental magmas. There is no evidence of significantly older crust in southwest Scandinavia and models invoking crustal contamination of mantle-derived magmas fail to account for the isotopic data from the Rogaland province. Initial osmium and neodymium isotopic values testify to the melting of mafic source rocks in the lower crust with an age of 1,400-1,550 Myr. PMID:10866196

  6. Chain Lakes massif, west central Maine: northern Appalachian basement or suspect terrane

    SciTech Connect

    Cheatham, M.M.; Olszewski, W.J. Jr.; Gaudette, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Chain Lakes massif of west-central Main is a 3 km thick sequence of diamictite and aquagene metavolcanics and metasediments, which contrasts strikingly with its surrounding Paleozoic rocks in lithology, structural style and metamorphic grade. The rocks of the massif are characterized by mineral assemblages developed during two separate metamorphic events. The first, of second sillimanite grade, is reflected by qtz-oligoclase-Kspar-sillimanite-biotite and muscovite. The second metamorphism is a retrograde event of greenschist facies, and chlorite grade. Isotopic Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd whole rock, and Rb-Sr mineral analyses of samples of the diamictite members, now gneiss and granofels, indicate that the first prograde metamorphism occurred at 770 Ma. with the retrograde event at approximately 405 Ma. Due to the restricted range of /sup 147/Sm//sup 144/Nd, no Sm-Nd isochron age could be determined. However, model ages for both Sr and Nd are approximately 1500 Ma for derivation of the Chain Lakes protolith material from depleted mantle. Lithology, bounding formations, complexes and plutons, and the isotopic data support previous contentions that the Chain Lakes massif is a suspect terrane. However, similarities with Proterozoic rocks along the Eastern Margin, as well as recent suggestions of similar rocks underlying the Kearsarge-Central Main synclinorium may suggest the possible widespread occurrence of dismembered masses of a perhaps once coherent, Precambrian terrane underlying the Northern Appalachians.

  7. Crystal structure of modular sodium-rich and low-iron eudialyte from Lovozero alkaline massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenberg, K. A.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Aksenov, S. M.

    2016-09-01

    The structure of the sodium-rich representative of the eudialyte group found by A.P. Khomyakov at the Lovozero massif (Kola Peninsula) is studied by X-ray diffraction. The trigonal cell parameters are: a = 14.2032(1) and c = 60.612(1) Å, V = 10589.13 Å3, space group R3m. The structure is refined to the final R = 5.0% in the anisotropic approximation of atomic displacement parameters using 3742|F| > 3σ( F). The idealized formula ( Z = 3) is Na37Ca10Mn2FeZr6Si50(Ti, Nb)2O144(OH)5Cl3 · H2O. Like other 24-layer minerals of the eudialyte group, this mineral has a modular structure. Its structure contains two modules, namely, "alluaivite" (with an admixture of "eudialyte") and "kentbrooksite," called according to the main structural fragments of alluaivite, eudialyte, and kentbrooksite. The mineral found at the Lovozero alkaline massif shows some chemical and symmetry-structural distinctions from the close-in-composition labyrinthite modular mineral from the Khibiny massif. The difference between the minerals stems from different geochemical conditions of mineral formation in the two regions.

  8. Re-Os isotopic evidence for a lower crustal origin of massif-type anorthosites

    PubMed

    Schiellerup; Lambert; Prestvik; Robins; McBride; Larsen

    2000-06-15

    Massif-type anorthosites are large igneous complexes of Proterozoic age. They are almost monomineralic, representing vast accumulations of plagioclase with subordinate pyroxene or olivine and Fe-Ti oxides--the 930-Myr-old Rogaland anorthosite province in southwest Norway represents one of the youngest known expressions of such magmatism. The source of the magma and geodynamic setting of massif-type anorthosites remain long-standing controversies in Precambrian geology, with no consensus existing as to the nature of the parental magmas or whether these magmas primarily originate in the Earth's mantle or crust. At present, massif-type anorthosites are believed to have crystallized from either crustally contaminated mantle-derived melts that have fractionated olivine and pyroxenes at depth or primary aluminous gabbroic to jotunitic melts derived from the lower continental crust. Here we report rhenium and osmium isotopic data from the Rogaland anorthosite province that strongly support a lower crustal source for the parental magmas. There is no evidence of significantly older crust in southwest Scandinavia and models invoking crustal contamination of mantle-derived magmas fail to account for the isotopic data from the Rogaland province. Initial osmium and neodymium isotopic values testify to the melting of mafic source rocks in the lower crust with an age of 1,400-1,550 Myr.

  9. Crystallization and emplacement of the Lac St-Jean anorthosite massif (Quebec, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woussen, G.; Dimroth, E.; Corriveau, L.; Archer, P.

    1981-05-01

    The Lac St-Jean anorthosite massif underlies an area of over 20,000 km2 and has been emplaced into migmatitic gneisses of the central granulite terrain of the Grenville Province of the Canadian shield. Field data and petrography in an area straddling the anorthosite-gneiss contact, close to Chicoutimi (Quebec) permits an outline of its tecto-magmatic evolution. Depositional magmatic textures in the massif reveals that it crystallized from a magma in a relatively calm tectonic environment. The absence of fusion in pelitic gneisses at the contact proves that the crystallization did not take place at the level presently exposed. The parallelism of subvertical foliation in the enveloping gneisses and the anorthosite indicates that both were deformed together. It is suggested that the deformation results from a diapiric ascent of the anorthosite massif after its consolidation at depth. The depth of consolidation of the anorthosite is estimated at ˜ 25 30 km from subsolidus reaction between plagioclase and olivine. The diapiric ascent is further substantiated by the fact that three sets of mafic dykes of different ages, intrusive into the anorthosite, have a mineralogy which indicates successively decreasing P, T conditions of emplacement from granulite fades to amphibolite facies. An evolution of the basement gneisses and the anorthosite is proposed as a working hypothesis; it relies on the fact that metabasite dyke swarms in the basement gneisses represent a period of major crustal extension and could be used as a stratigraphic subdivision of the Grenville Province.

  10. Significance of Geological Units of the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic, as Seen by Ambient Noise Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Růžek, Bohuslav; Valentová, Lubica; Gallovič, František

    2016-05-01

    Broadband recordings of 88 seismic stations distributed in the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic, and covering the time period of up to 12 years were processed by a cross-correlation technique. All correlograms were analyzed by a novel approach to get both group and phase dispersion of Rayleigh and Love waves. Individual dispersion curves were averaged in five distinct geological units which constitute the Bohemian Massif (Saxothuringian, Teplá-Barrandean, Sudetes, Moravo-Silesian, and Moldanubian). Estimated error of the averaged dispersion curves are by an order smaller than the inherent variability due to the 3D distribution of seismic velocities within the units. The averaged dispersion data were inverted for 1D layered velocity models including their uncertainty, which are characteristic for each of the geological unit. We found that, overall, the differences between the inverted velocity models are of similar order as the variability inside the geological units, suggesting that the geological specification of the units is not fully reflected into the S-wave propagation velocities on a regional scale. Nevertheless, careful treatment of the dispersion data allowed us to identify some robust characteristics of the area. The vp to vs ratio is anomalously low (~1.6) for all the units. The Moldanubian is the most rigid and most homogeneous part of the Bohemian Massif. Middle crust in the depth range of ~3-15 km is relatively homogeneous across the investigated region, while both uppermost horizon (0-3 km) and lower crust (>15 km) exhibit lower degree of homogeneity.

  11. Origin and significance of tourmalinites and tourmaline-bearing rocks of Menderes Massif, western Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yücel-Öztürk, Yeşim; Helvacı, Cahit; Palmer, Martin R.; Ersoy, E. Yalçın; Freslon, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    In the western central portion of Anatolia lies the Menderes Massif - a large metamorphic crystalline complex made of Neoproterozoic to Precambrian basement rocks overlain by Palaeozoic to early Tertiary metasedimentary rocks, and with a multistage metamorphic evolution developed from the late Neo-Proterozoic to Eocene. We have undertaken a study of the petrology, geochemistry and boron isotope composition of these tourmaline occurrences aiming to constrain the processes responsible for the enrichment of boron and other fluid mobile elements in the Menderes Massif. The dispersed tourmaline has chemical and boron isotope compositions typical of a continental crust setting, but while some of the tourmalinites display similar signatures, others have heavier boron isotope compositions (up to + 7.5‰). We suggest that the tourmalinites with continental characteristics formed part of the original Pan African basement rocks, whereas those with heavier δ11B signatures formed by later metamorphism during the Alpine orogeny, possibly through interaction with subduction-like fluids. This proposed process may also have been coincident with metasomatism of the lithospheric mantle beneath the massif, which is known to have experienced multistage metasomatism and enrichment history up to Neogene time.

  12. Geophysical Constraints on the Nature of Atlantis Massif, 30°N MAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, D.

    2005-12-01

    Recent drilling at Atlantis Massif, Mid-Atlantic Ridge 30°N, provides new insights into oceanic core complex (OCC) development. IODP Expeditions 304/305 had high recovery in the footwall of the detachment capping the central dome of the massif: Hole U1309B, 100 m deep; Hole U1309D, 1415 m. Recovery of a dominantly gabbroic sequence challenges prior interpretations that this OCC was mainly ultramafic, geophysical data having suggested much of the uplifted core was mantle peridotite, with Moho less than 1 km deep. Although models based on prior analysis fit the data well and were consistent with outcrops of serpentinized peridotite on the south face of Atlantis Massif, it is now clear that additional complexity needs to be incorporated in the geophysical analysis. The southern ridge is morphologically distinct from the central dome. Does this indicate that the south and central parts of this OCC are fundamentally different? Or, is the serpentinized peridotite exposed on the south wall (and found in a few loose fragments on top of the central dome) a thin veneer of mantle rock that has deformed around a dominantly gabbroic core? The occurrence of many gabbroic samples from the southern ridge could support the latter but models of serpentinization that drives the Lost City hydrothermal system near the peak of the massif might favor the former. New analysis of geophysical data provide further constraints on the scale of possible variability. Prior seismic analysis suggested fresh mantle might shoal by a couple hundred meters 1-2 km north of Site U1309. In contrast, gravity data suggest the highest density rocks occur at and to the south of the site. These observations will be combined in a 3D model of Atlantis Massif and we expect to report initial results. Downhole logging indicates that bulk density increases steadily from 2.8 to 2.9 g/cc downhole. Log and core sample seismic velocity are variable within a 5.5-6.8 km/s range, lower values where degree of alteration

  13. Jurassic hot spring deposits of the Deseado Massif (Patagonia, Argentina): Characteristics and controls on regional distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, Diego M.; Campbell, Kathleen A.

    2011-06-01

    The Deseado Massif, Santa Cruz Province, Argentinean Patagonia, hosts numerous Middle to Late Jurassic age geothermal and epithermal features represented by siliceous and calcareous chemical precipitates from hot springs (sinters and travertines, respectively), hydrothermal breccias, quartz veins, and widespread hydrothermal silicification. They indicate pauses in explosive volcanic activity, marking the final stages in the evolution of an extensive Jurassic (ca. 178-151 Ma) volcanic complex set in a diffuse extensional back-arc setting heralding the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. Published paleo-hot spring sites for the Deseado Massif, plus additional sites identified during our recent field studies, reveal a total of 23 locations, five of which were studied in detail to determine their geologic and facies associations. They show structural, lithologic, textural and biotic similarities with Miocene to Recent hot spring systems from the Taupo and Coromandel volcanic zones, New Zealand, as well as with modern examples from Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A. These comparisons aid in the definition of facies assemblages for Deseado Massif deposits - proximal, middle apron and distal siliceous sinter and travertine terraces and mounds, with preservation of many types of stromatolitic fabrics - that likely were controlled by formation temperature, pH, hydrodynamics and fluid compositions. Locally the mapped hot spring deposits largely occur in association with reworked volcaniclastic lacustrine and/or fluvial sediments, silicic to intermediate lava domes, and hydrothermal mineralization, all of which are related to local and regional structural lineaments. Moreover, the numerous geothermal and significant epithermal (those with published minable resources) deposits of the Deseado Massif geological province mostly occur in four regional NNW and WNW hydrothermal-structural belts (Northwestern, Northern, Central, and Southern), defined here by alignment of five or more hot

  14. Mapping of the Ronda peridotite massif (Spain) from AVIRIS spectro-imaging survey: A first attempt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinet, P. C.; Chabrillat, S.; Ceuleneer, G.

    1993-01-01

    In both AVIRIS and ISM data, through the use of mixing models, geological boundaries of the Ronda massif are identified with respect to the surrounding rocks. We can also yield first-order vegetation maps. ISM and AVIRIS instruments give consistent results. On the basis of endmember fraction images, it is then possible to discard areas highly vegetated or not belonging to the peridotite massif. Within the remaining part of the mosaic, spectro-mixing analysis reveals spectral variations in the peridotite massif between the well-exposed areas. Spatially organized units are depicted, related to differences in the relative depth of the absorption band at 1 micron, and it may be due to a different pyroxene content. At this stage, it is worth noting that, although mineralogical variations observed in the rocks are at a sub-pixel scale for the airborne analysis, we see an emerging spatial pattern in the distribution of spectral variations across the massif which might be prevailingly related to mineralogy. Although it is known from fieldwork that the Ronda peridotite massif exhibits mineralogical variations at local scale in the content of pyroxene, and at regional scale in different mineral facies, ranging from garnet-, to spinel- to plagioclase-lherzolites, no attempt has been done yet to produce a synoptic map relating the two scales of analysis. The present work is a first attempt to reach this objective, though a lot more work is still required. In particular, for the purpose of mineralogical interpretation, it is critical to relate the airborne observation to field work and laboratory spectra of Ronda rocks already obtained, with the use of image endmembers and associated reference endmembers. Also, the pretty rough linear mixing model used here is taken as a 'black-box' process which does not necessarily apply correctly to the physical situation at the sub-pixel level. One may think of using the ground-truth observations bearing on the sub-pixel statistical

  15. Uneven Equity and Italian Interculturalism(s)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincu, Monica E.; Allasia, Maurizio; Pia, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a brief investigation of Italian interculturalism(s) as documented by scholarship, relevant policy documents and teaching textbooks, and presents some key practical issues relating to the integration of students of immigrant origin. The authors then analyse the 2008 "White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue"'s core concepts and…

  16. Typical and Delayed Lexical Development in Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie; Frigerio, Alessandra; Sali, Maria Enrica; Spataro, Pietro; Longobardi, Emiddia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989) was used to compare Italian and English lexical development. The authors addressed the issue of universal versus language-specific aspects of lexical development by testing language, age, and gender effects on vocabulary scores and by comparing vocabulary composition across languages.…

  17. Hypermedia in the Teaching of Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanne, Signe Marie

    1993-01-01

    Results of a two-year project (L'Italiano interattivo) conducted in collaboration with the Norwegian Computing Centre for the Humanities to produce learner-directed Italian courseware are reported. The SuperCard-developed program allows students to work with video, exercises, grammar, dictionary, or transcripts. (Author/LB)

  18. Self-Employment among Italian Female Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosti, Luisa; Chelli, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the gender impact of tertiary education on the probability of entering and remaining in self-employment. Design/methodology/approach: A data set on labour market flows produced by the Italian National Statistical Office is exploited by interviewing about 62,000 graduate and non-graduate…

  19. Italian Students' Views of Christopher Columbus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aucoin, Linda; Cangemi, JoAnn

    1992-01-01

    Describes a project where students in an Italian elementary school wrote letters about Columbus and his contributions. Finds that these students have not lost their view of Columbus as a great hero. Includes a list of organizations and resources for teaching about Italy and Columbus. (CFR)

  20. The Italian Restaurant Project: Lessons of Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Mary Ellen

    1995-01-01

    Project learning, with community and school staff assistance, helped a fifth-grade class transform the school lunchroom and their own behavior. A $2,500 Alcoa grant spearheaded an Italian restaurant project. Children served on five committees: public relations and advertising, management, art and design, planning and budgeting, and research. The…

  1. Italian High-speed Airplane Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bona, C F

    1940-01-01

    This paper presents an account of Italian high-speed engine designs. The tests were performed on the Fiat AS6 engine, and all components of that engine are discussed from cylinders to superchargers as well as the test set-up. The results of the bench tests are given along with the performance of the engines in various races.

  2. Informatics Education in Italian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellettini, Carlo; Lonati, Violetta; Malchiodi, Dario; Monga, Mattia; Morpurgo, Anna; Torelli, Mauro; Zecca, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the state of informatics education in the Italian secondary schools, highlighting how the learning objectives set up by the Ministry of Education are difficult to meet, due to the fact that the subject is often taught by teachers not holding an informatics degree, the lack of suitable teaching material and the expectations…

  3. Meanings of Sexual Intercourse for Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Ciairano, Silvia; Spruijt, Rob; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate meanings of sexual intercourse in adolescence, and the relationships between meanings, gender, age, and sexual behaviors. Subjects were 201 Italian adolescents (107 boys and 94 girls), aged 14-19 (M=17.44, SD=1.65). Participants completed a battery of questionnaires on meanings of sex, sexual…

  4. Stress Assignment in Reading Italian Polysyllabic Pseudowords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulpizio, Simone; Arduino, Lisa S.; Paizi, Despina; Burani, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In 4 naming experiments we investigated how Italian readers assign stress to pseudowords. We assessed whether participants assign stress following distributional information such as stress neighborhood (the proportion and number of existent words sharing orthographic ending and stress pattern) and whether such distributional information affects…

  5. Priming Lexical Stress in Reading Italian Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulpizio, Simone; Job, Remo; Burani, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments using a lexical priming paradigm investigated how stress information is processed in reading Italian words. In both experiments, prime and target words either shared the stress pattern or they had different stress patterns. We expected that lexical activation of the prime would favour the assignment of congruent stress to the…

  6. Lexical Stress Assignment in Italian Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paizi, Despina; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; Burani, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Stress assignment to Italian polysyllabic words is unpredictable, because stress is neither marked nor predicted by rule. Stress assignment, especially to low frequency words, has been reported to be a function of stress dominance and stress neighbourhood. Two experiments investigate stress assignment in sixth-grade, skilled and dyslexic, readers.…

  7. Derivation in the Advanced Course of Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1985-01-01

    Suggests that one method to help advanced language students acquire new vocabulary is to study word formation and derivation. Suggests ways in which this can be done in the teaching of Italian. Discusses the process of derivation from three perspectives: (1) contrastive analysis, (2) lexical fields, and (3) etymology. (SED)

  8. Neogene Uplift and Exhumation of Plutonic Bodies in the Beni Bou Ifrour Massif (Nador, northeastern Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebret, Noëmie; Jolivet, Laurent; Branquet, Yannick; Bourdier, Jean-Louis; Jolivet, Marc; Marcoux, Eric

    2013-04-01

    In Neogene times, the whole Mediterranean Sea was the center of an intense magmatic activity. This post-collisional magmatism produced a large amount of volcanic edifices through the Alpine belts, together with some intrusives. These plutonic bodies can be associated with skarn-type mineralization, well-known in Elba Island or Serifos Island (Cyclades), where they are generally exhumed by detachment faults. In Morocco, the plutons hosted by the Beni Bou Ifrour massif are connected to the biggest skarn-type iron concentrations of the country (production > 60 Mt, reserves ≈ 25 Mt). The purpose of this work is to explain the late uplift of this massif and subsequent exhumation of the intrusives. As a final product of the Africa-Eurasia plate convergence since ca. 70 Ma, the Rif Mountains constitute the westernmost segment of the Mediterranean Alpine belts. In the oriental part of this range, volcanic summits and Paleozoic to Mesozoic massifs outcrop in the surrounding Mio-Pliocene plains. The Beni Bou Ifrour massif, in the Nador province, consists in a dome-shaped folded Mesozoic series (Domerian to Barremian) affected by a slight epizonal regional metamorphism (ca. 14-12 Ma), dislocated by Neogene NE-SW faults and eventually sealed by upper Miocene transgressive sediments. The hosted intrusives (7.58 ± 0.03 Ma; Duggen et al., 2005) are the plutonic equivalents to the potassic calc-alkaline lavas (andesites mainly) from the surrounding "satellite" volcanic massifs. They turn out to stand in higher topographic position than the younger shoshonitic lavas of the neighboring Gourougou stratovolcano (6.12 ± 0.01 Ma; Duggen et al., 2005). Previous studies have attributed this uplift to the action of normal faults (pull-apart basins; Guillemin & Houzay, 1982), thrusting (Kerchaoui, 1985; 1995) or even of a caldeira resurgence (El Bakkali, 1995). To discriminate against those exhumation mechanisms, field work has been performed, coming along with new cross-sections to

  9. Garzon Massif basement tectonics: A geopyhysical study, Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakioglu, Kadir Baris

    The mechanics and kinematics of basement tectonic uplifts, such as the Laramide Rocky Mountain orogeny, remain poorly understood and controversial. The debate continues in part because of the limited number of well-documented present day analogs. The Garzon Massif rising between the Upper Magdalena Valley and the Llanos Basin of Colombia is an active basement uplift with well, seismic, gravity, and magnetic data available. In the past 10 Ma, PreCambrian age granitic rocks of the Garzon Massif have been uplifted and displaced against Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments of the Upper Magdalena Valley along the Garzon fault. Aerogravimetric data calibrated by well data and 2D seismic data were used to model the geometry of the Garzon fault and the top of basement (Saldana Fm) in 2 dimensions. The density models provide an independent estimate of fault orientation. A high density airborne gravity and magnetic survey were flown over the Garzon fault in 2000, including 2,663 line km along 1 x 5 and 1 x 4 km flight lines at elevations of 2564 and 4589 m above mean sea level. An initial depth model was derived from the well logs, seismic reflection profile, and down-hole velocity surveys. Airborne gravity data was used to produce a Bouguer anomaly gravity map. Average rock densities were estimated from density logs, seismic velocities, and formation rock types. The regional gravity field was estimated and 2-dimensional forward models were constructed with average densities from the wells, seismic velocities, and rock types, and the initial depth model. Since the model fit is dependent on the density assumed for the Garzon Massif rocks, multiple densities and dip angles were tested. The gravity analysis indicates that the Garzon fault is a basement thrust fault dipping at a shallow angle under the Massif. Best-fit models show a true dip of 12 to 17 degrees to the southeast. A regional density and magnetic susceptibility model of the entire Massif is consistent with dense

  10. Linguistic and Cognitive Skills in Sardinian–Italian Bilingual Children

    PubMed Central

    Garraffa, Maria; Beveridge, Madeleine; Sorace, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a study which tested receptive Italian grammatical competence and general cognitive abilities in bilingual Italian–Sardinian children and age-matched monolingual Italian children attending the first and second year of primary school in the Nuoro province of Sardinia, where Sardinian is still widely spoken. The results show that across age groups the performance of Sardinian–Italian bilingual children is in most cases indistinguishable from that of monolingual Italian children, in terms of both Italian language skills and general cognitive abilities. However, where there are differences, these emerge gradually over time and are mostly in favor of bilingual children. PMID:26733903

  11. DIVO - Database for Italian VOlcanoes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selva, J.; Doumaz, F.; Reitano, D.; Troiano, A.; Vinci, S.

    2009-12-01

    In the framework of four Italian volcanological projects funded by the Department of Civil Protection (DPC) to INGV, it has been formed a working group to project and implement the database DIVO (Database for Italian VOlcanoes). DIVO initially contains the Italian volcanological data that find application within the INGV-DPC projects. While the data, coming from tens of research groups, are at the moment organized in a non-formatted repository, the explicit mandates for DIVO are i) to provide a unique access point for the community in order to upload the data, ii) to form the core for the first Italian unified database for volcanological data, iii) to organize the data in order to guarantee the compatibility with the WOVOdat recommendations in order to hopefully contribute in the Italian specific data type implementation, and iv) to build a shared data access policy to deal with the different data ownerships. DIVO will cover the wide spectrum of volcanological data (seismic, deformation, thermal, gas, gravity, electric, magnetic, tomography, and others). The nature of DIVO's data will vary from strictly raw data (e.g., gas data), and lightly analyzed data (e.g., seismic hypocenters), to highly elaborated data (e.g., modeling results). A structured database could grant an optimal integration of such different dataset and a secure storage in distributed servers network, allowing a real time interchange within the scientific community and external authorities, such as Civil Protection. The integration of such highly heterogeneous data is our final target and will be granted by a WOVOdat-like XML formatted files repository at an intermediate level, and then, finally, DIVO will live within a relational Database to be reached and queried by the Scientific community and operative Civil Protection.

  12. The use of ground based photogrammetry for the monitoring of seasonal movement of a glacier: the case study of Planpincieux Glacier, Grandes Jorasses massif, Mont Blanc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordan, Daniele; Dell'Anese, Federico; Allasia, Paolo; Vagliasindi, Marco; Motta, Elena

    2016-04-01

    In September 2013, an experimental low cost monitoring station has been installed on the top of Mt. de La Saxe (Val Ferret, Aosta Valley, NW of Italy) to monitor the Planpincieux Glacier, located on the Italian side of Mont Blanc Massif. This system is based on two commercial APS-C DSLR cameras equipped with a 297 mm and 120 mm optical zoom respectively. Every hour cameras automatically acquire pictures of the lower part of the glacier, which showed to be the most active. The available dataset is analyzed using both change-detection and pixel-offset techniques, to detect the main surface changes over time, as well as to retrieve quantitative measurements of the glacier displacements. The system is able to work throughout the year. The available dataset has been used to analyze the daily evolution of the lower part of the glacier over the May-November period (when the glacier is free from snow) both in 2014 and 2015. The pixel-offset approach allows to measure the displacement of different parts of the glacier and to describe its seasonal evolution. Furthermore, change detection algorithm allows highlighting sudden changes of the scene, usually due to icefalls. The available dataset shows that the displacement rate of the glacier increases during the warm season, that in 2014 it was higher than in 2015, and that it was distributed in a different way. Actually, in 2015, the maximum rate was reached in August, whereas in 2014 the measured summer velocity was lower but it lasted over the months of July, August and September. The results have been validated using different ground based SARs, both in 2014 and 2015. Here we present the results of a three years monitoring, demonstrating the efficiency of pixel-offset and change-detection techniques for contactless monitoring of unreachable glacier surfaces. Furthermore, we present cross-analysis, considering displacements vs. weather measurements, in order to understand glaciers dynamics.

  13. Biodiversity impact of the aeolian periglacial geomorphologic evolution of the Fontainebleau Massif (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiry, M.; Liron, M. N.

    2009-04-01

    Landscape features The geomorphology of the Fontainebleau Massif is noteworthy for its spectacular narrow ridges, up to 10 km long and 0.5 km wide, armored by tightly cemented sandstone lenses and which overhang sandy depressions of about 50m. Denudation of the sandstone pans lead to a highly contrasted landscape, with sandstone ridges ("platières") towering sandy depressions ("vallées") and limestone plateaus ("monts"). This forms the geological frame of the spectacular sceneries of the Fontainebleau Massif (Thiry & Liron, 2007). Nevertheless, there is little know about the erosive processes that have built-up these landscapes. Periglacial processes, and among them aeolian ones, appear significant in the development of the Fontainebleau Massif physiography. The periglacial aeolian geomorphology Dunes and dune fields are known since long and cover about 15% to 25% of the Fontainebleau Massif. The aeolian dunes developed as well on the higher parts of the landscape, as well as in the lower parts of the landscape. The dunes are especially well developed in the whole eastern part of the massif, whereas the western part of the massif is almost devoid of dunes. Nevertheless, detailed mapping shows that dunes can locally be found in the western district, they are of limited extension, restricted to the east facing backslope of outliers. Loamy-sand covers the limestone plateaus of the "monts". The loam cover is of variable thickness: schematically thicker in the central part of the plateaus, where it my reach 3 m; elsewhere it may thin down to 0,20-0,30 m, especially at the plateau edges. Blowout hollows are "negative" morphologies from where the sand has been withdrawed. Often these blowouts are decametric sized and well-delimited structures. Others, more complex structures, are made up of several elongated hectometric hollows relaying each other from and which outline deflation corridor more than 1 km long. A characteristic feature of these blowout hollows is the

  14. New Isotopic age data for understanding the resetting radioactive clock of the Kazdaǧı Massif (Western Anatolia, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasözbek, Altug; Akay, Erhan; Sherlock, Sarah Christine

    2016-04-01

    The Kazdaǧı Massif comprises one of the well-known high-grade metamorphic complexes in the western Anatolia (Turkey). This high-grade succession is subdivided into two units, which is separated by regionally defined unconformity. The lower unit defines a typical oceanic crust package including ultramafic rocks and cumulate gabbros (Tozlu metaophiolite unit). The upper unit comprises of a thick platform succession of detritals and carbonates with mafic volcanic intercalations. Carbonates of this succession are now found as white coarse-crystalline marbles, detritals are schists, metagranites and migmatites and mafic volcanic intercalations are as amphibolites (Sarikiz unit). The whole sequence is cut by shallow-seated Late Oligocene-Early Miocene non-metamorphic granites (Evciler, Eybek granites). New 40Ar-39Ar amphibole ages of 22-19.7 Ma state that both associations of the Tozlu metaophiolite and Sarıkız units experienced almost the same age era as the youngest granites (Evciler, Eybek granites) in the study area. In addition to that, previous U-Pb zircon age results indicate a peak metamorphism age of the Kazdaǧı Massif is around 30-35 Ma. Such young Ar-Ar ages from the Kazdaǧı Massif, which gather close to the granite intrusion crystallization ages, are likely indicators of the resetting radioactive clock of the Kazdaǧı Massif. This data is also in agreement of a single stage migmatization of the massif during the Alpine Orogeny.

  15. Amphibole genesis in pyroxenites from the Beni Bousera peridotite massif (Rif, Morocco): Evidence for two different metasomatic episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Atrassi, Fatima; Chazot, Gilles; Brunet, Fabrice; Chopin, Christian; Bouybaouene, Mohamed

    2014-11-01

    The presence of variable amounts of amphibole ± phlogopite in a garnet websterite and a garnet clinopyroxenite from the Beni Bousera peridotite massif provides evidence for post-formation metasomatism. Textural observations associated with major- and trace-element mineral compositions allowed us to distinguish two metasomatic episodes, which occurred at different stages of the Beni Bousera massif evolution. The garnet websterite has recorded interaction with LREE-rich silicate melts before the uplift of the massif. Amphibole/clinopyroxene and amphibole/garnet trace-element ratios closely approach partition coefficient values, indicating that chemical equilibrium was attained between amphibole and pyroxenite matrix minerals. The geochemical signatures of the putative alkaline interacting melts are similar to those of recent basaltic magmas erupted in Morocco, suggesting a common peridotite mantle source. In contrast, amphibole from the garnet clinopyroxenite is in chemical disequilibrium with the pyroxenite matrix minerals. In this clinopyroxenite the crystallization of amphibole and plagioclase occurred at lower T (and P) conditions, most probably during the ascent of the Beni Bousera massif and its emplacement into the crust. The melt responsible for this later metasomatic episode was LREE-depleted and HREE-enriched, suggesting that it resulted from decompression melting of a garnet-bearing source (with garnet as a melting phase), similar to the garnet-bearing pyroxenites outcropping in the Beni Bousera massif.

  16. Genesis of platinum-bearing ultrabasic massifs in the plutonic chambers: evidence from melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonov, V.; Prikhod'ko, V.

    2012-04-01

    Platinum-bearing ultramafic massifs occur as bodies of concentrically zonal inner structures due to the successive replacement of dunite with pyroxenite and gabbro from their cores to margins. A most important peculiarity of such massifs is their dunite cores, to which commercial Pt deposits are related. There are a different opinions about genesis of these massifs and geological, petrological, geochemical methods not always can solve this question. We found melt inclusions in Cr-spinel from dunites of the platinum-bearing Konder and Inagli massifs (Siberian Platform) and this provides direct evidence of the participation of magmatic systems in the crystallization of ultrabasic rocks. Contents of most major chemical components in the heated and quenched melt inclusions are close to those in biotite-pyroxene picrite and this testifies dunite crystallization from ultrabasic alkaline magma. Ion probe analyses of melt inclusions in Cr-spinel yielded relatively high water concentration in ultrabasic melts of the Konder (0.45-0.53 wt %) and Inagli (up to 0.63 wt %) massifs. These data are generally close to the water contents in magma that produced dunites of ophiolites (0.58-0.65 wt %) (Simonov et al., 2009). The REE patterns of inclusions in Cr-spinel from the Konder and Inagli dunites show a pronounced negative slope with strong enrichment of LREE relative to HREE, as is typical of plume-related magmatic systems of oceanic islands and continental hotspots. The values of such indicator ratios as Nb/U (23.4), Zr/Nb (7.20), and Th/U (3.0) of inclusions practically exactly coincide with those of glasses from areas of continental hotspots (Naumov et al., 2010). At the Nb/Y-Zr/Y diagram the data points of the inclusions plot within the field of melts with a plume source. As a whole the patterns of trace elements and REE in melt inclusions in the Cr-spinel provide evidence that mantle plumes affected the magmatic events, that produced dunites of the studied platinum

  17. Thermal and structural evolution of the external Western Alps: Insights from (U-Th-Sm)/He thermochronology and RSCM thermometry in the Aiguilles Rouges/Mont Blanc massifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutoux, A.; Bellahsen, N.; Nanni, U.; Pik, R.; Verlaguet, A.; Rolland, Y.; Lacombe, O.

    2016-06-01

    In the Western Alps, the External Crystalline Massifs (ECM) are key places to investigate the kinematics and thermal structure of a collisional crustal wedge, as their paleo-brittle/ductile transition is now exhumed at the surface. New (U-Th-Sm)/He data on zircon and new Raman Spectroscopy on Carbonaceous Material (RSCM) data from the Aiguilles Rouges and the Mont Blanc massifs, coupled to HeFTy thermal modeling, constrain the thermal evolution and exhumation of the massifs. In the cover of the Aiguilles Rouges massif, we found that the maximal temperature was about 320 °C (+/- 25 °C), close to the maximal temperature reached in the cover of the Mont Blanc massif (~ 350 °C +/- 25 °C). We show that, after a fast heating period, the thermal peak lasted 10-15 Myrs in the Mont Blanc massif, and probably 5-10 Myrs in the Aiguilles Rouges massif. This thermal peak is synchronous with crustal shortening documented in the basement. (U-Th-Sm)/He data and thermal modeling point toward a coeval cooling of both massifs, like other ECM, at around 18 Ma +/- 1 Ma. This cooling was related to an exhumation due to the initiation of frontal crustal ramps below the ECM, quite synchronously along the Western Alps arc.

  18. Mantle refertilization by garnet pyroxenite melts: Evidence from the Ronda peridotite massif, southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, C.; Garrido, C.; Bosch, D.; Bodinier, J.; Gervilla, F.

    2011-12-01

    Lherzolite at the recrystallization front of the Ronda peridotite massif, a mantle region that experienced pervasive melt migration and melt/rock reaction, hosts pyroxenite composite layers that show an inner transition from Al- to Cr-rich compositions. These particular pyroxenite-peridotite associations record intense processes of pyroxenite melting/replacement and related peridotite refertilization. Al-rich spinel websterite in a composite layer close to the front was generated by melting of former garnet pyroxenite with an evident imprint of primary plagioclase and reaction of this protolith with incoming peridotite melt. These events produced more refractory major element compositions of whole-rock and higher REE contents in clinopyroxene but preserved the characteristic MREE/HREE fractionation and positive Eu anomaly of the garnet pyroxenite protolith. In the waning stages of melt porous flow at the recrystallization front, the parental melts of Cr-rich pyroxenite progressively replaced residual Al-rich spinel websterite partially conserving their original subduction-related affinity. Lherzolite hosting the composite layer was intensely refertilized by melt resulted from garnet pyroxenite replacement. The presence in the refertilizing agent of an important component extracted from garnet pyroxenite induced Eu and Sr positive anomalies, higher FeO* at similar SiO2 and higher Sm/Yb in these mantle rocks compared to common peridotite from the Ronda massif. Some peculiar geochemical signatures of garnet pyroxenite were thus imparted to highly fertile lherzolite hosting the pyroxenite composite layer by partial melting, melt migration and melt/rock reaction in the Ronda massif. These mechanisms may explain the presence of a garnet pyroxenite component in the source of different types of melt generated in the mantle. However, the efficiency of these processes in transferring the geochemical imprint of garnet pyroxenite to extruded lavas depends on the reactivity of

  19. Formation of the Red Hills Ultramafic Massif during Subduction Initiation along an Oceanic Transform Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikoff, B.; Stewart, E. D.; Newman, J.; Lamb, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Red Hills ultramafic massif in the South Island, New Zealand, is part of the Dun Mountain Ophiolite Belt (DMOB). The DMOB was created at the onset of subduction in a forearc setting in the Middle Permian, and it likely formed immediately prior to the establishment of a magmatic arc along the New Zealand and Australian portions of the Gondwanan margin. The Red Hills ultramafic massif records a two-stage history of high temperature mantle flow during subduction initiation along the Gondwanan margin. Initial deformation was homogeneous and fabrics are constrictional. Kilometer-scale deformation zones, part of the second stage of deformation, overprinted the early homogeneous fabric throughout the western portion of the massif. Timing of all high-temperature mantle deformation in the Red Hills was between 285 and 274 Ma during subduction initiation based on the earliest ages of igneous activity in adjacent volcanic rocks, and a new U-Pb zircon age of 274.55±0.43 Ma from a cross-cutting dike. We present a kinematic model to explain the occurrence of the constructional fabrics during subduction initiation, and find that the three-dimensional boundary conditions for deformation in the incipient mantle wedge must have been transtensional, with a dominant trench-parallel component of motion. Such a scenario indicates subduction likely initiated along an active oceanic transform fault. We test this model by kinematically restoring the Red Hills ultramafics to their Permian orientation, and find the consistent elongation direction of the constructional fabrics was oriented nearly parallel to the trench. Stage 2 deformation zones were variably oriented, but all accommodated normal motion. These results support a model where the incipient mantle wedge was undergoing highly oblique transtension, and the lack of evidence for contraction suggests the onset of subduction along the Permian margin of New Zealand occurred along a transform fault due to spontaneous, density driven

  20. Subsurface Implications of Spatially Variable Seafloor Character on the Atlantis Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, J. A.; Tominaga, M.; Blackman, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    We documented and mapped the characteristics of the seafloor on the Atlantis Massif, an ocean core complex located at 30°N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Our goal is to investigate the implications of these surficial features, particularly whether their spatial variations might reflect subsurface lithology and geological processes. We utilized data collected during the MARVEL 2000 cruise AT3-60, specifically Alvin videos and rock samples, Argo II digital still photos, and TOBI/DSL-120 side-scan sonar mosaic. The Alvin dives studied occurred over the Central Dome and Eastern Block, which is interpreted as the hanging wall to the detachment that unroofed the dome. We also studied two Argo II dives located over the Central Dome, one over the Eastern Block, and one over the Western Shoulder of the southern dome. The TOBI/DSL-120 side-scan sonar followed a widespread, looped track providing near total coverage of the massif. We classified the character of the seafloor based on imagery, the acoustic reflectivity, and the basic composition of rock samples. To aid in our classification, we merged Argo II still images to produce photo-mosaics displaying tens of meters long transects. We then classified the seafloor as unconsolidated sediment, lithified sediment (a carbonate crust or cap), exposed bedrock, or rubble. To obtain a broader understanding of the Atlantis Massif, we analyzed the distribution of these classes of seafloor. Over the Central Dome and Western Shoulder, we found most seafloor classes present in notable amounts, with many individual areas dominated by a particular type.

  1. Metamorphic evolution of pelitic-semipelitic granulites in the Kon Tum massif (south-central Vietnam)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tích, Vu Van; Leyreloup, Andrey; Maluski, Henry; Lepvrier, Claude; Lo, Chinh-hua; Vượng, Nguyễn V.

    2013-09-01

    Pelitic and semipelitic anatectic granulites form one of the major lithological units in Kan Nack complex of the Kon Tum massif (in south-central Vietnam), which comprises HT metamorphic and magmatic rocks including granulites and charnockites is classically regarded as the older part of the Gondwana-derived Indosinia terrain. Metamorphic evolution study of pelitic granulite, the most abundant among granulites exposed in this massif, facilitates to understand that tectonic setting take place during the Indosinian time. The paragenetic assemblages, mineral chemistry, thermobarometry and P-T evolution path of pelitic-semipelitic granulites from Kon Tum massif has been studied in detail. Petrographic feature demonstrates that the pelitic granulite experienced prograde history, from pregranulitic conditions in the amphibolite facies up to the peak granulitic assemblages. Successive prograde reactions led to the temperature-climax giving rise to assemblages with cordierite-hercynite and cordierite-hercynite-K-feldspar. Then, as attested by the mineralogic association occurring in cordieritic coronas, these rocks have been affected by retrograde conditions coeval with a decrease of the pressure. Thermobarometic results show that the highest temperature obtained by ksp/pl thermometry is 850 °C and the highest pressure obtained by GASP (Garnet Alumino-Silicate Plagioclase) is 7.8 kbar. The obtained clockwise P-T evolution path involving heating decompression, then nearly isothermal decompression and nearly isobar cooling conditions shows that high temperature-low pressure metamorphism of the studied pelitic anatectic granulites of Kan Nack complex occurred possibly in extensional setting during the Indosinian orogeny of 260-240 Ma in age.

  2. Constraining the deformation and exhumation history of the Ronda Massif, Southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myall, Jack; Donaldson, Colin

    2016-04-01

    The Ronda peridotite, southern Spain is comprised of four peridotite units hosted within metasedimentary units of the Betic Cordillera, Western Alps. These four areas of differing mineral facies are termed: the Garnet Mylonite , the Foliated Spinel Peridotite, the Granular Spinel Peridotite and the Foliated Plagioclase Peridotite. Whilst two of these units show a strong NE-SW foliation, the granular unit has no foliation and the Plagioclase facies shows a NW-SE foliation. The massif is separated from the metasedimentary host through a mylonite shear zone to the NW and thrust faults to the SE. The Garnets contain rims of Kelyphite which when combined with the rims of Spinel on the Plagioclase crystals illustrate the complicated exhumation of this massif. The Kelyphite shows the breakdown of garnet back to spinel and pyroxene showing the deeper high pressure high temperature mineral is under shallowing conditions whereas in contrast to this the low pressure low temperature plagioclase crystals have spinel rims showing that they have been moved into deeper conditions. The P-T-t pathway of the massif suggests slow exhumation to allow for partial recrystallisation of not only the garnets and plagioclases but of a 100m band of peridotite between the Foliated Spinel Peridotite and the Granular Spinel Peridotite facies. The tectonic model for the Ronda Peridotite that best describes the field data and subsequent lab work of this study is Mantle Core complex and slab roll back models. These models support mantle uprising during an extensional event that whereby slab roll back of the subducting lithosphere provides uplift into a void and emplacement into the crust. Further extension and final exhumation causes rotation of a mantle wedge into its present day position.

  3. Catalog of Apollo 17 rocks. Volume 1: Stations 2 and 3 (South Massif)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham

    1993-01-01

    The Catalog of Apollo 17 Rocks is a set of volumes that characterize each of 334 individually numbered rock samples (79 larger than 100 g) in the Apollo 17 collection, showing what each sample is and what is known about it. Unconsolidated regolith samples are not included. The catalog is intended to be used by both researchers requiring sample allocations and a broad audience interested in Apollo 17 rocks. The volumes are arranged geographically, with separate volumes for the South Massif and Light Mantle, the North Massif, and two volumes for the mare plains. Within each volume, the samples are arranged in numerical order, closely corresponding with the sample collection stations. The present volume, for the South Massif and Light Mantle, describes the 55 individual rock fragments collected at Stations two, two-A, three, and LRV-five. Some were chipped from boulders, others collected as individual rocks, some by raking, and a few by picking from the soil in the processing laboratory. Information on sample collection, petrography, chemistry, stable and radiogenic isotopes, rock surface characteristics, physical properties, and curatorial processing is summarized and referenced as far as it is known up to early 1992. The intention has been to be comprehensive: to include all published studies of any kind that provide information on the sample, as well as some unpublished information. References which are primarily bulk interpretations of existing data or mere lists of samples are not generally included. Foreign language journals were not scrutinized, but little data appears to have been published only in such journals. We have attempted to be consistent in format across all of the volumes, and have used a common reference list that appears in all volumes. Where possible, ages based on Sr and Ar isotopes have been recalculated using the 'new' decay constants recommended by Steiger and Jager; however, in many of the reproduced diagrams the ages correspond with the

  4. The Italian contribution to the CSES satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, Livio

    2016-04-01

    We present the Italian contribution to the CSES (China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite) mission. The CSES satellite aims at investigating electromagnetic field, plasma and particles in the near-Earth environment in order to study in particular seismic precursors, particles fluxes (from Van Allen belts, cosmic rays, solar wind, etc.), anthropogenic electromagnetic pollution and more in general the atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling mechanisms that can affect the climate changes. The launch of CSES - the first of a series of several satellite missions - is scheduled by the end of 2016. The CSES satellite has been financed by the CNSA (China National Space Agency) and developed by CEA (China Earthquake Administration) together with several Chinese research institutes and private companies such as the DFH (that has developed the CAST2000 satellite platform). Italy participates to the CSES satellite mission with the LIMADOU project funded by ASI (Italian Space Agency) in collaboration with the Universities of Roma Tor Vergata, Uninettuno, Trento, Bologna and Perugia, as well as the INFN (Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics), INGV (Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology) and INAF-IAPS (Italian National Institute of Astrophysics and Planetology). Many analyses have shown that satellite observations of electromagnetic fields, plasma parameters and particle fluxes in low Earth orbit may be useful in order to study the existence of electromagnetic emissions associated with the occurrence of earthquakes of medium and high magnitude. Although the earthquakes forecasting is not possible today, it is certainly a major challenge - and perhaps even a duty - for science in the near future. The claims that the reported anomalies (of electromagnetic, plasma and particle parameters) are seismic precursors are still intensely debated and analyses for confirming claimed correlations are still lacking. In fact, ionospheric currents, plasma

  5. Great landslide events in Italian artificial reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panizzo, A.; de Girolamo, P.; di Risio, M.; Maistri, A.; Petaccia, A.

    2005-09-01

    The empirical formulations to forecast landslide generated water waves, recently defined in the framework of a research program funded by the Italian National Dam Office RID (Registro Italiano Dighe), are here used to study three real cases of subaerial landslides which fell down italian artificial reservoirs. It is well known that impulse water waves generated by landslides constitute a very dangerous menace for human communities living in the shoreline of the artificial basin or downstream the dam. In 1963, the menace became tragedy, when a 270 millions m3 landslide fell down the Vajont reservoir (Italy), generated an impulse wave which destroyed the city of Longarone, and killed 2000 people. The paper is aimed at presenting the very satisfactorily reproduction of the events at hand by using forecasting formulations.

  6. [Robotic surgery in urology: the Italian contribution].

    PubMed

    Porpiglia, Francesco; Bertolo, Riccardo

    2015-10-01

    The introduction of robotic technology has given a major boost to the urologic surgery by expanding the indications of minimally-invasive surgery. The Italian urological community has played a major role in this revolution, by contributing to the development and dissemination of technological innovation in urology, with several key publications stemming from this research. The most important revolution has been observed in radical prostatectomy, with robotic technology allowing to achieve better functional results. Nephron-sparing surgery has also been expanded, and leading Italian centers are being involved in international research groups focused on these topics. Major impact has been observed for pyeloplasty, where Italy has been a leader in the field with the introduction of robot-assisted single-site technique. In summary, the advent of robotics has improved collaborations between Italy and other Countries, with increased scientific activity, continuous improvement of surgical techniques and effective training of young urologists.

  7. The Italian Dementia National Plan. Commentary.

    PubMed

    Di Fiandra, Teresa; Canevelli, Marco; Di Pucchio, Alessandra; Vanacore, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The Italian Dementia National Plan was formulated in October 2014 by the Italian Ministry of Health in close cooperation with the regions, the National Institute of Health and the three major national associations of patients and carers. The main purpose of this strategy was to provide directive indications for promoting and improving interventions in the dementia field, not limiting to specialist and therapeutic actions, but particularly focusing on the support of patients and families throughout the pathways of care. Four main objectives are indicated: 1) promote health- and social-care interventions and policies; 2) create/strengthen the integrated network of services for dementia based on an integrated approach; 3) implement strategies for promoting appropriateness and quality of care; and 4) improve the quality of life of persons with dementia and their families by supporting empowerment and stigma reduction. These objectives and the pertaining actions are described in the present paper.

  8. Accelerated glacier shrinkage in the Ak-Shyirak massif, Inner Tien Shan, during 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Petrakov, Dmitry; Shpuntova, Alyona; Aleinikov, Alexandr; Kääb, Andreas; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Lavrentiev, Ivan; Stoffel, Markus; Tutubalina, Olga; Usubaliev, Ryskul

    2016-08-15

    The observed increase in summer temperatures and the related glacier downwasting has led to a noticeable decrease of frozen water resources in Central Asia, with possible future impacts on the economy of all downstream countries in the region. Glaciers in the Ak-Shyirak massif, located in the Inner Tien Shan, are not only affected by climate change, but also impacted by the open pit gold mining of the Kumtor Gold Company. In this study, glacier inventories referring to the years 2003 and 2013 were created for the Ak-Shyirak massif based on satellite imagery. The 193 glaciers had a total area of 351.2±5.6km(2) in 2013. Compared to 2003, the total glacier area decreased by 5.9±3.4%. During 2003-2013, the shrinkage rate of Ak-Shyirak glaciers was twice than that in 1977-2003 and similar to shrinkage rates in Tien Shan frontier ranges. We assessed glacier volume in 2013 using volume-area (VA) scaling and GlabTop modelling approaches. Resulting values for the whole massif differ strongly, the VA scaling derived volume is 30.0-26.4km(3) whereas the GlabTop derived volume accounts for 18.8-13.2km(3). Ice losses obtained from both approaches were compared to geodetically-derived volume change. VA scaling underestimates ice losses between 1943 and 2003 whereas GlabTop reveals a good match for eight glaciers for the period 2003-2012. In comparison to radio-echo soundings from three glaciers, the GlabTop model reveals a systematic underestimation of glacier thickness with a mean deviation of 16%. GlabTop tends to significantly underestimate ice thickness in accumulation areas, but tends to overestimate ice thickness in the lowermost parts of glacier snouts. Direct technogenic impact is responsible for about 7% of area and 5% of mass loss for glaciers in the Ak-Shyirak massif during 2003-2013. Therefore the increase of summer temperature seems to be the main driver of accelerated glacier shrinkage in the area. PMID:27100016

  9. The Geological ve Geochemical Evaluation of Albite Deposits in Menderes Massif (SW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cansu, Zeynep; Emre, Hasan

    2013-04-01

    Menderes Massif which is one of the main rock association in southwestern Turkey consists of a Pan-African basement considered as the core and the overlying Lower Paleozoic - Paleocene age cover series. Albite deposits take place not only in the center but also around the Menderes Massif, with the increase amount of quartz from center to rim. The main rock units of the massif consist highly metamorphosed gneiss and mica schist hosting the albite deposits which situated in the tectonic lines has direction of N-NE. Nearly 250 feldspar quarries are being operated in the region. Albites are generally contaminated by minerals containing iron and titanium (rutile, sphene, mica etc.). The origin of the undesired elements in the albite deposits are aimed to obtain whether they originated from primary formation conditions or late alternations (metamorphism and/or deformation). Preliminary studies were done on 75 samples of Armutludüzü albite deposit (Milas - Turkey) and geochemical composition of these samples are evaluated in point of undesired elements for albite's quality. Compared to pure albite which has %11,8 Na2O in composition, the Armutludüzü albite deposit has a mean value of % 10,18 Na2O and % 0,28 K2O with undesired % 0,06 Fe2O3 and % 0,18 TiO2 composition. By correlation of the geochemical data with geologic unit boundaries, it is obtained that Ti concentration becomes intense in the N40-45oE gneiss boundary and Fe concentration increases in the mica schist boundary. Titanium is the most important component of albite quality because of its negative effects on burning color and iron which is the other important component of albite quality is restrictive for albite usage in the glass industry. Samples which are taken from core rocks and albites are being prepared for U- Pb and K-Ar/Ar-Ar dating methods to compare K-Ar/Ar-Ar ages measured from the micas which gives the latest deformation age and U-Pb ages of gneiss and albites which gives the actual age of

  10. Recycled gabbro signature in Upper Cretaceous Magma within Strandja Massif: NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulusoy, Ezgi; Kagan Kadioglu, Yusuf

    2016-04-01

    Basic magma intrusions within plate interiors upwelling mantle plumes have chemical signatures that are distinct from mid-ocean ridge magmas. When a basic magma interact with continental crust or with the felsic magma, the compositions of both magma changes, but there is no consensus as to how this interaction occurs. Here we analyse the mineral behavior and trace element signature of gabbroic rocks of the samples collected from the Strandja Massif. Srednogorie magmatic arc is a part of Apuseni- Banat-Timok-Srednogorie magmatic belt and formed by subduction and closure of the Tethys Ocean during Upper Cretaceous times. Upper Cretaceous magmatic rocks cutting Strandja Massif in NW Turkey belong to eastern edge of Srednogorie Magmatic arc. Upper Cretacous magmatic rocks divided into four subgroup in Turkey part of Strandja massif: (I) granitic rocks, (II) monzonitic rock, (III) syenitic rocks and (IV) gabbroic rocks. Gabbroic rocks outcropped around study area in phaneritic - equigranular texture. According to mineralogic - petrographic studies gabbros have mainly holocrystalline texture and ophitic to subophitic texture composed of plagioclase, amphibole, pyroxene, and rarely olivine and opaque minerals. Also because of special conditions there have been pegmatitic texture on mafic minerals with euhedral form up to 3 cm in size and orbicular texture which reach 15cm in size and rounded - elliptical form. Confocal Raman Spectroscopy studies reveals that plagioclase are ranging in composition from labradorite to bytownite, the pyroxene are ranging in composition from diopside to augite acting with uralitization processes and the olivine are generally in the composition of forsterite. Petrographic and mineralogical determination reveals some metasomatic magmatic epidote presence. Confocal Raman Spectroscopy studies on anhydrous minerals within gabbroic rocks shows affect of hydrous process because of magma mixing. The gabbroic rocks have tholeiitic and changed towards

  11. Isotopic age and heterogeneous sources of gabbro‒anorthosites from the Patchemvarek massif, Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrevsky, A. B.; Lvov, A. P.

    2016-07-01

    New U‒Pb (SHRIMP II) data on the age (2661.8 ± 7.1 Ma) and isotopic (Sm‒Nd) composition of the Patchemvarek gabbro‒anorthosite massif located in the junction zone between the Neoarchean Kolmozero-Voron'ya greenstone belt and Keivy paragneiss structure are discussed. The established age and geological‒tectonic position of gabbro‒anorthosites allow the prognostic metallogenic estimate of Ti‒V‒Fe mineralization to be extended to the entire Kolmozero-Voron'ya‒Keivy infrastructural zone of the Kola‒Norwegian province of the Fennoscandian shield.

  12. Deglaciation and post-glacial environmental evolution in the Western Massif of Picos de Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Oliva, Marc; García, Cristina; López-Sáez, José Antonio; Gallinar, David; Geraldes, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    This study examines the process of deglaciation of the Western Massif of Picos de Europa through field work, geomorphological mapping, sedimentary records and absolute datings of 14C. This massif has several peaks over 2,400 m a.s.l. (Peña Santa de Castilla, 2,596 m; Torre Santa María, 2,486 m; Torre del Mediu, 2,467 m). It is composed mainly by Carboniferous limestones. This area has been intensively affected by karstic dissolution, Quaternary glaciers and fluvio-torrential processes (Miotke, 1968; Moreno et al, 2010; Ruiz-Fernández et al, 2009; Ruiz-Fernández, 2013). At present day, periglacial processes are active at the highest elevations (Ruiz-Fernández, 2013). We have identified four main glacial stages regarding the deglaciation of the massif: (i) maximum advance corresponding to the Last Glaciation, (ii) retreat and stabilization after the maximum advance, (iii) Late Glacial, and (iv) Little Ice Age. Sedimentological studies also contribute data to the understanding of the chronological framework of these environmental changes. The datings of the bottom sediments in two long sequences (8 and 5.4 m) provided a minimum age of 18,075 ± 425 cal BP for the maximum advance stage and 11,150 ± 900 cal BP for retreat and stabilization in the phase following the maximum advance. The ongoing analyses of these sequences at very high resolution will provide new knowledge about the environmental conditions prevailing since the deglaciation of the massif. References Miotke, F.D. (1968). Karstmorphologische studien in der glazial-überformten Höhenstufe der Picos de Europa, Nordspanien. Hannover, Selbtverlag der Geografischen Gessellschaft, 161 pp. Moreno, A., Valero, B.L., Jiménez, M., Domínguez, M.J., Mata, M.P., Navas, A., González, P., Stoll, H., Farias, P., Morellón, M., Corella, J.P. & Rico, M. (2010). The last deglaciation in the Picos de Europa National Park (Cantabrian Mountains, Northern Spain). Journal of Quaternary Science, 25 (7), 1076-1091. Ruiz

  13. Paid Organ Donation: An Italian Perspective.

    PubMed

    Bruzzone, P

    2015-09-01

    The only countries that have allowed financial incentives for organ donation are Iran since 1988, and later on, Singapore and Saudi Arabia. In Europe, and of course in Italy, financial incentives for donors are prohibited. The author has completed extensive research via the Internet (PubMed) of worldwide scientific literature on paid organ donation, also researching studies concerning public opinion on organ commercialism and "regulated markets". Italian transplant laws also have been reported and analyzed.

  14. Old italian reference systems and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiocchi, Valerio; Lelo, Keti

    2010-05-01

    The history of geodetic systems used in Italy from the end of the XIX century to the beginning of the XXth century is complex and, in the past, this has led some researcher to misinterpretations. For this reason an explanation of geodetic systems used in Italy in this period is reported in this paper. Towards the end of the XIXth century, the " Ufficio Tecnico del Corpo di Stato Maggiore" (first nucleus of the future IGM) was entrusted to unify the geodetic reference systems of the Italian pre-union states to produce a unique Italian Datum for the whole national territory. At the same time, the "Ufficio del Catasto" (National Cadastre Office), for its purposes, began the production of a cartography in projection Cassini-Soldner representing only the thematic layer of its interest: the delimitations of properties. Although officially the Datums used in those years are the same both for cadastre and IGM (Genoa, Monte Mario, Castanea delle Furie), in many cases temporary orientations were used on cadastral maps and the values of first, second and third order vertexes do not coincide with those definitive ones used by the IGM. This ambiguity led frequently to misinterpretation and errors to georeferenciation of present and historic Italian cartography

  15. Itineraries and specificities of Italian medical anthropology.

    PubMed

    Seppilli, Tullio

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes the birth (or rebirth) of Italian medical anthropology around the middle of the 1950s, and its subsequent complex development up to the present. During this fairly long process, the author played a role that was probably of some importance, that of both a direct witness and active participant. Here these developments are briefly reviewed, in an attempt to single out some of the stimuli and the most significant occasions that have happened, their theoretical and methodological reference points, the main lines of research that have been tackled along the way, as well as the 'social demand' and the 'social use' that have integrated and oriented the practice of the new discipline within the horizon of some of the more general problems of Italian society. In outlining here the profile of and the various events in Italian medical anthropology, this paper takes into account the fact that, although a medical anthropology with that name and the disciplinary set-up that are now internationally attributed to it began in Italy only in the mid-1950s, important lines of research to which we would today attach that name had been undertaken long ago.

  16. Repetition of the same pair of surnames in marriages in Albanian Italians, Greek Italians, and the Italian population of Campobasso Province.

    PubMed

    Biondi, G; Raspe, P; Mascie-Taylor, C G; Lasker, G W

    1996-08-01

    The isolation of a population as a result of any boundary leads to a kinship mating pattern, the extent of which can be measured by the frequency of repeated pairs of surnames in actual marriages compared with that in random pairings. The repeated pairs within surname lineages (RPw) method can be used to assess random repetitions and the endogamous or exogamous behavior of a population. The RPw method was applied to data from grandparent surnames of children living in 45 Albanian Italian and 13 Greek Italian villages of southern Italy and Sicily and in 22 Italian villages of Campobasso Province (central Italy). The total mean RPw was 0.02782 in Albanian Italians, 0.01993 in Greek Italians, and 0.03427 in the Italian-speaking population. When RPw was subdivided into its components and compared with random and marital isonymy, the low level of inbreeding shown by the two southern Italian ethnic minorities and by the Italian population of Campobasso Province could be accounted for by the subdivision of the populations. PMID:8754263

  17. Composition, coagulation properties and Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese yield of Italian Brown and Italian Friesian herd milks.

    PubMed

    Malacarne, Massimo; Summer, Andrea; Fossa, Enrico; Formaggioni, Paolo; Franceschi, Piero; Pecorari, Mauro; Mariani, Primo

    2006-05-01

    The authors report the results of a study aimed at the comparison of the basic chemical composition, the main protein fractions distribution, rennet coagulation properties and Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese yield of vat milk from Italian Brown and Italian Friesian herds. Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese factories which manufacture milk separately from Italian Brown herds and Italian Friesian herds were used in the study. Thirteen cheesemaking trials were performed at 10 different commercial cheese factories. The study was carried out from March to October 2003. For each cheesemaking trial in each factory, approximately 1100 kg milk from Italian Brown cows and from Italian Friesian cows were processed in parallel. The animals involved in the study came from farms with comparable management practices, size, location, number of lactation and days in milking. Each vat contained milk obtained by combining milk collected during the evening milking (partially skimmed milk by natural creaming) and the following morning milking (full-cream milk), from at least 2 dairy herds. Milk from Italian Brown cows is characterised by a higher casein content (27.1 v. 23.7 g/kg; P < or = 0.0001) than Italian Friesian cows' milk. Curd firming time (k20) of Italian Brown cows' milk was markedly lower than that of Italian Friesian cows' milk (6.6 v. 10.0 min; P < or = 0.001). This implies a higher rate of aggregation of para-casein micelles for Italian Brown cows' milk. The coagulum of Italian Brown cows' milk had better rheological properties and lower losses of fat in the cheese whey. Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese yield at 24 h was also higher for Italian Brown cows' milk, + 0.99 kg cheese for every 100 kg vat milk. PMID:16476179

  18. MASSIF-1: a beamline dedicated to the fully automatic characterization and data collection from crystals of biological macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Bowler, Matthew W.; Nurizzo, Didier; Barrett, Ray; Beteva, Antonia; Bodin, Marjolaine; Caserotto, Hugo; Delagenière, Solange; Dobias, Fabian; Flot, David; Giraud, Thierry; Guichard, Nicolas; Guijarro, Mattias; Lentini, Mario; Leonard, Gordon A.; McSweeney, Sean; Oskarsson, Marcus; Schmidt, Werner; Snigirev, Anatoli; von Stetten, David; Surr, John; Svensson, Olof; Theveneau, Pascal; Mueller-Dieckmann, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    MASSIF-1 (ID30A-1) is an ESRF undulator beamline operating at a fixed wavelength of 0.969 Å (12.8 keV) that is dedicated to the completely automatic characterization of and data collection from crystals of biological macromolecules. The first of the ESRF Upgrade MASSIF beamlines to be commissioned, it has been open since September 2014, providing a unique automated data collection service to academic and industrial users. Here, the beamline characteristics and details of the new service are outlined. PMID:26524320

  19. Utilization of digital LANDSAT imagery for the study of granitoid bodies in Rondonia: Case example of the Pedra Branca massif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Almeidafilho, R.; Payolla, B. L.; Depinho, O. G.; Bettencourt, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of digital multispectral MSS-LANDSAT images enhanced through computer techniques and enlarged to a video scale of 1:100.000, show the main geological and structura features of the Pedra Branca granitic massif in Rondonia. These are not observed in aerial photographs or adar images. Field work shows that LANDSAT photogeological units correspond to different facies of granitic rocks in the Pedra Branca massif. Even under the particular characteristics of Amazonia (Tropical Forest, deep weathering, and Quaternary sedimentary covers), an adequate utilization of orbital remote sensing images can be important tools for the orientation of field works.

  20. New species from the Galoka and Kalabenono massifs: two unknown and severely threatened mountainous areas in NW Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Callmander, Martin W.; Rakotovao, Charles; Razafitsalama, Jeremi; Phillipson, Peter B.; Buerki, Sven; Hong-Wa, Cynthia; Rakotoarivelo, Nivo; Andriambololonera, Sylvie; Koopman, Margaret M.; Johnson, David M.; Deroin, Thierry; Ravoahangy, Andriamandranto; Solo, Serge; Labat, Jean-Noël; Lowry, Porter P.

    2011-01-01

    The Galoka mountain chain, comprising principally the Galoka and Kalabenono massifs, situated at the northern edge of the Sambirano Region in NW Madagascar is an area that was virtually unknown botanically. It was visited three times between 2005 and 2007 as part of a floristic inventory. Both massifs contain the last remaining primary forests in the Galoka chain, which extends parallel to the coastline from South of Ambilobe to North of Ambanja. Several new species have been discovered amongst the collections, eight of which are described here. PMID:21857767

  1. MASSIF-1: a beamline dedicated to the fully automatic characterization and data collection from crystals of biological macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Bowler, Matthew W; Nurizzo, Didier; Barrett, Ray; Beteva, Antonia; Bodin, Marjolaine; Caserotto, Hugo; Delagenière, Solange; Dobias, Fabian; Flot, David; Giraud, Thierry; Guichard, Nicolas; Guijarro, Mattias; Lentini, Mario; Leonard, Gordon A; McSweeney, Sean; Oskarsson, Marcus; Schmidt, Werner; Snigirev, Anatoli; von Stetten, David; Surr, John; Svensson, Olof; Theveneau, Pascal; Mueller-Dieckmann, Christoph

    2015-11-01

    MASSIF-1 (ID30A-1) is an ESRF undulator beamline operating at a fixed wavelength of 0.969 Å (12.8 keV) that is dedicated to the completely automatic characterization of and data collection from crystals of biological macromolecules. The first of the ESRF Upgrade MASSIF beamlines to be commissioned, it has been open since September 2014, providing a unique automated data collection service to academic and industrial users. Here, the beamline characteristics and details of the new service are outlined. PMID:26524320

  2. MASSIF-1: a beamline dedicated to the fully automatic characterization and data collection from crystals of biological macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Bowler, Matthew W; Nurizzo, Didier; Barrett, Ray; Beteva, Antonia; Bodin, Marjolaine; Caserotto, Hugo; Delagenière, Solange; Dobias, Fabian; Flot, David; Giraud, Thierry; Guichard, Nicolas; Guijarro, Mattias; Lentini, Mario; Leonard, Gordon A; McSweeney, Sean; Oskarsson, Marcus; Schmidt, Werner; Snigirev, Anatoli; von Stetten, David; Surr, John; Svensson, Olof; Theveneau, Pascal; Mueller-Dieckmann, Christoph

    2015-11-01

    MASSIF-1 (ID30A-1) is an ESRF undulator beamline operating at a fixed wavelength of 0.969 Å (12.8 keV) that is dedicated to the completely automatic characterization of and data collection from crystals of biological macromolecules. The first of the ESRF Upgrade MASSIF beamlines to be commissioned, it has been open since September 2014, providing a unique automated data collection service to academic and industrial users. Here, the beamline characteristics and details of the new service are outlined.

  3. Representation of the serial killer on the Italian Internet.

    PubMed

    Villano, P; Bastianoni, P; Melotti, G

    2001-10-01

    The representation of serial killers was examined from the analysis of 317 Web pages in the Italian language to study how the psychological profiles of serial killers are described on the Italian Internet. The correspondence analysis of the content of these Web pages shows that in Italy the serial killer is associated with words such as "monster" and "horror," which suggest and imply psychological perversion and aberrant acts. These traits are peculiar for the Italian scenario.

  4. Representation of the serial killer on the Italian Internet.

    PubMed

    Villano, P; Bastianoni, P; Melotti, G

    2001-10-01

    The representation of serial killers was examined from the analysis of 317 Web pages in the Italian language to study how the psychological profiles of serial killers are described on the Italian Internet. The correspondence analysis of the content of these Web pages shows that in Italy the serial killer is associated with words such as "monster" and "horror," which suggest and imply psychological perversion and aberrant acts. These traits are peculiar for the Italian scenario. PMID:11783573

  5. Geologic and tectonic setting of Deseado Massif epithermal deposits, Argentina, based on El Dorado-Monserrat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echavarría, Leandro E.; Schalamuk, Isidoro B.; Etcheverry, Ricardo O.

    2005-09-01

    Middle-Late Jurassic bimodal volcanism, typical of a retroarc setting, developed during widespread extensional tectonism within the Deseado Massif, southern Argentina. This geologic environment led to the formation of numerous low-sulfidation epithermal deposits that are spatially and temporally related to the volcanic activity. The lack of significant high-sulfidation epithermal deposits may be because the tectonic and volcanic settings do not favor the formation of these types of deposits. El Dorado-Monserrat is a low-sulfidation epithermal prospect located near the southern boundary of the Deseado Massif. Mineralization is genetically linked to the Late Jurassic Chon Aike Formation and hosted by volcanic rocks of the middle Late Jurassic Bajo Pobre Formation. Two different mineralization areas have been identified. The Monserrat area is the most important, with veins hosted in a north-striking, left-lateral shear zone. The average thickness is 0.85 m, and the average metal content is 6.2 ppm gold and 153 ppm silver. The El Dorado area has discontinuous echelon veins within a right-lateral shear zone with low gold and silver grades. Hydrothermal alteration of the host rocks includes an inner zone of quartz-adularia and illite alteration and an outer zone of propylitic alteration. The main gangue mineral is quartz, which formed in successive pulses, plus adularia, pyrite, hematite, magnetite, and barite. Precious metals occur as zoned electrum. Ore mineral precipitation took place between 200 and 280 °C from low salinity fluids due to boiling.

  6. New radiocarbon chronology of a late Holocene landslide event in the Mont Blanc massif, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdas, Irka; Sojc, Ursula; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Akçar, Naki; Deline, Philip

    2016-04-01

    The Ferret valley Arp Nouva peat bog located in the Mont Blanc massif was critically evaluated since previously published radiocarbon dates have led to controversial conclusions on the formation of the swamp. Radiocarbon dating of roots from three pits of up to 1 m depth was applied to discuss the question whether the historical documented rock avalanche occurring in AD 1717 overran the peat bog or formed it at a later stage. Our results indicate that the rock avalanche formed the Arp Nouva peat bog by downstream blockage of the Bellecombe torrent. Furthermore, careful sample preparation with consequent separation of roots from the bulk peat sample provides possible explanation for the too old 14C ages of bulk peat samples dated previously (Deline and Kirkbride, 2009 and references therein). This work demonstrates that a combined geomorphological and geochronological approach is the most reliable way to reconstruct landscape evolution, especially in light of apparent chronological problems. The key to successful 14C dating is a careful sample selection and the identification of material that might be not ideal for chronological reconstructions. References Deline, Philip, and Martin P. Kirkbride. "Rock avalanches on a glacier and morainic complex in Haut Val Ferret (Mont Blanc Massif, Italy)".Geomorphology 103 (2009): 80-92.

  7. Rainwater chemistry at the summit and southern flank of the Itatiaia massif, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Mello, William Z; de Almeida, Marcelo D

    2004-05-01

    Wet deposition and related rainwater chemistry were studied at the Itatiaia massif, on which is settled the Itatiaia National Park (INP). Samples were simultaneously collected on a weekly basis over 12 months, using automated wet and dry samplers, at the INP-Headquarters (INP-Hq; altitude=820 m) and the Itatiaia Plateau (It-Pt; altitude=2460 m). Conductivity, pH, Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), NH(4)(+), Cl(-), NO(3)(-) and SO(4)(2-) were determined in 36 rainwater samples. Volume-weighted mean (VWM) pH was lower at the INP-Hq (4.9) than at the It-Pt (5.3). Very strong correlation between Cl(-) and Na(+) was found for the INP-Hq (r=0.99). At the Itatiaia massif, SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-), and NH(4)(+) comprised together about 60% of the total inorganic ions and appear to exert the major control on rainwater pH.

  8. Thermochronology and tectonics of the Mérida Andes and the Santander Massif, NW South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Lelij, Roelant; Spikings, Richard; Mora, Andrés

    2016-04-01

    New apatite U-Pb and multiphase 40Ar/39Ar data constrain the high to medium temperature (~ 500 °C-~ 300 °C) thermal histories of igneous and metamorphic rocks exposed in the Mérida Andes of Venezuela, and new apatite and zircon fission track data constrain the ~ 500 °C-~ 60 °C thermal histories of pre-Jurassic igneous and metamorphic rocks of the adjacent Santander Massif of Colombia. Computed thermal history envelopes using apatite U-Pb dates and grain size information from an Early Palaeozoic granodiorite in the Mérida Andes suggest that it cooled from > 500 °C to < 350 °C between ~ 266 Ma and ~ 225 Ma. Late Permian to Triassic cooling is also recorded in Early Palaeozoic granitoids and metasedimentary rocks in the Mérida Andes by numerous new muscovite and biotite 40Ar/39Ar plateau dates spanning 257.1 ± 1.0 Ma to 205.1 ± 0.8 Ma. This episode of cooling is not recognised in the Santander Massif, where 40Ar/39Ar data suggest that some Early Palaeozoic rocks cooled below ~ 320 °C in the Early Palaeozoic. However, most data from pre-Jurassic rocks reveal a regional heat pulse at ~ 200 Ma during the intrusion of numerous shallow granitoids, resulting in temperatures in excess of ~ 520 °C, obscuring late Palaeozoic histories. The generally accepted timing of amalgamation of Pangaea along the Ouachita-Marathon suture pre-dates Late Permian to Triassic cooling recorded in basement rocks of the Mérida Andes by > 30 Ma, and its effect on rocks preserved in north-western South America is unknown. We interpret late Permian to Triassic cooling in the Mérida Andes to be driven by exhumation. Previous studies have suggested that a short phase of shortening and anatexis is recorded at ~ 253 Ma in the Maya Block, which may have been adjacent to the basement rocks of the Mérida Andes in the Late Permian. The coeval onset of exhumation in the Mérida Andes may be a result of increased coupling in the magmatic arc, which was located along the western margin of

  9. Géométrie et cinématique des chevauchements varisques du Nord-Est du Massif armoricain (France)Geometry and kinematics of Variscan thrusts in the northeastern Armorican Massif (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butaeye, Damien; Laville, Edgard; Le Gall, Jean

    2001-02-01

    Variscan structures of the northeastern Armorican massif consist of folds induced by south-verging thrust faults. This thin-skinned process is controlled by a major décollement that would be expected at the base of the Brioverian flysch. So, the northeastern Armorican domain can be integrated to the tectonic model admitted at the Variscan Orogenesis scale.

  10. A Paleozoic anorthosite massif related to rutile-bearing ilmenite ore deposits, south of the Polochic fault, Chiapas Massif Complex, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisneros, A.; Ortega-Gutiérrez, F.; Weber, B.; Solari, L.; Schaaf, P. E.; Maldonado, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Chiapas Massif Complex in the southern Maya terrane is mostly composed of late Permian igneous and meta-igneous rocks. Within this complex in southern Mexico and in the adjacent San Marcos Department of Guatemala, south of the Polochic fault, several small outcrops (~10 km2) of a Phanerozoic andesine anorthosite massif were found following an E-W trend similar to the Polochic-Motagua Fault System. Such anorthosites are related to rutile-bearing ilmenite ore deposits and hornblendite-amphibolite bands (0.1-3 meters thick). The anorthosites show recrystallization and metamorphic retrogression (rutile with titanite rims), but no relicts of high-grade metamorphic minerals such as pyroxene or garnet have been found. In Acacoyagua, Chiapas, anorthosites are spatially related to oxide-apatite rich mafic rocks; in contrast, further to the west in Motozintla, they are related to monzonites. Zircons from these monzonites yield a Permian U-Pb age (271.2×1.4 Ma) by LA-MC-ICPMS. Primary mineral assemblage of the anorthosites include mostly medium to fine-grained plagioclase (>90%) with rutile and apatite as accessory minerals, occasionally with very low amounts of quartz. Massive Fe-Ti oxide lenses up to tens of meters in length and few meters thick are an ubiquitous constituent of these anorthosites and their mineralogy include ilmenite (with exsolution lamellae of Ti-magnetite), rutile, magnetite, clinochlore, ×spinel, ×apatite, ×zircon and srilankite (Ti2ZrO6, first finding of this phase in Mexico). Rutile occurs within the massive ilmenite in two morphological types: (1) fine-grained (5-40 μm) rutile along ilmenite grain boundaries or fractures, and (2) coarse-grained rutile (<5 mm) as discrete grains, whereas magnetite and srilankite only appear as small grains along ilmenite boundaries. Zircon is present as discontinuously aligned small grains (10-40 μm) forming rims around many rutile and ilmenite grains. Attempts to date zircon rims by U-Pb using LA

  11. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of post-collisional ultrapotassic syenites and granites from southernmost Brazil: the Piquiri Syenite Massif.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Lauro V S; Plá-Cid, Jorge; Bitencourt, Maria de Fátima; Stabel, Larissa Z

    2008-06-01

    The Piquiri Syenite Massif, southernmost Brazil, is part of the post-collisional magmatism related to the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano-Pan-African Orogenic Cycle. The massif is about 12 km in diameter and is composed of syenites, granites, monzonitic rocks and lamprophyres. Diopside-phlogopite, diopside-biotite-augite-calcic-amphibole, are the main ferro-magnesian paragenesis in the syenitic rocks. Syenitic and granitic rocks are co-magmatic and related to an ultrapotassic, silica-saturated magmatism. Their trace element patterns indicate a probable mantle source modified by previous, subduction-related metasomatism. The ultrapotassic granites of this massif were produced by fractional crystallization of syenitic magmas, and may be considered as a particular group of hypersolvus and subsolvus A-type granites. Based upon textural, structural and geochemical data most of the syenitic rocks, particularly the fine-grained types, are considered as crystallized liquids, in spite of the abundance of cumulatic layers, schlieren, and compositional banding. Most of the studied samples are metaluminous, with K2O/Na2O ratios higher than 2. The ultrapotassic syenitic and lamprophyric rocks in the Piquiri massif are interpreted to have been produced from enriched mantle sources, OIB-type, like most of the post-collisional shoshonitic, sodic alkaline and high-K tholeiitic magmatism in southernmost Brazil. The source of the ultrapotassic and lamprophyric magmas is probably the same veined mantle, with abundant phlogopite + apatite + amphibole that reflects a previous subduction-related metasomatism. PMID:18506262

  12. Comprenhensive Program of Engineering and Geologic Surveys for Designing and Constructing Radioactive Waste Storage Facilities in Hard Rock Massifs

    SciTech Connect

    Gupalo, T; Milovidov, V; Prokopoca, O; Jardine, L

    2002-12-27

    Geological, geophysical, and engineering-geological research conducted at the 'Yeniseisky' site obtained data on climatic, geomorphologic, geological conditions, structure and properties of composing rock, and conditions of underground water recharge and discharge. These results provide sufficient information to make an estimate of the suitability of locating a radioactive waste (R W) underground isolation facility at the Nizhnekansky granitoid massif

  13. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of post-collisional ultrapotassic syenites and granites from southernmost Brazil: the Piquiri Syenite Massif.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Lauro V S; Plá-Cid, Jorge; Bitencourt, Maria de Fátima; Stabel, Larissa Z

    2008-06-01

    The Piquiri Syenite Massif, southernmost Brazil, is part of the post-collisional magmatism related to the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano-Pan-African Orogenic Cycle. The massif is about 12 km in diameter and is composed of syenites, granites, monzonitic rocks and lamprophyres. Diopside-phlogopite, diopside-biotite-augite-calcic-amphibole, are the main ferro-magnesian paragenesis in the syenitic rocks. Syenitic and granitic rocks are co-magmatic and related to an ultrapotassic, silica-saturated magmatism. Their trace element patterns indicate a probable mantle source modified by previous, subduction-related metasomatism. The ultrapotassic granites of this massif were produced by fractional crystallization of syenitic magmas, and may be considered as a particular group of hypersolvus and subsolvus A-type granites. Based upon textural, structural and geochemical data most of the syenitic rocks, particularly the fine-grained types, are considered as crystallized liquids, in spite of the abundance of cumulatic layers, schlieren, and compositional banding. Most of the studied samples are metaluminous, with K2O/Na2O ratios higher than 2. The ultrapotassic syenitic and lamprophyric rocks in the Piquiri massif are interpreted to have been produced from enriched mantle sources, OIB-type, like most of the post-collisional shoshonitic, sodic alkaline and high-K tholeiitic magmatism in southernmost Brazil. The source of the ultrapotassic and lamprophyric magmas is probably the same veined mantle, with abundant phlogopite + apatite + amphibole that reflects a previous subduction-related metasomatism.

  14. Possible petrogenetic associations among igneous components in North Massif soils: Evidence in 2-4 mm soil particles from 76503

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.; Bishop, Kaylynn M.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1992-01-01

    Studies of Apollo 17 highland igneous rocks and clasts in breccias from the North and South Massifs have described magnesian troctolite, norite, anorthositic gabbro, dunite, spinel cataclasites, and granulitic lithologies that may have noritic anothosite or anorthositic norite/gabbro as igneous precursors, and have speculated on possible petrogenetic relationships among these rock types. Mineral compositions and relative proportions of plagioclase and plagioclase-olivine particles in samples 76503 indicate that the precursor lithology of those particles were troctolitic anorthosite, not troctolite. Mineral and chemical compositions of more pyroxene-rich, magnesian breccias and granulites in 76503 indicate that their precursor lithology was anorthositic norite/gabbro. The combination of mineral compositions and whole-rock trace-element compositional trends supports a genetic relationship among these two groups as would result from differentiation of a single pluton. Although highland igneous lithologies in Apollo 17 materials have been described previously, the proportions of different igneous lithologies present in the massifs, their frequency of association, and how they are related are not well known. We consider the proportions of, and associations among, the igneous lithologies found in a North Massif soil, which may represent those of the North Massif or a major part of it.

  15. Cenozoic remagnetization of the Paleozoic rocks in the Kitakami massif of northeast Japan, and its tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otofuji, Yo-ichiro; Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Zaman, Haider; Nishimitsu, Yoshitomo; Wada, Yutaka

    2003-05-01

    Secondary remanent magnetization is identified in the Paleozoic igneous and sedimentary rocks of the Kitakami massif. The secondary nature is shown by a negative fold test for the Permo-Carboniferous sedimentary rocks. The northwesterly paleomagnetic declination with moderate inclination ( D=321.2°, I=56.5°, α95=5.2°, N=18) of this secondary remanent magnetization is almost parallel to the primary magnetization reported for the Cenozoic welded tuffs of northeast Japan, indicating that the Paleozoic rocks were subjected to remagnetization at any period between 62 and 16 Ma. The secondary magnetization of the serpentinized ultramafic rocks is carried by magnetite, which grew in veins and mesh rims of serpentine, whereas the carrier of the magnetization in limestones is fine-grained pyrrhotite. Combining this with the previously reported remagnetization of the Kitakami granitic rocks, it is suggested that rocks in the Kitakami massif were subjected to crystallization remanent magnetization at low-temperature conditions. Since serpentinization requires fluid migration, one of the most likely events is the eastward lateral migration of water into the Kitakami massif. We postulate a Cenozoic suturing of the Kitakami massif with the Asian continent as a plausible tectonic event for this fluid migration.

  16. Has Massification of Higher Education Led to More Equity? Clues to a Reflection on Portuguese Education Arena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Massification is an undeniable phenomenon in the higher education arena. However, there have been questions raised regarding the extent to which a mass system really corresponds to an effective democratisation not only of access, but also of success. With regards to access, this article intends, through a brief analysis of the expansion of higher…

  17. The Vercors and Chartreuse Massifs at the leading edge of the alpine thrust belt: Tetonic history and petroleum assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Deville, E.; Mascle, A.; Philippe, Y.

    1995-08-01

    The Vercors and Chartreuse Massifs are located at the leading edge of the Western Alps Thrust Belt. They developed in late Miocene-Pliocene times above a major decollement hosted in late Triassic evaporites and/or Liassic marls. The uplift of both massifs led to the oblique and partial inversion of the previous Mesozoic margin of the Southeastern Basin, the thickest onshore sedimentary basin in France. Both massifs are unexplored. The regional geology of eastern France and the results of ten wells located in the near foreland suggest that source rocks are present in late Paleozoic and late Liassic strata, and that fractured sandstones and/or limestones of Triassic/Jurassic age could act as reservoirs. A nonexclusive seismic survey has been shot in 1991 by CGG allowing the first well constrained balanced sections to be drawn across both massifs. They have been used inturn to model the forward kinematics of thrust propagation, and the source rock maturation history, using the {open_quotes}Thrustpack{close_quotes} software developed by IFP and partners.

  18. The Dilemma and Solutions for the Conflicts between Equality and Excellence in the Massification of Higher Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiou-Huai, Wang

    2012-01-01

    Equality and excellence are two core values underlying many educational endeavors; however, they are often in conflict and controversy. This article intends to examine the dilemma created by such controversies in the context of massification of higher education in Taiwan and attempt to provide solutions from both the theoretical and policy…

  19. VObs.it - the Italian Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasian, F.; Becciani, U.; Cassisi, S.; Fontana, A.; Garilli, B.; Gheller, C.; Giommi, P.; Longo, G.; Preite Martinez, A.; Smareglia, R.; Volpicelli, A.

    2007-08-01

    The participation of Italy in VO activities has been initially delegated to a Grid project (i.e., DRACO). After the MoU between INAF and Euro-VO was signed, the VObs.it project was established. The aim of the VObs.it project is to coordinate within a unified approach the archives and databases developed by the Italian community. The first steps in this direction are to foster the adoption of IVOA standards, to provide Grid-aware VO applications and to build a national registry containing the list of VO-compliant services available to the international community. The Italian participation in EU-funded international projects is targeted to the development of tools to be subsequently used within the international VO. This allows our developers to be at the forefront of technology in the field. Equally important are participation in the IVOA Executive Committee and in the IVOA working groups defining standard protocols and formats. The activities forming the initial core of the VObs.it are the following: the Long-Term Archive of the TNG available at the INAF centre for Astronomical Archives (IA2), the archive of the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey, DSS-II and GSC-II (both the databases and the all-sky uncompressed images), BaSTI a widely-used database of theoretical stellar evolution predictions specifically suited for population synthesis analysis, and the Italian Theoretical Virtual Observatory (ITVO) a distributed database of simulated data. Extension to other data and future projects (e.g., the raw LBT and science LBC data, VST) is foreseen. From an initial core of activities carried out by INAF, other groups and organizations are joining the collaboration and expanding VObs.it scientific and technological capabilities. CINECA is active in ITVO and in the definition of IVOA standards, while at the ASI Science Data Center VO-related work has started within the VObs.it and Euro-VO frameworks.

  20. Crustal segments in the North Patagonian Massif, Patagonia: An integrated perspective based on Sm-Nd isotope systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Dopico, Carmen I.; López de Luchi, Mónica G.; Rapalini, Augusto E.; Kleinhanns, Ilka C.

    2011-03-01

    New insights on the Paleozoic evolution of the continental crust in the North Patagonian Massif are presented based on the analysis of Sm-Nd systematics. New evidence is presented to constrain tectonic models for the origin of Patagonia and its relations with the South American crustal blocks. Geologic, isotopic and tectonic characterization of the North Patagonian Massif and comparison of the Nd parameters lead us to conclude that: (1) The North Patagonian Massif is a crustal block with bulk crustal average ages between 2.1 and 1.6 Ga TDM (Nd) and (2) At least three metamorphic episodes could be identified in the Paleozoic rocks of the North Patagonian Massif. In the northeastern corner, Famatinian metamorphism is widely identified. However field and petrographic evidence indicate a Middle to Late Cambrian metamorphism pre-dating the emplacement of the ca. 475 Ma granitoids. In the southwestern area, are apparent 425-420 Ma (?) and 380-360 Ma metamorphic peaks. The latter episode might have resulted from the collision of the Antonia terrane; and (3) Early Paleozoic magmatism in the northeastern area is coeval with the Famatinian arc. Nd isotopic compositions reveal that Ordovician magmatism was associated with attenuated crust. On the southwestern border, the first magmatic recycling record is Devonian. Nd data shows a step by step melting of different levels of the continental crust in the Late Palaeozoic. Between 330 and 295 Ma magmatism was likely the product of a crustal source with an average 1.5 Ga TDM (Nd). Widespread magmatism represented by the 295-260 Ma granitoids involved a lower crustal mafic source, and continued with massive shallower-acid plutono volcanic complexes which might have recycled an upper crustal segment of the Proterozoic continental basement, resulting in a more felsic crust until the Triassic. (4) Sm-Nd parameters and detrital zircon age patterns of Early Paleozoic (meta)-sedimentary rocks from the North Patagonian Massif and those

  1. The Italian Optical Telecommunications Payload: Breadboard Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonino, L.; Caramia, M.; Catalano, V.; Ferrero, V.; Mata Calvo, R.

    2008-08-01

    The interest in satellite optical communication link has grown in the last years driven by the increasing demand in data downlink for scientific, planetary exploration and earth observation missions; in addition particular interest is also demonstrated by military market. In this context, the Italian Space Agency (ASI) is developing a program for feasibility demonstration of optical communication system with the goal of a prototype flight mission in the next future. The Paper intends to present the overall program plan and it is particularly focused on the activities performed during the Phase A2, relevant to stratospheric mission design and test campaign with an open field demonstrator of free space communications.

  2. Italian hybrid and fission reactors scenario analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciotti, M.; Manzano, J.; Sepielli, M.

    2012-06-01

    Italy is a country where a long tradition of studies both in the fission and fusion field is consolidated; nevertheless a strong public opinion concerned with the destination of the Spent Nuclear Fuel hinders the development of nuclear power. The possibility to a severe reduction of the NSF mass generated from a fleet of nuclear reactors employing an hypothetical fusionfission hybrid reactor has been investigated in the Italian framework. The possibility to produce nuclear fuel for the fission nuclear reactors with the hybrid reactor was analyzed too.

  3. The Italian Strong Motion Network (RAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Giovanni; Ammirati, Alfredo; de Nardis, Rita; Filippi, Luisa; Gallo, Antonella; Lavecchia, Giusy; Sirignano, Sebastiano; Zambonelli, Elisa; Nicoletti, Mario

    2014-05-01

    A network for the strong motion monitoring of the territory allows recording data that provide an excellent opportunity to study the source, path, and site effects on the ground motions, specifically in near source area, for updating seismic hazard map and consequently construction codes and earthquake resistant design. Strong motion data also help to increase the effective preparation and response to seismic emergencies and the ability of a community to quickly recover from the damages of an earthquake contributes to lower the seismic risk usually measured in term of casualties and economic losses. The Italian network for monitoring the strong movement of the national territory (RAN) is the result of a fruitful cooperation over the last 16 years between the Italian government, the regions and local authorities and now counts more than 500 stations. Over the years, as a priority the DPC has focused mainly on the expansion of the network in terms of the number of measurement points and technological improvement of instrumentation as well as the data transmission system. A data acquisition centre was implemented in which the Antelope software collects, processes and archives, automatically, the data of the RAN and of the external strong motion networks that contribute to the database of the RAN. Recently the DPC has dedicated specific resources to improve the response of the network, in particular, in case of emergency. The efficiency of the network on a daily basis is not less than 95% and temporary networks were installed in the epicentral area within 24 hours after the earthquake and connected to the data acquisition centre in Rome. A fast seismic data analysis is essential to provide useful information to Authorities which make decisions immediately after a strong earthquake occurrence. During a strong earthquake, the modern accelerometers are the only instruments which can provide near source high-quality data that are important both for scientific and for civil

  4. Italian Validation of Homophobia Scale (HS)

    PubMed Central

    Ciocca, Giacomo; Capuano, Nicolina; Tuziak, Bogdan; Mollaioli, Daniele; Limoncin, Erika; Valsecchi, Diana; Carosa, Eleonora; Gravina, Giovanni L; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Homophobia Scale (HS) is a valid tool to assess homophobia. This test is self-reporting, composed of 25 items, which assesses a total score and three factors linked to homophobia: behavior/negative affect, affect/behavioral aggression, and negative cognition. Aim The aim of this study was to validate the HS in the Italian context. Methods An Italian translation of the HS was carried out by two bilingual people, after which an English native translated the test back into the English language. A psychologist and sexologist checked the translated items from a clinical point of view. We recruited 100 subjects aged18–65 for the Italian validation of the HS. The Pearson coefficient and Cronbach's α coefficient were performed to test the test–retest reliability and internal consistency. Main Outcome Measures A sociodemographic questionnaire including the main information as age, geographic distribution, partnership status, education, religious orientation, and sex orientation was administrated together with the translated version of HS. Results The analysis of the internal consistency showed an overall Cronbach's α coefficient of 0.92. In the four domains, the Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.90 in behavior/negative affect, 0.94 in affect/behavioral aggression, and 0.92 in negative cognition, whereas in the total score was 0.86. The test–retest reliability showed the following results: the HS total score was r = 0.93 (P < 0.0001), behavior/negative affect was r = 0.79 (P < 0.0001), affect/behavioral aggression was r = 0.81 (P < 0.0001), and negative cognition was r = 0.75 (P < 0.0001). Conclusions The Italian validation of the HS revealed the use of this self-report test to have good psychometric properties. This study offers a new tool to assess homophobia. In this regard, the HS can be introduced into the clinical praxis and into programs for the prevention of homophobic behavior. PMID:26468384

  5. Italian hybrid and fission reactors scenario analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ciotti, M.; Manzano, J.; Sepielli, M.

    2012-06-19

    Italy is a country where a long tradition of studies both in the fission and fusion field is consolidated; nevertheless a strong public opinion concerned with the destination of the Spent Nuclear Fuel hinders the development of nuclear power. The possibility to a severe reduction of the NSF mass generated from a fleet of nuclear reactors employing an hypothetical fusionfission hybrid reactor has been investigated in the Italian framework. The possibility to produce nuclear fuel for the fission nuclear reactors with the hybrid reactor was analyzed too.

  6. Cambrian to Lower Ordovician complexes of the Kokchetav Massif and its fringing (Northern Kazakhstan): Structure, age, and tectonic settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degtyarev, K. E.; Tolmacheva, T. Yu.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Kotov, A. B.; Shatagin, K. N.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the Lower Palaeozoic complexes of the Kokchetav Massif and its fringing has been carried out. It has allowed for the first time to discover and investigate in detail the stratified and intrusive complexes of the Cambrian-Early Ordovician. Fossil findings and isotope geochronology permitted the determination of their ages. The tectonic position and internal structures of those complexes have also been defined and their chemical features have been analyzed as well. The obtained data allowed us to put forward a model of the geodynamic evolution of Northern Kazakhstan in the Late Ediacaran-Earliest Ordovician. The accumulation of the oldest Ediacaran to Earliest Cambrian siliciclastics and carbonates confined to the Kokchetav Massif and its fringing occurred in a shallow shelf environment prior to its collision with the Neoproterozoic Daut island arc: complexes of the latter have been found in the northeast of the studied area. The Early Cambrian subduction of the Kokchetav Massif under the Daut island arc, their following collision and exhumation of HP complexes led to the formation of rugged ground topography, promoting deposition of siliceous-clastic and coarse clastic units during the Middle to early Late Cambrian. Those sediments were mainly sourced from eroded metamorphic complexes of the Kokchetav Massif basement. At the end of the Late Cambrian to the Early Ordovician within the boundaries of the massif with the Precambrian crust, volcanogenic and volcano-sedimentary units along with gabbros and granites with intraplate affinities were formed. Simultaneously in the surrounding zones, which represent relics of basins with oceanic crust, N-MORB- and E-MORB-type ophiolites were developed. These complexes originated under extensional settings occurred in the majority of the Caledonides of Kazakhstan and Northern Tian Shan. In the Early Floian Stage (Early Ordovician) older heterogeneous complexes were overlain by relatively monotonous

  7. Additional Constraints on the Shallow Seismic Velocity Structure of the Atlantis Massif Oceanic Core Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henig, A. S.; Blackman, D. K.; Harding, A. J.; Kent, G. M.; Canales, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    We investigate the detailed structure of the uppermost ~km of Atlantis Massif, an oceanic core complex at 30°N on the Mid Atlantic Ridge, using pre-existing multichannel seismic data. The Synthetic On- Bottom Experiment (SOBE) method that we employ downward continues both the shots and receivers to a depth just above the seafloor. This allows us to pick refracted arrivals recorded on the streamer at very-near offset, providing constraints from rays that are received within the 300-2000 m range that was unavailable to earlier studies where standard shot gathers had been analyzed. Thus, we can better model the upper few hundred meters of the section which, in turn, adds confidence for determining the deeper (400-1500 m) structure. New work on a ridge-parallel line has been added to last year's work on a cross-axis line over the Central Dome of the massif. Tomographic results are similar for these crossing lines: a thin (100-150 m) low velocity (< 3 km/s) layer caps the dome; high horizontal gradients (>1.25 s-1) occur in local (1-2 km wide) regions within these 6-8 km long subsections of the MCS lines analyzed to date; and very high vertical velocity gradients, greater than 3.75 s-1, occur within the km just below the exposed detachment in these areas. We obtain general agreement with Canales et al., 2008, results over the Central Dome but our models suggest a finer scale lateral heterogeneity. We have begun analysis of additional and extended MCS lines over the domal core of the massif and our priority for this presentation is to assess the detailed structure of the Southern Ridge. In at least some areas the thin, low velocity layer contrasts sufficiently with underlying material that a clear refracted arrival is visible in supergathers. We will determine whether the low velocity layer persists over the whole dome or if it is restricted to the Central Dome. An important question is whether its thickness on the Southern Ridge, if it exists there, differs from that

  8. The Front of the Aar Massif: A Crustal-Scale Ramp Anticline?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herwegh, Marco; Mock, Samuel; Wehrens, Philip; Baumberger, Roland; Berger, Alfons; Wangenheim, Cornelia; Glotzbach, Christoph; Kissling, Edi

    2015-04-01

    The front of the Aar Massif (Swiss Central Alps) is characterized by Paleozoic basement rocks exposed at altitudes of more than 4600m above sea level, followed by a steeply north dipping Mesozoic sedimentary cover and overlying Helvetic nappes. The sediments turn into subhorizontal orientations just few kilometers to the N, where the top of the basement is situated at depths of about 7000m below sea level. What is the origin of this vertical jump of about 12000m of the basement rocks over such short horizontal distances? Recent structural investigations at the Basement-Cover contact indicate a complex structural evolution involving reactivation of extensional faults and inversion of half-grabens during early compressional stages. In the internal parts of the Aar Massif a general steepening of the faults resulted with progressive compression. In the northern frontal part, however, a new spaced cleavage evolved, which is dipping with 20-30° to the SE. In places, the new cleavage in the basement rocks is intense and pervasive and correlates with a steepening of the basement-cover contact and its offsets of several tens to hundreds of meters. Hence strain is strongly partitioned in a large number of high strain zones, which cover a cumulative thickness of at least 2000m, eventually even much more considering subsurface continuation. The Mesozoic sediments affected by this large-scale deformation zone are either intensely ductile folded in the case of limestones or faulted and imbricated in the case of dolomites. These differences in deformation style result from the deformation conditions of about < 250-300°C, where calcite still deforms in a ductile manner, while dolomite and crystalline basement preferentially undergo brittle deformation in combination of dissolution-precipitation processes. In a large-scale point of view, we suggest that the high strain domain in the crystalline basement in fact represents a crustal-scale several kilometers wide shear zone, which

  9. Mantle anisotropy of the Bohemian Massif as seen by SKS-wave splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecsey, Ludek; Plomerova, Jaroslava; Babuska, Vladislav

    2014-05-01

    The Bohemian Massif (BM) assembled during the collision of Laurasia (Laurentia-Baltica) and Gondwana as a part of the Armorican Terrane Assemblage. It represents the estern-most outcrop of the European Variscan belt. The detailed tomographic and seismic anisotropy research of the deep structure of the BM has proceeded in several passive seismic experiments: BOHEMA I (2001-2003), BOHEMA II (2004-2005), BOHEMA III (2005-2006), PASSEQ (2006-2008) and Eger Rift (2007-2011). During these periods, the whole massif was stepwise covered by networks of temporal short-period and broad-band stations that recorded large amount of data from teleseismic events. The inferences from seismic anisotropy image the Bohemian Massif as a mosaic of microplates with a rigid mantle lithosphere preserving a fossil olivine fabric. The mantle domains can be associated with the tectonic units recognized by geological studies: Saxothuringian (ST), Teplá-Barrandian (TB), Moldanubian (MB) and finally Moravian (M) and Silesian (S) parts of the MS Zone, overlying the Brunovistulian mantle lithosphere. In this contribution, we concetrate on the large-scale mantle anisotropy modelled from splitting of SKS waves and their particle motion (PM). An advantage of using PM analysis is its ability to employ even events with lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that are otherwise not usable for splitting analysis. To improve results of splitting analysis of signals distorted by noise, we use stacking of individual splitting measurements from waves closely propagating through the mantle. Another way of improving our analysis is a stacking of individual splittings of a single event measured at nearby stations. On average, the fast shear waves are polarized in the E-W direction in the ST, MD, TB units, but exhibit different regional variations of the splitting parameters in dependence on back-azimuths. Thus, different lithosphere mantle fabrics in the ST, MD and TB units were modelled. Moreover, the ST unit can

  10. The seismotectonic significance of the 2008-2010 seismic swarm in the Brabant Massif (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Noten, Koen; Lecocq, Thomas; Shah, Anjana K.; Camelbeeck, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Structural interpretations of the tectonic grain of orogenic mountain belts have often been based on the study of potential field data. The steep architecture of mountain belts can be highlighted by the inclination of the magnetic field and by the persistence of aeromagnetic lineaments with depth. With respect to seismology, matched filtering has proven to be very useful for linking seismicity with deep-seated tectonic structures by separating short-wavelength anomalies, that originate from shallow depths, from long-wavelength anomalies that generally originate at greater depths. Between 2008 and 2010 more than 300 low-magnitude earthquakes occurred 20 km SE of Brussels (Belgium). Thanks to a locally deployed temporary seismic network covering the epicentral area, very small events could be detected (magnitude variation between ML -0.7 and ML 3.2). The spatial distribution of the hypocenter locations show a dense spatial cluster displaying a narrow, 1.5-km long, NW-SE oriented fault zone at a depth range between 5 and 7 km, located in the Cambrian basement rocks of the Lower Palaeozoic Anglo-Brabant Massif. Its NW-SE orientation is in agreement with the structural grain in this part of the Brabant Massif. In order to find a relevant tectonic structure that could correspond to the 2008-2010 seismic swarm, we present a full seismotectonic analysis linking local geology to the seismic swarm. A systematic filtering approach was applied in which the magnetic field was carefully bandpass filtered to generate different aeromagnetic maps that highlight sources near the hypocenter depths. Filtering demonstrates that the structure responsible for the seismic swarm is limited in length as it is bordered at both ends by magnetic lineaments with different orientations than the seismic swarm. These observations explain the rather limited spatial distribution of the swarm, both in a vertical and horizontal direction. Although few of the largest historical seismic events in

  11. Gesture and Identity in the Teaching and Learning of Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltier, Ilaria Nardotto; McCafferty, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the use of mimetic gestures of identity by foreign language teachers of Italian and their students in college classes as a form of meaning-making. All four of the teachers were found to use a variety of Italian gestures as a regular aspect of their teaching and presentation of self. Students and teachers also were found to…

  12. Socio-Demographic Vulnerability: The Condition of Italian Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busetta, A.; Milito, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    For a kind of inertia effect, today the Italian welfare state protects the older too much and, on the contrary, it does not counter sufficiently the new risks associated with other phases of life. Not much seems to be implemented in favour of Italian young people who, as a matter of fact, seem to suffer a lot from the present changes: young people…

  13. Divergent Thinking in Italian Students with and without Reading Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Pinto, Giuliana; Donfrancesco, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have explored the relationship between dyslexia and creativity, but results have been rather mixed. This study examines whether Italian dyslexic children are more creative than their peers without a reading impairment. One hundred ninety Italian children aged between 9 and 13 participated in this study, divided into two groups:…

  14. Real and Perceived Employability: A Comparison among Italian Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caricati, Luca; Chiesa, Rita; Guglielmi, Dina; Mariani, Marco Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The research undertaken for this article aims to analyse the correspondence between perceived employability and the actual national employment rate among Italian students and graduates undertaking different courses in a large Italian university. Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey of 2087 students in 19 faculties, and compared…

  15. Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and corn (Zea mays)competition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Italian ryegrass is an annual/biennial grass that is typically used as a pasture crop or a cover crop along roadsides, rights-of-way, and industrial areas. Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Italian ryegrass populations have been documented around the world, mostly in orchard and vineyard situations. The fir...

  16. Italian Developmental Dyslexic and Proficient Readers: Where Are the Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barca, Laura; Burani, Cristina; Di Filippo, Gloria; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi

    2006-01-01

    Italian dyslexic children are characterized by a pervasive reading speed deficit, with relatively preserved accuracy. This pattern has been associated with predominant use of the nonlexical reading procedure. However, there is no evidence of a deficit in the lexical route of Italian dyslexics. We investigated both lexical and nonlexical reading…

  17. Genre and Function in the Italian Business Letter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiler, Mary Ann; Victor, David A.

    A study compared and contrasted the use of openings, summational closings, and closures in Italian and U.S. business letters to examine the role of culture in international business communication. It is argued that the Italian business letter should be studied in a functional intra-cultural perspective where its meaning creates and maintains…

  18. Strategic Management Accounting in Universities: The Italian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Arnaboldi, Michela; Azzone, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of management accounting in four major Italian universities, which have been struggling to build their strategy in a context of significant change. Following many OECD countries the Italian government has been changing its higher education system by giving more autonomy to universities. These changes pose a…

  19. Practicing Reflexivity in the Study of Italian Migrants in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seganti, Francesca Romana

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the centrality of reflexivity in qualitative research through examples from my study on the role new media play in the lives of Italians in London. My hypothesis was that Italians were "in transit" in London and they were using new media to build "temporary" communities. I conducted in-depth interviews with members of the…

  20. An Italian Social Learning Experience in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieri, Michelle; Diamantini, Davide; Paini, Germano

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses on an experience of social learning realized in six Italian high schools in the 2012-2013 academic year. In this experience we used ThinkTag Smart, a new learning platform, to train 400 students. After an introduction concerning Information and Communication Technologies in Italian schools, this contribution will describe the…

  1. Italian in Malta: A Socio-Educational Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruana, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution I present an overview of Italian in Malta, the third language of Malta, focusing on the role of this language within educational institutions and other domains of society. Italian was one of Malta's official languages till 1936 and, historically, it was used mainly within administrative and cultural spheres of society.…

  2. Thematic mapping of likely target areas for the occurence of cassiterite in the Serra do Mocambo (GO) granitic massifs using LANDSAT 2 digital imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almeidofilho, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The applicability of LANDSAT/MSS images, enhanced by computer derived techniques, as essential tools in mineral research was investigated and the Serra do Mocambo granitic massif was used as illustration. Given the peculiar factors founded in this area, orbital imagery permitted the delineation of potential target areas of mineralization occurrences, associated to albitized/greisenized types. Follow up prospection for primary tin deposits in this granitic massif should be restricted to the delineated areas which are less than 5% of the total superficial area of the massif.

  3. Luserna Stone: A nomination for "Global Heritage Stone Resource"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primavori, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Luserna Stone (Pietra di Luserna) is the commercial name of a grey-greenish leucogranitic orthogneiss, probably from the Lower Permian Age, that outcrops in the Luserna-Infernotto basin (Cottian Alps, Piedmont, NW Italy) on the border between the Turin and Cuneo provinces. Geologically speaking, it pertains to the Dora-Maira Massif that represents a part of the ancient European margin annexed to the Cottian Alps during the Alpine orogenesis; from a petrographic point of view, it is the metamorphic result of a late-Ercinian leucogranitic rock transformation. Lithological features and building applications allow the recognition of two main varieties: 1) a micro-augen gneiss with very regular schistosity planes with centimetric spacing and easy split workability, known as Splittable facies; 2) a micro-Augen gneiss characterized by lower schistosity and poor split, suitable for blocks cutting machines (diamond wires, gang-saws, traditional saws), known as Massive facies. A third, rare, white variety also exists, called "Bianchetta". Luserna stone extends over an area of approximately 50 km2, where more than fifty quarries are in operation, together with a relevant number of processing plants and artisanal laboratories. The stone is quarried and processed since almost the Middle Age, and currently represents one of the three most important siliceous production cluster in Italy (together with the Ossola and Sardegna Island granites). Some characteristics of this stone - such as the relevant physical-mechanical properties, an intrinsic versatility and its peculiar splittability - have made it one of the most widely used stone materials in Italy and in the countries surrounding the North Western border of Italy. Apart from its intrinsic geological, petrographic, commercial and technical properties, several issues related to the Luserna Stone are considered to be of relevant importance for its designation as a Global Heritage Stone Resource, such as the distinctive mark on

  4. Active mountain building in Taiwan in comparison to the early postcollisional evolution of the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustaszewski, K.; Suppe, J.; Wu, Y.-M.; Huang, S.-T.

    2009-04-01

    surprising similarities to present-day transects across the Central and Western Alps, where backfolding and backthrusting above the Insubric Line, starting in the late Palaeogene, led to exhumation of eclogite-facies continental crust in the Dora Maira, Gran Paradiso and Monte Rosa massifs.

  5. Can the seismic slip direction be retrieved from pseudotachylyte veins?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferre, E. C.; Zechmeister, M. S.; Gebelin, A.; Geissman, J. W.; Wilson, K. M.

    2007-05-01

    Pseudotachylytes can form by frictional melting as a result of seismic slip along a fault plane. During a brief seismic event, the fault plane material initially deforms by cataclastic flow until melting occurs and stress drops. The partially molten material then flows as a solid-melt suspension. Immediately after the seismic event, the pseudotachylyte vein consists of a mix of irregularly shaped, sub-equant, randomly oriented clasts, glass and a few newly formed microlites. This study aims to investigates the origin of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in pseudotachylyte veins and to assess whether the AMS records syn-seismic or post-seismic flow. The pseudotachylytes of the Val Gilba (Dora Maira Massif, Western Alps) are chosen as an example of syn- exhumation veins. They formed at about 20 Ma during the unroofing of mylonitic gneisses that had recorded a pressure peak of metamorphism at ca. 35 Ma. These veins, up to 25 mm in width, are occur parallel to the mylonitic foliation and are continuous over several tens of meters. The magnetic fabric of both host and vein are very consistent, yet distinct. The AMS of the host gneiss is controlled by magnetite and phyllosilicates (P = 1.32) and lies parallel to the pervasive stretching lineation. In contrast, the AMS of the pseudotachylyte, controlled almost entirely by elongated magnetite grains (P = 1.08), is oblique (30°) to the stretching lineation. The AMS fabric in the gneiss is strongly planar (T = 0.886), whereas in the pseudotachylite, the fabric is more plano-linear (T = 0.373). The pseudotachylite oblique fabric might be interpreted as a result of imbrication. Microstructures of the pseudotachylyte indicate that deformation was plastic and occurred at high temperature. The AMS in the pseudotachylite is interpreted to result from syn-seismic melt flow, as suggested by the laminated internal structure of the veins and by small drag folds affecting the laminae. These new results open unprecedented

  6. Dynamics and seismotectonics of the West-Alpine arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglia, G.; Capponi, G.; Crispini, L.; Piazza, M.

    1996-12-01

    In this paper we present a comparative review of structural, seismic and focal mechanism data from the West-Alpine arc. In the Western Alps, seismic activity is concentrated along an external belt, corresponding to the Penninic front, and an internal belt, corresponding to the Austro-Alpine front and its southern extension. These seismic belts are connected in the NE by a seismic lineament, corresponding to the Simplon and Centovalli Line and in the south by the E-W-trending seismic Stura "couloir", located between the Argentera and Dora Maira massifs. The SimplondashCentovalli-Tonale system and the Stura "couloir" are dextral and sinistral strike-slip systems respectively; this implies a westward translation of the West-Alpine arc and the Po Plain. Based on these observations, a seismotectonic model is proposed in which the frontal Penninic thrust and the basal surface of the accretionary wedge corresponding to the Penninic sole thrust are reactivated. Activity along the frontal thrust increases the arcuate shape of the Western Alps and disengages them from the Central and the Ligurian Alps along the tear faults of the SimplondashCentovalli-Tonale system and the Stura "couloir" respectively. In the wider framework of northern Italy, the sector of the eastern Alps north of the Gailtal Line, is moving in an orogendashparallel direction towards the east. Areas with lateral escape in opposite directions, towards the west for the Po Plain and towards the east for the Eastern Alps, north of the Gailtal Line, are separated by the South Alpine Atesine indenter. A model postulating a double lateral escape and a central indenter matches most of the features of the models of "poinçonnement". The seismic features of northern Italy agree with the seismicity of the stable sector of northern Europe up to the North Sea. This area is fragmented into blocks bounded by seismic bands, some of which probably reactivate pre-existing structures. The overall stress field of Cratonic

  7. Italian occupational health: concepts, conflicts, implications.

    PubMed Central

    Reich, M R; Goldman, R H

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines Italy's worker-based model for occupational health, especially its key concepts and its relation to social conflict. It briefly reviews the history of three approaches to occupational health in Italy: university-based, industry-based, and government-based. It then analyzes the worker-based approach, which emerged in the late 1960s and early 1970s as worker groups and trade unions mobilized around new concepts of occupational health. Five key concepts are discussed: the workers' homogeneous group; workers' subjectivity; the use of contract language; the development of local occupational health institutions; and the use of occupational hazard risk maps. The analysis illustrates how the social processes of mobilization and institutionalization affected the ideas and structures of Italian occupational health. Worker mobilization in Italy produced ideological changes in the nation's occupational health system, institutional changes in universities and governments, and legislative changes at national and local levels. The institutionalization of reforms, however, created new conflicts and problems and tended to restrict worker participation and promote expert intervention. The paper concludes with a brief outline of the history of occupational health approaches in the United States and then discusses the implications of the five Italian concepts for US occupational health policy. PMID:6380322

  8. The Italian Tau/charm project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enrica Biagini, Maria

    2014-06-01

    A τ/charm Factory, an e + e- collider with very high luminosity at the 2-4.6 GeV center of mass energy, to be built on the Rome University at Tor Vergata campus, was studied by the Consortium Nicola Cabibbo Laboratory and the INFN Frascati Laboratories. This project is the natural evolution of the flagship Italian project SuperB Factory, funded by the Italian Government in 2010 with a budget that turned out to be insufficient to cover the total costs of the project. The study of rare events at the τ/charm energy was already planned as a Phase-II of SuperB [1]. This design keeps all the unique features of SuperB, including the polarization of the electron beam, with the possibility to take data in a larger energy range, with reduced accelerator dimensions and construction and operation costs. A Report on the accelerator design has been published in September 2013 [2].

  9. First geochronological study of the volcanic plateau of aubrac (French Massif Central) - tectonic and regional implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baubron, J. C.; Demange, J.

    1982-10-01

    The volcanism of the Aubrac fissural basaltic plateau is located between Cantal a large stratovolcano to the north, and the Causse of Séverac-le-Château - a limestone plateau on which crop out some basaltic intrusions - to the south. The first K/Ar age determinations show that this volcanism mainly took place between 8 and 7.5 m.y. preceded and followed by short episodes around 9.2 and 5.8 m.y. The occurrence of differentiated products is discussed and correlated with substratum geology of these volcanic centres. The episode of activity (i.e. 8 to 7.5 m.y.) discovered in Aubrac and Causse of Séveracle-Château, is not a localized event, but part of a regional activity in the central area of the Massif Central. The occurrence of magmatic activity correlates with the old Hercynian tectonic.

  10. Crystal structure of hydrogen-bearing vuonnemite from the Lovozero alkaline massif

    SciTech Connect

    Rastsvetaeva, R. K. Aksenov, S. M.; Verin, I. A.; Lykova, I. S.

    2011-05-15

    Hydrogen-bearing vuonnemite from the Shkatulka hyperagpaitic pegmatite (the Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula) was studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The triclinic unit-cell parameters are as follows: a = 5.4712(1) Angstrom-Sign , b = 7.1626(1) Angstrom-Sign , c = 14.3702(3) Angstrom-Sign , {alpha} = 92.623(2) Degree-Sign , {beta} = 95.135(1) Degree-Sign , {gamma} = 90.440(1) Degree-Sign , sp. gr. P1, R = 3.4%. The Na{sup +} cations and H{sub 2}O molecules are ordered in sites between the packets. The water molecules are hydrogen bonded to the PO{sub 4} tetrahedra.

  11. Oxidation state of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Massif Central,France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uenver-Thiele, L.; Woodland, A. B.; Downes, H.; Altherr, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Tertiary and Quaternary volcanism of the French Massif Central sampled the underlying subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) in the form of xenoliths over a wide geographic area of ~20.000km2. Such an extensive distribution of xenoliths provides an unique opportunity to investigate regional variations in mantle structure and composition. On the basis of textural and geochemical differences, Lenoir et al. (2000) and later Downes et al. (2003) identified two distinct domains in the SCLM lying north and south of latitude 45° 30' N, respectively. The northern domain is relatively refractory, but has experienced pervasive enrichment of LREE. The southern domain is generally more fertile, exhibiting depletion in LREE. A metasomatic overprint has developed to variable extents in many xenolith suites. The different histories of these two juxtaposed blocks of SCLM should also be reflected in their oxidation state, with local variations also to be expected due to metasomatic interactions. For example, if carbonate-melt metasomatism played a role in the LREE enrichment of the northern domain (Lenoir et al. 2000; Downes et al. 2003), then such mantle should be relatively oxidised. Since surprisingly little redox data are currently available, we are undertaking a study to determine the oxidation state of the SCLM beneath the Massif Central over the largest geographical area possible. All xenoliths investigated are spinel peridotites, mostly with protogranular textures (although some samples are porphyroclastic or equigranular). Most samples are nominally anhydrous although minor amphibole is present in some xenolith suites. Major element compositions of the individual minerals were determined by microprobe. Two-pyroxene temperatures (BKN) range from 750° to ~1200° C. Ferric iron contents of spinel were determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy and gave a range of Fe3+/ Fetot from 0.191 to 0.418, with a conservative uncertainty of ±0.02. These data were used to calculate

  12. Mineral compositions of plutonic rocks from the Lewis Hills massif, Bay of Islands ophiolite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Susan E.; Elthon, Don

    1988-01-01

    Mineral compositions of residual and cumulate rocks from the Lewis Hills massif of the Bay of Islands ophiolite complex are reported and interpreted in the context of magnetic processes involved in the geochemical evolution of spatially associated diabase dikes. The mineral compositions reflect greater degrees of partial melting than most abyssal peridotites do and appear to represent the most depleted end of abyssal peridotite compositions. Subsolidus equilibration between Cr-Al spinal and olivine generally has occurred at temperatures of 700 to 900 C. The spinel variations agree with the overall fractionation of basaltic magmas producing spinels with progressively lower Cr numbers. The compositions of clinopyroxenes suggest that the fractionation of two different magma series produced the various cumulate rocks.

  13. Application of GIS technologies to monitor secondary radioactive contamination in the Delegen mountain massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipbeki, O.; Kabzhanova, G.; Kurmanova, G.; Alipbekova, Ch.

    2016-06-01

    The territory of the Degelen mountain massif is located within territory of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and it is an area of ecological disaster. Currently there is a process of secondary radioactive contamination that is caused by geodynamic processes activated at the Degelen array, violation of underground hydrological cycles and as a consequence, water seepage into the tunnels. One of the methods of monitoring of geodynamic processes is the modern technology of geographic information systems (GIS), methods of satellite radar interferometry and high accuracy satellite navigation system in conjunction with radioecological methods. This paper discusses on the creation of a GIS-project for the Degelen array, facilitated by quality geospatial analysis of the situation and simulation of the phenomena, in order to maximize an objective assessment of the radiation situation in this protected area.

  14. Sm-Nd dating of fluorite from the worldclass Montroc fluorite deposit, southern Massif Central, France

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munoz, M.; Premo, W.R.; Courjault-Rade, P.

    2005-01-01

    A three-point Sm-Nd isotope isochron on fluorite from the very large Montroc fluorite vein deposit (southern Massif Central, France) defines an age of 111??13 Ma. Initial ??Nd of -8.6 and initial 87Sr/86Sr of ???0.71245 suggest an upper crustal source of the hydrothermal system, in agreement with earlier work on fluid inclusions which indicated a basinal brine origin. The mid-Cretaceous age of ???111 Ma suggests the Albian/Aptian transition as the most likely period for large-scale fluid circulation during a regional extensional tectonic event, related to the opening of the North Atlantic ocean. ?? Springer-Verlag 2004.

  15. Permafrost detection in the headwalls of receding glaciers at the Dachstein Massif, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rode, Matthias; Gitschthaler, Christoph; Schnepfleitner, Harald; Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Sass, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    The Northern Calcareous Alps cover a large area of the Austrian Alps forming a boundary zone between the Alpine Foreland to the north and the crystalline Central Alps to the south. Generally, climate in this area is more maritime compared to the mountain ranges further south. Few small glaciers are to be found mostly on north-facing slopes. The Northern Calcareous Alps reach maximum elevations of about 3000 m asl. Some of highest summits are to be found are located in the Dachstein Massif reaching 2995 m asl (47° 28' 32″ N, 13° 36' 23″ E). Occurrence, thickness and thermal regime of permafrost at this mountain massif are widely unknown and knowledge is based on simulations only. In contrast, the glaciation changes at this mountain massif (e.g. Schladminger and Hallstätter glaciers) have been well documented for decades. Within the framework of the research project ROCKING ALPS - dealing with frost weathering and rockfall in alpine regions - knowledge of permafrost distribution in the headwalls surrounding the receding glaciers is substantial to understand rock decay. For this reason, several techniques have been applied in order to detect bedrock permafrost. During the winter of 2012 22 i-buttons (temperature sensors) were attached to rock walls with different orientations but at similar elevations (2600-2700 m asl). Most of these sites were later covered by an insulating winter snow cover therefore allowing the calculation of the base temperature of the winter snow cover (BTS). These BTS data have been used as a first indicator of permafrost presence. In selected rock walls of several mountains in the massif - Koppenkarstein (2863 m asl), Dirndln (2829 m asl) and Gjaidstein (2794 m asl) - additional 2D-geoelectric surveys (five ERT profiles with a length of 100 m and 2 m electrode spacing) were measured in summer 2013. The high resistivities (> 50.000 ohm.m) at about 1.5 m depth and deeper strongly suggest permafrost existence inside the bedrock at all

  16. Physical-Chemical Factors Affecting the Low Quality of Natural Water in the Khibiny Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazukhina, Svetlana; Masloboev, Vladimir; Chudnenko, Konstantin; Maksimova, Viktoriia; Belkina, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    One peculiarity of the Khibiny Massif is its spatial location. Rising over 1000 m above the surrounding hilly land and thus obstructing the passage of air masses, it promotes condensation and accumulation of surface and underground water. Annual precipitation here amounts to 600-700 mm in the valleys and up to 1600 mm on mountainous plateaus. Using this water for drinking and household purposes is problematic due to excess Al and F concentrations and high pH values. Now it is known that in its profile, the Massif is represented by three hydrogeological subzones: the upper (aerated), medium and lower ones. The upper subzone spreads throughout the Massif and is affected by the local drainage network and climatic conditions. The medium subzone is permanently saturated with underground water flowing horizontally to sites of discharge at the level of local river valleys and lakes. The fissure-vein water in the lower subzone is confined to tectonic fractures and faults in the so far underexplored, deeper parts of the Massif. Being abundant, this water ascends under high pressure. At places, water has been observed spurting from as deep as 700 m, and even 960 m. In the latter case, the temperature of ascending water was higher than 18 centigrade (Hydrogeology of the USSR, V. 27, 1971). This work was undertaken to reveal the nature of the low quality of water in the Khibiny by using physical-chemical modeling (software package Selector, Chudnenko, 2010). Processes of surface and underground water formation in the Khibiny were examined within a physical-chemical model (PCM) of the "water-rock-atmosphere-hydrogen" system. In a multi-vessel model used, each vessel represented a geochemical level of the process interpreted as spatiotemporal data - ξ (Karpov, 1981). The flow reactor consisted of 4 tanks. In the first tank, water of the Kuniok River (1000 L) interacted with atmosphere and an organic substance. The resulting solution proceeded to tanks 2-4 containing with

  17. Remains of early Ordovician mantle-derived magmatism in the Santander Massif (Colombian Eastern Cordillera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantilla Figueroa, Luis C.; Bissig, Thomas; Cottle, John M.; Hart, Craig J. R.

    2012-10-01

    An Early Ordovician magmatic event has been documented in the Santander Massif (north-Eastern Cordillera, Colombia). Three U/Pb laser ablation ages of 477 ± 2 Ma (Arenig), were obtained from metamorphosed and foliated calc-alkaline diorites. The 176Hf/177Hf values in zircons from these meta-diorites, yielded epsilon Hf values (ɛHft) > 0 (Mean = 2 ± 1, at 477 Ma). These data allow interpretation of the origin of these zircons from a radiogenic initial Hf isotope source, which is characteristic of the Earth's mantle. This, together with the fact that the rocks have been affected subsequently by tectonometamorphic processes, suggests that the early Ordovician diorites have been emplaced in a supra-subduction tectonic setting, related to onset of the Iapetus Ocean closure.

  18. Specific and Generic Subjects in the Italian of German-Italian Simultaneous Bilinguals and L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupisch, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates definite articles in specific and generic subject nominals in Italian spoken by adult simultaneous bilinguals (2L1ers) and second language learners (L2ers). The study focuses on plural and mass DPs, in which German and Italian differ. The aims are to (i) compare acquisition outcomes between the weaker and the stronger…

  19. Fluid flow and polymetallic sulfide mineralization in the Kettara shear zone (Jebilet Massif, Variscan Belt, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'diaye, I.; Essaifi, A.; Dubois, M.; Lacroix, B.; Goodenough, K. M.; Maacha, L.

    2016-07-01

    The Kettara shear zone is a regional wrench shear zone within the Jebilet massif of Western Morocco, part of the Variscan orogenic belt. This massif is characterized by bimodal magmatism, largely intrusive, and by a number of polymetallic massive sulfide deposits. A syntectonic mafic-ultramafic intrusion and an adjacent, deformed pyrrhotite-rich massive sulfide deposit are located within a 'compressional jog' of the shear zone. Hydrothermal alteration in both the intrusion and the wall rocks adjacent to the deposit is characterized by syntectonic replacement processes leading to formation of chlorite-schists and quartz ± calcite veins. Fluid inclusions in mineralized (pyrrhotite-bearing) quartz veins from the wall rocks adjacent to the deposit and in veins associated with chlorite-schists within the intrusion indicate a prevalence of H2O-CO2-CH4-N2 and H2O-salt fluid systems. In the mineralized veins the fluid shows reducing conditions, with gas dominated by CH4 and N2 and salinities around 7.5 wt% NaCl, whereas in the chlorite shear zones fluid is CO2 dominated and salinities are higher than 23 wt% NaCl. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of chlorite and quartz are similar and demonstrate involvement of metamorphic water in both the deposit and the intrusion. The data are consistent with a regional metamorphic fluid flow through the Kettara shear zone. The migrating metamorphic fluids were reduced in the organic matter-rich host rocks leading to deposition of sulfides in the mineralized veins. There are two possible hypotheses for the origin of these mineralized veins: either they were formed during deformation and remobilization of a syn-sedimentary massive sulfide deposit, or they were formed synchronously with the sulfide deposit during development of the Kettara shear zone.

  20. Cenozoic denudation of the Menderes Massif and its geodynamic framework: slab tear or not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessner, Klaus; Gallardo, Luis; Markwitz, Vanessa; Ring, Uwe; Thomson, Stuart

    2014-05-01

    Despite having experienced similar rates of convergence during the Alpine Orogeny, the Hellenides and Anatolides display fundamental differences in crust and mantle structure across a region that broadly coincides with the Aegean coastline of the Anatolian peninsula. The Menderes Massif experienced early Miocene tectonic denudation and surface uplift in the footwall of a north-directed extensional detachment system, followed by late Miocene to recent fragmentation by E-W and NW-SE trending graben systems, resulting in one of Earth's largest metamorphic core complexes. Based on the interpretation of geological and geophysical data we propose that the tectonic denudation of the Menderes Massif was caused by late Oligocene/early Miocene lithosphere scale transtension along the boundary of the Adriatic and Anatolian lithospheric domains, when rollback of the Aegean slab affected the Aegean-Menderes section of the Tethyan Orogen. In addition to previously hypothesized crustal discontinuities, gravity data, earthquake locations and seismic velocity anomalies highlight a north-south oriented boundary in the upper mantle between a fast slab below the Aegean and a slow asthenospheric region below western Turkey. As an alternative to the common interpretation of this discontinuity representing the western edge of a slab tear, we propose that the change in lithospheric structure is the result of how different lithosphere domains responded to roll-back: relatively slow removal of lithospheric mantle below western Anatolia versus trench retreat in the rapidly extending Aegean Sea region. Our findings highlight the significance of lateral variations in subduction-collision systems for the formation of continental plateaux and metamorphic core complexes.

  1. Cancrinite from nepheline syenite (mariupolite) of the Oktiabrski massif, SE Ukraine, and its growth history.

    PubMed

    Dumańska-Słowik, Magdalena; Pieczka, Adam; Heflik, Wiesław; Sikorska, Magdalena

    2016-03-15

    Secondary cancrinite, (Na5.88K<0.01)∑5.88(Ca0.62 Fe0.01Mn0.01Zn<0.01 Mg<0.01)∑0.64[Si6.44Al 5.56O24](CO3)0.67(OH)0.26(F<0.01,Cl<0.01)·2.04H2O), was found as accessory component of mariupolite (albite-aegirine nepheline syenite) from the Oktiabrski massif in the Donbass (SE Ukraine). It probably crystallized from a subsolidus reaction involving nepheline (and sodalite?) and calcite dissolved in the aqueous-carbonic fluid at the maximum temperature of 930 °C, decreasing to hydrothermal conditions. It is depleted in sodium, calcium and carbon, what results in the occurrence of vacant positions at both cationic and anionic sites. Ca-deficient cancrinite crystallized from the same hydrothermal Si-undersaturated fluids enriched in the ions such as Na(+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), F(-), HCO3(-), which formed calcite, sodalite, natrolite and fluorite. It has dark-red CL colours with patchy zoning, what indicates the variable/diverse fluid composition during its formation. In the CL spectrum of cancrinite only one broad emission band at 410 nm is observed, which can be attributed to O* center (the recombination of a free electron with an O(-) hole center). The formation of secondary CO3-rich species, i.e. cancrinite and calcite in mariupolite suggests that redox conditions in the Oktiabrski massif were oxidizing at the postmagmatic stage. PMID:26773267

  2. Proterozoic massif anorthosites and related rocks in Labrador: the anorthosite-charnockite connection

    SciTech Connect

    Emslie, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    Massif anorthosites of Labrador are closely associated in space and time with voluminous, felsic, fayalite- and ferrous pyroxene-bearing igneous rocks. These include charnockites, monzonites, biotite-hornblende granites, and locally syenites. Igneous charnockites form major parts of some of the granitic complexes. In Mistastin batholith for example, charnockitic assemblages comprise about 35% of a total area of 6500 sq. km. Feldspar pairs and coexisting fayalite-opx-qtz in these rocks indicate P and T near 3.5 kb, 750/sup 0/C, assumed to represent near solidus equilibration. Diorites and monzonites intruded by charnockite have mesoperthites implying crystallization T>900/sup 0/C presumably recording earlier stages of crystallization. Oxide and silicate assemblages indicate redox conditions between FMQ and WM oxygen buffers and water pressures well below Ptotal. Younger biotite-hornblende granites and quartz syenites lack Ti-mt. but retain fayalite suggesting that magmatic crystallization was largely closed to water and oxygen. Initial Sr isotope ratios in charnockite-granite suites of central labrador support derivation of the magmas largely or entirely from crustal source rocks. Compositions of mafic silicates and plagioclase, associated Fe-Ti oxide concentrations, trace elements and Sr isotopes in massif anorthosites are in accord with the rocks being crystallization products of substantially fractionated, originally more mafic, mantle magmas. Close association of high temperature, water-poor, reduced crustal melts is consistent with a fusion process in which heat supply and oxygen buffering were controlled by fractional crystallization of a substantial body of mafic magma subjacent to continental crust.

  3. Homogeneous /sup 18/O enrichment of the Marcy Anorthosite Massif, Adirondack Mountains, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.; Valley, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Marcy Anorthosite Massif in the Adirondack Mountains, New York, is a composite intrusion that was metamorphosed to granulite facies at approx. 1.1 Ga. The massif is dominantly anorthosite but ranges from anorthosite (1-10% mafics) to oxide-rich pyroxenite layers (up to 98% mafics). In the St Regis Quad (SRQ) systematic variations in the percentage of mafics (POM) roughly parallel the foliation and increase toward the contacts (Davis, 1971). In 47 SRQ samples studied the POM varies from 2-25%; garnet ranges from 0-11%, pyroxene from <1-16% and oxides from <1-8%. Percent phenocrysts varies between 1-80. The Port Kent-Westport Unit (PKW) and an associated hybrid unit show significantly greater textural variability. The POM Varies from 1-50%; garnet ranges from 0-18%, pyroxene from 0-15%, oxides from 0-3% and phenocrysts vary from 0-80%. A total of 28 unaltered plagioclase phenocrysts have been analyzed for delta/sup 18/O: in 13 SRQ samples delta/sup 18/O = 9.0-9.8 (x=9.4. sigma=0.2) and in 15 samples from the PKW and hybrid units values of delta/sup 18/O=8.5-10.5 (x=9.5.sigma0.5). No correlations exist between the modal parameters and delta/sup 18/O. The results from SRQ demonstrate an extreme homogeneity suggesting for the first time a pristine magmatic character which is supported by the virtual absence of metasedimentary inclusions. This contrasts with PKW where inclusions are common and delta/sup 18/O values are more heterogeneous. Further analyses will evaluate the possibility of an anomalous source region as a cause of the /sup 18/O enrichment in the anorthosite.

  4. Cancrinite from nepheline syenite (mariupolite) of the Oktiabrski massif, SE Ukraine, and its growth history.

    PubMed

    Dumańska-Słowik, Magdalena; Pieczka, Adam; Heflik, Wiesław; Sikorska, Magdalena

    2016-03-15

    Secondary cancrinite, (Na5.88K<0.01)∑5.88(Ca0.62 Fe0.01Mn0.01Zn<0.01 Mg<0.01)∑0.64[Si6.44Al 5.56O24](CO3)0.67(OH)0.26(F<0.01,Cl<0.01)·2.04H2O), was found as accessory component of mariupolite (albite-aegirine nepheline syenite) from the Oktiabrski massif in the Donbass (SE Ukraine). It probably crystallized from a subsolidus reaction involving nepheline (and sodalite?) and calcite dissolved in the aqueous-carbonic fluid at the maximum temperature of 930 °C, decreasing to hydrothermal conditions. It is depleted in sodium, calcium and carbon, what results in the occurrence of vacant positions at both cationic and anionic sites. Ca-deficient cancrinite crystallized from the same hydrothermal Si-undersaturated fluids enriched in the ions such as Na(+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), F(-), HCO3(-), which formed calcite, sodalite, natrolite and fluorite. It has dark-red CL colours with patchy zoning, what indicates the variable/diverse fluid composition during its formation. In the CL spectrum of cancrinite only one broad emission band at 410 nm is observed, which can be attributed to O* center (the recombination of a free electron with an O(-) hole center). The formation of secondary CO3-rich species, i.e. cancrinite and calcite in mariupolite suggests that redox conditions in the Oktiabrski massif were oxidizing at the postmagmatic stage.

  5. Cancrinite from nepheline syenite (mariupolite) of the Oktiabrski massif, SE Ukraine, and its growth history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumańska-Słowik, Magdalena; Pieczka, Adam; Heflik, Wiesław; Sikorska, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    Secondary cancrinite, (Na5.88K< 0.01)∑ 5.88(Ca0.62 Fe0.01Mn0.01Zn< 0.01 Mg< 0.01)∑ 0.64[Si6.44Al 5.56O24](CO3)0.67(OH)0.26(F< 0.01,Cl< 0.01)·2.04H2O), was found as accessory component of mariupolite (albite-aegirine nepheline syenite) from the Oktiabrski massif in the Donbass (SE Ukraine). It probably crystallized from a subsolidus reaction involving nepheline (and sodalite?) and calcite dissolved in the aqueous-carbonic fluid at the maximum temperature of 930 °C, decreasing to hydrothermal conditions. It is depleted in sodium, calcium and carbon, what results in the occurrence of vacant positions at both cationic and anionic sites. Ca-deficient cancrinite crystallized from the same hydrothermal Si-undersaturated fluids enriched in the ions such as Na+, Ca2 +, Cl-, F-, HCO3-, which formed calcite, sodalite, natrolite and fluorite. It has dark-red CL colours with patchy zoning, what indicates the variable/diverse fluid composition during its formation. In the CL spectrum of cancrinite only one broad emission band at 410 nm is observed, which can be attributed to O* center (the recombination of a free electron with an O- hole center). The formation of secondary CO3-rich species, i.e. cancrinite and calcite in mariupolite suggests that redox conditions in the Oktiabrski massif were oxidizing at the postmagmatic stage.

  6. Fluid flow and polymetallic sulfide mineralization in the Kettara shear zone (Jebilet Massif, Variscan Belt, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'diaye, I.; Essaifi, A.; Dubois, M.; Lacroix, B.; Goodenough, K. M.; Maacha, L.

    2016-07-01

    The Kettara shear zone is a regional wrench shear zone within the Jebilet massif of Western Morocco, part of the Variscan orogenic belt. This massif is characterized by bimodal magmatism, largely intrusive, and by a number of polymetallic massive sulfide deposits. A syntectonic mafic-ultramafic intrusion and an adjacent, deformed pyrrhotite-rich massive sulfide deposit are located within a 'compressional jog' of the shear zone. Hydrothermal alteration in both the intrusion and the wall rocks adjacent to the deposit is characterized by syntectonic replacement processes leading to formation of chlorite-schists and quartz ± calcite veins. Fluid inclusions in mineralized (pyrrhotite-bearing) quartz veins from the wall rocks adjacent to the deposit and in veins associated with chlorite-schists within the intrusion indicate a prevalence of H2O-CO2-CH4-N2 and H2O-salt fluid systems. In the mineralized veins the fluid shows reducing conditions, with gas dominated by CH4 and N2 and salinities around 7.5 wt% NaCl, whereas in the chlorite shear zones fluid is CO2 dominated and salinities are higher than 23 wt% NaCl. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of chlorite and quartz are similar and demonstrate involvement of metamorphic water in both the deposit and the intrusion. The data are consistent with a regional metamorphic fluid flow through the Kettara shear zone. The migrating metamorphic fluids were reduced in the organic matter-rich host rocks leading to deposition of sulfides in the mineralized veins. There are two possible hypotheses for the origin of these mineralized veins: either they were formed during deformation and remobilization of a syn-sedimentary massive sulfide deposit, or they were formed synchronously with the sulfide deposit during development of the Kettara shear zone.

  7. Investigating K-feldspar Luminescence Thermochronometry for Application in the Mont Blanc Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, R.; King, G. E.; Herman, F.; Valla, P.

    2015-12-01

    Luminescence dating has the potential to quantify the recent exhumation history of mountain ranges as a low-temperature thermochronometer. During rock exhumation, electrons get trapped through exposure to ionizing radiation whilst elevated temperatures cause thermally stimulated detrapping. The resulting luminescence signals measured in the laboratory can be used to constrain rock thermal histories through modelling of the kinetic parameters of electron trapping and detrapping. Here, we investigate and model laboratory kinetic processes of the luminescence of K-feldspar and assess their extrapolation over geological timescales. Samples were taken from the actively eroding Mont Blanc massif in the European Alps, along a 12 km long tunnel with ambient temperatures of 10-35 °C. In this setting rapid exhumation rates have been found during the last 2 million years (up to ~2 km/Myr), however, we intend to increase the temporal resolution to sub-Quaternary timescales using luminescence thermochronometry. Infra-red stimulated luminescence signals at 50 °C (IR50) and at 225 °C (post-IR IRSL225) of K-feldspar extracted from Mont Blanc tunnel samples were measured and our first results reveal a thermal signature from which rock cooling rates can be derived. Isothermal decay experiments show non-exponential decay, but interestingly, experiments with a range of regenerative doses reveal first-order kinetics. The observed thermal decay pattern is well-described by a model based on a physically plausible distribution of the density of states. Ultimately, we intend to use the IR50 and post-IR IRSL225 signals of K-feldspar as dual thermochronometers to determine the late-Quaternary cooling history of the Mont Blanc massif. Moreover, the luminescence signals may give insights into local thermal field evolution, before the influence of postglacial hydrothermal flow.

  8. Origin of mafic and ultramafic cumulates from the Ditrău Alkaline Massif, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pál-Molnár, Elemér; Batki, Anikó; Almási, Enikő; Kiss, Balázs; Upton, Brian G. J.; Markl, Gregor; Odling, Nicholas; Harangi, Szabolcs

    2015-12-01

    Mafic-ultramafic cumulates enclosed in gabbroic-dioritic rocks form part of the Mesozoic Ditrău Alkaline Massif in the Eastern Carpathians, Romania. The poikilitic olivine- and pyroxene-rich and nearly mono mineralic hornblendite rocks display typical cumulate textures with early crystallised olivine (Fo75-73), diopside and augite. In the early stages of their genesis the amphibole was intercumulus whilst in later stages it acquired cumulus status as the fractionating magma evolved. Using major and trace element compositions of minerals and whole-rock samples the origin of these cumulates is determined and the parental magma composition and depth of emplacement are calculated. Cumulus clinopyroxene has more primitive composition than intercumulus amphibole suggesting closed system fractionation for the evolution of poikilitic olivine- and pyroxene-rich cumulates. The evolution of the amphibole-rich mesocumulates is more clearly the result of closed system crystallisation dominated by the precipitation of clinopyroxene and amphibole cumulus crystals. Lamprophyre dykes of the Ditrău Alkaline Massif are proposed to reflect multiple basanitic parental magma batches from which the cumulus olivine and clinopyroxene crystallised. Relative to these dykes the calculated equilibrium melts for intercumulus amphibole in the cumulates was more primitive whilst that for the cumulus amphibole was more evolved. The calculated crystallisation temperature and pressure of ~ 1000-1050 °C and ~ 0.7 GPa, based on the composition of the amphiboles, indicate crystallisation at lower crustal depths. Rare earth element compositions are consistent with an intra-plate tectonic setting.

  9. Volcanic evolution of the submarine super volcano, Tamu Massif of Shatsky Rise: New insights from Formation MicroScanner logging imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, Masako; Iturrino, Gerardo; Evans, Helen F.

    2015-01-01

    Massif, the southernmost plateau of Shatsky Rise, is recently reported as the largest single volcano known on Earth. This work seeks to understand the type of volcanism necessary to form such an anomalously large single volcano by integrating core and high-resolution wireline logging data. In particular, resistivity imagery obtained by the Formation MicroScanner, in Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Hole U1347A, located on the eastern flank of Tamu Massif, was used to construct a logging-based volcanostratigraphy. This model revealed two different volcanic stages formed Tamu Massif: (i) the core part of the massif's basaltic basement was formed by a "construction phase" of volcanism with cyclic eruption events from a steady state magma supply and (ii) the very topmost basaltic section was formed by a "depositional phase" of volcanism during which long-traveling lava flows were deposited from a distant eruption center.

  10. Goethe's Italian Journey and the geological landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coratza, Paola; Panizza, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Over 220 years ago Johann Wolfgang von Goethe undertook a nearly two-years long and fascinating journey to Italy, a destination dreamed for a long time by the great German writer. During his journey from Alps to Sicily Goethe reflects on landscape, geology, morphology of "Il Bel Paese", sometimes providing detailed descriptions and acute observations concerning the great and enduring laws by which the earth and all within it are governed. He was an observer, with the eye of the geologist and landscape painter, as he himself stated, and therefore he had a 360 degree focus on all parts of the territory. From the Brenner Pass to Sicily, Goethe reflects on landscape, contrasting morphologies, the genesis of territories, providing detailed descriptions useful for reconstructing the conditions of the territory and crops of the late 18th century. His diary is a description of the impressions he received from the country and its people, mingled with reflections upon art, science and literature. Goethe studied mineralogical and geological phenomena and drew up notes on the life of the people, the climate and the plants. On various scientific occasions and, in particular, within the framework of the Italian Association "Geologia & Turismo", of the Working Group "Geomorphosites" of the International Association of Geomorphologists and the International Year of Planet Earth, the opportunity to re-examine Goethe's travels in Italy from a geological viewpoint was recognised. In the present paper an attempt was made to reproduce the geotourism itinerary ante litteram of the writer to Italy, one of the most important tourist destination worldwide, thanks to its rich cultural and natural heritage and the outstanding aesthetic qualities of the complex natural landscape. This project was essentially conceived with a twofold purpose. First of all, an attempt was made to reproduce the journey of a great writer, as an example of description of landscape perceived and described as

  11. [The representation of Italian psychiatry in Italian Treccani Encyclopedia in 1930's].

    PubMed

    Piazzi, Andrea; Piazzi, Gioia; Testa, Luana; Coccanari dè Fornari, Maria Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    The article reconstruct the situation of Italian psychiatry around 1930, using as unusual sources the pages of the Enciclopedia Italiana di Scienze, Lettere e Arti. This important work, conceived in 1925 and finished in 1937, is due - as well known - to the strong interest of Giovanni Gentile and to his capacity to involve in the project a great part of Italian intellectual world, without any ideological preclusion. The section devoted to Medical Sciences, including Psychiatry, was directed by Nicola Pende (1880-1970) and Giacinto Viola (1870-1943). A prevalent positivistic approach to science is well testified by their specific attention to preventive and social medicine, researches in Genetics and in biotypological constitutions. Psycopathological and psycological lemmas are very limited, underlying the medical disinterest towards contemporary philosophy and psycology.

  12. Sulfur and selenium systematics of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle: Inferences from the Massif Central xenolith suite (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorand, Jean-Pierre; Alard, Olivier; Luguet, Ambre; Keays, Reid R.

    2003-11-01

    Selenium has been analyzed in addition to S in 58 spinel peridotite xenoliths collected in Cenozoic alkali basalts from the Massif Central (France). The S concentration range now available for this suite, calculated from 123 samples, is the largest ever reported for alkali basalt-hosted xenoliths (<3-592 ppm). Likewise, the Se concentrations range between 0.2 and 67 ppb. No partial melting signature can be identified from the S and Se systematic. Half of the analyzed xenoliths have lost S during supergene weathering. By contrast, neither surficial alteration, nor loss of chalcophile elements during eruption can explain the regional-scale variations of S and Se concentrations. A first group of lherzolite xenoliths sampled in Southern Massif Central, from volcanic centers older and spatially unrelated to the Massif Central plume that triggered the Cenozoic volcanism, contains between 20 and 250 ppm S (with occasional S concentrations up to 592 ppm) and 12-67 ppb Se. It is clear that the highest S values, originally interpreted as representing S abundances in the primitive mantle, were in fact enriched by metasomatism. Highly variable S and Se contents (<5-360 ppm; 9-52 ppb) have also been observed in peridotite xenoliths collected in the Northern Massif Central, from volcanic centers mostly older than the plume. Like Group I xenoliths, these Group II xenoliths were strongly metasomatized by volatile-rich carbonated/silicated melts which precipitated Cu-rich sulfides. A third group of xenoliths from Plio-Quaternary basalts spatially related to the Massif Central Plume are uniformly poor in S (10-60 ppm) and Se (9-29 ppb). In this Group III, poikiloblastic textured xenoliths have lost most of their S and Se budget by peridotite-melt interactions at high melt/rock ratios. Taken as a whole, the Massif Central xenolith suite provides further evidence for strong heterogeneities in the S and Se budget of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. However, the few LREE

  13. Subcontinental rift initiation and ocean-continent transitional setting of the Dinarides and Vardar zone: Evidence from the Krivaja-Konjuh Massif, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faul, Ulrich H.; Garapić, Gordana; Lugović, Boško

    2014-08-01

    The Dinaride and Vardar zone ophiolite belts extend from the south-eastern margins of the Alps to the Albanian and Greek ophiolites. Detailed sampling of the Krivaja-Konjuh massif, one of the largest massifs in the Dinaride belt, reveals fertile compositions and an extensive record of deformation at spinel peridotite facies conditions. High Na2O clinopyroxene and spinel-orthopyroxene symplectites after garnet indicate a relatively high pressure, subcontinental origin of the southern and western part of Krivaja, similar to orogenic massifs such as Lherz, Ronda and the Eastern Central Alpine peridotites. Clinopyroxene and spinel compositions from Konjuh show similarities with fertile abyssal peridotite. In the central parts of the massif the spinel lherzolites contain locally abundant patches of plagioclase, indicating impregnation by melt. The migrating melt was orthopyroxene undersaturated, locally converting the peridotites to massive olivine-rich troctolites. Massive gabbros and more evolved gabbro veins cross-cutting peridotites indicate continued melt production at depth. Overall we infer that the massif represents the onset of rifting and early stages of formation of a new ocean basin. In the south of Krivaja very localized chromitite occurrences indicate that much more depleted melts with supra-subduction affinity traversed the massif that have no genetic relationship with the peridotites. This indicates that volcanics with supra-subduction affinity at the margins of the Krivaja-Konjuh massif record separate processes during closure of the ocean basin. Comparison with published compositional data from other Balkan massifs shows that the range of compositions within the Krivaja-Konjuh massif is similar to the compositional range of the western massifs of the Dinarides. The compositions of the Balkan massifs show a west to east gradient, ranging from subcontinental on the western side of the Dinarides to depleted mid-ocean ridge/arc compositions in the Vardar

  14. Lessons from the Italian NHS retrenchment policy.

    PubMed

    Longo, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    In policymaking, implementation is often more critical than design. A variety of policy implementation frameworks can be used to explain implementation gaps and shifts. Each research stream suggests some solutions to prevent shortfalls. We have assessed two of these implementation strategies in the recent INHS (Italian National Health Service) retrenchment policies: (1) centralizing to rapidly cut expenditures, (2) effective management as an output- and not input-based system. The implementation of the INHS retrenchment policy has been very difficult though effective in a short period of time. A multi-level governance structure was put in place that assigned different but clear roles, powers and responsibilities to central and regional governments and public health care organizations. The entire policy was based on an exclusive input-based approach to introduce opacity in the system's prioritization processes. We most likely need to reconsider the identification of crucial implementation drivers in the public realm.

  15. An Italian perspective on learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Fabbro, F; Masutto, C

    1994-03-01

    The authors' experience derives from over 10 years of study of the neuropsychological characteristics of children with learning disabilities (LD) who were referred to a public children's hospital. Some sociocultural and linguistic aspects of children with learning disabilities in Italy, and in particular in the northeastern Friuli-Venetia-Julia region, are described. The role of bilingualism and the type of grapheme-phoneme correspondence in "standard" Italian are discussed in relation to learning disabilities. Legislative aspects, the roles of the school, hospitals, public field services, and private institutes, as well as the concern of parents of children with LD, are alos taken into account. According to the authors, Italy's major deficiencies with respect to the question of learning disabilities are (a) lack of a systematic study of the problem in order to increase general knowledge, (b) insufficient training of teachers and rehabilitators, and (c) inadequate legislation.

  16. The Italian registry of soft tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Clemente, C; Orazi, A; Rilke, F

    1988-01-01

    After a review of the incidence data on malignant soft-tissue tumors in Italy (Registro dei Tumori della Regione Lombardia, provincia di Varese), Europe (nine European Cancer Registries considered representative of various geographical areas) and extra-European countries (data of ten World Cancer Registries), the aim and the organization of the Italian Malignant Soft-Tissue Tumor Registry are described. The collection system is based on dedicated forms prepared for the computerization of all data. From 1.1.1985 to 31.3.1987, 207 cases of malignant and potentially malignant soft-tissue tumors entered the Registry, with exclusion of those sarcomas arising in viscera. The distribution, categorized by histologic type, sex and site, and the preliminary results on relapses and metastases are reported.

  17. Lessons from the Italian NHS retrenchment policy.

    PubMed

    Longo, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    In policymaking, implementation is often more critical than design. A variety of policy implementation frameworks can be used to explain implementation gaps and shifts. Each research stream suggests some solutions to prevent shortfalls. We have assessed two of these implementation strategies in the recent INHS (Italian National Health Service) retrenchment policies: (1) centralizing to rapidly cut expenditures, (2) effective management as an output- and not input-based system. The implementation of the INHS retrenchment policy has been very difficult though effective in a short period of time. A multi-level governance structure was put in place that assigned different but clear roles, powers and responsibilities to central and regional governments and public health care organizations. The entire policy was based on an exclusive input-based approach to introduce opacity in the system's prioritization processes. We most likely need to reconsider the identification of crucial implementation drivers in the public realm. PMID:26895798

  18. The Italian health-care system.

    PubMed

    France, George; Taroni, Francesco; Donatini, Andrea

    2005-09-01

    Italy's national health service is statutorily required to guarantee the uniform provision of comprehensive care throughout the country. However, this is complicated by the fact that, constitutionally, responsibility for health care is shared between the central government and the 20 regions. There are large and growing differences in regional health service organisation and provision. Public health-care expenditure has absorbed a relatively low share of gross domestic product, although in the last 25 years it has consistently exceeded central government forecasts. Changes in payment systems, particularly for hospital care, have helped to encourage organisational appropriateness and may have contributed to containing expenditure. Tax sources used to finance the Servizio Sanitario Nazionale (SSN) have become somewhat more regressive. The limited evidence on vertical equity suggests that the SSN ensures equal access to primary care but lower income groups face barriers to specialist care. The health status of Italians has improved and compares favourably with that in other countries, although regional disparities persist.

  19. Antipolymer antibody in Italian fibromyalgic patients.

    PubMed

    Bazzichi, Laura; Giacomelli, Camillo; De Feo, Francesca; Giuliano, Tiziana; Rossi, Alessandra; Doveri, Marica; Tani, Chiara; Wilson, Russell B; Bombardieri, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the presence of antipolymer antibody (APA) seropositivity in 285 Italian patients affected by primary fibromyalgia (FM) and to verify whether APA levels correlate with disease severity and with cytokine levels.APA levels were determined on serum samples by an indirect ELISA kit that detects IgG APA. Cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNFalpha) were measured by ELISA in plasma. The impact of FM on the quality of life was estimated using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, while pain severity was evaluated using a visual analogic scale. Patients were also characterized by the presence of tiredness, stiffness, nonrestorative sleep, anxiety, depression, tension headache, irritable bowel syndrome, temporomandibular dysfunction and Raynaud's phenomena. Using a cut-off value of 30 U, APA-positive values were detected in 60 FM patients (21.05%) and in 15 healthy control individuals (15.00%) without significant differences among their levels or the percentage of seropositivity. FM patients with moderate and severe symptoms had slightly higher APA levels with respect to patients with mild symptoms. APA-seropositive patients exhibited significant correlations between APA levels and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire estimate (P = 0.042), tiredness (P = 0.003) and IL-1 levels (P = 0.0072). In conclusion, APA cannot be considered a marker of disease in Italian FM patients. The presence of APA, however, might permit the identification of a subset of FM patients with more severe symptoms and of patients who may respond differently to different therapeutic strategies. PMID:17822528

  20. New insights into the history and origin of the southern Maya block, SE Mexico: U-Pb-SHRIMP zircon geochronology from metamorphic rocks of the Chiapas massif

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weber, Bodo; Iriondo, Alexander; Premo, Wayne R.; Hecht, Lutz; Schaaf, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The histories of the pre-Mesozoic landmasses in southern México and their connections with Laurentia, Gondwana, and among themselves are crucial for the understanding of the Late Paleozoic assembly of Pangea. The Permian igneous and metamorphic rocks from the Chiapas massif as part of the southern Maya block, México, were dated by U–Pb zircon geochronology employing the SHRIMP (sensitive high resolution ion microprobe) facility at Stanford University. The Chiapas massif is composed of deformed granitoids and orthogneisses with inliers of metasedimentary rocks. SHRIMP data from an anatectic orthogneiss demonstrate that the Chiapas massif was part of a Permian (∼ 272 Ma) active continental margin established on the Pacific margin of Gondwana after the Ouachita orogeny. Latest Permian (252–254 Ma) medium- to high-grade metamorphism and deformation affected the entire Chiapas massif, resulting in anatexis and intrusion of syntectonic granitoids. This unique orogenic event is interpreted as the result of compression due to flat subduction and accretionary tectonics. SHRIMP data of zircon cores from a metapelite from the NE Chiapas massif yielded a single Grenvillian source for sediments. The majority of the zircon cores from a para-amphibolite from the SE part of the massif yielded either 1.0–1.2 or 1.4–1.5 Ga sources, indicating provenance from South American Sunsás and Rondonian-San Ignacio provinces.

  1. Fundamental period of Italian reinforced concrete buildings: comparison between numerical, experimental and Italian code simplified values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditommaso, Rocco; Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Auletta, Gianluca; Iacovino, Chiara; Nigro, Antonella

    2015-04-01

    Aim of this study is a comparison among the fundamental period of reinforced concrete buildings evaluated using the simplified approach proposed by the Italian Seismic code (NTC 2008), numerical models and real values retrieved from an experimental campaign performed on several buildings located in Basilicata region (Italy). With the intention of proposing simplified relationships to evaluate the fundamental period of reinforced concrete buildings, scientists and engineers performed several numerical and experimental campaigns, on different structures all around the world, to calibrate different kind of formulas. Most of formulas retrieved from both numerical and experimental analyses provides vibration periods smaller than those suggested by the Italian seismic code. However, it is well known that the fundamental period of a structure play a key role in the correct evaluation of the spectral acceleration for seismic static analyses. Generally, simplified approaches impose the use of safety factors greater than those related to in depth nonlinear analyses with the aim to cover possible unexpected uncertainties. Using the simplified formula proposed by the Italian seismic code the fundamental period is quite higher than fundamental periods experimentally evaluated on real structures, with the consequence that the spectral acceleration adopted in the seismic static analysis may be significantly different than real spectral acceleration. This approach could produces a decreasing in safety factors obtained using linear and nonlinear seismic static analyses. Finally, the authors suggest a possible update of the Italian seismic code formula for the simplified estimation of the fundamental period of vibration of existing RC buildings, taking into account both elastic and inelastic structural behaviour and the interaction between structural and non-structural elements. Acknowledgements This study was partially funded by the Italian Civil Protection Department within the

  2. The Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary depocentre of Tazekka Massif (Middle-Atlas, Morocco): new observations and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennouna, Azzeddine; Abbou, Mohamed Ben; Hoepffner, Christian; Kharbouch, Fatima; Youbi, Nasrrddine

    2004-06-01

    The integrated analysis of thrust structures and facies allows us to interpret the Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary complex of Tazekka massif as a compressive sub-basin controlled mainly by the Hajra Sbaa-Merja Caï'd northwest-verging thrust-propagation fold. The tectono-sedimentary sequence (conglomerates, greywacke and shale) is associated with an extrusive magmatism comprising basalts, andesites and rhyolites, under effusive and volcanoclastic facies (or rhyolites with exotic blocks), of orogenic calk-alkaline nature, which is consistent with a context of continental subduction. These results, and the comparison of regional contraction ages in the Moroccan Meseta, integrate the Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary depocentre of Tazekka massif in the wedgetop depozone of a foreland basin system generated by two north-west thrusted piggy-back sequences (aged from Fameno-Tournaisian to upper Visean-lower Westphalian) from the eastern Meseta to the western Meseta of Morocco.

  3. A MASSIF Effort To Determine The Mass-Luminosity Relation for Stars of Various Ages, Metallicities, and Evolution States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Todd J.; Beedict, G. Fritz; Gies, Douglas R.; Golimowski, David A.; Ianna, Philip A.; Mason, Brian; McArthur, Barbara; Nelan, Edmund; Torres, Guillermo

    2004-01-01

    The MASSIF (Masses and Stellar Systems with Interferometry) Team will use SIM to investigate the mass content of the Galaxy - from huge stars to barely glimmering brown dwarfs, and from hot white dwarfs to exotic black holes. We will target various samples of the Galactic population to determine and relate the fundamental characteristics of mass, luminosity, age, composition, and multiplicity - attributes that together yield an extensive understanding of the stars. Our samples will include distant clusters that span a factor of 5000 in age, and commonplace stars and substellar objects that lurk near the Sun. The principal goals of the MASSIF Key Project are to (1) define the mass-luminosity relation for main sequence stars in five fundamental clusters so that effects of age and metallicity can be mapped (Trapezium, TW Hydrae, Pleiades, Hyades, and M67), and (2) determine accurate masses for representative examples of nearly every type of star, stellar descendant or brown dwarf in the Galaxy.

  4. Solid Inclusions in Au-nuggets, genesis and derivation from alkaline rocks of the Guli Massif, Northern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorani, Sami N.

    2016-04-01

    A total of 112 Au-nuggets, collected from alluvial placer deposits of the Ingarinda River from the Guli massif, located in northem Siberia, Russia, were investigated. The Guli massif consists of a huge dunite-clinopyroxenite complex (the largest complex in the world), an alkaline to highly alkaline rock suite (melilite, nephelinite, ijolite) enveloping the dunite and carbonatite intrusions, associated with disseminated schlieren type chromitite and Au-Ag, Pt placer deposits. The nuggets are characterized by various sizes and shapes and show chemical compositions Au, Au-Ag and AuCu, typical for a derivate of carbon-atites and/or ultramafic complexes. A great variety of oxide, silicate, REE-minerals, carbonate and sulphide inclusions have been detected in the nuggets, which are identical in mineralogy and chemical composition to mineral constituents of the alkaline to highly alkaline rock suite surrounding the Guli dunite core complex thus, considered as the source for Au-nuggets.

  5. The Galicia-Ossa-Morena Zone: Proposal for a new zone of the Iberian Massif. Variscan implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Ricardo; Díez Fernández, Rubén; Rubio Pascual, Francisco J.; Sánchez Martínez, Sonia; Martín Parra, Luis Miguel; Matas, Jerónimo; González del Tánago, José; Jiménez-Díaz, Alberto; Fuenlabrada, Jose M.; Andonaegui, Pilar; Garcia-Casco, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Correlation of a group of allochthonous terranes (referred to as basal, ophiolitic and upper units) exposed in the NW and SW of the Iberian Massif, is used to propose a new geotectonic zone in the southern branch of the Variscan Orogen: the Galicia-Ossa-Morena Zone. Recent advances in SW Iberia identify most of the former Ossa-Morena Zone as another allochthonous complex of the Iberian Massif, the Ossa-Morena Complex, equivalent to the Cabo Ortegal, Órdenes, Malpica-Tui, Bragança and Morais complexes described in NW Iberia. The new geotectonic zone and its counterparts along the rest of the Variscan Orogen constitute an Internal Variscan Zone with ophiolites and units affected by high-P metamorphism. The Galicia-Ossa-Morena Zone includes a Variscan suture and pieces of continental crust bearing the imprint of Ediacaran-Cambrian events related to the activity of peri-Gondwanan magmatic arcs (Cadomian orogenesis). In the Iberian Massif, the general structure of this geotectonic zone represents a duplication of the Gondwanan platform, the outboard sections being juxtaposed on top of domains located closer to the mainland before amalgamation. This interpretation offers an explanation that overcomes some issues regarding the differences between the stratigraphic and paleontological record of the central and southern sections of the Iberian Massif. Also, equivalent structural relationships between other major geotectonic domains of the rest of the Variscan Orogen are consistent with our interpretation and allow suspecting similar configurations along strike of the orogen. A number of issues may be put forward in this respect that potentially open new lines of thinking about the architecture of the Variscan Orogen.

  6. Scorpions from the Mitaraka Massif in French Guiana: Description of one new genus and species (Scorpiones: Chactidae).

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R

    2016-01-01

    A new genus and species, Spinochactas mitaraka gen. n., sp. n. (Chactidae) are described from the Mitaraka Massif in French Guiana, a site located near the borders of French Guiana, Brazil, and Suriname. The description of the new genus and species brings further evidence of the biogeographic pattern of distribution presented by some elements of the family Chactidae endemic to the Tepuys or to the Inselberg formations of South America.

  7. The western limits of the Seattle and Tacoma faults and their interaction with faults of the Olympic Massif, Washington (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, A.; Blakely, R. J.; Liberty, L. M.; Pratt, T. L.; Sherrod, B. L.

    2013-12-01

    Recently acquired high-resolution seismic-reflection and magnetic data show that the Seattle fault of Washington State extends 24-km west of its previously mapped extent and thus comprises a >100-km-long active fault zone. These same data reveal largely concealed faults and folds that kinematically link the Seattle fault with active faults in the Olympic Massif. Linkage between the Seattle fault and the north-northeast-striking Saddle Mountain fault in the Olympic Massif may explain the synchroneity of M7 earthquakes occurring on both these faults approximately 1,100 years ago. The western limits of the 20-km-long east-striking Tacoma fault, a backthrust in the hanging wall of the Seattle fault zone, forms the southern margin of the Seattle uplift in contact with the Tacoma basin to the south. A ~20-km-long potential-field lineament extends from the western limits of the Tacoma fault northward to the Seattle fault and may reflect a structure linking these active faults. A geologic model based on magnetic, gravity, and seismic data shows that this potential-field lineament is likely caused by a low-angle, west-verging thrust fault, that we refer to as the Dewatto fault. We suggest that the Dewatto fault was initiated during exhumation of the Olympic Massif but, because of changes in principal strain direction, today largely accommodates north-directed, strike-slip motion along the west margin of the Seattle uplift. Thus, the Dewatto and Saddle Mountain faults and the western parts of the Seattle and Tacoma faults kinematically interact to accommodate north-directed horizontal displacement of the Seattle uplift relative to the Olympic Massif.

  8. The Tolbachik volcanic massif: A review of the petrology, volcanology and eruption history prior to the 2012-2013 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churikova, T. G.; Gordeychik, B. N.; Edwards, B. R.; Ponomareva, V. V.; Zelenin, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to summarize all of the published data on the Tolbachik volcanic massif in order to provide a clear framework for the geochronologic, petrologic, geochemical and to a lesser extent the geophysical and tectonic characteristics of the Tolbachik system established prior to the 2012-2013 eruption. The Tolbachik massif forms the southwestern part of the voluminous Klyuchevskoy volcanic group in Kamchatka. The massif includes two large stratovolcanoes, Ostry ("Sharp") Tolbachik and Plosky ("Flat") Tolbachik, and a 70 km long zone of the basaltic monogenetic cones that form an arcuate rift-like structure running across the Plosky Tolbachik summit. The Tolbachik massif gained international attention after the 1975-1976 Great Tolbachik Fissure Eruption (GTFE), which was one of the largest eruptions of the 20th century and one of the six largest basaltic fissure eruptions in historical time. By the end of the GTFE, 2.2 km3 of volcanic products of variable basaltic compositions with MORB-like isotopic characteristics covered an area of > 1000 km2. During the following three decades more than 700 papers on various aspects of this eruption have been published both in national and international journals. Although the recent 2012-2013 eruption, which is the main topic of this volume, was not as long as the GTFE in duration or as large in area and volume of the erupted deposits, it brought to the surface a unique volcanic material never found before. In order to understand the data from new eruptions and make significant progress towards a better understanding of the Tolbachik magmatic system it is important to be able to put the new results into the historic context of previous research.

  9. Behaviour of Sr, Ca, Nd and Li Isotopes During Granite Weathering: the Margeride Massif, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrel, P.; Bullen, T. D.; Millot, R.

    2008-12-01

    The Massif Central region of France contains numerous mineral water springs with salinities up to 6 g/L. These high salinities develop due to water-rock interaction processes accompanying weathering of granitic rocks such as the Margeride massif, a 5 km-deep laccolith having an age of 323 ± 12 Ma and consisting mainly of granitoid and gneiss. In order to better constrain weathering processes, we have determined the Sr, Nd, Ca and Li-isotope compositions of the Margeride granite, weathered granite (arene) and saprolite, sediment and soil overlying the granite, and groundwater samples (e.g., mineral water springs) associated with the massif. 87Sr/86Sr ratios increase in the order apatite-plagioclase-K-feldspar-arene- sediments and soils-biotite, and are well correlated with Rb/Sr ratios. Mineral waters have 87Sr/86Sr ratios similar to that of plagioclase, but have higher Rb/Sr ratios. 44Ca/40Ca ratios of plagioclase and apatite are similar to that of the whole rock, while those of K-feldspar and biotite are significantly less. 44Ca/40Ca ratios of arene, soil and sediment are similar to or less than that of K- feldspar, reflecting complete loss of Ca from plagioclase and apatite during weathering. In contrast, 44Ca/40Ca ratios for the mineral waters are similar to or substantially greater than that of plagioclase, reflecting extensive calcium carbonate precipitation during ascent of the waters along the rock fracture network. 44Ca/40Ca ratios of the waters are as much as 3.5 per mil greater than that of seawater, and thus contain the heaviest Ca yet reported for terrestrial materials. 7Li/6Li ratios differ by a few per mil among the granite minerals; of the weathering products, arene and soils have the least 7Li/6Li ratios, while river bank sediment and arene surface sediment have progressively greater ratios. 7Li/6Li ratios of the mineral waters have the greatest values, reflecting preferential retention of 6Li in the weathering products. 143Nd/144Nd ratios are

  10. Tectonometamorphic evolution of the Bohemian Massif: evidence from high pressure metamorphic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, P. J.; Carswell, D. A.

    1993-09-01

    The Variscan orogenic belt, of which the Bohemian Massif is a part, is typically recognized for its characteristic low pressure, high temperature metamorphism and a large volume of granites. However, there are also bodies of high pressure rocks (eclogites, garnet peridotites and high pressure granulites) which are small in size but widely distributed throughtout the Massif. Initially the high pressure rocks were considered to be relicts of a much older orogenic event, but the increasing data derived from isotopic and geochronological investigations show that many of these rocks have Palaeozoic protoliths. Metamorphic ages from the high pressure rocks define no single event. Instead, a number of discrete clusters of ages are found between about 430 Ma and the time of the dominant low pressure event at around 320 330 Ma. Most of the eclogite and granulite facies rocks are assigned to allochthonous nappes that arrived close to the end of the low pressure event, but before final granite intrusion. The nappes contain a mixture of different units and the relationship between rocks with high pressure relicts and host gneisses with no apparent signs of deep burial is still problematic. Some of the high pressure rocks retain evidence of multiple stages of partial re-equilibration during uplift. Moreover, it can be shown in certain instances that host gneisses also endured a multistage metamorphic development but with a peak event convergent with one of the breakdown stages in the enclosed rocks with high pressure relicts. It thus appears that the nappe units are composite bodies probably formed during episodic intracrustal thrusting. Fluids derived from prograde dehydration reactions in the newly under thrusting slab are taken to be the catalysts that drove the partial re-equilibrations. On the scale of the whole Massif it can be seen within the units with high pressure relicts that the temperature at the peak recorded pressure and that during the breakdown are variable in

  11. The Central Iberian arc, an orocline centered in the Iberian Massif and some implications for the Variscan belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Catalán, José R.

    2012-07-01

    An arcuate structure, comparable in size with the Ibero-Armorican arc, is delineated by Variscan folds and magnetic anomalies in the Central Iberian Zone of the Iberian Massif. Called the Central Iberian arc, its sense of curvature is opposite to that of the Ibero-Armorican arc, and its core is occupied by the Galicia-Trás-os-Montes Zone of NW Iberia, which includes the Rheic suture. Other zones of the Iberian Massif are bent by the arc, but the Ossa-Morena and South Portuguese zones are not involved. The arc formed during the Late Carboniferous, at final stages of thermal relaxation and collapse, and an origin related with right-lateral ductile transpression at the scale of the Variscan belt is proposed. The Central Iberian arc explains the width of the Central Iberian Zone, clarifies the position of the allochthonous terranes of NW Iberia, and opens new perspectives for correlations with the rest of the Variscan belt, in particular, with the Armorican Massif, whose central zone represents the continuation of the southwest branch of the arc detached by strike-slip tectonics.

  12. Lower Pliensbachian caldera volcanism in high-obliquity rift systems in the western North Patagonian Massif, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedini, Leonardo; Gregori, Daniel; Strazzere, Leonardo; Falco, Juan I.; Dristas, Jorge A.

    2014-12-01

    In the Cerro Carro Quebrado and Cerro Catri Cura area, located at the border between the Neuquén Basin and the North Patagonian Massif, the Garamilla Formation is composed of four volcanic stages: 1) andesitic lava-flows related to the beginning of the volcanic system; 2) basal massive lithic breccias that represent the caldera collapse; 3) voluminous, coarse-crystal rich massive lava-like ignimbrites related to multiple, steady eruptions that represent the principal infill of the system; and, finally 4) domes, dykes, lava flows, and lava domes of rhyolitic composition indicative of a post-collapse stage. The analysis of the regional and local structures, as well as, the architectures of the volcanic facies, indicates the existence of a highly oblique rift, with its principal extensional strain in an NNE-SSW direction (˜N10°). The analyzed rocks are mainly high-potassium dacites and rhyolites with trace and RE elements contents of an intraplate signature. The age of these rocks (189 ± 0.76 Ma) agree well with other volcanic sequences of the western North Patagonian Massif, as well as, the Neuquén Basin, indicating that Pliensbachian magmatism was widespread in both regions. The age is also coincident with phase 1 of volcanism of the eastern North Patagonia Massif (188-178 Ma) represented by ignimbrites, domes, and pyroclastic rocks of the Marifil Complex, related to intraplate magmatism.

  13. An historical perspective of early Italian air medical transport.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The early times of aviation medicine were dominated by military actions and needs. This article describes the pioneering era of Italian air medical transport during the period between World War I and early World War II.

  14. A Bibliography of Italian Studies in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherubini, Jon C., Comp.

    1977-01-01

    This quarterly bibliography of Italian studies in North America includes books, bibliographies, and reviews of comparative literature studies, translations, and publications on art, music, philosophy, history, cinema, and sociology, which are closely related to literature. (SW)

  15. Geology and Tectonic Evolution of the Kazdaǧ Massif (NW Anatolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdoğan, B.; Akay, E.; Hasözbek, A.; Satır, M.; Siebel, W.

    2009-04-01

    In the northwestern part of Anatolia along the Izmir-Ankara Suture Zone, the Kazdağ and Uludağ metamorphic massifs form an E-W trending belt between the Sakarya Continent in the north and the Menderes Massif in the south. Internal succession of these two massifs have been described as metamorphic complexes consisting of various kinds of micaschists, quartz mica schist, gneisses, amphibolites and marbles. In the Kazdağ metamorphics, metaophiolites have been described additionally (Okay et al., 1991; Yaltırak and Okay, 1994; Okay et al., 1996; Duru et al., 2004). These metamorphic complexes were considered to form the basement of the Sakarya Continent tectonically overlain by the Early Permian (Topuz et al., 2004) to Late Triassic (Okay and Monie, 1997; Okay et al., 2002) Karakaya Complex. This old basement and the Karakaya Complex were suggested to be unconformably overlain by Liassic and younger platform limestones and detritals (Altıner et al., 1991). In the literature, it has also been suggested that the Kazdağ Massif had experienced polyphase metamorphism, first during Carboniferous time, second during Early Triassic and third during Tertiary (Bingöl, 1971; Okay et al., 1996; Okay and Satır, 2000). In this study we mapped the Kazdağ Massif on 1/25000 scale, studied its internal stratigraphy and structures and performed some petrologic analyses and radiogenic age determinations. Stratigraphically in the lower part of the Kazdağ metamorphic sequence, there is a part of an oceanic crust represented by metaultramafic rocks and gabbroic metacumulates. Geochemistry of these banded metagabbros show a mid-oceanic affinity. This oceanic crust is overlain, along an unconformity, by a platform type marble succession. At the base of the marbles, there is a basal conglomerate, clasts of which derived from the underlying ultramafic sequence. Thick white marble sequence is overlain along a gradational boundary with a metadetrital succession consisting of quartz mica

  16. Lithospheric Structure Along the Wide-Angle Seismic Reflection Transect of the Central Iberian Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsan, Siddique Akhtar; Carbonell, Ramon; Cembrowski, Marcel; Marti, David; Gil, Alba; Marzan, Ignacio; Ayarza, Puy; Martinez-Poyatos, David; Simancas, Jose Fernando; Azor, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The Iberian Massif is the largest outcrop of the Late Paleozoic Variscan Orogen in western Europe. In May 2012, a spatially dense high resolution wide-angle seismic reflection profile ALCUDIA was acquired across the Central Iberian Massif. The ALCUDIA wide-angle profile investigates lithospheric structure of the Central Iberian Zone and a suture zone (the Central Unit). The experiment consisted in a main SW-NE line of receivers, c. 300 km long, and a supplementary transect, c. 35 km long, that sampled the crust beneath the Central Iberian System. The acoustic energy generated by 5 shots, c. 70 km apart, was recorded by over 900 TEXANS (single component, digital recording stations) from the IRIS-PASSCAL Instrument Center. Each shot consisted in 1 TM of explosives fired in a single 55-65 m deep borehole. Approximately, 100 stations were deployed across the Central Iberian System in an effort to map the topography of the crust mantle boundary beneath this mountain range. This design generated enough energy to be able to identify Pn and even mantle reflections. The preliminary analysis of the shot gathers reveals that the recorded events features relatively low frequencies (4-30 Hz). The processing of the shot gathers resulted into high amplitude reflective events within the upper crust and strong PmP phases. From the southwest to northeast, the interpreted PmP arrivals are located at c. 11 s and c. 12 s (normal incidence traveltime) respectively. The ALCUDIA wide-angle profile provided a detailed P-wave velocity structural model and complemented the previously acquired normal incidence deep seismic profile ALCUDIA. The velocity model obtained by forward modelling constraints the composition of the crust and upper mantle. The upper crust is located at c. 13 km and the Moho is in the 32-36 km range, equates to normal incidence reflection profile ALCUDIA. Existing knowledge indicates that the mid-lower crust along the southern part of the CIZ is characterized by

  17. Holocene collapse of a mountain summit in the Belledonne massif (France): evidence from geomorphological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravanel, L.; Allignol, F.; Deline, P.

    2009-04-01

    Rock avalanching is a high magnitude / low frequency process in mountain environment. It is an extremely rapid flow of fragmenting rock particles, with a volume > 1 M m3, involving a large amount of energy and travelling farther than expected with a normal sliding friction law. Rock avalanches are not uncommon in the Alps, in particular because of debuttressing of rock slopes due to glacier retreat and downwasting since the last Glacial maximum. The upper Vorz catchment basin is one of the few still glaciarized basins in the Belledonne massif (French external crystalline massif, peaking at 2977 m a.s.l.). A deposit related to a rock avalanche lies at the Habert du Mousset (1680 m a.s.l.), covering an area of 95 000 m2, tens of meters-thick and with a volume exceeding 1 M of m3. A geomorphological study suggests that the deposit should result from the collapse of the palaeo-summit of Roche Rousse (2753 m a.s.l. at present). The main part of the collapsed volume fell on the east side of the mountain ridge, but a smaller part probably travelled along the west side to form the deposit of the Habert du Mousset. Vertical and horizontal travel distances would have been 1100 m and 2750 m, respectively. The apparent coefficient of friction (height-over-length H/L ratio) is 0.4, indicating a highly mobile rock avalanche (H/L ratio is 0.62 with a ‘normal' coefficient of friction). Two elements support the hypothesis of a Holocene collapse: (i) glacial striations, rat tails, chattermarks and grooves are present on roches moutonnées up to 20 m to the crest. Those inherited glacial forms required a glacier thick enough to erode the bedrock. Because the surface of the Last Glacial Maximum glacier was standing well below this site (> 1000 m), only a local glacier could have form, which would have been impossible with the present topography. Thus, the palaeo-summit of Roche Rousse collapsed not before the Lateglacial. As suggested by (ii) the very steep, sometimes overhanging

  18. Experimental constraints on ultrapotassic magmatism from the Bohemian Massif (durbachite series, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parat, Fleurice; Holtz, François; René, Miloš; Almeev, Renat

    2010-03-01

    The equilibrium phase relations of a mafic durbachite (53 wt.% SiO2) from the Třebíč pluton, representative of the Variscan ultrapotassic magmatism of the Bohemian Massif (338-335 Ma), have been determined as a function of temperature (900-1,100°C), pressure (100-200 MPa), and H2O activity (1.1-6.1 wt.% H2O in the melt). Two oxygen fugacity ranges were investigated: close to the Ni-NiO (NNO) buffer and 2.6 log unit above NNO buffer (∆NNO + 2.6). At 1,100°C, olivine is the liquidus phase and co-crystallized with phlogopite and augite at 1,000°C for the whole range of investigated pressure and water content in the melt. At 900°C, the mineral assemblage consists of augite and phlogopite, whereas olivine is not stable. The stability field of both alkali feldspar and plagioclase is restricted to low pressure (100 MPa) at nearly water-saturated conditions (<3-4 wt.% H2O) and T < 900°C. A comparison between experimental products and natural minerals indicates that mafic durbachites have a near-liquidus assemblage of olivine, augite, Ti-rich phlogopite, apatite and zircon, followed by alkali feldspar and plagioclase, similar to the mineral assemblage of minette magma. Natural amphibole, diopside and orthopyroxene were not reproduced experimentally and probably result from sub-solidus reactions, whereas biotite re-equilibrated at low temperature. The crystallization sequence olivine followed by phlogopite and augite reproduces the sequence inferred in many mica-lamprophyre rocks. The similar fractionation trends observed for durbachites and minettes indicate that mafic durbachites are probably the plutonic equivalents of minettes and that K- and Mg-rich magmas in the Bohemian Massif may have been generated from partial melting of a phlogopite-clinopyroxene-bearing metasomatized peridotite. Experimental melt compositions also suggest that felsic durbachites can be generated by simple fractionation of a more mafic parent and mixing with mantle-derived components at

  19. Methane Seepage at Hyperalkaline Springs in the Ronda Peridotite Massif (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etiope, G.; Vadillo, I.; Whiticar, M. J.; Marques, J. M.; Carreira, P. M.; Tiago, I.; Benavente, J.; Jimenez, P.; Urresti, B.

    2014-12-01

    Methane-rich, hyperalkaline spring waters and bubbling pools have been sampled in the Ronda peridotite massif in southern Spain. Water chemistry (T: 17.1-21.5 ºC; pH: 10.7-11.7; DO: <2 mg/L; Ca-OH facies) is characteristic of present-day serpentinization. Dissolved CH4 concentrations range from 0.1 to 3.2 mg/L. CH4 stable C and H isotope ratios suggest a dominant abiotic origin in two natural spring sites (delta13C: -13 to -29 ‰ VPDB; delta2H: -309 to -333 ‰ VSMOW) and a mixed biotic-abiotic origin in springs with artificial water delivery systems (i.e., pipes or fountains; delta13C: -44 to -69 ‰; delta2H: -180 to -319 ‰). At the natural springs, gas is mainly released through bubbles close to the water outlet (CH4 flux ~1 kg/day by individual bubble trains), and subordinately by microseepage from the ground, even at distances of ~100 m from the bubble-spring site (flux of 10's, up to 97, mg CH4 m-2day-1). Gas seepage is strictly controlled by faults. Under-saturation of CH4 in water, bubbling and seepage location suggest that CH4 is not exclusively transported to the surface by hyperalkaline water, but it follows autonomous migration pathways along faults. Similar 'dry' seepage of abiotic gas was observed in the Philippines, New Zealand, Turkey and Italy. Like other land-based serpentinization systems, the Ronda peridotite massif is characterized by low heat flow (<40 mW/m2), with temperatures <60°C at depths of 1.5 km. At these low T and high pH conditions, CO32- is the only available carbon source dissolved in the water, and unlikely contributes to catalysed Fischer-Tropsch Type reactions. Methane production from CO2 hydrogenation in a gas phase system (unsaturated fractured rocks) cannot be excluded. The presence of ruthenium-enriched chromitites in the Ronda peridotites may support the hypothesis that CH4 is produced by CO2 hydrogenation catalyzed by Ru minerals, even at temperatures below 100°C, as demonstrated in recent laboratory experiments

  20. Late Carboniferous remagnetisation of Palaeozoic rocks in the NE Rhenish Massif, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwing, A.; Bachtadse, V.; Soffel, H. C.

    During stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetisation experiments on Devonian and Lower Carboniferous carbonate and clastic rocks from the north-eastern part of the Rhenish Massif, Germany, three components of magnetisation (A, B, C) are identified. Component A is a recent viscous overprint that parallels the local present day geomagnetic field. Component B is mainly observed from 260 up to 550 °C during thermal demagnetisation and is carried by magnetite. In two localities, where red siltstones and red carbonate rocks were sampled, component B is stable up to 670 °C, indicating the presence of hematite. Three clusters of in situ B directions can be identified, which are controlled by the tectonic position of the sampling areas. These are from NW to SE: the Remscheid anticline (RA), the Lüdenscheid syncline (LS) and the Attendorn and Wittgenstein synclines (AS/WS). Standard and inclination-only fold tests, using parametric resampling, yield optimal statistical parameters at increasing amounts of untilting ranging from 0% in the South up to 57% in the North of the NE Rhenish Massif. Despite the variations in optimal untilting, the resulting site mean directions of component B do not differ significantly in inclination. These results are interpreted to reflect the acquisition of magnetisation during progressive northward migration of the deformation front in Late Carboniferous times. The resulting palaeolatitudes (RA: 1°S +2°-3°; LS: 2°S +3°-2°; AS/WS: 1°S +3°-4°) are in good agreement with the predicted position of the sampling area in the Late Carboniferous, as derived from a published Apparent Polar Wander Path for Baltica and Laurentia. The unblocking temperature spectra and the synfolding nature of B yield strong evidence that chemical processes, possibly driven by fluid migration during orogenesis, caused this remagnetisation. A third component C was observed in zones of tight folding with steeply dipping to overturned bedding planes and is

  1. Cl-rich hydrous mafic mineral assemblages in the Highiș massif, Apuseni Mountains, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, Bernard; Tatu, Mihai

    2016-08-01

    The Guadalupian (Mid-Permian) Highiș massif (Apuseni Mountains, Romania) displays a bimodal igneous suite of mafic (gabbro, diorite) and A-type felsic (alkali feldspar granite, albite granite, and hybrid granodiorite) rocks. Amphibole is widespread throughout the suite, and yields markedly high chlorine contents. Three groups are identified: Cl-rich potassic hastingsite (2.60-3.40 wt% Cl) within A-type felsic rocks and diorite, mildly Cl-rich pargasite to hornblende (0.80-1.90 wt% Cl) within gabbro, and low F-Cl hornblende within gabbro and hybrid granodiorite. Coexisting biotite is either Cl-rich within diorite, or F-Cl-poor to F-rich within A-type felsic rocks. Chlorine and fluorine are distributed in both mafic phases, according to the F-Fe and Cl-Mg avoidance rules. The low-Ti contents suggest subsolidus compositions. Cl-rich amphibole within diorite and A-type felsic rocks yields a restricted temperature range - from 575 °C down to 400 °C, whereas mildly Cl-rich amphibole within gabbro displays the highest range - from 675 to 360 °C. Temperatures recorded by Cl-rich biotite within diorite range from 590 to 410 °C. Biotite within A-type felsic rocks yields higher temperatures than amphibole: the highest values- from 640 to 540 °C - are recorded in low-F-Cl varieties, whereas the lowest values- from 535 to 500 °C - are displayed by F-rich varieties. All data point to halogen-rich hydrothermal fluids at upper greenschist facies conditions percolating through fractures and shear zones and pervasively permeating the whole Highiș massif, with F precipitating as interstitial fluorite and Cl incorporating into amphibole, during one, or possibly several, hydrothermal episodes that would have occurred during a ~ 150 My-long period of time extending from the Guadalupian (Mid-Permian) to the Albian (Mid-Cretaceous).

  2. Crustal Structure in the Vicinity of IODP Hole U1309D, Atlantis Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, A. J.; Arnulf, A. F.

    2012-12-01

    The Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex (OCC) was formed initially by faulting within the axial zone of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 30°N, followed by strain localization and unroofing along a detachment surface between 0.5-1.5 Ma. IODP Hole U1309D extends approximately 1.4 km into the Central dome of the Massif and sampled primarily gabbroic rocks. As a relatively deep hole, U1309D is an attractive target for addressing one of the long-term goals of ocean drilling: better integration of borehole geophysical and geologic sampling with surface seismic results. In addition, a number of high quality multichannel seismic (MCS) profiles pass close to the hole. In winter 2012, IODP Expedition 340T reentered U1309D and collected a vertical seismic profile (VSP) as well as high-quality sonic, resistivity, and temperature logs over the entire extent of the Hole. We will present a synthesis, comparing the seismic results from the reprocessing and waveform inversion of all MCS lines passing near Hole U1309D with the results from the new VSP and sonic logs. The waveform inversion results build upon earlier tomographic inversion of downward continued data (Henig et al, 2012) but exhibit significantly improved vertical and horizontal resolution, allowing better integration with the borehole data. Waveform inversion of the nearest flowline MCS profiles that crosses the Central dome just to the north indicates that the original upper surface of the gabbroic body drilled at Hole 1309D now lies just to the west of the hole. Imaging reveals a sharp, almost planar contact, that dips steeply at about 30°. Based upon seismic velocities and seafloor sampling and observations, the rocks on other side of the contact are most likely serpentinized peridotite but other lithologies cannot be ruled out (Henig et al,2012). Reprocessing of the reflection image contains few, if any, coherent reflections from within the core of the gabbroic body but there are reflections adjacent to the western

  3. Italian contributions to Turkish paediatrics during the Ottoman Empire.

    PubMed

    Yurdakok, Murat; Cataldi, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The Ottoman Empire maintained close relations with the neighbouring Italian city states in the 16th and 17th century. Yacub Pasha (1425-1481), personal physician of Mehmed II the Conqueror, was an Italian Jew who advanced to the title of pasha and vizier. Domenico Hierosolimitano (ca. 1552-1622), the third physician to Sultan Murad III, was a Jerusalemite rabbi. His book is an important source about everyday life and medical practice in Istanbul at the time. Nuh bin Abd al-Mennab (1627-1707), also of Italian stock, was the Chief Physician of the Ottoman Empire, who translated a pharmacopoeia into Turkish. In the same century, two Italians, Israel Conegliano (Conian) and Tobia Cohen became private physicians to leading Ottoman pashas and the Grand Vizier. A. Vuccino (1829-1893) and Antoine Calleja Pasha (1806-1893) taught at the Istanbul Medical School. Italy was a favoured country for medical education during the early period of Ottoman westernisation. Sanizade Mehmet Ataullah Efendi (1771-1826) translated the first medical book printed in the Ottoman Empire from Italian into Turkish. Mustafa Behcet Efendi (1774-1833), chief physician to the Sultan and the founder of the first western medical school in Turkey, translated several medical books from Italian into Turkish. The first printed pharmacopeia in the Ottoman Empire was also originally Italian In the 19th century, Edouard Ottoni and his son Giuseppe Ottoni were well-known military pharmacists, both under the name of Faik Pasha. Probably the most influential physician of Italian origin was Giovanni Battista Violi (1849-1928), who had practiced paediatrics in Turkey for more than fifty years. Violi was the founder of the first children's hospital, the first vaccine institute, and the first paediatric journal in the Ottoman Empire.

  4. Scientific research of Italian neurologists from 2008 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Tinazzi, Michele; Toni, Danilo; Veronese, Marco; Ajena, Domenico; Cruccu, Giorgio; Calabresi, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    Quantifying the number of publications is the easiest way to estimate the scientific production of a country in any scientific field. The aim of this article is to provide information about the scientific production from 2008 to 2011 of Italian neurologists and to compare it with scientific production data of other countries. The analysis regarded the research in Web of Science, in the Subject Category Clinical Neurology, of the publications published from 2008 to 2011, with at least one Italian author belonging to a scientific Italian institution. The overall data, their quality and scientific impact were compared with those of the first 15 world countries for scientific production. We observed that even if the Gross National Product of Italy registered a slight and gradual reduction from 2008 to 2011, the neurological scientific production of Italian neurologists showed an increase in the number of papers, maintaining the fifth position in these four years after USA, Germany, England and Japan. Moreover, dividing the neurological journals in quartiles according to the impact factor, we observed constant increase of the numbers of Italian publications in the highest quartile journals during the considered period. These data suggest that from 2008 to 2011 Italian neurologists have increased the number of publications, also improving the quality of works.

  5. [World Kidney Day 2013 and the Italian experience since 2006].

    PubMed

    Galassi, Andrea; Battaglia, Yuri; Andreucci, Vittorio; Brancaccio, Diego; Balducci, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Renal disease is common, insidious and treatable. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease and its cumulative global costs are rapidly increasing. Since 2006 the World Kidney Day (WKD) has worked to raise awareness of the disease and the importance of its prevention within communities and institutions. Italian Nephrology, through the joint action of the Italian Society of Nephrology (SIN) and the Italian Kidney Foundation (FIR) has worked to convey the message during WKD celebrations,meeting the community directly in Italian town squares and high schools, where informative material was provided together with blood pressure and urine dip-stick testing. This year, the WKD was held on March 14th, and was preceded by an extensive program of information broadcast on TV and radio and published in newspapers and magazines. More than 100 nephrology units in 118 cities were either involved in at least one of the programs organized in Italian town squares, high schools and renal clinics, or provided other spontaneous initiatives. This paper describes the history of the Italian experience in the WKD from its beginning in 2006 until the present day.

  6. Problemi di comunicazione interculturale tra Italiani e parlanti di italiano in Nord America (Intercultural Communication Problems Between Italians and Speakers of Italian in North America).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balboni, Paolo E.

    2001-01-01

    Examines intercultural communication between Italians and speakers of Italian in North America. Argues intercultural communicative competence comprises three elements: deep cultural values or "mental software"; non-verbal means of communication; and language. Offers advice to teachers of Italian who want to help their students develop…

  7. Petrographic, geochemical and isotopic evidence of crustal assimilation processes in the Ponte Nova alkaline mafic-ultramafic massif, SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzone, Rogério Guitarrari; Montecinos Munoz, Patricio; Enrich, Gaston Eduardo Rojas; Alves, Adriana; Ruberti, Excelso; Gomes, Celsode Barros

    2016-09-01

    Crustal assimilation plus crystal fractionation processes of different basanite magma batches control the evolution of the Ponte Nova cretaceous alkaline mafic-ultramafic massif in SE Brazil. This massif is composed of several intrusions, the main ones with a cumulate character. Disequilibrium features in the early-crystallized phases (e.g., corrosion and sieve textures in cores of clinopyroxene crystals, spongy-cellular-textured plagioclase crystals, gulf corrosion texture in olivine crystals) and classical hybridization textures (e.g., blade biotite and acicular apatite crystals) provide strong evidence of open-system behavior. All samples are olivine- and nepheline-normative rocks with basic-ultrabasic and potassic characters and variable incompatible element enrichments. The wide ranges of whole-rock 87Sr/86Sri and 143Nd/144Ndi ratios (0.70432-0.70641 and 0.512216-0.512555, respectively) are indicative of crustal contribution from the Precambrian basement host rocks. Plagioclase and apatite 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70422-0.70927) obtained for the most primitive samples of each intrusion indicate disequilibrium conditions from early- to principal-crystallization stages. Isotope mixing-model curves between the least contaminated alkaline basic magma and heterogeneous local crustal components indicate that each intrusion of the massif is differentiated from the others by varied degrees of crustal contribution. The primary mechanisms of crustal contribution to the Ponte Nova massif involve the assimilation of host rock xenoliths during the development of the chamber environment and the assimilation of partial melts from the surrounding host rocks. Thermodynamic models using the melts algorithm indicate that parental alkaline basic magmas can be strongly affected by contamination processes subsequently to their initial stages of crystallization when there is sufficient energy to assimilate partial melts of crustal host rocks. The assimilation processes are considered to

  8. Internal structure of the Aar Massif: What can we learn in terms of exploration for deep geothermal energy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herwegh, Marco; Baumberger, Roland; Wehrens, Philip; Schubert, Raphael; Berger, Alfons; Maeder, Urs; Spillmann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The successful use of deep geothermal energy requires 3D flow paths, which allow an efficient heat exchange between the surrounding host rocks and the circulating fluids. Recent attempts to exploit this energy resource clearly demonstrate that the new technology is facing sever problems. Some major problems are related to the prediction of permeability, the 3D structure of the flow paths and the mechanical responses during elevated fluid pressures at depths of several kilometers. Although seemingly new in a technical perspective, nature is facing and solving similar problems since the beginning of the Alpine orogeny. Based on detailed studies in the Hasli Valley (Aar Massif) we can demonstrate that deformation and fluid flow are strongly localized along mechanical anisotropies (e.g. lithological variations, brittle and ductile faults). Some of them already evolved during Variscan and post-Variscan times. Interestingly, these inherited structures are reactivated over and over again during the Alpine orogeny. Their reactivation occurred at depths of ~13-15 km with elevated temperatures (400-475°C) and involved both ductile and brittle deformation processes. Brittle deformation in form of hydrofracking was always present due to the circulating fluids. It is this process, which was and still is responsible for seismic activity. With progressive uplift and exhumation of the Aar Massif, ductile deformation structures became replaced by brittle cataclasites and fault gouges during fault activity at shallower crustal levels. Existing hydrotest data from the Grimsel Test Site (Nagra's underground research laboratory) indicate that these brittle successors of the ductile shear zones are domains of enhanced recent fluid percolation. Note that although being exposed today, the continuation of these fault structures are still active at depth in both brittle and ductile deformation modes, a fact that can be inferred from recent uplift rates and the active seismicity. On the

  9. Isotope Sm-Nd age of the paleoproterozoic PGE-bearing Monchetundra massif trachytoid gabbronorites (Fennoscandian shield)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunakkuzin, Evgeniy; Bayanova, Tamara; Serov, Pavel; Borisenko, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Monchetundra massif is located in the central part of the Kola Peninsula (Russia) and it is the south-eastern part of the Main Ridge Intrusion. Monchetundra massif together with well-known layered mafic-ultramafic PGE-bearing intrusions in the Fennoscandian shield such as the Fedorovo-Pansky complex, the mt. Generalskaya, the Monchepluton is of interest as a target for the PGE prospecting (Mitrofanov et al. 2006; Nerovich et al., 2009; Grokhovskaya et al., 2003). According to some previously researchers (Nazimova, Rayan, 2008, Nerovich et al., 2009, Layered intrusions…p.1, 2004) rocks of the Monchetundra massif is subdivided into two to five syngenetic zones. Hence the last isotope-geochronological and isotope-geochemical data revealed that the massif includes at least four groups of mafic rocks distinguished by formation ages (Bayanova et al., 2010). The aim of this work is to present Sm-Nd dating results of trachytoid gabbronorites, which are the second mafic rocks group in the Monchetundra massif. The Sm-Nd investigations for these rocks were carried out for the first time. The second group of mafic rocks comprises of medium-grained and coarse-grained mesocratic gabbronorites of trachytoid texture, with they characterized by well-preserved primary magmatic minerals and gabbro-ophitic texture. The U-Pb ages on single zircon-baddeleyite for these rocks recently obtained (2505 ± 6 Ma, 2501 ± 8 Ma, 2504.4±2.7 Ma and 2507.5±7.7 Ma (Layered intrusions…p.1., 2004, Borisenko et al., 2013)). Two samples of trachytoid gabbronorites were selected to study these rocks by Sm-Nd isotopic method. Mineral isochrons plotted from plagioclase, ortho- and clinopyroxene and whole-rock minerals gave ages of 2496±27 (MSWD = 0.9; ɛNd = -1.6±0.5) and 2492±55 Ma (MSWD = 0.5; ɛNd = -1.7±0.5). The new Sm-Nd ages obtained are close to the U-Pb data on zircons and baddeleyites for this rocks group and consider as oridin of second mafic rocks group. All investigations are

  10. Ochratoxin a contamination in italian wine samples and evaluation of the exposure in the italian population.

    PubMed

    Brera, Carlo; Debegnach, Francesca; Minardi, Valentina; Prantera, Elisabetta; Pannunzi, Elena; Faleo, Silvia; de Santis, Barbara; Miraglia, Marina

    2008-11-26

    The scope of this study was to evaluate the exposure of the Italian population to ochratoxin A (OTA) attributable to wine consumption. With this aim 1166 wine samples (773 red wines, 290 white, 75 rose, and 28 dessert wines), collected in 19 different Italian regions and mostly produced between 1988 and 2004, were analyzed for OTA content. The obtained results are reported by year of harvest, geographical area of production, and type of wine. Red wine showed the highest maximum level of contamination (7.50 ng/mL), even though rose wines were characterized by a higher mean value (0.01 ng/mL). A gradually increasing mean concentration was also observed from the north (0.05 ng/mL) to south of Italy (0.54 ng/mL). Exposure calculations, performed using two different consumption databases, indicate a daily intake for consumer only of 0.59 up to 1.24 ng/(kg of b.w.)/day and of 0.33 up to 0.90 ng/(kg of b.w.)/day for the total population. Even in the worst case, corresponding to the calculation of the intake for consumers only in southern Italy and Islands and considering the mean consumption data increased by 1 standard deviation, a quite low exposure (1.68 ng/(kg of b.w.)/day, accounting for 9.8% of TDI) was obtained. Considering the overall OTA dietary exposure, obtained exposure rates indicate that wine did not pose a risk to the Italian population health.

  11. A large and complete Jurassic geothermal field at Claudia, Deseado Massif, Santa Cruz, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, Diego M.; Campbell, Kathleen A.

    2014-04-01

    Late Jurassic geothermal deposits at Claudia, Argentinean Patagonia, are among the largest (40 km2) and most varied in the Deseado Massif, a 60,000 km2 volcanic province hosting precious metals (Au, Ag) mineralization generated during diffuse back arc spreading and opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. Both siliceous sinter and travertine occur in the same stratigraphic sequence. Deposits range from those interpreted as fluvially reworked hydrothermal silica gels, to extensive apron terraces, to a clustering of high-temperature subaerial vent mounds. Paleoenvironmentally diagnostic textures of sinters include wavy laminated, bubble mat and nodular fabrics, and for travertines comprise fossil terracette rims, wavy laminated, bubble mat, spherulitic, oncoidal, and peloidal fabrics. Of special note is the presence of relatively large (to 25 cm high), inferred subaqueous "Conophyton" structures in travertines, which serve as analogs for some Precambrian stromatolites and imply the presence of relatively deep pools maintained by voluminous spring discharges. The Claudia geothermal field is geographically and geologically linked to the Cerro Vanguardia epithermal project (total resource of ~ 7.8 million ounces Au equivalent) via proximity, similar veins, and structural linkages, making it an especially large and relevant prospect for the region. The combined Claudia-Cerro Vanguardia hydrothermal system likely represents a fortuitous alignment of focused fluid flow and structure conducive to forming a giant epithermal ore deposit, with respect to size, ore concentration and potentially duration, in the Late Jurassic of Patagonia.

  12. Raman mapping of coesite inclusions in garnet from the Kokchetav Massif (Northern Kazakhstan).

    PubMed

    Korsakov, Andrey V; Hutsebaut, Didier; Theunissen, Karel; Vandenabeele, Peter; Stepanov, Alexander S

    2007-12-15

    Coesite inclusions occur in a wide range of lithologies and coesite is therefore a powerful ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) indicator. The transformation of coesite to quartz is evidenced by three optically well identifiable characteristics (e.g. palisade textures, radial crack patterns, polycrystalline quartz pseudomorphs). Under overpressure monomineralic coesite (on an optical basis), lacking the above transformation characteristics may survive. Raman micro-spectroscopy was applied on monomineralic coesite inclusions in garnet porphyroblasts from diamond-bearing garnet-clinozoisite-biotite gneisses of the Barchi-Kol area (Kokchetav Massif, Northern Kazakhstan). These coesite inclusions are euhedral and display a characteristic anisotropic hallo. However, Raman maps and separate spectra of these inclusions display shifted bands for coesite and quartz. Microscopically undetectable, quartz shows on the Raman map as a thin shell around coesite inclusion. Shift of the main coesite band allows to estimate their overpressure: coesite inclusions record 0-2.4 GPa in garnet and zircon. The quartz shell remains under lower pressure 0-1.6 GPa. The possible application of coesite and quartz Raman geobarometers for UHP metamorphic rocks is discussed. PMID:17553735

  13. Raman imaging of fluid inclusions in garnet from UHPM rocks (Kokchetav massif, Northern Kazakhstan).

    PubMed

    Korsakov, Andrey V; Dieing, Thomas; Golovin, Aleksandr V; Toporski, Jan

    2011-10-01

    Confocal Raman imaging of fluid inclusions in garnet porphyroblasts from diamond-grade metamorphic calc-silicate rocks from the Kumdy-Kol microdiamond deposit (Kokchetav Massif, Northern Kazakhstan) reveals that these fluid inclusions consist of almost pure water with different step-daughter phases (e.g., calcite, mica and rare quartz). These fluid inclusions are characterized by negative crystal shape of the host-garnet and they exclusively occur within the core of garnet porphyroblasts. These observations are consistent with their primary origin, most likely at ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic conditions. The euhedral newly formed garnet, different in color and composition, was found to be associated with these fluid inclusions. It is proposed that newly formed garnet and water fluid inclusions appear by reaction between the hydrous fluid and the garnet-host. These fluid inclusions provide an unequivocal record of almost pure H(2)O fluids, indicating water-saturated conditions within subducted continental crust during prograde stage and/or ultrahigh-P metamorphism.

  14. Raman mapping of coesite inclusions in garnet from the Kokchetav Massif (Northern Kazakhstan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsakov, Andrey V.; Hutsebaut, Didier; Theunissen, Karel; Vandenabeele, Peter; Stepanov, Alexander S.

    2007-12-01

    Coesite inclusions occur in a wide range of lithologies and coesite is therefore a powerful ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) indicator. The transformation of coesite to quartz is evidenced by three optically well identifiable characteristics (e.g. palisade textures, radial crack patterns, polycrystalline quartz pseudomorphs). Under overpressure monomineralic coesite (on an optical basis), lacking the above transformation characteristics may survive. Raman micro-spectroscopy was applied on monomineralic coesite inclusions in garnet porphyroblasts from diamond-bearing garnet-clinozoisite-biotite gneisses of the Barchi-Kol area (Kokchetav Massif, Northern Kazakhstan). These coesite inclusions are euhedral and display a characteristic anisotropic hallo. However, Raman maps and separate spectra of these inclusions display shifted bands for coesite and quartz. Microscopically undetectable, quartz shows on the Raman map as a thin shell around coesite inclusion. Shift of the main coesite band allows to estimate their overpressure: coesite inclusions record 0-2.4 GPa in garnet and zircon. The quartz shell remains under lower pressure 0-1.6 GPa. The possible application of coesite and quartz Raman geobarometers for UHP metamorphic rocks is discussed.

  15. The limnology and biology of the Dufek Massif, Transantarctic Mountains 82° South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, Dominic A.; Convey, Peter; Verleyen, Elie; Vyverman, Wim; McInnes, Sandra J.; Sands, Chester J.; Fernández-Carazo, Rafael; Wilmotte, Annick; De Wever, Aaike; Peeters, Karolien; Tavernier, Ines; Willems, Anne

    2010-08-01

    Very little is known about the higher latitude inland biology of continental Antarctica. In this paper we describe the limnology and biology of the Dufek Massif, using a range of observational, microscopic and molecular methods. Here two dry valleys are home to some of the southernmost biota on Earth. Cyanobacteria were the dominant life forms, being found in lakes and ponds, in hypersaline brines, summer melt water, relict pond beds and in exposed terrestrial habitats. Their species diversity was the lowest yet observed in Antarctic lakes. Green algae, cercozoa and bacteria were present, but diatoms were absent except for a single valve; likely windblown. Mosses were absent and only one lichen specimen was found. The Metazoa included three microbivorous tardigrades ( Acutuncus antarcticus, Diphascon sanae and Echiniscus (cf) pseudowendti) and bdelloid rotifer species, but no arthropods or nematodes. These simple faunal and floral communities are missing most of the elements normally present at lower latitudes in the Antarctic which is probably a result of the very harsh environmental conditions in the area.

  16. Vorticity analysis in calcite tectonites: An example from the Attico-Cycladic massif (Attica, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanos, D.; Xypolias, P.; Koukouvelas, I.

    2015-11-01

    Although calcite tectonites are widespread in nature their use to quantify flow vorticity is limited. We use new (micro-)structural, petrofabric and vorticity data to analyse the kinematics of flow in outcrop-scale calcite mylonite zones. These zones are genetically related to a crustal-scale NE-directed ductile thrust (Basal Thrust) that emplaced the Blueschist over the Basal unit during the exhumation of the Attico-Cycladic Massif. Calcite microstructures reveal that the last stage of deformation occurred at temperatures 200-300 °C achieved by mild heating, which is possibly related with the reburial of the Basal Thrust's footwall. Vorticity analyses were based on the degree of asymmetry of calcite c-axis fabrics as well as on the assumption that the orientation of the long axes of calcite neoblasts within an oblique foliation delineates the direction of instantaneous stretching axis. Both methodological approaches provide consistent estimates with a simple shear component between 55% and 82% (Wn = 0.76-0.96). The use of the stress axis (σ1) orientation recorded by twin-c-axis-pairs to quantify vorticity generally gives significantly lower simple shear component. Comparison of our vorticity estimates with previous estimates inferred from quartz fabrics and rigid porphyroclasts reveals that exhumation-related deformation in the nappe pile was steady state.

  17. Adjusting stream-sediment geochemical maps in the Austrian Bohemian Massif by analysis of variance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J.C.; Hausberger, G.; Schermann, O.; Bohling, G.

    1995-01-01

    The Austrian portion of the Bohemian Massif is a Precambrian terrane composed mostly of highly metamorphosed rocks intruded by a series of granitoids that are petrographically similar. Rocks are exposed poorly and the subtle variations in rock type are difficult to map in the field. A detailed geochemical survey of stream sediments in this region has been conducted and included as part of the Geochemischer Atlas der Republik O??sterreich, and the variations in stream sediment composition may help refine the geological interpretation. In an earlier study, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was applied to the stream-sediment data in order to minimize unwanted sampling variation and emphasize relationships between stream sediments and rock types in sample catchment areas. The estimated coefficients were used successfully to correct for the sampling effects throughout most of the region, but also introduced an overcorrection in some areas that seems to result from consistent but subtle differences in composition of specific rock types. By expanding the model to include an additional factor reflecting the presence of a major tectonic unit, the Rohrbach block, the overcorrection is removed. This iterative process simultaneously refines both the geochemical map by removing extraneous variation and the geological map by suggesting a more detailed classification of rock types. ?? 1995 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  18. Raman imaging of fluid inclusions in garnet from UHPM rocks (Kokchetav massif, Northern Kazakhstan).

    PubMed

    Korsakov, Andrey V; Dieing, Thomas; Golovin, Aleksandr V; Toporski, Jan

    2011-10-01

    Confocal Raman imaging of fluid inclusions in garnet porphyroblasts from diamond-grade metamorphic calc-silicate rocks from the Kumdy-Kol microdiamond deposit (Kokchetav Massif, Northern Kazakhstan) reveals that these fluid inclusions consist of almost pure water with different step-daughter phases (e.g., calcite, mica and rare quartz). These fluid inclusions are characterized by negative crystal shape of the host-garnet and they exclusively occur within the core of garnet porphyroblasts. These observations are consistent with their primary origin, most likely at ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic conditions. The euhedral newly formed garnet, different in color and composition, was found to be associated with these fluid inclusions. It is proposed that newly formed garnet and water fluid inclusions appear by reaction between the hydrous fluid and the garnet-host. These fluid inclusions provide an unequivocal record of almost pure H(2)O fluids, indicating water-saturated conditions within subducted continental crust during prograde stage and/or ultrahigh-P metamorphism. PMID:21377920

  19. AMS 14C Dates for Extinct Lemurs from Caves in the Ankarana Massif, Northern Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Elwyn L.; Burney, David A.; Chatrath, Prithijit S.; Godfrey, Laurie R.; Jungers, William L.; Rakotosamimanana, Berthe

    1995-03-01

    An extensive late Quaternary fauna, including many extinct giant lemurs, has been collected recently in a 110+-km system of caves in the Ankarana Massif of northern Madagascar. AMS 14C dates for the acid-insoluble (collagen/gelatin) fraction of bones of the giant lemur Megaladapis (26,150 ± 400 and 12,760 ± 70 yr B.P.) confirm its presence in the area during the late Pleistocene and provide the first Pleistocene 14 C ages from bones of the extinct megafauna of the island. The first date from bones of the recently described extinct Babakotia radofilai (4400 ± 60 yr B.P.) shows that it was present in northern Madagascar in mid-Holocene times. A comparatively recent age of 1020 ± 50 yr B.P. for the extinct Archaeolemur indicates survival of this genus for at least a millennium after the first direct evidence for humans in Madagascar. This suggests that the island's "extinction window" may have represented a longer time span than would have been expected under the Blitzkrieg model of late Quaternary extinctions. A mid-Holocene age (4560 ± 70 yr B.P.) for a bone sample of the small extant lemur Hapalemur simus indicates that the disappearance of this now-restricted species from the Ankarana occurred after this date. New data from the Ankarana and other sites on the island add to the consensus that major biotic changes occurred on Madagascar in the late Holocene.

  20. Raman mapping of coesite inclusions in garnet from the Kokchetav Massif (Northern Kazakhstan).

    PubMed

    Korsakov, Andrey V; Hutsebaut, Didier; Theunissen, Karel; Vandenabeele, Peter; Stepanov, Alexander S

    2007-12-15

    Coesite inclusions occur in a wide range of lithologies and coesite is therefore a powerful ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) indicator. The transformation of coesite to quartz is evidenced by three optically well identifiable characteristics (e.g. palisade textures, radial crack patterns, polycrystalline quartz pseudomorphs). Under overpressure monomineralic coesite (on an optical basis), lacking the above transformation characteristics may survive. Raman micro-spectroscopy was applied on monomineralic coesite inclusions in garnet porphyroblasts from diamond-bearing garnet-clinozoisite-biotite gneisses of the Barchi-Kol area (Kokchetav Massif, Northern Kazakhstan). These coesite inclusions are euhedral and display a characteristic anisotropic hallo. However, Raman maps and separate spectra of these inclusions display shifted bands for coesite and quartz. Microscopically undetectable, quartz shows on the Raman map as a thin shell around coesite inclusion. Shift of the main coesite band allows to estimate their overpressure: coesite inclusions record 0-2.4 GPa in garnet and zircon. The quartz shell remains under lower pressure 0-1.6 GPa. The possible application of coesite and quartz Raman geobarometers for UHP metamorphic rocks is discussed.

  1. Using several monitoring techniques to measure the rock mass deformation in the Montserrat Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janeras, M.; Jara, J. A.; López, F.; Marturià, J.; Royán, M. J.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Aguasca, A.; Fàbregas, X.; Cabranes, F.; Gili, J. A.

    2015-09-01

    Montserrat Mountain is located near Barcelona in Catalonia, at the north-east corner of Spain, and its massif is formed by conglomerate interleaved by siltstone/sandstone with steep slopes very prone to rock falls. The increasing visitor's number in the monastery area, reaching 2.4 million per year, has pointed out the risk derived from rock falls for this building area and also for the terrestrial accesses, both roads and rack railway. A risk mitigation plan is currently been applied for 2014-2016 that contains monitoring testing and implementation as a key point. The preliminary results of the pilot tests carried out during 2014 are presented, also profiting from previous sparse experiences and data, and combining 4 monitoring techniques under different conditions of continuity in space and time domains, which are: displacement monitoring with Ground-based Synthetic Aperture Radar and characterization at slope scale, with an extremely non uniform atmospheric phase screen because of the stepped topography and atmosphere stratification; Terrestrial Laser Scanner surveys quantifying frequency for unnoticed activity of small rock falls, and monitoring rock block displacements over 1cm; monitoring of rock joints with a wireless net of sensors; and tentative surveying for singular rocky needles with Total Station.

  2. Stress assignment in reading Italian polysyllabic pseudowords.

    PubMed

    Sulpizio, Simone; Arduino, Lisa S; Paizi, Despina; Burani, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In 4 naming experiments we investigated how Italian readers assign stress to pseudowords. We assessed whether participants assign stress following distributional information such as stress neighborhood (the proportion and number of existent words sharing orthographic ending and stress pattern) and whether such distributional information affects naming speed. Experiments 1 and 2 tested how readers assign stress to pseudowords. The results showed that participants assign stress on the basis of the pseudowords' stress neighborhood, but only when this orthographic/phonological information is widely represented in the lexicon. Experiments 3 and 4 tested the naming speed of pseudowords with different stress patterns. Participants were faster in reading pseudowords with antepenultimate than with penultimate stress. The effect was not driven by distributional information, but it was related to the stage of articulation planning. Overall, the experiments showed that, under certain conditions, readers assign stress using orthographic/phonological distributional information. However, the distributional information does not speed up pseudoword naming, which is affected by stress computation at the level of the articulation planning of the stimulus. It is claimed that models of reading aloud and speech production should be merged at the level of phonological encoding, when segmental and metrical information are assembled and articulation is planned.

  3. The French-Italian Concordia Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekarnia, Djamel; Frenot, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Concordia is a French-Italian permanent station located at Dome C, Antarctica. The station provides accommodation for up to 16 people over winter and more than 70 scientists and technicians during the austral summer. The scientific projects implemented at Concordia are strictly dependent on the characteristics of the site: a) the presence of a 3 300 m thick ice cap that allows access to the planet's climate archives and the reconstruction of glacial-interglacial cycles over more than 800 000 years; b) a particularly stable pure and dry atmosphere ideal for astronomy observations and for research on the chemical composition of the atmosphere; c) a distant location from coastal perturbations favourable to magnetic and seismological observatories to complement a poor world data network in the southern hemisphere; and d) a small totally isolated group of people confined to the station over a long winter, offering an opportunity for a range of medical and psychological studies useful to prepare long duration deep space missions. We will address the main characteristics of this station and its interest for science.

  4. The new Italian code of medical ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Fineschi, V; Turillazzi, E; Cateni, C

    1997-01-01

    In June 1995, the Italian code of medical ethics was revised in order that its principles should reflect the ever-changing relationship between the medical profession and society and between physicians and patients. The updated code is also a response to new ethical problems created by scientific progress; the discussion of such problems often shows up a need for better understanding on the part of the medical profession itself. Medical deontology is defined as the discipline for the study of norms of conduct for the health care professions, including moral and legal norms as well as those pertaining more strictly to professional performance. The aim of deontology is therefore, the in-depth investigation and revision of the code of medical ethics. It is in the light of this conceptual definition that one should interpret a review of the different codes which have attempted, throughout the various periods of Italy's recent history, to adapt ethical norms to particular social and health care climates. PMID:9279746

  5. Functional clustering for Italian climate zones identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giuseppe, E.; Jona Lasinio, G.; Esposito, S.; Pasqui, M.

    2013-10-01

    This work presents a functional clustering procedure applied to meteorological time series. Our proposal combines time series interpolation with smoothing penalized B-spline and the partitioning around medoids clustering algorithm. Our final goal is to obtain homogeneous climate zones of Italy. We compare this approach to standard methods based on a combination of principal component analysis and Cluster Analysis (CA) and we discuss it in relation to other functional clustering approaches based on Fourier analysis and CA. We show that a functional approach is simpler than the standard methods from a methodological and interpretability point of view. Indeed, it becomes natural to find a clear connection between mathematical results and physical variability mechanisms. We discuss how the choice of the basis expansion (splines, Fourier) affects the analysis and propose some comments on their use. The basis for classification is formed by monthly values of temperature and precipitation recorded during the period 1971-2000 over 95 and 94 Italian monitoring stations, respectively. An assessment based on climatic patterns is presented to prove the consistency of the clustering and a comparison of results obtained with different methods is used to judge the functional data approach.

  6. Biological dosimetry in Russian and Italian astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, O.; Durante, M.; Gialanella, G.; Grossi, G.; Pugliese, M.; Scampoli, P.; Snigiryova, G.; Obe, G.

    Large uncertainties are associated with estimates of equivalent dose and cancer risk for crews of longterm space missions. Biological dosimetry in astronauts is emerging as a useful technique to compare predictions based on quality factors and risk coefficients with actual measurements of biological damage in-flight. In the present study, chromosomal aberrations were analyzed in one Italian and eight Russian cosmonauts following missions of different duration on the MIR and the international space station (ISS). We used the technique of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to visualize translocations in chromosomes 1 and 2. In some cases, an increase in chromosome damage was observed after flight, but no correlation could be found between chromosome damage and flight history, in terms of number of flights at the time of sampling, duration in space and extra-vehicular activity. Blood samples from one of the cosmonauts were exposed in vitro to 6 MeV X-rays both before and after the flight. An enhancement in radiosensitivity induced by the spaceflight was observed.

  7. Biological dosimetry in Russian and Italian astronauts.

    PubMed

    Greco, O; Durante, M; Gialanella, G; Grossi, G; Pugliese, M; Scampoli, P; Snigiryova, G; Obe, G

    2003-01-01

    Large uncertainties are associated with estimates of equivalent dose and cancer risk for crews of long-term space missions. Biological dosimetry in astronauts is emerging as a useful technique to compare predictions based on quality factors and risk coefficients with actual measurements of biological damage in-flight. In the present study, chromosomal aberrations were analyzed in one Italian and eight Russian cosmonauts following missions of different duration on the MIR and the international space station (ISS). We used the technique of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to visualize translocations in chromosomes 1 and 2. In some cases, an increase in chromosome damage was observed after flight, but no correlation could be found between chromosome damage and flight history, in terms of number of flights at the time of sampling, duration in space and extra-vehicular activity. Blood samples from one of the cosmonauts were exposed in vitro to 6 MeV X-rays both before and after the flight. An enhancement in radiosensitivity induced by the spaceflight was observed. PMID:12971404

  8. Acoustics of Italian Historical Opera Houses.

    PubMed

    Prodi, Nicola; Pompoli, Roberto; Martellotta, Francesco; Sato, Shin-ichi

    2015-08-01

    Opera houses represent a large group of performance spaces characterized by great complexity and, at the same time, versatility with respect to different usage (from opera to symphonic music and ballet). This kind of building originated in Italy during the 17th century and later spread across the country and then Europe and the rest of the world, slowly evolving into modern theatre shapes. As a consequence of the changes undergone by the interior space, the original acoustic features, which likely influenced many composers, experienced important variations. Thanks to acoustic measurement campaigns inside Italian Historical Opera Houses, promoted by National and Regional Projects, the distinctive features of these spaces were investigated in comparison to modern spaces. In this work, the newly acquired data are merged with data in the literature in order to present and discuss some of the distinctive acoustic features of historical spaces as regards their original function. Moreover, specific issues such as listening in stalls and boxes and the criteria governing the preference judgment of listeners are considered. The concept and the crucial role of the balance between stage and pit sources are also discussed by means of previous literature studies.

  9. Analysis of some Italian lemon liquors (limoncello).

    PubMed

    Andrea, Versari; Nadia, Natali; Teresa, Russo Maria; Andrea, Antonelli

    2003-08-13

    The chemical composition of several commercial Italian Limoncellos, lemon-peel-based alcoholic beverages, was studied by chromatographic techniques. These methods allowed a rapid monitoring of Limoncello, giving information on quality markers and possible adulteration of the product. Quantitative data for more than 60 compounds are reported. Limoncellos were characterized by the presence of selected volatile (terpenes, aldehydes, alcohols) and nonvolatile compounds (psoralens, coumarins, phenolics, carbohydrates and acids). On the basis of their composition, the samples were grouped by PCA analysis in two sets; the first group showed a composition similar to lemon essential oils, with a high content of b-pinene, myrcene, trans-a-bergamottene, and b-bisabolene, and a low content in neral and geranial. The composition of the second group suggested the occurrence of oxidative phenomena and/or the addition of flavors. The presence of ethyl acetate, acetaldehyde, 2-methyl-1-propanol and glycerol showed that a fermentation probably occurred in the sugar syrup used to dilute the Limoncello after the extraction process.

  10. Observed Seismic Vulnerability of Italian Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Rota, Maria; Magenes, Guido; Penna, Andrea; Strobbia, Claudio L.

    2008-07-08

    A very large database of post-earthquake building inspections carried out after the main Italian events of the last 30 years has been processed in order to derive fragility curves for 23 building typologies, mostly referring to masonry structures. The records (more than 91000) of this very complete and homogeneous dataset have been converted into a single damage scale with five levels of damage, plus the case of no damage. For each affected municipality a value of PGA and Housner Intensity (I{sub H}) has been evaluated using attenuation laws. Damage probability matrices have been then extracted. These experimental data have been fitted through lognormal fragility curves using an advanced nonlinear regression algorithm also taking into account the relative reliability of each point by the bootstrap technique. The significant concentration of experimental data at low levels of ground motion, associated to the selected analytical expression, determine the peculiar shape of some of the curves, with a very steep initial branch followed by an almost horizontal curve for increasing values of ground motion. Explanations and possible solutions are discussed.

  11. The new Italian code of medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Fineschi, V; Turillazzi, E; Cateni, C

    1997-08-01

    In June 1995, the Italian code of medical ethics was revised in order that its principles should reflect the ever-changing relationship between the medical profession and society and between physicians and patients. The updated code is also a response to new ethical problems created by scientific progress; the discussion of such problems often shows up a need for better understanding on the part of the medical profession itself. Medical deontology is defined as the discipline for the study of norms of conduct for the health care professions, including moral and legal norms as well as those pertaining more strictly to professional performance. The aim of deontology is therefore, the in-depth investigation and revision of the code of medical ethics. It is in the light of this conceptual definition that one should interpret a review of the different codes which have attempted, throughout the various periods of Italy's recent history, to adapt ethical norms to particular social and health care climates. PMID:9279746

  12. Occurrence of Streptococcus macedonicus in Italian cheeses.

    PubMed

    Pacini, Federico; Cariolato, Diego; Andrighetto, Christian; Lombardi, Angiolella

    2006-08-01

    A new approach for the detection and enumeration of Streptococcus macedonicus in cheese was developed. The method which is based on a first screening of cheeses by a PCR assay specific for S. macedonicus followed by plating positive samples on a differential medium (SM medium) was applied to 51 samples derived from PDO and traditional Italian cheeses. Streptococcus macedonicus was found in 16 of the 51 samples examined in the present work. With the exclusion of an Asiago cheese sample in which very high numbers of S. macedonicus (7.13 log CFU g(-1)) were found, the counts of S. macedonicus in SM medium ranged from 2.48 to 4.70 log CFU g(-1). In the same cheeses, total streptococci enumerated onto M17 agar were found at higher concentrations with values up to 7.88 log CFU g(-1). The system developed was particularly useful for the differential count of S. macedonicus in cheese and allowed to evaluate the occurrence of this species within the complex microbial lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population, which is typical of traditional cheeses. Results showed that in the examined cheeses S. macedonicus cannot be considered as a dominant LAB species.

  13. TRAIN: Training through Research Application Italian iNitiative.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Claudio; Bottero, Sergio; d'Alessandro, Francesca; Giacomini, Mauro; Guderzo, Angela; Moretti, Franca; Marincola, Margherita; Pesce, Giorgia; Pierotti, Marco A; Spagnoli, Luigi Giusto; Belardelli, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    Training through Research Application Italian iNitiative (TRAIN) is a mobility program financed under the EU action called "Cofinancing of regional, national and international programs" (COFUND) of the European Commission Seventh Framework Program (FP7) - People, and has been designed to encourage the promotion and development of international programs of research through mobility at various stages of research careers. The aim of TRAIN is to improve translational skills in the field of cancer by promoting a three-year international mobility program assigning a total of 51 fellowships subdivided into incoming, outgoing and reintegration fellowships.?The TRAIN proposal has been submitted in February 2009 to the European Commission in reply to the 2008 FP7-PEOPLE-COFUND call and has been successfully evaluated. TRAIN is addressed to postdoctoral scientists or scientists who have at least four years' full-time equivalent research experience and who wish to improve their careers spending one year abroad. The mobility program is open also to non-Italian experienced scientists wishing to spend one year in an Italian research center or private company. Part of the scheme is targeted to experienced Italian scientists who have completed at least three years of research in a foreign country and are interested in returning to Italy.?TRAIN is part of an overall Italian strategy outlined by the International Program of the Italian Cancer Network "Alleanza Contro il Cancro" to promote Italian participation in the building of the European Area for translational cancer research and to enhance the interaction between academy and industry.

  14. Lithologic Distribution and Geologic History of the Apollo 17 Site: The Record in Soils and Small Rock Particles from the Highland Massifs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.; Rockow, Kaylynn M.; Korotev, Randy L.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1996-01-01

    Through analysis by instrumental neutron activation (INAA) of 789 individual lithic fragments from the 2 mm-4 mm grain-size fractions of five Apollo 17 soil samples (72443, 72503, 73243, 76283, and 76503) and petrographic examination of a subset, we have determined the diversity and proportions of rock types recorded within soils from the highland massifs. The distribution of rock types at the site, as recorded by lithic fragments in the soils, is an alternative to the distribution inferred from the limited number of large rock samples. The compositions and proportions of 2 mm-4 mm fragments provide a bridge between compositions of less than 1 mm fines and types and proportions of rocks observed in large collected breccias and their clasts. The 2 mm-4 mm fraction of soil from South Massif, represented by an unbiased set of lithic fragments from station-2 samples 72443 and 72503, consists of 71% noritic impact-melt breccia, 7% Incompatible-Trace-Element-(ITE)-poor highland rock types (mainly granulitic breccias), 19% agglutinates and regolith breccias, 1% high-Ti mare basalt, and 2% others (very-low-Ti (VLT) basalt, monzogabbro breccia, and metal). In contrast, the 2 mm - 4 mm fraction of a soil from the North Massif, represented by an unbiased set of lithic fragments from station-6 sample 76503, has a greater proportion of ITE-poor highland rock types and mare-basalt fragments: it consists of 29% ITE-poor highland rock types (mainly granulitic breccias and troctolitic anorthosite), 25% impact-melt breccia, 13% high-Ti mare basalt, 31 % agglutinates and regolith breccias, 1% orange glass and related breccia, and 1% others. Based on a comparison of mass- weighted mean compositions of the lithic fragments with compositions of soil fines from all Apollo 17 highland stations, differences between the station-2 and station-6 samples are representative of differences between available samples from the two massifs. From the distribution of different rock types and their

  15. Native Italian speakers' perception and production of English vowels.

    PubMed

    Flege, J E; MacKay, I R; Meador, D

    1999-11-01

    This study examined the production and perception of English vowels by highly experienced native Italian speakers of English. The subjects were selected on the basis of the age at which they arrived in Canada and began to learn English, and how much they continued to use Italian. Vowel production accuracy was assessed through an intelligibility test in which native English-speaking listeners attempted to identify vowels spoken by the native Italian subjects. Vowel perception was assessed using a categorial discrimination test. The later in life the native Italian subjects began to learn English, the less accurately they produced and perceived English vowels. Neither of two groups of early Italian/English bilinguals differed significantly from native speakers of English either for production or perception. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis of the speech learning model [Flege, in Speech Perception and Linguistic Experience: Theoretical and Methodological Issues (York, Timonium, MD, 1995)] that early bilinguals establish new categories for vowels found in the second language (L2). The significant correlation observed to exist between the measures of L2 vowel production and perception is consistent with another hypothesis of the speech learning model, viz., that the accuracy with which L2 vowels are produced is limited by how accurately they are perceived. PMID:10573909

  16. Unraveling polyphase brittle tectonics through fault-slip analysis in the Voltri Massif, Western Alps (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, Laura; Crispini, Laura; Vigo, Andrea; Malatesta, Cristina; Capponi, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    We investigated a system of faults in the northwestern Voltri Massif (Ligurian Alps, northern Italy) usually mapped as a km-scale fault, but actually made up of different fault segments. The Ligurian Alps represent the evolving linkage area between the Western Alps and Northern Apennines: here the two orogenic systems interfered since Oligocene times. Our aim is to characterise kinematics and evolution of this fault system, coupling structural analysis with photointerpretation and paleo-stress/strain determinations, through inversion of fault-slip data. The high-pressure Voltri Massif belongs to the Internal Pennine Units of the Alps; it is composed mainly of metaophiolites and slices of subcontinental lithospheric mantle. The bedrock is overlain by upper Eocene-lower Oligocene clastic sediments of the Tertiary Piemontese Basin. The late-orogenic structural evolution (i.e. since Oligocene) of the area is complex, with superposition of several tectonic events, in the framework of the Adria-Europe convergence and the opening of the Liguro-Provençal basin (with associated rotation of the Corsica-Sardinia block). On the basis of both fieldwork and photointerpretation, we selected 13 structural stations divided into two groups (north-eastern and western): we have measured more than 500 faults in the field and identified more than 400 lineaments from photointerpretation. Both low-angle thrust faults and high-angle (dominantly strike-slip) faults occur. In the NE sector high-angle faults show a clear NE-SW maximum in strike, whereas in the western sector main sets are WNW-ESE and ENE-WSW striking. Among the collected faults, more than 100 are complete fault-slip data to be analysed by inversion techniques with two different open-source programs (F.s.a. by B. Célérier, 1999 and Tensor by D. Delvaux, 2011). We detected several incompatible stress/strain fields in each structural station, thus implying that the fault population was heterogeneous. On the basis of

  17. The Laschamp Excursion in Lava Flows From the Massif Central (France): New Data and Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, C. E.; Guillou, H.; Kissel, C.; Wandres, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Laschamp excursion, originally identified by N. Bonhommet in the French Massif Central, has been intensively investigated worldwide. Based on its short duration, this excursion has been very often used as a chronostratigraphic tiepoint by different communities. Recently, however, Plenier et al., (2007) have proposed a duration of about 6000 years for this excursion, in sharp contrast with previous estimates based on sedimentary and volcanic studies, as well as on analysis of the 10Be and 36Cl records in ice cores (Laj et al., 2000; 2004; Wagner et al., 2000; Guillou et al., 2004; Svensson et al., 2006; Singer et al., 2009). If correct this new evaluation would make this chronostratigraphic tie point largely less interesting, and would also have an impact of geodynamo mechanisms proposed to explain differences between excursions and reversals of the geomagnetic field (Gubbins, 1999). To further investigate this point, we have conducted a new study in the Massif Central. In addition to the three original lavas exposed at La Louchadière, Laschamp and Olby, recently dated by Guillou et al. (2004) and by Singer et al. (2009), we have intensively investigated several other outcrops characterized by transitional paleomagnetic directions, including different outcrops of the same lava flows at different localities separated by up to a few km, using a coupled paleomagnetic/ K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar approach. All the obtained 40Ar/39Ar and K/Ar ages are tightly grouped and very consistent with the previous estimates of the Laschamp excursion of Guillou et al (2004) and Singer et al. (2009) around 41 ka. Geomagnetic field intensities (Thellier & Thellier) also show transitional values around 16 μT, however slightly higher than those obtained at the Laschamp and Olby outcrops (Roperch et al., 1988).The paleomagnetic directions, while all transitional, are sometimes significantly different from each other, indicating that the different outcrops have recorded different

  18. Distribution patterns, properties and ages of Pleistocene periglacial slope deposits in the eastern Rhenish Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Daniela; Scholten, Thomas; Felix-Henningsen, Peter; Kadereit, Annette

    2010-05-01

    Pleistocene periglacial slope deposits (PPSD) cover almost continuously the low mountain areas of Germany. They are interpreted as the result of frost weathering, gelisolifluction, cryoturbation, meltwater outwash processes and loess incorporation. Four types of PPSD are distinguished in the German classification system: A Basal Layer consists entirely of debris of the underlying rock, which it usually directly overlies. It occurs in almost every relief position, and several Basal Layers may have formed on top of each other. An Intermediate Layer contains varying proportions of loess. It is only found in relief positions favourable for loess accumulation and preservation. Its position within a vertical sequence of PPSD is usually on top of a Basal Layer. An Upper Layer consists of a mixture of rock debris and loess, and contains generally a lower amount of loess than a possibly underlying Intermediate Layer. It has a remarkably steady thickness of around 50 cm, as confirmed in many studies. The Top Layer is mostly restricted to the surroundings of outcrops of particularly resistant rock in higher regions and mainly consists of rock debris. PPSD were investigated in the eastern Westerwald area, at the eastern edge of the Rhenish Massif, Germany. Parent rock, exposition, position and shape of slope were expected to be factors influencing the occurrence, thickness and properties of the different types of PPSD. Therefore, profiles were excavated on the main rock types in the area, which are shale, quartzite and diabase. On each rock type, profiles were studied along catenas in NW, SW, SE and NE exposition, each catena including a profile in upper, middle and footslope position. In upper slope positions on shale an Upper Layer covers directly the rock, independent of exposition. In downslope direction, still above the mid slope profiles, a Basal Layer appears between the Upper Layer and the rock. In upper slope positions on quartzite, a Basal Layer is already present

  19. Thermochronological Constraints on the Exhumation of the Lys Caillaouas Massif, West-Central Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, J. R.; Fitzgerald, P. G.; Baldwin, S.; Muñoz, J.; Perry, S. E.; Feinberg, E. B.

    2009-12-01

    The Pyrenees Mountains of Spain and France are a collisional orogen cored by a south-vergent antiformal stack of Paleozoic basement thrust sheets (the Axial Zone). Thrusting accommodated shortening due to convergence between Iberia and Europe during the Alpine orogeny. In the central Pyrenees, the Axial Zone is divided structurally into the Nogueres, Orri, and Rialp thrust sheets. The Orri thrust sheet is in the footwall of the Gavarnie thrust, a folded south-vergent thrust fault that separates the Orri thrust sheet from the hanging-wall Nogueres thrust sheet. In the central Pyrenees, integrated 40Ar/39Ar, apatite fission track, and apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronologic studies of the Maladeta pluton, lying within the Orri thrust sheet, constrains Late Cretaceous onset of heating due to thrust burial in the footwall of the Gavarnie thrust, followed by Cenozoic cooling due to erosional exhumation. To examine along-strike variations in the tectonic evolution of the Pyrenean orogen, we apply the same approach to the Lys Caillaouas massif (LCM) in the west-central Pyrenees. This massif occupies a similar structural position as the Maladeta but lies ~30 km to the WNW. The LCM is a ~60 km2 Hercynian igneous complex intruded into the Early Paleozoic metasediments of the Orri thrust sheet, five kilometers south of the present exposure of the Gavarnie thrust and bounded to the south by the south-vergent Alpine-age Estos Thrust, a fault within the Orri thrust sheet. In thin section, muscovite from the highest elevation sample (3221 m) from the LCM is often rimmed with neo-crystallized mica, yet >95% of the 39Ar yields an 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of 299.7 ± 1.4 Ma, similar to the crystallization age. Mica from the lowest elevation sample (2060 m) yields an apparent age gradient, with a minimum age of 125 Ma that increases steadily and reaches a maximum apparent age of 295 Ma. This sample has experienced significant chloritization, and the age spectra is interpreted to reflect the

  20. Subduction petrofabrics of lawsonite eclogite and blueschist facies rocks, Sivrihisar massif, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaton, N. C.; Whitney, D. L.; Teyssier, C.; Toraman, E.

    2011-12-01

    The Sivrihisar Massif, west-central Turkey, is an exhumed subduction complex consisting of metasedimentary and metabasaltic rocks that record lawsonite blueschist and eclogite facies conditions of metamorphism and deformation. Layers of marble, quartzite, calc-schist, and blueschist contain m-scale pods of lawsonite eclogite in the NW part of the massif. All rock types preserve textures and/or mineral assemblages that provide clues to metamorphic and deformation conditions at P > 2 GPa. To the SE, lawsonite has been replaced by epidote in metabasalt, indicating higher T conditions of metamorphism; EBSD analyses of quartz in quartzite and calcite in marble also show a progressive overprinting of HP microstructures. In the region most affected by overprinting, a progressive recrystallization front is observed in a change in calcite texture in marble, a change in white mica composition in quartzite, and transformation of eclogite and blueschist to greenschist and amphibolite. In this region, HP marble is characterized by rod-shaped calcite with long axes parallel to each other and oblique to foliation; most rods have a high angle to the foliation plane but some are sub-horizontal. Calcite rods are pseudomorphs after aragonite and have a strong CPO with the c-axis close to the long axis of the rods, irrespective of the orientation of the rod long axis relative to foliation. A narrow zone of partial recrystallization exists where the calcite rods are partially replaced by chains of small equant grains that maintain the CPO of the rods. This is succeeded by a narrow zone of recrystallized, equant calcite: rods are absent but CPO remains. At higher T (amphibolite facies), calcite grains are large and equant and have no CPO. In the lawsonite eclogite-bearing unit, quartzite is characterized by a single girdle c-axis fabric with some asymmetry, and some samples show a prism point maximum. All show top-to-E (NE) shear sense, which is consistent with kinematic criteria in

  1. An early Palaeozoic supra-subduction lithosphere in the Variscides: new evidence from the Maures massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellot, Jean-Philippe; Laverne, Christine; Bronner, Georges

    2010-04-01

    Petrographic and geochemical studies of peridotites and melagabbros from the Maures massif (SE France) provide new constraints on the Early Palaeozoic evolution of the continental lithosphere in Western Europe. Peridotites occur as lenses along a unit rooted in the main Variscan suture zone. They are dominantly spinel peridotites and minor garnet-spinel peridotites. Spinel peridotites represent both residual mantle and ultramafic cumulates. Mantle-related dunites and harzburgites display high temperature textures, with olivine (Mg#0.90), orthopyroxene (Mg#0.90) and spinel (TiO2 < 0.2%; Cr#0.64-0.83) compositions typical of fore-arc upper mantle. Ultramafic cumulates are dunite adcumulates, harzburgite heteradcumulates and mesocumulates, melagabbro heteradcumulates and amphibole peridotites, with olivine (Mg#0.85-0.89), orthopyroxene (Mg#0.86-0.89) and Cr-spinel (TiO2 = 0.5-3.3%; Cr#0.7-0.98) compositions typical of ultramafic cumulates. Cr-spinel compositions of both spinel peridotite types suggest their genesis in a supra-subduction zone lithosphere. Core to rim zoning in spinel is related to the incomplete influence of regional metamorphism and serpentinisation. The covariation of major and minor elements with Al2O3 for cumulates is consistent with igneous processes involving crystal accumulation. Both mantle and cumulate dunites and harzburgites have U-shaped REE patterns and extremely low trace element contents, similar to peridotites from modern fore-arc peridotites (South Atlantic) and from ophiolites related to supra-subduction zones (Semail, Cyclops, Pindos, Troodos). Melagabbros also have U-shaped REE patterns similar to xenoliths from the Philippine island arc, but also similar to intrusive ultramafic cumulates from the Semail nappe of Oman related to a proto-subduction setting. A wehrlite has a REE pattern similar to that of amphibole peridotites reflecting metasomatism of clinopyroxene-bearing peridotites due to subduction-related fluids. The Maures

  2. Dirty or Tidy ? Contrasting peraluminous granites in a collapsing Orogen: Examples from the French Massif Central

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villaros, Arnaud; Pichavant, Michel; Moyen, Jean-François; Cuney, Michel; Deveaud, Sarah; Gloaguen, Eric; Melleton, Jérémie

    2013-04-01

    Post collisional collapse commonly enhances crustal melting. Such melting typically produces peraluminous granitic magmas. In the French Massif Central, a mid-crustal segment of the western Variscan belt, two large granitic bodies were produced during the collapse of the Variscan Belt. The St Sylvestre Leucogranitic Complex (SSyL) in the western part of the Massif Central and the Velay Migmatitic Complex (VMC) in the Eastern part. Although these two complexes are formed in similar geodynamic context they present meaningful petrological and geochemical differences. The VMC (~305 Ma) is clearly intrusive in migmatitic terranes. The migmatitic host recorded two successive melting events M3 (720 °C and 5kb) dated between 335 and 315 Ma and M4 (850°C and 4 kb) dated at 305 Ma. The compositions of the VMC are strictly H2O-undersaturated and ranges from leucogranitic to granodioritic. Three main successive granite types have been distinguished (1) A heterogeneous banded biotite granite, (2) A main biotite-cordierite granite, where cordierite can be prismatic, as cockade or pseudomorphic (3) a late magmatic with large K-feldspar phenocryst and prismatic cordierite. The compositions of the VMC granites are quite similar to typical Australian S-type granites in the sense that they also show a positive correlation between ferromagnesian abundance and aluminosity. The SSyL (~320 Ma) is intrusive in upper greenschist facies to upper amphibolite migmatitic metasediment and orthogneiss (~3kb). The compositional variety observed in the SSyL suggests a continuous trend from a moderately mafic, peraluminous magma (cd- and sill- granite) to a H2O saturated granite ("two-mica" granite) facies and finally to an extremely felsic, H2O-saturated magma. Three granitic units have been recognized in the SSyL: (1) the western "Brame Unit" composed of the less evolved cd- and sill- granite facies (2) the central "St Sylvestre Unit", composed mainly by U-rich two-mica granite, intruded by two

  3. Serpentinite Carbonation in the Pollino Massif (southern Italy) for CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmela Dichicco, Maria; Mongelli, Giovanni; Paternoster, Michele; Rizzo, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic gas emissions are projected to change future climates with potentially nontrivial impacts (Keller et al., 2008 and references therein) and the impacts of the increased CO2 concentration are, among others, the greenhouse effect, the acidification of the surface of the ocean and the fertilization of ecosystems (e.g. Huijgen and Comans, 2003). Geologic Sequestration into subsurface rock formations for long-term storage is part of a process frequently referred to as "carbon capture and storage" or CCS. A major strategy for the in situ geological sequestration of CO2 involves the reaction of CO2 with Mg-silicates, especially in the form of serpentinites, which are rocks: i) relatively abundant and widely distributed in the Earth's crust, and ii) thermodynamically convenient for the formation of Mg-carbonates (e.g., Brown et al., 2011). In nature, carbonate minerals can form during serpentinization or during hydrothermal carbonation and weathering of serpentinites whereas industrial mineral carbonation processes are commonly represented by the reaction of olivine or serpentine with CO2 to form magnesite + quartz ± H2O (Power et al., 2013). Mineral carbonation occurs naturally in the subsurface as a result of fluid-rock interactions within serpentinite, which occur during serpentinization and carbonate alteration. In situ carbonation aims to promote these reactions by injecting CO2 into porous, subsurface geological formations, such as serpentinite-hosted aquifers. In the northern sector of the Pollino Massif (southern Italy) extensively occur serpentinites (Sansone et. al., 2012) and serpentinite-hosted aquifers (Margiotta et al., 2012); both serpentinites and serpentinite-hosted aquifers are the subject of a comprehensive project devoted to their possible use for in situ geological sequestration of CO2. The serpentinites derived from a lherzolitic and subordinately harzburgitic mantle, and are within tectonic slices in association with metadolerite dykes

  4. Rockfall hazard assessment by means of the magnitude-frequency curves in the Montserrat Massif (central Catalonia, Spain): first insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janeras, Marc; Domènech, Guillem; Pons, Judit; Prat, Elisabet; Buxó, Pere

    2016-04-01

    Montserrat Massif is located about 50 km North-West of Barcelona (Catalonia, North-Eastern Spain). The rock massif is constituted by an intercalation of conglomerate and fine layers of siltstones due to the Montserrat fan-delta sedimentation within the Eocene age. The current relief is consequence of the several depositional episodes and the later tectonic uplift, leading to stepped slopes up to 250 m high, and a total height difference close to 1000 m. Montserrat Mountain has been a pilgrimage place since the settlement of the monastery, around the year 1025, and a spot of touristic interest, mostly within the last 150 years, when the first rack railway was inaugurated to reach the sanctuary. The amount of 2.4 M visitors in 2014 reveals the potential risk derived from rockfalls. To assess and mitigate this risk, a plan funded by the Catalan government is currently under development. Three rockfall mechanisms and magnitude ranges have been identified (Janeras et al. 2011): 1) physicochemical weathering causing the detachment of pebbles and aggregates (0.0001 - 0.1 m3); 2) thermic-induced tensions responsible for the generation of slabs and plates (0.1 - 10 m3); and 3) intersection of structural joints within the rock mass resulting in blocks of 10 - 10,000 m3. In order to quantify the rockfall hazard, a magnitude-frequency analysis has been performed starting from an event-based inventory gathered from field surveillance and historical research. A methodology has been applied to take the maximum profit of only 30 registers with information on volume and date. The massif has been split into several domains with sampling homogeneity. For each one, there have been defined several periods of time during which, all the rockfall events of a given volume have been recorded. Thus, the magnitude-frequency relationship, for each domain, has been calculated. Results show that the curves are well fitted by a power law with exponents ranging from -0.59 to -0.68 for magnitudes

  5. Geometry and thermal structure of the Menderes Massif Core Complex (Western Turkey), implications for thermal evolution of Hellenic subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Vincent; Jolivet, Laurent; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Tuduri, Johann; Bouchot, Vincent; Beccaletto, Laurent; Lahfid, Abdeltif

    2016-04-01

    The eastern Mediterranean region is one of the most promising geothermal areas, with more than 250 geothermal fields discovered in Turkey (Parlaktuna, 2013), in a region of active tectonics and volcanism. Although the potential of these deep geothermal resources has not been systematically investigated yet, the geothermal activity of the western Turkey area is the most recent signature of the high heat flow (120-140 mW/m²; Aydin, 2005, from Teczan, 1995). Based on Turkish data, 2084 MWt are being utilized for direct applications and most of the energy originates from the Menderes Massif (Baba et al., 2015). This large-scale thermal anomaly at the surface is correlated to a long wavelength east-west increase of surface heat flow that could reflect the thermal state of Aegean subduction zone at depth. In order to better understand and characterize the possible connections between large-scale mantle dynamics and surface processes in space and time, we study the structure and thermal evolution of the Menderes Massif. Both the acceleration of the Aegean extension in the Middle Miocene and the recent escape of Anatolia have been proposed to result from several slab tearing events, the first one being located below western Turkey and the Eastern Aegean Sea. These events have triggered the formation of metamorphic complexes with contrasted exhumation P-T paths. While the extension in the Aegean domain is well-characterized with high-temperature domes in the center and east, the succession of several metamorphic events in the Menderes Massif and their significance in terms of geodynamics is still debated. Hence, the exhumation history is key to understanding the temporal and spatial distribution of the thermal signature of the Hellenic slab and its tearing/detachment. The Menderes Massif displays a large variety of metamorphic facies, from the Barrovian type metamorphism in the Eocene (the Main Menderes Metamorphism) to the coeval (?) HP-LT metamorphism on the southernmost

  6. Variable viral and grazer control of prokaryotic growth efficiency in temperate freshwater lakes (French Massif Central).

    PubMed

    Ram, A S Pradeep; Palesse, S; Colombet, J; Sabart, M; Perriere, F; Sime-Ngando, T

    2013-11-01

    The effects of viral lysis and heterotrophic nanoflagellate grazing (top down forces) on prokaryotic mortality and their subsequent impact on their metabolism were estimated in the upper euphotic and deeper aphotic depth of 11 freshwater lakes located in the French Massif Central. The standing stocks of viruses (VA) and heterotrophic nanoflagellate (HNF) varied significantly (p < 0.05) with sampled depth. VA was substantially (twofold on an average) and significantly higher (p < 0.03) at the aphotic compared to euphotic depth, whereas the reverse was true (p < 0.02) for HNF. Among the prokaryote subgroup, high nucleic acid content prokaryotes explained for significant variability in the total VA and served as principle host target for viral proliferation. Like standing stocks, flagellate grazing and viral infection rates also followed similar patterns. In the investigated lakes, the mechanism for regulating prokaryotic production varied with sampled depth from grazing control in the euphotic to control due to viral lysis in the aphotic. We also tested the hypothesis of top down control on prokaryotic growth efficiency (PGE, which we used as an index of prokaryotic physiological and energetic status at the community level) at both depths. Overall, among the studied lakes, PGE varied widely (4-51 %) with significantly (p < 0.05) lower values in the aphotic (mean = 18 ± 4 %) than euphotic depth (mean = 32 ± 9 %). Contrasting observations on the top down control of PGE between sampled depths were observed. The presence of grazers was found to stimulate PGE at the euphotic, whereas viruses through their lytic infection had a strong negative impact on PGE at the aphotic depth. Such observed differences in PGE and the mechanism controlling prokaryotic production with depth could eventually have strong implication on carbon and nutrient flux patterns in the studied lakes.

  7. The rare earth element potential of kaolin deposits in the Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhn, S.; Frimmel, H. E.; Pašava, J.

    2014-12-01

    Four kaolin deposits in the Bohemian Massif were studied in order to assess the potential for the recovery of rare earth elements (REE) as by-products from the residue after extraction and refining of the raw kaolin. The behaviour of REE + Y during kaolinitization was found to be largely a function of pre-alteration mineralogy. In the examples studied, i.e. granite-derived deposits of Kriechbaum (Austria) and Božičany, and arkose-derived deposits of Kaznějov and Podbořany (all Czech Republic), the REE + Y are predominantly hosted by monazite which has remained unaffected by kaolinitization. The overall REE + Y content of the variably kaolinitized rocks is strongly dependent on their genesis. While ion adsorption plays only a minor role in the concentration of REE + Y in the studied kaolinitized rocks, the processing and refining of the raw kaolin leads to residues that are enriched in REE + Y by a factor of up to 40. The use of a magnetic separator and a hydrocyclone in the processing of the raw material can yield REE + Y contents of as much as 0.77 wt%. Although this value compares well with the REE + Y concentration in some potentially economic REE + Y projects elsewhere, the overall tonnage of the (REE + Y)-enriched residue is by far not sufficient to consider economic extraction of REE + Y as by-product. Our results are most probably applicable also to other kaolin deposits derived from the weathering of Hercynian basement granites elsewhere (e.g. in Saxonia and Bavaria, Germany). Overall, the potential for REE + Y production as by-product from kaolin mining has to be regarded as minimal.

  8. Alpine thermal events in the central Serbo-Macedonian Massif (southeastern Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antić, Milorad D.; Kounov, Alexandre; Trivić, Branislav; Wetzel, Andreas; Peytcheva, Irena; von Quadt, Albrecht

    2016-07-01

    The Serbo-Macedonian Massif (SMM) represents a crystalline belt situated between the two diverging branches of the Eastern Mediterranean Alpine orogenic system, the northeast-vergent Carpatho-Balkanides and the southwest-vergent Dinarides and the Hellenides. We have applied fission-track analysis on apatites and zircons, coupled with structural field observations in order to reveal the low-temperature evolution of the SMM. Additionally, the age and geochemistry of the Palaeogene igneous rocks (i.e. Surdulica granodiorite and dacitic volcanic rocks) were determined by the LA-ICPMS U-Pb geochronology of zircons and geochemical analysis of main and trace elements in whole-rock samples. Three major cooling stages have been distinguished from the late Early Cretaceous to the Oligocene. The first stage represents rapid cooling through the partial annealing zones of zircon and apatite (300-60 °C) during the late Early to early Late Cretaceous (ca. 110-ca. 90 Ma). It is related to a post-orogenic extension following the regional nappe-stacking event in the Early Cretaceous. Middle to late Eocene (ca. 48-ca. 39 Ma) cooling is related to the formation of the Crnook-Osogovo-Lisets extensional dome and its exhumation along low-angle normal faults. The third event is related to regional cooling following the late Eocene magmatic pulse. During this pulse, the areas surrounding the Surdulica granodiorite (36 ± 1 Ma) and the slightly younger volcanic bodies (ca. 35 Ma) have reached temperatures higher than the apatite closure temperature (120 °C) but lower than ca. 250 °C. The geochemistry of the igneous samples reveals late- to post-orogenic tectonic setting during magma generation.

  9. High-pressure metamorphism in the Early Variscan subduction complex of the SW Iberian Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio Pascual, Francisco J.; Matas, Jerónimo; Martín Parra, Luis M.

    2013-04-01

    Several units exposed in the boundary area of the Ossa Morena Zone (OMZ) and the South Portuguese Zone (SPZ) preserve petrographic and thermobarometric evidence for an early metamorphic episode (M1), developed under a high-P, low to intermediate-T gradient, related to Early Variscan subduction in the SW Iberian Massif. In the OMZ, these are the Cubito-Moura Unit (Pmin ~ 9.2 kbar and T = 395 ± 45 °C), blueschists from its basal mélange (Pmin ~ 12.4 kbar and T = 310 ± 11 °C), and the underlying Fuenteheridos Group (P = 10.9 ± 0.4 kbar and T = 449 ± 31 °C). The equivalent units in the SPZ are the La Minilla Formation (P = 8.7 ± 0.4 kbar and T = 388 ± 16 °C) and the lawsonite pseudomorphs-bearing Pulo do Lobo Formation. All these units formed part of an approximately NE verging orogenic wedge (present coordinates) developed by the accretion of subducted slabs of the outermost margin of Gondwana and other elements of the Rheic Ocean realm, from at least the Middle Devonian to the lowermost Tournaisian. High-pressure rocks were subsequently emplaced on more internal zones of the OMZ that only experienced a younger high-T, low to intermediate-P metamorphism (M2). This high-T event was coeval with magmatic activity from the uppermost Devonian to the Middle Mississippian, probably as a consequence of transtensional lithospheric thinning and/or delamination of the lower crust and mantle lithosphere of the Gondwana margin. Pre-Late Devonian synorogenic sedimentation in forearc and back-arc basins of the subduction complex evolved to a Late Devonian-Middle Mississippian foreland basin system in early collisional stages. Finally, a new Middle-Late Mississippian fold-and-thrust belt with opposite (SW) vergence and new foreland basins developed during late collisional stages.

  10. The structural evolution of dunite and chromite ore from the Kharcheruz Massif, the Polar Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshov, A. I.; Yurichev, A. N.

    2016-03-01

    The Kharcheruz block of the Syumkeu ultramafic massif is a southern fragment of the Khadata ophiolitic belt, which closes the ophiolites of the Polar Urals in the north. The block, striking in the latitudinal direction, is sheetlike in shape and primarily composed of dunite with nearly latitudinal zones of chromite mineralization. The dunites are subject to ductile deformation various in intensity, and this variability is displayed in their heterogeneous structure and texture. The following microstructural types are distinguished by the variety and intensity of their deformation: protogranular → mesogranular → porphyroclastic → porphyrolath → mosaic. The petrostructural patterns of olivines pertaining to the above types reflect conditions of ductile deformation. Protogranular dunite is formed as a product of pyroxene decomposition in mantle harzburgite accompanied by annealing recrystallization at a temperature above 1000°C. Mesogranular dunite is formed as a product of high-temperature plastic flow by means of translation sliding in olivine and diffuse creep at a temperature dropping from 1000 to 650°C and at a low rate (<10-6 s-1). Cr-spinel segregates into linear zones of disseminated chromite mineralization within zones of bedding-plane plastic flow. Porphyroclastic and mosaic dunites are formed under conditions of intense deformation at a temperature of 500-750°C and at a significant rate (>10-6 s-1). Dunite is deformed by means of syntectonic recrystallization and subordinate translation gliding. Linear zones of disseminated mineralization undergo destruction thereby, with the formation of lenticular chromitite bodies from which ductile olivine is squeezed out with the formation of densely impregnated and massive ores.

  11. Microstructural evolution of the Yugu peridotites in the Gyeonggi Massif, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M.; Jung, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Yugu peridotite is the largest and freshest ultramafic body in the Gyeonggi Massif, Korean Peninsula, which potentially has a tectonic affinity to the eastward extension of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu collision belt in China. In spite of its tectonic and rheological importance, only few mineralogical and petrological studies have been reported from Yugu peridotite. In order to understand the microstructural evolution of the Yugu peridotites, we conducted a detailed analysis of the microstructures and petro-fabrics. The majority of Yugu peridotite body is significantly serpentinized, and it consists predominantly of spinel harzburgite together with minor lherzolite, dunite, and clinopyroxenite. We collected peridotites from mainly two areas (northwestern and southwestern parts) of the Yugu ultramafic body, and all samples are spinel harzburgites consisting of olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, spinel, and amphibole. These samples have similar mineralogy except for the varied amount of clinopyroxene and amphibole. These mineral contents are generally increasing from proto-mylonite peridotites to mylonite peridotites. Based on microstructural characteristics of highly deformed peridotites (especially grain-size of olivine), we classified the samples into four textural types, which are proto-mylonite, proto-mylonite to mylonite transition, mylonite, and ultra-mylonite. Depending on the texture of specimen, it is found that the lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) of olivine varies from A-type (proto-mylonite) via D-type like (mylonite) to E-type (ultra-mylonite). The fabric strength of olivine (M-index and J-index) systematically decreases with decreasing grain-size of olivine from proto-mylonite via mylonite to ultra-mylonite. The cause of fabric evolution in the Yugu peridotites will be discussed.

  12. Conventional U-Pb dating versus SHRIMP of the Santa Barbara Granite Massif, Rondonia, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparrenberger, I.; Bettencourt, Jorge S.; Tosdal, R.M.; Wooden, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The Santa Ba??rbara Granite Massif is part of the Younger Granites of Rondo??nia (998 - 974 Ma) and is included in the Rondo??nia Tin Province (SW Amazonian Craton). It comprises three highly fractionated metaluminous to peraluminous within-plate A-type granite units emplaced in older medium-grade metamorphic rocks. Sn-mineralization is closely associated with the late-stage unit. U-Pb monazite conventional dating of the early-stage Serra do Cicero facies and late-stage Serra Azul facies yielded ages of 993 ?? 5 Ma and 989 ?? 13 Ma, respectively. Conventional multigrain U-Pb isotope analyses of zircon demonstrate isotopic disturbance (discordance) and the preservation of inherited older zircons of several different ages and thus yield little about the ages of Sn-granite magmatism. SHRIMP U-Pb ages for the Santa Ba??rbara facies association yielded a 207Pb/206Pb weighted-mean age of 978 ?? 13 Ma. The textural complexity of the zircon crystals of the Santa Ba??rbara facies association, the variable concentrations of U, Th and Pb, as well as the mixed inheritance of zircon populations are major obstacles to using conventional multigrain U-Pb isotopic analyses. Sm-Nd model ages and ??Nd (T) values reveal anomalous isotopic data, attesting to the complex isotopic behaviour within these highly fractionated granites. Thus, SHRIMP U-Pb zircon and conventional U-Pb monazite dating methods are the most appropriate to constrain the crystallization age of the Sn-bearing granite systems in the Rondo??nia Tin Province.

  13. The magmatic history of the Vetas-California mining district, Santander Massif, Eastern Cordillera, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantilla Figueroa, Luis C.; Bissig, Thomas; Valencia, Víctor; Hart, Craig J. R.

    2013-08-01

    The Vetas-California Mining District (VCMD), located in the central part of the Santander Massif (Colombian Eastern Cordillera), based on U-Pb dating of zircons, records the following principal tectono-magmatic events: (1) the Grenville Orogenic event and high grade metamorphism and migmatitization between ˜1240 and 957 Ma; (2) early Ordovician calc-alkalic magmatism, which was synchronous with the Caparonensis-Famatinian Orogeny (˜477 Ma); (3) middle to late Ordovician post-collisional calc-alkalic magmatism (˜466-436 Ma); (4) late Triassic to early Jurassic magmatism between ˜204 and 196 Ma, characterized by both S- and I-type calc-alkalic intrusions and; (5) a late Miocene shallowly emplaced intermediate calc-alkaline intrusions (10.9 ± 0.2 and 8.4 ± 0.2 Ma). The presence of even younger igneous rocks is possible, given the widespread magmatic-hydrothermal alteration affecting all rock units in the area. The igneous rocks from the late Triassic-early Jurassic magmatic episodes are the volumetrically most important igneous rocks in the study area and in the Colombian Eastern Cordillera. They can be divided into three groups based on their field relationships, whole rock geochemistry and geochronology. These are early leucogranites herein termed Alaskites-I (204-199 Ma), Intermediate rocks (199-198 Ma), and late leucogranites, herein referred to as Alaskites-II (198-196 Ma). This Mesozoic magmatism is reflecting subtle changes in the crustal stress in a setting above an oblique subduction of the Panthalassa plate beneath Pangea. The lower Cretaceous siliciclastic Tambor Formation has detrital zircons of the same age populations as the metamorphic and igneous rocks present in the study area, suggesting that the provenance is related to the erosion of these local rocks during the late Jurassic or early Cretaceous, implying a local supply of sediments to the local depositional basins.

  14. Relationship between Bajo Pobre and Chon Aike formations (Deseado Massif, Patagonia, Argentina):a melt inclusions study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busà, T.; Bellieni, G.; Fernandez, R.; Hecheveste, H.; Piccirillo, E. M.

    2003-04-01

    The Deseado Massif covers the centre-east of the Santa Cruz Province, in the extra-Andean Patagonia. Although the Deseado Massif is mainly composed of silicic volcanic rocks (Chon Aike Formation, CA; 151.5 ±0.5 - 177.8 ±0.4 Ma), mafic and intermediate volcanites (Bajo Pobre Formation, BP; 152.7 ±0.5 and 164 ±0.3 Ma) outcrop largely in the central part of the Massif. In this paper quarz-trapped melt inclusions (rhyolitic in composition) from selected samples of the BP and the CA are analysed. On the basis of major elements content, for BP the sequence from andesite (BP whole rock) to ryholite (trapped as inclusions in quartz) can be modelled by simple fractional crystallisation of ortho- and clinopyroxene, plagioclase, quartz and apatite. As regards trace elements, a good calculated/measured ratio (around 1 ±0.2) is obtained assuming only a relatively high apatite fractionation. Since the apatite fractionation amount is not acceptable for major elements, the evolution of BP Formation cannot be modelled by a simple process of fractional crystallisation, and a contamination process probably occurred. The sequence from BP to CA cannot be modelled by fractional crystallisation. 30% batch melting of BP andesite (BP whole rock) produces a magma from which the CA ryholites (trapped as inclusions in quartz) can be obtained by Rayleigh fractional crystallisation of ortho- and clinopyroxene, plagioclase, magnetite, quartz, apatite and small amounts of zircon and minor allanite. Since the latter one was not observed in the analysed sample, a contamination process during magma evolution cannot be completely excluded. Finally, on the basis of the different trace elements concentration (Nb anomaly, different content in LILE, B/Be and B/Nb), it is possible to suppose that, at the time of the BP and CA emplacement, a changing in the tectonic setting, from subduction to a lithospheric extension, was active.

  15. Perceptions of social and environmental changes in a Mediterranean forest during the last 100 years: the Gavarres Massif.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carreras, Roser; Ubeda, Xavier; Outeiro, Luís; Asperó, Francesc

    2014-06-01

    During the last century the landscape of the mid-Mediterranean mountains has undergone major transformations. The precipitous decline in the economic viability of forest products has engendered ever-thickening forests and agricultural lands have reverted to forest land cover. The related exodus of existing inhabitants since 1960 has led to new styles of occupancy: residential and touristic land uses have emerged while the primary and secondary sectors have largely disappeared. The object of the present study is to review how these transformations have developed in a specific area of north-eastern of Catalonia, known as the Gavarres Massif. The study applies a qualitative approach, based on interviews with stakeholders including active members of the local community and others who utilize or visit the area, all of whom are representatives of different social groups with a wide range of interests and points of view with regard to the massif. The information collected from the perspectives and opinions of the participants is coupled with objective data about the area. The result of this investigation is a rich variety of perceptions on landscape and social transformation and its current functional dynamics. Analyzing the information obtained allows us to understand the fact that the disappearance of the rural world is directly related to the collapse of an entire economic system that relied on the environment. In this study, two divergent points of view arise, one which supports recovering past landscapes and another which favours managing changes, conserving the existing landscape. Proposals for the current and future territorial management of Les Gavarres are presented. The diversity of opinions which emerges with regard to managing necessary changes in the massif emphasizes the importance of increased social dialogue.

  16. New insights into serpentinization at Atlantis Massif, 30° N Mid-Atlantic Ridge, using wide-angle seismic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. C.; Collins, J. A.; Canales, J. P.; Tucholke, B. E.; Detrick, R. S.

    2004-12-01

    The Atlantis Massif is an ultramafic core complex that was formed in the last 1.5-2.0 Myr at the intersection of the Atlantis Fracture Zone and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 30° N by tectonic extension along a long-lived oceanic detachment fault. The exhumation of deep crustal and upper mantle rocks in the footwall of the fault provides an excellent tectonic window into the oceanic lithosphere. The Atlantis Massif will be the subject of a deep-drilling investigation for upcoming IODP Legs 304 and 305 (November 2004 - February 2005). Near-offset seismic reflection data (offset up to 3 km) across the core complex imaged a reflection at 0.2-0.25 s below the seafloor, which has been interpreted as an older detachment fault [Canales et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 222, 543-560, 2004]. The application of a non-conventional multichannel seismic (MCS) imaging technique allows us to include wide-angle seismic reflection data (offset up to 6 km) in the imaging process. We find that this reflection is continuous along most of the profiles and is present beneath the exposed detachment surface over an area larger than previously estimated from the near-offset MCS sections. Complementary data from on-bottom shots and ocean bottom seismometers constrain both P and S-wave velocities down to 0.5-0.6 km below the seafloor, at approximately the depth of the widespread reflection. The combined seismic data suggest that the interval between the seafloor and the reflection contains serpentinized peridotite. We quantify the amount and distribution of alteration in this layer by using an effective medium theory, and we interpret the results to shed new light on serpentinization processes at Atlantis Massif. IODP drilling results this winter will allow us to compare our interpretation to ground-truth measurements.

  17. Record of metal workshops in peat deposits: history and environmental impact on the Mont Lozère Massif, France.

    PubMed

    Baron, S; Lavoie, M; Ploquin, A; Carignan, J; Pulido, M; De Beaulieu, J L

    2005-07-15

    This study aims to document the history of the metallurgical activities on the Mont Lozère massif in the Cévennes Mountains in Southern France. Many medieval sites of metallurgical wastes (slags) have been reported on the massif. These sites are thought to represent ancient lead workshops. The impact of past metallurgical activity on the environment was studied using geochemical and palynological techniques on a core collected in the Narses Mortes peatland near medieval smelting area. Two main periods of smelting activities during the last 2200 years were revealed bythe lead concentration and isotopic composition along the core profile: the first period corresponds to the Gallic period (approximately ca. 300 B.C. to ca. 20 A.D.) and the second one to the Medieval period (approximately ca. 1000-1300 A.D.). Forest disturbances are associated with lead anomalies for the two metallurgical activities described. The impact of the first metallurgy was moderate during the Gallic period, during which beech and birch were the tree species most affected. The second period corresponds to the observed slag present in the field. Along with agropastoral activities, the medieval smelting activities led to the definitive disappearance of all tree species on the summit zones of Mont Lozère. The abundance of ore resources and the earlier presence of wood on the massif justify the presence of workshops at this place. The relationship between mines and ores has been documented for the Medieval period. There is no archaeological proof concerning the Gallic activity. Nevertheless, 2500-2100 years ago, the borders of the Gallic Tribe territory, named the Gabales, were the same as the present-day borders of the Lozère department. Julius Caesar reported the existence of this tribe in 58 B.C. in "De Bello Gallico", and in Strabon (Book IV, 2.2) the "Gabales silver" and a "treasure of Gabales" are mentioned, but to this day, they have not been found.

  18. Geological and geochemical reconnaissance in the central Santander Massif, Departments of Santander and Norte de Santander, Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, James George

    1976-01-01

    The central Santander Massif is composed of Precambrian Bucaramanga Gneiss and pre-Devonian Silgara Formation intruded by Mesozoic quartz diorite, quartz monzonite, and alaskite and Cretaceous or younger porphyry. Triassic (Bocas Formation), Jurassic (Jordan and Giron Formations).and Cretaceous (Tambor, Rosa Blanca, Paja, Tablazo, Simiti, La Luna, and Umir Formations) sedimentary rocks overlie the metamorphic rocks and are younger than most of the intrusions. A geological and geochemical reconnaissance of part of the central Santander Massif included the Vetas and California gold districts. At Vetas the gold is generally in brecciated aphanitic quartz and phyllonite. Dark-gray material in the ore may be graphite. The ore veins follow steep west-northwest- and north-northeast-striking fracture zones. No new gold deposits were found. Additional geochemical studies should concentrate on western Loma Pozo del Rey and on improvement of the gold extraction process. At California the gold is in pyritiferous quartz veins and quartz breccia. Ore containing black sooty material (graphite?) is highly radioactive. Some of the mineralization is post-Lower Cretaceous. Soil samples indicate that gold deposits lie under the thick blanket of soil on the ridges above the zone of mining. Three principal gold targets are outlined by gold and associated minerals in pan concentrates. The close relation of gold and copper anomalies suggests that copper may be useful as a pathfinder for gold elsewhere in the region. Based on occurrences of gold or high concentrations of pyrite or chalcopyrite in pan concentrates and on analytical data, eight potential gold targets are outlined in the central massif. Reconnaissance of the surrounding region is warranted.

  19. 10Be exposure dating of onset and timing of Neoglacial glacier advances in the Ecrins massif, French Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roy, Melaine; Deline, Philip; Carcaillet, Julien

    2013-04-01

    Alpine glaciers are known to be highly sensitive to change in temperature and precipitation on decadal to centennial time scales. For two decades, numerous studies on Holocene climate revealed a period marked by abrupt cold reversals (e.g. 8.2 ka event) with increasing frequency and magnitude after the Holocene Climatic Optimum, during the so-called Neoglacial period (roughly the last 4 ka). State-of-the-art studies indicate that largest alpine glaciers failed to exceed their Little Ice Age (LIA) extent during these LIA Type-Events, unlike certain smaller glaciers. In the French Alps, very few investigations were conducted to date on Holocene glacier variability. Almost all studies focused on the most glacierized area: the Mont Blanc massif, where suitable organic remains to apply radiocarbon dating and dendrochronology are available. Other glacierized massifs are poorly studied, without any Holocene/Neoglacial glacier chronology up to now. Here, we present the results of a study focusing on six glacier forefields distributed in the Ecrins massif. Detailed geomorphological mapping and in-situ produced 10Be dating were carried on multi-crested so-called "LIA composite moraines". The targeted ridges are located in distal position with respect to late LIA drift in order to identify Holocene cold pulses that have led to (or slightly exceeded) LIA-like glacier extent. The 35 10Be ages obtained revealed that the onset of Neoglacial occurred at ~4.2 ka, and that at least two other advances were recorded at ~3.3 ka and ~0.85 ka. One site has yielded a nearly complete Neoglacial record as four discrete events have been dated. These results highlight the potential of lateral moraine ridge stratigraphy which could yield accurate record when sufficiently preserved, but also the different preservation of landforms along the glacier margin which could censor the record.

  20. U-Pb dating and composition of inclusions in zircon from ophiolitic gabbro of the Klyuchevsk massif (Middle Urals): Results and geological interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, V. N.; Ivanov, K. S.; Koroteev, V. A.; Erokhin, Yu. V.; Khiller, V. V.

    2016-06-01

    The U-Pb (SHRIMP) dating of zircon from the layered complex of ophiolitic gabbro in the Klyuchevsk massif yielded an age of 456 ± 6 Ma corresponding within the limits of error to zircon dates obtained for other petrographic varieties from this massif. The investigation of the composition of silicate inclusions in dated zircon grains revealed that they are represented by typical metamorphic minerals: albite, zoisite, and secondary amphiboles. The data indicate that zircon was crystallized during metamorphic transformations of gabbroids and its U-Pb age (Late Ordovician-Silurian) is characteristic of all rocks in the ophiolite association of the Klyuchevsk massif indicating the age of metamorphism, not their formation time.

  1. Sleep Hygiene and Sleep Quality in Italian and American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    LeBOURGEOIS, MONIQUE K.; GIANNOTTI, FLAVIA; CORTESI, FLAVIA; WOLFSON, AMY; HARSH, JOHN

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated cross-cultural differences in adolescent sleep hygiene and sleep quality. Participants were 1348 students (655 males; 693 females) aged 12–17 years from public school systems in Rome, Italy (n = 776) and Southern Mississippi (n = 572). Participants completed the Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale and the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale. Reported sleep hygiene and sleep quality were significantly better for Italian than American adolescents. A moderate linear relationship was observed between sleep hygiene and sleep quality in both samples (Italians: R = .40; Americans: R = .46). Separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that sleep hygiene accounted for significant variance in sleep quality, even after controlling for demographic and health variables (Italians: R2 = .38; Americans: R2 = .44). The results of this study suggest that there are cultural differences in sleep quality and sleep hygiene practices, and that sleep hygiene practices are importantly related to adolescent sleep quality. PMID:15251909

  2. Immigration policy and birth weight: Positive externalities in Italian law.

    PubMed

    Salmasi, Luca; Pieroni, Luca

    2015-09-01

    A decade ago, the political party of the Italian center-right voted a law restricting immigration. The law became effective in early 2005, when the Italian parliament approved the decree for its application, but one of its articles, granting amnesty for illegal immigrant workers, became immediately effective in July 2002. As a result, 650,000 immigrants were granted the status of foreign nationals in Italy. In this paper, we examine whether the increase in the prevalence of "regular immigrants" has led to an improvement in health outcomes of babies born to migrant women, measured in terms of birth weight. Two hitherto unexploited birth sample surveys published by Italian Institute of Statistics were used for this study. Our estimates show that regularized immigration reduced the probability of low birth weight.

  3. Developing professionalism in Italian medical students: an educational framework

    PubMed Central

    Consorti, Fabrizio; Notarangelo, Mariagiovanna; Potasso, Laura; Toscano, Emanuele

    2012-01-01

    Developing and assessing professionalism in medical students is an international challenge. This paper, based on preliminary research at the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry of the University Sapienza of Rome, Italy, briefly summarizes the main issues and experiences in developing professionalism among Italian undergraduate medical students. It concludes with a proposed framework suited to the Italian medical curricula. In our educational system, professionalism is defined as the context of medical expertise, the combination of rules, conditions, and meanings in which the act of health care occurs, as well as the ability of critical reflection on technical expertise. It is a multidimensional construct of ethical, sociocultural, relational, and epistemological competencies, requiring a wide range of tools for assessment. With reference to Italian versions of validated tools of measure, vignettes, videos, and a student’s portfolio of reflective writings, this paper outlines the manner in which education for professionalism is embedded in the existing curriculum and overall framework of assessment. PMID:23762002

  4. [Biology and utopia. Adriano Buzzati Traverso and Italian science].

    PubMed

    Capocci, Mauro

    2006-01-01

    The paper aims at reconstructing the scientific career of Adriano Buzzati-Traverso, a prominent character in Italian biology after the Second World War. In the Fifties and the Sixties, he was able to introduce the new molecular approaches in life sciences. A great scientific manager, much ahead of his times (at least in Italy), he successfully organized the first postgraduate courses of genetics and molecular biology in Pavia, and later created the International Laboratory of Genetics and Biophysics in Naples. Between 1962 and 1969, this institution gained the greatest respect in the scientific community, but the political turmoil in 1969 abruptly ended this fascinating attempt to modernize Italian science. Buzzati-Traverso's personal archive allows us to reconstruct the detailed history of his scientific enterprises, focusing particularly on the hard struggle to modernize management and policies of Italian science.

  5. The health of Italian prison inmates today: a critical approach.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Maurizio

    2010-07-01

    Despite declarations about health and social inequalities by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Italian Constitution, the Italian penitentiary health system often does not meet the needs of the prisoners. This article summarizes the findings concerning contextual and structural reasons for these deficiencies (in part as reported by a prisoner rights association) and describes an Italian Ministry of Justice project to promote health by creating homogeneous groups of comorbidity for epidemiological study. Data and analysis on certain pathologies in the prison population are presented with special regard to addictions, hepatitis C virus, and cardiovascular problems. One etiological hypothesis focuses on the factors of promiscuity, excessive smoking, sedentary life, and stress. The conclusion is that prisoner health is a problem not only of inmates but for society.

  6. The migmatite-gneiss complex of the Chuya-Kendyktas sialic massif (Southern Kazakhstan): Structure and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretyakov, A. A.; Degtyarev, K. E.; Kovach, V. P.; Kotov, A. B.; Salnikova, E. B.; Pilitsyna, A. V.; Yakovleva, S. Z.

    2016-03-01

    A migmatite-gneiss complex made up of paraand orthogneisses and crystalline schists with bodies of ultrametagenic tonalites is distinguished in the basement of the northwestern part of the Chuya-Kendyktas Massif. ID-TIMS dating of accessory zircon from orthogneisses and ultrametagenic tonalites in combination with LA-ICP-MS analyses of detrital zircons from garnet-biotite paragneisses showed that the migmatite-gneiss complex was formed after protoliths with an age within 800-770 Ma and completed its evolution in the first half of the Neoproterozoic.

  7. Quantification of low elevation relief vertical movements from global sea level curves and scattered marine deposits (Armorican Massif, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessin, Paul; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Bauer, Hugues; Schroëtter, Jean-Michel

    2016-04-01

    Amplitudes of vertical movements, amount of burial or of denudation are often too low or too old to be quantified from thermochronological or cosmogenic isotopes methods. This is the case for the vertical movements experienced by European Variscan basements of low relief during Cenozoic times. Some of these basements bear scattered thin Cenozoic marine sediments. Thus, we proposed to quantify Cenozoic vertical movements from i) current elevation of well dated marine sediments scattered on these basements, corrected from their bathymetry of deposition provided by their sedimentary facies and ii) elevation of global sea level at time of sediment deposition from a new compilation of available curves. This compilation highlights that i) curve which takes into account ocean basin volume change are consistent for the ca. 100 to 40 Ma "greenhouse" period whereas ii) curves based on coreholes backstripping methods better reflect global sea level changes since ca. 40 Ma. For their respective time intervals, both are in accordance with curves which together take into account ocean water volume and ocean basin volume changes. We quantify Cenozoic vertical movements of the Armorican Massif showcase. This massif is French Variscan basement of low relief (elevation < 420 m), two times buried then exhumed during Jurassic to Paleocene times, which bears numerous Cenozoic remnants of marine sediments of four periods: Bartonian, Rupelian, Langhian-Serravalian and Piacezian-Gelasian. We evidence a tree-step history of Cenozoic vertical movements and deformation: i) 38-34 Ma: a phase of near stability of the massif related to no to low deformation period for the Western Europe; ii) 30-16 Ma: a phase of low subsidence which coeval to a long wavelength subsidence of Western Europe which is proposed to be mantle-driven (dynamic topography); iii) 3.5-0 Ma: an overall bulging phase of the massif related to Apulia-Eurasia convergences due to Africa-Apulia and Iberia plates convergence which

  8. Thermal history and extensional exhumation of a high-temperature crystalline complex (Hırkadağ Massif, Central Anatolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Côme; Kalijn Peters, M.; Wehrens, Philip C.; Brouwer, Fraukje M.; van Roermund, Herman L. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex (CACC) is a large continental domain exposed in central Turkey that was affected by high temperature metamorphism during the Late Cretaceous. As a result of this event, Paleozoic sediments became metamorphosed, initially under Barrovian conditions, then overprinted locally by high temperature-low pressure metamorphism, and intruded by widespread batholiths. In this study we focus on the crystalline Hırkadağ Massif located in the central part of the CACC, where we applied an integrated approach involving metamorphic, structural and geochronological analysis in order to elucidate its tectonic history from burial to exhumation. Our metamorphic study reveals that conditions of metamorphism reached ~ 7-8 kbar/700 °C and were relatively homogeneous at the scale of the Hırkadağ Massif. Coeval with the regional metamorphism, the rocks were intensely deformed as reflected by isoclinal folding, the development of a pervasive foliation and top-to-the-SE shearing. This was followed by decompression to pressures of ~ 3-4 kbar at 800 °C, which may be linked to the emplacement of local granodioritic intrusions at ~ 77 Ma. Subsequent cooling of the Hırkadağ high-grade metamorphic and intrusive rocks is indicated by 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages of 68.8 ± 0.9 Ma (biotite) and 67.0 ± 1.2 Ma (potassium feldspar). Evidence for tectonic exhumation has been identified within the marbles at the NE margin of the Hırkadağ Massif, in the form of discrete protomylonitic and mylonitic shear bands showing a consistent N40-60 top-to-NE sense of shear. Further east, the contact between brecciated mylonitic marbles and non-metamorphic conglomerates preserves the typical structural features of an upper-crustal detachment fault. Restoration of the Hırkadağ Massif and the CACC to their late Cretaceous configuration suggests that the LP-HT metamorphism, magmatism and extensional structures evolved as a result of the development and exhumation of a ~ N

  9. Research the dynamical characteristics of slow deformation waves as a rock massif response to explosions during its outworking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Oleg; Shipeev, Oleg

    2015-04-01

    As a result of long-term natural geomechanics and geophysical observation data on mines of complex ore rocks, generalization of the non-linear reaction of rock massif to heavy dynamic influences have been established. In addition, pendulum type waves have been observed and the sources of them have been located inside geoblocks of different hierarchic levels (Oparin et al., 2010). At the same time, these waves propagate with wide low (compared with seismic waves) velocity values (Kurlenja et al., 1993; Oparin et al., 2006). Research into the massif state with the use of the dynamic systems theory approach (Naimark et al., 2009; Chulichkov, 2003; Hachay et al., 2010) has been developed to ascertain the criteria of dissipative regimes changing for real rock massifs, which are under heavy man-caused influence. To realize such research we used the data from the seismic record of the Tashtagol mine for the two-year period from June 2006 up to June 2008. We used the space-time coordinates for all dynamic massif event responses, which occurred during that period inside the mine space and for the explosions - values fixed by seismic station energy (Hachay et al., 2010). The phase diagrams of the massif state for the northern and southern parts of the mine space were plotted in coordinates Ev(t) and d(Ev(t))/dt, t - time - in parts of 24 hours, Ev - the dissipated massive seismic energy - in joules. Hachay et al., (2010) analysed the morphology of seismic response phase trajectories on the explosion influences during different serial intervals in the southern part of the mine. In that period, according to data for different explosions in the mine, the majority of the total energy had been injected into the southern part of the mine. Moreover, at the end of 2007, just in the southern part, the strongest rock burst during the whole history of the working mine happened. We developed a new processing method of seismological information in real, which we can use directly in the

  10. Design of short Italian sentences to assess near vision performance

    PubMed Central

    Calossi, Antonio; Boccardo, Laura; Fossetti, Alessandro; Radner, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop and validate 28 short Italian sentences for the construction of the Italian version of the Radner Reading Chart to simultaneously measure near visual acuity and reading speed. Methods 41 sentences were constructed in Italian language, following the procedure defined by Radner, to obtain “sentence optotypes” with comparable structure and with the same lexical and grammatical difficulty. Sentences were statistically selected and used in 211 normal, non-presbyopic, native Italian-speaking persons. The most equally matched sentences in terms of reading speed and number of reading errors were selected. To assess the validity of the reading speed results obtained with the 28 selected short sentences, we compared the reading speed and reading errors with the average obtained by reading two long 4th-grade paragraphs (97 and 90 words) under the same conditions. Results The overall mean reading speed of the tested persons was 189 ± 26 wpm. The 28 sentences more similar in terms of reading times were selected, achieving a coefficient of variation (the relative SD) of 2.2%. The reliability analyses yielded an overall Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.98. The correlation between the short sentences and the long paragraph was high (r = 0.85, P < 0.0001). Conclusions The 28 short single Italian sentences optotypes were highly comparable in syntactical structure, number, position, and length of words, lexical difficulty, and reading length. The resulting Italian Radner Reading Chart is precise (high consistency) and practical (short sentences) and therefore useful for research and clinical practice to simultaneously measure near reading acuity and reading speed. PMID:25323641

  11. The Italian neurological schools of the twentieth century

    PubMed Central

    Bonavita, Vincenzo

    Summary This lecture is not a historical lecture, but rather a journey through the “story” of neurology in Italy from its “prehistoric” beginning in the 19th century. The birth of a neurological school is that magical moment in which a founder attracts disciples: the more capable this founder is of transmitting methodology and allowing his pupils intellectual freedom, the longer his memory will live on. On the basis of this idea, the scientific biography of a few leading Italian neurologists of the 20th century is outlined, starting from Leonardo Bianchi, founder of the Italian Neurological Society in 1907. PMID:21729589

  12. The systematic status of the Italian wolf Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowak, R.M.; Federoff, N.E.

    2002-01-01

    In the past, the gray wolf Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758, has been recognized in Italy as either the subspecies lupus or italicus. It has also been postulated that this population has undergone introgression from the domestic dog Canis familiaris. In order to clarify these issues, multistatistical analyses were made of 10 skull measurements of 34 full grown male wolves from the Italian Peninsula, 91 other male Eurasian wolves, and 20 domestic dogs. The analyses, together with other morphological evidence and prior genetic research, support recognition of the Italian wolf as a separate subspecies, Canis lupus italicus. The same evidence indicates that the subspecies has not been affected through hybridization with the domestic dog.

  13. Italian river crossing; Horizontal drilling meets pipeline project criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    The River Piave flows out of the Italian Alps, crossing the Veneto farmlands on its way to the Adriatic Sea. It is an important commerce-carrying waterway. SNAM, the Italian state gas pipeline company, wanted to install a 22-in. pipeline across the Piave just north of Venice. The method chosen for crossing the river had to meet several important criteria. InArc had used its river crossing method on seven previous SNAM projects and recommended the Piave crossing should be drilled. This paper describes the use of this horizontal drilling method for this application.

  14. Updated Italian checklist of Soldier Flies (Diptera, Stratiomyidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An updated checklist for Stratiomyidae of Italy is presented. Previous knowledge and information are put together in a comprehensive way, integrated also with results obtained by sampling with Malaise traps in some of the test areas of the LIFE+ project ManFor C.BD. At the time of writing, with 91 known species, the Italian fauna of Stratiomyidae is the richest in Europe. Neopachygaster meromelas (Dufour, 1841) and Zabrachia minutissima (Zetterstedt, 1838) are new to the Italian fauna. A comprehensive key to the European species of Chorisops Rondani, 1856 is given. PMID:24146573

  15. Biogenic amines in italian pecorino cheese.

    PubMed

    Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Visciano, Pierina; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations, and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (∼62.000t of production in 2010). Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes' milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or pasteurized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA). Bacterial amino acid decarboxylase activity and BA content have to be investigated within the complex microbial community of raw milk cheese for different cheese technologies. The results emphasize the necessity of controlling the indigenous bacterial population responsible for high production of BA and the use of competitive adjunct cultures could be suggested. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA's in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, water activity, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge), and the presence of cofactor (pyridoxal phosphate, availability of aminases and deaminases). In fact physico-chemical parameters seem to favor biogenic amine-positive microbiota; both of these environmental factors can easily be modulated, in order to control growth of undesirable microorganisms. Generally, the total content of BA's in Pecorino cheeses can range from about 100-2400

  16. Bluetongue vaccination in Europe: the Italian experience.

    PubMed

    Patta, C; Giovannini, A; Rolesu, S; Nannini, D; Savini, G; Calistri, P; Santucci, U; Caporale, V

    2004-01-01

    The incursion of bluetongue (BT) into Italy in August 2000 caused heavy economic losses, partly due to the disease itself, but mostly because of disruption caused to the national animal trade structure. To limit direct losses and the circulation of BT virus (BTV), the Italian Ministry of Health ordered, on 11 May 2001, the vaccination of all susceptible domestic ruminant species (i.e. sheep, goats, cattle and water buffalo) in both infected and surrounding areas. The vaccination strategy was based on a risk assessment that suggested it would prevent direct economic losses and significantly reduce virus circulation. Vaccination of the target animal populations commenced in January 2002, prior to the epidemic peak of BT that began in July 2002. The proportion of vaccinated animals differed between the various regions and the varying levels of vaccination of these populations had clear consequences on the occurrence of clinical disease and the spread of BTV infection. In those regions where more than 80% of the target population were properly vaccinated, the disease disappeared almost completely and virus circulation was reduced significantly. The importance of this reduced circulation of BTV (i.e. infection did not spread from affected areas) was immediately obvious in areas affected by the less virulent BTV serotype 9 where, despite the virtual absence of clinical disease, trade of animals to other areas was prohibited. The areas affected by the highly virulent BTV-2 also benefited from vaccination because it eliminated clinical disease while animal movements were prohibited. The main consequence of the reduction of virus circulation after vaccination, as documented by serological surveillance, was a significantly reduced expansion of the areas that were subjected to animal movement restrictions. Subsequently, analysis of surveillance data, coupled with specific risk assessments, led to a progressive relaxation of movement restrictions even in areas where the

  17. Bilingual Education in the Ethnically Mixed Areas along the Slovene-Italian Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cok, Lucija; Pertot, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    The paper focuses on education language policy in Slovene Istria and of Slovenia in Italy. On both sides of the Slovene-Italian border there is an ethnically mixed population of Italians and Slovenes, an Italian minority in Slovenia, and a Slovene minority in Italy. On both sides of the border apparently similar systems of bilingual education have…

  18. "Great Equalizer" or "Cruel Stepmother"? Image of the School in Italian-American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Lawrence J.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the school motif in Italian-American literature. Focuses on novels which dramatize the Italian immigrants' initial resistance to American compulsory education. Asserts that many of these represent the American school as a reflection of the larger society, and as the root of the Italians' assimilation difficulties. (KH)

  19. Waiting for the Market: Where Is the Italian University System Heading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minelli, Eliana; Rebora, Gianfranco; Turri, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the factors limiting marketisation in Italian higher education. The analysis was conducted by adopting Jongbloed's framework. Using empirical data on the Italian higher education system, it is shown that only a small amount of funds are allocated to Italian universities based on market mechanisms. The analysis shows that the…

  20. Diatom responses to limnological and climatic changes at Ribains Maar (French Massif Central) during the Eemian and Early Würm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioual, Patrick; Andrieu-Ponel, Valérie; de Beaulieu, Jacques-Louis; Reille, Maurice; Svobodova, Hélèna; Battarbee, Richard W.

    2007-06-01

    High-resolution diatom analysis was carried out to assess the limnological and climatic changes that took place at Ribains maar (French Massif Central) during the Late Pleistocene (˜131-˜105 ka BP), with a focus on the Eemian interglacial in particular. Numerical analyses were used to show that most of the variability in the fossil diatom assemblages was due to climate independently from the changes in the lake catchment vegetation (as represented by pollen data). Diatom-based quantitative reconstructions of the past limnological conditions, as well as a comprehensive literature review on the auto-ecological requirements for the principal diatom taxa, were used to interpret the record. An absolute time-scale for the sequence was derived by matching the major pollen shifts with the radiometrically dated changes in oxygen isotopes observed in Italian stalagmites. This study shows that at Ribains maar, the transition from the Riss (=Saalian) Glacial to the Eemian interglacial was marked by a gradual increase in the contribution of spring-blooming diatom species, indicating a longer growing season and milder winter/spring conditions at that time. A short cooling event interrupts this trend and may correspond to a stadial. At the start of the Eemian a peak in benthic taxa and the suppression of spring-blooming flora probably reflects the effects of deglaciation on the catchment. During the Eemian interglacial itself three main phases were distinguished within the diatom record. The first phase (˜8000 years in duration) was dominated by Stephanodiscus minutulus, which suggests that intense mixing in the water-column took place during spring. The pollen record was simultaneously dominated by Quercus and Corylus that typify this phase as the climatic optimum of the Eemian. The second phase, almost equal in duration to the first phase (˜7000 years), is generally dominated by Cyclotella taxa and suggests a less productive lake and much reduced period of spring mixing

  1. Fractionation of highly siderophile and chalcogen elements during magma transport in the mantle: Constraints from pyroxenites of the Balmuccia peridotite massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zaicong; Becker, Harry

    2015-06-01

    Sulfide segregation from sulfur saturated basic magmas affects the compositions of chalcophile elements such as the highly siderophile elements (HSE) and the chalcogens S, Se, Te to variable extent. Whether this process predominantly occurs in the lower crust or in the mantle and how segregation of liquid sulfide and accumulation affects concentrations and ratios of these elements at different mantle depths and in presumed primitive basic magmas remains uncertain. Abundances of the HSE, S, Se and Te and Os isotopes in websterites and spinel clinopyroxenites of the Balmuccia peridotite massif (Ivrea-Verbano Zone, Italian Alps) provide new insight on sulfide segregation and the compositional change of melt and peridotite during magma transport in the mantle. Balmuccia websterites and clinopyroxenites formed from late Paleozoic and Mesozoic melt influx into stretched continental lithospheric mantle of the Ivrea-Verbano Zone, respectively. The HSE and chalcogen element compositions of websterites and clinopyroxenites reflect the segregation and accumulation of sulfide melt from S saturated silicate melts with different abundances and ratios of chalcogens and the HSE. The pyroxenites display large variations in abundances of the platinum group elements (PGE) and Te whereas abundances of less chalcophile elements S, Se and Re are much less variable. The fractionation between the PGE and fractionation of Re/Os, S/Se and Se/Te in the mantle pyroxenites are consistent with sulfide melt-silicate melt partitioning with a sequence of apparent coefficients of DPGE > DAu ⩾ DTe > DSe ⩾ DS ≈ DRe. Concentrations in ocean ridge basalts and in gabbros of the lower oceanic crust are also consistent with such fractionation. Websterites which have formed during refertilization of depleted peridotites display ratios of the HSE and moderately suprachondritic initial 187Os/188Os similar to interstitial sulfides of refertilized peridotites. These compositions are different from

  2. A re-evaluation of the Italian historical geomagnetic catalogue: implications for paleomagnetic dating at active Italian volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'ajello Caracciolo, F.; Pignatelli, A.; Speranza, F.; Meloni, A.

    2011-12-01

    Paleomagnetism is proving to represent one of the most powerful dating tools of volcanics emplaced in Italy during the last few centuries/millennia. This method requires that valuable proxies of the local geomagnetic field (paleo)secular variation ((P)SV) are available. To this end, we re-evaluate the whole Italian geomagnetic directional data set, consisting of 833 and 696 declination and inclination (respectively) measurements carried out since 1640 AD at several localities. All directions were relocated via virtual geomagnetic pole method to Stromboli (38.8°N, 15.2°E), rough centre of the active Italian volcanoes. For declination-only measurements, missing inclinations were derived (always by pole method) by French data (for period 1670-1789), and by nearby Italian sites/years (for periods 1640-1657 and 1790-1962). Using post-1825 declination values, we obtain a 0.46±0.19 °/yr westward drift of the geomagnetic field for Italy. The original observation years were modified, considering such drift value, to derive at a drift-corrected relocated dataset. Both datasets were found to be in substantial agreement with directions derived from the field models by Jackson et al. (2000) and Pavon-Carrasco et al. (2009). However, the drift-corrected dataset minimizes the differences between the Italian data and both field models, and eliminates a persistent 1.6° shift of 1933-1962 declination values from Castellaccio with respect to other nearly coeval Italian data. The relocated datasets were used to calculate two post-1640 Italian SV curves, with mean directions calculated every 30 and 10 years before and after 1790, respectively. The curve comparison suggests that both available field models yields the best available SV curve to perform paleomagnetic dating of 1600-1800 AD Italian volcanics, while the Italian drift-corrected curve is probably preferable for the 19th century. For the 20th century, the global model by Jackson et al. (2000) yields more accurate

  3. Dating granulite-facies structures and the exhumation of lower crust in the Moldanubian Zone of the Bohemian Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svojtka, M.; Košler, J.; Venera, Z.

    2002-05-01

    Deformation of granulite-facies rocks in the Moldanubian Zone of the southern Bohemian Massif is expressed in two intersecting planar fabrics - steeply disposed (S1) and flat-laying (S2) - which correspond to two deformation stages (D1) and (D2). The existing Sm-Nd garnet ages from banded granulite gneisses, new U-Pb zircon data from deformed granite intrusions within the granulite gneisses, and the P-T and field structural relations constrain the ages and P-T conditions of the two deformation phases. The early deformation (D1) was associated with a HP-HT metamorphic stage with a minimum age of ca. 354 Ma which was followed by a near-isothermal decompression. A concordant U-Pb zircon age of 318±1 Ma dates the emplacement of intrusions of deformed granite into the granulite gneisses and constrains deformation phase (D2). This phase was associated with an LP-HT metamorphism dated in the region at ca. 340-330 Ma. The available structural and isotopic data indicate that granulites in the southern Bohemian Massif were exhumed from lower to middle crust during compression. The structural relations and P-T-t data for the studied granulites are consistent with their exhumation by near-vertical extrusion of the softened orogenic root.

  4. Occurrence of an unknown Atlantic eruption in the Chaîne des Puys volcanic field (Massif Central, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouannic, G.; Walter-Simonnet, A. V.; Bossuet, G.; Cubizolle, H.; Boivin, P.; Devidal, J. L.; Oberlin, C.

    2014-08-01

    A volcanic ash layer, called MF1, was recently identified in Holocene sediments from the Gourgon and Molhiac peat bogs (Monts du Forez, French Massif Central). This ash layer consists of colorless shards with a heterogeneous trachytic to rhyolitic composition. The trace elements analyzed by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) attest to a local origin. Radiocarbon dating of peat samples taken within and below the ash layer indicates the best age at 6339 ± 61 cal yr BP, i.e. an age contemporaneous with the volcanic activity of Montchal, Montcineyre and Pavin volcanoes from the Chaîne des Puys volcanic field. These volcanoes are characterized by basaltic and trachytic products, thus the rhyolitic composition of MF1 tephra suggests that it is likely originated from an unknown eruption. These results again confirm the interest of studying the distal volcanic ash fallouts in order to establish or specify records of past eruptions of volcanic fields. Identification of this new tephra layer also provides an additional tephrochronological marker for Eastern French Massif Central.

  5. Late Ordovician (post-Sardic) rifting branches in the North Gondwanan Montagne Noire and Mouthoumet massifs of southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javier Álvaro, J.; Colmenar, Jorge; Monceret, Eric; Pouclet, André; Vizcaïno, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Upper Ordovician-Lower Devonian rocks of the Cabrières klippes (southern Montagne Noire) and the Mouthoumet massif in southern France rest paraconformably or with angular discordance on Cambrian-Lower Ordovician strata. Neither Middle-Ordovician volcanism nor associated metamorphism is recorded, and the subsequent Middle-Ordovician stratigraphic gap is related to the Sardic phase. Upper Ordovician sedimentation started in the rifting branches of Cabrières and Mouthoumet with deposition of basaltic lava flows and lahar deposits (Roque de Bandies and Villerouge formations) of continental tholeiite signature (CT), indicative of continental fracturing. The infill of both rifting branches followed with the onset of (1) Katian (Ka1-Ka2) conglomerates and sandstones (Glauzy and Gascagne formations), which have yielded a new brachiopod assemblage representative of the Svobodaina havliceki Community; (2) Katian (Ka2-Ka4) limestones, marlstones, and shales with carbonate nodules, reflecting development of bryozoan-echinoderm meadows with elements of the Nicolella Community (Gabian and Montjoi formations); and (3) the Hirnantian Marmairane Formation in the Mouthoumet massif that has yielded a rich and diverse fossil association representative of the pandemic Hirnantia Fauna. The sealing of the subaerial palaeorelief generated during the Sardic phase is related to Silurian and Early Devonian transgressions leading to onlapping patterns and the record of high-angle discordances.

  6. Magmatic to solid state fabrics in syntectonic granitoids recording early Carboniferous orogenic collapse in the Bohemian Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žák, Jiří; Verner, Kryštof; Holub, František V.; Kabele, Petr; Chlupáčová, Marta; Halodová, Patricie

    2012-03-01

    The ˜354-336 Ma Central Bohemian Plutonic Complex is a Variscan magmatic arc that developed in the central Bohemian Massif in response to subduction of the Saxothuringian lithosphere beneath the Teplá-Barrandian microplate. Magmatic to solid state fabrics in the most voluminous portion of this arc (the ˜346 Ma Blatná pluton) record two superposed orogenic events: dextral transpression associated with arc-parallel stretching and arc-perpendicular shortening, and normal shearing associated with exhumation of the high-grade core of the orogen (Moldanubian unit). This kinematic switch is an important landmark in the evolution of this segment of the Variscan belt for it marks the cessation of subduction-related compressive forces in the upper crust giving way to gravity-driven normal movements of the Teplá-Barrandian hanging wall block relative to the high-grade Moldanubian footwall. We use thermal modeling to demonstrate that the emplacement of huge volumes of arc magmas and their slow cooling produced a thermally softened domain in the upper crust and that the magmatic arc granitoids may have played a major role in initiating the orogenic collapse in the Bohemian Massif through lubrication and reactivation of a pre-existing lithospheric boundary and decreasing the overall strength of the rigid orogenic lid.

  7. Velocity structure near IODP Hole U1309D, Atlantis Massif, from waveform inversion of streamer data and borehole measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Alistair J.; Arnulf, Adrien F.; Blackman, Donna K.

    2016-06-01

    Seismic full waveform inversion (FWI) is a promising method for determining the detailed velocity structure of the igneous oceanic crust, especially for locations such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge with significant lateral heterogeneity and seafloor topography. We examine the accuracy of FWI by inverting, after downward continuation to datum just above the seafloor, a multichannel seismic (MCS) profile from Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex at 30°N that passes close to Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hole U1309D and comparing the results against borehole measurements and existing on-bottom refraction data. The comparisons include the results of IODP Expedition 340T, which extended the sonic logging and vertical seismic profiling to the bottom of the borehole at 1400 m below seafloor. Compared to travel time tomography, the refinement in velocity and velocity gradient produced by FWI significantly improves the overall match to the borehole measurements, and allows the multilevel pattern of deformation and alteration of the detachment footwall seen in Hole U1309D to be extrapolated across the Central Dome. Prestack depth migration of the profile using the FWI velocities reveals the top and edges of the high-velocity, gabbroic core of the massif. It also indicates that the comparatively uniform gabbroic rocks drilled at Hole U1309D extend to ˜2.5 km below seafloor but overlie an extended, ˜2 km thick, mantle transition zone.

  8. Neutron porosity logging and core porosity measurements in the Beauvoir granite, Massif Central Range, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallé, C.

    1994-08-01

    A large suite of geophysical logs have been run in the Beauvoir granite. The drillhole (900 m deep), first target of the French Deep Geology programme, is located in the Hercynian bedrock of Echassières in central France (Massif Central Range). After geochemical and petrological studies, the batholith was used for experiments pertaining to the storage of radioactive wastes. With its low porosity, its weak fracturing and its high homogeneity, the Beauvoir granite was chosen for the analysis of the relationship between logged data and the properties measured in the core. The study focused on neutron porosity and core water porosity. The Beauvoir granite has a total free water porosity of around 2% (average value of 54 core samples of rock mass) and an average neutron porosity of around 10%. We show that the origin of this significant difference is related to the neutron matrix effect of the granite. This phenomenon is partly due to the slowing-down effect of the combined water of clays and micas but also to the neutronic capture effect linked with the relatively high lepidolite (lithium mica) content of the granite. The Li 2O content controls 85% of the granite macroscopic capture cross-section. These two factors represent around 75% of the global neutron porosity of the Beauvoir granite. They have to be taken into consideration to get representative water contents of a low-porosity igneous rock from a neutron porosity log. Further investigations also demonstrated the necessity of choosing a better adapted neutron tool calibration for crystalline rocks. Instead of a standard calibration with limestone blocks, a calibration in granite blocks was simulated in order to obtain a better evaluation of the global neutron response of the granite. Then, by correcting this new neutron porosity for the matrix effect, it has been possible to determine water contents in accordance with laboratory water porosity values measured on core samples (2% average porosity). This

  9. Hydrothermal alterations in the Echassières granitic cupola (Massif central, france)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merceron, Thierry; Vieillard, Philippe; Fouillac, Anne-Marie; Meunier, Alain

    1992-11-01

    Detailed petrographic and mineralogic investigations of an albite-lepidolite granite at Echassières (Massif Central, France; scientific deep drill program) shows the existence of hydrothermal stages which are closely related to the magmatic and structural history. According to fluid inclusion data, K-Ar datations and 18O/16O-D/H compositions of secondary minerals, two successive hydrothermal periods have been recognized. The early one (273 268 million years) produced a series of aluminous phyllosilicates: muscovite, pyrophyllite, donbassite, tosudite, kaolinite which are observed as vein deposits (<10 mm wide) and alteration products of primary minerals in wall-rocks. The vein system was sealed by monomineralic assemblages during a cooling period (400 150°C). This early hydrothermal alteration stage was controlled by interactions of rock with low salinity (1 10 wt% NaCl equivalent) fluids expelled from the granitic body during the cooling processes. The chemical properties of these fluids were the following: low pH, very low Mg and Fe and high Li, Na and K contents. Thermodynamic calculations show that the sequence pyrophyllite, Li-bearing donbassite, tosudite is mostly temperature dependent. From the chemical composition of secondary minerals and isotopic data it can be deduced that these fluids, which have a meteoric origin, have been expelled from the granite body during its cooling period and after interaction with it at high temperature. The late hydrothermal stage corresponds to deposits of fluorite and Fe-Mg rich illite (151 million years) in subvertical fractures. Temperature conditions did not exceed 250° C and fluids came through the surrounding metamorphic rocks into the granitic body. IIlite/smectite mixed-layer minerals have been identified in subvertical fractures which were opened during Tertiary periods. In the host micaschists, successive hydrothermal alterations took place during the cooling of the Beauvoir granite. Early magmatic fluids

  10. Ssismic Methodologies Applied To The Characterization Of Fractured Rock Massifs: Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, D.; Carbonell, R.; Flecha, I.; Palomeras, I.; Font-Capo, J.; Vazquez-Sune, E.; Perez-Estaun, A.

    2007-05-01

    The detailed characterization of fractured media in the shallow subsurface is becoming important. The detailed knowledge of the fracture network is mandatory in any hydrogeological model to constrain the potential pathways for water circulation. The geophysical methodolgies can provide a detailed image of the fractured rock and also the 3D distribution of physical properties. Two case studies are discussed in this work. The characterization of fractures in a waste disposal site and, the design and construction of a subway tunnel. In the first case, a multiseismic experiment was carried out in an old abandoned uranium mine. 2D and 3D seismic experiments including VSP, surface seismic reflection and travel time seismic tomography provided a 3D image of the internal structure of a granitic massif for hydrogeological studies of the preferred paths for the migration of contaminants. The tectonic stability of the site was also addressed by means of seismic measurements. The joint interpretation of all the available data enabled the interpretation of the low velocity anomalies in the 3D seismic tomography image as the fragile fractures and the alteration associated to them. A 3D image of the geometry of the heterogeneous weathered surface layer was also obtained. This surface is controlled by the complex network of faults and dykes observed in the area. The second case study involves 2D and 3D seismic experiments to aid the horizontal drilling of tunnels for a new subway line in Barcelona (Spain). Seismic data acquisition in a densely populated city is very difficult. The street layout determines the geometry of the acquisition experiments. The instrumentation can not always be located on the surface projection of the tunnel trace, therefore, pseudo 3D acquisition is required, deploying the instrumentation were it is possible. Furthermore, the shallow subsurface features extremely heterogeneous "weathered" layer of variable thickness (building fundations, sewage system

  11. Generation and evolution processes of Paleoproterozoic massive-type Sancheong anorthosite complex, Yeongnam massif, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Deok-Seon

    2016-04-01

    The Paleoproterozoic (˜1.87-1.79 Ga) Sancheong anorthosite complex in the Jirisan province of the Yeongnam massif, Korea, consists of massive-type and foliation-type Sancheong anorthosite (SA), Fe-Ti ore body (FTO), and mafic granulite (MG). We report their characteristics and interrelation on foliations, occurrences, lithofacies, composition minerals, suggesting the generation and evolution processes of the Sancheong anorthosite complex with the origin of their foliations. The main characteristics and interrelation are as follows: multilayer structures of FTO, straight-, anastomosing-, uneven-types FTO and MG veins derived from blocking associate with size reduction of SA, gradual or irregular boundaries of SA blocks, FTO and MG showing bulbous lobate margins and comb structures between SA blocks, flow foliations and linear arrangements of FTO and MG, discontinuous shear zone of SA, orientation of FTO and MG foliations parallel to the boundaries of SA blocks, predominance of FTO and MG foliations toward the boundaries of SA blocks, flow folding structures of FTO and MG foliation, lithfacies change of MG into FTO by the injection of MG into SA, and very similar assemblage of mafic minerals and chemical composition of ilmenite and almost equal occurrence and foliation features between FTO and MG. Such evidences indicate that the SA, FTO, MG foliations are magmatic foliations which were formed in a not fully congealed state of SA from the results of the fracturing of partly congealed SA, the injection and flow of FTO and MG melts into the fractured SA, the dynamic intercompaction between them. It also implies that the SA, FTO, MG were not formed from the intrusion and differentiation of magmas which were different from each other in genesis and age but from the multiple fractionation and polybaric crystallization of the coeval and cogenetic magma. Our new model suggests that the Sancheong anorthosite complex was generated and evolved as following sequence: the

  12. Lithospheric transition from the Variscan Iberian Massif to the Jurassic oceanic crust of the Central Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernàndez, M.; Marzán, I.; Torne, M.

    2004-08-01

    A 1000-km-long lithospheric transect running from the Variscan Iberian Massif (VIM) to the oceanic domain of the Northwest African margin is investigated. The main goal of the study is to image the lateral changes in crustal and lithospheric structure from a complete section of an old and stable orogenic belt—the Variscan Iberian Massif—to the adjacent Jurassic passive margin of SW Iberia, and across the transpressive and seismically active Africa-Eurasia plate boundary. The modelling approach incorporates available seismic data and integrates elevation, gravity, geoid and heat flow data under the assumptions of thermal steady state and local isostasy. The results show that the Variscan Iberian crust has a roughly constant thickness of ˜30 km, in opposition to previous works that propose a prominent thickening beneath the South Portuguese Zone (SPZ). The three layers forming the Variscan crust show noticeable thickness variations along the profile. The upper crust thins from central Iberia (about 20 km thick) to the Ossa Morena Zone (OMZ) and the NE region of the South Portuguese Zone where locally the thickness of the upper crust is <8 km. Conversely, there is a clear thickening of the middle crust (up to 17 km thick) under the Ossa Morena Zone, whereas the thickness of the lower crust remains quite constant (˜6 km). Under the margin, the thinning of the continental crust is quite gentle and occurs over distances of ˜200 km, resembling the crustal attitude observed further north along the West Iberian margins. In the oceanic domain, there is a 160-km-wide Ocean Transition Zone located between the thinned continental crust of the continental shelf and slope and the true oceanic crust of the Seine Abyssal Plain. The total lithospheric thickness varies from about 120 km at the ends of the model profile to less than 100 km below the Ossa Morena and the South Portuguese zones. An outstanding result is the mass deficit at deep lithospheric mantle levels required

  13. A Bibliography of Italian Studies in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherubini, Jon C., Comp.

    1977-01-01

    This quarterly bibliography includes books, articles, bibliographies and reviews published here or abroad by scholars residing in the United States or Canada. Coverage includes comparative literature studies; translations; publications on art, music, philosophy, history, cinema, and sociology; and studies pertinent to the Italian-American…

  14. Italian, Ukrainian or Russian? Language and Identity in Crimea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocale, Paola

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of fieldwork conducted among the small Italian minority living in Kerch, a coastal town in Crimea, between 2012 and 2013. After introducing the socio-historical background and the current situation of the minority, it presents and discusses the attitudes of members of the community towards the different languages…

  15. New Mafia: Black, Hispanic,and Italian Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ianni, Francis A. J.

    1974-01-01

    To research the nature of organized crime in America a major study using anthropological field work techniques was undertaken: although we focused on the patterns of blacks and Hispanic crime activists, previous research on Italian-American patterns was utilized for comparison. (Author/JM)

  16. Degree Flexibility and University Drop-out: The Italian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Pietro, Giorgio; Cutillo, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    How to reduce university drop-out is a topic of increasing concern. Although several measures have been the subject of numerous debates, little attention has been given to those impacting on the duration, structure and content of the supply of university education. This paper looks at the Italian experience to see what can be learnt about the…

  17. Italian Neo-Ethnicity: The Search for Self-Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aversa, Alfred, Jr.

    1978-01-01

    After a review of how Blacks went about constructing a new self-identity, an analysis of the Italian-American case reveals three motifs to be introduced as a potential frame of reference for identity building: the grandeur of Renaissance Italy; pastoralism; and the immigrant experience (family and work). (Author/EB)

  18. Clay Corner: Italian Inspiration...An Interview with Susan Snyder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Harriet

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Susan Snyder, a ceramic artist who produces pottery inspired by Italian designs from the 13th to 18th centuries. Presents her discussion of topics such as her development as an artist, techniques used when creating her art, and her thoughts on the importance of art education. (CMK)

  19. Discourse Strategies of Italian and English Sales Promotion Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergaro, Carla

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a contrastive study on rhetorical differences between Italian and English sales promotion letters. It is assumed that cultural differences affect discourse genres traditionally considered as standardized, ritual or even formulaic, written business communication being a case in point. It was our goal to investigate how…

  20. Essential Information for Post-Encyclopaedic Parliaments: The Italian Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizzoni, Giovanni

    This paper discusses the experiences of the Research Department of the Italian Chamber of Deputies over the past few years. The first section describes the origin of the department in the 1970s, including political factors, basic organizational features, and the salient features of the department's activity. The second section addresses the…

  1. Italian Education beyond Hierarchy: Governance, Evaluation and Headship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimaldi, Emiliano; Serpieri, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the changes introduced in the Italian education system after the 1997 School Autonomy reform. Looking at the complex interplay between global influences and processes of local inflection, the work explores the degree to which we are witnessing a significant shift towards a new mode of governance and the interplay between…

  2. 75 FR 64611 - Italian American Heritage and Culture Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-26486 Filed 10-18-10; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... Proclamation 8585--Italian American Heritage and Culture Month, 2010 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0... and Culture Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In the...

  3. Dating, Sexual Activity, and Well-Being in Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciairano, Silvia; Bonino, Silvia; Kliewer, Wendy; Miceli, Renato; Jackson, Sandy

    2006-01-01

    Associations among dating, sexual activity, gender, and adjustment were investigated in 2,273 Italian adolescents (54% female, ages 14 to 19 years) attending public high schools. After controlling for age and type of school attended, both being in a dating relationship and being male were associated with less alienation, more positive views of the…

  4. Drinking Motives and Alcoholic Beverage Preferences among Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano, Federica; Bina, Manuela; Giannotta, Fabrizia; Ciairano, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Although drinking motives have been largely studied, research taking into account the Mediterranean drinking culture and focusing on motives specifically associated to adolescents' developmental tasks is lacking. For these reasons the study investigates drinking motives in a group of Italian adolescents and their relationships with drunkenness and…

  5. Critical Factors in the Use of Evaluation in Italian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebora, Gianfranco; Turri, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    The use made of evaluation output is crucial for understanding the position and effectiveness of evaluation systems. This article examines the development of evaluation in the Italian university system from the 1990s onwards where serious problems have been and continue to be addressed in the use of evaluation output to improve academic activities…

  6. Experimental analysis of the Italian coffee pot ``moka''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianino, Concetto

    2007-01-01

    I describe an experiment involving the moka Italian coffee pot. The pot is an ingenious device for making coffee that uses the liquid-vapor equation of state of the water and Darcy's law of linear filtration. The filtration coefficient of coffee is measured and a steam engine model is used to estimate the efficiency of the coffee pot.

  7. A Comprehensive Evaluation of Lexical Reading in Italian Developmental Dyslexics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paizi, Despina; De Luca, Maria; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; Burani, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Italian developmental dyslexic readers show a striking length effect and have been hypothesised to rely mostly on nonlexical reading. Our experiments tested this hypothesis by assessing whether or not the deficit underlying dyslexia is specific to lexical reading. The effects of lexicality, word frequency and length were investigated in the same…

  8. English, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese? Code Choice and Austrian Export

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavric, Eva; Back, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with how "export oriented Austrian companies effect code choice in their business relationships with customers from Romance language speaking countries". The focus lies on the most widespread Romance languages, therefore on French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese speaking customers.The question of code choice in export should be…

  9. The Italian Linguistic Landscape: The Cases of Milan and Udine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coluzzi, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    This article looks at the linguistic landscape in two Northern Italian cities: Milan and Udine. Signs in two streets of a similar length were recorded and classified according to the language or languages they were written in. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence in the linguistic landscape of the different languages making up the…

  10. Italian in the Colleges and Universities of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striano, Antonio, Comp.; Adorno, Elvira, Ed.

    This comprehensive guide to Italian study programs in American colleges, universities, specialized schools, and study abroad programs contains five major sections: (1) colleges, universities, and specialized schools offering introductory courses, minor, major, M.A., and Ph.D. programs; (2) colleges and universities offering graduate programs…

  11. Cost Structure of Italian Public Universities: An Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Dal Bianco, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    There are broad concerns in Italy about public sector efficiency. Within the public sector higher education (HE) has a major role, providing the economy with research outputs and graduates. Italian universities claim to have expanded teaching and research services to keep pace with the growth of the "knowledge society." An important question is…

  12. Group-Based Life Design Counseling in an Italian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Maree, Jacobus Gideon

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of group-based Life Design Counseling using the Career-Story Interview. Written exercises were used to implement the seven topics in the Career-Story Interview. The present study employed an experimental design that involved two groups of Italian entrepreneurs from the agricultural and trade sectors, namely an…

  13. New Languages and New Consumers: Changing Italian "Media-Scapes"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milic, Enrico Maria

    2006-01-01

    This research aims to point out some of the behavior, interests, and relationships within the public sphere of young Italian users of the Internet. The topics of analysis were the motivations of the users in expressing themselves through their blogs, their online and offline behavior towards what is offered by the ruling class for consumption,…

  14. Renaissance and Italian Literature in World Literature Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paolucci, Anne

    1977-01-01

    Shows how the giants of the Renaissance, from Dante to Shakespeare and Cervantes, can be taught so that they illustrate the dialectic of the cultural experience that produced them, and how the masterpieces of Italian literature can be used to suggest both national and universal qualities. (Editor/RK)

  15. Stop and Fricative Devoicing in European Portuguese, Italian and German.

    PubMed

    Pape, Daniel; Jesus, Luis M T

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a cross-linguistic production study of devoicing for European Portuguese (EP), Italian, and German. We recorded all stops and fricatives in four vowel contexts and two word positions. We computed the devoicing of the time-varying patterns throughout the stop and fricative duration. Our results show that regarding devoicing behaviour, EP is more similar to German than Italian. While Italian shows almost no devoicing of all phonologically voiced consonants, both EP and German show strong and consistent devoicing through the entire consonant. Differences in consonant position showed no effect for EP and Italian, but were significantly different for German. The height of the vowel context had an effect for German and EP. For EP, we showed that a more posterior place of articulation and low vowel context lead to significantly more devoicing. However, in contrast to German, we could not find an influence of consonant position on devoicing. The high devoicing for all phonologically voiced stops and fricatives and the vowel context influence are a surprising new result. With respect to voicing maintenance, EP is more like German than other Romance languages.

  16. Context-Sensitive Rules and Word Naming in Italian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barca, Laura; Ellis, Andrew W.; Burani, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines the role of orthographic complexity on Italian children's word reading. Two experiments are reported in which elementary school children (3rd and 5th graders) read aloud words containing simple or contextual letter-sound conversion rules. In Experiment 1, both groups of participants read words containing contextual rules…

  17. Entrepreneurship Education in Italian Universities: Trend, Situation and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iacobucci, Donato; Micozzi, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of the present situation and recent evolution of entrepreneurship education in Italian universities and to discuss whether these courses and curricula match the demand for entrepreneurial competences. Design/methodology/approach: The empirical analysis is based on a census of…

  18. Cognitive Counselling Intervention: Treatment Effectiveness in an Italian University Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strepparava, Maria Grazia; Bani, Marco; Zorzi, Federico; Corrias, Deborah; Dolce, Rossella; Rezzonico, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Offering counselling to students is increasingly considered as a key academic service. However, the reduction of resources allocated to Italian universities emphasises the need to assess the quality of interventions. This paper presents data reporting the effectiveness of a university counselling service. A sample of 45 undergraduate students…

  19. The Rasch Model for Evaluating Italian Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camminatiello, Ida; Gallo, Michele; Menini, Tullio

    2010-01-01

    In 1997 the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) launched the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) for collecting information about 15-year-old students in participating countries. Our study analyses the PISA 2006 cognitive test for evaluating the Italian student performance in mathematics, reading…

  20. Codeswitching as a Tool in Teaching Italian in Malta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauci, Hertian; Camilleri Grima, Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of teacher codeswitching in the teaching of Italian in Malta. The analysis of teacher codeswitching shows that the learners' first language (L1), Maltese, is used as a pedagogical tool to enhance language learning. Teachers frequently resort to Maltese to provide more learner-friendly explanations of…

  1. Stop and Fricative Devoicing in European Portuguese, Italian and German.

    PubMed

    Pape, Daniel; Jesus, Luis M T

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a cross-linguistic production study of devoicing for European Portuguese (EP), Italian, and German. We recorded all stops and fricatives in four vowel contexts and two word positions. We computed the devoicing of the time-varying patterns throughout the stop and fricative duration. Our results show that regarding devoicing behaviour, EP is more similar to German than Italian. While Italian shows almost no devoicing of all phonologically voiced consonants, both EP and German show strong and consistent devoicing through the entire consonant. Differences in consonant position showed no effect for EP and Italian, but were significantly different for German. The height of the vowel context had an effect for German and EP. For EP, we showed that a more posterior place of articulation and low vowel context lead to significantly more devoicing. However, in contrast to German, we could not find an influence of consonant position on devoicing. The high devoicing for all phonologically voiced stops and fricatives and the vowel context influence are a surprising new result. With respect to voicing maintenance, EP is more like German than other Romance languages. PMID:26677644

  2. Phonological and Lexical Reading in Italian Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsolini, Margherita; Fanari, Rachele; Cerracchio, Sara; Famiglietti, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    In this study we explore the development of phonological and lexical reading in dyslexic children. We tested a group of 14 Italian children who have been diagnosed with dyslexia and whose reading age is end of grade 1. We compared this group with a group of 70 typically developing children who have been tested for reading at the end of grade 1.…

  3. My association with progress of Italian experimental microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun

    2004-01-01

    The Author reports in this article, of historical and scientific meaning, the long collaboration with Italian researchers who, starting from the beloved and unforgettable Prof G. Mazzoni (1967), allowed to maintain stable and lasting with time up to today a precious bridge of cultural and scientific exchanges aimed at the development of experimental and clinical Microsurgery in Italy and in the World.

  4. Statistical Analysis of Tsunamis of the Italian Coasts

    SciTech Connect

    Caputo, M.; Faita, G.F.

    1982-01-20

    A study of a catalog of 138 tsunamis of the Italian coasts has been made. Intensitities of 106 tsunamis has been assigned and cataloged. The statistical analysis of this data fits a density distribution of the form log n = 3.00-0.425 I, where n is the number of tsunamis of intensity I per thousand years.

  5. How Can Evaluation Fail? The Case of Italian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minelli, Eliana; Rebora, Gianfranco; Turri, Matteo

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the potential failure of evaluation in Italian universities and shows how it risks slipping towards ritual behaviour. The study uses empirical data collected with a closed answer questionnaire and a series of open interviews with top-level university representatives and evaluators to examine the real and potential influence…

  6. Prosodic and Lexical Marking of Contrast in L2 Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turco, Giuseppina; Dimroth, Christine; Braun, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the second language (L2) acquisition of pragmatic categories that are not as consistently and frequently encoded in the L2 than in the first language (L1). Experiment 1 showed that Italian speakers linguistically highlighted affirmative polarity contrast (e.g. "The child ate the candies" following after "The child…

  7. Italian Americans. Ethnic Groups in Comparative Perceptive Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopreato, Joseph

    The contents of this book are organized in seven chapters. Chapter one introduces this book as a study of the Italians in America--their cultural characteristics before migrating to the United States; their reasons for coming; the institutions they developed upon arrival; their problems of adjustment to the new society; their aspirations; their…

  8. An Exploratory Study of Sustainable Development at Italian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vagnoni, Emidia; Cavicchi, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to outline the current status of the implementation of sustainability practices in the context of Italian public universities, highlighting the strengths and gaps. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a qualitative approach, an exploratory study design has been outlined using the model of Glavic and Lukman (2007) focusing…

  9. Cognitive Profiles of Italian Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobia, Valentina; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate verbal and nonverbal cognitive deficits in Italian students with developmental dyslexia. The performances of 32 dyslexic students, 64 age-matched typically reading controls, and 64 reading age-matched controls were compared on tests of lexical knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming,…

  10. An Overview of Ten Italian Horse Breeds through Mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Capodiferro, Marco Rosario; Capomaccio, Stefano; Buttazzoni, Luca; Biggio, Giovanni Paolo; Cherchi, Raffaele; Albertini, Emidio; Olivieri, Anna; Cappelli, Katia; Achilli, Alessandro; Silvestrelli, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Background The climatic and cultural diversity of the Italian Peninsula triggered, over time, the development of a great variety of horse breeds, whose origin and history are still unclear. To clarify this issue, analyses on phenotypic traits and genealogical data were recently coupled with molecular screening. Methodology To provide a comprehensive overview of the horse genetic variability in Italy, we produced and phylogenetically analyzed 407 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control-region sequences from ten of the most important Italian riding horse and pony breeds: Bardigiano, Esperia, Giara, Lipizzan, Maremmano, Monterufolino, Murgese, Sarcidano, Sardinian Anglo-Arab, and Tolfetano. A collection of 36 Arabian horses was also evaluated to assess the genetic consequences of their common use for the improvement of some local breeds. Conclusions In Italian horses, all previously described domestic mtDNA haplogroups were detected as well as a high haplotype diversity. These findings indicate that the ancestral local mares harbored an extensive genetic diversity. Moreover, the limited haplotype sharing (11%) with the Arabian horse reveals that its impact on the autochthonous mitochondrial gene pools during the final establishment of pure breeds was marginal, if any. The only significant signs of genetic structure and differentiation were detected in the geographically most isolated contexts (i.e. Monterufolino and Sardinian breeds). Such a geographic effect was also confirmed in a wider breed setting, where the Italian pool stands in an intermediate position together with most of the other Mediterranean stocks. However, some notable exceptions and peculiar genetic proximities lend genetic support to historical theories about the origin of specific Italian breeds. PMID:27054850

  11. Tectonic control on the late stage exhumation of the Aar Massif (Switzerland): Constraints from apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinecker, John; DanišíK, Martin; Schmid, Claudia; Glotzbach, Christoph; Rahn, Meinert; Frisch, Wolfgang; Spiegel, Cornelia

    2008-12-01

    We examine the hypothesis that Pliocene exhumation of the external massifs in the central Alps is controlled by climatic change. New thermochronological data from the western Gastern-Aar massif are used to investigate the timing, extent, and reasons for Neogene exhumation. Our data reveal that exhumation was constant with 0.5 km/Ma over the last 10 Ma in the north. In the southern part, exhumation was of the same order until ˜3.5 Ma but then increased gradually toward the south to values of up to 1.2 km/Ma, resulting in overall northward tilting of the western Aar massif. We explain this accelerated exhumation in the south after ˜3.5 Ma mainly by tectonic denudation in the footwall of the Rhône-Simplon fault and discuss changes in deep crustal configuration, which may have triggered south directed normal faulting. We propose that the Rhône river was structurally trapped by the Rhône-Simplon normal fault zone, which additionally enhanced erosion in the southern section of the Aar massif. Climatic forcing may have an impact in the very late stage of exhumation due to Alpine glaciation in the late Pliocene.

  12. Determination of Granite Rock Massif Weathering and Cracking of Surface Layers in the Oldest Parts of Medieval Mine Depending on Used Mining Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lednická, Markéta; Kaláb, Zdeněk

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the use of selected non-destructive testing methods for the purpose of specifying information on weathering and cracking of surface layers of granite rock massif in the medieval Jeroným Mine (the Czech Republic). This mine has been declared the National Heritage Site of the Czech Republic and its opening as a mining museum to the public is gradually prepared. Geological and geomechanical evaluation documents the possibility to find all kinds of weathering grades of rock massif in this mine. Two non-destructive methods have been tested, namely the measurement of ultrasonic pulse velocity and the measurement of Schmidt hammer rebound value. Field measurements were performed in two selected galleries to verify the application of such methods in specific conditions of underground spaces. Used mining method is one of the parameters later influencing cracking of rock massif. In selected galleries, two different mining methods were used which means that a part of a gallery profile was mined out by hand tools in the Middle Ages and another part of the profile was later mined out by blasting. Measurements in these galleries have enabled to analyse the influence of used mining methods on cracking of rock massif in the impaired zone, and, consequently, on ongoing weathering processes in those zones.

  13. New data for paleoprotherozoic PGE-bearing anorthosite of Kandalaksha massif (Baltic shield): U-Pb and Sm-Nd ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steshenko, Ekaterina; Bayanova, Tamara; Serov, Pavel

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this researches were to study the isotope U-Pb age of zircon and rutile and Sm-Nd (rock forming and sulphide minerals) on Kandalaksha anorthosite massif due to study of polimetamorphic history. In marginal zone firstly have been obtained the presence of sulphide mineralization with PGE (Chashchin, Petrov , 2013). Kandalaksha massif is located in the N-E part of Baltic shield and consists of three parts. Marginal zone (mesocratic metanorite) lies at the base of the massif. Main zone is composed of leucocratic metagabbro. The upper zone is alteration of mataanorthosite and leucocratic metagabbro. All rocks were subjected to granulate polymetamorphism. Two fractions of single grains from anorthosite of the massif gave precise U-Pb age, which is equal to 2450± 3 Ma. Leucocratic gabbro-norite were dated by U-Pb method, with age up to 2230 ± 10 Ma. This age reflects the time of granulite metamorphism according to data of (Mitrofanov, Nirovich, 2003). Two fractions of rutile have been analyzed by U-Pb method and reflect age of 1700 ± 10 Ma. It is known that the closure temperature of U-Pb system rutile is 400-450 ° C (Mezger et.al., 1989), thus cooling processes of massif rocks to these temperatures was about 1.7 Ga. These data reflect one of the stages of metamorphic alteration of the massif. Three stages of metamorphism are distinguished by Sm-Nd method. Isotope Sm-Nd dating on Cpx-WR line gives the age of 2311 Ma which suggested of high pressure granulite metamorphism. Moreover Cpx-Pl line reflect the age 1908 Ma of low pressure granulite metamorphism. Also two-points (Grt-Rt) Sm-Nd isochrone yield the age 1687 Ma of the last metamorphic alterations in Kandalaksha anorthosite massif. Model Sm-Nd age of the leucocratic gabbro-norite is 2796 Ma with positive ɛNd (+0.32). It means that the source of gabbro-norite was mantle reservoir. All investigations are devoted to memory of academician PAS F. MItrofanov which was a leader of scientific school for

  14. Use of Digital Elevation Models to understand map landforms and history of the magmatism Khibiny Massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesalova, Elena; Asavin, Alex

    2016-04-01

    This work presents an improved geomorphological methodology that uses 3D model of relief, remotely-sensed data, geological, geophysical maps and tools of Geographical Information Systems. On the basis of maps of 1: 50,000 and 1: 200,000 the Digital Elevation model (DEM) of Khibiny massif was developed. We used software ARC / INFO v10.2 ESRI. A DEM was used for analyzing landform by extracting the slope gradient, curvature, valley pro?les, slope, aspect and so on. The results were gradually re?ned from the interpretation of satellite imagery and geological map Geomorphological analysis will allow us to determine spatial regularities in inner massive construction. We try to found areas where gas emissions (CH4/H2) enrich, according to morphometry, geology, tectonic and other environments. The main regional blocks were de?ned by different morphological evidences: impression zone, similar to subsidence caldera; uplift zone, domed area (located in the highest part of massif and zone of intersection of main faults) and others. It says that there are the few stages in the development of the Khibiny massif. There is no common concept of the consequence of intrudes magmatic phases now. And we hope that our geomorphical analysis take a new evidences about this problems. Locations of the blocks' borders (tectonic zones) were recognized by lineament analysis of valleys and tectonic faults presented in relief. Erosion system is represented by valleys of 4 ranks. It inherits the zone of tectonic disturbances 3 groups of faults were recognized: 1) Global lineament system cross whole peninsula - existing before Khibiny massif intrusion; 2) Faults associated with the formation of the intrusive phases sequence and magma differentiation and with later collision history during magma cooling; 3) Crack system related to neotectonic process. We believed that if different magmatic phases intrude in similar tectonic environment, the common spatial system of faults will be formed. Really we

  15. Clockwise rotation of the Santa Marta massif and simultaneous Paleogene to Neogene deformation of the Plato-San Jorge and Cesar-Ranchería basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, Camilo; Guzman, Georgina; Bayona, German; Cardona, Agustin; Valencia, Victor; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2010-10-01

    A moderate amount of vertical-axis clockwise rotation of the Santa Marta massif (30°) explains as much as 115 km of extension (stretching of 1.75) along its trailing edge (Plato-San Jorge basin) and up to 56 km of simultaneous shortening with an angular shear of 0.57 along its leading edge (Perijá range). Extensional deformation is recorded in the 260 km-wide, fan-shaped Plato-San Jorge basin by a 2-8 km thick, shallowing-upward and almost entirely fine-grained, upper Eocene and younger sedimentary sequence. The simultaneous initiation of shortening in the Cesar-Ranchería basin is documented by Mesozoic strata placed on to lower Eocene syntectonic strata (Tabaco Formation and equivalents) along the northwest-verging, shallow dipping (9-12° to the southeast) and discrete Cerrejón thrust. First-order subsidence analysis in the Plato-San Jorge basin is consistent with crustal stretching values between 1.5 and 2, also predicted by the rigid-body rotation of the Santa Marta massif. The model predicts about 100 km of right-lateral displacement along the Oca fault and 45 km of left-lateral displacement along the Santa Marta-Bucaramanga fault. Clockwise rotation of a rigid Santa Marta massif, and simultaneous Paleogene opening of the Plato-San Jorge basin and emplacement of the Cerrejón thrust sheet would have resulted in the fragmentation of the Cordillera Central-Santa Marta massif province. New U/Pb ages (241 ± 3 Ma) on granitoid rocks from industry boreholes in the Plato-San Jorge basin confirm the presence of fragments of a now segmented, Late Permian to Early Triassic age, two-mica, granitic province that once spanned the Santa Marta massif to the northernmost Cordillera Central.

  16. Middle Jurassic syn-kinematic magmatism, anatexis and metamorphism in the Zheduo-Gonggar massif, implication for the deformation of the Xianshuihe fault zone, East Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hailong; Zhang, Yueqiao; Zhang, Changhou; Dong, Shuwen; Zhu, Fusheng

    2015-08-01

    The Xianshuihe fault (XSHF) zone is an important lithospheric structure in east Tibetan Plateau. The Zheduo-Gonggar massif, about 120 km long and 13-18 km wide, developed along its eastern segment. Based on geological mapping, meso- and micro-structure studying and geochronology testing, the massif is divided into 5 units: (1) Intrusions of 216-204 Ma, (2) Intrusions of ∼170 Ma, (3) mid-Jurassic sillmanite-grade metasediments, (4) Oligo-Miocene migmatite zone, (5) Intrusions less than 20 Ma ago. Intrusions of 216-204 Ma related to the Songpan-Garze folding and distributes on the southern segment of the massif. The middle Jurassic intrusions which were found for the first time in the region, includes the syn-kinematic Zheduoshan granite and a suit of leucogranite. The former constrained by the youngest U-Pb age of 171 Ma which provides a minimum shear age of the XSH fault. The latter, U-Pb age of 170 Ma, is a common feature of convergent orogens or intracontinental subduction. The Oligo-Miocene migmatite zone, about 80 km long and 1-3 km wide, developed on the eastern edge of the massif. Intrusions less than 20 Ma ago is located on the northern segment of the massif. It had been widely researched that the latter two units are associated to the Cenozoic deformation of the XSH fault. While the mid-Jurassic syn-kinematic magmatism, anatexis and metamorphism along the XSH fault suggests a more strong Mesozoic tectono-thermal event in the fault zone. The discoveries provide us with a new perspective on understanding the Mesozoic and Cenozoic deformation of the XSH fault zone, southeastern Tibet.

  17. Mantle refertilization by melts of crustal-derived garnet pyroxenite: Evidence from the Ronda peridotite massif, southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, Claudio; Garrido, Carlos J.; Bosch, Delphine; Bodinier, Jean-Louis; Gervilla, Fernando; Hidas, Károly

    2013-01-01

    Geochemical studies of primitive basalts have documented the presence of crustal-derived garnet pyroxenite in their mantle sources. The processes whereby melts with the signature of garnet pyroxenite are produced in the mantle are, however, poorly understood and somewhat controversial. Here we investigate a natural example of the interaction between melts of garnet pyroxenite derived from recycled plagioclase-rich crust and surrounding mantle in the Ronda peridotite massif. Melting of garnet pyroxenite at ˜1.5 GPa generated spinel websterite residues with MREE/HREE fractionation and preserved the positive Eu anomaly of their garnet pyroxenite precursor in whole-rock and clinopyroxene. Reaction of melts from garnet pyroxenite with depleted surrounding peridotite generated secondary fertile spinel lherzolite. These secondary lherzolites differ from common spinel lherzolite from Ronda and elsewhere by their lower-Mg# in clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene and olivine, lower-Cr# in spinel and higher whole-rock Al2O3, CaO, Sm/Yb and FeO* at a given SiO2. Remarkably, secondary spinel lherzolite shows the geochemical signature of ghost plagioclase in the form of positive Eu and Sr anomalies in whole-rock and clinopyroxene, reflecting the transfer of a low-pressure crustal imprint from recycled pyroxenite to hybridized peridotite. Garnet pyroxenite melting and melt-peridotite interaction, as shown in the Ronda massif, may explain how the signature of subducted or delaminated crust is transferred to the mantle and how a garnet pyroxenite component is introduced into the source region of basalts. The efficiency of these processes in conveying the geochemical imprint of crustal-derived garnet pyroxenite to extruded lavas depends on the reactivity of pyroxenite melt with peridotite and the mantle permeability, which may be controlled by prior refertilization reactions similar to those documented in the Ronda massif. Highly fertile heterogeneities produced by pyroxenite

  18. Lower crust exhumation and ongoing continental convergence in the Variscan Maures-Tanneron Massif, France, geological synthesis and numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbault, Muriel; Schneider, Julie; Corsini, Michel; Reverso-Peila, Alexandre

    2015-04-01

    The Maures-Tanneron Massif together with Corsica and Sardinia compose the present day southeastern part of the Variscan belt. Pressure-temperature-time patterns were compiled to adress how rocks once forming a thick orogenic crust were exhumed, from burial conditions of ca. 10 kb and ca. 800°C. A continuous evolution from subduction to collision, from ca. 420 Ma to 290 Ma has recently been proposed by Schneider et al., 2014, ending with orthogonal Permean rifting. Here we complement this study by exploring the thermo-mechanical conditions prevailing during the massive exhumation of this orogenic crust. Based on field observations and petrological analysis indicative of the acceleration of partial melting during ongoing convergence, our numerical models test a scenario in which pre-thickened units located at 40-60 km depth, would have molten due to internal heating and burrial, and were progressively exhumed by gravitationally-driven instabilities to the surface, within ~15-25 Myrs. Assuming temperature dependent elasto-visco-plastic behavior, we have tested rheological layering including mafic or felsic units, far-field convergence and surface processes, as well as temperature-dependent melting conditions and density and viscosity evolution. In order to reproduce asymmetrical exhumation over the given time-scales and over an extent area of more than 50 km synchroneous with the development of compressional folds in the upper crust, a best fit was obtained for an applied far-field convergence of 0.5 cm/yr, equivalent to present day Alpine convergence rates, and a bulk crustal viscosity of at least 102° Pa.s. Crustal heat source had to contribute significantly, whereas a too shallow mantle heat source triggers exceedingly warm and fast exhumation. We propose that the evolution from transpressional to tensile conditions perpendicular to the orogenic axis (north-south Permean rifting versus East-West vergence of the orogenic structures), occurred progressively as

  19. Zircon typology combined with SmNd whole-rock isotope analysis to study Brioverian sediments from the Armorican Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabard, M. P.; Loi, A.; Peucat, J. J.

    1996-02-01

    The identification of source materials contributing to mature terrigenous clastic deposits is made difficult due to a lack of useful discriminant criteria. SmNd isotope analysis can provide some indication of the present of mantle-derived constituents in clastic rocks. However, since this method is based on whole-rock samples, it is only possible to obtain the averaged composition of the different source materials involved. Moreover, SmNd isotope systematics can be strongly influenced by the presence of heavy minerals rich in rare earth elements and/or displaying isotopic ratios very different to the sedimentary host. In this manner, 0.1% of zircon or 0.01% of monazite from an extraneous source is sufficient to modify significatively the SmNd signature of the whole-rock. The typological study of zircon populations is an extremely valuable tool, especially since this mineral is highly resistant and exhibits a morphology controlled by the physical and chemical conditions under which it crystallized. Zircons that have been reworked in a sedimentary deposit display typologies that make it possible to identify the different igneous rock-types present in the source region. Moreover the typological study can be associated with a single-grain PbPb dating. This twofold approach was applied to Brioverian sedimentary rocks (Neoproterozoic III to Early Palaeozoic in age) from the Central Brittany Domain (Armorican Massif, NW France). It is proposed that these deposits inherited a major component from juvenile crustal materials ( ɛND(540) = - 1.4 to - 6.3), reflecting the presence of igneous precursors with a dominantly mantle-derived origin (zircon sub-types S19, S20, S24, S25 etc.), to which was added another component of crustal anatectic affinity (zircon sub-types S2, S6, S7 etc.). Two igneous source regions are identified on the basis of the present study: the anatectic granitic massifs of the Mancellian Batholith (540 Ma), along with a coeval ignimbritic

  20. Apatite Fission Track Thermochronology of Khibina Massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia): Implications for post-Devonian Tectonics of the NE Fennoscandia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselovskiy, R. V.; Thomson, S. N.; Arzamastsev, A.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal history of the Kola Peninsula area of NE Fennoscandia remains almost fully unknown because of absence of any thermochronological data such as apatite and/or zircon fission track or (U-Th)/He ages. In order to fill this gap and to constrain the post-Devonian erosion and exhumation history of this region, we present the results of apatite fission track (AFT) dating of eleven samples selected from the cores taken from different depths of the northern part of the Khibina intrusive massif. This alkaline magmatic complex is located at the center of Kola Peninsula and formed at about 370 Ma (Kramm and Kogarko, 1994). Samples were analyzed from depths between +520 to -950 meters and yielded AFT ages between 290-268 Ma with an average age uncertainty (1σ) of ±30 Ma. Mean track lengths (MTL) lie between 12.5-14.4 μm. We used the most reliable AFT ages and distribution of MTL in two samples, corresponding to depths of +280 and -920 m, to conduct inverse time-temperature modelling of the Khibina massif. Thermal histories that best predict the measured data show three stages: (1) 290-250 Ma - rapid cooling from >110°C to 70°C/50°C for lower/upper sample correspondingly; (2) 250-50 Ma - a stable temperature stage; (3) 50-0 Ma - slightly increased cooling rates down to modern temperatures. We propose that the first cooling stage is related to late-Hercynian orogenesis; the second cooling stage may be associated with tectonics accompanying with opening of Arctic oceanic basin. The obtained data show that geothermal gradient at the center of Kola Peninsula has remained close to the modern value of 20°C/km for at least the last 250 Myr. AFT data show that the Khibina massif has been exhumed not more then 5-6 km in the last 290 Myr. This study was funded by grants 15-35-20599, 15-05-02116, 15-05-01860 and 13-05-01033 from the Russian Foundation of Basic Research, grant 3.38.224.2015 from the St. Petersburg State University, grant 14.Z50.31.0017 from the Government

  1. Record of metal workshops in peat deposits: history and environmental impact on the Mont Lozère Massif, France.

    PubMed

    Baron, S; Lavoie, M; Ploquin, A; Carignan, J; Pulido, M; De Beaulieu, J L

    2005-07-15

    This study aims to document the history of the metallurgical activities on the Mont Lozère massif in the Cévennes Mountains in Southern France. Many medieval sites of metallurgical wastes (slags) have been reported on the massif. These sites are thought to represent ancient lead workshops. The impact of past metallurgical activity on the environment was studied using geochemical and palynological techniques on a core collected in the Narses Mortes peatland near medieval smelting area. Two main periods of smelting activities during the last 2200 years were revealed bythe lead concentration and isotopic composition along the core profile: the first period corresponds to the Gallic period (approximately ca. 300 B.C. to ca. 20 A.D.) and the second one to the Medieval period (approximately ca. 1000-1300 A.D.). Forest disturbances are associated with lead anomalies for the two metallurgical activities described. The impact of the first metallurgy was moderate during the Gallic period, during which beech and birch were the tree species most affected. The second period corresponds to the observed slag present in the field. Along with agropastoral activities, the medieval smelting activities led to the definitive disappearance of all tree species on the summit zones of Mont Lozère. The abundance of ore resources and the earlier presence of wood on the massif justify the presence of workshops at this place. The relationship between mines and ores has been documented for the Medieval period. There is no archaeological proof concerning the Gallic activity. Nevertheless, 2500-2100 years ago, the borders of the Gallic Tribe territory, named the Gabales, were the same as the present-day borders of the Lozère department. Julius Caesar reported the existence of this tribe in 58 B.C. in "De Bello Gallico", and in Strabon (Book IV, 2.2) the "Gabales silver" and a "treasure of Gabales" are mentioned, but to this day, they have not been found. PMID:16082940

  2. Melt extraction and metasomatism recorded in basal peridotites above the metamorphic sole of the northern Fizh massif, Oman ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Masako; Python, Marie; Tamura, Akihiro; Arai, Shoji; Takazawa, Eiichi; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Ueda, Akira; Sato, Tsutomu

    2015-05-01

    The Oman ophiolite is one of the best preserved sections of oceanic crust and upper mantle worldwide, and consists of multiple massifs that lie along more than 400 km of the Arabian coast. In the northernmost massifs, the oceanic crust preserves a record of polygenetic magmatism from mid-ocean ridge to subduction-related stages. The lherzolites and clinopyroxene (Cpx)-rich harzburgites of the Fizh block are located a few tens to a hundred meters above the metamorphic sole of the ophiolite and the geochemistry of these Cpx-rich peridotites provides evidence of a genetic link between oceanic crust and mantle. These Cpx-rich peridotites contain olivine with a restricted range of forsterite contents (90-91), but variable Cr-spinel Cr# (Cr/(Cr + Al) atomic ratio) values (0.12-0.33), suggesting that these Cpx-rich peridotites have undergone variable degrees of melt extraction. Cpxs within the Cpx-rich peridotites have chondrite-normalised trace element variation patterns that slope either gently or steeply between the heavy rare earth elements (REEs) and the middle REEs ((Sm/Yb)N = 0.08-0.55, where N chondrite-normalised) and are enriched in highly incompatible elements such as Rb, Ba and Nb. This Cpx chemistry can be explained by a polygenetic evolution whereby an initial 4-12% of melt was extracted from the depleted mantle source before this mantle was metasomatised by interaction with fluids derived from dehydration of the metamorphic sole during subduction initiation and obduction. A comparison between 143Nd/144Nd versus 147Sm/144Nd for Cpx in the Fizh basal Cpx-rich peridotites and a mineral-whole rock Sm-Nd isochron for a gabbro from the same massif suggests a genetic link between crustal and mantle rocks in this area. In addition, Cpxs within the basal Cpx-rich peridotites have highly variable Sr isotopic compositions that are indicative of a significant contribution of seawater from the metamorphic sole, originally derived from subducted oceanic crustal material.

  3. Biomineralization of iron-phosphates in the water column of Lake Pavin (Massif Central, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosmidis, Julie; Benzerara, Karim; Morin, Guillaume; Busigny, Vincent; Lebeau, Oanez; Jézéquel, Didier; Noël, Vincent; Dublet, Gabrielle; Othmane, Guillaume

    2014-02-01

    The availabilities of iron and phosphorus have considerably impacted biological productivity in past and present natural aquatic environments, and therefore have been key regulators of climate changes over geological time scales. Microbial organisms are known to play important roles in reactions that drive Fe and P cycling at redox interfaces in Earth's surface environments. Here we study the depth variations of Fe and P speciation in Lake Pavin (Massif Central, France), a deep (bottom depth ˜92 m) and permanently stratified lake with anoxic and ferruginous conditions in the water column below ˜60 m depth. We particularly focus on the potential roles of microbes on Fe and P transformations and traces left by these processes in the sedimenting particular matter. Bulk chemical analyses, powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Fe K-edge were performed to characterize the mineralogy and Fe oxidation state of solid particles at different depths in the water column and in sediments deposited at the bottom of the lake. Fe is mainly hosted by Fe(III)-(oxyhydr)oxides and phyllosilicates in the shallower oxygenated water column of the lake (25 m). The amount of Fe in suspended matter increases with depth, and an additional amorphous Fe(II)-Fe(III)-phosphate phase is detected close to the chemocline (at 56 m depth), while vivianite (an Fe(II)-phosphate with a formula of Fe(II)3(PO4)2·8(H2O)) becomes dominant in the deeper anoxic water (67 m and 86 m depths). Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides are preserved down to these depths in the water column suggesting that Fe-reduction has little impact on the particulate Fe budget over the monimolimnion. These Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides undergo reductive dissolution at the surface of the sediments, where vivianite is the main Fe-bearing phase. These results are confirmed by imaging at the micrometer and nano-scales using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and synchrotron-based scanning

  4. Carbonates in mantle xenoliths from French Massif Central: inference for carbonatite-related metasomatism.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Christiane; Deloule, Etienne

    2016-04-01

    Mantle xenoliths from the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) frequently display evidence of metasomatism by melts or fluids of variable composition, e.g. alkali-basaltic, alkali-carbonate or carbonate melts. Carbonate-bearing mantle xenoliths are particularly interesting as highly mobile carbonate melts are likely prominent metasomatic agents of the mantle. This study presents detailed petrographic descriptions and major and trace element compositions of minerals in protogranular spinel lherzolites from the Mont Coupet occurrence (Devès province, French Massif Central), with focus on the carbonate phases to discuss their possible link to carbonatite melt. Two representative samples are described here. MC9 shows no evidence for infiltration of the host basanitic magma. Carbonates occur (1) as large (100 μm - 200 μm) anhedral crystals in interstitial pockets at triple point of primary olivine grains, (2) in a few cross-cutting veins (up to 200 μm width), (3) along grain boundaries and (4) in composite carbonate-silicate pockets from well-developed reaction zones, in which carbonates fill globular vesicles. The reaction zone contains secondary subhedral to euhedral phases: Al- and Ti-rich clinopyroxene, Ca-rich olivine, Cr-rich spinel and quenched plagioclase and relict sieved-textured primary spinel. MC2 shows carbonate-bearing thin (< 50 μm width) interconnected veinlets and only a few poorly-developed reaction zones around primary spinel. Large carbonate crystals (1), as in sample MC9, occur associated with (2) fibrous carbonate with a well-formed meniscus at the boundary between the two carbonate types. In some reaction zones the carbonate patches (3) show well-developed concentric carbonate structures, similar to those observed in the globular vesicles from the host basanite. In sample MC9, the carbonate is an alkali-free Mg-poor calcite (XCa = 0.95 - 0.98; with 0.5 - 1.8 wt. % MgO) whatever the occurrence. In sample MC2, carbonates are Mg

  5. Soil thermal regime and geomorphogenesis at Fuentes Carrionas massif (Cantabrian Range, NW Iberian Peninsula).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellitero, Ramon; Serrano Cañadas, Enrique

    2015-04-01

    Fuentes Carrionas is a massif within the Cantabrian Range, in NW Iberian Peninsula. Its altitude ranges between 1400 and 2500 meters and its climate is an oceanic/Mediterranean transition one, with cold temperatures and heavy snowfall in the winter/early spring season, and a warm and dry summer season. Due to its outstanding altitude and lithological variety in the Cantabrian Range context, Fuentes Carrionas holds some periglacial activity (gelifluction, frost shattering) which is absent elsewhere in NW Iberian Peninsula. This work is relates the soil thermal regime across the mountain gradient to landforms formation. 14 thermometers (11 i-button, protected in a plastic can, and three UTL data loggers) were buried at a shallow depth (10 cm.) between autumn 2009 and summer 2012. 12 thermometers were placed between 1900 and 2400 m.a.s.l. at 250 meters altitude interval at the four main aspects. Two additional thermometers were place in the Curavacas N face for permafrost identification. Thermometers were calibrated to yield a measurement every 6 hours starting from 8 AM during one year's time. Data was collected annually in the summer season. Some additional soil temperature data was obtained from an external project in the same area for the 2007-2009 interval. In this case thermometers were "Hobbo" model, and they were also buried to a shallow depth. Results show a permafrost free mountain range. Annual average soil temperatures range between 1 and 8 degrees Celsius. Snow pack appears as a decisive factor in winter temperatures, as the zero curtain effect can be tracked in many cases. Snow cover patterns show a distinctive behavior between S and N aspects, with a 3 months snow cover on the southern faces and between 6 and 9 at the northern analogues. This cover has a relevant impact on geomorphological processes. There is a clear relation between spring snow melt and solifluction or channelized erosion. Also, snow cover prevents the occurrence of freeze/thaw cycles

  6. The Kokchetav Massif, Kazakhstan: "Type locality" of diamond-bearing UHP metamorphic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertl, H.; Sobolev, N. V.

    2012-12-01

    Since the first discovery of in situ metamorphic diamond in the Kokchetav Massif in 1990, numerous scientists from different disciplines paid special attention to petrological and geochemical features, geodynamics and the mechanism of deep subduction and exhumation of UHP rocks. This discovery was a trigger for an intense search of further possible diamondiferous UHP terranes worldwide, successfully documented by numerous new findings. Thus far, more than 350 papers have been published on various aspects of the Kokchetav UHP rocks. A compilation of the most important and far-reaching implications are outlined here. PT-estimates yield peak metamorphic conditions of at least 43 kbar at temperatures of about 950-1000°C. Zircon separates show inherited Proterozoic cores and mantle with the peak of UHP metamorphism at about 537-530 Ma. Several Ar-Ar-ages on micas scatter around 529-528 and 521-517 Ma and reflect different stages of the exhumation history. Migmatization occurred during exhumation at about 526-520 Ma. Microdiamonds which reach a grain size of 300 micrometers, contain highly potassic fluid inclusions as well as solid inclusions like carbonates, different silicates and metal sulfides, which favours the idea of a diamond formation from a C-O-H bearing fluid. Nitrogen isotope data and negative δ13C values of Kokchetav diamonds indicate a metasedimentary origin. δ18O studies on garnet and clinopyroxene of a layered calcsilicate are ruling out a primitive mantle protolith; similar studies on eclogite indicate their basaltic protolith to have experienced water-rock interaction prior to UHP metamorphism. A number of unique mineralogical findings have been made. K-feldspar exsolutions in clinopyroxene demonstrate that potassium can be incorporated into the clinopyroxene structure under upper mantle pressures. Other significant observations are coesite exsolutions in titanite, quartz-rods in clinopyroxene, the discovery of K-tourmaline as well as new minerals

  7. Syntectonic Variscan magmatism in the Aguiar da Beira region (Iberian Massif, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mafalda Costa, Maria; Margarida Neiva, Ana; do Rosario Azevedo, Maria; Corfu, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    The Aguiar da Beira region (Portugal) is located in the core of the Iberian Massif, more precisely in the Central-Iberian Zone, which is dominantly composed by abundant volumes of plutonic rocks, emplaced into Late Proterozoic - Early Cambrian and Palaeozoic metasediments, mainly during or slightly after the third deformation phase of the Variscan Orogeny (D3). A considerable amount of these granites are syntectonic, intruded during the peak of this deformation event (D3). In particular, at the Aguiar da Beira region, two suites of syntectonic granitoids represent distinct magmatic series: a medium- to coarse-grained porphyritic biotite granodiorite-granite (322 Ma), which belongs to the early granodiorite series, and a medium-grained muscovite-biotite granite (317 Ma) that is part of the two-mica peraluminous leucogranites suite. The petrographic, geochemical (whole-rock and mineral compositions) and isotopic (Sr-Nd, δ18O-wr and δ18O-zr) study of the two intrusions reveals their remarkably different character. It is concluded that they correspond to two independent magma pulses, derived from distinct sources and/or petrogenetic processes. The biotite granodiorite-granite is a weakly peraluminous intrusion, characterized by intermediate to felsic SiO2 contents (66 - 68 %), high Ba, Sr and REE, and biotite with high Al and Mg contents, typical of the calc-alkaline associations. The Sr-Nd initial ratios are homogeneous (87Sr-86Sr322: 0.7070 - 0.7074; ɛNd322: -3.9 to -4.6) and overlap the isotopic signatures of lower crustal felsic metaigneous granulites (Villaseca et al. 1999). This similarity, which is further supported by δ18O-wr and δ18O-zr data, may indicate an origin by anatexis of lower felsic metaigneous rocks. Alternatively, the same data, allied to the presence of microgranular enclaves seen in this intrusion, can also be explained by the mixing of lower crustal derived magmas and mantle melts. By contrast, the muscovite-biotite granite has an entirely

  8. Significance of Diamond-free Heterogeneous UHP Dolomitic Marble From the Kokchetav Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, K.; Ogasawara, Y.

    2003-12-01

    Local heterogeneity of fluid conditions during UHP metamorphism has been well demonstrated in a cm-scaled continuous sample of UHP marble (sample no. Y665) from the Kumdy-kol in the Kokchetav Massif. This banded carbonate rock sample consists of three zones; zone-A: dolomitic marble with abundant Ti-clinohumite, zone-B: dolomite marble, zone-C: dolomitic marble without forsterite and Ti-clinohumite. All three zones lack diamond. Zone-A consists of Ti-clinohumite, forsterite, diopside, Mg-calcite, dolomite, symplectite, and is characterized by the presence of Ti-clinohumite and by Ti-clinohumite-aragonite tie-line at the peak metamorphic condition. Diopside lacks lamella. Garnet is completely retrograded to symplectite (Di + Spl + Mg-Cal). Large-grained Ti-clinohumite shows clear compositional zoning of TiO2 between core (1.5-1.8 wt.%) and rim (2.2-3.4 wt.%). Some Ti-clinohumite grains contain very thin needles with preferred orientations. Zone-B consists mainly of dolomite, diopside, phlogopite, symplectite (Di + Spl + Mg-Cal) with minor amount of Mg-calcite, and is characterized by the stability of dolomite-diopside tie-line and by lack of Ti-clinohumite and forsterite. No lamella was observed in diopside. Garnet is rarely preserved. Zone-C consists mainly of Mg-calcite, dolomite, diopside, garnet and phlogopite and is characterized by phlogopite lamellae in diopside that indicate high pressure conditions. Phlogopite lamellae in diopside were confirmed by the laser Raman spectroscopy (Raman bands: 681.3 cm-1 and 357.9 cm-1 ) and by microprobe analysis. Lack of Ti-clinohumite and forsterite also characterizes this zone. Garnet has been well preserved from the retrograde reaction. High MgCO3 calcite (originally aragonite + dolomite) with large-grained exsolved dolomite lamellae occurs. All three zones have different bulk compositions each other; however, the tie-line relations cannot be explained by their bulk compositions. In zones C and B, diopside-dolomite tie

  9. Stability relations of Ti-bearing assemblages in UHP marbles from the Kokchetav Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, M.; Ogasawara, Y.

    2003-12-01

    Stability relations of Ti-bearing phases (rutile, titanite, Ti-clinohumite) in UHP marbles from the Kokchetav Massif, northern Kazakhstan were well analyzed by the phase relations in the model system CaO-MgO-SiO2-TiO2-CO2-H2O. Three types of UHP marbles have been described in the Kumdy-kol area: diamond-bearing dolomite marble (type-A), diamond-free Ti-clinohumite-bearing dolomitic marble (type-B), and diamond-free calcite marble (type-C) (Ogasawara et al., 2000; 2002), and they contain a distinct Ti-bearing phase, rutile, Ti-clinohumite, and titanite, respectively. The characteristics of these three marbles are as in the followings. Type-A: Dominant carbonate is dolomite. Abundant microdiamonds are included in garnet and diopside. Diopside-dolomite tie-line was stable. Diopside contains K-bearing silicate lamellar. The peak assemblage was dolomite + diopside + aragonite + garnet + rutile + diamond. Type-B: High MgCO3-calcite (originally aragonite + dolomite) is distinct. No diamond occurs. Diopside lacks lamellar texture. The peak assemblage was aragonite + dolomite + garnet + Ti-clinohumite or forsterite. Type-C: Only carbonate phase is calcite (originally aragonite). No diamond occurs. Titanite contains coesite exsolution lamellae and indicated supersilicic compositions stable at UHP conditions (P > 6GPa). Diopside contains phengite and K-feldspar lamellae. The peak assemblage was aragonite + diopside + K-feldspar + garnet + titanite. The solid-solid reaction, CaTiSiO5 (titanite) + CaMg(CO3)2 (dolomite) = CaCO3 (aragonite) + CaMgSi2O6 (diopside) + TiO2 (rutile), controlled the stability of Ti-bearing phases in calcite marble and dolomite marble. At UHP conditions, aragonite + diopside + rutile assemblage is stable compared with titanite + dolomite, and divides the compositional space into dolomite-free and dolomite-bearing tetrahedrons in the model system CaO-MgO-SiO2-TiO2. The presence of titanite in calcite marble indicates that the P-T condition was located

  10. The Mirdita Eastern Ophiolite, Albania: petrological evidence for MORB Mantle in the Tropoje peridotite massif?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntaflos, Theodoros; Onuzi, Kujtim; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Rice, A. Hugh N.; Proßegger, Peter; Mekshiqi, Nazir; Kaza, Gjon

    2016-04-01

    The Mirdita ophiolites in northern Albania are divided into the Western Mirdita Ophiolite (WMO), with MORB geochemical affinities, and the Eastern Mirdita Ophiolite (EMO), for which suprasubduction geochemical affinities have been reported. Ultramafic massifs in the WMO are often plagioclase bearing lherzolites/harzburgites whereas those in the EMO are strongly depleted spinel harzburgites. The Tropoje ultramafic-mafic complex, which forms the northernmost part of the EMO, consists of spinel harzburgites, wherlites, orthopyroxenites and gabbros. The spinel harzburgites, which experienced variable degrees of serpentinization, are coarse- to medium-grained. One of the most striking features of the Tropoje ultramafic rocks is an outcrop of exceptionally fresh coarse- to medium-grained spinel harzburgites. While occasionally the peridotites exhibit a weak foliation, the prevalent texture is protogranular. Olivine is mainly coarse-grained (up to 6 mm size), typically showing kink-bands that frequently contain submicron-sized spinel exsolution lamellae. Both orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene, with grain size up to 3 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively, carry very thin exsolution lamellae of the other pyroxene. Spinel, up to 1 mm in size, is interstitial between boundaries of the associated silicates. The mineral compositions of the spinel harzburgites indicate that they are strongly depleted in basaltic components. The rock-forming minerals (olivine, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene) are all highly magnesian and chemically homogenous. The magnesium numbers (Mg#=100xMg/[Mg+Fe]) for olivine and orthopyroxene are fairly homogeneous and vary within the narrow range of 90.9-91.6 and 91.5-91.7, respectively. The clinopyroxene is exceptionally highly magnesian, with Mg# ranging between 93.6 and 95.4. In both orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene, the Al2O3 contents range from 0.95 to 1.75 and from 0.62 to 2.27 wt%, respectively. Spinel shows a considerable variation in Al2O3 and Cr2O3. The

  11. Validation of Italian multiple sclerosis quality of life 54 questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Solari, A.; Filippini, G.; Mendozzi, L.; Ghezzi, A.; Cifani, S.; Barbieri, E.; Baldini, S.; Salmaggi, A.; Mantia, L. L.; Farinotti, M.; Caputo, D.; Mosconi, P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Health related quality of life (HRQOL) inventories are multi-dimensional measures of patient-centred health status developed for clinical research. The MS quality of life 54 (MSQOL-54) is an MS-specific HRQOL inventory originally devised for English speaking patients. It consists of a core measure, the 36-item short form health survey (SF-36) previously adapted into Italian, and 18 additional items exploring domains relevant to patients with MS (MS-18 module). The authors translated and culturally adapted into Italian the MS-18 module of the MSQOL-54 questionnaire, and clinically validated the whole questionnaire.
METHODS—The MS-18 module was translated following the methodology of the International Quality of Life Assessment (IQOLA) project. The MSQOL-54 was validated in 204 consecutive patients with MS seen between April and September 1997 at three participating centres. The questionnaire was explained by the physician who also administered the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and mini mental status scale examination, and the patient filled in the MSQOL-54 and Beck depression inventory questionnaires (BDI), with assistance if required. The contribution of impairments and disabilities to MSQOL-54 scores were assessed, and mean scores were compared with normative data for the general Italian population, and with the original sample of United States MS patients.
RESULTS—The mean age of the 204 patients was 42 years; mean EDSS score was 4.5 (range 0-8.5). Patients' participation in the assessment was satisfactory, and all scales satisfied the usual psychometric standards. The characteristics of the United States sample matched those of our patients in all but gender (72% United States patients v 52% Italian patients were women), and education (90% United States patients and 44% Italian patients completed high school); MSQOL-54 profiles were also similar. The EDSS was significantly associated with the physical health composite but not with

  12. First findings of monocrystalline aragonite inclusions in garnet from diamond-grade UHPM rocks (Kokchetav Massif, Northern Kazakhstan).

    PubMed

    Korsakov, Andrey V; Vandenabeele, Peter; Perraki, Maria; Moens, Luc

    2011-10-01

    The presence of aragonite inclusions in garnet from diamond-grade metamorphic rocks from the Kokchetav Massif, Northern Kazakhstan was identified for the first time by means of Raman analyses and mapping. Aragonite appears within the inclusions up to 50 μm in size as a single crystal. These inclusions have rounded shape. The grain boundary between the host-garnet is smooth. No cracks occur around the aragonite inclusions. No significant shift in the main aragonite Raman band was measured. These observations indicate that residual pressure within the inclusion is minor. These findings imply either non-UHPM origin of the host garnet or significant plastic deformation of host minerals during retrograde stage. These features should be taken into account for recovery peak metamorphic conditions and modeling of exhumation processes of UHPM complexes. PMID:21247793

  13. Multiple Feldspar replacement in Hercynian granites of the Montseny-Guilleries Massif (Catalan Coastal Ranges, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fàbrega, Carles; Parcerisa, David; Gómez-Gras, David

    2013-04-01

    The core of the Montseny-Guilleries Massif (Catalan Coastal Ranges) is mainly composed by late-Hercynian granitoids (leucogranites and granodiorites) intruded within Cambrian to Carnoniferous metasediments. The granites are unconformably covered by Triassic (Buntsandstein) and Paleocene red beds at the western boundary, preserving a continuous outcrop of the Permo-Triassic unconformity for about 20 km. In the southwestern Montseny-Guilleries Massif the granites are covered by the Buntsandstein red sandstones that overlain a peneplain paleorelief called the Permo-Triassic palaeosurface. Beneath the palaeosurface the granite displays a characteristic pink colouration. This pink alteration is characterized by precipitation of minute heamatite crystals and albitization of pristine plagioclases (mostly labradorite). The secondary albite is pseudomorphic (mono- or polycrystalline), optically continuous, non-luminiscent, contains widespread microporosity and displays compositions about Ab98. These features are typical of low temperature replacive feldspars (Kastner and Siever, 1979). Albitization of plagioclases is almost total close to the Permo-Triassic palaeosurface and progressively decreases towards depth, displaying a 150-200 m thick alteration profile. The formation of this profile was controlled by fluid circulation along macro- and microfractures and crystal boundaries. Inside the plagioclase crystals fluid pathways were microfractures, twinning and cleavage planes and crystalline defects. The secondary albite holds widespread unconnected micron-size porosity often filled by Fe-oxides. The reaction front is sharp and displays an abrupt composicional change (Ab65 to Ab98) at micron scale. Porosity only appears to be connected at this reaction front surface. The geometrical arrangement of this alterations suggest that albitization was a shallow process related with Na-rich descending fluids linked to the Permo-Triassic palaeosurface, in a similar way to

  14. First findings of monocrystalline aragonite inclusions in garnet from diamond-grade UHPM rocks (Kokchetav Massif, Northern Kazakhstan).

    PubMed

    Korsakov, Andrey V; Vandenabeele, Peter; Perraki, Maria; Moens, Luc

    2011-10-01

    The presence of aragonite inclusions in garnet from diamond-grade metamorphic rocks from the Kokchetav Massif, Northern Kazakhstan was identified for the first time by means of Raman analyses and mapping. Aragonite appears within the inclusions up to 50 μm in size as a single crystal. These inclusions have rounded shape. The grain boundary between the host-garnet is smooth. No cracks occur around the aragonite inclusions. No significant shift in the main aragonite Raman band was measured. These observations indicate that residual pressure within the inclusion is minor. These findings imply either non-UHPM origin of the host garnet or significant plastic deformation of host minerals during retrograde stage. These features should be taken into account for recovery peak metamorphic conditions and modeling of exhumation processes of UHPM complexes.

  15. 190Pt-4He age of PGE ores in the Alkaline-Ultramafic Kondyor Massif (Khabarovsk District, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochalov, A. G.; Yakubovich, O. V.; Bortnikov, N. S.

    2016-08-01

    A new 190Pt-4He method for dating isoferroplatinum has been developed at the Institute of Precambrian Geology and Geochronology, Russian Academy of Sciences. Here we publish the first results of dating of isoferroplatinum from the main mineralogical and geochemical types of PGE mineralization in dunite. The obtained 190Pt-4He age of isoferroplatinum is 129 ± 6 Ma. The gained 190Pt-4He age of isoferroplatinum specimens of different genesis (magmatic, fluid-metamorphogenic, and metasomatic) from the Kondyor Massif indicates that the PGM mineralization took place synchronously and successively with evolution of primarily picrite, followed by subalkaline and alkaline melts of the Mesozoic tectonic-magmatic activation of the Aldan Shield.

  16. High grade metamorphism in the Bundelkhand massif and its implications on Mesoarchean crustal evolution in central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Dwivedi, S. B.

    2015-02-01

    The Bundelkhand Gneissic Complex (BnGC) in the central part of the Bundelkhand massif preserves a supracrustal unit which includes pelitic (garnet-cordierite-sillimanite gneiss, garnet-sillimanite gneiss, biotite gneiss and garnet-biotite gneiss) and mafic (hornblende-biotite gneiss and garnetiferous amphibolite) rocks. Granulite facies metamorphism of the complex initiated with breaking down of biotite to produce garnet and cordierite in the pelitic gneisses. Geothermobarometric calculations indicate metamorphic conditions of 720°C/6.2 kbar, followed by a retrograde (687°C/4.9 kbar) to very late retrograde stages of metamorphism (579°C/4.4 kbar) which is supported by the formation of late cordierite around garnet. The P-T conditions and textural relations of the garnet-cordierite-bearing gneiss suggest a retrograde cooling path of metamorphism.

  17. Platinum potential of mafic-ultramafic massifs in the western part of the Dambuka ore district (Upper Amur Region, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, A. V.; Stepanov, V. A.; Moiseenko, V. G.

    2016-02-01

    New data on the Pt potential of mafic-ultramafic massifs of the Khani-Maya, Uldegit, and Dzhalta complexes in the western part of the Dambuka ore district are discussed. The Khani-Maya Complex is represented by metamorphosed gabbro, gabbronorites, gabbro anorthosites, subordinate pyroxenites, hornblendites, and peridotites. The Uldegit Complex is composed of pyroxenites, hornblendites, gabbro, gabbronorites, norites, troctolites, peridotites, dunites, actinolite-tremolites, serpentinites, anthophyllites, and tremolite-plagioclase rocks. The Dzhalta Complex is formed of peridotites, gabbro, eclogitized gabbro, hornblendites, cortlandites, and pyroxenites. All these complexes differ from each other by the concentrations of Ni, Cu, Co, Au, and platinoids depending on the composition of the constituting rocks and the presence of sulfide minerals.

  18. Strain partitioning in the Belledonne and Pelvoux massifs. Some clues to understand the Variscan tectono-thermal evolution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fréville, Kévin; Trap, Pierre; Faure, Michel; Melleton, Jeremie; Blein, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    This contribution presents new structural, petrological, geochemical and geochronological data obtained in the Variscan basement of the Alpine Belledonne and Pelvoux External Crystalline massifs. The Belledonne-Pelvoux area is a stack of four litho-tectonic units. The uppermost unit is the early Ordovician Chamrousse ophiolite. It overthrusts a volcanic-sedimentary unit (VSU) made of an alternation of volcanoclastic rocks, plagiogranites and metapelites. The VSU crops out in the eastern Belledonne and western Pelvoux massifs. It is unconformably overlain by a Visean sandstone-conglomerate series with felsic lava (keratophyres). The lowermost litho-tectonic unit is made of felsic and mafic migmatites and granitoids that form the major part of the Pelvoux massif. The western boundary of this tectonic pile is the "synclinal median" strike-slip fault, on the western side of which crops out the Belledonne micaschist unit made of Cambro-ordovician turbiditic series. The structural analysis revealed four main tectono-thermal events: Dx, D1, D2, and D3. Dx is only recorded in relictual metamorphic assemblage in Ky-Grt-Ab bearing micaschist from the VSU holding an obduction metamorphic gradient (3kbar, 370°C up to 7kbar, 430°C). The age of the Dx event remains unknown. The D1 event, characterized by westward low-angle dipping foliation (S1) and a NE-SW striking stretching lineation (L1), is responsible for the crustal thickening resulting of the Eastward emplacement of the Chamrousse ophiolite upon the VSU. D1 is coeval with a barrovian metamorphism with P-T conditions of 6kbar, 600°C recorded in metapelites, and partial melting developed at the base of the VSU. Monazite LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating revealed that D1 crustal thickening occurred at 337±7 Ma. D2 is a sinistral transpressional deformation responsible for the folding of S1 and L1, and the development of a NE-SW trending pervasive sub-vertical foliation S2. In the lower structural domain, i.e. the partially molten

  19. Cross-border radon index map 1:100 000 Lausitz - Jizera - Karkonosze - Region (northern part of the Bohemian Massif).

    PubMed

    Barnet, Ivan; Pacherová, Petra; Preusse, Werner; Stec, Bartosz

    2010-10-01

    The first cross-border map describing the radon (Rn) risk from bedrock was assembled in the northern part of the Bohemian Massif at a scale 1:100 000. The map covers the area of Lausitz (Germany), Karkonosze (Czech Republic and Poland) and Jizera (Czech Republic). The map is based on 818 measurements of soil gas Rn in rock types of Precambrian to Mesozoic age with variable geology. Geographic information system (GIS) processing enabled a good coincidence of soil gas Rn concentrations between data from all three countries in lithologically adjacent rock types as well as the direct correlation to georeferenced indoor Rn values, which was tested using the Czech indoor Rn data. The method of data processing can contribute to assembling the European Geogenic Radon Map. PMID:20022148

  20. Surprisingly young Rb/Sr ages from the Simav extensional detachment fault zone, northern Menderes Massif, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkurt, Erdin; Satır, Muharrem; Buğdaycıoğlu, Çağrı

    2011-12-01

    The present paper demonstrates that exposed semi-brittle-brittle detachment fault zones, in addition to footwall mylonites and syn-extensional granitoids, can be used to date the timing of faulting and constrain the history and evolution of metamorphic core complexes. We employed Rb-Sr geochronology on micas, sampled directly from a part of the Simav detachment fault (SDF) zone in the northern Menderes Massif (western Turkey). The exposed part of the fault zone is marked by ˜3-m thick zone of low-grade mylonites/foliated cataclasites, in which mylonitic fabrics in orthogneisses are overprinted by fabrics of semi-brittle deformation. The low-grade mylonites/foliated cataclasites are characterized by coexistence of brown and green biotites. Rb-Sr ages on muscovite and brown and green biotite from the low-grade mylonites/foliated cataclasites are ca. 30 Ma, 17-13 Ma and 12-10 Ma, respectively; green biotite ages are interpreted as dating fluid-assisted deformation-induced dynamic recrystallization and suggest that a part of the SDF was active during a 12-10 Ma interval. The ca. 30 Ma muscovite ages date dynamic crystallization and probably beginning of extensional exhumation of the northern Menderes Massif. The coexistence of brown and green biotites in the same sample indicates retrogressive processes associated within a detachment faulting during which green biotites have recrystallized from primary brown biotites with an age of 19 ± 2 Ma in this area. This further means that the isotopic system became opened during faulting and that the green biotite ages therefore record the activity of the SDF. We have also dated an orthogneiss sample exposed well away from the detachment fault zone (devoid of any retrogressive processes); muscovites and biotites from this sample yield Rb-Sr ages of 45.7 ± 0.6 and 18.17 ± 0.18 Ma, respectively. The biotite age is in accord with regional biotite ages (19 ± 2 Ma) and record cooling of the footwall rocks of the detachment fault

  1. The origin of summit basins on the Aleutian Ridge: implications for block rotation of an arc massif ( Pacific).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, E.L.; Childs, J. R.; Scholl, D. W.

    1988-01-01

    It is proposed that many summit basins along the Aleutian Arc form from the clockwise rotation of blocks of the arc massic. Summit basins are arc-parallel grabens or half-grabens formed within the arc massif and are commonly located near or along the axis of late Cenozoic volcanism. Geomorphically, the Aleutian Arc appears to consist of contiguous rhombic blocks of varying size, 10's to 100's of km in length. Presents a model for block rotation that involves translation of blocks parallel to an arc. It is suggested that block rotation, which appears to have accelerated in late Cenozoic time, is linked to: 1) a shift in the Euler pole for the Pacific plate; 2) the consequential start-up of late Cenozoic volcanism; 3) improved interplate coupling instigated by sediment flooding of the Aleutian Trench; and 4) westward subduction of NE striking segments of the inactive Kula-Pacific Ridge.-from Authors

  2. The Cenozoic history of the Armorican Massif: New insights from the deep CDB1 borehole (Rennes Basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Hugues; Bessin, Paul; Saint-Marc, Pierre; Châteauneuf, Jean-Jacques; Bourdillon, Chantal; Wyns, Robert; Guillocheau, François

    2016-05-01

    Borehole CDB1 (675.05 m) crosses the deepest Cenozoic sedimentary basin of the Armorican Massif, the Rennes Basin, to reach the underlying basement at a depth of 404.92 m, made up of the Late Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian Brioverian Group, weathered down to 520 m depth. The basin's Cenozoic deposits are divided into seven formations, ranging from Early-Middle Bartonian to Late Pliocene in age. Coastal sediments at the very base, along with a thick Priabonian lacustrine episode, imply a major revision of the regional palaeogeography, whilst a very steady and low-energy lacustrine-palustrine environment throughout the Priabonian and Early Rupelian argue for an aggradational system associated with uniform subsidence. Palynological assemblages attest to environmental and climatic changes through the Eocene and Early Oligocene, in accordance with regional and global trends (Eocene-Oligocene Transition).

  3. A preliminary spatial-temporal study of some soil characteristics in the calcareous massif of Sicó, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Torres, Maria Odete; Neves, Maria Manuela

    2016-01-01

    The mountainous massif of Sicó, in the centre of Portugal, is an extensive area composed of calcareous Jurassic formations. Hillside calcareous soils, with high pH, present chemical restrictions to support plant growth and are subjected to important erosion processes leading to their degradation if not protected by vegetation. In a first year of study some soil physicochemical characteristics have been measured in some geo-referenced locations of a larger design experiment and an exploratory spatial analysis has been performed. The objective of this study was to present some suggestions in order to give sustainable phosphorus fertiliser recommendations aiming to establish pastures in these soils and thus support traditional livestock activity. Ten years apart, those soil characteristics have been measured again in the same locations and comparisions have been made. The objective was to understand the variability of the soil properties under study in order to better adequate the fertiliser soil management regarding the area restoration. PMID:27087036

  4. Statistical adaptation of ALADIN RCM outputs over the French alpine massifs - application to future climate and snow cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousselot, M.; Durand, Y.; Giraud, G.; Mérindol, L.; Dombrowski-Etchevers, I.; Déqué, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, snowpack scenarios are modelled across the French Alps using dynamically downscaled variables from the ALADIN Regional Climate Model (RCM) for the control period (1961-1990) and three emission scenarios (SRES B1, A1B and A2) by the mid- and late of the 21st century (2021-2050 and 2071-2100). These variables are statistically adapted to the different elevations, aspects and slopes of the alpine massifs. For this purpose, we use a simple analogue criterion with ERA40 series as well as an existing detailed climatology of the French Alps (Durand et al., 2009a) that provides complete meteorological fields from the SAFRAN analysis model. The resulting scenarios of precipitation, temperature, wind, cloudiness, longwave and shortwave radiation, and humidity are used to run the physical snow model CROCUS and simulate snowpack evolution over the massifs studied. The seasonal and regional characteristics of the simulated climate and snow cover changes are explored, as is the influence of the scenarios on these changes. Preliminary results suggest that the Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) of the snowpack will decrease dramatically in the next century, especially in the Southern and Extreme Southern part of the Alps. This decrease seems to result primarily from a general warming throughout the year, and possibly a deficit of precipitation in the autumn. The magnitude of the snow cover decline follows a marked altitudinal gradient, with the highest altitudes being less exposed to climate change. Scenario A2, with its high concentrations of greenhouse gases, results in a SWE reduction roughly twice as large as in the low-emission scenario B1 by the end of the century. This study needs to be completed using simulations from other RCMs, since a multi-model approach is essential for uncertainty analysis.

  5. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Jomolhari massif: Variations in timing of syn-collisional metamorphism across western Bhutan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regis, Daniele; Warren, Clare J.; Young, David; Roberts, Nick M. W.

    2014-03-01

    Our current understanding of the rates and timescales of mountain-building processes is largely based on information recorded in U-bearing accessory minerals such as monazite, which is found in low abundance but which hosts the majority of the trace element budget. Monazite petrochronology was used to investigate the timing of crustal melting in migmatitic metasedimentary rocks from the Jomolhari massif (NW Bhutan). The samples were metamorphosed at upper amphibolite to granulite facies conditions (~ 0.85 GPa, ~ 800 °C), after an earlier High-Pressure stage (P > 1.4 GPa), and underwent partial melting through dehydration melting reactions involving muscovite and biotite. In order to link the timing of monazite growth/dissolution to the pressure-temperature (P-T) evolution of the samples, we identified 'chemical fingerprints' in major and accessory phases that were used to back-trace specific metamorphic reactions. Variations in Eu anomaly and Ti in garnet were linked to the growth and dissolution of major phases (e.g. growth of K-feldspar and dehydration melting of muscovite/biotite). Differences in M/HREE and Y from garnet core to rim were instead related to apatite breakdown and monazite-forming reactions. Chemically zoned monazite crystals reacted multiple times during the metamorphic evolution suggesting that the Jomolhari massif experienced a prolonged high-temperature metamorphic evolution from 36 Ma to 18 Ma, significantly different from the P-T-time path recorded in other portions of the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) in Bhutan. Our data demonstrate unequivocally that the GHS in Bhutan consists of units that experienced independent high-grade histories and that were juxtaposed across different tectonic structures during exhumation. The GHS may have been exhumed in response to (pulsed) mid-crustal flow but cannot be considered a coherent block.

  6. 40Ar- 39Ar geochronology of the charnockites and granulites of the Kan Nack complex, Kon Tum Massif, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maluski, Henri; Lepvrier, Claude; Leyreloup, André; Tich, Vu Van; Thi, Phan Truong

    2005-07-01

    The Truong Son Belt forms the eastern rim of the Indochina Block in Southeast Asia. The age of the metamorphism, mainly along NW-SE mylonitic shear zones that affects this belt, has been formerly determined at about 240-250 Ma. This age corresponds to the Indosinian tectonometamorphic episode. The Kon Tum Massif, situated to the south of this belt, comprises high-temperature rocks, the Kan Nack Complex, including charnockites and granulites. The main charnockitic outcrops, restricted to the Song Ba Valley, establish the intrusive nature of these magmatic rocks within granulite facies material. Basic charnockitic rocks are mainly quartz enderbites to norites and hornblende-pyroxene granulite facies rocks. The 40Ar- 39Ar age of intrusion-cooling of charnockitic magmas is determined from primary magmatic biotites at about 245 Ma. In the east of the Kan Nack Complex some granulite facies rocks exhibit relicts of primary granulite facies parageneses, whereas others show evidence of overprinting by a retrogressive low-grade metamorphism. Ar-Ar dating confirm this evolution, giving ages of 400 Ma for primary relict granulite facies phases and 260-270 Ma from the most retrogressed samples establishing the youngest limit for the granulite facies metamorphism. Granulites intruded by charnockites in the Song Ba Valley yield ages of about 250 Ma, equivalent to the ages of the charnockites, and have evidently been completely reset by these high temperature intrusions. Therefore, the Kan Nack Complex of the Kon Tum Massif is not an independent unit with respect to the Indosinian orogen, but represents the deep-crustal part of this belt.

  7. Endolithic microbial communities in carbonate precipitates from serpentinite-hosted hyperalkaline springs of the Voltri Massif (Ligurian Alps, Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Quéméneur, Marianne; Palvadeau, Alexandra; Postec, Anne; Monnin, Christophe; Chavagnac, Valérie; Ollivier, Bernard; Erauso, Gaël

    2015-09-01

    The Voltri Massif is an ophiolitic complex located in the Ligurian Alps close to the city of Genova (Northern Italy) where several springs discharge high pH (up to 11.7), low salinity waters produced by the active serpentinization of the ultramafic basement. Mixing of these hyperalkaline waters with the river waters along with the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide forms brownish carbonate precipitates covering the bedrock at the springs. Diverse archaeal and bacterial communities were detected in these carbonate precipitates using 454 pyrosequencing analyses of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Archaeal communities were dominated by members of potential methane-producing and/or methane-oxidizing Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales (Euryarchaeota) together with ammonia-oxidizing Nitrososphaerales (Thaumarchaeota) similar to those found in other serpentinization-driven submarine and terrestrial ecosystems. Bacterial communities consisted of members of the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Verrucomicrobia phyla, altogether accounting for 92.2% of total retrieved bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences. Amongst Bacteria, potential chemolithotrophy was mainly associated with Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria classes, including nitrogen-fixing, methane-oxidizing or hydrogen-oxidizing representatives of the genera Azospirillum, Methylosinus, and Hydrogenophaga/'Serpentinomonas', respectively. Besides, potential chemoorganotrophy was attributed mainly to representatives of Actinobacteria and Planctomycetales phyla. The reported 16S rRNA gene data strongly suggested that hydrogen, methane, and nitrogen-based chemolithotrophy can sustain growth of the microbial communities inhabiting the carbonate precipitates in the hyperalkaline springs of the Voltri Massif, similarly to what was previously observed in other serpentinite-hosted ecosystems. PMID:25874424

  8. Two types of ultrapotassic plutonic rocks in the Bohemian Massif — Coeval intrusions at different crustal levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotková, Jana; Schaltegger, Urs; Leichmann, Jaromír

    2010-03-01

    We present U-Pb zircon age determinations of two Variscan ultrapotassic plutonic rocks from the Moldanubian Zone (Bohemian Massif). Equant, multifaceted zircons without inherited cores from a two-pyroxene-biotite quartz monzonite of the Jihlava Pluton yielded a precise age of 335.12 ± 0.57 Ma, interpreted as dating magma crystallization. The majority of both tabular and prismatic grains from the amphibole-biotite melagranite ("durbachite") from the Třebíč Pluton plot along a discordia intersecting the concordia at 334.8 ± 3.2 Ma; prismatic zircon grains commonly contain inherited cores and yield an upper intercept age of 2.2 Ga, indicating early Proterozoic inheritance. We therefore suggest that both types of the ultrapotassic plutonic rocks from the Bohemian Massif crystallized at ca 335 Ma, and the previously published ages higher than ca 340 Ma for "durbachites" were biased by a small amount of unresolved inheritance. The ultrapotassic magma emplacement in the middle crust was related to rapid exhumation of a deep crustal segment, considered as isothermal decompression between high-pressure (˜ 340 Ma) and medium-pressure (˜ 333 Ma) stages recorded in granulites. Mineral assemblages as well as external and internal zircon morphology suggest that the Jihlava intrusion was deep and dry, whereas the Třebíč intrusion was shallow and wet. Low ɛHf values of zircons (- 4.4 to - 7.5) in both rock types suggest a similar source with a predominant crustal component. However, inherited grains in the Třebíč melagranite indicate its contamination with crustal material during emplacement, and thus possibly a slower rate of exhumation and/or of magma ascent through the crust.

  9. Structure and modeling of disorder in miserite from the Murun (Russia) and Dara-i-Pioz (Tajikistan) massifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneva, Ekaterina; Lacalamita, Maria; Mesto, Ernesto; Schingaro, Emanuela; Scordari, Fernando; Vladykin, Nikolay

    2014-01-01

    The structure, structural disorder and chemistry of miserite from the charoite-bearing rocks of the Murun massif (Russia) and from alkaline-syenite pegmatitic rocks of the Dara-i-Pioz massif (Tajikistan) were investigated employing a combination of electron microprobe, single crystal diffraction and micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Chemical analysis of the sample investigated by X-ray diffraction evidenced that Dara-i-Pioz miserite has a greater REE concentration than Murun miserite (~0.22 vs. 0.05 apfu, respectively) and also contains Y (0.14 apfu), which is absent in Murun miserite. The occurrence of a band at about 1,600 cm-1 testified to the presence of H2O in miserite at hand. Structural analyses yielded average cell parameters of a = 10.092, b = 16.016, c = 7.356 Å, α = 96.60°, β = 111.27° and γ = 76.34°. Anisotropic structural refinement in space group P converged at similar values for the analyzed samples ( R ~3.4, R w ~3.8 %). An interesting feature shown by both the miserite specimen is the presence, revealed by difference Fourier analysis, of a disordered part of the structure. This turned out to be due to the flipping of the tetrahedra belonging to the isolated [Si2O7]6- diorthogroups, one of the two radicals (the other is [Si12O30]12-) characterizing the miserite structure. The sixfold and seven-vertex Ca polyhedra linked to the inverted diorthogroups show variation in coordination number with respect to those of the ordered structure.

  10. Endolithic microbial communities in carbonate precipitates from serpentinite-hosted hyperalkaline springs of the Voltri Massif (Ligurian Alps, Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Quéméneur, Marianne; Palvadeau, Alexandra; Postec, Anne; Monnin, Christophe; Chavagnac, Valérie; Ollivier, Bernard; Erauso, Gaël

    2015-09-01

    The Voltri Massif is an ophiolitic complex located in the Ligurian Alps close to the city of Genova (Northern Italy) where several springs discharge high pH (up to 11.7), low salinity waters produced by the active serpentinization of the ultramafic basement. Mixing of these hyperalkaline waters with the river waters along with the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide forms brownish carbonate precipitates covering the bedrock at the springs. Diverse archaeal and bacterial communities were detected in these carbonate precipitates using 454 pyrosequencing analyses of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Archaeal communities were dominated by members of potential methane-producing and/or methane-oxidizing Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales (Euryarchaeota) together with ammonia-oxidizing Nitrososphaerales (Thaumarchaeota) similar to those found in other serpentinization-driven submarine and terrestrial ecosystems. Bacterial communities consisted of members of the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Verrucomicrobia phyla, altogether accounting for 92.2% of total retrieved bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences. Amongst Bacteria, potential chemolithotrophy was mainly associated with Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria classes, including nitrogen-fixing, methane-oxidizing or hydrogen-oxidizing representatives of the genera Azospirillum, Methylosinus, and Hydrogenophaga/'Serpentinomonas', respectively. Besides, potential chemoorganotrophy was attributed mainly to representatives of Actinobacteria and Planctomycetales phyla. The reported 16S rRNA gene data strongly suggested that hydrogen, methane, and nitrogen-based chemolithotrophy can sustain growth of the microbial communities inhabiting the carbonate precipitates in the hyperalkaline springs of the Voltri Massif, similarly to what was previously observed in other serpentinite-hosted ecosystems.

  11. Middle Proterozoic emplacement and deformation of metanorthosite and related rocks in the northeastern Marcy massif, Adirondack Mountains, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Fakundiny, R.H. ); Muller, P.D. . Dept. of Earth Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Geologic mapping in the Elizabethtown and Mount Marcy 15 foot quadrangles in the northeastern Adirondack Mountains has shown that Middle Proterozoic anorthosite suite rocks of the Marcy massif were intruded in at least two temporally distinguishable episodes separated by a period of localized ductile shearing. Strain was concentrated in a 100 m to > 1 km thick zone consisting mainly of metamorphosed gabbroic anorthosite, ferrodiorite, and ferrosyenite gneiss with subordinate granite gneiss, calc-silicate gneiss, amphibolite, and marble. This zone of flat to steeply-dipping layered gneisses, designated the Elizabethtown ductile deformation zone (EDDZ) for exposures along Rt 9 south of Elizabethtown, appears to extend from Lake Champlain on the east to at least Lake Placid on the west. Its upper boundary is most clearly evident where it occurs in olivine metagabbro bodies of Jay and Iron Mountain. Massive metagabbro is sheared and recrystallized into amphibolite gneiss. The lower boundary of the zone is more difficult to map, but commonly lies within contaminated metamorphosed gabbroic anorthosite and ferrodiorite gneiss that characterize the margins of the massif in the area. Rocks of the EDDZ display pervasive mesoscopic S and LS fabrics, but exhibit totally recrystallized microtextures. Kinematic indicators such as winged porphyroclasts and S-C fabrics are sporadically developed and provide a regionally ambiguous sense of shear. The authors favor a regional extension origin for the fabrics. Mineral assemblages defining the EDDZ fabrics are consistent with granulite facies conditions during shear-zone development and suggest a lower crustal position. Mapping suggests that the younger anorthosite intrusions were mainly domical and generated a chaotic contact zone typified by block structure and dikes of ferrodiorite, ferromonzonite, and ferrosyenite.

  12. Multistage evolution of UHT granulites from the southernmost part of the Gföhl Nappe, Bohemian Massif, Lower Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schantl, Philip; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Linner, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    A detailed petrological investigation has been undertaken in leucocratic kyanite-garnet bearing and mesocratic orthopyroxene bearing granulites from the Dunkelsteiner Wald, Pöchlarn-Wieselburg and Zöbing granulite bodies from the Moldanubian Zone in the Bohemian Massif (Austria). A combination of textural observations, conventional geothermobarometry, phase equilibrium modelling as well as major and trace element analyses in garnet enables us to confirm a multistage Variscan metamorphic history. Chemically homogenous garnet cores with near constant grossular-rich plateaus are considered to reflect garnet growth during an early HP/UHP metamorphic evolution. Crystallographically oriented rutile exsolutions restricted to those grossular-rich garnet cores point to a subsequent isothermal decompression of the HP/UHP rocks. Overgrowing garnet rims show a pronounced zonation and are interpreted as the result of dehydration melting reactions during an isobaric heating phase which could have taken place near the base of an overthickened continental crust, where the previously deeply subducted rocks were exhumed to. For this HP granulite facies event maximum PT conditions of ~1050 °C and 1.6 GPa have been estimated from leucocratic granulites comprising the peak mineral assemblage quartz, ternary feldspar, garnet, kyanite and rutile. The pronounced zoning of garnet rims indicates that the HP granulite facies event must have been short lived since diffusion in this temperature region is usually sufficient fast to homogenize a zoning pattern in garnet. A retrogressive metamorphic stage is documented in these rocks by the replacement of kyanite to sillimanite and the growth of biotite. This retrograde event took place within the granulite facies but at significantly lower pressures and temperatures with ~0.8 GPa and ~760 °C. This final stage of re-equilibration is thought to be linked with a second exhumation phase into middle crustal levels accompanied by intensive

  13. The Brabant Massif as part of Armorica/Gondwana: UPb isotopic evidence from detrital zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Von Hoegen, J.; Kramm, U.; Walter, R.

    1990-12-01

    UPb isotopic ratios of zircons are used as time-dependent geochemical tracers for the formation of the zircons and for the sum of processes and their intensities effective for the disturbance of the UPb systems during the history of the zircons. By comparison detrital zircons can thus serve as indicators for the provenance of clastic sediments. The UPb systematics of 57 carefully selected fractions of detrital zircons from four Cambrian sandstones of the Ardennes and the Brabant Massif have been investigated. According to the UPb data features of color and shape of these zircons are suited for distinguishing to major groups: (1) colourless, mainly rounded, subordinately subhedral or euhedral zircons which are characterized by U contents below 300 ppm and by apparent 207Pb/ 235U ages between 0.53 Ga and 1.65 Ga. (2) reddish, generally subrounded to very well rounded zircons with U contents from 240 ppm to more than 800 ppm and apparent 207Pb/ 235U ages between 1.75 Ga and 2.4 Ga. From the group of colourless zircons only one fraction yields concordant UPb data and documents a Cadomian/PanAfrican crystal growth at 545 Ma. UPb data of the other colourless zircons arrange in a fan-shaped area in the Concordia diagram below Concordia and from 530 Ma to 600 Ma. Zircons with such UPb characteristics are well-known from Central and Southern Europe. They suggest a strong Cadomian/Pan-African influence. The reddish zircons are dominantly derived from Archean to Early Proterozoic crystalline rocks. Based on these results and on comparison with U-Pb data of other detrital zircons the Ardennes and the Brabant Massif must be regarded to be coherent to the Gondwana continental plate before the Caledonian orogeny.

  14. "Clothed in triple blues": sorting out the Italian blues.

    PubMed

    Bimler, David; Uusküla, Mari

    2014-04-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the "similarity sorting" procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data can be regarded as low-resolution similarity judgments. Here we analyze sorting data from speakers of Italian, Russian, and English, applying multidimensional scaling to delineate the boundaries between perceptual categories while highlighting differences between the three populations. Stimuli were 55 color swatches, predominantly from the blue region. Results suggest that at least two Italian words for "blue" are basic, a similar situation to Russian, in contrast to English where a single "blue" term is basic. PMID:24695190

  15. The AstroBID: Searching through the Italian Astronomical Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirella, E. O.; Gargano, M.; Gasperini, A.; Mandrino, A.; Randazzo, D.; Zanini, V.

    2015-04-01

    The scientific heritage held in the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), made up of rare and modern books, instruments, and archival documents spanning from the 15th to the early 20th century, marks the milestones in the history of astronomy in Italy. To promote this history of this historical collection, the Libraries and Historical Archives Service and the Museums Service of INAF have developed a project aimed at creating a single web portal: Polvere di stelle. I beni culturali dell'astronomia italiana (Stardust. The cultural heritage of the Italian astronomy). This portal searches for data coming from the libraries, the instruments collections and the historical archives, regarding the heritage of the Italian Observatories. The BID (Books, Instruments, Documents) of the project is the creation of a multimedia web facility, which allows the public to make simultaneous searches on the three different types of materials.

  16. No implication of apolipoprotein E polymorphism in Italian schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Sorbi, S; Nacmias, B; Tedde, A; Latorraca, S; Forleo, P; Guarnieri, B M; Petruzzi, C; Daneluzzo, E; Ortenzi, L; Piacentini, S; Amaducci, L

    1998-03-13

    Numerous studies have provided evidence for a genetic association of the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) epsilon4 allele and late onset familial and sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Clinical observations show that a proportion of schizophrenic patients may suffer from severe cognitive impairment. That could reflect a particular clinical aspect of this mental disorder or a common, yet unknown, neurodegenerative mechanism. We analysed the ApoE gene polymorphism in a sample of 69 Italian patients with schizophrenia, 140 AD patients and 121 controls. In schizophrenic patients, the distribution of ApoE genotypes does not significantly differ from that of controls. No effect of the ApoE genotype on age of onset was found. The frequency of ApoE alleles in Italian schizophrenic patients is comparable with control values, suggesting that ApoE polymorphism does not represent a risk factor for schizophrenia. PMID:9572600

  17. Italian natural history museums on the verge of collapse?

    PubMed

    Andreone, Franco; Bartolozzi, Luca; Boano, Giovanni; Boero, Ferdinando; Bologna, Marco A; Bon, Mauro; Bressi, Nicola; Capula, Massimo; Casale, Achille; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Chiozzi, Giorgio; Delfino, Massimo; Doria, Giuliano; Durante, Antonio; Ferrari, Marco; Gippoliti, Spartaco; Lanzinger, Michele; Latella, Leonardo; Maio, Nicola; Marangoni, Carla; Mazzotti, Stefano; Minelli, Alessandro; Muscio, Giuseppe; Nicolosi, Paola; Pievani, Telmo; Razzetti, Edoardo; Sabella, Giorgio; Valle, Marco; Vomero, Vincenzo; Zilli, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The Italian natural history museums are facing a critical situation, due to the progressive loss of scientific relevance, decreasing economic investments, and scarcity of personnel. This is extremely alarming, especially for ensuring the long-term preservation of the precious collections they host. Moreover, a commitment in fieldwork to increase scientific collections and concurrent taxonomic research are rarely considered priorities, while most of the activities are addressed to public events with political payoffs, such as exhibits, didactic meetings, expositions, and talks. This is possibly due to the absence of a national museum that would have better steered research activities and overall concepts for collection management. We here propose that Italian natural history museums collaborate to instate a "metamuseum", by establishing a reciprocal interaction network aimed at sharing budgetary and technical resources, which would assure better coordination of common long-term goals and scientific activities. PMID:25709525

  18. Italian natural history museums on the verge of collapse?

    PubMed Central

    Andreone, Franco; Bartolozzi, Luca; Boano, Giovanni; Boero, Ferdinando; Bologna, Marco A.; Bon, Mauro; Bressi, Nicola; Capula, Massimo; Casale, Achille; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Chiozzi, Giorgio; Delfino, Massimo; Doria, Giuliano; Durante, Antonio; Ferrari, Marco; Gippoliti, Spartaco; Lanzinger, Michele; Latella, Leonardo; Maio, Nicola; Marangoni, Carla; Mazzotti, Stefano; Minelli, Alessandro; Muscio, Giuseppe; Nicolosi, Paola; Pievani, Telmo; Razzetti, Edoardo; Sabella, Giorgio; Valle, Marco; Vomero, Vincenzo; Zilli, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Italian natural history museums are facing a critical situation, due to the progressive loss of scientific relevance, decreasing economic investments, and scarcity of personnel. This is extremely alarming, especially for ensuring the long-term preservation of the precious collections they host. Moreover, a commitment in fieldwork to increase scientific collections and concurrent taxonomic research are rarely considered priorities, while most of the activities are addressed to public events with political payoffs, such as exhibits, didactic meetings, expositions, and talks. This is possibly due to the absence of a national museum that would have better steered research activities and overall concepts for collection management. We here propose that Italian natural history museums collaborate to instate a “metamuseum”, by establishing a reciprocal interaction network aimed at sharing budgetary and technical resources, which would assure better coordination of common long-term goals and scientific activities. PMID:25709525

  19. Stress assignment in reading Italian: friendship outweighs dominance.

    PubMed

    Burani, Cristina; Paizi, Despina; Sulpizio, Simone

    2014-05-01

    Stress assignment to polysyllabic words is the only aspect of the pronunciation of written Italian that cannot be predicted by rule. It could be a function of stress dominance in the language or of stress neighborhood (i.e., the number of words sharing an ending and a stress pattern). In two experiments, we investigated stress assignment in Italian adult and, most importantly, young readers. Word frequency and number of stress friends influenced reading times and accuracy, outweighing any effect of stress dominance. In the presence of a majority of stress friends, the reading of low-frequency words was only affected by stress neighborhood. These effects were the same in fourth graders and adult readers. We argue that distributional information based on the number of stress friends-rather than stress dominance-is the most effective factor in assigning stress to words in reading.

  20. Power law tails in the Italian personal income distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clementi, F.; Gallegati, M.

    2005-05-01

    We investigate the shape of the Italian personal income distribution using microdata from the Survey on Household Income and Wealth, made publicly available by the Bank of Italy for the years 1977-2002. We find that the upper tail of the distribution is consistent with a Pareto-power law type distribution, while the rest follows a two-parameter lognormal distribution. The results of our analysis show a shift of the distribution and a change of the indexes specifying it over time. As regards the first issue, we test the hypothesis that the evolution of both gross domestic product and personal income is governed by similar mechanisms, pointing to the existence of correlation between these quantities. The fluctuations of the shape of income distribution are instead quantified by establishing some links with the business cycle phases experienced by the Italian economy over the years covered by our dataset.

  1. "Clothed in triple blues": sorting out the Italian blues.

    PubMed

    Bimler, David; Uusküla, Mari

    2014-04-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the "similarity sorting" procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data can be regarded as low-resolution similarity judgments. Here we analyze sorting data from speakers of Italian, Russian, and English, applying multidimensional scaling to delineate the boundaries between perceptual categories while highlighting differences between the three populations. Stimuli were 55 color swatches, predominantly from the blue region. Results suggest that at least two Italian words for "blue" are basic, a similar situation to Russian, in contrast to English where a single "blue" term is basic.

  2. The Italian reaction to the Giubilini and Minerva paper.

    PubMed

    Mori, Maurizio

    2013-05-01

    From 28 February to the end of March 2012, the Italian media reacted fiercely to the Giubilini and Minerva paper published in the Journal of Medical Ethics a few days earlier. The first article viewed the proposal as analogous to 'barbaric invasions', but in a first stage of the debate it could be seen as a case of the usual controversy between Catholics and secularists. Then emotive reactions prevailed and a flood of papers expressed strong opposition to 'infanticide'. The authors were even deemed insane; the fact that both are Italian certainly increased interest in the subject as well as surprise at their proposal, which some reckoned to be an insult to their 'national identity'. Even freedom of academic research and discussion was put in question, and defenders of free debate were accused of being supporters of the theory of infanticide.

  3. Feyerabend, truth, and relativisms: Footnotes to the Italian debate.

    PubMed

    Gattei, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    There is a substantial literature on Feyerabend's relativism-including a few papers in this collection-but fewer specific studies of the ways that his writings and ideas have been taken up among the non-academic public. This is odd, given his obvious interest in the lives and concerns of persons who were not 'intellectuals'-a term that, for him, had a pejorative ring to it. It is also odd, given the abundance of evidence of how Feyerabend's relativism played a role in a specific national and cultural context-namely, contemporary Italian debates about relativism. This paper offers a study of how Feyerabend's ideas have been deployed by Italian intellectuals and cultural commentators-including the current Pope-and critically assesses them. PMID:27269267

  4. Italian natural history museums on the verge of collapse?

    PubMed

    Andreone, Franco; Bartolozzi, Luca; Boano, Giovanni; Boero, Ferdinando; Bologna, Marco A; Bon, Mauro; Bressi, Nicola; Capula, Massimo; Casale, Achille; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Chiozzi, Giorgio; Delfino, Massimo; Doria, Giuliano; Durante, Antonio; Ferrari, Marco; Gippoliti, Spartaco; Lanzinger, Michele; Latella, Leonardo; Maio, Nicola; Marangoni, Carla; Mazzotti, Stefano; Minelli, Alessandro; Muscio, Giuseppe; Nicolosi, Paola; Pievani, Telmo; Razzetti, Edoardo; Sabella, Giorgio; Valle, Marco; Vomero, Vincenzo; Zilli, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The Italian natural history museums are facing a critical situation, due to the progressive loss of scientific relevance, decreasing economic investments, and scarcity of personnel. This is extremely alarming, especially for ensuring the long-term preservation of the precious collections they host. Moreover, a commitment in fieldwork to increase scientific collections and concurrent taxonomic research are rarely considered priorities, while most of the activities are addressed to public events with political payoffs, such as exhibits, didactic meetings, expositions, and talks. This is possibly due to the absence of a national museum that would have better steered research activities and overall concepts for collection management. We here propose that Italian natural history museums collaborate to instate a "metamuseum", by establishing a reciprocal interaction network aimed at sharing budgetary and technical resources, which would assure better coordination of common long-term goals and scientific activities.

  5. Reliability and clinical validity of the Italian Reflux Symptom Index.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Antonio; Mozzanica, Francesco; Ginocchio, Daniela; Peri, Andrea; Bottero, Alessandro; Ottaviani, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    Currently, there is no Italian version of the Reflux Symptom Index (RSI). The aim of this study was to develop an Italian RSI and to evaluate its internal consistency, reliability, and clinical validity. The study design used was a cross-sectional survey study. Eighty patients with a Reflux Finding Score (RFS) >7, and 193 asymptomatic subjects were included in the study. For the RSI reliability analysis, the appositely developed Italian RSI was filled twice, with a week interval, by the 80 patients and 80 control subjects. The test-retest reliability was assessed through the Pearson correlation test, whereas the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used for internal consistency analysis. For the clinical validity assessment, the scores obtained in the pathological group were compared with the data from the asymptomatic individuals through the Student's t test. Finally, the correlation between RSI and RFS in the 80 patients was assessed. All of the patients filled in the entire questionnaire autonomously. The test-retest reliability in the patients, as well as in the control group, was very high (r>0.90); the internal consistency also showed very high values (alpha=0.99). The mean RSI score in the patients was 21.1+/-6.6, whereas in the control group it was 6.3+/-5.6; the difference was statistically significant (P=0.0001). The mean RFS score in the 80 patients was 9.2+/-2.7 and the correlation between RFS score and RSI score was rather high (r=0.89). The Italian RSI is easily administered, highly reproducible, and exhibits excellent clinical validity.

  6. Physico-chemical conditions of crystallization of the Guli ulrabasic massif (North Part of the Siberian Platform): evidence from melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonov, Vladimir; Vasiliev, Yuri; Kotlyarov, Alexey; Stupakov, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    Conditions of formation of the Guli ultrabasic massif (Maimecha Kotui Province in the North Part of the Siberian Platform) attract attention of numerous researchers. For the solution of genetic problems of various rocks from this ultramafic complex the data on melt inclusions in minerals has been earlier used (Sokolov et al., 1999; Rass, Plechov, 2000; Sokolov, 2003; Panina, 2006). At the same time, formation of dunites, occupying the main volume of the Guli massif, remain almost not considered by means of thermobarogeochemical methods and the role of magmatic processes in this case is not ascertained. As a result of melt inclusions study in the Cr-spinel the new data on physical and chemical parameters of dunite crystallization in the Guli ulrabasic massif was obtained. On the ratio (Na2O + K2O) - SiO2 the majority of analyses of glasses and calculated compositions of inclusions settle down in the field of subalkaline series. On the diagram MgO - SiO2 bulk chemical compositions of inclusions (with the magnesium content of 19-28 wt. %) correspond to picrites and picrite-basalts. They are in close association with the data on inclusions in the Cr-spinel from dunites of Konder (Siberian Platform) and Nizhnii Tagil (Ural Mountains) platinum-bearing ultrabasic massifs and also are situated near to the field of inclusions in the olivine phenocrysts from meimechites (Maimecha Kotui Province in the North Part of the Siberian Platform). Similarity of melt inclusions in the Cr-spinel from the dunite of the Guli massif and in the olivine from meimechites is established on the variety of petrochemical components - Al2O3, CaO, Na2O, K2O. The calculated compositions of inclusions from dunites coincide mostly with the data on inclusions from meimechites, while glasses of inclusions from Cr-spinel contain less titan and magnesium. As a whole for the melts of the Maimecha Kotui Province (that form both dunites of the Guli massif and meimechites) much higher contents of TiO2 (from

  7. Lithologic distribution and geologic history of the Apollo 17 site: The record in soils and small rock particles from the highland massifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.; Rockow, Kaylynn M.; Korotev, Randy L.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1996-01-01

    Through analysis by instrumental neutron activation (INAA) of 789 individual lithic fragments from the 2 mm-4 mm grain-size fractions of five Apollo 17 soil samples (72443, 72503, 73243, 76283, and 76503) and petrographic examination of a subset, we have determined the diversity and proportions of rock types recorded within soils from the highland massifs. The distribution of rock types at the site, as recorded by lithic fragments in the soils, is an alternative to the distribution inferred from the limited number of large rock samples. The compositions and proportions of 2 mm-4 mm fragments provide a bridge between compositions of <1 mm fines, and types and proportions of rocks observed in large collected breccias and their clasts. The 2 mm-4 mm fraction of soil from South Massif, represented by an unbiased set of lithic fragments from station-2 samples 72443 and 72503, consists of 71% noritic impact-melt breccia, 7% incompatible-trace-element-(ITE)-poor highland rock types (mainly granulitic breccias), 19% agglutinates and regolith breccias, 1% high-Ti mare basalt, and 2% others (very-low-Ti (VLT) basalt, monzogabbro breccia, and metal). In contrast, the 2 mm-4 mm fraction of a soil from the North Massif, represented by an unbiased set of lithic fragments from station-6 sample 76503, has a greater proportion of ITE-poor highland rock types and mare-basalt fragments: it consists of 29% ITE-poor highland rock types (mainly granulitic breccias and troctolitic anorthosite), 25% impact-melt breccia, 13% high-Ti mare basalt, 31% agglutinates and regolith breccias, 1% orange glass and related breccia, and 1% others. Based on a comparison of mass-weighted mean compositions of the lithic fragments with compositions of soil fines from all Apollo 17 highland stations, differences between the station-2 and station-6 samples are representative of differences between available samples from the two massifs. From the distribution of different rock types and their compositions

  8. Soloist evaluations of six Old Italian and six new violins.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Claudia; Curtin, Joseph; Poitevineau, Jacques; Borsarello, Hugues; Wollman, Indiana; Tao, Fan-Chia; Ghasarossian, Thierry

    2014-05-20

    Many researchers have sought explanations for the purported tonal superiority of Old Italian violins by investigating varnish and wood properties, plate tuning systems, and the spectral balance of the radiated sound. Nevertheless, the fundamental premise of tonal superiority has been investigated scientifically only once very recently, and results showed a general preference for new violins and that players were unable to reliably distinguish new violins from old. The study was, however, relatively small in terms of the number of violins tested (six), the time allotted to each player (an hour), and the size of the test space (a hotel room). In this study, 10 renowned soloists each blind-tested six Old Italian violins (including five by Stradivari) and six new during two 75-min sessions--the first in a rehearsal room, the second in a 300-seat concert hall. When asked to choose a violin to replace their own for a hypothetical concert tour, 6 of the 10 soloists chose a new instrument. A single new violin was easily the most-preferred of the 12. On average, soloists rated their favorite new violins more highly than their favorite old for playability, articulation, and projection, and at least equal to old in terms of timbre. Soloists failed to distinguish new from old at better than chance levels. These results confirm and extend those of the earlier study and present a striking challenge to near-canonical beliefs about Old Italian violins.

  9. Attitudes towards honey among Italian consumers: A choice experiment approach.

    PubMed

    Cosmina, Marta; Gallenti, Gianluigi; Marangon, Francesco; Troiano, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Honey is becoming increasingly popular with consumers for its nutritional benefits as well as many other functions. The objective of this article is to determine which factors influence consumers' purchase intentions and to assess the importance of certain honey characteristics to enable identification of the constituents of an ideal honey profile. This information will lead to satisfaction of consumers' preferences and formulation of marketing strategies that support honey makers. We applied a choice experiment to the Italian honey market to define the preferences and the willingness to pay for key characteristics of the product. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted in 2014 (January-July) among Italian consumers; it was completed by 427 respondents. A latent class model was estimated and four classes were identified, with different preferences, illustrating that respondents seem to be heterogeneous honey consumers. Results suggest the "organic" attribute was more important than others factors, such as the place where the honey was produced (landscape), but less important than the country of origin; local Italian honey was preferred to foreign honey. Respondents showed a higher willingness to pay (WTP) for honey from their country of origin versus the production method used. Our results suggest that while organic beekeeping might be an important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication is not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by consumers. PMID:26719101

  10. Legionella contamination in hot water of Italian hotels.

    PubMed

    Borella, Paola; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Stampi, Serena; Stancanelli, Giovanna; Romano-Spica, Vincenzo; Triassi, Maria; Marchesi, Isabella; Bargellini, Annalisa; Tatò, Daniela; Napoli, Christian; Zanetti, Franca; Leoni, Erica; Moro, Matteo; Scaltriti, Stefania; Ribera D'Alcalà, Gabriella; Santarpia, Rosalba; Boccia, Stefania

    2005-10-01

    A cross-sectional multicenter survey of Italian hotels was conducted to investigate Legionella spp. contamination of hot water. Chemical parameters (hardness, free chlorine concentration, and trace element concentrations), water systems, and building characteristics were evaluated to study risk factors for colonization. The hot water systems of Italian hotels were strongly colonized by Legionella; 75% of the buildings examined and 60% of the water samples were contaminated, mainly at levels of > or =10(3) CFU liter(-1), and Legionella pneumophila was the most frequently isolated species (87%). L. pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from 45.8% of the contaminated sites and from 32.5% of the hotels examined. When a multivariate logistic model was used, only hotel age was associated with contamination, but the risk factors differed depending on the contaminating species and serogroup. Soft water with higher chlorine levels and higher temperatures were associated with L. pneumophila serogroup 1 colonization, whereas the opposite was observed for serogroups 2 to 14. In conclusion, Italian hotels, particularly those located in old buildings, represent a major source of risk for Legionnaires' disease due to the high frequency of Legionella contamination, high germ concentration, and major L. pneumophila serogroup 1 colonization. The possible role of chlorine in favoring the survival of Legionella species is discussed.

  11. Soloist evaluations of six Old Italian and six new violins.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Claudia; Curtin, Joseph; Poitevineau, Jacques; Borsarello, Hugues; Wollman, Indiana; Tao, Fan-Chia; Ghasarossian, Thierry

    2014-05-20

    Many researchers have sought explanations for the purported tonal superiority of Old Italian violins by investigating varnish and wood properties, plate tuning systems, and the spectral balance of the radiated sound. Nevertheless, the fundamental premise of tonal superiority has been investigated scientifically only once very recently, and results showed a general preference for new violins and that players were unable to reliably distinguish new violins from old. The study was, however, relatively small in terms of the number of violins tested (six), the time allotted to each player (an hour), and the size of the test space (a hotel room). In this study, 10 renowned soloists each blind-tested six Old Italian violins (including five by Stradivari) and six new during two 75-min sessions--the first in a rehearsal room, the second in a 300-seat concert hall. When asked to choose a violin to replace their own for a hypothetical concert tour, 6 of the 10 soloists chose a new instrument. A single new violin was easily the most-preferred of the 12. On average, soloists rated their favorite new violins more highly than their favorite old for playability, articulation, and projection, and at least equal to old in terms of timbre. Soloists failed to distinguish new from old at better than chance levels. These results confirm and extend those of the earlier study and present a striking challenge to near-canonical beliefs about Old Italian violins. PMID:24711376

  12. [Reference values of urinary mercury in the Italian population].

    PubMed

    Soleo, L; Elia, G; Russo, A; Schiavulli, N; Lasorsa, G; Mangili, A; Gilberti, E; Ronchi, A; Balducci, C; Minoia, C; Aprea, C; Sciarra, G F; Valente, T; Fenga, C

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows the results of a polycentric study performed to assess the reference values of urinary mercury (U-Hg) in Italian population. 374 subjects from four Italian cities (Bari, Brescia, Genova e Siena) have been examined. A questionnaire on life style, dietary habits, occupational or environmental exposure to Hg and clinical history has been administered to every participant and number and surface of dental amalgams have been verified for all subjects. The determination of U-Hg has been performed on urinary extemporary samples by hydride generation atomic absorption method (HG-AAS); urinary creatinine has been determinated to reduce the intraindividual variability. U-Hg reference values were: 0.21-3.20 micrograms/g creat (5 degrees and 95 degrees percentile) and 0.12-6.04 micrograms/g creat (range). Moreover study results have shown that number and surface of dental amalgams, dietary fish intake and body mass index (BMI) influenced significatively U-Hg excretion. U-Hg reference values from this polycentric study resulted comparable to those assessed in other European countries, whereas the mean U-Hg observed in the referent Italian population was lower.

  13. Social inequalities and pharmaceutical cost sharing in Italian regions.

    PubMed

    Terraneo, Marco; Sarti, Simone; Tognetti Bordogna, Mara

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Italian citizens have increasingly been asked to share pharmaceutical costs, but at the same time, households' medicines expenditure has decreased. Cost-sharing policies have to be assessed not just in terms of limitation of moral hazard and revenue to the state, but also for equal opportunities for citizen users accessing health services. The aim of this article is to analyze how Italian co-payment policies ("ticket") on medicines may affect pharmaceutical expenditure of households, considering territorial and social groups variation. We reviewed the per capita private spending on medicines of Italian regions, separating pharmaceutical outlay and "ticket." Across the period 2001-2010 we found that the overall per capita private spending on medicines remained substantially stable, although medicine expenditure decreases while the "ticket" increases. When cost sharing rises, out-of-pocket spending on medicines by poorer families seems to remain unchanged; however, poorer families seem to reduce their pharmaceutical expenditure. Our analysis suggests that applying co-payment in Italy is partly successful, in terms of greater revenue to the health system, but in the last few years, cost-sharing increases would seem to have rebounded negatively on more vulnerable families, due to the economic crisis.

  14. Site Characterization of Italian Strong Motion Recording Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Scasserra, Giuseppe; Lanzo, Giuseppe; Stewart, Jonathan P.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2008-07-08

    A dataset of site conditions at 101 Italian ground motion stations with recorded motions has been compiled that includes geologic characteristics and seismic velocities. Geologic characterization is derived principally from local geologic investigations by ENEL that include detailed mapping and cross sections. For sites lacking such detailed geologic characterization, the geology maps of the by Servizio Geologico d'Italia are used. Seismic velocities are extracted from the literature and the files of consulting engineers, geologists and public agencies for 33 sites. Data sources utilized include post earthquake site investigations (Friuli and Irpinia events), microzonation studies, and miscellaneous investigations performed by researchers or consulting engineers/geologists. Additional seismic velocities are measured by the authors using the controlled source spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) method for 18 sites that recorded the 1997-1998 Umbria Marche earthquake sequence. The compiled velocity measurements provide data for 51 of the 101 sites. For the remaining sites, the average seismic velocity in the upper 30 m (V{sub s30}) is estimated using a hybrid approach. For young Quaternary alluvium, V{sub s30} an existing empirical relationship for California sites by Wills and Clahan (2006) is used, which we justify by validating this relationship against Italian data. For Tertiary Limestone and Italian Mesozoic rocks, empirical estimates of V{sub s30} are developed using the available data. This work is also presented in Scasserra et al. (2008: JEE, in review)

  15. Legionella Contamination in Hot Water of Italian Hotels

    PubMed Central

    Borella, Paola; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Stampi, Serena; Stancanelli, Giovanna; Romano-Spica, Vincenzo; Triassi, Maria; Marchesi, Isabella; Bargellini, Annalisa; Tatò, Daniela; Napoli, Christian; Zanetti, Franca; Leoni, Erica; Moro, Matteo; Scaltriti, Stefania; Ribera D'Alcalà, Gabriella; Santarpia, Rosalba; Boccia, Stefania

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional multicenter survey of Italian hotels was conducted to investigate Legionella spp. contamination of hot water. Chemical parameters (hardness, free chlorine concentration, and trace element concentrations), water systems, and building characteristics were evaluated to study risk factors for colonization. The hot water systems of Italian hotels were strongly colonized by Legionella; 75% of the buildings examined and 60% of the water samples were contaminated, mainly at levels of ≥103 CFU liter−1, and Legionella pneumophila was the most frequently isolated species (87%). L. pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from 45.8% of the contaminated sites and from 32.5% of the hotels examined. When a multivariate logistic model was used, only hotel age was associated with contamination, but the risk factors differed depending on the contaminating species and serogroup. Soft water with higher chlorine levels and higher temperatures were associated with L. pneumophila serogroup 1 colonization, whereas the opposite was observed for serogroups 2 to 14. In conclusion, Italian hotels, particularly those located in old buildings, represent a major source of risk for Legionnaires' disease due to the high frequency of Legionella contamination, high germ concentration, and major L. pneumophila serogroup 1 colonization. The possible role of chlorine in favoring the survival of Legionella species is discussed. PMID:16204491

  16. Soloist evaluations of six Old Italian and six new violins

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Claudia; Curtin, Joseph; Poitevineau, Jacques; Borsarello, Hugues; Wollman, Indiana; Tao, Fan-Chia; Ghasarossian, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Many researchers have sought explanations for the purported tonal superiority of Old Italian violins by investigating varnish and wood properties, plate tuning systems, and the spectral balance of the radiated sound. Nevertheless, the fundamental premise of tonal superiority has been investigated scientifically only once very recently, and results showed a general preference for new violins and that players were unable to reliably distinguish new violins from old. The study was, however, relatively small in terms of the number of violins tested (six), the time allotted to each player (an hour), and the size of the test space (a hotel room). In this study, 10 renowned soloists each blind-tested six Old Italian violins (including five by Stradivari) and six new during two 75-min sessions—the first in a rehearsal room, the second in a 300-seat concert hall. When asked to choose a violin to replace their own for a hypothetical concert tour, 6 of the 10 soloists chose a new instrument. A single new violin was easily the most-preferred of the 12. On average, soloists rated their favorite new violins more highly than their favorite old for playability, articulation, and projection, and at least equal to old in terms of timbre. Soloists failed to distinguish new from old at better than chance levels. These results confirm and extend those of the earlier study and present a striking challenge to near-canonical beliefs about Old Italian violins. PMID:24711376

  17. Genomic characterization of Italian Clostridium botulinum group I strains.

    PubMed

    Giordani, Francesco; Fillo, Silvia; Anselmo, Anna; Palozzi, Anna Maria; Fortunato, Antonella; Gentile, Bernardina; Azarnia Tehran, Domenico; Ciammaruconi, Andrea; Spagnolo, Ferdinando; Pittiglio, Valentina; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Auricchio, Bruna; De Medici, Dario; Lista, Florigio

    2015-12-01

    Clostridium botulinum is a gram-positive bacterium capable of producing the botulinum neurotoxin, a powerful poison that causes botulism, a severe neuroparalytic disease. Its genome has been sequenced entirely and its gene content has been analyzed. To date, 19 full genomes and 64 draft genomes are available. The geographical origin of these genomes is predominantly from the US. In the present study, 10 Italian genomes of C. botulinum group I were analyzed and compared with previously sequenced group I genomes, in order to genetically characterize the Italian population of C. botulinum group I and to investigate the phylogenetic relationships among different lineages. Using the suites of software ClonalFrame and ClonalOrigin to perform genomic analysis, we demonstrated that Italian C. botulinum group I population is phylogenetically heterogeneous encompassing different and distant lineages including overseas strains, too. Moreover, a high recombination rate was demonstrated in the evolution of C. botulinum group I species. Finally, genome sequencing of the strain 357 led us to identify a novel botulinum neurotoxin subtype, F8. PMID:26341861

  18. The border effect in surname structure: an Italian-Slovenian case study.

    PubMed

    Lucchetti, Enzo; Tasso, Miro; Amoruso, Irene; Caravello, Gianumberto

    2011-06-01

    Population surname structure in northeastern Italy municipalities, in which small Slovenian-speaking groups are present, are compared with neighboring populations of both Italian and Slovenian nationality. In the early 20th century those municipalities were part of the Italian territory and underwent a massive Italianization process that led to the mutation of the original Slovenian surnames into a derived Italian form. In order to track surname relationships among the examined communities, two different similarity analyses were performed: the first using the surnames as they are recorded in the Italian and Slovenian official telephone directories, and the second restoring the Italianized Slovenian surnames to their original form and then recalculating the populations' similarity. Both comparisons evidence a separation that depends on nationality, which is less marked after restoring surnames to their original form. Geographical elements, older historical events, and socioeconomic traits allow interpretation of these results.

  19. [Speech perception test in Italian language for profoundly deaf children].

    PubMed

    Genovese, E; Orzan, E; Turrini, M; Babighian, G; Arslan, E

    1995-10-01

    Speech perception tests are an important part of procedures for diagnosing pre-verbal hearing loss. Merely establishing a child's hearing threshold with and without a hearing aid is not sufficient to ensure an adequate evaluation with a view to selecting cases suitable for cochlear implants because it fails to indicate the real benefit obtained from using a conventional hearing aid reliably. Speech perception tests have proved useful not only for patient selection, but also for subsequent evaluation of the efficacy of new hearing aids, such as tactile devices and cochlear implants. In clinical practice, the tests most commonly adopted with small children are: The Auditory Comprehension Test (ACT), Discrimination after Training (DAT), Monosyllable, Trochee, Spondee tests (MTS), Glendonald Auditory Screening Priocedure (GASP), Early Speech Perception Test (ESP), Rather than considering specific results achieved in individual cases, reference is generally made to the four speech perception classes proposed by Moog and Geers of the CID of St. Louis. The purpose of this classification, made on the results obtained with suitably differentiated tests according to the child's age and language ability, is to detect differences in perception of a spoken message in ideal listening conditions. To date, no italian language speech perception test has been designed to establish the assessment of speech perception level in children with profound hearing impairment. We attempted, therefore, to adapt the existing English tests to the Italian language taking into consideration the differences between the two languages. Our attention focused on the ESP test since it can be applied to even very small children (2 years old). The ESP is proposed in a standard version for hearing-impaired children over the age of 6 years and in a simplified version for younger children. The rationale we used for selecting Italian words reflect the rationale established for the original version, but the

  20. Modernization and tradition in the recent history of italian fertility.

    PubMed

    Bacci, M L

    1967-06-01

    The secular decline of Italian fertility, started in the last decade of the nineteenth century, came to an end in the early 1950'sand has recovered slightly in the last fifteen years. Italian experience seems to follow, with a twenty-year lag, the experience of the more advanced western European populations. At present, with an average of 2.5 children per marriage, Italian fertility is very close to the French and to the average European level.At the regional level, two contrasting patterns can be detected. On one side stands the very low fertility of the North and of the Center, mostly below replacement in the last thirty years;on the other, the still high fertility of the South.In the North and in the Center, where the decline started earlier, fertility has fallen well below replacement level in the last thirty years. In the South, where the decline started in the late 1920's and early 1930's, a large family system still prevails, and the spreading of voluntary control faces barriers setup by a long historyof cultural isolation,attachment to tradition and religion. In the last 15 years, however, the gap has narrowed slowly, more because of an upturn of fertility in the North and in the Center than because of the decline in the South.Another interesting feature of Italian fertility is low class differentials: the fertility of the most prolific segment (farmers, farm laborers) is only 20 percent higher than the fertility of the less prolific professional groups. Finally, Italian experience provides an interesting example of the changing relationship linking the economic level of the population and fertility changes; in 1931-51 a negative correlation linked the changes in fertility to the economic level of the region, while in 1951-61 and 1961-66 a very high and positive correlation can be observed.As for the future trends in fertility, two factors may have an important role. In the first place, on the one hand, the economic policy of the government, aiming at