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Sample records for doris robertson proceedings

  1. The International DORIS Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavernier, G.; Fagard, H.; Feissel-Vernier, M.; Lemoine, F.; Noll, C.; Ries, J.; Soudarin, L.; Willis, P.

    The DORIS system was initially developed for precise orbit determination and precise positioning on the Earth. In continuation of the DORIS Pilot Experiment initiated in 1999, the International DORIS Service (IDS) officially started on July 1, 2003 as an IAG Service after an official acceptance from the IAG Executive Committee at the IUGG General Assembly in Sapporo, Japan. Following this decision, the IERS Directing board accepted the DORIS Service as a new IERS external service. Six satellites carrying DORIS receivers are currently in orbit, permanently observed by 56 well-distributed tracking stations. Among these, three satellites (Jason-1, ENVISAT and SPOT5) are equipped with the new generation of DORIS receivers and were launched between December 2001 and May 2002. The DORIS receivers on these three spacecraft include a navigation function, called DIODE. The permanent tracking network has been constantly improved and specific campaigns of observations have been conducted in Wettzell, Gads and in Antarctica. Recent DORIS performances for precise positioning were improved by this large increase in the satellite constellation, leading to almost 1 cm precision for weekly station coordinates. Significant improvements were also obtained in Polar Motion estimations, leading to 1.0-1.5 mas daily results. In 2003 and 2004, several steps were taken to improve the operations of the IDS, as well as its international cooperation, by organizing several specific analysis campaigns. The International DORIS Service has now started its scientific activity on a routine basis for the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) and the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS).

  2. The proposed international DORIS service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, P.; Tavernier, G.; Feissel-Vernier, M.; Lemoine, F.; Noll, C.; Ries, J.; Soudarin, L.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to discuss the status of the DORIS Pilot experiment, to analyze the progress made during the past two years and to propose the official creation within the IAG of an International DORIS Service (IDS).

  3. Insertion devices for DORIS III (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pflüger, J.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, a major reconstruction of the electron storage ring DORIS II, the DORIS III project, has been completed [W. Brefeld, H. Nesemann, and J. Rossbach, Proceedings of the European Particle Accelerator Conference, Rome (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988), p. 2389]. Figure 1 shows an overview of the new ring. Originally DORIS II had a twofold symmetry. In part C each of the two dipole magnets adjacing to the 65-m-long straight section was replaced by three corresponding weaker ones. In this way a total of seven straight sections for insertion devices are provided. Six of them are 4-m long and the one in the center is only 2.7-m long. After extensive discussions with the user groups involved, four x-ray wigglers, one asymmetric hybrid structure, one x-ray undulator, and one XUV multiple undulator of the revolver type have been proposed for six of the sections [J. Pflüger and P. Gurtler, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 287, 628 (1990)]. One section is presently still free. All devices are either in construction or have already been completed and installed. In this contribution the mechanical and magnetic design of these devices will be described. Results of magnetic measurements of those devices which are already completed will be given in more detail.

  4. DORIS system and integrity survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayles, C.; Chauveau, J. P.; Didelot, F.; Auriol, A.; Tourain, C.

    2016-12-01

    DORIS, as other techniques for space geodesy (SLR, VLBI, GPS) has regularly progressed to meet the ever increasing needs of the scientific community in oceanography, geodesy or geophysics. Over the past 10 years, a particular emphasis has been placed on integrity monitoring of the system, which has contributed to the enhancement of the overall availability and quality of DORIS data products. A high level of monitoring is now provided by a centralized control of the whole system, including the global network of beacons and the onboard instruments, which perform a constant end-to-end survey. At first signs of any unusual behavior, a dedicated team is activated with well-established tools to investigate, to anticipate and to contain the impact of any potential failures. The procedure has increased the availability of DORIS beacons to 90%. The core topic of this article is to demonstrate that DORIS has implemented a high-level integrity control of its data. Embedded in the DORIS receiver, DIODE (DORIS Immediate Orbit Determination) is a Real-Time On-Board Orbit Determination software. Its accuracy has also been dramatically improved when compared to Precise Orbit Ephemeris (P.O.E.), down to 2.7 cm RMS on Jason-2, 3.0 cm on Saral and 3.3 cm on CryoSat-2. Specific quality indices were derived from the DIODE-based Kalman filters and are used to monitor network and system performance. This paper covers the definition of these indices and how the reliability and the reactiveness to incidents or anomalies of the system are improved. From these indices, we have provided detailed diagnostic information about the DORIS system, which is available in real-time, on-board each DORIS satellite. Using these capabilities, we have developed real-time functions that give an immediate diagnosis of the status of key components in the DORIS system. The Near-Real Time navigation system was improved and can distinguish and handle both satellite events and beacon anomalies. The next missions

  5. The International Doris Service (IDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavernier, G.; Feissel-Vernier, M.; Lemoine, F.; Noll, C.; Ries, J.; Soudarin, L.; Willis, P.

    The DORIS system was developed for precise orbit determination and precise positioning on Earth. In continuation of the DORIS Pilot Experiment initiated in 1999, the International DORIS Service (IDS) officially started on July 1, 2003 as an IAG Service after the decision of the IAG Executive Committee at the IUGG General Assembly in Sapporo. Following this decision, the IERS Directing board accepted the DORIS Service as a new IERS external service. Six satellites fitted out with DORIS receivers are currently flying, permanently observed by 56 well distributed stations. Among them, three satellites equipped with new DORIS receivers (Jason-1, ENVISAT and SPOT5) have been successfully launched between Dec. 2001 and May 2002. All of them host a navigation function, called DIODE. Two new stations have been added to the permanent network in 2003: Crozet (French Southern Indian Ocean territories) and Jiufeng (China). In response to proposals submitted by candidate host agencies in the frame of IDS, the following stations were installed: Wettzell (Germany), Gavdos (radar altimeter calibration site in Crete), Lambert and Sorsdal (Glacier movement monitoring in Antarctica) in Winter 2001/2002, 2002/2003 and 2003/2004. The 2003 and early 2004 highlights include the renovation of a number of stations, reorganization of the Data Centers, and new developments in the coordination of analyses. While the Analysis Centers continue their support to IERS, the Analysis Coordinator and the Central Bureau are jointly developing comparison and combination activities that eventually aim at benefiting to the IERS Combination Pilot Project.

  6. LOD estimation from DORIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, Petr; Filler, Vratislav; Buday, Michal; Hugentobler, Urs

    2016-04-01

    The difference between astronomically determined duration of the day and 86400 seconds is called length of day (LOD). The LOD could be also understood as the daily rate of the difference between the Universal Time UT1, based on the Earth rotation, and the International Atomic Time TAI. The LOD is estimated using various Satellite Geodesy techniques as GNSS and SLR, while absolute UT1-TAI difference is precisely determined by VLBI. Contrary to other IERS techniques, the LOD estimation using DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by satellite) measurement did not achieve a geodetic accuracy in the past, reaching the precision at the level of several ms per day. However, recent experiments performed by IDS (International DORIS Service) analysis centre at Geodetic Observatory Pecny show a possibility to reach accuracy around 0.1 ms per day, when not adjusting the cross-track harmonics in the Satellite orbit model. The paper presents the long term LOD series determined from the DORIS solutions. The series are compared with C04 as the reference. Results are discussed in the context of accuracy achieved with GNSS and SLR. Besides the multi-satellite DORIS solutions, also the LOD series from the individual DORIS satellite solutions are analysed.

  7. Recent results from DORIS II

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains a brief review of recent results from the ARGUS and Crystal Ball experiments at DORIS II, concentrating on UPSILON(1S) and UPSILON(2S) spectroscopy with a short foray into ..gamma gamma.. physics. 18 refs., 10 figs.

  8. DORIS research activities at Geodetic Observatory Pecny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štěpánek, Petr; Filler, Vratislav; Buday, Michal

    2017-04-01

    Geodesy Observatory Pecný (GOP) provides one of the International DORIS Service (IDS) analyses centers, participating on the combined IDS products including the solution for ITRF2014. As the unique approach, GOP employs a DORIS-developed version of the Bernese GPS Software. The recent research focuses on several topics. Our experiment, based on 9 year of data, shows a possibility to reach LOD estimation accuracy close to 0.1 msec per day (compared to reference IERS C04 model), when not adjusting the cross-track harmonics in the Satellite orbit model. We also compare different preprocessing strategies and data weighting and discuss the impact on the solution accuracy and on the scale bias. Moreover, we present the initial results of the station clock modelling from the DORIS/pseudorange measurements.

  9. Assessment of the DORIS network monumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunier, J.

    2016-12-01

    Stability of the monumentation is essential for precise positioning applications to minimize velocity uncertainties and noises in the position data. In charge of the DORIS global tracking network deployment since the beginning, IGN, in consultation with CNES, designed three standard monuments compliant with the DORIS system requirements and general geodetic specifications, and suitable for various site configurations: building roofs, concrete pedestals or pillars. This paper describes the monument types in use in the DORIS network according to the current required specifications and provides a comparative assessment of the stability of the monuments over the network based on three methods: a theoretical study of the mechanical behavior of the metallic structures, a misclosure analysis taken during ground surveys and a qualitative approach taking into account different factors. This overview of the network monumentation gives new key numbers following the previous network assessment performed by Fagard (2006). Significant improvements have been made following the continuous efforts to renovate the network monumentation. These results are relevant for the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) goals of measurement stability for the geodetic techniques. Today, two-thirds of the DORIS network monuments are compliant with the standards aiming at stability of 0.1 mm/y. This stability result has been measured for 16 of the 58 stations more than 10 y after its installation while monuments with more than 1 mm antenna tilts are over 10 y old when specifications were less stringent. The grading and scoring grid drawn up for each monument led to the mapping of the stability of the current DORIS network. Finally, we present a number of further actions to monitor the monument stability and provide new elements for the network monumentation assessment, exploring two different approaches: analysis of the time series and direct measurements using devices placed on each monument.

  10. Averaging Robertson-Walker cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Iain A.; Robbers, Georg; Behrend, Juliane E-mail: G.Robbers@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de

    2009-04-15

    The cosmological backreaction arises when one directly averages the Einstein equations to recover an effective Robertson-Walker cosmology, rather than assuming a background a priori. While usually discussed in the context of dark energy, strictly speaking any cosmological model should be recovered from such a procedure. We apply the scalar spatial averaging formalism for the first time to linear Robertson-Walker universes containing matter, radiation and dark energy. The formalism employed is general and incorporates systems of multiple fluids with ease, allowing us to consider quantitatively the universe from deep radiation domination up to the present day in a natural, unified manner. Employing modified Boltzmann codes we evaluate numerically the discrepancies between the assumed and the averaged behaviour arising from the quadratic terms, finding the largest deviations for an Einstein-de Sitter universe, increasing rapidly with Hubble rate to a 0.01% effect for h = 0.701. For the {Lambda}CDM concordance model, the backreaction is of the order of {Omega}{sub eff}{sup 0} Almost-Equal-To 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}, with those for dark energy models being within a factor of two or three. The impacts at recombination are of the order of 10{sup -8} and those in deep radiation domination asymptote to a constant value. While the effective equations of state of the backreactions in Einstein-de Sitter, concordance and quintessence models are generally dust-like, a backreaction with an equation of state w{sub eff} < -1/3 can be found for strongly phantom models.

  11. Improved DORIS accuracy for precise orbit determination and geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Pascal; Jayles, Christian; Tavernier, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    In 2001 and 2002, 3 more DORIS satellites were launched. Since then, all DORIS results have been significantly improved. For precise orbit determination, 20 cm are now available in real-time with DIODE and 1.5 to 2 cm in post-processing. For geodesy, 1 cm precision can now be achieved regularly every week, making now DORIS an active part of a Global Observing System for Geodesy through the IDS.

  12. The DORIS Data Center at the CDDIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Carey E.; Dube, Maurice

    2000-01-01

    The DORIS system (Doppler Orbitography and Radio positioning Integrated by Satellite) was designed and developed by CNES, the National Geographic Institute, IGN (Institut G6ographique National), and the Space Geodesy Research Group, GRGS (Groupe de Recherches de Geodesie Spatiale - CNES/CNRS/Universite Paul Sabatier) to meet new needs for the precise determination of satellite positions on their orbits and for precise positioning of terrestrial beacons. This system has been carried since 1990 on the French SPOT 2 satellite, since 1992 on the French/American satellite TOPEX/POSEIDON, and since 1998 on the French SPOT 4 satellite. It will be part of the JASON (CNES/NASA) and ENVISAT (ESA) altimetric missions and also the SPOT follow-on Earth observation missions. DORIS is a radio-electrical system which takes Doppler measurements between a satellite in low orbit and a permanent global network for the purpose, on the one hand, of determining the satellite's position in orbit, and on the other hand, of locating ground beacons with a high degree of precision.

  13. Poynting-Robertson effect. II - Perturbation equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klacka, J.

    1992-12-01

    The paper addresses the problem of the complete set of perturbation equations of celestial mechanics as applied to the Poynting-Robertson effect. Differential equations and initial conditions for them are justified. The sudden beginning of the operation of the Poynting-Robertson effect (e.g., sudden release of dust particles from a comet) is taken into account. Two sets of differential equations and initial conditions for them are obtained. Both of them are completely equivalent to Newton's equation of motion. It is stressed that the transformation mu yields mu(1-beta) must be made in perturbation equations of celestial mechanics.

  14. About the Compatibility of DORIS and VLBI Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Il'in, Gennady; Smolentsev, Sergey; Sergeev, Roman

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the compatibility of the DORIS and VLBI observations at Badary Observatory. The DORIS beacon stands at 100-m distance from the main radio telescope dish and transmits signals on two frequencies: 2036.25 MHz and 401.25 MHz. The latter frequency is modulated to send messages containing an ID number, timing information, data from the meteorological sensors, and engineering data (e.g., power). Both frequencies affect the S/X band radio telescope receivers. The parameters of the DORIS signals were measured at the outputs of the S/X band intermediate frequency amplifier. It was found that: (1) The level of RFI, produced by the DORIS beacon, practically corresponds to the level of the system (antenna plus receiver) noise signal and does not overload the S/X band receivers. (2) The DORIS 401.25 MHz signal is out of the frequency bands recorded during standard VLBI sessions. As a result, RFI from DORIS does not affect VLBI observations. This conclusion was confirmed after data correlations of actual VLBI observations that were conducted with the DORIS beacon turned on/off.

  15. Improved DORIS Reference Frame Solution from NASA GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, Frank; Chinn, D. S.; Le Bail, K.; Zelensky, N. P.; Ray, R. D.; Beckley, B. D.; Beall, J. W.

    2012-01-01

    At GSFC, since 2008, we have been routinely processing data to DORIS and SLR satellites from 1993. A SINEX time series, based on processing of DORIS data from 1993 to 2008 (designated wd10) was included in the IDS combination for ITRF2008 (Le Bail et al., 2010; Valette et al., 2010). We have updated this series with the addition of new satellites Cryosat2 and Jason-2, and the new series (designated wd12) is routinely submitted to the IDS combination center for inclusion in the DORIS operational combination. In preparation for an eventual reprocessing of all the DORIS data for eventual inclusion in a new ITRF we are now updating our processing standards. As a first step, we update to the ITRF2008 reference frame as expressed through DPOD2008. In addition, we apply the GMF and GPT models for the troposphere, and we update the modeling for the change in pitch of SPOT-5 solar arrays after January 2008. Finally, we consider updated standards for static and time-variable gravity modeling. With this base series, we compute cumulative solution, expressed in ITRF2008, and examine the week-by-week station solution parameters, in particular scale, WRMS and Helmert transformation parameters. Finally we consider a joint solution with SLR, where the DORIS system is tied to SLR in two ways, first through the orbit computations using satellites tracked by both SLR and DORIS (e.g. TOPEX, Envisat, Jason-2, Cryosat2), and second through explicit ties at collocated sites. As one of the means of testing of these DORIS-only and SLR+DORIS solutions, we examine the vertical rates at sites in the vicinity of tide gauges.

  16. Proceedings:

    SciTech Connect

    Sidhu, S.S.

    1987-12-01

    With increasingly stringent requirements on the performance of accelerators and storage rings, there is a wide interest in modeling-based control. The organizers recognized the need to have an overview and discussion on the current status of modeling-based accelerator control and how advances in computer technology, software engineering, and expert systems can impact control and diagnosis. As a result, a workshop was organized at the Brookhaven National Laboratory on August 17-18, 1987. It was made possible by the joint support of the AGS, NSLS and Applied Mathematics Departments of BNL. The talks and discussions were divided into three main topics: elements of modeling, knowledge representation, and integration of modeling-based control systems with AI and workstations. This volume is the unedited collection of papers, presented at the Workshop. Separate abstracts were prepared for 10 papers in these proceedings.

  17. Preface - Scientific applications of DORIS in space geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Schrama, E. J. O.

    2016-12-01

    As part of its responsibilities as an International Association of Geodesy (IAG) service, for the second time the International DORIS Service (IDS) has prepared a technique contribution to the development of improved realization of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF), in this case ITRF2014. In order to prepare their contributions, the IDS community undertook a systematic reanalysis of all DORIS data from 1993 to 2015.0, and examined in-depth issues that produced systematic errors, or limited the accuracy of DORIS data products. As a result the IDS contribution to ITRF2014 is a landmark achievement for the IDS. The efforts of the different groups provide the main impetus for this special issue in Advances in Space Research "Scientific Applications of DORIS in Space Geodesy". For the third time the DORIS community has realized a special issue devoted to scientific analysis and products developed from DORIS data. The previous two special issues were published in the Journal of Geodesy (2006), and in Advances in Space Research (two volumes, 2010).

  18. Orbital resonances and Poynting-Robertson drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidenschilling, S. J.; Jackson, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    The phenomenon of resonance trapping with Poynting-Robertson drag in the simplest case - the circular restricted three-body problem - is elucidated. Attention is given to what determines whether a grain of a given size passes through a given resonance or is trapped there, to how and why a trapped particle's orbit evolves with time, and to why Poynting-Robertson drag resonances are only temporary, while gas-drag resonances appear to be stable. The possibility of trapping a grain into resonance with a planet depends on the combination of the following parameters: the ratio of radiation pressure force to solar gravity, the mass of the perturbing planet normalized to the solar mass, an integer, and eccentricity. In general, the peak eccentricity and sometimes the threshold value are large enough so that crossing orbits and close approaches to the planet can inhibit capture and aid escape from resonance.

  19. The development of the GSFC DORIS contribution to ITRF2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Chinn, D. S.; Zelensky, N. P.; Beall, J. W.; Le Bail, K.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA GSFC DORIS analysis center has processed data from January 1993 to December 2014 and provided 1141 weekly solutions in the form of normal equations for incorporation into the DORIS solution for ITRF2014. The solution time series, designated as gscwd26, were based on tracking data to eleven DORIS satellites divided generally into seven-day arcs. With respect to the ITRF2008 submission (Le Bail et al., 2010), the measurement model was updated to model the beacon frequency variations at certain DORIS sites, to apply the DORIS antenna phase law for the Starec and Alcatel antennae, and to apply the antenna offset corrections in the NASA GSFC orbit determination software rather than using the data-supplied corrections. We show that computing the antenna offset corrections in the orbit determination software is superior to using the offset corrections that are supplied with the DORIS data, and that this improves the RMS of fit for SPOT-2, Envisat, SPOT-4, and SPOT-5. The updates for the force model included: (1) the development of improved nonconservative force modeling for SPOT-2, SPOT-3, SPOT-5, Envisat, and HY-2A, and (2) the application of an updated static gravity model based on GRACE and GOCE data, and weekly models of the variations in the low degree gravity field deduced independently from tracking by Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and DORIS. The post-ITRF2008 DORIS coordinate WRMS after the launch of Envisat and SPOT-5 is improved from 11.20 to 12.45 mm with ITRF2008 (Le Bail et al., 2010), to between 8.50 and 9.99 mm with the gscwd26 SINEX solution. The application of the DORIS antenna phase laws shifts the DORIS scale wrt DPOD2008 by +6.0 mm from 1993/01/03 to 2002/06/06, and by +11.4 mm from 2002/06/13 to 2011/10/30. The application of more detailed models of time-variable gravity reduces the slopes in the Helmert transformation parameters Tx, and Ty (w.r.t. DPOD2008) after 2005. The annual amplitude in these parameters is reduced from 3.2 mm (for Tx

  20. David Gordon Campbell Robertson: A Biographical Sketch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, J. B.

    Emeritus Professor David Robertson of the Missouri University of Science and Technology was born in Dublin Ireland on 29 December 1941. His father was a merchant navy Captain who served during WWII and during David's early years his family lived in Dublin and Donegal where David went to the local elementary school. In 1954 he moved to London with his parents and attended Highgate School before commencing metallurgy at the Royal School of Mines, Imperial College, London in 1960.

  1. The generalized Poynting-Robertson effect

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, D.L. )

    1990-01-01

    The special relativistic equations of motion for a particle and the general relativistic equations of motion for a fluid in an arbitrary radiation field are formulated. The Poynting-Robertson forces are manifested in some of the velocity-dependent terms obtained. Newtonian approximations to the equations of motion are solved for a particle in orbit about a spherically symmetric source of radiation, where the angular size of the source as seen from the orbit is arbitrary. Situations are considered in which the absorption cross section of the particle is independent of frequency, as well as when the particle is an atom absorbing in a spectral line. In both instances, it is found that the finite size of the source of radiation leads to greater Poynting-Robertson drags than a point source of the same luminosity. The Newtonian equations are solved for a particle moving radially outward from the source. Limits for the velocities of high-speed particles resulting from Poynting-Robertson drags are obtained. The fluid equations are discussed briefly in their relation to theoretical treatments of relativistic jets and accretion disks. 9 refs.

  2. Poynting-Robertson effect - 'Circular' orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klacka, J.; Kaufmannova, J.

    1992-11-01

    The study investigates time evolution of the interplanetary dust particle under the action of the solar electromagnetic radiation (Poynting-Robertson effect). The evolution of the initially circular orbit in terms of the orbital elements present in the standard equations for their secular changes is considered. It is shown that the osculating eccentricity is virtually constant during the motion in spite of the generally accepted opinion that the standard equations for the secular changes of orbital elements represent the time evolution of the osculating elements.

  3. Thermal energy in Robertson-Walker universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Fernando Ruiz

    1989-03-01

    The covariant functional Schrödinger formalism is used to study thermal equilibrium for a scalar field in Robertson-Walker spacetimes. It is found that thermal equilibrium can be maintained for field masses, coupling constants and geometries satisfying a given differential equation, of which the massless conformally coupled case is a solution, but not the only one. The thermal energy is computed; it contains a term which for particular geometries, such as de Sitter spacetime, grows in time. On leave of absence from Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid 3, Spain.

  4. Absolute positioning using DORIS tracking of the SPOT-2 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, M. M.; Ries, J. C.; Davis, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    The ability of the French DORIS system operating on the SPOT-2 satellite to provide absolute site positioning at the 20-30-centimeter level using 80 d of data is demonstrated. The accuracy of the vertical component is comparable to that of the horizontal components, indicating that residual troposphere error is not a limiting factor. The translation parameters indicate that the DORIS network realizes a geocentric frame to about 50 nm in each component. The considerable amount of data provided by the nearly global, all-weather DORIS network allowed this complex parameterization required to reduce the unmodeled forces acting on the low-earth satellite. Site velocities with accuracies better than 10 mm/yr should certainly be possible using the multiyear span of the SPOT series and Topex/Poseidon missions.

  5. The International DORIS Service: Current Status and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soudarin, Laurent; Ferrage, Pascale; Saunier, Jérôme

    2017-04-01

    The International DORIS Service (IDS) was created in 2003 under the umbrella of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) to foster scientific research related to the French DORIS tracking system and to deliver scientific products, mostly related to the International Earth rotation and Reference systems Service (IERS). Since its start, the organization has continuously evolved, leading to additional and improved operational products from an expanded set of DORIS Analysis Centers. IDS is now based on a reinforced structure with two Data Centers, six Analysis Centers, several associated groups and a Combination Center. Using the experience gained in the preparation of the ITRF2008 and ITRF2014, many improvements were made both in data analysis and on technical aspects. This presentation addresses the organizational aspects of the IDS and the recent achievements made by its components. We also discuss the future plans in terms of new products and activities.

  6. DORIS processing at the European Space Operations Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otten, Michiel; Flohrer, Claudia; Springer, Tim; Dow, John

    2010-12-01

    This paper gives an overview of the DORIS related activities at the Navigation Support Office of the European Space Operations Centre. The DORIS activities were started in 2002 because of the launch of the Envisat satellite where ESOC is responsible for the validation of the Envisat Precise Orbits and a brief overview of the key Envisat activities at ESOC is given. Typical orbit comparison RMS values between the CNES POE (GDR-C) and the ESOC POD solution is 6.5, 18.8 and 23.1 mm in radial-, along- and cross-track direction. In the framework of the generation of the ITRF2008 ESOC participated in the reprocessing of all three space geodetic techniques; DORIS, SLR, and GPS. Here the main results of our DORIS reprocessing, in the framework of the International DORIS Service (IDS), are given. The WRMS of the weekly ESOC solution (esawd03) for the 2004-2009 period compared to the IDS-1 combined solution is of the order of 12 mm. Based on the long time series of homogeneously processed data a closer look is taken at the estimated solar radiation pressure parameters of the different satellites used in this DORIS analysis. The main aim being the stabilization of the Z-component of the geocentre estimates. We conclude that the ESOC participation to the IDS ITRF2008 contribution has been beneficial for both ESOC and the IDS. ESOC has profited significantly from the very open and direct communications and comparisons that took place within the IDS during the reprocessing campaign.

  7. DORIS applications for solid earth and atmospheric sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Pascal; Soudarin, Laurent; Jayles, Christian; Rolland, Lucie

    2007-12-01

    DORIS is a French precise orbit determination system. However, in the past four years, through the creation of the International DORIS Service, a larger international cooperation was involved. Furthermore, the precision of its scientific applications (geodesy, geophysics) gradually improved and expanded to new fields (atmospheric sciences), leading, for example, to the publication of a special issue of the Journal of Geodesy. The goal of this manuscript is to present and explain these changes and to put them in perspective with current results obtained with other space geodetic techniques, such as GPS or Satellite Laser Ranging.

  8. Status of DORIS stations in Antarctica for precise geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, P.; Amalvict, M.; Shibuya, K.

    2005-01-01

    In Antarctica, besides the quite numerous GPS stations, four DORIS stations are permanently operating. In addition to the permanent DORIS stations, episodic campaigns took place at DomeC/Conccordia and on Sorsdal and Lambert glaciers. In this paper, we first collect general information concerning the stations and the campaigns (location, start of measurements, etc). We then present the results of observations of the permanent stations keeping in mind that we are primarily interested here in the vertical component, which is the most uncertain component.

  9. Real-time on-board orbit determination with DORIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthias, J.-P.; Jayles, C.; Pradines, D.

    1993-01-01

    A spaceborne orbit determination system is being developed by the French Space Agency (CNES) for the SPOT 4 satellite. It processes DORIS measurements to produce an orbit with an accuracy of about 50O meters rms. In order to evaluate the reliability of the software, it was combined with the MERCATOR man/machine interface and used to process the TOPEX/Poseidon DORIS data in near real time during the validation phase of the instrument, at JPL and at CNES. This paper gives an overview of the orbit determination system and presents the results of the TOPEX/Poseidon experiment.

  10. DORIS precise orbit determination and location system performances of ultra stable oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, M.

    1992-06-01

    Elements of the DORIS (Doppler precise positioning System) performances and performances of the DORIS USO (Ultra Stable Oscillators) are described. The DORIS system was designed and developed to meet new needs in precision orbit determination and high accuracy beacon location. DORIS payload was integrated on three French SPOT satellites and on the Topex-Poseidon NASA satellite. The first model DORIS SPOT 2 began operating on 22 Jan. 1990. The fundamental measurement precision depends strongly on the stability of USO, which are used in the onboard receiver, and in ground location beacons.

  11. Status of the DORIS Contribution to ITRF2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valette, J. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Willis, P.; Soudarin, L.; Stepanek, P.; Otten, M.; Govind, R.; Kuzin, S.; Le Bail, K.; Moore, P.

    2009-04-01

    The International DORIS Service (IDS), in operation since 2003, submitted three sets of solutions to ITRF2005 from the IGN/JPL, LEGOS/CLS, and INASAN analysis centers, but no DORIS technique combination. Since that time new analysis centers, have become operational, including the Geodetic Observatory Pecny (GOP), and the European Space Operations Center (ESOC). Other analysis centers who have made SINEX submissions for inclusion in ITRF2008, including Geoscience Australia (GAU), the University of Newcastle (NCL), and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSC). These analysis centers run different software, including Gypsy (IGN & INASAN), GINS (LCA), Bernese (GOP), NAPEOS (ESOC), GEODYN (Geoscience Australia and NASA GSFC) and FAUST (NCL). Each center applies own analysis strategy in the preparation of their SINEX contribution. The objective is to combine these analysis center contributions into a single IDS combination. The SINEX submissions are processed using the CATREF software, and we describe the results in comparison to ITRF2005. For example, preliminary results already obtained for the period from 1999 to 2008 show a strong improvement in the scale agreement between the analysis centers. We also describe the results of detailed intercenter orbit comparisons using DORIS satellite orbits, which allow us to diagnose potential anomalies in the processing and implement improvements in the future DORIS/IDS ITRF submission.

  12. Breakdown: Mind Terror in Sylvia Plath and Doris Lessing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahearn, Marie

    Both Sylvia Plath and Doris Lessing use themes prevalent in Gothic horror tales--fear, madness, dissolution of personality, the dream journey, and the grotesque--but both writers make use of these themes in their own inimitable way. This paper discusses Plath's "The Bell Jar" and Lessing's "Briefing for a Descent into Hell" in…

  13. Generalized Robertson-Walker spacetimes — A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantica, Carlo Alberto; Molinari, Luca Guido

    Generalized Robertson-Walker spacetimes extend the notion of Robertson-Walker spacetimes, by allowing for spatial non-homogeneity. A survey is presented, with main focus on Chen's characterization in terms of a timelike concircular vector. Together with their most important properties, some new results are presented.

  14. Preliminary work on the DORIS contribution to the next International Terrestrial Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreaux, G.; Lemoine, F. G.; Soudarin, L.; Willis, P.; Stepanek, P.; Otten, M.; Govind, R.; Kuzin, S.; Ferrage, P.

    2012-12-01

    For the preparation of the next ITRF realization (ITRF 2013), the IDS Combination Center has initiated estimation of DORIS stations positions/velocities as well as Earth orientation parameters from DORIS data beyond ITRF2008 (i.e. January 2009). These computations are based on the latest series of all of the 7 IDS Analysis Centers multi-satellite weekly SINEX solutions from January 2009 to June 2012. The first objective of this study is to analyze the impact of the new DORIS satellites (Jason-2, Cryosat-2 and HY-2A) in terms of (1) geocenter and scale solutions; (2) stations positions. The second purpose is to compare DORIS and GPS only positions and velocities of DORIS-GPS co-located sites. Then, after evaluating potential contribution of DORIS for the determination of tectonic model such as GEODVEL, we will conclude by assessing recommendations for the DORIS contribution to the next ITRF.

  15. Localization Issues for Robertson-Walker Branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannheim, Philip D.

    2002-07-01

    We discuss some of the localization issues associated with the embedding of Robertson-Walker type Randall-Sundrum branes in a bulk AdS5. Specifically, we show that of the branes which are embeddable in AdS5 the geometry associated with M4 and dS4 branes warps away from the brane while that associated with AdS4 and RW branes of any spatial 3-curvature antiwarps away from the brane. We discuss the gravitational fluctuations around an M4 brane and analyze the specific role played by a delta function singularity at the brane. We show how a bulk sine-Gordon scalar field can without any fine-tuning naturally lead to localization of gravity around an M4 brane.

  16. Dissipative Boltzmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hiscock, W.A.; Salmonson, J. )

    1991-05-15

    The equations governing a flat Robertson-Walker cosmological model containing a dissipative Boltzmann gas are integrated numerically. The bulk viscous stress is modeled using the Eckart and Israel-Stewart theories of dissipative relativistic fluids; the resulting cosmologies are compared and contrasted. The Eckart models are shown to always differ in a significant quantitative way from the Israel-Stewart models. It thus appears inappropriate to use the pathological (nonhyperbolic) Eckart theory for cosmological applications. For large bulk viscosities, both cosmological models approach asymptotic nonequilibrium states; in the Eckart model the total pressure is negative, while in the Israel-Stewart model the total pressure is asymptotically zero. The Eckart model also expands more rapidly than the Israel-Stewart models. These results suggest that bulk-viscous'' inflation may be an artifact of using a pathological fluid theory such as the Eckart theory.

  17. DORIS geodesy: A dynamic determination of geocentre location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govind, R.; Lemoine, F. G.; Valette, J. J.; Chinn, D.; Zelensky, N.

    2010-12-01

    Geoscience Australia contributed a multi-satellite, multi-year weekly time series to the International DORIS Service combined submission for the construction of International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2008 (ITRF2008). This contributing solution was extended to a study of the capability of DORIS to dynamically estimate the variation in the geocentre location. Two solutions, comprising different constraint configurations of the tracking network, were undertaken. The respective DORIS satellite orbit solutions (SPOT-2, SPOT-4, SPOT-5 and Envisat) were verified and validated by comparison with those produced at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), DORIS Analysis Centre, for computational consistency and standards. In addition, in the case of Envisat, the trajectories from the GA determined SLR and DORIS orbits were compared. The results for weekly dynamic geocentre estimates from the two constraint configurations were benchmarked against the geometric geocentre estimates from the IDS-2 combined solution. This established that DORIS is capable of determining the dynamic geocentre variation by estimating the degree one spherical harmonic coefficients of the Earth's gravity potential. It was established that constrained configurations produced similar results for the geocentre location and consequently similar annual amplitudes. For the minimally constrained configuration Greenbelt-Kitab, the mean of the uncertainties of the geocentre location were 2.3, 2.3 and 7.6 mm and RMS of the mean uncertainties were 1.9, 1.2 and 3.5 mm for the X, Y and Z components, respectively. For GA_IDS-2_Datum constrained configuration, the mean of the uncertainties of the geocentre location were 1.7, 1.7 and 6.2 mm and RMS of the mean uncertainties were 0.9, 0.7 and 2.9 mm for the X, Y and Z components, respectively. The mean of the differences of the two DORIS dynamic geocentre solutions with respect to the IDS-2 combination were 1.6, 4.0 and 5.1 mm with an RMS of the mean 21.2, 14.0 and

  18. Systematic Error Mitigation in DORIS Derived Geocenter Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couhert, A.; Mercier, F.; Moyard, J.; Biancale, R.

    2016-12-01

    The relative orbit-centering stability between the different Jason POD analysis centers (JPL, GSFC, ESOC and CNES) is usually assessed by comparing orbits in the North-South direction (Z-component of the terrestrial reference frame). Any miscentering of orbit in this direction is of primary interest since it impacts significantly studies of global and regional Mean Sea Level (Global MSL error = -0.16 x DZ, where DZ is the mean orbit error in Z). The main contribution to this miscentering effect on the orbits comes from the tracking measurements. Indeed, even though satellites ideally orbit around the center-of-mass of the total Earth system (CM or geocenter), the strength of the tie to the reference network origin is dependent on the tracking measurement used in the process of orbit determination: 100% for SLR-only orbits, 75% for DORIS-only orbits, and 30% for GPS-derived orbits (depending on the ambiguity fixing strategy, and relative to the reference given by the GPS orbits/clocks solution). The well-known seasonal signature in Z ( 5 mm) observed between DORIS/SLR and GPS-based orbits may in part be due to the un-modeled non-tidal component of the geocenter motion, as of yet there is no consensus model for non-tidal geocenter motion. Thus, we will examine strategies to mitigate sensitivity to miscentering effects on the orbit coming from the DORIS tracking measurements; in this way the use of a model of the motion of the CF with respect to the CM won't be needed. Estimations of the geocenter motion have already been successfully achieved using the SLR network, but the DORIS network derived geocenter motion has been reported to be noisier with larger systematic errors. Yet, due to the more numerous and better uniformly distributed DORIS stations across the globe, it could have the potential to yield competitive results, once the systematic errors are identified and mitigated, as will be shown in this paper. The obtained orbit parameterization will be tested on

  19. Stability of VLBI, SLR, DORIS, and GPS positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feissel-Vernier, M.; de Viron, O.; Le Bail, K.

    2007-12-01

    The residual signal in VLBI, SLR, DORIS and GPS station motion, after a linear trend and seasonal components have been removed, is analysed to investigate site-specific and technique-specific error spectra. The study concentrates on 60 sites with dense observation history by two or more space geodetic techniques. The solutions analysed are single-analysis center solutions currently available. The GPS data are taken from the IGS files. Statistical methods include the Allan variance analysis and the three-cornered hat algorithm. The site-specific noise level is found to be in the range 0.5-3.5 mm in either horizontal direction and 1-4.5 mm in height for most sites. The distribution of site-specific noise type includes both white noise and flicker noise. White noise is predominant in the East direction. Both types of noise are found in the North direction, with no particular geographical clustering.Technique-specific noise characteristics are estimated in several ways, leading to a white noise diagnostic for VLBI and SLR in all three local directions. DORIS has also white noise in the horizontal directions, whereas GPS has a flicker noise spectrum. The vertical noise spectrum is indecisive for both DORIS and GPS. The three-dimensional noise levels for the one-year sampling time are 1.7 mm for VLBI, 2.5 mm for SLR, 5.2 mm for DORIS, and 4.1 mm for GPS. For GPS, the long-term analysis homogeneity has a strong influence. In the case of a test solution reanalysed in a fully consistent way, the noise level drops to the VLBI level in horizontal and to the SLR level in vertical. The three-dimensional noise level for a one-year sampling time decreases to 1.8 mm. In addition, the percentage of stations with flicker noise drops to only about 20% of the network.

  20. Constellation based DORIS receiver network for ionospheric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainwater, D.; Gaussiran, T.; Barnum, B.

    2011-12-01

    Study of the upper and lower atmosphere has advanced to the point where a compelling need has emerged for global real-time specification of the most important observations as inputs to climate models. For the ionosphere, plasmasphere and magnetosphere this is the local free electron density (ED); for the troposphere it is the local water vapor content (WVC). We describe a proposal made to the GEOScan geoscience collaboration for a DORIS receiver to be flown on the Iridium-NEXT constellation that would provide precise, real-time measurements of both bulk ED WVC, as well as ionospheric scintillation; and precise orbit determination to the 1-3 cm level, thus valuable to the Earth gravity science community. Iridium-NEXT is a constellation of 66 satellites in six polar orbit planes, to be deployed starting in 2015. We describe how the DORIS frequency lever arm is superior to that of GPS for ionospheric purposes, and how DORIS data is currently being used to generate TWV data sets of comparable precision to GPS and VLBI data. GEOScan data would be persistent, global and real-time. Its data would be made available publicly in near-real-time.

  1. Impact of Jason-2 and Cryosat-2 on DORIS combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreaux, G.; Lemoine, F. G.; Capdeville, H.; Willis, P.; Stepanek, P.; Otten, M.; Govind, R.; Kuzin, S.

    2011-12-01

    For the preparation of ITRF2008, the IDS processed data from 1993 to 2008, including data from TOPEX/Poseidon, the SPOT satellites and Envisat in the weekly solutions. Since the development of ITRF2008, the IDS has been engaged in a number of efforts to try and improve the reference frame solutions. These efforts include assessing the contribution of the new DORIS satellites, Jason-2 and Cryosat2, in terms of (1) geocenter and scale solutions of the IDS combination; (2) stations positions, and individually analyzing the DORIS satellite contributions to geocenter and scale. This analysis has revealed that when Jason-2 is included the Tz geocenter component better centered. To understand this result, IDS conducted several single satellite studies which have shown that (i) The Tz geocenter component is centered much better with Jason-2 and this benefits the IDS combination ; (2) The Tx and Ty geocenter components exhibit a 120-day oscillation with Jason-2, indicative of problems associated with the radiation force model for Jason2; (3) The Tz phenomenon is the consequence of the new DGXX 7-channel DORIS receiver on board of Jason-2 (and latter missions), which can track up to seven beacons simultaneously. The study on the stations positions confirmed that stations of high latitude much benefit of the polar orbit of Cryosat2.

  2. On defining particles in Robertson-Walker space-times.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dray, T.

    The author considers the semi-classical quantization of the Klein-Gordon field on a Robertson-Walker background. He derives an expression for the density of particles created during an arbitrary time interval using an arbitrary particle definition.

  3. 13. TOOL ROOM SHOWING W. ROBERTSON MACHINE & FOUNDRY CO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. TOOL ROOM SHOWING W. ROBERTSON MACHINE & FOUNDRY CO. NO. 5 POWER HACKSAW (FOREGROUND) AND WELLS METAL BAND SAW (BACKGROUND). VIEW SOUTHEAST - Oldman Boiler Works, Office/Machine Shop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  4. DORIS Satellite Phase Center Determination and Consequences on the Derived Scale of the Terrestrial Reference Frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Pascal R.; Haines, Bruce; Kuang, Da

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reports on the analysis of several years of Delft Object-oriented Radar Interferometric Software (Doris) data undertaken to estimate daily determination of satellite antenna phase center corrections. This was done on a satellite by satellite basis. For each DORIS satellite, we considered long-term time series of such individual estimations, looking for possible biases, discontinuities, trends or annual signals. The analysis compared DORIS to GPS estimates for common satellites (Jason and TOPEX/Poseidon).

  5. DORIS Satellite Phase Center Determination and Consequences on the Derived Scale of the Terrestrial Reference Frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Pascal R.; Haines, Bruce; Kuang, Da

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reports on the analysis of several years of Delft Object-oriented Radar Interferometric Software (Doris) data undertaken to estimate daily determination of satellite antenna phase center corrections. This was done on a satellite by satellite basis. For each DORIS satellite, we considered long-term time series of such individual estimations, looking for possible biases, discontinuities, trends or annual signals. The analysis compared DORIS to GPS estimates for common satellites (Jason and TOPEX/Poseidon).

  6. Perturbations of the Robertson-Walker space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jai Chan

    This dissertation contains three parts consisting of thirteen chapters. Each chapter is self-contained, and can be read independently. In chapter 1, we have presented a complete set of cosmological perturbation equations using the covariant equations. We also present an explicit solution for the evolution of large scale cosmological density perturbations assuming a perfect fluid. In chapter 2, two independent gauge-invariant variables are derived which are continuous at any transition where there is a discontinuous change in pressure. In chapter 3, we present a Newtonian counterpart to the general relativistic covariant approach to cosmological perturbations. In chapter 4, we present a simple way of deriving cosmological perturbation equations in generalized gravity theories which accounts for metric perturbations in gauge-invariant way. We apply this approach to the f(phi,R)-omega(phi)phi, cphi;c Lagrangian. In chapter 5, we have derived second order differential equations for cosmological perturbations in a Robertson-Walker space, for each of the following gravity theories: f(R) gravity, generalized scalar-tensor gravity, gravity with non-minimally coupled scalar field, and induced gravity. Asymptotic solutions are derived for the large and small scale limits. In chapter 6, classical evolution of density perturbations in the large scale limit is clarified in the generalized gravity theories. In chapter 7, we apply our method to a theory with the Lagrangian L approximately f(R) + gamma RR;c;c. In chapter 8, T(M)ab;b equals 0 is shown in a general ground. In chapter 9, the origin of the Friedmann-like behavior of the perturbed model in the large scale limit is clarified in a comoving gauge. Thus, when the imperfect fluid contributions are negligible, the large scale perturbations in a nearly flat background evolve like separate Friedmann models. In chapter 10, we generalize the perturbation equations applicable to a class of generalized gravity theories with multi

  7. Stability of VLBI, SLR, DORIS, and GPS positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feissel-Vernier, M.; de Viron, O.; Le Bail, K.

    2007-06-01

    The residual signal in VLBI, SLR, DORIS and GPS station motion, after a linear trend and seasonal components have been removed, is analysed to investigate site-specific and technique-specific error spectra. The study concentrates on 60 sites with dense observation history by two or more space geodetic techniques. Statistical methods include the Allan variance analysis and the three-cornered hat algorithm. The stability of time-series is defined by two parameters, namely the Allan deviation for a one-year sampling time (noise level) and the slope of the Allan variance graph with its spectral interpretation (noise type). The site-specific noise level is found to be in the range 0.5-3.5 mm in either horizontal direction and 1-4.5 mm in height for most sites. The distribution of site-specific noise type includes both white noise and flicker noise. White noise is predominant in the East direction. Both types of noise are found in the North direction, with no particular geographical clustering. In the Up direction, the Northern hemisphere sites seem to be split in two large geographical sectors characterised either by white noise or by flicker noise signatures. Technique-specific noise characteristics are estimated in several ways, leading to a white noise diagnostic for VLBI and SLR in all three local directions. DORIS has also white noise in the horizontal directions, whereas GPS has a flicker noise spectrum. The vertical noise spectrum is indecisive for both DORIS and GPS. The three-dimensional noise levels for the one-year sampling time are 1.7 mm for VLBI, 2.5 mm for SLR, 5.2 mm for DORIS, and 4.1 mm for GPS. For GPS, the long-term analysis homogeneity has a strong influence. In the case of a test solution reanalysed in a fully consistent way, the noise level drops to the VLBI level in horizontal and to the SLR level in vertical. The three-dimensional noise level for a one-year sampling time decreases to 1.8 mm. In addition, the percentage of stations with flicker

  8. Bose-Einstein condensation on closed Robertson-Walker spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trucks, M.

    1998-12-01

    In this letter we summarize our analysis of Bose-Einstein condensation on closed Robertson-Walker spacetimes. In a previous work we defined an adiabatic KMS state on the Weyl-algebra of the free massive Klein-Gordon field [M. Trucks, M. Keyl, Phys. Lett. B 399 (1997) 223, M. Trucks, Commun. Math. Phys. 197 (1998) 387]. This state describes a free Bose gas on Robertson-Walker spacetimes. We use this state to analyze the possibility of Bose-Einstein condensation on closed Robertson-Walker spacetimes. We take into account the effects due to the finiteness of the spatial volume and show that they are not relevant in the early universe. Furthermore we show that a critical radius can be defined. The condensate disappears above the critical radius.

  9. Improvements in DORIS processing for ITRF2013 at the GSC Analysis Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Chinn, D. S.; Zelensky, N. P.; Beall, J. W.; Le Bail, K.

    2013-12-01

    DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite) is one of the fundamental geodetic techniques that contributes to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). The data from DORIS also find a strong application in Precision Orbit Determination (POD) for altimeter satellites such as TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, Jason-2, Envisat and Cryosat-2. At GSFC we have processed DORIS data for POD, and for the ITRF, routinely submitting SINEX solutions to the IDS Combination Center in Toulouse. In the context of the preparation for the next ITRF (ITRF2013), we have conducted an intensive effort to improve the DORIS processing and deliver a new complete SINEX series based on processing data from most DORIS satellites from 1993 to 2013. In this paper we discuss the improvements that have been implemented in the GSC analysis center processing, which have been undertaken under the aegis of the DORIS Analysis Working Group (AWG). These improvements have included the following: (1) Application of improved models of time-variable gravity; (2) Derivation and application of improved macromodels to characterize the nonconservative forces on the DORIS satellites; (3) Better modeling of the frequency changes at DORIS sites; (4) application of a phase law for the DORIS antennae as derived from anachoeic chamber measurements by the CNES for the Starec antennae, and from manufacturer specifications for the Alcatel antennae. We summarize the improvements in the DORIS processing since the last complete SINEX delivery of GSC for ITRF2008, and we characterize the impact on the POD, and on the intrinsic products of interest to the derivation of the IDS technique combination.

  10. The free Bose gas on Robertson-Walker spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trucks, M.; Keyl, M.

    1997-02-01

    In this letter we define a new state on the Weyl algebra of the Klein-Gordon field on Robertson-Walker spacetimes. This state approximates a thermal equilibrium state and opens the possibility to do quantum statistical mechanics on expanding universes. We explain why this state is believed to be a physically relevant state in the framework of algebraic quantum field theory. The methods used in the proof are shortly reviewed. We also explain how to describe the evolution of the state. It is shown that the inverse temperature of the state changes with the scale parameter in the Robertson-Walker metric.

  11. States of low energy on Robertson Walker spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olbermann, Heiner

    2007-10-01

    We construct a new class of physical states of the free Klein Gordon field in Robertson Walker spacetimes. This is done by minimizing the expectation value of smeared stress energy. We get an explicit expression for the state depending on the smearing function. We call it a state of low energy. States of low energy are an improvement of the concept of adiabatic vacua on Robertson Walker spacetimes. The latter are approximations of the former. It is shown that states of low energy are Hadamard states.

  12. DORIS Starec ground antenna characterization and impact on positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourain, C.; Moreaux, G.; Auriol, A.; Saunier, J.

    2016-12-01

    In a geodetic radio frequency observing system the phase center offsets and phase center variations of ground antennae are a fundamental component of mathematical models of the system observables. In this paper we describe work aimed at improving the DORIS Starec ground antenna phase center definition model. Seven antennas were analyzed in the Compact Antenna Test Range (CATR), a dedicated CNES facility. With respect to the manufacturer specified phase center offset, the measured antennae varied between -6 mm and +4 mm due to manufacturing variations. To solve this problem, discussions were held with the manufacturer, leading to an improvement of the manufacturing process. This work results in a reduction in the scatter to ±1 mm. The phase center position has been kept unchanged and associated phase law has been updated and provided to users of the International DORIS Service (IDS). This phase law is applicable to all Starec antennas (before and after manufacturing process consolidation) and is azimuth independent. An error budget taking into account these updated characteristics has been established for the antenna alone: ±2 mm on the horizontal plane and ±3 mm on the up component, maximum error values for antennas named type C (Saunier et al., 2016) produced with consolidated manufacturing process. Finally the impact of this updated characterization on positioning results has been analyzed and shows a scale offset only of the order of +12 mm for the Terrestrial Reference Frame.

  13. Robertson-Schrödinger formulation of Ozawa's uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, Catarina; Bernardini, Alex E.; Bertolami, Orfeu; Costa Dias, Nuno; Nuno Prata, João

    2015-07-01

    A more general measurement disturbance uncertainty principle is presented in a Robertson-Schrödinger formulation. It is shown that it is stronger and having nicer properties than Ozawa's uncertainty relations. In particular it is invariant under symplectic transformations. One shows also that there are states of the probe (measuring device) that saturate the matrix formulation of measurement disturbance uncertainty principle.

  14. Generalized Robertson-Walker metrics and some of their properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florides, P. S.

    1983-06-01

    The generalized Robertson-Walker (GRW) metrics in canonical coordinates (t, χ1, χ2,...,χn) are defined. The following statements are proved to be equivalent: The GRW metrics are (a) expressible in t-independent form, (b) of constant curvature, (c) Einstein spaces. There are six, and only six, such metrics as in general relativistic cosmology.

  15. Precise orbit determination and station position estimation using DORIS RINEX data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, Jean-Michel; Capdeville, Hugues; Soudarin, Laurent

    2016-12-01

    Within the frame of the International DORIS Service (IDS), the CNES/CLS Analysis Center contributes to the geodetic and geophysical research activity through DORIS data analysis. A strategy was developed for the processing of the measurements of the DGXX instruments in RINEX/DORIS format, as it will be the only type of DORIS format made available by CNES, starting with the Jason-3 and Sentinel-3A missions launched at the beginning of the year 2016. The purpose of this paper is to describe the method implemented in the CNES/CLS Analysis Center orbit computation software GINS to process RINEX/DORIS data files. Phase measurements are converted into Doppler counts and then into relative satellite-to-beacon velocities. In this approach, the iono-free phase centers have to be used as the end points of the measurement instead of the 2 GHz phase centers. Given that, the processing results with RINEX/DORIS data are similar to the ones obtained with the usual doris2.2 data, except the scale factor of the Terrestrial Reference Frame in the 7-parameter transform of the network solution. We also address the issue of the scale factor increase from 2012 observed by all the IDS Analysis Centers in their solutions for the ITRF2014 combination. We show that the scale increase in 2012 is dependent on the type of DORIS data used. This scale increase is also enhanced by a bias due to the inclusion of HY-2A data, but which can be eliminated by adopting different coordinates of the onboard DORIS antenna phase center.

  16. Looking for systematic error in scale from terrestrial reference frames derived from DORIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Pascal; Soudarin, L.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2005-01-01

    The long-term stability of the scale of Terrestrial Reference Frames is directly linked with station height determination and is critical for several scientific studies, such as global mean sea level rise or ocean circulation with consequences on global warming studies. In recent International Terrestrial Reference Frame solutions, the DORIS technique was not sonsidered able to provide any useful information on scale. We have analyzed three different DORIS time series of coordinates performed independently using different software packages.

  17. Quality assessment of DORIS/Jason-2 data for orbit determination and geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Pascal; Haines, Bruce; Gobinddass, Marie-Line; Bertiger, Willy

    We describe our analysis of DORIS/Jason-2 data collected between mid 2008 and early 2010 using the GIPSY/OASIS software package. We demonstrate first that the Jason-2/DORIS data, unlike those from Jason-1, show no signs that the on-board clock is adversely affected by radiation over the South Atlantic Anomaly. Post-processed Jason-2 orbit solutions based on DORIS data alone yield daily (internal) overlaps of 10 mm (RMS) for the radial compo-nent. External comparisons with Jason-2/GPS-only orbits still yield 15 mm RMS consistency in the radial component, for both the reduced-dynamic and dynamic approaches. Prelimi-nary tests show that an empirical correction may be needed to estimate an additional offset between the DORIS antenna center of phase and the satellite center of mass (relative to the pre-flight measured values). However, this empirical correction is sensitive to the tropospheric mapping function used (GMF or VMF-1), as a large number of DORIS/Jason-2 data are avail-able using the new DGXX multi-channel receiver. We also describe early results obtained for weekly station position determination, as well as terrestrial reference parameters (geocenter and scale). Finally, multi-satellite DORIS results for station positions are also considered to check the importance of adding these new DORIS/Jason-2 data to the latest DORIS/IGN solutions (ignwd08 time series). In particular, the importance of adding an additional satellite plane (66 instead of 98 inclination) is also discussed.

  18. The International DORIS Service contribution to the 2014 realization of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreaux, Guilhem; Lemoine, Frank G.; Capdeville, Hugues; Kuzin, Sergey; Otten, Michiel; Štěpánek, Petr; Willis, Pascal; Ferrage, Pascale

    2016-12-01

    In preparation of the 2014 realization of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF2014), the International DORIS Service delivered to the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service a set of 1140 weekly solution files including station coordinates and Earth orientation parameters, covering the time period from 1993.0 to 2015.0. The data come from eleven DORIS satellites: TOPEX/Poseidon, SPOT2, SPOT3, SPOT4, SPOT5, Envisat, Jason-1, Jason-2, Cryosat-2, Saral and HY-2A. In their processing, the six analysis centers which contributed to the DORIS combined solution used the latest time variable gravity models and estimated DORIS ground beacon frequency variations. Furthermore, all the analysis centers but one excepted included in their processing phase center variations for ground antennas. The main objective of this study is to present the combination process and to analyze the impact of the new modeling on the performance of the new combined solution. Comparisons with the IDS contribution to ITRF2008 show that (i) the application of the DORIS ground phase center variations in the data processing shifts the combined scale upward by nearly 7-11 mm and (ii) thanks to estimation of DORIS ground beacon frequency variations, the new combined solution no longer shows any scale discontinuity in early 2002 and does not present unexplained vertical discontinuities in any station position time series. However, analysis of the new series with respect to ITRF2008 exhibits a scale increase late 2011 which is not yet explained. A new DORIS Terrestrial Reference Frame was computed to evaluate the intrinsic quality of the new combined solution. That evaluation shows that the addition of data from the new missions equipped with the latest generation of DORIS receiver (Jason-2, Cryosat-2, HY-2A, Saral), results in an internal position consistency of 10 mm or better after mid-2008.

  19. The International DORIS Service (IDS) - Recent Developments in Preparation for ITRF2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Pascal; Lemoine, Frank G.; Moreaux, Guilhem; Soudarin, Laurent; Ferrage, Pascale; Ries, John; Otten, Michiel; Saunier, Jerome; Noll, Carey E.; Biancale, Richard; Luzum, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The International DORIS Service (IDS) was created in 2003 under the umbrella of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) to foster scientific research related to the French DORIS tracking system and to deliver scientific products, mostly related to the International Earth rotation and Reference systems Service (IERS). We first present some general background related to the DORIS system (current and planned satellites, current tracking network and expected evolution) and to the general IDS organization (from Data Centers, Analysis Centers and Combination Center). Then, we discuss some of the steps recently taken to prepare the IDS submission to ITRF2013 (combined weekly time series based on individual solutions from several Analysis Centers). In particular, recent results obtained from the Analysis Centers and the Combination Center show that improvements can still be made when updating physical models of some DORIS satellites, such as Envisat, Cryosat-2 or Jason-2. The DORIS contribution to ITRF2013 should also benefit from the larger number of ground observations collected by the last generation of DGXX receivers (first instrument being onboard Jason-2 satellite). In particular for polar motion, sub-millarcsecond accuracy seems now to be achievable. Weekly station positioning internal consistency also seems to be improved with a larger DORIS constellation.

  20. Impact of South Atlantic Anomaly on the SPOT and Envisat DORIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, Petr; Dousa, Jan; Filler, Vratislav; Hugentobler, Urs

    2010-05-01

    The South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) refers to the area where the Earth's inner Van Allen radiation belt comes closest to the Earth's surface, leading to increased levels of cosmic radiation at lower altitudes than elsewhere over the surface. A strong effect of the SAA on the quality of Jason-1 DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite) observations is well known and several relevant analyses has been published. However, the significant effect of SAA on the other DORIS satellites has not been known. The goal of the paper is to bring a detail analyses of possible SAA effect on the SPOT -2,4,5 and the Envisat DORIS observations. The resulted zenithal total delay (ZTD), oscillator frequency offset and station coordinates, estimated using single-satellite data processing, are presented and discussed. A DORIS-GNSS ZTD comparison is done in addition. A significant bias was detected when processing SPOT-5 data for South American stations Santiago in Chille, Cachoeira Paulista in Brasil and Arequipa in Peru. Even if the detected bias is much lower than in case of Jason-1 and doesn't degrade the DORIS observation so strongly, possible future approach of the SPOT-5 SAA effect elimination (model of oscillator behavior or exclusion of the most corrupted observations) could improve the DORIS solutions. A comparable level of SAA-related effect was not detected for any other of the analyzed satellites.

  1. Poynting-Robertson effect. I - Equation of motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klacka, J.

    1992-10-01

    The equation of the Poynting-Robertson effect is derived in several different ways, based on the corpuscular nature of light. Relativistically covariant derivations are obtained not only for perfectly absorbing spherical dust particles but also for particles exhibiting general optical properties. It is shown that classical (nonrelativistic) physics cannot be used to explain this effect. The fundamental feature of the interaction between the dust particle and the electromagnetic radiation is the conservation of the (proper) mass of the particle.

  2. William B. Robertson - the pioneer of the placental bed.

    PubMed

    Brosens, Ivo

    2016-12-08

    A fortuitous collaboration between British and Belgian researchers more than 50 years ago led to discovery that major obstetrical disorders, such as preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction, originate from vascular lesions in placental bed, i.e. the myometrial portion of the uterine spiral arteries. William B Robertson, a gregarious pioneering vascular pathologist, played a key role in this seminal discovery that continues to shape obstetrical research to date.

  3. Alexander Robertson (1834-1908): Glasgow's pioneer aphasiologist and epileptologist.

    PubMed

    Eadie, Mervyn

    2015-01-01

    Alexander Robertson (1834-1908) was a Glasgow physician whose professional career was involved mainly with institutional-based practice but who published significant insights into the anatomical background to aphasia (1867) and the mechanisms of focal epileptogenesis (1869). His aphasiology ideas, including his suggestion that disconnection between cerebral centers involved in speech was responsible for the phenomenon, made him one of the earliest members of the late-nineteenth-century school of aphasia diagram makers. His view of epileptogenesis was that contralateral convulsing arose from irritation in a local area of pathology on the surface of the cerebral cortex after the irritation spread to a cortical motor center and then down the motor pathway to the striatum, while spreading within the cortex itself caused loss of consciousness. This interpretation contains much of the essence of the present-day understanding of cortical epileptogenesis. The origin of this interpretation is often attributed to John Hughlings Jackson, but Robertson published the idea in full a year or two prior to Jackson. However, Robertson's original insights were hardly noticed at the time they were published and have since almost entirely been ignored.

  4. Analysis of a Possible Future Degradation in the DORIS Geodetic Results Related to Changes in the Satellite Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the consequences of losing one or more of the 4 remaining Doppler & Ranging Information System (DORIS) satellites and any impact such a loss might have on geodesy. The goals of this program are to analyze the sensitivity of the current DORIS geodetic results (station position and polar motion) to the size of the DORIS constellation and to verify if some satellites are most important or less important than others. The conclusions of the study are summarized.

  5. Analysis of a Possible Future Degradation in the DORIS Geodetic Results Related to Changes in the Satellite Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the consequences of losing one or more of the 4 remaining Doppler & Ranging Information System (DORIS) satellites and any impact such a loss might have on geodesy. The goals of this program are to analyze the sensitivity of the current DORIS geodetic results (station position and polar motion) to the size of the DORIS constellation and to verify if some satellites are most important or less important than others. The conclusions of the study are summarized.

  6. Gravity model improvement using the DORIS tracking system on the SPOT 2 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerem, R. S.; Lerch, F. J.; Williamson, R. G.; Klosko, S. M.; Robbins, J. W.; Patel, G. B.

    1994-01-01

    A high-precision radiometric satellite tracking system, Doppler Orbitography and Radio-positioning Integrated by Satellite system (DORIS), has recently been developed by the French space agency, Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). DORIS was designed to provide tracking support for missions such as the joint United States/French TOPEX/Poseidon. As part of the flight testing process, a DORIS package was flown on the French SPOT 2 satellite. A substantial quantity of geodetic quality tracking data was obtained on SPOT 2 from an extensive international DORIS tracking network. These data were analyzed to assess their accuracy and to evaluate the gravitational modeling enhancements provided by these data in combination with the Goddard Earth Model-T3 (GEM-T3) gravitational model. These observations have noise levels of 0.4 to 0.5 mm/s, with few residual systematic effects. Although the SPOT 2 satellite experiences high atmospheric drag forces, the precision and global coverage of the DORIS tracking data have enabled more extensive orbit parameterization to mitigate these effects. As a result, the SPOT 2 orbital errors have been reduced to an estimated radial accuracy in the 10-20 cm RMS range. The addition of these data, which encompass many regions heretofore lacking in precision satellite tracking, has significantly improved GEM-T3 and allowed greatly improved orbit accuracies for Sun-synchronous satellites like SPOT 2 (such as ERS 1 and EOS). Comparison of the ensuing gravity model with other contemporary fields (GRIM-4C2, TEG2B, and OSU91A) provides a means to assess the current state of knowledge of the Earth's gravity field. Thus, the DORIS experiment on SPOT 2 has provided a strong basis for evaluating this new orbit tracking technology and has demonstrated the important contribution of the DORIS network to the success of the TOPEX/Poseidon mission.

  7. Gravity model improvement using the DORIS tracking system on the SPOT 2 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerem, R. S.; Lerch, F. J.; Williamson, R. G.; Klosko, S. M.; Robbins, J. W.; Patel, G. B.

    1994-01-01

    A high-precision radiometric satellite tracking system, Doppler Orbitography and Radio-positioning Integrated by Satellite system (DORIS), has recently been developed by the French space agency, Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). DORIS was designed to provide tracking support for missions such as the joint United States/French TOPEX/Poseidon. As part of the flight testing process, a DORIS package was flown on the French SPOT 2 satellite. A substantial quantity of geodetic quality tracking data was obtained on SPOT 2 from an extensive international DORIS tracking network. These data were analyzed to assess their accuracy and to evaluate the gravitational modeling enhancements provided by these data in combination with the Goddard Earth Model-T3 (GEM-T3) gravitational model. These observations have noise levels of 0.4 to 0.5 mm/s, with few residual systematic effects. Although the SPOT 2 satellite experiences high atmospheric drag forces, the precision and global coverage of the DORIS tracking data have enabled more extensive orbit parameterization to mitigate these effects. As a result, the SPOT 2 orbital errors have been reduced to an estimated radial accuracy in the 10-20 cm RMS range. The addition of these data, which encompass many regions heretofore lacking in precision satellite tracking, has significantly improved GEM-T3 and allowed greatly improved orbit accuracies for Sun-synchronous satellites like SPOT 2 (such as ERS 1 and EOS). Comparison of the ensuing gravity model with other contemporary fields (GRIM-4C2, TEG2B, and OSU91A) provides a means to assess the current state of knowledge of the Earth's gravity field. Thus, the DORIS experiment on SPOT 2 has provided a strong basis for evaluating this new orbit tracking technology and has demonstrated the important contribution of the DORIS network to the success of the TOPEX/Poseidon mission.

  8. Towards a four technique GGOS site: VLBI - DORIS compatibility tests at Wettzell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klügel, Thomas; Didelot, Francois; Kodet, Jan; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Mähler, Swetlana; Neidhardt, Alexander; Plötz, Christian; Saunier, Jérôme; Schüler, Torben; Walter, Jean-Marc

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of a Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), co-location sites are of special importance for the evaluation and mutual control of the individual geodetic space techniques. At the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell a DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite) beacon could complete the geodetic instrumentation consisting of three Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) telescopes, two Laser Ranging (LR) systems and a number of multi- Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations. Integrating all fourth geodetic instrumentation into one site generates new problems with Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC). While the VLBI system is designed to receive very weak signals from quasars, the DORIS beacon emits strong signals in the UHF frequency band at 401.25 MHz and in the S band at 2036.25 MHz. During the observation of quasars with VLBI there is a high risk of coupling DORIS S band signals into the VLBI receiving chain generating spurious signal and, in the worst case, overloading receiving chain electronics and risking its damage. Before a DORIS beacon is operated at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, it must be ensured that it can be operated alongside the VLBI system without any risk of damage or degradation of the measurement. Field tests under different setups were performed to assess the impact of the DORIS signal on the classical geodetic VLBI 20-m and the VGOS 13-m radio telescopes. Different locations on the observatory each at a distance of more than 100 m were occupied by the DORIS antenna. It has been shown that obstacles like buildings or earth mounds attenuate the signal up to 20 dB. However the power received at the input of the Low Noise Amplifiers (LNA) is still at a critical level when the radio telescope points towards the DORIS beacon. The quality of the correlated signals is not or barely affected at long baselines. At local baselines however, the DORIS emission as a common mode signal degrades

  9. Gravitational birefringence of light in Robertson-Walker cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, C.; Schücker, T.

    2017-08-01

    The spacetime evolution of massless spinning particles in a Robertson-Walker background is derived using the deterministic system of equations of motion from Papapetrou, Souriau and Saturnini. A numerical integration of this system of differential equations in the case of the standard model of cosmology is performed. The deviation of the photon worldlines from the null geodesics is of the order of the wavelength. Perturbative solutions are also worked out in a more general case. An experimental measurement of this deviation would test the acceleration of our expanding Universe.

  10. Scalar field equation in Robertson-Walker space-time.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zecca, A.

    1997-06-01

    The quantization of the scalar field is reconsidered in some of its basic elements in the context of the Robertson-Walker space-time. The integration of the generalized Klein-Gordon equation is performed by preliminary separation of the equation with the usual separation method. The orthonormal mode solutions are determined by the explicit integration of the resulting angular and radial equations and by standard properties of the time equation. The time evolution given by the standard cosmological model is briefly discussed.

  11. Relativistic quantum chaos in Robertson-Walker cosmologies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaschitz, R.

    1991-10-01

    Open Robertson-Walker cosmologies of multiple spatial connectivity provide a challenging example for the possible influence of the global topological structure of space-time on the laws of microscopic motion. Free geodesic motion is investigated in such cosmologies in the context of first quantization. A unique localized wave field, a solution of the Klein-Gordon equation, is found as a consequence of the topological structure of the spacelike slices t = const of the manifold. This solution is closely related to the collection of the bounded chaotic trajectories.

  12. Schwinger Effect in a Robertson-Walker Space-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haouat, S.; Chekireb, R.

    2012-06-01

    The problem of particle creation from vacuum in a flat Robertson-Walker space-time in the presence of a varying electric field is studied. The Klein Gordon equation is exactly solved when the scale factor is a( η)= A+ Btanh( λη). The canonical method based on Bogoliubov transformation is applied. The pair creation probability and the density number of created particles are calculated. The particular case of radiation dominated universe is considered where the total probability is written as a Schwinger-like series. It is shown that the electric field amplifies gravitational particle creation.

  13. Rotationally symmetric massless modes in closed Robertson-Walker universe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dariescu, C.; Dariescu, M.-A.

    1999-06-01

    The aim of the present paper is to investigate the minimally coupled rotationally symmetric scalar field configurations in spatially closed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe with incoherent dust. The authors have obtained the closed form solution of the Klein-Gordon equation in terms of two real-valued linearly independent hypergeometric functions. The orthonormal set of positive-frequency-like parity modes thereafter derived points out that each parity given state is conformally built up of three Einsteinian particle states and also leads to the explicit coordinate-representation of the field propagator.

  14. Dynamics of a scalar field in Robertson-Walker spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Mizuno, Shuntaro; Shaeri, Maryam

    2009-05-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a single scalar field in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes with spatial curvature. We obtain the fixed point solutions which are shown to be late time attractors. In particular, we determine the corresponding scalar field potentials which correspond to these stable solutions. The analysis is quite general and incorporates expanding and contracting universes with both positive and negative scalar potentials. We demonstrate that the known power law, exponential, and de Sitter solutions are certain limits of our general set of solutions.

  15. Generalized Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric and redundancy in the generalized Einstein equations

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, W.F.; Pen, U. )

    1991-12-15

    A nontrivial redundancy relation, due to the differential structure of the gravitational Bianchi identity as well as the symmetry of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric, in the gravitational field equation is clarified. A generalized Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric is introduced in order to properly define a one-dimensional reduced problem which offers an alternative approach to obtain the gravitational field equations on Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spaces.

  16. Research activities for the DORIS contribution to the next International Terrestrial Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soudarin, L.; Moreaux, G.; Lemoine, F.; Willis, P.; Stepanek, P.; Otten, M.; Govind, R.; Kuzin, S.; Ferrage, P.

    2012-04-01

    For the preparation of ITRF2008, the IDS processed data from 1993 to 2008, including data from TOPEX/Poseidon, the SPOT satellites and Envisat in the weekly solutions. Since the development of ITRF2008, the IDS has been engaged in a number of efforts to try and improve the reference frame solutions. These efforts include (i) assessing the contribution of the new DORIS satellites, Jason-2 and Cryosat2 (2008-2011), (ii) individually analyzing the DORIS satellite contributions to geocenter and scale, and (iii) improving orbit dynamics (atmospheric loading effects, satellite surface force modeling…). We report on the preliminary results from these research activities, review the status of the IDS combination which is now routinely generated from the contributions of the IDS analysis centers, and discuss the prospects for continued improvement in the DORIS contribution to the next international reference frame.

  17. Research Activities for the DORIS Contribution to the Next International Terrestrial Reference Frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soudarin, L.; Moreaux, G.; Lemoine, F.; Willis, P.; Stepanek, P.; Otten, M.; Govind, R.; Kuzin, S.; Ferrage, P.

    2012-01-01

    For the preparation of ITRF2008, the IDS processed data from 1993 to 2008, including data from TOPEX/Poseidon, the SPOT satellites and Envisat in the weekly solutions. Since the development of ITRF2008, the IDS has been engaged in a number of efforts to try and improve the reference frame solutions. These efforts include (i) assessing the contribution of the new DORIS satellites, Jason-2 and Cryosat2 (2008-2011), (ii) individually analyzing the DORIS satellite contributions to geocenter and scale, and (iii) improving orbit dynamics (atmospheric loading effects, satellite surface force modeling. . . ). We report on the preliminary results from these research activities, review the status of the IDS combination which is now routinely generated from the contributions of the IDS analysis centers, and discuss the prospects for continued improvement in the DORIS contribution to the next international reference frame.

  18. Casimir effect for curved boundaries in Robertson-Walker spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saharian, A. A.; Setare, M. R.

    2010-11-01

    Vacuum expectation values of the energy-momentum tensor and the Casimir forces are evaluated for scalar and electromagnetic fields in the geometry of two curved boundaries on the background of the Robertson-Walker spacetime with negative spatial curvature. The boundaries under consideration are conformal images of the flat boundaries in Rindler spacetime. Robin boundary conditions are imposed in the case of the scalar field and perfect conductor boundary conditions are assumed for the electromagnetic field. We use the conformal relation between the Robertson-Walker and Rindler spacetimes and the corresponding results for two parallel plates moving with uniform proper acceleration through the Fulling-Rindler vacuum. For the general scale factor the vacuum energy-momentum tensor is decomposed into the boundary-free and boundary-induced parts. The latter is non-diagonal. The Casimir forces are directed along the normals to the boundaries. For the Dirichlet and Neumann scalars and for the electromagnetic field these forces are attractive for all separations.

  19. DoriTool: A Bioinformatics Integrative Tool for Post-Association Functional Annotation.

    PubMed

    Martín-Antoniano, Isabel; Alonso, Lola; Madrid, Miguel; López de Maturana, Evangelina; Malats, Núria

    2017-07-13

    The emergence of high-throughput data in biology has increased the need for functional in silico analysis and prompted the development of integrative bioinformatics tools to facilitate the obtainment of biologically meaningful data. In this paper, we present DoriTool, a comprehensive, easy, and friendly pipeline integrating biological data from different functional tools. The tool was designed with the aim to maximize reproducibility and reduce the working time of the researchers, especially of those with limited bioinformatics skills, and to help them with the interpretation of the results. DoriTool is based upon an integrative strategy implemented following a modular design pattern. Using scripts written in Bash, Perl and R, it performs a functional in silico analysis annotation at mutation/variant level, gene level, pathway level and network level by combining up-to-date functional and genomic data and integrating also third-party bioinformatics tools in a pipeline. DoriTool uses GRCh37 human assembly and online mode. DoriTool provides nice visual reports including variant annotation, linkage disequilibrium proxies, gene annotation, gene ontology analysis, expression quantitative trait loci results from Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) and coloured pathways. Here, we also show DoriTool functionalities by applying it to a dataset of 13 variants associated with prostate cancer. Project development, released code libraries, GitHub repository (https://github.com/doritool) and documentation are hosted at https://doritool.github.io/. DoriTool is, to our knowledge, the most complete bioinformatics tool offering functional in silico annotation of variants previously associated with a trait of interest, shedding light on the underlying biology and helping the researchers in the interpretation and discussion of the results. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. DPOD2014: a new DORIS extension of ITRF2014 for Precise Orbit Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreaux, G.; Willis, P.; Lemoine, F. G.; Zelensky, N. P.

    2016-12-01

    As one of the tracking systems used to determine orbits of the altimeter mission satellites (such as TOPEX/Poseidon, Envisat, Jason-1/2/3 & Cryosat-2), the position of the DORIS tracking stations provides a fundamental reference for the estimation of the precise orbits and so, by extension is fundamental for the quality of the altimeter data and derived products. Therefore, the time evolution of the position of both the existing and the newest DORIS stations must be precisely modeled and regularly updated. To satisfy operational requirements for precise orbit determination and routine delivery of geodetic products, the International DORIS Service maintains the so-called DPOD solutions, which can be seen as extensions of the latest available ITRF solution from the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS). In mid-2016, the IDS agreed to change the processing strategy of the DPOD solution. The new solution from the IDS Combination Center (CC) consists of a DORIS cumulative position and velocity solution using the latest IDS combined weekly solutions. The first objective of this study is to describe the new DPOD elaboration scheme and to show the IDS CC internal validation steps. The second purpose is to present the external validation process made by an external team before the new DPOD is made available to all the users. The elaboration and validation procedures will be illustrated by the presentation of first version of the DPOD2014 (ITRF2014 DORIS extension) and focus will be given on the update of the position and velocity of two DORIS sites: Everest (after Gorkha earthquake M7.8 in April 2015) and Thule (Greenland).

  1. DORIS/SLR POD modeling improvements for Jason-1 and Jason-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelensky, Nikita P.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Ziebart, Marek; Sibthorpe, Ant; Willis, Pascal; Beckley, Brian D.; Klosko, Steven M.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Rowlands, David D.; Luthcke, Scott B.; Pavlis, Despina E.; Luceri, Vincenza

    2010-12-01

    The long-term stability and the precision of the satellite orbit is a critical component of the Jason-1 and Jason-2 (OSTM) Missions, providing the reference frame for ocean mapping using altimeter data. DORIS tracking in combination with SLR has provided orbits, which are both highly accurate and consistent across missions using the latest and most accurate POD models. These models include GRACE-derived static and time varying gravity fields and a refined Terrestrial Reference Frame based on SLR and DORIS data yielding a uniform station complement. Additional improvements have been achieved based on advances in modeling the satellite surface forces and the tropospheric path delay for DORIS measurements. This paper presents these model improvements for Jason-1 and Jason-2, including a description of DORIS sensitivity to error in tropospheric path delay. We show that the detailed University College London (UCL) radiation pressure model for Jason-1, which includes self-shadowing and thermal re-radiation, is superior to the use of a macromodel for radiation pressure surface force modeling. Improvements in SLR residuals are seen over all Beta-prime angles for both Jason-1 and Jason-2 using the UCL model, with the greatest improvement found over regimes of low Beta-prime where orbit Earth shadowing is maximum. The overall radial orbit improvement for Jason-1 using the UCL model is 3 mm RMS, as corroborated by the improvement in the independent altimeter crossover data. Special attention is paid to Jason-2 POD to assess improvements gained with the latest advances in DORIS receiver technology. Tests using SLR and altimeter crossover residuals suggest the Jason-2 reduced-dynamic DORIS-only, SLR/DORIS, and GPS orbits have all achieved 1-cm radial accuracy. Tests using independent SLR data acquired at high elevation show an average fit value of 1.02 cm for the DORIS-only and 0.94 cm for the GPS reduced-dynamic orbits. Orbit differences suggest that the largest remaining

  2. Marginally trapped submanifolds in generalized Robertson-Walker spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alías, Luis J.; Cánovas, Verónica L.; Colares, A. Gervasio

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we consider codimension two marginally trapped submanifolds in the family of general Robertson-Walker spacetimes. In particular, we derive some rigidity results for this type of submanifolds which guarantee that, under appropriate hypothesis, the only ones are those contained in slices. We also derive some interesting non-existence results for weakly trapped submanifolds. In particular, we give applications to some cases of physical relevance such as the Einstein-de Sitter spacetime and certain open regions of de Sitter spacetime, including the so called steady state spacetime. Our results will be an application of the (finite) maximum principle for closed manifolds and, more generally, of the weak maximum principle for stochastically complete manifolds.

  3. Outcome analysis of reduction mammaplasty using the modified Robertson technique.

    PubMed

    Chalekson, Charles P; Neumeister, Michael W; Zook, Elvin G; Russell, Robert C

    2002-07-01

    The benefits of reduction mammaplasty have been well documented in previous literature. Anticipating and correcting for pseudoptosis (bottoming-out), however, can impair the cosmetic outcome as the inferior skin envelope stretches and lengthens over time. We present long-term results on patients using the modified Robertson technique for reduction mammaplasty, which appears to have significant benefit in helping to prevent bottoming-out. Surveys were sent to patients undergoing reduction mammaplasty surgery with this technique from 1987 to 1997. Patients were queried regarding preoperative and postoperative symptoms, satisfaction, and outcome related to their surgery and were also offered free follow-up examinations. The patients who returned for follow-up were then evaluated by the attending surgeons for evaluation of scarring, nipple position, ptosis, pseudoptosis, shape, and overall appearance. Reduced breasts were also compared with cosmetically optimal breasts to compare for measured levels of pseudoptosis using our defined visual inferior pole ratio measurements. Average reduction size was 910 g and follow-up was 4.7 years from the time of surgery. There was significant improvement demonstrated in all areas questioned, with the greatest relief shown in back and shoulder pain, shoulder grooving, and difficulty fitting clothing. There was also demonstrated to be significantly less use of medical modalities postoperatively and significant increases in activity levels. Satisfaction for size, shape, symmetry, and overall results was 85, 94, 98, and 94 percent, respectively. Evaluations for pseudoptosis by the attending surgeons were rated good or excellent in 95 percent of patients. Measurements of the visual inferior pole ratio for pseudoptosis also demonstrated no significant differences when compared with aesthetically optimal breasts. The modified Robertson reduction mammaplasty is a reliable technique that can be used for both small and large reductions

  4. Present-day plate motions: Retrieval from the TOPEX/Poseidon orbitography network (DORIS system)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souriau, Annie; Cazenave, Anny; Biancale, R.; Balmino, G.; Dominh, K.; Mazzega, P.; Lemoine, J.-M.; Boucher, Claude; Willis, P.; Kasser, M.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the proposal is to determine the present motion of the main tectonic plates from the Doppler data of the Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) orbitography system, which includes in its final configuration about 50 tracking stations with a world-wide distribution.

  5. DORIS satellite antenna maps derived from long-term residuals time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Pascal R.; Desai, S. D.; Bertiger, W. I.; Haines, B. J.; Auriol, A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that phase pattern models for the Jason-1 GPS antenna significantly benefit GPS-based precise orbit determination (POD) for the satellite. We have used a similar technique to derive DORIS receiver antenna maps, using all available DORIS tracking data over long time periods (from 1993.0 to 2004.0). We demonstrate that the derived correction models are satellite specific. For a given satellite, year-to-year estimations show clear systematic patterns. Some of these systematic patterns are attributable to the derivative of the multi-path effects in the direction of the satellite velocity. For early SPOT data, the patterns can be explained by an offset in the TAI time tagging (typically 8 (mu)s). In a second step, we have applied the SPOT2 antenna correction models in precise orbit determination and in the positioning of ground beacons. Preliminary results on DORIS/SPOT2 show that application of the DORIS antenna maps lead to a slight improvement of the derived POD and geodetic results (typically less than 5%).

  6. Is the Jason-2 DORIS oscillator also affected by the South Atlantic Anomaly?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Pascal; Heflin, Michael B.; Haines, Bruce J.; Bar-Sever, Yoaz E.; Bertiger, Willy I.; Mandea, Mioara

    2016-12-01

    We analyzed time series of daily DORIS and GPS station coordinate estimates derived from Precise Point Positioning (PPP). The DORIS coordinates were estimated using Jason-2 precise orbits based on GPS data only, implying that the station positions from the two techniques are expressed in the same GPS-based terrestrial reference frame. Comparisons of 3-D vectors of such co-located stations show systematic biases in position around South America when compared to local geodetic ties. We conclude that these results could be explained by a sensitivity of the Jason-2/DORIS oscillator to radiation when the satellite passes over the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The effect for Jason-2 manifests mainly as an offset in station coordinates, though there is also evidence of a drift at the start of the mission that diminishes in time. This contrasts with the experience on Jason-1, wherein large, persistent drifts were observed for stations in this same (SAA) region. The spurious drift is much (∼90%) smaller for Jason-2, which may be attributable to the steps taken prior to launch to harden the oscillator. Analysis of DORIS Doppler residuals may indicate some small degradation after 2009 for these stations.

  7. Present-day plate motions: Retrieval from the TOPEX/Poseidon orbitography network (DORIS system)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souriau, Annie; Cazenave, Anny; Biancale, R.; Balmino, G.; Dominh, K.; Mazzega, P.; Lemoine, J.-M.; Boucher, Claude; Willis, P.; Kasser, M.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the proposal is to determine the present motion of the main tectonic plates from the Doppler data of the Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) orbitography system, which includes in its final configuration about 50 tracking stations with a world-wide distribution.

  8. Centimeter-level precise orbit determination for the HY-2A satellite using DORIS and SLR tracking data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Qiaoli; Guo, Jinyun; Sun, Yu; Zhao, Chunmei; Chen, Chuanfa

    2017-01-01

    The HY-2A satellite is the first ocean dynamic environment monitoring satellite of China. Centimeter-level radial accuracy is a fundamental requirement for its scientific research and applications. To achieve this goal, we designed the strategies of precise orbit determination (POD) in detail. To achieve the relative optimal orbit for HY-2A, we carried out POD using DORIS-only, SLR-only, and DORIS + SLR tracking data, respectively. POD tests demonstrated that the consistency level of DORIS-only and SLR-only orbits with respect to the CNES orbits were about 1.81 cm and 3.34 cm in radial direction in the dynamic sense, respectively. We designed 6 cases of different weight combinations for DORIS and SLR data, and found that the optimal relative weight group was 0.2 mm/s for DORIS and 15.0 cm for SLR, and RMS of orbit differences with respect to the CNES orbits in radial direction and three-dimensional (3D) were 1.37 cm and 5.87 cm, respectively. These tests indicated that the relative radial and 3D accuracies computed using DORIS + SLR data with the optimal relative weight set were obviously higher than those computed using DORIS-only and SLR-only data, and satisfied the requirement of designed precision. The POD for HY-2A will provide the invaluable experience for the following HY-2B, HY-2C, and HY-2D satellites.

  9. Radiation pressure and Poynting-Robertson drag for small spherical particles. [in interplanetary space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soter, S.; Burns, J. A.; Lamy, P. L.

    1977-01-01

    Robertson's expression for the velocity-dependent effect of solar radiation on the motion of small particles is difficult because of its dependence on relativistic considerations, and it is also deficient in that it assumes perfectly absorbing particles. The present paper gives a heuristic derivation of the Poynting-Robertson effect. Robertson's expression for perfectly absorbing particles is obtained but on a much simpler physical basis, and an expression is also obtained for a particle that in general scatters, transmits, and absorbs light. Some numerical results on the solar radiation forces felt by small particles of cosmochemically important compositions are given.

  10. As-Built documentation of programs to implement the Robertson and Doraiswamy/Thompson models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valenziano, D. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The software which implements two spring wheat phenology models is described. The main program routines for the Doraiswamy/Thompson crop phenology model and the basic Robertson crop phenology model are DTMAIN and BRMAIN. These routines read meteorological data files and coefficient files, accept the planting date information and other information from the user, and initiate processing. Daily processing for the basic Robertson program consists only of calculation of the basic Robertson increment of crop development. Additional processing in the Doraiswamy/Thompson program includes the calculation of a moisture stress index and correction of the basic increment of development. Output for both consists of listings of the daily results.

  11. Separation and divergence: the untold story of James Robertson's and John Bowlby's theoretical dispute on mother-child separation.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, Frank C P; van der Veer, René

    2009-01-01

    The work of Robertson and Bowlby is generally seen as complementary, Robertson being the practically oriented observer and Bowlby focusing on theoretical explanations for Robertson's observations. The authors add to this picture an "untold story" of the collaboration between Robertson and Bowlby: the dispute between the two men that arose in the 1960s about the corollaries of separation and the ensuing personal animosity. On the basis of unique archival materials, this until now little known aspect of the history of attachment theory is extensively documented. The deteriorating relationship between Robertson and Bowlby is described against the background of different currents in psychoanalysis in Britain in the interbellum.

  12. Impact of the low elevation measurements on the DORIS scale factor and on the station position estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capdeville, H.; Lemoine, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    All the DORIS Analysis Centers observe a jump in the scale factor of their combined solution in 2012. The introduction of the HY-2A solution seems to cause the largest jump in the DORIS scale. However, some investigations show that the Jason-2 and Cryosat-2 solutions are also responsible of the DORIS scale jump. This contribution in the scale jump seems fully explained by a variation in the number of low elevation measurements included in the processing. We propose here to demonstrate the origin of this scale jump by several tests in particular by taking into account another data format (RINEX) and by processing DORIS data with different cutoff angles. We plan also to analyze the impact of the low elevation measurements on the height station position estimation and the Helmert parameters (scale factor and geocenter).

  13. Poynting-Robertson-like Drag at the Sun's Surface.

    PubMed

    Cunnyngham, Ian; Emilio, Marcelo; Kuhn, Jeff; Scholl, Isabelle; Bush, Rock

    2017-02-03

    The Sun's internal rotation Ω(r,Θ) has previously been measured using helioseismology techniques and found to be a complex function of colatitude θ and radius r. From helioseismology and observations of apparently "rooted" solar magnetic tracers, we know that the surface rotates more slowly than much of the interior. The cause of this slow-down is not understood, but it is important for understanding stellar rotation generally and any plausible theory of the solar interior. A new analysis using 5-min solar p-mode limb oscillations as a rotation "tracer" finds an even larger velocity gradient in a thin region at the top of the photosphere. This shear occurs where the solar atmosphere radiates energy and angular momentum. We suggest that the net effect of the photospheric angular momentum loss is similar to Poynting-Robertson "photon braking" on, for example, Sun-orbiting dust. The resultant photospheric torque is readily computed and, over the Sun's lifetime, is found to be comparable to the apparent angular momentum deficit in the near-surface shear layer.

  14. Poynting-Robertson Effects in Saturn's F Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliatti Winter, S. M.

    2000-10-01

    Observations from the Voyager spacecraft have shown that the narrow F ring of Saturn is composed of micrometer-sized particles that extend inward from the core (Showalter et al., Icarus, 1992; Graps et al., Icarus, 1984). These small particles can be disturbed by the effects of the Poynting-Robertson drag (PR drag), which cause their orbital decay. The F ring particles are also perturbed by the nearby satellite Prometheus. The effects of the satellite are intensified during the closest approach with the ring particles. At this special configuration gaps are formed in the ring as result of scattering of particles in the direction of the planet (Giuliatti Winter et al.,PSS, 2000). In this work we analyze the effects of the PR drag combined with the perturbations of the satellite Prometheus. Our results show that depending on the initial conditions of the ring particles the satellite can avoid the orbital decay caused by the PR drag (Giuliatti Winter & Guimar\\ aes, 2000). There are some resonance locations in the region between Prometheus and the F ring, some of them with the satellite Atlas (Giuliatti Winter, 1994). We also analyze the orbital evolution of a dust ring particle subjected to PR drag and Atlas perturbations. Acknowledgement: SMGW (Proc. 99/11965) thanks FAPESP for the financial support.

  15. Conformally Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Matt

    2015-07-01

    In a Universe where, according to the standard cosmological models, some 97% of the total mass-energy is still ‘missing in action’, it behooves us to spend at least a little effort critically assessing and exploring radical alternatives. Among possible (dare we say plausible), nonstandard but superficially viable models, those spacetimes conformal to the standard Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) class of cosmological models play a very special role—these models have the unique and important property of permitting large non-perturbative geometric deviations from FLRW cosmology without unacceptably distorting the cosmic microwave background. Performing a ‘cosmographic’ analysis (that is, temporarily setting aside the Einstein equations, since the question of whether or not the Einstein equations are valid on galactic and cosmological scales is essentially the same question as whether or not dark matter/dark energy actually exist), and using both supernova data and information about galactic structure, one can nevertheless place some quite significant observational constraints on any possible conformal mode—however, there is still an extremely rich range of phenomenological possibilities for both cosmologists and astrophysicists to explore.

  16. Classical and quantum dispersion in Robertson-Walker cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaschitz, Roman

    1993-03-01

    The instability of world lines in Robertson-Walker universes of negative spatial curvature is investigated. A probabilistic description of this instability, similar to the Liouville equation, is developed, but in a manifestly covariant, non-Hamiltonian form. To achieve this the concept of a horospherical geodesic flow of expanding bundles of parallel world lines is introduced. An invariant measure and a covariant evolution equation for the probability density on which this flow acts is constructed. The orthogonal surfaces to these bundles of trajectories are horospheres, closed surfaces in three-space, touching the boundary at infinity of hyperbolic space, where the flow lines emerge. These horospheres are just the wave fronts of spherical waves, which constitute a complete set of eigenfunctions of the Klein-Gordon equation. This fact suggests that the evolution of the quantum mechanical density with the classical one be compared, and asymptotic identity in the asymptotically flat region is found. This leads, furthermore, to the study of the time behavior of the dispersion of the energy and the coordinates and the energy-time uncertainty relation, and identity in the late stage of the cosmic evolution is again found. In an example it is finally demonstrated that this identity can persist in the early phase of the expansion with a rapidly varying scale factor, provided the fields are conformally coupled to the curvature.

  17. Straight strings and Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unruh, W. G.

    1992-10-01

    The embeddability of a straight cosmic string in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe is examined. Although previous suggestions that an exact embedding for a string with longitudinal tension equal to energy density is impossible are substantiated, it is shown that the deviations of either the external metric from the exact FRW metric or of the internal structure of the string from the exact tension equals energy density are expected to be very small, of the order of the square of the ratio of the string diameter (or the evacuated shell around the string) to the Hubble radius. Thus the lack of an exact mathematical embedding leads to negligible physical consequences. The problem with solving for an exact embedding of a string in the manner of the Swiss-cheese model is examined in detail, and it is shown that the metric in the evacuated region around the string is unique. That metric is determined to lowest order in the ratio of the evacuated region over the Hubble radius. The implications of this uniqueness for the Swiss-cheese embedding of a string are discussed.

  18. Electromagnetic propagators in hyperbolic Robertson-Walker cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaschitz, Roman

    2001-12-01

    Green functions (retarded, advanced, Feynman and Dyson propagators) are calculated for the electromagnetic field in Robertson-Walker cosmologies with hyperbolic 3-manifolds as spacelike slices. The starting point is the Proca equation, i.e., the Maxwell field with a finite photon mass for infrared regularization, in a static cosmology with simply connected hyperbolic 3-sections. The time and space components of the resolvent kernel are scalar and vectorial point-pair invariants, respectively, and this symmetry allows for an explicit evaluation in the spectral representation. It is found that the quantum propagators have a logarithmic infrared singularity, which drops out in the zero curvature limit. Retarded and advanced Green functions remain well defined in the limit of zero photon mass, and they admit a simple generalization, by conformal scaling, to expanding 3-spaces. In cosmologies with multiply connected hyperbolic 3-manifolds as spacelike sections, the four enumerated propagators are constructed by means of Poincaré series. The spectral decomposition of the Green functions is given in terms of Eisenstein series for a certain class of open hyperbolic 3-spaces, including those with Schottky covering groups corresponding to solid handle-bodies as spacelike slices.

  19. E. Graeme Robertson--dynamics in fluid and light.

    PubMed

    Kempster, P A; Gerraty, R P; Bower, S P C

    2013-02-01

    An eponymous lecture at the Australian and New Zealand Association of Neurologists Annual Scientific Meeting commemorates E. Graeme Robertson (1903-75), and some neurologists will know that particular Australian practices in clinical neurology, so far as they exist, have origins in his career. This is a historical article on the literary record of a man who had his own sense of history--an affinity with the past as well as an awareness of future generations of readers. He wrote authoritative texts on pneumoencephalography before new technology made it obsolete, and he produced a series of books on decorative architectural cast iron in Australian cities. A talent for visual interpretation seems to have drawn him to both of these topics; a common theme is contrast between light and dark, which is expatiated in images and in clear, well-written prose in his publications. We review his medical writings, including some largely forgotten principles of cerebrospinal fluid physics that he discovered when researching pneumoencephalography. We also explore his obsession with cast iron--its architectural historical significance, his techniques for photographing it, and some of the ways that it related to his life's work as a clinical neurologist. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Poynting-Robertson-like Drag at the Sun's Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunnyngham, Ian; Emilio, Marcelo; Kuhn, Jeff; Scholl, Isabelle; Bush, Rock

    2017-02-01

    The Sun's internal rotation Ω (r ,Θ ) has previously been measured using helioseismology techniques and found to be a complex function of colatitude θ and radius r . From helioseismology and observations of apparently "rooted" solar magnetic tracers, we know that the surface rotates more slowly than much of the interior. The cause of this slow-down is not understood, but it is important for understanding stellar rotation generally and any plausible theory of the solar interior. A new analysis using 5-min solar p -mode limb oscillations as a rotation "tracer" finds an even larger velocity gradient in a thin region at the top of the photosphere. This shear occurs where the solar atmosphere radiates energy and angular momentum. We suggest that the net effect of the photospheric angular momentum loss is similar to Poynting-Robertson "photon braking" on, for example, Sun-orbiting dust. The resultant photospheric torque is readily computed and, over the Sun's lifetime, is found to be comparable to the apparent angular momentum deficit in the near-surface shear layer.

  1. On the Weyl and Ricci tensors of Generalized Robertson-Walker space-times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantica, Carlo Alberto; Molinari, Luca Guido

    2016-10-01

    We prove theorems about the Ricci and the Weyl tensors on Generalized Robertson-Walker space-times of dimension n ≥ 3. In particular, we show that the concircular vector introduced by Chen decomposes the Ricci tensor as a perfect fluid term plus a term linear in the contracted Weyl tensor. The Weyl tensor is harmonic if and only if it is annihilated by Chen's vector, and any of the two conditions is necessary and sufficient for the Generalized Robertson-Walker (GRW) space-time to be a quasi-Einstein (perfect fluid) manifold. Finally, the general structure of the Riemann tensor for Robertson-Walker space-times is given, in terms of Chen's vector. In n = 4, a GRW space-time with harmonic Weyl tensor is a Robertson-Walker space-time.

  2. 9. Photocopied June 1978 R.H. ROBERTSON, WATER COLOR, CA. 1915. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopied June 1978 R.H. ROBERTSON, WATER COLOR, CA. 1915. LAKE SANFORD WINTER. SOURCE: ARTHUR CROCKER, TAHAWUS CLUB. - Adirondack Iron & Steel Company, New Furnace, Hudson River, Tahawus, Essex County, NY

  3. 8. Photocopied June 1978 R.H. ROBERTSON, WATER COLOR, CA. 1915. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopied June 1978 R.H. ROBERTSON, WATER COLOR, CA. 1915. TIMBER CRIB BRIDGE ACROSS HUDSON RIVER AT LOWER WORKS. SOURCE: ARTHUR CROCKER, TAHAWUS CLUB. - Adirondack Iron & Steel Company, New Furnace, Hudson River, Tahawus, Essex County, NY

  4. 12. Photocopied June 1978, R.H. ROBERTSON WATER COLOR PAINTING, CA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopied June 1978, R.H. ROBERTSON WATER COLOR PAINTING, CA. 1918. VIEW OF THE 'NEW' FURNACE FROM SOUTH. SOURCE: ARTHUR CROCKER, TAHAWUS CLUB. - Adirondack Iron & Steel Company, New Furnace, Hudson River, Tahawus, Essex County, NY

  5. 13. Photocopied June 1978. R.H. ROBERTSON WATER COLOR, LAKE HARKNESS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopied June 1978. R.H. ROBERTSON WATER COLOR, LAKE HARKNESS, CA. 1915. SOURCE: ARTHUR CROCKER, TAHAWUS CLUB. - Adirondack Iron & Steel Company, New Furnace, Hudson River, Tahawus, Essex County, NY

  6. 5. Photocopied June 1978 R.H. ROBERTSON WATER COLOR, CA. 1915. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopied June 1978 R.H. ROBERTSON WATER COLOR, CA. 1915. MACNAUGHTON COTTAGE OF UPPER WORKS. SOURCE: ARTHUR CROCKER, TAHAWUS CLUB. - Adirondack Iron & Steel Company, New Furnace, Hudson River, Tahawus, Essex County, NY

  7. 7. Photocopied June 1978 R.H. ROBERTSON, WATER COLOR, CA. 1915. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopied June 1978 R.H. ROBERTSON, WATER COLOR, CA. 1915. CAMP AT TAHAWUS CLUB. SOURCE: ARTHUR CROCKER, TAHAWUS CLUB. - Adirondack Iron & Steel Company, New Furnace, Hudson River, Tahawus, Essex County, NY

  8. Spacetime emergence of the robertson-walker universe from a matrix model.

    PubMed

    Erdmenger, Johanna; Meyer, René; Park, Jeong-Hyuck

    2007-06-29

    Using a novel, string theory-inspired formalism based on a Hamiltonian constraint, we obtain a conformal mechanical system for the spatially flat four-dimensional Robertson-Walker Universe. Depending on parameter choices, this system describes either a relativistic particle in the Robertson-Walker background or metric fluctuations of the Robertson-Walker geometry. Moreover, we derive a tree-level M theory matrix model in this time-dependent background. Imposing the Hamiltonian constraint forces the spacetime geometry to be fuzzy near the big bang, while the classical Robertson-Walker geometry emerges as the Universe expands. From our approach, we also derive the temperature of the Universe interpolating between the radiation and matter dominated eras.

  9. Spacetime Emergence of the Robertson-Walker Universe from a Matrix Model

    SciTech Connect

    Erdmenger, Johanna; Meyer, Rene; Park, Jeong-Hyuck

    2007-06-29

    Using a novel, string theory-inspired formalism based on a Hamiltonian constraint, we obtain a conformal mechanical system for the spatially flat four-dimensional Robertson-Walker Universe. Depending on parameter choices, this system describes either a relativistic particle in the Robertson-Walker background or metric fluctuations of the Robertson-Walker geometry. Moreover, we derive a tree-level M theory matrix model in this time-dependent background. Imposing the Hamiltonian constraint forces the spacetime geometry to be fuzzy near the big bang, while the classical Robertson-Walker geometry emerges as the Universe expands. From our approach, we also derive the temperature of the Universe interpolating between the radiation and matter dominated eras.

  10. Blood transfusion in World War I: the roles of Lawrence Bruce Robertson and Oswald Hope Robertson in the "most important medical advance of the war".

    PubMed

    Stansbury, Lynn G; Hess, John R

    2009-07-01

    The demonstration and acceptance of the life-saving potential of blood transfusion in the resuscitation of combat casualties came in two parts. First, Canadian surgeon Major Lawrence Bruce Robertson showed that direct transfusion of uncrossmatched blood from the veins of a donor to a patient could save the lives of many moribund casualties, even if a few died of acute hemolytic reactions. Second, US Army Captain Oswald Hope Robertson showed that stored, syphilis-tested, universal donor whole blood could be given quickly and safely in forward medical units. With these demonstrations, the Royal Army Medical Corps adopted transfusion and declared it the most important medical advance of the war.

  11. Assessment of voice and speech symptoms in early Parkinson's disease by the Robertson dysarthria profile.

    PubMed

    Defazio, Giovanni; Guerrieri, Marta; Liuzzi, Daniele; Gigante, Angelo Fabio; di Nicola, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    Changes in voice and speech are thought to involve 75-90% of people with PD, but the impact of PD progression on voice/speech parameters is not well defined. In this study, we assessed voice/speech symptoms in 48 parkinsonian patients staging <3 on the modified Hoehn and Yahr scale and 37 healthy subjects using the Robertson dysarthria profile (a clinical-perceptual method exploring all components potentially involved in speech difficulties), the Voice handicap index (a validated measure of the impact of voice symptoms on quality of life) and the speech evaluation parameter contained in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS-III). Accuracy and metric properties of the Robertson dysarthria profile were also measured. On Robertson dysarthria profile, all parkinsonian patients yielded lower scores than healthy control subjects. Differently, the Voice Handicap Index and the speech evaluation parameter contained in the UPDRS-III could detect speech/voice disturbances in 10 and 75% of PD patients, respectively. Validation procedure in Parkinson's disease patients showed that the Robertson dysarthria profile has acceptable reliability, satisfactory internal consistency and scaling assumptions, lack of floor and ceiling effects, and partial correlations with UPDRS-III and Voice Handicap Index. We concluded that speech/voice disturbances are widely identified by the Robertson dysarthria profile in early parkinsonian patients, even when the disturbances do not carry a significant level of disability. Robertson dysarthria profile may be a valuable tool to detect speech/voice disturbances in Parkinson's disease.

  12. Doris Duke Clinical Research Fellowship: report of the second annual meeting.

    PubMed

    Allen, Alisha; Parikh, Gunjan; McPhaul, Michael J

    2003-11-01

    The second annual national meeting of the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation Clinical Research Fellowship for Medical Students program was held June 24 to 26, 2003, at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory near Long Island Sound. This 3-day meeting offered an opportunity for 63 of the 2002 Doris Duke clinical research fellows, program directors, administrators, and invited physician-scientists to present and share their research with one another in an informal, inspiring setting at an institution with a history that mirrors the development of modern American medical research. Following a keynote lecture by Dr. Kenneth Davis, dean of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine, six physician-scientists representing different areas of clinical research presented their work. Oral and poster presentations by the Doris Duke fellows of their research were interspersed throughout the meeting and comprised its central focus. The fellows' research spanned a broad spectrum of clinical research from studies translating basic research findings to those addressing clinical questions to epidemiologic and health outcomes studies. The meeting culminated in a forum entitled "'Where Do We Go from Here?' Residency Selection and Further Research Training in Pursuit of a Career as a Clinician-Scientist," which was moderated by this year's clinical research fellow national program leader, Dr. Allyn L. Mark. The meeting celebrated the accomplishments of these talented medical students during their fellowship year and, it is hoped, instilled in them awareness that their continued efforts are important to the future progress of medicine.

  13. ITRF2014 orbits for CryoSat-2 based on DORIS and SLR tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrama, Ernst

    2017-04-01

    With the advent of the new reference system ITRF2014 we have modified our precision orbit determination procedures so that all CryoSat-2 trajectories are now realized in the new reference system which provides a consistent survey of DORIS and SLR station coordinates. For SLR stations in ITRF2014 we take the solution from the SINEX files, there is no need to estimate SLR station coordinates. This is also the case for most DORIS beacons although some beacons require us to estimate station positions since they are not in ITRF2014. Preliminary results show that the DORIS residuals are consistent at 0.4 mm/s and that the SLR residuals are around to 1.5 cm. The level of unexplained accelerations with the presently used dynamic models is around 3.6 nanometer per second squared in the flight direction, for traverse track accelerations it is around 10 nm/s2. Crossover residuals of the CryoSat-2 altimeter typically reduce to under 5 cm, an independent comparison to the CNES precision orbit solutions yields radial differences of around 1.5 cm.

  14. Einstein energy associated with the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Abhas

    2010-03-01

    Following Einstein’s definition of Lagrangian density and gravitational field energy density (Einstein in Ann Phys Lpz 49:806, 1916, Einstein in Phys Z 19:115, 1918, Pauli in Theory of Relativity, B.I. Publications, Mumbai, 1963), Tolman derived a general formula for the total matter plus gravitational field energy ( P 0) of an arbitrary system (Tolman in Phys Rev 35:875, 1930, Tolman in Relativity, Thermodynamics & Cosmology, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1962, Xulu in hep-th/0308070, 2003). For a static isolated system, in quasi-Cartesian coordinates, this formula leads to the well known result {P_0 = int sqrt{-g} (T_0^0 - T_1^1 - T_2^2 - T_3^3) d^3 x,} where g is the determinant of the metric tensor and {T^a_b} is the energy momentum tensor of the matter. Though in the literature, this is known as “Tolman Mass”, it must be realized that this is essentially “Einstein Mass” because the underlying pseudo-tensor here is due to Einstein. In fact, Landau-Lifshitz obtained the same expression for the “inertial mass” of a static isolated system without using any pseudo-tensor at all and which points to physical significance and correctness of Einstein Mass (Landau, Lifshitz in The Classical Theory of Fields, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1962)! For the first time we apply this general formula to find an expression for P 0 for the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) metric by using the same quasi-Cartesian basis. As we analyze this new result, it transpires that, physically, a spatially flat model having no cosmological constant is preferred. Eventually, it is seen that conservation of P 0 is honoured only in the static limit.

  15. Multi-technique comparison of atmospheric parameters at the DORIS co-location sites during CONT14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinkelmann, Robert; Willis, Pascal; Deng, Zhiguo; Dick, Galina; Nilsson, Tobias; Soja, Benedikt; Zus, Florian; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2016-12-01

    The atmospheric parameters, zenith delays and gradients, obtained by the DORIS, GPS, VLBI, and numerical weather models, ECMWF and NCEP, are compared at five DORIS co-located sites during the 15 days of the CONT14 campaign from 2014-05-06 until 2014-05-20. Further examined are two different solutions of GPS, VLBI and NCEP: for GPS, a network solution comparable to the TIGA reprocessing analysis strategy and a precise point positioning solution, for VLBI, a least squares and a Kalman filtered and smoothed solution, and for NCEP two spatial resolutions, 0.5° and 1.0°, are tested. The different positions of the antenna reference points at co-location sites affect the atmospheric parameters and have to be considered prior to the comparison. We assess and discuss these differences, tropospheric ties, by comparing ray-traced atmospheric parameters obtained at the positions of the various antenna reference points. While ray-traced ZHD and ZWD at the co-located antennas significantly differ, the ray-traced gradients show only very small differences. Weather events can introduce larger disagreement between atmospheric parameters obtained at co-location sites. The various weather model solutions in general agree very well in providing tropospheric ties. The atmospheric parameters are compared using statistical methods, such as the mean difference and standard deviations with repect to a weighted mean value. While GPS and VLBI atmospheric parameters agree very well in general, the DORIS observations are in several cases not dense enough to achieve a comparable level of agreement. The estimated zenith delays from DORIS, however, are competitive with the other space geodetic techniques. If the DORIS observation geometry is insufficient for the estimation of an atmospheric gradient, less than three satellites observed during the definition interval, the DORIS atmospheric parameters degrade and show small quasi-periodic variations that correlate with the number of observations

  16. A DORIS determination of the absolute velocities of the Sorsdal and Mellor glaciers in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govind, R.; Valette, J. J.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2010-06-01

    The Lambert-Amery System is the largest glacier-ice shelf system in East Antarctica, draining a significant portion of the ice sheet. Variation in ice sheet discharge from Antarctica or Greenland has an impact on the rate of change in global mean sea level; which is a manifestation of climate change. In conjunction with a measure of ice thickness change, ice sheet discharge can be monitored by determining the absolute velocities of these glaciers. In order to demonstrate the capability of the DORIS system to determine glacier velocities, Geoscience Australia undertook a Pilot Project under the auspices of the International DORIS Service. A DORIS beacon was deployed on the Sorsdal (November 2001 - January 2002 and November 2003 - January 2004) and Mellor (December 2002 - January 2003) glaciers. The DORIS data, transmitted from the autonomously operating ground beacon for each satellite pass, were stored in the receiver on-board the satellite and later downlinked to the DORIS control centres for processing. This paper describes the campaigns that were conducted at the Sorsdal and Mellor glaciers, the data processing standards for modelling the Doppler measurements, precise orbit determination of the satellites using the data from the globally distributed DORIS network, tracking station position and reference frame modelling, the point positioning mode employed for determining the position and velocities of the transmitting beacon antennas located on the glaciers and provides the velocity estimates that have been determined from the analysis of these tracking data. For the Sorsdal 2001/2002 campaign, using SPOT-4 data only, the measured effective horizontal ice motion was estimated to be 30 ± 0.4 cm/day (azimuth of N246°E ± 0.1°). The inferred velocities for the Sorsdal 2003/2004 campaign, using SPOT-4 and SPOT-5 data, was 5.7 ± 0.8 cm/day (azimuth of N264°E ± 7.5°) for the first eight days and 11.4 ± 1.4 cm/day (azimuth of N241°E ± 1.5°) for the

  17. Diachronous cleavage development in the Robertson Bay Terrane, Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica: Tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallmeyer, R. D.; Wright, Thomas O.

    1992-04-01

    The Robertson Bay terrane is the easternmost of three regional lithotectonic units comprising Northern Victoria Land. It is largely represented by a thick succession of Cambrian-Ordovician distal turbidites (Robertson Bay Group), which has been folded into upright structures with development of an associated, regionally penetrative cleavage during maintenance of regionally uniform, low-grade regional metamorphic conditions. Whole rock 40Ar/39Ar incremental-release analysis of slate/phyllite documents diachronous cleavage development between ˜500 Ma (west) and 460 Ma (east) during the Ross orogeny. This systematic regional variation in age is consistent with tectonic models for the Ross orogeny that involve southwest directed subduction of the outboard Robertson Bay terrane beneath the Bowers terrane. Convergence rates of ˜0.4-1.0 cm/yr are suggested.

  18. Impact of orbit modeling on DORIS station position and Earth rotation estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štěpánek, Petr; Rodriguez-Solano, Carlos Javier; Hugentobler, Urs; Filler, Vratislav

    2014-04-01

    The high precision of estimated station coordinates and Earth rotation parameters (ERP) obtained from satellite geodetic techniques is based on the precise determination of the satellite orbit. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impact of different orbit parameterizations on the accuracy of station coordinates and the ERPs derived from DORIS observations. In a series of experiments the DORIS data from the complete year 2011 were processed with different orbit model settings. First, the impact of precise modeling of the non-conservative forces on geodetic parameters was compared with results obtained with an empirical-stochastic modeling approach. Second, the temporal spacing of drag scaling parameters was tested. Third, the impact of estimating once-per-revolution harmonic accelerations in cross-track direction was analyzed. And fourth, two different approaches for solar radiation pressure (SRP) handling were compared, namely adjusting SRP scaling parameter or fixing it on pre-defined values. Our analyses confirm that the empirical-stochastic orbit modeling approach, which does not require satellite attitude information and macro models, results for most of the monitored station parameters in comparable accuracy as the dynamical model that employs precise non-conservative force modeling. However, the dynamical orbit model leads to a reduction of the RMS values for the estimated rotation pole coordinates by 17% for x-pole and 12% for y-pole. The experiments show that adjusting atmospheric drag scaling parameters each 30 min is appropriate for DORIS solutions. Moreover, it was shown that the adjustment of cross-track once-per-revolution empirical parameter increases the RMS of the estimated Earth rotation pole coordinates. With recent data it was however not possible to confirm the previously known high annual variation in the estimated geocenter z-translation series as well as its mitigation by fixing the SRP parameters on pre-defined values.

  19. Does σ-model conformal invariance imply a Robertson-Walker universe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamandis, G. A.; Georgalas, B. C.; Lahanas, A. B.

    1992-08-01

    Starting from the σ-model conformal invariance conditions we find all four dimensional metrics when the dilaton field satisfies the condition ▿μ▿νφ=0. Such configurations have been previously employed in a flat D dimensional target space and naturally come out as solutions consistent with conformal invariance of the supersymmetric σ-model beyond the two loop order. The four dimensional metrics emerging out are either of the Robertson-Walker type or a special kind of a generalized pp-wave metric. Of these solutions only the Robertson-Walker metric can be related to a noncritical string theory.

  20. Viscous Cosmology and Thermodynamics of Apparent Horizon in Modified Friedman-Robertson-Walkers Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, J.; Naji, J.; Vaez, H.; Khanpour, B.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we write modified Friedman-Robertson-Walkers (FRW) equation in the form of first law of thermodynamics at the apparent horizon. We consider the universe filled with the viscous fluid. Here we employ the general expression of temperature gravity and entropy at the apparent horizon of FRW universe and obtain the generalized first law of thermodynamics at the special condition for the modified FRW equation. The generalized first law of thermodynamics help us to arrange the α 1, α 2, β 1 and β 2 in modified Friedman-Robertson-Walkers equation.

  1. Periodic orbits of the generalized Friedmann-Robertson-Walker potential in galactic dynamics in a rotating reference frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Dessoky, M. M.; Elmandouh, A. A.; Hobiny, Aatef

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we study analytically the existence of periodic solution for Friedmann- Robertson-Walker Hamiltonian systems in a rotating frame using average theory of first order. The stability of these periodic solutions is investigated. Moreover, the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Hamiltonian systems in a rotating frame is proved to be non-integrable.

  2. 78 FR 9866 - Special Local Regulation; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; Robertson Lake & O'Leary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; Robertson Lake & O'Leary Lake; Moss Point, MS AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice... regulation for a portion of Robertson Lake & O'Leary Lake, Moss Point, MS. This action is necessary for the...

  3. 78 FR 23843 - Special Local Regulations; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; Robertson Lake & O'Leary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; Robertson Lake & O'Leary Lake; Moss Point, MS AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... portion of Robertson Lake & O'Leary Lake, Moss Point, MS. This action is necessary for the safeguard...

  4. IVS Tropospheric Parameters: Comparison with DORIS and GPS for CONT02

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuh, Harald; Snajdrova, Kristyna; Boehm, Johannes; Willis, Pascal; Engelhardt, Gerald; Lanotte, Roberto; Tomasi, Paolo; Negusini, Monia; MacMillan, Daniel; Vereshchagina, Iraida

    2004-01-01

    In April 2002 the IVS (International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry) set up the Pilot Project - Tropospheric Parameters, and the Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics (IGG), Vienna, was put in charge of coordinating the project. Seven IVS Analysis Centers have joined the project and regularly submitted their estimates of tropospheric parameters (wet and total zenith delays, horizontal gradients) for all IVS-R1 mid IVS-R4 sessions since January 1st, 2002. The individual submissions are combined by a two-step procedure to obtain stable, robust and highly accurate tropospheric parameter time series with one hour resolution (internal accuracy: 2-4 ram). Starting with July 2003, the combined tropospheric estimates became operational IVS products. In the second half of October 2002 the VLBI campaign CONT02 was observed with 8 stations participating around the globe. At four of them (Gilmore Creek, U.S.A.; Hartebeesthoek, South Africa; Kokee Park, U.S.A.; Ny-Alesund, Norway) also total zenith delays from DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite) are available and these estimates are compared with those from the IGS (International GPS Service) and the IVS. The distance from the DORIS beacons to the co-located GPS and VLBI stations is around 2 km or less for the four sites mentioned above.

  5. GEOSAT: Combining VLBI, SLR, GPS, and DORIS at the observation level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helge Andersen, Per; Dähnn, Michael; Fausk, Ingrid; Hjelle, Geir Arne; Kirkvik, Ann-Silje; Mysen, Eirik

    2015-04-01

    GEOSAT is a multi-technique geodetic software that has been under development for about 30 years [P. H. Andersen, "Multilevel arc combination with stochastic parameters". Journal of Geodesy 01/2000; 74(7): 531 - 551]. The last couple of years the development efforts have been headed by a team at the Norwegian Mapping Authority. The GEOSAT software can be used in the analysis of space geodetic data by combining data from VLBI, SLR, GPS and DORIS at the observation level epoch by epoch. As a result technique dependent systematic errors will be visible as anomalous a posteriori residuals, and can be compensated for by introducing technique dependent empirical models. GEOSAT is based on factorized Kalman filters which allow the estimation of stochastic parameters common for several techniques. GEOSAT contributed to the IVS solution used in the upcoming ITRF. In addition to VLBI analysis the software can process SLR and GPS data, while DORIS based analysis is under development. Experiments in combining data from different techniques according to the GEOSAT philosophy are currently being done. This presentation will be a description of how GEOSAT combines data from the different techniques, while at the same time reporting the current state of the project and our plans going forward.

  6. Vertical Crustal Motion Derived from Satellite Altimetry and Tide Gauges, and Comparisons with DORIS Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. D.; Beckley, B. D.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2010-01-01

    A somewhat unorthodox method for determining vertical crustal motion at a tide-gauge location is to difference the sea level time series with an equivalent time series determined from satellite altimetry, To the extent that both instruments measure an identical ocean signal, the difference will be dominated by vertical land motion at the gauge. We revisit this technique by analyzing sea level signals at 28 tide gauges that are colocated with DORIS geodetic stations. Comparisons of altimeter-gauge vertical rates with DORIS rates yield a median difference of 1.8 mm/yr and a weighted root-mean-square difference of2.7 mm/yr. The latter suggests that our uncertainty estimates, which are primarily based on an assumed AR(l) noise process in all time series, underestimates the true errors. Several sources of additional error are discussed, including possible scale errors in the terrestrial reference frame to which altimeter-gauge rates are mostly insensitive, One of our stations, Male, Maldives, which has been the subject of some uninformed arguments about sea-level rise, is found to have almost no vertical motion, and thus is vulnerable to rising sea levels. Published by Elsevier Ltd. on behalf of COSPAR.

  7. Spatially-Hyperbolic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe with Potentially Broken Z 2-Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dariescu, Ciprian; Bodnarescu, Adrian; Dariescu, Marina-Aura

    2016-09-01

    For the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) Universe with negative curvature, sustained by a spontaneous Z 2- symmetry breaking scalar field, depending on time alone, we have derived the Einstein-Gordon system of equations. For physically relevant cases, the matter-curvature system have been numerically analyzed.

  8. 4. Photocopied June 1978 R.H. ROBERTSON, PENCIL AND CHARCOAL SKETCH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopied June 1978 R.H. ROBERTSON, PENCIL AND CHARCOAL SKETCH, LAKE HENDERSON, FROM TAHAWUS CLUB BOAT DOCK. CA. 1914. SOURCE: ARTHUR CROCKER, PRESIDENT OF THE TAHAWUS CLUB. - Adirondack Iron & Steel Company, New Furnace, Hudson River, Tahawus, Essex County, NY

  9. Numerical Solutions For Fields' Dynamical Evolution In The Robertson- Walker Space - Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murariu, Gabriel

    2007-04-01

    In this paper is considered a Klein-Gordon-Maxwell-Einstein interacting fields system for a complex scalar field minimally coupled to a spherically symmetric Robertson -Walker curved space - time. Time evolutions for the coupled boson system fields are evaluated using numerical methods.

  10. An Evolving Genetic Architecture Interacts with Hill–Robertson Interference to Determine the Benefit of Sex

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, Alexander O. B.; Peck, Kayla M.; Azevedo, Ricardo B. R.; Burch, Christina L.

    2016-01-01

    Sex is ubiquitous in the natural world, but the nature of its benefits remains controversial. Previous studies have suggested that a major advantage of sex is its ability to eliminate interference between selection on linked mutations, a phenomenon known as Hill–Robertson interference. However, those studies may have missed both important advantages and important disadvantages of sexual reproduction because they did not allow the distributions of mutational effects and interactions (i.e., the genetic architecture) to evolve. Here we investigate how Hill–Robertson interference interacts with an evolving genetic architecture to affect the evolutionary origin and maintenance of sex by simulating evolution in populations of artificial gene networks. We observed a long-term advantage of sex—equilibrium mean fitness of sexual populations exceeded that of asexual populations—that did not depend on population size. We also observed a short-term advantage of sex—sexual modifier mutations readily invaded asexual populations—that increased with population size, as was observed in previous studies. We show that the long- and short-term advantages of sex were both determined by differences between sexual and asexual populations in the evolutionary dynamics of two properties of the genetic architecture: the deleterious mutation rate (Ud) and recombination load (LR). These differences resulted from a combination of selection to minimize LR, which is experienced only by sexuals, and Hill–Robertson interference experienced primarily by asexuals. In contrast to the previous studies, in which Hill–Robertson interference had only a direct impact on the fitness advantages of sex, the impact of Hill–Robertson interference in our simulations was mediated additionally by an indirect impact on the efficiency with which selection acted to reduce Ud. PMID:27098911

  11. An Evolving Genetic Architecture Interacts with Hill-Robertson Interference to Determine the Benefit of Sex.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, Alexander O B; Peck, Kayla M; Azevedo, Ricardo B R; Burch, Christina L

    2016-06-01

    Sex is ubiquitous in the natural world, but the nature of its benefits remains controversial. Previous studies have suggested that a major advantage of sex is its ability to eliminate interference between selection on linked mutations, a phenomenon known as Hill-Robertson interference. However, those studies may have missed both important advantages and important disadvantages of sexual reproduction because they did not allow the distributions of mutational effects and interactions (i.e., the genetic architecture) to evolve. Here we investigate how Hill-Robertson interference interacts with an evolving genetic architecture to affect the evolutionary origin and maintenance of sex by simulating evolution in populations of artificial gene networks. We observed a long-term advantage of sex-equilibrium mean fitness of sexual populations exceeded that of asexual populations-that did not depend on population size. We also observed a short-term advantage of sex-sexual modifier mutations readily invaded asexual populations-that increased with population size, as was observed in previous studies. We show that the long- and short-term advantages of sex were both determined by differences between sexual and asexual populations in the evolutionary dynamics of two properties of the genetic architecture: the deleterious mutation rate ([Formula: see text]) and recombination load ([Formula: see text]). These differences resulted from a combination of selection to minimize [Formula: see text] which is experienced only by sexuals, and Hill-Robertson interference experienced primarily by asexuals. In contrast to the previous studies, in which Hill-Robertson interference had only a direct impact on the fitness advantages of sex, the impact of Hill-Robertson interference in our simulations was mediated additionally by an indirect impact on the efficiency with which selection acted to reduce [Formula: see text]. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  12. DORIS data analysis at Geodetic Observatory Pecný using single-satellite and multi-satellite geodetic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štěpánek, Petr; Douša, Jan; Filler, Vratislav; Hugentobler, Urs

    2010-12-01

    The DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite) data are processed in the framework of the International DORIS Service (IDS) at several analysis centers. Each analysis center follows its own processing strategy and models. This manuscript presents the results of the processing based on a development version 5.0 of the Bernese GPS Software at the Geodetic Observatory Pecný analysis center (GOP). The complete period 1993.0-2009.0 was processed applying the free-network approach in order to estimate main parameters namely station and polar motion coordinates. A significant improvement has been achieved in the estimated station coordinates and polar parameters by processing the data from the satellites equipped with the second generation of the DORIS receiver, SPOT-5 and Envisat, launched in 2002. The RMS of polar coordinates in 2003.0-2008.0 shows a decreasing trend over the entire analyzed time period. The transformation parameters between the DORIS solution and ITRF2005 were subjected to a spectral analysis, confirming the domination of the annual and semiannual periodicity. The behavior of the terrestrial reference frame scale is quite stable with a few exceptions. The analysis of a major scale shift at the end of 2004 revealed SPOT-5 and Envisat satellites as the source of the problem. However, the termination of the TOPEX/Poseidon DORIS data processing at the end of 2004 did not influence significantly the overall scale level. Another objective of the paper is a detailed analysis of relations between the value of the observation residuals and the length of the observation Doppler count interval. A simple empirical model considering the observation noise as a sum of the constant and time-dependent terms is propounded and discussed. The estimated troposphere total zenith delays are compared to the corresponding values derived from GNSS (IGS PPP products) and the source of the differences as well as their systematic behavior and

  13. Achieving and Validating the 1-centimeter Orbit: JASON-1 Precision Orbit Determination Using GPS, SLR, DORIS and Altimeter data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, Scott B.; Zelensky, Nikita P.; Rowlands, David D.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Williams, Teresa A.

    2003-01-01

    Jason-1, launched on December 7, 2001, is continuing the time series of centimeter level ocean topography observations as the follow-on to the highly successful TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) radar altimeter satellite. The precision orbit determination (POD) is a critical component to meeting the ocean topography goals of the mission. Jason-1 is no exception and has set a 1 cm radial orbit accuracy goal, which represents a factor of two improvement over what is currently being achieved for T/P. The challenge to precision orbit determination (POD) is both achieving the 1 cm radial orbit accuracy and evaluating and validating the performance of the 1 cm orbit. Fortunately, Jason-1 POD can rely on four independent tracking data types including near continuous tracking data from the dual frequency codeless BlackJack GPS receiver. In addition, to the enhanced GPS receiver, Jason-1 carries significantly improved SLR and DORIS tracking systems along with the altimeter itself. We demonstrate the 1 cm radial orbit accuracy goal has been achieved using GPS data alone in a reduced dynamic solution. It is also shown that adding SLR data to the GPS-based solutions improves the orbits even further. In order to assess the performance of these orbits it is necessary to process all of the available tracking data (GPS, SLR, DORIS and altimeter crossover differences) as either dependent or independent of the orbit solutions. It was also necessary to compute orbit solutions using various combinations of the four available tracking data in order to independently assess the orbit performance. Towards this end, we have greatly improved orbits determined solely from SLR+DORIS data by applying the reduced dynamic solution strategy. In addition, we have computed reduced dynamic orbits based on SLR, DORIS and crossover data that are a significant improvement over the SLR and DORIS based dynamic solutions. These solutions provide the best performing orbits for independent validation of the GPS

  14. Murdered bread, living bread: Doris Grant and the homemade, wholemeal loaf.

    PubMed

    Whipple, Amy C

    2011-06-01

    Doris Grant (1905-2003), a middle-class, British housewife, published numerous books from the 1940s into the 1970s urging her fellow housewives to bake organic, wholemeal bread for their families. This article argues that Grant's arguments defy easy categorization as either 'conservative' or 'progressive'. On the one hand, her targeted appeal to women reflected a traditional, conservative understanding of gender roles: women were, first and foremost, wives and mothers and therefore naturally responsible for family diet and health. On the other hand, Grant also pushed her readers to look beyond their homes and recognize a dangerous food supply system that was impinging on their daily lives. She demanded that her readers reject comfortable complicity in this system and preached the value of individual action in effecting substantive change.

  15. Comparison of ITRF2014 station coordinate input time series of DORIS, VLBI and GNSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornatore, Vincenza; Tanır Kayıkçı, Emine; Roggero, Marco

    2016-12-01

    In this paper station coordinate time series from three space geodesy techniques that have contributed to the realization of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2014 (ITRF2014) are compared. In particular the height component time series extracted from official combined intra-technique solutions submitted for ITRF2014 by DORIS, VLBI and GNSS Combination Centers have been investigated. The main goal of this study is to assess the level of agreement among these three space geodetic techniques. A novel analytic method, modeling time series as discrete-time Markov processes, is presented and applied to the compared time series. The analysis method has proven to be particularly suited to obtain quasi-cyclostationary residuals which are an important property to carry out a reliable harmonic analysis. We looked for common signatures among the three techniques. Frequencies and amplitudes of the detected signals have been reported along with their percentage of incidence. Our comparison shows that two of the estimated signals, having one-year and 14 days periods, are common to all the techniques. Different hypotheses on the nature of the signal having a period of 14 days are presented. As a final check we have compared the estimated velocities and their standard deviations (STD) for the sites that co-located the VLBI, GNSS and DORIS stations, obtaining a good agreement among the three techniques both in the horizontal (1.0 mm/yr mean STD) and in the vertical (0.7 mm/yr mean STD) component, although some sites show larger STDs, mainly due to lack of data, different data spans or noisy observations.

  16. DORIS data processing in the INASAN Analysis Center and the contribution to ITRF2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzin, Sergey; Tatevian, Suriya

    2016-12-01

    We present results of the DORIS data processing for the ITRF2014 carried out in the Institute of Astronomy, Russian Academy of Sciences (short INA) for the time period 1993.0-2015.0. The evaluated SINEX free-network (inawd08) weekly solutions for station positions and polar motion have been submitted to the IDS Combination Center. We applied the upgraded models of the gravity field, troposphere, and used corrected data for SPOT-5 satellite which permitted us to improve the result precision for Helmert transformation parameters and EOP. The agreement with the IERS C04 solution turns out better than 0.1 mas with a dispersion of 1 mas. The evaluated amplitudes of annual geocenter variations derived from inawd08 weekly solutions are 3.4 ± 0.5 mm, 4.4 ± 0.5 mm, and 3.3 ± 1.0 mm for X, Y, and Z components, respectively. The recovered amplitudes and phases are in a good agreement with the geophysical models. The results of two single satellite campaigns related to the scale increase in 2012 and 1994 for IDS combination are studied. Unlike other Analysis Centers, we did not apply a phase center law for ground antennas. It was shown that the correction for the phase center variation (PCV) of ground DORIS antennas results in the shift of the mean scale factor by 1.24 ppb (i.e., ∼8 mm) with respect to the case without correction. The PCV model and the satellites HY-2A and SARAL are included into the INA latest solutions (inawd10) after the submission for the ITRF2014. The future work is discussed.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic perturbations of Robertson-Walker universes and of anisotropic Bianchi type-I universes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennelly, A. J.; Evans, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) perturbations in flat Robertson-Walker universes were analyzed, emphasizing their effects on galaxy formation. The Newtonian approximation is used. There is no increase in the growth rates beyond those of the usual perturbed Robertson-Walker models; the MHD modes extract as much energy as they contribute. Some global properties of fully MHD Bianchi I relativistic models are analyzed including vorticity, fluid accelerations, and dissipative effects. The time dependence of perturbations of a fully MHD diagonal Bianchi I cosmology is studied, with an enhanced growth rate of the density contrast of t found which is still not exponential Jeans-type growth. This indicates that a more detailed analysis is needed if a solution to the galaxy formation problem in MHD cosmologies is to be found.

  18. Basal Adare volcanics, Robertson Bay, North Victoria Land, Antarctica: Late Miocene intraplate basalts of subaqueous origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mortimer, N.; Dunlap, W.J.; Isaac, M.J.; Sutherland, R.P.; Faure, K.

    2007-01-01

    Late Cenozoic lavas and associated hyaloclastite breccias of the Adare volcanics (Hallett volcanic province) in Robertson Bay, North Victoria Land rest unconformably on Paleozoic greywackes. Abundant hyaloclastite breccias are confined to a paleovalley; their primary geological features, and the stable isotope ratios of secondary minerals, are consistent with eruption in a subaqueous environment with calcite formation probably involving seawater. In contrast, the lavas which stratigraphically overlie the hyaloclastites on Mayr Spur probably were erupted subaerially. K-Ar dating of eight samples from this basal sequence confirms the known older age limit (Late Miocene) of the Hallett volcanic province. Geochemical data reveal an ocean island basalt-like affinity, similar to other Cenozoic igneous rocks of the Hallett volcanic province. If a submarine eruptive paleoenvironment is accepted then there has been net tectonic or isostatic post-Late Miocene uplift of a few hundred metres in the Robertson Bay-Adare Peninsula area

  19. Evolution of the Robertson-Walker metric under 2-loop renormalization group flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesamifard, F.; Rezaii, M. M.

    Here, we study the evolution of a Robertson-Walker (RW) metric under the Ricci flow and 2-loop renormalization group flow (RG-2 flow). We show that a RW metric is a fixed point of the Ricci flow and it is not a solution of the RG-2 flow. RG-2 flow is considered on a doubly twisted product metric with further assumptions and also we introduce a necessary condition for existence of the solution of RG-2 flow.

  20. Sterling C. Robertson Dam and Limestone Lake on the Navasota River, Texas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    VI-2 6.04 No Development ................................................. VI-2 6.05 Sources of Water Other than the Proposed Project...terrestrial environment. 2.04 Ground Water . The Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer is the major source of ground water in Leon and Robertson Counties and to a lesser...several sources . The U.S. Geological Survey has water quality stations on the Navasota River near Bryan. near Easterly, and near Groesbeck. Both the

  1. The Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker Big Bang Singularities are Well Behaved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, Ovidiu Cristinel

    2016-01-01

    We show that the Big Bang singularity of the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker model does not raise major problems to General Relativity. We prove a theorem showing that the Einstein equation can be written in a non-singular form, which allows the extension of the spacetime before the Big Bang. The physical interpretation of the fields used is discussed. These results follow from our research on singular semi-Riemannian geometry and singular General Relativity.

  2. Robertson-Schrödinger-type formulation of Ozawa's noise-disturbance uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, Catarina; Bernardini, Alex E.; Bertolami, Orfeu; Costa Dias, Nuno; Prata, João Nuno

    2014-04-01

    In this work we derive a matrix formulation of a noise-disturbance uncertainty relation, which is akin to the Robertson-Schrödinger uncertainty principle. Our inequality is stronger than Ozawa's uncertainty principle and takes noise-disturbance correlations into account. Moreover, we show that for certain types of measurement interactions it is covariant with respect to linear symplectic transformations of the noise and disturbance operators. Finally, we also study the tightness of our matrix inequality.

  3. Creation of Scalar and Dirac Particles in Asymptotically Flat Robertson-Walker Spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Shahpoor

    2008-11-01

    In the present article we obtain the exact solutions of the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations for two models of Robertson-Walker spaces with asymptotically Minkowskian regions. Using the obtained exact solutions we calculate the density of scalar and Dirac particles created through Bogolubov transformations technique. For Dirac field it is shown that the creation rate of particles and anti particles are equal.

  4. Exact solutions to Elko spinors in spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, J.M. Hoff da; Pereira, S.H. E-mail: shpereira@gmail.com

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we present exact solutions to the so-called Elko spinors for three models of expanding universe, namely the de Sitter, linear and the radiation type evolution. The study was restricted to flat, homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds. Starting with an Elko spinor we present the solutions for these cases and compare to the case of Dirac spinors. Besides, an attempt to use Elko spinors as a dark energy candidate in the cosmological context is investigated.

  5. Contribution of heavy bosons and fermions to the action for a Robertson-Walker metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, Temesgen; Bander, Myron

    1992-05-01

    The contributions of heavy, spatially homogeneous, boson and fermion fields to the effective action for a Robertson-Walker space-time are calculated. For scale factors larger than the Compton wavelengths of the particles associated with these matter fields the equations of motion for this scale factor are the same as those for a matter-dominated universe. Some speculations about the forces driving the expansion of the very early Universe are presented.

  6. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in static Robertson-Walker space-time with background charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Bimal Kumar; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar

    1992-01-01

    The finite-temperature λφ 4 theory of static Robertson-Walker (RW) space-time is extended to a case with background charge. In contrast to earlier work on static RW space-time, the curvature term is retained and its effect on the effective potential and phase transition are explicitly calculated. The spontaneous symmetry breaking aspects and its dependence on various factors are discussed.

  7. On uniqueness of the foliation by comoving observers restspaces of a Generalized Robertson-Walker spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelegrín, José A. S.; Romero, Alfonso; Rubio, Rafael M.

    2017-02-01

    A characterization of the foliation by spacelike slices of an (n+1)-dimensional spatially closed Generalized Robertson-Walker spacetime is given by means of studying a natural mean curvature type equation on spacelike graphs. Under some natural assumptions, of physical or geometric nature, all the entire solutions of such an equation are obtained. In particular, the case of entire spacelike graphs in de Sitter spacetime is faced and completely solved by means of a new application of a known integral formula.

  8. 50 CFR 80.50 - What activities are eligible for funding under the Pittman-Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Eligible Activities § 80.50 What activities are eligible for...

  9. 50 CFR 80.50 - What activities are eligible for funding under the Pittman-Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Eligible Activities § 80.50 What activities are eligible for...

  10. Comparison of the frequency estimation of the DORIS/Jason2 oscillator thanks to the onboard DIODE and Time Transfer by Laser Link experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayles, C.; Exertier, P.; Martin, N.; Chauveau, J. P.; Samain, E.; Tourain, C.; Auriol, A.; Guillemot, P.

    2016-12-01

    The main applications for DORIS are precise orbit determination, and precise Geodesy. Onboard Jason-2 for instance, the DORIS tracking component is the French contribution to the precise orbit determination capability, a key capability for altimetry product scientific result accuracy. T2L2 is a time transfer technique based on the propagation of light pulses for synchronization between two clocks. Hosting T2L2 on-board Jason-2 was to allow for very fine DORIS USO (Ultra-Stable Oscillator) frequency monitoring, and for this purpose T2L2 was connected to the DORIS USO. Thanks to the continuous tracking of T2L2/Jason-2 by the Laser Ranging network it is possible to monitor the USO for several days, weeks, and even much longer, and thus to also compare with the DIODE (the DORIS on-board orbit determination software) frequency bias estimates. The DORIS USO frequency biases estimate comparison between two independent systems, T2L2 and DIODE, can be of benefit to both, allowing the accuracies of both systems to be better understood, and for improvements to be made to both systems. Such comparison is the central topic of the present paper. T2L2 monitors the DORIS on-board USO frequency with an accuracy of much better than 10-12 which is the specification for the Doppler instrumentation. The paper investigates the limits of the DORIS-DIODE frequency bias estimates using T2L2, showing that USO frequency compliance accuracy of 10-12 has been reached.

  11. Supersymmetry: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, E.C.

    1985-07-01

    Some lectures in these proceedings examine the theoretical basis for supersymmetry, recent developments in theories with compact dimensions, and experimental searches for supersymmetric signatures. Technologies are explored for obtaining very high energy electron-positron colliding beams. Separate abstracts were prepared for 35 papers in these conference proceedings. (LEW)

  12. Different approaches how to deal with the South Atlantic Anomaly effect on the SPOT-5 DORIS measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, P.; Filler, V.; Dousa, J.; Rodriguez Solano, C.; Hugentobler, U.

    2012-04-01

    The South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) refers to the area where the Earth's inner Van Allen radiation belt comes closest to the Earth's surface, leading to increased levels of cosmic radiation at lower altitudes than elsewhere over the surface. A strong effect of the SAA on the quality of Jason-1 DORIS observations is well known and documented. However, the significant effect of SAA on the SPOT-5 DORIS observations has been observed as well by recent DORIS data analyses. The SAA affects the frequency of onboard oscillator and consequently estimated values of the parameters as the beacon frequency offset, the station height and the troposphere zenithal delay. The SAA effects mainly the SPOT-5 observations of the three stations in South America, i.e., Cachoeira Paulista (Brasil), Arequipa (Peru) and Santiago (Chile). The offset of the estimated station height achieves 27 cm for the SPOT-5 individual solution and the most biased station Cachoeira Paulista. Since the general quality of the SPOT-5 measurements is very good, the complete exclusion of the satellite from the combination is not kind of a rational approach. One possibility how to handle the problem is to exclude the regional stations from the solutions. There are two different ways, total elimination or using these data for orbit determination but not for the multi-satellite coordinate estimation. Another possibility is based on the application of the data corrective model. A simple empirical data corrective model has been developed, based on statistical analyses of the post-fit residuals.

  13. DORIS downstream service: a support to civil defence autorithies in landslides and subsidence risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciampalini, A.; Del Ventisette, C.; Moretti, S.; Manunta, M.; Calò, F.; Paglia, L.; Ardizzone, F.; Guzzetti, F.; Rossi, M.; Bellotti, F.; Colombo, D.; Strozzi, T.; Wegmuller, U.; Mora, O.; Sanches, F.

    2012-04-01

    DORIS is an advanced FP7-EU project for the design of a pre-operational advanced downstream service aimed at detecting, mapping, monitoring and forecasting surface deformations, including landslides and ground subsidence, by exploiting multiple Earth Observation (EO) and ground-based (non-EO) data technologies. Ground deformations are the result of a variety of natural and human-induced causes and triggers. These phenomena are frequent and widespread in Europe, causing extensive economic damage to private properties and public assets and their social impact is relevant. In Europe, the large number of areas affected by ground deformations, the frequency and extent of the triggering events, the extent of the impact and the magnitude of the damage, make it mandatory a multiscale, systemic approach. Further, the complexity and extent of the problem is such that it cannot be tackled (and solved) at an individual, site-specific scale, or using a single technique or methodology. The problem can be approached only through the integration of data and information taken at different scales, and with the collaborative efforts of multiple expertise. With this respect, the several satellite sensors now available, including about forty passive - optical - sensors and nine active - synthetic aperture radar (SAR) - sensors, provide valuable technological alternatives to traditional methods and tools to detect, map, monitor and forecast ground deformations over large areas and with the required accuracy. The temporal continuity and the geometric compatibility among time series of ERS-1, ERS-2 and ENVISAT data represents an unprecedented opportunity to generate very long time series of ground deformations. This provides exclusive information for an improved understanding of the long term behavior of slow and very-slow ground deformation phenomena. In this context, DORIS intends to exploit the extensive catalogues of multiple C-band SAR sensors to provide, via a joint analysis

  14. John Bowlby and James Robertson: theorists, scientists and crusaders for improvements in the care of children in hospital.

    PubMed

    Alsop-Shields, L; Mohay, H

    2001-07-01

    John Bowlby and James Robertson, two men who were extremely influential in the latter part of the 20th Century, combined scientific theory with evangelism to bring about changes in the way in which children were cared for in hospitals and other institutions. This paper discusses their work together, their theories and their influence on the care of children and paediatric nursing. Bowlby and Robertson collaborated early in their working relationship on research about separation of mother and child. Bowlby was the scientist who developed classic theories about maternal separation. Robertson focused his research on separation of mother and child due to hospital admission. Between the two of them, they derived a classic theory about the phases of 'protest', 'despair' and 'denial' (Bowlby called this last stage 'detachment') through which small children pass when isolated from their mothers for a length of time. Bowlby became an internationally recognized theorist, widely acclaimed and considered an expert in the field of maternal care and child development. Robertson, with his wife, Joyce, not only continued Bowlby's work investigating children separated from their mothers, but also took on the role of campaigner for the welfare of children in hospital. James Robertson, with his impressive speaking powers, established an international reputation proselytizing the need to admit parents to hospital with their children. The work of Bowlby and Robertson coincided with new knowledge about cross-infection, which had been one of the reasons for excluding parents from hospital wards. At the same time, and influenced by their work, community groups, which championed the idea of admitting parents with their children, developed. The combination of these factors provided a catalyst for changes within the health systems of many developed countries. Because of the theoretical work of Bowlby and Robertson's missionary zeal, government policies, staff attitudes and parents

  15. Line formation and the Poynting-Robertson effect in accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Douglas Lee

    1992-01-01

    A combination of the Sobolev method and a linearization method is used to calculate line profiles from accretion discs which have outer parts optically thin in the continuum, but optically thick in the lines. The Sobolev method is used to find the mean intensity in the lines. The level populations are assumed to be in statistical equilibrium, and it is only the equation governing this equilibrium that is linearized. The temperature in the outer parts is specified as a function of radius. The computed line profiles are compared with those observed from the dwarf nova U Geminorum. The special relativistic equations of motion for a particle and the general relativistic equations of motion for a fluid in an arbitrary radiation field are formulated. The Poynting-Robertson forces are manifested in some of the velocity dependent terms so obtained. Newtonian approximations to the equations of motion are solved for a particle in orbit about a spherically symmetric source of radiation, where the angular size of the source as seen from the orbit is arbitrary. Situations are considered in which the absorption cross section of the particle is independent of frequency as well as when the particle is an atom absorbing in a spectral line. In both instances it is found that the finite size of the source of radiation leads to Poynting-Robertson drags greater than those caused by a point source of the same luminosity. The Newtonian equations are solved for a particle moving radially outward from the source. Limits for the velocities of high speed particles due to Poynting-Robertson drags are obtained. The fluid equations are discussed briefly in their relation to theoretical treatments of relativistic jets and accretion discs.

  16. The Solar Poynting-Robertson Effect On Particles Orbiting Solar System Bodies: Circular Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David P.

    2013-01-01

    The Poynting-Robertson effect from sunlight impinging directly on a particle which orbits a Solar System body (planet, asteroid, comet) is considered from the Sun's rest frame. There appear to be no significant first-order terms in V(sub b)/c for circular orbits, where V(sub b) is the body's speed in its orbit about the Sun and c is the speed of light, when the particle's orbital semimajor axis is much smaller than the body's orbital semimajor axis about the Sun as is mainly the case in the Solar System.

  17. On the scalar particle creation by electromagnetic fields in Robertson-Walker spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogut, Kenan; Havare, Ali

    2015-12-01

    In the present paper, we obtained the scalar particle creation number density by using the Klein-Gordon equation coupled to the electromagnetic fields in the Robertson-Walker spacetime with the help of the Bogoliubov transformation method. We analyzed the resulting expression for the effect of a time-dependent electric field and a constant magnetic field on the particle production rate and found that the strong time-dependent electric field amplifies the particle creation and the magnetic field reduces the rate, in accordance with the previous findings.

  18. On the Creation of Scalar Particles in a Flat Robertson-Walker Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haouat, S.; Chekireb, R.

    The problem of particle creation from vacuum in a flat Robertson-Walker spacetime is studied. Two sets of exact solutions for the Klein-Gordon equation are given when the scale factor is a2(η) = a+b tanh(λη)+c tanh2 (λη). Then the canonical method based on Bogoliubov transformation is applied to calculate the pair creation probability and the density number of created particles. Some particular cosmological models such as radiation dominated universe and Milne universe are discussed. For both cases the vacuum to vacuum transition probability is calculated and the imaginary part of the effective action is extracted.

  19. U(1) gauge invariant field equations on k=1 Robertson-Walker Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dariescu, C.; Dariescu, M.-A.

    2001-09-01

    We start with an U(1) gauge invariant tetradic formulation of the Klein-Gordon-Maxwell system of equations on spatially closed Robertson-Walker spacetimes. For the matter-dominated Universe, a compact timelike coordinate is introduced in analysing the general form of the complex scalar field solutions of Gordon equation. It technically follows that each parity given state is conformally built up of three Einateinian particle states (i.e. the ones unambigously defined in Einstein's static Universe). Finally, we derive non-trivial closed form solutions of the sourceless Maxwell equations, pointing out a kind of almost universal geometrodynamically generated burst of electromagnetic radiation.

  20. Perturbations of the Robertson-Walker space - Multicomponent sources and generalized gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Jai-Chan )

    1991-07-01

    Cosmological perturbation equations in the Robertson-Walker background applicable to some classes of generalized gravity theories, including multicomponent fluids and fields, are presented. The equations are expressed in a form which does not depend on the frame, and the adaptation of the equations into a particular gauge or into some gauge-invariant formulation becomes trivial. A generalization of formalism applicable to a variety of generalized gravity theories, including most of the gravity theories with scalar field and scalar curvature combination, is developed. 35 refs.

  1. The Capture of Interstellar Dust: The Pure Poynting-Robertson Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A. A.

    2001-01-01

    Ulysses and Galileo spacecraft have discovered interstellar dust particles entering the solar system. In general, particles trajectories not altered by Lorentz forces or radiation pressure should encounter the sun on open orbits. Under Newtonian forces alone these particles return to the interstellar medium. Dissipative forces, such as Poynting Robertson (PR) and corpuscular drag and non-dissipative Lorentz forces can modify open orbits to become closed. In particular, it is possible for the orbits of particles that pass close to the Sun to become closed due to PR drag. Further, solar irradiation will cause modification of the size of the dust particle by evaporation. The combination of these processes gives rise a class of capture orbits and bound orbits with evaporation. Considering only the case of pure PR drag a minimum impact parameter is derived for initial capture by Poynting-Robertson drag. Orbits in the solar radiation field are computed numerically accounting for evaporation with optical and material properties for ideal interstellar particles modeled. The properties of this kind of particle capture are discussed for the Sun but is applicable to other stars.

  2. Preliminary stability analysis of a Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahalom, Asher

    2017-05-01

    It is stated in many text books that the any metric appearing in general relativity should be locally Lorentzian i.e. of the type gµν = diag (1, -1, -1, -1) this is usually presented as an independent axiom of the theory, which cannot be deduced from other assumptions. The meaning of this assertion is that a specific coordinate (the temporal coordinate) is given a unique significance with respect to the other spatial coordinates. It was shown that the above assertion is a consequence of requirement that the metric of empty space should be linearly stable and need not be assumed. In this work we remove the empty space assumption and investigate the consequences of spatially uniform matter on the stability of a locally Lorentzian space-time that is the Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker space-time. It is shown that a partial stability analysis restricts the type of allowable solutions to the Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker space-time. In particular it is shown that an open section universe is stable while an Euclidean and a closed section universes are not in accordance with observation. It will be suggested that in the presence of matter an upper limit scale to the size of a locally Lorentzian universe exists which incidentally is about the size of the observable universe.

  3. The Doris Duke Clinical Scientist Development Award: implications for early-career physician scientists.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Alvarez, Sindy N; Myers, Elizabeth R

    2013-11-01

    The Doris Duke Charitable Foundation Clinical Scientist Development Award (CSDA) supports early-career physician scientists in their transition to independent research funding. The authors aimed to analyze the characteristics associated with success in CSDA competitions, determine whether attainment of a CSDA is associated with receiving subsequent research funding, and assess whether alumni remain in research. In 2011, the authors tested for associations between gender, age, race/ethnicity, academic degree, National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding rank of the applicant's institution, and success in CSDA competitions. They compared NIH R01 grant attainment, defined as the percentage of individuals who received at least one R01 grant, between CSDA alumni and highly ranked but unsuccessful CSDA applicants (1998-2007). Finally, the authors surveyed alumni to learn more about their professional activities. Demographic factors were not predictors of success in CSDA competitions; academic degree and funding rank of the applicant's institution, however, were. A greater percentage of CSDA alumni than nonalumni received at least one R01 grant (62% [74/120] versus 42% [44/105]). For CSDA alumni who were 10 or more years from the start of their award, their median percent effort toward research activities was 68%. The factors associated with success in a CSDA competition included a combined clinical and doctoral research degree and affiliation with a well-funded institution. More alumni received NIH independent research funding than those who applied but did not receive the award. Thus, the CSDA is associated with physicians establishing independent and recognized research careers.

  4. Entanglement condition via su(2) and su(1,1) algebra using Schroedinger-Robertson uncertainty relation

    SciTech Connect

    Nha, Hyunchul

    2007-07-15

    The Schroedinger-Robertson inequality generally provides a stronger bound on the product of uncertainties for two noncommuting observables than the Heisenberg uncertainty relation, and as such it can yield a stricter separability condition in conjunction with partial transposition. In this paper, using the Schroedinger-Robertson uncertainty relation, the separability condition previously derived from the su(2) and su(1,1) algebra is made stricter and refined to a form invariant with respect to local phase shifts. Furthermore, a linear optical scheme is proposed to test this invariant separability condition.

  5. Infrared spectra of weak hydrogen bonds and indirect damping. On the deep connection between the quantum model and the semi-classical one of Robertson and Yarwood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaise, Paul; Déjardin, Pierre-Michel; Henri-Rousseau, Olivier

    2005-06-01

    The classical approximation of the quantum model dealing with the IR spectra of weak hydrogen bond involving indirect damping [B. Boulil, O. Henri-Rousseau, P. Blaise, Chem. Phys. 126 (1988) 263] is obtained. It transforms, via a crude approximation concerning the interpretation of stochastic averages, into the classical Robertson-Yarwood (RY) model [G. Robertson, J. Yarwood, Chem. Phys. 32 (1978) 267].

  6. Effects of field interactions upon particle creation in Robertson-Walker universes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birrell, N. D.; Davies, P. C. W.; Ford, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Particle creation due to field interactions in an expanding Robertson-Walker universe is investigated. A model in which pseudoscalar mesons and photons are created as a result of their mutual interaction is considered, and the energy density of created particles is calculated in model universes which undergo a bounce at some maximum curvature. The free-field creation of non-conformally coupled scalar particles and of gravitons is calculated in the same space-times. It is found that if the bounce occurs at a sufficiently early time the interacting particle creation will dominate. This result may be traced to the fact that the model interaction chosen introduces a length scale which is much larger than the Planck length.

  7. Finding revelation in anthropology: Alexander Winchell, William Robertson Smith and the heretical imperative.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, David N

    2015-09-01

    Anthropological inquiry has often been considered an agent of intellectual secularization. Not least is this so in the sphere of religion, where anthropological accounts have often been taken to represent the triumph of naturalism. This metanarrative, however, fails to recognize that naturalistic explanations could sometimes be espoused for religious purposes and in defence of confessional creeds. This essay examines two late nineteenth-century figures--Alexander Winchell in the United States and William Robertson Smith in Britain--who found in anthropological analysis resources to bolster rather than undermine faith. In both cases these individuals found themselves on the receiving end of ecclesiastical censure and were dismissed from their positions at church-governed institutions. But their motivation was to vindicate divine revelation, in Winchell's case from the physical anthropology of human origins and in Smith's from the cultural anthropology of Semitic ritual.

  8. Representations and properties of generalized Ar statistics, coherent states and Robertson uncertainty relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoud, M.

    2006-01-01

    The generalization of Ar statistics, including bosonic and fermionic sectors, is performed by means of the so-called Jacobson generators. The corresponding Fock spaces are constructed. The Bargmann representations are also considered. For the bosonic Ar statistics, two inequivalent Bargmann realizations are developed. The first (resp. second) realization induces, in a natural way, coherent states recognized as Gazeau-Klauder (resp. Klauder-Perelomov) ones. In the fermionic case, the Bargamnn realization leads to the Klauder-Perelomov coherent states. For each considered realization, the inner product of two analytic functions is defined with respect to a measure explicitly computed. The Jacobson generators are realized as differential operators. It is shown that the obtained coherent states minimize the Robertson-Schrödinger uncertainty relation.

  9. Black-body radiation in a curved Robertson-Walker background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yaobing; Mannheim, Philip D.

    1987-07-01

    In the standard Friedmann cosmology the black-body radiation spectrum is usually taken to have the same familiar T4-form that it has in a flat space. With explicit use of the equation of motion of a quantized massless field propagating in a curved background Robertson-Walker metric the authors show (for the readily tractable scalar field case) that the assumption is in fact true for an open Universe. For a closed Universe, it is found that there is an in principle modification to the T4-law. Unfortunately, the correction turns out to be too small to be experimentally detectable. In passing, the authors also obtain a simple derivation for the cosmological red shift of frequencies.

  10. On 3+1 Dimensional Friedman-Robertson-Walker Universes with Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulakis, T.; Helias, C.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Kevrekidis, I. G.; Papadopoulos, G.

    We examine the dynamical behavior of matter coupled to gravity in the context of a linear Klein-Gordon equation coupled to a Friedman-Robertson-Walker metric. The resulting ordinary differential equations can be decoupled, the effect of gravity being traced in rendering the equation for the scalar field nonlinear. We obtain regular (in the mass-less case) and asymptotic (in the massive case) solutions for the resulting matter field and discuss their ensuing finite time blowup in the light of earlier findings. Finally, some potentially interesting connections of these blowups with features of focusing in the theory of nonlinear partial differential equations are outlined, suggesting the potential relevance of a nonlinear theory of quantum cosmology.

  11. Improved concepts for the discussion of mutually interacting quantum fields in Robertson-Walker universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audretsch, Jürgen; Spangehl, Peter

    1987-04-01

    We discuss quantum field theory of mutually interacting particles in given unquantized Robertson-Walker universes using an S-matrix approach. To improve this approach, we introduce the concepts of ``pair-including transition probability'' and ``specified mean number.'' Both are based on the specification of not only the in state but also the out state. Beyond that it is taken into account that every process is accompanied by gravitational pair production out of the space-time background. The corresponding expressions can be expressed by in-in amplitudes, so that Feynman diagram rules can be established. To demonstrate the advantage of the new concepts, we discuss for conformally coupled Klein-Gordon fields the Compton effect in the φ2ψ2 model and demonstrate the effect of induced gravitational amplification in a direct and very transparent way.

  12. Quantum-Electrodynamic Processes in a Radiation-Dominated Robertson-Walker Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchbinder, I. L.; Tsaregorodtsev, L. I.

    Quantum electrodynamics in an expanding Robertson-Walker universe with the line element ds2=dt2 - a2(t)(dx2+dy2+dz2) (radiation-dominated universe) is considered. The differential probability of bremsstrahlung of an electron in the external gravitational field and the differential probability of an electron-positron pair and photon creation from the vacuum are calculated by using the perturbative S-matrix formalism. The behavior of these probabilities in different kinematic regions is investigated. The total probabilities are shown to be finite. In conclusion, the total probability of a pair and photon creation from vacuum We is compared with the total probability of pair production due to an expansion of the universe W0. The comparison shows that We=1.9·10-2W0 at about the Compton time of an electron.

  13. Energy-momentum tensor renormalization for vector fields in Robertson-Walker backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Chimento, L.P.; Cossarini, A.E. )

    1990-05-15

    In this paper we generalize the Stueckelberg formalism of flat spacetime to describe vector fields propagating in a Robertson-Walker spatially flat background. In the zero-mass limit of the regularized energy-momentum tensor we recover the usual vacuum-polarization terms of the massless Maxwell theory. Further on we investigate particle creation and the renormalizability of the energy-momentum tensor expectation value in the vacuum state which minimizes the metric Hamiltonian. In the massive case we found that the last one corresponds to that obtained through the Higgs mechanism and that it is not renormalizable in general. In the massless case we found that both quantities are finite and are in agreement with those in the literature obtained by different regularization methods, the resulting vacuum being the standard conformal one.

  14. The ubiquitous ostracode Darwinula stevensoni (Brady and Robertson, 1870), redescription of the species and lectotype designation.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohn, I.G.

    1987-01-01

    Darwinula stevensoni (Brady and Robertson 1870) is the type species of Darwinula, the ubiquitous living and fossil nonmarine nominate genus of the Darwinulidae and the Darwinulacea. To date, the additional families Darwinuloididae (fossil), Microdarwinulidae (living and fossil), Panxianidae (fossil), and Suchonellidae (fossil) have been referred to the Darwinulacea. A type specimen for D. stevensoni has not been previously designated. In order to stabilize the species, a lectotype is selected from the type series in the Brady collection at The Hancock Museum, Newcastle upon Tyne. The species is redescribed and reillustrated based on the study of the carapace of a paralectotype and also of valves and appendages of specimens from both England and the United States. Living species of Darwinula have a cosmopolitan distribution in fresh and brackish water. Fossil Darwinulacea, documented in the Carboniferous, serve as indicators of continental Paleozoic to Holocene deposits. - Author

  15. The Global GNSS, SLR, VLBI, and DORIS Networks and their Support of GGOS: IGS+ILRS+IVS+IDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Carey

    2008-01-01

    The global network of the International GNSS Service (IGS), the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS), and the International DORIS Service (IDS) are part of the ground-based infrastructure for GGOS. The observations obtained from these global networks provide for the determination and maintenance of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF), an accurate set of positions and velocities that provides a stable coordinate system allowing scientists ts to link measurements over space and time. Many of these sites offer co-location of two or more techniques. Co-location provides integration of technique-specific networks into the ITRF as well as an assessment/validation of the quality and accuracy of the resulting measurements. As of fall 2008, these networks consisted of 410 GNSS sites, 42 laser ranging sites, 45 VLBI sites, and 58 DORIS sites. This poster will illustrate the global coverage of these networks, highlighting inter-technique co-locations, and show the importance of these networks 60 the underlying goals of GGOS including providing the observational basis to maintain a stable, accurate, global reference frame.

  16. JASON-1 Precise Orbit Determination (POD) Through the Combination and Comparison of GPS, SLR, DORIS and Altimeter Crossover Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, Scott B.; Zelensky, N. P.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Chinn, D. S.; Williams, T. A.

    2002-01-01

    Jason-1, launched on December 7,2001, is continuing the time series of centimeter level ocean topography observations as the follow-on to the highly successful TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) radar altimeter satellite. The precision orbit determination (POD) is a critical component to meeting the ocean topography goals of the mission. T P has demonstrated that the time variation of ocean topography can be determined with an accuracy of a few centimeters, thanks to the availability of highly accurate orbits based primarily on SLR+DORIS tracking. The Jason-1 mission is intended to continue measurement of the ocean surface with the same, if not better accuracy. Fortunately, Jason- 1 POD can rely on four independent tracking data types available including near continuous tracking data from the dual frequency codeless BlackJack GPS receiver. Orbit solutions computed using individual and various combinations of GPS, SLR, DORIS and altimeter crossover data types have been determined from over 100 days of Jason-1 tracking data, The performance of the orbit solutions and tracking data has been evaluated. Orbit solution evaluation and comparison has provided insight into possible areas of refinement. Several aspects of the POD process are examined to obtain orbit improvements including measurement modeling, force modeling and solution strategy. The results of these analyses will be presented.

  17. JASON-1 Precise Orbit Determination (POD) Through the Combination and Comparison of GPS, SLR, DORIS and Altimeter Crossover Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, S. B.; Zelensky, N. P.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Chinn, D. S.; Williams, T. A.

    2002-01-01

    Jason-1, launched on December 7, 2001, is continuing the time series of centimeter level ocean topography observations as the follow-on to the highly successful TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) radar altimeter satellite. The precision orbit determination (POD) is a critical component to meeting the ocean topography goals of the mission. T/P has demonstrated that the time variation of ocean topography can be determined with an accuracy of a few centimeters, thanks to the availability of highly accurate orbits based primarily on SLR+DORIS tracking. The Jason-1 mission is intended to continue measurement of the ocean surface with the same, if not better accuracy. Fortunately, Jason-1 POD can rely on four independent tracking data types available including near continuous tracking data from the dual frequency codeless BlackJack GPS receiver. Orbit solutions computed using individual and various combinations of GPS, SLR, DORIS and altimeter crossover data types have been determined from over 100 days of Jason-1 tracking data. The performance of the orbit solutions and tracking data has been evaluated. Orbit solution evaluation and comparison has provided insight into possible areas of refinement. Several aspects of the POD process are examined to obtain orbit improvements including measurement modeling, force modeling and solution strategy. The results of these analyses will be presented.

  18. Conformally-invariant scalar field with trace-free energy-momentum tensor in Robertson-Walker models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, N. I.; Singh, N. B.

    1992-02-01

    Exact solutions of Einstein's field equations for a conformally-invariant scalar field with trace-free energy-momentum tensor is presented for the Robertson-Walker models with K = + 1, - 1. The physical properties of the solution are also studied

  19. Atmospheric gradients from GNSS, VLBI, and DORIS analyses and from Numerical Weather Models during CONT14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinkelmann, Robert; Dick, Galina; Nilsson, Tobias; Soja, Benedikt; Wickert, Jens; Zus, Florian; Schuh, Harald

    2015-04-01

    Observations from space-geodetic techniques are nowadays increasingly used to derive atmospheric information for various commercial and scientific applications. A prominent example is the operational use of GNSS data to improve global and regional weather forecasts, which was started in 2006. Atmosphere gradients describe the azimuthal asymmetry of zenith delays. Estimates of geodetic and other parameters significantly improve when atmosphere gradients are determined in addition. Here we assess the capability of several space geodetic techniques (GNSS, VLBI, DORIS) to determine atmosphere gradients of refractivity. For this purpose we implement and compare various strategies for gradient estimation, such as different values for the temporal resolution and the corresponding parameter constraints. Applying least squares estimation the gradients are usually deterministically modelled as constants or piece-wise linear functions. In our study we compare this approach with a stochastic approach modelling atmosphere gradients as random walk processes and applying a Kalman Filter for parameter estimation. The gradients, derived from space geodetic techniques are verified by comparison with those derived from Numerical Weather Models (NWM). These model data were generated using raytracing calculations based on European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) analyses with different spatial resolutions. The investigation of the differences between the ECMWF and NCEP gradients hereby in addition allow for an empirical assessment of the quality of model gradients and how suitable the NWM data are for verification. CONT14 (2014-05-06 until 2014-05-20) is the youngest two week long continuous VLBI campaign carried out by IVS (International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry). It presents the state-of-the-art VLBI performance in terms of number of stations and number of observations and presents thus an

  20. Update of the South-Atlantic Anomaly corrective model for JASON-1 DORIS data using the maps of energetic particles from the CARMEN dosimeter onboard JASON-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capdeville, Hugues; Lemoine, Jean-Michel

    2015-04-01

    The sensitivity of the ultra stable oscillator (USO) of DORIS/Jason-1 to the high energy protons trapped in the Van Allen belts is now well known. This sensitivity causes a fluctuation of the frequency when the satellite crosses the area of the South-Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The principal consequence is the impossibility of using the measurements of the DORIS beacons located in the SAA area for cm-precision positioning since the real frequency of the on-board oscillator is varying rapidly in that area. Moreover, these DORIS measurements do not contribute (or little) to the determination of the orbit of Jason-1 because they are eliminated during the pre-processing on residuals criteria. To correct for this sensitivity to the effects of solar radiation, a model of the frequency evolution of the USO was designed and validated by Lemoine and Capdeville in 2006. This model allows a significant improvement in the orbit adjustment. It takes into account the geographical characteristics of the SAA region (1x1 degree SAA grid) as well as the parameters of the USO's response to this external stimulation: an amplitude, a relaxation time-constant and a memory effect of the SAA disturbance. In the framework of the IDS contribution to the new realization of ITRF, the Jason-1 DORIS data from the end of TOPEX' life (November 2004) to the launch of Jason-2 (July 2008) have been used, corrected by this model. The corrected DORIS data have been provided to the data center for the use of the IDS Analysis Centers. The Jason-2 satellite carries a dosimeter instrument (CARMEN). The purpose here is to take the advantage of this instrument to improve our SAA corrective model by using the maps of energetic particles provided by CARMEN. First, a correlation study between the SAA DORIS grid and the CARMEN maps has been done to determine the dosimeter map which has the best agreement. Then, this map is used to calculate the others parameters of the model. The new model will be used to correct

  1. Initiating an error budget of the DORIS ground antenna position: Genesis of the Starec antenna type C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunier, J.; Auriol, A.; Tourain, C.

    2016-12-01

    The DORIS system measures distances between phase centers of onboard and ground antennas to determine the position of the satellites in their orbits. To this end, the ground antenna phase center position must be known in a terrestrial reference frame. Its position is linked and defined with respect to the antenna reference point (ARP), a conventional physical point for which coordinates are assigned. Although the determination of the ARP position with respect to ground markers can be achieved by traditional surveys, the connection with the actual measurement point (phase center) is far more difficult to determine. This is the main concern explored in this paper. Regardless of the need for a good antenna characterization, CNES and IGN jointly worked to establish a first error budget of the ground antenna position. With this aim in view, each component was clearly identified and studied separately. We distinguished between errors from manufacturing and from site surveying and, on the other hand, errors affecting horizontal and vertical position. The knowledge of the antenna geometry and the guarantee of a good reproducibility in the manufacturing process are essential. Based on these requirements, we have defined new manufacturing specifications to create a new antenna type: Starec type C. Compared to the previous antenna (Starec type B), the standard uncertainty of the 2 GHz phase center position in the vertical direction has been reduced from 5 mm to 1 mm. Following this work, we provide for the new Starec antenna (type C) total uncertainties involved in the ground antenna positioning in a local reference frame: 2 mm in the horizontal plane, 2.5 mm for the vertical component and 3.2 mm in three-dimensional combination. We also propose for DORIS new definitions of conventional points and a new method to determine ground antennas position that were not possible before this manufacturing specifications change.

  2. Preserving information from the beginning to the end of time in a Robertson-Walker spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, Stefano; Pierini, Roberto; Wilde, Mark M.

    2014-12-01

    Preserving information stored in a physical system subjected to noise can be modeled in a communication-theoretic paradigm, in which storage and retrieval correspond to an input encoding and output decoding, respectively. The encoding and decoding are then constructed in such a way as to protect against the action of a given noisy quantum channel. This paper considers the situation in which the noise is not due to technological imperfections, but rather to the physical laws governing the evolution of the Universe. In particular, we consider the dynamics of quantum systems under a 1 + 1 Robertson-Walker spacetime and find that the noise imparted to them is equivalent to the well known amplitude damping channel. Since one might be interested in preserving both classical and quantum information in such a scenario, we study trade-off coding strategies and determine a region of achievable rates for the preservation of both kinds of information. For applications beyond the physical setting studied here, we also determine a trade-off between achievable rates of classical and quantum information preservation when entanglement assistance is available.

  3. Behavior of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological models in scalar-tensor gravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolitch, S. J.; Eardley, D. M.

    1995-07-01

    The authors analyze solutions to Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies in Brans-Dicke theory, where a scalar field is coupled to gravity. Matter is modelled by a γ-law perfect fluid. Through a change of variables, they reduce the field equations from fourth order to second order, and they become equivalent to a two-dimensional dynamical system. They then analyze the entire solution space of this dynamical system and find that many qualitative features of these cosmologies can be gleaned, including standard non-inflationary or extended inflationary expansion, but also including bifurcations of stable or unstable expansion or contraction, noninflationary vacuum-energy dominated models, and several varieties of "coasting," "bouncing," "hesitating," and "vacillating" universes. It is shown that inflationary dogma, which states that a universe with curvature and dominated by inflationary matter will always approach a corresponding flat-space solution at late times, does not hold in general for the scalar-tensor theory, but rather that the occurrence of inflation depends upon the initial energy of the scalar field relative to the expansion rate.

  4. METAL ACCRETION ONTO WHITE DWARFS CAUSED BY POYNTING-ROBERTSON DRAG ON THEIR DEBRIS DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Rafikov, Roman R.

    2011-05-01

    Recent discoveries of compact (sizes {approx}Robertson (PR) drag on the debris disk is effective at providing metal accretion rate M-dot{sub PR}{approx}10{sup 8} g s{sup -1} and higher, scaling quadratically with WD effective temperature. We compare our results with observations and show that, as expected, no WD hosting a particulate debris disk shows evidence of metal accretion rate below that produced by the PR drag. Existence of WDs accreting metals at rates significantly higher than M-dot{sub PR} suggests that another mechanism in addition to the PR drag drives accretion of high-Z elements in these systems.

  5. Poynting Robertson Battery and the Chiral Magnetic Fields of AGN Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2010-01-01

    We propose that the magnetic fields in the accretion disks of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are generated by azimuthal electric currents due to the difference between the plasma electron and ion velocities that arises when the electrons are retarded by interactions with the AGN photons (the Poynting Robertson battery). This process provides a unique relation between the polarity of the poloidal B field to the angular velocity Omega of the accretion disk (B is parallel to Omega), a relation absent in the more popular dynamo B-field generation. This then leads to a unique direction for the toroidal B field induced by disk rotation. Observations of the toroidal fields of 29 AGN jets revealed by parsec-scale Faraday rotation measurements show a clear asymmetry that is consistent with this model, with the probability that this asymmetry comes about by chance being approx.0.06 %. This lends support to the hypothesis that the universe is seeded by B fields that are generated in AGNs via this mechanism and subsequently injected into intergalactic space by the jet outflows.

  6. Stability of geodesic incompleteness for Robertson-Walker space-times.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beem, John K.; Ehrlich, Paul E.

    1981-03-01

    Let (M, g) be a Lorentzian warped product space-timeM=(a, b)×H, g = -dt 2 ⊕fh, where -∞⩽a-∞ and (H, h) is homogeneous, then the past incompleteness of every timelike geodesic of (M,g) is stable under smallC 0 perturbations in the space Lor(M) of Lorentzian metrics forM. Also we show that if (H,h) is isotropic and (M,g) contains a past-inextendible, past-incomplete null geodesic, then the past incompleteness of all null geodesics is stable under smallC 1 perturbations in Lor(M). Given either the isotropy or homogeneity of the Riemannian factor, the background space-time (M,g) is globally hyperbolic. The results of this paper, in particular, answer a question raised by D. Lerner for big bang Robertson-Walker cosmological models affirmatively.

  7. Density-gradient--vorticity relation in perfect-fluid Robertson-Walker perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, G.F.R. Applied Mathematics Department, University of Cape Town, Cape Town ); Bruni, M. ); Hwang, J. )

    1990-08-15

    In a previous paper, a second-order propagation equation was derived for covariant and gauge-invariant {ital vector} {ital fields} characterizing density inhomogeneities in an almost-Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (-FLRW) perfect-fluid universe. However, an error there led to omission of a term representing an effect of vorticity on {ital spatial} {ital density} {ital gradients} at linear level. Here we determine this interaction (leading to an extra term in the second-order propagation equation for the spatial density gradient), and examine its geometrical and physical meaning. We define a new local decomposition of the observed density gradient and we show that the scalar variable defined in the decomposition naturally describes density clumping, and satisfies the standard Bardeen second-order equation. The physical meaning of the other variables defined in the decomposition is discussed, and their propagation equations are presented. Finally, the vorticity-induced time growth of the density gradient is derived in the long-wavelength limit.

  8. The effect of Poynting-Robertson drag on the triangular Lagrangian points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhotka, C.; Celletti, A.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the stability of motion close to the Lagrangian equilibrium points L4 and L5 in the framework of the spatial, elliptic, restricted three-body problem, subject to the radial component of Poynting-Robertson drag. For this reason we develop a simplified resonant model, that is based on averaging theory, i.e. averaged over the mean anomaly of the perturbing planet. We find temporary stability of particles displaying a tadpole motion in the 1:1 resonance. From the linear stability study of the averaged simplified resonant model, we find that the time of temporary stability is proportional to βa1n1 , where β is the ratio of the solar radiation over the gravitational force, and a1 , n1 are the semi-major axis and the mean motion of the perturbing planet, respectively. We extend previous results (Murray, C.D. [1994]. Icarus 112, 465-484) on the asymmetry of the stability indices of L4 and L5 to a more realistic force model. Our analytical results are supported by means of numerical simulations. We implement our study to Jupiter-like perturbing planets, that are also found in extra-solar planetary systems.

  9. The Hill-Robertson effect: evolutionary consequences of weak selection and linkage in finite populations.

    PubMed

    Comeron, J M; Williford, A; Kliman, R M

    2008-01-01

    The 'Hill-Robertson (HR) effect' describes that linkage between sites under selection will reduce the overall effectiveness of selection in finite populations. Here we discuss the major concepts associated with the HR effect and present results of computer simulations focusing on the linkage effects generated by multiple sites under weak selection. Most models of linkage and selection forecast differences in effectiveness of selection between chromosomes or chromosomal regions involving a number of genes. The abundance and physical clustering of weakly selected mutations across genomes, however, justify the investigation of HR effects at a very local level and we pay particular attention to linkage effects among selected sites of the same gene. Overall, HR effects caused by weakly selected mutations predict differences in effectiveness of selection between genes that differ in exon-intron structures and across genes. Under this scenario, introns might play an advantageous role reducing intragenic HR effects. Finally, we summarize observations that are consistent with local HR effects in Drosophila, discuss potential consequences on population genetic studies and suggest future lines of research.

  10. Corrected entropy of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe in tunneling method

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Tao; Ren, Ji-Rong; Li, Ming-Fan E-mail: renjr@lzu.edu.cn

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, we study the thermodynamic quantities of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe by using the tunneling formalism beyond semiclassical approximation developed by Banerjee and Majhi [25]. For this we first calculate the corrected Hawking-like temperature on apparent horizon by considering both scalar particle and fermion tunneling. With this corrected Hawking-like temperature, the explicit expressions of the corrected entropy of apparent horizon for various gravity theories including Einstein gravity, Gauss-Bonnet gravity, Lovelock gravity, f(R) gravity and scalar-tensor gravity, are computed. Our results show that the corrected entropy formula for different gravity theories can be written into a general expression (4.39) of a same form. It is also shown that this expression is also valid for black holes. This might imply that the expression for the corrected entropy derived from tunneling method is independent of gravity theory, spacetime and dimension of the spacetime. Moreover, it is concluded that the basic thermodynamical property that the corrected entropy on apparent horizon is a state function is satisfied by the FRW universe.

  11. Physical basis for the symmetries in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melia, Fulvio

    2016-08-01

    Modern cosmological theory is based on the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) metric. Often written in terms of co-moving coordinates, this well-known solution to Einstein's equations owes its elegant and highly practical formulation to the cosmological principle and Weyl's postulate, upon which it is founded. However, there is physics behind such symmetries, and not all of it has yet been recognized. In this paper, we derive the FRW metric coefficients from the general form of the spherically symmetric line element and demonstrate that, because the co-moving frame also happens to be in free fall, the symmetries in FRW are valid only for a medium with zero active mass. In other words, the spacetime of a perfect fluid in cosmology may be correctly written as FRW only when its equation of state is ρ+3 p = 0, in terms of the total pressure p and total energy density ρ. There is now compelling observational support for this conclusion, including the Alcock-Paczýnski test, which shows that only an FRW cosmology with zero active mass is consistent with the latest model-independent baryon acoustic oscillation data.

  12. Poynting Robertson Battery and the Chiral Magnetic Fields of AGN Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2010-01-01

    We propose that the magnetic fields in the accretion disks of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are generated by azimuthal electric currents due to the difference between the plasma electron and ion velocities that arises when the electrons are retarded by interactions with the AGN photons (the Poynting Robertson battery). This process provides a unique relation between the polarity of the poloidal B field to the angular velocity Omega of the accretion disk (B is parallel to Omega), a relation absent in the more popular dynamo B-field generation. This then leads to a unique direction for the toroidal B field induced by disk rotation. Observations of the toroidal fields of 29 AGN jets revealed by parsec-scale Faraday rotation measurements show a clear asymmetry that is consistent with this model, with the probability that this asymmetry comes about by chance being approx.0.06 %. This lends support to the hypothesis that the universe is seeded by B fields that are generated in AGNs via this mechanism and subsequently injected into intergalactic space by the jet outflows.

  13. Hill-Robertson Interference Maintained by Red Queen Dynamics Favours the Evolution of Sex.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jack; Galbraith, James D

    2017-03-15

    Although it is well established theoretically that selective interference among mutations (Hill-Robertson interference) favours meiotic recombination, genome-wide mean rates of mutation and strengths of selection appear too low to support this as the mechanism favouring recombination in nature. A possible solution to this discrepancy between theory and observation is that selection is at least intermittently very strong due to the antagonistic coevolution between a host and its parasites. The Red Queen theory posits that such coevolution generates fitness epistasis among loci, which generates negative linkage disequilibrium among beneficial mutations, which in turn favours recombination. This theory has received only limited support. However, Red Queen dynamics without epistasis may provide the ecological conditions that maintain strong and frequent selective interference in finite populations that indirectly selects for recombination. This hypothesis is developed here through the simulation of Red Queen dynamics. This approach required the development of a method to calculate the exact frequencies of multi-locus haplotypes after recombination. Simulations show that recombination is favoured by the moderately weak selection of many loci involved in the interaction between a host and its parasites, which results in substitution rates that are compatible with empirical estimates. The model also reproduces the previously reported rapid increase in the rate of outcrossing in Caenorhabditis elegans coevolving with a bacterial pathogen. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. 'An investigation of the nervous control of defecation' by Denny-Brown and Robertson: a classic paper revisited. 1935.

    PubMed

    Denny-Brown, Derek; Robertson, E Grame

    2004-09-01

    In 1935 two young neurologists, Derek Denny-Brown and E. Graeme Robertson, published an article explaining the mechanisms underlying human defaecation based on a manometric study in patients with sacral root and spinal cord lesions, and normal subjects. This article is still routinely cited in studies of rectal and sphincter ani function. Unfortunately, however, the article itself is not written well, being composed of long convoluted sentences and containing 79 often indecipherable figures. Difficult-to-understand articles were common to the publications of Denny-Brown, who became one of the most prominent neurologists of the twentieth century. In accord with our prior work explaining Denny-Brown and Robertson's earlier paper on micturition, we provide here what we hope is a clear explanation of the methods and results in their study on defaecation.

  15. Stable motions of charged dust grains subject to solar wind, Poynting-Robertson drag, and the mean interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhotka, Christoph; Bourdin, Philippe; Narita, Yasuhito

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the combined effect of solar wind, Poynting-Robertson drag, and the frozen-in interplanetary magnetic field on the motion of charged dust grains in our solar system. It is generally accepted that the combined effects of solar wind and photon absorption and re-emmision (Poynting-Robertson drag) lead to a decrease in semi-major axis on secular time scales. On the contrary, we demonstrate that the interplanetary magnetic field may counteract these drag forces under certain circumstances. We derive a simple relation between the parameters of the magnetic field, the physical properties of the dust grain as well as the shape and orientation of the orbital ellipse of the particle, which is a necessary conditions for the stabilization in semi-major axis.

  16. Quantum cosmology on (k = -1)-Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe evolving from stiff matter era to the dust dominated one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dariescu, Marina-Aura; Dariescu, Ciprian

    2017-01-01

    This work is devoted to the spatially open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) Universe evolving from the stiff matter era to the dust dominated one. Within the quantum analysis based on the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, we derive the wave function of the (k = -1)-FRW Universe with combined matter sources. On the classical level, one has to deal with the Friedmann equation which leads on a dependence of the scale function on time generally expressed from functional relations involving elliptic integrals.

  17. Class of solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, H. S.; Bezerra, V. B.

    2016-07-01

    We show that the solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in a homogeneous and isotropic universe are given by triconfluent Heun functions for the spatially closed, flat, and open geometries of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe filled with different forms of energy. In a matter-dominated universe, we find the polynomial solution and the energy density spectrum. In the cases of radiation-dominated and vacuum universes, there are no polynomial solutions as shown.

  18. Effect of electromagnetic fields on the creation of scalar particles in a flat Robertson-Walker space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haouat, S.; Chekireb, R.

    2012-06-01

    The influence of electromagnetic fields on the creation of scalar particles from vacuum in a flat Robertson-Walker space-time is studied. The Klein-Gordon equation with varying electric field and constant magnetic one is solved. The Bogoliubov transformation method is applied to calculate the pair creation probability and the number density of created particles. It is shown that the electric field amplifies the creation of scalar particles while the magnetic field minimizes it.

  19. Absorption and emission of radiation by a sourceless Abelian gauge wall in a Robertson-Walker space-time.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, J. R.

    1992-04-01

    A model of a sourceless Abelian "gauge wall" consisting of a singular magnetic field occupying the (y, z)-plane is examined in the context of a flat Robertson-Walker space-time background. Exact solutions are found for the gauge field structure function. The solutions may be static or time dependent. Dynamic solutions exist which describe the absorption and emission of gauge field radiation by the gauge wall.

  20. Casimir effect for parallel plates in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra de Mello, E. R.; Saharian, A. A.; Setare, M. R.

    2017-03-01

    We evaluate the Hadamard function, the vacuum expectation values (VEVs) of the field squared and the energy-momentum tensor for a massive scalar field with a general curvature coupling parameter in the geometry of two parallel plates on a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background with a general scale factor. On the plates, the field operator obeys the Robin boundary conditions with the coefficients depending on the scale factor. In all the spatial regions, the VEVs are decomposed into the boundary-free and boundary-induced contributions. Unlike the problem with the Minkowski bulk, in the region between the plates, the normal stress is not homogeneous and does not vanish in the geometry of a single plate. Near the plates, it has different signs for accelerated and decelerated expansions of the Universe. The VEV of the energy-momentum tensor, in addition to the diagonal components, has a nonzero off-diagonal component describing an energy flux along the direction normal to the boundaries. Expressions are derived for the Casimir forces acting on the plates. Depending on the Robin coefficients and on the vacuum state, these forces can be either attractive or repulsive. An important difference from the corresponding result in the Minkowski bulk is that the forces on the separate plates, in general, are different if the corresponding Robin coefficients differ. We give the applications of general results for the class of α vacua in the de Sitter bulk. It is shown that, compared with the Bunch-Davies vacuum state, the Casimir forces for a given α vacuum may change the sign.

  1. Mapping Glacial Weathering Processes with Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing: A Case Study at Robertson Glacier, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, A. M.; Christensen, P. R.; Shock, E.; Canovas, P. A., III

    2014-12-01

    Geologic weathering processes in cold environments, especially subglacial chemical processes acting on rock and sediment, are not well characterized due to the difficulty of accessing these environments. Glacial weathering of geologic materials contributes to the solute flux in meltwater and provides a potential source of energy to chemotrophic microbes, and is thus an important component to understand. In this study, we use Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data to map the extent of glacial weathering in the front range of the Canadian Rockies using remotely detected infrared spectra. We ground-truth our observations using laboratory infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and geochemical analyses of field samples. The major goals of the project are to quantify weathering inputs to the glacial energy budget, and to link in situ sampling with remote sensing capabilities. Robertson Glacier, Alberta, Canada is an excellent field site for this technique as it is easily accessible and its retreating stage allows sampling of fresh subglacial and englacial sediments. Infrared imagery of the region was collected with the ASTER satellite instrument. At that same time, samples of glacially altered rock and sediments were collected on a downstream transect of the glacier and outwash plain. Infrared laboratory spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to determine the composition and abundance of minerals present. Geochemical data were also collected at each location, and ice and water samples were analyzed for major and minor elements. Our initial conclusion is that the majority of the weathering seems to be occurring at the glacier-rock interface rather than in the outwash stream. Results from both laboratory and ASTER data indicate the presence of leached weathering rinds. A general trend of decreasing carbonate abundances with elevation (i.e. residence time in ice) is observed, which is consistent with increasing calcium ion

  2. Adaptive Evolution Is Substantially Impeded by Hill–Robertson Interference in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, David; Coronado-Zamora, Marta; Campos, Jose L.; Barbadilla, Antonio; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Hill–Robertson interference (HRi) is expected to reduce the efficiency of natural selection when two or more linked selected sites do not segregate freely, but no attempt has been done so far to quantify the overall impact of HRi on the rate of adaptive evolution for any given genome. In this work, we estimate how much HRi impedes the rate of adaptive evolution in the coding genome of Drosophila melanogaster. We compiled a data set of 6,141 autosomal protein-coding genes from Drosophila, from which polymorphism levels in D. melanogaster and divergence out to D. yakuba were estimated. The rate of adaptive evolution was calculated using a derivative of the McDonald–Kreitman test that controls for slightly deleterious mutations. We find that the rate of adaptive amino acid substitution at a given position of the genome is positively correlated to both the rate of recombination and the mutation rate, and negatively correlated to the gene density of the region. These correlations are robust to controlling for each other, for synonymous codon bias and for gene functions related to immune response and testes. We show that HRi diminishes the rate of adaptive evolution by approximately 27%. Interestingly, genes with low mutation rates embedded in gene poor regions lose approximately 17% of their adaptive substitutions whereas genes with high mutation rates embedded in gene rich regions lose approximately 60%. We conclude that HRi hampers the rate of adaptive evolution in Drosophila and that the variation in recombination, mutation, and gene density along the genome affects the HRi effect. PMID:26494843

  3. Adaptive Evolution Is Substantially Impeded by Hill-Robertson Interference in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Castellano, David; Coronado-Zamora, Marta; Campos, Jose L; Barbadilla, Antonio; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2016-02-01

    Hill-Robertson interference (HRi) is expected to reduce the efficiency of natural selection when two or more linked selected sites do not segregate freely, but no attempt has been done so far to quantify the overall impact of HRi on the rate of adaptive evolution for any given genome. In this work, we estimate how much HRi impedes the rate of adaptive evolution in the coding genome of Drosophila melanogaster. We compiled a data set of 6,141 autosomal protein-coding genes from Drosophila, from which polymorphism levels in D. melanogaster and divergence out to D. yakuba were estimated. The rate of adaptive evolution was calculated using a derivative of the McDonald-Kreitman test that controls for slightly deleterious mutations. We find that the rate of adaptive amino acid substitution at a given position of the genome is positively correlated to both the rate of recombination and the mutation rate, and negatively correlated to the gene density of the region. These correlations are robust to controlling for each other, for synonymous codon bias and for gene functions related to immune response and testes. We show that HRi diminishes the rate of adaptive evolution by approximately 27%. Interestingly, genes with low mutation rates embedded in gene poor regions lose approximately 17% of their adaptive substitutions whereas genes with high mutation rates embedded in gene rich regions lose approximately 60%. We conclude that HRi hampers the rate of adaptive evolution in Drosophila and that the variation in recombination, mutation, and gene density along the genome affects the HRi effect. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. The zero active mass condition in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melia, Fulvio

    2017-02-01

    Many cosmological measurements today suggest that the Universe is expanding at a constant rate. This is inferred from the observed age versus redshift relationship and various distance indicators, all of which point to a cosmic equation of state (EoS) p = -ρ/3, where ρ and p are, respectively, the total energy density and pressure of the cosmic fluid. It has recently been shown that this result is not a coincidence and simply confirms the fact that the symmetries in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) metric appear to be viable only for a medium with zero active mass, i.e., ρ + 3p = 0. In their latest paper, however, Kim, Lasenby and Hobson (2016) have provided what they believe to be a counter argument to this conclusion. Here, we show that these authors are merely repeating the conventional mistake of incorrectly placing the observer simultaneously in a comoving frame, where the lapse function gtt is coordinate dependent when ρ + 3p ≠ 0, and a supposedly different, freefalling frame, in which g tt = 1, implying no time dilation. We demonstrate that the Hubble flow is not inertial when ρ + 3p ≠ 0, so the comoving frame is generally not in free fall, even though in FRW, the comoving and free-falling frames are supposed to be identical at every spacetime point. So this confusion of frames not only constitutes an inconsistency with the fundamental tenets of general relativity but, additionally, there is no possibility of using a gauge transformation to select a set of coordinates for which g tt = 1 when ρ + 3p ≠ 0.

  5. Complex modes of bonding: NCI/ELI-D vs. DORI surface analyses of hapticities and hydrogen-hydrogen contacts in zincocene related compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mebs, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Atoms-in-molecules (AIM) topology is prone to wrong/ambiguous bond assignments (lacking bond critical points) in areas of low electron densities (ED), e.g. for hydrogen-hydrogen contacts, and flat density gradients, e.g. for metal-ring contacts (hapticities), both in experimental and computed ED. Within this study, two ED-derived bonding indicators are applied to a set of zincocene related compounds: non-covalent interactions (NCI) surfaces are combined with electron localizability indicator (ELI-D) surfaces and compared to density overlap regions indicator (DORI) surfaces. Both methods (NCI/ELI-D, DORI) result in spatial deconvolution of covalent and non-covalent interactions and unravel weak interactions not observed in the AIM topology.

  6. 29 CFR 1471.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial proceeding, including a proceeding under the Program Fraud...

  7. Quantum mechanics of conformally and minimally coupled Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Pyo

    1992-10-01

    The expansion method by a time-dependent basis of the eigenfunctions for the space-coordinate-dependent sub-Hamiltonian is one of the most natural frameworks for quantum systems, relativistic as well as nonrelativistic. The complete set of wave functions is found in the product integral formulation, whose constants of integration are fixed by Cauchy initial data. The wave functions for the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology conformally and minimally coupled to a scalar field with a power-law potential or a polynomial potential are expanded in terms of the eigenfunctions of the scalar field sub-Hamiltonian part. The resultant gravitational field part which is an ``intrinsic'' timelike variable-dependent matrix-valued differential equation is solved again in the product integral formulation. There are classically allowed regions for the ``intrinsic'' timelike variable depending on the scalar field quantum numbers and these regions increase accordingly as the quantum numbers increase. For a fixed large three-geometry the wave functions corresponding to the low excited (small quantum number) states of the scalar field are exponentially damped or diverging and the wave functions corresponding to the high excited (large quantum number) states are still oscillatory but become eventually exponential as the three-geometry becomes larger. Furthermore, a proposal is advanced that the wave functions exponentially damped for a large three-geometry may be interpreted as ``tunneling out'' wave functions into, and the wave functions exponentially diverging as ``tunneling in'' from, different universes with the same or different topologies, the former being interpreted as the recently proposed Hawking-Page wormhole wave functions. It is observed that there are complex as well as Euclidean actions depending on the quantum numbers of the scalar field part outside the classically allowed region both of the gravitational and scalar fields, suggesting the usefulness of complex

  8. Comment on 'Quantization of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes in the presence of a negative cosmological constant and radiation'

    SciTech Connect

    Amore, Paolo; Aranda, Alfredo; Cervantes, Mayra; Diaz-Cruz, J. L.; Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2007-03-15

    The quantization of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime in the presence of a negative cosmological constant was used in a recent paper to conclude that there are solutions that avoid singularities (big bang-big crunch) at the quantum level. We show that a proper study of their model does not indicate that it prevents the occurrence of singularities at the quantum level, in fact the quantum probability of such event is larger than the classical one. Our numerical simulations based on the powerful variational sinc collocation method (VSCM) also show that the precision of the results of that paper is much lower than the 20 significant digits reported by the authors.

  9. On the initial value problem for the wave equation in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-times.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Bilal; Craig, Walter

    2014-09-08

    The propagator W(t0,t1)(g,h) for the wave equation in a given space-time takes initial data (g(x),h(x)) on a Cauchy surface {(t,x) : t=t0} and evaluates the solution (u(t1,x),∂ tu(t1,x)) at other times t1. The Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-times are defined for t0,t1>0, whereas for t0→0, there is a metric singularity. There is a spherical means representation for the general solution of the wave equation with the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background metric in the three spatial dimensional cases of curvature K=0 and K=-1 given by S. Klainerman and P. Sarnak. We derive from the expression of their representation three results about the wave propagator for the Cauchy problem in these space-times. First, we give an elementary proof of the sharp rate of time decay of solutions with compactly supported data. Second, we observe that the sharp Huygens principle is not satisfied by solutions, unlike in the case of three-dimensional Minkowski space-time (the usual Huygens principle of finite propagation speed is satisfied, of course). Third, we show that for 00 emanating from the space-time singularity at t=0. Under reflection t→-t, the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric gives a space-time metric for t<0 with a singular future at t=0, and the same solution formulae hold. We thus have constructed solutions u(t,x) of the wave equation in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-times which exist for all [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], where in conformally regularized coordinates, these solutions are continuous through the singularity t=0 of space-time, taking on specified data u(0,⋅)=g(⋅) at the singular time.

  10. Departures from the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker Cosmological Model in an Inhomogeneous Universe: A Numerical Examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giblin, John T.; Mertens, James B.; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2016-06-01

    While the use of numerical general relativity for modeling astrophysical phenomena and compact objects is commonplace, the application to cosmological scenarios is only just beginning. Here, we examine the expansion of a spacetime using the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formalism of numerical relativity in synchronous gauge. This work represents the first numerical cosmological study that is fully relativistic, nonlinear, and without symmetry. The universe that emerges exhibits an average Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) behavior; however, this universe also exhibits locally inhomogeneous expansion beyond that expected in linear perturbation theory around a FLRW background.

  11. Set-up of an XAFS beamline for measurements between 2.4-8 keV at DORIS III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welter, Edmund

    2010-06-01

    In this paper results from the commissioning phase and from first user experiments of a new EXAFS beamline at the DORIS III storage ring are presented. The bending magnet EXAFS beamline A1 underwent a complete rebuild and now covers the energy range 2.4-8 keV. A Ni-coated toroidal mirror, placed in a 2:1 focusing position and a plane mirror with one Ni coated stripe and one uncoated (SiO2) stripe are used for effective higher harmonics suppression and focusing. The UHV-compatible fixed-exit Double Crystal Monochromator (DCM) is equipped with two Si(111) crystal pairs. The second crystal of one of the two crystal pairs is tilted by 90° around the surface normal to shift the position of glitches. It allows Bragg angles between 5° and 55.5° and continuous scans in quick-EXAFS mode. Test measurements during the commissioning phase proved the excellent performance of the monochromator and a high quality of the XAFS spectra over the entire working range.

  12. Charged Dust Grain Dynamics Subject to Solar Wind, Poynting-Robertson Drag, and the Interplanetary Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhotka, Christoph; Bourdin, Philippe; Narita, Yasuhito

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the combined effect of solar wind, Poynting-Robertson drag, and the frozen-in interplanetary magnetic field on the motion of charged dust grains in our solar system. For this reason, we derive a secular theory of motion by the means of an averaging method and validate it with numerical simulations of the unaveraged equations of motions. The theory predicts that the secular motion of charged particles is mainly affected by the z-component of the solar magnetic axis, or the normal component of the interplanetary magnetic field. The normal component of the interplanetary magnetic field leads to an increase or decrease of semimajor axis depending on its functional form and sign of charge of the dust grain. It is generally accepted that the combined effects of solar wind and photon absorption and re-emmision (Poynting-Robertson drag) lead to a decrease in semimajor axis on secular timescales. On the contrary, we demonstrate that the interplanetary magnetic field may counteract these drag forces under certain circumstances. We derive a simple relation between the parameters of the magnetic field, the physical properties of the dust grain, as well as the shape and orientation of the orbital ellipse of the particle, which is a necessary conditions for the stabilization in semimajor axis.

  13. The University of Toronto's lasting contribution to war surgery: how Maj. L. Bruce Robertson fundamentally transformed thinking toward blood transfusion during the First World War.

    PubMed

    Tien, Abigail; Beckett, Andrew; Pannell, Dylan

    2017-06-01

    During the Great War, Canadian military surgeons produced some of the greatest innovations to improve survival on the battlefield. Arguably, the most important was bringing blood transfusion practice close to the edge of the battlefield to resuscitate the many casualties dying of hemorrhagic shock. Dr. L. Bruce Robertson of the Canadian Army Medical Corps was the pioneering surgeon from the University of Toronto who was able to demonstrate the benefit of blood transfusions near the front line and counter the belief that saline was the resuscitation fluid of choice in military medicine. Robertson would go on to survive the Great War, but would be taken early in life by influenza. Despite his life and career being cut short, Robertson's work is still carried on today by many military medical organizations who strive to bring blood to the wounded in austere and dangerous settings. This article has an Appendix, available at canjsurg.ca.

  14. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of physician James S. Robertson, M.D., Ph.D., conducted January 20, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This report is a transcript of in interview of Dr. James S. Robertson by representatives of the DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Robertson was chosen for this interview because of his research at Brookhaven National Laboratory, especially on Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT); his work at the United States Naval Defense Laboratory; and his work at the Atomic Energy Commission. After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Robertson discusses research on human subjects at Berkeley, his contributions to the beginnings of Neutron Capture Therapy at Brookhaven, his participation with the Brookhaven Human Use Committee, his involvement in the study of the effects of Castle Bravo event on the Marshallese, and his work with the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of doripenem against Gram-negative pathogens: results from INVITA-A-DORI Brazilian study.

    PubMed

    Gales, Ana Cristina; Azevedo, Heber D; Cereda, Rosângela Ferraz; Girardello, Raquel; Xavier, Danilo Elias

    2011-01-01

    In vitro activity of doripenem and comparator antimicrobial agents was evaluated against Gram-negative bacilli recently isolated from Brazilian private hospitals that were enrolled in the INVITA-A-DORI Brazilian Study. A total of 805 unique Gram-negative bacilli were collected from patients hospitalized at 18 medical centers between May/08 and March/09. Each hospital was asked to submit 50 single Gram-negative bacilli isolated from blood, lower respiratory tract or intraabdominal secretions. Bacterial identification was confirmed and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) microdilution method at a central laboratory. CLSI M100-S21 (2011) or US-FDA package insert criteria (tigecycline) was used for interpretation of the antimicrobial susceptibility results. Doripenem was as active as meropenem and more active than imipenem against E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates. A total of 50.0% of Enterobacter spp. isolates were resistant to ceftazidime but 85.7% of them were inhibited at doripenem MICs < 1 µg/mL. Polymyxin B was the only agent to show potent activity against Acinetobacter spp. (MIC50/90, < 0.5/1 µg/mL) and P. aeruginosa (MIC50/90, 1/2 µg/mL). Although high rates of imipenem (53.1%) and meropenem (44.5%) resistance were detected among P. aeruginosa, doripenem showed MIC50 of 16 µg/mL against imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa and inhibited a greater number of imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (10.5%) at MIC values of < 4 µg/mL than did meropenem (0.0%). In this study, doripenem showed similar in vitro activity to that of meropenem and retained some activity against imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolated from Brazilian medical centers.

  16. Ocean barriers and glaciation: evidence for explosive radiation of mitochondrial lineages in the Antarctic sea slug Doris kerguelenensis (Mollusca, Nudibranchia).

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nerida G; Schrödl, M; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2009-03-01

    Strong currents and deep passages of water can be barriers for larval dispersal of continental marine animals, but potential effects on direct developers are under-investigated. We examined the genetic structure of Doris kerguelenensis, a directly developing sea slug that occurs across the Drake Passage, the body of water separating Antarctica from South America. We found deep mitochondrial divergences within populations on both sides of the Drake Passage, and South American animals formed multiple sister-group relationships with Antarctic animals. A generalised molecular clock suggested these trans-Drake pairs diverged during the Pliocene–Pleistocene, after the formation of the Drake Passage. Statistical parsimony methods recovered 29 separate haplotype networks (many sympatric) that likely correlate with allopatric events caused by repeated glacial cycles. Data from 16S were congruent but more conserved than COI, and the estimated ancestral 16S haplotype was widespread. The marked difference in the substitution rates between these two mitochondrial genes results in different estimates of connectivity. Demographic analyses on networks revealed some evidence for selection and expanding populations. Contrasting with the Northern Hemisphere, glaciation in Antarctica appears to have increased rather than reduced genetic diversity. This suggests orbitally forced range dynamics based on Northern Hemisphere phylogeography do not hold for Antarctica. The diverse lineages found in D. kerguelenensis point towards a recent, explosive radiation, likely reflecting multiple refuges during glaciation events, combined with limited subsequent dispersal. Whether recognised as cryptic species or not, genetic diversity in Antarctic marine invertebrates appears higher than expected from morphological analyses, and supports the Antarctic biodiversity pump phenomenon.

  17. Noise characteristics in DORIS station positions time series derived from IGN-JPL, INASAN and CNES-CLS analysis centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khelifa, S.

    2014-12-01

    Using wavelet transform and Allan variance, we have analysed the solutions of weekly position residuals of 09 high latitude DORIS stations in STCD (STation Coordinate Difference) format provided from the three Analysis Centres : IGN-JPL (solution ign11wd01), INASAN (solution ina10wd01) and CNES-CLS (solution lca11wd02), in order to compare the spectral characteristics of their residual noise. The temporal correlations between the three solutions, two by two and station by station, for each component (North, East and Vertical) reveal a high correlation in the horizontal components (North and East). For the North component, the correlation average is about 0.88, 0.81 and 0.79 between, respectively, IGN-INA, IGN-LCA and INA-LCA solutions, then for the East component it is about 0.84, 0.82 and 0.76, respectively. However, the correlations for the Vertical component are moderate with an average of 0.64, 0.57 and 0.58 in, respectively, IGN-INA, IGN-LCA and INA-LCA solutions. After removing the trends and seasonal components from the analysed time series, the Allan variance analysis shows that the three solutions are dominated by a white noise in the all three components (North, East and Vertical). The wavelet transform analysis, using the VisuShrink method with soft thresholding, reveals that the noise level in the LCA solution is less important compared to IGN and INA solutions. Indeed, the standard deviation of the noise for the three components is in the range of 5-11, 5-12 and 4-9mm in the IGN, INA, and LCA solutions, respectively.

  18. Genetically Modified Networks: A Genetic Algorithm contribution to Space Geodesy. Application to the transformation of SLR and DORIS EOP time series into ITRF2005.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulot, D.; Collilieux, X.; Pollet, A.; Berio, P.; Gobinddass, M. L.; Soudarin, L.; Willis, P.

    2009-04-01

    In this study, we apply Genetic Algorithms (GAs) in order to optimize the referencing (and consequently the precision - stability - and the accuracy) of the EOPs with respect to ITRF2005. These EOPs are derived from SLR or DORIS data at a daily sampling, simultaneously with weekly station positions. GAs are evolutionary algorithms, i.e. stochastic algorithms based on the evolution theory and using some genetic operators such as chromosome crossover and gene mutations. They are currently used for a broad spectrum of activities, from medicine to defence to finance. They have also been used in Earth and Space sciences (remote sensing, geophysics, meteorology, astrophysics, astronomy, etc.) since the early nineties. But, as far as we know, the present work is the first application of GAs in the framework of Space Geodesy. In this work, we use an algorithm based on GAs to find weekly optimal sub-networks over which applying minimum constraints in order to reference EOPs. Each week, the three rotations of the involved terrestrial frames are forced to be zero with respect to ITRF2005 through minimum constraints applied over these sub-networks, which are called Genetically Modified Networks (GMNs). The reference system effects are used as objectives to optimize with GAs. Regarding SLR, our approach provides an improvement of 10 % in accuracy for polar motion in comparison to the results obtained with the network specially designed for EOP referencing by the Analysis Working Group of the International Laser Ranging Service. This improvement of nearly 25 as represents 50 % of the current precision of the IERS 05 C04 reference series. We also show preliminary results regarding such GMNs for the DORIS technique using two different solutions (IGN and CNES/CLS solutions). Finally, for practical applications, we also test, for the SLR and the DORIS techniques, the possible emergence of global core networks to be used for EOP referencing on the basis of GAs.

  19. Update of the corrective model for Jason-1 DORIS data in relation to the South Atlantic Anomaly and a corrective model for SPOT-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capdeville, Hugues; Štěpánek, Petr; Hecker, Louis; Lemoine, Jean-Michel

    2016-12-01

    After recalling the principle of the Jason-1 data corrective model in relation to the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) developed by Lemoine and Capdeville (2006), we present a model update which takes into account the orbit changes and the recent DORIS data. We propose also here a method to the International DORIS Service (IDS) Analysis Centers (ACs) in their contribution to the ITRF2014 for adding DORIS Jason-1 data into their solutions. When the Jason-1 satellite is added to the multi-satellite solution (orbit of inclination of 66° complements the polar-orbiting satellites), the stability of the geocenter Z-translation is improved (standard deviation of 11.5 mm against 16.5 mm). In a second part we take advantage of a high-energy particles dosimeter (CARMEN) on-board Jason-2 to improve the corrective model of Jason-1. We completed a correlation study showing that the CARMEN >87 MeV integrated proton flux map averaged over the period 2009-2011 is the energy band of the CARMEN maps which are the most coherent with the one obtained from Jason-1 DORIS measurements. The model based on the Jason-1 map and the one based on the CARMEN map are then compared in terms of orbit determination and station position estimation. We derive and validate a SPOT-5 data corrective model. We determine the SAA grid at the altitude of SPOT-5 from the frequency time derivative of the on-board frequency offsets and estimated the model parameters. We demonstrate the impact of the SPOT-5 data corrective model on the Precise Orbit Determination and the station position estimation from the weekly solutions, based on two individual Analysis Centers solutions, GOP (Geodetic Observatory Pecny) and GRG (Groupe de Recherche de Géodésie Spatiale). The SPOT-5 data corrective model significantly improves the Precise Orbit Determination (reduction of 1.4% in 2013 of RMS of the fit, reduction of 25% in normal direction of arc overlap RMS) and the overall statistics of the station position estimation

  20. Generalized Robertson-Walker Space-Time Admitting Evolving Null Horizons Related to a Black Hole Event Horizon

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A new technique is used to study a family of time-dependent null horizons, called “Evolving Null Horizons” (ENHs), of generalized Robertson-Walker (GRW) space-time (M¯,g¯) such that the metric g¯ satisfies a kinematic condition. This work is different from our early papers on the same issue where we used (1 + n)-splitting space-time but only some special subcases of GRW space-time have this formalism. Also, in contrast to previous work, we have proved that each member of ENHs is totally umbilical in (M¯,g¯). Finally, we show that there exists an ENH which is always a null horizon evolving into a black hole event horizon and suggest some open problems. PMID:27722202

  1. Instability of triangular libration points in the perturbed photogravitational R3BP with Poynting-Robertson (P-R) drag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jagadish; Aminu, Abdulkarim

    2014-06-01

    We consider the primaries of the circular restricted three-body problem (CR3BP) to be luminous and investigate the influences of small perturbations in the Coriolis and centrifugal forces together with Poynting-Robertson (P-R) drag from both primaries on the triangular points. It is seen, both analytically and numerically, that the positions of triangular points are affected by the radiation pressures, P-R drag and a small perturbation in the centrifugal force. This has been shown for the binary systems Luyten 726-8 and Kruger 60.1. These perturbing forces do not influence the nature of the stability of triangular points in the presence of P-R drag. They remain unstable in the linear sense.

  2. Generalized Robertson-Walker Space-Time Admitting Evolving Null Horizons Related to a Black Hole Event Horizon.

    PubMed

    Duggal, K L

    2016-01-01

    A new technique is used to study a family of time-dependent null horizons, called "Evolving Null Horizons" (ENHs), of generalized Robertson-Walker (GRW) space-time [Formula: see text] such that the metric [Formula: see text] satisfies a kinematic condition. This work is different from our early papers on the same issue where we used (1 + n)-splitting space-time but only some special subcases of GRW space-time have this formalism. Also, in contrast to previous work, we have proved that each member of ENHs is totally umbilical in [Formula: see text]. Finally, we show that there exists an ENH which is always a null horizon evolving into a black hole event horizon and suggest some open problems.

  3. Quantization of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes in the presence of a negative cosmological constant and radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Monerat, G.A.; Silva, E.V. Correa; Oliveira-Neto, G.

    2006-02-15

    In the present work, we quantize three Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models in the presence of a negative cosmological constant and radiation. The models differ from each other by the constant curvature of their spatial sections, which may be positive, negative or zero. They give rise to Wheeler-DeWitt equations for the scale factor which have the form of the Schroedinger equation for the quartic anharmonic oscillator. We find their eigenvalues and eigenfunctions by using a method first developed by Chhajlany and Malnev. After that, we use the eigenfunctions in order to construct wave packets for each case and evaluate the time-dependent expectation value of the scale factors, which are found to oscillate between finite maximum and minimum values. Since the expectation values of the scale factors never vanish, we have an initial indication that these models may not have singularities at the quantum level.

  4. 'DIRTY WORK', BUT SOMEONE HAS TO DO IT: HOWARD P. ROBERTSON AND THE REFEREEING PRACTICES OF PHYSICAL REVIEW IN THE 1930S.

    PubMed

    Lalli, Roberto

    2016-06-20

    In the 1930s the mathematical physicist Howard P. Robertson was the main referee of the journal Physical Review for papers concerning general relativity and related subjects. The rich correspondence between Robertson and the editors of the journal enables a historical investigation of the refereeing process of Physical Review at the time that it was becoming one of the most influential physics periodicals in the world. By focusing on this case study, the paper investigates two complementary aspects of the evolution of the refereeing process: first, the historical evolution of the refereeing practices in connection with broader contextual changes, and second, the attempts to define the activity of the referee, including the epistemic virtues required and the journal's functions according to the participants' categories. By exploring the tension between Robertson's idealized picture about how the referee should behave and the desire to promote his intellectual agenda, I show that the evaluation criteria that Robertson employed were contextually dependent and I argue that, in the 1930s, through his reports the referee had an enormous power in defining what direction future research should take.

  5. ‘Dirty work’, but someone has to do it: Howard P. Robertson and the refereeing practices of Physical Review in the 1930s

    PubMed Central

    Lalli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    In the 1930s the mathematical physicist Howard P. Robertson was the main referee of the journal Physical Review for papers concerning general relativity and related subjects. The rich correspondence between Robertson and the editors of the journal enables a historical investigation of the refereeing process of Physical Review at the time that it was becoming one of the most influential physics periodicals in the world. By focusing on this case study, the paper investigates two complementary aspects of the evolution of the refereeing process: first, the historical evolution of the refereeing practices in connection with broader contextual changes, and second, the attempts to define the activity of the referee, including the epistemic virtues required and the journal's functions according to the participants' categories. By exploring the tension between Robertson's idealized picture about how the referee should behave and the desire to promote his intellectual agenda, I show that the evaluation criteria that Robertson employed were contextually dependent and I argue that, in the 1930s, through his reports the referee had an enormous power in defining what direction future research should take. PMID:27386715

  6. Evidence for a slow subsidence of the Tahiti Island from GPS, DORIS, GRACE, and combined satellite altimetry and tide gauge sea level records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadil, A.; Barriot, J.; Sichoix, L.; Ortega, P.; Willis, P.; Serafini, J.

    2010-12-01

    Monitoring vertical land motion is of crucial interest in observations of long-term sea level change and its reconstruction, but is among of the most, yet highly challenging, tasks of space geodesy. The aim of the paper is to compare the vertical velocity estimates of Tahiti Island obtained from six independent geophysical measurements, namely a decade of GPS, DORIS, and GRACE data, 17 years sea level difference (altimeter minus tide gauge (TG)) time series, ICE-5G (VM2 L90) Post-Glacial Rebound (PGR) model predictions, and coral reef stratigraphy. Except The Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA also known as PGR) model, all the techniques are in a good agreement and reveal a very slow subsidence of the Tahiti Island averaged at -0.3 mm/yr which is barely significant. Neverthless, despite of that vertical motion, Tahiti remains an ideal location for the calibration of satellite altimeter measurements.Estimated vertical crustal motions from GPS, DORIS, GRACE, (altimetry - tide-gauge) sea level records, coral reef stratigraphy, and GIA. GG = GAMIT-GLOBK software packageGOA= GIPSY-OASIS II software package

  7. 22 CFR 208.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 208.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial proceeding, including a proceeding under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act (31...

  8. 21 CFR 1404.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial proceeding, including a proceeding under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act (31...

  9. 22 CFR 208.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 208.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial proceeding, including a proceeding under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act (31...

  10. Nonlinear dynamics from the relativistic Boltzmann equation in the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazow, D.; Denicol, G. S.; Heinz, U.; Martinez, M.; Noronha, J.

    2016-12-01

    The dissipative dynamics of an expanding massless gas with constant cross section in a spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe is studied. The mathematical problem of solving the full nonlinear relativistic Boltzmann equation is recast into an infinite set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations for the moments of the one-particle distribution function. Momentum-space resolution is determined by the number of nonhydrodynamic modes included in the moment hierarchy, i.e., by the truncation order. We show that in the FLRW spacetime the nonhydrodynamic modes decouple completely from the hydrodynamic degrees of freedom. This results in the system flowing as an ideal fluid while at the same time producing entropy. The solutions to the nonlinear Boltzmann equation exhibit transient tails of the distribution function with nontrivial momentum dependence. The evolution of this tail is not correctly captured by the relaxation time approximation nor by the linearized Boltzmann equation. However, the latter probes additional high-momentum details unresolved by the relaxation time approximation. While the expansion of the FLRW spacetime is slow enough for the system to move towards (and not away from) local thermal equilibrium, it is not sufficiently slow for the system to actually ever reach complete local equilibrium. Equilibration is fastest in the relaxation time approximation, followed, in turn, by kinetic evolution with a linearized and a fully nonlinear Boltzmann collision term.

  11. New Test of the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker Metric Using the Distance Sum Rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räsänen, Syksy; Bolejko, Krzysztof; Finoguenov, Alexis

    2015-09-01

    We present a new test of the validity of the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric, based on comparing the distance from redshift 0 to z1 and from z1 to z2 to the distance from 0 to z2. If the Universe is described by the FLRW metric, the comparison provides a model-independent measurement of spatial curvature. The test relies on geometrical optics, it is independent of the matter content of the Universe and the applicability of the Einstein equation on cosmological scales. We apply the test to observations, using the Union2.1 compilation of supernova distances and Sloan Lens ACS Survey galaxy strong lensing data. The FLRW metric is consistent with the data, and the spatial curvature parameter is constrained to be -1.22 <ΩK 0<0.63 , or -0.08 <ΩK 0<0.97 with a prior from the cosmic microwave background and the local Hubble constant, though modeling of the lenses is a source of significant systematic uncertainty.

  12. Simultaneous Creation of Electron-Positron Pairs and Photons in Robertson-Walker Universes with Statically Bounded Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotze, K.-H.

    We present, based upon quantum electrodynamics in Robertson-Walker flat universes, a thorough analysis of the creation of mutually interacting electron-positron pairs and photons from vacuum. Therefore we discuss at least qualitatively all processes contributing to the number densities of created particles up to the second order in the coupling constant. For two particular expansion laws with Minkowskian in respectively in and out regions, we obtain exact solutions to the Dirac equation and investigate in detail the process of simultaneous creation of electron-positron pairs and photons and the related attenuation effect for fermionic particles. This is done for electrons and positrons which have nonrelativistic momenta at Compton time in rapidly expanding universes. The results are compared with the zeroth-order creation of electron-positron pairs. Despite being smaller by a factor of roughly e02 /4π ≈ 1 /137, the interacting-particle creation is important mainly as a source of photons even in conformally flat universes.

  13. Equilibration and freeze-out of an expanding gas in a transport approach in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tindall, J.; Torres-Rincon, J. M.; Rose, J. B.; Petersen, H.

    2017-07-01

    Motivated by a recent finding of an exact solution of the relativistic Boltzmann equation in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime, we implement this metric into the newly developed transport approach Simulating Many Accelerated Strongly-interacting Hadrons (SMASH). We study the numerical solution of the transport equation and compare it to this exact solution for massless particles. We also compare a different initial condition, for which the transport equation can be independently solved numerically. Very nice agreement is observed in both cases. Having passed these checks for the SMASH code, we study a gas of massive particles within the same spacetime, where the particle decoupling is forced by the Hubble expansion. In this simple scenario we present an analysis of the freeze-out times, as function of the masses and cross sections of the particles. The results might be of interest for their potential application to relativistic heavy-ion collisions, for the characterization of the freeze-out process in terms of hadron properties.

  14. Note: Comparison of grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering of a titania sponge structure at the beamlines BW4 (DORIS III) and P03 (PETRA III)

    SciTech Connect

    Rawolle, M.; Koerstgens, V.; Ruderer, M. A.; Metwalli, E.; Guo, S.; Mueller-Buschbaum, P.; Herzog, G.; Benecke, G.; Schwartzkopf, M.; Buffet, A.; Perlich, J.; Roth, S. V.

    2012-10-15

    Grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) is a powerful technique for morphology investigation of nanostructured thin films. GISAXS measurements at the newly installed P03 beamline at the storage ring PETRA III in Hamburg, Germany, are compared to the GISAXS data from the beamline BW4 at the storage ring DORIS III, which had been used extensively for GISAXS investigations in the past. As an example, a titania thin film sponge structure is investigated. Compared to BW4, at beamline P03 the resolution of larger structures is slightly improved and a higher incident flux leads to a factor of 750 in scattered intensity. Therefore, the acquisition time in GISAXS geometry is reduced significantly at beamline P03.

  15. Gradient refractive index of the crystalline lens of the Black Oreo Dory (Allocyttus Niger): comparison of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and laser ray-trace methods.

    PubMed

    Garner, L F; Smith, G; Yao, S; Augusteyn, R C

    2001-04-01

    The gradient refractive index of the crystalline lens in the Black Oreo Dory (Allocyttus Niger) was determined using two methods; an optimisation program based on finite ray-tracing and the path of laser beams through the lens, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the linear relationship between refractive index and nuclear transverse relaxation rates. The methods showed good agreement in the cortical zone of the lens, but the lack of free water in the core of the lens made MRI measurement impossible in this region. The laser-optimisation method gave mean values of 1.368 and 1.543 for the surface and core refractive indices respectively, with a radial distribution for the gradient refractive index given by n(r)=1.543-0.121r2-0.033r4-0.021r6.

  16. Natural radioactivity. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    de Bettencourt, A.O.; Galvao, J.P.; Lowder, W.; Olast, M.; Sinnaeve, J.

    1988-12-31

    This volume provides the Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on the Natural Radiation Environment held in Lisbon, Portugal December 7--11, 1987. Individual papers of the symposium are abstracted and indexed for the database.

  17. IPHE Infrastructure Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2010-02-01

    This proceedings contains information from the IPHE Infrastructure Workshop, a two-day interactive workshop held on February 25-26, 2010, to explore the market implementation needs for hydrogen fueling station development.

  18. A dynamic correspondence between Bose-Einstein condensates and Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker and Bianchi I cosmology with a cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ambroise, Jennie; Williams, Floyd L.

    2010-06-01

    In some interesting work of James Lidsey, the dynamics of Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology with positive curvature and a perfect fluid matter source is shown to be modeled in terms of a time-dependent, harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. In the present work, we extend this dynamic correspondence to both FLRW and Bianchi I cosmologies in arbitrary dimension, especially when a cosmological constant is present.

  19. A dynamic correspondence between Bose-Einstein condensates and Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker and Bianchi I cosmology with a cosmological constant

    SciTech Connect

    D'Ambroise, Jennie; Williams, Floyd L.

    2010-06-15

    In some interesting work of James Lidsey, the dynamics of Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology with positive curvature and a perfect fluid matter source is shown to be modeled in terms of a time-dependent, harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. In the present work, we extend this dynamic correspondence to both FLRW and Bianchi I cosmologies in arbitrary dimension, especially when a cosmological constant is present.

  20. A new velocity field for Africa from combined GPS and DORIS space geodetic Solutions: Contribution to the definition of the African reference frame (AFREF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saria, E.; Calais, E.; Altamimi, Z.; Willis, P.; Farah, H.

    2013-04-01

    We analyzed 16 years of GPS and 17 years of Doppler orbitography and radiopositioning integrated by satellite (DORIS) data at continuously operating geodetic sites in Africa and surroundings to describe the present-day kinematics of the Nubian and Somalian plates and constrain relative motions across the East African Rift. The resulting velocity field describes horizontal and vertical motion at 133 GPS sites and 9 DORIS sites. Horizontal velocities at sites located on stable Nubia fit a single plate model with a weighted root mean square residual of 0.6 mm/yr (maximum residual 1 mm/yr), an upper bound for plate-wide motions and for regional-scale deformation in the seismically active southern Africa and Cameroon volcanic line. We confirm significant southward motion ( ˜ 1.5 mm/yr) in Morocco with respect to Nubia, consistent with earlier findings. We propose an updated angular velocity for the divergence between Nubia and Somalia, which provides the kinematic boundary conditions to rifting in East Africa. We update a plate motion model for the East African Rift and revise the counterclockwise rotation of the Victoria plate and clockwise rotation of the Rovuma plate with respect to Nubia. Vertical velocities range from - 2 to +2 mm/yr, close to their uncertainties, with no clear geographic pattern. This study provides the first continent-wide position/velocity solution for Africa, expressed in International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF2008), a contribution to the upcoming African Reference Frame (AFREF). Except for a few regions, the African continent remains largely under-sampled by continuous space geodetic data. Efforts are needed to augment the geodetic infrastructure and openly share existing data sets so that the objectives of AFREF can be fully reached.

  1. Radiation Pressure, Poynting-Robertson Drag, and Solar Wind Drag in the Restricted Three-Body Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi; Zook, Herbert A.; Jackson, A. A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the effects of radiation pressure, Poynting-Robertson (PR) drag, and solar wind drag on dust grains trapped in mean motion resonances with the Sun and Jupiter in the restricted (negligible dust mass) three-body Problem. We especially examine the evolution of dust grains in the 1:1 resonance. As a first step, the Sun and Jupiter are idealized to both be in circular orbit about a common center of mass (circular restricted three-body problem). From the equation of motion of the dust particle in the rotating reference frame, the drag-induced time rate of change of its Jacobi "constant," C, is then derived and expressed in spherical coordinates. This new mathematical expression in spherical coordinates shows that C, in the 1:1 resonance, both oscillates and secularly increases with increasing time. The new expression gives rise to an easy understanding of how an orbit evolves when the radiation force and solar wind drag are included. All dust grain orbits are unstable in time when PR and solar wind drag are included in the Sun-Jupiter-dust system. Tadpole orbits evolve into horseshoe orbits; and these orbits continuously expand in size to lead to close encounters with Jupiter. Permanent trapping is impossible. Orbital evolutions of a dust grain trapped in the 1:1 resonance in the planar circular, an inclined case, an eccentric case, and the actual Sun-Jupiter case are numerically simulated and compared with each other and show grossly similar time behavior. Resonances other than 1:1 are also explored with the new expression. Stable exterior resonance trapping may be possible under certain conditions. One necessary condition for such a trap is derived. Trapping in interior resonances is shown to be always unstable.

  2. A fully covariant information-theoretic ultraviolet cutoff for scalar fields in expanding Friedmann Robertson Walker spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, A.; Chatwin-Davies, A.; Martin, R. T. W.

    2013-02-01

    While a natural ultraviolet cutoff, presumably at the Planck length, is widely assumed to exist in nature, it is nontrivial to implement a minimum length scale covariantly. This is because the presence of a fixed minimum length needs to be reconciled with the ability of Lorentz transformations to contract lengths. In this paper, we implement a fully covariant Planck scale cutoff by cutting off the spectrum of the d'Alembertian. In this scenario, consistent with Lorentz contractions, wavelengths that are arbitrarily smaller than the Planck length continue to exist. However, the dynamics of modes of wavelengths that are significantly smaller than the Planck length possess a very small bandwidth. This has the effect of freezing the dynamics of such modes. While both wavelengths and bandwidths are frame dependent, Lorentz contraction and time dilation conspire to make the freezing of modes of trans-Planckian wavelengths covariant. In particular, we show that this ultraviolet cutoff can be implemented covariantly also in curved spacetimes. We focus on Friedmann Robertson Walker spacetimes and their much-discussed trans-Planckian question: The physical wavelength of each comoving mode was smaller than the Planck scale at sufficiently early times. What was the mode's dynamics then? Here, we show that in the presence of the covariant UV cutoff, the dynamical bandwidth of a comoving mode is essentially zero up until its physical wavelength starts exceeding the Planck length. In particular, we show that under general assumptions, the number of dynamical degrees of freedom of each comoving mode all the way up to some arbitrary finite time is actually finite. Our results also open the way to calculating the impact of this natural UV cutoff on inflationary predictions for the cosmic microwave background.

  3. Proceedings: shrubland ecotones

    Treesearch

    E. Durant McArthur; W. Kent Ostler; Carl L. Wambolt

    1999-01-01

    The 51 papers in this proceedings include an introductory keynote paper on ecotones and hybrid zones and a final paper describing the mid-symposium field trip as well as collections of papers on ecotones and hybrid zones (15), population biology (6), community ecology (19), and community rehabilitation and restoration (9). All of the papers focus on wildland shrub...

  4. Temperature, radiation and aging analysis of the DORIS Ultra Stable Oscillator by means of the Time Transfer by Laser Link experiment on Jason-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belli, Alexandre; Exertier, P.; Samain, E.; Courde, C.; Vernotte, F.; Jayles, C.; Auriol, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Time Transfer by Laser Link (T2L2) experiment on-board the Jason-2 satellite was launched in June 2008 at 1335 km altitude. It has been designed to use the Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) space technique as an optical link between ground and space clocks. T2L2, as all the instruments aboard Jason-2, is referenced to the Ultra Stable Oscillator (USO) provided by the Doppler Orbitography and Radio-positioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) system. A complex data processing has been developed in order to extract time & frequency products as the relative frequency bias of the USO from ground-to-space time transfer passages. The precision of these products was estimated of a few parts in 10-13 given the very good in-flight performance of T2L2 with a ground-to-space time stability of a few picoseconds (ps) over 100 s. Frequency bias from T2L2 were compared with results from operational orbit computation, notably with the DIODE (Détermination Immédiate d'Orbite par Doris Embarqué) outputs (see Jayles et al. (2016) same issue) at the level of 1 · 10-12. The present paper is focusing on the main physical effects which drive the frequency variations of the Jason-2 USO during its flight, notably over the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) area. In addition to the effects of radiation we studied the effect of the residual temperature variations, in the range 8-11 °C (measured on-board). A model was established to represent these effects on the short term with empirical coefficients (sensitivities of the USO) to be adjusted. The results of fitting the model over ∼200 10-day periods, from 2008 to 2014, show the sensitivities of the Jason-2 USO to temperature and radiation. The analysis of the 6-year output series of empirical coefficients allows us to conclude that: (i) the temperature to frequency dependence is very stable along time at the level of around -1.2 · 10-12 per °C, (ii) the radiation effects are much lower than those previously detected on the Jason-1 USO with

  5. Wormhole spectrum of a quantum Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology minimally coupled to a power-law scalar field and the cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Pyo; Page, Don N.

    1992-05-01

    The expansion of the wave function of a quantum Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology minimally coupled to a scalar field with a power-law potential by its scalar-field part decouples the gravitational-field part into an infinite system of linear homogeneous differential equations (equivalent to a matrix equation). The solutions for the gravitational-field part are found in the product integral formulation. It is shown that there exists a spectrum of the wave functions exponentially damped for large three-geometries under the condition that the cosmological constant should vanish. These are interpeted as the Hawking-Page wormholes.

  6. Petrology and U-PB geochronology of the Robertson River Igneous Suite, Blue Ridge province, Virginia - Evidence for multistage magmatism associated witn an early episode of Laurentian rifting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tollo, R.P.; Aleinikoff, J.N.

    1996-01-01

    The Late Neoproterozoic (735-702 Ma) Robertson River Igneous Suite includes at least eight plutons ranging in composition from syenogranite to alkali feldspar granite to alkali feldspar syenite. These plutons intruded Mesoproterozoic (1.2-1.0 Ga) gneissic basement of the Blue Ridge anticlinorium in northern and central Virginia during an early episode of Laurentian rifting. Robertson River plutons range in composition from metaluminous to peralkaline and, relative to other granite types, exhibit compositional characteristics of A-type granitoids including (1) marked enrichment in Nb, Zr, Y, REE (except Eu), and Ga, (2) high Ga/Al and FeO(total)/MgO, and (3) depletion of Ba and Sr. High Ga/Al ratios are particularly diagnostic of the suite and serve as an effective discriminant between originally metaluminous and peralkaline bulk compositions, providing a useful proxy for widely used indicators based on major elements that are prone to remobilization. U-Pb isotopic analyses of zircons indicate that the suite was emplaced in two pulses, occurring at 735 to 722 and 706 to 702 Ma. Metaluminous magmas were emplaced during both pulses, formed most of the main batholith, and fractionated as independent, time-correlative groups. Peralkaline magmas were emplaced only during the final pulse, formed a volcanic center that erupted unknown quantities of rhyolite, and experienced a style of fractionation similar to the metaluminous types. Differences in Ce/Nb, Y/Nb, and Yb/Ta ratios suggest that the metaluminous and peralkaline magmas were derived from different sources. The Robertson River Igneous Suite is part of a regional group of Late Neoproterozoic (760-700 Ma) plutons including at least 20 other A-type granitoid bodies exposed throughout the Laurentian terrane of Virginia and northwestern North Carolina. Like the Robertson River, most of the other granitoids are metaluminous in composition, typically form multi-intrusive, elongate plutons, and are not geographically

  7. Proceedings of ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Lennon, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of Ground Water. Topics covered include: Practical use and pitfalls of numerical models; Reliability of predictions; Strengths and limitations of coupled flow/transport/geochemical models; Ground water management/water resources; The macrodispersion experiment (made-scale tracer test; Partially saturated models; Use of ground water flow/transport modeling for aquifer evaluation; Aquifer tests and tracer tests; Risk assessment for groundwater pollution control; and Groundwater quality management.

  8. Dr Robert Robertson (1742-1829): Fever Specialist and Philosopher-Experimenter in the Treatment of Fevers with Peruvian Bark in the Latter Eighteenth-century Royal Navy.

    PubMed

    Short, Bruce

    2015-12-01

    The life and works of Dr Robert Robertson are reviewed set against the background of the extant British management of fevers during the latter 18th-century. Commencing in 1769, using the febrifuge Peruvian bark (cortex Peruvianus; Jesuit's Powder), he experimented and tested Peruvian bark mono-therapy protocols in the tropics in the cure and prevention of intermittent fever (predominantly malaria). His later work also showed the benefit of the bark in the acute care of developed continuous fevers (largely Ship Fever due to Epidemic Louse-borne Typhus Fever) in both the Temperate and Torrid Zones. In the realm of comparative statistics Robertson first demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of bark therapy against the dangerous depleting processes of the antiphlogistic regimen. He was the first to alert the Admiralty to the efficacy of bark in both the cure of acute fevers as well as a prophylactic in the tropics, and signalled the dangers of bloodletting in treating fevers of the tropics. He authored 13 books devoted to fevers outlining his theory of Febrile Infection and its treatment. The essay concludes with his role as the Physician-in-Charge of the Royal Hospital, Greenwich over a 28-year period, as an acknowledged expert in the small British group of 18th-century fever specialists.

  9. Mach's principle: Exact frame-dragging via gravitomagnetism in perturbed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes with K=({+-}1,0)

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Christoph

    2009-03-15

    We show that there is exact dragging of the axis directions of local inertial frames by a weighted average of the cosmological energy currents via gravitomagnetism for all linear perturbations of all Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universes and of Einstein's static closed universe, and for all energy-momentum-stress tensors and in the presence of a cosmological constant. This includes FRW universes arbitrarily close to the Milne Universe and the de Sitter universe. Hence the postulate formulated by Ernst Mach about the physical cause for the time-evolution of inertial axes is shown to hold in general relativity for linear perturbations of FRW universes. - The time-evolution of local inertial axes (relative to given local fiducial axes) is given experimentally by the precession angular velocity {omega}-vector{sub gyro} of local gyroscopes, which in turn gives the operational definition of the gravitomagnetic field: B-vector{sub g}{identical_to}-2{omega}-vector{sub gyro}. The gravitomagnetic field is caused by energy currents J-vector{sub {epsilon}} via the momentum constraint, Einstein's G{sup 0-}circumflex{sub i-circumflex} equation, (-{delta}+{mu}{sup 2})A-vector{sub g}=-16{pi}G{sub N}J-vector{sub {epsilon}} with B-vector{sub g}=curl A-vector{sub g}. This equation is analogous to Ampere's law, but it holds for all time-dependent situations. {delta} is the de Rham-Hodge Laplacian, and {delta}=-curl curl for the vorticity sector in Riemannian 3-space. - In the solution for an open universe the 1/r{sup 2}-force of Ampere is replaced by a Yukawa force Y{sub {mu}}(r)=(-d/dr)[(1/R)exp(-{mu}r)], form-identical for FRW backgrounds with K=(-1,0). Here r is the measured geodesic distance from the gyroscope to the cosmological source, and 2{pi}R is the measured circumference of the sphere centered at the gyroscope and going through the source point. The scale of the exponential cutoff is the H-dot radius, where H is the Hubble rate, dot is the derivative with respect to

  10. Air quality V proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    Papers are presented under the following sessions: mercury health issues; mercury policy and regulations; mercury measurement; mercury transformation, plume, atmospheric reactions and modelling; control - fundamentals/science, sorbent technologies, and scrub/multipollutant systems; SO{sub 3}, PM policy, regulations and health issues; EPA STAR progress review - mercury transport, transformation, and fate in the atmosphere; PM control; mercury and coal utilization by-products; PM measurement; and transport, atmospheric chemistry and modelling. The poster papers are also included. The proceedings are also available on CD-ROM.

  11. New results on ground deformation in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (southern Poland) obtained during the DORIS Project (EU-FP 7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graniczny, Marek; Colombo, Davide; Kowalski, Zbigniew; Przyłucka, Maria; Zdanowski, Albin

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents application of satellite interferometric methods (persistent scatterer interferometric synthetic aperture radar (PSInSAR™) and differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR)) for observation of ground deformation in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) in Southern Poland. The presented results were obtained during the DORIS project (EC FP 7, Grant Agreement n. 242212, www.doris-project.eu). Several InSAR datasets for this area were analysed. Most of them were processed by Tele-Rilevamento Europa - T.R.E. s.r.l. Italy. Datasets came from different SAR satellites (ERS 1 and 2, Envisat, ALOS- PALSAR and TerraSAR-X) and cover three different SAR bands (L, C and X). They were processed using both InSAR techniques: DInSAR, where deformations are presented as interferometric fringes on the raster image, and PSInSAR, where motion is indentified on irregular set of persistent scatterer (PS) points. Archival data from the C-band European Space Agency satellites ERS and ENVISAT provided information about ground movement since 1992 until 2010 in two separate datasets (1992-2000 and 2003-2010). Two coal mines were selected as examples of ground motion within inactive mining areas: Sosnowiec and Saturn, where mining ceased in 1995 and 1997, respectively. Despite well pumping after closure of the mines, groundwater rose several dozen meters, returning to its natural horizon. Small surface uplift clearly indicated on satellite interferometric data is related to high permeability of the hydrogeological subregion and insufficient water withdrawal from abandoned mines. The older 1992-2000 PSInSAR dataset indicates values of ground motion ranging from -40.0 to 0.0 mm. The newer 2003-2010 dataset shows values ranging from -2.0 to +7.0 mm. This means that during this period of time subsidence was less and uplift greater in comparison to the older dataset. This is even more evident in the time series of randomly selected PS points from both coal

  12. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E.

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  13. Imaging Sciences Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.V.

    1996-11-21

    This report contains the proceedings of the Imaging Sciences Workshop sponsored by C.A.S.LS., the Center for Advanced Signal & Image Sciences. The Center, established primarily to provide a forum where researchers can freely exchange ideas on the signal and image sciences in a comfortable intellectual environment, has grown over the last two years with the opening of a Reference Library (located in Building 272). The Technical Program for the 1996 Workshop include a variety of efforts in the Imaging Sciences including applications in the Microwave Imaging, highlighted by the Micro-Impulse Radar (MIR) system invented at LLNL, as well as other applications in this area. Special sessions organized by various individuals in Speech, Acoustic Ocean Imaging, Radar Ocean Imaging, Ultrasonic Imaging, and Optical Imaging discuss various applica- tions of real world problems. For the more theoretical, sessions on Imaging Algorithms and Computed Tomography were organized as well as for the more pragmatic featuring a session on Imaging Systems.

  14. Noise in DORIS station position time series provided by IGN-JPL, INASAN and CNES-CLS Analysis Centres for the ITRF2014 realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khelifa, Sofiane

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the noise characteristics in DORIS station positions between the three solutions derived by IGN-JPL (named as IGN), INASAN (named as INA) and CNES-CLS (named as LCA) Analysis Centres for ITRF2014 contribution, and to evaluate the improvements of these reprocessed solutions in terms of noise level with the previous ITRF2008 solutions. To the weekly STCD (STation Coordinate Difference) residual position time series of 23 stations referred to ITRF2008 and expressed in the local frame (North, East and Up), we calculated the Allan variance to identify their noise type, and applied the wavelet transform to assess their annual and semi-annual signals, and their noise level. The results reveal that the three solutions are dominated by white noise in all three components. The noise level is the lowest in the LCA solution; the average noise level in respectively, North, East and Vertical components is around 5.9 mm, 9.3 mm and 6.6 mm for LCA, 9 mm, 11.6 mm and 9 mm for IGN, and 8.7 mm, 11.6 mm and 9.1 mm for INA. The results also show that the tropical (±23.5°) stations are more distorted than mid-latitude and high latitude stations. In terms of noise level, the reprocessed LCA solution (lca14wd40) and its previous solution (lca11wd02) converge to similar results, while the reprocessed IGN (ign14wd15) and INA (ina14wd08) solutions show improvements with respect to their previous solutions (ign11wd01) and (ina12wd01) respectively, especially in the East component. Furthermore, the possible origin of the estimated annual signal was also investigated by comparing it with hydrology and atmospheric loading displacements. The annual Vertical component for the three solutions is more correlated with the GLDAS/Noah hydrology model with an average correlation of about 0.35, and shows a strong correlation of about 0.76 with ECMWF-IB and ECMWF-MOG2D atmospheric models for the station Krasnoyarsk (KRBB) in Siberia.

  15. 21 CFR 1404.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal proceedings. 1404.965 Section 1404.965 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or...

  16. 5 CFR 919.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial proceeding, including a proceeding under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812), to which the Federal Government or a....965 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE...

  17. 29 CFR 8.16 - Oral proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Oral proceedings. 8.16 Section 8.16 Labor Office of the... General Procedural Matters § 8.16 Oral proceedings. (a) With respect to any proceedings before it, the... of the proceeding. (b) In its discretion, the Board or a single presiding member may permit oral...

  18. 39 CFR 960.3 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES RELATIVE TO IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO... initiating the proceeding or designating the matter for hearing. The failure to designate a proceeding as an... proceedings on the application. (c) If a proceeding includes both matters covered by the Act and matters...

  19. LHC Nobel Symposium Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekelöf, Tord

    2013-12-01

    puzzlement. The apparent absence of hints in the LHC experimental data of new phenomena that could relate to dark matter, dark energy, the dominance of matter over antimatter in the Universe, the unification of the strong and the electroweak interactions and their further unification with gravity left the Symposium with no guidance as to how to answer the question: what next? And in experimental fundamental science it is not the confirmation of already established theories that thrills the most; it is the appearance of the unexpected that creates the greatest excitement. However, the LHC is only at the beginning of its voyage into the uncharted territories of higher energies and smaller dimensions that it was built for, so the possibilities for unexpected discoveries are only starting to be explored. The LHC will start up again in 2015 with nearly twice its previous energy and with increased luminosity—new discoveries might then appear sooner than we even dare hope for! The LHC Nobel Symposium was attended by about 60 invited participants and lasted four days. The program was divided into seven sessions; QCD and Heavy Ion Physics, B Physics, Electroweak Physics, The Higgs Boson, Connections to Neutrino Physics and Astroparticle Physics, Beyond the Standard Model and Forward Look. There were 27 plenary invited talks given by participants, each followed by lively discussions. All but one of the speakers have submitted write-ups of their talks for these proceedings. We are hopeful that the remaining talk will be published in a forthcoming issue of Physica Scripta . I am gratified that Professor Roland Allen has agreed to write a paper on the essence of the Higgs boson discovery to be published in Physica Scripta , intended for undergraduate students and educated physicists, regardless of their field of research. I wish to express my deep gratitude to all Speakers and Participants in the Symposium, to the Members of the Local and International Organizing Committees, to the

  20. Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Village Power `97. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Cardinal, J.; Flowers, L.; Taylor, R.; Weingart, J.

    1997-09-01

    It is estimated that two billion people live without electricity and its services. In addition, there is a sizable number of rural villages that have limited electrical service, with either part-day operation by diesel gen-sets or partial electrification (local school or community center and several nearby houses). For many villages connected to the grid, power is often sporadically available and of poor quality. The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has initiated a program to address these potential electricity opportunities in rural villages through the application of renewable energy (RE) technologies. The objective of this program is to develop and implement applications that demonstrate the technical performance, economic competitiveness, operational viability, and environmental benefits of renewable rural electric solutions, compared to the conventional options of line extension and isolated diesel mini-grids. These four attributes foster sustainability; therefore, the program is entitled Renewables for Sustainable Village Power (RSVP). The RSVP program is a multi-disciplinary, multi-technology, multi-application program composed of six key activities, including village application development, computer model development, systems analysis, pilot project development, technical assistance, and an Internet-based village power project database. The current program emphasizes wind, photovoltaics (PV), and their hybrids with diesel gen-sets. NREL`s RSVP team is currently involved in rural electricity projects in thirteen countries, with U.S., foreign, and internationally based agencies and institutions. This document contains reports presented at the Proceedings of Village Power, 1997. Individual projects have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  2. Casimir energy-momentum tensor for a quantized bulk scalar field in the geometry of two curved branes on Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejhan, Hamed; Rahbardehghan, Surena

    2016-09-01

    In a previous work [S. Rahbardehghan and H. Pejhan, Phys. Lett. B 750, 627 (2015)], we considered a simple brane-world model: a single four-dimensional brane embedded in a five-dimensional de Sitter (dS) space-time. Then, by including a conformally coupled scalar field in the bulk, we studied the induced Casimir energy-momentum tensor. Technically, the Krein-Gupta-Bleuler quantization scheme as a covariant and renormalizable quantum field theory in dS space was used to perform the calculations. In the present paper, we generalize this study to a less idealized, but physically motivated, scenario; namely, we consider Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) space-time which behaves asymptotically as a dS space-time. More precisely, we evaluate a Casimir energy-momentum tensor for a system with two D -dimensional curved branes on background of D +1 -dimensional FRW space-time with negative spatial curvature and a conformally coupled bulk scalar field that satisfied the Dirichlet boundary condition on the branes.

  3. Cosmology of a Friedmann-Lamaître-Robertson-Walker 3-brane, late-time cosmic acceleration, and the cosmic coincidence.

    PubMed

    Doolin, Ciaran; Neupane, Ishwaree P

    2013-04-05

    A late epoch cosmic acceleration may be naturally entangled with cosmic coincidence--the observation that at the onset of acceleration the vacuum energy density fraction nearly coincides with the matter density fraction. In this Letter we show that this is indeed the case with the cosmology of a Friedmann-Lamaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) 3-brane in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime. We derive the four-dimensional effective action on a FLRW 3-brane, from which we obtain a mass-reduction formula, namely, M(P)(2) = ρ(b)/|Λ(5)|, where M(P) is the effective (normalized) Planck mass, Λ(5) is the five-dimensional cosmological constant, and ρ(b) is the sum of the 3-brane tension V and the matter density ρ. Although the range of variation in ρ(b) is strongly constrained, the big bang nucleosynthesis bound on the time variation of the effective Newton constant G(N) = (8πM(P)(2))(-1) is satisfied when the ratio V/ρ ≳ O(10(2)) on cosmological scales. The same bound leads to an effective equation of state close to -1 at late epochs in accordance with astrophysical and cosmological observations.

  4. A Dissipative Mapping Technique for the N-Body Problem Incorporating Radiation Pressure, Poynting-Robertson Drag, and Solar Wind Drag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehoe, Thomas J. J.; Murray, Carl D.; Porco, Carolyn C.

    2003-12-01

    By implementing a version of the dissipative mapping technique introduced by R. Malhotra, we have developed a new integration code for the N-body problem that incorporates the effects of radiation pressure, Poynting-Robertson (P-R) drag, and solar wind drag. The advantage of employing the dissipative mapping technique is that it modifies the basic N-body symplectic integration algorithm developed by Wisdom & Holman to allow certain nongravitational effects to be modeled and therefore retains the speed of execution common to codes based upon this algorithm. To achieve this, we have adapted the dissipative mapping technique to the requirements of the forces being modeled. We present the results of tests that demonstrate the suitability of this new dissipative integration code for investigating the dynamical behavior of micron-sized dust particles in heliocentric orbits in the solar system and, more generally, of particles in exosolar planetary systems where the dominant nongravitational perturbations to the particles' astrocentric orbits are due to the effects of radiation pressure, P-R drag, and solar wind drag.

  5. From the pore scale to reservoir scale: Lithohydraulic flow unit characterization of a shallow shelf carbonate reservoir, North Robertson Unit, West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Vessell, R.K.; Davies, D.K. )

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the results of integrated geological-petrophysical reservoir characterization performed as part of the US Department of Energy Class II reservoir program. Petrographic image analysis, using a specially equipped SEM, allowed for the identification of 8 petrophysical rock types at the North Robertson Unit. Detailed log analysis resulted in the development of algorithms for the log-based identification of these rock types in 109 wells. Porosity was related to permeability for each Rock Type: thus permeability is determined from well log data. Evaluation of porosity, permeability, Sw and HPV distribution has allowed for the identification of 12 lithohydraulic flow units. These flow units have been mapped across the unit. The technique allows for the development of log-based reservoir models that are simulator-ready. The results of this study have application to all heterogeneous, shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs, they demonstrate that large fields can be successfully characterized using few cores and emphasize the importance of integrated geological-engineering analysis in reservoir characterization.

  6. From the pore scale to reservoir scale: Lithohydraulic flow unit characterization of a shallow shelf carbonate reservoir, North Robertson Unit, West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Vessell, R.K.; Davies, D.K.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the results of integrated geological-petrophysical reservoir characterization performed as part of the US Department of Energy Class II reservoir program. Petrographic image analysis, using a specially equipped SEM, allowed for the identification of 8 petrophysical rock types at the North Robertson Unit. Detailed log analysis resulted in the development of algorithms for the log-based identification of these rock types in 109 wells. Porosity was related to permeability for each Rock Type: thus permeability is determined from well log data. Evaluation of porosity, permeability, Sw and HPV distribution has allowed for the identification of 12 lithohydraulic flow units. These flow units have been mapped across the unit. The technique allows for the development of log-based reservoir models that are simulator-ready. The results of this study have application to all heterogeneous, shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs, they demonstrate that large fields can be successfully characterized using few cores and emphasize the importance of integrated geological-engineering analysis in reservoir characterization.

  7. ISMB Conference Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Teresa, Gaasterand; Martin, Vingron

    2011-07-01

    This special issue comprises the papers accepted for presentation at the 19th Annual International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology, joint with the 10th European Conference on Computational Biology, an official conference of the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB; http://www.iscb.org). ISMB/ECCB 2011 (http://www.iscb.org/ismb2011/) will take place in Vienna, Austria, from July 17 through July 19, 2011; preceded during July 14–16 by eight 1- or 2- day Special Interest Group (SIG) meetings, three satellite meetings and nine half-day tutorials; and followed by two additional satellite meetings. The 48 papers in this volume were selected from 258 submitted papers. Submitted papers were assigned to 13 areas. Area Chairs led each topic area by selecting their area's program committee and overseeing the reviewing process. Many Area Chairs were new compared to 2010, and two completely new areas were added in 2011, ‘Data Visualization’ and ‘Mass Spectrometry and Proteomics’. Six papers for which Area Chairs were in conflict were reviewed under a ‘Conflicts Management’ section headed by the Proceedings Chairs; one such paper was accepted in ‘Bioimaging’. Areas, co-chairs and acceptance information are listed in Table 1. Compared to prior years, five mature topic areas had steady submissions, ‘Evolution and Comparative Genomics’, ‘Gene Regulation and Transcriptomics’, ‘Protein Structure and Function’, ‘Sequence Analysis’, ‘Text Mining’. Two areas newer to ISMB were underrepresented this year, ‘Bioimaging’ and ‘Disease Models and Epidemiology’. One area doubled, ‘Applied Bioinformatics’, renamed from last year's ‘Other Bioinformatics Applications’; and one tripled, ‘Protein Interactions and Molecular Networks’. Across the areas, 326 members of the bioinformatics community provided reviews. Most papers received three reviews and several received four or more. There was

  8. Blast furnace injection symposium: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    These proceedings contain 14 papers related to blast furnace injection issues. Topics include coal quality, coal grinding, natural gas injection, stable operation of the blast furnace, oxygen enrichment, coal conveying, and performance at several steel companies. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  9. Fine Particle Scrubbing: A Proceedings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 1974

    1974-01-01

    These articles deal with the proceedings of a 1974 symposium on the use of wet scrubbers for the control of fine particle air pollutants. Various wet scrubbers, their engineering, performance, efficiency, and future are discussed. Tables, formulas, and models are included. (TK)

  10. 75 FR 81459 - Simplified Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION 29 CFR Part 2700 Simplified Proceedings AGENCY: Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission (the...

  11. 2001 MAPLD International Conference Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This CD contains the proceedings from the '2001 MAPLD International Conference', held on 11-13 September 2001 at Johns Hopkins University. Sessions included the following: (1) Applications: Military and Aerospace; (2) Design 1: Processors, Logic, and Programmable Devices; (3) Reliability: Devices and The Effects of the Radiation Environment; (4) Design 2: Systems; and (5) Design 3: Fault Tolerance.

  12. 75 FR 28223 - Simplified Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... certain materials early in the proceedings; discovery would not be permitted except as ordered by the... Commission proposes that discovery would not be permitted except as ordered by the Judge. Rather than requiring the disclosure of documents and materials through discovery, the Commission has proposed a more...

  13. Proceedings of the geosciences workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-01

    The manuscripts in these proceedings represent current understanding of geologic issues associated with the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is in St. Charles County, Missouri. The proceedings are the record of the information presented during the WSSRAP Geosciences Workshop conducted on February 21, 1991. The objective of the workshop and proceedings is to provide the public and scientific community with technical information that will facilitate a common understanding of the geology of the Weldon Spring site, of the studies that have been and will be conducted, and of the issues associated with current and planned activities at the site. This coverage of geologic topics is part of the US Department of Energy overall program to keep the public fully informed of the status of the project and to address public concerns as we clean up the site and work toward the eventual release of the property for use by this and future generations. Papers in these proceedings detail the geology and hydrology of the site. The mission of the WSSRAP derives from the US Department of Energy's Surplus Facilities Management Program. The WSSRAP will eliminate potential hazards to the public and the environment and make surplus real property available for other uses to the extent possible. This will be accomplished by conducting remedial actions which will place the quarry, the raffinate pits, the chemical plant, and the vicinity properties in a radiologically and chemically safe condition. The individual papers have been catalogued separately.

  14. 25 CFR 11.606 - Dissolution proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... marriage may initiate dissolution proceedings. (b) If a proceeding is commenced by one of the parties, the... proceeding for dissolution of marriage or legal separation shall allege that the marriage is irretrievably... under the jurisdiction of the court of each party; (2) The date of the marriage and the place at...

  15. 25 CFR 11.606 - Dissolution proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... marriage may initiate dissolution proceedings. (b) If a proceeding is commenced by one of the parties, the... proceeding for dissolution of marriage or legal separation shall allege that the marriage is irretrievably... under the jurisdiction of the court of each party; (2) The date of the marriage and the place at...

  16. 25 CFR 11.606 - Dissolution proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... marriage may initiate dissolution proceedings. (b) If a proceeding is commenced by one of the parties, the... proceeding for dissolution of marriage or legal separation shall allege that the marriage is irretrievably... under the jurisdiction of the court of each party; (2) The date of the marriage and the place at...

  17. 25 CFR 11.606 - Dissolution proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... marriage may initiate dissolution proceedings. (b) If a proceeding is commenced by one of the parties, the... proceeding for dissolution of marriage or legal separation shall allege that the marriage is irretrievably... under the jurisdiction of the court of each party; (2) The date of the marriage and the place at...

  18. 25 CFR 11.606 - Dissolution proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... marriage may initiate dissolution proceedings. (b) If a proceeding is commenced by one of the parties, the... proceeding for dissolution of marriage or legal separation shall allege that the marriage is irretrievably... under the jurisdiction of the court of each party; (2) The date of the marriage and the place at...

  19. 29 CFR 8.16 - Oral proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Oral proceedings. 8.16 Section 8.16 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PRACTICE BEFORE THE ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW BOARD WITH REGARD TO FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS General Procedural Matters § 8.16 Oral proceedings. (a) With respect to any proceedings before it, the...

  20. 29 CFR 8.16 - Oral proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oral proceedings. 8.16 Section 8.16 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PRACTICE BEFORE THE ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW BOARD WITH REGARD TO FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS General Procedural Matters § 8.16 Oral proceedings. (a) With respect to any proceedings before it, the...

  1. 29 CFR 8.16 - Oral proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oral proceedings. 8.16 Section 8.16 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PRACTICE BEFORE THE ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW BOARD WITH REGARD TO FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS General Procedural Matters § 8.16 Oral proceedings. (a) With respect to any proceedings before it, the...

  2. 49 CFR 1016.103 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proceedings covered. 1016.103 Section 1016.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... BY PARTIES TO BOARD ADJUDICATORY PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 1016.103 Proceedings covered. (a...

  3. 45 CFR 13.25 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... proceedings. (a) Ordinarily, a decision on an application will be made on the basis of the hearing record and.... Such further proceedings shall be held only when necessary for full and fair resolution of the issues... proceeding shall evidence be introduced from outside the administrative record in order to prove that...

  4. 40 CFR 17.3 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proceedings covered. 17.3 Section 17.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 17.3 Proceedings covered. (a) These...

  5. 40 CFR 17.3 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proceedings covered. 17.3 Section 17.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 17.3 Proceedings covered. (a) These...

  6. 40 CFR 17.3 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proceedings covered. 17.3 Section 17.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 17.3 Proceedings covered. (a) These...

  7. 40 CFR 17.3 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proceedings covered. 17.3 Section 17.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 17.3 Proceedings covered. (a) These...

  8. 12 CFR 238.21 - Control proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control proceedings. 238.21 Section 238.21... (CONTINUED) SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION LL) Control Proceedings § 238.21 Control proceedings. (a) Preliminary determination of control. (1) The Board may issue a preliminary determination of...

  9. 34 CFR 21.44 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Further proceedings. 21.44 Section 21.44 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE What Procedures Are Used in... proceedings, which may include such proceedings as informal conferences, oral arguments, additional written...

  10. 34 CFR 21.44 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Further proceedings. 21.44 Section 21.44 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE What Procedures Are Used in... proceedings, which may include such proceedings as informal conferences, oral arguments, additional written...

  11. 29 CFR 7.14 - Oral proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Oral proceedings. 7.14 Section 7.14 Labor Office of the... ASSISTED CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS Some General Procedural Matters § 7.14 Oral proceedings. (a) With respect... a single presiding member, may permit oral argument in any proceeding. The Board or the presiding...

  12. 15 CFR 18.4 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... administered by NOAA. (3) International Trade Administration. Enforcement proceedings under the AntiBoycott... by so stating in an order initiating the proceeding or designating the matter for hearing. The... proceeding includes both matters covered by the Act and matters specifically excluded from coverage, any...

  13. 15 CFR 18.4 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... administered by NOAA. (3) International Trade Administration. Enforcement proceedings under the AntiBoycott... by so stating in an order initiating the proceeding or designating the matter for hearing. The... proceeding includes both matters covered by the Act and matters specifically excluded from coverage, any...

  14. 15 CFR 18.4 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... administered by NOAA. (3) International Trade Administration. Enforcement proceedings under the AntiBoycott... by so stating in an order initiating the proceeding or designating the matter for hearing. The... proceeding includes both matters covered by the Act and matters specifically excluded from coverage, any...

  15. 15 CFR 18.4 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Atmospheric Administration (“NOAA”) (i) Proceedings concerning suspension, revocation, or modification of a permit or license issued by NOAA. (ii) Proceedings to assess civil penalties under any of the statutes administered by NOAA. (3) International Trade Administration. Enforcement proceedings under the...

  16. 16 CFR 3.2 - Nature of adjudicative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nature of adjudicative proceedings. 3.2... RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Scope of Rules; Nature of Adjudicative Proceedings § 3.2 Nature of adjudicative proceedings. Adjudicative proceedings are those formal proceedings conducted under...

  17. 16 CFR 3.2 - Nature of adjudicative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nature of adjudicative proceedings. 3.2... RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Scope of Rules; Nature of Adjudicative Proceedings § 3.2 Nature of adjudicative proceedings. Adjudicative proceedings are those formal proceedings conducted under...

  18. 16 CFR 3.2 - Nature of adjudicative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nature of adjudicative proceedings. 3.2... RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Scope of Rules; Nature of Adjudicative Proceedings § 3.2 Nature of adjudicative proceedings. Adjudicative proceedings are those formal proceedings conducted under...

  19. 16 CFR 3.2 - Nature of adjudicative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nature of adjudicative proceedings. 3.2... RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Scope of Rules; Nature of Adjudicative Proceedings § 3.2 Nature of adjudicative proceedings. Adjudicative proceedings are those formal proceedings conducted under...

  20. 16 CFR 3.2 - Nature of adjudicative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nature of adjudicative proceedings. 3.2... RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Scope of Rules; Nature of Adjudicative Proceedings § 3.2 Nature of adjudicative proceedings. Adjudicative proceedings are those formal proceedings conducted under...

  1. Universal Interconnection Technology Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, P.; Lemar, P.; Honton, E. J.; Kime, E.; Friedman, N. R.; Kroposki, B.; Galdo, J.

    2002-10-01

    The Universal Interconnection Technology (UIT) Workshop - sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Distributed Energy and Electric Reliability (DEER) Program, and Distribution and Interconnection R&D - was held July 25-26, 2002, in Chicago, Ill., to: (1) Examine the need for a modular universal interconnection technology; (2) Identify UIT functional and technical requirements; (3) Assess the feasibility of and potential roadblocks to UIT; (4) Create an action plan for UIT development. These proceedings begin with an overview of the workshop. The body of the proceedings provides a series of industry representative-prepared papers on UIT functions and features, present interconnection technology, approaches to modularization and expandability, and technical issues in UIT development as well as detailed summaries of group discussions. Presentations, a list of participants, a copy of the agenda, and contact information are provided in the appendices of this document.

  2. JGR to publish LPSC Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AGU will publish the Proceedings of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (LPSC), organized by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), as a special supplement to the Red section of the Journal of Geophysical Research. The conference, being held this week in Houston, Tex., is sponsored by LPI, the Johnson Space Center, and AGU. The present 39-member board of JGR-Red associate editors will be expanded to account for the handling of the increased number of papers in petrology and geochemistry.William Boynton has accepted a 1-year special assignment as Proceedings Editor and will work in concert with JGR-Red Editor Thomas Ahrens. In addition, the regular JGR-Red board of associate editors has been expanded to include Boynton, Michael J. Drake, Richard A.F. Grieve, John F. Kerridge, Guenter W. Lugmair, James Papike, Robert O. Pepin, and Heinrich Wönke.

  3. National Hydrogen Vision Meeting Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2001-11-01

    This document provides presentations and summaries of the notes from the National Hydrogen Vision Meeting''s facilitated breakout sessions. The Vision Meeting, which took place November 15-16, 2001, kicked off the public-private partnership that will pave the way to a more secure and cleaner energy future for America. These proceedings were compiled into a formal report, A National Vision of America''s Transition to a Hydrogen Economy - To 2030 and Beyond, which is also available online.

  4. Ironmaking conference proceedings: Volume 56

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The proceedings contain 86 papers divided into the following topical sections: Coal and coke; Cokemaking operations; Cokemaking research; Cokemaking -- Process innovations; Blast furnace general; Blast furnace -- Improvements/optimization; Blast furnace injection; Blast furnace -- Rebuilds/repairs/relines; Blast furnace -- Campaign extension; Pelletizing; Sintering; Waste oxide recycle; Battery operations; Burden control; Direct reduction and smelting; Temperature control from ironmaking through finishing; Expert systems; Steelmaking; and Casting. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  5. National Hydrogen Roadmap Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2002-04-01

    This document summarizes the presentations and suggestions put forth by officials, industry experts and policymakers in their efforts to come together to develop a roadmap for America''s clean energy future and outline the key barriers and needs to achieve the hydrogen vision. The National Hydrogen Roadmap Workshop was held April 2-3, 2002. These proceedings were compiled into a formal report, The National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap, which is also available online.

  6. Rio Grande ecosystems: Proceedings introduction

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch; Jeffrey C. Whitney

    1999-01-01

    These proceedings are an outcome of a symposium and workshop of the same title held June 2-5, 1998, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Hosted by the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Bosque Improvement Group, in collaboration with partners from a variety of public and private sectors, the symposium was designed to...

  7. Third SEI Technical Interchange: Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Given here are the proceedings of the 3rd Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Technical Interchange. Topics covered include the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), the Lunar Resource Mapper, lunar rovers, lunar habitat concepts, lunar shelter construction analysis, thermoelectric nuclear power systems for SEI, cryogenic storage, a space network for lunar communications, the moon as a solar power satellite, and off-the-shelf avionics for future SEI missions.

  8. Characterizing englacial and subglacial weathering processes in a silicate-carbonate system at Robertson Glacier, Canada: Combining field measurements and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, A. M.; Christensen, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Geologic weathering processes in cold environments, especially processes acting on subglacial and englacial sediments and rocks, are not well characterized due to the difficulty of accessing these environments. However, subglacial and englacial weathering of geologic materials contributes to the solute flux in meltwater and provides a potential source of energy to chemotrophic microbes, and is thus an important component to understand. In this study, we characterize the weathering products present in a glaciated silicate-carbonate system using infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and geochemical analyses. We use Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data to determine whether glacial weathering products can be detected from remotely detected infrared spectra. The major goals of the project are to quantify weathering inputs to the glacial energy budget, and to link in situ sampling with remote sensing capabilities. Robertson Glacier, Alberta, Canada (115°20'W, 50°44'N) provides an excellent field site for this technique as it is accessible, and its retreating stage allows sampling of fresh subglacial and englacial sediments. This site is also of great significance to microbiology studies due to the recent detection of methanogens in the local subglacial till. Samples of glacially altered rock and sediments were collected on a downstream transect of the glacier in September 2011. Infrared laboratory spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to determine the composition and abundance of minerals present. Infrared imagery of the region was collected at the time of sampling with the ASTER satellite instrument. Geochemical data were also collected at each location, and ice and water samples were analyzed for major and minor elements. pH values decreased in the downstream direction, and Ca+2 and SO4-2 in solution increased downstream. This is initially consistent with earlier studies of similar systems; however, the majority of

  9. 7 CFR 1.183 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards Act (7 U.S.C. 79(g)(3), 85, 86) U.S. Warehouse Act (7 U.S.C. 246, 253) Virus-Serum-Toxin Act (21 U... the filing of an application by a party who believes the proceeding is covered by EAJA; whether the proceeding is covered will then be an issue for resolution in proceedings on the application. (c) If a...

  10. 16 CFR § 1025.2 - Nature of adjudicative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nature of adjudicative proceedings. § 1025... PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Scope of Rules, Nature of Adjudicative Proceedings, Definitions § 1025.2 Nature of adjudicative proceedings. Adjudicative proceedings shall be conducted in accordance...

  11. 14 CFR 302.702 - Institution of proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the request for a change in rates, and a detailed economic justification sufficient to establish the... PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS Rules Applicable to Mail Rate Proceedings and Mail Contracts Final Mail Rate Proceedings § 302.702 Institution of proceedings. (a)...

  12. Particles, Fields, and Gravitation. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Rembieli ski, J.

    1998-11-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Conference on Particles, Fields, and Gravitation held in Lodz, Poland in April, 1998. The topics discussed included quantum deformations and noncommutative geometry, quantum mechanics, quantum and topological field theory, modern gravitation theory and geometrical methods in physics. Solvable and quasisolvable models were also disussed. The talks and the resulting papers provided a comprehensive coverage of the main aspects of contemporary theoretical and mathematical physics. The Conference was attended by more than 100 scientists from all over the world. There were 54 papers presented at the conference,out of which 1 paper has been abstracted for the Energy,Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  13. Proceedings of NHA Annual Conferences

    SciTech Connect

    Debbi L. Smith

    2004-06-30

    The Proceedings of "Hydrogen: A Clean Energy Choice" and the 16th Annual U.S. Hydrogen Conference, "Partnering for the Global Hydrogen Future" include the presentations of high-level keynote speakers from the U.S. Department of Energy, the state government of California, Ambassadors and Executives of large corporations and emerging companies all presenting their vision on a future fueled by hydrogen. Parallel technical sessions informed attendees of developments in hydrogen technology R&D, commercial product development and market readiness. Persentations of the Student Design Competition Finalists are also included.

  14. The Future of ADASS Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, J. R.

    2011-07-01

    The 20 years that ADASS has been running has seen amazing leaps in our ability to disseminate information around the globe. In 2009 a sub-committee of the POC was set up to investigate how we publish the proceedings of this conference. This paper primarily is a summary of the general introduction to the problem that was given on the Monday of ADASS XX. A BoF on Monday night was used to discuss the problem in more depth. Finally on Wednesday a vote was taken during one of the plenary sessions to gauge the feelings of the ADASS community at large.

  15. Comments on "Changing attitudes towards the care of children in hospital: a new assessment of the influence of the work of Bowlby and Robertson in the UK, 1940-1970" by Frank C.P. van der Horst and Rene van der Veer (Attachment & Human Development Vol 11, No 2, March 2009, 119-142).

    PubMed

    Robertson, Joyce; McGilly, Katherine

    2009-11-01

    The importance of James Robertson's work in changing the hospital conditions for young children is widely acknowledged but disputed by van der Horst and van der Veer (2009), although they presented evidence supporting his influence, they also presented considerable evidence showing that others were ignored, including writers in The Lancet and the British Medical Journal. van der Horst and van der Veer presented a muddled picture by failing to understand how the work of James Robertson influenced a wide range of people, opened up the debate and, through the Platt Report, gave parents the authority and confidence to challenge hospitals and stay with their young children. James Robertson's 1952 film "a Two-year-old Goes to Hospital" provided the 'visual communication to pierce defences as the spoken word cannot do'. This film continues to be widely used today in teaching about young children.

  16. Mach's principle: Exact frame-dragging via gravitomagnetism in perturbed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes with K=(±1,0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Christoph

    2009-03-01

    We show that there is exact dragging of the axis directions of local inertial frames by a weighted average of the cosmological energy currents via gravitomagnetism for all linear perturbations of all Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universes and of Einstein’s static closed universe, and for all energy-momentum-stress tensors and in the presence of a cosmological constant. This includes FRW universes arbitrarily close to the Milne Universe and the de Sitter universe. Hence the postulate formulated by Ernst Mach about the physical cause for the time-evolution of inertial axes is shown to hold in general relativity for linear perturbations of FRW universes.—The time-evolution of local inertial axes (relative to given local fiducial axes) is given experimentally by the precession angular velocity Ω→gyro of local gyroscopes, which in turn gives the operational definition of the gravitomagnetic field: B→g≡-2Ω→gyro. The gravitomagnetic field is caused by energy currents J→ɛ via the momentum constraint, Einstein’s G0^i^ equation, (-Δ+μ2)A→g=-16πGNJ→ɛ with B→g=curlA→g. This equation is analogous to Ampère’s law, but it holds for all time-dependent situations. Δ is the de Rham-Hodge Laplacian, and Δ=-curlcurl for the vorticity sector in Riemannian 3-space.—In the solution for an open universe the 1/r2-force of Ampère is replaced by a Yukawa force Yμ(r)=(-d/dr)[(1/R)exp⁡(-μr)], form-identical for FRW backgrounds with K=(-1,0). Here r is the measured geodesic distance from the gyroscope to the cosmological source, and 2πR is the measured circumference of the sphere centered at the gyroscope and going through the source point. The scale of the exponential cutoff is the H-dot radius, where H is the Hubble rate, dot is the derivative with respect to cosmic time, and μ2=-4(dH/dt). Analogous results hold in closed FRW universes and in Einstein’s closed static universe.—We list six fundamental tests for the principle formulated by

  17. SOLTECH 91: Proceedings, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traugott, W.; Hewett, R.; Menicucci, D.

    1991-04-01

    This document is a limited Proceedings, documenting the presentations given at the symposia conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric program at SOLTECH91. The SOLTECH91 national solar energy conference was held at Burlingame, California during the period March 26 to 29, 1991. The Solar Energy Research Institute manages the Solar Industrial Program; Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque) manages the Solar Thermal Electric Program. The symposia sessions were as follows: solar industrial program and thermal electric program overviews; current and near-term solar industrial applications; solar detoxification of organics in water; and solar thermal electric systems. For each presentation given in these symposia, these Proceedings provide a one- to two-page abstract and copies of the viewgraphs and/or 35 mm slides utilized by the speaker. Some speakers provided additional materials in the interest of completeness. The materials presented in this document were not subjected to a peer review process. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  18. SOLTECH 91: Proceedings, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traugott, W.; Hewett, R.; Menicucci, D.

    1991-04-01

    This document is a limited Proceedings, documenting the presentations given at the symposia conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric Program at SOLTECH91. The SOLTECH91 national solar energy conference was held in Burlingame, California during the period March 26 to 29, 1991. The Solar Energy Research Institute manages the Solar Industrial Program; Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque) manages the Solar Thermal Electric Program. The symposia sessions were as follows: (1) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric Program Overviews; (2) Current and Near-Term Solar Industrial Applications; Solar Detoxification of Organics in Water; and Solar Thermal Electric Systems. For each presentation given in these symposia, these Proceedings provide a one- to two-page abstract and copies of the viewgraphs and/or 35 mm slides utilized by the speaker. Some speakers provided additional materials in the interest of completeness. The materials presented in this document were not subjected to a peer review process. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  19. 49 CFR 106.90 - Other rulemaking proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... rulemaking proceedings. During a rulemaking proceeding, PHMSA may invite you to do the following: (a... other public proceeding to ensure that PHMSA makes informed decisions during the rulemaking process...

  20. 49 CFR 106.90 - Other rulemaking proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... rulemaking proceedings. During a rulemaking proceeding, PHMSA may invite you to do the following: (a... other public proceeding to ensure that PHMSA makes informed decisions during the rulemaking process...

  1. 49 CFR 106.90 - Other rulemaking proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... rulemaking proceedings. During a rulemaking proceeding, PHMSA may invite you to do the following: (a... other public proceeding to ensure that PHMSA makes informed decisions during the rulemaking process...

  2. 49 CFR 106.90 - Other rulemaking proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... rulemaking proceedings. During a rulemaking proceeding, PHMSA may invite you to do the following: (a... other public proceeding to ensure that PHMSA makes informed decisions during the rulemaking process...

  3. 49 CFR 106.90 - Other rulemaking proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... rulemaking proceedings. During a rulemaking proceeding, PHMSA may invite you to do the following: (a... other public proceeding to ensure that PHMSA makes informed decisions during the rulemaking process...

  4. 29 CFR 1902.17 - The proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The proceeding. 1902.17 Section 1902.17 Labor Regulations... PLANS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Procedures for Submission, Approval and Rejection of State Plans Procedure for Proposed Or Possible Rejection of Plan § 1902.17 The proceeding...

  5. 29 CFR 1902.17 - The proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The proceeding. 1902.17 Section 1902.17 Labor Regulations... PLANS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Procedures for Submission, Approval and Rejection of State Plans Procedure for Proposed Or Possible Rejection of Plan § 1902.17 The proceeding...

  6. 29 CFR 1902.17 - The proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The proceeding. 1902.17 Section 1902.17 Labor Regulations... PLANS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Procedures for Submission, Approval and Rejection of State Plans Procedure for Proposed Or Possible Rejection of Plan § 1902.17 The proceeding...

  7. 29 CFR 1902.17 - The proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The proceeding. 1902.17 Section 1902.17 Labor Regulations... PLANS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Procedures for Submission, Approval and Rejection of State Plans Procedure for Proposed Or Possible Rejection of Plan § 1902.17 The proceeding...

  8. 10 CFR 1021.214 - Adjudicatory proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjudicatory proceedings. 1021.214 Section 1021.214 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES DOE Decisionmaking § 1021.214 Adjudicatory proceedings. (a) This section applies to DOE proposed actions that...

  9. 49 CFR 1016.307 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Further proceedings. 1016.307 Section 1016.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... BY PARTIES TO BOARD ADJUDICATORY PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 1016.307...

  10. 5 CFR 2610.307 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... proceedings. (a) Ordinarily, the determination of an award will be made on the basis of the written record... further proceedings shall be held only when necessary for full and fair resolution of the issues arising... the Office was substantially justified shall be determined on the basis of the administrative...

  11. 10 CFR 590.316 - Shortened proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shortened proceedings. 590.316 Section 590.316 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.316 Shortened proceedings. In any...

  12. 7 CFR 1.183 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Act of 1937 (7 U.S.C. 608c(15)(A)) Animal Health Protection Act, sections 10414 and 10415 (7 U.S.C. 8313 and 8314). Animal Quarantine Laws (21 U.S.C. 104, 117, 122, 127, 134e, and 135a) Animal Welfare... Equal Access to Justice Act in Proceedings Before the Department General Provisions § 1.183 Proceedings...

  13. 7 CFR 1.183 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Act of 1937 (7 U.S.C. 608c(15)(A)) Animal Health Protection Act, sections 10414 and 10415 (7 U.S.C. 8313 and 8314). Animal Quarantine Laws (21 U.S.C. 104, 117, 122, 127, 134e, and 135a) Animal Welfare... Equal Access to Justice Act in Proceedings Before the Department General Provisions § 1.183 Proceedings...

  14. 7 CFR 1.183 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Act of 1937 (7 U.S.C. 608c(15)(A)) Animal Health Protection Act, sections 10414 and 10415 (7 U.S.C. 8313 and 8314). Animal Quarantine Laws (21 U.S.C. 104, 117, 122, 127, 134e, and 135a) Animal Welfare... Equal Access to Justice Act in Proceedings Before the Department General Provisions § 1.183 Proceedings...

  15. Proceedings: guidelines for regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands

    Treesearch

    H. Clay Smith; Arlyn W. Perkey; William E. Kidd

    1988-01-01

    This proceedings will provide field foresters and landowners with an update of current available information for regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands. We wanted a "state-of-the-art" proceedings for regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands. We asked the authors to make recommendations based on the current literature, their knowledge, and experience. Though...

  16. 37 CFR 255.7 - Future proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Future proceedings. 255.7 Section 255.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... MAKING AND DISTRIBUTING PHONORECORDS § 255.7 Future proceedings. The procedures specified in 17...

  17. 49 CFR 385.911 - Suspension proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Suspension proceedings. 385.911 Section 385.911 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... Pattern or Practice of Safety Violations by Motor Carrier Management § 385.911 Suspension proceedings. (a...

  18. 10 CFR 10.27 - Prehearing proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prehearing proceedings. 10.27 Section 10.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.27 Prehearing proceedings....

  19. 10 CFR 10.27 - Prehearing proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prehearing proceedings. 10.27 Section 10.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.27 Prehearing proceedings....

  20. 10 CFR 10.27 - Prehearing proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prehearing proceedings. 10.27 Section 10.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.27 Prehearing proceedings....

  1. 10 CFR 10.27 - Prehearing proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prehearing proceedings. 10.27 Section 10.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.27 Prehearing proceedings....

  2. 10 CFR 10.27 - Prehearing proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prehearing proceedings. 10.27 Section 10.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.27 Prehearing proceedings....

  3. 29 CFR 1902.17 - The proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The proceeding. 1902.17 Section 1902.17 Labor Regulations... PLANS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Procedures for Submission, Approval and Rejection of State Plans Procedure for Proposed Or Possible Rejection of Plan § 1902.17 The proceeding...

  4. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications from...

  5. 10 CFR 590.316 - Shortened proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shortened proceedings. 590.316 Section 590.316 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.316 Shortened proceedings. In...

  6. 25 CFR 43.11 - Informal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Informal proceedings. 43.11 Section 43.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MAINTENANCE AND CONTROL OF STUDENT RECORDS IN BUREAU SCHOOLS § 43.11 Informal proceedings. Educational institutions may attempt to resolve differences...

  7. 25 CFR 43.11 - Informal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Informal proceedings. 43.11 Section 43.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MAINTENANCE AND CONTROL OF STUDENT RECORDS IN BUREAU SCHOOLS § 43.11 Informal proceedings. Educational institutions may attempt to resolve differences...

  8. 10 CFR 1021.214 - Adjudicatory proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adjudicatory proceedings. 1021.214 Section 1021.214 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES DOE Decisionmaking § 1021.214 Adjudicatory proceedings. (a) This section applies to DOE proposed actions that involve...

  9. 10 CFR 1021.214 - Adjudicatory proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjudicatory proceedings. 1021.214 Section 1021.214 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES DOE Decisionmaking § 1021.214 Adjudicatory proceedings. (a) This section applies to DOE proposed actions that involve...

  10. 10 CFR 1021.214 - Adjudicatory proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjudicatory proceedings. 1021.214 Section 1021.214 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES DOE Decisionmaking § 1021.214 Adjudicatory proceedings. (a) This section applies to DOE proposed actions that involve...

  11. 10 CFR 1021.214 - Adjudicatory proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adjudicatory proceedings. 1021.214 Section 1021.214 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES DOE Decisionmaking § 1021.214 Adjudicatory proceedings. (a) This section applies to DOE proposed actions that involve...

  12. 14 CFR 314.15 - Oral proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral proceedings. 314.15 Section 314.15 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL... served on the persons listed in § 314.14, if there are material issues of decisional fact that cannot...

  13. Proceedings of the International Miconia Conference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loope, L.L.; Meyer, J.-Y.; Hardesty, B. D.; Smith, C.W.

    2015-01-01

    This proceedings is a compilation of 15 of the 27 papers and posters that were presented at the 2009 International Miconia Conference. The Conference was held in Keanae Hawaii May 4th to 7th 2009, hosted by the Maui Invasive Species Committee. *No official abstract was available for the proceedings...K. Keck

  14. 37 CFR 351.11 - Rebuttal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the direct case, in the same form and manner as the written direct statement, except that the claim or the requested rate shall not have to be included if it has not changed from the written direct... ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.11 Rebuttal proceedings. Written rebuttal...

  15. 34 CFR 682.705 - Suspension proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension proceedings. 682.705 Section 682.705... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM Limitation, Suspension, or....705 Suspension proceedings. (a) Scope. (1) A suspension by the Secretary removes a...

  16. 10 CFR 590.316 - Shortened proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shortened proceedings. 590.316 Section 590.316 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.316 Shortened proceedings. In...

  17. 19 CFR 111.59 - Preliminary proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., written notice that: (1) Transmits a copy of the proposed statement of charges; (2) Informs the broker that formal proceedings are available to him; (3) Informs the broker that sections 554 and 558, Title 5... show cause why formal proceedings should not be instituted; (5) Informs the broker that he may make...

  18. Proceedings 19th Central Hardwood Forest Conference

    Treesearch

    John W. Groninger; Eric J. Holzmueller; Clayton K. Nielsen; Daniel C., eds. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Proceedings from the 2014 Central Hardwood Forest Conference in Carbondale, IL. The published proceedings include 27 papers and 47 abstracts pertaining to research conducted on biofuels and bioenergy, forest biometrics, forest ecology and physiology, forest economics, forest health including invasive species, forest soils and hydrology, geographic information systems,...

  19. 47 CFR 1.1503 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Implementation of the Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA) in Agency Proceedings General Provisions § 1.1503 Proceedings covered. (a... 5 U.S.C. 554 in which the position of the Commission or any other agency of the United States, or...

  20. 45 CFR 13.3 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TO JUSTICE ACT IN AGENCY PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 13.3 Proceedings covered. (a) These rules...)(2) of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. 1320a-7(f), 1320a-7a(c)(2), or 1395u(j)(2). If a...

  1. 45 CFR 13.3 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TO JUSTICE ACT IN AGENCY PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 13.3 Proceedings covered. (a) These rules...)(2) of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. 1320a-7(f), 1320a-7a(c)(2), or 1395u(j)(2). If a...

  2. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications from...

  3. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications from...

  4. PCaPAC 2006 Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel Chevtsov; Matthew Bickley

    2007-03-30

    The 6-th international PCaPAC (Personal Computers and Particle Accelerator Controls) workshop was held at Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia, from October 24-27, 2006. The main objectives of the conference were to discuss the most important issues of the use of PCs and modern IT technologies for controls of accelerators and to give scientists, engineers, and technicians a forum to exchange the ideas on control problems and their solutions. The workshop consisted of plenary sessions and poster sessions. No parallel sessions were held.Totally, more than seventy oral and poster presentations as well as tutorials were made during the conference, on the basis of which about fifty papers were submitted by the authors and included in this publication. This printed version of the PCaPAC 2006 Proceedings is published at Jefferson Lab according to the decision of the PCaPAC International Program Committee of October 26, 2006.

  5. Proceedings: fuel-supply seminars

    SciTech Connect

    Prast, W.G.

    1983-03-01

    The objectives of the seminars were to provide an up-to-date assessment of critical issues affecting fuel-supply and utility-fuel planning. The chief topics were coal, oil and gas, uranium, and utility coal conversion. Presentations were made by EPRI research contractors on the results of ongoing research within the Energy Resources Program and by speakers from the utility and coal industries, government, academia, and the consulting and legal professions. A supplementary paper compiling recent oil and gas supply-and-demand forecast is included in these proceedings. The message emerging from the seminars, and illustrated in numerous ways, is of continuing uncertainty in fuel markets and the necessity for utilities to pursue flexible fuel strategies. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 19 presentations.

  6. Electronic publishing of the PAC95 proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Gennari, L.T.; Siemann, R.H.

    1997-10-01

    The Particle Accelerator Conference (PAC) series has been a successful one with a steady rise in participation and in the size of the conference proceedings. The PAC conference proceeding are primary references for accelerator engineers and physicists, and their growth has created some problems. The main one is the efficient access to and use of the information in them. In light of this, and with the uncontrollable urge to do something new and different, they proposed to the PAC95 Organizing Committee that they publish this proceedings electronically. They accepted. This paper summarizes the adventure.

  7. 49 CFR 511.2 - Nature of adjudicative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nature of adjudicative proceedings. 511.2 Section... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Scope of Rules; Nature of Adjudicative Proceedings, Definitions § 511.2 Nature of adjudicative proceedings. Adjudicative proceedings...

  8. 49 CFR 511.2 - Nature of adjudicative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nature of adjudicative proceedings. 511.2 Section... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Scope of Rules; Nature of Adjudicative Proceedings, Definitions § 511.2 Nature of adjudicative proceedings. Adjudicative proceedings...

  9. 49 CFR 511.2 - Nature of adjudicative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nature of adjudicative proceedings. 511.2 Section... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Scope of Rules; Nature of Adjudicative Proceedings, Definitions § 511.2 Nature of adjudicative proceedings. Adjudicative proceedings...

  10. 49 CFR 511.2 - Nature of adjudicative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nature of adjudicative proceedings. 511.2 Section... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Scope of Rules; Nature of Adjudicative Proceedings, Definitions § 511.2 Nature of adjudicative proceedings. Adjudicative proceedings...

  11. 49 CFR 511.2 - Nature of adjudicative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nature of adjudicative proceedings. 511.2 Section... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Scope of Rules; Nature of Adjudicative Proceedings, Definitions § 511.2 Nature of adjudicative proceedings. Adjudicative proceedings...

  12. 43 CFR 4.451-2 - Proceedings in Government contests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proceedings in Government contests. 4.451... Appeals Involving Questions of Fact § 4.451-2 Proceedings in Government contests. The proceedings in Government contests shall be governed by the rules relating to proceedings in private contests with...

  13. 43 CFR 4.451-2 - Proceedings in Government contests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Proceedings in Government contests. 4.451... Appeals Involving Questions of Fact § 4.451-2 Proceedings in Government contests. The proceedings in Government contests shall be governed by the rules relating to proceedings in private contests with...

  14. 43 CFR 4.451-2 - Proceedings in Government contests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Proceedings in Government contests. 4.451... Appeals Involving Questions of Fact § 4.451-2 Proceedings in Government contests. The proceedings in Government contests shall be governed by the rules relating to proceedings in private contests with...

  15. 37 CFR 1.620 - Conduct of supplemental examination proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... examination proceeding. 1.620 Section 1.620 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... of Patents § 1.620 Conduct of supplemental examination proceeding. (a) Within three months after the... proceeding or any reexamination proceeding ordered under 35 U.S.C. 257 will continue, and the matter will be...

  16. 28 CFR 0.176 - Congressional proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 0.176 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Assigning Responsibility Concerning Applications for Orders Compelling Testimony or Production of Evidence... a district court compelling testimony or the production of information in a congressional proceeding...

  17. 39 CFR 3001.41 - Rulemaking proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nature of the public rulemaking proceedings; (2) reference to the legal authority under which the rule is... matter relating to the Commission's management or personnel, or to U.S. property, loans, grants, benefits...

  18. 22 CFR 134.26 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... award will be made on the basis of the written record. However, on request of either the applicant or... hearing. Such further proceedings shall be held only when necessary for full and fair resolution of...

  19. 22 CFR 134.26 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... award will be made on the basis of the written record. However, on request of either the applicant or... hearing. Such further proceedings shall be held only when necessary for full and fair resolution of...

  20. 39 CFR 3020.76 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... consider the merits of going forward with the proposal. Upon conclusion of the conference, the Commission... reasons for not going forward with formal proceedings; or (d) Direct other action as the Commission may...

  1. 39 CFR 3020.76 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... consider the merits of going forward with the proposal. Upon conclusion of the conference, the Commission... reasons for not going forward with formal proceedings; or (d) Direct other action as the Commission may...

  2. 39 CFR 3020.56 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... scheduled to consider the merits of going forward with the request. Upon conclusion of the conference, the... reasons for not going forward with formal proceedings; or (d) Direct other action as the Commission may...

  3. 39 CFR 3020.76 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... consider the merits of going forward with the proposal. Upon conclusion of the conference, the Commission... reasons for not going forward with formal proceedings; or (d) Direct other action as the Commission may...

  4. 39 CFR 3020.56 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... scheduled to consider the merits of going forward with the request. Upon conclusion of the conference, the... reasons for not going forward with formal proceedings; or (d) Direct other action as the Commission may...

  5. 39 CFR 3020.56 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... scheduled to consider the merits of going forward with the request. Upon conclusion of the conference, the... reasons for not going forward with formal proceedings; or (d) Direct other action as the Commission may...

  6. 46 CFR 560.4 - Proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADDRESS CONDITIONS UNDULY IMPAIRING ACCESS OF U.S.-FLAG VESSELS TO OCEAN TRADE BETWEEN FOREIGN PORTS § 560.4 Proceeding. (a) Upon the Commission's own motion or upon the filing of a petition which meets...

  7. 46 CFR 560.4 - Proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADDRESS CONDITIONS UNDULY IMPAIRING ACCESS OF U.S.-FLAG VESSELS TO OCEAN TRADE BETWEEN FOREIGN PORTS § 560.4 Proceeding. (a) Upon the Commission's own motion or upon the filing of a petition which meets...

  8. 46 CFR 560.4 - Proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADDRESS CONDITIONS UNDULY IMPAIRING ACCESS OF U.S.-FLAG VESSELS TO OCEAN TRADE BETWEEN FOREIGN PORTS § 560.4 Proceeding. (a) Upon the Commission's own motion or upon the filing of a petition which meets...

  9. 46 CFR 560.4 - Proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADDRESS CONDITIONS UNDULY IMPAIRING ACCESS OF U.S.-FLAG VESSELS TO OCEAN TRADE BETWEEN FOREIGN PORTS § 560.4 Proceeding. (a) Upon the Commission's own motion or upon the filing of a petition which meets...

  10. Proceedings of the Shortleaf Pine Regeneration Workshop

    Treesearch

    John C. Brissette; James P. Barnett; [Compilers}

    1992-01-01

    This proceedings documents the results of a workshop to develop state-of-the-art information on the regeneration of shortleaf pine. Regeneration by both artificial and natural means is discussed in detail.

  11. Proceedings. 14th Central Hardwood Forest Conference

    Treesearch

    Daniel A. Yaussy; David M. Hix; Robert P. Long; P. Charles, eds. Goebel

    2004-01-01

    Proceedings of the 14th Central Hardwood Forest conference held 16-19 March in Wooster Ohio. Includes 102 papers and abstracts dealing with silviculture, wildlife, human dimensions, harvesting and utilization, physiology, genetics, soils, nutrient cycling, and biometrics.

  12. 28 CFR 0.176 - Congressional proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... when submitted to the Attorney General by either House of Congress or a committee or a subcommittee of... proceedings: Provided, however, That either the notice or a copy thereof shall in any event be referred to the...

  13. 33 CFR 109.15 - Enforcement proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... are to be brought in the name of the officer of the Coast Guard assigned for the time being as Captain of the Port. When the vessel is at a port where there is no Coast Guard officer, proceedings will...

  14. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  15. Comments on the article "Changing attitudes towards the care of children in hospital: a new assessment of the influence of the work of Bowlby and Robertson in the UK, 1940-1970" by Frank C.P. van der Horst and Rene van der Veer (Attachment and Human Development Vol 11, No 2, March 2009, 119-142).

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Mary

    2009-11-01

    The authors give an impressive list of references, but these do not reflect the situation in the UK; most of those looking after children in hospital did not write about what they did or read about what others did. Children in hospital saw little or nothing of their parents, and once they had 'settled' the doctors and nurses were unaware of their distress. John Bowlby's interest in maternal deprivation led him to appoint James Robertson as his research assistant, to observe responses of young children to loss of maternal care on admission to hospital. They formulated the theoretical framework of the three stages through which the children went; protest, despair, and detachment constituting a developmental interference. Robertson was so concerned when nobody would listen that in 1952 he made the film 'A Two Year Old Goes to Hospital', which upset children's doctors and nurses. It also probably contributed to the government setting up in 1957 a Committee chaired by Sir Harry Platt to consider the Welfare of Children in Hospital. 'Going to Hospital with Mother' was made by Robertson in 1958. With Dermod MacCarthy he showed the films to the Committee, who accepted the suggestions in Robertson's Memorandum which included unrestricted visiting and mothers being admitted with their young children. The Report, known as the Platt Report, was published in 1959. Robertson could then show his films publicly, campaign in the media and encourage the pressure group NAWCH (the National Association for the Welfare of Children in Hospital) who were successful in getting many of the Committee's recommendations implemented, to the benefit of all children in hospital.

  16. 29 CFR 102.33 - Transfer of charge and proceeding from region to region; consolidation of proceedings in same...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transfer of charge and proceeding from region to region; consolidation of proceedings in same region; severance. 102.33 Section 102.33 Labor Regulations Relating to... § 102.33 Transfer of charge and proceeding from region to region; consolidation of proceedings in...

  17. Mushrooms and Health Summit proceedings.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Mary Jo; Dwyer, Johanna; Hasler-Lewis, Clare M; Milner, John A; Noakes, Manny; Rowe, Sylvia; Wach, Mark; Beelman, Robert B; Caldwell, Joe; Cantorna, Margherita T; Castlebury, Lisa A; Chang, Shu-Ting; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Clemens, Roger; Drescher, Greg; Fulgoni, Victor L; Haytowitz, David B; Hubbard, Van S; Law, David; Myrdal Miller, Amy; Minor, Bart; Percival, Susan S; Riscuta, Gabriela; Schneeman, Barbara; Thornsbury, Suzanne; Toner, Cheryl D; Woteki, Catherine E; Wu, Dayong

    2014-07-01

    The Mushroom Council convened the Mushrooms and Health Summit in Washington, DC, on 9-10 September 2013. The proceedings are synthesized in this article. Although mushrooms have long been regarded as health-promoting foods, research specific to their role in a healthful diet and in health promotion has advanced in the past decade. The earliest mushroom cultivation was documented in China, which remains among the top global mushroom producers, along with the United States, Italy, The Netherlands, and Poland. Although considered a vegetable in dietary advice, mushrooms are fungi, set apart by vitamin B-12 in very low quantity but in the same form found in meat, ergosterol converted with UV light to vitamin D2, and conjugated linoleic acid. Mushrooms are a rare source of ergothioneine as well as selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. Some preclinical and clinical studies suggest impacts of mushrooms on cognition, weight management, oral health, and cancer risk. Preliminary evidence suggests that mushrooms may support healthy immune and inflammatory responses through interaction with the gut microbiota, enhancing development of adaptive immunity, and improved immune cell functionality. In addition to imparting direct nutritional and health benefits, analysis of U.S. food intake survey data reveals that mushrooms are associated with higher dietary quality. Also, early sensory research suggests that mushrooms blended with meats and lower sodium dishes are well liked and may help to reduce intakes of red meat and salt without compromising taste. As research progresses on the specific health effects of mushrooms, there is a need for effective communication efforts to leverage mushrooms to improve overall dietary quality. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. 37 CFR 1.33 - Correspondence respecting patent applications, reexamination proceedings, and other proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Correspondence respecting... Attorney Or Agent § 1.33 Correspondence respecting patent applications, reexamination proceedings, and other proceedings. (a) Correspondence address and daytime telephone number. When filing an...

  19. 37 CFR 1.33 - Correspondence respecting patent applications, reexamination proceedings, and other proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Correspondence respecting... Attorney Or Agent § 1.33 Correspondence respecting patent applications, reexamination proceedings, and other proceedings. (a) Correspondence address and daytime telephone number. When filing an...

  20. 37 CFR 1.33 - Correspondence respecting patent applications, reexamination proceedings, and other proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Correspondence respecting... Attorney Or Agent § 1.33 Correspondence respecting patent applications, reexamination proceedings, and other proceedings. (a) Correspondence address and daytime telephone number. When filing an...

  1. 12 CFR 1808.309 - Restrictions on uses of Bond Proceeds and Bond Loan proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restrictions on uses of Bond Proceeds and Bond Loan proceeds. 1808.309 Section 1808.309 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS BOND GUARANTEE PROGRAM...

  2. Improvement of the TOPEX and Jason Orbit Time Series: Precision Orbit Determination, Calibration, Validation and Improvement Through the Combined Reduction and Analysis of GPS, SLR, DORIS and Altimeter Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, Scott B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Zelensky, N. P.; Beckley, B. D.

    2004-01-01

    Orbit error is a major component in the overall error budget of all altimeter satellite missions. Jason-I is no exception and a 1 cm radial orbit accuracy goal has been set, which represents a factor of two improvement over what is currently being achieved for TOPEX/Poseidon (TP). Our current analysis suggests this goal has been met and even improved upon, but the challenge is to be able to continually achieve this high accuracy, verify the performance and characterize and quantify the remaining errors over the lifetime of the mission. The computation, verification and error characterization of such high accuracy orbits requires the reduction and analysis of all available tracking data (GPS, SLR, DORIS and altimeter). Current analysis also indicates the history of TP orbits can be further improved employing new solution strategies developed and tested on Jason-I. Our research focuses on the calibration, validation and improvement of orbit accuracies using all available tracking data including altimetry. We will compute and distribute well centered Jason orbits with an accuracy of better than 1-cm in the radial component. In addition to the orbits themselves, a characterization of the orbit error will be distributed and accumulated as a time series of orbit performance metrics to track anomalies and trends. The long time series of orbit error characterization will enable a better understanding of the remaining orbit errors and its impact on the altimeter data analysis. As part of this research effort we are also significantly improving the current level of TP orbit accuracy, re-computing new high-accuracy TP orbits from the beginning of the TP mission and continuing into the future (as long as TP is healthy). Our funded research effort will result in a complete and consistent time series of improved orbits for both TP and Jason, significantly benefiting the long time series of altimeter data analysis and the TP/Jason dual mission. The resultant high accuracy orbits

  3. Improvement of the TOPEX and Jason Orbit Time Series: Precision Orbit Determination, Calibration, Validation and Improvement Through the Combined Reduction and Analysis of GPS, SLR, DORIS and Altimeter Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, Scott B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Zelensky, N. P.; Beckley, B. D.

    2004-01-01

    Orbit error is a major component in the overall error budget of all altimeter satellite missions. Jason-I is no exception and a 1 cm radial orbit accuracy goal has been set, which represents a factor of two improvement over what is currently being achieved for TOPEX/Poseidon (TP). Our current analysis suggests this goal has been met and even improved upon, but the challenge is to be able to continually achieve this high accuracy, verify the performance and characterize and quantify the remaining errors over the lifetime of the mission. The computation, verification and error characterization of such high accuracy orbits requires the reduction and analysis of all available tracking data (GPS, SLR, DORIS and altimeter). Current analysis also indicates the history of TP orbits can be further improved employing new solution strategies developed and tested on Jason-I. Our research focuses on the calibration, validation and improvement of orbit accuracies using all available tracking data including altimetry. We will compute and distribute well centered Jason orbits with an accuracy of better than 1-cm in the radial component. In addition to the orbits themselves, a characterization of the orbit error will be distributed and accumulated as a time series of orbit performance metrics to track anomalies and trends. The long time series of orbit error characterization will enable a better understanding of the remaining orbit errors and its impact on the altimeter data analysis. As part of this research effort we are also significantly improving the current level of TP orbit accuracy, re-computing new high-accuracy TP orbits from the beginning of the TP mission and continuing into the future (as long as TP is healthy). Our funded research effort will result in a complete and consistent time series of improved orbits for both TP and Jason, significantly benefiting the long time series of altimeter data analysis and the TP/Jason dual mission. The resultant high accuracy orbits

  4. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    These Proceedings of the October 3-7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the Proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics discussed in Volume 4 include site characterization and remediation projects, environmental monitoring and modeling; disposal site selection and facility design, risk assessment, safety and health issues, and site remediation technology.

  5. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    These Proceedings of the October 3--7, 1988 DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the Proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics discussed in Volume 5 include environmental assessments and program strategies, waste treatment technologies, and regulations and compliance studies.

  6. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    These Proceedings of the October 3 - 7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics included in Volume 3 include treatment of soils, waste characterization and certification, waste minimization site remediation management plans and programs, and training programs.

  7. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    These Proceedings of the October 3-7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the Proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics included in Volume 1 are Environmental Data Management, Site characterization technology, Wastewater treatment, Waste management in foreign countries, Transuranic waste management, and Groundwater characterization and treatment.

  8. STARS Proceedings (3-4 December 1991)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-04

    SUBTITLE S FUNDING NUMBERS STARS 󈨟 Proceedings 3-4 December, 1991 F19628-88-D-0031 6. AUTHOR (S) Paramax Corporation 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME...See authorities . Block 4. Title and Subtitle. A title is taken from NASA - See Handbook NH8 2200.2. ,he part of the report that provides the most NTIS...numbers shown in the Authors Index found at the back of these proceedings include a coded prefix (P, 1, 2, 3, or 4) to indicate the part of the

  9. RHIC spin physics: Proceedings. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This proceedings compiles one-page summaries and five transparencies for each talk, with the intention that the speaker should include a web location for additional information in the summary. Also, email addresses are given with the participant list. The order follows the agenda: gluon, polarimetry, accelerator, W production and quark/antiquark polarization, parity violation searches, transversity, single transverse spin, small angle elastic scattering, and the final talk on ep collisions at RHIC. The authors begin the Proceedings with the full set of transparencies from Bob Jaffe`s colloquium on spin, by popular request.

  10. Proceedings of the NASA Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This document is the proceedings of the NASA Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop, convened May 1-3, 2002 at NASA's Ames Research Center. Sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Science (OSS), this programmatic workshop is held periodically by NASA to discuss the current state of knowledge in the interdisciplinary field of laboratory astrophysics and to identify the science priorities (needs) in support of NASA's space missions. An important goal of the Workshop is to provide input to OSS in the form of a white paper for incorporation in its strategic planning. This report comprises a record of the complete proceedings of the Workshop and the Laboratory Astrophysics White Paper drafted at the Workshop.

  11. Sixteenth thermochemical conversion contractors' meeting: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    The research activities sponsored by the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program are directed toward exploiting the unique natural properties of biomass. Currently, this research can be divided into three areas: innovative direct combustion technology; gasification technology; and liquid fuels technology. These proceedings describe on-going projects in each of these categories. In an effort to provide a broader perspective of biomass research sponsored by DOE, brief overview descriptions of the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program and microalgae research sponsored by the Aquatic Species Program are given at the beginning of these proceedings. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each project description for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  12. Managing bond proceeds improves financial performance.

    PubMed

    Mates, W J

    1989-04-01

    Healthcare organizations must actively manage tax-exempt bond proceeds after they are initially invested at the time of financing or refinancing. The Tax Reform Act of 1986 imposes serious penalties on issuers who fail to comply with its complex requirements. An active program of bond proceeds management enables organizations to avoid this pitfall and take advantage of legal investment opportunities. Such a program must start with a set of clear guidelines on permitted investments, target rates of return, acceptable levels of risk, and liquidity requirements.

  13. 37 CFR 251.8 - Suspension of proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emergency affecting an arbitrator, the Librarian considers a suspension of a proceeding necessary and fully... shall result in a complete cessation of all aspects of the proceeding, including the running of any...

  14. Proceedings of the American elm restoration workshop 2016

    Treesearch

    Cornelia C. Pinchot; Kathleen S. Knight; Linda M. Haugen; Charles E. Flower; James M. Slavicek

    2017-01-01

    Proceedings from the 2016 American Elm Restoration Workshop in Lewis Center, OH. The published proceedings include 16 papers pertaining to elm pathogens, American elm ecology, and American elm reintroduction.

  15. Proceedings of the XI international Rubus and Ribes symposium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This proceedings book summarizes the latest internationial research concerning Rubus, Ribes and their wild relatives. This proceedings includes 82 scientific reports from international scientists concerning the genetics and germplasm, pests and diseases, physiology and production systems, post harve...

  16. 22 CFR 18.8 - Institution of proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... where time, the nature of the proceeding, or the public interest does not permit, a proceeding will not... called to the attention of the proposed respondent in writing and he/she has been accorded the...

  17. 49 CFR 601.35 - Proceedings on petitions for reconsideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... whole or in part, any petition for reconsideration without further proceedings. In the event he/she... proceedings, or he/she may provide such opportunity to submit comment or information and data as he/she deems...

  18. 49 CFR 389.37 - Proceedings on petitions for reconsideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in part, any petition for reconsideration without further proceedings. In the event he/she determines... proceedings, or he/she may provide such opportunity to submit comment or information and data as he/she deems...

  19. Doris A. Betancourt, Ph.D.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Request an environmental microbiologist. Her current research deals with screening indoor biocontaminutesants. She is responsible for the identification and characterization of mold, bacteria, and their metabolites in indoor environments.

  20. 36 CFR 215.21 - Judicial proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Judicial proceedings. 215.21 Section 215.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOTICE, COMMENT, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES FOR NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES § 215.21 Judicial...

  1. 36 CFR 215.21 - Judicial proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Judicial proceedings. 215.21 Section 215.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOTICE, COMMENT, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES FOR NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES § 215.21 Judicial...

  2. 29 CFR 1902.48 - The proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The proceeding. 1902.48 Section 1902.48 Labor Regulations... PLANS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Procedures for Determinations Under section 18(e) of the Act Procedure for Reconsideration and Revocation of An Affirmative 18(e) Determination...

  3. 29 CFR 1902.48 - The proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The proceeding. 1902.48 Section 1902.48 Labor Regulations... PLANS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Procedures for Determinations Under section 18(e) of the Act Procedure for Reconsideration and Revocation of An Affirmative 18(e) Determination...

  4. 29 CFR 1902.48 - The proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The proceeding. 1902.48 Section 1902.48 Labor Regulations... PLANS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Procedures for Determinations Under section 18(e) of the Act Procedure for Reconsideration and Revocation of An Affirmative 18(e) Determination...

  5. 29 CFR 1902.48 - The proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The proceeding. 1902.48 Section 1902.48 Labor Regulations... PLANS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Procedures for Determinations Under section 18(e) of the Act Procedure for Reconsideration and Revocation of An Affirmative 18(e) Determination...

  6. Proceedings of the Conference on Educational Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.

    This Educational Testing Service conference provided an opportunity to clarify many of the issues and problems involved with educational accountability. Among these issues were assessment, evaluation, auditing, and performance contracting. The papers included in these proceedings are: The Means and Ends of Accountability (Terrel H. Bell); Issues…

  7. Intergas `95: International unconventional gas symposium. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The International Unconventional Gas Symposium was held on May 14--20, 1995 in Tuscaloosa, Alabama where 52 reports were presented. These reports are grouped in this proceedings under: geology and resources; mine degasification and safety; international developments; reservoir characterization/coal science; and environmental/legal and regulatory. Each report has been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. 17 CFR 201.55 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... determination of an award will be made on the basis of the written record. However, on request of either the... proceedings shall be held only when necessary for full and fair resolution of the issues arising from the... substantially justified shall be determined on the basis of the administrative record, as a whole, which is...

  9. 39 CFR 960.18 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... proceedings. (a) Ordinarily, the determination of an award will be made on the basis of the written record... necessary for full and fair resolution of the issues arising from the application, and shall be conducted as... determined on the basis of the entire administrative record that is made in the adversary adjudication...

  10. 17 CFR 148.26 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... award will be made on the basis of the written record. However, on request of either the applicant or... submissions or an evidentiary hearing. Such further proceedings shall be held only when necessary for full and... the basis of the administrative record, as a whole, which is made in the adversary adjudication...

  11. 12 CFR 225.31 - Control proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control proceedings. 225.31 Section 225.31 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Control...

  12. 12 CFR 225.31 - Control proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control proceedings. 225.31 Section 225.31 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Control and...

  13. 12 CFR 225.31 - Control proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control proceedings. 225.31 Section 225.31 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Control and...

  14. 40 CFR 17.3 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... any civil penalty conducted under section 3008 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as...) of the Noise Control Act as amended (42 U.S.C. 4910(d)). (b) If a proceeding includes both matters covered by the Act and matters specifically excluded from coverage, any award made will include only fees...

  15. Proceedings, 16th central hardwood forest conference

    Treesearch

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Charles H., eds. Michler

    2008-01-01

    Proceedings of the 16th Central Hardwood Forest Conference held April 8-9, 2008, in West Lafayette, IN. Includes 64 papers pertaining to forest regeneration and propagation, forest products, ecology and forest dynamics, human dimensions and economics, forest biometrics and modeling, silviculture and genetics, forest health and protection, and soil and mineral nutrition...

  16. 12 CFR 263.109 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... the administrative law judge on the basis of the written record of the adversary adjudication... further proceedings to amplify the record such as an informal conference, oral argument, additional...

  17. 12 CFR 263.109 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... administrative law judge on the basis of the written record of the adversary adjudication, including any... proceedings to amplify the record such as an informal conference, oral argument, additional written...

  18. International Energy and Environmental Congress: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This document contains information presented at the International Energy and Environmental Congress `93 proceedings. Symposiums included demand-side management strategic directions; federal energy management; corporate energy management; and pollution control technologies. Individual reports from the symposiums are processed separately for the data bases.

  19. 49 CFR 826.3 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., suspend, or revoke licenses or to impose a civil penalty on a flight engineer, mechanic, pilot, or....” For the Board, the type of proceeding covered includes (but may not be limited to) aviation enforcement cases appealed to the Board under sections 501, 609, 611 and 901 of the Federal Aviation Act (49...

  20. 49 CFR 826.3 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., suspend, or revoke licenses or to impose a civil penalty on a flight engineer, mechanic, pilot, or....” For the Board, the type of proceeding covered includes (but may not be limited to) aviation enforcement cases appealed to the Board under sections 501, 609, 611 and 901 of the Federal Aviation Act (49...

  1. 49 CFR 826.3 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., suspend, or revoke licenses or to impose a civil penalty on a flight engineer, mechanic, pilot, or....” For the Board, the type of proceeding covered includes (but may not be limited to) aviation enforcement cases appealed to the Board under sections 501, 609, 611 and 901 of the Federal Aviation Act (49...

  2. 49 CFR 826.3 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., suspend, or revoke licenses or to impose a civil penalty on a flight engineer, mechanic, pilot, or....” For the Board, the type of proceeding covered includes (but may not be limited to) aviation enforcement cases appealed to the Board under sections 501, 609, 611 and 901 of the Federal Aviation Act (49...

  3. 49 CFR 826.3 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., suspend, or revoke licenses or to impose a civil penalty on a flight engineer, mechanic, pilot, or....” For the Board, the type of proceeding covered includes (but may not be limited to) aviation enforcement cases appealed to the Board under sections 501, 609, 611 and 901 of the Federal Aviation Act (49...

  4. 17 CFR 12.24 - Parallel proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the time the reparation complaint is filed and involves claims or counterclaims that are based on the same set of facts which serve as a basis for all of the claims in the reparations complaint, and which... assets, property or proceeds of a respondent named in a reparation complaint where the responsibility...

  5. Proceedings: North American forest insect work conference.

    Treesearch

    D.C. Allen; L.P. Abrahamson

    1992-01-01

    A proceedings of a conference held to stimulate interaction among people working in areas of forest protection and silviculture and on issues of national and international concern relative to forest insect and disease management, education, and research. National issues addressed were forest productivity, stewardship, biological diversity, and new perspectives and how...

  6. 34 CFR 682.705 - Suspension proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suspension proceedings. 682.705 Section 682.705 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM...

  7. 34 CFR 682.705 - Suspension proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suspension proceedings. 682.705 Section 682.705 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM...

  8. 34 CFR 682.705 - Suspension proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suspension proceedings. 682.705 Section 682.705 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM...

  9. 34 CFR 682.705 - Suspension proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suspension proceedings. 682.705 Section 682.705 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM...

  10. Proceedings--Fifty-ninth Annual Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, James; And Others

    1974-01-01

    These proceedings of the annual conference of IAPPW (New Orleans 1973) address themselves to presentations on the conference theme, "Our Goal--Preparing Today's Child for Tomorrow's World." Topics covered include career education, preschool education, parent involvement, mental health, and other special programs. (CJ)

  11. 29 CFR 1902.48 - The proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The proceeding. 1902.48 Section 1902.48 Labor Regulations... PLANS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Procedures for Determinations Under Section 18(e) of the Act Procedure for Reconsideration and Revocation of An Affirmative 18(e) Determination...

  12. 6 CFR 7.13 - Judicial proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Judicial proceedings. 7.13 Section 7.13 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION... Information Procedures Act (CIPA), Public Law 96-456, 94 Stat. 2025, (18 U.S.C. App.), and the...

  13. Proceedings: 2000 Workshop on Condensate Polishing

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    Condensate polishing maintains control of impurities in the nuclear power plant and allows the unit to operate more reliably. This report presents proceedings of EPRI's 2000 Workshop on Condensate Polishing, where 30 papers were presented on current issues and utility experience involving condensate polishing at both pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) plants.

  14. Conserving biodiversity on native rangelands: Symposium proceedings

    Treesearch

    Daniel W. Uresk; Greg L. Schenbeck; James T. O' Rourke

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings are the result of a symposium, "Conserving biodiversity on native rangelands" held on August 17, 1995 in Fort Robinson State Park, NE. The purpose of this symposium was to provide a forum to discuss how elements of rangeland biodiversity are being conserved today. We asked, "How resilient and sustainable are rangeland systems to the...

  15. Shrubland ecosystem genetics and biodiversity: proceedings

    Treesearch

    E. Durant McArthur; Daniel J. Fairbanks

    2001-01-01

    The 53 papers in this proceedings include a section celebrating the 25-year anniversary of the Shrub Sciences Laboratory (4 papers), three sections devoted to themes, genetics, and biodiversity (12 papers), disturbance ecology and biodiversity (14 papers), ecophysiology (13 papers), community ecology (9 papers), and field trip section (1 paper). The anniversary session...

  16. 36 CFR 215.21 - Judicial proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Judicial proceedings. 215.21 Section 215.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOTICE, COMMENT, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES FOR NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES § 215.21 Judicial...

  17. Positive Approaches to Business Management: Conference Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVire, Willis A., Ed.

    In August 1970, an institute for newly appointed junior college business managers was planned around the business management function. This function would include purchasing, physical plant, personnel, auxiliary services, and financial records. The following seven speeches from the proceedings are presented: Evolution of Responsibility in the…

  18. 29 CFR 2204.307 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW... discovery and an evidentiary hearing, as to issues other than substantial justification (such as...

  19. 29 CFR 2204.307 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW... discovery and an evidentiary hearing, as to issues other than substantial justification (such as...

  20. 77 FR 64446 - Wireless Microphones Proceeding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... station users, which currently operate in the TV broadcast spectrum on an unlicensed basis, to operate on... affect use of wireless microphones, including the TV White Spaces proceeding \\3\\ and the Incentive... (adopted Sept. 28, 2012) (Incentive Auctions NPRM). \\3\\ Unlicensed Operation in the TV Broadcast Bands, ET...

  1. 75 FR 5003 - Unfair Labor Practice Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ...; Federal Register #0; #0; #0;This section of the FEDERAL REGISTER contains notices to the public of #0;the...; ] FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY 5 CFR Part 2423 Unfair Labor Practice Proceedings AGENCY: Office of the General Counsel, Federal Labor Relations Authority. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The...

  2. 75 FR 13429 - Unfair Labor Practice Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... / Monday, March 22, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY 5 CFR Part 2423 Unfair Labor Practice Proceedings AGENCY: Office of the General Counsel, Federal Labor Relations Authority. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The General Counsel of the Federal Labor Relations Authority (FLRA...

  3. Snag habitat management: Proceedings of the symposium

    Treesearch

    Jerry W. Davis; Gregory A. Goodwin; Richard A. Ockenfels

    1983-01-01

    These proceedings include 41 papers focusing attention on the need to integrate management of snags - dead or deteriorating trees critical to needs of cavity-dependent wildlife - with other resource uses and demands. Sessions concentrated on management, habitat and species requirements, and monitoring and modeling.

  4. Proceedings. Pharmacy Cadre Training Structured Externship Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas Univ., Lawrence. School of Pharmacy.

    The proceedings are for two workshops, held in November 1972 and April 1973, in the process of establishing a structured externship in pharmacy. At the first workshop the field instructors were apprised of the goals and techniques of the project, and the policy of the program was developed. At the followup workshop the experiences of the first…

  5. Fourteenth workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1989-12-31

    The Fourteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 24--26, 1989. Major areas of discussion include: (1) well testing; (2) various field results; (3) geoscience; (4) geochemistry; (5) reinjection; (6) hot dry rock; and (7) numerical modelling. For these workshop proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  6. Proceedings Region East Perceptual Motor Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This book of conference proceeding presents speeches and panel discussions from the Region East Perceptual-Motor Conference. The purpose of the conference was to seek an understanding of children and their perceptual-motor development through (a) exchange of knowledge and practices in perceptual-motor development, (b) examination of program…

  7. Fourteenth workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The Fourteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 24--26, 1989. Major areas of discussion include: (1) well testing; (2) various field results; (3) geoscience; (4) geochemistry; (5) reinjection; (6) hot dry rock; and (7) numerical modelling. For these workshop proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  8. (Eds.) Proceedings: Mass Timber Research Workshop 2015

    Treesearch

    Tom Williamson; Robert J. Ross

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings, including key points and identified research needs, that evolved from the Mass Timber Research Workshop, which was held at the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), November 3–4, 2015. The purpose of the workshop was to bring design professionals, researchers, and industry leaders together to examine the state-of-the-art in mass...

  9. 29 CFR 2570.156 - Expedited proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or the administrative law judge assigned, all parties to the proceeding in which the motion is filed... motion. (e) Following the timely receipt by the administrative law judge of statements in response to the motion, the administrative law judge may advance pleading schedules, discovery schedules, prehearing...

  10. 29 CFR 2570.156 - Expedited proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or the administrative law judge assigned, all parties to the proceeding in which the motion is filed... motion. (e) Following the timely receipt by the administrative law judge of statements in response to the motion, the administrative law judge may advance pleading schedules, discovery schedules, prehearing...

  11. 29 CFR 2570.156 - Expedited proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or the administrative law judge assigned, all parties to the proceeding in which the motion is filed... motion. (e) Following the timely receipt by the administrative law judge of statements in response to the motion, the administrative law judge may advance pleading schedules, discovery schedules, prehearing...

  12. Adults as Learners: Proceedings of a Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bortner, Rayman W., Ed.; And Others

    The proceedings consist of 11 papers grouped in two major categories: the context of adult learning (social significance and fact and fiction about adult learning) and the utilization of learning models for adult instruction. Contributors are Floyd B. Fischer, George L. Maddox, Rolf H. Monge, Eric F. Gardner, Arthur W. Combs, William J. Hoyer,…

  13. 17 CFR 148.3 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proceedings covered. 148.3 Section 148.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF... 14 of the Commodity Exchange Act, 7 U.S.C. 18, Commission review of exchange disciplinary and access...

  14. 47 CFR 1.1526 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Implementation of the Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA) in Agency Proceedings Procedures for Considering Applications § 1.1526... possible. Whether or not the position of the agency embodied an excessive demand or was substantially...

  15. Proceedings of the Great Lakes silviculture summit

    Treesearch

    Brian Palik; Louise (ed.) Levy

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the Great Lakes Silviculture Summit was to identify a research agenda that captures the priority information needs of diverse organizations in the region. These needs and the resultant research agenda are presented in the series of papers in these proceedings.

  16. 36 CFR 215.21 - Judicial proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to invoke and exhaust the appeal procedures in this part (7 U.S.C. 6912 (e)). ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial proceedings. 215.21 Section 215.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOTICE...

  17. 36 CFR 215.21 - Judicial proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to invoke and exhaust the appeal procedures in this part (7 U.S.C. 6912 (e)). ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Judicial proceedings. 215.21 Section 215.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOTICE...

  18. SPACE: Enhancing Life on Earth. Proceedings Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobden, Alan (Editor); Hobden, Beverly (Editor); Bagley, Larry E. (Editor); Bolton, Ed (Editor); Campaigne, Len O. (Editor); Cole, Ron (Editor); France, Marty (Editor); Hand, Rich (Editor); McKinley, Cynthia (Editor); Zimkas, Chuck (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The proceedings of the 12th National Space Symposium on Enhancing Life on Earth is presented. Technological areas discussed include: Space applications and cooperation; Earth sensing, communication, and navigation applications; Global security interests in space; and International space station and space launch capabilities. An appendices that include featured speakers, program participants, and abbreviation & acronyms glossary is also attached.

  19. 28 CFR 2.75 - Reconsideration proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reconsideration proceedings. 2.75 Section 2.75 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS District of Columbia Code: Prisoners and Parolees §...

  20. 28 CFR 2.14 - Subsequent proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subsequent proceedings. 2.14 Section 2.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.14...

  1. 45 CFR 73b.4 - Proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proceedings. 73b.4 Section 73b.4 Public Welfare... prohibited from engaging in representational activities in relation to matters pending in the Department, as.... (g) The administrative law judge shall issue an initial decision based exclusively on the...

  2. 37 CFR 2.105 - Notification to parties of opposition proceeding(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... submitted, the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board shall prepare a notification, which shall identify the title and number of the proceeding and the application involved and shall designate a time, not less than...

  3. 37 CFR 351.6 - Discovery in distribution proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery in distribution... CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.6 Discovery in distribution proceedings. In distribution proceedings, the Copyright Royalty Judges shall designate a 45-day...

  4. 42 CFR 93.223 - Research misconduct proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research misconduct proceeding. 93.223 Section 93... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.223 Research misconduct proceeding. Research misconduct proceeding means any actions related to alleged research misconduct taken under this part, including but not...

  5. 16 CFR 1025.2 - Nature of adjudicative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nature of adjudicative proceedings. 1025.2 Section 1025.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Scope of Rules, Nature of Adjudicative Proceedings, Definitions § 1025.2 Nature of...

  6. 39 CFR 3001.18 - Nature of proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nature of proceedings. 3001.18 Section 3001.18 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules of General Applicability § 3001.18 Nature of proceedings. (a) Proceedings to be set for hearing. Except as otherwise...

  7. 39 CFR 3001.18 - Nature of proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nature of proceedings. 3001.18 Section 3001.18 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules of General Applicability § 3001.18 Nature of proceedings. (a) Proceedings to be set for hearing. Except as otherwise...

  8. 16 CFR 1025.2 - Nature of adjudicative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nature of adjudicative proceedings. 1025.2 Section 1025.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Scope of Rules, Nature of Adjudicative Proceedings, Definitions § 1025.2 Nature of...

  9. 39 CFR 3001.18 - Nature of proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nature of proceedings. 3001.18 Section 3001.18 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules of General Applicability § 3001.18 Nature of proceedings. (a) Proceedings to be set for hearing. Except as otherwise...

  10. 39 CFR 3001.18 - Nature of proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nature of proceedings. 3001.18 Section 3001.18 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules of General Applicability § 3001.18 Nature of proceedings. (a) Proceedings to be set for hearing. Except as otherwise...

  11. 39 CFR 3001.18 - Nature of proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nature of proceedings. 3001.18 Section 3001.18 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules of General Applicability § 3001.18 Nature of proceedings. (a) Proceedings to be set for hearing. Except as otherwise...

  12. 16 CFR 1025.2 - Nature of adjudicative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nature of adjudicative proceedings. 1025.2 Section 1025.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Scope of Rules, Nature of Adjudicative Proceedings, Definitions § 1025.2 Nature of...

  13. 16 CFR 1025.2 - Nature of adjudicative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nature of adjudicative proceedings. 1025.2 Section 1025.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Scope of Rules, Nature of Adjudicative Proceedings, Definitions § 1025.2 Nature of...

  14. 33 CFR 210.3 - Notice to proceed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contract specifies the time when the contractor is to proceed with the work under the contract, a notice to... proceed the notice will fix the time for the commencement of the work and also, if appropriate, will fix the time for the completion of the work. The notice to proceed should be issued on a form letter...

  15. 33 CFR 210.3 - Notice to proceed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... contract specifies the time when the contractor is to proceed with the work under the contract, a notice to... proceed the notice will fix the time for the commencement of the work and also, if appropriate, will fix the time for the completion of the work. The notice to proceed should be issued on a form letter...

  16. 33 CFR 210.3 - Notice to proceed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contract specifies the time when the contractor is to proceed with the work under the contract, a notice to... proceed the notice will fix the time for the commencement of the work and also, if appropriate, will fix the time for the completion of the work. The notice to proceed should be issued on a form letter...

  17. 10 CFR 706.14 - DOE's role in proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false DOE's role in proceedings. 706.14 Section 706.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Security Policies and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings § 706.14 DOE's role in proceedings. If...

  18. 26 CFR 20.2042-1 - Proceeds of life insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Proceeds of life insurance. 20.2042-1 Section... Proceeds of life insurance. (a) In general. (1) Section 2042 provides for the inclusion in a decedent's gross estate of the proceeds of insurance on the decedent's life (i) receivable by or for the benefit...

  19. 26 CFR 20.2042-1 - Proceeds of life insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Proceeds of life insurance. 20.2042-1 Section 20... Proceeds of life insurance. (a) In general. (1) Section 2042 provides for the inclusion in a decedent's gross estate of the proceeds of insurance on the decedent's life (i) receivable by or for the benefit...

  20. 26 CFR 20.2042-1 - Proceeds of life insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Proceeds of life insurance. 20.2042-1 Section... Proceeds of life insurance. (a) In general. (1) Section 2042 provides for the inclusion in a decedent's gross estate of the proceeds of insurance on the decedent's life (i) receivable by or for the benefit...