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Sample records for dos ciudades argentinas

  1. Argentina.

    PubMed

    1986-06-01

    This discussion of Argentina covers geography, the people, history and political conditions, government, economy, foreign relations, and relations between the US and Argentina. In 1985, the population of Argentina was estimated to be 30.6 million with an estimated annual growth rate of 1.5%. The infant mortality rate is 34.1/1000, and life expectancy is 70.2 years. Argentina, which shares land borders with Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay, is bounded by the Atlantic and the Antarctic Oceans. Descendants of Italian and Spanish immigrants predominate in Argentina, but many trace their origins to British and West and East European ancestors. In recent years, there has been a substantial influx of immigrants from neighboring Latin American countries. The native Indian population, estimated to be 50,000, is concentrated in the peripheral provinces of the north, northwest, and south. What is now Argentina was discovered in 1516 by the Spanish navigator Juan de Solia. The formal declaration of independence from Spain was made on July 9, 1816. In the late 19th century, 2 forces worked to create the modern Argentine nation: the introduction of modern agricultural techniques and the integration of Argentina into the world economy. Argentina has impressive human and natural resources, but political conflict and uneven economic performance since World War II have impeded full realization of its considerable potential. Yet, it is one of the wealthiest countries in Latin America. Among the reasons for the military coup of March 1976 was the deteriorating economy, caused by declining production and rampant inflation. Under the leadership of the Minister of the Economy, the military government focused attention on those immediate problems, and, in 1978, embarked on a new development strategy focusing on the establishment of a free market economy. There was little improvement in the economy, and a new economic plan was introduced in 1985 which has capped inflation by

  2. Argentina.

    PubMed

    1993-02-01

    Background notes on Argentina provide a profile of the geography, selected demographic features, government and economic conditions. Descriptive text includes a discussion of the people, their history and political conditions, the government and officials, the state of the economy, their defense, foreign relations, and relations with the US. The 1992 estimated population was about 33 million of whom 97% are European (mostly Spanish and Italian). Religions represented are Roman Catholic (92%), Protestant (2%), Jewish (2%), and other (4%). Adult literacy is 95%. 36% are engaged in industry and commerce, 20% in services, 19% in agriculture, 6% in transport and communications, and 19% other. Per capita gross domestic product was $4,500. There are only 50,000 native Indians remaining in peripheral provinces. The population enjoys a high standard of living and a low growth rate. The country was shaped by dominant forces: modern agricultural techniques and the integration of the country into the world economy. Foreign investment aided the economic revolution. Conservative and radical rule has swung the country back and forth politically since 1916. Colonel Juan Domingo Peron led a successful military coup in 1943 and was elected in 1946. Policies were instituted to give a greater voice to the working class, and with the influences of his wife, women's groups. In 1955, he was ousted by the military, which failed to revive the economy and quiet increasing terrorism. After a number of difficult elections, Peron was reinstated as president in 1973. Extremists on the left and right threatened public order; the military as a consequence imprisoned persons indefinitely. Peron's wife succeeded him after his death, but was removed from office in the military coup of 1976. Basic human rights were violated during this period. By 1983, a fair election was held and support increased for a democratic system. In 1989, Carlos Saul Menem, a Peronist candidate, won and established

  3. Argentina: spotlight.

    PubMed

    Patriquin, W

    1987-10-01

    In 1987 Argentina had a population of 31.5 million, with an annual rate of increase of 1.6%. The total fertility rate was 3.3, and the birth rate was 24/1000 population. Mortality stood at 8/1000 population, and the infant mortality rate was 35.3/1000 live births. Life expectancy at birth is 70 years. 84% of the population lives in Argentina's urban areas. Current government policies call for regional development to maintain and increase population in rural areas and control growth in urban centers. 90% of the population is of European descent, largely as a result of high rates of immigration during the 1880s-1930s from countries such as Spain and Italy. In 1985 the gross national product per capita was US$2130. Argentina is rich in resources and almost self-sufficient in terms of basic foodstuffs, power supply, and advanced communication networks. On the other hand, political conflicts and economic crises have hindered the realization of both human and natural resource potential. 80% of the value of export products is the amount due in interest on foreign debts.

  4. Medical revolution in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ballarin, V L; Isoardi, R A

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses the major Argentineans contributors, medical physicists and scientists, in medical imaging and the development of medical imaging in Argentina. The following are presented: history of medical imaging in Argentina: the pioneers; medical imaging and medical revolution; nuclear medicine imaging; ultrasound imaging; and mathematics, physics, and electronics in medical image research: a multidisciplinary endeavor.

  5. El Planetario Móvil de la Municipalidad de la ciudad de Córdoba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, F. E.; Campos, M.; Goldes, G. V.; Carranza, G. J.; Romero, R.; Juri, H. O.

    Se describen las características y operatoria del nuevo Planetario Móvil. Se trata de un equipamiento de propiedad de la Municipalidad de la Ciudad de Córdoba que es operado por personal y en el predio de la Universidad, en virtud de un convenio suscripto entre ambas instituciones. El planetario consta de una cúpula inflable y de un proyector con programas alternativos que incluyen temas de astronomía, geografía, biología y medio ambiente, entre otros. En la actualidad opera en las instalaciones del Pabellón Argentina de la Ciudad Universitaria y recibe delegaciones escolares de todo el territorio provincial. El Planetario Móvil es parte de un proyecto más amplio de divulgación científica en el cual interactúan la Universidad y el Municipio.

  6. Dengue reemergence in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Avilés, G; Rangeón, G; Vorndam, V; Briones, A; Baroni, P; Enria, D; Sabattini, M S

    1999-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, eradicated from Argentina in 1963, has now reinfested the country as far south as Buenos Aires. In 1997, four persons with travel histories to Brazil, Ecuador, or Venezuela had confirmed dengue, and surveillance for indigenous transmission allowed the detection of 19 dengue cases in Salta Province. These cases of dengue are the first in Argentina since 1916 and represent a new southern extension of dengue virus.

  7. Dengue reemergence in Argentina.

    PubMed Central

    Avilés, G.; Rangeón, G.; Vorndam, V.; Briones, A.; Baroni, P.; Enria, D.; Sabattini, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, eradicated from Argentina in 1963, has now reinfested the country as far south as Buenos Aires. In 1997, four persons with travel histories to Brazil, Ecuador, or Venezuela had confirmed dengue, and surveillance for indigenous transmission allowed the detection of 19 dengue cases in Salta Province. These cases of dengue are the first in Argentina since 1916 and represent a new southern extension of dengue virus. PMID:10460181

  8. Asbestos banned in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Eduardo J

    2004-01-01

    In 1997, Argentina gave priority to asbestos in its National Plan for the Sound Management of Chemicals, and it was the subject of a Technical Task Force on Occupational Cancer. After five years of public hearings in which government, workers, industry advocates, environmentalists, clinicians, scientists, and consumers participated, it was agreed that asbestos exposure is a risk factor for both workers and the general population, and that Argentina should provide to its people the same protections adopted by many developed countries. Pressure from asbestos industry groups initially delayed the inclusion of chrysotile asbestos in the proposed ban, but on January 1, 2003, the mining and import of all forms of asbestos were banned in Argentina.

  9. Photovoltaic development in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrin, E.M.; Duran, J.C.; Frigerio, A.; Moragues, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    A critical assessment of the photovoltaic program in Argentina is presented. Research and development activities on photovoltaic cells as well as industrial and technological development are still in the initial stages. Activities accomplished by the Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) and the Institute of Technology Development for the Chemical industry (INTEC) are briefly described. The evolution of photovoltaic installations in Argentina is analyzed and accumulative data up to 1993 are given. A summary of the potential market for photovoltaic systems in the short and medium term is presented.

  10. Tidal power in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Aisiks, E.G.

    1993-03-01

    This presentation describes the tidal power potential of Argentina and the current status of its utilization. The topics of the presentation include tidal power potential, electric production of the region and the Argentine share of production and consumption, conventional hydroelectric potential, economic feasibility of tidal power production, and the general design and feasibility of a tidal power plant planned for the San Jose Gulf.

  11. Mathematics Education in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varsavsky, Cristina; Anaya, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the state of mathematics education in Argentina across all levels, in the regional and world contexts. Statistics are drawn from Mercosur and UNESCO data bases, World Education Indicators and various national time-series government reports. Mathematics results in national testing programmes, Programme for…

  12. Argentina: OGJ special

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.R.

    1995-02-13

    The deregulation and privatization of major Argentine industries has set off a boom in the oil industry, which is now open from exploration and production through basic petrochemicals and beyond, to anyone from anywhere. The quest for greater efficiency and application of advanced technology is now the order of the day. The author reports that Argentina is like a new world compared to the country he visited during assignments there in 1987 and 1991. What hasn't changed, his following articles show, is that YPF, the former state company, is still the dominant player though it has sold off billions in assets. The three articles in this special report are: privatization of state company catalyzes Argentina oil industry; YPF refineries aiming for world class operations; and YPF launches diverse attack in pursuit of production. An additional brief report is given on YPF executives.

  13. Rickettsia parkeri Rickettsiosis, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Seijo, Alfredo C.; Crudo, Favio; Nicholson, William L.; Varela-Stokes, Andrea; Lash, R. Ryan; Paddock, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    Rickettsia parkeri, a recently identified cause of spotted fever rickettsiosis in the United States, has been found in Amblyomma triste ticks in several countries of South America, including Argentina, where it is believed to cause disease in humans. We describe the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of 2 patients in Argentina with confirmed R. parkeri infection and 7 additional patients with suspected R. parkeri rickettsiosis identified at 1 hospital during 2004–2009. The frequency and character of clinical signs and symptoms among these 9 patients closely resembled those described for patients in the United States (presence of an inoculation eschar, maculopapular rash often associated with pustules or vesicles, infrequent gastrointestinal manifestations, and relatively benign clinical course). Many R. parkeri infections in South America are likely to be misdiagnosed as other infectious diseases, including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, dengue, or leptospirosis. PMID:21762568

  14. Argentina corn yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate corn yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the corn-growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1965 to 1980 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  15. Argentina wheat yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    Five models based on multiple regression were developed to estimate wheat yields for the five wheat growing provinces of Argentina. Meteorological data sets were obtained for each province by averaging data for stations within each province. Predictor variables for the models were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. Buenos Aires was the only province for which a trend variable was included because of increasing trend in yield due to technology from 1950 to 1963.

  16. Argentina soybean yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the soybean growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1969 to 1978 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  17. Argentina: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-17

    Forundizi stayed in office until March 29, 1962. Skillfully, Frondizi managed partially to revive the economy and set the country on the road toward... Frondizi could not win the support of all sections of the population for a concentrated effort of austerity to save Argentina’s economy from the chaos it...make sacrifices. Frondizi came to grief when the reinstated Peronist Party won control of several provinces and increased its membership in congress in

  18. Salmonella enteritidis in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Caffer, M I; Eiguer, T

    1994-01-01

    A significant increase in the number of isolations of Salmonella enteritidis has been observed in Argentina since 1986. Outbreaks of foodborne diseases in humans were associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked hens' eggs. Between 1986 and the first 6 months of 1993 there were 150 outbreaks reported, affecting more than 6000 persons. A total of 71.3% of these outbreaks were confirmed by stool cultures, and 47.3% by bacteriological study of the food implicated in the outbreak. A permanent surveillance of salmonellosis is imperative, taking into account the persistence of Salmonella enteritidis isolations in sporadic cases and in new outbreaks.

  19. Argentina from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image over Argentina was acquired on April 24, 2000, and was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution 'true color' bands. This image was presented on June 13, 2000 as a GIFt to Argentinian President Fernando de la Rua by NASA Administrator Dan Goldin. Note the Parana River which runs due south from the top of the image before turning east to empty into the Atlantic Ocean. Note the yellowish sediment from the Parana River mixing with the redish sediment from the Uruguay River as it empties into the Rio de la Plata. The water level of the Parana seems high, which could explain the high sediment discharge. A variety of land surface features are visible in this image. To the north, the greenish pixels show forest regions, as well as characteristic clusters of rectangular patterns of agricultural fields. In the lower left of the image, the lighter green pixels show arable regions where there is grazing and farming. (Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Group, NASA GSFC)

  20. Argentina offers something for everyone

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart-Gordon, T.J.

    1980-02-01

    Argentina is actively seeking private capital and expertise from around the world. The objective is energy self-sufficiency by 1982 by bringing $5 billion of private investment to bear on exploration and production projects. This year, the government is launching a program aimed at medium-to-large independent US oil companies. Enhanced recovery technology from the US companies is to be coupled with Argentine capital and used on fields for which Argentina has neither the manpower nor the money to work. Onshore and offshore risk contracts are also available. The exploration results and production potential of 5 basins (San Jorge Gulf, Neuquen, Cuyana, Austral, and Northeast) are explained.

  1. [Enterobiasis in students from Ciudad Bolivar, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Devera, R; Pérez, C; Ramos, Y

    1998-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is a nematode with a peculiar biological cycle, thus requiring a special diagnostic technique. In order to determine the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection among schoolchildren in Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela, 282 children aged 5-14 years old were evaluated between november 1995 and august 1996 by the Graham technique (three perianal swabs with adhesive cellulose tape). The prevalence of enterobiasis in the studied children was estimated 19.1% (54/282). There was no difference between sexes (P > 0.05), but there was a difference between ages (x2 = 13.8; 1.g. = 4), being the infection more frequent between 5 and 8 years. Symptoms were observed in 90.7% of the schoolchildren. Anal pruritus was the most common clinical finding (81.6%). Other less frequent manifestations were enuresis (28.6%) and vulvitis in girls (26.1%). This intestinal parasitosis occurs with high frequency among schoolchildren in Ciudad Bolívar with characteristic and identifiable symptoms in most cases. The Graham method must be used for its diagnosis. This test is not routinely performed in our laboratories unless specifically requested by the attending physician.

  2. 77 FR 76165 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Argentina-Measures Affecting the Importation of Goods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Argentina--Measures Affecting the... by Argentina on the importation of goods into Argentina. In particular, Argentina subjects the... Anticipada de Importaci n (``DJAI'') system. Argentina subjects the importation of certain categories...

  3. NREL technical assistance to Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Lilienthal, P.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes assistance to Argentina from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory which has touched on four programs: tariff analysis for rural concessions programs; wind/diesel hybrid retrofits in Patagonia; small hybrid systems designs for rural schools; an assessment of wind resources. The paper expands briefly on the first two points.

  4. Spanish Coastal Patrol Ships for Argentina and Mexico (Guardacostas Espanoles para Argentina y Mejico),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-22

    IN TRANS ATION ~TITLE: .SPANISH COASTAL PATROL SHIPS FOR ARGENTINA AND MEXICO GUARDACOSTAS EFPANOLES PARA ARGENTINA Y MEJICO AUTHOR: M; RAMIREZ...SHIPS FOR ARGENTINA AND MEXICO [Ramirez Gabarrus, M.; Guardacostas espaioles para Argentina y Mejico; Tecnologia Militar, No. 4, 1983; pP. 50, 53-54... Mexico , Mr. Alvarez de Vayo, signed a contract with the Mexican War Minister, General Cardenas, to build a series of 10 coastal patrol boats and five

  5. Anaglyph, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, at Los Menucos, Argentina shows remnants of relatively young volcanoes built upon an eroded plain of much older and contorted volcanic, granitic, and sedimentary rocks. The large, dark 'butterfly' pattern is a single volcano that has been deeply eroded. Large holes on the volcano's flanks indicate that they may have collapsed soon after eruption, as fluid molten rock drained out from under its cooled and solidified outer shell. At the upper left, a more recent eruption occurred and produced a small volcanic cone and a long stream of lava, which flowed down a gully. At the top of the image, volcanic intrusions permeated the older rocks resulting in a chain of small dark volcanic peaks.

    At the top center of the image, two halves of a light ellipse pattern are offset from each other. This feature is an old igneous intrusion that has been split by a right-lateral fault. The apparent offset is about 6.6 kilometers (4 miles). Tonal and topographic discontinuities reveal the fault trace as it extends across the image to the lower left. However, young unbroken basalt flows show that the fault has not been active recently.

    This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then producing the two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United

  6. Stereo Pair, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, at Los Menucos, Argentina shows remnants of relatively young volcanoes built upon an eroded plain of much older and contorted volcanic, granitic, and sedimentary rocks. The large purple, brown, and green 'butterfly' pattern is a single volcano that has been deeply eroded. Large holes on the volcano's flanks indicate that they may have collapsed soon after eruption, as fluid molten rock drained out from under its cooled and solidified outer shell. At the upper left, a more recent eruption occurred and produced a small volcanic cone and a long stream of lava, which flowed down a gully. At the top of the image, volcanic intrusions permeated the older rocks resulting in a chain of small dark volcanic peaks. At the top center of the image, two halves of a tan ellipse pattern are offset from each other. This feature is an old igneous intrusion that has been split by a right-lateral fault. The apparent offset is about 6.6 kilometers (4 miles). Color, tonal, and topographic discontinuities reveal the fault trace as it extends across the image to the lower left. However, young unbroken basalt flows show that the fault has not been active recently.

    This cross-eyed stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with an enhanced Landsat 7satellite color image. The topography data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. In doing so, each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive

  7. Stereo Pair: Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, near El Cain, Argentina shows complexly eroded volcanic terrain, with basalt mesas, sinkholes, landslide debris, playas, and relatively few integrated drainage channels. Surrounding this site (but also extending far to the east) is a broad plateau capped by basalt, the Meseta de Somuncura. Here, near the western edge of the plateau, erosion has broken through the basalt cap in a variety of ways. On the mesas, water-filled sinkholes (lower left) are most likely the result of the collapse of old lava tubes. Along the edges of the mesas (several locations) the basalt seems to be sliding away from the plateau in a series of slices. Water erosion by overland flow is also evident, particularly in canyons where vegetation blankets the drainage channels (green patterns, bottom of image). However, overland water flow does not extend very far at any location. This entire site drains to local playas, some of which are seen here (blue). While the water can reach the playas and then evaporate, what becomes of the eroded rock debris? Wind might excavate some of the finer eroded debris, but the fate of much of the missing bedrock remains mysterious.

    This cross-eyed stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with an enhanced Landsat 7 satellite color image. The topography data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. In doing so, each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The

  8. Anaglyph: Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, near El Cain, Argentina shows complexly eroded volcanic terrain, with basalt mesas, sinkholes, landslide debris, playas, and relatively few integrated drainage channels. Surrounding this site (but also extending far to the east) is a broad plateau capped by basalt, the Meseta de Somuncura. Here, near the western edge of the plateau, erosion has broken through the basalt cap in a variety of ways. On the mesas, water-filled sinkholes (lower left) are most likely the result of the collapse of old lava tubes. Along the edges of the mesas (several locations) the basalt seems to be sliding away from the plateau in a series of slices. Water erosion by overland flow is also evident, particularly in canyons where vegetation blankets the drainage channels (bright patterns, bottom of image). However, overland water flow does not extend very far at any location. This entire site drains to local playas, some of which are seen here (dark lakes with bright shores). While the water can reach the playas and then evaporate, what becomes of the eroded rock debris? Wind might excavate some of the finer eroded debris, but the fate of much of the missing bedrock remains mysterious.

    This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then producing the two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was

  9. Ciudad Juarez: A Feral City Threat on our Doorstep?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    a helpless victim of this narco -criminal activity. With 3,000 recorded murders in 20104F5, Ciudad Juarez was labeled the murder capital of the...generation gangs research: the rise of criminal ( narco ) city networks and BlackFor, realizes the possibility of feral cities based on the proliferation of... Chapo " Guzman. Joaquin “El Chapo ” Guzman and The Sinaloa Cartel The hostile takeover of Ciudad Juarez was simply another business acquisition

  10. Denuclearization in Argentina and Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Goldemberg, J.; Feiveson, H.A.

    1994-03-01

    The political process that led to the important agreements reached between Argentina and Brazil to guarantee that nuclear energy is used in both countries exclusively for peaceful purposes could prove to be a useful model. These achievements are due primarily to the return of democratic rule in both countries. While the political processes leading to fully integrated democratic institutions may not have taken hold as fully in other regions of proliferation concern, the Argentine-Brazilian agreements suggest that similar regional safeguards arrangements might be possible in South Asia, on the Korean Peninsula eventually, and perhaps in portions of the Middle East. These agreements include the creation of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) for the application of safeguards to both countries; and the Quadripartite Agreement between Brazil, Argentina, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and ABACC.

  11. Argentina: Nationality, Demography and Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-22

    consciousness. This is where Argentina’s weakness lies, a weakness at the foundation of any political, economic or social plan with which we try to solve our...retained their idiom and customs unusually long; not effectively socialized as Argentines; lack of national identity. The present situation. Our...work force. They lack social coverage and earn minimum wages under the table. Some Paraguayans become "contractors", the peak of the immigrant’s

  12. Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in a Market of Bolivian Immigrants in Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Pochettino, María Lelia; Puentes, Jeremías P.; Buet Costantino, Fernando; Arenas, Patricia M.; Ulibarri, Emilio A.; Hurrell, Julio A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research in urban ethnobotany, conducted in a market of Bolivian immigrants in the neighborhood of Liniers, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Functional foods and nutraceuticals belonging to 50 species of 18 families, its products, and uses were recorded. Some products are exclusive from the Bolivian community; others are frequent within the community, but they are also available in the general commercial circuit; they are introduced into it, generally, through shops called dietéticas (“health-food stores”), where products associated with the maintenance of health are sold. On this basis, the traditional and nontraditional components of the urban botanical knowledge were evaluated as well as its dynamics in relation to the diffusion of the products. Both the framework and methodological design are innovative for the studies of the urban botanical knowledge and the traditional markets in metropolitan areas. PMID:22203866

  13. Public University in Argentina: Subsidizing the Rich?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozada, Martin Gonzalez; Menendez, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    Investigates educational equity and efficiency of higher education in Argentina. Concludes that despite the fact that public universities are tuition-free, only students from the richest families in Argentina are able to attend universities. Suggests improving higher education equality and efficiency by charging tuition fees and offering selective…

  14. A new Batillipedidae (Tardigrada, Arthrotardigrada) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Menechella, Agustín G; Bulnes, Verónica N; Cazzaniga, Néstor J

    2015-10-16

    A new species of marine tardigrade, Batillipes acuticauda sp. n., has been found in midlittoral sand sediments collected at Monte Hermoso beach (Buenos Aires province, Argentina). The new species differs from all other members of Batillipedidae by its combination of caudal apparatus, lateral processes and toe patterns. It is the first description of an arthrotardigrade from Argentina.

  15. The Stenopodainae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Fernando; Coscarón, María del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In Argentina, 10 genera and 33 species of Stenopodainae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) have been recorded. Diagnoses of the genera, subgenera and species are given, and an illustrated key to genera is provided. Six species are new records for Argentina and an additional seven species represent new records for provinces. PMID:25493054

  16. 72 FR 39445 - Honey From Argentina and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-07-18

    ... COMMISSION Honey From Argentina and China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina and the antidumping duty orders on honey from Argentina and... Publication 3929 (June 2007), entitled Honey From Argentina and China: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-402 and...

  17. [Candidemia epidemiology in Córdoba Argentina. Surveillance study of five institutions].

    PubMed

    Riera, F; Medeot, M; Sartori, L; Bergallo, C; Minoli, J; Vilchez, V; Sánchez, P; Abiega, C; Pincheira, C; Correa, S; Bartoli, C; Figueroa, M; Montamat, M; Spitale, N; Minguez, A; Caeiro, J P

    2014-01-01

    La incidencia de infecciones invasivas por Candida ha aumentado en forma dramática en los últimos 20 años, siendo causa importante de mortalidad en torno al 40% en los pacientes hospitalizados. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, basado en reportes de laboratorio de cinco hospitales de tercer nivel de la ciudad de Córdoba entre enero de 2010 y agosto de 2012, con el objetivo de conocer la epidemiología regional. Resultados: 158 pacientes con candidemia, edad promedio de 55.8 años, el 60% internados en unidades de cuidados intensivos. Candida albicans 44%, Candida parapsilosis 22% y Candida tropicalis 12% fueron las principales especies aisladas. Candida parapsilosis estuvo comúnmente asociada a infecciones relacionadas a catéteres. Conclusiones: Esta serie local de la ciudad de Córdoba muestra que C. albicans, C. parapsilosis y C. tropicalis son las especies mas frecuentes coincidente con el perfil de las series publicadas en Argentina y Latinoamérica. Esto puede tener implicancias para decidir que agente antifúngico usar empíricamente para tratar las candidemias.

  18. [Physico-chemical and microbiological evaluation of UHT milk commercialized in three Mercosul countries (Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay)].

    PubMed

    Domareski, Jackson Luiz; Bandiera, Nataly Simões; Sato, Rafael Tamostu; Aragon-Alegro, Lina Casale; de Santana, Elsa Helena Walter

    2010-09-01

    With the aim to evaluate the physico-chemical and microbiological quality of UHT milk commercialized in three countries of Mercosul, samples of four different brands were acquired in each city (Foz do Iguaçu-Brazil, Puerto Iguazú-Argentina and Ciudad del Este-Paraguay) and submitted to the following analysis: fat content, titratable acidity, milk ethanol stability (with the following ethanol concentrations: 68, 72, 76 and 80%), total dry extract and no fat dry extract, pH, density and freezing point. Counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms were already done. In the physico-chemical evaluation of UHT milk, a significant number of samples were in disagree with the established patterns for fat content, no fat dry extract, density and freezing point. Except one brand from Brazil, milk samples showed stability to 68% ethanol. pH averages of Brazilian milk were in agree with the patterns and highest values were observed in samples acquired on Paraguay. Observing the microbiological analysis, 37.5%, 62.5% and 12.5% of samples acquired from Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, respectively, showed counts above the established patterns for mesophilic microorganisms. Counts of psychrotrophic microorganisms were in disagree with the established patterns in 50%, 50% and 100% of samples from Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, respectively.

  19. [Tuberculosis transmission in the triple border region: Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina].

    PubMed

    Braga, José Ueleres; Herrero, Maria Belén; Cuellar, Célia Martinez de

    2011-07-01

    Tuberculosis is a public health problem in South America, but numerous control strategies have proven ineffective in settings with intense transmission. This study aimed to determine whether the triple border region between Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay is an area of high tuberculosis transmission. An ecological study was conducted with incidence data and population estimates for the three countries. Mean incidence rates were calculated for 2001 to 2007. Spatial analysis techniques identified high-incidence areas in the region using maps with Bayesian smoothing of rates and spatial averages. During the target period, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil, had the highest incidence, followed by Ciudad del Este in Paraguay, and Puerto Iguazú in Argentina. The analysis showed a spatial cluster of municipalities with high tuberculosis risk in the triple border region. Tuberculosis in the tri-border area shows increasing or stable incidence rates and municipalities with incidence rates above the State average. The area has high tuberculosis incidence and therefore heavy transmission of the disease.

  20. [The health system of Argentina].

    PubMed

    Belló, Mariana; Becerril-Montekio, Victor M

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the health system of Argentina.This system has three sectors: public, social security and private.The public sector includes the national and provincial ministries as well as the network of public hospitals and primary health care units which provide care to the poor and uninsured population. This sector is financed with taxes and payments made by social security beneficiaries that use public health care facilities. The social security sector or Obras Sociales (OS) covers all workers of the formal economy and their families. Most OS operate through contracts with private providers and are financed with payroll contributions of employers and employees. Finally, the private sector includes all those private providers offering services to individuals, OS beneficiaries and all those with private health insurance.This sector also includes private insurance agencies called Prepaid Medicine Enterprises, financed mostly through premiums paid by families and/or employers.This paper also discusses some of the recent innovations implemented in Argentina, including the program Remediar.

  1. Education in acoustics in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyara, Federico

    2002-11-01

    Over the last decades, education in acoustics (EA) in Argentina has experienced ups and downs due to economic and political issues interfering with long term projects. Unlike other countries, like Chile, where EA has reached maturity in spite of the acoustical industry having shown little development, Argentina has several well-established manufacturers of acoustic materials and equipment but no specific career with a major in acoustics. At the university level, acoustics is taught as a complementary--often elective--course for careers such as architecture, communication engineering, or music. In spite of this there are several research centers with programs covering environmental and community noise, effects of noise on man, acoustic signal processing, musical acoustics and acoustic emission, and several national and international meetings are held each year in which results are communicated and discussed. Several books on a variety of topics such as sound system, architectural acoustics, and noise control have been published as well. Another chapter in EA is technical and vocational education, ranging between secondary and postsecondary levels, with technical training on sound system operation or design. Over the last years there have been several attempts to implement master degrees in acoustics or audio engineering, with little or no success.

  2. The ochodaeidae of Argentina (coleoptera, scarabaeoidea).

    PubMed

    Paulsen, M J; Ocampo, Federico C

    2012-01-01

    The Ochodaeidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of Argentina are revised. Previously, two species of Ochodaeinae were known from the country, both in the genus Parochodaeus Nikolajev: Parochodaeus campsognathus (Arrow) and Parochodaeus cornutus (Ohaus). An additional 7 species of Parochodaeus from Argentina are described here as new. In addition, Gauchodaeus patagonicus, new genus and new species in the subfamilyChaetocanthinae, is described. This is the first record of the subfamily Chaetocanthinae in South America. Redescriptions, diagnoses, and maps are provided for each species. We also provide a key to genera and a key to species of Parochodaeus of Argentina. With this work, the number of ochodaeid species known from Argentina is increased from 2 to 10.

  3. Argentina spectral-agronomic multitemporal data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmer, D.; Kinzler, C.; Tomppkins, M. A.; Badhwar, G. D.

    1983-01-01

    A multitemporal LANDSAT spectral data set was created. The data set is over five 5 nm-by-6 nm areas over Argentina and contains by field, the spectral data, vegetation type and cloud cover information.

  4. The Ochodaeidae of Argentina (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, M.J.; Ocampo, Federico C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Ochodaeidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of Argentina are revised. Previously, two species of Ochodaeinae were known from the country, both in the genus Parochodaeus Nikolajev: Parochodaeus campsognathus (Arrow) and Parochodaeus cornutus (Ohaus). An additional 7 species of Parochodaeus from Argentina are described here as new. In addition, Gauchodaeus patagonicus, new genus and new species in the subfamilyChaetocanthinae, is described. This is the first record of the subfamily Chaetocanthinae in South America. Redescriptions, diagnoses, and maps are provided for each species. We also provide a key to genera and a key to species of Parochodaeus of Argentina. With this work, the number of ochodaeid species known from Argentina is increased from 2 to 10. PMID:22451781

  5. Argentina: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-06

    Level Dialogue with Argentina to serve as a mechanism to ensure sustained engagement on bilateral issues and approaches toward regional and global...social unrest. In late 2001, as the banking system faltered and confidence in the government of President de la Rúa evaporated, widespread demonstrations...Deputies. Sources: International Monetary Fund (IMF); National Institute of Statistics and Census, INDEC (Argentina); World Bank (WB); and U.S

  6. Occurrence of Meloidogyne spp. in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Doucet, M. E.; Pinochet, J.

    1992-01-01

    A record of 84 plant species in 32 families that are hosts to the root-knot nematode species found in Argentina is presented. The genus Meloidogyne appears to be widely distributed in the country, with Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica the most frequently detected species. Other species found in Argentina include M. arenaria, M. cruciani, M. decalineata, M. hapla, and M. ottersoni. The present survey is supplemented with existing published information. PMID:19283059

  7. 72 FR 6745 - Honey From Argentina and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-02-13

    ... COMMISSION Honey From Argentina and China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of expedited five-year reviews concerning the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina and the antidumping duty orders on honey from Argentina and China. SUMMARY: The Commission...

  8. 66 FR 31948 - Honey From Argentina and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-06-13

    ... COMMISSION Investigations Nos. 701-TA-402 (Final) and 731-TA-892-893 (Final) Honey From Argentina and China... Argentina and less-than-fair-value imports from Argentina and China of honey, provided for in subheadings... honey, artificial honey containing more than 50 percent natural honey by weight, preparations of...

  9. 71 FR 64292 - Honey From Argentina and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-11-01

    ... COMMISSION Honey From Argentina and China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of five-year reviews concerning the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina and the antidumping duty orders on honey from Argentina and China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that...

  10. 65 FR 69573 - Honey From Argentina and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-11-17

    ... COMMISSION Honey From Argentina and China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Argentina and China of honey... United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Argentina of honey that are alleged to...

  11. 77 FR 45653 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...)] Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Institution of five-year reviews concerning the suspended investigations on lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico. AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... the suspended investigations on lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico would be likely to lead...

  12. History of exploration in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, L.A. )

    1989-09-01

    The paper will review the exploration activities in Argentina, but slightly departing from the technical-geological viewpoints which have been dealt with in a number of previous congresses and symposiums. The talk will cover Argentine geological basins, exploration history in each of them, a brief outline of their stratigraphic columns and producing formations, highlighting their original and remaining hydrocarbon reserves. Based on the history of the exploratory discoveries, and what has been learned from them, a forecast will be made of the necessary effort to recover the reserves that is estimated will be consumed up to the year 2000. The results obtained from the four rounds of bids for the exploration of the 165 areas under the so-called Houston Plan, will be extensively discussed and its principal clauses will be underlined. A special emphasis will be given to the Gas Exploration issue, summarizing its short history and the essential role that this fluid will play in the Argentine energy balance of the future.

  13. Argentina's YPF hones in on privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    This paper reports on Argentina's push to privatize and attract more foreign investment to its petroleum sector which continues to gather momentum. The Argentine government plans by year end 1992 to sell unprofitable assets of Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales, then sell as much as 50% of the state oil company through an international stock offering. If privatization proceeds as expected, YPF Pres. Jose Estenssoro the, the company's stock will be offered to private investors early in 1993. The company was founded in 1922. By March 1992, Argentina also will begin selling all assets of state owned Gas del Estado (GDE) through an international bidding process expected to take about 18 months.

  14. A current view of oncology in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Huñis, Adrián Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Since 2010, with the creation of the National Cancer Institute, the Argentine Republic has been tackling the battle against cancer as a genuine public health problem. Today in Argentina, there is a “cancer policy” whose pillars are prevention, education, assistance, and research. In this article, we provide information about the incidence and mortality of the tumours most common in adults and children, and details of some epidemiological aspects and advances Argentina has achieved in the battle against cancer in the past decade. PMID:26913073

  15. Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed.

  16. Registration of veterinary products in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Butler, E; Cané, B G

    1995-12-01

    A scheme for registering pharmaceutical and biological products for veterinary use was introduced in Argentina in 1994, as part of a joint scheme for countries of the Common Market of the South (Mercado Común del Sur: "Mercosur'). The authors describe the main features of these regulations, and the process which led to their development.

  17. Litigation in Argentina: challenging the tobacco industry

    PubMed Central

    Flores, M L; Barnoya, J; Mejia, R; Alderete, E; Pérez‐Stable, E J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the processes and outcomes of tobacco litigation in Argentina and to analyse the strategies of the tobacco industry to oppose litigation using tobacco industry documents. Methods A systematic search of tobacco industry documents on the internet dating from 1978 to 2002. Law library searches using Argentinean official and unofficial reports systems were combined with computerised online searches. Results There have been at least 15 failed litigation cases in Argentina and the tobacco industry presented a concerted defence in every claim regardless of cost. We categorised 11 cases as product liability and nicotine addiction, two as health care reimbursement, and two as criminal law and secondhand smoke. Industry strategies included hiring legal consultants from prestigious international and Argentinean law firms and developing litigation prevention programmes. Industry monitored legal academic meetings, controlled the development of new product liability legislation, obtained favourable opinions from experts, and closely observed the development of litigation in Argentina. Conclusion The strategies used by the industry have been successful in preventing recovery for tobacco injuries through litigation. Argentinean health advocates and lawyers need to be aware of the roles and strategies of the tobacco industry in order to develop effective litigation in Argentina. PMID:16565455

  18. Education Reform Brings New Challenges to Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Mercedes

    1997-01-01

    A description of recent changes in Argentina's system of education looks at underlying policy, the redesigned schooling system, emphasis placed on English language instruction, the teacher training system, and problems in the process for assuring an adequate flow of qualified English teachers. (MSE)

  19. Argentina: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-05

    the Americas held in Mar del Plata . President Kirchner’s movement toward closer relations with Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez also was a source of... angered by Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice’s decision to skip Argentina during a March 2008 visit to neighboring Brazil and Chile, but a visit by U.S

  20. MASTER: bright PSN discovered in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Chazov, V.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.; Pogrosheva, T.; Shurpakov, S.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-OAFA (located in Argentina) auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., 2010, Advances in Astronomy, vol. 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 22h 01m 01.36s -40d 15m 26.7s on 2016-10-31.08091 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.9m (mlim=19.9m).

  1. Microsporidian isolates from mosquitoes of Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsporidia are among the most common and widely distributed microbial pathogens associated with mosquitoes in nature. Since 1980 studies of microsporidia in mosquitoes of Argentina were conducted at the Laboratory of Insect Vectors of CEPAVE. Eleven morphologically unique species of microsporidia...

  2. Pathogenic Hantaviruses, Northeastern Argentina and Eastern Paraguay

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Valeria P.; Bellomo, Carla; Maidana, Silvina; San Juan, Jorge; Tagliaferri, Paulina; Bargardi, Severino; Vazquez, Cynthia; Colucci, Norma; Estévez, Julio; Almiron, María

    2007-01-01

    We describe the first, to our knowledge, cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in northeastern Argentina and eastern Paraguay. Andes and Juquitiba (JUQ) viruses were characterized. JUQV was also confirmed in 5 Oligoryzomys nigripes reservoir species from Misiones. A novel Akodon-borne genetic hantavirus lineage was detected in 1 rodent from the Biologic Reserve of Limoy. PMID:17953094

  3. Night Sky Protection Initiatives in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Beatriz; Pérez Álvarez, Silvina; Bibé, Victor; Risi, Andrés; Gino, Lisandro

    2015-03-01

    Light Pollution is a global problem. Some local actions carried out by a network of professional and amateur astronomers in Argentina are changing the way to attack this problem, taking into account measurements, education, public activities, planetarium shows and legislation proposals.

  4. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or...

  5. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cases of epidemic typhus have been documented in Argentina since 1919; however, no confirmed reports of spotted fever rickettsiosis were described in this country until 1999. We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (R...

  6. Contact dermatitis caused by dimethylfumarate in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lo Balbo, A; Gotelli, M J; Mac Cormack, W P; Kogan, N; Gotelli, C

    2011-07-01

    For the first time in Argentina, we describe an outbreak of contact dermatitis. New pairs of shoes caused intense pruritus, pain, and eruption, followed by edema, blisters, and a severe negative impact on the epidermal barrier of the feet. We identify dimethylfumarate as the causal agent and suggest an analytical method for its fast identification.

  7. The Case of Public Schools in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrogue, Cecilia; Orlicki, Maria Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    As Argentina presents problems of malnutrition, the federal in-school feeding program has become a key policy because it provides an important nutritional intervention during a relevant growth period. This paper estimates the effect of the program on academic performance--measured by standardized test scores--with a difference in difference model,…

  8. The New School Movement in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carli, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    This article aims to present some interpretations on the development of the new school movement in Argentina, with special focus on its relationship with the cultural modernization processes and with the political currents of the 1920s and 1930s, on its elements of continuity and differentiation with regard to the pedagogic tradition of normal…

  9. 77 FR 53959 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Argentina-Measures Affecting the Importation of Goods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ...-mentioned trade- restrictive commitments. Through these measures, Argentina appears to have acted... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Argentina--Measures Affecting the...'') concerning certain measures imposed by Argentina on the importation of goods. That request may be found...

  10. 70 FR 36563 - Honey from Argentina: Final Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-06-24

    ... International Trade Administration Honey from Argentina: Final Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative... its preliminary results of administrative review of the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina for the period January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2003. Honey from Argentina:...

  11. SRTM Anaglyph: Near Zapala, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Topographic data provided by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission can provide many clues to geologic history and processes. This view of an area southwest of Zapala, Argentina, shows a wide diversity of geologic features. The highest peaks (left) appear to be massive (un-layered)crystalline rocks, perhaps granites. To their right (eastward) are tilted and eroded layered rocks, perhaps old lava flows, forming prominent ridges. Farther east and south, more subtle and curvilinear ridges show that the rock layers have not only been tilted but also folded. At the upper right, plateaus that cap the underlying geologic complexities are more recent lava flows -younger than the folding, but older than the current erosional pattern. Landforms in the southeast (lower right) and south-central areas appear partially wind sculpted.

    This anaglyph was produced by first shading a preliminary elevation model from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National

  12. SRTM Anaglyph: Las Bayas, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The interplay of volcanism, stream erosion and landslides is evident in this Shuttle Radar Topography Mission view of the eastern flank of the Andes Mountains, southeast of San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina. Older lava flows emanating from the Andes once covered much of this area. Younger, local volcanoes (seen here as small peaks) then covered parts of the area with fresh, erosion resistant flows (seen here as very smooth surfaces). Subsequent erosion has created fine patterns on the older surfaces (bottom of the image) and bolder, irregular patterns through and around the younger surfaces (upper center and right center). Meanwhile, where a large stream immediately borders the resistant plateau (center of the image), lateral erosion has undercut the resistant plateau causing slivers of it to fall into the stream channel. This scene well illustrate show topographic data alone can reveal some aspects of recent geologic history.

    This anaglyph was produced by first shading a preliminary elevation model from data acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved

  13. DOS cones along atomic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwapiński, Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    The electron transport properties of a linear atomic chain are studied theoretically within the tight-binding Hamiltonian and the Green’s function method. Variations of the local density of states (DOS) along the chain are investigated. They are crucial in scanning tunnelling experiments and give important insight into the electron transport mechanism and charge distribution inside chains. It is found that depending on the chain parity the local DOS at the Fermi level can form cone-like structures (DOS cones) along the chain. The general condition for the local DOS oscillations is obtained and the linear behaviour of the local density function is confirmed analytically. DOS cones are characterized by a linear decay towards the chain which is in contrast to the propagation properties of charge density waves, end states and Friedel oscillations in one-dimensional systems. We find that DOS cones can appear due to non-resonant electron transport, the spin–orbit scattering or for chains fabricated on a substrate with localized electrons. It is also shown that for imperfect chains (e.g. with a reduced coupling strength between two neighboring sites) a diamond-like structure of the local DOS along the chain appears.

  14. [In search of puerperal madness in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Vaschetto, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify cases and scientific works about "puerperal madness" between 1850 and 1940 in Buenos Aires. The gradual installation of the device of maternities in the Argentina, and especially in the city of Buenos Aires, was not exempt from difficulties, in the medical boarding of the pregnant woman and parturient as well as in the cultural conception of the mothers. This fact presupposes an increase of the phenomenon called "puerperal madness" in the moment where the displacement of the act of giving birth in the house to the hospital takes place. Certainly, the clinical fact of the "puerperal madness" exceeds to the historical social context, and in this way appear all the psychopathologies related to the pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperal fevers. We also must take in account the influence of the medical speech about the feminine body and his translation to a scientific and institutional speech never before experienced in Argentina.

  15. Vaccines in Argentina: a regulatory view.

    PubMed

    Pérez, A C; Diez, R A

    2003-07-28

    In Argentina, vaccines for immuno-preventable diseases are regulated by the national regulatory agency, the Administración Nacional de Medicamentos, Alimentos y Tecnología Médica (the National Administration of Drugs, Food and Medical Devices, or ANMAT) created in 1992 to ensure efficacy and safety of drugs, food and medical devices available in the country, according to Law 16,463 and Decree 150/92. ANMAT has licensed 84 out of 157 vaccines registered in Argentina. Since 1994, ANMAT evaluated, approved and inspected 20 clinical trials with vaccines (1.8% of the 1062 trials approved by the agency since that time). The National System of Pharmaco-vigilance has received 318 communications of eventual adverse post-vaccination events (0.3% of the total). In addition, ANMAT provides support to the National Immunisation Programme. The current procedure is to follow international guidelines in the field, to be prepared for new, rapidly changing scenarios.

  16. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Christopher D; Fernandez, Susana; Echenique, Gustavo A; Sumner, John W; Reeves, Will K; Zaki, Sherif R; Remondegui, Carlos E

    2008-04-01

    We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or confirmed cases of spotted fever rickettsiosis in Jujuy Province and evaluated by polymerase chain reaction assays for spotted fever group rickettsiae. DNA of R. rickettsii was amplified from a pool of A. cajennense ticks and from tissues of one of four patients who died during 2003-2004 after illnesses characterized by high fever, severe headache, myalgias, and petechial rash. The diagnosis of spotted fever rickettsiosis was confirmed in the other patients by indirect immunofluorescence antibody and immunohistochemical staining techniques. These findings show the existence of RMSF in Argentina and emphasize the need for clinicians throughout the Americas to consider RMSF in patients with febrile rash illnesses.

  17. National Labor Administration and Democracy in Argentina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    years during the " Proceso " in voluntary exile in Spain. There he worked as legal advisor to the socialist labor federation, the Union General de...services, the provision of public goods in general , criminal justice, and interest group intermediation. In modern Argentina, one example of the latter...labor relations, for reasons that will become apparent shortly). This is because organized labor is generally considered to be the most important civilian

  18. MASTER: 2 OT discovered in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Pogrosheva, T.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Chazov, V.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-OAFA, located in Argentina, with auto-detection system (Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 03h 19m 42.92s -45d 30m 13.9s on 2016-10-27.27597 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.9m (mlim=20.8m).

  19. Counternarcotic Efforts in the Southern Cone: Argentina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-15

    in supporting international counter- narcotic actions. The epilogue stresses the need to change some aspects of the U.S. life-style to avoid losing the...Argentina is giving its best effort in supporting international countornarcotic actions. The epilogue in Chapter IV, stresses the need to change sono...International Narcotics Convention of 1961 which calls for the prohibition on coca chewing, but did not change its policy concerning the implemontation

  20. Acute intermittent porphyria in Argentina: an update.

    PubMed

    Cerbino, Gabriela Nora; Gerez, Esther Noemí; Varela, Laura Sabina; Melito, Viviana Alicia; Parera, Victoria Estela; Batlle, Alcira; Rossetti, María Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Porphyrias are a group of metabolic diseases that arise from deficiencies in the heme biosynthetic pathway. A partial deficiency in hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS) produces a hepatic disorder named Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP); the acute porphyria is more frequent in Argentina. In this paper we review the results obtained for 101 Argentinean AIP families and 6 AIP families from foreign neighbour countries studied at molecular level at Centro de Investigaciones sobre Porfirinas y Porfirias (CIPYP). Thirty-five different mutations were found, of which 14 were described for the first time in our population. The most prevalent type of mutations was the missense mutations (43%) followed by splice defects (26%) and small deletions (20%). An odd case of a double heterozygous presentation of AIP in a foreign family from Paraguay is discussed. Moreover, it can be noted that 38 new families were found carrying the most frequent mutation in Argentina (p.G111R), increasing to 55.66% the prevalence of this genetic change in our population and adding further support to our previous hypothesis of a founder effect for this mutation in Argentina. Identification of patients with an overt AIP is important because treatment depends on an accurate diagnosis, but more critical is the identification of asymptomatic relatives to avoid acute attacks which may progress to death.

  1. Acute Intermittent Porphyria in Argentina: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Cerbino, Gabriela Nora; Gerez, Esther Noemí; Varela, Laura Sabina; Melito, Viviana Alicia; Parera, Victoria Estela; Rossetti, María Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Porphyrias are a group of metabolic diseases that arise from deficiencies in the heme biosynthetic pathway. A partial deficiency in hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS) produces a hepatic disorder named Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP); the acute porphyria is more frequent in Argentina. In this paper we review the results obtained for 101 Argentinean AIP families and 6 AIP families from foreign neighbour countries studied at molecular level at Centro de Investigaciones sobre Porfirinas y Porfirias (CIPYP). Thirty-five different mutations were found, of which 14 were described for the first time in our population. The most prevalent type of mutations was the missense mutations (43%) followed by splice defects (26%) and small deletions (20%). An odd case of a double heterozygous presentation of AIP in a foreign family from Paraguay is discussed. Moreover, it can be noted that 38 new families were found carrying the most frequent mutation in Argentina (p.G111R), increasing to 55.66% the prevalence of this genetic change in our population and adding further support to our previous hypothesis of a founder effect for this mutation in Argentina. Identification of patients with an overt AIP is important because treatment depends on an accurate diagnosis, but more critical is the identification of asymptomatic relatives to avoid acute attacks which may progress to death. PMID:26075277

  2. International Reports on Literacy Research: Argentina, Mexico, France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Mallozzi, Christine, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on Argentina, Mexico, and France. In the first report, Melina Porto reports on a new implementation of a teacher-education program currently underway in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, under the leadership of teacher-researcher…

  3. Prospect for Development of Open Access in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Sandra; Bongiovani, Paola C.; Gomez, Nancy D.; Bueno-de-la-Fuente, Gema

    2013-01-01

    This perspective article presents an overview of the Open Access movement in Argentina, from a global and regional (Latin American) context. The article describes the evolution and current state of initiatives by examining two principal approaches to Open Access in Argentina: "golden" and "green roads". The article will then…

  4. Computing and Education in Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadowsky, Manuel

    Although the report is specifically about Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, the considerations presented are valid for all of Latin America. In September, 1969, Argentina had approximately 200 electronic computers. The annual growth is estimated at 15-20% and the implementation of teleprocessing and time-sharing systems have made evident the…

  5. Pro-Market Educational Governance: Is Argentina a Black Swan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beech, Jason; Barrenechea, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    In this article we explore ways in which pro-market discourses have been interpreted in policy initiatives in Argentina since the 1970s. Our argument is that even though pro-market discourses have guided reforms in many aspects of public policies in Argentina, the arena of education has overall been resistant to taking them up. The first part of…

  6. Laboratory surveillance of dengue in Argentina, 1995-2001.

    PubMed

    Avilés, Gabriela; Paz, Maria Valeria; Rangeon, Griselda; Ranaivoarisoa, Marie Y; Verzeri, Nora; Roginski, Sandra; Baroni, Pablo; Enria, Delia

    2003-06-01

    Local transmission of dengue fever virus in Argentina is increased by the presence of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and dengue outbreaks in neighboring countries. From 1995 to 2001, a laboratory-based active surveillance program detected 922 dengue cases. Indigenous transmission involving dengue-1 and -2 serotypes was confirmed only in subtropical areas in northern Argentina.

  7. Intercultural Citizenship Education in an EFL Online Project in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porto, Melina

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I describe an online intercultural citizenship experience in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom in Argentina. An action research project on the Malvinas/Falklands war fought between Argentina and the UK in 1982 was carried out in 2012. Through a comparative methodology involving Argentine and English foreign language…

  8. 66 FR 59026 - Honey From Argentina and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-11-26

    ... TRADE COMMISSION Honey From Argentina and China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... imports from Argentina and China of honey, provided for in subheadings 0409.00.00, 1702.90.00, and 2106.90... Commerce by the American Honey Producers Association, Bruce, South Dakota, and the Sioux Honey...

  9. 65 FR 59871 - Honey From Argentina and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-10-06

    ... COMMISSION Honey From Argentina and China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... honey, provided for in subheadings 0409.00.00, 1702.90, and 2106.90.99 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule... by reason of imports from Argentina of honey, provided for in subheadings 0409.00.00, 1702.90,...

  10. 78 FR 46610 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... COMMISSION Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina would be likely to lead to... investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  11. 78 FR 47006 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina would be likely to lead to... investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  12. Astronomy Teaching in Argentina in the 19th Century. (Spanish Title: La Enseñanza de la Astronomía en la Argentina del Siglo XIX.) O Ensino de Astronomia na Argentina no Século XIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberto Cornejo, Jorge; Santilli, Haydée

    2010-12-01

    Sarmiento believed that Copernican astronomy was one of the critical scientific disciplines to the formation of a "modern" citizen. In this work, we shall study astronomical science from two points of view: from the scientific knowledge and the educational presentation of such knowledge. Our study will address in Argentina in 19th century, starting from the initiative of Bernardino Rivadavia in 1821, who founded an astronomic observatory at Buenos Aires, until the first activities of the observatories at Córdoba and La Plata. On both lines, scientific and educative, we shall analyze the influence of positivist ideas. We shall highlight epistemological differences between both observatories, Córdoba's based on French positivism and La Plata's based on German positivism. We shall also show the different attitude of both observatories towards education. We shall see the way in which positivist ideas had great relevance in the training of elementary school teachers. We shall also establish the relevant influence of the socio-historical context over the astronomical development, and show that astronomy was a fundamental social factor at Argentina history. Domingo F. Sarmiento consideraba que la astronomía copernicana era una de las disciplinas científicas fundamentales para la conformación de un ciudadano "moderno". En este trabajo estudiaremos la ciencia astronómica desde dos vertientes: la referida específicamente al conocimiento científico y aquella vinculada con la presentación educativa de dicho conocimiento. Nuestro estudio se desarrollará en Argentina durante el siglo XIX, desde la iniciativa de Bernardino Rivadavia en 1821, de establecer en Buenos Aires un observatorio astronómico, hasta las primeras actividades de los observatorios de Córdoba y de La Plata. En ambas vertientes, científica y educativa, analizaremos la influencia de las ideas positivistas. Resaltaremos las diferencias epistemológicas entre los dos observatorios, orientado el primero

  13. 75 FR 23674 - Honey from Argentina: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... International Trade Administration A-357-812 Honey from Argentina: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina. See Honey from Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping... preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina for...

  14. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Balán, Iván C; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María M

    2011-03-01

    El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin.

  15. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires

    PubMed Central

    Balán, Iván C.; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O.; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria; Ávila, María M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

  16. Bibliografia Bibliotecologica Argentina [Hasta 1967] (A Bibliography of Library Science in Argentina [to 1967]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matijevic, Nicolas, Comp.

    A guide to library services, management, and organization is offered to professionals in this comprehensive bibliography, written in Spanish, of approximately 2500 items. Published by the Universidad Nacional del Sur (The National University of the South) in Bahia Blanca, Argentina, the list covers books, articles, monographs, manuals, catalogs,…

  17. [Discharges for external injuries from a hospital in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Apodaca, Beatriz A; De Cosio, Federico G; Moye-Elizalde, Gustavo; Fornelli-Laffon, Felipe F

    2012-05-01

    In Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, morbidity and mortality from injuries have increased alarmingly since 2008. This paper aims to examine the changes in the number of hospital discharges for external injuries recorded during the 2008-2010 period in a hospital in Ciudad Juarez. A descriptive retrospective study conducted at the Ciudad Juarez General Hospital looked at the incidence of external injuries as the reason for hospital discharges during the period under analysis. The average proportion of hospital discharges attributed to external injuries was 27%, with the 25-44-year-old age group being the most affected. More than half of the discharges were for fractures. The incidence rate of hospital discharges attributed to injuries in Ciudad Juarez was almost four times greater than that reported at the national level.

  18. Tobacco industry targeting youth in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Braun, S; Mejia, R; Ling, P M; Pérez-Stable, E J

    2013-01-01

    Background/aim Argentina has one of the highest cigarette smoking rates among both men and women in the Americas and no legislated restrictions on tobacco industry advertising. The tobacco industry has traditionally expanded markets by targeting adolescents and young adults. The objective of this study was to determine whether and how the tobacco industry promotes cigarettes to adolescents in Argentina. Methods We conducted a systematic search of tobacco industry documents available through the internet dated between 1995 and 2004 using standard search terms to identify marketing strategies in Argentina. A selected review of the four leading newspapers and nine magazines with reported high readership among adolescents was completed. The selected print media were searched for tobacco images and these were classified as advertisements if associated with a commercial product or as a story if not. Results The tobacco industry used market segmentation as a strategy to target Argentinean consumers. British American Tobacco (BAT) undertook a young adult psychographic study and classified them as “progressives”, “Jurassics” or “conservatives” and “crudos” or “spoiled brats”. BAT marketed Lucky Strike to the “progressives” using Hollywood movies as a vehicle. The tobacco industry also targeted their national brands to the conservatives and linked these brands with “nationalistic values” in advertising campaigns. Philip Morris promoted Marlboro by sponsoring activities directed at young people and they launched the 10 cigarettes packet as a starter vehicle. Conclusions The tobacco industry used psychographic segmentation of the population and developed advertising strategies focused on youth. Tobacco control researchers and advocates must be able to address these strategies in counter-marketing interventions. PMID:18299308

  19. New records of mosquitoes from northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dantur Juri, María J; Stein, Marina; Rossi, Gustavo C; Navarro, Juan Carlos; Zaidenberg, Mario; Sallum, María A Mureb

    2012-06-01

    Eleven mosquito species, namely Aedes hastatus, Ae. fulvus, Coquillettidia albicosta, Cq. juxtamansonia, Culex aliciae, Cx. delpontei, Cx. oedipus, Cx. pedroi, Mansonia flaveola, Uranotaenia leucoptera, and Wyeomyia oblita, are recorded for the first time from northwestern Argentina. In addition, 3 species, Cx. brethesi, Limatus durhami, and Ur. nataliae, are reported for the first time from Salta Province. These records extend the geographical distribution of these 3 species to Salta Province. This study also extends the geographical distributions of Cq. nigricans, Cx. chidesteri, and Ma. humeralis to Jujuy Province and of Ae. meprai, Ae. milleri, Ae. oligopistus, Cx. brethesi, Cx. fernandezi, and Cx. tatoi to Tucumán Province.

  20. Aedes aegypti resistance to temephos in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Seccacini, Emilia; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana; Masuh, Hector

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring of resistance of Aedes aegypti to temephos was implemented in the provinces of Formosa and Misiones, Argentina, as a response to the need to improve the vigilance for the dengue vector in areas of high risk of dengue. Eggs collected in each locality were reared, and susceptibility to temephos was assayed using larval bioassays. A weak decrease in susceptibility of larvae to temephos was observed in Clorinda and Puerto Iguazú, indicating an incipient resistance with a resistance ratio of 3. No control failures have been observed yet, and this program should allow the early detection of a real problem in our country.

  1. A DOS Primer for Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, Henry

    1989-01-01

    Presents a basic orientation to the functions and capabilities of disk operating systems (DOS), aimed at the nontechnically oriented user of IBM personal computers and compatible microcomputers. Areas discussed include booting up, the use of floppy and hard disks, file storage and manipulation, and directories. Further readings are provided. (CLB)

  2. Landsat classification of Argentina summer crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Gargantini, C. E.; Redondo, F. V.

    1987-01-01

    A Landsat MSS and TM classification approach based on three features derived from the greenness profile has proved very effective in separating and identifying corn, soybeans, and other ground cover classes in the U.S. The objective of this study is to investigate the separation of summer crops in Argentina, one of the most important commodity exporters, using the same greenness profile features that have proved effective in the U.S. Corn Belt. The area chosen for study is a more complex cropping practice area located in the north-west corner of Buenos Aires province in Pampa Humeda, where corn, soybean, sorghum, sunflower, and pastures are cultivated. It is shown that the profile features can provide very effective separation, except in the case of corn from sorghum. Separation between corn and soybeans was found to be greater than in the U.S. This study suggests that the automatic, unsupervised classification approach developed in the U.S., with relatively minor modification, can be used for summer crop area estimation in Argentina.

  3. [Dengue vaccines. A reality for Argentina?].

    PubMed

    Orellano, Pablo W; Salomón, Oscar D

    2016-01-01

    Dengue outbreaks have occurred yearly in Argentina since 1998. A number of candidate vaccines have been tested in endemic countries. The most advanced one was licensed in three countries of Latin America for children over 9 years of age. In the present article the benefits and drawbacks of these vaccines as well as the challenges for the implementation of a vaccination strategy in Argentina are discussed. Furthermore, a risk stratification strategy with new criteria and a multidisciplinary vision is suggested as a possible path for the assessment of the pertinence of a vaccination program in areas showing the highest risk of dengue transmission and/or for people at the greatest risk of developing severe dengue. It is also suggested that the definition regarding the status of endemicity should take into account the local realities. Finally, this paper proposes a broad discussion on the evidences, the expected impact and instrumental aspects that would be involved in the incorporation of a dengue vaccine, marketed or in development, into the national immunization program, and especially which subpopulation should be targeted for the immunization strategy to be cost-effective.

  4. Fusarium temperatum and Fusarium subglutinans isolated from maize in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fumero, María Verónica; Reynoso, María Marta; Chulze, Sofía

    2015-04-16

    Fusarium temperatum and Fusarium subglutinans isolated from the Northwest region (NOA region) of Argentina were characterized using a polyphasic approach based on morphological, biological and molecular markers. Some interfertility between the species was observed. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the two species represented two clades strongly supported by bootstrap values. The toxigenic profile of the strains was also determined. F. temperatum strains were fusaproliferin and beauvericin producers, and only some strains were fumonisin B1 producers. All F. subglutinans strains produced fusaproliferin but none produced beauvericin, indicating a potential toxicological risk from maize harvested in the NOA region of Argentina. This study provides new information about F. temperatum isolated from maize in Argentina.

  5. Revision of some ophiuroid records (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Brogger, Martin I; O'Hara, Timothy D

    2015-06-12

    The taxonomy of some ophiuroids reported from off Argentina, western Antarctica and the SW Atlantic Ocean is reviewed. The species Amphilepis sanmatiensis, known only from the small holotype, is a synonym of Amphioplus lucyae. This synonymy removes the only reported endemic ophiuroid from Argentina. The species name "Ophiacantha ingrata Koehler, 1923" used for specimens from South Georgia is invalid; the specimens are likely to belong to one of two cryptic species within the O. vivipara complex. Specimens of Amphiura joubini reported from Argentina are re-identified as Amphiura princeps, and specimens of Ophiactis amator from the Antarctic Peninsula are re-identified as Ophiactis asperula.

  6. Different Roles of DosS and DosT in the Hypoxic Adaptation of Mycobacteria▿

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Ju; Park, Kwang-Jin; Ko, In-Jeong; Kim, Young Min; Oh, Jeong-Il

    2010-01-01

    The DosS (DevS) and DosT histidine kinases form a two-component system together with the DosR (DevR) response regulator in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. DosS and DosT, which have high sequence similarity to each other over the length of their amino acid sequences, contain two GAF domains (GAF-A and GAF-B) in their N-terminal sensory domains. Complementation tests in conjunction with phylogenetic analysis showed that DevS of Mycobacterium smegmatis is more closely related to DosT than DosS. We also demonstrated in vivo that DosS and DosT of M. tuberculosis play a differential role in hypoxic adaptation. DosT responds to a decrease in oxygen tension more sensitively and strongly than DosS, which might be attributable to their different autooxidation rates. The different responsiveness of DosS and DosT to hypoxia is due to the difference in their GAF-A domains accommodating the hemes. Multiple alignment analysis of the GAF-A domains of mycobacterial DosS (DosT) homologs and subsequent site-directed mutagenesis revealed that just one substitution of E87, D90, H97, L118, or T169 of DosS with the corresponding residue of DosT is sufficient to convert DosS to DosT with regard to the responsiveness to changes in oxygen tension. PMID:20675480

  7. Egg parasitoids of Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera:Delphacidae) in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Mymaridae, and Platygastridae) of Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Argentina are reviewed and keyed. Newly described are Anagrus (Anagrus) empanadus Triapitsyn, sp. n. (Mymaridae, parasitoid of M. scutellaris Berg on water hyacinth, Eichhornia cras...

  8. 66 FR 44158 - Honey From Argentina and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-08-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Honey From Argentina and China AGENCY: International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject investigations. EFFECTIVE DATE: August 13, 2001. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  9. Brazil to help develop oil, gas in Argentina's Northeast basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-28

    This paper reports that Brazil and Argentina have agreed to joint exploration and development of oil and gas in Argentina's Northeast basin. Although not covered by the accord, the venture could lead to a 2,400 km, $2.5 billion gas pipeline system form the Argentine basin to southern Brazil, beyond almost $2 billion in exploration and development costs. The Northeast basin has proved reserves of 95 million bbl of crude oil and 2.1 tcf of gas.

  10. Phylodynamics of vampire bat-transmitted rabies in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    DOHMEN, F. GURY; BELTRAN, F.; NOVARO, L.; RUSSO, S.; FREIRE, M. C.; VELASCO-VILLA, A.; MBAYED, V. A.; CISTERNA, D. M.

    2016-01-01

    Common vampire bat populations distributed from Mexico to Argentina are important rabies reservoir hosts in Latin America. The aim of this work was to analyse the population structure of the rabies virus (RABV) variants associated with vampire bats in the Americas and to study their phylodynamic pattern within Argentina. The phylogenetic analysis based on all available vampire bat-related N gene sequences showed both a geographical and a temporal structure. The two largest groups of RABV variants from Argentina were isolated from northwestern Argentina and from the central western zone of northeastern Argentina, corresponding to livestock areas with different climatic, topographic and biogeographical conditions, which determined their dissemination and evolutionary patterns. In addition, multiple introductions of the infection into Argentina, possibly from Brazil, were detected. The phylodynamic analysis suggests that RABV transmission dynamics is characterized by initial epizootic waves followed by local enzootic cycles with variable persistence. Anthropogenic interventions in the ecosystem should be assessed taking into account not only the environmental impact but also the potential risk of disease spreading through dissemination of current RABV lineages or the emergence of novel ones associated with vampire bats. PMID:24661865

  11. Tobacco use among youths--Argentina, 2007 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Konfino, Jonatan; Ferrante, Daniel; Goldberg, Lucila; Caixeta, Roberta; Palipudi, Krishna Mohan

    2014-07-11

    Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of deaths worldwide. The MPOWER package, the six recommended policies of the World Health Organization (WHO) to reverse the tobacco epidemic, strongly recommends monitoring tobacco use trends. Because evidence indicates that smoking addiction often starts before the age of 18 years, there is a need to monitor tobacco use among youths. During 2011, a National Tobacco Control Law was enacted in Argentina that included implementation of 100% smoke-free environments, a comprehensive advertising ban (prohibiting advertising, promotion, and sponsorship of cigarettes or tobacco products through any media or communications outlets), pictorial health warnings, and a prohibition against the sale of tobacco products through any means to persons aged <18 years. To ascertain trends in tobacco use among youths in Argentina, the Argentina Ministry of Health and CDC analyzed data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) for 2007 and 2012 (the next year that it was administered in Argentina). The findings indicated that the overall proportion of youths aged approximately 13-15 years who reported ever smoking a cigarette declined from 52.0% in 2007 to 41.9% in 2012 with significant decreases among both males and females. In 2012, 52.5% of youths in Argentina reported secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in their homes and 47.5% in enclosed public places in the 7 days preceding the survey. Increased public education and tobacco control efforts will be important to discouraging tobacco use and decreasing SHS exposure among youths in Argentina.

  12. Phylodynamics of vampire bat-transmitted rabies in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Torres, C; Lema, C; Dohmen, F Gury; Beltran, F; Novaro, L; Russo, S; Freire, M C; Velasco-Villa, A; Mbayed, V A; Cisterna, D M

    2014-05-01

    Common vampire bat populations distributed from Mexico to Argentina are important rabies reservoir hosts in Latin America. The aim of this work was to analyse the population structure of the rabies virus (RABV) variants associated with vampire bats in the Americas and to study their phylodynamic pattern within Argentina. The phylogenetic analysis based on all available vampire bat-related N gene sequences showed both a geographical and a temporal structure. The two largest groups of RABV variants from Argentina were isolated from northwestern Argentina and from the central western zone of northeastern Argentina, corresponding to livestock areas with different climatic, topographic and biogeographical conditions, which determined their dissemination and evolutionary patterns. In addition, multiple introductions of the infection into Argentina, possibly from Brazil, were detected. The phylodynamic analysis suggests that RABV transmission dynamics is characterized by initial epizootic waves followed by local enzootic cycles with variable persistence. Anthropogenic interventions in the ecosystem should be assessed taking into account not only the environmental impact but also the potential risk of disease spreading through dissemination of current RABV lineages or the emergence of novel ones associated with vampire bats.

  13. End to deficit of LPG. [Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Andrich, V.

    1980-03-01

    In the Buenos Aires province of Argentina, Gas de Estado is constructing the future heart of the petrochemical complex, Bahia Blanca. The complex contains 2 absorption-refrigeration plants, a gas compressing plant, equipment maintenance shops and an important operations base for the Argentine truck gas pipelines. This will be the largest LPG plant in Latin America. The General Cerri plant, under construction, is located in an area of 40,000 sq m with new installations to extract ethane and higher hydrocarbons. The design optimizes the extraction of hydrocarbons from the natural gas and recovers 76% of the ethane. Selection of the process resulted from an investigation that compared the system with processes that use water cooling and absorption with refrigerated oil.

  14. Pie de Palo, Argentina: A cataclastic diapir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2009-03-01

    The term cataclastic diapirism is proposed for the low-temperature extrusion of highly fractured rocks through more competent strata to produce domed topographies at the surface. The process is illustrated by reference to the geomorphology, neotectonics and microseismicity of the Pie de Palo, an elongated ridge in the western Sierras Pampeanas of Argentina composed of shattered and sheared Lower Palaeozoic rocks and subject to coseismic uplift. The Pie de Palo is conventionally interpreted as a fault-driven basement fold linked to low-angle eastward subduction of the Nazca plate beneath South America; the diapiric model implies instead that deformation is powered by regional compression from west-verging, near-surface, crustal shortening which results ultimately from Atlantic spreading.

  15. The Burden of Diabetes in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    González, Lorena; Caporale, Joaquín E.; Elgart, Jorge F.; Gagliardino, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To measure the economic burden of diabetes in Argentina by age, gender and region for the year 2005, in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Methods: DALYs were estimated by the sum of years of life lost due to premature death (YLL) and years of life lived with disability (YLD). Results: In the population studied (20 to 85 years), the burden of diabetes without complications was 1.3 million DALYs, 85% of which were caused by disabilities. Whereas mortality rates (YLL) increased as a function of age, YLD showed the opposite relationship. Women had higher burden of disease values, represented by 51 and 61% of YLL and YLD, respectively, independently of age. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that disabilities are a key component of diabetes burden; its regular and systematic estimation would allow to design effective prevention strategies, to assess the impact of their implementation and to optimize resource allocation based on objective evidence. PMID:25948443

  16. Republic of Argentina: Argentina is the envy of other Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Spain, D

    1984-05-01

    Argentina's economic and political history may appear grim by US standards, but it is envied by many other Latin American nations, and by Latin American standards its demographic situation is enviable as well. A low population growth rate combined with abundant natural resources means that the poverty of its neighbors has not hit Argentina. Almost everyone eats well and the staple is beef -- about 240 pounds per capita per year. Final figures for the 1980 census of population and housing report a total of 27.9 million people, an increase of 17% from the 23.8 million people counted in 1970. The average annual rate of increase was 1.5% a year. With the exception of Uruguay, this is the lowest rate of increase in continental Latin America. The birthrate of 24 births/1000 population is third only to Chile and Uruguay as the lowest in continental Latin America, although the death rate is about average at 9/1000. After several decades of decline, the death rate is rising again because the population is aging. A current problem is the emigration of Argentinians to other countries, a problem that is most severe among highly trained professionals. Over 1/3 of those who leave Argentina come to the US, with Spain and Canada receiving the next highest numbers. At its current growth rate, Argentina's population will double in 46 years. It is estimated that the population was 29.1 million in 1983; it is projected to be 34.5 million by the year 2000 and 39.6 million by 2020. Over 1/3 of the population live in and around Gran Buenos Aires, the largest metropolitan area in South America and among the ten largest in the world. There is a large core of Spanish descendents still living, but some other European countries are well represented also. The 1980 census recorded 7.1 million households; the average number of persons per household was 3.9. There were 8.2 million dwellings counted in 1980, with an average of 3.3 people per dwelling. 13% of all dwellings were unoccupied at the

  17. Mirror Coronograph for Argentina (MICA). Primera Luz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenborg, G.; Epple, A.; Schwenn, R.; Francile, C.; Rovira, M.

    En Julio de 1997 se terminó con la primera parte de la instalación del ``Coronógrafo de Espejo para la Argentina'' en la estación de altura Carlos U. Cesco (El Leoncito), gracias al esfuerzo de la gente del Max Planck Institut für Aeronomie (Alemania), del OAFA y del IAFE. Dicho coronógrafo forma parte de un programa de ciencia bilateral entre Alemania y Argentina. El propósito del mismo, en conjunción con otros telescopios solares y terrestres, es contribuir a un mejor entendimiento de cuestiones fundamentales de la física solar. Para ello, ya está observando la corona de emisión en el verde (Fe XIV), rojo (Fe X) y Hα entre 1.05 y 2 radios solares aproximadamente. El diseño del instrumento, el cual fuera ya presentado en esta misma reunión en La Plata en 1996, es esencialmente similar al del telescopio LASCO-C1 a bordo del Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). La adquisición de datos se realiza con un CCD de 1280x1024 pixels, codificando en 12 bits, pudiendo ser el mismo operado en forma remota. En esta reunión presentaremos algunas de las observaciones realizadas durante la puesta a punto del instrumento en el período julio-setiembre de 1997. Asimismo expondremos cómo y por qué sus resultados complementarán a los de su par en el espacio.

  18. 75 FR 12734 - Honey from Argentina: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... International Trade Administration Honey from Argentina: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review... the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina. See Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order..., 2009). On December 31, 2009, the American Honey Producers Association and the Sioux Honey...

  19. 74 FR 26842 - Honey From Argentina: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-06-04

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review... order on honey from Argentina. See Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended..., 2008, the American Honey Producers Association and the Sioux Honey Association (petitioners)...

  20. 76 FR 16609 - Honey From Argentina: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review... order on honey from Argentina for the period January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2010 based on a... published in the Federal Register the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina. See Notice...

  1. 76 FR 29192 - Honey From Argentina: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... 2008-2009 administrative review of the antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina. See Honey From...., Patagonik S.A., and TransHoney S.A.; all three exporters of honey from Argentina to the United States...

  2. 77 FR 36253 - Honey From Argentina: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... 2009-2010 administrative review of the antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina.\\1\\ The review... in the ``Final Results of Review'' section of this notice. \\1\\ See Honey From Argentina:...

  3. 77 FR 21968 - Honey From Argentina: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review... countervailing duty order on honey ] from Argentina. See Notice of Countervailing Duty Order: Honey From... opportunity to request an administrative review of the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina...

  4. 76 FR 54202 - Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper... antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina in response to a request from Villamora S.A. (Villamora), an... Department published the antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina on December 10, 2001. See Notice...

  5. 76 FR 5332 - Honey From Argentina: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper... antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina. See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Honey From Argentina, 66...: Background On December 10, 2001, the Department published the antidumping duty order on honey from...

  6. 77 FR 1458 - Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina. The review covers imports of subject merchandise from nine... determine that sales of honey from Argentina have not been made below normal value (NV) by...

  7. 77 FR 4763 - Honey From Argentina: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper... ] antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina. See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Honey From Argentina, 66...: Background On December 10, 2001, the Department published the antidumping duty order on honey from...

  8. 76 FR 2655 - Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina. The review covers... determine that sales of honey from Argentina have not been made below normal value (NV) by TransHoney...

  9. 69 FR 76450 - Honey from Argentina: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-12-21

    ... International Trade Administration C-357-813 Honey from Argentina: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty... countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina for the period January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2003. If... countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina. See Notice of Countervailing Duty Order: Honey From...

  10. 69 FR 30283 - Honey From Argentina: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-05-27

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... order on honey from Argentina produced and/or exported by Asociacion de Cooperativas Argentinas (``ACA''), HoneyMax S.A. (``HoneyMax''), Nexco S.A. (``Nexco''), Seylinco S.A. (``Seylinco''), and TransHoney...

  11. 68 FR 69660 - Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-12-15

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty... countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina for the period January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2002. If... Department published in the Federal Register the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina....

  12. 70 FR 5965 - Honey from Argentina: Initiation of New Shipper Antidumping Duty Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-02-04

    ... International Trade Administration A-357-812 Honey from Argentina: Initiation of New Shipper Antidumping Duty....214 (c), for a new shipper review of the antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina. See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Honey from Argentina, 66 FR 63672 (December 10, 2001). El Mana ] identified itself...

  13. 69 FR 621 - Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-01-06

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... announcing the initiation of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina... sales of honey from Argentina have been made below the normal value (NV) in the cases of Nexco S.A....

  14. 71 FR 67850 - Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of New Shipper Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-11-24

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of New Shipper Review AGENCY...) is conducting a new shipper review of the antidumping order of honey from Argentina. The period of... the case of sales of honey from Argentina from Patagonik. If these preliminary results are adopted...

  15. [Nutritional graph for Argentina's bariatric population].

    PubMed

    Fantelli Pateiro, Laura; Pampillón, N; Coqueugniot, M; De Rosa, P; Pagano, C; Reynoso, C; De Pizzol, C; Iturralde, C; Podestá, S; Penutto, C

    2014-06-01

    Introducción: Una gráfica alimentaria es una guía que ayuda a los individuos a controlar y a mejorar la calidad de su alimentación; ofrece pautas sobre lo que debe comer una determinada población en términos de alimentos dando un marco para la correcta selección de los nutrientes a consumir. Objetivo: El objetivo de la presente publicación fue crear una herramienta de educación alimentaria destinada a pacientes de cirugía bariátrica para el postoperatorio en el largo plazo. Métodos: Se convocó a participar en mesas de trabajo a licenciados en nutrición y médicos especialistas en nutrición en un congreso realizado en el 2011. Se tomó como base científica el Primer Consenso Argentino de Nutrición en Cirugía Bariátrica y las “Guías alimentarias para la Población Argentina normal”. De esta forma se adapta la misma a la población argentina con cirugía bariátrica sumada a la experiencia de los profesionales. Resultado: Como resultado se obtuvo un gráfica alimentaria en forma de óvalo, adaptación de la gráfica de las “Guías alimentarias para la población argentina”, 12 mensajes o recomendaciones dirigidas a individuos con CB, una sugerencia de menú que responde a un valor calórico promedio de 1.273 calorías diarias, 145 g de carbohidratos, 76 g de proteínas y 43,2 g de grasas; 45,5% de calorías proveniente de los carbohidratos, 24% de calorías proveniente de las proteínas y 30,5 % de calorías proveniente de las grasas, 1.160 mg de calcio.

  16. [Latin American malacology. Freshwater mollusks from Argentina].

    PubMed

    Rumi, Alejandra; Gregoric, Diego E Gutiérrez; Núñez, Verónica; Darrigran, Gustavo A

    2008-03-01

    A report and an updated list with comments on the species of freshwater molluscs of Argentina which covers an area of 2 777 815 km2 is presented. Distributions of Gastropoda and Bivalvia families, endemic, exotic, invasive as well as entities of sanitary importance are also studied and recommendations on their conservation are provided. Molluscs related to the Del Plata Basin have been thoroughly studied in comparison to others areas of the country. This fauna exhibits relatively the biggest specific richness and keeps its affinity with the fauna of other regions of the basin in areas of Paraguay and Brasil. The 4 500 records of molluscs considered in this paper arise from the study of the collections of Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires; Museo de La Plata, La Plata and Fundación "Miguel Lillo", Tucumán. These institutions keep very important collections of molluscs in southern South America. Field information has recently been obtained and localities cited by other authors are also included in the data base. Until today, 166 species have been described, 101 belonging to 10 families of Gastropoda and 65 to 7 of Bivalvia. Families with highest specific richness are Lithoglyphidae (22) and Sphaeriidae (25), respectively. The number of endemic species (those present only in Argentina) by family is: Gastropoda: Ampullariidae (1), Cochliopidae (10), Lithoglyphidae (11), Thiariidae (3), Chilinidae (11), Lymnaeidae (2) and Physidae (2?); Bivalvia: Hyriidae (1?); Etheriidae (1?) and Sphaeriidae (10). Families with a distribution that comprise almost the whole country are: the Sphaeriidae and the gastropods Cochliopidae, Chilinidae and Lymnaeidae. Families Erodonidae and Solecurtidae (Bivalvia) were registered in mixohaline environments from Buenos Aires province. Gastropod families Thiaridae and Glacidorbiidae show a very restricted distribution. The rest of the families are present mainly in the center and north of the country

  17. Tobacco industry successfully prevented tobacco control legislation in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sebrie, E; Barnoya, J; Perez-Stable, E; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate how transnational tobacco companies, working through their local affiliates, influenced tobacco control policymaking in Argentina between 1966 and 2005. Methods: Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, local newspapers and magazines, internet resources, bills from the Argentinean National Congress Library, and interviews with key individuals in Argentina. Results: Transnational tobacco companies (Philip Morris International, British American Tobacco, Lorillard, and RJ Reynolds International) have been actively influencing public health policymaking in Argentina since the early 1970s. As in other countries, in 1977 the tobacco industry created a weak voluntary self regulating code to avoid strong legislated restrictions on advertising. In addition to direct lobbying by the tobacco companies, these efforts involved use of third party allies, public relations campaigns, and scientific and medical consultants. During the 1980s and 1990s efforts to pass comprehensive tobacco control legislation intensified, but the organised tobacco industry prevented its enactment. There has been no national activity to decrease exposure to secondhand smoke. Conclusions: The tobacco industry, working through its local subsidiaries, has subverted meaningful tobacco control legislation in Argentina using the same strategies as in the USA and other countries. As a result, tobacco control in Argentina remains governed by a national law that is weak and restricted in its scope. PMID:16183967

  18. Explaining ethnic disparities in preterm birth in Argentina and Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Wehby, George L; Pawluk, Mariela; Nyarko, Kwame A; López-Camelo, Jorge S

    2016-11-22

    Little is understood about racial/ethnic disparities in infant health in South America. We quantified the extent to which the disparity in preterm birth (PTB; <37 gestational weeks) rate between infants of Native only ancestry and those of European only ancestry in Argentina and Ecuador are explained by household socio-economic, demographic, healthcare use, and geographic location indicators. The samples included 5199 infants born between 2000 and 2011 from Argentina and 1579 infants born between 2001 and 2011 from Ecuador. An Oaxaca-Blinder type decomposition model adapted to binary outcomes was estimated to explain the disparity in PTB risk across groups of variables and specific variables. Maternal use of prenatal care services significantly explained the PTB disparity, by nearly 57% and 30% in Argentina and Ecuador, respectively. Household socio-economic status explained an additional 26% of the PTB disparity in Argentina. Differences in maternal use of prenatal care may partly explain ethnic disparities in PTB in Argentina and Ecuador. Improving access to prenatal care may reduce ethnic disparities in PTB risk in these countries.

  19. [Coccidioidomycosis in Argentina, 1892-2009].

    PubMed

    Canteros, C E; Toranzo, A; Ibarra-Camou, B; David, V; Carrizo, S G; Santillán-Iturres, A; Serrano, J; Fernández, N; Capece, P; Gorostiaga, J; Chacón, Y A; Tonelli, R; Boscaro, G; Abiega, C; Mendieta, S; Fernández, C; Fernández, A; Vitale, R; Santos, P; Pizarro, M R; López-Joffre, M C; Lee, W; Mazza, M; Posse, G; Tiraboschi, I N; Negroni, R; Davel, G

    2010-01-01

    Clinical cases of coccidioidomycosis are rare in Argentina and are generally found in the large arid precordilleran area of the country. This study aims to perform a retrospective review of all coccidioidomycosis cases documented in the country from 1892 to 2009, and to describe those occurring in the last 4 years. One hundred and twenty eight cases were documented in the 117 year-period. Since the original description of the disease in 1892 until 1939, only 6 cases were registered; between 1940 and 1999, 59 (6-14/10 yrs) and the remaining 63 (49% of total cases) occurred in the last decade. The median age of 34 patients registered in 2006-2009 was 31 years (range: 7-89), male/female ratio was 1.3:1 and 12 patients were immunocompromised. Twenty-six cases were confirmed by direct microscopy and/or culture whereas the remaining ones by serology. All isolates were identified as Coccidioides posadasii. Thirty patients lived in a vast geographic region with epicenter in Catamarca Valley. Between 2006 and 2009, annual disease incidence rates in Catamarca Province increased from historical values below 0.5/100,000 to 2/100,000 inhabitants. Such increase suggests an emergency of coccidioidomycosis in that region.

  20. Genetic Influences on Preterm Birth in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Paul C.; Cooper, Margaret E.; Ryckman, Kelli K.; Comas, Belén; Gili, Juan; Crumley, Suzanne; Bream, Elise N.A.; Byers, Heather M.; Piester, Travis; Schaefer, Amanda; Christine, Paul J.; Lawrence, Amy; Schaa, Kendra L.; Kelsey, Keegan J.P.; Berends, Susan K.; Gadow, Enrique; Cosentino, Viviana; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Camelo, Jorge López; Saleme, Cesar; Day, Lori J.; England, Sarah K.; Marazita, Mary L.; Dagle, John M.; Murray, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate genetic etiologies of preterm birth (PTB) in Argentina through evaluation of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in candidate genes and population genetic admixture. Study Design Genotyping was performed in 389 families. Maternal, paternal, and fetal effects were studied separately. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was sequenced in 50 males and 50 females. Y-chromosome anthropological markers were evaluated in 50 males. Results Fetal association with PTB was found in the progesterone receptor (PGR, rs1942836; p= 0.004). Maternal association with PTB was found in small conductance calcium activated potassium channel isoform 3 (KCNN3, rs883319; p= 0.01). Gestational age associated with PTB in PGR rs1942836 at 32 –36 weeks (p= 0.0004). MtDNA sequencing determined 88 individuals had Amerindian consistent haplogroups. Two individuals had Amerindian Y-chromosome consistent haplotypes. Conclusions This study replicates single locus fetal associations with PTB in PGR, maternal association in KCNN3, and demonstrates possible effects for divergent racial admixture on PTB. PMID:23018797

  1. Clusters of Hantavirus Infection, Southern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Cantoni, Gustavo E.; Calanni, Liliana M.; Resa, Amanda J.; Herrero, Eduardo R.; Iacono, Marisa A.; Enria, Delia A.; Cappa, Stella M. González

    2007-01-01

    Person-to-person transmission of a hantavirus was first confirmed during a 1996 outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southern Argentina, where Andes virus is endemic. To identify other episodes of secondary transmission, we reviewed reports of 51 hantavirus infection cases from this region (November 1993–June 2005). Nine clusters involving 20 cases (39.2%) were found. Two patients, who had symptoms 3 weeks after they shared risks for rodent exposure, were considered a cluster. The other 8 clusters each began with an index case, which was almost always fatal, followed 19–40 days later by the illness of >1 person who had close and prolonged contact with the index case-patient. Person-to-person transmission was considered the probable source of these 8 clusters. The probability of initiating secondary cases was 41% for patients who died versus 4% for those who survived (p = 0.005). Interpersonal transmission of Andes virus infection should be considered even when rodent exposure cannot be definitively excluded. PMID:17370522

  2. Market opportunities for fuel cells in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Marschoff, C.M.; Lande, J.; Espindola, S.

    1996-12-31

    Electricity in Argentina is mainly supplied through the National Interconnected System (NIS) grid, that manages the generation of all medium and large size utilities (thermal, hydro and nuclear) in the country. However, there are still large areas not linked to the NIS: electricity there either comes from utilities that mainly work with diesel groups, or is obtained by individuals from 1-5 kW generators (mostly IC powered, although some wind and solar devices also exist). Finally, in many low-income rural and semi-rural sites, there is no electric generation at all. In this context, we wish to show that there is an important market niche where fuel cells should be competitive and that this market size justifies a detailed investment analysis. Thus, we have performed economic calculations in three sites, which are representative samples of different structural situations, in which costs of fuel cell produced electricity are compared to presently existing devices. Also, calculations were carried out for use of fuel cells in Antarctica.

  3. Cancer incidence pattern in Cordoba, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Díaz, María del Pilar; Osella, Alberto R; Aballay, Laura R; Muñoz, Sonia E; Lantieri, María J; Butinof, Mariana; Paz, Roberto Meyer; Pou, Sonia; Eynard, Aldo R; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2009-08-01

    Cancer is the second cause of death in Argentina; nevertheless the distribution of the cancer incidence rates throughout the country is unknown. This study was conducted to describe cancer incidence patterns in Córdoba Province. Incidence data were supplied by the Government Córdoba Cancer Registry. Demographic information (age, sex, and place of residence) and diagnosis, certified by a pathologist, about all incident cases from June 2003 to May 2005 by type and 5-year age groups were obtained. Comparison of the incidence rate of cancer in various counties was performed by using standardized incidence rates (SIR) per 100,000 inhabitants using the world standard population. Estimated SIRs were used to build up incidence maps. Two indicators were created: sex ratio and site-specific ratio. Mixed Poisson models were fitted. Taken as a whole for all counties, SIR was 121.42 and 141.57 for men and women, respectively. The most common sites in men were prostate (13.62), lung (10.12), colon (7.53), and bladder (7.03); in women were breast (22.51) and colon (3.31). The highest and lowest rates were in urban and rural areas, respectively. Cancer registry has a pivotal role in cancer control. Such information is the primary resource of information not only for epidemiological research on cancer determinants but also for planning and evaluating health services for the policies of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  4. Triatoma infestans in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gajate, P; Pietrokovsky, S; Abramo Orrego, L; Pérez, O; Monte, A; Belmonte, J; Wisnivesky-Colli, C

    2001-05-01

    The Health Administration Agencies of many municipalities in Greater Buenos Aires (GBA) receive frequent reports on triatomines in houses. The aim of this work was to identify and describe the dispersal foci of Triatoma infestans in an urban neighborhood of GBA, and contribute to the knowledge of the epidemiological situation in the region. In June 1998, potentially infested places were entomologically evaluated. T. infestans was only detected in a hen building for egg production, which housed approximately 6,000 birds. A total of 2,930 insects were collected. Density was about 9 triatomines/m(2). The proportions of fifth instar nymphs and adults were significantly higher than those of the other stages (p<0.001). The number of triatomines collected largely exceeded the highest domestic infestation found in one house from rural endemic areas of Argentina. Though triatomines were negative for Trypanosoma cruzi, they could acquire the parasite by coming in contact with infected people living in GBA. Besides, the numerous and widely distributed places housing hens and chickens, would favor the settlement of the vector. Together, both facts may constitute a risk of parasitic vectorial transmission. It is recommended to intensify systematic activities of vector search and case detection in GBA.

  5. Psychotherapy, psychoanalysis and urban poverty in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Epele, Maria Esther

    2016-12-01

    Based on ethnographic research carried out in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area, this paper examines the views of social actors on the psychoanalytically-oriented psychotherapy focused on marginalized populations. From Foucault's perspective on the forms of truth-telling, the aim of this paper is to analyze, as a preliminary research report, treatments according to the native ways of speaking and listening, which dominate the description of therapeutic experiences of patients who come to the treatment without any professional intermediation. The neoliberal transformations of the past decades in Argentina changed both the landscape of the public health system and the daily lives of marginalized people. Considering such changes, this paper examines the ways in which verbal actions (speaking and listening) take place in psychotherapy and mark the course not only of treatments but also the temporal rhythms of their development, and their various levels of efficacy. Finally, the discussion focuses on how ways of speaking and listening in treatments are modeled not only by institutional dynamics but also by the characteristics these verbal activities take in everyday life under the logics of power that prevail over them.

  6. Subtyping of STEC by MLVA in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Ana V.; Sanso, Andrea M.; Parma, Alberto E.; Lucchesi, Paula M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes serious human illness such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Argentina has the world’s highest rate of this syndrome, which is the leading cause of acute renal failure among children. E. coli O157:H7 is the most common cause of HUS, but a substantial and growing proportion of this illness is caused by infection due to non-O157 strains. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) has become an established technique to subtype STEC. This review will address the use of routine STEC subtyping by MLVA in order to type this group of isolates and to get insight into the genetic diversity of native STEC. With regard to these objectives we modified and adapted two MLVA protocols, one exclusive for O157 and the other, a generic E. coli assay. A total of 202 STEC isolates, from different sources and corresponding to 20 serotypes, have been MLVA genotyped in our laboratory. In our experience, MLVA constitutes a very sensitive tool and enables us to perform an efficient STEC subtyping. The diversity found in many serotypes may be useful for future epidemiological studies of STEC clonality, applied to O157 as well as to non-O157 isolates. PMID:22919698

  7. Medicinal plants from the "Sierra de Comechingones", Argentina.

    PubMed

    Goleniowski, Marta Ester; Bongiovanni, G A; Palacio, L; Nuñez, C O; Cantero, J J

    2006-10-11

    Argentina is a country with both rich floral biodiversity and cultural diversity. Traditional herbal medicines are important in the health care of most people, and rely heavily on the use of indigenous plants. An ethnobotanical survey of the "Sierra de Comechingones" made over a 26-year period (1979-2005), indicated that 65 families and 149 different genuses were used in traditional medicines. The use of these medicines was observed to be widespread and prevalent over orthodox medicine. Medicinal native plants from this mountain range make up 31% of the total Argentina medicinal native flora. In addition, there are 15 endemic species that grow only in the region. The botanical name, popular uses, parts utilized, as well as the distribution of these medicinal plants from the "Sierra de Comechingones", Argentina, were summarized. Previous reports on phytochemical and biological activities in relation to cancer, antimicrobials and pesticides were also included.

  8. Comparing Values in Education on the U.S.-Mexican Border, El Paso and Ciudad Juarez.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rippberger, Susan; Staudt, Kathleen

    A three-year study examined attitudes toward education and public schools through behaviors in elementary schools in two United States-Mexican border towns, El Paso (Texas) and Ciudad Juarez (Mexico). It looked at curricular civic rituals such as the flag salute, and more covert normative training found in classroom organization and management…

  9. Gender, Order, and Femicide: Reading the Popular Culture of Murder in Ciudad Juarez

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volk, Steven S.; Schlotterbeck, Marian E.

    2007-01-01

    More than 400 women have been murdered in and around Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, over the past decade. As the murders continue unabated and unsolved, and with the likely complicity of state authorities, they have triggered a dynamic cultural response from writers, filmmakers, singers, and others who deplore the murders while suggesting the underlying…

  10. DIGLIB. PC-DOS Graphics Subroutine Library

    SciTech Connect

    Burleson, R.R.

    1989-02-01

    DIGLIB is a collection of general graphics subroutines. It was designed to be small, reasonably fast, device-independent, and compatible with DEC-supplied operating systems for VAXes, PDP-11s, and LSI-11s, and the DOS operating system for IBM PCs and IBM-compatible machines. DIGLIB/PC runs on IBM PCs under PC-DOS or MS-DOS. The software is readily usable by casual programmers for two-dimensional plotting.

  11. Alcohol use disorders and antiretroviral therapy among prisoners in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Alpert, Michael; Wickersham, Jeffrey A.; Vázquez, Mariana; Altice, Frederick L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose While Argentina has significantly improved access to HIV care and antiretroviral therapy (ART) for both the general population and prisoners, the prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among HIV-infected prisoners and their relationship to accessing ART in Argentina is currently unknown. This study aims to characterize the substance abuse patterns of HIV-infected prisoners in Argentina and to assess the independent correlates of receipt of pre-incarceration ART. Design/methodology/approach An anonymous, cross-sectional survey of 100 HIV-infected federal prisoners was conducted in the Buenos Aires municipality from July–December 2010. AUDs were assessed using the AUDIT scale. Findings A majority (63 per cent) of participants met criteria for AUDs, 45 per cent of subjects were diagnosed with HIV in prison and one-quarter had initiated ART during the current incarceration. In addition, over one-third (35 per cent) of participants did not receive ART during the pre-incarceration period despite receiving it upon incarceration. This correlated significantly with the presence of having an AUD (AOR 0.20, 95 per cent CI 0.06–0.74, p = 0.016). Practical implications AUDs are prevalent among HIV-infected prisoners in Argentina and are significantly related to negative secondary HIV prevention and treatment outcomes. While Argentina has provided an exemplary model of HIV-related health care reform within its prisons, future efforts to provide screening and treatment for AUDs are needed to improve the health of the nation’s incarcerated population. Originality/value This paper is the first to describe pre-incarceration drug and alcohol use disorders and issues related to access to ART among prisoners in Argentina. PMID:24772187

  12. [Sanitary conditions for the production of beef cattle in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Lasta, J A; Rearte, D

    1997-08-01

    Meat production is extremely important for the economy of Argentina, and represents 35%-40% of all national agricultural production. Cattle are distributed throughout the country, with the highest density in the Pampa region, which hosts 66% of the national herd and produces 80% of the total meat production in Argentina. This region has a long tradition of livestock rearing, and the practice of rotation between agriculture and animal husbandry ensures an ecological equilibrium. Meat production in Argentina is based on the exploitation of natural resources, with traditional extensive grazing, which offers advantages when compared with other countries. The composition of meat depends on factors such as breed and age, and on the diet of the animals. The authors demonstrate that meat produced under extensive grazing conditions in Argentina has less intramuscular fat and cholesterol than that produced in intensive systems which have a grain-rich diet. The authors analyse the situation of the country with regard to diseases which can be transmitted by meat and which might affect public health, particularly bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), brucellosis, tuberculosis, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, colibacillosis and taeniosis. The fact that Argentina is free from BSE is emphasised, and the prevention programmes which have been implemented to control other diseases are described. In addition, the authors discuss tests which are conducted to detect the presence of residues of chemical contaminants in meat. Emphasis is given to the quality of infrastructure, equipment and operation of the mechanised meat-processing plants, which guarantee the hygienic safety of the products. The authors conclude that meat and meat products from Argentina offer a high level of safety for consumers.

  13. Nuclear reactors for research and radioisotope production in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    In Argentina, the construction, operation, and use of research and radioisotope production reactors is and has been an important method of personnel preparation for the nuclear power program. Moreover, it is a very suitable means for technology transfer to countries developing their own nuclear programs. At present, the following research reactors are in operation in Argentina: Argentine Reactor 0 (RA-0); Argentine Reactor 1 (RA-1); Argentine Reactor 2 (RA-2); Argentine Reactor 3 (RA-3); Argentine Reactor 4 (RA-4). The Argentine Reactor 6 (RA-6), under construction, should reach criticality in 1981.

  14. Synopsis of Acanthocerini (Hemiptera, Coreidae) from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Pall, José Luis; Coscarón, María del Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Eight genera and 13 species of the tribe Acanthocerini are recorded in Argentina, i.e., Athaumastus haematicus (Stål), Athaumastus macer Brailovsky, Athaumastus subcarinatus (Stål), Athaumastus subterlineatus Bergroth, Beutelspacoris sanchezi Brailovsky, Beutelspacoris dilatata Casini, Camptischium clavipes (Fabricius), Crinocerus sanctus (Fabricius), Dersagrena flaviventris (Berg), Dersagrena lacerdae (Signoret), Dersagrena subfoveolata (Berg), Thlastocoris hernandezi Brailovsky and Zoreva dentipes Fabricius. Redescriptions are given for Athaumastus haematicus, Athaumastus subcarinatus and Dersagrena flaviventris with photographs of male and female genitalia of Dersagrena subfoveolata. Zoreva recorded from Argentina the first time. New locality records are given for Buenos Aires, Chaco, Formosa, Misiones, and Tucumán. PMID:23794912

  15. [Issues regarding the legal regulation of drugs in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Bignone, Inés M

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the main functions and attributions of the National Administration of Medicines, Food and Medical Technology (Administración Nacional de Medicamentos, Alimentos y Tecnología Médica, ANMAT) of Argentina in the control and supervision of pharmaceutical products. The four properties that a medicine must full-fill (efficacy, safety, quality and accessibility) are described, and the role of ANMAT with regard to each one is specified. Criteria employed in the classification of pharmaceutical products marketed in Argentina with the regulatory agency permission are specified, and a reference to pharmaceutical products not registered before the Agency is also included.

  16. Cryptosporidium varanii infection in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dellarupe, A; Unzaga, J M; Moré, G; Kienast, M; Larsen, A; Stiebel, C; Rambeaud, M; Venturini, M C

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is observed in reptiles with high morbidity and considerable mortality. The objective of this study was to achieve the molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in pet leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) from a breeder colony in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Oocysts comparable to those of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in three geckos with a history of diarrhea, anorexia and cachexia. Molecular identification methods confirmed the presence of Cryptosporidium varanii (syn. C. saurophilum). This agent was considered to be the primary cause of the observed clinical disease. This is the first description of C. varanii infection in pet reptiles in Argentina.

  17. Cryptosporidium varanii infection in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Dellarupe, A.; Unzaga, J.M.; Moré, G.; Kienast, M.; Larsen, A.; Stiebel, C.; Rambeaud, M.; Venturini, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is observed in reptiles with high morbidity and considerable mortality. The objective of this study was to achieve the molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in pet leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) from a breeder colony in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Oocysts comparable to those of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in three geckos with a history of diarrhea, anorexia and cachexia. Molecular identification methods confirmed the presence of Cryptosporidium varanii (syn. C. saurophilum). This agent was considered to be the primary cause of the observed clinical disease. This is the first description of C. varanii infection in pet reptiles in Argentina. PMID:27419102

  18. UNA virus: first report of human infection in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Luis Adrián; Spinsanti, Lorena Ivana; Almiron, Walter Ricardo; Contigiani, Marta Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Una virus (UNAV), Togaviridae family, is widely distributed in South America, where infections have been detected in mosquitoes and vertebrate hosts (humans, birds and horses). We analyzed human sera from Córdoba inhabitants aged 44 to 89 years and using a neutralization test, we found a prevalence of UNAV antibodies of 3.8% (3/79). The low titers detected suggest past infections probably acquired in rural areas of the Province of Córdoba (central Argentina). None sera were found positive for MAYV neutralizing antibodies. This is the first report of human infections by UNAV in Argentina.

  19. Projected Impact of a Sodium Consumption Reduction Initiative in Argentina: An Analysis from the CVD Policy Model – Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Konfino, Jonatan; Mekonnen, Tekeshe A.; Coxson, Pamela G.; Ferrante, Daniel; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in adults in Argentina. Sodium reduction policies targeting processed foods were implemented in 2011 in Argentina, but the impact has not been evaluated. The aims of this study are to use Argentina-specific data on sodium excretion and project the impact of Argentina’s sodium reduction policies under two scenarios - the 2-year intervention currently being undertaken or a more persistent 10 year sodium reduction strategy. Methods We used Argentina-specific data on sodium excretion by sex and projected the impact of the current strategy on sodium consumption and blood pressure decrease. We assessed the projected impact of sodium reduction policies on CVD using the Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Policy Model, adapted to Argentina, modeling two alternative policy scenarios over the next decade. Results Our study finds that the initiative to reduce sodium consumption currently in place in Argentina will have substantial impact on CVD over the next 10 years. Under the current proposed policy of 2-year sodium reduction, the mean sodium consumption is projected to decrease by 319–387 mg/day. This decrease is expected to translate into an absolute reduction of systolic blood pressure from 0.93 mmHg to 1.81 mmHg. This would avert about 19,000 all-cause mortality, 13,000 total myocardial infarctions, and 10,000 total strokes over the next decade. A more persistent sodium reduction strategy would yield even greater CVD benefits. Conclusion The impact of the Argentinean initiative would be effective in substantially reducing mortality and morbidity from CVD. This paper provides evidence-based support to continue implementing strategies to reduce sodium consumption at a population level. PMID:24040085

  20. Element fluxes from Copahue Volcano, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varekamp, J. C.

    2003-12-01

    Copahue volcano in Argentina has an active volcano-magmatic hydrothermal system that emits fluids with pH=0.3 that feed a river system. River flux measurements and analytical data provide element flux data from 1997 to 2003, which includes the eruptive period of July to December 2000. The fluids have up to 6.5 percent sulfate, 1 percent Cl and ppm levels of B, As, Cu, Zn and Pb. The hydrothermal system acts as a perfect scrubber for magmatic gases during the periods of passive degassing, although the dissolved magmatic gases are modified through water rock interaction and mineral precipitation. The magmatic SO2 disproportionates into sulfate and liquid elemental sulfur at about 300 C; the sulfate is discharged with the fluids, whereas the liquid sulfur is temporarily retained in the reservoir but ejected during phreatic and hydrothermal eruptions. The intrusion and chemical attack of new magma in the hydrothermal reservoir in early 2000 was indicated by strongly increased Mg concentrations and Mg fluxes, and higher Mg/Cl and Mg/K values. The hydrothermal discharge has acidified a large glacial lake (0.5 km3) to pH=2 and the lake effluents acidify the exiting river. Even more than 100 km downstream, the effects of acid pulses from the lake are evident from red coated boulders and fish die-offs. The river-bound sulfate fluxes from the system range from 70 to 200 kilotonnes/year. The equivalent SO2 output of the whole volcanic system ranges from 150 to 500 tonnes/day, which includes the fraction of native sulfur that formed inside the mountain but does not include the release of SO2 into the atmosphere during the eruptions. Trace element fluxes of the river will be scaled up and compared with global element fluxes from meteoric river waters (subterranean volcanic weathering versus watershed weathering).

  1. [Metabolic syndrome in employees in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Coniglio, Raúl I; Nellem, Jorge; Gentili, Roberto; Sibechi, Norberto; Agusti, Elisa; Torres, Marta

    2009-01-01

    The detection of metabolic syndrome (MS) is use ful for identifying individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. The objectives of the study were to describe the prevalence of MS in employees 40-65 years old, utilizing different definitions and to analyze the relation with educational level and gender by means of cross-sectional and multicenter study of different regions of Argentina. Compared MS definitions were: International Diabetes Federation, American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and National Cholesterol Education Program - Adults Treatment Panel III. Fulfilled the protocol 2806 cases. It was observed a prevalence of 0.31, 0.30 and 0.26 respectively, more frequent in men (p = 0.0000). There was no significant difference between sexes in the group 60 to 65 years old. After adjusting to age, sex, physical activity, family history of diabetes and menopause, the women with low educational level (<12 years) had more risk than men, OR = 1.95 (CI 95% 1.49-2.55) p = 0.000 compared with OR = 1.36 (CI 95% 1.10-1.69) p = 0.005, respectively. The low educational level in women, adjusted for confounders, was a predictor of four components of MS: central obesity, low C-HDL, glucose > or =100 mg/dl and hypertriglyceridemia; in men was only a hard predictor of hypertriglyceridemia. The results alert about the need of education of the population for the control of risk factors and adoption of healthy habits.

  2. Impact Structures of Argentina: A Review.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocca, M. C. L.; Wagner, S. G.

    Argentina, in South America, has a total surface of 2,776,888 square kilometers. As of 2002 the following impact sites have been reported in this nation. 1) ATLANTIC COAST, Buenos Aires Province. Glass layers: 1-Near NECOCHEA city: Age: 460.000 years. 2-Near MAR DEL PLATA city -- CHAPADMALAL area: Age: 3.3 millon years. 3-An inland site near Chasico in South Buenos Aires Province which glass layers yielded an age of 10.1 millon years. A plausible impact structure of about 15 km., may has been identified there. 2) CAMPO DEL CIELO, Chaco Province ( S 27o 30' W61o42'). The Campo del Cielo meteorite field consists, at least, of 20 meteorite craters with an age of about 4000 years. The impactor was an Iron-Nickel asteroid ( Type meteorite IA ) and plenty of meteorite specimens survived the impact. Impactor's diameter is estimated 5 to 20 meters. Craters and meteorite fragments are widespread in an oval area of 18.5 X 3 km. ( SW-NE ). 3) RIO CUARTO , Cordoba Province. ( S32o52' W64o14' ) Rio Cuarto Craters are, at least, 11 oblong structures ranging in size from `Crater' `A' of 4,5 X 1,1 Km., down to structures several meters wide. They are aligned in parallel in a NE-SW direction and they span a line of about 30 km.. These oval depressions resemble the structures produced in high speed gun laboratory experiments of low angle impacts. Recently, by satellite imagery survey, more than 400 new features that bear a strong similarity to those previously described were reported.The situation is unclear and the area demands more research. 4) SOUTH ATLANTIC GEOPHYSICAL ANOMALY Although very speculative, a possible multi-ring basin impact structure has been proposed to be in the Patagonian continental Shelf NW of Falkland/Malvinas Islands in front of Santa Cruz Province.

  3. Evolution of the San Jorge basin, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, M.G. ); Uliana, M.A. ); Biddle, K.T. ); Mitchum, R.M. Jr.

    1990-06-01

    The San Jorge basin, although small, is the most important hydrocarbon-producing basin in Argentina. Remaining untested potential is high because of the presence of good source rock, favorable structural complexity, and multiple reservoirs. Reservoir quality is commonly low because of the highly tuffaceous sandstones. The sedimentary fill of the basin is closely related to its tectonic history. Northwest-southeast-trending grabens formed and filled during a Triassic and Early Jurassic early rift phase, climaxing with a pervasive Middle Jurassic volcanic episode; continued growth and filling of the basin occurred during a Late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous late rift phase and Cretaceous early and late sag phases. Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary extension set up many of the present-day structural traps along normal faults. Middle Tertiary Andean compression produced the narrow, north-south San Bernardo structural belt, which exhibits reversed movement on older, normal, graben-bounding faults and on local, low-angle thrust faults. Marked early to middle Tertiary erosion produced a significant unconformity within Cretaceous beds around basin margins. Origin of Upper Jurassic and lowermost Cretaceous sedimentary fill is primarily lacustrine or fluvial in origin. Lacustrine, organic-rich black shales are fringed by oolitic and other limestones and fluvial-deltaic sandstones derived mostly from the north. A significant southern source of sand existed during the Valanginian. Interbedded marine shales occur mostly to the west toward a presumed marine seaway connection to the northern Magallanes basin. Middle to Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks, sourced mostly from the north, are mainly fluvial sandstone-shale successions with some minor lacustrine influence. Reservoir quality glauconitic sands were deposited during a Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary marine incursion from the Atlantic.

  4. Hepatitis C in Argentina: epidemiology and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gaite, Luis Alejandro; Marciano, Sebastián; Galdame, Omar Andrés; Gadano, Adrián Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C is the leading cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer in Argentina, where from 1.5% to 2.5% of adults are infected. Most of the infections were acquired 30–50 years ago. It is estimated that more than half of infected individuals are not aware of their infection. Even though the prevalence in blood donors has decreased to 0.45% at present, many high-prevalence populations still exist, where the reported prevalence ranges from 2.2% to 7.1%. Therapy is recommended for patients with fibrosis, in order to prevent disease progression, hepatic decompensation, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Great advances were achieved in the treatment of genotype 1 infection since the development and release of boceprevir and telaprevir. When either of these protease inhibitors is associated with peginterferon plus ribavirin, the sustained virological response (SVR) rate improves from 40%–50% to 67%–75%. For genotype 2 and 3 infection, treatment with peginterferon plus ribavirin is still the standard of care, with SVR rates of 70%–90%. There are significant new antivirals in development, and some of them are close to being released. These drugs will most likely be the future standard of care for all genotypes, and will be incorporated in better-tolerated and highly effective all-oral regimes. The impact that these new therapies might have in health-related economics is unpredictable, especially in developing countries. Each country must carefully evaluate the local situation in order to implement proper screening and treatment programs. Difficult-to-treat patients, such as those with decompensated cirrhosis, patients in hemodialysis, and those with other significant comorbidities, might not be able to receive these new therapeutic approaches and their management will remain challenging. PMID:24966701

  5. En la búsqueda de características en eyecciones coronales de masa que discriminen entre dos paradigmas físicos en modelos de ECMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paissan, G.; Stenborg, G.; Rovira, M.

    Se conocen tres diferentes fenómenos de gran escala que ocurren en la atmósfera solar, denominados eyecciones coronales de masa (ECMs), protuberancias eruptivas y grandes fulguraciones de dos bandas. Estos fenómenos están estrechamente relacionados y podrían ser distintas manifestaciones de un único proceso físico. Las ECMs son definidas como eyecciones de gran escala de masa y flujo magnético desde la baja corona al espacio interplanetario. Desde su descubrimiento en los '70, muchos modelos han sido propuestos para explicar su origen y evolución. La explicación física de las ECMs es un tema de debate intenso. No obstante, los modelos pueden sintetizarse en dos grandes grupos: 1) los modelos de inyección de flujo y 2) los modelos de almacenamiento y liberación. En este trabajo, se presentan los estudios realizados con una serie de eventos observados con el coronógrafo MICA (Mirror Coronograph for Argentina), el telescopio en H-alfa HASTA (H-alpha Solar Telescope for Argentina) y los coronógrafos C2 y C3 de la sonda SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory). Los eventos que pudieron ser identificados como ECMs son contrastados dentro del esquema de los dos paradigmas teóricos propuestos.

  6. [New fungal contaminants of food products in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Comerio, Ricardo M; Pildain, M Belén; Romero, Andrea I

    2005-03-01

    Five fungal species were isolated and identified in food products: Ascotricha chartarum, Leptosphaerulina argentinensis, Veronaea coprophila, Scolecobasidium constrictum and Coremiella cubispora. A. chartarum was isolated from paper bag containing sugar and the other four from tomato sauce. Except for L. argentinensis, the other four were new reports and the five species were isolated for the first time in Argentina.

  7. Educational Change under Autocratic Democratic Governments: The Case of Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, E. Mark

    This paper presents findings of a study that: (1) contrasts the educational change strategies of a military/autocratic government (1976-83) and a civilian/democratic government (1983-93) in Argentina; and (2) identifies the major consequences of these strategies. The military regime attempted to produce its version of effectiveness and efficiency…

  8. [Adult HTLV-I positive leukemia-lymphoma in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Gioseffi, O N; Nucifora, E; Fantl, D; Dufour, C; Milone, J; Di Paolo, H

    1995-10-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is associated with adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP/HAM) in endemic and non-endemic areas. Serological studies have shown that HTLV-I is prevalent in some Latin American countries such as Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Perú and Uruguay. We describe here the clinical and laboratory features of five cases of ATLL diagnosed in Argentina. All patients (4 males, 1 female; median age 48.2 years) were of caucasian origin; 4 born in Argentina and 1 in Chile. High risk factors for HTLV-I infection were not apparent in Argentina patients, whereas the Chilean resident, who was a promiscuous heterosexual, travelled through Chile frequently. Positive results for antibodies to HTLV-I were detected in all five cases and in some of their relatives. This report suggests that HTLV-I infection may be endemic in, Argentina where TSP has also been described.

  9. [Published papers in biomedicine from Argentina. Data on clinical research].

    PubMed

    Kotsias, Basilio A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide quantitative data about clinical investigation in Argentina. We searched MEDLINE which is the U.S. National Library of Medicine's bibliographic database that contains more than 18 million references to journal articles in life sciences; 5400 journals in 39 languages are listed. In 2009 almost 850,000 papers were cited in MEDLINE and Argentina provided 0.33% of them, 90% of these in English. The number of papers published in Spanish is diminishing every year and similar results are observed with the German, French and other languages. Using the tools provided by MEDLINE we searched for papers that could be classified as clinical. We restricted our search to the word "patients" in the text and "hospital" in the address provided by the authors. Along the last 10 years, from 2000 to 2009, about 16% of the papers published from Argentina contain the word "patient" and this percentage is reduced to half if we combine the word "patient" with the word "hospital" in the address. If we search for papers written in Spanish with these two restrictions the number is much lower. The number of articles from Argentina followed the upward trend in the total of articles cited in MEDLINE in the last 10 years. This local increase was due to basic investigation papers because the percentage of clinical articles was relatively constant during these years. In conclusion, these data provide a survey of an area with scanty quantitative information.

  10. English Language Education in Primary Schooling in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porto, Melina

    2016-01-01

    This article describes public primary English language education in Argentina. I begin with background information about the country and a brief historical overview of education in general, accompanied by a portrait of primary schooling in particular. This overview involves local, political and economic considerations but also international…

  11. Rewriting Citizenship? Civic Education in Costa Rica and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David F.

    2008-01-01

    To what degree are nations "rewriting" citizenship by expanding discussions of human rights, diversity and cultural pluralism in modern civic education, and what explains variation between countries? This study addresses these issues by analysing the intended content of civic education in Costa Rica and Argentina. Over time, civic…

  12. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Argentina 1979-2012.

    PubMed

    Barengo, Noël C; Trejo, Ruby; Sposetti, Georgina

    2013-07-16

    The objective of this review was to revise the existing information regarding type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence in the Argentine population during the past 30 years and to see whether the available data and methodology of the studies conducted allow analysis of time trends. The PubMED and LILACS databases were searched using the search terms "diabetes prevalence" and "Argentina". A total of 301 studies were identified and 19 of them remained in the review after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The studies reviewed covered a time period of 30 years (1979-2012). The studies conducted in Argentina during the last 30 years assessing the prevalence of T2D are very heterogeneous. The majority of the studies were conducted in the province of Buenos Aires. As the assessment of T2D varied between the studies in respect of diagnostic criteria and diagnostic tests for T2D, meaningful comparisons are difficult to make, not to mention an analysis of time trends. All in all, the T2D prevalence seems to be at least 10% in the Argentina population. However, the latest large population surveys conducted in Argentina is promising and may offer the most reliable estimates of the T2D prevalence even though the diagnosis of T2D was based on participant self-report. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Egg parasitoid of Saccharosydne subandina (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Neuquen, Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharosydne subandina Remes Lenicov & Rossi Batiz is a recently described planthopper from Argentina which is known to feed on garlic, rye, and pampas grass (de Remes-Lenicov & Rossi-Batiz 2010). During a trip to Neuquén Province in February 2007, we noticed a heavy infestation of pampas grass, Co...

  14. Burnout, Perceived Stress, and Depression among Cardiology Residents in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Silvina V.; Diez, Juan Cruz Lopez; Arazi, Hernan Cohen; Linetzky, Bruno; Guinjoan, Salvador; Grancelli, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Because medical residency is a stressful time for training physicians, placing residents at increased risk for psychological distress, the authors studied the prevalence of burnout, perceived stress, and depression in cardiology residents in Argentina and examined the association between sociodemographic characteristics and these…

  15. Northwestern Argentina as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Puna de Atacama area of northwestern Argentina, Provinces of Salta and Catamarca, as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 154th revolution of the earth. Photographed from an altitude of 175 nautical miles, at ground elapsed time of 243 hours and 58 minutes.

  16. Soil Metagenomes from Different Pristine Environments of Northwest Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Colman, Déborah I.

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study to use a high-throughput metagenomic shotgun approach to explore the biosynthetic potential of soil metagenomes from different pristine environments of northwest Argentina. Our data sets characterize these metagenomes and provide information on the possible effect these ecosystems have on their diversity and biosynthetic potential. PMID:26272581

  17. West Nile Virus Isolation from Equines in Argentina, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Barrandeguy, María; Fabbri, Cintia; Garcia, Jorge B.; Vissani, Aldana; Trono, Karina; Gutierrez, Gerónimo; Pigretti, Santiago; Menchaca, Hernán; Garrido, Nelson; Taylor, Nora; Fernandez, Fernando; Levis, Silvana; Enría, Delia

    2006-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was isolated from the brains of 3 horses that died from encephalitis in February 2006. The horses were from different farms in central Argentina and had not traveled outside the country. This is the first isolation of WNV in South America. PMID:17176571

  18. Soil Metagenomes from Different Pristine Environments of Northwest Argentina.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Christina B; Colman, Déborah I

    2015-08-13

    This is the first study to use a high-throughput metagenomic shotgun approach to explore the biosynthetic potential of soil metagenomes from different pristine environments of northwest Argentina. Our data sets characterize these metagenomes and provide information on the possible effect these ecosystems have on their diversity and biosynthetic potential.

  19. International Reports on Literacy Research: Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 4 separate reports on Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia. In the first report, research correspondent Marta Infante reports on two studies that reflect the growing interest of Chilean professionals in studying reading-related factors such as phonemic…

  20. First identification of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis sheep strain in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Travería, G E; Zumarraga, M; Etchechoury, I; Romano, M I; Cataldi, A; Pinedo, M F Alvarado; Pavlik, I; Pribylova, R; Romero, J R

    2013-01-01

    We here identified for the first time the presence of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP) sheep (S) strain in Argentina. IS900 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was positive. The S strain was compared with MAP cattle (C) strains by using IS1311 PCR-restriction endonuclease analysis (PCR-REA), multiplex PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.

  1. Transgenic Crops in Argentina: The Ecological and Social Debt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pengue, Walter A.

    2005-01-01

    There is no doubt that soybean is the most important crop for Argentina, with a planted surface that rose 11,000,000 hectares and a production of around 35,000,000 metric tons. During the 1990s, there was a significant agriculture transformation in the country, motorize by the adoption of transgenic crops (soy-bean, maize, and cotton) under the…

  2. Genotype III Saint Louis Encephalitis Virus Outbreak, Argentina, 2005

    PubMed Central

    Ré, Viviana; Almirón, Walter R.; Farías, Adrián; Vázquez, Ana; Sanchez-Seco, María Paz; Aguilar, Javier; Spinsanti, Lorena; Konigheim, Brenda; Visintin, Andrés; García, Jorge; Morales, Maria Alejandra; Tenorio, Antonio; Contigiani, Marta

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-six years after it was last detected, Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) genotype III reemerged in 2005 in Córdoba, Argentina, where it caused an outbreak. Two genotype III SLEV strains were isolated from Culex quinquefasciatus. A 71.43% prevalence for neutralizing antibodies was found in domestic fowl in the homestead of a patient with encephalitis. PMID:17283629

  3. Palmer Amaranth Identification and Documentation of Herbicide Resistance in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Palmer amaranth (Amaranthuspalmeri S. Wats.) has greatly disrupted agricultural practices in the US with its rapid growth and rapid evolution of herbicide resistance. This weed species is now suspected in Argentina. To document whether the suspected plant populations are indeed Palmer amaranth, mo...

  4. Why Does Private School Enrollment Grow? Evidence from Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narodowski, Mariano; Moschetti, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    During the second half of the twentieth century, a process of privatization took place in the Argentine education system. This paper seeks to explain the growth of private enrollments in Argentina over the last years. Drawing on the concept of quasi-monopoly, we run a random-effects estimation on panel data to analyze the determinants of the…

  5. A review of the fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lareschi, Marcela; Sanchez, Juliana; Autino, Analía

    2016-04-13

    The Order Siphonaptera comprises cosmopolitan haematophagous ectoparasites of birds and mammals. More than ten years have past since the last list of species known for Argentina. Herein we provide a review of the fleas from the country, which includes an updated list, host species and geographical distribution for each taxa, as well as some comments. We report 127 species and subspecies belonging to eleven different families; 42 of these species are endemic. Four genera (Adoratopsylla, Cleopsylla, Ctenidiosomus, and Nonnapsylla) and six species and subspecies (Adoratopsylla (Adoratopsylla) antiquorum antiquorum, Agastopsylla pearsoni, Polygenis (Polygenis) roberti beebei, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) silewi, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) wilesi and Tunga terasma) are added to the list for Argentina. Nine species new to science are included, described on the bases of specimens collected from Argentina (Ctenidiosomus austrinus, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) lareschiae, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) spiculatus, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) morenoi, Hectopsylla narium, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) linardii, Neotyphloceras crackensis, Neotyphloceras pardinasii and Tunga perforans). Information provided herein contributes to the knowledge of the fleas from Argentina, necessary to a better understanding of their role as parasites themselves and vectors of zoonotic importance.

  6. Equality of Educational Opportunities at Public Primary Schools in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrogue, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the degree of equality of educational opportunities across Argentina's public primary schools. The main finding is that there are inequalities between jurisdictions, but even greater inequalities within them, suggesting the existence of serious problems in the distribution of resources at the sub-national level. Following the…

  7. International Reports on Literacy Research: France and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This is a compilation of two separate reports on international literacy research from France and Argentina. In the reports from France, research correspondent Jacques Fijalkow detailed three research projects that included the following: (1) A description of adult literacy skills; (2) An investigation of how study-abroad students were integrated…

  8. IQ Gains in Argentina between 1964 and 1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, James R.; Rossi-Case, Lilia

    2012-01-01

    The literature on IQ gains in Latin America is sparse. We estimate gains on Raven's Progressive Matrices in the city of La Plata (Argentina) between 1964 and 1998. The gains are robust at the top of the curve as well as at the bottom. Therefore, they are contrary to the hypothesis that nutrition played a major role in recent Argentine IQ gains.…

  9. A magnetoclimatological investigation of Pampean loess, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidegain, J. C.; Evans, M. E.; van Velzen, A. J.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility has proved to be a very useful tool for understanding Northern Hemisphere loess/palaeosol sequences, both for intersite correlation and for broad climatic interpretation. However, there are two competing magnetoclimatological models that predict completely opposite patterns of variability-the so-called wind-vigour and pedogenic models. In the former, stronger winds during glacial intervals entrain larger quantities of dense magnetic particles than during interglacials. Glacial loess is therefore more magnetic than interglacial palaeosol (e.g. Kurtak, Siberia). In the pedogenic model, biological and/or chemical processes lead to the neo-formation of magnetic material so that palaeosols are more magnetic than pristine parent loess (e.g. the Chinese Loess Plateau). We are currently extending our investigation of loess/palaeosol sequences to the Southern Hemisphere starting with a new 13 m section in the El Cristo quarry in the city of La Plata, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. The magnetic susceptibility profile shows a clear sequence of maxima and minima that correspond to lithological variations, but interpretation of these correlations is not straightforward. In the top 4 m of the section, parent material (loess) has high susceptibility whereas palaeosols have low values, consistent with the wind-vigour model. The same pattern is seen for most of the remaining 9 m of section, but there are intervals where gleying has occurred, particularly between depths of 8 and 10 m. Under the waterlogged conditions implied, iron oxides are likely to be removed and any original magnetoclimatological signal is lost (or at least strongly modified). A further complication arises from the measured values of the frequency dependence of susceptibility, which is usually taken to indicate the presence of ultrafine magnetic particles produced during pedogenesis. The El Cristo values fall squarely in between those observed in Siberia and China. An important

  10. Shaded relief, color as height Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image of Patagonia, Argentina shows a spectacular landscape formed by volcanoes, rivers, and wind. The area is located just east of the narrow range of the Andes Mountains, about 100 kilometers (62 miles) east of the border with Chile. Interesting features include basalt-capped mesas with sinkholes (lower center), arcuate ridges of windblown beach sands downwind from a salty desert lake (upper center), young volcanic cones(right), and at least one case of what geologists call 'inverted relief'. This happens when lava flows down a valley in soft material and then the soft material is eroded away leaving the former valley as a ridge of lava. These ridges can be seen on the slopes of the volcano in the upper right. Geologists will use SRTM topographic data to study the interaction of volcanic, climatic and erosional processes.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1100 meters(3600 feet) of total relief. White speckles on the face of some of the mountains are holes in the data caused by steep terrain. These will be filled using coverage from an intersecting pass.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added

  11. [Terrestrial gastropods from Misiones Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Gregoric, Diego Eduardo Gutiérrez; Núñez, Verónica; Vogler, Roberto Eugenio; Beltramino, Ariel Aníbal; Rumi, Alejandra

    2013-12-01

    The Atlantic Forest represents one of the global priority eco-regions for biodiversity conservation. In Argentina, this is represented by the Paranense Forest, which occupies much of the Misiones Province. In this paper, an updated list of land mollusks from Misiones Province is presented, and its species richness was evaluated comparing protected and unprotected areas. For this, we reviewed La Plata Museum Mollusk Collection, updated the literature review, and developed some field work between 2009 and 2010. For the areographic work, a grid (50 x 50 km) was applied to a Misiones province map. In this region, large areas of native vegetation constituting the Paranaense Forest still persist, and include protected areas such as the Iguazú National Park and Puerto Peninsula Provincial Park. These areas have been the most explored at the malacological level (both terrestrial and aquatic environments), a fact that is consistent with the greater number of records found, which may also be the explanation for the highest number of species recorded in the region. A database containing 497 records was compiled. The number of species occurring in this Province was increased from 28 to 56; 11 of which were exotic species. A total of 38 of the species occurred in protected areas and 53 in unprotected areas; and 25 species were micro-mollusks. Orthalicidae was the family with the highest species number (10) and the widest distribution, occupying 16/20 sampling units. Megalobulimus was the genus found in a greater number of sampling units (14/20). The highest values of specific richness of land gastropods were found in Northern Misiones (R=32). This richness was similar to that previously reported for the Tucumán Province, although species occurring in both provinces were mostly different. The richness in Misiones Province border areas, as the Republic of Paraguay and the state of Santa Catarina (Brazil), was about twice that found in the province. The present study showed the

  12. From structural push to chain migration: notes on the persistence of migration to Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Zoomers, E B

    1986-01-01

    "Spatial differentiation in regional welfare is often assumed to be one of the most important explanatory factors in individual migration behaviour. By the weight of 'push' against 'pull', migrants walk in step with the unequal distribution of socio-economic opportunities. In the case of Ciudad Juarez [Mexico], these 'structural factors' only appear to have determined migration in its first stages; especially recently 'non-structural' factors seem to be at the root of the ever-increasing process."

  13. A DOS Primer for Librarians: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, Henry

    1990-01-01

    Provides an introduction to DOS commands and strategies for the effective organization and use of hard disks. Functions discussed include the creation of directories and subdirectories, enhanced copying, the assignment of disk drives, and backing up the hard disk. (CLB)

  14. Foreign Policy Dimensions of Argentina and Brazill: Emerging Middle Powers Marching to their Own Drum.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    interests and pursuit of independent foreign policy goals. The OAS supplements both nation’s bilateral relations. On the regional level, Argentina has some...rights when leading from a weak hand, and when it needs to supplement its unilateral or bilateral efforts to gain specific goals, such as, improving...negotiations. Argentina and Chile both have supplemented their territorial claims in recent years. Argentina has provided quarters for women and

  15. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America, Argentina: Specifications of ARGOS 380 MW Reactor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-18

    in the market. ENACE the Empresa Nuclear Argentina dc Ccntralcs Flöctricas, or Argentine Nu- clear Power Plant Corporation is stepping out into the...and economy in operation. ENACE is an acronym for Empresa Nuclear Argentina de Centrales Electricas, or Argentine Nuclear Power Plant Corporation...de Energia Atömica; Buenos Aires, Argentina. Consejo Aso- sor para el Licenciamiento do Instalaciones Nucleares. "Criterios generales de seguridad en

  16. Examining adherence among challenging patients in public and private HIV care in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Deborah; Cook, Ryan; Cecchini, Diego; Sued, Omar; Bofill, Lina; Weiss, Stephen; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Lopez, Maria R; Spence, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Treatment engagement, retention and adherence to care are required for optimal HIV outcomes. Yet, patients may fall below the treatment recommendations for achieving undetectable viral load or not be retained in care. This study examined the most challenging patients in Buenos Aires, Argentina, those non-adherent to HIV care. Men (n = 61) and women (n = 59) prescribed antiretrovirals (ARVs) and non-adherent to treatment in the prior 3 to 6 months were enrolled and assessed regarding adherence, knowledge, motivation and attitudes regarding treatment. Private clinic patients had lower viral load and higher self-reported adherence than public clinic patients. Motivations to be adherent and positive beliefs regarding ARVs were associated with increased adherence in public clinic participants. Increased self-efficacy was associated with increased adherence among participants from both clinics. Results support patient and provider interventions that strengthen the characteristics supporting adherence, engagement and retention in public and private clinic settings. Resumen El compromiso, la retención en el cuidado y adherencia al tratamiento son esenciales para el manejo óptimo del paciente con VIH. Sin embargo, muchos pacientes con VIH no siguen las el tratamiento para lograr tener una carga viral indetectable, o no permanecen bajo cuidado médico. Este estudio examina los pacientes más difíciles de retener en el cuidado médico en Buenos Aires, Argentina. Hombres (n = 61) y mujeres (n = 59) a los que se les habían recetado antiretrovirales pero seguían el tratamiento en los últimos 3 - 6 meses participaron en el estudio. Adherencia, conocimiento, motivación y actitudes frente al tratamiento fueron evaluados. Los pacientes en la clínica privada tenían menor carga viral y mejor adherencia que los de la clínica pública. Motivación y pensamientos positivos con respecto a antiretrovirales estaban asociados con mejor adherencia en los pacientes de la clínica p

  17. Sexual selection on multivariate phenotypes in Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Sciurano, R.; Rodriguero, M.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Segura, D.; Cladera, J.L.; Allinghi, Armando

    2007-03-15

    Despite the interest in applying environmentally friendly control methods such as sterile insect technique (SIT) against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), information about its biology, taxonomy, and behavior is still insufficient. To increase this information, the present study aims to evaluate the performance of wild flies under field cage conditions through the study of sexual competitiveness among males (sexual selection). A wild population from Horco Molle, Tucuman, Argentina was sampled. Mature virgin males and females were released into outdoor field cages to compete for mating. Morphometric analyses were applied to determine the relationship between the multivariate phenotype and copulatory success. Successful and unsuccessful males were measured for 8 traits: head width (HW), face width (FW), eye length (EL), thorax length (THL), wing length (WL), wing width (WW), femur length (FL), and tibia length (TIL). Combinations of different multivariate statistical methods and graphical analyses were used to evaluate sexual selection on male phenotype. The results indicated that wing width and thorax length would be the most probable targets of sexual selection. They describe a non-linear association between expected fitness and each of these 2 traits. This non-linear relation suggests that observed selection could maintain the diversity related to body size. (author) [Spanish] A pesar del interes por la aplicacion de metodos de control de bajo impacto ambiental sobre Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae), como la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE), no existe aun informacion suficiente sobre su biologia, taxonomia y comportamiento. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo evaluar el desempeno de moscas en jaulas de campo a traves del estudio de la competitividad sexual entre machos salvajes (seleccion sexual). Para ello, se muestreo una poblacion de Horco Molle, Tucuman (Argentina). En jaulas de campo se liberaron machos y hembras adultos

  18. Molecular evidence of Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection in reptiles in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Frutos, María C; Monetti, Marina S; Ré, Viviana E; Cuffini, Cecilia G

    2014-01-01

    In the central area of Argentina, the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of Chlamydophila pneumoniae infections in reptiles are still unknown. A nested polymerase chain reaction of the rpoB gene was used to detect C. pneumoniae in cloacal swab samples from 19 reptiles at a recreational area. Eleven (57.89%) reptiles were positive; the sequencing and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of this bacterium. Neither C. pneumoniae DNA in the caregivers pharynges nor IgM antibodies anti-C. pneumoniae in their serum samples were detected; however, caregivers presented very high titers of IgG anti-C. pneumoniae. The detection of C. pneumoniae DNA in reptiles demonstrated the circulation of this agent in the recreational area and could be responsible for the exacerbated immune response of the personnel handling the reptiles, which suggests a potential zoonotic cycle. This is the first report of the detection of C. pneumoniae in reptiles in Argentina.

  19. [Congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Sosa-Estani, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Argentina has being increasing its relative importance with control of vectorial and transfusional transmission growth. It is for this reason that vertical transmission is seen, in the future, as a continuous source of infected newborns, even with vectorial and transfusional transmission completely controlled. Preventing vertical transmission of T.cruzi is not possible, but it can be precociously detected, permitting mother and child to be incorporated into the medical attention system, and so allowing the newbornś treatment with practically 100% efficacy. It is estimated that between 800 and 1700 children infected with T. cruzi by congenital transmission are born in Argentina, per year. The implementation of an early strategy of detection for an effective and opportune treatment acquires great relevance as a Public Health measure.

  20. CESAR Mission—Cooperation Española-Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acedo, Lucía; Urech, Alvaro; Caruso, Daniel; Yelós, Juan

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes the CESAR Mission, an Earth Observation Satellite Mission developed in cooperation between INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) from Spain and CONAE (Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales) from Argentina. The Mission, with a proposed launch date of the corresponding CESAR satellite circa 2002/2003, consists in the design, construction, launch and operation of a small satellite, less than 500 Kg, and the update of the existing Ground Segment Capabilities in Spain and Argentina to receive and process the CESAR generated data. The primary objectives will be: Cartography, Natural Resources and Geophysics, with a Satellite Payload composed of a Panchromatic Camera with 5 meters geometric resolution and 10 bits radiometric resolution, for cartography and topography studies; a Multispectral Camera with 6 bands, 34 meters geometric resolution and 10 bits radiometric resolution, for thematic studies; and Panchromatic High Sensibility Camera with 1Km geometric resolution and a Spectrometer, for geophysics studies.

  1. Mycobacterium bovis in Swine: Spoligotyping of Isolates from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Barandiaran, Soledad; Martínez Vivot, Marcela; Moras, Eduardo Vicente; Cataldi, Angel Adrián; Zumárraga, Martín José

    2011-01-01

    A total of 143 Mycobacterium bovis isolates of pigs, from the most productive swine area in Argentina, were typed by spoligotyping. Twenty-two different spoligotypes were identified, and 133 (93%) isolates were grouped into 12 clusters. One of them, designed SB0140, was the most frequent because it held 83 (58%) isolates. This spoligotype also grouped 362 (43%) out of 841 isolates from previously typed cattle and, thus, constitutes the most frequent in our country. In addition, 135 (94%) isolates revealed spoligotypes identical to those of cattle, showing an epidemiological link. On the other hand, there were seven novel spoligotypes, six of which were also unique since they had only one isolate each. This study aimed to identify the spoligotypes of M. bovis isolated from pigs to contribute to a better understanding of the distribution of bovine tuberculosis in the main productive area of Argentina. PMID:21547236

  2. Rights questioned. Limitations of poverty-reduction policies in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Faur, Eleonor; Campos, Luis; Pautassi, Laura; Zimerman, Silvina

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses, from a human rights' approach, a group of social programmes implemented in Argentina from the year 2002, at the time of the biggest socioeconomic crisis that the country has suffered in the last decades. The main characteristics of the programmes are reviewed, and their anti-poverty strategy, along with design and implementation, are evaluated in relation to human rights. An assessment is also made of the existence of mechanisms for citizens to present claims. Finally, a set of recommendations are made to facilitate the adaptation of the programmes analysed to the duties the State of Argentina has as result of its adherence to international laws on human rights. The analytical methodology proposed by this article could be applied to other policy areas.

  3. Bioprospection of marine microorganisms: potential and challenges for Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dionisi, Hebe M; Lozada, Mariana; Olivera, Nelda L

    2012-01-01

    The marine environments of Argentina have a remarkable extension, as well as high biological productivity and biodiversity of both macro- and microorganisms. Despite having a great potential for biotechnological applications, the microorganisms inhabiting these ecosystems remain mostly unexplored and unexploited. In this review, we study the research topics and the interactions among Argentinean laboratories, by analyzing current articles published on biotechnology-related marine microbiology by researchers of this country. In addition, we identify the challenges and opportunities for Argentina to take advantage of the genetic potential of its marine microorganisms. Finally, we suggest possible actions that could improve the development of this research field, as well as the utilization of this knowledge to solve societal needs.

  4. Ayurveda in Argentina and other Latin American countries

    PubMed Central

    Berra, Jorge Luis; Molho, Rosana

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years the Fundacion Salud de Ayurved Prema Argentina has spread the knowledge of Ayurveda throughout Latin America. The Fundacion is based in Buenos Aires in the Argentine Republic, where it now runs courses in two of the country’s major medical schools - at the School of Medicine of the University of Buenos Aires, and the National University of Cordoba’s School of Medicine. Based on an MoU with Gujarat Ayurveda University, at Jamnagar, Gujarat, the Fundacion has been accredited as a Collaborating Center for teaching, assistance and research in the field of Ayurvedic Medicine in Argentina. This has led to successful missions to other countries in the region where the Fundacion and its associates have been able to start dialogues with governments, and in places hold sizeable courses. The knowledge of Ayurveda is now spreading throughout South and Central America and hardly a country remains untouched by it. PMID:21547054

  5. Hantavirus infection in humans and rodents, northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pini, Noemi; Levis, Silvana; Calderón, Gladys; Ramirez, Josefina; Bravo, Daniel; Lozano, Elena; Ripoll, Carlos; St Jeor, Stephen; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Barquez, Ruben M; Enria, Delia

    2003-09-01

    We initiated a study to elucidate the ecology and epidemiology of hantavirus infections in northern Argentina. The northwestern hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)-endemic area of Argentina comprises Salta and Jujuy Provinces. Between 1997 and 2000, 30 HPS cases were diagnosed in Jujuy Province (population 512,329). Most patients had a mild clinical course, and the death rate (13.3%) was low. We performed a serologic and epidemiologic survey in residents of the area, in conjunction with a serologic study in rodents. The prevalence of hantavirus antibodies in the general human population was 6.5%, one of the highest reported in the literature. No evidence of interhuman transmission was found, and the high prevalence of hantavirus antibody seemed to be associated with the high infestation of rodents detected in domestic and peridomestic habitats.

  6. Avian influenza surveillance in backyard poultry of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Buscaglia, C; Espinosa, C; Terrera, M V; De Benedetti, R

    2007-03-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is an exotic disease in Argentina. A surveillance program for AI was conducted in backyard poultry during 1998-2005 in two regions: 1) region A, which included the avian population in the provinces that border Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay, and 2) region B, which included the rest of the provinces of the country. More than 8000 serum samples were tested for antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and/or agar gel immunodiffusion tests, and more than 18,000 tracheal and cloacal swabs were tested for virus by isolation in embryonated specific-pathogen-free eggs. This study was part of the AI prevention program in Argentina, which includes other avian populations such as commercial poultry and all the controls for importation and exportation of live birds. The results from backyard poultry were negative for AI.

  7. Improving the CONAE solar UV index for Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salum, G. M.; Piacentini, R. D.; Cede, A.; Luccini, E.; Marraco, H.; Machado, M. E.

    The Argentina National Commission on Space Activities (CONAE) has been forecasting the UV Index for solar risk prevention from November 1996 up to the present. It is based on a parametric atmospheric radiative transfer calculation, including mainly the ozone attenuation from TOMS/NASA data and the altitude (pressure) and coordinates of the selected site. Daily predictions, for various locations of Argentina as well as for other countries are published via the web at www.conae.gov.ar. We present in this work the improved version of the CONAE UV Index using the TUV program developed by Madronich (www.acd.ucar.edu), with the inclusion of effective aerosol data estimated for each site. The forecast is also extended from one to several days in advance and a correction factor for cloudy sky is included.

  8. Detection of Orthobunyavirus in mosquitoes collected in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Tauro, L B; Batallan, G P; Rivarola, M E; Visintin, A; Berrón, C I; Sousa, E C; Diaz, L A; Almiron, W R; Nunes, M R; Contigiani, M S

    2015-09-01

    Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) (Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus, serogroup Bunyamwera) is considered an emerging pathogen for humans and animals in American countries. The CbaAr-426 strain of BUNV was recovered from mosquitoes Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in Córdoba province (Argentina), where serological studies detected high seroprevalences in humans and animals. Molecular detection of Orthobunyavirus was performed in mosquitoes collected in Córdoba province. Seventeen mosquito pools of Oc. albifasciatus, Ochlerotatus scapularis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) showed positive results; four of these positive pools, all of Oc. scapularis, were sequenced. All amplicons grouped with BUNV in the Bunyamwera serogroup. The findings highlight the circulation of BUNV in Córdoba province and represent the first report of BUNV-infected Oc. scapularis mosquitoes in Argentina.

  9. Mycobacterium bovis in Argentina: isolates from cats typified by spoligotyping.

    PubMed

    Zumárraga, M J; Vivot, M Martínez; Marticorena, D; Bernardelli, A; Fasán, R; Iachini, R; Cataldi, A A

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, 19 Mycobacterium bovis isolates from different cats were typified by spoligotyping. We detected nine spoligotypes. There was only one cluster, which grouped 11 of the isolates (57.9%), showing the main spoligotype from cattle from Argentina. The rest of the spoligotypes presented only one isolate each. Five of them were not found in cattle, and were unique and exclusive of cats. The isolates studied show that tuberculosis of bovine origin in cats constitutes a potential public health problem in Buenos Aires region. The identification of genotypes from non-natural hosts could contribute to understand the spread of bovine tuberculosis. This is the first report showing genetic profiles of M. bovis isolates in felines from Argentina.

  10. Hantavirus Infection in Humans and Rodents, Northwestern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Levis, Silvana; Calderón, Gladys; Ramirez, Josefina; Bravo, Daniel; Lozano, Elena; Ripoll, Carlos; St. Jeor, Stephen; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Barquez, Ruben M.; Enria, Delia

    2003-01-01

    We initiated a study to elucidate the ecology and epidemiology of hantavirus infections in northern Argentina. The northwestern hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)–endemic area of Argentina comprises Salta and Jujuy Provinces. Between 1997 and 2000, 30 HPS cases were diagnosed in Jujuy Province (population 512,329). Most patients had a mild clinical course, and the death rate (13.3%) was low. We performed a serologic and epidemiologic survey in residents of the area, in conjunction with a serologic study in rodents. The prevalence of hantavirus antibodies in the general human population was 6.5%, one of the highest reported in the literature. No evidence of interhuman transmission was found, and the high prevalence of hantavirus antibody seemed to be associated with the high infestation of rodents detected in domestic and peridomestic habitats. PMID:14519242

  11. Aedes albopictus in an area of Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Schweigmann, Nicolás; Vezzani, Darío; Orellano, Pablo; Kuruc, Jorge; Boffi, Rolando

    2004-02-01

    Until early 1998 the presence of Aedes albopictus had never been detected in Argentina. During April of the same year, few individuals of this species were recorded in 33 breeding sites found in 25 out of 161 inspected houses in the city of Eldorado, Province of Misiones. The homogeneous spatial distribution of the proliferation foci suggests the existence of a generalized infestation in this locality during the study period.

  12. Glaciation in southern Argentina more than two million years ago.

    PubMed

    Mercer, J H

    1969-05-16

    In southern Argentina till beds interbedded with lava flows were deposited by ice that extended at least 40 kilometers east of the present crest of the cordillera. The flow covering the oldest till bed is 3.2 +/- 1 million years old. The flow that constitutes the present surface and covers the youngest till bed, is 1.7 +/- 0.5 million years old.

  13. The Nabidae (Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera) of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Marcela; Coscarón, María C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In Argentina, five genera and 14 species are recorded in the subfamilies Prostemmatinae and Nabinae: Hoplistoscelis sordidus Reuter, Lasiomerus constrictus Champion, Metatropiphorus alvarengai Reuter, Nabis argentinus Meyer-Dür, Nabis (Tropiconabis) capsiformis Germar, Nabis faminei Stål, Nabis paranensis Harris, Nabis punctipennis Blanchard, Nabis roripes Stål, Nabis setricus Harris, Nabis tandilensis Berg, Pagasa (Pagasa) costalis Reuter, Pagasa (Lampropagasa) fuscipennis Reuter and Pagasa (Pagasa) signatipennis Reuter. PMID:24146557

  14. Argentina: An emerging marketer is set to sell itself

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear industry in Argentina is outlined in the article. A brief history of the industry`s transformation from a federal to a private enterprise is presented. Information on fuel cycle facilities for uranium production, uranium dioxide production, zircalloy turbine production, nuclear fuel fabrication, and heavy water production is provided. Other topics presented include spent fuel storage, technology marketing, industry restructuring, and bilateral weapons agreements.

  15. Evolution of Argentina's energy industry - the privatization of YPF

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-30

    In Argentina, years of rampant inflation and bottlenecked economic progress have given way to a period of giant financial influx -- through privatization. Privatization of the national oil company is seen as a culmination of the process. As petroleum accounts from some 8% of Gross Domestic Product, and represents a crucial support for sustained economic development in general, the liberation of the oil sector to free market competition is ascensive and assertive.

  16. Emergence of metallo-β-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Sonia; Rapoport, Melina; Togneri, Ana; Viegas-Caetano, José; Faccone, Diego; Corso, Alejandra; Petroni, Alejandro; Pasteran, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Carbapenem susceptibility in Enterobacteriaceae (M9921, M9959) revealed the presence of MBLs bla(VIM-2) (M9959) and bla(IMP-8) (M9921), both as first cassettes of class-1-integrons. ESBL bla(PER-2) was detected in both strains and M9921 also harboured qnrB10, aac(6')-Ib and aac(6')-Ib-cr. This is the first report of MBLs in Enterobacteriaceae from Argentina.

  17. 2 new OT, discovered by MASTER-OAFA (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Gress, O.; Chazov, V.; Kuvshinov, D.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.; Gabovich, A.

    2016-11-01

    MASTER-OAFA (located in Argentina) auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 09h 23m 26.72s -76d 28m 17.7s on 2016-11-13 06:19:38UT The OT magnitude in unfiltered is (mlim=18.0m).

  18. BRCA1 polymorphism in breast cancer patients from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Jaure, Omar; Alonso, Eliana N; Braico, Diego Aguilera; Nieto, Alvaro; Orozco, Manuela; Morelli, Cecilia; Ferro, Alejandro M; Barutta, Elena; Vincent, Esteban; Martínez, Domingo; Martínez, Ignacio; Maegli, Maria Ines; Frizza, Alejandro; Kowalyzyn, Ruben; Salvadori, Marisa; Ginestet, Paul; Gonzalez Donna, Maria L; Balogh, Gabriela A

    2015-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in females in Argentina, with an incidence rate similar to that in the USA. However, the contribution of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation in breast cancer incidence has not yet been investigated in Argentina. In order to evaluate which BRCA1 polymorphisms or mutations characterize female breast cancer in Argentina, the current study enrolled 206 females with breast cancer from several hospitals from the southeast of Argentina. A buccal smear sample was obtained in duplicate from each patient and the DNA samples were processed for polymorphism analysis using the single-strand conformational polymorphism technique. The polymorphisms in BRCA1 were investigated using a combination of 15 primers to analyze exons 2, 3, 5, 20 and 11 (including the 11.1 to 11.12 regions). The BRCA1 mutations were confirmed by direct sequencing. Samples were successfully examined from 154 females and, among these, 16 mutations were identified in the BRCA1 gene representing 13.9% of the samples analyzed. One patient was identified with a polymorphism in exon 2 (0.86%), four in exon 20 (3.48%), four in exon 11.3 (3.48%), one in exon 11.7 (0.86%), two in exon 11.8 (1.74%), one in exon 11.10 (0.86%) and one in exon 11.11 (0.86%). The most prevalent alteration in BRCA1 was located in exon 11 (11 out of 16 patients; 68.75%). The objective of our next study is to evaluate the prevalence of mutations in the BRCA2 gene and analyze the BRCA1 gene in the healthy relatives of BRCA1 mutation carriers.

  19. BRCA1 polymorphism in breast cancer patients from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    JAURE, OMAR; ALONSO, ELIANA N.; BRAICO, DIEGO AGUILERA; NIETO, ALVARO; OROZCO, MANUELA; MORELLI, CECILIA; FERRO, ALEJANDRO M.; BARUTTA, ELENA; VINCENT, ESTEBAN; MARTÍNEZ, DOMINGO; MARTÍNEZ, IGNACIO; MAEGLI, MARIA INES; FRIZZA, ALEJANDRO; KOWALYZYN, RUBEN; SALVADORI, MARISA; GINESTET, PAUL; GONZALEZ DONNA, MARIA L.; BALOGH, GABRIELA A.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in females in Argentina, with an incidence rate similar to that in the USA. However, the contribution of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation in breast cancer incidence has not yet been investigated in Argentina. In order to evaluate which BRCA1 polymorphisms or mutations characterize female breast cancer in Argentina, the current study enrolled 206 females with breast cancer from several hospitals from the southeast of Argentina. A buccal smear sample was obtained in duplicate from each patient and the DNA samples were processed for polymorphism analysis using the single-strand conformational polymorphism technique. The polymorphisms in BRCA1 were investigated using a combination of 15 primers to analyze exons 2, 3, 5, 20 and 11 (including the 11.1 to 11.12 regions). The BRCA1 mutations were confirmed by direct sequencing. Samples were successfully examined from 154 females and, among these, 16 mutations were identified in the BRCA1 gene representing 13.9% of the samples analyzed. One patient was identified with a polymorphism in exon 2 (0.86%), four in exon 20 (3.48%), four in exon 11.3 (3.48%), one in exon 11.7 (0.86%), two in exon 11.8 (1.74%), one in exon 11.10 (0.86%) and one in exon 11.11 (0.86%). The most prevalent alteration in BRCA1 was located in exon 11 (11 out of 16 patients; 68.75%). The objective of our next study is to evaluate the prevalence of mutations in the BRCA2 gene and analyze the BRCA1 gene in the healthy relatives of BRCA1 mutation carriers. PMID:25624909

  20. Review of the Water Resources Information System of Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchison, N.E.

    1987-01-01

    A representative of the U.S. Geological Survey traveled to Buenos Aires, Argentina, in November 1986, to discuss water information systems and data bank implementation in the Argentine Government Center for Water Resources Information. Software has been written by Center personnel for a minicomputer to be used to manage inventory (index) data and water quality data. Additional hardware and software have been ordered to upgrade the existing computer. Four microcomputers, statistical and data base management software, and network hardware and software for linking the computers have also been ordered. The Center plans to develop a nationwide distributed data base for Argentina that will include the major regional offices as nodes. Needs for continued development of the water resources information system for Argentina were reviewed. Identified needs include: (1) conducting a requirements analysis to define the content of the data base and insure that all user requirements are met, (2) preparing a plan for the development, implementation, and operation of the data base, and (3) developing a conceptual design to inform all development personnel and users of the basic functionality planned for the system. A quality assurance and configuration management program to provide oversight to the development process was also discussed. (USGS)

  1. The family Cavognathidae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea) in Argentina and adjacent countries.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Osvaldo Di; Turienzo, Paola

    2016-03-14

    The family Cavognathidae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea) in Argentina is represented by three species of the genus Taphropiestes Reitter, 1875: T. fusca Reitter, 1875 [Chubut], T. magna Ślipiński & Tomaszewska, 2010 [Río Negro; Chubut], and T. plaumanni Ślipiński & Tomaszewska 2010 [Buenos Aires]. A total of 2565 larvae (multiple instars), 83 pupae, 2028 live adults, and 16 dead adults of T. plaumanni were found in Argentina between 2005 and 2013 in the nests of birds representing the families Columbidae, Emberizidae, Falconidae, Furnariidae, Hirundinidae, Mimidae, Passeridae, Psittacidae, Troglodytidae and Tyrannidae. The adults were most abundant in closed mud nests of Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, 1788) [Furnariidae] and its inquiline birds, but the larvae were most abundant in wood nest boxes. When T. plaumanni was scarcely represented in bird nests from some localities, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, 1797), an exotic darkling beetle [Col.: Tenebrionidae: Tenebrioninae], and one native species, Phobelius crenatus Blanchard, 1842 [Col.: Tenebrionidae: Lagriinae], were most abundant in stick nests of Furnariidae. In contrast, when A. diaperinus and P. crenatus were absent in one locality from the province of Buenos Aires, T. plaumanni was the most abundant beetle. A complete account of data is provided for these collections of T. plaumanni in Argentina. Known distributional data for all Argentinian species of Taphropiestes are plotted on maps with biogeographical provinces indicated.

  2. Nuclear rapprochement in Argentina and Brazil: Workshop summary

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Doyle

    1999-10-01

    On October 21 and 22, 1998, the Center for International Security Affairs at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Center for Global Security and Cooperation at Science Applications International Corporation hosted the first of a series of work-shops on states that have chosen to roll back their pursuit of nuclear arms. The objective of the workshop series is to conduct a systematic evaluation of the roles played by U.S. nonproliferation policy in cases of nuclear rollback or restraint and to provide recommendations for future nonproliferation efforts based on lessons learned. Key attendees at the workshop included officials and former officials from the foreign ministries of Argentina and Brazil, and current and former officials from the U.S. Department of State, the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA), and the Department of Energy (DOE). Scholars and independent researchers who have examined nuclear policy in Argentina and Brazil also participated. This workshop report includes important background information that helps set the stage for assessing nuclear policies in Argentina and Brazil. It describes national perspectives and areas of consensus and debate among the participants, particularly on the questions of lessons learned and their salience to proliferation challenges in other states. It also summarizes key questions and propositions regarding the roles played in these cases by U.S. nonproliferation policy.

  3. Trichinella infection in wild animals from endemic regions of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ribicich, Mabel; Gamble, H R; Bolpe, Jorge; Scialfa, Exequiel; Krivokapich, Silvio; Cardillo, Natalia; Betti, Adriana; Holzmann, Maria Laura Cambiaggi; Pasqualetti, Mariana; Fariña, Fernando; Rosa, Adriana

    2010-07-01

    Natural infection with Trichinella has been described in more than 150 mammalian species. However, few reports of Trichinella infection in wild animals have come from Argentina. In this study, muscle tissue was obtained from wild animals in Argentina with the aim of evaluating the presence of Trichinella. A total of 169 muscle samples were collected to determine the presence of Trichinella larvae by artificial digestion. The 169 muscle samples originated from 12 species including 36 opossums (Didelphis albiventris), 19 armadillos (Chaetophractus villosus), 9 capybaras (Hydrocaeris hydrocaeris), 1 puma (Puma concolor), 3 grey fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus), 6 coypus (Myocastor coypus), 6 skunks (Conepatus chinga), 2 ferrets (Galictis cuja), 66 rats (Rattus norvegicus), 6 mice (Mus musculus), 12 wild boars (Sus scrofa), and 3 wild cats (Felis geoffroyi). Trichinella infection was detected in 1 puma [2 larvae per gram (LPG)], 3 wild boars (8-420 LPG), 3 armadillos (0.04-0.08 LPG), and 9 rats (0.1 to 150 LPG). Only 3 Trichinella isolates, of 1 rat and 2 wild boars from Neuquén, were identified as Trichinella spiralis by nested PCR. The presence of Trichinella infection among wild animal populations suggests a sylvatic cycle of transmission in Argentina, which can serve as a reservoir for humans and domestic animals. Further, evidence of high prevalence in rats emphasizes the need to improve pig management, mainly in small individual farms without adequate technology, to enhance the quality of feeds, and to improve veterinary services to avoid exposure of pigs to Trichinella.

  4. STS-55 Earth observation of agricultural development in northern Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, is of agricultural development in northern Argentina. This photograph is from a mapping strip of photographs acquired by the STS-55 crew. This mapping strip runs from the 'eyelash forests' of the Bolivian Andes, southeast across the Chaco Plains, and into the upper Parana River Basin of north-central Argentina. The formerly densely forested areas between the upper Rio Pilcomayo and the Rio Teuco of NW Argentina rest on deep, rich alluvial and loess deposits. These modern soils were carried into the region by rivers from the Andes and by dust storms from large playa areas of the Altiplano (high plains) of Peru and Boliva. In this scene, representative of the long mapping strip, the process of converting forests to agriculture is far advanced. The original road network, a series of grids laid out in the forest, has nearly coalesced into a farm and ranch landscape. Some few relict forests are still visible as distin

  5. Aedes aegypti in Córdoba Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Avilés, G; Cecchini, R; Harrington, M E; Cichero, J; Asis, R; Rios, C

    1997-09-01

    In 1955, the area infested by Aedes aegypti in Argentina was estimated as 1,500,000 km2; and in 1963, the species was considered to be eradicated from Argentina. In 1995, the Argentine Ministry of Health reported reinfestation by Ae. aegypti. During 1994-95, the Ministry of Health of Córdoba Province, Zoonosis Department, established a surveillance system for Ae. aegypti in Córdoba Province, Argentina. This report is a summary of results obtained thus far. In total, 74 localities in Córdoba Province were sampled during August 1994-April 1996, resulting in 5 positives (6.7%): Villa María city, Villa Nueva, and Córdoba city in 1995, and Juarez Celman and Jesús María in 1996. In Villa María and Villa Nueva, Ae. aegypti was present until June 1995 (autumn) and reappeared in December 1995. In Córdoba city, Ae. aegypti was eliminated from the only positive house in May 1995, but it reappeared in March 1996. Reappearance of Ae. aegypti in this temperate area in early summer may have been due to the survival of individuals during winter and not to reintroduction during summertime. The last previous active surveillance for Ae. aegypti in Córdoba Province was carried out more than 30 years ago.

  6. Family Dynamics and Personal Strengths among Dementia Caregivers in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Elnasseh, Aaliah G; Trujillo, Michael A; Peralta, Silvina Victoria; Stolfi, Miriam E; Morelli, Eliana; Perrin, Paul B; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether healthier family dynamics were associated with higher personal strengths of resilience, sense of coherence, and optimism among dementia caregivers in Argentina. Caregivers are usually required to assist individuals with dementia, and family members have typically fulfilled that role. Personal strengths such as resilience, sense of coherence, and optimism have been shown to protect caregivers from some of the negative experiences of providing care, though the family-related variables associated with these personal strengths are largely unknown. Hierarchical multiple regressions investigated the extent to which family dynamics variables are associated with each of the caregiver personal strengths after controlling for demographic and caregiver characteristics. A sample of 105 caregivers from Argentina completed a set of questionnaires during a neurologist visit. Family dynamics explained 32% of the variance in resilience and 39% of the variance in sense of coherence. Greater family empathy and decreased family problems were uniquely associated with higher resilience. Greater communication and decreased family problems were uniquely associated with higher sense of coherence. Optimism was not found to be significantly associated with family dynamics. These results suggest that caregiver intervention research focused on the family may help improve caregiver personal strengths in Argentina and other Latin American countries.

  7. Family Dynamics and Personal Strengths among Dementia Caregivers in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Elnasseh, Aaliah G.; Trujillo, Michael A.; Peralta, Silvina Victoria; Stolfi, Miriam E.; Morelli, Eliana; Perrin, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether healthier family dynamics were associated with higher personal strengths of resilience, sense of coherence, and optimism among dementia caregivers in Argentina. Caregivers are usually required to assist individuals with dementia, and family members have typically fulfilled that role. Personal strengths such as resilience, sense of coherence, and optimism have been shown to protect caregivers from some of the negative experiences of providing care, though the family-related variables associated with these personal strengths are largely unknown. Hierarchical multiple regressions investigated the extent to which family dynamics variables are associated with each of the caregiver personal strengths after controlling for demographic and caregiver characteristics. A sample of 105 caregivers from Argentina completed a set of questionnaires during a neurologist visit. Family dynamics explained 32% of the variance in resilience and 39% of the variance in sense of coherence. Greater family empathy and decreased family problems were uniquely associated with higher resilience. Greater communication and decreased family problems were uniquely associated with higher sense of coherence. Optimism was not found to be significantly associated with family dynamics. These results suggest that caregiver intervention research focused on the family may help improve caregiver personal strengths in Argentina and other Latin American countries. PMID:27413574

  8. Increasing Capacity for Environmental Engineering in Salta, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Rajal, Verónica B.; Cid, Alicia G.; Cruz, Mercedes C.; Poma, Hugo R.; Cacciabue, Dolores Gutierrez; Romano, Neli; Moraga, Norma B.; Last, Jerold A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Fogarty International Center (FIC) of the United States National Institutes of Health includes the International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health (ITREOH) Program. The “International Training Program in Environmental Toxicology and Public Health” Center, funded in 2002 is based at the University of California, Davis, and is part of the ITREOH group of Centers. It has major efforts focused at the public universities in Montevideo, Uruguay, and Salta, Argentina. Results Training and research efforts in Salta begun in 2005 in the College of Engineering. A donated used real-time PCR machine was the starting point and the initial FIC support was instrumental to face other problems including physical space, research projects and grants, trainees, training, networking, and distractions/opportunities in order to develop local capacities in Environmental Engineering using modern methodology. After six years of successful work, the Salta center has become a reference Center in the field, and is still growing and consolidating. Conclusions This program has had a significant impact locally and regionally. The model used in Argentina could be easily adapted to other fields or types of projects in Argentina and in other developing countries. PMID:22467330

  9. Hepatitis C virus infection in Argentina: Burden of chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Ridruejo, Ezequiel; Bessone, Fernando; Daruich, Jorge R; Estes, Chris; Gadano, Adrián C; Razavi, Homie; Villamil, Federico G; Silva, Marcelo O

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the progression of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic and measure the burden of HCV-related morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Age- and gender-defined cohorts were used to follow the viremic population in Argentina and estimate HCV incidence, prevalence, hepatic complications, and mortality. The relative impact of two scenarios on HCV-related outcomes was assessed: (1) increased sustained virologic response (SVR); and (2) increased SVR and treatment. RESULTS: Under scenario 1, SVR raised to 85%-95% in 2016. Compared to the base case scenario, there was a 0.3% reduction in prevalent cases and liver-related deaths by 2030. Given low treatment rates, cases of hepatocellular carcinoma and decompensated cirrhosis decreased < 1%, in contrast to the base case in 2030. Under scenario 2, the same increases in SVR were modeled, with gradual increases in the annual diagnosed and treated populations. This scenario decreased prevalent infections 45%, liver-related deaths 55%, liver cancer cases 60%, and decompensated cirrhosis 55%, as compared to the base case by 2030. CONCLUSION: In Argentina, cases of end stage liver disease and liver-related deaths due to HCV are still growing, while its prevalence is decreasing. Increasing in SVR rates is not enough, and increasing in the number of patients diagnosed and candidates for treatment is needed to reduce the HCV disease burden. Based on this scenario, strategies to increase diagnosis and treatment uptake must be developed to reduce HCV burden in Argentina. PMID:27239258

  10. Brucella suis in armadillos (Chaetophractus villosus) from La Pampa, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kin, Marta S; Fort, Marcelo; de Echaide, Susana T; Casanave, Emma B

    2014-06-04

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease transmitted from an animal reservoir to humans. Both, wildlife and domestic animals, contribute to the spreading of these zoonosis. The surveillance of the animal health status is strictly regulated for domestic animals, whereas disease monitoring in wildlife does not exist. The aim of the present study was to provide data on the prevalence of anti-Brucella antibodies in Chaetophractus villosus from a region of La Pampa, Argentina to assess public health risks. The C. villosus is endemic to South America, and in Argentina it represents a food resource for human consumption. A total of 150 sera of armadillos bleeding between 2007 and 2010 were tested using buffered plate antigen test (BPAT), serum agglutination test (SAT), 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) and complement fixation test (CFT), for the detection of anti-Brucella antibodies. Antibodies to Brucella sp. were found in 16% (24:150) of the armadillos tested using the BPAT test. All 24 positive samples were confirmed by the SAT, 2-ME and CFT tests. Strain isolation was attempted from liver and spleen samples of two animals with positive serology. Isolates were characterized by conventional biotyping and identification of specific DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 2 isolates were recovered from spleen and liver. Both of them were identified as Brucella suis biovar 1. This preliminary study provides the first report on the seroprevalence of brucellosis and describes the first isolate of B. suis biovar 1 in C. villosus in Argentina.

  11. 77 FR 72384 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... COMMISSION Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico; Scheduling of Full Five- Year Reviews Concerning the Suspended Investigations on Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico. AGENCY: International Trade Commission... termination of the suspended investigations on lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico would be likely to...

  12. A new species of Tullbergia (Collembola, Tullbergiidae) from Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Palacios-Vargas, José G.; Martínez, Ana E. Salazar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Tullbergia from Argentina is described and illustrated; it is differentiated from Tullbergia paranensis by the number of vesicles of postantennal organ, pseudocelli shape and its formulae and the number of dorsal sensilla on Ant. IV. In addition a key for the identification of the members of the family from Argentina is included. PMID:25061344

  13. The Politics of Access to Higher Education in Argentina and Brazil: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes Nogueira, Jaana Flavia

    2013-01-01

    Historically, higher education has played an important role in the development of societies. Indeed, this has been the case in both Argentina and Brazil. The overall goal of this dissertation is to examine the historical development and the current situation of higher education in Argentina and Brazil. In relation to history, it discusses the…

  14. Two new records of ceratocanthinae from northeastern Argentina (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea, Hybosoridae).

    PubMed

    Ballerio, Alberto; Carpaneto, Giuseppe M

    2009-01-01

    Germarostes (Haroldostes) rugiceps (Germar) and Germarostes (Haroldostes) diffundus (Petrovitz) (Ceratocanthinae) are recorded for the first time for Argentina from Misiones and Corrientes, respectively. This brings to thirteen the total number of the Ceratocanthinae species recorded for Argentina up to now. Some remarks on the type series of G. diffundus and on the collecting circumstances of the Argentine specimens in here discussed are included.

  15. Especies del género Tamarix (Tamaricaceae) invadiendo ambientes naturales y seminaturales en Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tamarix species (Tamaricaceae) invading natural and seminatural habitats in Argentina. The genus Tamarix includes species behaving as aggressive invaders in the USA, México and Australia. Previous studies report a variable number of species of this genus cultivated in Argentina as ornamentals,wind-b...

  16. 76 FR 80870 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Province in Argentina as pest-free areas for Mediterranean fruit fly and South American fruit fly. Based on... recognition as pest-free areas for Mediterranean fruit fly and South American fruit fly. DATES: Effective Date... additional areas as pest-free areas for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) in Argentina.......

  17. A new species of Tribonium Saussure, 1862 from the Province of Misiones, Argentina (Blattaria, Blaberidae, Zetoborinae).

    PubMed

    Crespo, Francisco Antonio; Valverde, Alejandra Del Carmen; Iglesias, Mónica Sandra

    2015-03-23

    Tribonium rothi sp. n. is described from Argentina, whereas T. neospectrum and T. conspersum are recorded for the first time for that country, and their genitalia is redescribed. Femur and tibial spine armature are given and Tribonium is compared with Schistopeltis. A key to identify species of the genus Tribonium recorded in Argentina is provided.

  18. Gender ratio trends over time in multiple sclerosis patients from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rojas, J I; Patrucco, L; MIguez, J; Sinay, V; Cassara, F Pagani; Cáceres, F; Liguori, N Fernandez; Saladino, M L; Deri, N; Jaacks, G; Marcilla, M Parada; Arrigoni, M I; Correale, J; Fiol, M; Ysrraelit, M C; Carrá, A; Curbelo, M C; Martinez, A; Steinberg, J; Bestoso, S; Hryb, J P; Di Pace, J L; Perassolo, M B; Contentti, E Carnero; Caride, A; Lopez, P A; Martinez, C; Reich, E; Giunta, D; Cristiano, E

    2017-04-01

    Several studies in multiple sclerosis (MS) suggest a trend of increasing disease frequency in women during the last decades. A direct comparison of gender ratio trends among MS populations from Argentina remains to be carried out. The objective of the study was to compare gender ratio trends, over a 50-year span in MS populations from Argentina.

  19. [The demographic and occupational characteristics of Italian migrants to Argentina, 1880-1930].

    PubMed

    Cacopardo, M C; Moreno, J L

    1984-09-01

    "This essay studies...the demographic and socio-professional characteristics of the Italian emigrants in Argentina during the period 1880-1930. Besides a reconstruction of the demographic variables (age, sex, mortality, and fertility) in the historical series, the essay also depicts the professional profile of the Italians in Argentina...." (summary in ENG, FRE)

  20. 76 FR 76374 - Honey From Argentina: Notice of Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Notice of Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary... September 7, 2011, the Department extended the time limit for the preliminary results until December ] 1... (10) Seabird Argentina S.A. See Notice of Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results and...

  1. 76 FR 79655 - Honey From Argentina: Notice of Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Notice of Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary... September 7, 2011, the Department extended the time limit for the preliminary results until December 1, 2011...) Seabird Argentina S.A. See Notice of Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results and...

  2. The Influence of Positivism in the Nineteenth Century Astronomy in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santilli, Haydee; Cornejo, Jorge Norberto

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the influence of positivism in Argentina astronomical culture in the nineteenth century. We did the analysis from two dimensions, scientific knowledge development and science teaching. Because Argentina was a very young country at that time, it was of singular importance, not only the development of scientific knowledge…

  3. VERTICAL TRANSMISSION OF DENGUE VIRUS IN Aedes aegypti COLLECTED IN PUERTO IGUAZÚ, MISIONES, ARGENTINA

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Manuel; Giamperetti, Sergio; Abril, Marcelo; Seijo, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    A finding of vertical transmission of the DEN 3 virus in male specimens of Aedes aegypti, collected in the 2009 fall-winter period, in Puerto Iguazú city, Misiones, Argentina, using the RT-PCR technique in a 15-specimen pool is reported. This result is analyzed within the context of the epidemiological situation of Argentina's northeast border. PMID:24626420

  4. Vertical transmission of dengue virus in Aedes aegypti collected in Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Manuel; Giamperetti, Sergio; Abril, Marcelo; Seijo, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    A finding of vertical transmission of the DEN 3 virus in male specimens of Aedes aegypti, collected in the 2009 fall-winter period, in Puerto Iguazú city, Misiones, Argentina, using the RT-PCR technique in a 15-specimen pool is reported. This result is analyzed within the context of the epidemiological situation of Argentina's northeast border.

  5. Wasmannia Forel(Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) in Argentina: systematics and distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ant genus Wasmannia is endemic to the Neotropics, with 10 species occurring within the presumptive native range for the genus from Mexico to Argentina. Only the little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata is widely distributed being present from central-eastern Argentina to Bermuda, and has become i...

  6. 69 FR 29518 - Honey from Argentina: Final Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-05-24

    ... International Trade Administration Honey from Argentina: Final Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative... its preliminary results of administrative review of the countervailing duty order on honey from... requests for an administrative review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on honey from Argentina...

  7. 72 FR 19177 - Honey from Argentina: Final Results of New Shipper Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-04-17

    ... International Trade Administration Honey from Argentina: Final Results of New Shipper Review AGENCY: Import... Honey from Argentina: Preliminary Results of New Shipper Review, 71 FR 67850 (November 24, 2006... review (POR) is December 1, 2004, to December 31, 2005. The petitioners are the Sioux Honey...

  8. A New Flea Species of the Genus Cleopsylla (Siphonaptera: Stephanocircidae) from Northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    López Berrizbeitia, M Fernanda; Hastriter, Michael W; Díaz, M Mónica

    2016-10-01

    A new species of flea of the genus Cleopsylla Rothschild, 1914 (Siphonaptera: Stephanocircidae) is described from sigmodontine rodents from northwestern Argentina. In Argentina, the genus was cited for the first time in 2008, but the species was erroneously identified. An identification key to species of Cleopsylla is presented.

  9. A new flea of the genus Ctenidiosomus (Siphonaptera, Pygiopsyllidae) from Salta Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    López-Berrizbeitia, M Fernanda; Hastriter, Michael W; Barquez, Rubén M; Díaz, M Mónica

    2015-01-01

    A new species of flea of the genus Ctenidiosomus Jordan, 1931 (Siphonaptera: Pygiopsyllidae) is described from Phyllotisosilae J. A. Allen, 1901, from Salta Province, Argentina. This is the first time that Ctenidiosomus has been recorded in Argentina. A key to species of males of Ctenidiosomus is presented.

  10. School Autonomy in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina: Evidence from Two School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astiz, M. Fernanda

    2006-01-01

    This article provides empirical evidence of policy adoption, outcomes and consequences of decentralization and school autonomy initiatives enacted in Argentina during the 1990s. The study examines what school autonomy meant in Argentina and how it was adopted at the provincial and school levels. Using qualitative data on school districts of the…

  11. Discourses and Policies on Educational Quality in Argentina, 1990-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorostiaga, Jorge M.; Ferreira, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the relationships between different notions of education quality and policies on primary and secondary schools implemented in Argentina during the last two decades. The authors focus on three moments: (1) the emergence of the discussion about quality (at the end of the 1980s) in Latin America and in Argentina; (2) the…

  12. A new flea of the genus Ctenidiosomus (Siphonaptera, Pygiopsyllidae) from Salta Province, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    López-Berrizbeitia, M. Fernanda; Hastriter, Michael W.; Barquez, Rubén M.; Díaz, M. Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of flea of the genus Ctenidiosomus Jordan, 1931 (Siphonaptera: Pygiopsyllidae) is described from Phyllotis osilae J. A. Allen, 1901, from Salta Province, Argentina. This is the first time that Ctenidiosomus has been recorded in Argentina. A key to species of males of Ctenidiosomus is presented. PMID:26257563

  13. 78 FR 48145 - Lemon Juice From Argentina: Continuation of Suspended Antidumping Duty Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... Doc No: 2013-19067] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-357-818] Lemon Juice... of the suspended investigation on lemon juice from Argentina would likely lead to continuation or... of the suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina...

  14. Research on English Language Teaching and Learning in Argentina (2007-2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porto, Melina; Montemayor-Borsinger, Ann; López-Barrios, Mario

    2016-01-01

    In this article we review research on English as a foreign language (EFL) teaching and learning published in Argentina between 2007 and 2013. This is the first review of a Latin American country in this series. Argentina has a century-long tradition of training EFL teachers but a comparatively shorter though fruitful history of foreign language…

  15. Exposure Assessment to Environmental Chemicals in Children from Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Martinez, Angeles C; Orta-Garcia, Sandra T; Rico-Escobar, Edna M; Carrizales-Yañez, Leticia; Del Campo, Jorge D Martin; Pruneda-Alvarez, Lucia G; Ruiz-Vera, Tania; Gonzalez-Palomo, Ana K; Piña-Lopez, Iris G; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Pérez-Maldonado, Ivan N

    2016-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that the human biomonitoring of susceptible populations is a valuable method for the identification of critical contaminants. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the exposure profile for arsenic (As), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in children living in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico (a major manufacturing center in Mexico). In 2012, we evaluated a total of 135 healthy children living in Ciudad Juarez since birth. The total PBDEs levels ranged from nondetectable (< LOD) to 215 ng/g lipid, with a mean total PBDEs level of 29.5 ± 53.0 ng/g lipid (geometric mean ± standard deviation). The mean total PCBs level in the study participants was 29.0 ± 10.5 ng/g lipid (range 4.50-50.0 ng/g lipid). The mean concentration of total DDT (DDT + DDE) was 11.9 ± 6.70 ng/g lipid (range 3.00-26.0 ng/g lipid). The mean 1-OHP levels was 1.2 ± 1.1 µmol/mol creatinine (range Ciudad Juarez is necessary.

  16. Exploring the efficacy of an environmental health intervention in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Alma A; Grineski, Sara E

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the efficacy of an environmental health intervention in several poor colonias in Ciudad Juárez (Mexico). Parents of children with respiratory problems were given environment-friendly products intended to replace hazardous products used in the home, as well as information about environmental health. Parents were surveyed before and after to measure the effectiveness of the intervention and to gauge perceptions. There was a significant reduction in hazardous chemical use (eg, cleaning products and pesticides) and breathing problems. While the intervention focused on changing in-home behaviors, open-ended responses revealed that parents were most concerned about outdoor environmental conditions over which they had less control.

  17. A long- and short-run analysis of electricity demand in Ciudad Juarez

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez-Carrillo, Ericka Cecilia

    Economic growth and appliance saturation are increasing electricity consumption in Mexico. Annual frequency data from 1990 to 2012 are utilized to develop an error correction framework that sheds light on short- and long-run electricity consumption behavior in Ciudad Juarez, a large Mexican metropolitan economy at the border with the United States. The results for this study reveal that electricity is an inelastic normal good in this market. Moreover, natural gas is found to be a weak complement to electricity. With regards to the customer base in this urban economy, population, employment, and income exercise positive and statistically significant impacts on the demand for electricity hook-ups.

  18. "DOS for Managers." Management Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion County Schools, Fairmont, WV.

    A plan is provided for a lesson on disk operating systems (DOS) for managers. Twenty-five lesson objectives are listed, followed by suggestions for learning activities and special resources. In the presentation section, key points and content are provided for 25 instructional topics that correspond to the 25 lesson objectives. The topics are as…

  19. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is located in northern Mendocino County, California, at the confluence of the Eel River and the Middle Fork of the Eel River. The area's boundaries are defined as follows— (1) Beginning in the... the Middle Fork of the Eel River, to the southeast corner of section 11, T21N, R13W (Dos...

  20. Analysis of hantavirus genetic diversity in Argentina: S segment-derived phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Bohlman, Marlene C; Morzunov, Sergey P; Meissner, John; Taylor, Mary Beth; Ishibashi, Kimiko; Rowe, Joan; Levis, Silvana; Enria, Delia; St Jeor, Stephen C

    2002-04-01

    Nucleotide sequences were determined for the complete S genome segments of the six distinct hantavirus genotypes from Argentina and for two cell culture-isolated Andes virus strains from Chile. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that, although divergent from each other, all Argentinian hantavirus genotypes group together and form a novel phylogenetic clade with the Andes virus. The previously characterized South American hantaviruses Laguna Negra virus and Rio Mamore virus make up another clade that originates from the same ancestral node as the Argentinian/Chilean viruses. Within the clade of Argentinian/Chilean viruses, three subclades can be defined, although the branching order is somewhat obscure. These are made of (i) "Lechiguanas-like" virus genotypes, (ii) Maciel virus and Pergamino virus genotypes, and (iii) strains of the Andes virus. Two hantavirus genotypes from Brazil, Araraquara and Castello dos Sonhos, were found to group with Maciel virus and Andes virus, respectively. The nucleocapsid protein amino acid sequence variability among the members of the Argentinian/Chilean clade does not exceed 5.8%. It is especially low (3.5%) among oryzomyine species-associated virus genotypes, suggesting recent divergence from the common ancestor. Interestingly, the Maciel and Pergamino viruses fit well with the rest of the clade although their hosts are akodontine rodents. Taken together, these data suggest that under conditions in which potential hosts display a high level of genetic diversity and are sympatric, host switching may play a prominent role in establishing hantavirus genetic diversity. However, cospeciation still remains the dominant factor in the evolution of hantaviruses.

  1. Heterogeneity in Genetic Admixture across Different Regions of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Avena, Sergio; Via, Marc; Ziv, Elad; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Dejean, Cristina; Huntsman, Scott; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Dutil, Julie; Matta, Jaime L.; Beckman, Kenneth; Burchard, Esteban González; Parolin, María Laura; Goicoechea, Alicia; Acreche, Noemí; Boquet, Mariel; Ríos Part, María Del Carmen; Fernández, Vanesa; Rey, Jorge; Stern, Mariana C.; Carnese, Raúl F.; Fejerman, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The population of Argentina is the result of the intermixing between several groups, including Indigenous American, European and African populations. Despite the commonly held idea that the population of Argentina is of mostly European origin, multiple studies have shown that this process of admixture had an impact in the entire Argentine population. In the present study we characterized the distribution of Indigenous American, European and African ancestry among individuals from different regions of Argentina and evaluated the level of discrepancy between self-reported grandparental origin and genetic ancestry estimates. A set of 99 autosomal ancestry informative markers (AIMs) was genotyped in a sample of 441 Argentine individuals to estimate genetic ancestry. We used non-parametric tests to evaluate statistical significance. The average ancestry for the Argentine sample overall was 65% European (95%CI: 63–68%), 31% Indigenous American (28–33%) and 4% African (3–4%). We observed statistically significant differences in European ancestry across Argentine regions [Buenos Aires province (BA) 76%, 95%CI: 73–79%; Northeast (NEA) 54%, 95%CI: 49–58%; Northwest (NWA) 33%, 95%CI: 21–41%; South 54%, 95%CI: 49–59%; p<0.0001] as well as between the capital and immediate suburbs of Buenos Aires city compared to more distant suburbs [80% (95%CI: 75–86%) versus 68% (95%CI: 58–77%), p = 0.01]. European ancestry among individuals that declared all grandparents born in Europe was 91% (95%CI: 88–94%) compared to 54% (95%CI: 51–57%) among those with no European grandparents (p<0.001). Our results demonstrate the range of variation in genetic ancestry among Argentine individuals from different regions in the country, highlighting the importance of taking this variation into account in genetic association and admixture mapping studies in this population. PMID:22506044

  2. Variability study of entomopathogenic nematode populations (Heterorhabditidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Achinelly, M F; Eliceche, D P; Belaich, M N; Ghiringhelli, P D

    2016-10-24

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) belonging to the Heterorhabditidae family are lethal parasites of soil-dwelling insects. Two species were reported in Argentina: Heterorhabditis argentinensis and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora characterized mainly by morphometric features. In this work a comparative and phylogenetic study between five Heterorhabditis populations from Argentina was conducted to analyze the variability between strains and to evaluate the taxonomic position of Heterorhabditis argentinensis. The PCA analyses of morphometric characters separated the larger juvenile, female and male H. argentinensis from H. bacteriophora populations. The juvenile (IJs) stage provided the clearest separation of Heterorhabditis populations presenting the least variability between strains. The variable L and MBW were highly related to H. argentinensis IJs. Three groups were separated by this stage considering PC1 and PC2: one formed by H. bacteriophora OLI, RIV and RN strains, (isolates from Córdoba and Río Negro province), one for H. bacteriophora VELI strain (Buenos Aires province) and one for H. argentinensis (Santa Fe province). Heterorhabditis bacteriophora VELI and H. argentinensis isolated from regions with more rainfalls and humidity presented larger values for morphometric features. Molecular analyses showed the Argentinian populations (H. bacteriophora VELI strain and H. argentinensis), forming a same clade, with six other H. bacteriophora populations (not from Argentina) with a genetic similarity between them of 99%. Heterorhabditis argentinensis presented one unique nucleotide that was not present in any of the other species of the clade. Considering the results of this study H. argentinensis would be conspecific to H. bacteriophora, constituting a strain with a great morphometric variation where the host and climatic conditions could have influenced on the measurements.

  3. Local smoke-free policy development in Santa Fe, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Glantz, Stanton A

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe the process of approval and implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free law in the province of Santa Fe, Argentina, between 2005 and 2009. Methods Review of the Santa Fe smoke-free legislation, articles published in local newspapers and documentation on two lawsuits filed against the law, and interviews with key individuals in Santa Fe. Results Efforts to implement smoke-free policies in Santa Fe began during the 1990s without success, and resumed in 2005 when the provincial Legislature approved the first 100% smoke-free subnational law in Argentina. There was no strong opposition during the discussions within the legislature. As in other parts of the world, pro-tobacco industry interests attempted to block the implementation of the law using well known strategies. These efforts included a controversy media campaign set up, the creation of a hospitality industry association and a virtual smokers' rights group, the introduction of a counterproposal seeking modification of the law, the challenge of the law in the Supreme Court, and the proposal of a weak national bill that would ‘conflict’ with the subnational law. Tobacco control advocates sought media attention as a strategy to protect the law. Conclusions Santa Fe is the first subnational jurisdiction in Latin America to have enacted a comprehensive smoke-free policy following the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. After 3 years of implementation, pro-tobacco industry forces failed to undermine the law. Other subnational jurisdictions in Argentina, as well as in Mexico and Brazil are following the Santa Fe example. PMID:19955534

  4. Ambient air monitoring plan for Ciudad Acuna and Piedra Negras, Coahuila, Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Winberry, J.; Henning, L.; Crume, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Cities of Ciudad Acuna and Piedras Negras and the State of Coahuila in Mexico are interested in improving ambient air quality monitoring capabilities in the two cities through the establishment of a network of ambient air monitors. The purpose of the network is to characterize population exposure to potentially harmful air contaminants, possibly including sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), ozone (O{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), total suspended particulate matter (TSP), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 100 micrometers PM-10, and lead. This report presents the results of an evaluation of existing air quality monitoring equipment and facilities in Ciudad Acuna and Piedras Negras. Additionally, the report presents recommendations for developing an air quality monitoring network for PM-10, SO{sub 2}, lead, and ozone in these cities, using a combination of both new and existing equipment. The human resources currently available and ultimately needed to operate and maintain the network are also discussed.

  5. VNTR polymorphism in the Buenos Aires, Argentina, metropolitan population.

    PubMed

    Sala, A; Penacino, G; Corach, D

    1997-12-01

    VNTR loci provide a wealth of information for human genetic research, ranging from gene mapping to paternity testing and forensic identification. In this study we report the construction, validation, and analysis of the first local genetic database for VNTR markers for Argentina. A sample of the metropolitan population of Buenos Aires was typed by means of six VNTR systems. Allele frequencies and expected heterozygosity were calculated. The sample set was further tested for departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and power of exclusion. Allele frequency distributions are compatible with previously reported data on Caucasian populations, and no departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were detected.

  6. Participación argentina en el Gemini Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellone, S. A.; Faifer, F. R.; Smith-Castelli, A. V.; Ferreiro, D.; Ferrero, G.

    Since the beginning of the present century; Argentina has access to two twin telescopes each 8.1m in diameter. The Observatory covers both celestial hemispheres; and is equipped with modern instrumentation spanning from the optical to the mid-infrared. This paper gives a brief description of present instruments as well as those available in the near future; pointing to their possible impact on different research lines. The present situation of the Argentine participation in Gemini is illustrated with a few relevant statistical data; focusing the attention on the new agreement that should be signed by all the partners in 2015. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  7. The origins and professionalization of cognitive psychotherapy in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Korman, Guido Pablo; Viotti, Nicolás; Garay, Cristian Javier

    2015-05-01

    The growing popularity of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has helped reshape the mental health scene in the city of Buenos Aires, historically the stronghold of psychoanalysis. In the early 1980s, CBT was infrequently used and sometimes overtly resisted in the field of mental health. Almost 3 decades later, the impact of CBT has increased dramatically in Argentina, not only in independent practice but also in the health system and in everyday life. This article aims to describe the process by which Argentine psychotherapists first adopted this new theoretical framework.

  8. New hosts and localities for helminths of carnivores in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Moleón, María Soledad; Kinsella, John Mike; Moreno, Pablo Gastón; Ferreyra, Hebe Del Valle; Pereira, Javier; Pía, Mónica; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín

    2015-12-09

    A total of 111 samples (43 faeces and 79 gastrointestinal tracts) of 14 wild carnivore species from 12 Argentine provinces were analyzed. Helminth eggs were identified in 73% of the faecal samples and adult worms were recovered from 81% of the gastrointestinal tracts. We found 19 helminth species. Among the most frequent findings were parasites of domestic carnivores, namely Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma tubaeforme and Uncinaria stenocephala. In addition, new hosts are reported for 6 nematode species and 5 helminth species are recorded for the first time in Argentina: Aonchotheca putorii, Molineus brachiurus, Cyathospirura chevreuxi, Physaloptera praeputialis and Oncicola martini.

  9. Soybean biomass produced in Argentina: Myths and realities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semino, S.; Paul, H.; Tomei, J.; Joensen, L.; Monti, M.; Jelsøe, E.

    2009-11-01

    Soybean biomass for biodiesel, produced in Argentina amongst other places, is considered by some to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change when compared with fossil fuel alternatives. To ensure that the production of biofuels is 'sustainable', EU institutions and national governments are designing certification schemes for the sustainable production of biomass. In this paper, we question the validity of these proposed environmental standards, using the production of Argentine soybean as a case study. We highlight the negative environmental and social impacts of intensive soybean production, and conclude that certification schemes are unlikely to be able to address the detrimental impacts of increased biofuel production and trade.

  10. DOS: the discrete-ordinates system. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades, W. A.; Emmett, M. B.

    1982-09-01

    The Discrete Ordinates System determines the flux of neutrons or photons due either to fixed sources specified by the user or to sources generated by particle interaction with the problem materials. It also determines numerous secondary results which depend upon flux. Criticality searches can be performed. Numerous input, output, and file manipulation facilities are provided. The DOS driver program reads the problem specification from an input file and calls various program modules into execution as specified by the input file.

  11. DIGLIB. PC-DOS Graphics Subroutine Library

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, H.R.

    1989-02-01

    DIGLIB is a collection of general graphics subroutines. It was designed to be small, reasonably fast, device-independent, and compatible with DEC-supplied operating systems for VAXes, PDP-11s, and LSI-11s, and the DOS operating system for IBM PCs and IBM-compatible machines. DIGLIB/VMS runs on the VAX and MicroVAX series of computers under VMS. The software is readily usable by casual programmers for two-dimensional plotting.

  12. [Soil transmitted helminthiasis in Argentina. A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Socías, M Eugenia; Fernández, Anabel; Gil, José F; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of surveys performed between 1980 and 2011 (published in MEDLINE/Pubmed and/or LILACS indexed journals, available in the baseline data from a Mass Deworming National Program (MDNP, 2005) was used to identify the prevalence, distribution and detection of risk areas for soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) in Argentina. We found 310 publications in the database using the pre-defined key-words (medical subject headings) for research purposes. Only 24 articles with 26 surveillance sites in 8 provinces and a total of 5495 surveyed individuals fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Frequency rates for STH had a wide range: Ascaris lumbricoides: 0-67%, hookworms: 0-90%, Trichuris trichiura: 0-24.6 and Strongyloides stercoralis: 0-83%. The estimated combined incidence varied from 0.8% to 88.6%. Baseline surveys from the MDNP reporting on 1943 children from 12 provinces confirmed the heterogeneity, with combined STH frequency rates ranging from 0 to 42.7%. Surveys included in this review showed that the distribution of STH in Argentina is not homogeneous, with areas of high incidence (> 20%) in the northeastern and northwestern provinces where mass deworming activities would be highly beneficial. In several surveys, the high overall incidence was mostly due to hookworms and S. stercoralis, a situation to be considered when selecting diagnostic and therapeutic control strategies. The scarcity or absence of data from various provinces and the availability of less than 8000 surveyed individuals should be considered.

  13. Argentina to Ecuador: Highlights encompassing exploration, development, and infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Aufranc, J.L.

    1997-04-01

    In recent years mining has expanded significantly in Argentina due to many developments, which include elimination, or reduction to reasonable levels, of a very high level of economic instability. It was a situation that lasted for many decades and that made it very difficult to plan or calculate taxes during the term of a project. Nevertheless, a very important legal security for property rights-which included mining-existed, together with the absence of expropriations. The world and regional conditions with respect to the globalization of activities changed in many ways: the international trade accords such as Mercosur, communications, transportation, the easy access to information through data processing, satellites, etc. Nationalism and the monopolistic statism-with an emotional rejection to foreign capital-have almost disappeared, especially in Argentina. It should be mentioned that the main state companies, i.e. oil, gas, airlines, coal, maritime companies, water, electricity, steel, etc., had the national colors in their logos. In this circumstance, the European concept was followed, without its efficiency and administrative culture. Now, irreversibly, the state manager disappears, and the economy opens-together with the free flow of capital to enter and leave. Convertibility and the set of rules related to mining created a framework necessary for the mining sector`s awakening and the beginning of development of important projects such as Bajo de la Alumbrera and Salar del Hombre Muerto.

  14. A new calymmate mimosoid polyad from the Miocene of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Caccavari; Barreda

    2000-05-01

    A palynomorph with an unequivocal relationship to the eight-grain polyads of the mimosoid genus Calliandra Benth., is described from the Miocene sediments of San Juan Province, Argentina. Comparison of the fossil palynomorph with polyads of the extant Calliandra species shows a resemblance to those which have one, highly specialized, appendiculate monad. The new palynomorph has a rudimentary appendix, apparently transitional in the path leading to the more highly developed appendiculate forms in the extant Calliandra group. This specialized polyad type is considered to be one of the most highly evolved forms in subfamily Mimosoideae. The closest affinity of the new fossil polyad is with the eight-grain calymmate polyads of Calliandra chilensis Benth., a species which has developed in the extra-tropical, xerophilous shrub, habitat of north-central Chile. The disappearance of Calliandra species in San Juan Province is thought to be related to the culmination of the Andean rising, and the consequent interruption to the Pacific Ocean climatic influence. This new discovery is the first fossil record of Calliandra for Argentina, as well as being the most southerly and the oldest. It reinforces the hypothesis of an early origin and diversification for the Leguminosae in Tropical America.

  15. A countrywide programme of continuing professional development in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Lejarraga, H; Ageitos, M; Galli, A; Castro, C; Paediatrics, A. S.; Education, S. o.; SHRIBMAN, S

    1998-01-01

    The Argentinean Society of Paediatrics introduced in 1993 a continuing professional development (CPD) programme to raise standards of clinical practice. The aims of the project were to introduce a structured, distance learning programme accessible to all paediatricians in the country, but especially for those working far from centres of paediatric excellence. The programme is planned on an annual basis. It includes four activities: a written manual designed by a team of medical experts and educationalists comprising 12topics; field work for participants; annual meetings in several locations in the country for discussion of the subjects; and an evaluation based on centrally designed multiple choice questions distributed by mail. In spite of a registration fee of £90 a year, participation in the programme increased from 3357 in 1993 to 4126 in 1996, from a membership of 10 216 paediatricians in Argentina. The popularity of the programme may result from an appropriate interpretation of professional needs of paediatricians in Argentina, adequate organisational arrangements that reach all colleagues, including those working in remote areas, and a genuine motivation of paediatricians for participating in a learning process. 

 PMID:9713017

  16. [On the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Puche, Rodolfo C

    2015-01-01

    Between 1987 and the date of the present issue, 10 reports have been published on the prevalence of the vitamin D deficit in Argentina. These studies were done investigating new born babies, children, adolescents, and healthy and institutionalized adults, living in southern, middle or northern cities of Argentina. The weighed prevalence of vitamin D deficit in those reports was 43.3% (436/1007). This figure may be lower than reality because it is not known whether the stratification (age and location of residence) of the sum of samples agree with that of the national population. Taking into account the obvious difficulties in carrying out such a research two areas for further research are suggested: a) an investigation on the solar exposure in summer needed to obviate (or not) the oral supplementation of vitamin D in winter, b) to determine the success of the schema of administration taking into account the current controversy between dose and optimum plasma levels of 25(HO)D3. In both instances, the end point should include some of the physiological functions alluded to in this editorial.

  17. [Excess weight and disability among the elderly in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Monteverde, Malena

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between excess weight and the condition of disability among elderly people in Argentina and to assess the extent to which a protective factor could be operating that reduces or mitigates the effect of overweight on the loss of functional skills in people over 64 years of age. In order to do so, microdata from Argentina's 2009 National Survey of Risk Factors [Encuesta Nacional de Factores de Riesgo] was utilized. To measure the association among overweight, obesity and disability status, as well as the interaction of weight status and age, logistic regression models were estimated. The results indicate that although overweight and obesity have a positive net effect on the occurrence of disabilities, this effect is lower among people 64 years of age and older. This result could be suggesting that among older people a protective factor is at work that, while not reversing the direct relationship between excess weight and disability, seems to attenuate it.

  18. [Outbreak of Dengue-2 virus in Salta, Argentina, 1988].

    PubMed

    Avilés, G; Rangeon, G; Baroni, P; Paz, V; Monteros, M; Sartini, J L; Enria, D

    2000-01-01

    Dengue (DEN) reemergence was first detected in Salta, Argentina, in 1997. It was confirmed by serology and PCR that DEN-2 virus was responsible for sporadic cases and indigenous transmission. A laboratory-based surveillance system allowed the detection of an outbreak in Salta several months later. In total, 378 DEN cases were laboratory diagnosed out of 646 (58%) studied. The cases were distributed in 10 localities of the province between January 3rd and May 31st, 1998. One DEN-2 viral isolation and 4 PCR products were obtained from patients coming from Orán and Embarcación localities. Male and female cases occurred at a similar rate (1:1), with adult cases (82.5%) nearly five times greater than for children under 15 years-old (17.5%). Clinically, all cases corresponded to classic DEN. This is the first time that a DEN outbreak has been laboratory-diagnosed in Argentina and also the first time that DEN virus has been isolated in this country.

  19. Conservative litigation against sexual and reproductive health policies in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Peñas Defago, María Angélica; Morán Faúndes, José Manuel

    2014-11-01

    In Argentina, campaigns for the recognition of sexual and reproductive rights have sparked opposition through litigation in which the dynamics of legal action have come from self-proclaimed "pro-life" NGOs, particularly since 1998, when the conservative NGO Portal de Belén successfully achieved the banning of emergency contraception through the courts. The activities of these groups, acting as a "civil arm" of religion, are focused primarily on obstructing access to legally permissible abortions and bringing about the withdrawal of a number of recognized public policies on sexual and reproductive health, particularly the 2002 National Programme for Sexual Health and Responsible Procreation. This paper analyzes the litigation strategies of these conservative NGOs and how their use of the courts in Argentina has changed over the years. It gives examples of efforts in local courts to block individual young women from accessing legal abortion following rape, despite a ruling by the National Supreme Court of Justice in 2012 that no judicial permission is required. In spite of major advances, the renewed influence of the Catholic hierarchy in the Argentine political scene with the accession of the new Pope poses challenges to the work by feminists and women's movements to extend and consolidate sexual and reproductive rights.

  20. [Distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the Chaco region, Argentina, 2010].

    PubMed

    Salomón, Oscar D; Rosa, Juan R; Fabiani, Mariela; San Miguel, Silvia R; Szelag, Enrique A; Nepote, Marcelo; Parras, Matías A

    2011-01-01

    The appearance of the vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) Lutzomyia longipalpis in the province of Formosa in 2004 was associated with urban epidemic risk for the first time in Argentina. During 2006, vectors, canine and human cases of VL were reported in the province of Misiones, and in summer 2008-2009, in the province of Corrientes. In Santiago del Estero province in 2008, cases of human and canine VL were associated with secondary vectors. Therefore, with the aim to know the current distribution of VL risk in the Chaco region, systematic captures of the vector were performed between January and April 2010 in 30 localities of Formosa and Chaco, and in the city of Reconquista, province of Santa Fe (224 traps/night). Lu. longipalpis was reported for the first time in the cities of Resistencia and Puerto Antequera (Chaco). Clorinda and Puerto Pilcomayo (Formosa) are the localities where the traps with more individuals were obtained, 158 and 241 Lu. longipalpis trap / site / night respectively. These results showed that the vector of urban epidemic VL is still spreading in Argentina, and already reached the province of Chaco. Sporadic cases reported in the Chaco region, transmitted by secondary vectors as Lu. migonei would also increase due to intensified surveillance, and the dispersion of the parasite associated with the transit of asymptomatic or symptomatic infected dogs.

  1. First report of Rangelia vitalii infection (canine rangeliosis) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Eiras, Diego Fernando; Craviotto, María Belén; Baneth, Gad; Moré, Gastón

    2014-10-01

    A 12-year old mixed breed neutered bitch from Misiones, Argentina, was presented with a history of fever and epistaxis. Blood, bone marrow, and lymph node samples were collected for hematology and cytology. Mild regenerative anemia was recorded and large, round, poorly stained piroplasms (>2.5 μm) were found within erythrocytes in blood and lymph node smears. Nested PCR-RFLP on blood and bone marrow samples was positive for piroplasm DNA. The 18S rRNA gene of piroplasms was targeted. A restriction pattern of a previously unreported piroplasm was observed. The PCR product was sequenced, and the sequence obtained had 99% identity with the Rangelia vitalii sequences from Brazil when compared by BLAST analysis. Further characterization of the detected piroplasm consisted of nearly full-length sequencing (1668 bp) of the 18S rRNA gene of this organism. Those sequences were deposited in GenBank. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that they clustered together with R. vitalii from Brazil but separately from large Babesia species of dogs such as Babesia canis, and from species of Theileria of dogs as well. This is the first report of R. vitalii infection in Argentina, and the first case of canine rangeliosis diagnosed outside Brazil.

  2. Characterizing dusky dolphin sounds from Argentina and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Vaughn-Hirshorn, Robin L; Hodge, Kristin B; Würsig, Bernd; Sappenfield, Rebecca H; Lammers, Marc O; Dudzinski, Kathleen M

    2012-07-01

    Dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) acoustic sounds were characterized by analyzing narrowband recordings [0-16 kHz in New Zealand (NZ) and 0-24 kHz in Argentina], and sounds in broadband recordings (0-200 kHz) were compared to their counterparts in down-sampled narrowband recordings (0-16 kHz). The most robust similarity between sounds present in broadband recordings and their counterparts in the down-sampled narrowband recordings was inter-click interval (ICI); ICI was therefore primarily used to characterize click sounds in narrowband recordings. In NZ and Argentina, distribution of ICIs was a continuum, although the distribution of ICIs in NZ had a somewhat bimodal tendency. In NZ, sounds that had smaller mean ICIs were more likely to have constant ICIs, and less likely to have increasing or decreasing ICIs. Similar to some other delphinids, dusky dolphins may use single, short duration sounds that have a constant ICI and closely spaced clicks for communication. No whistles were documented at either study site. Temporally structured sequences of burst pulses (i.e., sounds with ICI < about 10 ms) also occurred at both study sites, and these sequences contained 2-14 burst pulses that appeared closely matched aurally and in spectrograms and waveforms.

  3. Present and Future Activities on Neutron Imaging in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartaglione, Aureliano; Blostein, Jerónimo; Cantargi, Florencia; Marín, Julio; Baruj, Alberto; Meyer, Gabriel; Santisteban, Javier; Sánchez, Fernando

    We present here a short review of the main work which has been done in the latest years in neutron imaging in Argentina, and the future plans for the development of this technique in the country, mainly focused in the design of a new neutron imaging instrument to be installed in the future research reactor RA10. We present here the results of the implementation of the technique in samples belonging to the Argentinean cultural heritage and experiments related with hydrogen storage. At the same time, the Argentinean RA10 project for the design and construction of a 30 MW multipurpose research reactor is rapidly progressing. It started to be designed by the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) and the technology company INVAP SE, both from Argentina, in June 2010. The construction will start in the beginning of 2015 in the Ezeiza Atomic Center, at 36 km from Buenos Aires City, and is expected to be finished by 2020. One of the main aims of the project is to offer to the Argentinean scientific and technology system new capabilities based on neutron techniques. We present here the conceptual design of a neutron imaging facility which will use one of the cold neutron beams, and will be installed in the reactor hall. Preliminary simulation results show that at the farthest detection position, at about 17 m from the cold source, a uniform neutron beam on a detection screen with an intensity of about 108 n/cm2/s is expected.

  4. Trophic interactions between parasitoids and necrophagous flies in Central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sereno, Ana P; Salvo, Adriana; Battán-Horenstein, Moira

    2016-10-01

    Larvae of necrophagous flies in the families Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae and Muscidae are the main exploiters of decaying organic matter. Knowledge of insect species associated with each stage of decay can be used to estimate the time since death in the crime scene. Dipteran larvae are attacked by a rich community of parasitoids, including species of Braconidae, Ichneumonidae and Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera: Parasitica). This study examined the parasitic complex associated with flies of forensic and sanitary importance in the city of Córdoba (Argentina). Sampling was conducted at two sites with different urbanization levels from December 2012 to March 2013; parasitoids were collected using fly traps baited with beef liver. Rates of parasitism and of parasitized pupae were estimated and species composition was analyzed for both communities. Sarcophagidae was the most abundant family, represented by two species, followed by Calliphoridae. Nasonia vitripennis Ashmead (Hymenoptera) was the most abundant species and was collected from a wider variety of hosts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study providing accurate information about trophic interactions between calyptrate dipteran species and their hymenopteran parasitoids in central Argentina.

  5. Canine distemper infection in crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ferreyra, Hebe; Calderón, Marina G; Marticorena, Damián; Marull, Carolina; Leonardo, Barrios Caro

    2009-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) has been reported worldwide in wild carnivores and has been cited as the cause of population declines in some species. Crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) from El Palmar National Park, Argentina, were observed either dead or exhibiting clinical neurologic signs. Samples were taken from two individuals that were laterfound tobe positive for CDV by direct immunofluorescence in brain tissue. Based on molecular studies, the CDV strain had a high percentage of identity compared to CDV strains affecting dogsin Argentina. This is the first report of CDV infection in wild carnivores in Argentina.

  6. Accessibility of health care for elderly mexicans living in ciudad juarez, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sizemore, M H

    1992-01-01

    The issue of access to health care for the elderly and the quality of that care is of growing importance not only in the United States but also in less developed nations such as Mexico. An area of special interest is the U.S.-Mexico border region, where an increasing number of people are relocating to seek jobs they believe will open up as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) loosens trade barriers. Workers flocking to the border often bring their families, including elderly relatives. This study examines a sample of lower-middle and mid-middle class Mexicans aged sixty to eighty-nine who reside in the border city of Ciudad Juárez, focusing on the principal ailments which affect these individuals and available treatment. A concluding section makes brief comparative remarks on access to health care for the elderly in Mexico and in the United States.

  7. Murder in Ciudad Juarez: A parable of women's struggle for human rights.

    PubMed

    Ensalaco, Mark

    2006-05-01

    The murder of hundreds of women in Ciudad Juárez during the past decade has compelled women to mobilize. This mobilization is a parable of women's struggle for human rights because the factors that cause gender-based violence in Mexico are common throughout the world, the authorities' failure to punish those crimes constitutes a form of gender discrimination that is prevalent throughout the world, and the imperative for Mexican women to mobilize in defense of their own human rights is shared by women throughout the world. This struggle involves a double transformation: the transformation of women's organizations into human rights organizations and the transformation of human rights advocacy through the integration of the gender perspective.

  8. Revision of the genus Eueupithecia Prout, 1910 from Argentina (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Sterrhinae).

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Axel; Heard, Tim A; Kay, Fernando Mc; Raghu, S

    2016-07-15

    A new species is described from Argentina: Eueupithecia vollonoides sp. n. and a differential diagnosis from E. cisplatensis Prout, 1910 is given. The genus Eueupithecia Prout, 1910 (Sterrhinae), so far having been retained to be monotypic, includes two species now.

  9. First record of the avian ectoparasite Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, 1968 (Diptera: Muscidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, L; Antoniazzi, L R; Couri, M S; Monje, L D; Beldomenico, P M

    2011-10-01

    Species of Philornis Meinert, 1890 (Diptera, Muscidae) are Neotropical dipterans that include species with parasitic larvae which feed on nestling birds. To date, all Philornis species that have been recorded from Argentina have parasitic subcutaneous larvae. Here, for the first time for Argentina, we report the finding of Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, 1968, a fly with a nest-dwelling, semi-haematophagous larva. This record, from the humid Chaco ecoregion of Argentina in the nest of a saffron finch Sicalis flaveola pelzelni Sclater, substantially extends the known distribution of this species. We also report the consensus sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 regions of three of the specimens for future reference and comparison. Further investigation is needed to determine whether Argentina is part of the historical range of P. downsi or, alternatively, represents a recent expansion of its range, perhaps due to climatic changes or other factors of global environmental variation.

  10. Solar energy in Argentina: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, D.

    1981-01-01

    The following subjects are included: the country overview; the energy summary; the geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the Republic of Argentina; the energy profile; and international contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  11. Egg parasitoids of Taosa spp. (Hemiptera:Dictyopharidae)in Formosa Argentina with descriptions of new species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae and Platygastridae) of Taosa (Cuernavaca) longula Remes Lenicov (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) are reviewed and keyed. This planthopper feeds on water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms-Laubach, and was collected in Formosa, Argentina, where some of ...

  12. Contribution to the knowledge of pathogenic fungi of spiders in Argentina. Southernmost record in the world.

    PubMed

    Manfrino, Romina G; González, Alda; Barneche, Jorge; Tornesello Galván, Julieta; Hywell-Jones, Nigel; López Lastra, Claudia C

    2017-03-23

    The aim of this study was to identify entomopathogenic fungi infecting spiders (Araneae) in a protected area of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. The Araneae species identified was Stenoterommata platensis. The pathogens identified were Lecanicillium aphanocladii Zare & W. Gams, Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Luangsa-ard, Houbraken, Hywel Jones & Samson and Ophiocordyceps caloceroides (Berk & M.A. Curtis). This study constitutes the southernmost records in the world and contributes to expanding the knowledge of the biodiversity of pathogenic fungi of spiders in Argentina.

  13. U.S. and Soviet Relations with Argentina: Obstacles and Opportunities for the U. S. Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    upheaval. Couicquetiytt, fluich More uncertainty surrounds the conclusions that were drawn in this research. The case study reported here examined the...821711 and Development Center for studies and analysis operated by The RAND Corporation. Thw Arroyo Center provides the Army with objective. ind.pendent...2138 Telephone: (213) 393-4411 mmmnn mue m iniIi__’__’ SUMMARY ARGENTINA’S POSITION BETWEEN THE SUPERPOWERS Argentina is a nation that merits the

  14. Prevalence of honeybee viruses in different regions of China and Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ding, G; Fondevila, N; Palacio, M A; Merke, J; Martinez, A; Camacho, B; Aignasse, A; Figini, E; Rodriguez, G; Lv, L; Liu, Z; Shi, W

    2016-12-01

    Honeybees are threatened by various pathogens and parasites. More than 18 viruses have been described in honeybees and many of them have been detected in China and Argentina. In China, both Apis cerana and Apis mellifera are raised. In Argentina, beekeepers raise different ecotypes of A. mellifera: European honeybees (in both temperate and subtropical regions) and Africanised honeybees (in subtropical areas only). A thorough study was carried out in both China and Argentina to analyse the current virus presence and distribution in different climatic zones and gather information on different bee species/subspecies. Adult honeybees were collected from apiaries in temperate and subtropical regions of China (including areas with exclusive populations of A. mellifera, areas where A. mellifera and A. cerana co-exist, and areas with exclusive populations of A. cerana) and Argentina. Six viruses, namely, deformed wing virus (DWV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), sacbrood virus (SBV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) were detected in China, both in A. cerana and in A. mellifera, while four viruses (DWV, BQCV, CBPV and ABPV) were present in Argentina. Interestingly, multiple infections were commonly found in China, with up to five different viruses co-circulating in some colonies without apparent abnormalities. In this study, no Chinese samples were positive for slow bee paralysis virus. The most prevalent viruses were BQCV (China) and DWV (Argentina). Kashmir bee virus was absent from samples analysed for both countries.

  15. Native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the Yungas forests, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Alejandra G; Cabello, Marta N; Bartoloni, Norberto J

    2011-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities from the Yungas forests of Argentina were studied. The AMF species present in the rhizosphere of some dominant native plants (one tree: Alnus acuminata; three herbaceous species: Duchesnea indica, Oxalis conorrhiza, Trifolium aff. repens; and one shrub: Sambucus peruviana) from two sites (Quebrada del Portugués and Narváez Range) of the Yungas forests were isolated, identified and quantified during the four seasons of the year. Twenty-two AMF morphotaxa were found. Spore density of some AMF species at each site varied among seasons. The genera that most contributed to the biodiversity index were Acaulospora for Quebrada del Portugués and Glomus for Narváez Range. High diversity values were observed in the Yungas forests, particularly in the spring (rainy season). We concluded AMF differed in species composition and seasonal sporulation dynamics in the Yungas forests.

  16. Obesity Epidemic in Brazil and Argentina: A Public Health Concern

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Denise R.T.W.; Aizenberg, Marisa; Ciruzzi, Maria S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The obesity epidemic is rapidly advancing in South America, leading to inevitable health consequences. Argentinian and Brazilian health policies try to become adapted to the new economic and social framework that follows from this epidemic. It is in incipient and ineffective control so far since the prevalence of obesity was not restrained. The Argentine national legislation is more advanced, through the so-called “Ley de Obesidad.” In Brazil, there are numerous local initiatives but still not a comprehensive law. National policies relating to decisions regarding obesity are discussed in this paper. Trends in decisions issued in higher courts of Argentina (Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation—CSJN) and Brazil (Supreme Court of Justice—STF), in the last 15 years, seek to clarify the approach of each country and court's resolutions. Marked differences were found in their positions. Finally, legal and health solutions to this obesity epidemic are proposed. PMID:25076669

  17. An energy efficient secondary school project for central western Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, C. de; Esteves, A.; Pattini, A.; Basso, M.; Canton, A.; Mesa, A.; Mitchell, J.; Fernandez, J.; Cortegoso, J.

    1999-07-01

    Within an ambitious construction program, required to implement a new basic education system in Argentina, three energy efficient demonstration school buildings are presently being built in the province of Mendoza, on the arid, central-western region of the country. One of the projects is presented in this paper, being its main goal to provide maximum environmental comfort, thermal and luminous, with minimum use of conventional energy, in the primary spaces of the building. The use of the locally available technology was maximized in the implementation of passive systems with minimum requirements for control or automation. The design was evaluated and adjusted, along its development process, using well known calculation and simulation tools. Anticipated percentual energy savings values are: 87.1% in natural gas for space heating and 82.2% in electricity for lighting. Unit construction costs were compatible with those resulting from bidding of conventional school building projects, within the same program.

  18. Plant growth promotion traits of phosphobacteria isolated from Puna, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Viruel, Emilce; Lucca, María E; Siñeriz, Faustino

    2011-07-01

    The ability of soil microorganisms to solubilize phosphate is an important trait of plant growth-promoting bacteria leading to increased yields and smaller use of fertilizers. This study presents the isolation and characterization of phosphobacteria from Puna, northwestern Argentina and the ability to produce phosphate solubilization, alkaline phosphatase, siderophores, and indole acetic acid. The P-solubilizing activity was coincidental with a decrease in pH values of the tricalcium phosphate medium for all strains after 72 h of incubation. All the isolates showed the capacity to produce siderophores and indoles. Identification by 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that these strains belong to the genera Pantoea, Serratia, Enterobacter, and Pseudomonas. These isolates appear attractive for exploring their plant growth-promoting activity and potential field application.

  19. Ecology and genetic variation of Amblyomma tonelliae in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Tarragona, E L; Mangold, A J; Mastropaolo, M; Guglielmone, A A; Nava, S

    2015-09-01

    The ecology of Amblyomma tonelliae (Ixodida: Ixodidae), including its seasonal distribution and the development periods of each stage, was investigated during a study carried out over two consecutive years in northwestern Argentina. In addition, the genetic variation of this tick was studied through analyses of 16S rDNA sequences. Amblyomma tonelliae has a 1-year lifecycle characterized by a long pre-moult period in larvae with no development of morphogenetic diapause. Larvae peak in abundance during late autumn and early winter; nymphs peak in abundance in spring, and adults do so from late spring to early summer. Amblyomma tonelliae shows a marked ecological preference for the driest areas of the Chaco ecoregion. In analyses of 16S rDNA sequences in genes from different populations of A. tonelliae, values for nucleotide diversity and the average number of nucleotide differences showed genetic diversity within this species to be low. No significant differences were found in comparisons among populations.

  20. Circular structures of Bajada del Diablo (Argentina): geophysical signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prezzi, C. B.; Orgeira, M. J.; Martinez, O.; Acevedo, R. D.; Ponce, F.; Goldmann, G.; Magneres, I.; Rabassa, J.

    2016-05-01

    Bajada del Diablo is located in the Northern Patagonian Massif, Chubut, Argentina. The study area includes several circular structures found in Miocene olivine basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex and in the Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene Pampa Sastre conglomerates. An impact origin has been proposed for these circular structures. With the aim of further investigate the proposed impact origin, topographic, gravimetric, magnetic, resistivity, palaeomagnetic and electromagnetic surveys in two circular structures (`8' and `G') located in Pampa Sastre conglomerates and in basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex were carried out. The new geophysical results support the hypothesis of an impact origin. However, the confirmation of such an origin through the findings of shock metamorphism evidences and/or the recovery of meteorites remains elusive.

  1. [Sharing experiences: rotation in primary care in Posadas, Argentina].

    PubMed

    García-Garrido, A B; Caballero, L G; Basiuk, S

    2013-09-01

    Primary care should be the cornerstone of any health system. It is the first contact with the community health system of any country. The Declaration of Alma-Ata, 1978, seeks to provide the basis for the construction of a new health system that will allow the full exercise of the right to health. Carrying out an external rotation in Primary Care in Posadas, Misiones Province, Argentina, during medical training, in family medicine, offers an insight into how other health systems work, provide health care to the community in a Primary Care Center in a country with its similarities and differences like ours, follow the implementation of programs, working with family medicine residents in another country, and living a rewarding personal and professional experience.

  2. New primate genus from the Miocene of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Tejedor, Marcelo F.; Tauber, Adán A.; Rosenberger, Alfred L.; Swisher, Carl C.; Palacios, María E.

    2006-01-01

    Killikaike blakei is a new genus and species of anthropoid from the late Early Miocene of southeastern Argentina based on the most pristine fossil platyrrhine skull and dentition known so far. It is part of the New World platyrrhine clade (Family Cebidae; Subfamily Cebinae) including modern squirrel (Saimiri) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus) and their fossil relatives known from Early to Middle Miocene and subrecent periods. Living cebines are relatively large-brained, adroit predatory foragers and live within complex social groups, and wild capuchins exhibit a wide range of behaviors associated with enhanced intelligence. We show that K. blakei lacks diagnostic derived characteristics of the lower face and premolar dentition that are shared by modern cebines, but its strongly vaulted frontal bone and capacious anterior cranial fossa indicate the early evolution of an enlarged forebrain. PMID:16567649

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF Leishmania infantum IN PUERTO IGUAZÚ, MISIONES, ARGENTINA

    PubMed Central

    ACOSTA, Lucrecia; DÍAZ, Ricardo; TORRES, Pedro; SILVA, Gustavo; RAMOS, Marina; FATTORE, Gladys; DESCHUTTER, Enrique J.; BORNAY-LLINARES, Fernando J.

    2015-01-01

     The emergence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) in Latin America is a growing public health problem. The urbanization of ZVL has been observed in different countries around the world, and there are a growing number of reports drawing attention to the emergence of this infection in new locations, as well as its increase in previously established areas of endemicity. In the city of Posadas, Misiones province, Northeastern Argentina, the transmission of ZVL associated with canines and Lutzomyia longipalpis was first reported in 2006. In the city of Puerto Iguazú, also in Misiones province, the first human case of ZVL was reported in February 2014. From 209 surveyed dogs, 15 (7.17%) were identified as positive by serological and/or parasitological methods. Amplification was observed in 14 samples and in all cases the species implicated was Leishmania infantum. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first molecular characterization of L. infantum from dogs in this area. PMID:25923899

  4. Arsenic in Water Resources of the Southern Pampa Plains, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Paoloni, Juan D.; Sequeira, Mario E.; Espósito, Martín E.; Fiorentino, Carmen E.; del C. Blanco, María

    2009-01-01

    Confronted with the need for accessible sources of good quality water and in view of the fact that the threat to public health posed by arsenic occurs mainly through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, the presence and distribution of arsenic was evaluated in the southern Pampa Plains of Bahía Blanca district in Argentina. The findings show variable concentrations of arsenic in a complex distribution pattern. Complementary information is provided on the behavior of the groundwater resource and its salinity in terms of dissolved ions. Groundwater is the most severely affected, 97% of the samples exceeding the guideline value for arsenic in drinking water as recommended by the WHO (Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, 2004). and showing maximum concentrations of up to 0.30 mg/L. Informing those responsible for preventive medicine and alerting the community at large will facilitate measures to mitigate exposure and ensure the safety of drinking water. PMID:19936127

  5. A late Jurassic pterosaur (Reptilia, Pterodactyloidea) from northwestern Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codorniú, Laura; Gasparini, Zulma; Paulina-Carabajal, Ariana

    2006-03-01

    A small to medium-sized pterodactyloid pterosaur (wingspan approximately 1.10 m) from the Upper Jurassic (middle-late Tithonian) marine deposits of the Vaca Muerta Formation of Patagonia (Los Catutos area, central Neuquén Province, Argentina) is reported. The specimen lacks the skull but constitutes a nearly complete postcranial skeleton, which includes cervical and dorsal vertebrae; a few thoracic ribs; both pectoral girdles; the left pelvic girdle; a proximal right wing (humerus, ulna, and radius) and metacarpal IV; a left wing that lacks only wing phalanx four; and both hindlimbs, the right one without the foot. Ontogenetic features suggest that the new fossil corresponds to a relatively mature individual, probably a subadult. Observed characters support its assignment to the Archaeopteroactyloidea, a basal clade within the Pterodactyloidea. This specimen is the second pterosaur from Los Catutos and the most complete Jurassic pterosaur so far known from South America.

  6. Hantavirus reservoir hosts associated with peridomestic habitats in Argentina.

    PubMed Central

    Calderón, G.; Pini, N.; Bolpe, J.; Levis, S.; Mills, J.; Segura, E.; Guthmann, N.; Cantoni, G.; Becker, J.; Fonollat, A.; Ripoll, C.; Bortman, M.; Benedetti, R.; Enria, D.

    1999-01-01

    Five species of sigmodontine rodents have been identified in Argentina as the putative reservoirs of six circulating hantavirus genotypes. Two species of Oligoryzomys are associated with the genotypes causing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Oligoryzomys flavescens for Lechiguanas and O. longicaudatus for Andes and Oran genotypes. Reports of human cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome prompted rodent trapping (2,299 rodents of 32 species during 27,780 trap nights) at potential exposure sites in three disease-endemic areas. Antibody reactive to Sin Nombre virus was found in six species, including the known hantavirus reservoir species. Risk for peridomestic exposure to host species that carry recognized human pathogens was high in all three major disease-endemic areas. PMID:10603213

  7. Taxonomy of the genus Lycalopex (Carnivora: Canidae) in Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zunino, G.E.; Vaccaro, O.B.; Canevari, M.; Gardner, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    Previously treated as species of Pseudalopex, Argentine members of the genus Lycalopex (L. griseus, L. gymnocercus, and L. culpaeus) are examined to clarify the taxonomic status of each named form. Principal components analyses of 26 cranial measurements of 151 adult specimens and 11 pelage characters of 111 specimens, clearly distinguish L. culpaeus from the other two taxa. Lycalopex griseus and L. gymnocercus show clinal variation in cranial measurements and pelage characters. Qualitative cranial characters, used as diagnostic for L. griseus and L. gymnocercus, revealed great nongeographic variation. We conclude that L. griseus and L. gymnocercus are conspecific, and should be known as L. gymnocercus. Therefore, we recognize only two species of the genus Lycalopex (L. culpaeus and L. gymnocercus) in Argentina. We also use this opportunity to review synonymies of the recognized species of Lycalopex.

  8. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Faccone, D; Guerriero, L; Méndez, E; Errecalde, L; Cano, H; Yoyas, N; Togneri, A; Romanowski, V; Galas, M; Whonet, Red; Corso, A

    2010-01-01

    Fluoroquinolone resistance is a growing problem that has only recently emerged in S. agalactiae. Between 2005-2007, WHONET--Argentina network evaluated levofloxacin susceptibility in 1128 clinical S. agalactiae isolates, 10 (0.9%) of which proved to be resistant. Nine of them had come from 5 hospitals (in Buenos Aires City and 4 Argentinean provinces) and recovered from urine (n=7) and vaginal screening cultures (n=2). Three strains were also resistant to macrolides, lincosamides and B streptogramins due to the ermA gene. All nine fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates bore the same two mutations, Ser79Phe in ParC and Ser81Leu in GyrA proteins. Genetic relationships were analyzed by Apal-PFGE and two clones were determined, A (n=6) and B (n=3). To our knowledge, these are the first fluoroquinolone-resistant S. agalactiae isolates detected in Latin America.

  9. Reinfestation Sources for Chagas Disease Vector, Triatoma infestans, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M.; Gürtler, Ricardo E.; Kitron, Uriel

    2006-01-01

    Reinfestation by Triatoma infestans after insecticide spraying has caused elimination efforts in the dry Chaco region to fail repeatedly. The sources and spatial extent that need to be considered to understand the reinfestation pattern and to plan a comprehensive control program were studied in 2 adjacent rural communities in northwestern Argentina from 1993 to 1997. The effects of external, residual, and primary sources on the reinfestation pattern were evaluated by using geographic information systems, satellite imagery, spatial statistics, and 5-year retrospective data for 1,881 sites. The reinfestation process depended on primary internal sources and on surrounding infested communities. In the dry Chaco, successfully reducing the risk for reinfestation in a community depends on treating all communities and isolated sites within 1,500 m of the target community. In addition, during the surveillance phase, spraying all sites within 500 m of new foci will delay reinfestation. PMID:16836826

  10. Tobacco Industry Strategies to Obstruct the FCTC in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Raul; Schoj, Verónica; Barnoya, Joaquin; Flores, María Laura; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe the strategies pursued by the tobacco industry (TI) to interfere with the ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in Argentina. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews about the FCTC, the TI and the legislative process with 3 legislators, 4 public health officials, 1 representative of the tobacco growers and two tobacco-control advocates. We reviewed 6 newspapers from the 4 tobacco growing provinces, searched TI documents in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and reviewed 1624 documents. Proposed legislation and related documents on tobacco control from Argentina’s National Congress and the Provincial Jujuy Congress were reviewed. Results The principal strategy used by the TI was lobbying of provincial legislators and federal officials from the Ministry of the Economy by the tobacco growers associations. These legislators prevented the passage of comprehensive bills on tobacco control or of less comprehensive national laws. A typical legislative strategy used was to request additional analyses of the proposed bills from committees that prioritized economic issues over health. FCTC was mentioned in regional newspapers three to seven times per week in articles about alleged adverse economic effects of tobacco control. Direct physical threats to legislators who were openly supportive of FCTC ratification were made. Conclusion Tobacco producers and TI opposed FCTC ratification in Argentina by lobbying elected representatives and placing stories in regional media to obstruct approval of tobacco control laws. These activities have led to a delay in consideration of Argentina’s ratification of the FCTC despite the President’s signature in 2003. (250 words) PMID:19956349

  11. An empirical analysis of cigarette demand in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Eugenio; Mejia, Raul; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the long-term and short-term effects on cigarette demand in Argentina based on changes in cigarette price and income per person >14 years old. Method Public data from the Ministry of Economics and Production were analysed based on monthly time series data between 1994 and 2010. The econometric analysis used cigarette consumption per person >14 years of age as the dependent variable and the real income per person >14 years old and the real average price of cigarettes as independent variables. Empirical analyses were done to verify the order of integration of the variables, to test for cointegration to capture the long-term effects and to capture the short-term dynamics of the variables. Results The demand for cigarettes in Argentina was affected by changes in real income and the real average price of cigarettes. The long-term income elasticity was equal to 0.43, while the own-price elasticity was equal to −0.31, indicating a 10% increase in the growth of real income led to an increase in cigarette consumption of 4.3% and a 10% increase in the price produced a fall of 3.1% in cigarette consumption. The vector error correction model estimated that the short-term income elasticity was 0.25 and the short-term own-price elasticity of cigarette demand was −0.15. A simulation exercise showed that increasing the price of cigarettes by 110% would maximise revenues and result in a potentially large decrease in total cigarette consumption. Conclusion Econometric analyses of cigarette consumption and their relationship with cigarette price and income can provide valuable information for developing cigarette price policy. PMID:23760657

  12. A new pitheciin primate from the middle Miocene of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kay, R F; Johnson, D; Meldrum, D J

    1998-01-01

    We report here a new fossil primate from the middle Miocene of Argentina. The material consists of isolated teeth, mandibular fragments, and a talus. The fossils were collected in the Collón Cura formation at Cañadón del Tordillo in Neuquén Province. An age of 15.71 +/- 0.07 Ma has been reported for the Pilcaniyeu Ignimbrite, which lies just below the paleosols in which the fossils were found. This material is thus the youngest occurrence of fossil primates in Argentina (hitherto documented in the Santacrucian and older land mammal ages) but still is older than the middle Miocene platyrrhine primates from La Venta, Colombia, in particular the pitheciins Nuciruptor and Cebupithecia. The material is recognized as a new genus and species of Pitheciinae, Propithecia neuquenensis. The mesiodistally compressed, high-crowned incisors are specialized and similar to species in the tribe Pithecini and to the nonpitheciin Soriacebus (early Miocene, Patagonia). We rule out a phylogenetic relationship to the latter because of differences in molar morphology. Propithecia does, however, fit well into the pattern of pitheciin evolution, being more derived than the middle Miocene pitheciin Nuciruptor but not as much as another middle Miocene taxon, Cebupithecia. As such, this makes Propithecia the oldest taxon that can be confidently placed within this modern New World monkey subfamily. By analogy with the molar structures and diets of extant platyrrhines, Propithecia has a molar structure consistent with a variety of low-fiber diets ranging from fruit and gum to seeds. Its incisors suggest seed-eating in much the same way as extant pitheciins, like Pithecia. The talus resembles that of Callicebus, suggesting arboreal quadrupedal locomotion.

  13. Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B virus in Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mojsiejczuk, Laura Noelia; Torres, Carolina; Sevic, Ina; Badano, Inés; Malan, Richard; Flichman, Diego Martin; Liotta, Domingo Javier; Campos, Rodolfo Hector

    2016-10-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health problem worldwide. The aims of this study were to describe the molecular epidemiology of HBV in the Province of Misiones, Argentina and estimate the phylodynamic of the main groups in a Bayesian coalescent framework. To this end, partial or complete genome sequences were obtained from 52 blood donor candidates. The phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of S/P region showed a predominance of genotype D (65.4%), followed by genotype F (30.8%) and genotype A as a minority (3.8%). At subgenotype level, the circulation of subgenotypes D3 (42.3%), D2 (13.5%), F1b (11.5%) and F4 (9.6%) was mainly identified. The Bayesian coalescent analysis of 29 complete genome sequences for the main groups revealed that the subgenotypes D2 and D3 had several introductions to the region, with ancestors dating back from 1921 to 1969 and diversification events until the late '70s. The genotype F in Misiones has a more recent history; subgenotype F4 isolates were intermixed with sequences from Argentina and neighboring countries and only one significant cluster dated back in 1994 was observed. Subgenotype F1b isolates exhibited low genetic distance and formed a closely related monophyletic cluster, suggesting a very recent introduction. In conclusion, the phylogenetic and coalescent analyses showed that the European genotype D has a higher circulation, a longer history of diversification and may be responsible for the largest proportion of chronic HBV infections in the Province of Misiones. Genotype F, especially subgenotype F1b, had a more recent introduction and its diversification in the last 20years might be related to its involvement in new transmission events.

  14. Use of Smoking Cessation Interventions by Physicians in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Schoj, Veronica; Mejia, Raul; Alderete, Mariela; Kaplan, Celia P.; Peña, Lorena; Gregorich, Steven E.; Alderete, Ethel; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physician-implemented interventions for smoking cessation are effective but infrequently used. We evaluated smoking cessation practices among physicians in Argentina. Methods A self-administered survey of physicians from six clinical systems asked about smoking cessation counselling practices, barriers to tobacco use counselling and perceived quality of training received in smoking cessation practices. Results Of 254 physicians, 52.3% were women, 11.8% were current smokers and 52% never smoked. Perceived quality of training in tobacco cessation counselling was rated as very good or good by 41.8% and as poor/very poor by 58.2%. Most physicians (90%) reported asking and recording smoking status, 89% advised patients to quit smoking but only 37% asked them to set a quit date and 44% prescribed medications. Multivariate analyses showed that Physicians’ perceived quality of their training in smoking cessation methods was associated with greater use of evidence-based cessation interventions. (OR = 6.5; 95% CI = 2.2–19.1); motivating patients to quit (OR: 7.9 CI 3.44–18.5), assisting patients to quit (OR = 9.9; 95% CI = 4.0–24.2) prescribing medications (OR = 9.6; 95% CI = 3.5–26.7), and setting up follow-up (OR = 13.0; 95% CI = 4.4–38.5). Conclusions Perceived quality of training in smoking cessation was associated with using evidence-based interventions and among physicians from Argentina. Medical training programs should enhance the quality of this curriculum. PMID:27594922

  15. Graduate studies on optoelectronics in Argentina: an experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Juan C.; Garea, María. T.; Isaurralde, Silvia; Perez, Liliana I.; Raffo, Carlos A.

    2014-07-01

    The number of graduate programs in Optoelectronics in Argentina is scarce. The current Optics and Photonics Education Directory lists only three programs. One of them was launched in 2001 in the Facultad de Ingeniería (College of Engineering), Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA). This was the first graduate program in the field, leading to a Master Degree in Optoelectronics. This decision arose from the demand of telecommunications industries and several estate- or private-funded research institutions working with us in the fields of lasers, optics, remote sensing, etc. A great bonus was the steady work, during several decades, of research groups in the College on the development of different type of lasers and optical non destructive tests and their engineering applications. As happened in many engineering graduate programs in Argentina at that time, few non full-time students could finish their studies, which called for 800 hours of traditional lecture-recitation classes, and the Master Thesis. In recent years Argentine Education authorities downsized the Master programs to 700 hours of blended learning and we redesigned the Graduate Optoelectronic Engineering Program to meet the challenge, dividing it in two successive one year programs, the first aimed at a professional training for almost immediate insertion in the labor market (called Especialización en Ingeniería Optoelectrónica), and the second (called Maestría en Ingeniería Optoelectrónica y Fotónica) aimed at a more academic and research target to comply with the UBA standards for Master degrees. The present work is a presentation of the new program design, which has begun in the current year.

  16. Mental health outcomes of Mexico's drug war in Ciudad Juárez: A pilot study among university students.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Kathleen; Vizcaino, Maricarmen; Benavides, Nora A

    2014-03-01

    During the most intense period of armed conflict related to the drug trade in Mexico, forty students attending the Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez (UACJ) in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico, were surveyed in this pilot study for symptoms of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. The percentage of participants who scored positively for symptoms of PTSD depression and anxiety were 32.5%, 35% and 37.5%, respectively. Criteria for post-traumatic stress were analyzed separately. The most frequently-reported traumatic events included extortion or robbery, confinement to home, injury to loved one, being in an armed conflict, witnessing a killing or dead body and being beaten. Trauma events positively associated with depression, anxiety and PTSD symptoms included robbery or extortion, armed conflict situation, exposure to frequent arms fire, and witnessing a killing or dead body.

  17. Shooting gallery attendance among IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico: correlates, prevention opportunities, and the role of the environment.

    PubMed

    Philbin, Morgan; Pollini, Robin A; Ramos, Rebecca; Lozada, Remedios; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Ramos, Maria Elena; Firestone-Cruz, Michelle; Case, Patricia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2008-07-01

    We identified factors associated with shooting gallery attendance among injection drug users (IDUs) in two Mexico-US border cities. IDUs in Tijuana (n=222) and Ciudad Juarez (n=205), Mexico, who were >or=18 years and injected illicit drugs in the last month were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). An interviewer-administered survey collected sociodemographic and behavioral data. Logistic regression was used to examine correlates of shooting gallery attendance in each of the two cities. Homelessness and being arrested for syringe possession--both structural level factors--were associated with shooting gallery use in both cities. In Ciudad Juarez, younger age and having overdosed were also associated with shooting gallery use. Our study highlights the need for structural interventions that mitigate homelessness among IDUs and facilitate changes in law enforcement practices associated with shooting gallery use. Harm reduction interventions based within shooting galleries should also be considered to prevent transmission of blood-borne pathogens among IDUs.

  18. Winter season air pollution in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. A review of air pollution studies in an international airshed

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, W.; Church, H.W.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes a number of research efforts completed over the past 20 years in the El Paso del Norte region to characterize pollution sources and air quality trends. The El Paso del Norte region encompasses the cities of El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua and is representative of many US-Mexico border communities that are facing important air quality issues as population growth and industrialization of Mexican border communities continue. Special attention is given to a group of studies carried out under special US Congressional funding and administered by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Many of these studies were fielded within the last several years to develop a better understanding of air pollution sources and trends in this typical border community. Summary findings from a wide range of studies dealing with such issues as the temporal and spatial distribution of pollutants and pollution potential from both stationary and mobile sources in both cities are presented. Particular emphasis is given to a recent study in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez that focussed on winter season PM{sub 10} pollution in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. Preliminary estimates from this short-term study reveal that biomass combustion products and crustal material are significant components of winter season PM{sub 10} in this international border community.

  19. Regional climate change scenarios applied to viticultural zoning in Mendoza, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabré, María Fernanda; Quénol, Hervé; Nuñez, Mario

    2016-09-01

    Due to the importance of the winemaking sector in Mendoza, Argentina, the assessment of future scenarios for viticulture is of foremost relevance. In this context, it is important to understand how temperature increase and precipitation changes will impact on grapes, because of changes in grapevine phenology and suitability wine-growing regions must be understood as an indicator of climate change. The general objective is to classify the suitable areas of viticulture in Argentina for the current and future climate using the MM5 regional climate change simulations. The spatial distribution of annual mean temperature, annual rainfall, and some bioclimatic indices has been analyzed for the present (1970-1989) and future (2080-2099) climate under SRES A2 emission scenario. In general, according to projected average growing season temperature and Winkler index classification, the regional model estimates (i) a reduction of cool areas, (ii) a westward and southward displacement of intermediate and warm suitability areas, and (iii) the arise of new suitability regions (hot and very hot areas) over Argentina. In addition, an increase of annual accumulated precipitation is projected over the center-west of Argentina. Similar pattern of change is modeled for growing season, but with lower intensity. Furthermore, the evaluation of projected seasonal precipitation shows a little precipitation increase over Cuyo and center of Argentina in summer and a little precipitation decrease over Cuyo and northern Patagonia in winter. Results show that Argentina has a great potential for expansion into new suitable vineyard areas by the end of twenty-first century, particularly due to projected displacement to higher latitudes for most present suitability winegrowing regions. Even though main conclusions are based on one global-regional model downscaling, this approach provides valuable information for implementing proper and diverse adaptation measures in the Argentinean viticultural

  20. Species within the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) complex in soybean and bean crops in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Alemandri, V; De Barro, P; Bejerman, N; Argüello Caro, E B; Dumón, A D; Mattio, M F; Rodriguez, S M; Truoli, G

    2012-02-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex that contains some of the most damaging pests in tropical and subtropical regions. Recent studies suggested that this complex is composed of at least 24 distinct species. We use the approach from these studies to consider the identity of B. tabaci in Argentina. Previous studies have suggested the presence of a B. tabaci presumably indigenous to the Americas and referred to as the BR biotype in Argentina. We placed the entity referred to as the BR biotype within the B. tabaci cryptic species complex using whiteflies collected in soybean and bean crops in northern and central Argentina. The whiteflies were assigned using the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (mtCOI) gene. Four unknown haplotypes plus two Argentina sequences from GenBank formed a cluster that was basal to the rest of the New World sequences. These sequences diverged from the consensus sequence across the range of 3.6 to 4.3%. Applying the species assignment rules of recent studies suggests that the individuals from Argentina form a separate species. A fifth unknown haplotype fell within the New World putative species and formed a distinct cluster with haplotypes from Panama. These results suggest that Argentina has two indigenous species belonging to the B. tabaci cryptic species complex. Rather than using mtCOI sequencing for all B. tabaci collected, a simple random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction diagnostic was used and tested along with previously published primers designed to work specifically with the BR biotype from Brazil. These primers were either unable to distinguish between the two indigenous members of the complex in Argentina or indicated a difference when none was evident on the basis of mtCOI sequence comparison.

  1. Regional climate change scenarios applied to viticultural zoning in Mendoza, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cabré, María Fernanda; Quénol, Hervé; Nuñez, Mario

    2016-09-01

    Due to the importance of the winemaking sector in Mendoza, Argentina, the assessment of future scenarios for viticulture is of foremost relevance. In this context, it is important to understand how temperature increase and precipitation changes will impact on grapes, because of changes in grapevine phenology and suitability wine-growing regions must be understood as an indicator of climate change. The general objective is to classify the suitable areas of viticulture in Argentina for the current and future climate using the MM5 regional climate change simulations. The spatial distribution of annual mean temperature, annual rainfall, and some bioclimatic indices has been analyzed for the present (1970-1989) and future (2080-2099) climate under SRES A2 emission scenario. In general, according to projected average growing season temperature and Winkler index classification, the regional model estimates (i) a reduction of cool areas, (ii) a westward and southward displacement of intermediate and warm suitability areas, and (iii) the arise of new suitability regions (hot and very hot areas) over Argentina. In addition, an increase of annual accumulated precipitation is projected over the center-west of Argentina. Similar pattern of change is modeled for growing season, but with lower intensity. Furthermore, the evaluation of projected seasonal precipitation shows a little precipitation increase over Cuyo and center of Argentina in summer and a little precipitation decrease over Cuyo and northern Patagonia in winter. Results show that Argentina has a great potential for expansion into new suitable vineyard areas by the end of twenty-first century, particularly due to projected displacement to higher latitudes for most present suitability winegrowing regions. Even though main conclusions are based on one global-regional model downscaling, this approach provides valuable information for implementing proper and diverse adaptation measures in the Argentinean viticultural

  2. Mesa redonda: Argentina en proyectos globales de investigaciones espaciales y astronómicas. Astronomía óptica en Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folatelli, G.

    2016-08-01

    This is a brief summary of the current status of observational astronomy in the optical range in Argentina, as seen by the author. This roundtable presentation aimed at setting off the discussion within the community about the issue of observational facilities and its posible solutions.

  3. Paleoseismic investigations at the Cal thrust fault, Mendoza, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, Eric; Schmidt, Silke; Hetzel, Ralf; Mingorance, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    Along the active mountain front of the Andean Precordillera between 30°S and 34°S in western Argentina several earthquakes occurred in recent times, including a 7.0 Ms event in 1861 which destroyed the city of Mendoza and killed two thirds of its population. The 1861 event and two other earthquakes (Ms = 5.7 in 1929 and Ms = 5.6 in 1967) were generated on the Cal thrust fault, which extends over a distance of 31 km north-south and runs straight through the center of Mendoza. In the city, which has now more than 1 million inhabitants, the fault forms a 3-m-high fault scarp. Although the Cal thrust fault poses a serious seismic hazard, the paleoseismologic history of this fault and its long-term slip rate remains largely unknown (Mingorance, 2006). We present the first results of an ongoing paleoseismologic study of the Cal thrust at a site located 5 km north of Mendoza. Here, the fault offsets Late Holocene alluvial fan sediments by 2.5 m vertically and exhibits a well developed fault scarp. A 15-m-long and 2-3-m-deep trench across the scarp reveals three east-vergent folds that we interpret to have formed during three earthquakes. Successive retrodeformation of the two youngest folds suggests that the most recent event (presumably the 1861 earthquake) caused ~1.1 m of vertical offset and ~1.8 m of horizontal shortening. For the penultimate event we obtain a vertical offset of ~0.7 m and a horizontal shortening of ~1.9 m. A vertical displacement of ~0.7 m observed on a steeply west-dipping fault may be associated with an older event. The cumulative vertical offset of 2.5 m for the three inferred events is in excellent agreement with the height of the scarp. Based on the retrodeformation of the trench deposits the fault plane dips ~25° to the west. In the deepest part of the trench evidence for even older seismic events is preserved beneath an angular unconformity that was formed during a period of erosion and pre-dates the present-day scarp. Dating of samples to

  4. Carbon monoxide exposure in households in Ciudad Juárez, México.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Teresa; Gurian, Patrick L; Velázquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Corella-Barud, Verónica; Rojo, Analila; Graham, Jay P

    2008-03-01

    This study assessed exposure to carbon monoxide from gas and wood heater emissions in a sample of 64 households in peri-urban residential areas in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México. Indoor and outdoor carbon monoxide concentrations and temperatures were monitored for a continuous period of 1 week at 1 and 6-min intervals, respectively. The moving average carbon monoxide concentrations were compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards for carbon monoxide. Sixty-seven percent of households with gas heaters and 60% of households with wood heaters exceeded a health-based standard at some point during the monitoring. The difference between indoor and outdoor temperatures was modestly correlated with average carbon monoxide exposure (r=0.35, p-value <0.01). Heater type may be a stronger determinant of exposure, as households with a particular heater model (the El Sol FM-210) were significantly more likely to be among the more highly exposed households (odds ratio of 4.8, p-value of 0.02). A variety of health effects were pooled and found at elevated frequency in the households that exceeded the 8-h standard of 9ppm (odds ratio=5.1, p-value=0.031). These results highlight the need for further efforts to identify and mitigate potentially hazardous carbon monoxide exposures, particularly in moderate-income countries with cooler climates.

  5. HIV/AIDS prevention among female sexual partners of injection drug users in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Pinto, J B; Ramos, R

    1995-01-01

    A participatory community project in the US-Mexico border town of Ciudad Juarez, aimed at helping women who are sex partners of male injection drug users to reduce behaviours which increase their risk for HIV infection, is described and evaluated. The design and implementation of the project were influenced by Paulo Freire's pedagogy in the Latin American tradition of 'popular' education, by Bandura's self-efficacy concepts, and by David Warner's 'barefoot doctor' community health care methodology. Using these approaches the participants were directly involved in the development of teaching materials, and curriculum content and implementation of the project. The programme was evaluated quantitatively using NIDA's AIDS Intake and Follow-up Assessment (AIA/AFA) questionnaires, and qualitatively using open ended interviews. While the AIA/AFA questionnaires detected small changes in the frequency of condom use among the participants, ethnographic interviews detected significant changes in the nature of the behaviours which were placing the women at risk. The changes seem to stem from an increase in the degree of self-esteem, self-efficacy and awareness of the social, economic, and political constraints of their lives. These results demonstrate the need for qualitative measures to be incorporated in the evaluation of community based health education programmes. A series of recommendations is presented to facilitate further development and replication of the programme in similar populations.

  6. Risk factors for asthma in school children from Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua.

    PubMed

    Barraza Villarreal, Albino; Sanín Aguirre, Luz Helena; Téllez Rojo, Martha María; Lacasaña Navarro, Marina; Romieu, Isabelle

    2003-06-01

    Asthma and allergic rhinitis were analyzed in a random sample of school children (n=6174) residing in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood methodology was applied through a standardized questionnaire. The sample was obtained with a bietapic design. Cumulative prevalence of asthma and wheezing was 6.8% (95% CI 6.2, 7.4) and 20% (95% of CI 19.7, 21.8) respectively; the prevalence of rhinitis was 5.0% (95% CI 4.5, 5.6). Family history of asthma odds ratio (OR) 2.33 (95% CI 1.78-3.05), respiratory infection after birth (OR) 3.44 (95% CI 2.76-4.29), and exposure to environmental tobacco (OR) 1.35 (95% CI 1.06-1.68) were the strongest risk factors for asthma and allergic rhinitis. The multifactorial etiology of asthma and allergic rhinitis was confirmed, as well as the importance of early exposure to environmental factors.

  7. The Influence of Positivism in the Nineteenth Century Astronomy in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santilli, Haydée; Cornejo, Jorge Norberto

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we analyze the influence of positivism in Argentina astronomical culture in the nineteenth century. We did the analysis from two dimensions, scientific knowledge development and science teaching. Because Argentina was a very young country at that time, it was of singular importance, not only the development of scientific knowledge itself, but also the training of human resources for the transfer of such knowledge. In this regard, the influence of astronomy, in its role of modernizing discipline related to positivist ideal, was particularly noticeable in the training of teachers of primary schools. Domingo F. Sarmiento represents a turning point for the astronomy development in Argentina; his thought was strongly influenced by the Comtean positivism. Sarmiento believed that Copernican astronomy was one of the critical scientific disciplines to the formation of a "modern" citizen. Astronomy in Argentina was influenced by two epistemological streams: French and German positivism; however the first one was the most important. We shall show the relevant influence of the socio-historical context over the scientific development. We shall also see that science was a fundamental social actor in Argentina history.

  8. The Linguistic Experience of Italians in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1890-1914: Language Shift as Seen through Social Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Italiano-McGreevy, Maria

    2013-01-01

    From 1890-1914, Argentina received a large influx of Italian immigrants who wanted to "hacer la América," or live the American dream of economic prosperity. With Italian immigrants representing nearly half of all immigrants entering Argentina, the government strived to create a new sense of Argentine pride and nationalism. The objective…

  9. 77 FR 64827 - Investigation Nos. 701-TA-402 and 731-TA-892 (Second Review); Honey From Argentina; Termination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Investigation Nos. 701-TA-402 and 731-TA-892 (Second Review); Honey From Argentina; Termination of... countervailing duty order and antidumping duty order on imports of honey from Argentina would be likely to...

  10. 75 FR 55741 - Honey From Argentina: Notice of Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results and Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Notice of Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary... Department) is rescinding in part the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on honey from... antidumping duty order on, inter alia, honey from Argentina. See Antidumping or Countervailing Duty...

  11. 77 FR 58524 - Honey From Argentina; Final Results of Sunset Reviews and Revocation of Antidumping Duty and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina; Final Results of Sunset Reviews and Revocation of...) initiated sunset reviews of the antidumping duty and countervailing duty orders on honey from Argentina.\\1... deadline, the Department is revoking the antidumping duty and countervailing duty orders on honey...

  12. Private and Public Schooling in the Southern Cone: A Comparative Analysis of Argentina and Chile. Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    Argentina and Chile have longstanding policies that give public subsidies to private schools. This paper uses data from 1997 from Argentina and Chile to compare the academic outcomes of seventh and eighth graders in public and private schools. Three types of private schools are analyzed: Catholic schools that are subsidized by the government,…

  13. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…

  14. 77 FR 67833 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct Full Five...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct Full Five... investigations on lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence...

  15. [Epidemiology of caprine and ovine brucellosis in Formosa province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Russo, Ana M; Mancebo, Orlando A; Monzón, Carlos M; Gait, Juan J; Casco, Rubén D; Torioni de Echaide, Susana M

    2016-01-01

    An epidemiological study of brucellosis was carried out in 516 goats and mixed flocks (goat/sheep) from the three agro-ecological regions of Formosa province, Argentina. Serum samples from a total of 25401 goats and 2453 sheeps were analyzed using buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT) and complement fixation test (CFT). Bacteriological and PCR analyses on milk samples from goats in three flocks with a history of brucellosis and recent abortions were also performed. Brucellosis was detected in four of the nine departments of the province with an overall prevalence of 2% and an intra-flock prevalence ranging between 1% and 40%. The proportion of infected flocks was 3.6%, 12% and 36% for the eastern, central and western regions, respectively. Brucella melitensis bv. 1 was isolated efrom goats for the first time in the province. The expected fragments of 827bp from the omp2ab gene (Brucella spp.) and 731bp from the insert IS711 (B. melitensis) were amplified by PCR. Detection of antibodies by BPAT and FCT in sheep cohabiting with goats suggests that infections could have been caused by B. melitensis, posing an additional risk to public health. Control and eradication programs for brucellosis should consider mixed flocks as a single epidemiological unit. The results indicate that brucellosis by B. melitensis bv1 is highly endemic in the central and western regions of Formosa province.

  16. Genotypes of pathogenic Leptospira spp isolated from rodents in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Loffler, Sylvia Grune; Pavan, Maria Elisa; Vanasco, Bibiana; Samartino, Luis; Suarez, Olga; Auteri, Carmelo; Romero, Graciela; Brihuega, Bibiana

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis in the world and significant efforts have been made to determine and classify pathogenic Leptospira strains. This zoonosis is maintained in nature through chronic renal infections of carrier animals, with rodents and other small mammals serving as the most important reservoirs. Additionally, domestic animals, such as livestock and dogs, are significant sources of human infection. In this study, a multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was applied to genotype 22 pathogenic Leptospira strains isolated from urban and periurban rodent populations from different regions of Argentina. Three MLVA profiles were identified in strains belonging to the species Leptospira interrogans (serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola); one profile was observed in serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae and two MLVA profiles were observed in isolates of serovars Canicola and Portlandvere. All strains belonging to Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Castellonis exhibited the same MLVA profile. Four different genotypes were isolated from urban populations of rodents, including both mice and rats and two different genotypes were isolated from periurban populations. PMID:24676656

  17. Genotypes of pathogenic Leptospira spp isolated from rodents in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Loffler, Sylvia Grune; Pavan, Maria Elisa; Vanasco, Bibiana; Samartino, Luis; Suarez, Olga; Auteri, Carmelo; Romero, Graciela; Brihuega, Bibiana

    2014-04-01

    Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis in the world and significant efforts have been made to determine and classify pathogenic Leptospira strains. This zoonosis is maintained in nature through chronic renal infections of carrier animals, with rodents and other small mammals serving as the most important reservoirs. Additionally, domestic animals, such as livestock and dogs, are significant sources of human infection. In this study, a multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was applied to genotype 22 pathogenic Leptospira strains isolated from urban and periurban rodent populations from different regions of Argentina. Three MLVA profiles were identified in strains belonging to the species Leptospira interrogans (serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola); one profile was observed in serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae and two MLVA profiles were observed in isolates of serovars Canicola and Portlandvere. All strains belonging to Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Castellonis exhibited the same MLVA profile. Four different genotypes were isolated from urban populations of rodents, including both mice and rats and two different genotypes were isolated from periurban populations.

  18. HI shells in the Leiden/Argentina/Bonn HI survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlerová, S.; Palouš, J.

    2013-02-01

    Aims: We analyse the all-sky Leiden/Argentina/Bonn HI survey, where we identify shells belonging to the Milky Way. Methods: We used an identification method based on the search of continuous regions of a low brightness temperature that are compatible with given properties of HI shells. Results: We found 333 shells in the whole Galaxy. The size distribution of shells in the outer Galaxy is fitted by a power law with the coefficient of 2.6 corresponding to the index 1.8 in the distribution of energy sources. Their surface density decreases exponentially with a scale length of 2.8 kpc. The surface density of shells with radii ≥100 pc in the solar neighbourhood is ~4 kpc-2 and the 2D porosity is ~0.7. Tables A.1 and A.2 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/550/A23

  19. Leishmaniasis and Climate Change—Case Study: Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Quintana, María Gabriela; Mastrángelo, Andrea Verónica; Fernández, María Soledad

    2012-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases closely associated with the environment, such as leishmaniases, have been a usual argument about the deleterious impact of climate change on public health. From the biological point of view interaction of different variables has different and even conflicting effects on the survival of vectors and the probability transmission of pathogens. The results on ecoepidemiology of leishmaniasis in Argentina related to climate variables at different scales of space and time are presented. These studies showed that the changes in transmission due to change or increase in frequency and intensity of climatic instability were expressed through changes in the probability of vector-human reservoir effective contacts. These changes of contact in turn are modulated by both direct effects on the biology and ecology of the organisms involved, as by perceptions and changes in the behavior of the human communities at risk. Therefore, from the perspective of public health and state policy, and taking into account the current nonlinear increased velocity of climate change, we concluded that discussing the uncertainties of large-scale models will have lower impact than to develop-validate mitigation strategies to be operative at local level, and compatibles with sustainable development, conservation biodiversity, and respect for cultural diversity. PMID:22685477

  20. [Infant Mortality in Argentina: reducibility criteria, 3rd review].

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Juliana Zoe; Duhau, Mariana; Abeyá Gilardon, Enrique; Ferrario, Claudia; Speranza, Ana; Asciutto, Carolina; Marconi, Élida; Guevel, Carlos; Fernández, María de las Mercedes; Martínez, María Laura; Santoro, Adrián; Loiacono, Karina; Lomuto, Celia

    2015-08-01

    The infant mortality rate is an indicator of quality of life, development, and quality and accessibility of health care. Improvements in science, technology and better access to health care have contributed to a major decrease in the infant mortality rate in Argentina. Since the 1980s, infant deaths have been classified based on the opportunities for reducibility yielded by scientific knowledge and available technologies, in order to obtain a basis for the monitoring and implementation of health policies. The last review of this classification was in 2011. In 2012, a total of 5,541 neonatal deaths (less than 28 days of life) were registered and, under this new classification, over 61% were reducible mainly by the improvement of perinatal health care and adequate and timely treatment of the at-risk newborn. In 2012, a total of 2,686 post-neonatal deaths (from 28 days of life to a year) were registered and, under this new classification, over 66.8% were reducible by improving prevention strategies and providing adequate and timely treatment. This new analysis demonstrates the need to improve the opportunity, accessibility and quality of perinatal care starting at pregnancy, guaranteeing quality care at delivery and reinforcing prevention and timely treatment of common diseases in childhood over the first year of life.

  1. Exposure assessment of mycotoxins in cow's milk in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Signorini, M L; Gaggiotti, M; Molineri, A; Chiericatti, C A; Zapata de Basílico, M L; Basílico, J C; Pisani, M

    2012-02-01

    A stochastic simulation model was developed to carry out the first quantitative risk exposure assessment of the mycotoxin level in cow's milk produced in Argentina. The prevalence and concentration of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) were modeled at various stages through milk processes complying with Argentinean practices. Concentration of AFM1 (0.059ppb), DON (0.338ppb) and ZEA (0.125ppb) in dairy milk were estimated. The proportion of feed samples that exceeded the maximum level accepted by European regulations for AFB1, DON and ZEA were estimated at 25.07%, 0.0% and 8.9%, respectively. The percentage of milk samples that exceeded the maximum level accepted for AFB1 by the MERCOSUR (0.5ppb) and the European Union regulations (0.05ppb) were 0.81 and 32.65, respectively. The probability distribution of AFM1 concentration in milk was affected by the carry-over rate equations applied in the model. Mycotoxin levels in corn silage and concentrated feeds were the factors most correlated with mycotoxin concentrations in milk. Therefore, agricultural practices, crop management and feed production require prompt attention regarding mycotoxin issues.

  2. Hydrothermal surface alteration in the Copahue Geothermal Field (Argentina)

    SciTech Connect

    Mas, Graciela R.; Mas, Luis C.; Bengochea, Leandro

    1996-01-24

    In the area of the Copahue Geothermal Field, there are five active geothermal manifestations, which mainly consist of fumaroles, hot springs and mud pots. Four of these manifestations are located in Argentina: Las Máquinas, Termas de Copahue, Las Maquinitas and El Anfiteatro, and the fifth on the Chilean side: Chancho Co. All of them present a strong acid sulfate country rock alteration, characterized by the assemblage alunite + kaolinite + quartz + cristobalite + pyrite + sulfur + jarosite, as the result of the base leaching by fluids concentrated in H2SO4 by atmospheric oxidation at the water table in a steam heated environment of H2S released by deeper boiling fluids. Another alteration zone in this area, called COP-2, is a fossil geothermal manifestation which shows characteristics of neutral to alkaline alteration represented mainly by the siliceous sinter superimposed over the acid alteration. The mineralogy and zoning of these alteration zones, and their relation with the hidrothermal solutions and the major structures of the area are analized.

  3. Extreme environments in the forests of Ushuaia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antoni, Hector; Rothschild, Lynn; Schultz, Cynthia; Burgess, Seth; Skiles, J. W.

    2007-11-01

    A survey over two mountain slopes (Glaciar Martial and Cerro Guanaco) in the vicinity of Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) showed normal results for the region in terms of chlorophyll concentration in the leaves of the dominant tree species Nothofagus antarctica, N. pumilio and N. betuloides, and soil variables such as temperature, moisture, pH, and concentration of nitrogen, sodium and potassium. Solar radiation, on the other hand, showed high values of ultraviolet over the 200-400 nm range, suggesting that the environment is extreme in terms of incoming solar radiation. The forest canopy absorbs and/or reflects a significant amount of that radiation. In separate analyses we showed that these tree species contain UV-absorbing pigments (cyanidin, delphidin, and flavonol glycosides). We submit that the rippled and glossy surface of leaves serves as a reflection/backscattering mechanism that protects their inner structure and function. The presence of krummholz (= twisted, dwarf trees) in the upper end of the forest shows the effects of an extreme environment.

  4. [Cervical infection epidemiology of human papillomavirus in Ushuaia, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Sijvarger, C C; González, J V; Prieto, A; Messmer, A G; Mallimaci, M C; Alonio, V L; Teyssié, A R; Picconi, M A

    2006-01-01

    Genital infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is decisive in the causation of cervical cancer. In order to evaluate the epidemiology of HPV infection in Ushuaia, Province of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, 132 endocervical cytobrushes from preneoplastic and neoplastic cases and controls were studied. Detection and typing of the viral genome was performed by polymerase chain reaction, combined with a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay or hybridization. The overall prevalence of HPV infection was 41% in the population examined, with a frequency of 26% in the controls and 71% in the cases under study. The 14-24 age group showed the highest HPV prevalence. The most common viral types in the infected population were HPV 16 (23%), HPV 18 (11%), HPV 33 (8%) and HPV 35 (8%), while high risk viral types were detected in 30% of the samples, 16% of the controls and 60% of the cases. This study provides the first data on the predominant viral types in Ushuaia. Our results show lower levels of infection than in regions with a high incidence of cervical cancer, HPV 16 being the most prevalent viral type. This research may be useful for selecting a specific vaccine targeting the population examined.

  5. [Deregulation and equity: the Obras Sociales reconversion process in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Findling, Liliana; Arrunada, María; Klimovsky, Ezequiel

    2002-01-01

    The health care services managed by trade unions and known as "Obras Sociales" form the groundwork for Argentina's Social Security and Health system. However, far from taking an equitable approach, these institutions highlight the country's prevailing income disparities, which in turn lead to major differences in access to care. The main focus of this study was the reformulation of social security health policies within the framework of deregulation from 1998 to 2000, analyzing the effects on availability of health care services from an equity perspective. The methodology used two related analytical levels: (1) a macro level viewing the process from the various players' strategies and (2) a micro level featuring the changes within a well-known trade union social security organization during its reconversion process, emphasizing its institutional scope and the opinions of its membership. The results thus pointed to the slow implementation of reforms initiated by the public sector, hindered by constant negotiations among the main corporate actors seeking to serve their particular interests, along with increased inequity and fragmentation due to the limited opening of free choice by members.

  6. UVER and UV index at high altitude in Northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Utrillas, M P; Marín, M J; Esteve, A R; Salazar, G; Suarez, H; Castillo, J; Martínez-Lozano, J A

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of ultraviolet erythemal radiation (UVER) made during two years at three sites located at altitudes over 1000ma.s.l. in Northwestern Argentina (Salta, San Carlos, and El Rosal) have been used to estimate and analyze the UV Index (UVI) and the cumulative doses at these locations. For the UVER irradiance, data of January (maximum values) and June (minimum values) have been analyzed as representative of the year for all locations. The UVI reaches extreme (>11) values in >20% of the analyzed days in Salta (1190ma.s.l.), while these are reached in San Carlos (1611ma.s.l.) and El Rosal (3355ma.s.l.) in >40% of the analyzed days. Finally, the cumulative doses over an average year have also been studied for each location. The doses received during austral summer and autumn are of the same order, and represent one third of the annual dose, while the doses received during austral winter and spring represent one sixth of the annual dose approximately.

  7. Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic investigations on Isla de los Estados, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björck, S.; Fernandez, M.; Hjort, C.; Ljung, K.; Martinez, O.; Möller, P.; Ponce, F.; Rabassa, J.; Roig, F.; Unkel, I.; Wohlfarth, B.

    2007-05-01

    The expedition in November-December 2005 to Isla de los Estados (Staten Island) off the southeastern tip of South America was a cooperative venture between Lund University (LU) and Stockholm University (SU) in Sweden and the CADIC-CONICET Institute in Ushuaia, Argentina. The aim of the expedition was threefold: (1) to extend the Swedish paleoclimatic "ATLANTIS"-project (Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Islands, Azores, Grenada, Tristan da Cunha; PI S Björck) to the southern part of the South American continent, (2) to connect earlier glacial and climate history reconstructions from the Antarctic Peninsula to equivalents north of the Drake Passage in southernmost South America, and (3) to complement paleo-information available from the Tierra del Fuego mainland with information from Isla de los Estados. Focus was on two areas in the northern and north-western part of the island, Bahía Colnett and Bahia Crossley. Detailed geomorphologic and stratigraphic mapping of glacial deposits were combined with sampling sediments for OSL dating. To reconstruct the paleoclimatic development of Isla de los Estados since the last ice retreat, four main peat bog/lake sites were cored and sampled. In addition, living trees of Nothofagus and old logs preserved in the peat were sampled for dendrochronological and dendroclimatological studies. Preliminary results show that the deglaciation of the study area occurred before 16500 cal yr BP. Detailed multi- proxy analyses of the four sequences are under way and first results will be presented.

  8. Assessment of natural arsenic in groundwater in Cordoba Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Francisca, Franco M; Carro Perez, Magalí E

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater in the central part of Argentina contains arsenic concentrations that, in most cases, exceed the value suggested by international regulations. In this region, Quaternary loessical sediments with a very high volcanic glass fraction lixiviate arsenic and fluoride after weathering. The objectives of this study are to analyze the spatial distribution of arsenic in different hydrogeological regions, to define the naturally expected concentration in an aquifer by means of hydrogeochemistry studies, and to identify emergent health evidences related to cancer mortality in the study area. The correlation between arsenic and fluoride concentrations in groundwater is analyzed at each county in the Cordoba Province. Two dimensionless geoindicators are proposed to identify risk zones and to rapidly visualize the groundwater quality related to the presence of arsenic and fluoride. A surface-mapping system is used to identify the spatial variability of concentrations and for suggesting geoindicators. The results show that the Chaco-Pampean plain hydrogeologic region is the most affected area, with arsenic and fluoride concentrations in groundwater being generally higher than the values suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water. Mortality related to kidney, lung, liver, and skin cancer in this area could be associated to the ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water. Generated maps provide a base for the assessment of the risk associated to the natural occurrence of arsenic and fluoride in the region.

  9. Photovoltaic generating systems in rural schools in Neuquen Province, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Lawand, T.A.; Campbell, J.

    1997-12-01

    During the period 1994-95, solar photovoltaic systems were installed at a number of schools in Neuquen Province, Argentina, by the Provincial electric utility, Ente Provincial de Energia del Neuquen. This was undertaken with funds provided by the Inter-American Development Bank. In all, there are 12 schools that have had photovoltaic generating systems installed. These generating systems are designed to provide electricity for the basic needs at the schools: primarily for lighting, and to operate small electrical appliances such as communication radios, televisions, VCR`s, AM/FM and short-wave radios. They do not provide enough energy to operate large consumption appliances such as washing machines, microwaves, refrigerators, power tools, etc. The program of provision of PV systems was supplemented with training on simple systems for cooking food or drying fruit, etc. These techniques are primarily intended for demonstration at the schools thus serving an educational role with the hope that they will be transmitted in time to the families of the students where the need is manifested the most.

  10. Spatial analysis of the tuberculosis treatment dropout, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Herrero, María Belén; Arrossi, Silvina; Ramos, Silvina; Braga, Jose Ueleres

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Identify spatial distribution patterns of the proportion of nonadherence to tuberculosis treatment and its associated factors. METHODS We conducted an ecological study based on secondary and primary data from municipalities of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. An exploratory analysis of the characteristics of the area and the distributions of the cases included in the sample (proportion of nonadherence) was also carried out along with a multifactor analysis by linear regression. The variables related to the characteristics of the population, residences and families were analyzed. RESULTS Areas with higher proportion of the population without social security benefits (p = 0.007) and of households with unsatisfied basic needs had a higher risk of nonadherence (p = 0.032). In addition, the proportion of nonadherence was higher in areas with the highest proportion of households with no public transportation within 300 meters (p = 0.070). CONCLUSIONS We found a risk area for the nonadherence to treatment characterized by a population living in poverty, with precarious jobs and difficult access to public transportation.

  11. Bartonella spp. in cats from Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; Brambati, Diego F; De Gennaro, María F; Carmona, Fernando; Isturiz, María L; Pujol, Laura E; Belerenian, Guillermo C; Gil, Horacio

    2014-01-10

    In Argentina, data on the presence of members of the genus Bartonella is scarce. To increase knowledge about these zoonotic pathogens in this country, the presence and variability of Bartonella spp. was investigated in cats and dogs from Buenos Aires. Bartonella spp. was detected in 17.8% of cats, while all dogs tested negative by PCR and Reverse Line Blot. B. henselae was the most frequent species, being detected in 11.9% (14/101), while B. clarridgeiae was found in only 5.9% (6/101) of the cats. Afterwards, B. henselae isolates and positive blood samples were characterized by Multiple Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA). As result, four different MLST sequence types (ST) and eight MLVA profiles were identified. ST 1 was the most frequent variant found in cats, followed by ST 8. Interestingly, some of the MLVA profiles that were detected in this study have been previously associated with human disease, and represents a potential risk of infection. Veterinarians and physicians should consider the presence of these emerging pathogens in their diagnostic routine.

  12. [Shigelosis outbreak in the city of Lujan, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Della Gaspera, Anabella; Caffer, María I; Panagópulo, Marcela; Viñas, María R; Barrios, Hebe A; Viora, Silvia S; Anselmo, Ricardo J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe an outbreak of Shigella sonnei that occurred in the city of Lujan, Buenos Aires, Argentina, in July 2012. Five individuals were affected after eating a hand-made Viennese-style pastry at a family gathering. All of them presented with fever, joint pain, chills and non-bloody diarrhea containing mucus. Stool cultures were performed in all cases and the samples taken from the pastry ingredients were analyzed microbiologically. S.sonnei was isolated and identified in all the patients involved as well as in the almond cream filling. The isolates were analyzed for determining the antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic profiles by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The results showed the genetic relationship among the isolates, confirming that the cases occurred due to the patients' exposure to the same source of infection, i.e., the almond cream. Being the almond cream an industrially-manufactured ingredient, an initial contamination could have been unlikely; however contamination might have occurred as a result of manipulation in the bakery.

  13. Unexpected primitive rodents in the Quaternary of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucetich, María G.; Vieytes, Emma C.; Verzi, Diego H.; Noriega, Jorge I.; Tonni, Eduardo P.

    2005-10-01

    This article describes the first fossils recorded in the Hernandarias Formation (Pleistocene) in Entre Ríos province (eastern Argentina). They are represented by three teeth assigned to the caviomorph rodents (Rodentia, Mammalia) Aenigmys diamantensis gen. et sp. nov. and Eumysops. To establish the phylogenetic affinities of the two most enigmatic teeth, their enamel microstructure was studied. Aenigmys diamantensis is considered the most primitive taxon of a clade formed by Dinomyidae-Neoepiblemidae-Heptaxodontidae. Evidence of the close relationships among these families also is presented herein. The new fossils reinforce previous hypotheses about the survival of primitive Brazilian taxa after their extinction in the Pampas and Patagonia of southern South America. They also show that the diversity of caviomorph rodents during the Quaternary was greater than supposed and that an important Quaternary extinction, not previously detected, affected several lineages. With the available evidence, it is not possible to determine if these rodents indicate a warm pulse or a particular biogeographic situation in Entre Ríos.

  14. Presence of the Aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii, on Strawberry in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Cédola, Claudia; Grecob, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal abundance of the strawberry aphid complex under different agronomic practices in the outskirts of La Plata, Argentina was studied on strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae). Aphid densities were low in strawberry fields in which insecticides and fungicides were used. In addition to Aphis gossypii, Aphis fabae, Mysus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae, the aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell) (Homoptera: Aphididae), was recorded for the first time in this horticultural area. Life history and some demographic parameters were calculated for C. fragaefolii. The mean duration of nymphal stages was 10.44 days, the oviposition period was 11.8 days, and the mean number of nymph/female/day was 2.4 ± 0.3. Demographic parameters analyzed included the net reproductive rate Ro = 14.55 ± 0.096 nymph/female, generation time T=16.91 ± 0.035 days, and the intrinsic rate of increase rm = 0.158 ± (0.004). No parasites were found associated with C. fragaefolli. The pathogenic fungus, Entomophthora planchoniana Cornu (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) was the main mortality factor. Although aphids are not the main pests in strawberry fields, C. fragaefolii can be a serious problem because it can transmit several virus diseases of strawberry. Greater knowledge of life history traits and mortality factors of this species is needed in order to design appropriate control strategies. PMID:20569141

  15. Eolian permian deposits in west and northwest Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limarino, C. O.; Spalletti, L. A.

    1986-08-01

    The sedimentary and stratigraphic characteristics of eolian Permian deposits exposed in Mendoza, La Rioja and San Juan Provinces (west and northwest Argentina) are described in this paper. The eolianites are fine and medium sandstones with large-scale cross-bedding, multiple parallel truncation planes and some asymmetrical ripples. Three genetic types of deposits have been identified: dune facies, eolian sand-sheet facies and mixed fluvial-eolian facies. Fine and medium sandstones with large-scale cross-bedding and multiple parallel truncation planes are here interpreted as dune deposits (mainly crescentic dunes), and unstratified or flat-bedded sandstones as eolian sand-sheet deposits. Mixed fluvial and eolian sequences, composed of sandstones, mudstones and some matrix-supported conglomerates, represent a transitional facies between those formed in eolian and fluvial environments. This considerable deposition of eolian sediments was probably brought about by the existence of an extensive, medium to low-latitude continent and the withdrawal of marine environments. The environments with highest aridity occurred towards the south and west of the region. The eolian circulation pattern was controlled by a long ensialic volcanic arc emerging towards the west of the basin.

  16. Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. from Puerto Madryn, Argentina (Polychaeta, Polynoidae)

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I.; González, Norma Emilia; Salazar-Silva, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Among polychaetes, polynoids have the highest number of symbiotic species found living with a wide variety of marine invertebrates, including other polychaetes. Lepidasthenia Malmgren, 1867 and Lepidametria Webster, 1879 were regarded as synonyms but belong to different subfamilies, although both have species associated with thelepodid or terebellid polychaetes. In this contribution Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. is described from several specimens associated with the thelepodid Thelepus antarcticus Kinberg, 1867, collected on a rocky shore near Puerto Madryn, Argentina. Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. can be confused with Lepidasthenia esbelta Amaral & Nonato, 1982 because both live with Thelepus, are of similar sizes with similar pigmentation patterns, and have giant neurochaetae. However, in Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. all eyes are of the same size, cephalic and parapodial cirri are tapered and mucronate, the second pair of elytra is larger than the third, the ventral cirri arise at the base of parapodia such that they do not reach chaetal lobe tips, and neuraciculae are tapered. On the contrary, in Lepidasthenia esbelta the posterior eyes are larger than anterior ones, cephalic and parapodial appendages are swollen subdistally, the second and third pairs of elytra are of the same size, the ventral cirri arise medially such that their tips reach the neurochaetal lobe tips, and the neuraciculae have falcate tips. Some comments about other genera in the Lepidastheniinae, a simplified key to its genera, and a key to Lepidasthenia species with giant neurochaetae are also included. PMID:26798303

  17. [BRAF V600E mutation in thyroid nodules in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Ilera, Verónica; Dourisboure, Ricardo; Colobraro, Antonio; Silva Croome, María Del Carmen; Olstein, Gustavo; Gauna, Alicia

    This prospective study analyzed the frequency of V600E mutation of oncogene BRAF in patients operated for benign thyroid nodules and for papillary thyroid cancer in an Argentine population. In patients with papillary thyroid cancer we compared clinicopathological characteristics between those harboring BRAF mutation and those without it. Twenty five consecutive patients operated for benign nodules and for papillary carcinoma were prospectively included. Fresh tissue samples of thyroid nodules and of adjacent thyroid parenchyma were obtained. DNA was extracted and amplified by amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS PCR). Direct sequencing was performed in four samples. Of those patients operated for papillary thyroid cancer, 77% harbored BRAF mutation. All samples from adjacent thyroid parenchyma and from patients operated for benign nodules tested negative for the mutation. Direct sequencing confirmed the results obtained by ARMS PCR. Patients with BRAF mutation were significantly older at the time of diagnosis (BRAF+ 47.7 ± 12.7 years vs. BRAF- 24.7 ± 8.1 years, p < 0.01). Nine out of ten papillary carcinomas with BRAF mutation corresponded to the classic histological subtype, which was not observed in BRAF negative tumors (p < 0.02). In conclusion, we found a high frequency of BRAF V600E mutation in this population of patients operated for papillary thyroid carcinoma in Argentina. These results are consistent with those reported in the literature.

  18. Spatial analysis of the tuberculosis treatment dropout, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, María Belén; Arrossi, Silvina; Ramos, Silvina; Braga, Jose Ueleres

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Identify spatial distribution patterns of the proportion of nonadherence to tuberculosis treatment and its associated factors. METHODS We conducted an ecological study based on secondary and primary data from municipalities of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. An exploratory analysis of the characteristics of the area and the distributions of the cases included in the sample (proportion of nonadherence) was also carried out along with a multifactor analysis by linear regression. The variables related to the characteristics of the population, residences and families were analyzed. RESULTS Areas with higher proportion of the population without social security benefits (p = 0.007) and of households with unsatisfied basic needs had a higher risk of nonadherence (p = 0.032). In addition, the proportion of nonadherence was higher in areas with the highest proportion of households with no public transportation within 300 meters (p = 0.070). CONCLUSIONS We found a risk area for the nonadherence to treatment characterized by a population living in poverty, with precarious jobs and difficult access to public transportation. PMID:26270011

  19. Late cretaceous aquatic plant world in Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cúneo, N Rubén; Gandolfo, María A; Zamaloa, María C; Hermsen, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, we describe latest Cretaceous aquatic plant communities from the La Colonia Formation, Patagonia, Argentina, based on their taxonomic components and paleoecological attributes. The La Colonia Formation is a geological unit deposited during a Maastrichtian-Danian transgressive episode of the South Atlantic Ocean. This event resulted in the deposition of a series of fine-grained sediments associated with lagoon systems occurring along irregular coastal plains in northern Patagonia. These deposits preserved a diverse biota, including aquatic and terrestrial plants and animals. The aquatic macrophytes can be broadly divided into two groups: free-floating and rooted, the latter with emergent or floating leaves. Free-floating macrophytes include ferns in Salviniaceae (Azolla and Paleoazolla) and a monocot (Araceae). Floating microphytes include green algae (Botryoccocus, Pediastrum and Zygnemataceae). Among the rooted components, marsileaceous water ferns (including Regnellidium and an extinct form) and the eudicot angiosperm Nelumbo (Nelumbonaceae) are the dominant groups. Terrestrial plants occurring in the vegetation surrounding the lagoons include monocots (palms and Typhaceae), ferns with affinities to Dicksoniaceae, conifers, and dicots. A reconstruction of the aquatic plant paleocommuniy is provided based on the distribution of the fossils along a freshwater horizon within the La Colonia Formation. This contribution constitutes the first reconstruction of a Cretaceous aquatic habitat for southern South America.

  20. Leishmaniasis and climate change-case study: Argentina.

    PubMed

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Quintana, María Gabriela; Mastrángelo, Andrea Verónica; Fernández, María Soledad

    2012-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases closely associated with the environment, such as leishmaniases, have been a usual argument about the deleterious impact of climate change on public health. From the biological point of view interaction of different variables has different and even conflicting effects on the survival of vectors and the probability transmission of pathogens. The results on ecoepidemiology of leishmaniasis in Argentina related to climate variables at different scales of space and time are presented. These studies showed that the changes in transmission due to change or increase in frequency and intensity of climatic instability were expressed through changes in the probability of vector-human reservoir effective contacts. These changes of contact in turn are modulated by both direct effects on the biology and ecology of the organisms involved, as by perceptions and changes in the behavior of the human communities at risk. Therefore, from the perspective of public health and state policy, and taking into account the current nonlinear increased velocity of climate change, we concluded that discussing the uncertainties of large-scale models will have lower impact than to develop-validate mitigation strategies to be operative at local level, and compatibles with sustainable development, conservation biodiversity, and respect for cultural diversity.

  1. Multiple incidence angle SIR-B experiment over Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimino, Jobea; Casey, Daren; Wall, Stephen; Brandani, Aldo; Domik, Gitta; Leberl, Franz

    1986-01-01

    The Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-B), the second synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to fly aboard a shuttle, was launched on October 5, 1984. One of the primary goals of the SIR-B experiment was to use multiple incidence angle radar images to distinguish different terrain types through the use of their characteristic backscatter curves. This goal was accomplished in several locations including the Chubut Province of southern Argentina. Four descending image acquisitions were collected providing a multiple incidence angle image set. The data were first used to assess stereo-radargrammetric techniques. A digital elevation model was produced using the optimum pair of multiple incidence angle images. This model was then used to determine the local incidence angle of each picture element to generate curves of relative brightness vs. incidence angle. Secondary image products were also generated using the multi-angle data. The results of this work indicate that: (1) various forest species and various structures of a single species may be discriminated using multiple incidence angle radar imagery, and (2) it is essential to consider the variation in backscatter due to a variable incidence angle when analyzing and comparing data collected at varying frequencies and polarizations.

  2. [Traffic law compliance in the city of Santa Fe, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Beltramino, Juan Carlos; Carrera, Elena

    2007-08-01

    An observational, descriptive study was conducted to evaluate compliance with certain traffic regulations in city of Santa Fe, Argentina, and compare these with measurements taken in prior years. During January 2-4, 2006, at 13 sites across the city, compliance with the following traffic rules was measured: for car drivers: seat belt use and restricting minors to the rear seat; and for motorcycle drivers: helmet use and not carrying a minor on board. At total of 4 173 cars and 1 013 motorcycles were observed. Only 9% of the car drivers wore seatbelts. Of the 246 cars carrying minors, 56% had a minor in the front seat. Regarding the motorcycles drivers, only 12% wore a helmet and 6.7% had a child on board. When these observations were compared with those of the previous five years, findings showed that over the past three years compliance rates had decreased. The results of this study suggest that most drivers in city of Santa Fe do not obey the stated traffic laws. In order to reduce the high rate of mortality from traffic accidents, in addition to legislation and public-awareness campaigns, a system for enforcing compliance is needed.

  3. Oil and democracy in Argentina, 1916-1930

    SciTech Connect

    Biddle, N.L.

    1991-01-01

    Argentine society in the 1920s experience strong political, cultural, and economic divisions between the littoral regional surrounding Buenos Aires and the interior provinces to the west and north. Economic recession through World War 1 sparked efforts to wean the economy from total dependence upon agricultural production and export, and petroleum deposits in the south and northwest corners of Argentina offered a wider economic base. Regional conflict quickly arose concerning oil production and control over oil revenues. By mounting a popular anti-imperialist campaign against Standard Oil of New Jersey, the primary interior oil producer, dominant political forces in Buenos Aires worked to nationalize all oil deposits to the detriment of interior provincial interests. To maintain the kinds of political control necessary to fend off this threat, interior conservatives reverted to electoral fraud and violence, especially in the major oil-producing province of Salta. This thesis reconstructs and analyzes the process by which political division on the oil issue hardened and gave way to a conservative reaction leading to an authoritarian regime.

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizae of dominant plant species in Yungas forests, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Alejandra G; Cabello, Marta; Zak, Marcelo R; Bartoloni, Norberto

    2009-01-01

    In Argentina the Yungas forests are among the ecosystems most affected by human activity, with loss of biodiversity. To assess the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spore numbers in these ecosystems, the roots of the most dominant native plants (one tree, Alnus acuminata; three herbaceous, Duchesnea indica, Oxalis conorrhiza, Trifolium aff. repens; and one shrub, Sambucus peruviana) were studied throughout the year from two sites of Yungas forests. Assessments of mycorrhizal colonization (percent root length, intraradical structures) were made by washing and staining the roots. Soil samples of each plant species were pooled and subsamples were obtained to determine AM spore numbers. The herbaceous species formed both Arum- and Paris-type morphologies, whereas the tree and the shrub species formed respectively single structural types of Arum- and Paris-type. AM colonization, intraradical fungi structures and AMF spore numbers displayed variation in species, seasons and sites. D. indica showed the highest AM colonization, whereas the highest spore numbers was observed in the rhizosphere of A. acuminata. No correlation was observed between spore numbers and root length percentage colonized by AM fungi. Results of this study showed that Alnus acuminata is facultatively AM. The AM colonization, intraradical fungi structures and AMF spore numbers varied in species depending on phenological, climatic and edaphic conditions.

  5. Tobacco use among high school students in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed Central

    Morello, P; Duggan, A; Adger, H; Anthony, J C; Joffe, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of tobacco use among high school students in Buenos Aires, Argentina. METHODS: Anonymous, self-administered questionnaires were given to 3909 8th and 11th graders in a stratified random sample of 49 public and private schools. The instrument included items from American surveys, translated and validated among Argentinean teens. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate possible effects on smoking behavior of environment, students' personal characteristics, and their knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes regarding smoking. RESULTS: Of 8th and 11th graders, 20% and 43%, respectively, were classified as current smokers. Overall, 29% of males and 32% of females were current smokers. Students attending public schools were more likely to smoke than those in private schools (P < .05). Current smoking was associated with having a best friend who smokes, reporting that more than 50% of friends of the same sex smoke, having positive attitudes and beliefs toward smoking, and having a positive intention to smoke within the next year (all P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Over 20% of the 8th graders in our sample were current smokers; prevention efforts must therefore start early. PMID:11213790

  6. Late Cretaceous Aquatic Plant World in Patagonia, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Cúneo, N. Rubén; Gandolfo, María A.; Zamaloa, María C.; Hermsen, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, we describe latest Cretaceous aquatic plant communities from the La Colonia Formation, Patagonia, Argentina, based on their taxonomic components and paleoecological attributes. The La Colonia Formation is a geological unit deposited during a Maastrichtian-Danian transgressive episode of the South Atlantic Ocean. This event resulted in the deposition of a series of fine-grained sediments associated with lagoon systems occurring along irregular coastal plains in northern Patagonia. These deposits preserved a diverse biota, including aquatic and terrestrial plants and animals. The aquatic macrophytes can be broadly divided into two groups: free-floating and rooted, the latter with emergent or floating leaves. Free-floating macrophytes include ferns in Salviniaceae (Azolla and Paleoazolla) and a monocot (Araceae). Floating microphytes include green algae (Botryoccocus, Pediastrum and Zygnemataceae). Among the rooted components, marsileaceous water ferns (including Regnellidium and an extinct form) and the eudicot angiosperm Nelumbo (Nelumbonaceae) are the dominant groups. Terrestrial plants occurring in the vegetation surrounding the lagoons include monocots (palms and Typhaceae), ferns with affinities to Dicksoniaceae, conifers, and dicots. A reconstruction of the aquatic plant paleocommuniy is provided based on the distribution of the fossils along a freshwater horizon within the La Colonia Formation. This contribution constitutes the first reconstruction of a Cretaceous aquatic habitat for southern South America. PMID:25148081

  7. Biochemical diagnosis in 3040 kidney stone formers in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Spivacow, Francisco Rodolfo; del Valle, Elisa Elena; Negri, Armando Luis; Fradinger, Erich; Abib, Anabella; Rey, Paula

    2015-08-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a frequent condition in urology that has an important recurrence and high impact in health economy. Knowing the biochemical abnormalities implicated in its pathogenesis is mandatory to establish therapeutic aims. Our objectives are to present the results in 3040 kidney stone formers in Argentina. All patients were selected after completing an ambulatory metabolic protocol with diagnostic purposes. There were 1717 men, (56.48%), with a mean age of 45±12 years, and 1323 women, (43.52%), mean age 44±12 years. 2781 patients had biochemical abnormalities, (91.49%), and were arbitrarily divided in two groups: those who had only one (single) biochemical abnormality (n=2156) and those who had associated abnormalities (n=625). No biochemical abnormalities were found in 259 patients (8.51%). The abnormalities present, single and associated, in order of frequency, were idiopathic hypercalciuria, (56.88%), hyperuricosuria (21.08%), unduly acidic urine (10.95%), hypocitraturia (10.55%), hypomagnesuria (7.9%), primary hyperparathyroidism (3.01%), hyperoxaluria (2.6%), and cystinuria (0.32%). We performed in 484 patient's stone composition and found calcium oxalate stones related to idiopathic hypercalciuria predominantly while uric acid stones to unduly acidic urine. In conclusion, the biochemical abnormalities described are similar to those found in a previous series of our own and to those reported in the literature. Its diagnosis is important to therapeutic purposes to avoid eventual recurrence.

  8. The future of the history of psychology in Argentina and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Klappenbach, Hugo; Jacó-Vilela, Ana Maria

    2016-08-01

    This article analyzes the development of the history of psychology in Argentina and Brazil, beginning with the emergence of the history of psychology at the beginning of the 20th century. The paper analyzes that such old historical reconstructions were written by the same authors or institutions that were introducing Psychology in the two countries. That is, the older historical productions in the field of psychology were Whig biased. An analysis of the last 30 years of history of psychology is also provided. The article describes institutional developments, including archives, journals, scientific meetings, and teaching of history of psychology in academic settings. Main groups devoted to history of psychology, both in Argentina and Brazil are described. Finally, it offers some thoughts on the future of history of psychology in the 2 countries. A comparative study between Argentina and Brazil allows to understand strengths and weakness related to institutionalization of History of Psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. [First report of Echinococcus vogeli in a paca in Misiones province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Vizcaychipi, Katherina A; Helou, Marcia; Dematteo, Karen; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Cucher, Marcela; Rosenzvit, Mara; D'Alessandro, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    We report the first finding of Echinococcus vogeli in a paca, Cuniculus paca, in the tropical forest of Misiones, in the north of Argentina. The presence of the bush dog, Speothos venaticus, E. vogelís only natural definitive host, was also reported. The polycystic hydatids, 2 to 3 cm in diameter, were only found in the liver of an adult paca. The size range of the hooks and the relative proportion blade/handle did not show significant differences with respect to the ones reported for E. vogeli. The size of E. granulosus hooks, measured for comparison purposes, was significantly smaller (p E. vogeli in Argentina. The probability of finding neotropical echinococcosis in humans reinforces the need to expand the search for E. vogeli in Argentina. Echinococcosis due to E. vogeli is very aggressive and may cause death in about a third of the human population affected.

  10. Emerging technologies and developing countries: stem cell research regulation and Argentina.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Shawn H E

    2008-08-01

    Given its intimate relationship with the human body and its environment, biotechnology innovation, and more particularly stem cell research innovations as a part thereof, implicate diverse social and moral/ethical issues. This paper explores some of the most important and controversial moral concerns raised by human embryonic stem cell research (and the closely associated field of cloning), focusing on concerns relating to the wellbeing of the embryo and the wellbeing of society (the collective). It then considers how and whether these concerns are dealt with in regulatory instruments in Argentina, a southern developing country, examining in particular whether the values underlying these concerns have been translated into practical and effective rules reflective of the primary moral positions advanced. It concludes that Argentina's current state of stem cell research governance fails to consistently reflect the moral positions that have formed and is inadequate given Argentina's activity in this field.

  11. Inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosRST signaling and persistence.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huiqing; Colvin, Christopher J; Johnson, Benjamin K; Kirchhoff, Paul D; Wilson, Michael; Jorgensen-Muga, Katriana; Larsen, Scott D; Abramovitch, Robert B

    2017-02-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) DosRST two-component regulatory system promotes the survival of Mtb during non-replicating persistence (NRP). NRP bacteria help drive the long course of tuberculosis therapy; therefore, chemical inhibition of DosRST may inhibit the ability of Mtb to establish persistence and thus shorten treatment. Using a DosRST-dependent fluorescent Mtb reporter strain, a whole-cell phenotypic high-throughput screen of a ∼540,000 compound small-molecule library was conducted. The screen discovered novel inhibitors of the DosRST regulon, including three compounds that were subject to follow-up studies: artemisinin, HC102A and HC103A. Under hypoxia, all three compounds inhibit Mtb-persistence-associated physiological processes, including triacylglycerol synthesis, survival and antibiotic tolerance. Artemisinin functions by disabling the heme-based DosS and DosT sensor kinases by oxidizing ferrous heme and generating heme-artemisinin adducts. In contrast, HC103A inhibits DosS and DosT autophosphorylation activity without targeting the sensor kinase heme.

  12. Snail shells as larval habitat of Limatus durhamii (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Yungas of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mangudo, Carolina; Campos, Raúl E; Rossi, Gustavo C; Gleiser, Raquel M

    2017-03-01

    The shells of dead snails collect water from rainfalls producing aquatic microenvironments called gastrotelmata. These habitats are small and hold simple detritus based on animal communities, being rotifers and culicids the most studied. Although a high diversity of aquatic microhabitats has been reported as larval habitats of mosquitoes in Argentina, the shell of snails has not been investigated yet. We report the shells of three species of native Megalobulimus genus as larval habitats of a neotropical mosquito and suspected vector of bunyaviruses, Limatus durhamii, and describe these microhabitats in the Yungas forest of Argentina.

  13. Agronomic characterization of the Argentina Indicator Region. [U.S. corn belt and Argentine pampas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, D. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    An overview of the Argentina indicator region including information on topography, climate, soils and vegetation is presented followed by a regionalization of crop livestock land use. Corn/soybean production and exports as well as agricultural practices are discussed. Similarities and differences in the physical agronomic scene, crop livestock land use and agricultural practices between the U.S. corn belt and the Argentine pampa are considered. The Argentine agricultural economy is described. Crop calendars for the Argentina indicator region, an accompanying description, notes on crop-livestock zones, wheat production, field size, and agricultural problems and practices are included.

  14. A new species of Solanum sect. Acanthophora (Solanaceae) from Argentina and Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Chiarini, Franco E.; Mentz, Lilian Auler

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Solanum belonging to section Acanthophora (subgenus Leptostemonum) from Argentina and Brazil is described. Solanum neei Chiarini & L.A.Mentz, sp. nov. is found in clearings of semideciduous forests and in secondary formations, from the states of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina in Brazil to the Misiones province in Argentina. It is morphologically similar to Solanum incarceratum Ruiz & Pav. from Peru, Bolivia and Western-Central Brazil, differing mainly by its pedunculate inflorescences. A key to related species is provided, as well a photograph of the holotype, a distribution map and illustration. PMID:23730189

  15. [Health care reform in the Obama administration: difficulties of reaching a similar agreement in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Belmartino, Susana

    2014-04-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of the processes leading to health care reform in Argentina and in the USA. The core of the analysis centers on the ideological references utilized by advocates of the reform and the decision-making processes that support or undercut such proposals. The analysis begins with a historical summary of the issue in each country. The political process that led to the sanction of the Obama reform is then described. The text defends a hypothesis aiming to show that deficiencies in the institutional capacities of Argentina's decision-making bodies are a severe obstacle to attaining substantial changes in this area within the country.

  16. [Human diphyllobothriosis. A case in non-endemic area of Argentina].

    PubMed

    Cargnelutti, Diego E; Salomón, María Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Diphyllobothriosis is an intestinal parasitosis caused by cestodes infection of the genus Diphyllobothrium. In Argentina, the Andean Patagonia is considered an endemic area for this parasitosis. Diphyllobothrium latum infection has not been previously reported in the province of Mendoza, Argentina. We are now reporting then the first case. Diphyllobothriosis was confirmed by examination of morphologic characteristics of the eggs eliminated in the patients' feces. These results suggest the requirement of a more specific training of health workers in the diagnosis and treatment of non endemic parasitosis. We want to emphasize the need of health workers' education on diagnosis and treatment of endemic and non-endemic parasitosis.

  17. Analysis of the circulation of hepatitis A virus in Argentina since vaccine introduction.

    PubMed

    Blanco Fernández, M D; Torres, C; Riviello-López, G; Poma, H R; Rajal, V B; Nates, S; Cisterna, D M; Campos, R H; Mbayed, V A

    2012-12-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) has shown intermediate endemicity in Argentina, but its incidence has decreased since vaccine introduction in 2005. Environmental surveillance was conducted in five rivers from Argentina from 2005 to 2012, complementing clinical information. HAV detection decreased since 2005, although its circulation continues, maintaining viral diversity but not undergoing antigenic drift. Most sequences belonged to subgenotype IA, closely related to Argentinean clinical sequences, but one belonged to proposed subgenotype IC, previously undetected in the country. Environmental surveillance might contribute to monitoring the single-dose vaccination schedule, representing not only strains causing disease but also the circulating population and the viral introductions.

  18. Natural occurrence of entomophthoroid fungi of aphid pests on Medicago sativa L. in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Manfrino, Romina G; Zumoffen, Leticia; Salto, César E; Lastra, Claudia C López

    2014-01-01

    Four species of entomophthoroid fungi, Pandora neoaphidis (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae), Zoophthora radicans (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae), Entomophthora planchoniana (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) and Neozygites fresenii (Neozygitales: Neozygitaceae) were found to infect Aphis craccivora, Therioaphis trifolii, and Acyrthosiphon pisum and unidentified species of Acyrthosiphon on lucerne in Argentina. Samples were collected from five sites (Ceres, Rafaela, Sarmiento, Monte Vera and Bernardo de Irigoyen) in the province of Santa Fe. In this study, Zoophthora radicans was the most important pathogen and was recorded mainly on Acyrthosiphon sp. Zoophthora radicans was successfully isolated and maintained in pure cultures. This study is the first report of entomophthoroid fungi infecting lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) aphids in Argentina.

  19. Invasion status of the common carp Cyprinus carpio in inland waters of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Maiztegui, T; Baigún, C R M; Garcia de Souza, J R; Minotti, P; Colautti, D C

    2016-07-01

    This study documents the presence of Cyprinus carpio in 119 natural environments and 49 artificial habitats in Argentina, showing an exponential increment of invaded locations over time since it was introduced in the nineteenth century. Geographic expansion patterns revealed that since its initial introduction, species records demonstrate an increment in the central portion of the country only after 1970 and subsequent expansion after 1990 to the north, west and south. Using an environmental similarity index it was determined that more than half the country offers good conditions for C. carpio establishment. Environmental factors and anthropogenic impacts are relevant drivers that can account for the current and future distribution of C. carpio in Argentina.

  20. Thubunaea eleodori sp. nov. (Nematoda: Physalopteridae) from Liolaemus eleodori (Sauria: Liolaemidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ramallo, Geraldine; Goldberg, Stephen; Bursey, Charles; Castillo, Gabriel; Acosta, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Thubunaea eleodori sp. nov. is described from the stomach of Liolaemus eleodori (Sauria: Liolaemidae) from San Guillermo National Park, Province of San Juan, Argentina. T. eleodori is most similar to those species lacking spicules, T. cnemidophorus, T. fitsimonsi, T. parkeri, T. schukurovi, and T. smogorzhewskii. T. eleodori is separated from these species based on the papilla pattern. T. eleodori has 12 pedunculate papillae and 14 sessile papillae, T. smogorzhewskii lacks pedunculate papillae, T. fitsimonsi and T. parkeri lack sessile papillae, and T. cnemidophorus has14-16 pedunculate papillae and 12 sessile papillae. T. eleodori represents the first member of the genus to be reported from Argentina.

  1. New Dalyelliidae (Platyhelminthes, Rhabditophora) from Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, and their stylet ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Damborenea, Cristina; Brusa, Francisco; Noreña, Carolina

    2007-08-01

    Two new species of Dalyellidae, Dalyellia callvucurai n. sp. and Gieysztoria namuncurai n. sp., are described from temporary freshwater environments in central Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. The ultrastructure of the stylets of both species is also described. The new species of the genus Dalyellia is the second species of the genus found in the neotropics and the first whose stylet has been studied with scanning electron microscopy. Gieysztoria namuncurai n. sp. joins the seven species of the genus known in Argentina. The ultrastructural characteristics of the stylet place it in the Inaequales group, with complex stylets.

  2. [Dictyostelids (Eumycetozoa) from soils of Punta Lara, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Vadell, E M

    2000-01-01

    Five taxa of dictyostelid cellular slime molds were isolated from soil and litter samples of the relictual gallery forest of Punta Lara (34 degrees 47' S, 58 degrees 1' W), Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Dictyostelium lavandulum, D. polycephalum, D. purpureum and Polysphondylium violaceum were identified from most samples studied, whereas D. macrocephalum was isolated only once. Strains were lyophilized and kept in the BAFC Ceparium. Two additional isolated strains were related to D. sphaerocephalum, and to D. mucoroides var. stoloniferum. These species were likewise found, among others, in soils of the Iguazú National Park (Misiones, Argentina) in 1995.

  3. Relationship between 129I and 127I contents in bovine thyroid glands from Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negri, A. E.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Wallner, A.; Arazi, A.; Steier, P.

    2013-01-01

    129I/127I ratios and iodine concentrations in bovine thyroids stemming from Argentina were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. From these measurements, a relationship of the 129I/127I ratio with iodine content in the gland was obtained. A weak correlation between the two isotopes was found, suggesting that 129I re-emission from the ocean is not the only process for the 129I deposition in Argentina. Moreover, contributions to the total 129I inventory in the Southern hemisphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources were theoretically studied. Surface compartments present similar contribution from natural sources and nuclear explosions fallout.

  4. [Yersinia enterocolitica: 1st isolation from meat products in Argentina].

    PubMed

    de Guzmán, A M; de Pederiva, N B; Torres, C N; Eiguer, T; Giménez, D F

    1984-01-01

    A search for Y. enterocolitica in fresh foods of animal origin has been carried out. Isolations were obtained from "chorizos" (thick fresh sausages), "salchichas" (slender fresh sausages), bovine and pig's tongues and caecum (Tables 1, 2). Enrichments were performed in saline phosphate buffer 0.067 M, pH 7.6 and nutrient broth with 0.5% glucose. Caecum and tongue samples were postenriched in 0.5% KOH. Subcultures were done in Salmonella-Shigella agar, MacConkey agar and eosin-methylene blue agar. Isolates were identified through biochemical, serological and lysotyping methods. The following biotypes (B), serotypes (O) and lysotypes (Lis) were isolated: from "chorizos", B2, 0:9, Lis X3 and B1, 0:7,8, Lis Xo. From "salchichas", B1, 0:5, Lis Xz. From bovine tongues, B1, 0:5, Lis Xz and B2, 0:9, Lis X3. From pig tongues, B1, 0:6, Lis Xz. From pig caecum, B1, 0:6, Lis Xz and B1, 0:5, Lis Xz. Serotype B2, 0:9, Lis X3 isolated from "chorizos" and bovine tongues has been only exceptionally found outside of human beings. Serotype B1, 0:6, Liz Xz was isolated from the tongue and caecum of one pig. From the caecum of another pig two serotypes, B1, 0:5, Liz Xz and B1, 0:6, Liz Xz, were isolated. In order to determine the importance of Y. entercolitica as etiologic agent of yersiniosis in Argentina, further studies on the frequency and distribution of this agent are recommended.

  5. [Retrospective detection of hantavirus clinical infections in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Nieves Parisi, M D; Enria, D A; Pini, N C; Sabattini, M S

    1996-01-01

    Hantavirus activity in rodents and human beings in Argentina has been known since the 1980's. In this study, we retrospectively investigated hantavirus infections among Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever (AHF) cases notified between 1987 and 1994, without virological confirmation. IgG and IgM antibodies to hantavirus were tested by ELISA. Among 1028 patients included in the study, we found 13 recent infections (1.26%) and 13 remote infections (1.26%). IgG antibodies determined in 745 healthy persons living in the same localities of recent infection cases, gave only one positive result (0.13%). Nine of the 13 recent infections had the clinical presentation of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) while the other four were in the form of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS). We performed a clinical and epidemiological comparison between the nine patients with FHSR and two paired control groups: one with confirmed AHF and the other with Febrile Syndrome of Undetermined Etiology (FSUE), which were negative for hantavirus, Junin and LCM. There were no differences between clinical signs or symptoms. Nevertheless, normal or high leucocyte counts, with thrombocytopenia, hemoconcentration, high creatinine levels and proteinuria in HFRS cases resulted useful for differential diagnosis. These results showed the coexistence of Junin virus and hantaviruses in the endemic area of AHF, and indicate the importance of including the infection with these viruses in the differential diagnosis of hemorrhagic fevers and respiratory distress syndromes of unknown etiology. The clinical variability found could be related to the presence of more than one hantavirus serotype in our country.

  6. Mapping of available heavy metals in Catamarca (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, N.; Pazos, M. S.; Bech, J.

    2009-04-01

    Copper, iron, manganese and zinc are four essential elements for plant growth. Mapping heavy metal migration and distribution in soils is a preliminary step in assessing heavy metal availability in soils. However, data of qualitative and quantitative trace elements composition of soils of Argentina are scarce. Despite the small amounts required by plants, agricultural soils are usually deficient in one or more micronutrients, therefore, their concentration in plant tissues falls below the levels that allow optimal growth. Soil nature plays a fundamental role in the availability of micronutrients and their behaviour at a soil-plant level. The aim of this study is to determine the plant availability and areas of deficiency in agricultural soils with risk of salinization. The presented maps have been elaborated on the basis of the information provided by the monochromatic aerial photographs, scale 1:7000 and projected using the topographic information of the National Topographic Maps. Soils were sampled according to the spatial variation of soil types and land use. Sampling points were geo-referenced. Soil samples were analyzed at the laboratory for complete physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics. The percentage of organic matter is the determining factor in the presence and distribution of the available metals in the soils of the studied area, being the top horizon the one of greatest accumulation. CuDTPA, FeDPTA and MnDPTA are mobile within the profile, whereas ZnDPTA remains adsorbed without vertical displacement. ZnDTPA is the only available metal which also shows differences due to soil salinity and textural classes. However, soil geochemical conditions imply low extractability and a certain difficulty for micronutrient absorption by plants.

  7. Molecular characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis strains from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Franco-Rivera, Alejandro; Benintende, Graciela; Cozzi, Jorge; Baizabal-Aguirre, Victor Manuel; Valdez-Alarcón, Juan José; López-Meza, Joel Edmundo

    2004-07-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis INTA 7-3, INTA 51-3, INTA Mo9-5 and INTA Mo14-4 strains were obtained from Argentina and characterized by determination of serotype, toxicity, plasmid composition, insecticidal gene content ( cry and vip ) and the cloning of the single- vip3A gene of the INTA Mo9-5 strain. The serotype analysis identified the serovars tohokuensis and darmstadiensis for the INTA 51-3 and INTA Mo14-4 strains, respectively, whereas the INTA Mo9-5 strain was classified as "autoagglutinated". In contrast to the plasmid patterns of INTA 7-3, INTA 51-3 and INTA Mo9-5 (which were similar to B. thuringiensis HD-1 strain), strain INTA Mo14-4 showed a unique plasmid array. PCR analysis of the four strains revealed the presence of cry genes and vip3A genes. Interestingly, it was found that B. thuringiensis 4Q7 strain, which is a plasmid cured strain, contained vip3A genes indicating the presence of these insecticidal genes in the chromosome. Bioassays towards various lepidopteran species revealed that B. thuringiensis INTA Mo9-5 and INTA 7-3 strains were highly active. In particular, the mean LC(50) obtained against A. gemmatalis larvae with the INTA Mo9-5 and INTA 7-3 strains were 7 (5.7-8.6) and 6.7 (5.6-8.0) ppm, respectively. The INTA Mo14-4 strain was non-toxic and strain INTA 51-3 showed only a weak larvicidal activity.

  8. [Epidemiology of dog bite lesions in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Zanini, Fabián; Padinger, Patricia; Elissondo, María C; Pérez, Héctor

    2008-01-01

    The coexistence between man and dog has resulted in mutual benefits during thousands of years, nevertheless some problems have recently arisen where bite injuries have an important role. The aim of this work was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of dog bite lesions which occurred during a year in Tierra del Fuego. A descriptive observational, transversal study of patients who were admitted with dog bite injuries to clinic and pediatric emergency services of hospitals and health centers was carried out between 3/1/05 and 3/1/06. A total of 382 records were made. The children group represents 49.5%. The group between 5 and 9 year-old was the most affected (44.4%; IC95% 37.2-51.8). In the adult group, that between 15 and 24 year-old was the most affected (29.5%; IC95% 23.2-36.5). More lesions were registered in men (57.6%) than in women (42.4%) (chi2 = 8.6, p = 0.003). During spring and summer months, 56.5% of the lesions were registered. A 72.8% of the incidents occurred on the public highway. Dogs of big size were responsible of 49.7% (IC95% 44.6-54.9) of the injuries. The 89.8% of the incidents were caused by another person's dog. Of the lesions, 55.8% (IC95% 50.6-60.8) were registered in lower extremities and 11% (IC95% 8.1-14.7) in head and neck. These data show that dog bite lesions affect the health and impact in the quality of life of the population of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

  9. A modern subtropical playa complex: Salina de Ambargasta, central Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanor, Gabriela A.; Piovano, Eduardo L.; Ariztegui, Daniel; Vallet-Coulomb, Christine

    2012-04-01

    Salina de Ambargasta is a playa located at mid latitudes in central Argentina (29 °S-64 °W). Because of its hydrological behaviour, this playa complex can be subdivided into a closed system "sensu-stricto" and an "open-like system" due to the presence of a seasonal outflow. Geomorphological and sedimentological features enable the separation of the Ambargasta playa into well-defined western, eastern and northern zones, where aeolian processes, groundwater supply and surface inflow, respectively, define distinctive sedimentary environments and typical processes of deposition. The following depositional settings were recognized: (1) alluvial fan; (2) sandflat; (3) springs; (4) dunes and palaeo-dune field; (5) dry mudflat; (6) capillary mudflat; (7) ephemeral saline lake (includes saline mudflat and salt pan). The dry mudflat is present at the highest topographical zone, where the groundwater influence is less important and only intermittent ponds are present. In the capillary mudflat, evaporite sedimentation is limited to the development of efflorescence by evaporative pumping. The ephemeral saline lake, placed in the lowermost topographical region, alternates cycles of lake expansion and contraction responding to inter-annual hydrological variability as well as to seasonal variability. Lake expansion takes place during early austral summer (December-March), while continuous evaporation of brine leads to the growth of halite crystals during late summer. Sodium chloride-type brines result from both chemical fractionation as evaporation increases and salt dissolution. The isotopic compositions of surficial and underground waters (δ18O and δ2H) indicate that lake waters become isotopically enriched during summer when evaporation plays a significant role in the playa complex.

  10. Phylogeographic analysis of the 2000-2002 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly transmissible disease of livestock. FMD has been eradicated from many countries and the consequences of FMD epidemics are, in some cases, devastating. That was the case of Argentina in 2000-2002, where within few months, FMD virus spread throughout most of t...

  11. Ecological characterization of wild Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris germplasm in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris (Asteraceae) are wild sunflowers native to North America but have become naturalized in central Argentina covering an area of about 5 million hectares. Wild H. annuus has been recognized as invader species in several countries, but no research has been done to stu...

  12. A Novel Biodiversity of Wild Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) Naturally Developed in Central Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sunflower's wild relative, Helianthus annuus L., is a non-native invader in several regions of the world. It was introduced as experimental forage in central Argentina six decades ago where it probably escaped and developed extended populations coexisting with the sunflower crop. If the invasive...

  13. Mapping Music Education Research in Brazil and Argentina: The British Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentschke, Liane; Martinez, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    In this brief article we share with our colleagues around the world the British impact on the development of music education and psychology of music research in Brazil and Argentina. Although both countries are pursuing similar research policies, their research areas differ. Brazilian research on music education has had its focus on curriculum…

  14. Bibliometric analysis of scientific literature on intestinal parasites in Argentina during the period 1985-2014.

    PubMed

    Basualdo, Juan A; Grenóvero, María S; Bertucci, Evangelina; Molina, Nora B

    2016-01-01

    The study of scientific production is a good indicator of the progress in research and knowledge generation. Bibliometrics is a scientific discipline that uses a set of indicators to quantitatively express the bibliographic characteristics of scientific publications. The scientific literature on the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in Argentina is scattered in numerous sources, hindering access and visibility to the scientific community. Our purpose was to perform a quantitative, bibliometric study of the scientific literature on intestinal parasites in humans in Argentina published in the period 1985-2014. This bibliometric analysis showed an increase in the number of articles on intestinal parasites in humans in Argentina published over the past 30 years. Those articles showed a collaboration index similar to that of the literature, with a high index of institutionality for national institutions and a very low one for international collaboration. The original articles were published in scientific journals in the American Continent, Europe and Asia. The use of bibliometric indicators can provide a solid tool for the diagnosis and survey of the research on epidemiology of intestinal parasites and contributes to the dissemination and visibility of information on the scientific production developed in Argentina.

  15. Natural occurrence of entomophthoroid fungi (Entomophthoromycota) of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) of cereal crops in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spectrum of entomophthoroid fungal species parasitizing aphids of cereal crops and a study of the phenology and prevalence of these pathogens was investigated in Argentina. The studies were conducted at six different sites cultivated with crops of Triticum aestivum L. (wheat), Avena sativa L. (o...

  16. Language Dispute and Social Change in New Multilingual Institutions in Chaco, Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unamuno, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Intercultural bilingual education (IBE) programmes in Latin America pose interesting questions for sociolinguistics, since their implementation interrogates the link between language and the nation resulting from the emergence of nation-states, but also from processes of decolonization. In the case of Argentina, a new legal framework and the…

  17. 75 FR 36347 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... recognize additional areas as pest- free areas for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) in Argentina... being free of Ceratitis capitata, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly).\\1\\ Specifically, the Government of... ``Subpart-Fruits and Vegetables'' (7 CFR 319.56-1 through 319.56-50, referred to below as the...

  18. Additional notes on biting midges from the subtropical forest of northeastern Argentina (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Ayala, Mahia M; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Funes, Amparo; Ronderos, María M

    2015-03-30

    Adult males and pupae of Culicoides guarani Ronderos & Spinelli and Parabezzia brasiliensis Spinelli & Grogan are fully described and illustrated with a modern criterium from material recently collected in the vicinities of the city of Posadas in Misiones province, Argentina. Both species are compared with their most similar congeners. Besides, Bezzia blantoni Spinelli & Wirth and B. brevicornis (Kieffer) are firstly recorded from Misiones province.

  19. Export of commercial 'Hass' avocados from Argentina poses negligible risk of ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quarantine restrictions due to the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), prevent Argentina from exporting avocados, Persea americana Miller, cv. Hass, to certain countries. Hass avocado at the hard, mature green stage is potentially a conditional nonhost for C. capitata, which cou...

  20. Situation Report--Argentina, France, Gambia, Grenada, Hungary, Nepal, and Paraguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in seven foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Argentina, France, Gambia, Grenada, Hungary, Nepal, and Paraguay. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General…

  1. Tourism, Transnationality and Ethnolinguistic Vitality: The Welsh in the Chubut Province, Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to develop the concept of ethnolinguistic vitality by adopting a qualitative approach to vitality rather than the statistical approach traditionally used. Ten small-size focus group style interviews were held with members of the Welsh-Argentinean community in the Chubut Province in the south of Argentina in order to explore…

  2. A new Oxyurida (Thelastomatidae) from Cyclocephala signaticollis Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Camino, Nora B; Reboredo, Guillermo R

    2005-08-01

    Cephalobellus cyclocephalae n. sp. (Oxyurida: Thelastomatidae), a parasite of larvae of Cyclocephala signaticollis (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae), found in Argentina is described and illustrated. It is characterized by the cuticle striated at the anterior end in both sexes, with 15 annules, buccal cavity short and not armed, and the male with 4 pairs of genital papillae, 1 pair of preanal papillae, 3 pairs of postanal papillae.

  3. Children Interactions in Literacy Tutoring Situations: A Study with Urban Marginalized Populations in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosemberg, Celia Renata; Alam, Florencia; Stein, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The study analyzed the conversational exchanges through which child tutors mediated literacy abilities and knowledge with young children in the framework of the project "From Child to Child: A Tutor-Child Literacy Program," that is being conducted in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The analysis considered the conversational moves deployed by…

  4. A new species of Luchoelmis Spangler & Staines (Coleoptera: Elmidae) from Argentina and its probable larva.

    PubMed

    Archangelsky, Miguel; Brand, Cecilia

    2014-03-19

    A new species of riffle beetle from southwestern Argentina, Luchoelmis kapenkemkensis, is described. Its diagnostic characters are illustrated and the key for the identification the species of the genus is updated. A larva, very likely belonging to this species, is also described and compared to other related larvae.

  5. "Forging the Fatherland": Work and Vocational Education in Argentina during Peronism (1944-1955)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oelsner, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the reforms in the field of vocational education, as well as on representations related to work, in Argentina during Peron's political leadership. In the framework of far-reaching economic reforms and social transformations, while in the position of secretary of labour (1943-1945) Peron started a vocational education…

  6. WTO: US and Argentina settle dispute over patents and data protection.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Richard

    2002-12-01

    In May 2000, supplementing an earlier complaint filed in May 1999, the US filed a complaint against Argentina, alleging that its patent laws violate the World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (the TRIPS Agreement). The gist of the US complaint was that Argentina's law failed to provide: (1) adequate protection against "unfair" commercial use of undisclosed test data submitted in order to get market approval of pharmaceutical products; (2) certain safeguards for compulsory licences on an invention granted on the basis of inadequate working by the patent holder; and (3) adequate measures to prevent infringements of patent rights. The US also alleged that Argentina denies certain exclusive rights of patent holders, such as the exclusive right to import the patented product into the country. At the end of May 2002, the US and Argentina notified the WTO that they had reached a "mutually agreed solution," without prejudice to their respective rights and obligations under WTO agreements, and the US has withdrawn its complaint.

  7. 77 FR 60105 - Honey From Argentina: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing... (202) 482-3019, respectively. SUMMARY: In response to a request by the American Honey Producers Association (AHPA) and the Sioux Honey Association (SHA), the petitioning parties in the original...

  8. Avian Malaria ( Plasmodium spp.) in Captive Magellanic Penguins ( Spheniscus magellanicus ) from Northern Argentina, 2010.

    PubMed

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Capellino, Félix; Silveira, Patricia; Braga, Érika M; Rodríguez-Heredia, Sergio Andres; Loureiro, Julio; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2016-07-01

    We report two cases of lethal avian malaria in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) captive at San Clemente del Tuyú, Argentina, approximately 560 km north of Argentinean breeding colonies of Magellanic Penguins. Blood smears revealed both penguins were concurrently infected by Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) tejerai, Plasmodium (Huffia) sp., and Plasmodium (Novyella) sp.

  9. The Dynamics of Collective Violence: Dissecting Food Riots in Contemporary Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auyero, Javier; Moran, Timothy Patrick

    2007-01-01

    This article combines a statistical analysis with qualitative research to investigate the dynamics of collective violence in one of its most recurrent forms--the food riot. Using an original dataset collected by the authors on 289 food riot episodes occurring in Argentina in December 2001, the article argues for the need to dissect the local,…

  10. Science Education: A (Pending) Chapter in the Curriculum Transformation in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labate, Hugo

    2007-01-01

    The article documents the complex process of changing Argentina's science curriculum and implementing those changes over the last 15 years. It recounts how reformers tackled the challenges of balancing national (federal) unity in education with local (provincial) autonomy from the political, social and pedagogical points of view. It also analyzes…

  11. Students' Perception of Plant and Animal Species: A Case Study from Rural Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nates, Juliana; Campos, Claudia; Lindemann-Matthies, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Exotic species seriously affect local biodiversity in Argentina. This article investigates how students in San Juan province perceive native and exotic species. With the help of a written questionnaire, 865 students (9-17 years old) were asked to name the plant and animal they liked most, disliked most, and perceived as most useful, and to name…

  12. Distribution of Botulinum Toxin-Producing Clostridia in Soils of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Lúquez, Carolina; Bianco, María I.; de Jong, Laura I. T.; Sagua, María D.; Arenas, Graciela N.; Ciccarelli, Alberto S.; Fernández, Rafael A.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the presence of botulinum toxin-producing clostridia in 2,009 soil samples from five geographical regions of Argentina. The prevalence was 23.5%, and the distribution was not homogeneous among the regions. We observed a great multiplicity of serological types and a higher prevalence in nonvirgin soils than in virgin soils. PMID:16000834

  13. Distribution of botulinum toxin-producing clostridia in soils of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lúquez, Carolina; Bianco, María I; de Jong, Laura I T; Sagua, María D; Arenas, Graciela N; Ciccarelli, Alberto S; Fernández, Rafael A

    2005-07-01

    We studied the presence of botulinum toxin-producing clostridia in 2,009 soil samples from five geographical regions of Argentina. The prevalence was 23.5%, and the distribution was not homogeneous among the regions. We observed a great multiplicity of serological types and a higher prevalence in nonvirgin soils than in virgin soils.

  14. Habitat and Grazing Influence on Terrestrial Ants in Subtropical Grasslands and Savannas of Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The maintenance of species diversity in modified and natural habitats is a central focus of conservation biology. The Iberá Nature Reserve (INR) protects highly diverse ecosystems in northeastern Argentina, including one of the largest freshwater wetlands in South America. Livestock grazing is one o...

  15. Occurrence of the tamarix leafhopper, Opsius stactogalus Fieber (Hemiptera:Cicadellidae) in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The paleartic Opsius stactogalus Fieber, or “tamarix leafhopper”, can reduce tamarisk´s growth due to the aggregate feeding imposed by their populations. The species was mentioned for Argentina in the Metcalf´s catalogue (1967) without locality or region reference, and the contributions on Cicadelli...

  16. Reflections on the Concept of Interculturality in the Current Educational Debate in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Ana Carolina; Enriz, Noelia; García Palacios, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the relevance of intercultural education within contemporary educational debates in Argentina. First, we will review Argentinean legislation. Then, we will discuss the core characteristics of the Argentine educational system in order to study the historical incorporation of indigenous people into the school system. Later,…

  17. Cryptosporidium parvum GP60 subtypes in dairy cattle from Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptosporidium parvum from 73 dairy calves less than two months old from Buenos Aires province (Argentina) were molecularly characterized using sequence analysis of the GP60 gene. Seventy five sequences were obtained, and seven different subtypes were identified, all belonging to the IIa subtype f...

  18. Calling Their Bluff: Expressed and Revealed Preferences of Top College Graduates Entering Teaching in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganimian, Alejandro; Alfonso, Mariana; Santiago, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Many school systems today are trying to attract top college graduates into teaching, but little is known about what dissuades this target group from entering the profession. This study randomly assigned applicants for a highly-selective alternative pathway into teaching in Argentina either to a survey about their motivations for applying to the…

  19. Science Teacher Education in South America: The Case of Argentina, Colombia and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cofré, Hernán; González-Weil, Corina; Vergara, Claudia; Santibáñez, David; Ahumada, Germán; Furman, Melina; Podesta, María E.; Camacho, Johanna; Gallego, Rómulo; Pérez, Royman

    2015-01-01

    In this review, the main characteristics of science teacher education in three countries in South America, namely Argentina, Chile and Colombia, are examined. Although reforms toward constructivist and inquiry-based teaching in science instruction have been made in each of the three reviewed countries, each country demonstrates limitations in the…

  20. Natural infection of the feline lungworm Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in the invasive snail Achatina fulica from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Valente, Romina; Diaz, Julia Ines; Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Navone, Graciela Teresa

    2017-02-15

    The giant African snail Achatina fulica is an invasive mollusk native to Africa, the first record in Argentina was in Puerto Iguazú, in northeastern Argentina in 2010. Recently it was reported in Corrientes Province. This snail can act as an intermediate host of Metastrongyloidea nematodes of importance in public health as: Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Angiostrongylus costaricensis and Angiostrongylus vasorum. Taking into account the presence of A. fulica in Argentina, the objectives of this study is to assess the presence of Metastrongyloidea nematodes in this mollusk species in Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, close to the international border with Brazil and Paraguay. A total of 451 samples were collected from February 2014 to November 2015. The snails were processed using a digestion technique to recover the parasites. A total of 206 nematodes larvae were founded in the digestion solution of 10 hosts (P=2%; MA=0.5; MI=21). Third larval stage (L3) nematodes identified as Aelurostrongylus abstrusus were founded parasitizing the snails. No other larval stage was observed. This species has veterinary importance because it causes 'aelurostrongilosis', also known as feline strongyloidosis. This study constitutes the first record of a Metastrongyloidea nematode in A. fulica in Argentina and also highlights the susceptibility of this mollusk as intermediate host of other helminthes of health importance. The present study suggests that there is a need to establish an epidemiological monitoring system in order to prevent the possible installation of an infected mollusks focus.

  1. Problems and Challenges of Educational Policies in Latin America. The Argentina Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muscará, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the most significant changes which are being carried out in Latin-American educational systems, taking Argentina as a point of reference. To that end, this comparative study tackles the following essential aspects: the principle of equal opportunities and social cohesion; decentralisation of educational…

  2. From the Intended to the Implemented Curriculum in Argentina: Regulation and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gvirtz, Silvina; Beech, Jason

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the authors offer an analysis of the relation between the intended and the implemented curriculum for primary education in Argentina, from the origins of the Argentine education system to the present day. They introduce the concept of "curricular regulation" as a method of analysis that includes not only the processes…

  3. Ecology and management of savannas and semi-deserts of central Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation of western pampas of central Argentina comprises: caldera, local name of a savanna to woodland ecosystem dominated by Prosopis caldenia; short-grassland and dune-grassland. The area include the central La Pampa and southern San Luis provinces, following a western precipitation gradient fr...

  4. 69 FR 77195 - Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-12-27

    ...] [FR Doc No: 04-28220] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-357-812] Honey From... antidumping order of honey from Argentina. The review covers seven firms. The period of review (POR) is December 1, 2002 through November 30, 2003. We preliminarily determine that sales of honey from...

  5. 66 FR 63672 - Notice of Antidumping Duty Order; Honey From Argentina

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-12-10

    ... International Trade Administration Notice of Antidumping Duty Order; Honey From Argentina AGENCY: Import...). Scope of the Order For purposes of this order, the products covered are natural honey, artificial honey containing more than 50 percent natural honey by weight, preparations of natural honey containing more...

  6. 66 FR 63673 - Notice of Countervailing Duty Order: Honey From Argentina

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-12-10

    ... International Trade Administration Notice of Countervailing Duty Order: Honey From Argentina AGENCY: Import... CFR part 351 (2000). Scope of Order The merchandise subject to this investigation is natural honey, artificial honey containing more than 50 percent natural honeys by weight, preparations of natural...

  7. Quasi-State Monopoly of the Education System and Socio-Economic Segregation in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narodowski, Mariano; Gottau, Verónica; Moschetti, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the provision of education in Argentina in systemic terms. Using the concept of quasi-monopoly and the notions of exit, voice and loyalty, we study the logic of organization and distribution of students within the educational system. We support the idea that the provision of private and public education makes a coherent whole,…

  8. Pedagogising Poverty Alleviation: A Discourse Analysis of Educational and Social Policies in Argentina and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambla, Xavier; Veger, Antoni

    2009-01-01

    For the past decades international organisations and governments have promoted and implemented analogous education policies on the grounds that education is the key factor to foster development and fight poverty. This article sets the context of these educational programmes and analyses their discourse on poverty in Argentina and Chile. Then, it…

  9. Voicing Differences: Indigenous and Urban Radio in Argentina, Chile, and Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carcamo-Huechante, Luis E.; Legnani, Nicole Delia

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous cultures throughout the Americas and the rest of the world have to deal with problems of cultural assimilation, migration, and dissemination of their populations. Some of them, in countries such as Argentina, Chile, and Nigeria, have developed radio programming to maintain home languages; gain access to health, education, and employment…

  10. Proteomics in Argentina - limitations and future perspectives: A special emphasis on meat proteomics.

    PubMed

    Fadda, Silvina; Almeida, André M

    2015-11-01

    Argentina is one of the most relevant countries in Latin America, playing a major role in regional economics, culture and science. Over the last 80 years, Argentinean history has been characterized by several upward and downward phases that had major consequences on the development of science in the country and most recently on proteomics. In this article, we characterize the evolution of Proteomics sciences in Argentina over the last decade and a half. We describe the proteomics publication output of the country in the framework of the regional and international contexts, demonstrating that Argentina is solidly anchored in a regional context, showing results similar to other emergent and Latin American countries, albeit still far from the European, American or Australian realities. We also provide a case-study on the importance of Proteomics to a specific sector in the area of food science: the use of bacteria of technological interest, highlighting major achievements obtained by Argentinean proteomics scientists. Finally, we provide a general picture of the endeavors being undertaken by Argentinean Proteomics scientists and their international collaborators to promote the Proteomics-based research with the new generation of scientists and PhD students in both Argentina and other countries in the Southern cone.

  11. Differences between Public and Private Universities' Fields of Study in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabossi, Marcelo Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The literature on private higher education has identified striking differences between the public and private sectors in terms of fields of study. For example, unlike their public counterparts, private universities have traditionally specialised in the social sciences and humanities. This paper explores the university market in Argentina to see if…

  12. Socio-economic Segregation with (without) Competitive Education Policies: A Comparative Analysis of Argentina and Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narodowski, Mariano; Nores, Milagros

    2002-01-01

    The view that competition initiatives in education, such as Chile's introduction of vouchers, promote socioeconomic segregation in schools is questioned. Chile and Argentina have faced very different decentralization reforms, carried out within different regulatory frameworks, but have arrived at similar situations in terms of schools'…

  13. Creating a Past in the Present. Memory, Identity and Teaching in Post-Dictatorship Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel Sergio

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation concerns the pedagogical discursive practices that, since the end of the last military dictatorship in Argentina, have generated principles about who is the "responsible citizen" and what constitutes democratic conduct. The focusing is on national education laws and congressional debates, textbooks, and public memorial…

  14. A new species of Hyalella (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae) from the Atlantic Forest of Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Colla, María Florencia; César, Inés Irma

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater genus Hyalella Smith, 1874 has a distribution restricted to the Western Hemisphere with most species being found in South America. In this report we describe a new species of Hyalella from the Atlantic Forest of the Misiones province, Argentina.

  15. A new species of Hyalella (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae) from the Atlantic Forest of Misiones, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Colla, María Florencia; César, Inés Irma

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The freshwater genus Hyalella Smith, 1874 has a distribution restricted to the Western Hemisphere with most species being found in South America. In this report we describe a new species of Hyalella from the Atlantic Forest of the Misiones province, Argentina. PMID:25685030

  16. Gastromermis kolleonis n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae), a Parasite of Midges (Chironomus sp. Chironomidae) from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    de Doucet, Maria M. A.; Poinar, George O.

    1984-01-01

    Gastromermis kolleonis n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) is described from the Arroyo Saldan River in Córdoba, Argentina. This species parasitizes midges of the genus Chironomus (Chironomidae: Diptera). It is distinguished from other members of the genus by the presence of six longitudinal chords, vulval flaps, degree of ventral displacement of the mouth, and size and shape of the spicule and amphids. PMID:19294020

  17. Divorce Matters: Visitation Dos and Don'ts

    MedlinePlus

    divorce matters Visitation dos and don’ts For both parents and children, visitation is critical to maintaining ... sense of connectedness both during and after a divorce. But in the early stages of family restructuring ...

  18. Using evidence on violence and injury prevention for policy development and decision making in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Luis Alberto; Pacheco, Sergio; Juárez, Alethia Yurithzi; Palacios, Luis Alexandro; Cerqueira, Maria Teresa

    2012-05-01

    This report describes the implementation process and functional structure of the Observatory of Security and Citizen Conviviality of the Juarez Municipality (Observatorio de Seguridad y Convivencia Ciudadanas del Municipio de Juárez) in Chihuahua, Mexico, and discusses the most relevant lessons learned and main challenges in the near future. The Observatory, created in 2008, is a joint effort of the Juarez Municipal Government, Autonomous University of Ciudad Juarez (Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez), and the Pan American Health Organization. The Observatory's main objective is to propose strategies and public policy recommendations to prevent and control violence and injuries in the Juarez Municipality. Most key federal, state, and local agencies have joined this independent autonomous citizen-based initiative, feed the databases, and benefit from the information produced by a multisectoral, multidisciplinary approach. The Observatory contributes far more than the technical data provided and its facilitating functions. The clear results obtained in such a short time-as seen in the preliminary results of the case study on road injuries from January 2009 to July 2011-demonstrate the appropriateness of this course of action and should stimulate the creation of new observatories whenever and wherever needed. Lessons learned, as discussed here, can open the way to new endeavors, and current challenges show how much work remains to be done.

  19. Efficacy of a Brief Behavioral Intervention to Promote Condom Use Among Female Sex Workers in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Mausbach, Brent; Lozada, Remedios; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Semple, Shirley J.; Fraga-Vallejo, Miguel; Orozovich, Prisci; Abramovitz, Daniela; de la Torre, Adela; Amaro, Hortensia; Martinez, Gustavo; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the efficacy of a brief behavioral intervention to promote condom use among female sex workers in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Methods. We randomized 924 female sex workers 18 years or older without known HIV infection living in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez who had recently had unprotected sex with clients to a 30-minute behavioral intervention or a didactic control condition. At baseline and 6 months, women underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. Results. We observed a 40% decline in cumulative sexually transmitted illness incidence (P = .049) in the intervention group. Incidence density for the intervention versus control groups was 13.8 versus 24.92 per 100 person-years for sexually transmitted illnesses combined (P = .034) and 0 versus 2.01 per 100 person-years for HIV (P < .001). There were concomitant increases in the number and percentage of protected sex acts and decreases in the number of unprotected sex acts with clients (P < .05). Conclusions. This brief behavioral intervention shows promise in reducing HIV and sexually transmitted illness risk behaviors among female sex workers and may be transferable to other resource-constrained settings. PMID:18799768

  20. Shooting Gallery Attendance among IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico: Correlates, Prevention Opportunities, and the Role of the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Philbin, Morgan; Pollini, Robin A.; Ramos, Rebecca; Lozada, Remedios; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Ramos, Maria Elena; Firestone-Cruz, Michelle; Case, Patricia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2009-01-01

    We identified factors associated with shooting gallery attendance among injection drug users (IDUs) in two Mexico–US border cities. IDUs in Tijuana (n = 222) and Ciudad Juarez (n = 205), Mexico, who were ≥18 years and injected illicit drugs in the last month were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). An interviewer-administered survey collected sociodemographic and behavioral data. Logistic regression was used to examine correlates of shooting gallery attendance in each of the two cities. Homelessness and being arrested for syringe possession—both structural level factors—were associated with shooting gallery use in both cities. In Ciudad Juarez, younger age and having overdosed were also associated with shooting gallery use. Our study highlights the need for structural interventions that mitigate homelessness among IDUs and facilitate changes in law enforcement practices associated with shooting gallery use. Harm reduction interventions based within shooting galleries should also be considered to prevent transmission of blood-borne pathogens among IDUs. PMID:18369723

  1. When the virtual influences reality. The conservation project of the Toledo Gate in Ciudad Real (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almagro Vidal, A.; Ramírez González, I.; Clemente San Román, C.

    2015-08-01

    The Toledo Gate of Ciudad Real, Spain, constructed between the late 13th and early 14th centuries, is the last remaining portion of a once complete medieval city wall. It represents the long history of the city and constitutes its main heritage symbol, dividing the historic city centre from the later 19th and 20th century expansions. In October 2012, the Town Hall and the Montemadrid Foundation started the conservation works to preserve this important monument. The preliminary phase of this project included an in-depth series of scientific studies which were carried out by a multidisciplinary team focusing on archival research, historic investigations, archaeological excavations as well as material composition analysis and main treatment application tests. As a result of these studies a series of virtual 3D models were created to inform, discuss and study the monument. A first digital model permitted visualization of the gate in the 19th century and how the main entrance to the city was integrated as a fundamental part of the city walls. This virtual reconstruction also became an important part of the campaign to raise awareness among the citizens towards a monument that had remained in the shadows for the last century, isolated in a roundabout after the systematic demolition of the city walls in the late 19th century. Over the last three years and as a result of these archaeological and historic investigations and subsequent virtual models, surprisingly new and interesting data were brought to light thus permitting the establishment and corroboration of a new and updated hypothesis of the Toledo Gate that goes beyond the previous ideas. As a result of these studies a new architectural typology with construction techniques of has been suggested. This paper describes how the results of this continuous and interdisciplinary documentation process have benefitted from a computer graphic reconstruction of the gate. It highlights how virtual reconstruction can be a

  2. At the Borders, on the Edge: Use of Injected Methamphetamine in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Rebeca; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Firestone-Cruz, Michelle; Pollini, Robin A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Fraga, Miguel A.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Injection drug use is of increasing concern along the US–Mexico border where Tijuana and Ciudad (Cd.) Juarez are located. Methamphetamine has long been manufactured and trafficked through Mexico, with low rates of use within Mexico. With methamphetamine use now considered epidemic in the United States, and with associated individual and community harms such as HIV, STDs, domestic violence and crime, there is concern that rates of methamphetamine in the Northwestern border regions of Mexico may be rising. We conducted a qualitative study to explore the context of injection drug use in Tijuana and Cd. Juarez and included questions about methamphetamine. Guided in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 male and 10 female injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana and 15 male and 8 female IDUs in Cd. Juarez (total N = 43). Topics included types of drug used, injection settings, access to sterile needles and environmental influences. Interviews were taped, transcribed verbatim and translated. Content analysis was conducted to identify themes. The median age of injectors in both cities was 30. Methamphetamine was injected, either alone or in combination with other drugs by injectors in both Tijuana (85%) and Cd. Juarez (17%) in the 6 months previous to interview. Several important themes emerged with respect to methamphetamine use in both cities. IDUs in both cities considered methamphetamine to be widely used in Tijuana and infrequently used in Cd. Juarez, while the converse was true for cocaine. In both cities, stimulant (either cocaine or methamphetamine) use was widespread, with 85% in Tijuana and 83% in Cd. Juarez reporting current use of a stimulant, most often used in combination with heroin. Some injectors reported knowledge of local manufacturing and one had direct experience in making methamphetamine; some cross-border use and trafficking was reported. Injectors reported concerns or experience with serious health effects of methamphetamine such as abscesses or

  3. At the borders, on the edge: use of injected methamphetamine in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Case, Patricia; Patricia, Case; Ramos, Rebeca; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Firestone-Cruz, Michelle; Pollini, Robin A; Fraga, Miguel A; Patterson, Thomas L; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2008-02-01

    Injection drug use is of increasing concern along the US-Mexico border where Tijuana and Ciudad (Cd.) Juarez are located. Methamphetamine has long been manufactured and trafficked through Mexico, with low rates of use within Mexico. With methamphetamine use now considered epidemic in the United States, and with associated individual and community harms such as HIV, STDs, domestic violence and crime, there is concern that rates of methamphetamine in the Northwestern border regions of Mexico may be rising. We conducted a qualitative study to explore the context of injection drug use in Tijuana and Cd. Juarez and included questions about methamphetamine. Guided in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 male and 10 female injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana and 15 male and 8 female IDUs in Cd. Juarez (total N = 43). Topics included types of drug used, injection settings, access to sterile needles and environmental influences. Interviews were taped, transcribed verbatim and translated. Content analysis was conducted to identify themes. The median age of injectors in both cities was 30. Methamphetamine was injected, either alone or in combination with other drugs by injectors in both Tijuana (85%) and Cd. Juarez (17%) in the 6 months previous to interview. Several important themes emerged with respect to methamphetamine use in both cities. IDUs in both cities considered methamphetamine to be widely used in Tijuana and infrequently used in Cd. Juarez, while the converse was true for cocaine. In both cities, stimulant (either cocaine or methamphetamine) use was widespread, with 85% in Tijuana and 83% in Cd. Juarez reporting current use of a stimulant, most often used in combination with heroin. Some injectors reported knowledge of local manufacturing and one had direct experience in making methamphetamine; some cross-border use and trafficking was reported. Injectors reported concerns or experience with serious health effects of methamphetamine such as abscesses or

  4. Ricardo Dyrgalla (1910-1970), pioneer of rocket development in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de León, Pablo

    2009-12-01

    One of the most important developers of liquid propellant rocket engines in Argentina was Polish-born Ricardo Dyrgalla. Dyrgalla immigrated to Argentina from the United Kingdom in 1946, where he had been studying German weapons development at the end of the Second World War. A trained pilot and aeronautical engineer, he understood the intricacies of rocket propulsion and was eager to find practical applications to his recently gained knowledge. Dyrgalla arrived in Argentina during Juan Perón's first presidency, a time when technicians from all over Europe were being recruited to work in various projects for the recently created Argentine Air Force. Shortly after immigrating, Dyrgalla proposed to develop an advanced air-launched weapon, the Tábano, based on a rocket engine of his design, the AN-1. After a successful development program, the Tábano was tested between 1949 and 1951; however, the project was canceled by the government shortly after. Today, the AN-1 rocket engine is recognized as the first liquid propellant rocket to be developed in South America. Besides the AN-1, Dyrgalla also developed several other rockets systems in Argentina, including the PROSON, a solid-propellant rocket launcher developed by the Argentine Institute of Science and Technology for the Armed Forces (CITEFA). In the late 1960s, Dyrgalla and his family relocated to Brazil due mostly to the lack of continuation of rocket development in Argentina. There, he worked for the Institute of Aerospace Technology (ITA) until his untimely death in 1970. Ricardo Dyrgalla deserves to be recognized among the world's rocket pioneers and his contribution to the science and engineering of rocketry deserves a special place in the history of South America's rocketry and space flight advocacy programs.

  5. Acid fluids from Copahue Volcano, Argentina, and their environmental effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varekamp, J. C.; Kading, T.

    2010-12-01

    The acid hydrothermal system of Copahue volcano (province of Neuquen, Argentina) consists of a crater lake, acid hot springs (both with pH values of <1 to 2) and a severely acidified fluvial-lake system, with the voluminous Lake Caviahue (0.5 km3; pH 2.2 - 3). Annual measurements of river water fluxes and water compositions and vertical lake water profiles provide a 12 year record of geochemical evolution of the system. Copahue erupted in 2000, and the hydrothermal dissolved element fluxes peaked at that time. Since 2001, the K and Al fluxes have decreased notably as a result of alunite saturation within the hydrothermal system, whereas over the last few years redissolution of that alunite has led to increases in K and Al discharges. The fluxes of Mg and Fe have remained high over time, while the overall system has become more dilute since 2000. Once the distal downstream system reached pH values of 2.9-3.2, the mineral Schwertmannite started to precipitate through a bacterially mediated pathway. The precipitation front gradually moved upstream with ongoing dilution, and reached the exit of Lake Caviahue in 2009. The lake bottom waters were already saturated with the mineral at that time, and if this trend continues, the currently clear blue lake may turn into a bright yellow-brown mass of Schwertmannite over the next few years. Schwertmannite is common in acid mine drainage fluids but has not often been described from volcanic environments. It strongly adsorbs oxyanions (or structurally incorporates them) and the precipitates contain up to 6000 ppm P, 1100 ppm V and 1000 ppm As. The Schwertmannite appears to convert to goethite-like minerals over time, although the exact stoichiometry has been difficult to constrain (variable mixtures of FeOOH and Fe8O8(OH)6SO4 nH2O). The oxyanions appear to remain in the mineral mix during aging. If Lake Caviahue becomes a focus of Schwertmannite deposition, the precipitates will scavenge As, P and V from the watercolumn and

  6. Perspective view of shaded relief, color as height, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view of Patagonia, Argentina shows a spectacular landscape formed by volcanoes, rivers, and wind. The area is located just east of the narrow range of the Andes Mountains, about 100 kilometers (62 miles) east of the border with Chile. Interesting features include basalt-capped mesas (top) and young volcanic cones (left foreground). Geologists will use SRTM topographic data to study the interaction of volcanic, climatic and erosional processes.

    This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1100 meters (3600 feet) of total relief. To emphasize subtle differences in topography, the relief is exaggerated by a factor of 5.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI)space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC

  7. Reproductive medicine in northwest Argentina: traditional and institutional systems

    PubMed Central

    Hilgert, Norma I; Gil, Guillermo E

    2007-01-01

    Background The state of conservation of the traditional cultures of Northwest Argentina is variable and somewhat problematic but to a lesser or a greater extent all the peoples are related to an hegemonic culture. We present a case study carried out in the rural communities of the Yungas biome (Salta) where the extent of isolation varies as does the type of access to public health services. The use of medicinal plants in the area is ordinary and widely spread. Methods The data can be organized in two categories, as medical systems public records (for the regional hospital at Los Toldos), and as ethnobotanical sets. A total of 59 surveys to 40 interviewees were undertaken using a semi structured questionnaire. We present an analysis of the relative importance of the medicinal herbs used in reproductive medicine considering the plants used in the traditional medical system and the factors that can affect the relationship between formal medicine and patients. We further analized how the degree of accessibility to the local hospital influences the diversity of use of plant species used to assist deliveries and to decrease infant mortality in children minor than one year of age. Results In reproductive medicine, 13 ailments and/or different physiological states are locally identified and treated. Local population uses 108 ethnospecies for this kind of illnesses. According to the local conception the hot/cold imbalance could be the principal cause for reproductive illnesses; pregnancy may have natural or supernatural origin, post partum and menstruation involve similar sanitary risks, and neonatal care has a strong magic connotation. In relation with the formal medicine, the more accessible is the health center the more women assist to it. We have not found a relation between accessibility and infant mortality. Conclusion In the local reproductive medicine, most of the practices are concerned with the hot/cold balance. According to their importance the factors involved

  8. Prevalence and characterization of Clostridium perfringens from spices in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Milton Osmar; Stagnitta, Patricia Virginia; Micalizzi, Blas; de Guzmán, Ana María Stefanini

    2005-12-01

    Spices can present high microbial counts and Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella and Shigella, among others have been isolated from spices. C. perfringens is an important pathogen agent causing, among other diseases, enteritis in humans caused by C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) which causes human food poisoning and enterotoxemia in domestic animals. The aims of the present work were (i) to establish the hygienic sanitary quality of some spices in San Luis, Argentina; (ii) to determine the presence of C. perfringens in these spices by means of the most probable number (MPN) and count on plate methods; (iii) to characterize the enterotoxigenic strains of C. perfringens by PCR and immunological methods such as reverse passive latex agglutination (RPLA) and (iv) to type by PCR C. perfringens strains isolated. A total of 115 samples of spices, 67 of which were purchased in local retail stores and 48 domestically collected were analysed. Total aerobe counts on tryptone glucose yeast extract agar medium of the 115 samples were between <10 and 10(6) CFU/g. The colifecal counts using Mac Conkey broth of the 115 samples were <4-10(3)CFU/g, with 28 samples (24.34%) exceeding the limit established by the Spanish Alimentary Code (10 CFU/g) while 2 samples (1.73%) had a sulfite reducing anaerobe load above standard limits. A total of 14 C. perfringens strains (12.17%) were isolated and characterized from 115 samples by the standard biochemical tests. Four of which (28.60%) turned out to be enterotoxigenic by PCR and RPLA. In order to type C. perfringens strains based on their main toxins, the 14 strains were analysed by PCR. All strains belonged to type A. All RPLA positive strains were cpe(+) by PCR. The percentage of enterotoxigenic strains was more elevated that those reported in other studies for this type of sample. These results indicate that sanitary conditions in different production stages of species must be improved to reduce health hazards. The high

  9. Enterobius vermicularis infection among population of General Mansilla, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Pezzani, Betina C; Minvielle, Marta C; de Luca, María M; Córdoba, María A; Apezteguía, María C; Basualdo, Juan A

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the relationships between the personal, sociocultural, and environmental characteristics, and the presence or absence of symptoms with the detection of Enterobius vermicularis (E. vermicularis) in a population sample in our region (General Mansilla, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina), by individual and familiar analyses. METHODS: E. vermicularis was diagnosed in 309 people from 70 family units residing in the urban area and the rural area of the city of General Mansilla. Each of them was surveyed so as to register personal, environmental and sociocultural data. Questions about the presence or absence of anal itch, abdominal pain and sleeping disorder were also asked. Significant associations were determined by square chi tests. Logistic regression models were adjusted by using a backward conditional stepwise method to determine the presence of this parasite in the individuals and in the families. RESULTS: The parasites were found in 29.12% (90/309) of the individuals, with a frequency of 14.28% (20/140) among the heads of the families and of 41.42% (70/169) among the children. The only variables showing a significant association were affiliation, where the risk category was "being the son/daughter of", and the symptoms were abdominal pain, sleeping disorder, and anal itch. Families with a member infected with parasite were considered Positive Families (PF) and they were 40/70 (57.14%), only 5% (2/40) of the PF had 100% of their members infected with the parasite. The logistic regression models applied showed that the risk categories were mainly affiliation (son/daughter) and housing (satisfactory) among others. CONCLUSION: The presence of E. vermicularis was proved in one third of the studied population. The frequency of families with all their members infected with the parasite was very low. Most of the studied personal, sociocultural, and environmental variables did not turn out to be significantly associated with the presence of the parasite

  10. SRTM Colored Height and Shaded Relief: Near Zapala, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Topographic data provided by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission can provide many clues to geologic history and processes. This view of an area southwest of Zapala, Argentina, shows a wide diversity of geologic features. The highest peaks (left) appear to be massive (un-layered)crystalline rocks, perhaps granites. To their right (eastward) are tilted and eroded layered rocks, perhaps old lava flows, forming prominent ridges. Farther east and south, more subtle and curvilinear ridges show that the rock layers have not only been tilted but also folded. At the upper right, plateaus that cap the underlying geologic complexities are more recent lava flows - younger than the folding, but older than the current erosional pattern. Landforms in the southeast (lower right) and south-central areas appear partially wind sculpted.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark, as would be the case at noon at this latitude in the southern hemisphere. Color-coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the

  11. SRTM Colored Height and Shaded Relief: Las Bayas, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The interplay of volcanism, stream erosion and landslides is evident in this Shuttle Radar Topography Mission view of the eastern flank of the Andes Mountains, southeast of San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina. Older lava flows emanating from the Andes once covered much of this area. Younger, local volcanoes (seen here as small peaks) then covered parts of the area with fresh, erosion resistant flows (seen here as very smooth surfaces). Subsequent erosion has created fine patterns on the older surfaces (bottom of the image) and bolder, irregular patterns through and around the younger surfaces (upper center and right center). Meanwhile, where a large stream immediately borders the resistant plateau (center of the image), lateral erosion has undercut the resistant plateau causing slivers of it to fall into the stream channel. This scene well illustrate show topographic data alone can reveal some aspects of recent geologic history.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark, as would be the case at noon at this latitude in the southern hemisphere. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C

  12. Quaternary continetal back-arc evolution from southern Mendoza, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espanon, Venera; Chivas, Allan; Dosseto, Anthony; Honda, Masahiko; Phillips, David; Matchan, Erin; Price, David

    2016-04-01

    The Quaternary evolution of the Payenia Basaltic Province (PBP) in southern Mendoza, Argentina has been investigated using a multi-dating approach in combination with pre-exiting geochemical data. This basaltic province covers an area of approximately 40000 km2 and is mainly characterised by backarc volcanism. In the current investigation nine new radiometric ages obtained using surface exposure, 40Ar/39Ar and thermoluminescence dating are presented. Six ages correspond to the late Pleistocene and three to the Holocene. The surface exposure ages obtained using cosmogenic 3He and 21Ne are in good agreement with previous publications and confidently suggest that part of this basaltic province was active at least 4000 years ago (taking a conservative approach). In addition, we combined the available geochronological and geochemical data to reconstruct the Quaternary evolution of this basaltic province. This approach was used to create maps of geospatial distribution of trace-element ratios to determine geochemical changes during the Pleistocene. Employing this method it is evident that two geochemical distinct types of magma were erupting at the same time interval within the PBP. In the north eastern part (Nevado volcanic field) of the PBP an arc-like signature is evident, while in the southern part (Río Colorado volcanic field) of the same basaltic province an Ocean Island Basalt (OIB) signature is evident. The arc-like signature in the north eastern part of the PBP, decreased during the Pleistocene in a north-west direction indicated by a reduction in Ba/La and La/Ta in the Nevado and Llancanelo volcanic field. The Holocene volcanism is restricted to the western side of the Payún Matrú volcanic field and is dominated by OIB-like signatures such as high Ta/Hf and low Ba/La and La/Ta. This contribution presents new geochronology for the PBP and confirms that two different types of volcanism occurred simultaneously during the Pleistocene, while the Holocene

  13. Malaria transmission in two localities in north-western Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Dantur Juri, María J; Zaidenberg, Mario; Claps, Guillermo L; Santana, Mirta; Almirón, Walter R

    2009-01-01

    Background Malaria is one of the most important tropical diseases that affects people globally. The influence of environmental conditions in the patterns of temporal distribution of malaria vectors and the disease has been studied in different countries. In the present study, ecological aspects of the malaria vector Anopheles (Anopheles) pseudopunctipennis and their relationship with climatic variables, as well as the seasonality of malaria cases, were studied in two localities, El Oculto and Aguas Blancas, in north-western Argentina. Methods The fluctuation of An. pseudopunctipennis and the malaria cases distribution was analysed with Random Effect Poisson Regression. This analysis takes into account the effect of each climatic variable on the abundance of both vector and malaria cases, giving as results predicted values named Incidence Rate Radio. Results The number of specimens collected in El Oculto and Aguas Blancas was 4224 (88.07%) and 572 (11.93%), respectively. In El Oculto no marked seasonality was found, different from Aguas Blancas, where high abundance was detected at the end of spring and the beginning of summer. The maximum mean temperature affected the An. pseudopunctipennis fluctuation in El Oculto and Aguas Blancas. When considering the relationship between the number of malaria cases and the climatic variables in El Oculto, maximum mean temperature and accumulated rainfall were significant, in contrast with Aguas Blancas, where mean temperature and humidity showed a closer relationship to the fluctuation in the disease. Conclusion The temporal distribution patterns of An. pseudopunctipennis vary in both localities, but spring appears as the season with better conditions for mosquito development. Maximum mean temperature was the most important variable in both localities. Malaria cases were influenced by the maximum mean temperature in El Oculto, while the mean temperature and humidity were significant in Aguas Blancas. In Aguas Blancas peaks of

  14. Presentación del estudio “Links” de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ávila, María M; Balán, Iván C.; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos (“teteras”), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA. PMID:25264397

  15. Presentación del estudio "Links" de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Avila, María M; Balán, Iván C; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria

    2011-03-01

    Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos ("teteras"), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA.

  16. Serie Legislacion Educativa Argentina, 1: Leyes Universitarias (Series on Educational Legislation of Argentian, 1: Laws Governing Universities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Cultura y Educacion, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro National de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa.

    This document contains the laws governing national, private, and state universities in Argentina. The texts of the laws for each sector are contained, covering objectives, general administration, academic organization, students, and finances. (VM)

  17. [Genotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii complex clinical isolates from Hospital "Dr. Julio C. Perrando", Resistencia city (Chaco, Argentina)].

    PubMed

    Cattana, Maria E; Tracogna, Maria F; Fernández, Mariana S; Carol Rey, Mariana C; Sosa, Maria A; Giusiano, Gustavo E

    2013-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused by yeast species of Cryptococcus genus, particularly Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex. The knowledge of the cryptococcosis casuistic in northeastern Argentina is scarce and there is no information about the molecular types circulating in this area. The aim of this study was to genotyping C. neoformans/C. gattii complex clinical isolates obtained at Hospital "Dr. Julio C. Perrando", Resistencia city (Chaco, Argentina), in order to determine species, variety and molecular type. During two years and one month 26 clinical isolates were studied. Using conventional and molecular methods one isolate was identified as C. gattii VGI type, and 25 isolates as C. neoformans var. grubii; 23 of these belonged to VNI type and two belonged to VNII type. This data is a contribution to the knowledge of cryptococcosis epidemiology in Argentina and the first report about C. neoformans/ C. gattii complex molecular types from clinical isolates in northeastern Argentina.

  18. New host records for four species of tortricid moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on cultivated blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum (Ericaceae), in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four species of tortricids were reared from cultivated blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae), from four field sites in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina: Clarkeulia bourquini (Clarke, 1949), Clarkeulia deceptiva (Clarke, 1949), Argyrotaenia spheralopa (Meyrick, 1909), and Platynota ...

  19. Molecular detection of the human pathogenic Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest in Amblyomma dubitatum ticks from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Monje, Lucas D; Nava, Santiago; Eberhardt, Ayelen T; Correa, Ana I; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Beldomenico, Pablo M

    2015-02-01

    To date, three tick-borne pathogenic Rickettsia species have been reported in different regions of Argentina, namely, R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, and R. massiliae. However, there are no reports available for the presence of tick-borne pathogens from the northeastern region of Argentina. This study evaluated the infection with Rickettsia species of Amblyomma dubitatum ticks collected from vegetation and feeding from capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in northeastern Argentina. From a total of 374 A. dubitatum ticks collected and evaluated by PCR for the presence of rickettsial DNA, 19 were positive for the presence of Rickettsia bellii DNA, two were positive for Rickettsia sp. strain COOPERI, and one was positive for the pathogenic Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of the presence of the human pathogen Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest and Rickettsia sp. strain COOPERI in Argentina. Moreover, our findings posit A. dubitatum as a potential vector for this pathogenic strain of Rickettsia.

  20. Observations on two Rhabdochona species (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from freshwater fishes in Argentina, including description of Rhabdochona fabianae n. sp.

    PubMed

    Ramallo, Geraldine

    2005-04-01

    Helminthological examination of specimens of the freshwater fishes Bryconamericus iheringi Boulenger, 1887 (Characidae) and Jenynsia multidentata (Jenyns, 1842) (Anablepidae), collected from Medina River, Province of Tucuman, Argentina, revealed the presence of 2 species of parasitic nematodes, Rhabdochona fabianae n. sp. and Rhabdochona acuminata (Molin, 1860) (Rhabdochonidae). Rhabdochona fabianae n. sp. was characterized by the presence of 16 anterior teeth in the prostom and filamented eggs in females. Rhabdochona acuminata was recorded for the first time in the north of Argentina.

  1. Genetic relationships among populations of Aedes aegypti from Uruguay and northeastern Argentina inferred from ISSR-PCR data.

    PubMed

    Soliani, C; Rondan-Dueñas, J; Chiappero, M B; Martínez, M; Da Rosa, E García; Gardenal, C N

    2010-09-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), the main vector of yellow fever and dengue viruses, was eradicated from Argentina between 1955 and 1963, but reinvaded the country in 1986. In Uruguay, the species was reintroduced in 1997. In this study we used highly polymorphic inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers to analyse the genetic structure of Ae. aegypti populations from Uruguay and northeastern Argentina to identify possible colonization patterns of the vector. Overall genetic differentiation among populations was high (F(ST) = 0.106) and showed no correlation with geographic distance, which is consistent with the short time since the reintroduction of the species in the area. Differentiation between pairs of Argentine populations (F(ST) 0.072 to 0.221) was on average higher than between Uruguayan populations (F(ST)-0.044 to 0.116). Bayesian estimation of population structure defined four genetic clusters and most populations were admixtures of two of them: Mercedes and Treinta y Tres (Uruguay) were mixtures of clusters 1 and 3; Salto (Uruguay) and Paraná (Argentina) of clusters 1 and 4; Fray Bentos (Uruguay) of clusters 2 and 3, and Gualeguaychú (Argentina) of clusters 2 and 3. Posadas and Buenos Aires in Argentina were fairly genetically homogeneous. Our results suggest that Ae. aegypti recolonized Uruguay from bordering cities in Argentina via bridges over the Uruguay River and also from Brazil.

  2. The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kairiyama, Eulogia; Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2009-05-01

    Tissue banking activities in Argentina started in 1993. The regulatory and controlling national authority on organ, tissue and cells for transplantation activity is the National Unique Coordinating Central Institute for Ablation and Implant (INCUCAI). Three tissue banks were established under the IAEA program and nine other banks participated actively in the implementation of this program. As result of the implementation of the IAEA program in Argentina and the work done by the established tissue banks, more and more hospitals are now using, in a routine manner, radiation sterilised tissues processed by these banks. During the period 1992-2005, more than 21 016 tissues were produced and irradiated in the tissue banks participating in the IAEA program. Within the framework of the training component of the IAEA program, Argentina has been selected to host the Regional Training Centre for Latin American. In this centre, tissue bank operators and medical personal from Latin American countries were trained. Since 1999, Argentina has organised four regular regional training courses and two virtual regional training courses. More than twenty (20) tissue bank operators and medical personnel from Argentina were trained under the IAEA program in the six courses organised in the country. In general, ninety (96) tissue bank operators and medical personnel from eight Latin-American countries were trained in the Buenos Aires regional training centre. From Argentina 16 students graduated in these courses.

  3. Water and gas geochemistry of the Calatrava Volcanic Province (CVP) hydrothermal system (Ciudad Real, central Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaselli, Orlando; Nisi, Barbara; Tassi, Franco; Giannini, Luciano; Grandia, Fidel; Darrah, Tom; Capecchiacci, Francesco; del Villar, Pèrez

    2013-04-01

    An extensive geochemical and isotopic investigation was carried out in the water and gas discharges of the Late Miocene-Quaternary Calatrava Volcanic Province (CVP) (Ciudad Real, Spain) with the aim reconstruct the fluid circulation in the area. CVP consists of a series of scattered (monogenetic) vents from where alkaline lava flows and pyroclastic deposits formed in two different periods. The first stage (8.7-6.4 Ma) mainly included ultra-potassic mafic extrusives, whilst the second stage (4.7-1.75 Ma) prevalently originated alkaline and ultra-alkaline volcanics. Both stages were followed by a volcanic activity that extended up to 1.3 and 0.7 Ma, respectively. This area can likely be regarded as one of the most important emitting zones of CO2 in the whole Peninsular Spain along with that of Selva-Emporda in northeastern Spain (Cataluña) and it can be assumed as one of the best examples of natural analogues of CO2 leakages in Spain. This latter aspect is further evidenced by the relatively common water-gas blast events that characterize the CCVF. In the last few years the presence of a CO2-pressurized reservoir at a relatively shallow level as indeed caused several small-sized explosion particularly during the drilling of domestic wells. The fluid discharging sites are apparently aligned along well-defined directions: NW-SE and NNW-SSE and subordinately, ENE-WSW, indicating a clear relationship between the thermal discharges and the volcanic centers that also distribute along these lineaments. The CVP waters are mostly hypothermal (up to 33 °C) and are generally Mg(Ca)-HCO3 in composition and occasionally show relatively high concentrations of Fe and Mn, with pH and electrical conductivity down to 5.5 and up to 6.5 mS/cm, respectively. The oxygen and hydrogen isotopes suggest a meteoric origin for these waters. The mantle source of these volcanic products is apparently preserved in the many CO2-rich (up to 990,000 mmol/mol) gas discharges that characterize CVP

  4. SRTM Anaglyph: Meseta de Somuncura, Patagonia, Argentina (Near Los Menucos)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Meseta de Somuncura is a semi-arid basalt plateau in northern Patagonia. This view of the northwestern part of the plateau, near Los Menucos, Argentina, shows numerous depressions where the upper basalt layers are missing or collapsed. Collapse occurs above voids in the underlying rock. These voids might have been caused by lava tubes carrying away molten lava from under the cooled and solidified surface of a lava flow. Alternatively, voids might result when ground water dissolves carbonate (limestone) or evaporite (salt) deposits that the lava may be covering.

    Many of the depressions have salty lakes. Light wind streaks downwind (eastward) from the lakes show that salt crystals blow off the lake beds during dry times. Some eroded sand and silt debris from the basalt must also blow downwind, but the degree to which wind plays a role in the erosion of the depressions is not clear.

    This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then producing the two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11

  5. SRTM Stereo Pair: Meseta de Somuncura, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Meseta de Somuncura is a semi-arid basalt plateau in northern Patagonia. This view of the northwestern part of the plateau, near Los Menucos, Argentina, shows numerous depressions where the upper basalt layers are missing or collapsed. Collapse occurs above voids in the underlying rock. These voids might have been caused by lava tubes carrying away molten lava from under the cooled and solidified surface of a lava flow. Alternatively, voids might result when ground water dissolves carbonate (limestone) or evaporite (salt) deposits that the lava may be covering.

    Many of the depressions have salty lakes. Light wind streaks downwind (eastward) from the lakes show that salt crystals blow off the lake beds during dry times. Some eroded sand and silt debris from the basalt must also blow downwind, but the degree to which wind plays a role in the erosion of the depressions is not clear.

    This cross-eyed stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with an enhanced Landsat 7satellite color image. The topography data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. In doing so, each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

  6. Chemical Composition of Rainwater in Córdoba City, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, M. L.; Asar, M. L.; Ceppi, S.; Bürgesser, R. E.; Avila, E.

    2013-05-01

    Sampling and chemical analysis of rainwater has proved to be a useful technique for studying its chemical composition and provides a greater understanding of local and regional dispersion of pollutants and their potential impacts to ecosystems through deposition processes. Samples of rainwater were collected during 2009-2012, in Córdoba city, Argentina. Two kind of sampling were performed: event-specific and sequential. The objective of the first of these was to determine the chemical concentration of the total rain, while the objective of the second one was to analyze the variability of the chemical concentration during an individual rain event. The total volume of each sample was divided in halves. One half was filtered through 0.45 μm membrane filter. After this, all the samples were reduced by evaporation to a final volume of 10 ml. The non-filtered samples were acidified and digested in accordance to the method 3050B of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for acid digestion of sediments. Multi-elemental standard solutions in different concentrations were prepared by adequate dilutions. Gallium was added as an internal standard in all standard solutions and samples. Exactly 5 μL of these solutions were deposited on acrylic supports. When these droplets were dried, Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence technique was used for determining the chemical elements. Spectra were analyzed with the AXIL package for spectrum analysis. Due to the intrinsic characteristics of the total reflection technique, the background of the measurements is significantly reduced and there are no matrix effects, therefore quantification can be obtained from the linear correlation between fluorescence intensity and the concentration of the element of interest. The elements quantified were S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, and Pb. For all of them a calibration curve was performed in order to quantify their concentrations on the

  7. Multirisk analysis along the Road 7, Mendoza Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wick, Emmanuel; Baumann, Valérie; Michoud, Clément; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Rune Lauknes, Tom; Marengo, Hugo; Rosas, Mario

    2010-05-01

    The National Road 7 crosses Argentina from East to West, linking Buenos Aires to the Chile border. This road is an extremely important corridor crossing the Andes Cordillera, but it is exposed to numerous natural hazards, such as rockfalls, debris flows and snow avalanches. The study area is located in the Mendoza Province, between Potrerillos and Las Cuevas in the Chilean border. This study has for main goals to achieve a regional mapping of geohazards susceptibility along the Road 7 corridor using modern remote sensing and numerical modelling techniques completed by field investigations. The main topics are: - Detection and monitoring of deep-seated gravitational slope deformations by time-series satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) methods. The area of interest is mountainous with almost no vegetation permitting an optimized InSAR processing. Our results are based on applying the small-baseline subset (SBAS) method to a time-series of Envisat ASAR images. - Rockfalls susceptibility mapping is realized using statistical analysis of the slope angle distribution, including external knowledge on the geology and land cover, to detect the potential source areas (quantitative DEM analysis). The run-outs are assessed with numerical methods based on the shallow angle method with Conefall. A second propagation is performed using the alpha-beta methodology (3D numerical modelling) with RAS and is compared to the first one. - Debris flow susceptibility mapping is realized using DF-IGAR to detect starting and spreading areas. Slope, flow accumulations, contributive surfaces, plan curvature, geological and land use dataset are used. The spreading is simulated by a multiple flow algorithm (rules the path that the debris flow will follow) coupled to a run-out distance calculation (energy-based). - Snow avalanches susceptibility mapping is realized using DF-IGAR to map sources areas and propagations. To detect the sources areas, slope, altitude, land-use and minimum surfaces

  8. Holocene Paleoearthquake Clustering Along a Sierras Pampeanas (argentina) Bounding Fault?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, C. H.; Ricci, W.; Owen, L. A.; Johnson, W. J.; Halperin, A.; Ahumada, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Sierras Pampeanas (Pampean Ranges) of Argentina are characterized by mountain blocks bounded by reverse faults, whose last stage of uplift has been attributed to the shallowing of the Nazca plate (< 11Ma). These faulted blocks constitute a prominent surface feature of the Pampean flat-slab in the Central Andes (27°-33°S), as well as a modern analog of the Rocky Mountains Laramide uplifts in North America. Evidence of Quaternary activity has been reported along main bounding structures. However, the lack of exposures suitable for paleoseismological analysis has hampered most attempts to address key questions on the Quaternary deformation history and the seismogenic potential of these intraplate faults. New data obtained at the El Molino section of the Comechingones fault in the southeastern Sierras Pampeanas, shows a Quaternary-active short-cut of the main bounding structure of the Comechingones uplifted block. In addition, new excavations across the fault trace near Merlo village (32°21’30,75”S - 64°58’57,77”W ) have exposed two opposing-verging thrusts at the outcrop scale. These structures exhibit a complex interaction and propagate into the Holocene cover. The eastern branch or main fault emplaces Precambrian basement over proximal scarp-derived deposits, whereas the western thrust results in an east-directed fault-propagation fold that deforms wash-slope and fluvio-aeolian deposits. The ages of the fault-related deposits have been reasonably defined through radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence methods which provide ages ranging from 7.1+0.4 ka to 350+40 cal yr BP. Evidences of surface deformation are related to multiple-events with colluvial wedges and filling wedges derived from bending-moment ruptures at the fold hinge zone. It has not been possible to unravel whether these structures slipped in simultaneous or separated events which of course impacts in the discrimination of the number of earthquakes recorded in this sequence

  9. Izabel dos Santos and the training of the health workers.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Carlos Henrique Assunção

    2015-06-01

    This article discusses the career of Izabel dos Santos (1927-2010) as a means of examining the connections between health schools and agendas in contemporary Brazil. The article highlights dos Santos's training and her work in the Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública (SESP- Special Public Health Service), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and in the formulation and implementation of national training programs for human resources within the area of health from the late 1970s onwards. The article highlights dos Santos's central role in the formulation and implementation of training policies for health workers, especially nursing technicians and assistants, and demonstrates how she occupies an important place in the history of Brazilian public health.

  10. Disrupted by violence: children's well-being and families' economic, social, and cultural capital in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Alma A; Grineski, Sara E

    2012-05-01

    Since 2008, Ciudad Juarez (Chihuahua, Mexico) has been undergoing a wave of violence due to a drug war, making the city a difficult environment in which to raise a family. This study uses qualitative methodology that incorporates 16 in-depth interviews with parents of children ages 0-5 years and 9 sets of photos from a subset of interviewed parents. The study explores how families' economic, social, and cultural capital has been disrupted by the violence and how it affects children's well-being. Social and economic capital declined significantly because of the violence as families experienced crime, had increased difficulty finding and maintaining employment, and decreased their interactions outside the home. Interviews also suggested that opportunities to gain cultural capital decreased because of this isolation. Understanding the detrimental effects of violence on families' capital can contribute to understanding children's well-being in violence-stricken communities.

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of ‘Agua Celeste’ Use among Female Sex Workers who Inject Drugs in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Meghan D.; Case, Patricia; Robertson, Angela M.; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Clapp, John D.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Agua celeste, or “heavenly water,” is the street name for a sky-blue colored solvent reportedly inhaled or ingested to produce an intoxicating effect. Study aims were to (1) describe prevalence of Agua Celestse (AC) use, and (2) identify correlates of lifetime and recent use of AC use among female sex workers who also inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in northern Mexico. Methods Between 2008 and 2010, baseline data from FSW-IDUs ≥ 18 years old living in Tijuana or Ciudad Juarez participating in a longitudinal behavioral intervention were analyzed using logistic regression. Results Among 623 FSW-IDUs (307 from Tijuana and 316 from Ciudad Juarez (CJ)), 166 (26%) reported ever using AC, all of whom lived in CJ. Among the CJ sample, lifetime prevalence of AC use was 53%, median age of first use was 16 years (IQR: 14–23), and 10% reported it as their first abused substance. Ever using AC was independently associated with ever being physically abused and younger age, and was marginally associated with initiating injection drug use and regular sex work at age eighteen or younger. Among those ever using AC, 70/166 (42.2%) reported using it within the last 6 months, which was independently associated with using drugs with clients before or during sex, being on the street more than 8 hours per day, and younger age. Discussion We observed considerable geographic variation in the use of AC in northern Mexico. Future studies exploring factors influencing use, its precise formulation(s), and its potential health effects are needed to guide prevention and treatment. PMID:21441001

  12. Legendary lost city Ciudad Blanca found under tropical forest in Honduras, using ERS-2 and JERS-1 SAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakam-Simen, Francis; Nezry, Edmond; Ewing, James J.; Maschal, Ted

    1998-10-01

    The legendary 'Ciudad Blanca' of Honduras was first referred to under the name Xucutaco by the Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes already in 1526. Located in the remote, impenetrable and incompletely mapped rainforest of the Mosquito Coast, it was never conquered by the Spanish. With the time, it was slowly abandoned and forgotten. Two JERS-1 and one ERS-2 SLC Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images have been used to identify and to locate the lost city, a task made difficult due to the thick vegetation cover. To this end, advanced processing tools for the detection of artificial targets under forest cover, and for SAR data fusion have been used. Among the techniques used, a new Bayesian Distribution Entropy Maximum A Posteriori (DE-MAP) vector speckle filter, particularly suited for the restoration of a strongly textured scene, has been used to enhance the SAR images. This new speckle filter incorporates a statistical description of the effects of the SAR imaging system: in order to account for the effects due to the spatial correlation of the speckle in SAR images, an estimator originating from the local spatial autocorrelation function (ACF) of the SAR signal are incorporated to this filter, to refine the evaluation of the non-stationary first order local statistics, to improve the restoration of the scene textural properties, and to preserve the useful spatial resolution in the speckle filtered image. On the other hand, radargrammetric techniques have been used to: (1) produce a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the study area; (2) fuse ERS and JERS information in order to allow visual identification of the remnants of Ciudad Blanca by visual photo-interpretation. Using the processed images, geocoded UTM spatio-maps of the region have also been produced to locate accurately our findings, and guide a ground expedition in the future.

  13. Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Ixodes pararicinus (Ixodidae) and Otobius megnini (Argasidae) in relation to the phytogeography of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Guglielmone, A A; Mangold, A J; Aufranc, C R

    1992-01-01

    The phytogeographical distributions of Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Ixodes pararicinus and Otobius megnini in Argentina are described from material collected mainly from 1978 to the present. H. juxtakochi was found in the northwestern area of the Amazonian domain and in the Chaco, Espinal and Pampean provinces of the Chaco domain. It was detected on Mazama spp., Tapirus terrestris, dog, cattle and on the vegetation. Most findings of I. pararicinus were from mountain rangeland, where it was found on cattle and in a lesser extent on horses. Ticks from Argentina classified as Ixodes ricinus were probably I. pararicinus. O. megnini was detected on cattle an sheep in the Andean Patagonian domain and in the Monte, Chaco and Espinal provinces of the Chaco domain. This tick is considered typical of arid and semiarid conditions, however the findings from the Espinal province where from areas with an annual rainfall over 900 mm.

  14. Obstetric violence: a new framework for identifying challenges to maternal healthcare in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Vacaflor, Carlos Herrera

    2016-05-01

    Argentina has recognized women's right to not be subjected to obstetric violence, the violence exercised by health personnel on the body and reproductive processes of pregnant women, as expressed through dehumanizing treatment, medicalization abuse, and the conversion of natural processes of reproduction into pathological ones. Argentina's legislative decision to frame this abuse and mistreatment of women under the rubric of gender-based violence permits the identification of failures in both the healthcare system and women's participation in society. This article examines how applying the Violence Against Women framework to address issues of abuse and mistreatment of women during maternal health care provides a beneficial approach for analyzing such embedded structural problems from public health, human rights, and ethics perspectives. The framework of Violence Against Women seeks to transform existing harmful cultural practices, not only through the protection of women's reproductive autonomy, but also through the empowerment of women's participation in society.

  15. Screening of antibacterial activity of Amaicha del Valle (Tucumán, Argentina) propolis.

    PubMed

    Nieva Moreno, M I; Isla, M I; Cudmani, N G; Vattuone, M A; Sampietro, A R

    1999-12-15

    Propolis is extensively used in Argentine folk medicine. Alcoholic extracts of propolis from four localities of Amaicha del Valle (El Paraiso, La Banda Este, La Banda Oeste and El Molino), Province of Tucumán and from Cerrillos, Province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina were prepared. All showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria, the propolis from La Banda Este being the most active (MIC = 7.8 microg/ml) against Streptococcus piogenes, an antibiotic resistant bacterium. Thin layer chromatographic (TLC) separation profiles of propolis from Amaicha del Valle region were similar but differ from the alcoholic extract of the propolis from Cerrillos, another phytogeographical region of Argentina (provincia chaqueña). Bioautographic assays of the TLC profiles showed that several separated compounds of the Amaicha del Valle propolis have antibacterial activity. The difference in composition between Amaicha del Valle and Cerrillos propolis coincides with a different phytogeographical formation.

  16. HIV Infection and Geographically Bound Transmission of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    López, Beatriz; Ambroggi, Marta; Palmero, Domingo; Salvadores, Bernardo; Gravina, Elida; Mazzeo, Eduardo; Imaz, Susana; Barrera, Lucía

    2012-01-01

    During 2003–2009, the National Tuberculosis (TB) Laboratory Network in Argentina gave 830 patients a new diagnosis of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB and 53 a diagnosis of extensively drug- resistant (XDR) TB. HIV co-infection was involved in nearly one third of these cases. Strain genotyping showed that 7 major clusters gathered 56% of patients within restricted geographic areas. The 3 largest clusters corresponded to epidemic MDR TB strains that have been undergoing transmission for >10 years. The indigenous M strain accounted for 29% and 40% of MDR and XDR TB cases, respectively. Drug-resistant TB trends in Argentina are driven by spread of a few strains in hotspots where the rate of HIV infection is high. To curb transmission, the national TB program is focusing stringent interventions in these areas by strengthening infection control in large hospitals and prisons, expediting drug resistance detection, and streamlining information-sharing systems between HIV and TB programs. PMID:23092584

  17. [Implementation of the eHealth Strategy and Plan of Action in Argentina, 2011-2013].

    PubMed

    Marti, Myrna; Balladelli, Pier Paolo; Gherardi, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the adoption of the regional eHealth Strategy and Plan of Action of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)/World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011, a technical cooperation project was carried out in Argentina among the PAHO/WHO Representative Office, WHO, and the Argentine Ministry of Health, for the purpose of instituting the strategy at the national level. To do this, a series of meetings and activities were held and documents developed, which included mapping of eHealth initiatives in Argentina that have integrated health information and communication technology, the identification and selection of successful eHealth experiences, promotion of horizontal cooperation, a virtual collaboration program, a digital literacy program, and an eHealth workshop. The results obtained in this process are related to achievement of the four strategic objectives in the PAHO/WHO eHealth Strategy and Plan of Action.

  18. A new molineid (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina) parasite of Dasypus hybridus (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ezquiaga, María C; Digiani, María C; Navone, Graciela T

    2012-12-01

    Delicata abbai n. sp. collected from the small intestine of the southern long-nosed armadillo, Dasypus hybridus, from Argentina is herein described. This new species is characterized by vulvar opening within second half of body length, female tail conical, ending bluntly with a terminal spine, complex spicules, presence of a bursal membrane supported by 2 small rays, and a synlophe with bilateral symmetry and 26 cuticular ridges. By the morphology of the caudal bursa, caudal end of female, and shape of spicules, the new species resembles Delicata cameroni Travassos, 1935 and Delicata variabilis Travassos, 1935 . However, it differs from D. cameroni by having rays 5 and 6 diverging more proximally, rays 8 shorter than the dorsal ray, and spicules with a different shape. Delicata abbai n. sp. is distinguished from D. variabilis mainly by the spicules, which have a different shape and proportion of their constitutive parts. This is the first report of a species of Delicata in Argentina.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Uranometria Argentina catalog of bright southern stars (Gould, 1879)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, B. G.

    2010-07-01

    In 1879 Benjamin Apthorp Gould published in Buenos Aires, Argentina, the Uranometria Argentina catalog of 7756 stars south of declination +10 degrees. This included all those stars he considered magnitude 7 or brighter and some fainter stars which are close companions to brighter stars or to each other and have combined magnitude 7 or brighter. Star positions are in 1875 coordinates, and constellation boundaries also in 1875 coordinates were defined within the aforementioned declination range. With only a few small changes these were incorporated into the boundaries adopted by the IAU in 1930 and subsequently universally accepted. In terms of accurate photoelectric magnitude measurements the Uranometria Argentina is nearly complete to magnitude 6.5 in its declination range. In each constellation the individual stars considered to be magnitude 7 and brighter were numbered in sequence of increasing right ascension in 1875 coordinates, except that in a few cases this sequence was somewhat adjusted so that stars close together could be listed on adjacent lines of text. The numbering system is analogous to that in the Flamsteed Catalogus Brittanicus and now widely used. Star numbers from the Uranometria Argentina rarely appear in the 21st century despite the potential utility of their use. They were included in the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac until 1978, and in the FK5 catalog until 1999, always with the letter G following the number in the Uranometria Argentina catalog. This serves to distinguish Flamsteed numbers with no following letters from Gould numbers, and is utilized in this presentation and recommended for general use. The file catalog.dat includes every star in the original Uranometria Argentina. In the original the constellations were presented in sequence of increasing distance from the south pole and numbered accordingly. For the convenience of 21st century astronomers the constellations are presented here by alphabetical sequence in

  20. First record of Talaromyces udagawae in soil related to decomposing human remains in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Tranchida, María C; Centeno, Néstor D; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Cabello, Marta N

    2016-01-01

    The morphologic features of Talaromyces udagawae Stolk and Samson are here described and illustrated. This teleomorphic Ascomycota fungus was isolated from soil obtained in Buenos Aires province (Argentina) from beneath a human cadaver in an advanced state of decomposition. After washing and serial dilution of the soil along with moist-chamber techniques for fungal cultivation, T. udagawae formed very restricted colonies of bright yellow color on different growth media with 8-ascospored asci. The ascospores were ellipsoidal and ornamented. The anamorphic state was not observed. Molecular-genetic techniques identified the species. The present record is the first of the species in Argentina, pointing it as a tool to identify soils where cadaver decomposition occurs.

  1. First record of Sarcoramphus Dumeril 1806 (Ciconiiformes: Vulturidae) from the Pleistocene of Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noriega, Jorge I.; Areta, Juan I.

    2005-10-01

    The finding of an incomplete specimen of Sarcoramphus papa (Linné 1758), commonly known as the King Vulture, from the locality of Camet Norte (Buenos Aires province) in Argentina is reported. The bearing level is referred to the Late Pleistocene Santa Clara Formation (Late Lujanian). Sarcoramphus papa is actually a dweller of undisturbed areas of tropical rainforest and humid tropical and subtropical forests in Central and South America, ranging from Mexico to northern Argentina. It is rarely found in large open areas such as steppes and grasslands and/or habitats with extremely low temperatures in winter. The fossiliferous locality is located geographically more than 700 km south of the species' southern distributional limit and thus far away from suitable habitats for its survival. This fossil record contradicts previous paleoenvironmental reconstructions for the same place and time, suggesting a mixed community with some arboreal structures capable of holding this taxon.

  2. Natural infection of Lutzomyia neivai with Leishmania spp. in northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Córdoba-Lanús, Elizabeth; De Grosso, Mercedes Lizarralde; Piñero, José Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2006-04-01

    The natural infection of Lutzomyia neivai with Leishmania in the endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in northwestern Argentina was analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-hybridization technique. Phlebotominae sand flies were captured in the provinces of Tucumán and Salta between 1999 and 2003. From a sample of 440 Lu. neivai females analysed for the detection of the Leishmania (Viannia) and Leishmania (Leishmania) subgenera, 9.1% of the samples resulted infected with a parasite of the subgenus Viannia and none with the Leishmania. This is the first report of naturally infected sand flies in Argentina besides the first report of infected Lu. neivai sensu strictu. Our results contributed to further incrimination of this specie as vector of leishmaniasis in the area and the identification of the main circulating parasite as belonging to the Leishmania (Viannia) subgenera.

  3. Abundance patterns of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis and Anopheles argyritarsis in northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dantur Juri, María Julia; Claps, Guillermo Luis; Santana, Mirta; Zaidenberg, Mario; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

    2010-09-01

    Anopheles pseudopunctipennis is an important malaria vector in Argentina but the role of Anopheles argyritarsis in the transmission of the parasite is still unknown. Abundance patterns of both species and their relationship to climatic variables were studied in the subtropical mountainous forest in northwestern Argentina. Adults were collected with CDC light traps from September 2002 to November 2005 in Salta (northern area) and Tucumán (southern area) provinces, from 3 localities in each province. The abundance of both species in localities was compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and their changes in abundance in relation to climatic variables were analyzed by Multilevel Poisson Regression. Anopheles argyritarsis was more abundant than A. pseudopunctipennis, and both reached a peak during the spring. There were significant differences in abundance in the northern localities for A. pseudopunctipennis, and between northern and southern localities for A. argyritarsis. Temperature, rainfall and relative humidity were significant predictors of the abundance of these two species.

  4. Estimation of potential biomass resource and biogas production from aquatic plants in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzsimons, R.E.; Laurino, C.N.; Vallejos, R.H.

    1982-08-01

    It is expected that the future construction of the Parana Medio Hydroelectric Project on the middle Parana River in Argentina will lead to the accumulation of floating hydrophytes, mainly water hyacinth. Several problems are related to aquatic plants, and steps for efficient control of the vegetation should be taken. If mechanical control is used, the biomass must be processed, preferably in a useful way. Water hyacinth growth in the middle Parana River has been measured and its bioconversion to methane by anaerobic fermentation determined. It is estimated that gross methane production may be between 1. and 4.1 x 10/sup 9/ m/sup 3//yr. The fermentation residue production, with a potential value as soil condition, may represent between 54.9 and 221.4 x 10/sup 3/t nitrogen/year, i.e., between 2 and 8 times the present nitrogen fertilizer demand in Argentina.

  5. Estimation of potential biomass resource and biogas production from aquatic plants in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimons, R. E.; Laurino, C. N.; Vallejos, R. H.

    1982-08-01

    The use of aquatic plants in artificial lakes as a biomass source for biogas and fertilizer production through anaerobic fermentation is evaluated, and the magnitude of this resource and the potential production of biogas and fertilizer are estimated. The specific case considered is the artificial lake that will be created by the construction of Parana Medio Hydroelectric Project on the middle Parana River in Argentina. The growth of the main aquatic plant, water hyacinth, on the middle Parana River has been measured, and its conversion to methane by anaerobic fermentation is determined. It is estimated that gross methane production may be between 1.0-4.1 x 10 to the 9th cu cm/year. The fermentation residue can be used as a soil conditioner, and it is estimated production of the residue may represent between 54,900-221,400 tons of nitrogen/year, a value which is 2-8 times the present nitrogen fertilizer demand in Argentina.

  6. Impact of Universal Health Coverage on Child Growth and Nutrition in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Slezak, Diego; Farall, Andrés; Szretter, María Eugenia; Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Valeggia, Claudia R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate trends of undernutrition (stunting and underweight) among children younger than 5 years covered by the universal health coverage programs Plan Nacer and Programa Sumar. Methods. From 2005 to 2013, Plan Nacer and Programa Sumar collected high-quality information on birth and visit dates, age (in days), gender, weight (in kg), and height (in cm) for 1.4 million children in 6386 health centers (13 million records) with broad coverage of vulnerable populations in Argentina. Results. The prevalence of stunting and underweight decreased 45.0% (from 20.6% to 11.3%) and 38.0% (from 4.0% to 2.5%), respectively, with differences between rural versus urban areas, gender, regions, age, and seasons. Conclusions. Undernutrition prevalence substantially decreased in 2 programs in Argentina as a result of universal health coverage. PMID:26890172

  7. Urban Transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Argentina: Spatial Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Gil, José F.; Nasser, Julio R.; Cajal, Silvana P.; Juarez, Marisa; Acosta, Norma; Cimino, Rubén O.; Diosque, Patricio; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J.

    2010-01-01

    We used kernel density and scan statistics to examine the spatial distribution of cases of pediatric and adult American cutaneous leishmaniasis in an urban disease-endemic area in Salta Province, Argentina. Spatial analysis was used for the whole population and stratified by women > 14 years of age (n = 159), men > 14 years of age (n = 667), and children < 15 years of age (n = 213). Although kernel density for adults encompassed nearly the entire city, distribution in children was most prevalent in the peripheral areas of the city. Scan statistic analysis for adult males, adult females, and children found 11, 2, and 8 clusters, respectively. Clusters for children had the highest odds ratios (P < 0.05) and were located in proximity of plantations and secondary vegetation. The data from this study provide further evidence of the potential urban transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Argentina. PMID:20207869

  8. Land flatworms of the genus Pasipha (Platyhelminthes, Geoplanidae) in Argentina, with description of three new species.

    PubMed

    Negrete, Lisandro; Brusa, Francisco

    2016-07-11

    The genus Pasipha Ogren & Kawakatsu, 1990 currently includes 22 species, most of them recorded in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Recently, Pasipha hauseri was documented in north-eastern Argentina, thus extending its distribution range. This paper reports new records of the genus Pasipha in the Interior Atlantic Forest ecoregion in Argentina, with the description of three new species: Pasipha atla sp. nov., Pasipha johnsoni sp. nov., and Pasipha mbya sp. nov. These new species exhibit similarities in internal anatomy, such as pharynx cylindrical, extrabulbar prostatic vesicle with folded walls and proximally forked, male atrium highly folded, being at least two times longer than the female atrium and with small folds in their proximal portion. However, they can be distinguished from each other mainly by the secretion types discharged into the prostatic vesicle as well as into the male and female atria. In addition, they have different colour patterns on the dorsal surface.

  9. "We have always lived here": indigenous movements, citizenship and poverty in Argentina.

    PubMed

    vom Hau, Matthias; Wilde, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the nexus between indigenous mobilisation, citizenship, and poverty in Argentina. A subnational comparison of land struggles among the Diaguita Calchaqu in Tucumn and the Mbya Guaran in Misiones shows that changing global and national opportunity structures, most prominently a new multicultural citizenship regime, set the stage for indigenous mobilisation. In turn, local transformations of capitalist development motivate indigenous mobilising efforts, whereas leadership patterns and state-movement relations shape the capacity to mobilise. Diaguita and Mbya mobilisation reveals that indigenous movements play a central role in the activation of formal citizenship rights and the contestation of dominant notions of poverty. At the same time, the current design of multicultural citizenship and the adverse socioeconomic incorporation of indigenous communities also counteract indigenous mobilising efforts in Argentina.

  10. Honey-based mixtures used in home medicine by nonindigenous population of misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kujawska, Monika; Zamudio, Fernando; Hilgert, Norma I

    2012-01-01

    Honey-based mixtures used in home medicine by nonindigenous population of Misiones, Argentina. Medicinal mixtures are an underinvestigated issue in ethnomedical literature concerning Misiones, one of the most bioculturally diverse province of Argentina. The new culturally sensitive politics of the Provincial Health System is a response to cultural practices based on the medicinal use of plant and animal products in the home medicine of the local population. Honey-based medicinal formulas were investigated through interviews with 39 farmers of mixed cultural (Criollos) and Polish origins in northern Misiones. Fifty plant species and 8 animal products are employed in honey-based medicines. Plants are the most dominant and variable elements of mixtures. Most of the mixtures are food medicines. The role of honey in more than 90% of formulas is perceived as therapeutic. The ecological distribution of taxa and the cultural aspects of mixtures are discussed, particularly the European and American influences that have shaped the character of multispecies medicinal recipes.

  11. Diphyllobothrium sp. in Canis familiaris from the subtropical area of Argentina (Puerto Iguazú, Misiones).

    PubMed

    Rivero, María R; Motta, Carlos E; Salas, Martín M; Chiaretta, Alicia; Salomón, Oscar D

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the first finding of Diphyllobothrium sp. eggs in Canis familiaris (domestic dog) from Puerto Iguazú, a subtropical city of Misiones province, Argentina. In 2013, two positive cases of Diphyllobothrium sp. eggs were detected during an annual parasitological survey of dogs. Dog feces were collected in vials containing 10% formalin and processed using Telemann's sedimentation and Sheather's flotation techniques. The two cases were detected in rural areas of the municipality. Since Misiones is not a part of the endemic area of diphyllobothriasis and given the fact that it is located in the three-border area of Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay, we consider this finding of great importance to public health. We stress the need for updating the current knowledge about the life cycle of these parasites considering the range of intermediate and definitive hosts, their zoonotic potential, and the epidemiological situation in non-endemic areas.

  12. Diversity of containers and buildings infested with Aedes aegypti in Puerto Iguazú, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Costa, Federico; Fattore, Gladys; Abril, Marcelo

    2012-09-01

    Aedes aegypti is the main domestic vector of the dengue virus. Control measures to prevent dengue transmission focus on the treatment and elimination of this vector's oviposition sites. There is limited biological information on Ae. aegypti in Argentina. The aim of this study was to characterize Ae. aegypti oviposition sites in the city of Puerto Iguazú, Argentina. We surveyed an area covering nine neighborhoods in 2005. We identified 191 premises as positive for Ae. aegypti, giving a general house index of 9.6%. Premises classified as residential and vacant lots presented the highest number of infested premises, with 9% and 22% respectively. The total number of surveyed containers was 29,600. The overall container index (CI) was 1.1. The most frequently infested containers were water tanks (CI = 37). These preliminary results suggest that vacant lots and water tanks provide suitable breeding areas and environmental conditions, improving the chances of Ae. aegypti survival in Puerto Iguazú.

  13. Phoenix Rising: The Helen Sawyer Hogg Telescope Finds a New Home in Argentina.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, R. F.; Levato, O. H.

    2004-12-01

    For 26 years (1971-1997), the University of Toronto operated a very productive 60-cm optical telescope on Carnegie's Cerro Las Campanas in north-central Chile. Due to a series of cutbacks in subsidies through NSERC, Canada's research-funding agency, the doors were closed on 01 July 1997 (Canada Day). Following an agreement between astronomers at DDO (Canada) and CASLEO, Argentina, the telescope and dome were relocated on Cerro Burek in Parque Nacional El Leoncita, Argentina, just on the other side of the Andes from Ovalle, Chile. The new building is 3 meters higher and has a dozen ventilating windows. The result is unexpectedly superior seeing. The average point spread function is 0.7 arcseconds. During construction of the building and rebuilding of the telescope, all decisions were made with the intention of operating the telescope remotely, initially from the warmroom of the CASLEO 2.15 meter telescope and ultimately from Toronto and San Juan.

  14. Fluorescent Pseudomonas species causing post-harvest decay of endives in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Alippi, A M; Lopéz, A C; Rollan, M C; Ronco, L; Aguilar, O M

    2002-01-01

    A post-harvest bacterial decay was observed on ready-to-use French endives in Argentina. Affected chicons showed browning and soft-rot of inner leaves and marginal necrosis. Physiological and biochemical tests allowed us to identify the isolates from endive as Pseudomonas fluorescens bv. III, Pseudomonas fluorescens bv. V, and Pseudomonas cichorii. Pathogenicity was verified on RTU healthy endives by inoculation with each bacterial species, and also with the mixture of the 3 strains. P. cichorii caused dark brown necrosis of the margins of outer leaves; both isolates of P. fluorescens caused browning and soft-rotting of inner leaves, while the mixture induced all the described symptoms, that were similar to those found in natural infection. Identity of bacterial isolates was confirmed by RFLP analysis of a PCR-DNA fragment amplified from the 16S rRNA gene. This is the first record of a post-harvest decay in endives in Argentina.

  15. Rust fungi causing galls, witches' brooms, and other abnormal plant growths in northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Hernández, José R; Hennen, Joe F

    2003-01-01

    Conspicuous galls and witches' brooms frequently are symptoms of rust infections on plant hosts in the ecologically diverse northwestern region of Argentina. These symptoms are caused by systemic or locally systemic spermogonial-aecial infections, although uredinial and telial infections also might be involved. Sixteen species of rust fungi are treated in this paper, most of which cause a plant response that results in enlarged growth. Ypsilospora tucumanensis J.R. Hern. & J.F. Hennen on Inga edulis is described as a species new to science. Puccinia cordiae Arthur is cited as a new record for Argentina. These rusts also are included: Chaconia ingae, Gerwasia imperialis, Kuehneola loeseneriana, Prospodium appendiculatum, Prospodium elegans, Prospodium perornatum, Puccinia bougainvilleae, Puccinia pampeana, Ravenelia argentinica, Ravenelia hieronymi, Ravenelia papillosa, Ravenelia spegazziniana, Uromyces cestri and Uropyxis rickiana. For some of the scientific names, lectotype specimens have been designated.

  16. Proconiini Sharpshooters of Argentina, with Notes on Its Distribution, Host Plants, and Natural Enemies

    PubMed Central

    Paradell, Susana L.; Virla, Eduardo G.; Logarzo, Guillermo A.; Dellapé, Gimena

    2012-01-01

    The American tribe Proconiini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae) is one of the largest groups of xylem-feeding insects and includes the majority of the known vectors of xylem-born phytopathogenic organisms. The significance of the pathogens that this group transmits gives them an important role as pests, mostly for citrus fruit, grapes, and almonds. Knowledge of these Hemiptera in Argentina is insufficient and fragmentary. Thus one of the aims of this paper is to summarize the available information of the Proconiini sharpshooters in Argentina. In addition, 14 species are mentioned for the first time in the country, and new distributional data are given for 18 species. Thirty-four new associations between sharpshooters and host plants are recorded. New records of egg parasitoids are given for Dechacona missionum, Molomea consolida, M. lineiceps, and Tapajosa similis. PMID:23445207

  17. Ribautia lewisi sp. nov., a new centipede from Argentina with unusual tentorial process (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha, Geophilidae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luis Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Ribautia lewisi sp. nov. (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha, Geophilidae) is herein described and illustrated after the holotype (male), paratypes (males and females), and additional non type specimens from Northeastern Argentina (Mesopotamian region). The new species is characterized by having a cluster of coxal organs in each coxopleuron of the ultimate leg-bearing segment and a claw-like pretarsus in the ultimate legs, bearing a very unusual feature, in that the internal limbs of tentorium have a conspicuous tooth-shaped sclerotized process directed inward. R. lewisi sp. nov. is only the second confirmed record of the genus Ribautia from Argentina, the other being R. jakulicai Pereira, 2007 from Northwestern region of the country (Yungas biogeographical province).

  18. Motorcycle helmet use in Mar del Plata, Argentina: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, Rubén D; López, Soledad S; Tosi, Jeremías; Poó, Fernando M

    2015-01-01

    Injuries resulting from motorcycle crashes constitute a growing problem in Argentina and other Latin American countries. The problem is aggravated because helmet use is not widespread. This observational study analysed the prevalence of helmet use and related factors in a city in Argentina. The sample consisted of 2542 observations of motorcyclists. The results show an incidence of helmet use of 69.8% for drives and 43.4% for passengers. Helmet use was greater among women. Environmental and temporal conditions were related with the rate of helmet use. The findings indicate a considerable increase in helmet use with respect to prior years, providing evidence in favour of government policies. However, the number of motorcycles in circulation has tripled in the past five years, and therefore, the public health impact of injuries due to motorcycle crashes persists.

  19. Tobacco cessation intervention for pregnant women in Argentina and Uruguay: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Argentina and Uruguay are among the countries with the highest proportion of pregnant women who smoke. The implementation of an effective smoking cessation intervention would have a significant impact on the health of mothers and infants. The “5 A’s” (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange) is a strategy consisting of a brief cessation counseling session of 5–15 minutes delivered by a trained provider. The “5 A’s” is considered the standard of care worldwide; however, it is under used in Argentina and Uruguay. Methods We will conduct a two-arm, parallel cluster randomized controlled trial of an implementation intervention in 20 prenatal care settings in Argentina and Uruguay. Prenatal care settings will be randomly allocated to either an intervention or a control group after a baseline data collection period. Midwives’ facilitators in the 10 intervention prenatal clinics (clusters) will be identified and trained to deliver the “5 A’s” to pregnant women and will then disseminate and implement the program. The 10 clusters in the control group will continue with their standard in-service activities. The intervention will be tailored by formative research to be readily applicable to local prenatal care services at maternity hospitals and acceptable to local pregnant women and health providers. Our primary hypothesis is that the intervention is feasible in prenatal clinics in Argentina and Uruguay and will increase the frequency of women receiving tobacco use cessation counseling during pregnancy in the intervention clinics compared to the control clinics. Our secondary hypotheses are that the intervention will decrease the frequency of women who smoke by the end of pregnancy, and that the intervention will increase the attitudes and readiness of midwives towards providing counseling to women in the intervention clinics compared to the control clinics. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01852617 PMID:23971512

  20. Argentina’s Tactical Aircraft Employment in the Falkland Islands War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    full Argentinean withdrawal. When Argentina refused, Britain stated it would retake the islands by force. A Royal Navy convoy departed...support aircraft complemented the inventory.14 This was a significant numerical advantage over the 34 Royal Navy and Air Force Harriers.15 A...altitudes than a low drag weapon. The 7 last type of bomb available to the FAA was napalm, a jellied gasoline mixture, employed by the Pucaras in