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Sample records for dos marins sp

  1. Actinobacteria associated with the marine sponges Cinachyra sp., Petrosia sp., and Ulosa sp. and their culturability.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shams Tabrez; Takagi, Motoki; Shin-ya, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Actinobacteria associated with 3 marine sponges, Cinachyra sp., Petrosia sp., and Ulosa sp., were investigated. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed that actinobacterial diversity varied greatly and that Ulosa sp. was most diverse, while Cinachyra sp. was least diverse. Culture-based approaches failed to isolate actinobacteria from Petrosia sp. or Ulosa sp., but strains belonging to 10 different genera and 3 novel species were isolated from Cinachyra sp.

  2. Actinobacteria Associated with the Marine Sponges Cinachyra sp., Petrosia sp., and Ulosa sp. and Their Culturability

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shams Tabrez; Takagi, Motoki; Shin-ya, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Actinobacteria associated with 3 marine sponges, Cinachyra sp., Petrosia sp., and Ulosa sp., were investigated. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed that actinobacterial diversity varied greatly and that Ulosa sp. was most diverse, while Cinachyra sp. was least diverse. Culture-based approaches failed to isolate actinobacteria from Petrosia sp. or Ulosa sp., but strains belonging to 10 different genera and 3 novel species were isolated from Cinachyra sp. PMID:22214828

  3. Streptomyces sp. 173, an insecticidal micro-organism from marine.

    PubMed

    Xiong, L; Li, J; Kong, F

    2004-01-01

    To find new insecticidal antibiotics from marine micro-organisms. Strains isolated from seawater and sea sediments from Beidiahe and Dagang of the east coast of China were screened for their insecticidal qualities. The screening was carried out using bioassay of brine shrimp and the insect pest Helicoverpa armigera. The fermentation, preliminary extraction and isolation of Streptomyces sp.173 were carried out. In total 331 isolates were examined through bioassay of brine shrimp and 40 isolates (12.08%) showed potential insecticidal activities. Of the 40 isolates, one isolate, designated Streptomyces sp.173, was found to have strong insecticidal activity against both brine shrimp and H. armigera, similar to that of avermectin B1. The isolated Streptomyces sp.173 has great insecticidal potency. This work indicated that marine micro-organisms could be an important source of insecticidal antibiotics and the improved anti-brine shrimp bioassay is suitable for primary screening.

  4. Verrucosispora andamanensis sp. nov., isolated from a marine sponge.

    PubMed

    Supong, Khomsan; Suriyachadkun, Chanwit; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Pittayakhajonwut, Pattama; Thawai, Chitti

    2013-11-01

    An actinomycete strain, SP03-05(T), was isolated from a marine sponge sample (Xestospongia sp.) collected from Phuket Province of Thailand. The strain was aerobic, Gram-stain-positive and produced single spores at the tips of the substrate mycelium. Strain SP03-05(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the peptidoglycan; whole-cell sugars were arabinose, galactose, glucose, rhamnose, ribose and xylose. The polar lipid profile of strain SP03-05(T) consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and unknown polar lipids. Morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of the strain identified it as a member of the family Micromonosporaceae. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed similarity of the strain to Verrucosispora lutea YIM 013(T) (96.90 %), Verrucosispora sediminis MS426(T) (96.90 %), Verrucosispora gifhornensis DSM 44337(T) (96.80 %), Verrucosispora maris AB-18-032(T) (96.80 %) and Verrucosispora qiuiae RtIII47(T) (95.40 %). The DNA G+C content was 72.4 mol%. The phenotypic, genotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization results supported the classification of this strain as a representative of a novel species in the genus Verrucosispora, for which the name Verrucosispora andamanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SP03-05(T) ( = BCC 45620(T) = NBRC 109075(T)).

  5. The marine mites Hyadesia sp. and Copidognathus sp. Associated with the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Martínez, J; Vásquez-Yeomans, R; Rentería, Y G; Curiel-Ramírez, S; Valdéz, J A; Rivas, G

    2000-10-01

    Two species of marine mites belonging to the families Hyadesiidae and Halacaridae, Hyadesia sp. and Copidognathus sp., respectively, were found associated with the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from Baja California in NW México. The first species was found inside the mussel gut with an intensity ranging from one to six mites per mussel and their prevalence was from 20.0 to 46.7%; this species was also found living free in the sediment at a density of 0.7 mite/100 ml. The second species was found on the mantle and gills of the host with an intensity ranging from one to three mites per host and their prevalence was from 3.3 to 6.7%; this species was abundant (4.5 mites/100 ml) and living free in the sediment around mussel clumps. Hyadesia sp. was found alive and attached in the gut of the mussel. A histological analysis revealed this species in the lumen of intestine surrounded by mucus and attached to the epithelial cells of the intestine, where some disorder of epithelial cells was associated. Moreover, this mite may be encapsulated by hemocytes inside the digestive diverticulum, the reproductive follicle, or the connective tissue surrounding the diverticulum. No damages to branches or gills resulting from the presence of Copidognathus sp. were observed. The results suggest that these mites are occasional invaders of mussels; however, as a result of this infestation, Hyadesia sp. may produce damage in the host's tissues. This is the first record of marine mites inside the gut, reproductive follicles, branches, and mantle of a marine bivalve.

  6. Diversity of culturable actinobacteria isolated from marine sponge Haliclona sp.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shumei; Sun, Wei; Chen, Minjie; Dai, Shikun; Zhang, Long; Liu, Yonghong; Lee, Kyung Jin; Li, Xiang

    2007-11-01

    This study describes actinobacteria isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona sp. collected in shallow water of the South China Sea. A total of 54 actinobacteria were isolated using media selective for actinobacteria. Species diversity and natural product diversity of isolates from marine sponge Haliclona sp. were analysed. Twenty-four isolates were selected on the basis of their morphology on different media and assigned to the phylum Actinobacteria by a combination of 16S rRNA gene based restriction enzymes digestion and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The 16S rRNA genes of 24 isolates were digested by restriction enzymes TaqI and MspI and assigned to different groups according to their restriction enzyme pattern. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the isolates belonged to the genera Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Micromonospora and Verrucosispora; one other isolate was recovered that does not belong to known genera based on its unique 16S rRNA gene sequence. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a bacterium classified as Verrucosispora sp. that has been isolated from a marine sponge. The majority of the strains tested belong to the genus Streptomyces and three isolates may be new species. All of the 24 isolates were screened for genes encoding polyketide synthases (PKS) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). PKS and NRPS sequences were detected in more than half of the isolates and the different "PKS-I-PKS-II-NRPS" combinations in different isolates belonging to the same species are indicators of their potential natural product diversity and divergent genetic evolution.

  7. Oil from the tropical marine benthic-diatom Navicula sp.

    PubMed

    Nurachman, Zeily; Brataningtyas, Dewi Susan; Hartati; Panggabean, Lily Maria Goretty

    2012-11-01

    The potential of the tropical marine benthic-diatom Navicula sp. for biodiesel feedstock was investigated. Growth profiles were analyzed by changing nutrient compositions in three different media (Walne, plain seawater, and modified seawater) and irradiance intensities. Navicula sp. cells showed significant growth in Walne and modified seawater medium but not in plain seawater medium. The microalgae grew well in a pH range of 7.8-8.4, and the cells were very sensitive to the intensity of direct sunlight exposure. The average cell concentration obtained from the cultures in plain seawater, Walne, and modified seawater media at the beginning of the stationary phase was 0.70, 2.17, and 2.54 g/L, respectively. Electron spray ionization-ion trap-mass spectrometry showed that the triacylglycerols of the algae oil were identified as POP (palmitic-oleic-palmitic), POO (palmitic-oleic-oleic), and OOLn (oleic-oleic-linoleic). The oil productivity of Navicula sp. cultivated in Walne and modified seawater media was 90 and 124 μL L(-1) culture d(-1). The Navicula sp. biodiesel exhibited a kinematic viscosity of 1.299 mm(2)/s, density of 0.8347 g/mL, and internal energy of 0.90 kJ/mL.

  8. Antifouling activities of marine bacteria associated with sponge ( Sigmadocia sp.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satheesh, S.; Soniamby, A. R.; Sunjaiy Shankar, C. V.; Mary Josephine Punitha, S.

    2012-09-01

    The present study aimed at assessing the antifouling activity of bacteria associated with marine sponges. A total of eight bacterial strains were isolated from the surface of sponge Sigmadocia sp., of them, SS02, SS05 and SS06 showed inhibitory activity against biofilm-forming bacteria. The extracts of these 3 strains considerably affected the extracellular polymeric substance producing ability and adhesion of biofilm-forming bacterial strains. In addition to disc diffusion assay, microalgal settlement assay was carried out with the extracts mixed with polyurethane wood polish and coated onto stainless steel coupons. The extract of strain SS05 showed strong microalgal settlement inhibitory activity. Strain SS05 was identified as Bacillus cereus based on its 16S rRNA gene. Metabolites of the bacterial strains associated with marine invertebrates promise to be developed into environment-friendly antifouling agents.

  9. New streptophenazines from marine Streptomyces sp. 182SMLY.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ying; Chen, Lu; Ye, Xuewei; Anjum, Komal; Lian, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Zhizhen

    2017-02-01

    Six phenazines including three new ones were isolated from the culture of a marine actinomycete Streptomyces sp. 182SMLY. Based on the analyses of NMR, HRESIMS, optical rotation value, and CD data, the structures of these isolated compounds were determined as new phenazines of (-)-streptophenazines M-O and known phenazines of 1-carbomethoxyphenazine and (-)-streptophenazines A and B. (-)-Streptophenazine B showed activity in suppressing the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with MIC value of 4.2 μg/mL.

  10. Coagulation-flocculation of marine Chlorella sp. for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Sanyano, Naruetsawan; Chetpattananondh, Pakamas; Chongkhong, Sininart

    2013-11-01

    Harvesting of marine Chlorella sp. by autoflocculation and flocculation by addition of coagulant with pH adjustment was investigated in this study. Autoflocculation provided low efficiency. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the coagulant dosage and pH for flocculation. Aluminium sulfate and ferric chloride were investigated coagulants. The empirical models from RSM are in a good agreement with the experimental results. The optimum flocculation was achieved at ferric chloride dosage 143 mg/L, pH 8.1 and settling time 40 min. Biomass concentration also presented the significant effect on harvesting efficiency. Lipid extracted from marine Chlorella sp. cultivated in urea fertilizer medium with hexane as a solvent is suitable to produce biodiesel according to it contains high proportion of saturated fatty acids. The crude lipid should be purified to remove some impurities before making biodiesel. As the free fatty acid content was higher than 1% a two-step biodiesel production is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Microbacterium sp. Strain Alg239_V18, an Actinobacterium Retrieved from the Marine Sponge Spongia sp.

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Elham; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.; Reis, Margarida

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we describe the draft genome sequence of Microbacterium sp. strain Alg239_V18, an actinobacterium retrieved from the marine sponge Spongia sp. Genome annotation revealed a vast gene repertoire involved in antibiotic and heavy metal-resistance, and a versatile carbohydrate assimilation metabolism with potential for chitin utilization. PMID:28104653

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Microbacterium sp. Strain Alg239_V18, an Actinobacterium Retrieved from the Marine Sponge Spongia sp.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Elham; Gonçalves, Jorge M S; Reis, Margarida; Costa, Rodrigo

    2017-01-19

    Here, we describe the draft genome sequence of Microbacterium sp. strain Alg239_V18, an actinobacterium retrieved from the marine sponge Spongia sp. Genome annotation revealed a vast gene repertoire involved in antibiotic and heavy metal-resistance, and a versatile carbohydrate assimilation metabolism with potential for chitin utilization.

  13. A Norsesterterpene Peroxide from a Marine Sponge Hippospongia sp.

    PubMed

    Su, Ching-chyuan; Su, Huey-jen; Liang, Kai-ju; Tsaif, Su-june; Su, Jui-hsin

    2016-04-01

    One new norsesterterpene peroxide, rhopaloic acid H (1), along with two known related metabolites 2 and 3, were isolated from a marine sponge Hippospongia sp. The structures of compounds were elucidated by means of IR, MS, and NMR techniques and comparison of the NMR data with those of known analogues. Evaluation of the cytotoxicities revealed that compound 2 exhibited significant cytotoxicity against DLD-1, Molt 4, T47D and K-562 cell lines, with IC50 values of 3.18, 0.69, 2.22 and 1.06 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, compound 3 also showed significant K562 inhibitory activity, with IC50 value of 3.65 µg/mL.

  14. Salinispora pacifica sp. nov., an actinomycete from marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Lina; Jensen, Paul R; Freel, Kelle C; Brown, Ros; Jones, Amanda L; Kim, Byung-Yong; Goodfellow, Michael

    2013-05-01

    A polyphasic analysis was carried out to clarify the taxonomic status of four marine actinomycete strains that share a phylogenetic relationship and phenotypic characteristics with the genus Salinispora. These strains formed a distinct lineage within the Salinispora 16S rRNA and gyrB trees and were found to possess a range of phenotypic properties and DNA:DNA hybridization values that distinguished them from the type strains of the two validly named species in this genus, Salinispora tropica (CNB-440(T), ATCC BAA-916(T)) and Salinispora arenicola (CNH-643(T), ATCC BAA-917(T)). The combined genotypic and phenotypic data support this conclusion. It is proposed that the strains be designated as Salinispora pacifica sp. nov., the type strain of which is CNR-114(T) (DSMZ YYYYT = KACC 17160(T)).

  15. Marinomonas arenicola sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Tanaka, Naoto; Frolova, Galina M

    2009-11-01

    A Marinomonas-like bacterium, strain KMM 3893(T), was isolated from a marine sandy sediment collected close to shore from the Sea of Japan and subjected to a phenotypic and phylogenetic study. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis confirmed the novel strain's assignment to the genus Marinomonas. Strain KMM 3893(T) constituted a separate phyletic line in the genus Marinomonas, sharing <97 % sequence similarity with respect to other recognized Marinomonas species. Chemotaxonomically, strain KMM 3893(T) contained the predominant fatty acids C(18 : 1)omega7c, C(16 : 1)omega7c and C(16 : 0) and had a DNA G+C content of 50.0 mol%. On the basis of the phylogenetic analysis and physiological and biochemical characterization, strain KMM 3893(T) represents a novel species of the genus Marinomonas, for which the name Marinomonas arenicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KMM 3893(T) (=NRIC 0752(T) =JCM 15737(T)).

  16. Dibromopyrrole alkaloids from the marine sponge Acanthostylotella sp.

    PubMed

    Ebada, Sherif Saeed; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; de Voogd, Nicole J; Wray, Victor; Proksch, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Fourteen dibromopyrrole alkaloids were isolated from the marine sponge Acanthostylotella sp. collected in Indonesia. In addition to the known compounds 4,5-dibromo-N-(methoxy-methyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamide (7), 4,5-dibromo-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamide (8), mukanadin D (9), (+/-)-longamide B methyl ester (10), (+/-)-longamide B (11), (+/-)-longamide (12), 3,4-dibromo-lH-pyrrole-2-carboxamide (13), 2-cyano-4,5-dibromo-1H-pyrrole (14), six compounds were isolated that proved to be new natural products including acanthamides A-D (1-4), methyl 3,4-dibromo-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate (5) and 3,5-dibromo-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (6). The structures of the new compounds were unequivocally identified based on one and two dimensional NMR and on HRFTMS as well as by comparison with the literature.

  17. Bioactive Polycyclic Quinones from Marine Streptomyces sp. 182SMLY

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Ying; Xie, Xin; Chen, Lu; Yan, Shilun; Ye, Xuewei; Anjum, Komal; Huang, Haocai; Lian, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Zhizhen

    2016-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the cultures of marine Streptomyces sp. 182SMLY led to the discovery of two new polycyclic anthraquinones, which were elucidated as N-acetyl-N-demethylmayamycin (1) and streptoanthraquinone A (2) based on the extensive spectroscopic analysis including 2D NMR, HRESIMS, and an electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation. Both anthraquinones remarkably suppressed the proliferation of four different glioma cell lines with IC50 values in a range from 0.5 to 7.3 μM and induced apoptosis in the glioma cells. The ratios of IC50 for normal human astrocytes to IC50 for glioma cells were 6.4–53 for 1 and >14–31 for 2. N-acetyl-N-demethylmayamycin (1) also inhibited the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with MIC 20.0 μM. PMID:26751456

  18. Symbiotic Fungus of Marine Sponge Axinella sp. Producing Antibacterial Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trianto, A.; Widyaningsih, S.; Radjasa, OK; Pribadi, R.

    2017-02-01

    The emerging of multidrug resistance pathogenic bacteria cause the treatment of the diseaseshave become ineffective. There for, invention of a new drug with novel mode of action is an essential for curing the disease caused by an MDR pathogen. Marine fungi is prolific source of bioactive compound that has not been well explored. This study aim to obtain the marine sponges-associated fungus that producing anti-MDR bacteria substaces. We collected the sponge from Riung water, NTT, Indonesia. The fungus was isolated with affixed method, followed with purification with streak method. The overlay and disk diffusion agar methods were applied for bioactivity test for the isolate and the extract, respectively. Molecular analysis was employed for identification of the isolate. The sponge was identified based on morphological and spicular analysis. The ovelay test showed that the isolate KN15-3 active against the MDR Staphylococcus aureus and Eschericia coli. The extract of the cultured KN15-3 was also inhibited the S. aureus and E. coli with inhibition zone 2.95 mm and 4.13 mm, respectively. Based on the molecular analysis, the fungus was identified as Aspergillus sydowii. While the sponge was identified as Axinella sp.

  19. Psychrobacter submarinus sp. nov. and Psychrobacter marincola sp. nov., psychrophilic halophiles from marine environments.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Schumann, Peter; Rohde, Manfred; Lysenko, Anatoly M; Mikhailov, Valery V; Stackebrandt, Erko

    2002-07-01

    Two novel psychrophilic, halophilic, Psychrobacter-like bacteria, strains KMM 225T and KMM 277T, were isolated from sea water and the internal tissues of an ascidian Polysyncraton sp. specimen, respectively, and characterized using a polyphasic approach, which included phenotypic, genotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses. The novel marine isolates were Gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid, oxidase- and catalase-positive, non-pigmented, non-motile, psychrophilic and halophilic and they utilized a restricted spectrum of carbon sources. Strains KMM 225T and KMM 277T required sea water or sodium ions for growth and were tolerant of up to 12-15% (w/v) NaCl. Growth of strains KMM 225T and KMM 277T was observed at 4-35 and 7-35 degrees C, respectively. The DNA G+C contents of KMM 225T and KMM 277T were respectively 46-8 and 50.7 mol %. Comparison of almost complete 16S rDNA sequences of strains KMM 225T and KMM 277T revealed that both strains were phylogenetically most closely related to each other (99.9% sequence similarity) and slightly less related to Psychrobacter glacincola, with 97.2 and 97.8% similarity, respectively. DNA-DNA reassociation between KMM 225T and KMM 277T revealed 15% similarity, whereas similarity to other Psychrobacter species was 14-25%. Strains KMM 225T and KMM 277T differed from one another in their growth temperature, organic substrate utilization, antibiotic sensitivity and DNA G+C content. Both strains examined could be distinguished from all previously described Psychrobacter species by their physiological, genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics. On the basis of the physiological and molecular properties of the novel isolates, the names Psychrobacter submarinus sp. nov. (type strain KMM 225T = DSM 14161T) and Psychrobacter marincola sp. nov. (type strain KMM 277T = DSM 14160T) are proposed.

  20. Haloferula chungangensis sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyeonji; Traiwan, Jitsopin; Weerawongwiwat, Veeraya; Jung, Min Young; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Myung, Soon Chul; Lee, Keun Chul; Lee, Jung-Sook; Kim, Wonyong

    2013-01-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, non-motile, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated CAU 1074(T), was isolated from marine sediment and its taxonomic position was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Strain CAU 1074(T) grew optimally at 30 °C and pH 6.5. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain CAU 1074(T) formed a distinct lineage within the genus Haloferula and was most closely related to Haloferula harenae KCTC 22198(T) (96.0% similarity). Strain CAU 1074(T) contained MK-9 as the major isoprenoid quinone, and iso-C(14:0,) C(16:1)ω9c and C(16:0) as the major fatty acids. The cell wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major whole-cell sugars were glucose, xylose, mannose and ribose. The polar lipids were composed of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, aminoglycolipid and two unidentified phospholipids. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 64.0 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data, and phylogenetic inference, strain CAU 1074(T) should be classified as a member of a novel species in the genus Haloferula, for which the name Haloferula chungangensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is CAU 1074(T) (= KCTC 23578(T) = CCUG 61920(T)). An emended description of the genus Haloferula is also provided.

  1. Micromonospora profundi sp. nov., isolated from deep marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Veyisoglu, Aysel; Carro, Lorena; Cetin, Demet; Guven, Kiymet; Spröer, Cathrin; Pötter, Gabriele; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Sahin, Nevzat; Goodfellow, Michael

    2016-11-01

    A novel actinobacterial strain, designated DS3010T, was isolated from a Black Sea marine sediment and characterized using a polyphasic approach. The strain was shown to have chemotaxonomic, morphological and phylogenetic properties consistent with classification as representing a member of the genus Micromonospora. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence studies showed that the strain was most closely related to the type strains of Micromonospora saelicesensis (99.5 %), Micromonospora chokoriensis (99.4 %) and Micromonospora violae (99.3 %). Similarly, a corresponding analysis based on partial gyrB gene sequences showed that it formed a distinct phyletic branch in a subclade that included the type strains of Micromonosporazamorensis, 'Micromonospora zeae', 'Micromonospora jinlongensis', M. saelicesensis and Micromonospora lupini. DS3010T was distinguished from its closest phylogenetic neighbours by low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness and by a combination of chemotaxonomic and phenotypic properties. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that the isolate should be assigned to the genus Micromonospora as Micromonospora profundi sp. nov. with isolate DS3010T (=DSM 45981T=KCTC 29243T) as the type strain.

  2. Pseudomonas pachastrellae sp. nov., isolated from a marine sponge.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Uchino, Masataka; Falsen, Enevold; Frolova, Galina M; Zhukova, Natalia V; Mikhailov, Valery V

    2005-03-01

    Two Gram-negative, non-fermentative, non-denitrifying, non-pigmented, rod-shaped bacteria that were motile by means of polar flagella, designated strains KMM 330(T) and KMM 331, were isolated from a deep-sea sponge specimen and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The new isolates exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.9 %, and their mean level of DNA-DNA relatedness was 82 %. Phylogenetic analysis based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the strains within the genus Pseudomonas as an independent deep clade. Strain KMM 330(T) shared highest sequence similarity (96.3 %) with each of Pseudomonas fulva NRIC 0180(T), Pseudomonas parafulva AJ 2129(T) and Pseudomonas luteola IAM 13000(T); sequence similarity to other recognized species of the genus Pseudomonas was below 95.7 %. The marine sponge isolates KMM 330(T) and KMM 331 could be distinguished from the other recognized Pseudomonas species based on a unique combination of their phenotypic characteristics, including growth in 8 or 10 % NaCl, the absence of pigments, the inability to denitrify and lack of carbohydrate utilization. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, physiological and biochemical characterization, strains KMM 330(T) and KMM 331 should be classified as a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas pachastrellae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KMM 330(T) (=JCM 12285(T)=NRIC 0583(T)=CCUG 46540(T)).

  3. Hymenobacter rutilus sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment in Arctic.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myong Chol; Kim, Chol Myong; Kang, Ok Chol; Zhang, Yumin; Liu, Zuobing; Wangmu, Danzeng; Wei, Ziyan; Huang, Yao; Peng, Fang

    2016-11-21

    Strain K2-33028T, appeared brick-red colony on R2A plate, was isolated from marine sediment sample in Kings Bay, Svalbard Archipelago, Norway. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain K2-33028T belonged to the genus Hymenobacter. Cells were Gram-reaction-negative, non-spore-forming, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium without motility. Growth occurred at 4-37℃ (optimum 28℃) and at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0). Cells contained menaquinone-7, as the main respiratory quinone, and iso-C15:0, summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c), C16:1 ω5c, summed feature 4 (comprising anteiso-C17:1 B and/or iso-C17:1 I) and anteiso-C15:0 as the major cellular fatty acids. Phosphatidylethanolamine was the predominant in the polar lipid profile. The DNA G+C content was 64.3 mol %. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain K2-33028T is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Hymenobacter, for which the name Hymenobacter rutilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is K2-33028T (=CCTCC AB 2016091T=KCTC 52447T).

  4. Maribacter arcticus sp. nov., isolated from Arctic marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyeung Hee; Hong, Soon Gyu; Cho, Hyun Hee; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Chun, Jongsik; Lee, Hong Kum

    2008-06-01

    A Gram-negative, non-motile, aerobic bacterium, designated strain KOPRI 20941(T), was isolated from a sample of marine sediment from Ny Alesund, Spitsbergen, Norway. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the Arctic isolate nested within the genus Maribacter and showed the highest sequence similarity (98.1 %) with respect to Maribacter orientalis KMM 3947(T). Chemotaxonomic data (DNA G+C content of 36 mol%; MK-6 as the major respiratory quinone and iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH, C(16 : 1)omega7c/iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and iso-C(15 : 0) as the major fatty acids) supported the affiliation of strain KOPRI 20941(T) to the genus Maribacter. The results of phylogenetic analyses, physiological and biochemical tests and a DNA-DNA reassociation test (<54 % relatedness) allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the strain from the recognized species of the genus Maribacter. Therefore strain KOPRI 20941(T) represents a novel species of the genus Maribacter, for which the name Maribacter arcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KOPRI 20941(T) (=KCTC 22053(T)=JCM 14790(T)).

  5. Saccharicrinis marinus sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian-Qian; Li, Juan; Xiao, Di; Lu, Jin-Xing; Chen, Guan-Jun; Du, Zong-Jun

    2015-10-01

    A novel bacterial strain, designated Y11T, was isolated from marine sediment at Weihai in China. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that the novel isolate showed highest similarity to Saccharicrinis fermentans DSM 9555T (94.0 %) and Saccharicrinis carchari SS12T (92.7 %). Strain Y11T was a Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-endospore-forming, yellow-pigmented bacterium and was able to hydrolyse agar weakly. It was catalase-negative, oxidase-positive, facultatively anaerobic and motile by gliding. Optimal growth occurred at 28-30 °C, at pH 7.0-7.5 and in the presence of 2-3 % (w/v) NaCl. The DNA G+C content was 34.4 mol%. The strain contained MK-7 as the prevalent menaquinone. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and C15 : 1ω6c. The predominant polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and two unknown lipids. Data from the present polyphasic taxonomic study clearly place the strain as representing a novel species within the genus Saccharicrinis, for which the name Saccharicrinis marinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Y11T ( = CICC10837T = KCTC42400T).

  6. Gracilimonas halophila sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Lu, De-Chen; Xia, Jun; Dunlap, Christopher A; Rooney, Alejandro P; Du, Zong-Jun

    2017-09-01

    A Gram-stain-negative and facultatively anaerobic bacterium, designated WDS2C40T, was isolated from a marine solar saltern in Weihai, China. Cells of strain WDS2C40T were 0.4-0.5 µm wide and 4.0-9.0 µm long, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Strain WDS2C40T was tolerant to moderate salt concentrations. Growth occurred at 20-42 °C (optimum, 37-40 °C), at pH 7.0-8.5 (optimum, 7.5-8.0) and with 2-16 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 6-8 %). A phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that strain WDS2C40T was a member of the genus Gracilimonas within the family Balneolaceae. The most closely related neighbour was Gracilimonas rosea JCM 18898T (95.92 % similarity). The major respiratory quinone of strain WDS2C40T was menaquinone MK-7, and the dominant fatty acids were iso-C13 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and summed feature 3. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, one kind of glycolipid and two unidentified phospholipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 41.7 mol%. Based on this polyphasic taxonomic study, strain WDS2C40T is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Gracilimonas, for which the name Gracilimonas halophila sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WDS2C40T (=KCTC 52042T=MCCC 1H00135T).

  7. Ruegeria marina sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Huo, Ying-Yi; Xu, Xue-Wei; Li, Xue; Liu, Chen; Cui, Heng-Lin; Wang, Chun-Sheng; Wu, Min

    2011-02-01

    A Gram-negative, neutrophilic and rod-shaped bacterium, strain ZH17(T), was isolated from a marine sediment of the East China Sea and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic characterization. The isolate grew in the presence of 0-7.5 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 6.5-9.0; optimum growth was observed with 0.5-3.0 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 7.5. Chemotaxonomic analysis showed ubiquinone-10 as predominant respiratory quinone and C(18 : 1)ω7c, 11-methyl C(18 : 1)ω7c, C(16 : 0), C(12 : 0) 3-OH and C(16 : 0) 2-OH as major fatty acids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 63.5 mol%. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolate belongs to the genus Ruegeria. Strain ZH17(T) exhibited the closest phylogenetic affinity to the type strain of Ruegeria pomeroyi, with 97.2 % sequence similarity, and less than 97 % sequence similarity with respect to other described species of the genus Ruegeria. The DNA-DNA reassociation value between strain ZH17(T) and R. pomeroyi DSM 15171(T) was 50.7 %. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, strain ZH17(T) represents a novel species of the genus Ruegeria, for which the name Ruegeria marina sp. nov. (type strain ZH17(T) =CGMCC 1.9108(T) =JCM 16262(T)) is proposed.

  8. Nocardioides antarcticus sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Deng, Sangsang; Chang, Xulu; Zhang, Yumin; Ren, Lvzhi; Jiang, Fan; Qu, Zhihao; Peng, Fang

    2015-08-01

    Strain M-SA3-94T, an aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, ovoid- to rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium, was isolated from the marine sediment of Ardley cove, King George Island, Antarctica. Strain M-SA3-94T grew optimally at pH 5.0-6.0, 20 °C and in the presence of 1.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicated that strain M-SA3-94T belonged to the genus Nocardioides in the family Nocardioidaceae, clustering with Nocardioides plantarum NCIMB 12834T, Nocardioides ginsengagri BX5-10T, Nocardioides marinquilinus CL-GY44T and Nocardioides lianchengensis D94-1T (with 96.1 %, 95.9 %, 94.5 % and 94.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). The chemotaxonomic properties of strain M-SA3-94T were similar to those of members of the genus Nocardioides with validly published names. The major fatty acid was iso-C16 : 0. The polar lipid pattern contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and three unknown phospholipids. The diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was ll-2, 6-diaminopimelic acid. MK-8(H4) was the predominant menaquinone and the DNA G+C content of this strain was 66.7 mol%. On the basis of these phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic data, strain M-SA3-94T represents a novel species of the genus Nocardioides, for which the name Nocardioides antarcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M-SA3-94T ( = CCTCC AB2014053T = LMG 28254T).

  9. Marinagarivorans algicola gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from marine algae.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ling-Yun; Li, Dong-Qi; Sang, Jin; Chen, Guan-Jun; Du, Zong-Jun

    2016-01-27

    Novel agar-degrading, Gram-staining-negative, motile, heterotrophic, facultatively anaerobic and pale yellow-pigmented bacterial strains, designated Z1T and JL1, were isolated from marine algae Gelidium amansii (Lamouroux) and Gracilaria verrucosa, respectively. Growth of the isolates was optimal at 28-30 °C, pH 7.0-7.5 and 1-3% (w/v) NaCl. Both strains contained Q-8 as the sole respiratory quinone. The major cellular fatty acids in strain Z1T were C18:1 ω7c, C16:0 and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH). The predominant polar lipids in strain Z1T were phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and aminolipid (AL). The genomic DNA G+C content of both strains was 45.1 mol%. Strains Z1T and JL1 were closely related, with 99.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) value between strains Z1T and JL1 was 99.3%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains Z1T and JL1 form a distinct phyletic line within the class Gammaproteobacteria, with less than 92.3% similarity to their closest relatives. Based on data from the current polyphasic study, the isolates are proposed to belong to a new genus and species designated Marinagarivorans algicola gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Marinagarivorans algicola is Z1T (=ATCC BAA-2617T=CICC 10859T).

  10. Streptomyces ovatisporus sp. nov., isolated from deep marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Veyisoglu, Aysel; Cetin, Demet; Inan Bektas, Kadriye; Guven, Kiymet; Sahin, Nevzat

    2016-11-01

    The taxonomic position of a Gram-staining-positive strain, designated strain S4702T was isolated from a marine sediment collected from the southern Black Sea coast, Turkey, determined using a polyphasic approach. The isolate was found to have chemotaxonomic, morphological and phylogenetic properties consistent with its classification as representing a member of the genus Streptomyces and formed a distinct phyletic line in the 16S rRNA gene tree. S4702T was found to be most closely related to the type strains of Streptomyces marinus(DSM 41968T; 97.8 % sequence similarity) and Streptomyces abyssalis (YIM M 10400T; 97.6 %). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with other members of the genus Streptomyces were lower than 97.5 %. DNA-DNA relatedness of S4702T and the most closely related strain S. marinus DSM 41968T was 21.0 %. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 72.5 mol%. The cell wall of the strain contained l,l-diaminopimelic acid and the cell-wall sugars were glucose and ribose. The major cellular fatty acids were identified as anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H8). The polar lipid profile of S4702T consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. S4702T could be distinguished from its closest phylogenetic neighbours using a combination of chemotaxonomic, morphological and physiological properties. Consequently, it is proposed that S4702T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces ovatisporus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S4702T (DSM 42103T=KCTC 29206T=CGMCC 4.7357T).

  11. Halobacterium litoreum sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Lü, Zhen-Zhen; Li, Yang; Zhou, Yao; Cui, Heng-Lin; Li, Zheng-Rong

    2017-09-13

    Halophilic archaeal strain ZS-54-S2T was isolated from Zhoushan marine solar saltern, China. Cells were rod-shaped, Gram-stain-negative and formed red-pigmented colonies on an agar plate. Strain ZS-54-S2T was able to grow at 20-50 °C (optimum 35 °C), at 1.7-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 3.9 M), at 0.005-1.0 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.05 M) and at pH 5.0-9.5 (optimum pH 7.0). The cells lysed in distilled water and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell lysis was found to be 5 % (w/v). The major polar lipids of the strain were phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, two glycolipids, which were chromatographically identical to sulfated galactosyl mannosyl galactofuranosyl glucosyl diether and galactosyl mannosyl glucosyl diether, and an unidentified glycolipid, which was chromatographically identical to one detected in Halobacterium salinarum ATCC 33171T. The 16S rRNA gene and rpoB' gene of strain ZS-54-S2T were phylogenetically related to the corresponding genes of Halobacterium noricense JCM 15102T (97.5 % and 90.6 % relatedness, respectively), Halobacterium jilantaiense CGMCC 1.5337T (96.9 and 91.2 %), Halobacterium rubrum CGMCC 1.12575T (96.8 and 90.3 %) and Halobacterium salinarum CGMCC 1.1958T (96.5 and 88.4 %). The DNA G+C content of strain ZS-54-S2T was 66.7 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggested that strain ZS-54-S2T (=CGMCC 1.12562T=JCM 30038T) represents a new species of Halobacterium, for which the name Halobacteriumlitoreum sp. nov. is proposed.

  12. Removal of Pb (II) by immobilized and free filaments of marine Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 and Phormidium sp. NTMS02.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Muthukannan Satheesh; Rajeshwari, Kamaraj; Johnson, Shani; Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Gunasekaran, Muthukumaran

    2011-09-01

    Pb(2+) removal ability of the immobilized and free filaments of marine cyanobacteria Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 and Phormidium sp. NTMS02 was studied using batch experiments. Biosorption of lead by immobilized filaments was studied as a function of pH (2, 4, 6, 8, 10), contact time (5-180 min) and initial lead concentration (1, 3, 5, 7 mg/L) and the removal efficiency of free filaments was studied by culturing in the marine medium with the initial concentration (1, 3, 5, 7 mg/L) at pH 7 and incubated for 10 days. The maximum percentage removal was observed at 25 min for immobilized Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 and 30 min for immobilized Phormidium sp. NTMS02. At 4th and 6th day of incubation, 89% and 77% removal was observed at 1 mg/L of initial lead concentration by free filaments of Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 and Phormidium sp. NTMS02 respectively and further the removal was decreased with increasing concentration. Chlorophyll-a content was decreased in a dose dependent manner. About 40 and 50% reduction of chlorophyll-a was observed at higher concentration in Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 and Phormidium sp. NTMS02 respectively. The adsorption capacity of immobilized Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 was found to be (Q(max)) 217.39 which is comparatively higher than other sorbents. The Pb(2+) removal efficiency was performed as described in terms of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. These organisms is found to fit better by the Langmuir isotherms.

  13. Halobacterium rubrum sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong; Cui, Heng-Lin

    2014-12-01

    Halophilic archaeal strain TGN-42-S1(T) was isolated from the Tanggu marine solar saltern, China. Cells from strain TGN-42-S1(T) were observed to be pleomorphic rods, stained Gram-negative, and formed red-pigmented colonies on solid media. Strain TGN-42-S1(T) was found to be able to grow at 20-50 °C (optimum 35-37 °C), at 1.7-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 3.1 M), at 0-1.0 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.1 M), and at pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0-7.5). The cells lysed in distilled water, and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell-lysis was found to be 10 % (w/v). The major polar lipids of the strain were phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, galactosyl mannosyl glucosyl diether (TGD-1), sulfated galactosyl mannosyl glucosyl diether (S-TGD-1), sulfated galactosyl mannosyl galactofuranosyl glucosyl diether (S-TeGD), and three unidentified glycolipids which were chromatographically identical to those of the Halobacterium species. The 16S rRNA gene and rpoB' gene of strain TGN-42-S1(T) were phylogenetically related to the corresponding genes of Halobacterium jilantaiense CGMCC 1.5337(T) (98.8 and 93.5 % nucleotide identity, respectively), Halobacterium salinarum CGMCC 1.1958(T) (98.4 and 91.9 %), and Halobacterium noricense JCM 15102(T) (96.9 and 91.1 %). The DNA G + C content of strain TGN-42-S1(T) was determined to be 69.2 mol %. Strain TGN-42-S1(T) showed low DNA-DNA relatedness with Hbt. jilantaiense CGMCC 1.5337(T) and Hbt. salinarum CGMCC 1.1958(T), the most closely related members of the genus Halobacterium. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic properties suggested that strain TGN-42-S1(T) (=CGMCC 1.12575(T) =JCM 19908(T)) represents a new species of Halobacterium, for which the name Halobacterium rubrum sp. nov. is proposed.

  14. Kordia ulvae sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from the surface of green marine algae Ulva sp.

    PubMed

    Qi, Feng; Huang, Zhaobin; Lai, Qiliang; Li, Dengfeng; Shao, Zongze

    2016-04-20

    A novel bacterial strain SC2T was isolated from Ulva sp. a green marine algae. Strain SC2T was Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and had no flagellum. Oxidase and catalase were positive. Strain SC2T can degrade skim milk, agar, soluble starch, Tween 20 and Tween 80. The optimal salinity and temperature of strain SC2T were 2% and 30 °C, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene indicated that strain SC2T was affiliated to the genus Kordia, with highest sequence similarity to Kordia algicida OT-1T (97.23%), Kordia antarctica IMCC3317T (97.23%) and Kordia jejudonensis SSK3-3T (97.02%); other species of the genus Kordia shared 93.98%-95.78% sequence similarity. The ANI value and the DNA-DNA hybridization estimated value between strain SC2T and three type strains (K. algicida OT-1T, K. antarctica IMCC3317T and K. jejudonensis SSK3-3T) were found to be 79.4%-82.4% and 24.2%-27.0%, respectively. The predominant fatty acids (>5.0%) were C16:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C15:0 3-OH, iso-C17:0 3-OH, summed feature 3 (comprised C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c), summed feature 8 (comprised C18:1 ω7c/C18:1 ω6c) and summed feature 9 (comprised iso-C17:1 ω9c/C16:0 10-methyl). The respiratory quinone was Menaquinone-6 (MK-6). The polar lipid profile consisted of four unknown lipids, three unidentified phospholipids, one unidentified aminolipid and one phosphatidylethanolamine. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 34.5 mol%. The combined genotypic and phenotypic data showed that strain SC2T represents a novel species within the genus Kordia, for which the name Kordia ulvae sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain SC2T (= KCTC 42872T = MCCC 1A01772T = LMG 29123T).

  15. Genome Sequence of the Marine Janibacter Sp. Strain HTCC2649 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Thrash, J. Cameron; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Bertagnolli, Anthony D.; Ferriera, Steve; Johnson, Justin; Vergin, Kevin L.; Giovannoni, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Janibacter sp. strain HTCC2649 is a novel marine member of the Actinobacteria, family Intrasporangiaceae, and is closely related to Janibacter melonis CM2104T and Knoellia sinensis HKI 0119T. The organism was isolated from a sample collected at Hydrostation S south of Bermuda by using high-throughput culturing techniques. Here we present the genome sequence of Janibacter sp. strain HTCC2649. PMID:21075932

  16. A New Antimalarial Polyether from a Marine Streptomyces sp. H668

    PubMed Central

    Na, MinKyun; Meujo, Damaris A.F.; Kevin, Dion; Hamann, Mark T.; Anderson, Matthew; Hill, Russell T.

    2008-01-01

    The antimalarial guided fractionation of the culture of marine Streptomyces sp. strain H668 led to the isolation of a new polyether metabolite. The structure was determined by comprehensive NMR and MS assignments. This new metabolite showed in vitro antimalarial activity against both the chloroquine-susceptible (D6) and -resistant (W2) clones of Plasmodium falciparum, without cytotoxicity to normal cells (Vero) making it a promising first lead from this marine bacterium. PMID:19865468

  17. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. H-KF8, a Marine Actinobacterium Isolated from a Northern Chilean Patagonian Fjord

    PubMed Central

    Undabarrena, Agustina; Ugalde, Juan Antonio; Castro-Nallar, Eduardo; Seeger, Michael

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 is a fjord-derived marine actinobacterium capable of producing antimicrobial activity. Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 was isolated from sediments of the Comau fjord, located in the northern Chilean Patagonia. Here, we report the 7.7-Mb genome assembly, which represents the first genome of a Chilean marine actinobacterium. PMID:28183776

  18. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. H-KF8, a Marine Actinobacterium Isolated from a Northern Chilean Patagonian Fjord.

    PubMed

    Undabarrena, Agustina; Ugalde, Juan Antonio; Castro-Nallar, Eduardo; Seeger, Michael; Cámara, Beatriz

    2017-02-09

    Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 is a fjord-derived marine actinobacterium capable of producing antimicrobial activity. Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 was isolated from sediments of the Comau fjord, located in the northern Chilean Patagonia. Here, we report the 7.7-Mb genome assembly, which represents the first genome of a Chilean marine actinobacterium. Copyright © 2017 Undabarrena et al.

  19. Cyclobacterium halophilum sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from a coastal-marine wetland.

    PubMed

    Shahinpei, Azadeh; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Sepahy, Abbas Akhavan; Schumann, Peter; Ventosa, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, slightly halophilic bacterium, designated strain GASx41(T), was isolated from soil of the coastal-marine wetland Gomishan in Iran. Cells of strain GASx41(T) were curved, ring-like or horseshoe-shaped rods and non-motile. Strain GASx41(T) was strictly aerobic, and catalase- and oxidase-positive. The strain was able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 1-10% (w/v), with optimum growth occurring at 2.5-3% (w/v) NaCl. The optimum temperature and pH for growth were 25-30 °C and pH 7.5-8.0. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain GASx41(T) was shown to belong to the genus Cyclobacterium within the phylum Bacteroidetes and showed closest phylogenetic similarity to 'Cyclobacterium jeungdonense' HMD3055 (98.0%). The DNA G+C content of strain GASx41(T) was 48.1 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids of strain GASx41(T) were iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 4 (iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c), anteiso-C15 : 0 2-OH, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, and its polar lipid pattern consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and 12 unknown lipids. The only quinone present was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). All these features confirmed the placement of isolate GASx41(T) within the genus Cyclobacterium. On the basis of evidence from this study, a novel species of the genus Cyclobacterium, Cyclobacterium halophilum sp. nov., is proposed, with strain GASx41(T) ( = IBRC-M 10761(T) = CECT 8341(T)) as the type strain.

  20. Havispora longyearbyenensis gen. et sp. nov.: an arctic marine fungus from Svalbard, Norway.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ka-Lai; Chiang, Michael W L; Vrijmoed, Lilian L P

    2008-01-01

    Information on the diversity and ecology of arctic marine fungi is lacking. During a short visit to Longyearbyen (78 degrees 13'N 15 degrees 33'E), Svalbard, Norway, a new marine fungus growing on driftwood collected at the shore was encountered. This taxon belongs to the Halosphaeriales (Ascomycota), a fungal order of mostly marine species. Havispora longyearbyenensis gen. et sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Nautosphaeria and Nereiospora, all with tufts of appendages at polar and equatorial positions of the ascospore but differing in color and septation of the ascospore and morphology and ontogeny of the ascospore appendage.

  1. Sterols from Thai Marine Sponge Petrosia (Strongylophora) sp. and Their Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Pailee, Phanruethai; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Prachyawarakorn, Vilailak

    2017-02-23

    Eight new sterols (1-5 and 11-13), together with eight known compounds (6-10 and 14-16) were isolated from marine sponge Petrosia sp. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The cytotoxicity of some compounds against a panel of human cancer cell lines is also reported.

  2. Development of a gene cloning system for the hydrogen-producing marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, T.; Matsunaga, N.; Tsubaki, K.; Tanaka, T.

    1986-10-01

    Seventy-six strains of marine photosynthetic bacteria were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis for plasmid DNA content. Among these strains, 12 carried two to four different plasmids with sizes ranging from 3.1 to 11.0 megadaltons. The marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 had two plasmids, pRD06S and pRD06L. The smaller plasmid, pRD06S, had a molecular weight of 3.8 megadaltons and was cut at a single site by restriction endonucleases SalI, SmaI, PstI, XhoI, and BglII. Moreover, the marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 containing plasmid pRD06 had a satisfactory growth rate (doubling time, 7.5 h), a hydrogen-producing rate of 0.96 ..mu..mol/mg (dry weight) of cells per h, and nitrogen fixation capability. Plasmid pRD06S, however, had neither drug resistance nor heavy-metal resistance, and its copy number was less than 10. Therefore, a recombinant plasmid consisting of pRD06S and Escherichia coli cloning vector pUC13 was constructed and cloned in E. coli. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106. As a result, Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 developed ampicillin resistance. Thus, a shuttle vector for gene transfer was constructed for marine photosynthetic bacteria.

  3. Nepheliosyne B, a New Polyacetylenic Acid from the New Caledonian Marine Sponge Niphates sp

    PubMed Central

    Legrave, Nathalie; Hamrouni-Buonomo, Souhir; Dufies, Maeva; Guérineau, Vincent; Vacelet, Jean; Auberger, Patrick; Amade, Philippe; Mehiri, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    A new C47 polyoxygenated acetylenic acid, nepheliosyne B (2), along with the previously described nepheliosyne A (1), have been isolated from the New Caledonian marine sponge Niphates sp. Their structures have been elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. These metabolites exhibited a moderate cytotoxicity against K562, U266, SKM1, and Kasumi cancer cell lines. PMID:23807547

  4. 1,5-Diazacyclohenicosane, a New Cytotoxic Metabolite from the Marine Sponge Mycale sp

    PubMed Central

    Coello, Laura; Martín, María Jesús; Reyes, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    A new cyclic diamine, 1,5-diazacyclohenicosane (1), was isolated from samples of the marine sponge Mycale sp. collected at Lamu Island (Kenya). Its structure was determined by a combination of spectroscopic techniques, including (+)-HRESIMS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The compound displayed cytotoxicity at the μM level against three human tumor cell lines. PMID:19841724

  5. Genome Sequence of Marinobacter sp. Strain MCTG268 Isolated from the Cosmopolitan Marine Diatom Skeletonema costatum

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, William B.; Huntemann, Marcel; Copeland, Alex; Chen, Amy; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Pillay, Manoj; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Andersen, Evan; Pati, Amrita; Stamatis, Dimitrios; Reddy, T. B. K.; Ngan, Chew Yee; Chovatia, Mansi; Daum, Chris; Shapiro, Nicole; Cantor, Michael N.; Woyke, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Marinobacter sp. strain MCTG268 was isolated from the cosmopolitan marine diatom Skeletonema costatum and can degrade oil hydrocarbons as sole sources of carbon and energy. Here, we present the genome sequence of this strain, which is 4,449,396 bp with 4,157 genes and an average G+C content of 57.0%. PMID:27609918

  6. Genome Sequence of Marinobacter sp. Strain MCTG268 Isolated from the Cosmopolitan Marine Diatom Skeletonema costatum.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Tony; Whitman, William B; Huntemann, Marcel; Copeland, Alex; Chen, Amy; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Pillay, Manoj; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Andersen, Evan; Pati, Amrita; Stamatis, Dimitrios; Reddy, T B K; Ngan, Chew Yee; Chovatia, Mansi; Daum, Chris; Shapiro, Nicole; Cantor, Michael N; Woyke, Tanja

    2016-09-08

    Marinobacter sp. strain MCTG268 was isolated from the cosmopolitan marine diatom Skeletonema costatum and can degrade oil hydrocarbons as sole sources of carbon and energy. Here, we present the genome sequence of this strain, which is 4,449,396 bp with 4,157 genes and an average G+C content of 57.0%.

  7. Sterols from Thai Marine Sponge Petrosia (Strongylophora) sp. and Their Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Pailee, Phanruethai; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Prachyawarakorn, Vilailak

    2017-01-01

    Eight new sterols (1–5 and 11–13), together with eight known compounds (6–10 and 14–16) were isolated from marine sponge Petrosia sp. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The cytotoxicity of some compounds against a panel of human cancer cell lines is also reported. PMID:28241489

  8. Puupehanol, a Sesquiterpene-Dihydroquinone Derivative from the Marine Sponge Hyrtios sp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Puupehanol (1), a new sesquiterpene-dihydroquinone derivative, was isolated from the marine sponge Hyrtios sp., along with the known compounds puupehenone (2) and chloropuupehenone (3). The structure of 1 was established as (20R,21R)-21-hydroxy-20,21-dihydropuupehenone by interpretation of spectros...

  9. Taxonomy of Marine Bacteria: Beneckea nigrapulchrituda sp. n

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Paul; Baumann, Linda; Mandel, M.; Allen, Richard D.

    1971-01-01

    Fourteen bacterial strains of marine origin, which formed colonies containing crystals of a blue-black pigment, were submitted to a morphological, physiological, and nutritional characterization. The results indicated that these organisms form a new species of the genus Beneckea. Images PMID:4945200

  10. New Marine Antifouling Compounds from the Red Alga Laurencia sp.

    PubMed

    Oguri, Yuko; Watanabe, Mami; Ishikawa, Takafumi; Kamada, Takashi; Vairappan, Charles S; Matsuura, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kensuke; Ishii, Takahiro; Suzuki, Minoru; Yoshimura, Erina; Nogata, Yasuyuki; Okino, Tatsufumi

    2017-08-28

    Six new compounds, omaezol, intricatriol, hachijojimallenes A and B, debromoaplysinal, and 11,12-dihydro-3-hydroxyretinol have been isolated from four collections of Laurencia sp. These structures were determined by MS and NMR analyses. Their antifouling activities were evaluated together with eight previously known compounds isolated from the same samples. In particular, omaezol and hachijojimallene A showed potent activities (EC50 = 0.15-0.23 µg/mL) against larvae of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite.

  11. Marine diatom, Navicula sp. strain JPCC DA0580 and marine green alga, Chlorella sp. strain NKG400014 as potential sources for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Sato, Reiko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2010-05-01

    Marine diatom, strain JPCC DA0580, and marine green microalga strain NKG400014 were selected as high neutral lipid-producers from marine microalgal culture collection toward biodiesel production. These strains were tentatively identified as Navicula sp. and Chlorella sp., respectively, by 18S rDNA analysis. Growth and lipid accumulation conditions of both strains were analyzed by changing nutrient concentrations in growth media and initial illuminance intensity. The highest productivity of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) reached to 154 mg/L/week for NKG400014 and 185 mg/L/week for JPCC DA0580. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis indicates that FAME fraction from NKG400014 mainly contained 9-12-15-octadecatrienoate (C18:3) and that from JPCC DA0580 mainly contained methyl palmitate (C16:0) and methyl palmitoleate (C16:1). Furthermore, calorimetric analysis revealed that the energy content of strain was 4,233 +/- 55 kcal/kg (i.e., 15.9 +/- 0.2 MJ/kg) for NKG400014 and 6,423 +/- 139 kcal/mg (i.e., 26.9 +/- 0.6 MJ/kg) for JPCC DA0580, respectively. The value from JPCC DA0580 was equivalent to that of coal. The strains NKG400014 and JPCC DA0580 will become a promising resource that can grow as dominant species in the open ocean toward production of both liquid and solid biofuels.

  12. Psychroflexus saliphilus sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped, orange pigmented strain, WDS4A13**T, was isolated from a marine solar saltern in Weihai, China. WDS4A13**T grows optimally at pH at 7.0-8.0, 33°C, with 6% (w/v) NaCl. The polar lipid profile of the novel isolate consisted of two unidentified phospholipi...

  13. Marine Pseudovibrio sp. as a Novel Source of Antimicrobials

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Susan P.; O’Gara, Fergal; O’Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D.; Dobson, Alan D. W.

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance among pathogenic microorganisms is becoming ever more common. Unfortunately, the development of new antibiotics which may combat resistance has decreased. Recently, however the oceans and the marine animals that reside there have received increased attention as a potential source for natural product discovery. Many marine eukaryotes interact and form close associations with microorganisms that inhabit their surfaces, many of which can inhibit the attachment, growth or survival of competitor species. It is the bioactive compounds responsible for the inhibition that is of interest to researchers on the hunt for novel bioactives. The genus Pseudovibrio has been repeatedly identified from the bacterial communities isolated from marine surfaces. In addition, antimicrobial activity assays have demonstrated significant antimicrobial producing capabilities throughout the genus. This review will describe the potency, spectrum and possible novelty of the compounds produced by these bacteria, while highlighting the capacity for this genus to produce natural antimicrobial compounds which could be employed to control undesirable bacteria in the healthcare and food production sectors. PMID:25501794

  14. Discorhabdins from the Korean marine sponge Sceptrella sp.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ju-Eun; Na, Zeyei; Jung, Misong; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Sim, Chung J; Nahm, Keepyung; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon

    2010-02-26

    Two new pyrroloiminoquinone alkaloids of the discorhabdin class, along with 12 compounds including one previously described synthetic derivative of the same and related skeletal classes, were isolated from the sponge Sceptrella sp., collected from Gageodo, Korea. The structures of these new compounds, designated as (-)-3-dihydrodiscorhabdin D (11) and (-)-discorhabdin Z (12), were determined by combined spectroscopic analyses. Compound 12 possesses an unusual hemiaminal group among the discorhabdin alkaloids. These compounds exhibited moderate to significant cytotoxicity, antibacterial activity, and inhibitory activity against sortase A.

  15. Antibiofilm Activity of the Marine Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain 3J6▿

    PubMed Central

    Dheilly, Alexandra; Soum-Soutéra, Emmanuelle; Klein, Géraldine L.; Bazire, Alexis; Compère, Chantal; Haras, Dominique; Dufour, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Biofilm formation results in medical threats or economic losses and is therefore a major concern in a variety of domains. In two-species biofilms of marine bacteria grown under dynamic conditions, Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain 3J6 formed mixed biofilms with Bacillus sp. strain 4J6 but was largely predominant over Paracoccus sp. strain 4M6 and Vibrio sp. strain D01. The supernatant of Pseudoalteromonas sp. 3J6 liquid culture (SN3J6) was devoid of antibacterial activity against free-living Paracoccus sp. 4M6 and Vibrio sp. D01 cells, but it impaired their ability to grow as single-species biofilms and led to higher percentages of nonviable cells in 48-h biofilms. Antibiofilm molecules of SN3J6 were able to coat the glass surfaces used to grow biofilms and reduced bacterial attachment about 2-fold, which might partly explain the biofilm formation defect but not the loss of cell viability. SN3J6 had a wide spectrum of activity since it affected all Gram-negative marine strains tested except other Pseudoalteromonas strains. Biofilm biovolumes of the sensitive strains were reduced 3- to 530-fold, and the percentages of nonviable cells were increased 3- to 225-fold. Interestingly, SN3J6 also impaired biofilm formation by three strains belonging to the human-pathogenic species Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli. Such an antibiofilm activity is original and opens up a variety of applications for Pseudoalteromonas sp. 3J6 and/or its active exoproducts in biofilm prevention strategies. PMID:20363799

  16. Antibiofilm activity of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain 3J6.

    PubMed

    Dheilly, Alexandra; Soum-Soutéra, Emmanuelle; Klein, Géraldine L; Bazire, Alexis; Compère, Chantal; Haras, Dominique; Dufour, Alain

    2010-06-01

    Biofilm formation results in medical threats or economic losses and is therefore a major concern in a variety of domains. In two-species biofilms of marine bacteria grown under dynamic conditions, Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain 3J6 formed mixed biofilms with Bacillus sp. strain 4J6 but was largely predominant over Paracoccus sp. strain 4M6 and Vibrio sp. strain D01. The supernatant of Pseudoalteromonas sp. 3J6 liquid culture (SN(3J6)) was devoid of antibacterial activity against free-living Paracoccus sp. 4M6 and Vibrio sp. D01 cells, but it impaired their ability to grow as single-species biofilms and led to higher percentages of nonviable cells in 48-h biofilms. Antibiofilm molecules of SN(3J6) were able to coat the glass surfaces used to grow biofilms and reduced bacterial attachment about 2-fold, which might partly explain the biofilm formation defect but not the loss of cell viability. SN(3J6) had a wide spectrum of activity since it affected all Gram-negative marine strains tested except other Pseudoalteromonas strains. Biofilm biovolumes of the sensitive strains were reduced 3- to 530-fold, and the percentages of nonviable cells were increased 3- to 225-fold. Interestingly, SN(3J6) also impaired biofilm formation by three strains belonging to the human-pathogenic species Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli. Such an antibiofilm activity is original and opens up a variety of applications for Pseudoalteromonas sp. 3J6 and/or its active exoproducts in biofilm prevention strategies.

  17. Pseudomonas creosotenesis sp. n., a Creosote-tolerant Marine Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Thomas B.; Drisko, Richard W.; Hochman, Harry

    1961-01-01

    In a study of the marine biological environment in which creosoted pilings are located, a previously unreported species of bacteria was isolated. This species was detected on creosoted piling from 11 widely differing locations and was the predominant species of bacteria found on these piling. The new organism was identified as a gram-negative rod belonging to the genus Pseudomonas and has been named Pseudomonas creosotensis. It has been completely described by the standard morphological and biochemical tests. Images FIG. 1 PMID:14480909

  18. New Marine Sterols from a Gorgonian Pinnigorgia sp.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Chia; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Chao, Chih-Hua; Sung, Ping-Jyun

    2017-03-03

    Continuous chemical investigation of the gorgonian coral Pinnigorgia sp. resulted in the isolation of two new sterols, 5α,6α-epoxy-(22E,24R)-3β,11-dihydroxy-9,11-secoergosta-7-en-9-one (1) and (22R)-acetoxy-(24ξ)-ergosta-5-en-3β,25-diol (2). The structures of sterols 1 and 2 were elucidated using spectroscopic methods. Sterol 1 displayed inhibitory effects on the generation of superoxide anions and the release of elastase by human neutrophils with IC50 values of 8.65 and 5.86 μM, respectively. The structure of a known metabolite, pubinernoid A (3), is revised as (+)-loliolide (4).

  19. Optimization of medium and cultivation conditions for enhanced exopolysaccharide yield by marine Cyanothece sp. 113

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chuandong; Chi, Zhenming; Lu, Weidong

    2007-10-01

    Cyanothece sp. 113 is a unicellular, aerobic, diazotrophic and photosynthetic marine cyanobacterium. The optimal medium for exopolysaccharide yield by the strain was 70.0 g/L of NaCl, and 0.9 g/L of MgSO4 based on the modified F/2 medium for cultivation of marine algae. The optimal cultivation condition for exopolysaccharide yield by this cyanobacterial strain was 29°C, aeration, and continuous illumination at 86.0 μE/M2/S. Under the optimal conditions, over 18.4 g/L of exopolysaccharide was produced within 12 days. This was so far the highest exopolysaccharide yield produced with strains of Cyanothece sp. obtained.

  20. Bacillus cellulasensis sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Mawlankar, Rahul; Thorat, Meghana N; Krishnamurthi, Srinivasan; Dastager, Syed G

    2016-01-01

    A novel bacterial strain NIO-1130(T) was isolated from sediment sample taken from Chorao Island, Goa Province, India, and subjected to a taxonomic investigation. The strain was Gram-positive, aerobic, and motile. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the isolate within the genus Bacillus and strain NIO-1130(T) showed highest sequence similarity with Bacillus halosaccharovorans DSM 25387(T) (98.4%) and Bacillus niabensis CIP 109816(T) (98.1%), whereas other Bacillus species showed <97.0% similarity. Tree based on gyrB gene sequence revealed that strain bacillus group. The major menaquinone was MK-7 and the predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, iso-C17:0, and anteiso-C17:0. The strain showed a DNA G+C content of 39.9 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization studies revealed that strain NIO-1130(T) exhibits 70% similarity with Bacillus halosaccharovorans DSM 25387(T) and Bacillus niabensis CIP 109816(T). On the basis of physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, we consider the isolate to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus cellulasensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is NIO-1130(T) (=NCIM 5461(T)=CCTCC AB 2011126(T)).

  1. Solwaric Acids A and B, Antibacterial Aromatic Acids from a Marine Solwaraspora sp.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Gregory A.; Wyche, Thomas P.; Fry, Charles G.; Braun, Doug R.; Bugni, Tim S.

    2014-01-01

    Two novel trialkyl-substituted aromatic acids, solwaric acids A and B, were isolated from a marine Solwaraspora sp. cultivated from the ascidian Trididemnum orbiculatum. Solwaric acids A and B were isotopically labeled with U-13C glucose, and analysis of a 13C–13C COSY allowed for unambiguous determination of the location of the phenyl methyl group. The two novel compounds demonstrated antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). PMID:24534844

  2. Genome Sequence of the Agar-Degrading Marine Bacterium Alteromonadaceae sp. Strain G7

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Min-Jung; Song, Ju Yeon; Kim, Byung Kwon; Chi, Won-Jae; Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Choi, Soobeom; Chang, Yong-Keun

    2012-01-01

    Here, we present the high-quality draft genome sequence of the agar-degrading marine gammaproteobacterium Alteromonadaceae sp. strain G7, which was isolated from coastal seawater to be utilized as a bioresource for production of agar-derived biofuels. The 3.91-Mb genome contains a number of genes encoding algal polysaccharide-degrading enzymes such as agarases and sulfatases. PMID:23209220

  3. Isolation and Structural Elucidation of Chondrosterins F–H from the Marine Fungus Chondrostereum sp

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hou-Jin; Chen, Ting; Xie, Ying-Lu; Chen, Wen-Dan; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Lan, Wen-Jian

    2013-01-01

    The marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. was collected from a soft coral of the species Sarcophyton tortuosum from the South China Sea. Three new compounds, chondrosterins F–H (1, 4 and 5), together with three known compounds, incarnal (2), arthrosporone (3), and (2E)-decene-4,6,8-triyn-1-ol (6), were isolated. Their structures were elucidated primarily based on NMR and MS data. Incarnal (2) exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines. PMID:23434797

  4. A new 3-alkylpyridine alkaloid from the marine sponge Haliclona sp. and its cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huawei; Loveridge, Steven T; Tenney, Karen; Crews, Phillip

    2016-06-01

    A new alkaloid, 3-dodecyl pyridine containing a terminal cyano group (1), was isolated from the methanol extract of an Indonesia marine sponge Haliclona sp. Its chemical structure was determined by a combination of spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR. Bioassay results indicated that compound 1 had moderate cytotoxity against tumour cell lines A549, MCF-7 and Hela with IC50 values of 41.8, 48.4 and 33.2 μM, respectively.

  5. Suvanine analogs from a Coscinoderma sp. marine sponge and their cytotoxicities against human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Woo; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Shin, Jongheon; Kang, Jong Soon; Yun, Jieun; Shin, Hee Jae; Lee, Jong Seok; Lee, Yeon-Ju

    2015-06-01

    Nine suvanine analogs including suvanine phenethylammonium salt and two new compounds were isolated from the marine sponge Coscinoderma sp., collected from Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by 2D NMR and HRMS analyses. Suvanine and a new analog exhibited weak but selective cytotoxicity against colon (HCT-15), lung (NCI-H23), stomach (NUGC-3), and prostate (PC-3) cancer cell lines.

  6. Antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized by marine Ochrobactrum sp.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Roshmi; Janardhanan, Anju; Varghese, Rintu T; Soniya, E V; Mathew, Jyothis; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2014-01-01

    Metal nanoparticle synthesis is an interesting area in nanotechnology due to their remarkable optical, magnetic, electrical, catalytic and biomedical properties, but there needs to develop clean, non-toxic and environmental friendly methods for the synthesis and assembly of nanoparticles. Biological agents in the form of microbes have emerged up as efficient candidates for nanoparticle synthesis due to their extreme versatility to synthesize diverse nanoparticles with varying size and shape. In the present study, an eco favorable method for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using marine bacterial isolate has been attempted. Very interestingly, molecular identification proved it as a strain of Ochrobactrum anhtropi. In addition, the isolate was found to have the potential to form silver nanoparticles intracellularly at room temperature within 24 h. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed a peak at 450 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. The SEM and TEM micrographs revealed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a size range from 38 nm - 85 nm. The silver nanoparticles synthesized by the isolate were also used to explore its antibacterial potential against pathogens like Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus.

  7. Antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized by marine Ochrobactrum sp

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Roshmi; Janardhanan, Anju; Varghese, Rintu T.; Soniya, E.V.; Mathew, Jyothis; Radhakrishnan, E.K.

    2014-01-01

    Metal nanoparticle synthesis is an interesting area in nanotechnology due to their remarkable optical, magnetic, electrical, catalytic and biomedical properties, but there needs to develop clean, non-toxic and environmental friendly methods for the synthesis and assembly of nanoparticles. Biological agents in the form of microbes have emerged up as efficient candidates for nanoparticle synthesis due to their extreme versatility to synthesize diverse nanoparticles with varying size and shape. In the present study, an eco favorable method for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using marine bacterial isolate has been attempted. Very interestingly, molecular identification proved it as a strain of Ochrobactrum anhtropi. In addition, the isolate was found to have the potential to form silver nanoparticles intracellularly at room temperature within 24 h. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed a peak at 450 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. The SEM and TEM micrographs revealed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a size range from 38 nm – 85 nm. The silver nanoparticles synthesized by the isolate were also used to explore its antibacterial potential against pathogens like Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:25763025

  8. Complete genome sequence of the marine planctomycete Pirellula sp. strain 1

    PubMed Central

    Glöckner , F. O.; Kube, M.; Bauer , M.; Teeling, H.; Lombardot, T.; Ludwig, W.; Gade, D.; Beck, A.; Borzym, K.; Heitmann, K.; Rabus, R.; Schlesner, H.; Amann, R.; Reinhardt , R.

    2003-01-01

    Pirellula sp. strain 1 (“Rhodopirellula baltica”) is a marine representative of the globally distributed and environmentally important bacterial order Planctomycetales. Here we report the complete genome sequence of a member of this independent phylum. With 7.145 megabases, Pirellula sp. strain 1 has the largest circular bacterial genome sequenced so far. The presence of all genes required for heterolactic acid fermentation, key genes for the interconversion of C1 compounds, and 110 sulfatases were unexpected for this aerobic heterotrophic isolate. Although Pirellula sp. strain 1 has a proteinaceous cell wall, remnants of genes for peptidoglycan synthesis were found. Genes for lipid A biosynthesis and homologues to the flagellar L- and P-ring protein indicate a former Gram-negative type of cell wall. Phylogenetic analysis of all relevant markers clearly affiliates the Planctomycetales to the domain Bacteria as a distinct phylum, but a deepest branching is not supported by our analyses. PMID:12835416

  9. Genetic transformation of marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. CC9311 (Cyanophyceae) by electroporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huaxin; Lin, Hanzhi; Jiang, Peng; Li, Fuchao; Qin, Song

    2013-03-01

    Synechococcus sp. CC9311 is a marine cyanobacterium characterized by type IV chromatic acclimation (CA). A genetic transformation system was developed as a first step to elucidate the molecular mechanism of CA. The results show that Synechococcus sp. CC9311 cells were sensitive to four commonly used antibiotics: ampicillin, kanamycin, spectinomycin, and chloramphenicol. An integrative plasmid to disrupt the putative phycoerythrin lyase gene mpeV, using a kanamycin resistance gene as selectable marker, was constructed by recombinant polymerase chain reaction. The plasmid was then transformed into Synechococcus sp. CC9311 via electroporation. High transformation efficiency was achieved at a field strength of 2 kV/cm. DNA analysis showed that mpeV was fully disrupted following challenge of the transformants with a high concentration of kanamycin. In addition, the transformants that displayed poor growth on agar SN medium could be successfully plated on agarose SN medium.

  10. Streptomyces verrucosisporus sp. nov., isolated from marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Kudo, Takuji; Ohkuma, Moriya; Pittayakhajonwut, Pattama; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2016-09-01

    Five actinomycete isolates, CPB1-1T, CPB2-10, BM1-4, CPB3-1 and CPB1-18, belonging to the genus Streptomyces were isolated from marine sediments collected from Chumphon Province, Thailand. They produced open loops of warty spore chains on aerial mycelia. ll-Diaminopimelic acid, glucose and ribose were found in their whole-cell hydrolysates. Polar lipids found were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. Menaquinones were MK-9(H6), MK-9(H8), MK-10(H6) and MK-10(H8). Major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The taxonomic position of the strains was described using a polyphasic approach. blastn analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that these five strains exhibited the highest similarities with 'Streptomyces mangrovicola' GY1 (99.0 %), Streptomyces fenghuangensisGIMN4.003T (98.6 %), Streptomyces barkulensisRC 1831T (98.5 %) and Streptomyces radiopugnans R97T (98.3 %). However, their phenotypic characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequences as well as DNA-DNA relatedness differentiated these five strains from the other species of the genus Streptomyces. Here, we propose the novel actinomycetes all being representatives of the same novel species, Streptomyces verrucosisporus, with type strain CPB1-1T (=JCM 18519T=PCU 343T=TISTR 2344T).

  11. [Isolation and structural elucidation of secondary metabolites from marine Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 1934].

    PubMed

    Niu, Siwen; Li, Sumei; Tian, Xinpeng; Hu, Tao; Ju, Jianhua; Ynag, Xiaohong; Zhang, Si; Zhang, Changsheng

    2011-07-01

    Marine Actinobacteria are emerging as new resources for bioactive natural products with promise in novel drug discovery. In recent years, the richness and diversity of marine Actinobacteria from the South China Sea and their ability in producing bioactive products have been investigated. The objective of this work is to isolate and identify bioactive secondary metabolites from a marine actinobacterium SCSIO 1934 derived from sediments of South China Sea. The strain was identified as a Streptomyces spieces by analyzing its 16S rDNA sequence. Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 1934 was fermented under optimized conditions and seven bioactive secondary metabolites were isolated and purified by chromatographic methods including colum chromatography over silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were elucidated as 17-O-demethylgeldanamycin (1), lebstatin (2), 17-O-demethyllebstatin (3), nigericin (4), nigericin sodium salt (5), abierixin (6), respectively, by detailed NMR spectroscopic data (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC and HMBC). This work provided a new marine actinobacterium Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 1934, capable of producing diverse bioactive natural products.

  12. Nocardioides flavus sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Zhou, Yuan; Zhang, Gaiyun

    2016-12-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming and short rod-shaped actinomycete strain, Y4T, was isolated from a sediment sample collected from the Western Pacific. This isolate grew in the presence of 0-10 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 6.0-9.0 and 4-40 °C; optimum growth was observed with 1 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 7.0 and 35-37 °C. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain Y4T belonged to the genus Nocardioides and was most closely related to the type strains Nocardioides ganghwensis JC2055T (98.0 %) and Nocardioides exalbidus RC825T (98.0 %), followed by Nocardioides alpinus Cr7-14T (97.9 %), Nocardioides oleivorans DSM 16090T (97.9 %), Nocardioides furvisabuli SBS-26T (97.4 %) and Nocardioides hwasunensis HFW-21T (97.4 %). Sequence similarities between strain Y4T and the other related species of the genus Nocardioides were less than 96.3 %. Strain Y4T had MK-8(H4) and MK-7(H4) as the predominant respiratory quinones and C17 : 1ω8c, iso-C16 : 0 and C17 : 0 as major fatty acids. The polar lipids contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, one unknown phospholipid, two unknown glycolipids and one unknown lipid. The DNA G+C content was 70.4 mol%. The diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was ll-diaminopimelic acid. Strain Y4T could be differentiated from recognized Nocardioides species based on phenotypic characteristics, chemotaxonomic differences, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization data. Thus, strain Y4T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Nocardioides, for which the name Nocardioides flavus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Y4T (=MCCC 1A09944T=LMG 28100T=JCM 19770T=CGMCC 1.12791T).

  13. Two new Huffmanela species, H. japonica n. sp. and H. shikokuensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Trichosomoididae), from marine fishes in Japan.

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Koudela, B; Ogawa, K; Nagasawa, K

    1998-06-01

    Two new species of trichuroid nematodes. Huffmanela japonica n. sp. and Huffmanela shikokuensis n. sp., are established on the basis of their egg morphology and biological characters; the eggs of both species occur in the musculature of marine fishes from the Inland Sea of Japan. The dark-shelled eggs of H. japonica are found locally in masses ("black spots") in the flesh of Upeneus bensasi (Temminck et Schlegel) (Mullidae, Perciformes) and are characterized mainly by their shape and size (58-69 x 26-30 microm), an aspinose superficial transparent envelope enclosing the egg proper, relatively small polar plugs, and by their thick egg wall (4-5 microm). The eggs of H. shikokuensis are also dark-colored and are found evenly distributed in the musculature of Stephanolepis cirrhifer (Temminck et Schlegel) (Monacanthidae, Tetraodontiformes); they are characterized mainly by their shape and size (78-90 X 36-45 microm), by a very thin and aspinose superficial transparent envelope, large polar plugs, and relatively thin egg wall (3 microm). Histological sections of the host's infected musculature showed the presence of H. shikokuensis nematodes inside the muscle cells and in the intercellular spaces. A key to Huffmanela species based on egg morphology is provided.

  14. Salinispora arenicola gen. nov., sp. nov. and Salinispora tropica sp. nov., obligate marine actinomycetes belonging to the family Micromonosporaceae.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Luis A; Fenical, William; Jensen, Paul R; Kauffman, Christopher A; Mincer, Tracy J; Ward, Alan C; Bull, Alan T; Goodfellow, Michael

    2005-09-01

    A taxonomic study was carried out to clarify the taxonomy of representatives of a group of marine actinomycetes previously designated MAR 1 and considered to belong to the family Micromonosporaceae. The organisms had phenotypic properties consistent with their assignment to this taxon. The strains formed a distinct taxon in the 16S rRNA Micromonosporaceae gene tree and shared a range of phenotypic properties that distinguished them from members of all of the genera with validly published names classified in this family. The name proposed for this novel taxon is Salinispora gen. nov. The genus contains two species recognized using a range of genotypic and phenotypic criteria, including comparative 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer region and DNA-DNA relatedness data. The names proposed for these taxa are Salinispora arenicola sp. nov., the type species, and Salinispora tropica sp. nov.; the type strains of these novel species have been deposited in service culture collections as strain CNH-643(T) (=ATCC BAA-917(T)=DSM 44819(T)) and strain CNB-440(T) (=ATCC BAA-916(T)=DSM 44818(T)), respectively.

  15. Living together: the marine amoeba Thecamoeba hilla Schaeffer, 1926 and its endosymbiont Labyrinthula sp.

    PubMed

    Dyková, Iva; Fiala, Ivan; Dvoráková, Helena; Pecková, Hana

    2008-11-01

    Two protists isolated simultaneously from the same sample of gill tissue of Psetta maxima (L.) were identified as Thecamoeba hilla Schaeffer, 1926 and Labyrinthula sp. A Labyrinthula strain (LTH) derived from a mixed culture of both organisms was well established in a short time, while subcultures of T. hilla continued to be associated with Labyrinthula cells despite all efforts to eliminate them. Ultrastructural examination, repeated several times in the course of long-lasting subculturing of amoebae, revealed that trophozoites of T. hilla host in their cytoplasm multiplying labyrinthulid cells. Comparison of SSU rDNA sequences of the Labyrinthula strain LTH and those from labyrinthulid endosymbionts from T. hilla verified the assumption that the extra- and intra-cellularly multiplying Labyrinthula cells are identical organisms. The association of the marine amoeba T. hilla and Labyrinthula sp. displayed signs of mutualistic symbiosis.

  16. Bile acids are new products of a marine bacterium, Myroides sp. strain SM1.

    PubMed

    Maneerat, Suppasil; Nitoda, Teruhiko; Kanzaki, Hiroshi; Kawai, Fusako

    2005-06-01

    Strain SM1 was isolated as a biosurfactant-producing microorganism from seawater and presumptively identified as Myroides sp., based on morphology, biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence. The strain produced surface-active compounds in marine broth, which were purified, using emulsification activity for n-hexadecane as an indicator. The purified compounds were identified by thin-layer chromatography, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectra and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry as cholic acid, deoxycholic acid and their glycine conjugates. Type strains of the genus Myroides, M. odoratus JCM7458 and M. odoramitimus JCM7460, also produced these compounds. Myroides sp. strain SM1 possessed a biosynthetic route to cholic acid from cholesterol. Thus, bile acids were found as new products of prokaryotic cells, genus Myroides.

  17. Hydrogen production of a salt tolerant strain Bacillus sp. B2 from marine intertidal sludge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongyan; Wang, Guangce

    2012-01-01

    To isolate a salt tolerant hydrogen-producing bacterium, we used the sludge from the intertidal zone of a bathing beach in Tianjin as inoculum to enrich hydrogen-producing bacteria. The sludge was treated by heat-shock pretreatment with three different temperature (80, 100 and 121°C) respectively. A hydrogen-producing bacterium was isolated from the sludge pretreated at 80°C by sandwich plate technique and identified using microscopic examination and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The isolated bacterium was named as Bacillus sp. B2. The present study examined the hydrogen-producing ability of Bacillus sp. B2. The strain was able to produce hydrogen over a wide range of initial pH from 5.0 to 10.0, with an optimum at pH 7.0. The level of hydrogen production was also affected by the salt concentration. Strain B2 has unique capability to adapt high salt concentration. It could produce hydrogen at the salt concentration from 4 to 60‰. The maximum of hydrogen-producing yield of strain B2 was 1.65 ± 0.04 mol H(2)/mol glucose (mean ± SE) at an initial pH value of 7.0 in marine culture conditions. Hydrogen production under fresh culture conditions reached a higher level than that in marine ones. As a result, it is likely that Bacillus sp. B2 could be applied to biohydrogen production using both marine and fresh organic waste.

  18. Marine biosurfactants, II. Production and characterization of an anionic trehalose tetraester from the marine bacterium Arthrobacter sp. EK 1.

    PubMed

    Passeri, A; Lang, S; Wagner, F; Wray, V

    1991-01-01

    Within a screening for biosurfactants we could isolate various n-alkanes utilizing marine bacteria which were capable of synthesizing glycolipids. One strain was identified as Arthrobacter sp. EK 1 which produced trehalose lipids. After purification by column and thick layer chromatography the main fraction, an anionic 2,3,4,2'-trehalose tetraester, was obtained. The chain lengths of fatty acids ranged from 8 up to 14, furthermore succinate could be detected. Since the place of substitution of succinate has so far not been cited in literature, a definitive structural elucidation was carried out chemically by hydroboration and by 1H, 2D1H, 13C and 13C-1H correlation NMR measurements. All investigations confirmed the exact position of succinate at C 2 atom of trehalose. After improvement of growth conditions the production of the trehalose tetraester increased up to 4.8 milligrams during a fermentation in 20 l bioreactor under nitrogen limitation.

  19. Distribution of Neoparamoeba sp. in sediments around marine finfish farming sites in Tasmania.

    PubMed

    Crosbie, P B B; Macleod, C; Forbes, S; Nowak, B F

    2005-11-09

    Marine sediment samples collected from various sites at 2 Atlantic salmon farms in Tasmania were analysed for the presence of Neoparamoeba sp., an amoeba associated with amoebic gill disease (AGD) in farmed Atlantic salmon. Environmental variables of the sediment layer at each site, including redox potential and sulphide concentration, were measured and the general biological condition assessed by video observation. Sediments and environmental data were collected on 4 occasions at each site over a 12 mo period. Neoparamoeba sp. was detected in populations of amoebae recovered by culture from all sites and in 50% of all sediment samples taken. There was evidence of a seasonal influence on the presence of the amoeba, but this was different at each farm. No Neoparamoeba sp. was recovered from any sites at Farm 1 during the winter of 2002 whereas at Farm 2 this was the case for the summer of 2003. There appeared to be no relationship between the presence of Neoparamoeba sp., salmon farming activities and environmental parameters.

  20. Trace element accumulation in Cassiopea sp. (Scyphozoa) from urban marine environments in Australia.

    PubMed

    Templeman, Michelle A; Kingsford, Michael J

    2010-03-01

    Jellyfishes are robust, short-lived animals, tolerant to a wide range of environmental conditions and pollutants. The benthic jellyfish, Cassiopea sp. was collected from five locations along the north and eastern coast of Australia and analysed for trace elements to determine if this species has potential as a marine biomonitor. Both the oral arm and bell tissues readily accumulated aluminium, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc above ambient seawater levels. In contrast, lithium appeared to be actively regulated within the tissues while calcium, magnesium and strontium reflected the ambient environment. The multi-element signatures showed spatial variation, reflecting the geographical separations between locations, with locations closer together showing more similar elemental patterns. The combination of bioaccumulative capacity, life history traits and biophysical aspects indicate that this species has high potential as a biomonitor in coastal marine systems.

  1. Identification and characterization of a library of surfactins and fengycins from a marine endophytic Bacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Nair, Divya; Vanuopadath, Muralidharan; Nair, Bipin G; Pai, Jayashree Gopalakrishna; Nair, Sudarslal Sadasivan

    2016-11-01

    An endophytic bacterial strain from a marine green alga, Ulva lactuca, was isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing method. The bacterial isolate was found to secrete two major families of cyclic depsilipopeptides, surfactins, and fengycins. Sequencing of the isolated lipopeptides was carried out using the MS(n) data obtained from an electrospray ionization (ESI) ion trap mass spectrometer coupled to an HPLC system. The assigned sequences were confirmed by a chemical derivatization approach involving esterification followed by mass spectrometric analysis. Distinction of leucine residues from isoleucine was established through a combined electron transfer dissociation-collision-induced dissociation (ETD-CID) method. The fengycins described in this study were found to cause significant delay of growth of two plants, Vigna radiata (mung bean) and Oryza sativa (rice). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study describing identification and characterization of cyclic peptides from an endophytic Bacillus sp. isolated from marine algae.

  2. The Electrospray Ionization - Mass Spectra of Erythromycin A Obtained from a Marine Streptomyces sp. Mutant

    PubMed Central

    El-Bondkly, A. M.; Abd-Alla, Howaida I.; Shaaban, M.; Shaaban, K. A.

    2008-01-01

    In our ongoing search for production improvements of bioactive secondary metabolites from marine Streptomyces through the induction of mutations using UV light, out of 145 isolates, mutant 10/14 was able to produce potent antibacterial metabolites other than the parent strain as established by chromatographic analysis. Up-scaling fermentation of mutant 10/14, followed by working up and isolation delivered five metabolites, phenazine, 1-acetyl-β -carboline, perlolyrin and erythromycin A, along with an oily substance. The latter two compounds were responsible for the antibacterial activity of the strain. In this article, we discuss with the mutation of the marine Streptomyces sp. AH2, bioactivity evaluation, fermentation and isolation of the microbial metabolites. Moreover, we study to first time in detail the 1D and 2D NMR and ESI MS data including ESI MS2 and MS3 patterns combined with HRESI MS of erythromycin A. PMID:20046738

  3. Mass Spectrometric Characteristics of Prenylated Indole Derivatives from Marine-Derived Penicillium sp. NH-SL

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hui; Ding, Wanjing; Ma, Zhongjun

    2017-01-01

    Two prenylated indole alkaloids were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of a marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp. NH-SL and one of them exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against mouse hepa 1c1c7 cells. In order to detect other bioactive analogs, we used liquid chromatogram tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to analyze the mass spectrometric characteristics of the isolated compounds as well as the crude extracts. As a result, three other analogs were detected, and their structures were deduced according to the similar fragmentation patterns. This is the first systematic report on the mass spectrometric characteristics of prenylated indole derivatives. PMID:28327529

  4. Solwaric acids A and B, antibacterial aromatic acids from a marine Solwaraspora sp.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Gregory A; Wyche, Thomas P; Fry, Charles G; Braun, Doug R; Bugni, Tim S

    2014-02-14

    Two novel trialkyl-substituted aromatic acids, solwaric acids A and B, were isolated from a marine Solwaraspora sp. cultivated from the ascidian Trididemnum orbiculatum. Solwaric acids A and B were isotopically labeled with U-¹³C glucose, and analysis of a ¹³C-¹³C COSY allowed for unambiguous determination of the location of the phenyl methyl group. The two novel compounds demonstrated antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA).

  5. New α-glucosidase inhibitors from marine algae-derived Streptomyces sp. OUCMDZ-3434

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhengbo; Hao, Jiejie; Wang, Liping; Wang, Yi; Kong, Fandong; Zhu, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    Wailupemycins H (1) and I (2) with a new skeleton coupled two 6-(2-phenylnaphthalene-1-yl)pyrane-2-one nuclei to a –CH2– linkage were identified from the culture of Streptomyces sp. OUCMDZ-3434 associated with the marine algae, Enteromorpha prolifera. Compounds 1 and 2 are two new α-glucosidase inhibitors with the Ki/IC50 values of 16.8/19.7 and 6.0/8.3 μM, respectively. In addition, the absolute configurations of wailupemycins D (3) and E (4) are also resolved in this paper for the first time. PMID:26822662

  6. Pretrichodermamides D–F from a Marine Algicolous Fungus Penicillium sp. KMM 4672

    PubMed Central

    Yurchenko, Anton N.; Smetanina, Olga F.; Ivanets, Elena V.; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I.; Khudyakova, Yuliya V.; Kirichuk, Natalya N.; Popov, Roman S.; Bokemeyer, Carsten; von Amsberg, Gunhild; Chingizova, Ekaterina A.; Afiyatullov, Shamil Sh.; Dyshlovoy, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    Three new epidithiodiketopiperazines pretrichodermamides D–F (1–3), together with the known N-methylpretrichodermamide B (4) and pretrichodermamide С (5), were isolated from the lipophilic extract of the marine algae-derived fungus Penicillium sp. KMM 4672. The structures of compounds 1–5 were determined based on spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of pretrichodermamide D (1) was established by a combination of modified Mosher′s method, NOESY data, and biogenetic considerations. N-Methylpretrichodermamide B (5) showed strong cytotoxicity against 22Rv1 human prostate cancer cells resistant to androgen receptor targeted therapies. PMID:27355960

  7. Plakinamine M, a steroidal alkaloid from the marine sponge Corticium sp.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhenyu; Koch, Michael; Harper, Mary Kay; Matainaho, Teatulohi K; Barrows, Louis R; Van Wagoner, Ryan M; Ireland, Chris M

    2013-11-22

    By means of bioassay-guided fractionation, a new steroidal alkaloid, plakinamine M (1), and the known compound, plakinamine L (2), with a unique acyclic side chain, were isolated from the marine sponge Corticium sp. collected from New Britain, Papua New Guinea. The structures were determined on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. The two compounds showed inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with MIC values of 15.8 and 3.6 μg/mL, respectively.

  8. Vibrio psychroerythrus sp. n.: Classification of the Psychrophilic Marine Bacterium, NRC 1004

    PubMed Central

    D'aoust, J. Y.; Kushner, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    A red-pigmented organism, formerly known as marine psychrophile NRC 1004, has been classified as Vibrio psychroerythrus sp. n. Classification was mainly based on morphology, the ability of the organism to oxidize and ferment glucose, its sensitivity to vibriostat 0/129, and its deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of 40.0 moles% guanine plus cytosine, determined by thermal denaturation. The organism gave positive reactions for catalase, oxidase, and starch hydrolysis and produced acid from maltose and dextrin but not from arabinose. It was indole- and citrate-negative and reduced nitrate to nitrite without producing gas. PMID:5053463

  9. Two New Antibiotic Pyridones Produced by a Marine Fungus, Trichoderma sp. Strain MF106

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bin; Oesker, Vanessa; Wiese, Jutta; Schmaljohann, Rolf; Imhoff, Johannes F.

    2014-01-01

    Two unusual pyridones, trichodin A (1) and trichodin B (2), together with the known compound, pyridoxatin (3), were extracted from mycelia and culture broth of the marine fungus, Trichoderma sp. strain MF106 isolated from the Greenland Seas. The structures of the new compounds were characterized as an intramolecular cyclization of a pyridine basic backbone with a phenyl group. The structure and relative configuration of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic means. The new compound 1 and the known compound 3 showed antibiotic activities against the clinically relevant microorganism, Staphylococcus epidermidis, with IC50 values of 24 μM and 4 μM, respectively. PMID:24663111

  10. Mass Spectrometric Characteristics of Prenylated Indole Derivatives from Marine-Derived Penicillium sp. NH-SL.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hui; Ding, Wanjing; Ma, Zhongjun

    2017-03-22

    Two prenylated indole alkaloids were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of a marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp. NH-SL and one of them exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against mouse hepa 1c1c7 cells. In order to detect other bioactive analogs, we used liquid chromatogram tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to analyze the mass spectrometric characteristics of the isolated compounds as well as the crude extracts. As a result, three other analogs were detected, and their structures were deduced according to the similar fragmentation patterns. This is the first systematic report on the mass spectrometric characteristics of prenylated indole derivatives.

  11. Plakinamine M, a Steroidal Alkaloid from the Marine Sponge Corticium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhenyu; Koch, Michael; Harper, Mary Kay; Matainaho, Teatulohi K.; Barrows, Louis R.; Van Wagoner, Ryan M.; Ireland, Chris M.

    2013-01-01

    Using bioassay-guided fractionation, a new steroidal alkaloid, plakinamine M (1), and the known compound, plakinamine L (2), with a unique acyclic side chain, were isolated from the marine sponge Corticium sp. collected from New Britain, Papua New Guinea. The structures were determined on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. The two compounds showed inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with MIC values of 15.8 and 3.6 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:24195491

  12. Two new antibiotic pyridones produced by a marine fungus, Trichoderma sp. strain MF106.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Oesker, Vanessa; Wiese, Jutta; Schmaljohann, Rolf; Imhoff, Johannes F

    2014-03-06

    Two unusual pyridones, trichodin A (1) and trichodin B (2), together with the known compound, pyridoxatin (3), were extracted from mycelia and culture broth of the marine fungus, Trichoderma sp. strain MF106 isolated from the Greenland Seas. The structures of the new compounds were characterized as an intramolecular cyclization of a pyridine basic backbone with a phenyl group. The structure and relative configuration of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic means. The new compound 1 and the known compound 3 showed antibiotic activities against the clinically relevant microorganism, Staphylococcus epidermidis, with IC₅₀ values of 24 μM and 4 μM, respectively.

  13. Isolation, identification, and cytotoxicity of a new isobenzofuran derivative from marine Streptomyces sp. W007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Xie, Zeping; Lou, Tingting; Jiang, Peng

    2016-03-01

    A new isobenzofuran derivative ( 1) was isolated from the marine Streptomyces sp. W007 and its structure was determined through extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR, and ESI-MS. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was determined by a combination of experimental analyses and comparison with reported data, including biogenetic reasoning, J-coupling analysis, NOESY, and 1H-1HCOSY. Compound 1 exhibited no cytotoxicity against human cells of gastric cancer BGC-823, lung cancer A549, and breast cancer MCF7.

  14. Crystal Structure of Allophycocyanin from Marine Cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. A09DM

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Gagan Deep; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-01-01

    Isolated phycobilisome (PBS) sub-assemblies have been widely subjected to X-ray crystallography analysis to obtain greater insights into the structure-function relationship of this light harvesting complex. Allophycocyanin (APC) is the phycobiliprotein always found in the PBS core complex. Phycocyanobilin (PCB) chromophores, covalently bound to conserved Cys residues of α- and β- subunits of APC, are responsible for solar energy absorption from phycocyanin and for transfer to photosynthetic apparatus. In the known APC structures, heterodimers of α- and β- subunits (known as αβ monomers) assemble as trimer or hexamer. We here for the first time report the crystal structure of APC isolated from a marine cyanobacterium (Phormidium sp. A09DM). The crystal structure has been refined against all the observed data to the resolution of 2.51 Å to Rwork (Rfree) of 0.158 (0.229) with good stereochemistry of the atomic model. The Phormidium protein exists as a trimer of αβ monomers in solution and in crystal lattice. The overall tertiary structures of α- and β- subunits, and trimeric quaternary fold of the Phormidium protein resemble the other known APC structures. Also, configuration and conformation of the two covalently bound PCB chromophores in the marine APC are same as those observed in fresh water cyanobacteria and marine red algae. More hydrophobic residues, however, constitute the environment of the chromophore bound to α-subunit of the Phormidium protein, owing mainly to amino acid substitutions in the marine protein. PMID:25923120

  15. Lacinutrix gracilariae sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from the surface of a marine red alga Gracilaria sp.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhaobin; Li, Guizhen; Lai, Qiliang; Gu, Li; Shao, Zongze

    2015-11-09

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, non-flagellated, rod-shaped bacterium, designated as strain Lxc1T, was isolated from the surface of a marine red alga, Gracilaria sp., which was collected from the coastal regions in Jinjiang, Fujian Province, China. The colony of the strain was orange-yellow, circular and smooth. The 16S rRNA gene of Lxc1T had maximum sequence similarity with Lacinutrix himadriensis E4-9aT (97.1%), followed by L. jangbogonensis PAMC 27137T, L. copepodicola DJ3T, L. algicola AKS293T, and L. mariniflava AKS 432T (similarities <96.4%). Phylogenetic analysis showed strain Lxc1T formed a tight cluster with L. himadriensis E4-9aT and L. copepodicola DJ3T, but represented a novel lineage belonging to the genus Lacinutrix. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C15:1 G (18.3%), iso-C15:0 (16.7%), iso-C17:0-3OH (10.6%), and iso-C15:0-3OH (8.6%). Menaquinone-6 (MK-6) was the only respiratory quinone present. The DNA G+C content of Lxc1T was 31.7 mol%. Combining the results above, it was ascertained that the strain Lxc1T represented a novel species of the genus Lacinutrix, for which the name Lacinutrix gracilariae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Lxc1T (=MCCC 1A01567T=KCTC 42808T).

  16. Aurantibacter crassamenti gen. nov., sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Kasai, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, orange-colored, rod-shaped, chemoheterotrophic bacterium, designated HG732(T), was isolated from marine sediment in Japan. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the novel marine strain was affiliated with the family Flavobacteriaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes and that it shared the highest (94.1 %) sequence similarity with Kriegella aquimaris KMM 3665(T). The strain could be differentiated phenotypically from related members of the family Flavobacteriaceae. Major fatty acids of strain HG732(T) were iso-C15:1 G, iso-C15:0 and iso-C17:0 3-OH. The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, three unidentidied aminolipids and two unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content of the strain was determined to be 35.2 mol%, and the major respiratory quinone was identified as menaquinone 6 (MK-6). From the distinct phylogenetic position and combination of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the strain is considered to represent a novel genus in the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Aurantibacter crassamenti gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. crassamenti gen. nov., sp. nov. is HG732(T) (= KCTC 52207(T) = NBRC 112211(T)).

  17. Marine Sponge-Derived Streptomyces sp. SBT343 Extract Inhibits Staphylococcal Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Srikkanth; Othman, Eman M.; Kampik, Daniel; Stopper, Helga; Hentschel, Ute; Ziebuhr, Wilma; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A.; Abdelmohsen, Usama R.

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are opportunistic pathogens that cause nosocomial and chronic biofilm-associated infections. Indwelling medical devices and contact lenses are ideal ecological niches for formation of staphylococcal biofilms. Bacteria within biofilms are known to display reduced susceptibilities to antimicrobials and are protected from the host immune system. High rates of acquired antibiotic resistances in staphylococci and other biofilm-forming bacteria further hamper treatment options and highlight the need for new anti-biofilm strategies. Here, we aimed to evaluate the potential of marine sponge-derived actinomycetes in inhibiting biofilm formation of several strains of S. epidermidis, S. aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results from in vitro biofilm-formation assays, as well as scanning electron and confocal microscopy, revealed that an organic extract derived from the marine sponge-associated bacterium Streptomyces sp. SBT343 significantly inhibited staphylococcal biofilm formation on polystyrene, glass and contact lens surfaces, without affecting bacterial growth. The extract also displayed similar antagonistic effects towards the biofilm formation of other S. epidermidis and S. aureus strains tested but had no inhibitory effects towards Pseudomonas biofilms. Interestingly the extract, at lower effective concentrations, did not exhibit cytotoxic effects on mouse fibroblast, macrophage and human corneal epithelial cell lines. Chemical analysis by High Resolution Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) of the Streptomyces sp. SBT343 extract proportion revealed its chemical richness and complexity. Preliminary physico-chemical characterization of the extract highlighted the heat-stable and non-proteinaceous nature of the active component(s). The combined data suggest that the Streptomyces sp. SBT343 extract selectively inhibits staphylococcal biofilm formation without interfering with bacterial cell viability. Due to

  18. Marine Sponge-Derived Streptomyces sp. SBT343 Extract Inhibits Staphylococcal Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Srikkanth; Othman, Eman M; Kampik, Daniel; Stopper, Helga; Hentschel, Ute; Ziebuhr, Wilma; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A; Abdelmohsen, Usama R

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are opportunistic pathogens that cause nosocomial and chronic biofilm-associated infections. Indwelling medical devices and contact lenses are ideal ecological niches for formation of staphylococcal biofilms. Bacteria within biofilms are known to display reduced susceptibilities to antimicrobials and are protected from the host immune system. High rates of acquired antibiotic resistances in staphylococci and other biofilm-forming bacteria further hamper treatment options and highlight the need for new anti-biofilm strategies. Here, we aimed to evaluate the potential of marine sponge-derived actinomycetes in inhibiting biofilm formation of several strains of S. epidermidis, S. aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results from in vitro biofilm-formation assays, as well as scanning electron and confocal microscopy, revealed that an organic extract derived from the marine sponge-associated bacterium Streptomyces sp. SBT343 significantly inhibited staphylococcal biofilm formation on polystyrene, glass and contact lens surfaces, without affecting bacterial growth. The extract also displayed similar antagonistic effects towards the biofilm formation of other S. epidermidis and S. aureus strains tested but had no inhibitory effects towards Pseudomonas biofilms. Interestingly the extract, at lower effective concentrations, did not exhibit cytotoxic effects on mouse fibroblast, macrophage and human corneal epithelial cell lines. Chemical analysis by High Resolution Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) of the Streptomyces sp. SBT343 extract proportion revealed its chemical richness and complexity. Preliminary physico-chemical characterization of the extract highlighted the heat-stable and non-proteinaceous nature of the active component(s). The combined data suggest that the Streptomyces sp. SBT343 extract selectively inhibits staphylococcal biofilm formation without interfering with bacterial cell viability. Due to

  19. Extraction and Identification of Antibacterial Secondary Metabolites from Marine Streptomyces sp. VITBRK2

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Benita Mercy; Kannabiran, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    Actinomycetes were isolated from marine sediment samples collected from the east coast of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Well diffusion and agar plug methods were used for the evaluation of antibiotic production by these isolates against drug resistant Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE). The potential isolate VITBRK2 was mass cultured for morphological and physiological characterization. The culturing conditions of the isolate were optimized and the recommendations of International Streptomyces Project were followed for the assimilation of carbon and nitrogen sources. The isolate was identified by comparing the properties with representative species in the key of Nonomura and Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Ethyl acetate extract prepared from the cell free culture broth of the isolate was analyzed using HPLC- diode array technique to characterize the metabolites and identify the antibiotics. VITBRK2 was found to be Gram-positive rod grey color aerial mycelium production. It was also non motile in nature with spiral spore chain morphology. VITBRK2 was identified as Streptomyces and designated as Streptomyces sp. VITBRK2. HPLC-DAD analysis showed the presence of indolo compounds (3- methyl-indole and 2-methyl- indole) along with amicoumacin antibiotic. The observed activity of Streptomyces sp. VITBRK2 against MRSA and VRE strains may be due to the presence of indolo compounds in the isolate. The results of this study suggested that secondary metabolites produced by Streptomyces sp. VITBRK2 could be used as a lead to control drug resistant bacterial pathogens. PMID:25317399

  20. EPR study of radicals produced by gamma-irradiation in marine mollusc (Venus sp.) fossils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koseoglu, R.; Koksal, F.; Ciftci, E.

    2004-08-01

    In this study, gamma-irradiated marine mollusc (Venus sp.) fossils were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at ambient temperature. Powder X-ray diffraction technique indicates that the Venus sp. fossils were made mainly of CaCO3. Before gamma-irradiation, the EPR lines of the powder of fossil samples showed the existence of Mn2+ (I = 5/2, 100% natural abundance) ions with g(av) = 2.0055 and A(av) = 9.4 mT gamma-Irradiation-induced additional defects in Venus sp. fossil were attributed to axial CO3- (gperpendicular to = 2.0171, g// = 2.0048), orthorhombic CO2- (g(x) = 2.0030, g(z) = 2.0018, g(y) = 1.9973, g(av) = 2.0007), freely rotating CO2- (g(iso) = 2.0007), isotropic SO2- (g = 2.0057), axial SO3- (g perpendicular to = 2.0036, g// = 2.0024) and isotropic SO3- (g = 2.0032) free radicals. The g-values of these free radicals were compared with the literature data belonging to similar defects.

  1. Comparative genomic analysis provides insights into the evolution and niche adaptation of marine Magnetospira sp. QH-2 strain.

    PubMed

    Ji, Boyang; Zhang, Sheng-Da; Arnoux, Pascal; Rouy, Zoe; Alberto, François; Philippe, Nadège; Murat, Dorothée; Zhang, Wei-Jia; Rioux, Jean-Baptiste; Ginet, Nicolas; Sabaty, Monique; Mangenot, Sophie; Pradel, Nathalie; Tian, Jiesheng; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Lichen; Zhang, Wenyan; Pan, Hongmiao; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M; Li, Ying; Xiao, Tian; Médigue, Claudine; Barbe, Valérie; Pignol, David; Talla, Emmanuel; Wu, Long-Fei

    2014-02-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are capable of synthesizing intracellular organelles, the magnetosomes, that are membrane-bounded magnetite or greigite crystals arranged in chains. Although MTB are widely spread in various ecosystems, few axenic cultures are available, and only freshwater Magnetospirillum spp. have been genetically analysed. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of a marine magnetotactic spirillum, Magnetospira sp. QH-2. The high number of repeats and transposable elements account for the differences in QH-2 genome structure compared with other relatives. Gene cluster synteny and gene correlation analyses indicate that the insertion of the magnetosome island in the QH-2 genome occurred after divergence between freshwater and marine magnetospirilla. The presence of a sodium-quinone reductase, sodium transporters and other functional genes are evidence of the adaptive evolution of Magnetospira sp. QH-2 to the marine ecosystem. Genes well conserved among freshwater magnetospirilla for nitrogen fixation and assimilatory nitrate respiration are absent from the QH-2 genome. Unlike freshwater Magnetospirillum spp., marine Magnetospira sp. QH-2 neither has TonB and TonB-dependent receptors nor does it grow on trace amounts of iron. Taken together, our results show a distinct, adaptive evolution of Magnetospira sp. QH-2 to marine sediments in comparison with its closely related freshwater counterparts.

  2. Accelerator analysis of tributyltin adsorbed onto the surface of a tributyltin resistant marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. cell.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Haruo; Sato, Ryusei; Sasaki, Yu; Furuyama, Yuichi; Taniike, Akira; Yoshida, Kazutoshi; Kitamura, Akira

    2008-10-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) released into seawater from ship hulls is a stable marine pollutant and obviously remains in marine environments. We isolated a TBT resistant marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. TBT1 from sediment of a ship's ballast water. The isolate (10(9.3 +/- 0.2) colony-forming units mL(-1)) adsorbed TBT in proportion to the concentrations of TBTCl externally added up to 3 mM, where the number of TBT adsorbed by a single cell was estimated to be 10(8.2). The value was reduced to about one-fifth when the lysozyme-treated cells were used. The surface of ethanol treated cells became rough, but the capacity of TBT adsorption was the same as that for native cells. These results indicate that the function of the cell surface, rather than that structure, plays an important role to the adsorption of TBT. The adsorption state of TBT seems to be multi-layer when the number of more than 10(6.8) TBT molecules is adsorbed by a single cell.

  3. Accelerator Analysis of Tributyltin Adsorbed onto the Surface of a Tributyltin Resistant Marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. Cell

    PubMed Central

    Mimura, Haruo; Sato, Ryusei; Sasaki, Yu; Furuyama, Yuichi; Taniike, Akira; Yoshida, Kazutoshi; Kitamura, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) released into seawater from ship hulls is a stable marine pollutant and obviously remains in marine environments. We isolated a TBT resistant marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. TBT1 from sediment of a ship’s ballast water. The isolate (109.3 ± 0.2 colony-forming units mL−1) adsorbed TBT in proportion to the concentrations of TBTCl externally added up to 3 mM, where the number of TBT adsorbed by a single cell was estimated to be 108.2. The value was reduced to about one-fifth when the lysozyme-treated cells were used. The surface of ethanol treated cells became rough, but the capacity of TBT adsorption was the same as that for native cells. These results indicate that the function of the cell surface, rather than that structure, plays an important role to the adsorption of TBT. The adsorption state of TBT seems to be multi-layer when the number of more than 106.8 TBT molecules is adsorbed by a single cell. PMID:19325731

  4. Genome sequence of Vibrio sp. strain EJY3, an agarolytic marine bacterium metabolizing 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose as a sole carbon source.

    PubMed

    Roh, Hanseong; Yun, Eun Ju; Lee, Saeyoung; Ko, Hyeok-Jin; Kim, Sujin; Kim, Byung-Yong; Song, Heesang; Lim, Kwang-il; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Choi, In-Geol

    2012-05-01

    The metabolic fate of 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose (L-AHG) is unknown in the global marine carbon cycle. Vibrio sp. strain EJY3 is an agarolytic marine bacterium that can utilize L-AHG as a sole carbon source. To elucidate the metabolic pathways of L-AHG, we have sequenced the complete genome of Vibrio sp. strain EJY3.

  5. Shewanella hafniensis sp. nov. and Shewanella morhuae sp. nov., isolated from marine fish of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Satomi, Masataka; Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Gram, Lone; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2006-01-01

    Two novel species belonging to the genus Shewanella are described on the basis of their phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences and levels of DNA-DNA hybridization. A total of 47 strains belonging to two novel Gram-negative, psychrotolerant, H2S-producing bacterial species were isolated from marine fish (cod and flounder) caught from the Baltic Sea off Denmark. The phenotypic characteristics of strains belonging to group 1 (14 strains) indicated that these represented a non-sucrose-assimilating variant of Shewanella baltica with a DNA G+C content of 47.0 mol%. Strains of group 2 (33 isolates) did not utilize the carbon substrates assimilated by S. baltica except gluconate, N-acetylglucosamine and malate. Their DNA G+C content was 44.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence data placed the two novel species within the genus Shewanella. Group 1 strains showed greatest sequence similarity to Shewanella putrefaciens ATCC 8071T (99.0 %) and with S. baltica NCTC 10375(T) (98.3 %). However, gyrB gene sequence analysis showed these isolates to share only 90.0 % sequence similarity with S. putrefaciens ATCC 8071T and 93.9 % with S. baltica NCTC 10375T. Similarly, DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed DNA relatedness levels of 38 % between the group 1 isolates and S. putrefaciens ATCC 8071T and 43 % with S. baltica NCTC 10375T. The group 2 strains shared less than 97 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with recognized Shewanella species. Comparisons between the two novel species indicated 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of approximately 98 %, gyrB gene sequence similarity of approximately 89 % and DNA-DNA reassociation values of 20-34 %. Based on the evidence presented, two novel species, Shewanella hafniensis sp. nov. (type strain P010T = ATCC BAA-1207T = NBRC 100975T) and Shewanella morhuae sp. nov. (type strain U1417T = ATCC BAA-1205T = NBRC 100978T), are described.

  6. Nocardiopsis oceani sp. nov. and Nocardiopsis nanhaiensis sp. nov., actinomycetes isolated from marine sediment of the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hua-Qi; Zhang, Dao-Feng; Li, Li; Jiang, Zhao; Cheng, Juan; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Wang, Hong-Fei; Hu, Jiang-Chun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-10-01

    Two actinomycete strains, designated 10A08AT and 10A08BT, were isolated from marine sediment samples of the South China Sea and their taxonomic positions were determined by a polyphasic approach. The two Gram-stain-positive, aerobic strains produced branched substrate mycelium and aerial hyphae, and no diffusible pigment was produced in the media tested. At maturity, spore chains were formed on aerial hyphae and all mycelium fragmented with age. Whole-cell hydrolysates of both strains contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and no diagnostic sugars. Their predominant menaquinones (>10 %) were MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6) and MK-10(H6) for strain 10A08AT and MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6), MK-10(H4) and MK-10(H6) for strain 10A08BT. The polar lipids detected from the two strains were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and unknown phosphoglycolipids and phospholipids. The major fatty acids (>10 %) of both strains were iso-C16 : 0 and summed feature 4 (iso-C17 : 1 I and/or anteiso-C17 : 1 B). The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains 10A08AT and 10A08BT were 70.9 and 71.6 mol%, respectively. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, the two strains were shown to be most closely related to species of the genus Nocardiopsis. DNA–DNA hybridization relatedness values of < 70 % between these two isolates and their closest neighbour, Nocardiopsis terrae YIM 90022T, and between the two strains supported the conclusion that they represent two novel species. Based on phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic and genotypic data, it is concluded that the two isolates belong to the genus Nocardiopsis, and the names Nocardiopsis oceani sp. nov. (type strain 10A08AT = DSM 45931T = BCRC 16951T) and Nocardiopsis nanhaiensis sp. nov. (type strain 10A08BT = CGMCC 47227T = BCRC 16952T) are proposed.

  7. Molecular and morphological characterization of the association between bacterial endosymbionts and the marine nematode Astomonema sp. from the Bahamas.

    PubMed

    Musat, Niculina; Giere, Olav; Gieseke, Armin; Thiermann, Frank; Amann, Rudolf; Dubilier, Nicole

    2007-05-01

    Marine nematode worms without a mouth or functional gut are found worldwide in intertidal sandflats, deep-sea muds and methane-rich pock marks, and morphological studies show that they are associated with endosymbiotic bacteria. While it has been hypothesized that the symbionts are chemoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers, to date nothing is known about the phylogeny or function of endosymbionts from marine nematodes. In this study, we characterized the association between bacterial endosymbionts and the marine nematode Astomonema sp. from coral reef sediments in the Bahamas. Phylogenetic analysis of the host based on its 18S rRNA gene showed that Astomonema sp. is most closely related to non-symbiotic nematodes of the families Linhomoeidae and Axonolaimidae and is not closely related to marine stilbonematinid nematodes with ectosymbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. In contrast, phylogenetic analyses of the symbionts of Astomonema sp. using comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that these are closely related to the stilbonematinid ectosymbionts (95-96% sequence similarity) as well as to the sulfur-oxidizing endosymbionts from gutless marine oligochaetes. The closest free-living relatives of these gammaproteobacterial symbionts are sulfur-oxidizing bacteria from the family Chromatiaceae. Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the bacterial symbionts completely fill the gut lumen of Astomonema sp., suggesting that these are their main source of nutrition. The close phylogenetic relationship of the Astomonema sp. symbionts to known sulfur-oxidizing bacteria as well as the presence of the aprA gene, typically found in sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, indicates that the Astomonema sp. symbionts use reduced sulfur compounds as an energy source to provide their hosts with nutrition.

  8. Elevated lytic phage production as a consequence of particle colonization by a marine Flavobacterium (Cellulophaga sp.).

    PubMed

    Riemann, Lasse; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2008-10-01

    Bacteria growing on marine particles generally have higher densities and cell-specific activities than free-living bacteria. Since rapidity of phage adsorption is dependent on host density, while infection productivity is a function of host physiological status, we hypothesized that marine particles are sites of elevated phage production. In the present study, organic-matter-rich agarose beads and a marine phage-host pair (Cellulophaga sp., PhiS(M)) were used as a model system to examine whether bacterial colonization of particles increases phage production. While no production of phages was observed in plain seawater, the presence of beads enhanced attachment and growth of bacteria, as well as phage production. This was observed because of extensive lysis of bacteria in the presence of beads and a subsequent increase in phage abundance both on beads and in the surrounding water. After 12 h, extensive phage lysis reduced the density of attached bacteria; however, after 32 h, bacterial abundance increased again. Reexposure to phages and analyses of bacterial isolates suggested that this regrowth on particles was by phage-resistant clones. The present demonstration of elevated lytic phage production associated with model particles illustrates not only that a marine phage has the ability to successfully infect and lyse surface-attached bacteria but also that acquisition of resistance may affect temporal phage-host dynamics on particles. These findings from a model system may have relevance to the distribution of phage production in environments rich in particulate matter (e.g., in coastal areas or during phytoplankton blooms) where a significant part of phage production may be directly linked to these nutrient-rich "hot spots."

  9. Activation and comparative analysis of cryptic xiamycin gene cluster from marine-derived Streptomyces sp. FXJ 7.388.

    PubMed

    Uhong Lü, Yuhong; Liu, Xiaoli; Wang, Miao; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Ning; Bao, Yuxin; Liu, Minghao; Li, Xiaoqian; Wang, Yinyin; Qian, Shenyan; Yue, Changwu; Huang, Ying

    2016-09-01

    In order to obtain the natural products synthesized by the three putative xiamycin biosynthesis gene clusters which were predicted via antiSMASH during the genome mining of marine Streptomyces sp. FXJ 7.388, Streptomyces sp. FXJ 8.012, and Streptomyces olivaceus FXJ 7.023. Sixteen genes involved in xiamycin assembly, modification, and regulation with higher identity than the newest reported xiamycin biosynthetic gene cluster from marine Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 02999, Streptomyces sp. HKI0576, and Streptomyces sp. FXJ 7.388 were discovered via gene cluster comparative analysis. A ribosome engineering strategy was adopted to activate such cryptic gene clusters with different final concentrations antibiotics that act on the ribosome, and two indolosesquiterpenes were isolated from idlethaldose streptomycin-resistant Streptomyces sp. FXJ 7.388 strains. However, no such product was detected in Streptomyces sp. FXJ 8.012 and Streptomyces olivaceus FXJ 7.023 under the same treatment. This result suggested that these genes might hold the least gene content for xiamycin biosynthesis.

  10. Unique modification of adenine in genomic DNA of the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium sp. strain NIBB 1067.

    PubMed Central

    Zehr, J P; Ohki, K; Fujita, Y; Landry, D

    1991-01-01

    The genomic DNA of the marine nonheterocystous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium sp. strain NIBB 1067 was found to be highly resistant to DNA restriction endonucleases. The DNA was digested extensively by the restriction enzyme DpnI, which requires adenine methylation for activity. The DNA composition, determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), was found to be 69% AT. Surprisingly, it was found that a modified adenine which was not methylated at the usual N6 position was present and made up 4.7 mol% of the nucleosides in Trichodesmium DNA (15 mol% of deoxyadenosine). In order for adenine residues to be modified at this many positions, there must be many modifying enzymes or at least one of the modifying enzymes must have a degenerate recognition site. The reason(s) for this extensive methylation has not yet been determined but may have implications for the ecological success of this microorganism in nature. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:1657876

  11. Isolation, structure determination and cytotoxicity studies of tryptophan alkaloids from an Australian marine sponge Hyrtios sp.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Shahan; Feng, Yunjiang; Campitelli, Marc R; Ekins, Merrick G; Hooper, John N A; Beattie, Karren D; Sadowski, Martin C; Nelson, Colleen C; Davis, Rohan A

    2014-08-01

    Mass-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract from a specimen of the Australian marine sponge Hyrtios sp. resulted in the isolation of two new tryptophan alkaloids, 6-oxofascaplysin (2), and secofascaplysic acid (3), in addition to the known metabolites fascaplysin (1) and reticulatate (4). The structures of all molecules were determined following NMR and MS data analysis. Structural ambiguities in 2 were addressed through comparison of experimental and DFT-generated theoretical NMR spectral values. Compounds 1-4 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against a prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP) and were shown to display IC50 values ranging from 0.54 to 44.9 μM.

  12. Cytotoxic 5α,8α-epidioxy sterols from the marine sponge Monanchora sp.

    PubMed

    Mun, Bora; Wang, Weihong; Kim, Hiyoung; Hahn, Dongyup; Yang, Inho; Won, Dong Hwan; Kim, Eun-hee; Lee, Jihye; Han, Chulkyeong; Kim, Hyunji; Ekins, Merrick; Nam, Sang-Jip; Choi, Hyukjae; Kang, Heonjoong

    2015-01-01

    Three new sterols, 5α,8α-epidioxy-24-norcholesta-6,9(11),22-trien-3β-ol (1), 5α,8α-epidioxy-cholesta-6,9(11),24-trien-3β-ol (2), and 5α,8α-epidioxy-cholesta-6,23-dien-3β,25-diol (3), with four known sterols (4-7) were isolated from a marine sponge Monanchora sp. Their chemical structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1 and 3-7 showed moderate cytotoxicity against several human carcinoma cell lines including renal (A-498), pancreatic (PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2), and colorectal (HCT 116) cancer cell lines.

  13. New marine sterols from an algal-bearing gorgonian coral Pinnigorgia sp.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Chia; Chen, Nan-Fu; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Tseng, Chung-Chih; Wu, Tung-Ying; Peng, Bo-Rong; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Fang, Lee-Shing; Wu, Yang-Chang; Sheu, Jyh-Horng; Sung, Ping-Jyun

    2016-11-01

    Four new marine sterols, (22E,24R)-ergosta-5,22-diene-3β,11α-diol (1), (24S)-ergosta-5-ene-3β,11α-diol (2), 5α,6α-epoxy-23-demethylgorgost-8-ene-3β,7α-diol (3), and 5α,6α-epoxy-23-demethylgorgost-8(14)-ene-3β,7α-diol (4), along with a known metabolite, 23-demethylgorgost-7-ene-3β,5α,6β-triol (5), were isolated from an algal-bearing gorgonian coral Pinnigorgia sp., collected off the waters of Taiwan. The structures of these sterols were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. Sterols 1-5 were tested for in vitro cytotoxicity in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Proliferation of HSCs plays a key role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Thalassomonas viridans gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel marine gamma-proteobacterium.

    PubMed

    Macián, M C; Ludwig, W; Schleifer, K H; Garay, E; Pujalte, M J

    2001-07-01

    A new genus and species are proposed for two halophilic, strictly aerobic, chemo-organotrophic, marine bacterial strains. These bacteria are gram-negative, motile rods isolated from oysters cultivated off the Mediterranean coast at Valencia (Spain). They produce green/blue-green diffusible pigment. The G+C content of the DNA of the proposed type strain (XOM25T) is 48.4 mol %. A 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of the two strains has shown that the new isolates represent a branch within the gamma-Proteobacteria, close to the genus Colwellia. The type species of the new genus is Thalassomonas viridans gen. nov., sp. nov., with the type strain XOM25T (= CECT 5083T = DSM 13754T).

  15. Anti-mycobacterial alkaloids, cyclic 3-alkyl pyridinium dimers, from the Indonesian marine sponge Haliclona sp.

    PubMed

    Maarisit, Wilmar; Abdjul, Delfly B; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hajime; Rotinsulu, Henki; Wewengkang, Defny S; Sumilat, Deiske A; Kapojos, Magie M; Ukai, Kazuyo; Namikoshi, Michio

    2017-08-01

    Three new dimeric 3-alkyl pyridinium alkaloids, named haliclocyclamines A-C (1-3), were isolated together with five known congeners, cyclostellettamines A (4), B (5), C (6), E (7), and F (8), from the Indonesian marine sponge Haliclona sp. The structures of 1-3 were assigned based on their spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR, HRFABMS, ESIMS/MS, UV, and IR). Compounds 1-8 exhibited antimicrobial activities against Mycobacterium smegmatis with inhibition zones of 17, 10, 13, 14, 8, 8, 12, and 12mm, respectively, at 10μg/disc. Compounds 3 and 8 also modestly inhibited the activity of vaccinia H-1-related phosphatase (VHR), a dual-specificity phosphatase, at 17-18μM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A new diketopiperazine from South China Sea marine sponge Callyspongia sp.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinning; Peng, Yan; Gao, Chenghai; Huang, Riming

    2014-01-01

    Further chemical investigation on the marine sponge Callyspongia sp. collected from South China Sea led to the isolation of a new diketopiperazine, named callysponine A (1), as well as four known diketopiperazines, namely cyclo-(Gly-Pro) (2), cyclo-(Thr-Pro) (3), cyclo-(Ile-Pro) (4) and cyclo-(Pro-Pro) (5). The new structure was determined on the basis of NMR and MS analysis, and the absolute stereochemistry was defined by analysis of the coupling constants and optical rotation. The structures of the known compounds were identified by comparing their spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Compounds 1-5 did not inhibit the growth of HepG2 (hepatoma carcinoma cell), A549 (lung carcinoma cell) and HeLa (cervical cancer cell) cell lines.

  17. Topsensterols A–C, Cytotoxic Polyhydroxylated Sterol Derivatives from a Marine Sponge Topsentia sp.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min; Wu, Xu-Dong; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Three new polyhydroxylated sterol derivatives topsensterols A–C (1–3) have been isolated from a marine sponge Topsentia sp. collected from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by detailed analysis of the spectroscopic data, especially the NOESY spectra. Topsensterols A–C (l–3) possess novel 2β,3α,4β,6α-tetrahydroxy-14α-methyl Δ9(11) steroidal nuclei with unusual side chains. Compound 2 exhibited cytotoxicity against human gastric carcinoma cell line SGC-7901 with an IC50 value of 8.0 μM. Compound 3 displayed cytotoxicity against human erythroleukemia cell line K562 with an IC50 value of 6.0 μM. PMID:27490555

  18. Aranciamycins I and J, Antimycobacterial Anthracyclines from an Australian Marine-Derived Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Zeinab G; Raju, Ritesh; Piggott, Andrew M; Salim, Angela A; Blumenthal, Antje; Capon, Robert J

    2015-04-24

    Chemical analysis of an Australian marine-derived Streptomyces sp. (CMB-M0150) yielded two new anthracycline antibiotics, aranciamycins I (1) and J (2), as well as the previously reported aranciamycin A (3) and aranciamycin (4). The aranciamycins 1-4, identified by detailed spectroscopic analysis, were noncytotoxic when tested against selected Gram-negative bacteria and fungi (IC50 >30 μM) and exhibited moderate and selective cytotoxicity against Gram-positive bacteria (IC50 >1.1 μM) and a panel of human cancer cell lines (IC50 > 7.5 μM). Significantly, 1-4 were cytotoxic (IC50 0.7-1.7 μM) against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis surrogate M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin.

  19. Hormaomycins B and C: New Antibiotic Cyclic Depsipeptides from a Marine Mudflat-Derived Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Munhyung; Chung, Beomkoo; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon; Oh, Dong-Chan

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in microbial culture conditions may trigger the production of diverse bioactive secondary metabolites. While applying various culture conditions and monitoring secondary metabolite profiles using LC/MS, hormaomycins B and C (1 and 2) were discovered from a marine mudflat-derived actinomycete, Streptomyces sp., collected in Mohang, Korea. The planar structures of the hormaomycins, which bear structurally-unique units, such as 4-(Z)-propenylproline, 3-(2-nitrocyclopropyl)alanine, 5-chloro-1-hydroxypyrrol-2-carboxylic acid and β-methylphenylalanine, were established as the first natural analogues belonging to the hormaomycin peptide class. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were deduced by comparing their CD spectra with that of hormaomycin. These hormaomycins exhibited significant inhibitory effects against various pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26287218

  20. Cryptosporidium sp. infections in green turtles, Chelonia mydas, as a potential source of marine waterborne oocysts in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, T.K.; Balazs, G.H.; Work, T.M.; Aguirre, A.A.; Ellis, D.M.; Murakawa, Shawn K. K.; Morris, Robert

    1997-01-01

    For the first time, Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were identified in fecal and intestinal samples from free-ranging marine turtles, Chelonia mydas, from the Hawaiian Islands. The oocysts produced positive reactions with commercial test kits recommended for the detection of human-infectious waterborne oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum.

  1. Cryptosporidium sp. Infections in Green Turtles, Chelonia mydas, as a Potential Source of Marine Waterborne Oocysts in the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Graczyk, T. K.; Balazs, G. H.; Work, T.; Aguirre, A. A.; Ellis, D. M.; Murakawa, S.; Morris, R.

    1997-01-01

    For the first time, Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were identified in fecal and intestinal samples from free-ranging marine turtles, Chelonia mydas, from the Hawaiian Islands. The oocysts produced positive reactions with commercial test kits recommended for the detection of human-infectious waterborne oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum. PMID:16535658

  2. Cryptosporidium sp. infections in green turtles, Chelonia mydas, as a potential source of marine waterborne oocysts in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, T.K.; Balazs, G.H.; Work, Thierry M.; Aguirre, A.A.; Ellis, D.M.; Murakawa, Shawn K. K.; Morris, Robert

    1997-01-01

    For the first time, Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were identified in fecal and intestinal samples from free-ranging marine turtles, Chelonia mydas, from the Hawaiian Islands. The oocysts produced positive reactions with commercial test kits recommended for the detection of human-infectious waterborne oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum.

  3. Pentacyclic ingamine-type alkaloids, a new antiplasmodial pharmacophore from the marine sponge petrosid Ng5 Sp5

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two new pentacyclic ingamine- type alkaloids, namely 22(S)-hydroxyingamine A (2) and dihydroingenamine D (3), together with the known ingamine A (1) have been isolated from marine sponge Petrosid Ng5 Sp5 (Family: Petrosiidae) obtained from the open repository of National Cancer Institute, USA. The s...

  4. Salaramides A and B; two alpha-oxoamides isolated from the marine sponge Hippospongia sp. (Porifera, Dictyoceratida).

    PubMed

    Bensemhoun, Julia; Rudi, Amira; Kashman, Yoel; Gaydou, Emile M; Vacelet, Jean; Aknin, Maurice

    2010-02-01

    Two novel alpha-oxoamides, salaramide A (1) and its homologue salaramide B (2), were isolated from the Madagascar marine sponge, Hippospongia sp., collected in Salary Bay, north of Tulear. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by interpretation of mass spectra, 1D and 2D NMR spectra, and confirmed by chemical transformation.

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of a Selenite- and Tellurite-Reducing Marine Bacterium, Lysinibacillus sp. Strain ZYM-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yonghe; Dong, Yuxuan; Zhang, Yiwen; Che, Lin; Pan, Haixia

    2016-01-01

    Lysinibacillus sp. ZYM-1, a Gram-positive strain isolated from marine sediments, reduces selenite and tellurite efficiently. Meanwhile, it also exhibits high resistance to Zn2+ and Mn2+. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of strain ZYM-1, which contains genes related to selenite and tellurite reduction and also metal resistance. PMID:26769938

  6. Physicochemical properties of the exopolysaccharides produced by marine bacterium Zoogloea sp. KCCM10036.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dong-Jung; Kim, Jong-Deog; Kim, Min-Yong; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Kong, Jai-Yul

    2007-06-01

    The physicochemical properties of the exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by marine bacterium Zoogloea sp. KCCM10036 were investigated. Two types of isolated EPSs were shown to have average relative molecular masses (Mr) of 4.07 x 10(6) of CBP (cell-bound polysaccharide) and 3.43 x 10(6) of WSP (water-soluble polysaccharide), respectively. When the CBP was utilized as an emulsifier, it stabilized the emulsion for up to 148 h. Compared with other commercially available hydrocolloids such as xanthan gum, the Tween series, and Triton, the CBP showed much better emulsifying capability on a water-in-oil system. Phase separation occurred in the Tween series after 24 h, whereas the emulsion was better stabilized by the CBP. The CBP thus has potential as an emulsifying agent in commercial emulsions. The flocculating activity was also greatest at 0.01% (w/v) and decreased at higher concentrations than the optimized concentration of the WSP and CBP. The results also showed that both types of exopolysaccharides from Zoogloea sp. had excellent flocculating activity.

  7. Exopolysaccharide production by a marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain isolated from Madeira Archipelago ocean sediments.

    PubMed

    Roca, Christophe; Lehmann, Mareen; Torres, Cristiana A V; Baptista, Sílvia; Gaudêncio, Susana P; Freitas, Filomena; Reis, Maria A M

    2016-06-25

    Exopolysaccharides (EPS) are polymers excreted by some microorganisms with interesting properties and used in many industrial applications. A new Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain, MD12-642, was isolated from marine sediments and cultivated in bioreactor in saline culture medium containing glucose as carbon source. Its ability to produce EPS under saline conditions was demonstrated reaching an EPS production of 4.4g/L within 17hours of cultivation, corresponding to a volumetric productivity of 0.25g/Lh, the highest value so far obtained for Pseudoalteromonas sp. strains. The compositional analysis of the EPS revealed the presence of galacturonic acid (41-42mol%), glucuronic acid (25-26mol%), rhamnose (16-22mol%) and glucosamine (12-16mol%) sugar residues. The polymer presents a high molecular weight (above 1000kDa). These results encourage the biotechnological exploitation of strain MD12-642 for the production of valuable EPS with unique composition, using saline by-products/wastes as feedstocks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nitrate repletion strategy for enhancing lipid production from marine microalga Tetraselmis sp.

    PubMed

    Kim, Garam; Bae, Jinsung; Lee, Kisay

    2016-04-01

    The cell growth rate and cellular lipid content of microalgae are affected by the nitrogen levels during cultivation. The growth rate and lipid content of marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. was found to increase under nitrate replete conditions, but not under deplete conditions. Thus, in order to enhance the lipid productivity of Tetraselmis sp., a two-stage culture process utilizing nitrate replete condition was applied. When the cells were cultivated in F/2 medium for five days in the first stage, the obtained lipid content and productivity were 22.4% and 26.7mgL(-1)d(-1), respectively. After second stage of cultivation for a further 36h under nitrate replete conditions with 8.82mM NaNO3, increased biomass concentration of 1.32gL(-1) and lipid content of 30.5% were obtained, with an enhanced lipid productivity of 47.3mgL(-1)d(-1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of acetonitrile-tolerant marine bacterium Exiguobacterium sp. SBH81 and its tolerance mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kongpol, Ajiraporn; Kato, Junichi; Tajima, Takahisa; Vangnai, Alisa S

    2012-01-01

    A Gram-positive marine bacterium, Exiguobacterium sp. SBH81, was isolated as a hydrophilic organic-solvent tolerant bacterium, and exhibited high tolerance to various types of toxic hydrophilic organic solvents, including acetonitrile, at relatively high concentrations (up to 6% [v/v]) under the growing conditions. Investigation of its tolerance mechanisms illustrated that it does not rely on solvent inactivation processes or modification of cell surface characteristics, but rather, increase of the cell size lowers solvent partitioning into cells and the extrusion of solvents through the efflux system. A test using efflux pump inhibitors suggested that secondary transporters, i.e. resistance nodulation cell division (RND) and the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family, are involved in acetonitrile tolerance in this strain. In addition, its acetonitrile tolerance ability could be stably and significantly enhanced by repetitive growth in the presence of toxic acetonitrile. The marked acetonitrile tolerance of Exiguobacterium sp. SBH81 indicates its potential use as a host for biotechnological fermentation processes as well as bioremediation.

  10. Physiological conditions for nitrogen fixation in a unicellular marine cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. strain SF1.

    PubMed Central

    Spiller, H; Shanmugam, K T

    1987-01-01

    A marine, unicellular, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium was isolated from the blades of a brown alga, Sargassum fluitans. This unicellular cyanobacterium, identified as Synechococcus sp. strain SF1, is capable of photoautotrophic growth with bicarbonate as the sole carbon source and dinitrogen as the sole nitrogen source. Among the organic carbon compounds tested, glucose and sucrose supported growth. Of the nitrogen compounds tested, with bicarbonate serving as the carbon source, both ammonia and nitrate produced the highest growth rates. Most amino acids failed to support growth when present as sole sources of nitrogen. Nitrogenase activity in Synechococcus sp. strain SF1 was induced after depletion of ammonia from the medium. This activity required the photosynthetic utilization of bicarbonate, but pyruvate and hydrogen gas were also effective sources of reductant for nitrogenase activity. Glucose, fructose, and sucrose also supported nitrogenase activity but to a lesser extent. Optimum light intensity for nitrogenase activity was found to be 70 microE/m2 per s, while the optimum oxygen concentration in the gas phase for nitrogenase activity was about 1%. A hydrogenase activity was coinduced with nitrogenase activity. It is proposed that this light- and oxygen-insensitive hydrogenase functions in recycling the hydrogen produced by nitrogenase under microaerobic conditions. PMID:3119563

  11. Biodegradation of PAHs by Burkholderia sp. VITRSB1 Isolated from Marine Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Revathy, T.; Jayasri, M. A.; Suthindhiran, K.

    2015-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution to the environment is a major threat to the living organisms, and hence the degradation of these PAHs is necessary. Studies on PAHs degrading bacteria have focussed on terrestrial microbes and the potential of marine derived microbes is undermined. Herein we report the isolation and characterization of PAHs degrading Burkholderia sp. from lagoon sediments collected at the Southern coast of India. The strain was Gram negative, rod-shaped, motile, and ∼2–5 μm in length. Based on the phylogenetic data the strain was identified as Burkholderia and designated as VITRSB1. Initial PAHs degradation ability of the strain was assessed using basal salt medium supplemented with diesel, kerosene, toluene, aniline, naphthalene, and phenol. The strain was found to be effectively degrading kerosene, diesel, toluene, and aniline even at higher concentration (1%). However, naphthalene and aniline were degraded only at lower concentration (0.1%) and phenol, camphor, and DAP inhibited the growth of the strain. Furthermore, the degraded end products of the PAHs were determined using FTIR. Notably, none of the end products were found to be toxic to the biosphere. Our results indicate that the isolated Burkholderia sp. could be a prospective candidate for the effective degradation of selective PAHs. PMID:26605106

  12. Genomics of the Proteorhodopsin-Containing Marine Flavobacterium Dokdonia sp. Strain MED134▿†

    PubMed Central

    González, José M.; Pinhassi, Jarone; Fernández-Gómez, Beatriz; Coll-Lladó, Montserrat; González-Velázquez, Mónica; Puigbò, Pere; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Gómez-Consarnau, Laura; Fernàndez-Guerra, Antoni; Goesmann, Alexander; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Proteorhodopsin phototrophy is expected to have considerable impact on the ecology and biogeochemical roles of marine bacteria. However, the genetic features contributing to the success of proteorhodopsin-containing bacteria remain largely unknown. We investigated the genome of Dokdonia sp. strain MED134 (Bacteroidetes) for features potentially explaining its ability to grow better in light than darkness. MED134 has a relatively high number of peptidases, suggesting that amino acids are the main carbon and nitrogen sources. In addition, MED134 shares with other environmental genomes a reduction in gene copies at the expense of important ones, like membrane transporters, which might be compensated by the presence of the proteorhodopsin gene. The genome analyses suggest Dokdonia sp. MED134 is able to respond to light at least partly due to the presence of a strong flavobacterial consensus promoter sequence for the proteorhodopsin gene. Moreover, Dokdonia sp. MED134 has a complete set of anaplerotic enzymes likely to play a role in the adaptation of the carbon anabolism to the different sources of energy it can use, including light or various organic matter compounds. In addition to promoting growth, proteorhodopsin phototrophy could provide energy for the degradation of complex or recalcitrant organic matter, survival during periods of low nutrients, or uptake of amino acids and peptides at low concentrations. Our analysis suggests that the ability to harness light potentially makes MED134 less dependent on the amount and quality of organic matter or other nutrients. The genomic features reported here may well be among the keys to a successful photoheterotrophic lifestyle. PMID:22003006

  13. Metabolomic Profiling and Genomic Study of a Marine Sponge-Associated Streptomyces sp

    PubMed Central

    Viegelmann, Christina; Margassery, Lekha Menon; Kennedy, Jonathan; Zhang, Tong; O’Brien, Ciarán; O’Gara, Fergal; Morrissey, John P.; Dobson, Alan D. W.; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomics and genomics are two complementary platforms for analyzing an organism as they provide information on the phenotype and genotype, respectively. These two techniques were applied in the dereplication and identification of bioactive compounds from a Streptomyces sp. (SM8) isolated from the sponge Haliclona simulans from Irish waters. Streptomyces strain SM8 extracts showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. NMR analysis of the active fractions proved that hydroxylated saturated fatty acids were the major components present in the antibacterial fractions. Antimycin compounds were initially putatively identified in the antifungal fractions using LC-Orbitrap. Their presence was later confirmed by comparison to a standard. Genomic analysis of Streptomyces sp. SM8 revealed the presence of multiple secondary metabolism gene clusters, including a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of the antifungal antimycin family of compounds. The antimycin gene cluster of Streptomyces sp. SM8 was inactivated by disruption of the antimycin biosynthesis gene antC. Extracts from this mutant strain showed loss of antimycin production and significantly less antifungal activity than the wild-type strain. Three butenolides, 4,10-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (1), 4,11-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (2), and 4-hydroxy-10-methyl-11-oxo-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (3) that had previously been reported from marine Streptomyces species were also isolated from SM8. Comparison of the extracts of Streptomyces strain SM8 and its host sponge, H. simulans, using LC-Orbitrap revealed the presence of metabolites common to both extracts, providing direct evidence linking sponge metabolites to a specific microbial symbiont. PMID:24893324

  14. Cytotoxic effects of three new metabolites from Red Sea marine sponge, Petrosia sp.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Lateff, Ahmed; Alarif, Walied M; Asfour, Hany Z; Ayyad, Seif-Eldin N; Khedr, Alaa; Badria, Farid A; Al-Lihaibi, Sultan S

    2014-05-01

    Marine sponges represent an affluent source of biogenetically unprecedented array of biologically active compounds. This study revealed the isolation of ten compounds from marine sponge of Petrosia sp. Their chemical structures were determined by using 1D and 2D NMR, UV, IR and MS measurements. A polyoxygenated steroid (3β,7β,9α-trihydroxycholest-5-en (1), a purine-derivative (3,7-dimethyl-2-(methylamino)-3H-purin-6(7H)-one (2) and a sphingolipid (N-((3S,E)-1,3-dihydroxytetracos-4-en-2-yl)stearamide (3) proved to be new compounds. Meanwhile, seven known compounds; (4-10) were also identified. The cytotoxicity of the total extract and the isolated compounds were subjected to cytotoxicity evaluation employing two cancer cell lines; HepG2 and MCF-7. All tested compounds exhibited cytotoxic effect on both cancer cell lines with IC(50) in range of 20-500 μM. The proposed mechanism of cytotoxic activities was examined through its molecular affinity to the DNA. Compound 5 showed the highest affinity to the DNA with IC(50) 30 μg/mL.

  15. Streptomyces atlanticus sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from marine sponge Aplysina fulva (Pallas, 1766).

    PubMed

    Silva, Fábio Sérgio Paulino; Souza, Danilo Tosta; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Pansa, Camila Cristiane; de Figueiredo Vasconcellos, Rafael Leandro; Crevelin, Eduardo José; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Melo, Itamar Soares

    2016-11-01

    The taxonomic position of a novel marine actinomycete isolated from a marine sponge, Aplysina fulva, which had been collected in the Archipelago of Saint Peter and Saint Paul (Equatorial Atlantic Ocean), was determined by using a polyphasic approach. The organism showed a combination of morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Streptomyces and forms a distinct branch within the Streptomyces somaliensis 16S rRNA gene tree subclade. It is closely related to Streptomyces violascens ISP 5183(T) (97.27 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Streptomyces hydrogenans NBRC 13475(T) (97.15 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The 16S rRNA gene similarities between the isolate and the remaining members of the subclade are lower than 96.77 %. The organism can be distinguished readily from other members of the S. violacens subclade using a combination of phenotypic properties. On the basis of these results, it is proposed that isolate 103(T) (=NRRL B-65309(T) = CMAA 1378(T)) merits recognition as the type strain of a new Streptomyces species, namely Streptomyces atlanticus sp. nov.

  16. Bioremoval of the synthetic dye malachite green by marine Trichoderma sp.

    PubMed

    Saravanakumar, Kandasamy; Kathiresan, Kandasamy

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a marine strain of Trichoderma sp was used for degradation of a synthetic dye, malachite green. Individual and interaction effects of the physical and chemical factors that influenced the percentage of dye degradation were tested by response surface methodology. For optimization, enzyme production and dye degradation were assessed under different temperatures (5-40°C), pH values (3-11), yeast extract (5-9 g L(-1)) and incubation period (0-15 days). The optimum conditions found for dye degradation, were 30°C, pH 5.8, 5.81 mg L(-1) yeast extract for an incubation period of 10 days. Whereas for laccase production they were 29°C, pH 5.3, 7.7 mg L(-1) yeast extract for an incubation period of 12 days. It was confirmed that laccase production required the higher nitrogen source. Degradation of dye was confirmed by using analytical techniques such as FTIR, UV-vis spectral and scanning electron microscope analysis. Furthermore, toxicity effect of degraded and undegraded dye solutions was tested with Artemia salina. Hundred percent mortality was observed in undegraded dye solution as against only 2-5% in degraded dye solution. This work proved the potential of marine strain of Trichoderma Hypocrea lixii on dye degradation.

  17. Leisingera methylohalidivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine methylotroph that grows on methyl bromide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaefer, J.K.; Goodwin, K.D.; McDonald, I.R.; Murrell, J.C.; Oremland, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    A marine methylotroph, designated strain MB2T, was isolated for its ability to grow on methyl bromide as a sole carbon and energy source. Methyl chloride and methyl iodide also supported growth, as did methionine and glycine betaine. A limited amount of growth was observed with dimethyl sulfide. Growth was also noted with unidentified components of the complex media marine broth 2216, yeast extract and Casamino acids. No growth was observed on methylated amines, methanol, formate, acetate, glucose or a variety of other substrates. Growth on methyl bromide and methyl iodide resulted in their oxidation to CO2 with stoichiometric release of bromide and iodide, respectively. Strain MB2T exhibited growth optima at NaCl and Mg2+ concentrations similar to that of seawater. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence placed this strain in the ??-Proteobacteria in proximity to the genera Ruegeria and Roseobacter. It is proposed that strain MB2T (= ATCC BAA-92T = DSM 14336T) be designated Leisingera methylohalidivorans gen. nov., sp. nov.

  18. A Novel Exopolysaccharide with Metal Adsorption Capacity Produced by a Marine Bacterium Alteromonas sp. JL2810

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zilian; Cai, Ruanhong; Zhang, Wenhui; Fu, Yingnan; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2017-01-01

    Most marine bacteria can produce exopolysaccharides (EPS). However, very few structures of EPS produced by marine bacteria have been determined. The characterization of EPS structure is important for the elucidation of their biological functions and ecological roles. In this study, the structure of EPS produced by a marine bacterium, Alteromonas sp. JL2810, was characterized, and the biosorption of the EPS for heavy metals Cu2+, Ni2+, and Cr6+ was also investigated. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated that the JL2810 EPS have a novel structure consisting of the repeating unit of [-3)-α-Rhap-(1→3)-α-Manp-(1→4)-α-3OAc-GalAp-(1→]. The biosorption of the EPS for heavy metals was affected by a medium pH; the maximum biosorption capacities for Cu2+ and Ni2+ were 140.8 ± 8.2 mg/g and 226.3 ± 3.3 mg/g at pH 5.0; however, for Cr6+ it was 215.2 ± 5.1 mg/g at pH 5.5. Infrared spectrometry analysis demonstrated that the groups of O-H, C=O, and C-O-C were the main function groups for the adsorption of JL2810 EPS with the heavy metals. The adsorption equilibrium of JL2810 EPS for Ni2+ was further analyzed, and the equilibrium data could be better represented by the Langmuir isotherm model. The novel EPS could be potentially used in industrial applications as a novel bio-resource for the removal of heavy metals. PMID:28604644

  19. Vitroprocines, new antibiotics against Acinetobacter baumannii, discovered from marine Vibrio sp. QWI-06 using mass-spectrometry-based metabolomics approach.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Chen, Pei-Chin; Shih, Chao-Jen; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Lai, Ying-Mi; Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Yang, Yu-Liang

    2015-08-04

    A robust and convenient research strategy integrating state-of-the-art analytical techniques is needed to efficiently discover novel compounds from marine microbial resources. In this study, we identified a series of amino-polyketide derivatives, vitroprocines A-J, from the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. QWI-06 by an integrated approach using imaging mass spectroscopy and molecular networking, as well as conventional bioactivity-guided fractionation and isolation. The structure-activity relationship of vitroprocines against Acinetobacter baumannii is proposed. In addition, feeding experiments with (13)C-labeled precursors indicated that a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent mechanism is involved in the biosynthesis of vitroprocines. Elucidation of amino-polyketide derivatives from a species of marine bacteria for the first time demonstrates the potential of this integrated metabolomics approach to uncover marine bacterial biodiversity.

  20. Vitroprocines, new antibiotics against Acinetobacter baumannii, discovered from marine Vibrio sp. QWI-06 using mass-spectrometry-based metabolomics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Chen, Pei-Chin; Shih, Chao-Jen; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Lai, Ying-Mi; Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Yang, Yu-Liang

    2015-08-01

    A robust and convenient research strategy integrating state-of-the-art analytical techniques is needed to efficiently discover novel compounds from marine microbial resources. In this study, we identified a series of amino-polyketide derivatives, vitroprocines A-J, from the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. QWI-06 by an integrated approach using imaging mass spectroscopy and molecular networking, as well as conventional bioactivity-guided fractionation and isolation. The structure-activity relationship of vitroprocines against Acinetobacter baumannii is proposed. In addition, feeding experiments with 13C-labeled precursors indicated that a pyridoxal 5‧-phosphate-dependent mechanism is involved in the biosynthesis of vitroprocines. Elucidation of amino-polyketide derivatives from a species of marine bacteria for the first time demonstrates the potential of this integrated metabolomics approach to uncover marine bacterial biodiversity.

  1. Taxonomic characterization of Vorticella fuscaPrecht, 1935 and Vorticella parapulchella n. sp., two marine peritrichs (Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea) from China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping; Song, Weibo; Clamp, John; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S

    2006-01-01

    Two marine peritrich ciliates, Vorticella fuscaPrecht (1935) and Vorticella parapulchella n. sp. were discovered in the littoral zone of Qingdao, northern China. Their morphology, infraciliature, and silverline system were described using live observation and silver impregnation. The poorly known species V. fusca is redescribed, adding information about the oral infraciliature and pellicular morphology. Vorticella parapulchella n. sp. is superficially similar to Vorticella pulchellaSommer (1951) but is distinguished from it by being markedly smaller and having much more widely spaced pellicular ridges. The infundibular infraciliature of V. parapulchella is extremely unusual in having infundibular polykinety 3 reduced to two rows, one of which has almost disappeared.

  2. Two novel phycoerythrin-associated linker proteins in the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain WH8102.

    PubMed

    Six, Christophe; Thomas, Jean-Claude; Thion, Laurent; Lemoine, Yves; Zal, Frank; Partensky, Frédéric

    2005-03-01

    The recent availability of the whole genome of Synechococcus sp. strain WH8102 allows us to have a global view of the complex structure of the phycobilisomes of this marine picocyanobacterium. Genomic analyses revealed several new characteristics of these phycobilisomes, consisting of an allophycocyanin core and rods made of one type of phycocyanin and two types of phycoerythrins (I and II). Although the allophycocyanin appears to be similar to that found commonly in freshwater cyanobacteria, the phycocyanin is simpler since it possesses only one complete set of alpha and beta subunits and two rod-core linkers (CpcG1 and CpcG2). It is therefore probably made of a single hexameric disk per rod. In contrast, we have found two novel putative phycoerythrin-associated linker polypeptides that appear to be specific for marine Synechococcus spp. The first one (SYNW2000) is unusually long (548 residues) and apparently results from the fusion of a paralog of MpeC, a phycoerythrin II linker, and of CpeD, a phycoerythrin-I linker. The second one (SYNW1989) has a more classical size (300 residues) and is also an MpeC paralog. A biochemical analysis revealed that, like MpeC, these two novel linkers were both chromophorylated with phycourobilin. Our data suggest that they are both associated (partly or totally) with phycoerythrin II, and we propose to name SYNW2000 and SYNW1989 MpeD and MpeE, respectively. We further show that acclimation of phycobilisomes to high light leads to a dramatic reduction of MpeC, whereas the two novel linkers are not significantly affected. Models for the organization of the rods are proposed.

  3. Two Novel Phycoerythrin-Associated Linker Proteins in the Marine Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Strain WH8102

    PubMed Central

    Six, Christophe; Thomas, Jean-Claude; Thion, Laurent; Lemoine, Yves; Zal, Frank; Partensky, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    The recent availability of the whole genome of Synechococcus sp. strain WH8102 allows us to have a global view of the complex structure of the phycobilisomes of this marine picocyanobacterium. Genomic analyses revealed several new characteristics of these phycobilisomes, consisting of an allophycocyanin core and rods made of one type of phycocyanin and two types of phycoerythrins (I and II). Although the allophycocyanin appears to be similar to that found commonly in freshwater cyanobacteria, the phycocyanin is simpler since it possesses only one complete set of α and β subunits and two rod-core linkers (CpcG1 and CpcG2). It is therefore probably made of a single hexameric disk per rod. In contrast, we have found two novel putative phycoerythrin-associated linker polypeptides that appear to be specific for marine Synechococcus spp. The first one (SYNW2000) is unusually long (548 residues) and apparently results from the fusion of a paralog of MpeC, a phycoerythrin II linker, and of CpeD, a phycoerythrin-I linker. The second one (SYNW1989) has a more classical size (300 residues) and is also an MpeC paralog. A biochemical analysis revealed that, like MpeC, these two novel linkers were both chromophorylated with phycourobilin. Our data suggest that they are both associated (partly or totally) with phycoerythrin II, and we propose to name SYNW2000 and SYNW1989 MpeD and MpeE, respectively. We further show that acclimation of phycobilisomes to high light leads to a dramatic reduction of MpeC, whereas the two novel linkers are not significantly affected. Models for the organization of the rods are proposed. PMID:15716439

  4. Effect of electron donors on the fractionation of sulfur isotopes by a marine Desulfovibrio sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Min Sub; Ono, Shuhei; Donovan, Katie; Templer, Stefanie P.; Bosak, Tanja

    2011-08-01

    Sulfur isotope effects produced by microbial dissimilatory sulfate reduction are used to reconstruct the coupled cycling of carbon and sulfur through geologic time, to constrain the evolution of sulfur-based metabolisms, and to track the oxygenation of Earth's surface. In this study, we investigate how the coupling of carbon and sulfur metabolisms in batch and continuous cultures of a recently isolated marine sulfate reducing bacterium DMSS-1, a Desulfovibrio sp ., influences the fractionation of sulfur isotopes. DMSS-1 grown in batch culture on seven different electron donors (ethanol, glycerol, fructose, glucose, lactate, malate and pyruvate) fractionates 34S/ 32S ratio from 6‰ to 44‰, demonstrating that the fractionations by an actively growing culture of a single incomplete oxidizing sulfate reducing microbe can span almost the entire range of previously reported values in defined cultures. The magnitude of isotope effect correlates well with cell specific sulfate reduction rates (from 0.7 to 26.1 fmol/cell/day). DMSS-1 grown on lactate in continuous culture produces a larger isotope effect (21-37‰) than the lactate-grown batch culture (6‰), indicating that the isotope effect also depends on the supply rate of the electron donor and microbial growth rate. The largest isotope effect in continuous culture is accompanied by measurable changes in cell length and cellular yield that suggest starvation. The use of multiple sulfur isotopes in the model of metabolic fluxes of sulfur shows that the loss of sulfate from the cell and the intracellular reoxidation of reduced sulfur species contribute to the increase in isotope effects in a correlated manner. Isotope fractionations produced during sulfate reduction in the pure culture of DMSS-1 expand the previously reported range of triple sulfur isotope effects ( 32S, 33S, and 34S) by marine sulfate reducing bacteria, implying that microbial sulfur disproportionation may have a smaller 33S isotopic fingerprint

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Deep-Sea Alteromonas sp. Strain V450 Isolated from the Marine Sponge Leiodermatium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Nolan H.; McCarthy, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The proteobacterium Alteromonas sp. strain V450 was isolated from the Atlantic deep-sea sponge Leiodermatium sp. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, with a genome size of approx. 4.39 Mb and a G+C content of 44.01%. The results will aid deep-sea microbial ecology, evolution, and sponge-microbe association studies. PMID:28153886

  6. Two new species of nematode parasites, Cucullanus epinepheli sp. n. (Cucullanidae) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sinespinis sp. n. (Camallanidae), from marine serranid and haemulid fishes off New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2017-04-05

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new species of parasitic nematodes are described from marine perciform fishes off New Caledonia: Cucullanus epinepheli sp. n. (Cucullanidae) from the intestine of the brownspotted grouper Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes) (Serranidae) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sinespinis sp. n. from the intestine of the silver grunt Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål) (Haemulidae). Cucullanus epinepheli sp. n. differs from its congeners mainly in possessing a unique structure of the anterior, elevated cloacal lip with a large posterior outgrowth covering the cloacal aperture and in the presence of cervical alae and two small preanal papillae on the median dome-shaped precloacal elevation. This is the second known nominal species of this genus parasitising fishes of the family Serranidae and the second representative of Cucullanus Müller, 1777 recorded from fishes in New Caledonian waters. Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sinespinis sp. n. is mainly characterised by 10-12 spiral ridges in the buccal capsule, the presence of wide caudal alae, three pairs of pedunculate preanal papillae, two unequally long spicules (465-525 µm and 218-231 µm) and by the tail tip with a knob-like structure in the male, and the broad, rounded tail with a terminal digit-like protrusion without cuticular spikes in the female. This is the fifth nominal species of the subgenus Spirocamallanus Olsen, 1952 reported from fishes in New Caledonian waters.

  7. Muricauda marina sp. nov., isolated from marine snow of Yellow Sea.

    PubMed

    Su, Ying; Yang, Xiaoting; Wang, Yanan; Liu, Yuyang; Ren, Qiaomeng; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2017-07-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, long rod-shaped, non-motile, strictly aerobic bacterial strain, designated H19-56T, was isolated from a surface marine snow sample collected from the Yellow Sea near China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that H19-56T represented a member of the genus Muricauda and showed the highest sequence similarity to Muricauda ruestringensis B1T (96.9 %). H19-56T grew optimally at pH 8.0, 32 °C and in the presence of 3 % (w/v) NaCl. The DNA G+C content was 43.6 mol%. H19-56T contained MK-6 as the predominant respiratory quinone and had iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 1G as the major cellular fatty acids. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids and three unidentified lipids. On the basis of the results of the polyphasic analyses, this isolate was considered to represent a novel species of the genus Muricauda, for which the name Muricauda marina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H19-56T (CGMCC 1.15774T=JCM 31456T=MCCC 1K03196T=KCTC 52374T).

  8. Purification and Characterization of a New Alginate Lyase from Marine Bacterium Vibrio sp. SY08

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shangyong; Wang, Linna; Hao, Jianhua; Xing, Mengxin; Sun, Jingjing; Sun, Mi

    2016-01-01

    Unsaturated alginate disaccharides (UADs), enzymatically derived from the degradation of alginate polymers, are considered powerful antioxidants. In this study, a new high UAD-producing alginate lyase, AlySY08, has been purified from the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. SY08. AlySY08, with a molecular weight of about 33 kDa and a specific activity of 1070.2 U/mg, showed the highest activity at 40 °C in phosphate buffer at pH 7.6. The enzyme was stable over a broad pH range (6.0–9.0) and retained about 75% activity after incubation at 40 °C for 2 h. Moreover, the enzyme was active in the absence of salt ions and its activity was enhanced by the addition of NaCl and KCl. AlySY08 resulted in an endo-type alginate lyase that degrades both polyM and polyG blocks, yielding UADs as the main product (81.4% of total products). All these features made AlySY08 a promising candidate for industrial applications in the production of antioxidants from alginate polysaccharides. PMID:28025527

  9. Purification and Characterization of Catalase from Marine Bacterium Acinetobacter sp. YS0810

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xinhua; Wang, Wei; Hao, Jianhua; Zhu, Xianglin; Sun, Mi

    2014-01-01

    The catalase from marine bacterium Acinetobacter sp. YS0810 (YS0810CAT) was purified and characterized. Consecutive steps were used to achieve the purified enzyme as follows: ethanol precipitation, DEAE Sepharose ion exchange, Superdex 200 gel filtration, and Resource Q ion exchange. The active enzyme consisted of four identical subunits of 57.256 kDa. It showed a Soret peak at 405 nm, indicating the presence of iron protoporphyrin IX. The catalase was not apparently reduced by sodium dithionite but was inhibited by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, hydroxylamine hydrochloride, and sodium azide. Peroxidase-like activity was not found with the substrate o-phenylenediamine. So the catalase was determined to be a monofunctional catalase. N-terminal amino acid of the catalase analysis gave the sequence SQDPKKCPVTHLTTE, which showed high degree of homology with those of known catalases from bacteria. The analysis of amino acid sequence of the purified catalase by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed that it was a new catalase, in spite of its high homology with those of known catalases from other bacteria. The catalase showed high alkali stability and thermostability. PMID:25045672

  10. Oceanobacillus arenosus sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from marine sand.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wonyong; Siamphan, Chatuphon; Kim, Jong-Hwa; Sukhoom, Ampaitip

    2015-09-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped, motile, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated CAU 1183(T), was isolated from marine sand and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. The bacterium grew optimally at 30 °C, at pH 8.5 and in the presence of 2% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain CAU 1183(T) formed a distinct lineage within the genus Oceanobacillus and exhibited the highest similarity to Oceanobacillus chungangensis CAU 1051(T) (97.6%). The strain contained MK-7 as the predominant isoprenoid quinone and anteiso-C15 : 0 was the major cellular fatty acid. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The polar lipid pattern of strain CAU 1183(T) consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and unidentified lipids, including two phospholipids, two glycolipids, a phosphoglycolipid and two lipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 37.5 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain CAU 1183(T) should be assigned to a novel species in the genus Oceanobacillus, for which the name Oceanobacillus arenosus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CAU 1183(T) ( = KCTC 33037(T) = CECT 8560(T)).

  11. Techno-economic analysis of glucosamine and lipid production from marine diatom Cyclotella sp.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xuwen; Ozkan, Altan; Chiriboga, Omar; Chotyakul, Nattaporn; Kelly, Christine

    2017-05-17

    A techno-economic analysis (TEA) was performed on glucosamine and lipid production from a marine diatom Cyclotella sp. in raceway open pond (RWP) and tubular photobioreactor (PBR) cultivation systems. Two PBR operating schemes were assessed: one to produce high lipid (HL) content, and another to produce high chitin (HC) content. In order to generate 1kg of glucosamine, 9700kg (RWP)/1050kg (PBR HL) freshwater, 40kg CO2, 0.70kg nitrogen, 0.18kg phosphorus, and 1.2kg silicon nutrients are required for algae cultivation with water and nutrient recovery. With a price of $1.5 for lipid as coproduct, the projected selling price of glucosamine were $35/kg, $106/kg and $82/kg for RWP, PBR HL, and PBR HC systems, respectively. Currently, these prices are not competitive with industrial shellfish-derived glucosamine, but can be reduced by technology improvements such as producing food grade lipid, increasing algal productivity or chitin content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Structural properties of the tubular appendage spinae from marine bacterium Roseobacter sp. strain YSCB

    PubMed Central

    Bernadac, A.; Wu, L.-F.; Santini, C.-L.; Vidaud, C.; Sturgis, J. N.; Menguy, N.; Bergam, P.; Nicoletti, C.; Xiao, T.

    2012-01-01

    Spinae are tubular surface appendages broadly found in Gram-negative bacteria. Little is known about their architecture, function or origin. Here, we report structural characterization of the spinae from marine bacteria Roseobacter sp. YSCB. Electron cryo-tomography revealed that a single filament winds into a hollow flared base with progressive change to a cylinder. Proteinase K unwound the spinae into proteolysis-resistant filaments. Thermal treatment ripped the spinae into ribbons that were melted with prolonged heating. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed a dominant beta-structure of the spinae. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses showed three endothermic transformations at 50–85°C, 98°C and 123°C, respectively. The heating almost completely disintegrated the spinae, abolished the 98°C transition and destroyed the beta-structure. Infrared spectroscopy identified the amide I spectrum maximum at a position similar to that of amyloid fibrils. Therefore, the spinae distinguish from other bacterial appendages, e.g. flagella and stalks, in both the structure and mechanism of assembly. PMID:23230515

  13. Ultrastructure of Amastigomonas bermudensis ATCC 50234 sp. nov.: A new heterotrophic marine flagellate.

    PubMed

    Molina, F I; Nerad, T A

    1991-11-29

    The ultrastructure of a new marine heterotrophic flagellate is described. The cell is dorso-ventrally flattened and displays a steady gliding forward movement. A longitudinal groove whose lips are appressed to the substrate runs along the ventral aspect of the cell. The two heterodynamic flagella originate from the proximal end of a cytoplasmic sheath that enfolds most of the length of the anterior flagellum. The lips of this sheath are continuous with the margins of the ventral groove. The posterior trailing flagellum is held closely appressed to the cell body on one side of the ventral groove. Three bands of microtubules extend posteriorly into the cell body and are associated with the kinetosomes. The part of the surface membrane extending over the cell's dorsal and lateral aspect is five-layered, giving the semblance of two fused cell membranes. There is a fibrillar layer underneath these membranes. There is also a fibrous network whose arrays are oriented in different directions within the cytoplasm. Mitochondria have tubular cristae. Based on a comparison with previously described species of Amastigomonas, we establish the species, A. bermudensis n.sp. We further conclude that Thecamonas is a junior synonym of Amastigomonas and move the three nominal species to the latter genus.

  14. Salinirussus salinus gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Cui, Heng-Lin; Lü, Zhen-Zhen; Li, Yang; Zhou, Yao

    2017-09-01

    A halophilic archaeal strain, YGH44T, was isolated from the Yinggehai marine solar saltern in Hainan Province of China. Cells were rod-shaped, stained Gram-negative and formed red-pigmented colonies on agar plates. Optimal growth was obtained with 3.4 M NaCl (range: 2.6-4.8 M), 0.5 M MgCl2 (range: 0.005-1.0 M), at 37 °C (range: 25-55 °C) and at pH 7.0 (range: pH 5.0-9.0). The cells lysed in distilled water, and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell lysis was 1.7 M. Phylogenetic tree reconstructions based on 16S rRNA genes and rpoB' genes revealed that strain YGH44T was distinct from the related genera, Halovenus, Halapricum, Halorientalis, Halorhabdus and Halosimplex of the order Halobacteriales. The major polar lipids of the strain were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester and three unidentified glycolipids. The DNA G+C content of strain YGH44Twas 69.0 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggested that strain YGH44T (=CGMCC 1.12234T=JCM 18646T) represents a novel species of a new genus within the order Halobacteriales, for which the name Salinirussus salinus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed.

  15. D-Phenylalanine inhibits biofilm development of a marine microbe, Pseudoalteromonas sp. SC2014.

    PubMed

    Li, Ee; Wu, Jiajia; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Dun

    2016-09-01

    D-Amino acids have been reported to be able to inhibit biofilm formation or disperse existing biofilms of many microbes; in some cases this is due to growth inhibition as an unspecific effect. In this work, six different D-amino acids were tested for their inhibitory effects on biofilm development and bacterial growth of Pseudoalteromonas sp. SC2014, a marine microbe involved in microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Experimental results indicated that D-phenylalanine (D-Phe) inhibited biofilm formation effectively at concentrations that did not affect cell growth, whereas the other D-amino acids either showed little effect or inhibited biofilm formation while inhibiting bacterial growth. Further studies found that D-Phe could inhibit bacterial accumulation on the surface of 316L stainless steel, and prevent bacteria from forming a multilayer biofilm. It was also suggested that D-Phe could promote the disassembly of an established multilayer biofilm but have little effect on the remaining monolayer adherent cells. For the first time, it was found that a D-amino acid could effectively inhibit biofilm formation of an MIC-involved microbe. This might supply a new insight into how MIC could be mitigated. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Tsukamurella spongiae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from a deep-water marine sponge.

    PubMed

    Olson, Julie B; Harmody, Dedra K; Bej, Asim K; McCarthy, Peter J

    2007-07-01

    A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium (strain K362(T)) was isolated from a deep-water marine sponge collected off the coast of Curaçao in the Netherlands Antilles. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, strain K362(T) was shown to belong to the genus Tsukamurella, being most closely related to Tsukamurella pulmonis (99.2 %), Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens (98.9 %), Tsukamurella strandjordii (98.8 %), Tsukamurella pseudospumae (98.8 %) and Tsukamurella spumae (98.8 %). A combination of the substrate utilization patterns, the fatty acid and mycolic acid profiles and the DNA-DNA hybridization results supported the affiliation of strain K362(T) to the genus Tsukamurella and enabled the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain K362(T) from the seven recognized Tsukamurella species. Strain K362(T) therefore represents a novel species of the genus Tsukamurella, for which the name Tsukamurella spongiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is K362(T) (=DSM 44990(T)=NRRL B-24467(T)).

  17. New Metabolites and Bioactive Actinomycins from Marine-Derived Streptomyces sp. ZZ338.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiufang; Ye, Xuewei; Chai, Weiyun; Lian, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Zhizhen

    2016-10-11

    An extract prepared from the culture of a marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. ZZ338 was found to have significant antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. A chemical investigation of this active extract resulted in the isolation of three known bioactive actinomycins (1-3) and two new metabolites (4 and 5). The structures of the isolated compounds were identified as actinomycins D (1), V (2), X0β (3), 2-acetylamino-3-hydroxyl-4-methyl-benzoic acid methyl ester (4), and N-1S-(4-methylaminophenylmethyl)-2-oxo-propyl acetamide (5) based on their nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HRESIMS) data as well as their optical rotation. This class of new compound 5 had never before been found from a natural resource. Three known actinomycins showed activities in inhibiting the proliferation of glioma cells and the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans and are responsible for the activity of the crude extract. Actinomycin D (1) was also found to downregulate several glioma metabolic enzymes of glycolysis, glutaminolysis, and lipogenesis, suggesting that targeting multiple tumor metabolic regulators might be a new anti-glioma mechanism of actinomycin D. This is the first report of such a possible mechanism for the class of actinomycins.

  18. Acanthocephaloides irregularis n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Arhythmacanthidae) from marine fishes off the Ukrainian Black Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Oğuz, Mehmet C; Heckmann, Richard A; Tepe, Yahya; Kvach, Yuriy

    2011-10-01

    Acanthocephaloides irregularis n. sp. (Arhythmacanthidae) is described from four species of marine fishes in the Gulf of Odessa and Sukhyi Lyman, Ukrainan Black Sea waters, making it the tenth species of the genus. The hosts are the combtooth blenny Parablennius zvonimiri (Kolombatovic) (Blenniidae), the mushroom goby Ponticola eurycephalus (Kessler) (Gobiidae), the tubenose goby Proterorhinus marmoratus (Pallas) (Gobiidae) and the black-striped pipefish Syngnathus abaster Risso (Syngnathidae). The new species is most similar to its closest relative, Acanthocephaloides propinquus (Dujardin, 1845), in proboscis shape and armature (12 longitudinal rows of 5 hooks) and the shape of the trunk, reproductive system and lemnisci, but differs in having randomly distributed trunk spines. These trunk spines are organised in circular rings of individual spines separated by aspinose zones. The new species is also unique in having an anterior trunk collar, a very large triangular cephalic ganglion, nucleated pouches at the posterior end of the proboscis receptacle, and hooks and spines with roots bearing anterior manubria. Valid and invalid species of Acanthocephaloides Meyer, 1932 are listed and a key to all ten species is included.

  19. Shimia sagamensis sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from cold-seep sediment.

    PubMed

    Nogi, Yuichi; Mori, Kozue; Uchida, Hiromi; Hatada, Yuji

    2015-09-01

    A novel marine bacterial strain designated JAMH 011(T) was isolated from the cold-seep sediment in Sagami Bay, Japan. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, aerobic chemo-organotrophs and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Growth occurred at temperatures below 31 °C, with the optimum at 25 °C. The major respiratory quinone was Q-10. The predominant fatty acid was C18 : 1ω7c. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolated strain was closely affiliated with members of the genus Shimia in the class Alphaproteobacteria, and the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of the novel isolate with the type strain of the closest related species, Shimia haliotis WM35(T), was 98.1%. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 57.3 mol%. The hybridization values for DNA-DNA relatedness between strain JAMH 011(T) and reference strains belonging to the genus Shimia were less than 9.4 ± 0.7%. Based on differences in taxonomic characteristics, the isolated strain represents a novel species of the genus Shimia, for which the name Shimia sagamensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JAMH 011(T) ( = JCM 30583(T) = DSM 29734(T)).

  20. Thalassobius abyssi sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from the cold-seep sediment.

    PubMed

    Nogi, Yuichi; Mori, Kozue; Makita, Hiroko; Hatada, Yuji

    2015-11-09

    A novel marine bacterial strain designated JAMH 043T was isolated from the cold-seep sediment in Sagami Bay, Japan. Cells were Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile and aerobic chemo-organotrophs. The cells of the isolate grew optimally at 25 °C, pH 7.0-7.5, and with 3% (w/v) NaCl. The major respiratory quinone was Q-10. The predominant fatty acid was C18:1ω7c. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolated strain was closely affiliated with members of the genus Thalassobius in the class Alphaproteobacteria, and the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of the novel isolate with the type strain of closest related species, Thalassobius aestuarii JC2049T, was 98.4 %. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 58.0 mol%. The hybridization values for DNA-DNA relatedness between strain JAMH043T and reference strains belonging to the genus Thalassobius were less than 14.1±2.2 %. Based on differences in taxonomic characteristics, the isolated strain represents a novel species of the genus Thalassobius, for which the name Thalassobius abyssi sp. nov. is proposed. Type strain is JAMH 043T (=JCM 30900T =DSMZ 100673T).

  1. Glaciecola agarilytica sp. nov., an agar-digesting marine bacterium from the East Sea, Korea.

    PubMed

    Yong, Jeong-Joong; Park, Soo-Je; Kim, Hyeon-Ju; Rhee, Sung-Keun

    2007-05-01

    A taxonomic study was carried out on an isolate, strain NO2(T), from marine sediment collected from the East Sea, Korea. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence studies showed that this strain belonged to the Gammaproteobacteria and was most closely related to Glaciecola mesophila KMM 241(T) and Glaciecola polaris LMG 21857(T) (98.6 and 98.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). The isolate was Gram-negative, aerobic and slightly halophilic and grew in 2-8 % NaCl and at 7-30 degrees C. Strain NO2(T) shared some physiological and biochemical properties with G. mesophila KMM 241(T) and G. polaris LMG 21857(T). The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain NO2(T) was 45 mol%. Strain NO2(T) possessed C(16 : 0), summed feature 4 (C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH) and summed feature 7 (C(18 : 1)omega9c/omega12t/omega7c) as the major cellular fatty acids. DNA-DNA relatedness data indicated that strain NO2(T) represents a distinct species that is separate from G. mesophila and G. polaris. On the basis of polyphasic evidence, it is proposed that strain NO2(T) (=KCTC 12755(T)=LMG 23762(T)) represents the type strain of a novel species, Glaciecola agarilytica sp. nov.

  2. A thermostable serralysin inhibitor from marine bacterium Flavobacterium sp. YS-80-122

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Pengjuan; Li, Shangyong; Wang, Kun; Wang, Fang; Xing, Mengxin; Hao, Jianhua; Sun, Mi

    2017-06-01

    Serralysin inhibitors have been proposed as potent drugs against many diseases and may help to prevent further development of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria. In this study, a novel serralysin inhibitor gene, lupI, was cloned from the marine bacterium Flavobacterium sp. YS-80-122 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The deduced serralysin inhibitor, LupI, shows <40% amino acid identity to other reported serralysin inhibitors. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of LupI with other serralysin inhibitors indicated that LupI was a novel type of serralysin inhibitor. The inhibitory constant for LupI towards its target metalloprotease was 0.64 μmol/L. LupI was thermostable at high temperature, in which 35.6%-90.7% of its inhibitory activity was recovered after treatment at 100°C for 1-60 min followed by incubation at 0°C. This novel inhibitor may represent a candidate drug for the treatment of serralysin-related infections.

  3. The Halicylindramides, Farnesoid X Receptor Antagonizing Depsipeptides from a Petrosia sp. Marine Sponge Collected in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Dongyup; Kim, Hiyoung; Yang, Inho; Chin, Jungwook; Hwang, Hoosang; Won, Dong Hwan; Lee, Byoungchan; Nam, Sang-Jip; Ekins, Merrick; Choi, Hyukjae; Kang, Heonjoong

    2016-03-25

    Three new structurally related depsipeptides, halicylindramides F-H (1-3), and two known halicylindramides were isolated from a Petrosia sp. marine sponge collected off the shore of Youngdeok-Gun, East Sea, Republic of Korea. Their planar structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic data analyses including 1D and 2D NMR data as well as MS data. The absolute configurations of halicylindramides F-H (1-3) were determined by Marfey's method in combination with Edman degradation. The absolute configurations at C-4 of the dioxyindolyl alanine (Dioia) residues of halicylindramides G (2) and H (3) were determined as 4S and 4R, respectively, based on ECD spectroscopy. The C-2 configurations of Dioia in 2 and 3 were speculated to both be 2R based on the shared biogenesis of the halicylindramides. Halicylindramides F (1), A (4), and C (5) showed human farnesoid X receptor (hFXR) antagonistic activities, but did not bind directly to hFXR.

  4. Purification and biochemical characterization of an alkaline protease from marine bacteria Pseudoalteromonas sp. 129-1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shimei; Liu, Ge; Zhang, Dechao; Li, Chaoxu; Sun, Chaomin

    2015-12-01

    An extracellular alkaline protease produced by marine bacteria strain Pseudoalteromonas sp. 129-1 was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, anion exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. The purity of the protease was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and molecular mass was estimated to be 35 kDa. The protease maintained considerable activity and stability at a wide temperature range of 10-60 °C and pH range of 6-11, and optimum activity was detected at temperature of 50 °C and pH of 8. Metallo-protease inhibitor, EDTA, had no inhibitory effect on protease activity even at concentration up to 15 mM, whereas 15 mM PMSF, a common serine protease inhibitor, greatly inactivated the protease. The high stability of the protease in the presence of surfactants (SDS, Tween 80, and Triton X-100), oxidizing agent H(2)O(2), and commercial detergents was observed. Moreover, the protease was tolerant to most of the tested organic solvents, and saline tolerant up to 30%. Interestingly, biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was greatly reduced by 0.01 mg ml(-1) of the protease, and nearly completely abolished with the concentration of 1 mg ml(-1). Collectively, the protease showed valuable feathers as an additive in laundry detergent and non-toxic anti-biofilm agent.

  5. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Oleaginous Marine Diatom Fistulifera sp. Strain JPCC DA0580

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yue; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Sunaga, Yoshihiko; Muto, Masaki; Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Studies of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biosynthesis in microalgae are of great importance for many reasons, including the production of biofuel and variable omega 3-long chain PUFAs. The elucidation of the PUFA biosynthesis pathway is necessary for bioengineering to increase or decrease PUFA content in certain microalgae. In this study, we identified the PUFA synthesis pathway in the oleaginous marine diatom, Fistulifera sp. strain JPCC DA0580, a promising candidate for biodiesel production. The data revealed not only the presence of the desaturases and elongases involved in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) synthesis, but also the unexpected localization of ω3-desaturase expression in the chloroplast. This suggests that this microalga might perform the final step of EPA synthesis in the chloroplast and not in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) like other diatoms. The detailed fatty acid profile suggests that the EPA was synthesized only through the ω6-pathway in this strain, which was also different from other diatoms. Finally, the transcriptome analysis demonstrated an overall down-regulation of desaturases and elongases over incubation time. These genetic features might explain the decrease of PUFA percentage over incubation time in this strain. The important insights into metabolite synthesis acquired here will be useful for future metabolic engineering to control PUFA content in this diatom. PMID:24335525

  6. Spongiispira norvegica gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from the boreal sponge Isops phlegraei.

    PubMed

    Kaesler, Ines; Graeber, Ingeborg; Borchert, Martin S; Pape, Thomas; Dieckmann, Ralf; von Döhren, Hans; Nielsen, Preben; Lurz, Rudi; Michaelis, Walter; Szewzyk, Ulrich

    2008-08-01

    The bacterial strain Gp_4_7.1T, isolated from the marine sponge Isops phlegraei collected at the Sula Ridge off the Norwegian coast, was characterized. The isolate was a motile spirillum that was monopolarly and monotrichously flagellated. It was aerobic, Gram-negative, oxidase-positive and catalase-negative. Optimal growth occurred between 20 and 30 degrees C, at pH 7-8 and with a salt concentration of 2-3 % (w/v). The isolate showed a relatively restricted nutritional profile. Substrate utilization tests were only positive for arabinose. Enzyme tests were positive for esterase lipase C8, lipase C14, leucine arylamidase and naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase. The strain was not able to reduce nitrate. The major cellular fatty acids were C16:1 omega7 and C16:0. The DNA G+C content was 62.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison classified the strain as a member of the order Oceanospirillales in the class Gammaproteobacteria. Strain Gp_4_7.1T formed a distinct phyletic line with less than 94 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to its closest relatives with validly published names. Based on the determined data, it is proposed that the strain represents a novel species in a new genus, Spongiispira norvegica gen. nov., sp. nov.; the type strain of Spongiispira norvegica is Gp_4_7.1T (=DSM 17749T =NCIMB 14401T).

  7. A new κ-carrageenase CgkS from marine bacterium Shewanella sp. Kz7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linna; Li, Shangyong; Zhang, Shilong; Li, Jiejing; Yu, Wengong; Gong, Qianhong

    2015-08-01

    A new κ-carrageenase gene cgkS was cloned from marine bacterium Shewanella sp. Kz7 by using degenerate and site-finding PCR. The gene was comprised of an open reading frame of 1224 bp, encoding 407 amino acid residues, with a signal peptide of 24 residues. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, the κ-carrageenase CgkS was classified into the Glycoside Hydrolase family 16. The cgkS gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant enzyme was purified to homogeneity with a specific activity of 716.8 U mg-1 and a yield of 69%. Recombinant CgkS was most active at 45°C and pH 8.0. It was stable at pH 6.0-9.0 and below 30°C. The enzyme did not require NaCl for activity, although its activity was enhanced by NaCl. CgkS degraded κ-carrageenan in an endo-fashion releasing tetrasaccharides and disaccharides as main hydrolysis products.

  8. Optimization and characterization of biosurfactant production from marine Vibrio sp. strain 3B-2

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoke; Wang, Caixia; Wang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    A biosurfactant-producing bacterium, designated 3B-2, was isolated from marine sediment and identified as Vibrio sp. by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The culture medium composition was optimized to increase the capability of 3B-2 for producing biosurfactant. The produced biosurfactant was characterized in terms of protein concentration, surface tension, and oil-displacement efficiency. The optimal medium for biosurfactant production contained: 0.5% lactose, 1.1% yeast extract, 2% sodium chloride, and 0.1% disodium hydrogen phosphate. Under optimal conditions (28°C), the surface tension of crude biosurfactant could be reduced to 41 from 71.5 mN/m (water), while its protein concentration was increased to up to 6.5 g/L and the oil displacement efficiency was improved dramatically at 6.5 cm. Two glycoprotein fractions with the molecular masses of 22 and 40 kDa were purified from the biosurfactant, which held great potential for applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation. PMID:26441908

  9. Screening and characterization of a thermostable lipase from marine Streptomyces sp. strain W007.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dongjuan; Lan, Dongming; Xin, Ruipu; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    A screening method along with the combination of genome sequence of microorganism, pairwise alignment, and lipase classification was used to search the thermostable lipase. Then, a potential thermostable lipase (named MAS1) from marine Streptomyces sp. strain W007 was expressed in Pichia pastoris X-33, and the biochemical properties were characterized. Lipase MAS1 belongs to the subfamily I.7, and it has 38% identity to the well-characterized Bacillus subtilis thermostable lipases in the subfamily I.4. The purified enzyme was estimated to be 29 kDa. The enzyme showed optimal temperature at 40 °C, and retained more than 80% of initial activity after 1 H incubation at 60 °C, suggesting that MAS1 was a thermostable lipase. MAS1 was an alkaline enzyme with optimal pH value at 7.0 and had stable activity for 12 H of incubation at pH 6.0-9.0. It was stable and retained about 90% of initial activity in the presence of Cu(2+) , Ca(2+) , Ni(2+) , and Mg(2+) , whereas 89.05% of the initial activity was retained when ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid was added. MAS1 showed the tolerance to organic solvents, but was inhibited by various surfactants. MAS1 was verified to be a triglyceride lipase and could hydrolyze triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol. The result represents a good example for researchers to discover thermostable lipase for industrial application.

  10. Identification, cloning, and expression of L-amino acid oxidase from marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. B3.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhiliang; Zhou, Ning; Qiao, Hua; Qiu, Juanping

    2014-01-01

    L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) is attracting more attentions due to its broad and important biological functions. Recently, an LAAO-producing marine microorganism (strain B3) was isolated from the intertidal zone of Dinghai sea area, China. Physiological, biochemical, and molecular identifications together with phylogenetic analysis congruously suggested that it belonged to the genus Pseudoalteromonas. Therefore, it was designated as Pseudoalteromonas sp. B3. Its capability of LAAO production was crossly confirmed by measuring the products of H2O2, a-keto acids, and NH4+ in oxidization reaction. Two rounds of PCR were performed to gain the entire B3-LAAO gene sequence of 1608 bps in length encoding for 535 amino acid residues. This deduced amino acid sequence showed 60 kDa of the calculated molecular mass, supporting the SDS-PAGE result. Like most of flavoproteins, B3-LAAO also contained two conserved typical motifs, GG-motif and βαβ-dinucleotide-binding domain motif. On the other hand, its unique substrate spectra and sequence information suggested that B3-LAAO was a novel LAAO. Our results revealed that it could be functionally expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) using vectors, pET28b(+) and pET20b(+). However, compared with the native LAAO, the expression level of the recombinant one was relatively low, most probably due to the formation of inclusion bodies. Several solutions are currently being conducted in our lab to increase its expression level.

  11. Genome shuffling of marine derived bacterium Nocardia sp. ALAA 2000 for improved ayamycin production.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Mervat M A; El-Bondkly, Ahmed M A

    2011-05-01

    Genome shuffling is a recent development in microbiology. The advantage of this technique is that genetic changes can be made in a microorganism without knowing its genetic background. Genome shuffling was applied to the marine derived bacterium Nocardia sp. ALAA 2000 to achieve rapid improvement of ayamycin production. The initial mutant population was generated by treatment with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) combined with UV irradiation of the spores, resulting in an improved population (AL/11, AL/136, AL/213 and AL/277) producing tenfold (150 μg/ml) more ayamycin than the original strain. These mutants were used as the starting strains for three rounds of genome shuffling and after each round improved strains were screened and selected based on their ayamycin productivity. The population after three rounds of genome shuffling exhibited an improved ayamycin yield. Strain F3/22 yielded 285 μg/ml of ayamycin, which was 19-fold higher than that of the initial strain and 1.9-fold higher than the mutants used as the starting point for genome shuffling. We evaluated the genetic effect of UV + EMS-mutagenesis and three rounds of genome shuffling on the nucleotide sequence by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Many differences were noticed in mutant and recombinant strains compared to the wild type strain. These differences in RAPD profiles confirmed the presence of genetic variations in the Nocardia genome after mutagenesis and genome shuffling.

  12. Paraoerskovia marina gen. nov., sp. nov., an actinobacterium isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shams Tabrez; Harayama, Shigeaki; Tamura, Tomohiko; Ando, Katsuhiko; Takagi, Motoki; Kazuo, Shin-ya

    2009-08-01

    A Gram-positive-staining, facultatively anaerobic bacterial strain, CTT-37T, was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from Tottori city, located on the shore of the Sea of Japan. A 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison indicated that the isolate represents a novel clade that clusters with members of the families Cellulomonadaceae and Sanguibacteraceae. Strain CTT-37T shared maximum 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 96.4% with Oerskovia paurometabola DSM 14281T and 96.2% with Oerskovia enterophila DSM 43852T. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain CTT-37T and O. enterophila JCM 7350T was 10-12%. The following chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain CTT-37T were markedly different from those of strains in the genus Oerskovia. The cell wall contained L-serine in the peptidoglycan interpeptide bridge. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9 (H4); other quinones detected were MK-9 and MK-9(H2). The only polar lipid was phosphatidylglycerol and the G+C content of the DNA was 70 mol%. Differences in phenotypic characteristics and large phylogenetic distances between strain CTT-37T and all members of the genus Oerskovia supported the classification of CTT-37T within a new genus and species, for which the name Paraoerskovia marina gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Paraoerskovia marina is CTT-37T (=NBRC 104352T=DSM 21750T).

  13. Thalassospira xianhensis sp. nov., a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacterium.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baisuo; Wang, Hui; Li, Ruirui; Mao, Xinwei

    2010-05-01

    A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacterium, designated strain P-4(T), was isolated from oil-polluted saline soil in Xianhe, Shangdong Province, China. Strain P-4(T) was Gram-negative-staining with curved to spiral rod-shaped cells and grew optimally with 3-6 % (w/v) NaCl and at 30 degrees C. The predominant fatty acids were C(18 : 1)omega7c (35.0 %), C(16 : 0) (25.0 %), C(16 : 1)omega7c (17.9 %), C(14 : 0) (6.2 %) and C(17 : 0) cyclo (5.2 %). The major respiratory quinone was Q-9 and the genomic DNA G+C content was 61.2+/-1.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain P-4(T) belonged to the genus Thalassospira of the class Alphaproteobacteria. DNA-DNA hybridization with Thalassospira xiamenensis DSM 17429(T) showed relatedness of 36.0 %, and lower values were obtained with respect to other Thalassospira species. Based on physiological and biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as well as DNA-DNA relatedness, strain P-4(T) should be placed in the genus Thalassospira within a novel species. The name Thalassospira xianhensis sp. nov. is proposed, with P-4(T) (=CGMCC 1.6849(T) =JCM 14850(T)) as the type strain.

  14. Insight into glucosidase II from the red marine microalga Porphyridium sp. (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Levy-Ontman, Oshrat; Fisher, Merav; Shotland, Yoram; Tekoah, Yoram; Malis Arad, Shoshana

    2015-12-01

    N-glycosylation of proteins is one of the most important post-translational modifications that occur in various organisms, and is of utmost importance for protein function, stability, secretion, and loca-lization. Although the N-linked glycosylation pathway of proteins has been extensively characterized in mammals and plants, not much information is available regarding the N-glycosylation pathway in algae. We studied the α 1,3-glucosidase glucosidase II (GANAB) glycoenzyme in a red marine microalga Porphyridium sp. (Rhodophyta) using bioinformatic and biochemical approaches. The GANAB-gene was found to be highly conserved evolutionarily (compo-sed of all the common features of α and β subunits) and to exhibit similar motifs consistent with that of homolog eukaryotes GANAB genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed its wide distribution across an evolutionarily vast range of organisms; while the α subunit is highly conserved and its phylogenic tree is similar to the taxon evolutionary tree, the β subunit is less conserved and its pattern somewhat differs from the taxon tree. In addition, the activity of the red microalgal GANAB enzyme was studied, including functional and biochemical characterization using a bioassay, indicating that the enzyme is similar to other eukaryotes ortholog GANAB enzymes. A correlation between polysaccharide production and GANAB activity, indicating its involvement in polysaccharide biosynthesis, is also demonstrated. This study represents a valuable contribution toward understanding the N-glycosylation and polysaccharide biosynthesis pathways in red microalgae.

  15. Saccharopolyspora spongiae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from the marine sponge Scopalina ruetzleri (Wiedenmayer, 1977).

    PubMed

    Souza, Danilo Tosta; Silva, Fábio Sérgio Paulino da; Silva, Leonardo José da; Crevelin, Eduardo José; Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Melo, Itamar Soares

    2017-06-01

    A novel marine actinomycete, designated strain CMAA 1452T, was isolated from the sponge Scopalina ruetzleri collected from Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, in Brazil, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic investigation. The organism formed a distinct phyletic line in the Saccharopolyspora 16S rRNA gene tree and had chemotaxonomic and morphological properties consistent with its classification in this genus. It was found to be closely related to Saccharopolyspora dendranthemae KLBMP 1305T (99.5% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and shared similarities of 99.3, 99.2 and 99.0 % with 'Saccharopolyspora endophytica' YIM 61095, Saccharopolyspora tripterygii YIM 65359T and 'Saccharopolyspora pathumthaniensis' S582, respectively. DNA-DNA relatedness values between the isolate and its closest phylogenetic neighbours, namely S. dendranthemae KLBMP 1305T, 'S. endophytica' YIM 61095 and S. tripterygii YIM 65359T, were 53.5, 25.8 and 53.2 %, respectively. Strain CMAA 1452T was also distinguished from the type strains of these species using a range of phenotypic features. On the basis of these results, it is proposed that strain CMAA 1452T (=DSM 103218T=NRRL B-65384T) merits recognition as the type strain of a novel Saccharopolyspora species, Saccharopolyspora spongiae sp. nov.

  16. Thalassospira povalilytica sp. nov., a polyvinyl-alcohol-degrading marine bacterium.

    PubMed

    Nogi, Yuichi; Yoshizumi, Masaki; Miyazaki, Masayuki

    2014-04-01

    A polyvinyl-alcohol-degrading marine bacterium was isolated from plastic rope litter found in Tokyo Bay, Japan. The isolated strain, Zumi 95(T), was a Gram-reaction-negative, non-spore-forming and facultatively anaerobic chemo-organotroph. The major respiratory quinone was Q-10. The predominant fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c and C16 : 0. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolated strain was closely affiliated with members of the genus Thalassospira in the class Alphaproteobacteria. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 55.1 mol%. The hybridization values for DNA-DNA relatedness between this strain and four reference strains representing species of the genus Thalassospira were significantly lower than that accepted as the phylogenetic definition of a species. On the basis of differences in taxonomic characteristics, the isolated strain represents a novel species of the genus Thalassospira for which the name Thalassospira povalilytica sp. nov. (type strain Zumi 95(T) = JCM 18746(T) = DSM 26719(T)) is proposed.

  17. A Marine Mesorhizobium sp. Produces Structurally Novel Long-Chain N-Acyl-l-Homoserine Lactones▿

    PubMed Central

    Krick, Anja; Kehraus, Stefan; Eberl, Leo; Riedel, Kathrin; Anke, Heidrun; Kaesler, Ines; Graeber, Ingeborg; Szewzyk, Ulrich; König, Gabriele M.

    2007-01-01

    Our study focused on a Mesorhizobium sp. that is phylogenetically affiliated by 16S rRNA gene sequence to other marine and saline bacteria of this genus. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry investigations of the extract obtained from solid-phase extraction of cultures of this bacterium indicated the presence of several N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), with chain lengths of C10 to C16. Chromatographic separation of the active bacterial extract yielded extraordinarily large amounts of two unprecedented acylated homoserine lactones, 5-cis-3-oxo-C12-homoserine lactone (5-cis-3-oxo-C12-HSL) (compound 1) and 5-cis-C12-HSL (compound 2). Quorum-sensing activity of compounds 1 and 2 was shown in two different biosensor systems [Escherichia coli MT102(pSB403) and Pseudomonas putida F117(pKR-C12)]. Furthermore, it was shown that both compounds can restore protease and pyoverdin production of an AHL-deficient Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 lasI rhlI double mutant, suggesting that these signal molecules maybe used for intergenus signaling. In conclusion, these data indicate that the quorum-sensing activity of compounds 1 and 2 is modulated by the chain length and functional groups of the acyl moiety. Additionally, compound 1 showed antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. PMID:17400774

  18. Prosthecochloris indica sp. nov., a novel green sulfur bacterium from a marine aquaculture pond, Kakinada, India.

    PubMed

    Anil Kumar, Pinnaka; Naga Radha Srinivas, Tanuku; Sasikala, Chintalapati; Venkata Ramana, Chintalapati; Süling, Jorg; Imhoff, Johannes

    2009-04-01

    A green sulfur bacterium, strain JAGS6T was isolated from a marine aquaculture pond located near Kakinada on the east coast of India. Cells of strain JAGS6T were Gram-negative, non-motile, coccoid, 1-1.2 microm in diameter, with prosthecae. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain JAGS6T clusters with members of the genus Prosthecochloris and the sequence similarity with the nearest relative, Prosthecochloris vibrioformis, is 96.7%. Cultures of strain JAGS6T are green in color and the cells contain bacteriochlorophyll c and most likely carotenoids of the chlorobactene series as photosynthetic pigments. Strain JAGS6T is mesophilic, halotolerant (up to 7% NaCl) and is obligately phototrophic, utilizing sulfide but not thiosulfate as a photosynthetic electron donor. Sulfur globules are deposited outside the cells during oxidation of sulfide. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and its morphological and physiological characteristics, strain JAGS6T is distinct from described species of the genus Prosthecochloris and we propose to describe it as a new species, Prosthecochloris indica, sp. nov. The type strain is JAGS6T (=JCM 13299T=ATCC BAA1214T).

  19. Dragmacidins G and H, Bisindole Alkaloids Tethered by a Guanidino Ethylthiopyrazine Moiety, from a Lipastrotethya sp. Marine Sponge.

    PubMed

    Hitora, Yuki; Takada, Kentaro; Ise, Yuji; Okada, Shigeru; Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2016-11-23

    LCMS analysis of the extract and a cytotoxicity assay of the HPLC fractions generated from a small-scale extract of a Lipastrotethya sp. marine sponge demonstrated the presence of bisindole alkaloids that were associated with the cytotoxic activity. Two bisindole alkaloids tethered by a guanidino ethylthiopyrazine moiety, dragmacidins G (1) and H (2), were isolated, and their structures were assigned by analysis of the MS and NMR data. They showed moderate cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells.

  20. Genome Sequence of Vibrio sp. Strain EJY3, an Agarolytic Marine Bacterium Metabolizing 3,6-Anhydro-l-Galactose as a Sole Carbon Source

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Hanseong; Yun, Eun Ju; Lee, Saeyoung; Ko, Hyeok-Jin; Kim, Sujin; Kim, Byung-Yong; Song, Heesang; Lim, Kwang-il

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic fate of 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose (l-AHG) is unknown in the global marine carbon cycle. Vibrio sp. strain EJY3 is an agarolytic marine bacterium that can utilize l-AHG as a sole carbon source. To elucidate the metabolic pathways of l-AHG, we have sequenced the complete genome of Vibrio sp. strain EJY3. PMID:22535948

  1. Cucullanus maldivensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) and some other adult nematodes from marine fishes off the Maldive Islands.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Lorber, Julia; Konecný, Robert

    2008-05-01

    Marine fishes were collected from off the Maldive Islands in March, 2005. From amongst the material collected, the nematode Cucullanus maldivensis n. sp. is described from the intestine of a lutjanid fish, the black and white snapper Macolor niger (Forsskål). This species is morphologically and biometrically most similar to C. bourdini Petter & Le Bel, 1992, differing from it principally in the protruding vulval lips, the location of the first pair of pre-anal papillae, the absence of an elevated cloacal region, and having distinctly larger eggs (51-57 x 33-36 microm). Additionally, adult females of the nematodes Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. and Camallanus sp. from the green jobfish Aprion virescens Valenciennes (Lutjanidae) and the rainbow runner Elegatis bipinnulata (Quoy & Gaimard) (Carangidae), respectively, were collected. These camallanids are illustrated and measurements are provided, but they were not identified or described in detail as no males were collected.

  2. Alkane production by the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. NKBG15041c possessing the α-olefin biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Tomoko; Liang, Yue; Arai, Daichi; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Honda, Toru; Muto, Masaki; Kakunaka, Natsumi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2015-02-01

    The production of alkanes in a marine cyanobacterium possessing the α-olefin biosynthesis pathway was achieved by introducing an exogenous alkane biosynthesis pathway. Cyanobacterial hydrocarbons are synthesized via two separate pathways: the acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase/aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase (AAR/ADO) pathway for the alkane biosynthesis and the α-olefin synthase (OLS) pathway for the α-olefin biosynthesis. Coexistence of these pathways has not yet been reported. In this study, the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. NKBG15041c was shown to produce α-olefins similar to those of Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 via the α-olefin biosynthesis pathway. The production of heptadecane in Synechococcus sp. NKBG15041c was achieved by expressing the AAR/ADO pathway genes from Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. The production yields of heptadecane in Synechococcus sp. NKBG15041c varied with the expression level of the aar and ado genes. The maximal yield of heptadecane was 4.2 ± 1.2 μg/g of dried cell weight in the transformant carrying a homologous promoter. Our results also suggested that the effective activation of ADO may be more important for the enhancement of alkane production by cyanobacteria.

  3. Molecular systematics of marine gregarines (Apicomplexa) from North-eastern Pacific polychaetes and nemerteans, with descriptions of three novel species: Lecudina phyllochaetopteri sp. nov., Difficilina tubulani sp. nov. and Difficilina paranemertis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Rueckert, Sonja; Chantangsi, Chitchai; Leander, Brian S

    2010-11-01

    Most eugregarine apicomplexans infecting the intestines of marine invertebrates have been described within the family Lecudinidae and the type genus Lecudina. The diversity of these parasites is vast and poorly understood and only a tiny number of species has been characterized at the molecular phylogenetic level. DNA sequences coupled with high-resolution micrographs of trophozoites provide an efficient and precise approach for delimiting gregarine lineages from one another and also facilitate our overall understanding of gregarine biodiversity. In this study, phylogenetic analyses of small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences from five (uncultivated) gregarines isolated from polychaetes and nemerteans in the North-eastern Pacific Ocean are presented. Lecudina phyllochaetopteri sp. nov. was isolated from the intestines of the parchment tubeworm Phyllochaetopterus prolifica (Polychaeta). Lecudina longissima and Lecudina polymorpha were both isolated from the intestines of Lumbrineris japonica (Polychaeta). Difficilina tubulani sp. nov. was isolated from the nemertean Tubulanus polymorpha and Difficilina paranemertis sp. nov. was isolated from the nemertean Paranemertes peregrina. This is the first report of molecular sequence data from gregarines that infect nemerteans. The two novel species of the genus Difficilina described in this study formed a strongly supported clade in the phylogenetic analyses. This Difficilina clade formed the sister group to a robust subclade of lecudinids consisting of Lecudina longissima, Lecudina phyllochaetopteri sp. nov. (which lacked epicytic folds), Lecudina tuzetae, species of the genus Lankesteria and several sequences derived from previous environmental DNA surveys of marine biodiversity.

  4. Genome Sequence of Cobetia sp. Strain MM1IDA2H-1, a Hydrocarbon-Degrading and Biosurfactant-Producing Marine Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Ibacache-Quiroga, Claudia; Canales, Christian; Charifeh, Mariam; Dinamarca, M Alejandro

    2017-04-13

    Cobetia sp. strain MM1IDA2H-1 is a marine bacterium isolated from seawater samples that uses the heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dibenzothiophene as the sole carbon source and produces a biosurfactant that inhibits bacterial quorum sensing. The Cobetia sp. MM1IDA2H-1 genome was sequenced, processed, assembled, and annotated for basic and applied studies.

  5. Genome Sequence of Cobetia sp. Strain MM1IDA2H-1, a Hydrocarbon-Degrading and Biosurfactant-Producing Marine Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Ibacache-Quiroga, Claudia; Canales, Christian; Charifeh, Mariam

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cobetia sp. strain MM1IDA2H-1 is a marine bacterium isolated from seawater samples that uses the heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dibenzothiophene as the sole carbon source and produces a biosurfactant that inhibits bacterial quorum sensing. The Cobetia sp. MM1IDA2H-1 genome was sequenced, processed, assembled, and annotated for basic and applied studies. PMID:28408668

  6. Winogradskyella psychrotolerans sp. nov., a marine bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from Arctic sediment.

    PubMed

    Begum, Z; Srinivas, T N R; Manasa, P; Sailaja, B; Sunil, B; Prasad, S; Shivaji, S

    2013-05-01

    A novel Gram-negative, rod-coccus shaped, non-motile, strain, RS-3(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from the marine transect of Kongsfjorden, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Arctic. Colonies and broth cultures were yellowish in colour due to the presence of carotenoids. Strain RS-3(T) was positive for oxidase, aesculinase, caseinase, gelatinase and urease activities and negative for amylase, catalase, lipase, lysine decarboxylase, ornithine decarboxylase, DNase and β-galactosidase activities. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 (18.0), anteiso-C15 : 0 (16.8), iso-C15 : 1 G (14.2), anteiso-C15 : 1 A (6.0) and iso-C15 : 0 3-OH (6.8). Strain RS-3(T) contained MK-6 (72.42 %) and MK-7 (27.58 %) as the major respiratory quinones and phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified lipids make up the polar lipid composition. The DNA G+C content of strain RS-3(T) was 34.7±1.2 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that Winogradskyella pacifica and Winogradskyella thalassocola are the most closely related species with sequence similarities to the type strains of these species of 98.5 and 97.7 %, respectively. However, DNA-DNA hybridization with Winogradskyella pacifica KCTC 22997(T) and Winogradskyella thalassocola DSM 15363(T) showed a relatedness of 22 and 42.5 % with respect to strain RS-3(T). Based on the DNA-DNA hybridization values, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics and phylogenetic inference, strain RS-3(T) is proposed as a novel species of the genus Winogradskyella, for which the name Winogradskyella psychrotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Winogradskyella psychrotolerans sp. nov. is RS-3(T) ( = CIP 110154(T) = NBRC 106169(T)). An emended description of the genus Winogradskyella is provided.

  7. Inhibitory activity of an extract from a marine bacterium Halomonas sp. HSB07 against the red-tide microalga Gymnodinium sp. (Pyrrophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Juan; Li, Fuchao; Liu, Ling; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Zhaopu

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, red tides occurred frequently in coastal areas worldwide. Various methods based on the use of clay, copper sulfate, and bacteria have been successful in controlling red tides to some extent. As a new defensive agent, marine microorganisms are important sources of compounds with potent inhibitory bioactivities against red-tide microalgae, such as Gymnodinium sp. (Pyrrophyta). In this study, we isolated a marine bacterium, HSB07, from seawater collected from Hongsha Bay, Sanya, South China Sea. Based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence and biochemical characteristics, the isolated strain HSB07 was identified as a member of the genus Halomonas. A crude ethyl acetate extract of strain HSB07 showed moderate inhibition activity against Gymnodinium sp. in a bioactive prescreening experiment. The extract was further separated into fractions A, B, and C by silica gel column chromatography. Fractions B and C showed strong inhibition activities against Gymnodinium. This is the first report of inhibitory activity of secondary metabolites of a Halomonas bacterium against a red-tide-causing microalga.

  8. Epibacterium ulvae gen. nov., sp. nov., epibiotic bacteria isolated from the surface of a marine alga.

    PubMed

    Penesyan, Anahit; Breider, Sven; Schumann, Peter; Tindall, Brian J; Egan, Suhelen; Brinkhoff, Thorsten

    2013-05-01

    Two Gram-reaction-negative, rod-shaped, motile bacteria, designated strains U82 and U95(T), were isolated from the marine alga Ulva australis collected at Sharks Point, Clovelly, a rocky intertidal zone near Sydney, Australia. Both strains were oxidase- and catalase-positive, formed brown- to black-pigmented colonies and required NaCl for growth. Phylogenetic analysis based on nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these strains belong to the Roseobacter clade within the Alphaproteobacteria. The 16S rRNA genes of both strains were identical across the sequenced 1326 nt, but showed differences in the intergenic spacer region (ITS) between the 16S and the 23S rRNA genes. At the genomic level the DNA G+C contents of strains U82 and U95(T) were identical (52.6 mol%) and they had a DNA-DNA hybridization value of 83.7%, suggesting that these strains belong to the same species. The closest described phylogenetic neighbour to strains U82 and U95(T) was Thalassobius aestuarii DSM 15283(T) with 95.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Other close relatives include further species of the genera Thalassobius and Shimia. Strains U82 and U95(T) were negative for bacteriochlorophyll a production, showed antibacterial activity towards other marine bacteria, were resistant to the antibiotics gentamicin and spectinomycin and were unable to hydrolyse starch or gelatin. The major fatty acids (>1%) were 18 : 1ω7c, 16 : 0, 18 : 2, 10 : 0 3-OH, 12 : 0, 20 : 1 2-OH and 18 : 0. The polar lipid pattern indicated the presence of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, two unidentified aminolipids and four unidentified phospholipids. Both strains produced ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) as the sole respiratory lipoquinone. Based on their phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, it is suggested that strains U82 and U95(T) are members of a novel species within a new genus for which the name Epibacterium ulvae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type

  9. A halotolerant thermostable lipase from the marine bacterium Oceanobacillus sp. PUMB02 with an ability to disrupt bacterial biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Seghal Kiran, George; Nishanth Lipton, Anuj; Kennedy, Jonathan; Dobson, Alan DW; Selvin, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    A halotolerant thermostable lipase was purified and characterized from the marine bacterium Oceanobacillus sp. PUMB02. This lipase displayed a high degree of stability over a wide range of conditions including pH, salinity, and temperature. It was optimally active at 30 °C and pH 8.0 respectively and was stable at higher temperatures (50–70 °C) and alkaline pH. The molecular mass of the lipase was approximately 31 kDa based on SDS-PAGE and MALDI-ToF fingerprint analysis. Conditions for enhanced production of lipase by Oceanobacillus sp. PUMB02 were attained in response surface method-guided optimization with factors such as olive oil, sucrose, potassium chromate, and NaCl being evaluated, resulting in levels of 58.84 U/ml being achieved. The biofilm disruption potential of the PUMB02 lipase was evaluated and compared with a marine sponge metagenome derived halotolerant lipase Lpc53E1. Good biofilm disruption activity was observed with both lipases against potential food pathogens such as Bacillus cereus MTCC1272, Listeria sp. MTCC1143, Serratia sp. MTCC4822, Escherichia coli MTCC443, Pseudomonas fluorescens MTCC1748, and Vibrio parahemolyticus MTCC459. Phase contrast microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed very effective disruption of pathogenic biofilms. This study reveals that marine derived hydrolytic enzymes such as lipases may have potential utility in inhibiting biofilm formation in a food processing environment and is the first report of the potential application of lipases from the genus Oceanobacillus in biofilm disruption strategies. PMID:25482232

  10. A halotolerant thermostable lipase from the marine bacterium Oceanobacillus sp. PUMB02 with an ability to disrupt bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Seghal Kiran, George; Nishanth Lipton, Anuj; Kennedy, Jonathan; Dobson, Alan D W; Selvin, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    A halotolerant thermostable lipase was purified and characterized from the marine bacterium Oceanobacillus sp. PUMB02. This lipase displayed a high degree of stability over a wide range of conditions including pH, salinity, and temperature. It was optimally active at 30 °C and pH 8.0 respectively and was stable at higher temperatures (50-70 °C) and alkaline pH. The molecular mass of the lipase was approximately 31 kDa based on SDS-PAGE and MALDI-ToF fingerprint analysis. Conditions for enhanced production of lipase by Oceanobacillus sp. PUMB02 were attained in response surface method-guided optimization with factors such as olive oil, sucrose, potassium chromate, and NaCl being evaluated, resulting in levels of 58.84 U/ml being achieved. The biofilm disruption potential of the PUMB02 lipase was evaluated and compared with a marine sponge metagenome derived halotolerant lipase Lpc53E1. Good biofilm disruption activity was observed with both lipases against potential food pathogens such as Bacillus cereus MTCC1272, Listeria sp. MTCC1143, Serratia sp. MTCC4822, Escherichia coli MTCC443, Pseudomonas fluorescens MTCC1748, and Vibrio parahemolyticus MTCC459. Phase contrast microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed very effective disruption of pathogenic biofilms. This study reveals that marine derived hydrolytic enzymes such as lipases may have potential utility in inhibiting biofilm formation in a food processing environment and is the first report of the potential application of lipases from the genus Oceanobacillus in biofilm disruption strategies.

  11. Marinicauda algicola sp. nov., isolated from a marine red alga Rhodosorus marinus.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sang Eun; Jeon, Seung Heon; Chun, Byung Hee; Kim, Dong-Woon; Jeon, Che Ok

    2017-09-01

    An aerobic Gram-stain-negative prosthecate bacterium, designated RMAR8-3T, was isolated from a marine red alga Rhodosorus marinus in the Republic of Korea. Cells were dimorphic rods with a single polar prostheca (non-motile) or flagellum (motile) showing catalase- and oxidase-positive reactions. Growth of strain RMAR8-3T was observed at 15-45 °C (optimum, 40 °C), at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and in the presence of 0-10 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2 %). Ubiquinone-10 was detected as the sole isoprenoid quinone and C18 : 0, summed feature 8 (comprising C18 : 1 ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c), C17 : 0, C12 : 0 3-OH and C16 : 0 were identified as the major cellular fatty acids. The major polar lipids were sulfo-quinovosyldiacylglycerol, glucuronopyranosyldiglyceride and monoglycosyldiglyceride. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 66.3 mol%. Strain RMAR8-3T was most closely related to Marinicauda pacifica P-1 km-3T with a 97.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain RMAR8-3T formed a tight phylogenic lineage with M. pacifica P-1 km-3T within the family Hyphomonadaceae. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular features, strain RMAR8-3T clearly represents a novel species of the genus Marinicauda, for which the name Marinicauda algicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RMAR8-3T (=KACC 18990T=JCM 31718T).

  12. Housing tubes from the marine worm Chaetopterus sp.: biomaterials with exceptionally broad thermomechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Shah, Darshil U; Vollrath, Fritz; Porter, David; Stires, John; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2014-09-06

    The housing tube material of the marine worm Chaetopterus sp. exhibits thermal stability up to 250°C, similar to other biological materials such as mulberry silkworm cocoons. Interestingly, however, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis conducted in both air and water elucidated the lack of a glass transition in the organic tube wall material. In fact, the viscoelastic properties of the anhydrous and undried tube were remarkably stable (i.e. constant and reversible) between -75°C and 200°C in air, and 5°C and 75°C in water, respectively. Moreover, it was found that hydration and associated-water plasticization were key to the rubber-like flexible properties of the tube; dehydration transformed the material behaviour to glass-like. The tube is made of bionanocomposite fibrils in highly oriented arrangement, which we argue favours the biomaterial to be highly crystalline or cross-linked, with extensive hydrogen and/or covalent bonds. Mechanical property characterization in the longitudinal and transverse directions ascertained that the tubes were not quasi-isotropic structures. In general, the higher stiffness and strength in the transverse direction implied that there were more nanofibrils orientated at ± 45° and ± 65° than at 0° to the tube axis. The order of the mechanical properties of the soft-tough tubes was similar to synthetic rubber-like elastomers and even some viscid silks. The complex structure-property relations observed indicated that the worm has evolved to produce a tubular housing structure which can (i) function stably over a broad range of temperatures, (ii) endure mechanical stresses from specific planes/axes, and (iii) facilitate rapid growth or repair. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Saccharomonospora oceani sp. nov. isolated from marine sediments in Little Andaman, India.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dao-Feng; Chen, Wei; He, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Xiong, Zi-Jun; Sahu, Maloy Kumar; Sivakumar, Kannan; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-06-01

    Two actinomycete strains, designated YIM M11168(T) and YIM M11177, were isolated from marine sediment samples from Little Andaman, Indian Ocean, and their taxonomic position was determined by a polyphasic approach. The two Gram-positive, aerobic strains were observed to produce branched substrate mycelium and aerial hyphae but did not fragment, and no diffusible pigment was produced on the media tested. At maturity, spores were formed singly or in pairs on aerial hyphae and substrate mycelium, and occasionally the single ones were borne on long sporophores. The optimum growth was determined to occur at 28 °C, 0-4 % (w/v) NaCl and pH 7.0-8.0. Whole-cell hydrolysates of both strains contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the diagnostic sugars were determined to be galactose, glucose and arabinose. Their predominant menaquinone was found to be MK-9(H4). The polar lipids detected in the two strains were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine and two unknown phosphoglycolipids. The major fatty acids (>10 %) identified were iso-C16:0, iso-C16:1 H, iso-C16:0, C17:1 ω6c for strain YIM M11168(T), iso-C16:0 and Summed Feature 3 for strain YIM M11177. The G + C contents of the genomic DNAs of both strains were determined to be 71.4 %. DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness values (78.4 ± 3.7 %) of these two isolates supported the conclusion that they belong to the same species. Based on phylogenetic analysis, phenotypic and genotypic data, it is concluded that the two isolates belong to a novel species of the genus Saccharomonospora of the family Pseudonocardiaceae. The name Saccharomonospora oceani sp. nov. (Type strain YIM M11168(T) = DSM 45700(T) = JCM 18128(T)) is proposed for the novel species.

  14. Quorum sensing of microalgae associated marine Ponticoccus sp. PD-2 and its algicidal function regulation.

    PubMed

    Chi, Wendan; Zheng, Li; He, Changfei; Han, Bin; Zheng, Minggang; Gao, Wei; Sun, Chengjun; Zhou, Gefei; Gao, Xiangxing

    2017-12-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) systems play important roles in regulating many physiological functions of microorganisms, such as biofilm formation, bioluminescence, and antibiotic production. One marine algicidal bacterium, Ponticoccus sp. PD-2, was isolated from the microalga Prorocentrum donghaiense, and its N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated QS system was verified. In this study, we analyzed the AHLs profile of strain PD-2. Two AHLs, 3-oxo-C8-HSL and 3-oxo-C10-HSL, were detected using a biosensor overlay assay and GC-MS methods. Two complete AHL-QS systems (designated zlaI/R and zlbI/R) were identified in the genome of strain PD-2. When expressed in Escherichia coli, both zlaI and zlbI genes could each produce 3-oxo-C8-HSL and 3-oxo-C10-HSL. Algicidal activity was investigated by evaluating the inhibitory rate (IR) of microalgae growth by measuring the fluorescence of viable cells. We found that the metabolites of strain PD-2 had algicidal activity against its host P. donghaiense (IR 84.81%) and two other red tide microalgae, Phaeocystis globosa (IR 78.91%) and Alexandrium tamarense (IR 67.14%). β-cyclodextrin which binds to AHLs and inhibits the QS system reduced the algicidal activity more than 50%. This indicates that inhibiting the QS system may affect the algicidal metabolites production of strain PD-2. Our study indicated that a QS-regulated algicidal system may play a potential role in the process of red tides disintegration. QS might be a potential way to control red tides.

  15. Desulfovibrio senegalensis sp. nov., a mesophilic sulfate reducer isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Thioye, Abdoulaye; Gam, Zouhaier Ben Ali; Mbengue, Malick; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Joseph-Bartoli, Manon; Touré-Kane, Coumba; Labat, Marc

    2017-09-01

    Several strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from marine sediments recovered from Hann Bay (Senegal). All were related to members of the genus Desulfovibrio. A strictly anaerobic, mesophilic and moderately halophilic strain designated BLaC1T was further characterized. Cells of strain BLaC1T stained Gram-negative and were 0.5 µm wide and 2-4 µm long, motile, rod-shaped and non-spore-forming. The four major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. Growth was observed from 15 to 45 °C (optimum 40 °C) and at pH 5.5-8 (optimum pH 7.5). The salinity range for growth was 5-65 g NaCl l-1 (optimum 30 g l-1). Yeast extract was required for growth. Strain BLaC1T was able to grow on lactate and acetate in the presence of sulfate as an electron acceptor. Sulfate, thiosulfate and sulfite could serve as terminal electron acceptors, but not fumarate, nitrate or elemental sulfur. The DNA G+C content was 55.8 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis assigned strain BLaC1T to the family Desulfovibrionaceae; its closest relative was Desulfovibrio oxyclinae DSM 19275T (93.7 % similarity). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons and physiological characteristics, strain BLaC1T is proposed as representing a novel species of Desulfovibrio, with the name Desulfovibrio senegalensis sp. nov. The type strain is BLaC1T (=DSM 101509T=JCM 31063T).

  16. Kocuria subflava sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment from the Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhao; Zhang, Wei-Hua; Yuan, Chang-Guo; Chen, Jia-Yang; Cao, Li-Xiang; Park, Dong-Jin; Xiao, Min; Kim, Chang-Jin; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-12-01

    A novel Gram-staining positive, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, aerobic, non-motile coccus, designated strain YIM 13062(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from the Indian Ocean. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM 13062(T) belongs to the genus Kocuria, and is closely related to Kocuria polaris NBRC 103063(T) (97.8 % similarity), Kocuria rosea NBRC 3768(T) (97.6 % similarity) and Kocuria carniphila JCM 14118(T) (97.4 % similarity). The strain grew optimally at 28 °C, pH 8.0 and in the presence of 2-4 % (w/v) NaCl. Cell-wall peptidoglycan type was Lys-Ala3 (type A3α). The major isoprenoid quinones were MK-6(H2) and MK-7(H2). The polar lipids of strain YIM 13062(T) consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), one unidentified phospholipid (PL), one unidentified aminophospholipid (APL), two unidentified aminolipids (AL) and four unidentified lipids (L). Major fatty acids of the novel isolate were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C14:0 and C18:1 2OH. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain YIM 13062(T) was 68.0 mol%. The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain YIM 13062(T) and K. polaris NBRC 103063(T), K. rosea NBRC 3768(T), K. carniphila JCM 14118(T) were 53.2, 48.8 and 42.6 %, respectively. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic data, it is apparent that strain YIM 13062(T) represents a novel species of the genus Kocuria, for which the name Kocuria subflava sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 13062(T) (=CGMCC 4.7252(T)=KCTC 39547(T)).

  17. Housing tubes from the marine worm Chaetopterus sp.: biomaterials with exceptionally broad thermomechanical properties

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Darshil U.; Vollrath, Fritz; Porter, David; Stires, John; Deheyn, Dimitri D.

    2014-01-01

    The housing tube material of the marine worm Chaetopterus sp. exhibits thermal stability up to 250°C, similar to other biological materials such as mulberry silkworm cocoons. Interestingly, however, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis conducted in both air and water elucidated the lack of a glass transition in the organic tube wall material. In fact, the viscoelastic properties of the anhydrous and undried tube were remarkably stable (i.e. constant and reversible) between –75°C and 200°C in air, and 5°C and 75°C in water, respectively. Moreover, it was found that hydration and associated-water plasticization were key to the rubber-like flexible properties of the tube; dehydration transformed the material behaviour to glass-like. The tube is made of bionanocomposite fibrils in highly oriented arrangement, which we argue favours the biomaterial to be highly crystalline or cross-linked, with extensive hydrogen and/or covalent bonds. Mechanical property characterization in the longitudinal and transverse directions ascertained that the tubes were not quasi-isotropic structures. In general, the higher stiffness and strength in the transverse direction implied that there were more nanofibrils orientated at ±45° and ±65° than at 0° to the tube axis. The order of the mechanical properties of the soft–tough tubes was similar to synthetic rubber-like elastomers and even some viscid silks. The complex structure–property relations observed indicated that the worm has evolved to produce a tubular housing structure which can (i) function stably over a broad range of temperatures, (ii) endure mechanical stresses from specific planes/axes, and (iii) facilitate rapid growth or repair. PMID:25008085

  18. Ornithinimicrobium algicola sp. nov., a marine actinobacterium isolated from the green alga of the genus Ulva.

    PubMed

    Ramaprasad, E V V; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-staining-positive, non-spore-forming actinobacterium, strain JC311T, isolated from marine green alga of the genus Ulva was studied to examine its taxonomic position. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies, strain JC311T was shown represent a member of the genus Ornithinimicrobium and to be closely related to Ornithinimicrobium pekingense LW6T (98.6 %), Ornithinimicrobium kibberense K22-20T (98.3 %) and Ornithinimicrobium humiphilum HKI 0124T (98.1 %). However, strain JC311T showed less than 22 % DNA reassociation value (based on DNA-DNA hybridization) with O. pekingense JCM14001T, O. kibberense JCM12763T and O. humiphilum KCTC19901T. The predominant menaquinone of strain JC311T was MK-8(H4). The peptidoglycan contained l-ornithine as the diagnostic diamino acid. The polar lipid profile consisted of the lipids diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, glycophospholipid, aminophospholipid, phospholipid and two unidentified lipids. The major fatty acids iso-C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 1ω9c and iso-C17 : 0 were consistent with the fatty acid patterns reported for members of the genus Ornithinimicrobium. The distinct genomic, morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic differences from the previously described taxa support the classification of JC311T as a representative of a novel species of the genus Ornithinimicrobium, for which we propose the name Ornithinimicrobium algicola sp. nov., with the type strain JC311T ( = KCTC 39559 T =  LMG 28808T).

  19. Cloning, expression and functional characterization of a novel trehalose synthase from marine Pseudomonas sp. P8005.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yun; Xi, Yue; Lu, Xiao-Ling; Zheng, Heng; Hu, Bo; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Jiao, Bing-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Trehalose synthase (TreS) catalyzes the reversible interconversion of maltose and trehalose. A novel treS gene with a length of 3,369 bp, encoding a protein of 1,122 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 126 kDa, was cloned from a marine Pseudomonas sp. P8005 (CCTCC: M2010298) and expressed in Escherichia coli. The amino acid sequence identities between this novel TreS and other reported TreS is relatively low. The purified recombinant TreS showed an optimum pH and temperature of 7.2 and 37 °C, respectively. The enzyme displayed a high conversion rate (70 %) of maltose to trehalose during equilibrium and had a higher catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m) for maltose than for trehalose, suggesting its application in the production of trehalose. In addition to maltose and trehalose, this enzyme can also act on sucrose, although this activity is relatively low. Mutagenesis studies demonstrated that enzymatic activity was reduced dramatically by individually substitution with alanine for D78, Y81, H121, D219, E261, H331 or D332, which implied that these residues might be important in P8005-TreS. Experiments using isotope-labeled substrates showed that [(2)H2]trehalose combined with unlabeled trehalose was converted to [(2)H2]maltose and maltose, but without any production of [(2)H]maltose or [(2)H]trehalose and with no incorporation of exogenous [(2)H7]glucose into the disaccharides during the conversion catalyzed by this enzyme. This finding indicated the involvement of an intramolecular mechanism in P8005-TreS catalyzing the reversible interconversion of maltose and trehalose.

  20. Description of Persicirhabdus sediminis gen. nov., sp. nov., Roseibacillus ishigakijimensis gen. nov., sp. nov., Roseibacillus ponti sp. nov., Roseibacillus persicicus sp. nov., Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Luteolibacter algae sp. nov., six marine members of the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia', and emended descriptions of the class Verrucomicrobiae, the order Verrucomicrobiales and the family Verrucomicrobiaceae.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Matsuo, Yoshihide; Adachi, Kyoko; Nozawa, Midori; Matsuda, Satoru; Kasai, Hiroaki; Yokota, Akira

    2008-04-01

    Ten pale-pink- and pale-yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped, chemoheterotrophic bacteria designated strains YM20-087T, YM21-151, MN1-741T, YM27-120T, YM26-010T, YM24-184, YM20-122, A4T-83T, A5J-41-2T and A5J-40 were isolated from various marine environments and were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic investigation. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that these isolates belonged to the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia' (subdivision 1) and represented three independent lineages that were distinct from species of genera of the family Verrucomicrobiaceae with validly published names. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of these strains contained muramic acid and meso-diaminopimelic acid. Strains MN1-741T, YM27-120T, YM26-010T, YM24-184 and YM20-122 produced pinkish carotenoid pigments. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic evidence, it was concluded that these strains should be classified within three new genera, Persicirhabdus gen. nov. (with one species, the type species Persicirhabdus sediminis sp. nov.), Roseibacillus gen. nov. (with three species; type species Roseibacillus ishigakijimensis sp. nov.) and Luteolibacter gen. nov. (with two species; type species Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis sp. nov.), of the family Verrucomicrobiaceae within the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia'. The names Persicirhabdus sediminis gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain YM20-087T =MBIC08313T =KCTC 22039T), Roseibacillus ishigakijimensis gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain MN1-741T =MBIC08315T =KCTC 12986T), Roseibacillus ponti sp. nov. (type strain YM27-120T =MBIC08316T =KCTC 12987T), Roseibacillus persicicus sp. nov. (type strain YM26-010T =MBIC08317T =KCTC 12988T), Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain A4T-83T =MBIC08322T =KCTC 22041T) and Luteolibacter algae sp. nov. (type strain A5J-41-2T =MBIC08320T =KCTC 22040T) are therefore proposed. Emended descriptions of the class Verrucomicrobiae, the order Verrucomicrobiales and the family

  1. Enhanced textile dye decolorization by marine-derived basidiomycete Peniophora sp. CBMAI 1063 using integrated statistical design.

    PubMed

    Bonugli-Santos, Rafaella C; Vieira, Gabriela A L; Collins, Catherine; Fernandes, Thaís Cristina C; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida; Murray, Patrick; Sette, Lara D

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, the biotechnological potential of the marine-derived fungus Peniophora sp. CBMAI 1063 was investigated in relation to Reactive Black 5 (RB5) dye decolorization and degradation using an integrated statistical design composed of Plackett-Burman design (P&B), central composite design (CCD), and response surface methodology (RSM). RB5 dye was effectively decolorized (94 %) in saline conditions, without any detection of mutagenic compounds, and simultaneously, 57 % of total organic carbon (TOC) was removed in 7 days. The activity of lignin peroxidase (LiP) was not detected during the process. The gene expression of laccase (Lac) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) enzymes produced during the process was evaluated, and results from this experiment coupled with LC-MS analyses revealed that in the early stage of dye decolorization, a higher MnP gene expression and significant enzymatic activity was detected in Peniophora sp. CBMAI 1063 with the formation of p-Base and TAHNDS compounds. This paper reports innovative data related to the textile dye decolorization by the marine-derived basidiomycete Peniophora sp. CBMAI 1063, showing the metabolites formed and enzymatic action throughout the process in saline condition. The strategy used showed to be an efficient statistical approach that provides an attractive solution for the screening and simultaneous optimization of the degradation process.

  2. New natural products identified by combined genomics-metabolomics profiling of marine Streptomyces sp. MP131-18

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Constanze; Rebets, Yuriy; Tokovenko, Bogdan; Nadmid, Suvd; Terekhova, Larisa P.; Myronovskyi, Maksym; Zotchev, Sergey B.; Rückert, Christian; Braig, Simone; Zahler, Stefan; Kalinowski, Jörn; Luzhetskyy, Andriy

    2017-01-01

    Marine actinobacteria are drawing more and more attention as a promising source of new natural products. Here we report isolation, genome sequencing and metabolic profiling of new strain Streptomyces sp. MP131-18 isolated from marine sediment sample collected in the Trondheim Fjord, Norway. The 16S rRNA and multilocus phylogenetic analysis showed that MP131-18 belongs to the genus Streptomyces. The genome of MP131-18 isolate was sequenced, and 36 gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of 18 different types of secondary metabolites were predicted using antiSMASH analysis. The combined genomics-metabolics profiling of the strain led to the identification of several new biologically active compounds. As a result, the family of bisindole pyrroles spiroindimicins was extended with two new members, spiroindimicins E and F. Furthermore, prediction of the biosynthetic pathway for unusual α-pyrone lagunapyrone isolated from MP131-18 resulted in foresight and identification of two new compounds of this family – lagunapyrones D and E. The diversity of identified and predicted compounds from Streptomyces sp. MP131-18 demonstrates that marine-derived actinomycetes are not only a promising source of new natural products, but also represent a valuable pool of genes for combinatorial biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. PMID:28186197

  3. New natural products identified by combined genomics-metabolomics profiling of marine Streptomyces sp. MP131-18.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Constanze; Rebets, Yuriy; Tokovenko, Bogdan; Nadmid, Suvd; Terekhova, Larisa P; Myronovskyi, Maksym; Zotchev, Sergey B; Rückert, Christian; Braig, Simone; Zahler, Stefan; Kalinowski, Jörn; Luzhetskyy, Andriy

    2017-02-10

    Marine actinobacteria are drawing more and more attention as a promising source of new natural products. Here we report isolation, genome sequencing and metabolic profiling of new strain Streptomyces sp. MP131-18 isolated from marine sediment sample collected in the Trondheim Fjord, Norway. The 16S rRNA and multilocus phylogenetic analysis showed that MP131-18 belongs to the genus Streptomyces. The genome of MP131-18 isolate was sequenced, and 36 gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of 18 different types of secondary metabolites were predicted using antiSMASH analysis. The combined genomics-metabolics profiling of the strain led to the identification of several new biologically active compounds. As a result, the family of bisindole pyrroles spiroindimicins was extended with two new members, spiroindimicins E and F. Furthermore, prediction of the biosynthetic pathway for unusual α-pyrone lagunapyrone isolated from MP131-18 resulted in foresight and identification of two new compounds of this family - lagunapyrones D and E. The diversity of identified and predicted compounds from Streptomyces sp. MP131-18 demonstrates that marine-derived actinomycetes are not only a promising source of new natural products, but also represent a valuable pool of genes for combinatorial biosynthesis of secondary metabolites.

  4. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Rapid Secondary-Metabolite Profiling of Marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. M2

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woo Jung; Kim, Young Ok; Kim, Jin Hee; Nam, Bo-Hye; Kim, Dong-Gyun; An, Cheul Min; Lee, Jun Sik; Kim, Pan Soo; Lee, Hye Min; Oh, Joa-Sup; Lee, Jong Suk

    2016-01-01

    The ocean is a rich resource of flora, fauna, and food. A wild-type bacterial strain showing confluent growth on marine agar with antibacterial activity was isolated from marine water, identified using 16S rDNA sequence analysis as Pseudoalteromonas sp., and designated as strain M2. This strain was found to produce various secondary metabolites including quinolone alkaloids. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, we identified nine secondary metabolites of 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinoline (pseudane-III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, and XI). Additionally, this strain produced two novel, closely related compounds, 2-isopentylqunoline-4-one and 2-(2,3-dimetylbutyl)qunoline-4-(1H)-one, which have not been previously reported from marine bacteria. From the metabolites produced by Pseudoalteromonas sp. M2, 2-(2,3-dimethylbutyl)quinolin-4-one, pseudane-VI, and pseudane-VII inhibited melanin synthesis in Melan-A cells by 23.0%, 28.2%, and 42.7%, respectively, wherein pseudane-VII showed the highest inhibition at 8 µg/mL. The results of this study suggest that liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS-based metabolite screening effectively improves the efficiency of novel metabolite discovery. Additionally, these compounds are promising candidates for further bioactivity development. PMID:26805856

  5. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Rapid Secondary-Metabolite Profiling of Marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. M2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo Jung; Kim, Young Ok; Kim, Jin Hee; Nam, Bo-Hye; Kim, Dong-Gyun; An, Cheul Min; Lee, Jun Sik; Kim, Pan Soo; Lee, Hye Min; Oh, Joa-Sup; Lee, Jong Suk

    2016-01-20

    The ocean is a rich resource of flora, fauna, and food. A wild-type bacterial strain showing confluent growth on marine agar with antibacterial activity was isolated from marine water, identified using 16S rDNA sequence analysis as Pseudoalteromonas sp., and designated as strain M2. This strain was found to produce various secondary metabolites including quinolone alkaloids. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, we identified nine secondary metabolites of 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinoline (pseudane-III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, and XI). Additionally, this strain produced two novel, closely related compounds, 2-isopentylqunoline-4-one and 2-(2,3-dimetylbutyl)qunoline-4-(1H)-one, which have not been previously reported from marine bacteria. From the metabolites produced by Pseudoalteromonas sp. M2, 2-(2,3-dimethylbutyl)quinolin-4-one, pseudane-VI, and pseudane-VII inhibited melanin synthesis in Melan-A cells by 23.0%, 28.2%, and 42.7%, respectively, wherein pseudane-VII showed the highest inhibition at 8 µg/mL. The results of this study suggest that liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS-based metabolite screening effectively improves the efficiency of novel metabolite discovery. Additionally, these compounds are promising candidates for further bioactivity development.

  6. Optimization of culturing condition and medium composition for the production of alginate lyase by a marine Vibrio sp. YKW-34

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiaoting; Lin, Hong; Kim, Sang Moo

    2008-02-01

    Carbohydrases secreted by marine Vibrio sp. YKW-34 with strong Laminaria cell wall degrading ability were screened, and among them alginate lyase was found to be dominant. The effects of medium composition and culturing condition on the production of alginate lyase by marine Vibrio sp. YKW-34 in flask were investigated in this study. In the culture medium of marine broth, no alginate lyase was produced. The activity of the alginate lyase, after being induced, reached 5 UmL-1. The best inoculum volume and inoculum age were 10% and 12 h, respectively. The optimal temperature for alginate lyase production was 25°C. The fermentation medium was composed of 0.5% of Laminaria powder and 0.2% of KNO3 with an initial acidity of pH 8.0. Alginate could induce alginate lyase production but not as efficiently as Laminaria powder did. The addition of fucoidan, cellulose and glucose had negative effect on the alginate lyase production. Other kinds of nitrogen sources, such as yeast extract, beef extract and peptone, had positive effect on the growth of the microorganism and negative effect on alginate lyase production. In addition, the time course of alginate lyase production under the optimized condition was described. The optimal harvest time was 48 h.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Rhodovulum sp. Strain NI22, a Naphthalene-Degrading Marine Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lisa M.; Gunasekera, Thusitha S.; Bowen, Loryn L.

    2015-01-01

    Rhodovulum sp. strain NI22 is a hydrocarbon-degrading member of the genus Rhodovulum. The draft genome of Rhodovulum sp. NI22 is 3.8 Mb in size, with 3,756 coding sequences and 64.4% G+C content. The catechol and gentisate pathways for naphthalene degradation are predicted to be present in Rhodovulum sp. NI22. PMID:25614575

  8. Identification and Antibacterial Activity of Bacteria Isolated from Marine Sponge Haliclona (Reniera) sp. against Multi-Drug Resistant Human Pathogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardhanu Asagabaldan, Meezan; Ayuningrum, D.; Kristiana, R.; Sabdono, A.; Radjasa, O. K.; Trianto, A.

    2017-02-01

    The marine sponge Haliclona (Reniera) sp. was a potential source of natural bioactive compounds. This sponge widely distributed along the coast of Panjang Island, Jepara, Indonesia. The aims of this research were to isolate the associated bacteria with Haliclona (Reniera) sp. and to screen the antibacterial activity against Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) bacteria. Amount five bacteria were isolated using media selective for bacteria. The antibacterial activities of bacteria were performed by overlay methods. The bacteria strain PSP. 39-04 had the best activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Enterobacter cloaceae. Based on colony morphology and phylogenetic characterization using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, PSP 39-04 was closely related with Chromohalobacter salixigens strain DSM3043.

  9. Assessment of Bioflocculant Production by Bacillus sp. Gilbert, a Marine Bacterium Isolated from the Bottom Sediment of Algoa Bay

    PubMed Central

    Nontembiso, Piyo; Sekelwa, Cosa; Leonard, Mabinya V.; Anthony, Okoh I.

    2011-01-01

    The bioflocculant-producing potentials of a marine bacteria isolated from the bottom sediment of Algoa Bay was investigated using standard methods. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed 98% similarity to that of Bacillus sp. HXG-C1 and the nucleotide sequence was deposited in GenBank as Bacillus sp. Gilbert with accession number HQ537128. Bioflocculant was optimally produced when sucrose (72% flocculating activity) and ammonium chloride (91% flocculating activity) were used as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively; an initial pH 6.2 of the production medium; and Mg2+ as cation. Chemical analysis of the purified bioflocculant revealed the compound to be a polysaccharide. PMID:21822413

  10. Assessment of bioflocculant production by Bacillus sp. Gilbert, a marine bacterium isolated from the bottom sediment of Algoa Bay.

    PubMed

    Nontembiso, Piyo; Sekelwa, Cosa; Leonard, Mabinya V; Anthony, Okoh I

    2011-01-01

    The bioflocculant-producing potentials of a marine bacteria isolated from the bottom sediment of Algoa Bay was investigated using standard methods. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed 98% similarity to that of Bacillus sp. HXG-C1 and the nucleotide sequence was deposited in GenBank as Bacillus sp. Gilbert with accession number HQ537128. Bioflocculant was optimally produced when sucrose (72% flocculating activity) and ammonium chloride (91% flocculating activity) were used as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively; an initial pH 6.2 of the production medium; and Mg²⁺ as cation. Chemical analysis of the purified bioflocculant revealed the compound to be a polysaccharide.

  11. The Inhibition and Resistance Mechanisms of Actinonin, Isolated from Marine Streptomyces sp. NHF165, against Vibrio anguillarum

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Na; Sun, Chaomin

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio sp. is the most serious pathogen in marine aquaculture, and the development of anti-Vibrio agents is urgently needed. However, it is extreme lack of high-throughput screening (HTS) model for searching anti-Vibrio compounds. Here, we established a protein-based HTS screening model to identify agents targeting peptide deformylase (PDF) of Vibrio anguillarum. To find potential anti-Vibrio compounds, crude extracts derived from marine actinomycetes were applied for screening with this model. Notably, crude extract of strain Streptomyces sp. NHF165 inhibited dramatically both on V. anguillarum PDF (VaPDF) activity and V. anguillarum cell growth. And actinonin was further identified as the functional component. Anti-VaPDF and anti-V. anguillarum activities of actinonin were dose-dependent, and the IC50 values were 6.94 and 2.85 μM, respectively. To understand the resistance of V. anguillarum against actinonin, spontaneous V. anguillarum mutants with resistance against actinonin were isolated. Surprisingly, for the resistant strains, the region between 774 and 852 base pairs was found to be absent in the gene folD which produces 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate, a donor of N-formyl to Met-tRNAfmet. When compared to the wild type strain, ΔfolD mutant showed eight times of minimum inhibition concentration on actinonin, however, the folD complementary strain could not grow on the medium supplemented with actinonin, which suggested that folD gene mutation was mainly responsible for the actinonin resistance. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that marine derived Streptomyces sp. could produce actinonin with anti-VaPDF activity and the resistance against actinonin by V. anguillarum is mediated by mutation in folD gene. PMID:27679625

  12. Sulawesins A-C, Furanosesterterpene Tetronic Acids That Inhibit USP7, from a Psammocinia sp. Marine Sponge.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Ahmed H; Kagiyama, Ippei; El-Desoky, Ahmed H; Kato, Hikaru; Mangindaan, Remy E P; de Voogd, Nicole J; Ammar, Nagwa M; Hifnawy, Mohammed S; Tsukamoto, Sachiko

    2017-07-28

    Three new furanosesterterpene tetronic acids, sulawesins A-C (1-3), were isolated from a Psammocinia sp. marine sponge, along with the known compounds ircinins-1 (4) and -2 (5). Although ircinins-1 and -2 were previously isolated as (+)- or (-)-enantiomers from marine sponges, we isolated them as enantiomeric mixtures. Sulawesins A and B possess a new carbon skeleton with a 5-(furan-3-yl)-4-hydroxycyclopent-2-enone moiety and were also found to be diastereomeric mixtures of four isomers by an HPLC analysis with a chiral-phase column. Sulawesin C has a dimeric structure of ircinin-1 and is the first dimer in this family. USP7, a deubiquitinating enzyme, is an emergent target of cancer therapy, and the isolated compounds inhibited USP7 with IC50 values in the range of 2.7-4.6 μM.

  13. Shewanella arctica sp. nov., an iron-reducing bacterium isolated from Arctic marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Jeong; Park, Soo-Je; Oh, Yong-Sik; Lee, Sang-Ah; Shin, Kee-Sun; Roh, Dong-Hyun; Rhee, Sung-Keun

    2012-05-01

    Two strains of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria, which could couple lactate oxidation to iron reduction for energy conservation, were isolated from Arctic marine sediment. The strains, IR12(T) and IR26, were both Gram-staining-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive and facultative anaerobes. Their cells were rod-shaped and motile by means of a polar flagellum. Both strains grew in the presence of 0.5-3.5 % (w/v) NaCl, with an absolute requirement for Na(+). Both were psychrotolerant since they could grow at 4-28 °C but had an optimum growth temperature of 20 °C. Both grew at pH 4.5-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.5). The major fatty acids of strains IR12(T) and IR26 were summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)ω6c and/or C(16 : 1)ω7c) and C(16 : 0). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strains IR12(T) and IR26 belonged to the class Gammaproteobacteria and were most closely related to Shewanella vesiculosa M7(T), Shewanella livingstonensis NF22(T) and Shewanella frigidimarina ACAM 591(T) (with 98.5 and 98.8 %, 98.5 and 98.8 %, and 98.5 and 98.8 % sequence similarities, respectively). The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains IR12(T) and IR26 were 40.0 and 40.3 mol%, respectively. DNA-DNA relatedness data indicated that the two novel strains represented a single species that was distinct from S. vesiculosa M7(T), S. livingstonensis NF22(T) and S. frigidimarina ACAM 591(T). Based on the phylogenetic, phenotypic and DNA-DNA relatedness data, the two new strains represent a single novel species of the genus Shewanella, for which the name Shewanella arctica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IR12(T) ( = KCTC 23109(T) = JCM 16723(T)).

  14. Lysobacter hymeniacidonis sp. nov., isolated from a crude oil-contaminated marine sponge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yanjuan; Qu, Junge; Xu, Junyi; Wu, Peichun; Cao, Xupeng; Xue, Song

    2015-12-01

    An aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium, strain 2-5T, was isolated from a crude oil-contaminated marine sponge collected near Dalian Bay, China, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic investigation. Cells of strain 2-5T were non-spore forming, non-motile, rods 0.2-0.3 µm wide and 1.1-1.2µm long. Strain 2-5T grew well on nutrient agar, TSA, R2A agar and LB agar. Colonies of strain 2-5T on LB agar were circular, smooth with entire margins, non-transparent and pale yellow after 3 d of incubation at 30°C. Growth of strain 2-5T occurred in LN medium with 0-6% NaCl; no growth occurred in the presence of 8.0% NaCl. Strain 2-5T grew at 15-42°C and at pH 6.0-8.0. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 2-5T clustered with the species of the genus Lysobacter. Its closet neighbors were the type strains of Lysobacter concretionis KCTC 12205T (97% similarity), Lysobacter arseniciresistens ZS79T (96%), and Lysobacter defluii APB-9T (96%). The value for DNA-DNA relatedness between strain 2-5T and L. concretionis KCTC 12205T was 23%. Branched fatty acids iso-C16: 0, iso-C15: 0, iso-C 11: 0 3-OH, iso-C17: 1ω9 c and iso-C11: 0 were found to be predominant. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. Strain 2-5T had a DNA G+C content of 63.8 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, DNA-DNA hybridization and phylogenetic data, strain 2-5T represents a novel species of the genus Lysobacter, for which the name Lysobacter hymeniacidonis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 2-5T (=CGMCC 1.12190T = JCM 18137T).

  15. Cyclobacterium qasimii sp. nov., a psychrotolerant bacterium isolated from Arctic marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Shivaji, S; Reddy, P Vishnu Vardhan; Rao, S S S Nageshwara; Begum, Zareena; Manasa, Poorna; Srinivas, T N R

    2012-09-01

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, horseshoe-shaped, non-motile bacterium, designated strain M12-11B(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected at a depth of 200 m from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. The colony colour was orangish red due to the presence of carotenoids. Fatty acids were dominated by branched and unsaturated fatty acids (90.8 %), with a high abundance of iso-C(15 : 0) (14.9 %), anteiso-C(15 : 0) (11.4 %), iso-C(15 : 1) G (13.1 %), C(15 : 1)ω6c (5.4 %), C(17 : 1)ω6c (6.7 %), summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)ω7c and/or C(16 : 1)ω6c; 9.3 %) and summed feature 9 (10-methyl C(16 : 0) and/or iso-C(17 : 1)ω9c; 5.9 %). Strain M12-11B(T) contained MK-7 as the major respiratory quinone. The polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminolipid and three unidentified lipids. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, the type strains of Cyclobacterium amurskyense, Cyclobacterium marinum and Cyclobacterium lianum were most closely related to M12-11B(T) with sequence similarities of 98.2, 96.8 and 93.3 %, respectively. Other members of the family Cyclobacteriaceae had sequence similarities of <92.0 %. However, DNA-DNA hybridization with Cyclobacterium amurskyense KCTC 12363(T) and Cyclobacterium marinum DSM 745(T) showed relatedness values of only 24.5 and 32.5 % with respect to strain M12-11B(T). Based on the results of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data, it appears that strain M12-11B(T) represents a novel species of the genus Cyclobacterium, for which the name Cyclobacterium qasimii sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is M12-11B(T) (= KCTC 23011(T) = NBRC 106168(T)) and it has a DNA G+C content of 40.5 mol%.

  16. Pretreatment for simultaneous production of total lipids and fermentable sugars from marine alga, Chlorella sp.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choon-Geun; Kang, Do-Hyung; Lee, Dong-Bog; Lee, Hyeon-Yong

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the optimal pretreatment process for the extraction of lipids and reducing sugars to facilitate the simultaneous production of biodiesel and bioethanol from the marine microalga Chorella sp. With a single pretreatment process, the optimal ultrasonication pretreatment process was 10 min at 47 KHz, and extraction yields of 6.5 and 7.1 (percentage, w/w) of the lipids and reducing sugars, respectively, were obtained. The optimal microwave pretreatment process was 10 min at 2,450 MHz, and extraction yields of 6.6 and 7.0 (percentage, w/w) of the lipids and reducing sugars, respectively, were obtained. Lastly, the optimal high-pressure homogenization pretreatment process was two cycles at a pressure of 20,000 psi, and extraction yields of 12.5 and 12.8 (percentage, w/w) of the lipids and reducing sugars, respectively, were obtained. However, because the single pretreatment processes did not markedly improve the extraction yields compared to the results of previous studies, a combination of two pretreatment processes was applied. The yields of lipids and reducing sugars from the combined application of the high-pressure homogenization process and the microwave process were 24.4 and 24.9 % (w/w), respectively, which was up to three times greater than the yields obtained using the single pretreatment processes. Furthermore, the oleic acid content, which is a fatty acid suitable for biodiesel production, was 23.39 % of the fatty acids (w/w). The contents of glucose and xylose, which are among the fermentable sugars useful for bioethanol production, were 77.5 and 13.3 % (w/w) of the fermentable sugars, respectively, suggesting the possibility of simultaneously producing biodiesel and bioethanol. Based on the results of this study, the combined application of the high-pressure homogenization and microwave pretreatment processes is the optimal method to increase the extraction yields of lipids and reducing sugars that are essential for

  17. Manganese Oxide Biomineralization by Spores of the Marine Bacillus sp. Strain SG-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargar, J. R.; Tebo, B. M.; Pecher, K. H.; McCubbery, D.; Chiu, V.; Tonner, B. P.

    2001-12-01

    Biogenic Mn oxides are ubiquitous in natural waters, have high sorptive capacities for metal ions, and oxidize organic and inorganic substances such as aromatic hydrocarbons, Cr(III), and hydrogen sulfide. In this fashion, Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria impact the biogeochemical cycling of essential nutrients and toxic trace constituents of natural waters. In spite of their importance, the molecular mechanisms, intermediates, and products of Mn oxide biomineralization are poorly understood. Similarly, the relationship between biotic and abiotic Mn oxidation mechanisms is not well documented. We have studied Mn oxide biomineralization by spores of the marine Bacillus sp. strain SG-1 as functions of reaction time (10 min to 77 d), Mn(II) concentration (0.01 to 1 mM), major ion composition (50 mM NaCl to sea water), O2 partial pressure, and temperature. SG-1 spores are an ideal subject because they are dormant, Mn-oxidation is not inactivated by the x-rays utilized, and they previously have been extensively studied. Reaction products and Mn oxidation state evolution were directly observed in order to infer mechanisms and phase dominance. To obtain this information, a combination of Mn(II) uptake measurements, K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), L-edge scanning transmission x-ray microspectroscopy (STXM, 60 nm nominal spot size), and synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction measurements were performed. All samples were measured under fully hydrated conditions to prevent dehydration of reaction products. This set of techniques provides chemical and structural information on Mn in amorphous and crystalline states in the samples. Mn oxide biomineralization products were sensitive to [Mn(II)]. At 0.01 mM [Mn(II)], biogenic Mn oxides were found to contain highly oxidized Mn (80-85% Mn(IV)) as observed after 48 hr. reaction. The dominant phase is identified as an amorphous Mn(IV) oxide similar to d-MnO2. K-edge XAS measurements suggest this phase forms within minutes of

  18. Kinetics of Mn(II) oxidation by spores of the marine Bacillus sp. SG-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Tebo, Bradley M.

    2016-09-01

    The kinetics of Mn(II) oxidation by spores of the marine Bacillus sp. SG-1 was measured under controlled conditions of the initial Mn(II) concentration, spore concentration, chemical speciation, pH, O2, and temperature. Mn(II) oxidation experiments were performed with spore concentrations ranging from 0.7 to 11 × 109 spores/L, a pH range from 5.8 to 8.1, temperatures between 4 and 58 °C, a range of dissolved oxygen from 2 to 270 μM, and initial Mn(II) concentrations from 1 to 200 μM. The Mn(II) oxidation rates were directly proportional to the spore concentrations over these ranges of concentration. The Mn(II) oxidation rate increased with increasing initial Mn(II) concentration to a critical concentration, as described by the Michaelis-Menten model (Km = ca. 3 μM). Whereas with starting Mn(II) concentrations above the critical concentration, the rate was almost constant in low ionic solution (I = 0.05, 0.08). At high ionic solution (I = 0.53, 0.68), the rate was inversely correlated with Mn(II) concentration. Increase in the Mn(II) oxidation rate with the dissolved oxygen concentration followed the Michaelis-Menten model (Km = 12-19 μM DO) in both a HEPES-buffered commercial drinking (soft) water and in artificial and natural seawater. Overall, our results suggest that the mass transport limitations of Mn(II) ions due to secondary Mn oxide products accumulating on the spores cause a significant decrease of the oxidation rate at higher initial Mn(II) concentration on a spore basis, as well as in more concentrated ionic solutions. The optimum pH for Mn(II) oxidation was approximately 7.0 in low ionic solutions (I = 0.08). The high rates at the alkaline side (pH > 7.5) may suggest a contribution by heterogeneous reactions on manganese bio-oxides. The effect of temperature on the Mn(II) oxidation rate was studied in three solutions (500 mM NaCl, ASW, NSW solutions). Thermal denaturation occurred at 58 °C and spore germination was evident at 40 °C in all three

  19. Vibrio caribbeanicus sp. nov., isolated from the marine sponge Scleritoderma cyanea.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Maria; Monday, Steven R; Allard, Marc W; Strain, Errol A; Whittaker, Paul; Naum, Marianna; McCarthy, Peter J; Lopez, Jose V; Fischer, Markus; Brown, Eric W

    2012-08-01

    A Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile, curved rod-shaped bacterium, strain N384(T), was isolated from a marine sponge (Scleritoderma cyanea; phylum Porifera) collected from a depth of 795 feet (242 m) off the west coast of Curaçao. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, strain N384(T) was shown to belong to the genus Vibrio, most closely related to Vibrio brasiliensis LMG 20546(T) (98.8% similarity), Vibrio nigripulchritudo ATCC 27043(T) (98.5%), Vibrio tubiashii ATCC 19109(T) (98.6%) and V. sinaloensis DSM 21326(T) (98.2%). The DNA G+C content of strain N384(T) was 41.6 mol%. An analysis of concatenated sequences of five genes (gyrB, rpoA, pyrH, mreB and ftsZ; 4068 bp) demonstrated a clear separation between strain N384(T) and its closest neighbours and clustered strain N384(T) into the 'Orientalis' clade of vibrios. Phenotypically, the novel species belonged to the arginine dihydrolase-positive, lysine decarboxylase- and ornithine decarboxylase-negative (A+/L-/O-) cluster. The novel species was also differentiated on the basis of fatty acid composition, specifically that the proportions of iso-C(13:0), iso-C(15:0), C(15:0), iso-C(16:0), C(16:0), iso-C(17:0), C(17:1)ω8c and C(17:0) were significantly different from those found in V. brasiliensis and V. sinaloensis. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, average nucleotide identity and physiological and biochemical tests further allowed differentiation of this strain from other described species of the genus Vibrio. Collectively, these findings confirm that strain N384(T) represents a novel Vibrio species, for which the name Vibrio caribbeanicus sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain N384(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2122(T) = DSM 23640(T)).

  20. Crambescidin 826 and dehydrocrambine A: new polycyclic guanidine alkaloids from the marine sponge Monanchora sp. that inhibit HIV-1 fusion.

    PubMed

    Chang, LengChee; Whittaker, Noel F; Bewley, Carole A

    2003-11-01

    Two new polycyclic guanidine alkaloids, crambescidin 826 (1) and dehydrocrambine A (2), and the known compounds crambescidin 800 (3) and fromiamycalin (4) were isolated from the marine sponge Monanchora sp. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by 2D NMR and mass spectrometry, and relative stereochemistry was established by analysis of coupling constants and ROESY spectra. The pentacyclic guanidine alkaloids 1, 3, and 4 inhibit HIV-1 envelope-mediated fusion in vitro with IC(50)'s of 1-3 microM, while compound 2, a tricyclic guanidine alkaloid, showed weaker inhibition, with an IC(50) of approximately 35 microM.

  1. A Novel Erythromycin Resistance Plasmid from Bacillus Sp. Strain HS24, Isolated from the Marine Sponge Haliclona Simulans

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Dara; Morrissey, John P.; Adams, Claire; Dobson, Alan D. W.; O’Gara, Fergal

    2014-01-01

    A better understanding of the origin and natural reservoirs of resistance determinants is fundamental to efficiently tackle antibiotic resistance. This paper reports the identification of a novel 5.8 kb erythromycin resistance plasmid, from Bacillus sp. HS24 isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona simulans. pBHS24B has a mosaic structure and carries the erythromycin resistance gene erm(T). This is the first report of an erythromycin resistance plasmid from a sponge associated bacteria and of the Erm(T) determinant in the genus Bacillus. PMID:25548909

  2. Biosorption of copper, cobalt and nickel by marine brown alga Sargassum sp. in fixed-bed column.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Soufi, Samira; Rustaiyan, Abdolhossein; Safaiyan, Shila; Mirian, Simin; Fallahe, Gila; Moazami, Nasrin

    2007-11-01

    The biosorption of copper, cobalt and nickel by marine brown alga Sargassum sp. were investigated in a fixed-bed column (temperature = 30 degrees C; different pH). Langmuir and Freundlich sorption models were used to represent the equilibrium data. The maximum Cu2+ uptake was obtained at pH 4 and the optimum Co2+ and Ni2+ uptake were at pH 7. Different dosage of biosorbent did not have an effect on the results, but the 3.5 and 5 g of biosorbent were shown higher uptake. The metal removal rates were rapid, with about 80% of the total adsorption tacking place within 40 min.

  3. Tartrolon D, a cytotoxic macrodiolide from the marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. MDG-04-17-069.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Marta; Crespo, Cristina; Schleissner, Carmen; Rodríguez, Pilar; Zúñiga, Paz; Reyes, Fernando

    2009-12-01

    Exploration of marine-derived actinomycetes as a source of antitumor compounds has led to the isolation of a new member of the tartrolon series, tartrolon D (4). This new compound was obtained from Streptomyces sp. MDG-04-17-069 fermentation broths and displayed strong cytotoxic activity against three human tumor cell lines. Additionally, the known compound ikarugamycin (5) was also found in the culture broths of the same microorganism. The structure of this new tartrolon was established by a combination of spectroscopic techniques (1D and 2D NMR, HRMS, and UV) as well as by comparison with published data for similar compounds.

  4. Evidence for an NIH shift in oxidation of naphthalene by the marine cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp. strain JCM.

    PubMed Central

    Narro, M L; Cerniglia, C E; Van Baalen, C; Gibson, D T

    1992-01-01

    The marine cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp. strain JCM oxidized naphthalene predominantly to 1-naphthol. Experiments with [1-2H]naphthalene and [2-2H]naphthalene indicated that 1-naphthol was formed with 68 and 74% retention of deuterium, respectively. No significant isotope effect was observed when the organism was incubated with a 1:1 mixture of naphthalene and [2H8]naphthalene. The results indicate that 1-naphthol is formed through a naphthalene 1,2-oxide intermediate, which rearranges spontaneously via an NIH shift mechanism. PMID:1599253

  5. Stachybotrysin, an Osteoclast Differentiation Inhibitor from the Marine-Derived Fungus Stachybotrys sp. KCB13F013.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Won; Ko, Sung-Kyun; Kim, Hye-Min; Kim, Gun-Hee; Son, Sangkeun; Kim, Gil Soo; Hwang, Gwi Ja; Jeon, Eun Soo; Shin, Kee-Sun; Ryoo, In-Ja; Hong, Young-Soo; Oh, Hyuncheol; Lee, Kyung Ho; Soung, Nak-Kyun; Hashizume, Daisuke; Nogawa, Toshihiko; Takahashi, Shunji; Kim, Bo Yeon; Osada, Hiroyuki; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Ahn, Jong Seog

    2016-10-28

    Two new phenylspirodrimane derivatives, stachybotrysin (1) and stachybotrylactone B (2), were isolated from the cultures of the marine-derived fungus Stachybotrys sp. KCB13F013. The structures were determined by analyzing the spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR and MS) and chemical transformation, including the modified Mosher's method and single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. Compound 1 exhibited an inhibitory effect on osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow macrophage cells via suppressing the RANKL-induced activation of p-ERK, p-JNK, p-p38, c-Fos, and NFATc1.

  6. Anti-dormant mycobacterial activity and target analysis of nybomycin produced by a marine-derived Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Arai, Masayoshi; Kamiya, Kentaro; Pruksakorn, Patamaporn; Sumii, Yuji; Kotoku, Naoyuki; Joubert, Jean-Pierre; Moodley, Prashini; Han, Chisu; Shin, Dayoung; Kobayashi, Motomasa

    2015-07-01

    In the course of our search for anti-dormant Mycobacterial substances, nybomycin (1) was re-discovered from the culture broth of a marine-derived Streptomyces sp. on the bioassay-guided separation. Compound 1 showed anti-microbial activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG with the MIC of 1.0μg/mL under both actively growing aerobic conditions and dormancy inducing hypoxic conditions. Compound 1 is also effective to Mycobacterium tuberculosis including the clinically isolated strains. The mechanistic analysis indicated that 1 bound to DNA and induces a unique morphological change to mycobacterial bacilli leading the bacterial cell death.

  7. Additional New Cytotoxic Triquinane-Type Sesquiterpenoids Chondrosterins K–M from the Marine Fungus Chondrostereum sp

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Lan, Wen-Jian; Deng, Rong; Feng, Gong-Kan; Xu, Qing-Yan; Hu, Zhi-Yu; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Hou-Jin

    2016-01-01

    By the method of 1H NMR prescreening and tracing the diagnostic proton signals of the methyl groups, three additional new triquinane-type sesquiterpenoids—chondrosterins K–M (1–3) and the known sesquiterpenoid anhydroarthrosporone (4)—were isolated from the marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of MS, 1D, and 2D NMR data. Chondrosterin K is a rare hirsutane sesquiterpenoid, in which a methyl group was migrated from C-2 to C-6 and has a double bond between C-2 and C-3. Compounds 1–3 showed significant cytotoxicities against various cancer cell lines in vitro. PMID:27571085

  8. Optimizing biodiesel production in marine Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4 through metabolic profiling and an innovative salinity-gradient strategy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biodiesel production from marine microalgae has received much attention as microalgae can be cultivated on non-arable land without the use of potable water, and with the additional benefits of mitigating CO2 emissions and yielding biomass. However, there is still a lack of effective operational strategies to promote lipid accumulation in marine microalgae, which are suitable for making biodiesel since they are mainly composed of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Moreover, the regulatory mechanisms involved in lipid biosynthesis in microalgae under environmental stress are not well understood. Results In this work, the combined effects of salinity and nitrogen depletion stresses on lipid accumulation of a newly isolated marine microalga, Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4, were explored. Metabolic intermediates were profiled over time to observe transient changes during the lipid accumulation triggered by the combination of the two stresses. An innovative cultivation strategy (denoted salinity-gradient operation) was also employed to markedly improve the lipid accumulation and lipid quality of the microalga, which attained an optimal lipid productivity of 223.2 mg L-1 d-1 and a lipid content of 59.4% per dry cell weight. This performance is significantly higher than reported in most related studies. Conclusions This work demonstrated the synergistic integration of biological and engineering technologies to develop a simple and effective strategy for the enhancement of oil production in marine microalgae. PMID:25002905

  9. Aliikangiella marina gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium from the culture broth of Picochlorum sp. 122, and proposal of Kangiellaceae fam. nov. in the order Oceanospirillales.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanghua; Tang, Mingxing; Wu, Huanlian; Dai, Shikun; Li, Tao; Chen, Chenghao; He, Hui; Fan, Jiewei; Xiang, Wenzhou; Li, Xiang

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, long rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain GYP-15T, was isolated from the culture broth of a marine microalga, Picochloruma sp. 122. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that strain GYP-15T shared 90.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with its closest relative, Kangiella aquimarina KCTC 12183T, and represents a distinct phylogenetic lineage in a robust clade consisting of GYP-15T and members of the genera Kangiella and Pleionea in the order Oceanospirillales. Chemotaxonomic and physiological characteristics, including major cellular fatty acids, NaCl tolerance and pattern of carbon source utilization, could also readily distinguish strain GYP-15T from all established genera and species. Thus, it is concluded that strain GYP-15T represents a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Aliikangiella marina gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Aliikangiella marina is GYP-15T ( = MCCC 1K01163T = KCTC 42667T). Based on phylogenetic results, 16S rRNA gene signature nucleotide pattern and some physiological characteristics, the three genera Kangiella, Pleionea and Aliikangiella are proposed to make up a novel family, Kangiellaceae fam. nov., in the order Oceanospirillales.

  10. Molecular and morphological descriptions of Ceratomyxa collarae n. sp. and Ceratomyxa leucosternoni n. sp. from marine ornamental fishes of Indian waters.

    PubMed

    Sanil, N K; Chandran, Archana; Shamal, P; Binesh, C P

    2017-02-01

    Two novel species of Ceratomyxa infecting marine ornamental fishes from Indian waters are described. Marine ornamentals, Chaetodon collare and Chaetodon decussatus, collected from Vizhinjam, along the southwest coast of India and Acanthurus leucosternon collected from Lakshadweep islands of Arabian Sea revealed Ceratomyxa infections in their gall bladders. Mature spores of Ceratomyxa from Chaetodon collare and Chaetodon decussatus were elongate and slightly crescentic, with rounded ends, and measured 5.20 ± 0.32 μm in length and 16.32 ± 1.29 μm in thickness. Polar capsules spherical, equal in size and measured 2.23 ± 0.16 μm long and 2.24 ± 0.20 μm wide. Posterior angle measured 157.75 ± 8.650. Principle Component Analysis and molecular analysis using partial SSUrDNA sequences showed the isolates from these two hosts to be identical. Morphological, morphometric and molecular analysis using partial SSUrDNA sequences revealed the taxonomic novelty of isolates and are hence treated as Ceratomyxa collarae n. sp. Mature spores of Ceratomyxa from Acanthurus leucosternon were elongate, slightly tapering with rounded ends, and measured 7.34 ± 0.92 μm in length and 24.37 ± 2.34 μm in thickness. Shell valves were equal, joined by a narrow suture line. Polar capsules spherical in shape, equal in size, 2.59 ± 0.32 μm long and 2.46 ± 0.32 μm wide, and polar filament measured 18.68 ± 2.54 μm. Based on morphological, morphometric and molecular analyses, the present species of Ceratomyxa is distinct, considered as a new species and named Ceratomyxa leucosternoni n. sp. The paper also discusses the prevalence of the recovered parasites and host specificity of Ceratomyxa collarae n. sp.

  11. Spongiimicrobium salis gen. nov., sp. nov., a bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from a marine sponge.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Adachi, Kyoko; Kasai, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, pale-yellow pigmented, rod-shaped, chemoheterotrophic bacterium, designated A6F-11(T), was isolated from a marine sponge collected in Japan. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the novel marine strain was affiliated with the family Flavobacteriaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes and that it shared the highest (92.9 %) sequence similarity with Arenibacter palladensis LMG 21972(T). The strain could be differentiated phenotypically from related members of the family Flavobacteriaceae. The major fatty acids of strain A6F-11(T) were iso-C15:1 G, iso-C15:0, C16:1 ω6c and/or C16:1 ω7c and iso-C17:0 3-OH. The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content was 34.7 mol%, and the major respiratory quinone was menaquinone 6 (MK-6). From the distinct phylogenetic position and combination of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the strain is considered to represent a novel taxon in the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Spongiimicrobium salis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of S. salis gen. nov., sp. nov. is A6F-11(T) (= KCTC 42753(T) = NBRC 111401(T)).

  12. Proteomic studies highlight outer-membrane proteins related to biofilm development in the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. D41.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Andrés; Com, Emmanuelle; Bazire, Alexis; Goncalves, Marina Dos Santos; Delage, Ludovic; Le Pennec, Gaël; Pineau, Charles; Dreanno, Catherine; Compère, Chantal; Dufour, Alain

    2012-11-01

    Bacterial biofilm development is conditioned by complex processes involving bacterial attachment to surfaces, growth, mobility, and exoproduct production. The marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain D41 is able to attach strongly onto a wide variety of substrates, which promotes subsequent biofilm development. Study of the outer-membrane and total soluble proteomes showed ten spots with significant intensity variations when this bacterium was grown in biofilm compared to planktonic cultures. MS/MS de novo sequencing analysis allowed the identification of four outer-membrane proteins of particular interest since they were strongly induced in biofilms. These proteins are homologous to a TonB-dependent receptor (TBDR), to the OmpW and OmpA porins, and to a type IV pilus biogenesis protein (PilF). Gene expression assays by quantitative RT-PCR showed that the four corresponding genes were upregulated during biofilm development on hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants unable to produce any of the OmpW, OmpA, and PilF homologues yielded biofilms with lower biovolumes and altered architectures, confirming the involvement of these proteins in the biofilm formation process. Our results indicate that Pseudoalteromonas sp. D41 shares biofilm formation mechanisms with human pathogenic bacteria, but also relies on TBDR, which might be more specific to the marine environment. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Shewanella marinintestina sp. nov., Shewanella schlegeliana sp. nov. and Shewanella sairae sp. nov., novel eicosapentaenoic-acid-producing marine bacteria isolated from sea-animal intestines.

    PubMed

    Satomi, Masataka; Oikawa, Hiroshi; Yano, Yutaka

    2003-03-01

    Three novel Shewanella species are described on the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic studies. A total of six novel halophilic, aerobic organisms with the ability to produce eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were isolated from various sea animals in Japan. Cells of all six isolates were Gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile by means of polar flagella. They were able to produce large amounts of EPA (about 20% of the total fatty acids) and had isoprenoid quinones Q-7 and Q-8 as major components. Analysis of the nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequences of the novel isolates showed that they are very close phylogenetically (sequence similarity > 99%) and the closest species was Shewanella pealeana, with 97% sequence similarity. However, analysis of gyrB sequences indicated that the novel isolates were divided into three groups at sufficient phylogenetic distance to indicate that they are different species (< 90% sequence similarity). DNA-DNA hybridization experiments supported this conclusion. The first group (three strains) had positive reactions for lipase, DNase, ONPG and trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) reduction and had G + C contents of 43 mol% (determined by HPLC). The second group (two strains) was positive for urease, DNase, ONPG and TMAO reduction but not lipase. Their G + C content was 45 mol%. The third group (one strain) was negative for ONPG, DNase and TMAO reduction and had a G + C content of 43 mol%. Strains of the second group, but not those of the first or third groups, grew at 32 degrees C. On the basis of the polyphasic taxonomic data, the novel strains isolated from intestines of sea animals are placed in three novel species of the genus Shewanella: Shewanella marinintestina sp. nov. (type strain: JCM 11558T =LMG 21403T), Shewanella schlegeliana sp. nov. (type strain: JCM 11561T =LMG 21406T) and Shewanella sairae sp. nov. (type strain: JCM 11563T =LMG 21408T).

  14. Cobalt(II) Oxidation by the Marine Manganese(II)-Oxidizing Bacillus sp. Strain SG-1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon; Tebo, Bradley M.

    1994-01-01

    The geochemical cycling of cobalt (Co) has often been considered to be controlled by the scavenging and oxidation of Co(II) on the surface of manganese [Mn(III,IV)] oxides or manganates. Because Mn(II) oxidation in the environment is often catalyzed by bacteria, we have investigated the ability of Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria to bind and oxidize Co(II) in the absence of Mn(II) to determine whether some Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria also oxidize Co(II) independently of Mn oxidation. We used the marine Bacillus sp. strain SG-1, which produces mature spores that oxidize Mn(II), apparently due to a protein in their spore coats (R.A. Rosson and K. H. Nealson, J. Bacteriol. 151:1027-1034, 1982; J. P. M. de Vrind et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52:1096-1100, 1986). A method to measure Co(II) oxidation using radioactive 57Co as a tracer and treatments with nonradioactive (cold) Co(II) and ascorbate to discriminate bound Co from oxidized Co was developed. SG-1 spores were found to oxidize Co(II) over a wide range of pH, temperature, and Co(II) concentration. Leucoberbelin blue, a reagent that reacts with Mn(III,IV) oxides forming a blue color, was found to also react with Co(III) oxides and was used to verify the presence of oxidized Co in the absence of added Mn(II). Co(II) oxidation occurred optimally around pH 8 and between 55 and 65°C. SG-1 spores oxidized Co(II) at all Co(II) concentrations tested from the trace levels found in seawater to 100 mM. Co(II) oxidation was found to follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics. An Eadie-Hofstee plot of the data suggests that SG-1 spores have two oxidation systems, a high-affinity-low-rate system (Km, 3.3 × 10-8 M; Vmax, 1.7 × 10-15 M · spore-1 · h-1) and a low-affinity-high-rate system (Km, 5.2 × 10-6 M; Vmax, 8.9 × 10-15 M · spore-1 · h-1). SG-1 spores did not oxidize Co(II) in the absence of oxygen, also indicating that oxidation was not due to abiological Co(II) oxidation on the surface of preformed Mn(III,IV) oxides. These

  15. A Comparative biochemical study on two marine endophytes, Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS, Isolated from red sea algae.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Eman Fadl; Hassan, Hossam Mokhtar; Rateb, Mostafa Ezzat; Abdel-Wahab, Noha; Sameer, Somayah; Aly Taie, Hanan Anwar; Abdel-Hameed, Mohammed Sayed; Hammouda, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Two marine endophytic bacteria were isolated from the Red Sea algae; a red alga; Acanthophora dendroides and the brown alga Sargassum sabrepandum. The isolates were identified based on their 16SrRNA sequences as Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential anti-microbial and antioxidant activities of the extracts of the isolated bacteria grown in different nutrient conditions. Compared to amoxicillin (25μg/disk) and erythromycin (15μg/disk), the extracts of Bacterium SRCn min media II, III, IV and V were potent inhibitors of the gram-positive bacterium Sarcina maxima even at low concentrations. Also, the multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) was more sensitive to the metabolites produced in medium (II) of the same endophyte than erythromycin (15μg/disk). A moderate activity of the Bacillus sp. JS extracts of media I and II was obtained against the same pathogen. The total compounds (500ug/ml) of both isolated endophytes showed moderate antioxidant activities (48.9% and 46.1%, respectively). LC/MS analysis of the bacterial extracts was carried out to investigate the likely natural products produced. Cyclo(D-cis-Hyp-L-Leu), dihydrosphingosine and 2-Amino-1,3-hexadecanediol were identified in the fermentation medium of Bacterium SRCnm, whereas cyclo (D-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo (L-Leu-L-Pro) were the suggested compounds of Bacillus sp. JS.

  16. Phylogenetic position of Sphaerospora testicularis and Latyspora scomberomori n. gen. n. sp. (Myxozoa) within the marine urinary clade.

    PubMed

    Bartošová, Pavla; Freeman, Mark A; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Caffara, Monica; Fiala, Ivan

    2011-03-01

    An amendment of the family Sinuolineidae (Myxosporea) is proposed in order to include a newly described genus Latyspora n. gen. The type species Latyspora scomberomori n. gen. n. sp. is a coelozoic parasite in the kidney tubules of Scomberomorus guttatus. In addition to the morphological and molecular characterization of L. scomberomori n. gen. n. sp., we also present novel SSU rDNA data on Sphaerospora testicularis, a serious parasite of Dicentrarchus labrax. Performed phylogenetic analyses revealed that both species cluster within the marine urinary clade encompassing the representatives with a shared insertion within their V4 SSU rRNA region and grouping according to the shape of their spores' sutural line and their similar tissue tropism in the host. Sphaerospora testicularis is the closest relative to Parvicapsula minibicornis within the Parvicapsula subclade and L. scomberomori n. gen. n. sp. is the basal species of the Zschokkella subclade. The phylogenetic position of S. testicularis, outwith the basal Sphaerospora sensu stricto clade, and its morphology suggest it being a non-typical Sphaerospora. The sequence data provided on S. testicularis can help in future revisions of the strongly polyphyletic genus Sphaerospora. We recommend re-sequencing of several sphaerosporids as an essential step before such taxonomic changes are accomplished.

  17. Antibacterial and brine shrimp lethality effect of marine actinobacterium Streptomyces sp. CAS72 against human pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sivasankar, Palaniappan; Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Vijayanand, Packiyaraj; Sivakumar, Kannan; Sugesh, Shanmugam; Poongodi, Subramaniam; Maharani, Viswanathan; Vijayalakshmi, Shanmugam; Balasubramanian, Thangavel

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria and brine shrimp lethality bioassay of the marine actinobacterium. Methods Forty six marine actinobacterial strains were isolated from sediment samples of Uppanar estuary, Cuddalore, India. Preliminary screening was done by cross-streak method and the potential strain was identified by morphological, chemotaxonomical and molecular methods. Fermentation was done and the metabolite was obtained by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate and purified by silica gel (100-200 mesh) column chromatography. The purified metabolite was tested for antibacterial activity, minimal inhibitory concentration and brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results Among the forty six strains, CAS72 was found effective against human pathogenic bacteria. The strain CAS72 was identified as Streptomyces sp. The purified metabolite exhibited a significant in vitro antibacterial activity. The MIC value was also determined against human pathogenic bacteria and a strong cytotoxic activity in brine shrimp lethality assay was observed and the LC50 value was 23.5 µg/mL. Conclusions The present investigation reveals that the marine actinobacteria are well obtainable in Uppanar estuary environment and it can provide a definite source for novel bioactive metabolites.

  18. Efficacy of protease inhibitor from marine Streptomyces sp. VITBVK2 against Leishmania donovani - An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Sreedharan, Veena; Bhaskara Rao, K V

    2017-03-01

    In the present study the leishmanicidal effect of potential protease inhibitor producing marine actinobacterial isolate has been investigated against Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis. Among 89 marine actinobacteria isolated from a salt pan in Kanyakumari, only one isolate (BVK2) showed 97% of protease inhibition activity against trypsin. Moderate to high protease inhibitor activity was shown by isolate BVK2 on proteinase (30%) and chymotrypsin (85%). In optimization study for protease inhibitor production glucose as carbon source and casein as nitrogen source showed the best activity. In the in-vitro Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) assay, 100 μg/ml of BVK2 extract was active against amastigotes in infected J774A.1 macrophages and showed 87% of parasitic inhibition. The isolate BVK2 showed significant anti-parasitic activity with an IC50 of 27.1 μg/ml after double doses were administered. The potential isolate was identified by molecular 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Streptomyces sp. VITBVK2. The results obtained suggest that the marine actinobacterial extract which have novel metabolites can be considered as a potential source for the development of drugs.

  19. Morphology and phylogeny of Henneguya jocu n. sp. (Myxosporea, Myxobolidae), infecting the gills of the marine fish Lutjanus jocu.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Carlos; Rocha, Sónia; Matos, Patrícia; Matos, Edilson; Oliveira, Elsa; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Casal, Graça

    2014-04-01

    Henneguya jocu n. sp. (Myxosporea, Myxobolidae) is described from the gill lamellae of the marine teleost fish Lutjanus jocu, with a focus on ultrastructural and molecular features. This myxosporean forms subspherical cysts up to ∼260 μm × 130 μm long, and develops asynchronously. Mature myxospores ellipsoidal with a bifurcated caudal process. Myxospore length 10.9 ± 0.4 μm (n=50); width, 8.2 ± 0.3 μm (n=50); and thickness, 2.9 ± 0.5 μm (n=50). Two equal caudal processes, 34.1±1.0 μm long (n=50); and total myxospore length, 45.2 ± 1.0 μm (n=50). Two symmetric valves surround two ellipsoidal polar capsules, 5.0 ± 0.3 × 1.4 ± 0.2 μm (n=20), each containing an isofilar polar filament forming 4-5 coils along the inner wall of these structures, as well as a binucleated sporoplasm presenting a spherical vacuole and several globular sporoplasmosomes. Both the morphological data and molecular analysis of the SSU rDNA gene identify this parasite as a new species of the genus Henneguya. Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony analyses further indicate that the parasite clusters within others marine Myxobolidae species, forming a group alongside other Henneguya species described from marine hosts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Anticancer Effects of the Marine Sponge Lipastrotethya sp. Extract on Wild-Type and p53 Knockout HCT116 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kiheon; Lim, Hyun Kyung; Oh, Sung Ryong; Chung, Woo-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Interest in marine bioresources is increasing in the drug development sector. In particular, marine sponges produce a wide range of unique metabolites that enable them to survive in challenging environments, which makes them attractive sources of candidate pharmaceuticals. In previous study, we investigated over 40 marine specimens collected in Micronesia and provided by the Korean Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, for their antiproliferative effects on various cancer cell lines, and Lipastrotethya sp. extract (LSSE) was found to have a marked antiproliferative effect. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism responsible for its anticancer effect on wild-type p53 (WT) or p53 knockout (KO) HCT116 cells. LSSE inhibited cell viability and induced apoptotic cell death more so in HCT116 p53 KO cells than the WT. HCT116 WT cells treated with LSSE underwent apoptosis associated with the induction of p53 and its target genes. On the other hand, in HCT116 p53 KO cells, LSSE reduced mTOR and Bcl-2 and increased Beclin-1 and LC3-II protein levels, suggesting autophagy induction. These results indicate that the mechanisms responsible for the anticancer effect of LSSE depend on p53 status. PMID:28127380

  1. -Genomic data mining of the marine actinobacteria Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 unveils insights into multi-stress related genes and metabolic pathways involved in antimicrobial synthesis.

    PubMed

    Undabarrena, Agustina; Ugalde, Juan A; Seeger, Michael; Cámara, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 is an actinobacterial strain isolated from marine sediments of a Chilean Patagonian fjord. Morphological characterization together with antibacterial activity was assessed in various culture media, revealing a carbon-source dependent activity mainly against Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and L. monocytogenes). Genome mining of this antibacterial-producing bacterium revealed the presence of 26 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) for secondary metabolites, where among them, 81% have low similarities with known BGCs. In addition, a genomic search in Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 unveiled the presence of a wide variety of genetic determinants related to heavy metal resistance (49 genes), oxidative stress (69 genes) and antibiotic resistance (97 genes). This study revealed that the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 bacterium has the capability to tolerate a diverse set of heavy metals such as copper, cobalt, mercury, chromate and nickel; as well as the highly toxic tellurite, a feature first time described for Streptomyces. In addition, Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 possesses a major resistance towards oxidative stress, in comparison to the soil reference strain Streptomyces violaceoruber A3(2). Moreover, Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 showed resistance to 88% of the antibiotics tested, indicating overall, a strong response to several abiotic stressors. The combination of these biological traits confirms the metabolic versatility of Streptomyces sp. H-KF8, a genetically well-prepared microorganism with the ability to confront the dynamics of the fjord-unique marine environment.

  2. A description of seven Antarctic marine gymnamoebae including a new subspecies, two new species and a new genus: Neoparamoeba aestuarina antarctica n. subsp., Platyamoeba oblongata n. sp., Platyamoeba contorta n. sp. and Vermistella antarctica n. gen. n. sp.

    PubMed

    Moran, Dawn M; Anderson, O Roger; Dennett, Mark R; Caron, David A; Gast, Rebecca J

    2007-01-01

    Seven marine gymnamoebae were isolated from different environments of seawater, slush (pack ice meltwater), and sediment in the Ross Sea area of Antarctica. All amoebae were isolated and maintained at temperatures below 4 degrees C. Growth, rate of locomotion, and general morphology were observed at an environmentally appropriate temperature (1 degrees C) and at room temperature (approximately 25 degrees C). Molecular (srDNA sequences) and microscopical techniques were used to identify the gymnamoebae and establish their phylogenetic affinities. Three isolates (S-131-2, SL-200, and W4-3) were assigned to a psychrophilic subspecies of Neoparamoeba aestuarina, N. aestuarina antarctica n. subsp., one isolate (S-205) was assigned to a new species of Platyamoeba, P. oblongata n. sp., two isolates (W51C#4 & W51C#5) were also assigned to a new species of Platyamoeba, P. contorta n. sp., and one isolate (S-241) was a novel psychrophilic gymnamoeba Vermistella antarctica n. gen. n. sp. Molecular and morphological results revealed that V. antarctica was not related to any described family of gymnamoebae. Strains S-205, W51C#4, and W51C#5 were capable of locomotion at room temperature, while strains SL-200, S-131-2, W4-3, and S-241 exhibited locomotion only below approximately 10 degrees C. Our results imply that the Antarctic environment is host both to cosmopolitan gymnamoebae that have acquired adaptations for existence at low environmental temperature and to apparently novel psychrophilic amoebae described here for the first time.

  3. Biodegradable and Biocompatible Biomaterial, Polyhydroxybutyrate, Produced by an Indigenous Vibrio sp. BM-1 Isolated from Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yu-Hong; Chen, Wei-Chuan; Wu, Ho-Shing; Janarthanan, Om-Murugan

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is one of the polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) which has biodegradable and biocompatible properties. They are adopted in the biomedical field, in, for example, medical implants and drug delivery carriers. This study seeks to promote the production of PHB by Vibrio sp. BM-1, isolated from a marine environment by improving constituents of medium and implementing an appropriate fermentation strategy. This study successfully developed a glycerol-yeast extract-tryptone (GYT) medium that can facilitate the growth of Vibrio sp. BM-1 and lead to the production of 1.4 g/L PHB at 20 h cultivation. This study also shows that 1.57 g/L PHB concentration and 16% PHB content were achieved, respectively, when Vibrio sp. BM-1 was cultivated with MS-GYT medium (mineral salts-supplemented GYT medium) for 12 h. Both cell dry weight (CDW) and residual CDW remained constant at around 8.2 g/L and 8.0 g/L after the 12 h of cultivation, until the end of the experiment. However, both 16% of PHB content and 1.57 g/L of PHB production decreased rapidly to 3% and 0.25 g/L, respectively from 12 h of cultivation to 40 h of cultivation. The results suggest that the secretion of PHB depolymerase that might be caused by the addition of mineral salts reduced PHB after 12 h of cultivation. However, work will be done to explain the effect of adding mineral salts on the production of PHB by Vibrio sp. BM-1 in the near future. PMID:21731553

  4. Desulfosarcina widdelii sp. nov. and Desulfosarcina alkanivorans sp. nov., hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from marine sediment and emended description of the genus Desulfosarcina.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Miho; Higashioka, Yuriko; Kojima, Hisaya; Fukui, Manabu

    2017-08-01

    In previous studies, two hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria, strains PP31T and PL12T, were obtained from oil-polluted marine sediments of Shuaiba, Kuwait. They had been reported as organisms capable of anaerobic degradation of p-xylene and n-alkanes, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain PP31T showed 98.8 % sequence similarities to that of Desulfosarcina variabilis'Montpellier'T. Strains PL12T had 97.8 % of sequence similarity to Desulfosarcina ovata oXys1T. They both have been partially characterized, but not been validly published as new species of the genus Desulfosarcina. In this study, additional characterizations of these strains were made to describe them as two new species of the genus Desulfosarcina. Major cellular fatty acids of strain PP31T were C15 : 0 (25.9 %) and anteiso-C15 : 0 (22.3 %), whereas those of strain PL12T were C15 : 0 (21.3 %), C16 : 0 (17.8 %) and anteiso-15 : 0 (11.6 %). The phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene revealed that these isolates should not be classified as any of the known species in the genus Desulfosarcina. On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses, these two sulfate reducers are proposed to form two novel species of the genus Desulfosarcina : Desulfosarcina widdelii sp. nov. (PP31T=JCM 31729T=DSM 103921T) and Desulfosarcina alkanivorans sp. nov. (PL12T=JCM 31728T=DSM 103901T). In addition, emended description of the genus Desulfosarcina is presented in this study.

  5. Strain identification and quorum sensing inhibition characterization of marine-derived Rhizobium sp. NAO1

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hong; Zhu, Xiaoshan; Yu, Shenchen; Chen, Lu; Jin, Hui; Cai, Zhonghua

    2017-01-01

    A novel strategy for combating pathogens is through the ongoing development and use of anti-quorum sensing (QS) treatments such as therapeutic bacteria or their anti-QS substances. Relatively little is known about the bacteria that inhabit the open ocean and of their potential anti-pathogenic attributes; thus, in an initiative to identify these types of therapeutic bacteria, planktonic microbes from the North Atlantic Ocean were collected, isolated, cultured and screened for anti-QS activity. Screening analysis identified one such strain, Rhizobium sp. NAO1. Extracts of Rhizobium sp. NAO1 were identified via ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) analysis. They were shown to contain N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based QS analogues (in particular, the N-butyryl homoserine lactone (C4-AHL) analogue) and could disrupt biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. QS inhibition was confirmed using confocal scanning laser microscopy and growth curves, and it was shown to occur in a dose-dependent manner without affecting bacterial growth. Secondary metabolites of Rhizobium sp. NAO1 inhibited PAO1 pathogenicity by downregulating AHL-mediated virulence factors such as elastase activity and siderophore production. Furthermore, as a result of biofilm structure damage, the secondary metabolite products of Rhizobium sp. NAO1 significantly increased the sensitivity of PAO1 to aminoglycoside antibiotics. Our results demonstrated that Rhizobium sp. strain NAO1 has the ability to disrupt P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm architecture, in addition to attenuating P. aeruginosa PAO1 virulence factor production and pathogenicity. Therefore, the newly identified ocean-derived Rhizobium sp. NAO1 has the potential to serve as a QS inhibitor and may be a new microbial resource for drug development. PMID:28405399

  6. Enhanced Oil Production by the Tropical Marine Diatom Thalassiosira Sp. Cultivated in Outdoor Photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Kusumaningtyas, Pintaka; Nurbaiti, Santi; Suantika, Gede; Amran, Muhammad Bachri; Nurachman, Zeily

    2017-08-01

    Microalgae-derived oils have potential as a biofuel feedstock. To produce microalgal oils at a large scale, large amounts of nutrients and energy are needed to grow the algae. In this study, we evaluated three types of agricultural fertilizer (AF)-based culture media (AF1, AF2, and AF3) based on a previously published enriched seawater (ES) medium to produce biomass and oils from Thalassiosira sp. Under laboratory conditions, the highest cell productivity of Thalassiosira sp. was obtained with the AF3 medium. Thalassiosira sp. cultured in the AF3 medium produced 10.4 ± 0.9 mg L(-1) day(-1)oils, which is significantly higher than the 5.8 ± 0.7 mg L(-1) day(-1)produced in the ES medium. The higher production was due to the presence of nitrate and trace elements, both of which played roles in enhancing biomass and oil content, respectively. During cell growth, resting spores appeared inside the cells and were a marker to harvest the cells. Because of the abundant availability of sunlight in the tropics during the year, the oil production of Thalassiosira sp. in the AF3 medium was scaled up using outdoor photobioreactors under different weather conditions (rainy and dry seasons). Thalassiosira sp. produced more unsaturated fatty acids during the rainy season and produced more saturated fatty acids during the dry season. This study also demonstrated that it was possible to culture Thalassiosira sp. under outdoor conditions using a low-cost agricultural fertilizer-based culture medium (AF3 medium) to produce biodiesel feedstock with an annual production of 8.1 ± 0.4 t ha(-1) during the dry season and of 23.9 ± 6.8 t ha(-1) during the rainy season.

  7. Strain identification and quorum sensing inhibition characterization of marine-derived Rhizobium sp. NAO1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hong; Zhou, Jin; Zhu, Xiaoshan; Yu, Shenchen; Chen, Lu; Jin, Hui; Cai, Zhonghua

    2017-03-01

    A novel strategy for combating pathogens is through the ongoing development and use of anti-quorum sensing (QS) treatments such as therapeutic bacteria or their anti-QS substances. Relatively little is known about the bacteria that inhabit the open ocean and of their potential anti-pathogenic attributes; thus, in an initiative to identify these types of therapeutic bacteria, planktonic microbes from the North Atlantic Ocean were collected, isolated, cultured and screened for anti-QS activity. Screening analysis identified one such strain, Rhizobium sp. NAO1. Extracts of Rhizobium sp. NAO1 were identified via ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) analysis. They were shown to contain N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based QS analogues (in particular, the N-butyryl homoserine lactone (C4-AHL) analogue) and could disrupt biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. QS inhibition was confirmed using confocal scanning laser microscopy and growth curves, and it was shown to occur in a dose-dependent manner without affecting bacterial growth. Secondary metabolites of Rhizobium sp. NAO1 inhibited PAO1 pathogenicity by downregulating AHL-mediated virulence factors such as elastase activity and siderophore production. Furthermore, as a result of biofilm structure damage, the secondary metabolite products of Rhizobium sp. NAO1 significantly increased the sensitivity of PAO1 to aminoglycoside antibiotics. Our results demonstrated that Rhizobium sp. strain NAO1 has the ability to disrupt P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm architecture, in addition to attenuating P. aeruginosa PAO1 virulence factor production and pathogenicity. Therefore, the newly identified ocean-derived Rhizobium sp. NAO1 has the potential to serve as a QS inhibitor and may be a new microbial resource for drug development.

  8. Aceticlastic and NaCl-Requiring Methanogen “Methanosaeta pelagica” sp. nov., Isolated from Marine Tidal Flat Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Iino, Takao; Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro; Yamaguchi, Kaoru; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    Among methanogens, only 2 genera, Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina, are known to contribute to methanogenesis from acetate, and Methanosaeta is a specialist that uses acetate specifically. However, Methanosaeta strains so far have mainly been isolated from anaerobic digesters, despite the fact that it is widespread, not only in anaerobic methanogenic reactors and freshwater environments, but also in marine environments, based upon extensive 16S rRNA gene-cloning analyses. In this study, we isolated an aceticlastic methanogen, designated strain 03d30qT, from a tidal flat sediment. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and mcrA genes revealed that the isolate belongs to the genus Methanosaeta. Unlike the other known Methanosaeta species, this isolate grows at Na+ concentrations of 0.20 to 0.80 M, with an optimum concentration of 0.28 M. Quantitative estimation using real-time PCR detected the 16S rRNA gene of the genus Methanosaeta in the marine sediment, and relative abundance ranged from 3.9% to 11.8% of the total archaeal 16S rRNA genes. In addition, the number of Methanosaeta organisms increased with increasing depth and was much higher than that of Methanosarcina organisms, suggesting that aceticlastic methanogens contribute to acetate metabolism to a greater extent than previously thought in marine environments, where sulfate-reducing acetate oxidation prevails. This is the first report on marine Methanosaeta species, and based on phylogenetic and characteristic studies, the name “Methanosaeta pelagica” sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species, with type strain 03d30q. PMID:22344667

  9. Tritodynamia serratipes sp. nov., a new marine crab from Singapore (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Macrophthalmidae).

    PubMed

    Anker, Arthur; Ng, Peter K L

    2014-06-30

    Tritodynamia serratipes sp. nov. is described based on a female specimen dredged on soft mud at a depth of 6.3-6.5 m, near Marina East, only a few kilometers from Singapore's city centre. The new species differs from all other species of Tritodynamia Ortmann, 1894 by a unique combination of morphological characters, including the posterior margin of the propodus of the second ambulatory leg armed with a row of particularly strong teeth, and the cutting edges of dactylus and pollex each proximally armed with two stout teeth. Tritodynamia serratipes sp. nov. is the second species of the genus described from tropical Asia.

  10. Botryane metabolites from the fungus Geniculosporium sp. isolated from the marine red alga Polysiphonia.

    PubMed

    Krohn, Karsten; Dai, Jingqiu; Flörke, Ulrich; Aust, Hans-Jürgen; Dräger, Siegfried; Schulz, Barbara

    2005-03-01

    Eleven new botryane metabolites (1-11) were isolated together with four known cytochalasins (12-15) from the mitosporic fungus Geniculosporium sp., which is associated with the red alga Polysiphonia sp. The structures of 1-11 differ from known botryanes in substitution pattern, degree of saturation, and altered sites of oxidation, alkylation, unsaturation, etc. They were determined by spectroscopic methods (mainly extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments and mass spectral measurements) and X-ray single-crystal analysis. The herbicidal, antifungal, and antibacterial activities of these new natural products were evaluated.

  11. Structure Elucidation and Cytotoxic Evaluation of New Polyacetylenes from a Marine Sponge Petrosia sp.

    PubMed Central

    Juan, Yung-Shun; Lee, Chien-Chih; Tsao, Chia-Wei; Lu, Mei-Chin; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Shih, Huei-Chuan; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Wu, Yang-Chang; Su, Jui-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    The sponge Petrosia sp. yielded five polyacetylenic compounds (1–5), including two new polyacetylenes, petrosianynes A (1) and B (2). The structures of these compounds were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis and by comparison with the physical and spectral data of related known analogues. Compounds 1–5 exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against a limited panel of cancer cell lines. PMID:25238415

  12. Sesquiterpene Hydroquinones with Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inhibitory Activities from a Dysidea sp. Marine Sponge Collected in Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Abdjul, Delfly B; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Ukai, Kazuyo; Namikoshi, Michio

    2016-07-22

    Three new sesquiterpene hydroquinones, avapyran (1), 17-O-acetylavarol (2), and 17-O-acetylneoavarol (3), were isolated from a Dysidea sp. marine sponge collected in Okinawa together with five known congeners: avarol (4), neoavarol (5), 20-O-acetylavarol (6), 20-O-acetylneoavarol (7), and 3'-aminoavarone (8). The structures of 1-3 were assigned on the basis of their spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-3 inhibited the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B with IC50 values of 11, 9.5, and 6.5 μM, respectively, while known compounds 4-8 gave IC50 values of 12, >32, 10, 8.6, and 18 μM, respectively. In a preliminary investigation on structure-activity relationships, six ester and methoxy derivatives (9-14) were prepared from 4 and 5.

  13. Asteltoxins with Antiviral Activities from the Marine Sponge-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSIO XWS02F40.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yong-Qi; Lin, Xiu-Ping; Wang, Zhen; Zhou, Xue-Feng; Qin, Xiao-Chu; Kaliyaperumal, Kumaravel; Zhang, Tian-Yu; Tu, Zheng-Chao; Liu, Yonghong

    2015-12-26

    Two new asteltoxins named asteltoxin E (2) and F (3), and a new chromone (4), together with four known compounds were isolated from a marine sponge-derived fungus, Aspergillus sp. SCSIO XWS02F40. The structures of the compounds (1-7) were determined by the extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra, and HRESIMS spectrometry. All the compounds were tested for their antiviral (H1N1 and H3N2) activity. Compounds 2 and 3 showed significant activity against H3N2 with the prominent IC50 values of 6.2 ± 0.08 and 8.9 ± 0.3 μM, respectively. In addition, compound 2 also exhibited inhibitory activity against H1N1 with an IC50 value of 3.5 ± 1.3 μM.

  14. Paraphilometroides nemipteri gen. et sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the marine fish Nemipterus peronii (Valenciennes) from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Shaharom-Harrison, F

    1989-01-01

    A new nematode species, Paraphilometroides nemipteri sp. n. is described from the female specimens collected from the dorsal fin and operculum of the marine perciforme fish, Nemipterus peronii off Kuala Terengganu coastal waters in Malaysia. It considerably differs from all other species in Philometridae in the structure of the head end (presence of wide dorsal and ventral cephalic cuticular alae supported by special inner transverse muscular formations) and, therefore, a new genus Paraphilometroides gen. n. has been erected to accommodate it. Additional characteristic features of P. nemipteri are the presence of cuticular bosses on the body, eight cephalic papillae in the outer circle and four small papillae in the inner circle, and the absence of caudal protrusions.

  15. Violapyrones H and I, New Cytotoxic Compounds Isolated from Streptomyces sp. Associated with the Marine Starfish Acanthaster planci

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hee Jae; Lee, Hwa-Sun; Lee, Jong Seok; Shin, Junho; Lee, Min Ah; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Lee, Yeon-Ju; Yun, Jieun; Kang, Jong Soon

    2014-01-01

    Two new α-pyrone derivatives, violapyrones H (1) and I (2), along with known violapyrones B (3) and C (4) were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine actinomycete Streptomyces sp. The strain was derived from a crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, collected from Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia. The structures of violapyrones were elucidated by the analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and HR-ESIMS data. Violapyrones (1–4) exhibited cytotoxicity against 10 human cancer cell lines with GI50 values of 1.10–26.12 μg/mL when tested using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. This is the first report on the cytotoxicity of violapyrones against cancer cell lines and the absolute configuration of violapyrone C. PMID:24886866

  16. Paracoccus seriniphilus sp. nov., an L-serine-dehydratase-producing coccus isolated from the marine bryozoan Bugula plumosa.

    PubMed

    Pukall, Rüdiger; Laroche, Marc; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Schumann, Peter; Stackebrandt, Erko; Ulber, Roland

    2003-03-01

    A novel marine Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, aerobic bacterium, associated with the bryozoan Bugula plumosa, was isolated in a screening programme for strains containing enzymes able to convert the amino acid L-serine. Strain MBT-A4T produced L-serine dehydratase and was able to grow on L-serine as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. The nearest phylogenetic neighbour was Paracoccus marcusii, as determined by 16S rDNA sequence analysis (97.8% similarity). The DNA-DNA reassociation value obtained for Paracoccus marcusii DSM11574T and MBT-A4T was 32.6%. The major ubiquinone was 0-10. Based on genotypic, chemotaxonomic and physiological characteristics, a new species of the genus Paracoccus is proposed, Paracoccus seriniphilus sp. nov., the type strain being strain MBT-A4T (=DSM 14827T =CIP 107400T).

  17. Talarolide A, a Cyclic Heptapeptide Hydroxamate from an Australian Marine Tunicate-Associated Fungus, Talaromyces sp. (CMB-TU011).

    PubMed

    Dewapriya, Pradeep; Prasad, Pritesh; Damodar, Rakesh; Salim, Angela A; Capon, Robert J

    2017-04-06

    A miniaturized 24-well plate microbioreactor approach was used to explore secondary metabolite media dependence in an Australian marine tunicate-associated fungus, Talaromyces sp. (CMB TU011). Detailed chemical investigations of an antifungal M1-saline cultivation yielded talarolide A (1), only the second reported natural cyclic peptide hydroxamate, and the first from a fungus. The antifungal properties of the M1-saline extract were attributed to the known diterpene glycoside sordarin (2). Structure elucidation of 1 and 2 was achieved by detailed spectroscopic analysis, with amino acid configurations in 1 assigned by the C3 and C18 Marfey's methods, and l-Ala and d-Ala regiochemistry by the recently reported 2D C3 Marfey's method.

  18. Violapyrones H and I, new cytotoxic compounds isolated from Streptomyces sp. associated with the marine starfish Acanthaster planci.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee Jae; Lee, Hwa-Sun; Lee, Jong Seok; Shin, Junho; Lee, Min Ah; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Lee, Yeon-Ju; Yun, Jieun; Kang, Jong Soon

    2014-05-30

    Two new α-pyrone derivatives, violapyrones H (1) and I (2), along with known violapyrones B (3) and C (4) were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine actinomycete Streptomyces sp. The strain was derived from a crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, collected from Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia. The structures of violapyrones were elucidated by the analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and HR-ESIMS data. Violapyrones (1-4) exhibited cytotoxicity against 10 human cancer cell lines with GI50 values of 1.10-26.12 μg/mL when tested using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. This is the first report on the cytotoxicity of violapyrones against cancer cell lines and the absolute configuration of violapyrone C.

  19. Lipophilic 2,5-Disubstituted Pyrroles from the Marine Sponge Mycale sp. Inhibit Mitochondrial Respiration and HIF-1 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Shui-Chun; Liu, Yang; Morgan, J. Brian; Jekabsons, Mika B.; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Nagle, Dale G.

    2010-01-01

    The lipid extract of the marine sponge Mycale sp. inhibited the activation of hypoxiainducible factor-1 (HIF-1) in a human breast tumor T47D cell-based reporter assay. Bioassay-guided isolation and structure elucidation yielded 18 new lipophilic 2,5-disubstituted pyrroles, and eight structurally related known compounds. The active compounds inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF activation with moderate potency (IC50 values < 10 μM). Mechanistic studies revealed that the active compounds suppressed mitochondrial respiration by blocking NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) at concentrations that inhibited HIF-1 activation. Under hypoxic conditions, reactive oxygen species produced by mitochondrial complex III are believed to act as a signal of cellular hypoxia that leads to HIF-1α protein induction and activation. By inhibiting electron transport (or delivery) to complex III under hypoxic conditions, lipophilic Mycale pyrroles appear to disrupt mitochondrial ROS-regulated HIF-1 signaling. PMID:19845338

  20. Genome Sequence of Marinobacter sp. Strain MCTG268 Isolated from the Cosmopolitan Marine Diatom Skeletonema costatum

    DOE PAGES

    Gutierrez, Tony; Whitman, William B.; Huntemann, Marcel; ...

    2016-09-08

    Marinobactersp. strain MCTG268 was isolated from the cosmopolitan marine diatomSkeletonema costatumand can degrade oil hydrocarbons as sole sources of carbon and energy. Here, we present the genome sequence of this strain, which is 4,449,396 bp with 4,157 genes and an average G+C content of 57.0%.

  1. Dinomyces arenysensis gen. et sp. nov. (Rhizophydiales, Dinomycetaceae fam. nov.), a chytrid infecting marine dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Lepelletier, Frédéric; Karpov, Sergey A; Alacid, Elisabet; Le Panse, Sophie; Bigeard, Estelle; Garcés, Esther; Jeanthon, Christian; Guillou, Laure

    2014-03-01

    Environmental 18S rRNA gene surveys of microbial eukaryotes have recently revealed the diversity of major parasitic agents in pelagic freshwater systems, consisting primarily of chytrid fungi. To date, only a few studies have reported the presence of chydrids in the marine environment and a limited number of marine chytrids have been properly identified and characterized. Here, we report the isolation and cultivation of a marine chytrid from samples taken during a bloom of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum in the Arenys de Mar harbour (Mediterranean Sea, Spain). Cross-infections using cultures and natural phytoplankton communities revealed that this chytrid is only able to infect certain species of dinoflagellates, with a rather wide host range but with a relative preference for Alexandrium species. Phylogenetic analyses showed that it belongs to the order Rhizophydiales, but cannot be included in any of the existing families within this order. Several ultrastructural characters confirmed the placement of this taxon within the Rhizophydiales as well its novelty notably in terms of zoospore structure. This marine chytridial parasitoid is described as a new genus and species, Dinomyces arenysensis, within the Dinomycetaceae fam. nov. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Rhodococcus sp. Strain WMMA185, a Marine Sponge-Associated Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Adnani, Navid; Braun, Doug R.; McDonald, Bradon R.; Chevrette, Marc G.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2016-01-01

    The Rhodococcus strain WMMA185 was isolated from the marine sponge Chondrilla nucula as part of ongoing drug discovery efforts. Analysis of the 4.44-Mb genome provides information regarding interspecies interactions as pertains to regulation of secondary metabolism and natural product biosynthetic potentials. PMID:27979952

  3. Colwellia agarivorans sp. nov., an agar-digesting marine bacterium isolated from coastal seawater

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic, yellowish and agar-digesting marine bacterium, designated strain QM50**T, was isolated from coastal seawater in an aquaculture site near Qingdao, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences revealed that the novel isolate represented...

  4. Involvement of an Extracellular Protease in Algicidal Activity of the Marine Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain A28

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun-og; Kato, Junichi; Takiguchi, Noboru; Kuroda, Akio; Ikeda, Tsukasa; Mitsutani, Atsushi; Ohtake, Hisao

    2000-01-01

    The marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain A28 was able to kill the diatom Skeletonema costatum strain NIES-324. The culture supernatant of strain A28 showed potent algicidal activity when it was applied to a paper disk placed on a lawn of S. costatum NIES-324. The condensed supernatant, which was prepared by subjecting the A28 culture supernatant to ultrafiltration with a 10,000-Mw-cutoff membrane, showed algicidal activity, suggesting that strain A28 produced extracellular substances capable of killing S. costatum cells. The condensed supernatant was then found to have protease and DNase activities. Two Pseudoalteromonas mutants lacking algicidal activity, designated NH1 and NH2, were selected after N-methyl-N′-nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis. The culture supernatants of NH1 and NH2 showed less than 15% of the protease activity detected with the parental strain, A28. The protease was purified to homogeneity from A28 culture supernatants by using ion-exchange chromatography followed by preparative gel electrophoresis. Paper-disk assays revealed that the purified protease had potent algicidal activity. The purified protease had a molecular mass for 50 kDa, and the N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined to be Ala-Thr-Pro-Asn-Asp-Pro. The optimum pH and temperature of the protease were found to be 8.8 and 30°C, respectively, by using succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide as a substrate. The protease activity was strongly inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, diisopropyl fluorophosphate, antipain, chymostatin, and leupeptin. No significant inhibition was detected with EDTA, EGTA, phenanthroline or tetraethylenepentamine. These results suggest that Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain A28 produced an extracellular serine protease which was responsible for the algicidal activity of this marine bacterium. PMID:11010878

  5. Aerobic-heterotrophic nitrogen removal through nitrate reduction and ammonium assimilation by marine bacterium Vibrio sp. Y1-5.

    PubMed

    Li, Yating; Wang, Yanru; Fu, Lin; Gao, Yizhan; Zhao, Haixia; Zhou, Weizhi

    2017-04-01

    An aerobic marine bacterium Vibrio sp. Y1-5 was screened to achieve efficient nitrate and ammonium removal simultaneously and fix nitrogen in cells without N loss. Approximately 98.0% of nitrate (100mg/L) was removed in 48h through assimilatory nitrate reduction and nitrate reductase was detected in the cytoplasm. Instead of nitrification, the strain assimilated ammonium directly, and it could tolerate as high as 1600mg/L ammonium concentration while removing 844.6mg/L. In addition, ammonium assimilation occurred preferentially in the medium containing nitrate and ammonium with a total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency of 80.4%. The results of nitrogen balance and Fourier infrared spectra illustrated that the removed nitrogen was all transformed to protein or stored as organic nitrogen substances in cells and no N was lost in the process. Toxicological studies with the brine shrimp species Artemia naupliia indicated that Vibrio sp. Y1-5 can be applied in aquatic ecosystems safely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cucullanid nematodes (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) from deep-sea marine fishes off New Caledonia, including Dichelyne etelidis n. sp.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2011-02-01

    Three nematode species of the family Cucullanidae, intestinal parasites of marine perciform fishes, are reported from off New Caledonia: Cucullanus bourdini Petter & Le Bel, 1992 from the crimson jobfish Pristipomoides filamentosus (Valenciennes) and the goldflag jobfish Pristipomoides auricilla (Jordan, Evermann & Tanaka) (new host record) (both Lutjanidae); Dichelyne etelidis n. sp. from the deep-water red snapper Etelis carbunculus Cuvier (type-host) and the deep-water longtail red snapper Etelis coruscans Valenciennes (both Lutjanidae); and Dichelyne sp. (only one female) from the trumpet emperor Lethrinus miniatus (Forster) (Lethrinidae). Detailed light and electron microscopical studies revealed in C. bourdini some taxonomically important, previously unreported features, such as the location of the excretory pore, nature of the vulva and the size of fully-developed eggs. The new species, D. etelidis, is characterised mainly by the length of the spicules (462-748 μm), a single intestinal caecum, the location of the deirids and excretory pore, the arrangement of the genital papillae and the host group.

  7. Identification and bioactivity of compounds from the fungus Penicillium sp. CYE-87 isolated from a marine tunicate.

    PubMed

    Shaala, Lamiaa A; Youssef, Diaa T A

    2015-03-25

    In the course of our continuous interest in identifying bioactive compounds from marine microbes, we have investigated a tunicate-derived fungus, Penicillium sp. CYE-87. A new compound with the 1,4-diazepane skeleton, terretrione D (2), together with the known compounds, methyl-2-([2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]carbamoyl)acetate (1), tryptamine (3), indole-3-carbaldehyde (4), 3,6-diisobutylpyrazin-2(1H)-one (5) and terretrione C (6), were isolated from Penicillium sp. CYE-87. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by spectral analysis, including 1D (1H, 13C) and 2D (COSY, multiplicity edited-HSQC and HMBC) NMR and HRESIMS, as well as comparison of their NMR data with those in the literature. The compounds were evaluated for their antimigratory activity against the human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) and their antiproliferation activity against HeLa cells. Compounds 2 and 6 showed significant antimigratory activity against MDA-MB-231, as well as antifungal activity against C. albicans.

  8. The comparative osteology of Plesiochelys bigleri n. sp., a new coastal marine turtle from the Late Jurassic of Porrentruy (Switzerland)

    PubMed Central

    Billon-Bruyat, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background During the Late Jurassic, several groups of eucryptodiran turtles inhabited the shallow epicontinental seas of Western Europe. Plesiochelyidae are an important part of this first radiation of crown-group turtles into coastal marine ecosystems. Fossils of Plesiochelyidae occur in many European localities, and are especially abundant in the Kimmeridgian layers of the Swiss Jura Mountains (Solothurn and Porrentruy). In the mid-19th century, the quarries of Solothurn (NW Switzerland) already provided a large amount of fossil turtles, most notably Plesiochelys etalloni, the best-known plesiochelyid species. Recent excavations in the Porrentruy area (NW Switzerland) revealed new fossils of Plesiochelys, including numerous well-preserved shells with associated cranial and postcranial material. Methods/results Out of 80 shells referred to Plesiochelys, 41 are assigned to a new species, Plesiochelys bigleri n. sp., including a skull–shell association. We furthermore refer 15 shells to Plesiochelys etalloni, and 24 shells to Plesiochelys sp. Anatomical comparisons show that Plesiochelys bigleri can clearly be differentiated from Plesiochelys etalloni by cranial features. The shell anatomy and the appendicular skeleton of Plesiochelys bigleri and Plesiochelys etalloni are very similar. However, a statistical analysis demonstrates that the thickness of neural bones allows to separate the two species based on incomplete material. This study furthermore illustrates the extent of intraspecific variation in the shell anatomy of Plesiochelys bigleri and Plesiochelys etalloni. PMID:28674653

  9. Diversity of ABBA Prenyltransferases in Marine Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509: Promiscuous Enzymes for the Biosynthesis of Mixed Terpenoid Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Leipoldt, Franziska; Zeyhle, Philipp; Kulik, Andreas; Kalinowski, Jörn; Heide, Lutz; Kaysser, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Terpenoids are arguably the largest and most diverse family of natural products, featuring prominently in e.g. signalling, self-defence, UV-protection and electron transfer. Prenyltransferases are essential players in terpenoid and hybrid isoprenoid biosynthesis that install isoprene units on target molecules and thereby often modulate their bioactivity. In our search for new prenyltransferase biocatalysts we focused on the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509, a particularly rich source of meroterpenoid chemistry. Sequencing and analysis of the genome of Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509 revealed seven putative phenol/phenazine-specific ABBA prenyltransferases, and one putative indole-specific ABBA prenyltransferase. To elucidate the substrate specificity of the ABBA prenyltransferases and to learn about their role in secondary metabolism, CnqP1 –CnqP8 were produced in Escherichia coli and incubated with various aromatic and isoprenoid substrates. Five of the eight prenyltransferases displayed enzymatic activity. The efficient conversion of dihydroxynaphthalene derivatives by CnqP3 (encoded by AA958_24325) and the co-location of AA958_24325 with genes characteristic for the biosynthesis of THN (tetrahydroxynaphthalene)-derived natural products indicates that the enzyme is involved in the formation of debromomarinone or other naphthoquinone-derived meroterpenoids. Moreover, CnqP3 showed high flexibility towards a range of aromatic and isoprenoid substrates and thus represents an interesting new tool for biocatalytic applications. PMID:26659564

  10. Ultrastructure and phylogeny of the parasite Henneguya carolina sp. nov. (Myxozoa), from the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, S; Casal, G; Garcia, P; Matos, E; Al-Quraishy, S; Azevedo, C

    2014-12-02

    Microscopic and molecular procedures are used to describe a new myxosporean species, Henneguya carolina sp. nov., found infecting the intestine of the marine teleost fish Trachinotus carolinus on the southern Atlantic coast of Brazil. Spherical to ellipsoid cysts, measuring up to ~750 µm, display synchronous development. Mature myxospores are ellipsoidal with a bifurcated caudal process. Myxospore body length, width, and thickness are 12.7 ± 0.8 (12.0-13.4) µm, 8.8 ± 0.6 (7.5-9.6) µm, and 5.8 ± 0.4 (5.0-6.4) µm, respectively; 2 equal caudal processes are 16.8 ± 1.1 (15.9-18.0) µm long, and the total myxospore length is 29.4 ± 0.8 (28.4-30.4) µm. Two pyriform polar capsules measure 5.0 ± 0.5 (4.6-5.6) × 2.4 ± 0.4 (1.9-2.9) µm, and each contains a polar filament forming 3 to 4 coils. Sporoplasm is binucleated and presents a spherical vacuole surrounded by numerous globular sporoplasmosomes. Molecular analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene by maximum parsimony, neighbor joining, and maximum likelihood reveals the parasite clustering together with other myxobolids that are histozoic in marine fish of the order Perciformes, thereby strengthening the contention that the host phylogenetic relationships and aquatic environment are the strongest evolutionary signal for myxosporeans of the family Myxobolidae.

  11. Umboniibacter marinipuniceus gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine gammaproteobacterium isolated from the mollusc Umbonium costatum from the Sea of Japan.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Tanaka, Naoto; Frolova, Galina M

    2010-03-01

    Two bacterial strains, KMM 3891(T) and KMM 3892, were isolated from internal tissues of the marine mollusc Umbonium costatum collected from the Sea of Japan. The novel isolates were Gram-negative, aerobic, faint pink-reddish-pigmented, rod-shaped, non-motile, stenohaline and psychrotolerant bacteria that were unable to degrade most tested complex polysaccharides. Polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. Fatty acid analysis revealed C(17 : 1)omega6c, C(17 : 0), C(16 : 0) and C(16 : 1)omega7c as the dominant components. The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-7. The DNA G+C content of strain KMM 3891(T) was 51.7 mol%. According to phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, strains KMM 3891(T) and KMM 3892 were positioned within the Gammaproteobacteria as a separate branch, sharing <93 % sequence similarity to their phylogenetic relatives including Saccharophagus degradans, Microbulbifer species, Endozoicomonas elysicola, Simiduia agarivorans and Teredinibacter turnerae. Based on phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic distance, the novel marine isolates KMM 3891(T) and KMM 3892 represent a new genus and species, for which the name Umboniibacter marinipuniceus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Umboniibacter marinipuniceus is KMM 3891(T) (=NRIC 0753(T) =JCM 15738(T)).

  12. Purification and characterization of a novel alginate lyase from the marine bacterium Cobetia sp. NAP1 isolated from brown algae.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Hisashi; Fujise, Asako; Itabashi, Narumi; Ohshiro, Takashi

    2016-12-01

    The application of marine resources, instead of fossil fuels, for biomass production is important for building a sustainable society. Seaweed is valuable as a source of marine biomass for producing biofuels such as ethanol, and can be used in various fields. Alginate is an anionic polysaccharide that forms the main component of brown algae. Various alginate lyases (e.g. exo- and endo-types and oligoalginate lyase) are generally used to degrade alginate. We herein describe a novel alginate lyase, AlgC-PL7, which belongs to the polysaccharide lyase 7 family. AlgC-PL7 was isolated from the halophilic Gram-negative bacterium Cobetia sp. NAP1 collected from the brown algae Padina arborescens Holmes. The optimal temperature and pH for AlgC-PL7 activity were 45 °C and 8, respectively. Additionally, AlgC-PL7 was thermostable and salt-tolerant, exhibited broad substrate specificity, and degraded alginate into monosaccharides. Therefore, AlgC-PL7 is a promising enzyme for the production of biofuels.

  13. Thiocapsa marina sp. nov., a novel, okenone-containing, purple sulfur bacterium isolated from brackish coastal and marine environments.

    PubMed

    Caumette, Pierre; Guyoneaud, Remy; Imhoff, Johannes F; Süling, Jörg; Gorlenko, Vladimir

    2004-07-01

    Four marine, phototrophic, purple sulfur bacteria (strains 5811T, 5812, BM-3 and BS-1) were isolated in pure culture from different brackish to marine sediments in the Mediterranean Sea, the White Sea and the Black Sea. Single cells of these strains were coccus-shaped, non-motile and did not contain gas vesicles. The colour of cell suspensions that were grown in the light was purple-red. Bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids of the okenone series were present as photosynthetic pigments. Photosynthetic membrane systems were of the vesicular type. Hydrogen sulfide, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur and molecular hydrogen were used as electron donors during photolithotrophic growth under anoxic conditions; carbon dioxide was utilized as the carbon source. During growth on sulfide, elemental sulfur globules were stored inside the cells. In the presence of hydrogen sulfide, several organic substances could be photoassimilated. Comparative 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed an affiliation of these four strains to the genus Thiocapsa. Both phylogenetic analysis and the results of DNA-DNA hybridization studies revealed that these strains formed a separate cluster within the genus Thiocapsa. Thus, according to phenotypic characteristics and mainly the carotenoid composition, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization data, it is proposed that these strains should be classified as a novel species, Thiocapsa marina sp. nov., with strain 5811T (=DSM 5653T=ATCC 43172T) as the type strain.

  14. Lethality of shock pressures to a marine Vibrio sp. isolated from a ship's ballast water.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Haruo; Abe, Akihisa; Katakura, Ryo; Kawasaki, Hideki; Yoshida, Kazutoshi; Ishida, Hiroshi

    2006-12-01

    The lethal effects of shock pressure treatment on suspended Vibrio sp. cells were examined. Lethality of shock pressures to the Vibrio sp. cells increased with the increase in the values of maximum shock pressures generated in the cell suspension. When the value was around 114 MPa, the total number of colony-forming cells was reduced from 10(8.5+/-0.1) colony-forming units (CFU) to 10(3.3) - 10(3.4) CFU/ml, and complete loss of colony-forming ability was seen at the maximum value of 282 MPa. Almost all the cells could survive after the exposure to shock pressures including the maximum value of around 189 MPa in the presence of 2% sodium ascorbate (VitC-Na), whereas the total number of colony-forming cells was reduced to 10(1.6)-10(2.1) CFU/ml in the absence of VitC-Na. The surviving cells, however, showed sensitivity to 0.8% sodium cholate, a strong detergent. About 11% of cell-associated proteins had leaked out when the cells were exposed to lethal shock pressures including the maximum value of around 290 MPa in the absence of VitC-Na. These results indicate that the radicals generated in the cell suspension may be closely related to the loss of colony-forming ability of the Vibrio sp. cells. Damage to the outer membrane structure also seems to have occurred by the exposure to shock pressures.

  15. Microbial biodiesel production from oil palm biomass hydrolysate using marine Rhodococcus sp. YHY01.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Shashi Kant; Kim, Junyoung; Song, Hun-Seok; Kim, Hyun Joong; Jeon, Jong-Min; Sathiyanarayanan, Ganesan; Yoon, Jeong-Jun; Park, Kyungmoon; Kim, Yun-Gon; Yang, Yung-Hun

    2017-02-20

    The effect of various biomass derived inhibitors (i.e. furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), vanillin, 4-hydroxy benzaldehyde (4-HB) and acetate) was investigated for fatty acid accumulation in Rhodococcus sp. YHY 01. Rhodococcus sp. YHY01 was able to utilize acetate, vanillin, and 4-HB for biomass production and fatty acid accumulation. The IC50 value for furfural (3.1mM), HMF (3.2mM), vanillin (2.0mM), 4-HB (2.7mM) and acetate (3.7mM) was calculated. HMF and vanillin affect fatty acid composition and increase saturated fatty acid content. Rhodococcus sp. YHY 01 cultured with empty fruit bunch hydrolysate (EFBH) as the main carbon source resulted in enhanced biomass (20%) and fatty acid productivity (37%), in compression to glucose as a carbon source. Overall, this study showed the beneficial effects of inhibitory molecules on growth and fatty acid production, and support the idea of biomass hydrolysate utilization for biodiesel production by avoiding complex efforts to remove inhibitory compounds.

  16. Exogenous expression of marine lectins DlFBL and SpRBL induces cancer cell apoptosis possibly through PRMT5-E2F-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liqin; Yang, Xinyan; Duan, Xuemei; Cui, Lianzhen; Li, Gongchu

    2014-03-28

    Lectins are widely existed in marine bioresources, and some purified marine lectins were found toxic to cancer cells. In this report, genes encoding Dicentrarchus labrax fucose-binding lectin (DlFBL) and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus rhamnose-binding lectin (SpRBL) were inserted into an adenovirus vector to form Ad.FLAG-DlFBL and Ad.FLAG-SpRBL, which elicited significant in vitro suppressive effect on a variety of cancer cells. Anti-apoptosis factors Bcl-2 and XIAP were determined to be downregulated by Ad.FLAG-DlFBL and Ad.FLAG-SpRBL. Subcellular localization studies showed that DlFBL but not SpRBL widely distributed in membrane systems. Both DlFBL and SpRBL were shown associated with protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), and PRMT5-E2F-1 pathway was suggested to be responsible for the DlFBL and SpRBL induced apoptosis. Further investigations revealed that PRMT5 acted as a common binding target for various exogenous lectin and non-lectin proteins, suggesting a role of PRMT5 as a barrier for foreign gene invasion. The cellular response to exogenous lectins may provide insights into a novel way for cancer gene therapy.

  17. Actinoranone, A Cytotoxic Meroterpenoid of Unprecedented Structure from a Marine Adapted Streptomyces sp

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sang-Jip; Kauffman, Christopher A.; Paul, Lauren A.; Jensen, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    The isolation and structure elucidation of a new meroterpenoid, actinoranone (1), produced by a marine bacterium closely related to the genus Streptomyces is reported. Actinoranone is composed of an unprecedented dihydronaphthalenone polyketide linked to a bicyclic diterpenoid. The stereochemistry of 1 was defined by application of the advanced Mosher's method and by interpretation of spectroscopic data. Actinoranone (1) is significantly cytotoxic to HCT-116 human colon cancer cells with an LD50 = 2.0 μg/mL. PMID:24152065

  18. Longibacter salinarum gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A bacterial strain, designated WDS2C18**T, was isolated from a marine solar saltern in the coast of Weihai, Shandong Province, PR China. Cells of strain WDS2C18**T were long rod-shaped, red, and approximately 6.0–12.0 µm in length and 0.3–0.6 µm in width. The strain was Gram-stain-negative, facultat...

  19. Actinoranone, a cytotoxic meroterpenoid of unprecedented structure from a marine adapted Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sang-Jip; Kauffman, Christopher A; Paul, Lauren A; Jensen, Paul R; Fenical, William

    2013-11-01

    The isolation and structure elucidation of a new meroterpenoid, actinoranone (1), produced by a marine bacterium closely related to the genus Streptomyces is reported. Actinoranone is composed of an unprecedented dihydronaphthalenone polyketide linked to a bicyclic diterpenoid. The stereochemistry of 1 was defined by application of the advanced Mosher's method and by interpretation of spectroscopic data. Actinoranone (1) is significantly cytotoxic to HCT-116 human colon cancer cells with an LD50 = 2.0 μg/mL.

  20. Polycyclovorans algicola gen. nov., sp. nov., an Aromatic-Hydrocarbon-Degrading Marine Bacterium Found Associated with Laboratory Cultures of Marine Phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Green, David H.; Nichols, Peter D.; Whitman, William B.; Semple, Kirk T.; Aitken, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    A strictly aerobic, halotolerant, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain TG408, was isolated from a laboratory culture of the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum (CCAP1077/1C) by enrichment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as the sole carbon source. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed this organism within the order Xanthomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria. Its closest relatives included representatives of the Hydrocarboniphaga-Nevskia-Sinobacter clade (<92% sequence similarity) in the family Sinobacteraceae. The strain exhibited a narrow nutritional spectrum, preferring to utilize aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds and small organic acids. Notably, it displayed versatility in degrading two- and three-ring PAHs. Moreover, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity was detected in lysates, indicating that this strain utilizes the meta-cleavage pathway for aromatic compound degradation. Cells produced surface blebs and contained a single polar flagellum. The predominant isoprenoid quinone of strain TG408 was Q-8, and the dominant fatty acids were C16:0, C16:1 ω7c, and C18:1 ω7c. The G+C content of the isolate's DNA was 64.3 mol% ± 0.34 mol%. On the basis of distinct phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain TG408 represents a novel genus and species in the class Gammaproteobacteria for which the name Polycyclovorans algicola gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. Quantitative PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene of this strain were developed and used to show that this organism is found associated with other species of marine phytoplankton. Phytoplankton may be a natural biotope in the ocean where new species of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria await discovery and which contribute significantly to natural remediation processes. PMID:23087039

  1. The Role of Spongia sp. in the Discovery of Marine Lead Compounds.

    PubMed

    Máximo, Patrícia; Ferreira, Luísa M; Branco, Paula; Lima, Pedro; Lourenço, Ana

    2016-07-23

    A comprehensive review on the chemistry of Spongia sp. is here presented, together with the biological activity of the isolated compounds. The compounds are grouped in sesquiterpene quinones, diterpenes, C21 and other linear furanoterpenes, sesterterpenes, sterols (including secosterols), macrolides and miscellaneous compounds. Among other reports we include studies on the intraspecific diversity of a Mediterranean species, compounds isolated from associated sponge and nudibranch and compounds isolated from S. zimocca and the red seaweed Laurentia microcladia. Under biological activity a table of the reported biological activities of the various compounds and the biological screening of extracts are described. The present review covers the literature from 1971 to 2015.

  2. The Role of Spongia sp. in the Discovery of Marine Lead Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Máximo, Patrícia; Ferreira, Luísa M.; Branco, Paula; Lima, Pedro; Lourenço, Ana

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive review on the chemistry of Spongia sp. is here presented, together with the biological activity of the isolated compounds. The compounds are grouped in sesquiterpene quinones, diterpenes, C21 and other linear furanoterpenes, sesterterpenes, sterols (including secosterols), macrolides and miscellaneous compounds. Among other reports we include studies on the intraspecific diversity of a Mediterranean species, compounds isolated from associated sponge and nudibranch and compounds isolated from S. zimocca and the red seaweed Laurentia microcladia. Under biological activity a table of the reported biological activities of the various compounds and the biological screening of extracts are described. The present review covers the literature from 1971 to 2015. PMID:27455286

  3. Trematodes of marine fishes from South Australia. I. Paraneocreadium australiense gen. et sp. n. (Lepocreadiidae).

    PubMed

    Kruse, G O

    1978-06-01

    Paraneocreadium australiense gen. et sp. n. (Lepocreadiidae) is described from Psilocranium nigricans (Richardson) from the Aldinga Reef of South Australia. Paraneocreadium is most similar to Neocreadium Howell 1966 from Geniagnus in New Zealand and Neolepocreadium Thomas 1960 from Trachinotus in Ghana. It differs from both genera in being ovoid rather than elongate, in having a coiled rather than saccate internal seminal vesicle, and having no viteline follicles between the gonads. It differs further from Neocreadium in lacking lymphatic vessels and in the position of the genital pore.

  4. Bioremediation of Bisphenol A and Benzophenone by Glycosylation with Immobilized Marine Microalga Pavlova sp.

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Kei; Hamada, Hiroki

    2009-01-01

    Cultured cells of Pavlova sp. glycosylated bisphenol A to its mono-glucoside, 2-(4-β-D-glucopyranosyloxyphenyl)-2-hydroxyphenylpropane (9%). Use of immobilized Pavlova cells in sodium alginate gel improved yield of the product (17%). On the other hand, Pavlova cell cultures converted benzophenone into diphenylmethanol (49%) and diphenylmethyl β-D-glucopyranoside (6%). Incubation of benzophenone with immobilized Pavlova cells gave products in higher yields; the yields of diphenylmethanol and diphenylmethyl β-D-glucopyranoside were 85 and 15%, respectively. PMID:20508758

  5. Polaromonas vacuolata gen. nov., sp. nov., a psychrophilic, marine, gas vacuolate bacterium from Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Irgens, R L; Gosink, J J; Staley, J T

    1996-07-01

    Several strains of a novel heterotrophic gas vacuolate bacterium were isolated from antarctic marine waters. The results of phylogenetic analyses in which 16S ribosomal DAN sequencing was used, coupled with phenotypic tests, indicated that strain 34-P(T) (T = type strain) belongs to a new genus and species of the beta subgroup of the Proteobacteria, for which the name Polaromonas vacuolata is proposed. Although the other four strains studied probably belong to this new species, DNA-DNA hybridization tests were not conducted. The closest phylogenetic relatives of P. vacuolata are the photosynthetic nonsulfur purple bacterium Rhodoferax fermentans and the hydrogen autotroph Variovorax paradoxus.

  6. [Cloning and expression of endoglucanase of marine cold-adapted bacteria Pseudoalteromonas sp. MB-1].

    PubMed

    You, Yin-wei; Wang, Tian-hong

    2005-02-01

    The cold-adapted gram-negative rod bacterium MB-1 which could secret cellulase was screened from mud of the bottom of the Huanghai. According to the sequence of 16S rDNA, this bacterium screened was identified as one species of Pseudoalteromonas and was named as Pseudoalteromonas sp. MB-1. The gene celA encoding cold-adapted endogluanase was cloned and then jointed to pGEX-4T-1 to construct expression plasmid pGEX-celA which was expressed in E. coli BL21. Analysis to the supernatant of E. coli sonicate revealed that the concentration of GST-CelA was about 78.5 mg/L. Properties of the fusion enzyme of GST-CelA including the optimum temperature at 35 degrees C and the optimum pH about 7.2, showed that this fusion enzyme still belonged to cold-adapted enzyme and neutral enzyme. The result lays solid base for the fundamental theory and application research on cold-adapted cellulase from Pseudoalteromonas sp. MB-1.

  7. Purification and characterization of novel κ-carrageenase from marine Tamlana sp. HC4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Feixue; Ma, Yuexin; Wang, Ying; Liu, Qian

    2010-11-01

    We isolated a bacterial strain (HC4) that is able to degrade κ-carrageenan from a live specimen of the red alga Hyalosiphonia caespitosa. With 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we identified the strain as Tamlana sp., and then purified an extracellular κ-carrageenase from a culture of Tamlana sp. HC4 by ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sephadex G-200 gel filtration chromatography, and DE-cellulose 52 anion-exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme yields a single band on SDS-PAGE with a molecular mass of 66.4 kDa. The optimal pH and temperature for κ-carrageenase activity are at 8.0 and 30°C, respectively. The enzyme is stable over the range of pH 7.2-8.6 below 45°C. The enzyme activity is strongly inhibited by Zn2+ and Cu2+ at 1 mmol/L. The enzyme-catalyzed reaction follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics with the Michaelis constant ( K m ) at 7.63 mg/ml. Analysis of the degradation products of the κ-carrageenase by ESI-MS and 13C-NMR spectroscopy indicates that the enzyme degrades κ-carrageenan down to the level of κ-neocarrabiose sulfate.

  8. Characterization of an autotrophic sulfide-oxidizing marine Arcobacter sp. that produces filamentous sulfur.

    PubMed

    Wirsen, C O; Sievert, S M; Cavanaugh, C M; Molyneaux, S J; Ahmad, A; Taylor, L T; DeLong, E F; Taylor, C D

    2002-01-01

    A coastal marine sulfide-oxidizing autotrophic bacterium produces hydrophilic filamentous sulfur as a novel metabolic end product. Phylogenetic analysis placed the organism in the genus Arcobacter in the epsilon subdivision of the Proteobacteria. This motile vibrioid organism can be considered difficult to grow, preferring to grow under microaerophilic conditions in flowing systems in which a sulfide-oxygen gradient has been established. Purified cell cultures were maintained by using this approach. Essentially all 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride-stained cells in a flowing reactor system hybridized with Arcobacter-specific probes as well as with a probe specific for the sequence obtained from reactor-grown cells. The proposed provisional name for the coastal isolate is "Candidatus Arcobacter sulfidicus." For cells cultured in a flowing reactor system, the sulfide optimum was higher than and the CO(2) fixation activity was as high as or higher than those reported for other sulfur oxidizers, such as Thiomicrospira spp. Cells associated with filamentous sulfur material demonstrated nitrogen fixation capability. No ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase could be detected on the basis of radioisotopic activity or by Western blotting techniques, suggesting an alternative pathway of CO(2) fixation. The process of microbial filamentous sulfur formation has been documented in a number of marine environments where both sulfide and oxygen are available. Filamentous sulfur formation by "Candidatus Arcobacter sulfidicus" or similar strains may be an ecologically important process, contributing significantly to primary production in such environments.

  9. Characterization of marine microalga, Scenedesmus sp. strain JPCC GA0024 toward biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Tadashi; Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Sato, Reiko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2009-09-01

    A marine microalga, strain JPCC GA0024 was selected as high amount of neutral lipid producers from marine microalgal culture collection toward biofuel production. The strain was tentatively identified as Scenedesmus rubescens by 18S rDNA analysis. The growth of strain JPCC GA0024 was influenced by artificial seawater concentrations. The optimum growth of 0.79 g/l was obtained at 100% artificial seawater. The lipid accumulation reached 73.0% of dry cell weight at 100% artificial seawater without additional nutrients for 11 days. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis indicates that lipid fraction mainly contained hydrocarbons including mainly hexadecane (C(16) H(34)) and 1-docosene (C(22) H(44)). Furthermore, calorimetric analysis revealed that the energy content of strain JPCC GA0024 was 6,160 kcal/kg (25.8 MJ/kg) of calorific value, which was equivalent to the coal engery. The strain JPCC GA0024, S. rubescens, will become a promising resource that can grow as a dominant species in the seawater for the production of both liquid and solid biofuels.

  10. Indigo production by Pseudomonas sp. J26, a marine naphthalene-degrading strain.

    PubMed

    Mercadal, Juan Pablo Riva; Isaac, Paula; Siñeriz, Faustino; Ferrero, Marcela Alejandra

    2010-06-01

    A technique developed to determine naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) activity was optimized and used to study the biotransformation of indole to indigo by Pseudomonas sp. J26 whole cells. The maximum production of indigo was achieved at 25 degrees C using 2.5 mM indole when J26 was grown in the complex medium JPP, while indole concentrations higher than 4 mM proved toxic for cells. The maximum rate of indigo production was 0.56 nmol min(-1) mg dry biomass(-1), obtaining 75.5 microM of indigo after 8 h of incubation, while a maximal concentration (138.1 microM) of indigo was obtained after 20 h.

  11. A novel cyclic dipeptide from deep marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSIOW2.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiang; Fang, Pingyan; Tang, Jianqiang; Wu, Zhiqin; Li, Xiaofan; Li, Shuiming; Wang, Yong; Liu, Gang; He, Zhendan; Gou, Deming; Yao, Xinsheng; Wang, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    A novel cyclic dipeptide, 14-hydroxy-cyclopeptine (1), was purified from a deep sea derived fungal isolate identified as an Aspergillus sp. The structure was elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analyses using 1D and 2D NMR experiments and high resolution mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of the amino acid was determined by Marfey's method. Two conformational isomers of 1 were established by ROE analyses. 1 inhibited nitric oxide production with IC50 values at 40.3 μg/mL in a lipopolysaccharide and recombinant mouse interferon-γ -activated macrophage-like cell line, RAW 264.7 and showed no cytotoxic effect in the tested dose range up to 100 μg/mL.

  12. Secondary Metabolites from the Marine-Derived Fungus Dichotomomyces sp. L-8 and Their Cytotoxic Activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Hong; Chen, Yan-Xiu; Yu, Jian-Chen; Yuan, Jie; Li, Hou-Jin; Ma, Wen-Zhe; Watanapokasin, Ramida; Hu, Kun-Chao; Niaz, Shah Iram; Yang, De-Po; Lan, Wen-Jian

    2017-03-11

    Bioassay-guided isolation of the secondary metabolites from the fungus Dichotomomyces sp. L-8 associated with the soft coral Lobophytum crassum led to the discovery of two new compounds, dichotones A and B (1 and 2), together with four known compounds including dichotocejpin C (3), bis-N-norgliovictin (4), bassiatin (5) and (3R,6R)-bassiatin (6). The structures of these compounds were determined by 1D, 2D NMR and mass spectrometry. (3R,6R)-bassiatin (6) displayed significant cytotoxic activities against the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-435 and the human lung cancer cell line Calu3 with IC50 values of 7.34 ± 0.20 and 14.54 ± 0.01 μM, respectively, while bassiatin (5), the diastereomer of compound 6, was not cytotoxic.

  13. Lower homologues of ahpatinin, aspartic protease inhibitors, from a marine Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Takada, Kentaro; Nogi, Yuichi; Okada, Shigeru; Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2014-07-25

    Two linear peptides, ahpatinin Ac (1) and ahpatinin Pr (2), were isolated together with the known ahpatinin (i)Bu, pepstatin Ac, pepstatin Pr, and pepsinostreptin from a Streptomyces sp. derived from a deep-sea sediment. The structure of ahpatinin Pr (2) was assigned by interpretation of NMR data and HPLC analysis of the hydrolysate after converting to the DNP-L-Val derivative. During the LCMS analysis of the acid hydrolysate, products arising from the retro-aldol cleavage of the statine and Ahppa units in 2 were observed and could facilitate the determination of the absolute configuration of the statine class of nonproteinogenic amino acids. Both ahpatinin Ac (1) and ahpatinin Pr (2) potently inhibited pepsin and moderately inhibited cathepsin B.

  14. Microphallus koreana n. sp. (Trematoda: Microphallidae) Transmitted by a Marine Crab, Macrophthalmus dilatatus

    PubMed Central

    Guk, Sang-Mee; Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kim, You-Me; Sim, Seobo

    2008-01-01

    Microphallus species occur primarily as intestinal parasites of birds and mammals, and metacercariae of a new species belonging to this genus have been discovered from the crab, Macrophthalmus dilatatus, in the Republic of Korea. The metacercaria of this fluke was round with 2 thick walls, and the excysted one had mature genital organs. The adult flukes recovered from experimentally infected chicks had numerous intrauterine eggs, well-developed pars prostatica, widely bifurcating ceca, and prominent uterine bulge. After observing internal structures, it was concluded that this species is different from any other known Microphallus spp. Based on the morphology of metacercariae and adult flukes, we describe this specimen as a new species, Microphallus koreana n. sp. PMID:18830056

  15. Parasphingopyxis lamellibrachiae gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a marine annelid worm.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Hiromi; Hamana, Koei; Miyazaki, Masayuki; Yoshida, Takao; Nogi, Yuichi

    2012-09-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, motile, orange-pigmented, slightly halophilic, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain JAMH 0132(T), was isolated from the trophosome of a tubeworm in Kagoshima Bay, Japan, and its taxonomic position was investigated using a polyphasic approach. The novel strain grew optimally at 28-30 °C and with about 2.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Chemotaxonomic analysis showed that Q-10 was the predominant respiratory quinone and that C(18 : 1)ω7c, C(16 : 0) 2-OH and C(16 : 0) were the major fatty acids. Sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine were the major polar lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 60.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JAMH 0132(T) belonged to the family Sphingomonadaceae, within the class Alphaproteobacteria. The novel strain appeared most closely related to Sphingopyxis baekryungensis SW-150(T) (95.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and showed less sequence similarity with representatives of the genera Blastomonas, Sphingomonas, Sphingosinicella and Novosphingobium (<94.8 %). In having no detectable polyamine, strain JAMH 0132(T) differed from members of all genera currently in the family Sphingomonadaceae. On the basis of its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain JAMH 0132(T) represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Sphingomonadaceae for which the name Parasphingopyxis lamellibrachiae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Parasphingopyxis lamellibrachiae gen. nov., sp. nov. is JAMH 0132(T) (= JCM 15549(T) = NCIMB 14486(T)).

  16. Vibrio jasicida sp. nov., a member of the Harveyi clade, isolated from marine animals (packhorse lobster, abalone and Atlantic salmon).

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Susumu; Tsuruya, Yasuhiro; Fukui, Youhei; Sawabe, Tomoo; Yokota, Akira; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Higgins, Melissa; Carson, Jeremy; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2012-08-01

    Six isolates of a facultatively anaerobic bacterium were recovered in culture from marine invertebrates and vertebrates, including packhorse lobster (Jasus verreauxi), abalone (Haliotis sp.) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), between 1994 and 2002. The bacteria were Gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile by means of more than one polar flagellum, oxidase-positive, catalase-positive and able to grow in the presence of 0.5-8.0% NaCl (optimum 3.0-6.0%) and at 10-37 °C (optimum 25-30 °C). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using five loci (2443 bp; gyrB, pyrH, ftsZ, mreB and gapA), the closest phylogenetic neighbours of strain TCFB 0772(T) were the type strains of Vibrio communis (99.8 and 94.6 % similarity, respectively), Vibrio owensii (99.8 and 94.1%), Vibrio natriegens (99.4 and 88.8%), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (99.4 and 90.3%), Vibrio rotiferianus (99.2 and 94.4%), Vibrio alginolyticus (99.1 and 89.3%) and Vibrio campbellii (99.1 and 92.3%). DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that the six isolates constitute a unique taxon that is distinct from other known species of Vibrio. In addition, this taxon can be readily differentiated phenotypically from other Vibrio species. The six isolates therefore represent a novel species, for which the name Vibrio jasicida sp. nov. is proposed; the novel species is represented by the type strain TCFB 0772(T) ( = JCM 16453(T)  = LMG 25398(T)) (DNA G+C content 45.9 mol%) and reference strains TCFB 1977 ( = JCM 16454) and TCFB 1000 ( = JCM 16455).

  17. Two peptides, cycloaspeptide A and nazumamide A from a sponge associated marine actinobacterium Salinispora sp.

    PubMed

    Bose, Utpal; Hodson, Mark P; Shaw, P Nicholas; Fuerst, John A; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2014-04-01

    Marine sponges are a major component of benthic communities and act as a reservoir for microbial species. In terms of biomass, they are the richest source of secondary metabolite production, with the potential to influence both benthic and pelagic systems. In most cases it is the sponge-associated microbes that account for many of the secondary metabolites assigned to the host. Here we report the occurrence of cycloaspeptide A, a fungus-derived cyclic peptide, in a culturable bacterium Salinispora arenicola. We have also identified nazumamide A, a sponge-derived linear tetrapeptide currently used as a thrombin inhibitor, in Salinispora pacifica. Their structures were determined using an integrated approach consisting of: (1) HPLC-UV-Vis-QToF-MS analysis with multimode ionization (ESI and APCI) and fast polarity switching; (2) database searching and matching of monoisotopic masses, retention times, mass spectra of the precursor and product ions of the compounds of interest and the authentic reference standards thereof.

  18. Methanosarcina acetivorans sp. nov., an Acetotrophic Methane-Producing Bacterium Isolated from Marine Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Sowers, Kevin R.; Baron, Stephen F.; Ferry, James G.

    1984-01-01

    A new acetotrophic marine methane-producing bacterium that was isolated from the methane-evolving sediments of a marine canyon is described. Exponential phase cultures grown with sodium acetate contained irregularly shaped cocci that aggregated in the early stationary phase and finally differentiated into communal cysts that released individual cocci when ruptured or transferred to fresh medium. The irregularly shaped cocci (1.9 ± 0.2 mm in diameter) were gram negative and occurred singly or in pairs. Cells were nonmotile, but possessed a single fimbria-like structure. Micrographs of thin sections showed a monolayered cell wall approximately 10 nm thick that consisted of protein subunits. The cells in aggregates were separated by visible septation. The communal cysts contained several single cocci encased in a common envelope. An amorphous form of the communal cyst that had incomplete septation and internal membrane-like vesicles was also present in late exponential phase cultures. Sodium acetate, methanol, methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine were substrates for growth and methanogenesis; H2-CO2 (80:20) and sodium formate were not. The optimal growth temperature was 35 to 40°C. The optimal pH range was 6.5 to 7.0. Both NaCl and Mg2+ were required for growth, with maximum growth rates at 0.2 M NaCl and 0.05 M MgSO4. The DNA base composition was 41 ± 1% guanine plus cytosine. Methanosarcina acetivorans is the proposed species. C2A is the type strain (DSM 2834, ATCC 35395). Images PMID:16346552

  19. Phosphate Limitation Triggers the Dissolution of Precipitated Iron by the Marine Bacterium Pseudovibrio sp. FO-BEG1

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Stefano; Bondarev, Vladimir; Kölling, Martin; Dittmar, Thorsten; Schulz-Vogt, Heide N.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for all living organisms. In bacteria, the preferential phosphorus source is phosphate, which is often a limiting macronutrient in many areas of the ocean. The geochemical cycle of phosphorus is strongly interconnected with the cycles of other elements and especially iron, because phosphate tends to adsorb onto iron minerals, such as iron oxide formed in oxic marine environments. Although the response to either iron or phosphate limitation has been investigated in several bacterial species, the metabolic interplay between these two nutrients has rarely been considered. In this study we evaluated the impact of phosphate limitation on the iron metabolism of the marine bacterium Pseudovibrio sp. FO-BEG1. We observed that phosphate limitation led to an initial decrease of soluble iron in the culture up to three times higher than under phosphate surplus conditions. Similarly, a decrease in soluble cobalt was more pronounced under phosphate limitation. These data point toward physiological changes induced by phosphate limitation that affect either the cellular surface and therefore the metal adsorption onto it or the cellular metal uptake. We discovered that under phosphate limitation strain FO-BEG1, as well as selected strains of the Roseobacter clade, secreted iron-chelating molecules. This leads to the hypothesis that these bacteria might release such molecules to dissolve iron minerals, such as iron-oxyhydroxide, in order to access the adsorbed phosphate. As the adsorption of phosphate onto iron minerals can significantly decrease phosphate concentrations in the environment, the observed release of iron-chelators might represent an as yet unrecognized link between the biogeochemical cycle of phosphorus and iron, and it suggests another biological function of iron-chelating molecules in addition to metal-scavenging. PMID:28352252

  20. Desulfoconvexum algidum gen. nov., sp. nov., a psychrophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from a permanently cold marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Könneke, Martin; Kuever, Jan; Galushko, Alexander; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2013-03-01

    A sulfate-reducing bacterium, designated JHA1(T), was isolated from a permanently cold marine sediment sampled in an Artic fjord on the north-west coast of Svalbard. The isolate was originally enriched at 4 °C in a highly diluted liquid culture amended with hydrogen and sulfate. Strain JHA1(T) was a psychrophile, growing fastest between 14 and 16 °C and not growing above 20 °C. Fastest growth was found at neutral pH (pH 7.2-7.4) and at marine concentrations of NaCl (20-30 g l(-1)). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain JHA1(T) was a member of the family Desulfobacteraceae in the Deltaproteobacteria. The isolate shared 99 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with an environmental sequence obtained from permanently cold Antarctic sediment. The closest recognized relatives were Desulfobacula phenolica DSM 3384(T) and Desulfobacula toluolica DSM 7467(T) (both <95 % sequence similarity). In contrast to its closest phylogenetic relatives, strain JHA1(T) grew chemolithoautotrophically with hydrogen as an electron donor. CO dehydrogenase activity indicated the operation of the reductive acetyl-CoA pathway for inorganic carbon assimilation. Beside differences in physiology and morphology, strain JHA1(T) could be distinguished chemotaxonomically from the genus Desulfobacula by the absence of the cellular fatty acid C16 : 0 10-methyl. Phylogenetic differentiation from other genera was further supported by DsrAB and AprBA sequence analysis. Based on the described phylogenetic and phenotypic differences between strain JHA1(T) and its closest relatives, the establishment of a novel genus and a novel species, Desulfoconvexum algidum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JHA1(T) ( = DSM 21856(T)  = JCM 16085(T)).

  1. Phosphate Limitation Triggers the Dissolution of Precipitated Iron by the Marine Bacterium Pseudovibrio sp. FO-BEG1.

    PubMed

    Romano, Stefano; Bondarev, Vladimir; Kölling, Martin; Dittmar, Thorsten; Schulz-Vogt, Heide N

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for all living organisms. In bacteria, the preferential phosphorus source is phosphate, which is often a limiting macronutrient in many areas of the ocean. The geochemical cycle of phosphorus is strongly interconnected with the cycles of other elements and especially iron, because phosphate tends to adsorb onto iron minerals, such as iron oxide formed in oxic marine environments. Although the response to either iron or phosphate limitation has been investigated in several bacterial species, the metabolic interplay between these two nutrients has rarely been considered. In this study we evaluated the impact of phosphate limitation on the iron metabolism of the marine bacterium Pseudovibrio sp. FO-BEG1. We observed that phosphate limitation led to an initial decrease of soluble iron in the culture up to three times higher than under phosphate surplus conditions. Similarly, a decrease in soluble cobalt was more pronounced under phosphate limitation. These data point toward physiological changes induced by phosphate limitation that affect either the cellular surface and therefore the metal adsorption onto it or the cellular metal uptake. We discovered that under phosphate limitation strain FO-BEG1, as well as selected strains of the Roseobacter clade, secreted iron-chelating molecules. This leads to the hypothesis that these bacteria might release such molecules to dissolve iron minerals, such as iron-oxyhydroxide, in order to access the adsorbed phosphate. As the adsorption of phosphate onto iron minerals can significantly decrease phosphate concentrations in the environment, the observed release of iron-chelators might represent an as yet unrecognized link between the biogeochemical cycle of phosphorus and iron, and it suggests another biological function of iron-chelating molecules in addition to metal-scavenging.

  2. Genomic insights into Mn(II) oxidation by the marine alphaproteobacterium Aurantimonas sp. strain SI85-9A1.

    PubMed

    Dick, Gregory J; Podell, Sheila; Johnson, Hope A; Rivera-Espinoza, Yadira; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan; McCarthy, James K; Torpey, Justin W; Clement, Brian G; Gaasterland, Terry; Tebo, Bradley M

    2008-05-01

    Microbial Mn(II) oxidation has important biogeochemical consequences in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial environments, but many aspects of the physiology and biochemistry of this process remain obscure. Here, we report genomic insights into Mn(II) oxidation by the marine alphaproteobacterium Aurantimonas sp. strain SI85-9A1, isolated from the oxic/anoxic interface of a stratified fjord. The SI85-9A1 genome harbors the genetic potential for metabolic versatility, with genes for organoheterotrophy, methylotrophy, oxidation of sulfur and carbon monoxide, the ability to grow over a wide range of O(2) concentrations (including microaerobic conditions), and the complete Calvin cycle for carbon fixation. Although no growth could be detected under autotrophic conditions with Mn(II) as the sole electron donor, cultures of SI85-9A1 grown on glycerol are dramatically stimulated by addition of Mn(II), suggesting an energetic benefit from Mn(II) oxidation. A putative Mn(II) oxidase is encoded by duplicated multicopper oxidase genes that have a complex evolutionary history including multiple gene duplication, loss, and ancient horizontal transfer events. The Mn(II) oxidase was most abundant in the extracellular fraction, where it cooccurs with a putative hemolysin-type Ca(2+)-binding peroxidase. Regulatory elements governing the cellular response to Fe and Mn concentration were identified, and 39 targets of these regulators were detected. The putative Mn(II) oxidase genes were not among the predicted targets, indicating that regulation of Mn(II) oxidation is controlled by other factors yet to be identified. Overall, our results provide novel insights into the physiology and biochemistry of Mn(II) oxidation and reveal a genome specialized for life at the oxic/anoxic interface.

  3. Morphology, morphogenesis and molecular phylogeny of a new marine ciliate, Trichototaxis marina n. sp. (Ciliophora, Urostylida).

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoteng; Gao, Feng; Shao, Chen; Hu, Xiaozhong; Warren, Alan

    2014-10-01

    The live morphology, infraciliature and morphogenesis of a new urostylid ciliate, Trichototaxis marina n. sp., collected from coastal water in Qingdao, China, were studied based on the observations of live and silver stained specimens. The new species is characterised as follows: body very flexible and contractile, slight to brick-reddish in colour due to irregularly-shaped, brick-red pigments; ca. 70 adoral membranelles; about 17 frontal cirri arranged in a bicorona; average 67 midventral pairs, the right base of each pair being conspicuously larger than the left base; five to seven transverse cirri; constantly two frontoterminal, one buccal and two pretransverse ventral cirri; two or three left marginal rows; right and innermost left marginal rows with 56-92 and 66-106 cirri, respectively; six bipolar dorsal kineties; more than 100 macronuclear nodules. The characteristic morphogenetic feature in T. marina is the development of the left marginal rows, that is, only one left marginal row is newly built the other one or two being retained from the parental cell. Phylogenetic analyses based on small subunit ribosomal gene sequence data reveal a close relationship of T. marina with members of family Pseudokeronopsidae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Structure and Biological Evaluation of Novel Cytotoxic Sterol Glycosides from the Marine Red Alga Peyssonnelia sp.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, An-Shen; Engel, Sebastian; Smith, Benjamin A.; Fairchild, Craig R.; Aalbersberg, William; Hay, Mark E.; Kubanek, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the extract from a Fijian red alga Peyssonnelia sp. led to the isolation of two novel sterol glycosides 19-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-19-hydroxy-cholest-4-en-3-one (1) and 19-O-β-d-N-acetyl-2-aminoglucopyranosyl-19-hydroxy-cholest-4-en-3-one (2), and two known alkaloids indole-3-carboxaldehyde (3) and 3-(hydroxyacetyl)indole (4). Their structures were characterized by 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectral analysis. The sterol glycosides inhibited cancer cell growth with mean IC50 values (for 11 human cancer cell lines) of 1.63 and 1.41 µM for 1 and 2, respectively. The most sensitive cancer cell lines were MDA-MB-468 (breast) and A549 (lung), with IC50s in of 0.71–0.97 µM for 1 and 2. Modification of the sterol glycoside structures revealed that the α,β-unsaturated ketone at C-3 and oxygenation at C-19 of 1 and 2 are crucial for anticancer activity, whereas the glucosidic group was not essential but contributed to enhanced activity against the most sensitive cell lines. PMID:21036050

  5. The preparation and characterization of a novel sphingan WL from marine Sphingomonas sp. WG

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Jiao, Xue; Sun, Yajie; Sun, Shiwei; Feng, Zhimei; Zhou, Wanlong; Zhu, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Sphingans, a group of structurally closely related bacterial exopolysaccharides produced by members of the genus Sphingomonas, can be applied in a variety of industries such as food, cement, and personal care applications due to their high viscosity. A high sphingan-producing-bacterium, Sphingomonas sp. WG can secret large quantity of sphingan designated as WL. To enhance the production of WL, a three-stage control strategy was applied and the highest WL production can reach 33.3 g/L. The rheological analysis showed that the aqueous solution of WL had high viscosity, typical shearing-thinning behavior and great stability to high temperature, a wide range of pH (1 to 14), and high salinity. WL was composed principally of carbohydrate with 6.52% O-acyl groups. The carbohydrate portion of WL contained about 13% glucuronic acid and some neutral sugars including mannose, glucose and rhamnose in the molar ratio of 1:2.28:2.12. Partial acid hydrolysis of WL produced a new oligosaccharide WL-1. Structural resolution revealed that WL-1 consisted of α-L-Rha-(1→4)-β-L-Rha-(1→4)-β-D-Glc-(1→3)-α-D-Glc with β-D-Man substituent at the third glucose residue and carboxyl and O-acyl groups. These findings will broaden the applications of this novel sphingan in food, ink, oil and other industries. PMID:27883073

  6. Bioflocculant production by Bacillus sp. Gilbert isolated from a marine environment in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ugbenyen, A M; Cosa, S; Mabinya, L V; Okoh, A I

    2014-01-01

    In our previous study we reported on the bioflocculant production by a Bacillus species isolated from sediment samples of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. In current study we carried out further evaluation on the effect of different culture conditions on the bioflocculant production, as well as characterised the bioflocculant produced in detail. The bacteria produced bioflocculant optimally under the following conditions: using sodium carbonate (95.2% flocculating activity) and potassium nitrate (76.6% flocculating activity) as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively; inoculum size of 3% (v/v); initial pH 9.0; and Al3+ as coagulant aid. The crude bioflocculant retained 44.2% residual flocculating activity after heating at 100 degrees C for 15 min. Chemical analysis of the Bacillus sp. Gilbert purified bioflocculant demonstrated that it was composed mainly of polysaccharide. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and methylene groups in the bioflocculant and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis detected the elemental composition in mass proportion (% w/w) of C, N, O, S and P as 4.12 : 7.40: 39.92: 3.00: 13.91. Scanning electron micrograph image of the bioflocculant revealed an amorphous compound.

  7. Antimicrobial potential of phylogenetically unique actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. JRG-04 from marine origin.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Ganesan; Satheeja Santhi, Velayudhan; Jebakumar, Solomon Robinson David

    2014-11-01

    Due to the emergence of severe infectious diseases and thriving antibiotic resistance, there is a need to explore microbial-derived bioactive secondary metabolites from unexplored regions. Present study deals with a mangrove estuary derived strain of Streptomyces sp. with potent antimicrobial activity against various pathogens, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Bioactive compound was effective even at low MIC level, damages the membrane of methicillin resistant S. aureus and causes cell death, however it has no cytotoxic effect on H9C2 cells. 16S rRNA shared 99.5% sequence similarity to Streptomyces longispororuber. Optimum biomass and antimicrobial compound production were observed in production medium supplemented with 1.0% maltose and 0.5% yeast extract. The active compound purified from the chloroform extract of the cell-free supernatant was studied by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and LC ESI-MS and identified as aromatic polyketide. β-ketosynthase (KS) domain of the Streptomyces strain revealed 93.2% sequence similarity to the benzoisochromanequinone, an actinorhodin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). However, the region synthesizing the secondary metabolite produced by the S. longispororuber was not related to the KS domain of the strain, due to the phenomenon of horizontal gene transfer over the period of evolutionary process, thus generating metabolic compound diversity.

  8. Taxonomy of Nephroselmis viridis sp. nov. (Nephroselmidophyceae, Chlorophyta), a sister marine species to freshwater N. olivacea.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Haruyo; Suda, Shoichiro; Nakayama, Takeshi; Pienaar, Richard N; Chihara, Mitsuo; Inouye, Isao

    2011-01-01

    The genus Nephroselmis (Nephroselmidophyceae), which had been placed in the Prasinophyceae, is one of the primitive green flagellates that are important to our understanding of the early evolution of green plants. We studied a new species of Nephroselmis isolated from Japan, Fiji and South Africa. This species has been known for a long time as undescribed species 'N. viridis.' N. viridis possesses some ultrastructural characters shared with only the freshwater type species N. olivacea, including a disc-like structure beneath the pyrenoid and bipolar spiny body scales with 1-5-8-5-1 spines. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA also supports a sister relationship between N. viridis and N. olivacea. However, N. viridis is distinguishable from N. olivacea by the shape of its starch sheath, its scales, its pigment composition and its habitat. In this paper, we designate the formal description of N. viridis sp. nov. We also describe variability in the 18S rDNA introns of various N. viridis strains. This detailed study of N. viridis provides some insights into the evolution of Nephroselmis.

  9. Remispora spitsbergenensis sp. nov., a marine lignicolous ascomycete from Svalbard, Norway.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ka-Lai; Chiang, Michael W L; Vrijmoed, Lilian L P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Remispora was established for R. maritima, a fungus with globose/subglobose, lightly colored and coriaceous ascomata; deliquescing asci; ellipsoidal ascospores; and bipolar, pleomorphic ascospore appendages. Seven species currently are included in Remispora: R crispa, R. galerita, R maritima, R. minuta, R. pilleata, R. quadriremis and R stellata. Variations on ascospore appendages can be observed in Remispora. In general the appendage is exosporic in nature and comprises an amorphous, electron-transparent matrix, and a fibrous, electron-dense component. An eighth Remispora species, R. spitsbergenensis sp. nov., is described here, discovered from washed-up wood collected at the shore of Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway. Ascospore appendages of R. spitsbergenensis appear as fibrous strands and amorphic material under the scanning electron microscope, which are characteristic of a Remispora species. Remispora spitsbergenensis resembles R. quadriremis and R. stellata because all possess four or more ascospore appendages at one end. Remispora spitsbergenensis possesses consistently four polar appendages at each end in contrast to six in R. stellata. Also ascospore appendages of R. spitsbergenensis are ribbon-like, compared with the obclavate, curved and attenuate appendages in R. quadriremis and R. stellata. A key for the identification of the eight Remispora species is provided.

  10. Pacificibacter maritimus gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from shallow marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Tanaka, Naoto; Svetashev, Vasily I; Kalinovskaya, Nataliya I

    2011-06-01

    An aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, non-pigmented, non-motile bacterium, strain KMM 9031(T), was isolated from a sandy sediment sample collected from the shore of the Sea of Japan and subjected to phenotypic and phylogenetic analysis. Based on comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain KMM 9031(T) constituted a separate phylogenetic line within the Roseobacter clade of the class Alphaproteobacteria, sharing highest sequence similarities with members of the genera Roseovarius (92.7-95.3 %), Pseudoruegeria (94.5 %), Sulfitobacter (92.7-94.4 %) and Thalassobacter (94.2-94.3 %). The predominant fatty acid of strain KMM 9031(T) was C(18 : 1)ω7c, with C(16 : 0), C(10 : 0) 3-OH and C(12 : 1) 3-OH present in lesser amounts. The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 52.6 mol%. The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-10 and polar lipids comprised phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and two unknown lipids. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis and physiological and biochemical characterization, strain KMM 9031(T) represents a novel species in a new genus, for which the name Pacificibacter maritimus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is KMM 9031(T) ( = NRIC 0785(T)  = JCM 17096(T)).

  11. Pseudomonas glareae sp. nov., a marine sediment-derived bacterium with antagonistic activity.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Tanaka, Naoto; Svetashev, Vassilii I; Mikhailov, Valery V

    2015-06-01

    An aerobic, Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium designated KMM 9500(T) was isolated from a sediment sample collected from the Sea of Japan seashore. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis affiliated strain KMM 9500(T) to the genus Pseudomonas as a distinct subline clustered with Pseudomonas marincola KMM 3042(T) and Pseudomonas segetis KCTC 12331(T) sharing the highest similarities of 98 and 97.9 %, respectively. Strain KMM 9500(T) was characterized by mainly possessing ubiquinone Q-9, and by the predominance of C18:1 ω7c, C16:1 ω7c, and C16:0 followed by C12:0 in its fatty acid profile. Polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminophospholipid, and unknown phospholipids. Strain KMM 9500(T) was found to inhibit growth of Gram-negative and Gram-positive indicatory microorganisms. Based on the phylogenetic analysis and distinctive phenotypic characteristics, strain 9500(T) is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas glareae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the species is strain KMM 9500(T) (=NRIC 0939(T)).

  12. Characterization of a novel biosurfactant produced by marine hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium Achromobacter sp. HZ01.

    PubMed

    Deng, M-C; Li, J; Hong, Y-H; Xu, X-M; Chen, W-X; Yuan, J-P; Peng, J; Yi, M; Wang, J-H

    2016-04-01

    To purify and characterize the biosurfactants produced by Achromobacter sp. HZ01. After fermentation, one biosurfactant was successfully purified from the fermentation broth of strain HZ01 by centrifugation, extraction using ethyl acetate, silica gel chromatography and reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the biosurfactant and the effects of temperatures, pH and salinities on its stability were determined. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, analysis of fatty acids and amino acids and mass spectrometry were used to characterize the biosurfactant. The maximum production yield of the crude biosurfactant reached to 6·84 g l(-1) after incubation for 96 h. Except the favourable adaptability to a wide range of temperatures, pH and salinities, the biosurfactant with a CMC value of 48 mg l(-1) could efficiently emulsify diverse hydrophobic compounds. The chemical formula of this biosurfactant was confirmed to be CH3 -(CH2 )17 -CHO-CH2 -CO-Gly-Gly-Leu-Met-Leu-Leu, in which the oxygen atom of group CHO linked to the last amino acid (Leu), a structure had never been reported before. The purified biosurfactant is a novel cyclic lipopeptide. One novel lipopeptide was purified and characterized. The novel biosurfactant exhibited good potential applications, such as bioremediation. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification by the marine origin bacterium Pseudomonas sp. ADN-42.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ruofei; Liu, Tianqi; Liu, Guangfei; Zhou, Jiti; Huang, Jianyu; Wang, Aijie

    2015-02-01

    Recent research has highlighted the existence of some bacteria that are capable of performing heterotrophic nitrification and have a phenomenal ability to denitrify their nitrification products under aerobic conditions. A high-salinity-tolerant strain ADN-42 was isolated from Hymeniacidon perleve and found to display high heterotrophic ammonium removal capability. This strain was identified as Pseudomonas sp. via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Gene cloning and sequencing analysis indicated that the bacterial genome contains N2O reductase function (nosZ) gene. NH3-N removal rate of ADN-42 was very high. And the highest removal rate was 6.52 mg/L · h in the presence of 40 g/L NaCl. Under the condition of pure oxygen (DO >8 mg/L), NH3-N removal efficiency was 56.9 %. Moreover, 38.4 % of oxygen remained in the upper gas space during 72 h without greenhouse gas N2O production. Keeping continuous and low level of dissolved oxygen (DO <3 mg/L) was helpful for better denitrification performance. All these results indicated that the strain has heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification abilities, which guarantee future application in wastewater treatment.

  14. Peridinin from the Marine Symbiotic Dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium sp., Regulates Eosinophilia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Onodera, Ken-ichi; Konishi, Yuko; Taguchi, Takahiro; Kiyoto, Sumio; Tominaga, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Peridinin and fucoxanthin, which are natural carotenoids isolated from a symbiotic dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium sp., and a brown alga, Petalonia fascia, respectively, were compared for inhibitory effects on delayed-type hypersensitivity in mice. The number of eosinophils at the site of inflammation and in peripheral blood was compared for the administration of peridinin and fucoxanthin applied by painting and intraperitoneally. Peridinin, but not the structurally-related fucoxanthin, significantly suppressed the number of eosinophils in both the ear lobe and peripheral blood. Furthermore, peridinin applied topically, but not administered intraperitoneally, suppressed the level of eotaxin in the ears of sensitized mice. Fucoxanthin weakly suppressed the concentration of eotaxin in ears only by intraperitoneal administration. Although both carotenoids inhibited the migration of eosinophils toward eotaxin, the inhibitory effect of peridinin was higher than that of fucoxanthin. Peridinin may be a potential agent for suppressing allergic inflammatory responses, such as atopic dermatitis, in which eosinophils play a major role in the increase of inflammation. PMID:24681630

  15. Spirocyclic Drimanes from the Marine Fungus Stachybotrys sp. Strain MF347

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bin; Oesker, Vanessa; Wiese, Jutta; Malien, Susann; Schmaljohann, Rolf; Imhoff, Johannes F.

    2014-01-01

    A novel spirocyclic drimane coupled by two drimane fragment building blocks 2 and a new drimane 1 were identified in mycelia and culture broth of Stachybotrys sp. MF347. Their structures were established by spectroscopic means. This is the first example of spirocyclic drimane coupled by a spirodihydrobenzofuranlactam unit and a spirodihydroisobenzofuran unit; and the connecting position being N-C instead of an N and N connecting unit. Strain MF347 produced also the known spirocyclic drimanes stachybocin A (12) and stachybocin B (11) featured by two sesquiterpene-spirobenzofuran structural units connected by a lysine residue; the known spirocyclic drimanes chartarlactam O (5); chartarlactam K (6); F1839A (7); stachybotrylactam (8); stachybotramide (9); and 2α-acetoxystachybotrylactam acetate (10); as well as ilicicolin B (13), a known sesquiterpene. The relative configuration of two known spirobenzofuranlactams (3 and 4) was determined. All compounds were subjected to biological activity tests. The spirocyclic drimane 2, 11, and 12, as well as the sesquiterpene 13, exhibited antibacterial activity against the clinically relevant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). PMID:24694571

  16. Spirocyclic drimanes from the marine fungus Stachybotrys sp. strain MF347.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Oesker, Vanessa; Wiese, Jutta; Malien, Susann; Schmaljohann, Rolf; Imhoff, Johannes F

    2014-04-01

    A novel spirocyclic drimane coupled by two drimane fragment building blocks 2 and a new drimane 1 were identified in mycelia and culture broth of Stachybotrys sp. MF347. Their structures were established by spectroscopic means. This is the first example of spirocyclic drimane coupled by a spirodihydrobenzofuranlactam unit and a spirodihydroisobenzofuran unit; and the connecting position being N-C instead of an N and N connecting unit. Strain MF347 produced also the known spirocyclic drimanes stachybocin A (12) and stachybocin B (11) featured by two sesquiterpene-spirobenzofuran structural units connected by a lysine residue; the known spirocyclic drimanes chartarlactam O (5); chartarlactam K (6); F1839A (7); stachybotrylactam (8); stachybotramide (9); and 2α-acetoxystachybotrylactam acetate (10); as well as ilicicolin B (13), a known sesquiterpene. The relative configuration of two known spirobenzofuranlactams (3 and 4) was determined. All compounds were subjected to biological activity tests. The spirocyclic drimane 2, 11, and 12, as well as the sesquiterpene 13, exhibited antibacterial activity against the clinically relevant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

  17. Tenacibaculum dicentrarchi sp. nov., a marine bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from European sea bass.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro-Vidal, Maximino; Gijón, Daniel; Zarza, Carles; Santos, Ysabel

    2012-02-01

    A novel Gram-stain-negative rod-shaped gliding bacterial strain, designated 35/09(T), was isolated from diseased European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) in Spain. Colonies were pale-yellow-pigmented with uneven edges and did not adhere to the agar. The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 31.3 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated affiliation to the genus Tenacibaculum (family Flavobacteriaceae, phylum 'Bacteroidetes'). Sequence similarities between the isolate and type strains of other members of the genus were 93.1-97.3 %. The major fatty acids (>5 % of the total fatty acids) were iso-C(15 : 0) (24.8 %), iso-C(15 : 0) 3-OH (18.0 %), anteiso-C(15 : 0) (8.1 %), C(15 : 1)ω6c (6.9 %) and iso-C(15 : 1) (6.2 %). Genotypic and phenotypic data indicate that strain 35/09(T) should be classified as a representative of a novel species in the genus Tenacibaculum, for which the name Tenacibaculum dicentrarchi sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 35/09(T) ( = CECT 7612(T) = NCIMB 14598(T)).

  18. Ultrastructure and phylogeny of Glugea arabica n. sp. (Microsporidia), infecting the marine fish Epinephelus polyphekadion from the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Carlos; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Rocha, Sónia; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Casal, Graça

    2016-02-01

    A new microsporidian species, Glugea arabica n. sp., is reported infecting the intestinal wall of the marine teleost Epinephelus polyphekadion (=microdon) collected from the Red Sea coast off Saudi Arabia, and described on the basis of microscopic and molecular procedures. Spherical blackish xenomas formed parasitophorous vacuoles completely packed with several parasitic developmental stages, including spores. The nuclei were monokaryotic in all developmental stages. Spores were ellipsoidal to pyriform and measured 6.3 ± 0.3 (5.9-6.6) μm in length and 3.3 ± 0.4 (2.9-3.7) μm in width. A lamellar polaroplast surrounded the uncoiled portion of the polar filament, which extended into the spore's posterior pole and formed 27-29 coils organized in three or four rows. The posterior vacuole, located at the spore's posterior pole, appeared surrounded by the polar filament coils and displayed an irregular matrix composed of light material, in which was located the posterosome. Molecular analysis of the rRNA genes, including the ITS region, was performed using maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methodologies. The ultrastructural features observed, in combination with the molecular data analysed, suggests the parasite to be a new species of the genus Glugea.

  19. A New Analogue of Echinomycin and a New Cyclic Dipeptide from a Marine-Derived Streptomyces sp. LS298.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Xin; Gong, Ting; Liu, Fu; Zhang, Pei-Cheng; Zhou, Wan-Qi; Li, Yan; Zhu, Ping

    2015-11-18

    Quinomycin G (1), a new analogue of echinomycin, together with a new cyclic dipeptide, cyclo-(l-Pro-4-OH-l-Leu) (2), as well as three known antibiotic compounds tirandamycin A (3), tirandamycin B (4) and staurosporine (5), were isolated from Streptomyces sp. LS298 obtained from a marine sponge Gelliodes carnosa. The planar and absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 2 were established by MS, NMR spectral data analysis and Marfey's method. Furthermore, the differences in NMR data of keto-enol tautomers in tirandamycins were discussed for the first time. Antibacterial and anti-tumor activities of compound 1 were measured against 15 drug-sensitive/resistant strains and 12 tumor cell lines. Compound 1 exhibited moderate antibacterial activities against Staphylococcuse pidermidis, S. aureus, Enterococcus faecium, and E. faecalis with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranged from 16 to 64 μg/mL. Moreover, it displayed remarkable anti-tumor activities; the highest activity was observed against the Jurkat cell line (human T-cell leukemia) with an IC50 value of 0.414 μM.

  20. Surface shear rheological studies of marine phytoplankton cultures-Nitzschia closterium, Thalassiosira rotula, Thalassiosira punctigera and Phaeocystis sp.

    PubMed

    Kuhnhenn, Verena; Krägel, Jürgen; Horstmann, Ulrich; Miller, Reinhard

    2006-01-15

    The study of interfacial properties in the marine environment is important for the understanding of air-sea gas exchange processes, especially with respect to the behaviour of entrained air bubbles. Seawater contains surfactant material, much of which is thought to origin from the exudation of dissolved organic material (DOM) by phytoplankton. This study aims at investigating the influence of different phytoplankton species on the surface shear viscosity of an air-water interface. Measurements of surface shear viscosity were carried out with the ISR1 interfacial shear rheometer. Surface shear viscosities of stock cultures of Phaeocystis sp., Thalassiosira rotula, Thalassiosira punctigera and Nitzschia closterium as well as of F/2 nutrient medium and seawater were measured. The surface shear viscosity of N. closterium was investigated during different stages of its growth as well as for an unfiltered stock culture sample and its filtrate. Results reveal that the influence of phytoplankton on the surface shear viscosity is species specific. An increase in surface shear viscosity occurred for the N. closterium stock culture only. The remaining cultures showed similar behaviour to F/2 nutrient medium. The increase of surface shear viscosity during the growth of N. closterium occurred mainly during the exponential growth phase. The increases in surface shear viscosity depend on the presence of phytoplankton cells in the sample. The formation of compact mechanical structures at the air-water interface originating from the aggregation of DOM released by N. closterium as a cause for the observed increases in surface shear viscosity is discussed.

  1. Algivirga pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel agar-degrading marine bacterium of the family Flammeovirgaceae isolated from Micronesia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jennifer Jooyoun; Kim, Ji Hyung; Kwon, Young-Kyung; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Yang, Sung-Hyun; Jang, Jiyi; Heo, Soo-Jin; Park, Heung-Sik; Jung, Won-Kyo; Lee, Youngdeuk; Kang, Do-Hyung; Oh, Chulhong

    2013-12-01

    An aerobic, Gram-negative, coccoid to short rod-shaped and non-flagellated marine bacterial strain S354(T) was isolated from seawater of Micronesia. The strain was capable to degrade agar-forming slight depression into agar plate. Growth occurred at a temperature range of 12-44 °C, a pH range of 5-9, and a salinity range of 1-7 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested that S354(T) belongs to the family Flammeovirgaceae. The novel strain was most closely related to Limibacter armeniacum YM 11-185(T) with similarity of 92.5 %. The DNA G+C content was 43.8 mol%. The major fatty acids (>10 %) were iso-C15:0 and C16:1 ω5c. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was determined to be MK-7. Polar lipid profile of S354(T) consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown polar lipid, and unknown glycolipids. Based on the phenotypic, phylogenetic, biochemical, and physiological tests conducted in this study, S354(T) is proposed to represent a type strain of a novel genus and species. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of S354(T) is registered in GenBank under the accession number JQ639084. The type of strain Algivirga pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov. is S354(T) (=KCCM 90107(T)=JCM 18326(T)).

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel beta-agarase, AgaB, from marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. CY24.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cuiping; Lu, Xinzhi; Shi, Chao; Li, Jingbao; Gu, Yuchao; Ma, Yiming; Chu, Yan; Han, Feng; Gong, Qianhong; Yu, Wengong

    2007-02-09

    Agarases are generally classified into glycoside hydrolase families 16, 50, and 86 and are found to degrade agarose to frequently generate neoagarobiose, neoagarotetraose, or neoagarohexaose as the main products. In this study we have cloned a novel endo-type beta-agarase gene, agaB, from marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. CY24. The novel agarase encoded by agaB gene has no significant sequence similarity with any known proteins including all glycoside hydrolases. It degrades agarose to generate neoagarooctaose and neoagarodecaose as the main end products. Based on the analyses of enzymatic kinetics and degradation patterns of different oligosaccharides, the agarase AgaB appears to have a large substrate binding cleft that accommodates 12 sugar units, with 8 sugar units toward the reducing end spanning subsites +1 to +8 and 4 sugar units toward the non-reducing end spanning subsites -4 to -1, and enzymatic cleavage taking place between subsites -1 and +1. In addition, 1H NMR analysis shows that this enzyme hydrolyzes the glycosidic bond with inversion of anomeric configuration, in contrast to other known agarases that are retaining. Altogether, AgaB is structurally and functionally different from other known agarases and appears to represent a new family of glycoside hydrolase.

  3. Characterization of an extracellular biofunctional alginate lyase from marine Microbulbifer sp. ALW1 and antioxidant activity of enzymatic hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanbing; Wu, Liyun; Chen, Yanhong; Ni, Hui; Xiao, Anfeng; Cai, Huinong

    2016-01-01

    A novel alginate-degrading marine bacterium Microbulbifer sp. ALW1 was isolated from rotten brown alga. An extracellular alginate lyase was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and had a molecular mass of about 26.0 kDa determined by SDS-PAGE and size exclusion chromatography. This enzyme showed activities towards both polyguluronate and polymannuronate indicating its bifunctionality while with preference for the former substrate. Using sodium alginate as a substrate, strain ALW1 alginate lyase was optimally active at 45 °C and pH 7.0. It was stable at 25 °C, 30 °C, 35 °C and 40 °C, but not stable at 50 °C. This alginate lyase showed good stability over a broad pH range (5.0-9.0). The enzyme activity was increased to 5.1 times by adding NaCl to a final concentration of 0.5M. Strain ALW1 alginate lyase produced disaccharide (majority) and trisaccharide from alginate indicating that this enzyme could be a good tool for preparation of alginate oligosaccharides with low degree of polymerization (DP). The alginate oligosaccharides displayed the scavenging abilities towards radicals (DPPH, ABTS(+) and hydroxyl) and the reducing power. Therefore, the hydrolysates exhibited the antioxidant activity and had potential as a natural antioxidant.

  4. New records of marine tardigrades from Moorea, French Polynesia, with the description of Styraconyx turbinarium sp. nov. (Arthrotardigrada, Halechiniscidae).

    PubMed

    Bartels, Paul J; Fontoura, Paulo; Nelson, Diane R

    2015-05-05

    Five marine arthrotardigrade species are recorded from Moorea, Society Islands, French Polynesia. Four were collected from coral sand; two, Dipodarctus anaholiensis Pollock, 1995 and Florarctus kwoni Chang & Rho, 1997, are new records for the region, and two, Halechiniscus perfectus Schulz, 1955 and Styraconyx kristenseni kristenseni Renaud-Mornant, 1981, have been previously reported. The fifth, a new species Styraconyx turbinarium sp. nov., is described and was collected from the drifting brown alga Turbinaria ornata. The new species is characterized by the presence of peduncles on all digits, an elongate primary clava, and the lateral cirrus A arising from a common pedestal and enveloped by a common membrane extending almost to the claval tip. The new species differs from the most similar species, Styraconyx tyrrhenus D'Addabbo Gallo, Morone De Lucia & de Zio Grimaldi, 1989, by having longer and differently shaped primary clavae which are elongated in the new species and club-shaped in S. tyrrhenus. By having a dorsal cuticle that is coarsely punctated but without folds or other ornamentations, the new species can be easily distinguished from S. craticulus (Pollock, 1983), a species with similar primary clavae, but with cuticular dorsal folds ornamented with a grid-like pattern.

  5. Characterization of a new marine nitrite oxidizing bacterium, Nitrospina watsonii sp. nov., a member of the newly proposed phylum "Nitrospinae".

    PubMed

    Spieck, Eva; Keuter, Sabine; Wenzel, Thilo; Bock, Eberhard; Ludwig, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Nitrite oxidizing bacteria are an integral part of the nitrogen cycle in marine waters, but the knowledge about their diversity is limited. Recently, a high abundance of Nitrospina-like 16S rRNA gene sequences has been detected in oceanic habitats with low oxygen content by molecular methods. Here, we describe a new strain of Nitrospina, which was sampled in 100m depth from the Black Sea. It coexisted with a not-yet cultivated chemoorganotrophic gammaproteobacterium and could be purified by classical isolation methods including Percoll density gradient centrifugation. The new Nitrospina-like bacterium grew lithoautotrophically at 28°C in diluted seawater supplemented with inorganic salts and nitrite. Gram-negative rods were characterized morphologically, physiologically and partly biochemically. The 16S rRNA gene of the new strain of Nitrospina is 97.9% similar to the described species N. gracilis and DNA/DNA hybridization experiments revealed a relatedness of 30.0%. The data from both Nitrospina species and environmental clones were used for an extensive 16S rRNA based phylogenetic study applying high quality filtering. Treeing analyses confirm the newly defined phylum status for "Nitrospinae" [18]. The results of phylogenetic and genotypic analyses support the proposal of a novel species Nitrospina watsonii sp. nov. (type strain 347(T), LMG 27401(T), NCIMB 14887(T)). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Rubidimonas crustatorum gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Saprospiraceae isolated from a marine crustacean.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Katsuta, Atsuko; Kasai, Hiroaki

    2012-03-01

    A strictly aerobic, Gram-negative, reddish-orange pigmented, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium, designated AK17-053(T) was isolated from a marine crustacean (Squillidae) living on tidal flats on the coast of the Ariake Sea, Nagasaki, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the novel isolate could be affiliated with the family Saprospiraceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes and that it showed highest sequence similarity (84%) with Lewinella marina MKG-38(T). The strain could be differentiated phenotypically from recognized members of the family Saprospiraceae. The G+C content of DNA was 55.3 mol%, MK-7 was the major menaquinone and iso-C(15:0) and C(16:1)ω7c were the major fatty acids. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic studies, it was concluded that strain AK17-053(T) represents a new genus of the family Saprospiraceae. We propose the name Rubidimonas crustatorum gen. nov., sp. nov. for this strain; its type strain is AK17-053(T) (= MBIC08356(T) = NBRC 107717(T)).

  7. Biochemical properties of a new cold-active mono- and diacylglycerol lipase from marine member Janibacter sp. strain HTCC2649.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dongjuan; Lan, Dongming; Xin, Ruipu; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2014-06-12

    Mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase has been applied to industrial usage in oil modification for its special substrate selectivity. Until now, the reported mono- and di-acylglycerol lipases from microorganism are limited, and there is no report on the mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase from bacteria. A predicted lipase (named MAJ1) from marine Janibacter sp. strain HTCC2649 was purified and biochemical characterized. MAJ1 was clustered in the family I.7 of esterase/lipase. The optimum activity of the purified MAJ1 occurred at pH 7.0 and 30 °C. The enzyme retained 50% of the optimum activity at 5 °C, indicating that MAJ1 is a cold-active lipase. The enzyme activity was stable in the presence of various metal ions, and inhibited in EDTA. MAJ1 was resistant to detergents. MAJ1 preferentially hydrolyzed mono- and di-acylglycerols, but did not show activity to triacylglycerols of camellia oil substrates. Further, MAJ1 is low homologous to that of the reported fungal diacylglycerol lipases, including Malassezia globosa lipase 1 (SMG1), Penicillium camembertii lipase U-150 (PCL), and Aspergillus oryzae lipase (AOL). Thus, we identified a novel cold-active bacterial lipase with a sn-1/3 preference towards mono- and di-acylglycerides for the first time. Moreover, it has the potential, in oil modification, for special substrate selectivity.

  8. Gellan gum microspheres containing a novel α-amylase from marine Nocardiopsis sp. strain B2 for immobilization.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Samrat; Jana, Sougata; Gandhi, Arijit; Sen, Kalyan Kumar; Zhiang, Wang; Kokare, Chandrakant

    2014-09-01

    A Nocardiopsis sp. stain B2 with an ability to produce stable α-amylase was isolated from marine sediments. The characterization of microorganism was done by biochemical tests and 16S rDNA sequencing. The α-amylase was purified by gel filtration chromatography by using sephadex G-75. The molecular mass of the amylase was found to be 45 kDa by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration chromatography. The isolated α-amylase was immobilized by ionotropic gelation technique using gellan gum (GG). These microspheres were spherical with average particle size of 375.62±21.76 to 492.54±32.18 μm. The entrapment efficiency of these α-amylase loaded GG microspheres was found 74.76±1.32 to 87.64±1.52%. Characterization of α-amylase-gellan gum microspheres was confirmed using FTIR and SEM analysis. The in vitro amylase release kinetic have been studied by various mathematical models that follow the Korsmeyer-Peppas model (R2=0.9804-0.9831) with anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion release mechanism.

  9. Flavobacterium rakeshii sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment, and emended description of Flavobacterium beibuense Fu et al. 2011.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ishwinder; Kaur, Chandandeep; Khan, Fazlurrahman; Mayilraj, Shanmugam

    2012-12-01

    A Gram-negative, non-motile bacterial strain that formed straight rods and straw yellow colonies, designated FCS-5(T), was isolated from a marine sediment from the Arabian Sea. The isolate exhibited most of the phenotypic properties expected for a member of the genus Flavobacterium. The major fatty acids were iso-C(15:0), iso-C(17:0) 3-OH, C(17:1)ω9c and summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C(15:0) 2-OH and/or C(16:1)ω7c). The only isoprenoid quinone was MK-6. The only polyamine was homospermidine and the major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 32.4 mol%. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain FCS-5(T) belonged to the genus Flavobacterium and exhibited 99.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Flavobacterium beibuense F44-8(T) and 90.9-94.6% sequence similarity with other members of the genus Flavobacterium. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed the discrimination of the isolate from its phylogenetic relatives. Strain FCS-5(T) is a representative of a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium rakeshii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FCS-5(T) ( = MTCC 10967(T) = JCM 17928(T)). An emended description of F. beibuense is also proposed.

  10. Identification of a frustule-associated protein of the marine pennate diatom Fistulifera sp. strain JPCC DA0580.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Michiko; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Muto, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Mayama, Shigeki; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Among the proteins localized on the cell wall (frustule) of diatoms (frustule-associated proteins), several proteins tightly associated with the cell wall have been implicated in frustule formation. These proteins include diatom-specific unique serine- and lysine-rich sequences represented by silaffins. Taking advantage of available genome information, we used a recently described bioinformatics approach to screen silaffin-like proteins rich in serine and lysine from the genome of the marine pennate diatom Fistulifera sp. strain JPCC DA0580 and identified 7 proteins. All of the proteins shared a sequence motif called the XGXG domain, which was also confirmed in a silaffin-like protein identified in other diatoms. In vivo localization analysis revealed that one of the identified proteins, G7408, occurs throughout the frustule with a slightly uneven distribution. This novel frustule-associated protein could be a useful tool to elucidate the mechanism of biosilica formation in diatoms and to functionalize this strain for future biotechnological applications.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Cellulophaga sp. E6, a Marine Algal Epibiont That Produces a Quorum-Sensing Inhibitory Compound Active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Lafleur, J. E.; Costa, S. K.; Bitzer, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Cellulophaga is composed of obligate aerobic Gram-negative bacteria commonly found in association with marine algae. We report the approximately 4.42-Mbp draft genome sequence of Cellulophaga sp. E6, which inhibits N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C12-HSL)–mediated quorum sensing (QS), lasB transcription, and biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:25676769

  12. Genome Sequence of Marinobacter sp. Strain MCTG268 Isolated from the Cosmopolitan Marine Diatom Skeletonema costatum

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, Tony; Whitman, William B.; Huntemann, Marcel; Copeland, Alex; Chen, Amy; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Pillay, Manoj; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Andersen, Evan; Pati, Amrita; Stamatis, Dimitrios; Reddy, T. B. K.; Ngan, Chew Yee; Chovatia, Mansi; Daum, Chris; Shapiro, Nicole; Cantor, Michael N.; Woyke, Tanja

    2016-09-08

    Marinobactersp. strain MCTG268 was isolated from the cosmopolitan marine diatomSkeletonema costatumand can degrade oil hydrocarbons as sole sources of carbon and energy. Here, we present the genome sequence of this strain, which is 4,449,396 bp with 4,157 genes and an average G+C content of 57.0%.

  13. Systematic characterization of potential cellulolytic marine actinobacteria Actinoalloteichus sp. MHA15.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Gobalakrishnan; Kannan, Sivakumar

    2017-03-01

    Cellulose is the most abounding biopolymer in the world and there is a great interest in using this material as a substrate for various applications and it is the most important renewable resource for bioconversion. Therefore, it is necessary to screen the cellulolytic bioorganisms. In this context, actinobacteria are one of the most efficient prokaryotes, economically and biotechnologically, for their production of about half of the discovered bioactive secondary metabolites and they can metabolize many different compounds. Therefore, the present study was carried out to isolate and screen cellulase enzyme producing marine actinobacterial strains from the sediments of the Havelock island, the Andamans. Totally, 19 morphologically distinct actinobacterial strains were isolated and subjected to cellulose degradation assay. Out of the 19, four strains were found to possess good cellulose degradation activity and the strain MHA15 alone produced higher amount of cellulase enzyme (14.379 1U/ml) than the others. Taxonomical study of the strain MHA15 revealed that it belongs to the genus Actinoalloteichus and the molecular characters showed distinct difference in its phylogenetic relationship (8.4%) with A. cyanogriseus.

  14. Isolation and characterization of a methylotrophic marine methanogen, Methanococcoides methylutens gen. nov. , sp

    SciTech Connect

    Sowers, K.R.; Ferry, J.G.

    1983-02-01

    A new genus of marine methanogenic bacteria is described that utilizes trimethylamine, diethylamine, monomethylamine, and methanol as substrates for growth and methanogenesis. Methane was not produced from H/sub 2/-CO/sub 2/, sodium formate, or sodium acetate. Growth on trimethylamine was stimulated by yeast extract, Trypticase (BBL Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, MD), rumen fluid, or B vitamins. The optimal growth temperature was 30 to 35/sup 0/C. The maximum growth rate was between pH 7.0 and 7.5. Na/sup +/ (0.4 M) and MgSO/sub 4/ (0.05 M) were required for maximum growth. Colonies of the type strain, TMA-10, were yellow, circular, and convex with entire edges. Cells were nonmotile, nonsporeforming, irregular cocci 1 ..mu..m in diameter which stained gram negative and occurred singly or in pairs. Micrographs of thin sections revealed a monolayered cell wall approximately 10-nm thick which consisted of protein. Cells were lysed in 0.01% sodium dodecyl sulfate or 0.001% Triton X-100. The DNA base composition was 42 mol% guanine plus cytosine. Methanococcoides is the proposed genus and Methanococcoides methylutens is the type species. TMA-10 is the type strain (ATCC 33938).

  15. Penicillium jejuense sp. nov., isolated from the marine environments of Jeju Island, Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Myung Soo; Fong, Jonathan J; Oh, Seung-Yoon; Houbraken, Jos; Sohn, Jae Hak; Hong, Seung-Beom; Lim, Young Woon

    2015-01-01

    Three strains of an unidentified Penicillium species were isolated during a fungal diversity survey of marine environments in Korea. These strains are described here as a new species following a multigene phylogenetic analyses of nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer barcodes (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2), genes for β-tubulin, calmodulin and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit, and observation of macro-and micromorphological characters. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the three strains formed a strongly supported monophyletic group distinct from previously reported species of section Aspergilloides. Morphologically this species can be distinguished from its sister species, P. crocicola, by the reverse color on Czapek yeast autolysate agar, abundant production of sclerotia on malt extract agar and colony characters on yeast extract sucrose agar. We name this new species P. jejuense, after the locality where it was discovered. At 25 C for 7 d, P. jejuense colonies grew to 55-60 mm on CYA, 45-48 mm on MEA, 48-52 mm on YES and 23-26 mm on CREA. Conidia (2.2-3.4 × 2.0-2.6 μm) and sclerotia (160-340 × 125-210 μm) were globose to ellipsoidal.

  16. A polysaccharide-degrading marine bacterium Flammeovirga sp. MY04 and its extracellular agarase system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wenjun; Gu, Jingyan; Yan, Qiujie; Li, Jungang; Wu, Zhihong; Gu, Qianqun; Li, Yuezhong

    2012-09-01

    Bacteria of the genus Flammeovirga can digest complex polysaccharides (CPs), but no details have been reported regarding the CP depolymerases of these bacteria. MY04, an agarolytic marine bacterium isolated from coastal sediments, has been identified as a new member of the genus Flammeovirga. The MY04 strain is able to utilize multiple CPs as a sole carbon source and grows well on agarose, mannan, or xylan. This strain produces high concentrations of extracellular proteins (490 mg L-1 ± 18.2 mg L-1 liquid culture) that exhibit efficient and extensive degradation activities on various polysaccharides, especially agarose. These proteins have an activity of 310 U mg-1 ± 9.6 U mg-1 proteins. The extracellular agarase system (EAS) in the crude extracellular enzymes contains at least four agarose depolymerases, which are with molecular masses of approximately 30-70 kDa. The EAS is stable at a wide range of pH values (6.0-11.0), temperatures (0-50°C), and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations (0-0.9 mol L-1). Two major degradation products generated from agarose by the EAS are identified to be neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose, suggesting that β-agarases are the major constituents of the MY04 EAS. These results suggest that the Flammeovirga strain MY04 and its polysaccharide-degradation system hold great promise in industrial applications.

  17. Discocelis saleuta gen. nov. et sp. nov. (Protista incertae sedis): - A new heterotrophic marine flagellate.

    PubMed

    Vørs, N

    1988-10-01

    The colourless flagellate Discocelis saleuta, a new genus from marine sediments, has been studied by light microscopy and single-cell sectioning for electron microscopy. The cell is discshaped and possesses an anterior velum and two anteriorly inserted unequal flagella. The cell body periphery and the velum are supported by ribbons of microtubules. Three flagellar roots, each of which comprises relatively few microtubules, arise from the flagellar basal bodies. Two of these roots run posteriorly under the ventral cell membrane, whereas the third root mainly runs along the posterior edge of the velum. The cell is further characterized by a microbody-like paranuclear organelle, and by a row of extrusomes bordering the cell periphery. Mitochondria have short tubular cristae. This minute flagellate adheres tightly to sand grains. The ultrastructure is unlike that of any well circumscribed higher order taxon, and the new genus is consequently placed incertae sedis in the kingdom Protista. Copyright © 1988 Gustav Fischer Verlag · Stuttgart · New York. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  18. Shewanella profunda sp. nov., isolated from deep marine sediment of the Nankai Trough.

    PubMed

    Toffin, Laurent; Bidault, Adeline; Pignet, Patricia; Tindall, Brian J; Slobodkin, Alexander; Kato, Chiaki; Prieur, Daniel

    2004-11-01

    A novel piezotolerant, mesophilic, facultatively anaerobic, organotrophic, polarly flagellated bacterium (strain LT13a(T)) was isolated from a deep sediment layer in the Nankai Trough (Leg 190, Ocean Drilling Program) off the coast of Japan. This organism used a wide range of organic substrates as sole carbon and energy sources: pyruvate, glutamate, succinate, fumarate, lactate, citrate, peptone and tryptone. Oxygen, nitrate, fumarate, ferric iron and cystine were used as electron acceptors. Maximal growth rates were observed at a hydrostatic pressure of 10 MPa. Hydrostatic pressure for growth was in the range 0.1-50 MPa. Predominant cellular fatty acids were 16 : 1omega7c, 15 : 0 iso, 16 : 0 and 13 : 0 iso. The G+C content of the DNA was 44.9 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain LT13a(T) was shown to belong to the gamma-Proteobacteria, being closely related to Shewanella putrefaciens (98 %), Shewanella oneidensis (97 %) and Shewanella baltica (96 %). Levels of DNA homology between strain LT13a(T) and S. putrefaciens, S. oneidensis and S. baltica were <20 %, indicating that strain LT13a(T) represents a novel species. Genetic evidence and phenotypic characteristics showed that isolate LT13a(T) constitutes a novel species of the genus Shewanella. Because of the deep origin of the strain, the name Shewanella profunda sp. nov. is proposed, with LT13a(T) (=DSM 15900(T)=JCM 12080(T)) as the type strain.

  19. Shewanella algicola sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from brown algae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Young; Yoo, Han-Su; Lee, Dong-Heon; Park, So-Hyun; Kim, Young-Ju; Oh, Duck-Chul

    2016-06-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium motile by means of a single polar flagella, strain ST-6T, was isolated from a brown alga (Sargassum thunbergii) collected in Jeju, Republic of Korea. Strain ST-6T was psychrotolerant, growing at 4-30 °C (optimum 20 °C). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences revealed that strain ST-6T belonged to a distinct lineage in the genus Shewanella. Strain ST-6T was related most closely to Shewanella basaltis J83T, S. gaetbuli TF-27T, S. arctica IT12T, S. vesiculosa M7T and S. aestuarii SC18T, showing 96-97 % and 85-70 % 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences similarities, respectively. DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain ST-6T and the type strains of two species of the genus Shewanella were <22.6 %. The major cellular fatty acids (>5 %) were summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1ω7c and/ or iso-C15:0 2-OH), C16:0, iso-C13:0 and C17:1ω8c. The DNA G+C content of strain ST-6Twas 42.4 mol%, and the predominant isoprenoid quinones were menaquinone MK-7 and ubiquinones Q-7 and Q-8. On the basis of its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain ST-6T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Shewanella, for which the name Shewanella algicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ST-6T (= KCTC 23253T = JCM 31091T).

  20. Seasonal Preservation Success of the Marine Dinoflagellate Coral Symbiont, Symbiodinium sp.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Mary; Carter, Virginia L

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs are some of the most diverse and productive ecosystems on the planet, but are threatened by global and local stressors, mandating the need for incorporating ex situ conservation practices. One approach that is highly protective is the development of genome resource banks that preserve the species and its genetic diversity. A critical component of the reef are the endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium sp., living within most coral that transfer energy-rich sugars to their hosts. Although Symbiodinium are maintained alive in culture collections around the world, the cryopreservation of these algae to prevent loss and genetic drift is not well-defined. This study examined the quantum yield physiology and freezing protocols that resulted in survival of Symbiodinium at 24 h post-thawing. Only the ultra-rapid procedure called vitrification resulted in success whereas conventional slow freezing protocols did not. We determined that success also depended on using a thin film of agar with embedded Symbiodinium on Cryotops, a process that yielded a post-thaw viability of >50% in extracted and vitrified Symbiodinium from Fungia scutaria, Pocillopora damicornis and Porites compressa. Additionally, there also was a seasonal influence on vitrification success as the best post-thaw survival of F. scutaria occurred in winter and spring compared to summer and fall (P < 0.05). These findings lay the foundation for developing a viable genome resource bank for the world's Symbiodinium that, in turn, will not only protect this critical element of coral functionality but serve as a resource for understanding the complexities of symbiosis, support selective breeding experiments to develop more thermally resilient strains of coral, and provide a 'gold-standard' genomics collection, allowing for full genomic sequencing of unique Symbiodinium strains.

  1. Zooshikella marina sp. nov. a cycloprodigiosin- and prodigiosin-producing marine bacterium isolated from beach sand.

    PubMed

    Ramaprasad, E V V; Bharti, Dave; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2015-12-01

    A red-pigmented bacterium producing a metallic green sheen, designated strain JC333T, was isolated from a sand sample collected from Shivrajpur-Kachigad beach, Gujarat, India. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain JC333T showed highest sequence similarity to Zooshikella ganghwensis JC2044T (99.24 %) and less than 91.94 % similarity with other members of the class Gammaproteobacteria. DNA-DNA hybridizations between JC333T and Z. ganghwensis JC2044T showed low relatedness values of 19 ± 1.3 % (reciprocal 21 ± 2.2 %). The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-9 (Q9) and the polar lipid profile was composed of the major components diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminophospholipid and an unidentified lipid. The presence of C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c, C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω7c and C12 : 0 as major fatty acids supported the affiliation of strain JC333T to the genus Zooshikella. Prodigiosin, cycloprodigiosin and eight other prodigiosin analogues were the pigments of JC333T. Characterization based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, physiological parameters, pigment analysis, ubiquinone, and polar lipid and fatty acid compositions revealed that JC333T represents a novel species of the genus Zooshikella, for which the name Zooshikella marina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC333T ( = KCTC 42659T = LMG 28823T).

  2. Thalassolituus oleivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel marine bacterium that obligately utilizes hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Yakimov, Michail M; Giuliano, Laura; Denaro, Renata; Crisafi, Ermanno; Chernikova, Tatiana N; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer; Luensdorf, Heinrich; Timmis, Kenneth N; Golyshin, Peter N

    2004-01-01

    An aerobic, heterotrophic, Gram-negative, curved bacterial strain, designated MIL-1T, was isolated by extinction dilution from an n-tetradecane enrichment culture that was established from sea water/sediment samples collected in the harbour of Milazzo, Italy. In the primary enrichment, the isolate formed creamy-white, medium-sized colonies on the surface of the agar. The isolate did not grow in the absence of NaCl; growth was optimal at 2.7% NaCl. Only a narrow spectrum of organic compounds, including aliphatic hydrocarbons (C7-C20), their oxidized derivatives and acetate, were used as growth substrates. The isolate was not able to grow under denitrifying conditions. The DNA G+C content and genome size of strain MIL-1T were estimated to be 53.2 mol% and 2.2 Mbp, respectively. The major cellular and phospholipid fatty acids were palmitoleic, palmitic and oleic acids (33.5, 29.5 and 11.0% and 18, 32 and 31%, respectively). 3-hydroxy lauric acid was the only hydroxy fatty acid detected. Thirteen different compounds that belonged to two types of phospholipid (phosphatidylethylamine and phosphatidylglycerol) were identified. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that this isolate represents a distinct phyletic lineage within the gamma-Proteobacteria and has about 94.4% sequence similarity to Oceanobacter kriegii (the closest bacterial species with a validly published name). The deduced protein sequence of the putative alkane hydrolase, AlkB, of strain MIL-1T is related to the corresponding enzymes of Alcanivorax borkumensis and Pseudomonas oleovorans (81 and 80% similarity, respectively). On the basis of the analyses performed, Thalassolituus oleivorans gen. nov., sp. nov. is described. Strain MIL-1T (=DSM 14913T=LMG 21420T) is the type and only strain of T. oleivorans.

  3. Winogradskyella eckloniae sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from the brown alga Ecklonia cava.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Young; Park, So-Hyun; Seo, Ga-Young; Kim, Young-Ju; Oh, Duck-Chul

    2015-09-01

    A novel bacterial strain, designated EC29(T), was isolated from the brown alga Ecklonia cava collected on Jeju Island, Republic of Korea. Cells of strain EC29(T) were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and motile by gliding. Growth was observed at 10-30 °C (optimum, 20-25 °C), at pH 6.0-9.5 (optimum, pH 7.5) and in the presence of 1-5% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the strain belonged to the genus Winogradskyella. Strain EC29(T) exhibited the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, of 96.5-97.8%, to the type strains of Winogradskyella pulchriflava EM106(T), Winogradskyella echinorum KMM 6211(T) and Winogradskyella ulvae KMM 6390(T). Strain EC29(T) exhibited < 27% DNA-DNA relatedness with Winogradskyella pulchriflava EM106(T) and Winogradskyella echinorum KMM 6211(T). The predominant fatty acids of strain EC29(T) were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G, C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and anteiso-C15 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 31.1 mol% and the major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6 (MK-6). Based on a polyphasic study, strain EC29(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Winogradskyella, for which the name Winogradskyella eckloniae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EC29(T) ( = KCTC 32172(T) = JCM 18703(T)).

  4. Seasonal Preservation Success of the Marine Dinoflagellate Coral Symbiont, Symbiodinium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Hagedorn, Mary; Carter, Virginia L.

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs are some of the most diverse and productive ecosystems on the planet, but are threatened by global and local stressors, mandating the need for incorporating ex situ conservation practices. One approach that is highly protective is the development of genome resource banks that preserve the species and its genetic diversity. A critical component of the reef are the endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium sp., living within most coral that transfer energy-rich sugars to their hosts. Although Symbiodinium are maintained alive in culture collections around the world, the cryopreservation of these algae to prevent loss and genetic drift is not well-defined. This study examined the quantum yield physiology and freezing protocols that resulted in survival of Symbiodinium at 24 h post-thawing. Only the ultra-rapid procedure called vitrification resulted in success whereas conventional slow freezing protocols did not. We determined that success also depended on using a thin film of agar with embedded Symbiodinium on Cryotops, a process that yielded a post-thaw viability of >50% in extracted and vitrified Symbiodinium from Fungia scutaria, Pocillopora damicornis and Porites compressa. Additionally, there also was a seasonal influence on vitrification success as the best post-thaw survival of F. scutaria occurred in winter and spring compared to summer and fall (P < 0.05). These findings lay the foundation for developing a viable genome resource bank for the world’s Symbiodinium that, in turn, will not only protect this critical element of coral functionality but serve as a resource for understanding the complexities of symbiosis, support selective breeding experiments to develop more thermally resilient strains of coral, and provide a ‘gold-standard’ genomics collection, allowing for full genomic sequencing of unique Symbiodinium strains. PMID:26422237

  5. Olleya algicola sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from the green alga Ulva fenestrata.

    PubMed

    Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Kim, Song-Gun; Zhukova, Natalia V; Mikhailov, Valery V

    2017-07-01

    A strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, motile by gliding and yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain 3Alg 18T, was isolated from the Pacific green alga Ulva fenestrata. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the novel strain was affiliated to the family Flavobacteriaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes, being most closely related to the type strains of recognized species of the genus Olleya, with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.9-99.3 %. Strain 3Alg 18T grew in the presence of 0.5-5 % (w/v) NaCl and at 4-37 °C, and hydrolysed aesculin, casein, gelatin, starch and Tweens 20, 40 and 80. The prevalent fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH, iso-C16:0 2-OH, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, summed feature 3, iso-C16 : 0 3-OH, anteiso-C15 : 0 and C15 : 0. The polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified aminolipids and four unidentified lipids. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone MK-6. The genomic DNA G+C content was 34.6 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence data, and chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics, strain 3Alg 18T represents a novel species of the genus Olleya, for which the name Olleya algicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 3Alg 18T (=KCTC 22024T=KMM 6133T).

  6. Flavobacterium jejuensis sp. nov., isolated from marine brown alga Ecklonia cava.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Young; Kim, Young-Ju; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2015-11-01

    A bacterial strain, designated EC11(T) was isolated from brown alga Ecklonia cava collected from Jeju Island, Korea. EC11(T) was identified as a Gram-negative, rod-shaped and yellow-pigmented bacterial strain. The strain EC11(T) grew over a temperature range of 10 °C to 30 °C (optimally at 25 °C), and a pH range of 6.0-10.5 (optimally at pH 7.5). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain EC11(T) belongs to the genus Flavobacterium. Strain EC11(T) shared close similarity with Flavobacterium jumunjinense HME7102(T) (96.4%), Flavobacterium dongtanense LW30(T) (95.8%), Flavobacterium haoranii LQY-7(T) (95.3%), and Flavobacterium urocaniciphilum (95.1%). The major fatty acids (> 5%) were iso-C17:0 3-OH (22.4%), iso-C15:0 3-OH (19.0%), C15:0 (12.4%), summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ω7c/ C16:1 ω6c; 9.78%), iso-C15:1 G (9.6%), and iso-C16:0 3-OH (9.0%). The DNA G+C content was 28.1 mol% and the strain contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown aminolipids and three unknown polar lipids. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analysis, strain EC11T represents a novel species of the Flavobacterium genus, for which the name Flavobacterium jejuensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of F. jejuensis is EC11(T) (=KCTC 42149(T) = JCM 30735(T)).

  7. Effect of Bacterial Microbiota on the Silica Uptake of the Marine Diatom, Odontella sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, E. J.; Kempnich, M.; Sison-Mangus, M.

    2016-12-01

    Diatoms are the most prolific primary producers in the ocean and are known to dominate the phytoplankton community when nutrients become available. Diatoms require silica for growth in order to produce their silica wall frustules. Studies pertaining to silica uptake in diatoms have recently become possible with the use of PDMPO [2-(4-pyridyl)-5{[4-dimethylaminoethyl-aminocarbamoyl]-methoxy}phenyl]oxazole], a dye which selectively binds to free silica and can effectively be used to demonstrate silica uptake and deposition in diatoms. Many factors affect the growth of diatoms, including their bacterial associates or microbiome. Some members of their microbiota can increase diatom growth while others stunt their growth and eventually lyse them. Bacteria-free diatoms, on the other hand, have significantly lower growth than diatoms associating with bacteria. Here we ask if the silica uptake of Odontella sp. was influenced by co-culture with various types of bacteria. Silicification was measured using spectrophotometry to calculate PDMPO concentration as a proxy for silica uptake. We found that axenic cultures have the lowest silica uptake while non-axenic diatoms and diatoms co-cultured with the bacteria from Bacteroidetes (Cellulophaga), Firmicutes (Planococcus) and Gamma-proteobacteria (Vibrio) have varying effects on the silica uptake of the 3 diatoms. This study adds another piece of evidence that bacteria can play an important role on the growth and development of the diatoms. This work suggests that different types of bacteria can have a profound effect on the survival and ecological success of diatoms and bacterial associates should be considered when studying diatom's biology and ecology.

  8. Chondroitin Lyase from a Marine Arthrobacter sp. MAT3885 for the Production of Chondroitin Sulfate Disaccharides.

    PubMed

    Kale, Varsha; Friðjónsson, Ólafur; Jónsson, Jón Óskar; Kristinsson, Hörður G; Ómarsdóttir, Sesselja; Hreggviðsson, Guðmundur Ó

    2015-08-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) saccharides from cartilage tissues have potential application in medicine or as dietary supplements due to their therapeutic bioactivities. Studies have shown that depolymerized CS saccharides may display enhanced bioactivity. The objective of this study was to isolate a CS-degrading enzyme for an efficient production of CS oligo- or disaccharides. CS-degrading bacteria from marine environments were enriched using in situ artificial support colonization containing CS from shark cartilage as substrate. Subsequently, an Arthrobacter species (strain MAT3885) efficiently degrading CS was isolated from a CS enrichment culture. The genomic DNA from strain MAT3885 was pyro-sequenced by using the 454 FLX sequencing technology. Following assembly and annotation, an orf, annotated as family 8 polysaccharide lyase genes, was identified, encoding an amino acid sequence with a similarity to CS lyases according to NCBI blastX. The gene, designated choA1, was cloned in Escherichia coli and expressed downstream of and in frame with the E. coli malE gene for obtaining a high yield of soluble recombinant protein. Applying a dual-tag system (MalE-Smt3-ChoA1), the MalE domain was separated from ChoA1 with proteolytic cleavage using Ulp1 protease. ChoA1 was defined as an AC-type enzyme as it degraded chondroitin sulfate A, C, and hyaluronic acid. The optimum activity of the enzyme was at pH 5.5-7.5 and 40 °C, running a 10-min reaction. The native enzyme was estimated to be a monomer. As the recombinant chondroitin sulfate lyase (designated as ChoA1R) degraded chondroitin sulfate efficiently compared to a benchmark enzyme, it may be used for the production of chondroitin sulfate disaccharides for the food industry or health-promoting products.

  9. Production of Lipopeptide Biosurfactant by a Marine Nesterenkonia sp. and Its Application in Food Industry

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, George S.; Priyadharsini, Sethu; Sajayan, Arya; Priyadharsini, Gopal B.; Poulose, Navya; Selvin, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Biosurfactants are smart biomolecules which have wide spread application in medicines, processed foods, cosmetics as well as in bioremediation. In food industry, biosurfactants are used as emulsion stabilizing agents, antiadhesives, and antimicrobial/antibiofilm agents. Nowadays biosurfactant demands in industries has increased tremendously and therefore new bacterial strains are being explored for large scale production of biosurfactants. In this study, an actinobacterial strain MSA31 was isolated from a marine sponge Fasciospongia cavernosa which showed high activity in biosurfactant screening assays such as drop collapsing, oil displacement, lipase and emulsification. Lipopeptide produced by MSA31 was found to be thermostable which was evident in differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The spectral data obtained in the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the presence of aliphatic groups combined with peptide moiety which is a characteristic feature of lipopeptides. The stability index of lipopeptide MSA31 revealed “halo-alkali and thermal tolerant biosurfactant” which can be used in the food industry. Microtiter plate assay showed 125 μg/ml of lipopeptide was effective in reducing the biofilm formation activity of pathogenic multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The confocal laser scanning microscopic images provided further evidences that lipopeptide MSA31 was an effective antibiofilm agent. The antioxidant activity of lipopeptide MSA31 may be due to the presence of unsaturated fatty acid present in the molecule. The brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay showed lipopeptide MSA31 was non-toxic and can be used as food additives. Incorporation of lipopeptide MSA31 in muffin showed improved organoleptic qualities compared to positive and negative control. This study provides a valuable input for this lipopeptide to be used in food industry as an effective emulsifier, with good antioxidant activity and as a protective agent against S. aureus. PMID

  10. Identification of the Antibacterial Compound Produced by the Marine Epiphytic Bacterium Pseudovibrio sp. D323 and Related Sponge-Associated Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Penesyan, Anahit; Tebben, Jan; Lee, Matthew; Thomas, Torsten; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Harder, Tilmann; Egan, Suhelen

    2011-01-01

    Surface-associated marine bacteria often produce secondary metabolites with antagonistic activities. In this study, tropodithietic acid (TDA) was identified to be responsible for the antibacterial activity of the marine epiphytic bacterium Pseudovibrio sp. D323 and related strains. Phenol was also produced by these bacteria but was not directly related to the antibacterial activity. TDA was shown to effectively inhibit a range of marine bacteria from various phylogenetic groups. However TDA-producers themselves were resistant and are likely to possess resistance mechanism preventing autoinhibition. We propose that TDA in isolate D323 and related eukaryote-associated bacteria plays a role in defending the host organism against unwanted microbial colonisation and, possibly, bacterial pathogens. PMID:21892353

  11. [Growth and metabolite production of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. (Chroococcales) in function to irradiance].

    PubMed

    Rosales-Loaiza, Néstor; Guevara, Miguel; Lodeiros, César; Morales, Ever

    2008-06-01

    Changes in salinity, temperature and irradiance during wet and dry seasons have induced metabolic versatility in cyanobacteria from saline environments. Cyanobacteria from these environments have biotechnological potential for the production of metabolites with pharmaceutical and industrial interest. We studied the growth, dry mass and metabolite production of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. MOF-03 in function of irradiance (78, 156 and 234 micromol q m(-2) s(-1)). All batch cultures were maintained by triplicate in constant aeration, 12:12 h photoperiod, 30 +/- 2 degrees C and 35% per hundred. Maximum values of protein, carbohydrates and lipids, of 530.19 +/- 11.16, 408.94 +/- 4.27 and 56.20 +/- 1.17 microg ml(-1), respectively, were achieved at 78 micromol q m(-2) s(-1). Pigments, analyzed by HPLC, showed maximum values at 78 micromol q m(-2) s(-1) for chlorophyll a with 7.72 +/- 0.16 microg ml(-1), and at 234 micromol q m(-2) s(-1) for beta-carotene and zeaxanthin with 0.70 +/- 0.01 and 0.67 +/- 0.05 microg ml(-1). Chlorophyll a:beta-carotene ratio decreased from 17.15 to 6.91 at 78 and 234 micromol q m(-2) s(-'1); whereas beta-carotene:zeaxanthin ratio showed no changes between 78 and 156 micromol q m(-2) s(-1), around 1.21, and decreased at 234 micromol q m(-2) s(-1), to 1.04. Also, this cyanobacterium produced the greatest cell density and dry mass at 156 micromol q m(-2) s(-1), with 406.13 +/- 21.74 x l0(6) cell ml(-1) and 1.49 +/- 0.11 mg ml(-1), respectively. Exopolysaccharide production was stable between 156 y 234 micromol q m(-2) s(-1), around 110 microg ml(-1). This Synechococcus strain shows a great potential for the production of enriched biomass with high commercial value metabolites.

  12. Muricauda antarctica sp. nov., a marine member of the Flavobacteriaceae isolated from Antarctic seawater.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue-Hong; Yu, Pei-Song; Zhou, Ya-Dong; Xu, Lin; Wang, Chun-Sheng; Wu, Min; Oren, Aharon; Xu, Xue-Wei

    2013-09-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterium with appendages, designated Ar-22(T), was isolated from a seawater sample collected from the western part of Prydz Bay, near Cape Darnley, Antarctica. Strain Ar-22(T) grew optimally at 35 °C, at pH 7.5 and in the presence of 1-3% (w/v) NaCl. The isolate was positive for casein, gelatin and Tween 20 decomposition and negative for H2S production and indole formation. Chemotaxonomic analysis showed that MK-6 was the major isoprenoid quinone and phosphatidylethanolamine was the major polar lipid. The major fatty acids were iso-C(17:0) 3-OH, iso-C(15:1) G, iso-C(15:0) and C(16:1)ω7c/iso-C(15:0) 2OH. The genomic DNA G+C content was 44.8 mol%. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain Ar-22(T) is closely related to members of the genus Muricauda, sharing 94.2-97.3% sequence similarity with the type strains of species of the genus Muricauda and being most closely related to the Muricauda aquimarina. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison confirmed that strain Ar-22(T) formed a deep lineage with Muricauda flavescens. Sequence similarity between strain Ar-22(T) and Muricauda ruestringensis DSM 13258(T), the type species of the genus Muricauda, was 96.9%. Strain Ar-22(T) exhibited mean DNA-DNA relatedness values of 40.1%, 49.4% and 25.7% to M. aquimarina JCM 11811(T), M. flavescens JCM 11812(T) and Muricauda lutimaris KCTC 22173(T), respectively. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, strain Ar-22(T) represents a novel species of the genus Muricauda, for which the name Muricauda antarctica sp. nov. (type strain Ar-22(T) =CGMCC 1.12174(T) = JCM 18450(T)) is proposed.

  13. Physiologic and metabolic characterization of a new marine isolate (BM39) of Pantoea sp. producing high levels of exopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Marine environments are the widest fonts of biodiversity representing a resource of both unexploited or unknown microorganisms and new substances having potential applications. Among microbial products, exopolysaccharides (EPS) have many physiological functions and practical applications. Since EPS production by many bacteria is too scarce for practical use and only few species are known for their high levels of production, the search of new high EPS producers is of paramount importance. Many marine bacteria, that produce EPS to cope with strong environmental stress, could be potentially exploited at the industrial level. Results A novel bacterium, strain BM39, previously isolated from sediments collected in the Tyrrhenian Sea, was selected for its production of very high levels of EPS. BM39 was affiliated to Pantoea sp. (Enterobacteriaceae) by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical tests. According to the phylogenetic tree, this strain, being quite far from the closest known Pantoea species (96% identity with P. agglomerans and P. ananatis) could belong to a new species. EPS production was fast (maximum of ca. 21 g/L in 24 h on glucose medium) and mainly obtained during the exponential growth. Preliminary characterization, carried out by thin layer and gel filtration chromatography, showed that the EPS, being a glucose homopolymer with MW of ca. 830 kDa, appeared to be different from those of other bacteria of same genus. The bacterium showed a typical slightly halophilic behavior growing optimally at NaCl 40 ‰ (growing range 0-100 ‰). Flow cytometry studies indicated that good cell survival was maintained for 24 h at 120 ‰. Survival decreased dramatically with the increase of salinity being only 1 h at 280 ‰. The biochemical characterization, carried out with the Biolog system, showed that MB39 had a rather limited metabolic capacity. Its ability, rather lower than that of P. agglomerans, was almost only confined to the metabolization of

  14. Physiologic and metabolic characterization of a new marine isolate (BM39) of Pantoea sp. producing high levels of exopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Silvi, Silvia; Barghini, Paolo; Aquilanti, Arianna; Juarez-Jimenez, Belen; Fenice, Massimiliano

    2013-01-29

    Marine environments are the widest fonts of biodiversity representing a resource of both unexploited or unknown microorganisms and new substances having potential applications. Among microbial products, exopolysaccharides (EPS) have many physiological functions and practical applications. Since EPS production by many bacteria is too scarce for practical use and only few species are known for their high levels of production, the search of new high EPS producers is of paramount importance. Many marine bacteria, that produce EPS to cope with strong environmental stress, could be potentially exploited at the industrial level. A novel bacterium, strain BM39, previously isolated from sediments collected in the Tyrrhenian Sea, was selected for its production of very high levels of EPS. BM39 was affiliated to Pantoea sp. (Enterobacteriaceae) by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical tests. According to the phylogenetic tree, this strain, being quite far from the closest known Pantoea species (96% identity with P. agglomerans and P. ananatis) could belong to a new species. EPS production was fast (maximum of ca. 21 g/L in 24 h on glucose medium) and mainly obtained during the exponential growth. Preliminary characterization, carried out by thin layer and gel filtration chromatography, showed that the EPS, being a glucose homopolymer with MW of ca. 830 kDa, appeared to be different from those of other bacteria of same genus. The bacterium showed a typical slightly halophilic behavior growing optimally at NaCl 40 ‰ (growing range 0-100 ‰). Flow cytometry studies indicated that good cell survival was maintained for 24 h at 120 ‰. Survival decreased dramatically with the increase of salinity being only 1 h at 280 ‰. The biochemical characterization, carried out with the Biolog system, showed that MB39 had a rather limited metabolic capacity. Its ability, rather lower than that of P. agglomerans, was almost only confined to the metabolization of simple sugars and their

  15. Morphology and molecular phylogeny of a marine interstitial tetraflagellate with putative endosymbionts: Auranticordis quadriverberis n. gen. et sp. (Cercozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Chantangsi, Chitchai; Esson, Heather J; Leander, Brian S

    2008-01-01

    Background Comparative morphological studies and environmental sequencing surveys indicate that marine benthic environments contain a diverse assortment of microorganisms that are just beginning to be explored and characterized. The most conspicuous predatory flagellates in these habitats range from about 20–150 μm in size and fall into three major groups of eukaryotes that are very distantly related to one another: dinoflagellates, euglenids and cercozoans. The Cercozoa is a diverse group of amoeboflagellates that cluster together in molecular phylogenies inferred mainly from ribosomal gene sequences. These molecular phylogenetic studies have demonstrated that several enigmatic taxa, previously treated as Eukaryota insertae sedis, fall within the Cercozoa, and suggest that the actual diversity of this group is largely unknown. Improved knowledge of cercozoan diversity is expected to help resolve major branches in the tree of eukaryotes and demonstrate important cellular innovations for understanding eukaryote evolution. Results A rare tetraflagellate, Auranticordis quadriverberis n. gen. et sp., was isolated from marine sand samples. Uncultured cells were in low abundance and were individually prepared for electron microscopy and DNA sequencing. These flagellates possessed several novel features, such as (1) gliding motility associated with four bundled recurrent flagella, (2) heart-shaped cells about 35–75 μm in diam., and (3) bright orange coloration caused by linear arrays of muciferous bodies. Each cell also possessed about 2–30 pale orange bodies (usually 4–5 μm in diam.) that were enveloped by two membranes and sac-like vesicles. The innermost membrane invaginated to form unstacked thylakoids that extended towards a central pyrenoid containing tailed viral particles. Although to our knowledge, these bodies have never been described in any other eukaryote, the ultrastructure was most consistent with photosynthetic endosymbionts of cyanobacterial

  16. Croceitalea marina sp. nov., isolated from marine particles of Yellow Sea, and emended description of the genera Croceitalea.

    PubMed

    Su, Ying; Yu, Min; Ren, Qiaomeng; Sun, Zhongcheng; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Xiaoting; Wang, Yanan; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2017-08-31

    A Gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile, golden yellow-coloured and strictly aerobic bacterial strain, designated H01-35T, was isolated from a surface marine particles sample collected from the Yellow Sea in China. According to the phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, the strain H01-35T belonged to the genus Croceitalea and showed the highest sequence similarity to Croceitalea litorea CBA3205T (96.4 %). Strain H01-35T grew optimally at pH 8.0-9.0, 28 °C and in the presence of 3 % (w/v) NaCl. The DNA G+C content was 52.7 mol%. Strain H01-35T contained MK-6 as the predominant respiratory quinone and held iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH as the major cellular fatty acids. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids and five unidentified lipids. Exoenzymes for starch, gelatin and Tween 20 degradation were detected in Strain H01-35T but the strain was negative for sulfur and indole production. On the basis of the polyphasic analyses, this isolate was considered to represent a novel species in the genus Croceitalea, for which the name Croceitalea marina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H01-35T (MCCC 1K03229T=KCTC 52368T). The emendation of description of the genus Croceitalea is also given.

  17. Lutibacter litoralis gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from tidal flat sediment.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong H; Cho, Byung C

    2006-04-01

    A rod-shaped marine bacterium, designated strain CL-TF09T, isolated from a tidal flat in Ganghwa, Korea, was characterized based on its physiological and biochemical features, fatty acid profile and phylogenetic position. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed a clear affiliation with the family Flavobacteriaceae. Strain CL-TF09T showed the closest phylogenetic relationship with the genera Tenacibaculum and Polaribacter; sequence similarities between CL-TF09T and the type strains of Tenacibaculum and Polaribacter species ranged from 90.7 to 91.8 %. Cells of strain CL-TF09T were non-motile and grew on solid media as yellow colonies. The strain grew in the presence of 1-5 % sea salts, within a temperature range of 5-30 degrees C and at pH 7-8. The strain had iso-C(15 : 0) 3-OH (17.4 %), iso-C(15 : 0) (16.7 %), anteiso-C(15 : 0) (15.1 %) and iso-C(16 : 0) 3-OH (13.4 %) as predominant fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 33.9 mol%. Based on the physiological, fatty acid composition and phylogenetic data presented, strain CL-TF09T is considered to represent a novel genus and species of the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Lutibacter litoralis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CL-TF09T (=KCCM 42118T = JCM 13034T).

  18. Light History Influences the Response of the Marine Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. WH7803 to Oxidative Stress1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Blot, Nicolas; Mella-Flores, Daniella; Six, Christophe; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Boutte, Christophe; Peyrat, Anne; Monnier, Annabelle; Ratin, Morgane; Gourvil, Priscillia; Campbell, Douglas A.; Garczarek, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Marine Synechococcus undergo a wide range of environmental stressors, especially high and variable irradiance, which may induce oxidative stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). While light and ROS could act synergistically on the impairment of photosynthesis, inducing photodamage and inhibiting photosystem II repair, acclimation to high irradiance is also thought to confer resistance to other stressors. To identify the respective roles of light and ROS in the photoinhibition process and detect a possible light-driven tolerance to oxidative stress, we compared the photophysiological and transcriptomic responses of Synechococcus sp. WH7803 acclimated to low light (LL) or high light (HL) to oxidative stress, induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or methylviologen. While photosynthetic activity was much more affected in HL than in LL cells, only HL cells were able to recover growth and photosynthesis after the addition of 25 μm H2O2. Depending upon light conditions and H2O2 concentration, the latter oxidizing agent induced photosystem II inactivation through both direct damage to the reaction centers and inhibition of its repair cycle. Although the global transcriptome response appeared similar in LL and HL cells, some processes were specifically induced in HL cells that seemingly helped them withstand oxidative stress, including enhancement of photoprotection and ROS detoxification, repair of ROS-driven damage, and regulation of redox state. Detection of putative LexA binding sites allowed the identification of the putative LexA regulon, which was down-regulated in HL compared with LL cells but up-regulated by oxidative stress under both growth irradiances. PMID:21670225

  19. Preparation and Evaluation of the Chelating Nanocomposite Fabricated with Marine Algae Schizochytrium sp. Protein Hydrolysate and Calcium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiaping; Cai, Xixi; Tang, Mengru; Wang, Shaoyun

    2015-11-11

    Marine algae have been becoming a popular research topic because of their biological implication. The algae peptide-based metal-chelating complex was investigated in this study. Schizochytrium sp. protein hydrolysate (SPH) possessing high Ca-binding capacity was prepared through stepwise enzymatic hydrolysis to a degree of hydrolysis of 22.46%. The nanocomposites of SPH chelated with calcium ions were fabricated in aqueous solution at pH 6 and 30 °C for 20 min, with the ratio of SPH to calcium 3:1 (w/w). The size distribution showed that the nanocomposite had compact structure with a radius of 68.16 ± 0.50 nm. SPH was rich in acidic amino acids, accounting for 33.55%, which are liable to bind with calcium ions. The molecular mass distribution demonstrated that the molecular mass of SPH was principally concentrated at 180-2000 Da. UV scanning spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested that the primary sites of calcium-binding corresponded to the carboxyl groups, carbonyl groups, and amino groups of SPH. The results of fluorescent spectroscopy, size distribution, atomic force microscope, and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy suggested that calcium ions chelated with SPH would cause intramolecular and intermolecular folding and aggregating. The SPH-calcium chelate exerted remarkable stability and absorbability under either acidic or basic conditions, which was in favor of calcium absorption in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans. The investigation suggests that SPH-calcium chelate has the potential prospect to be utilized as a nutraceutical supplement to improve bone health in the human body.

  20. Streptococcus hongkongensis sp. nov., isolated from a patient with an infected puncture wound and from a marine flatfish.

    PubMed

    Lau, Susanna K P; Curreem, Shirly O T; Lin, Cherry C N; Fung, Ami M Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2013-07-01

    A bacterium, HKU30(T), was isolated from the infected tissue of a patient with wound infection after puncture by a fish fin. Cells are facultative anaerobic, non-spore-forming, non-motile, Gram-positive cocci arranged in chains. Colonies were non-haemolytic. The strain was catalase, oxidase, urease and Voges-Proskauer test negative. It reacted with Lancefield's group G antisera and was resistant to optochin. It grew on bile aesculin agar and in 5 % NaCl. It was unidentified by three commercial identification systems. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the bacterium shared 98.2, 97.7, 97.4 and 97.1 % nucleotide identities with Streptococcus iniae, Streptococcus pseudoporcinus, Streptococcus parauberis and Streptococcus uberis, respectively. The DNA G+C content was 35.6 ± 0.9 mol% (mean ± sd). In view of the occupational exposure of the patient, an epidemiological study was performed to isolate the bacterium from marine fish. Two strains, with similar phenotypic and genotypic characteristics to those of HKU30(T), were isolated from a three-lined tongue sole (Cynoglossus abbreviatus) and an olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of four additional housekeeping genes, groEL, gyrB, sodA and rpoB, showed that the three isolates formed a distinct branch among known species of the genus Streptococcus, being most closely related to S. parauberis (CCUG 39954(T)). DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated ≤ 53.8 % DNA relatedness between the three isolates and related species of the genus Streptococcus. A novel species, Streptococcus hongkongensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is HKU30(T) ( = DSM 26014(T) = CECT 8154(T)).

  1. Litoricolaceae fam. nov., to include Litoricola lipolytica gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium belonging to the order Oceanospirillales.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hana; Choo, Yoe-Jin; Cho, Jang-Cheon

    2007-08-01

    A Gram-negative, non-motile, chemoheterotrophic, facultatively aerobic, short-rod-shaped bacterium, designated IMCC1097(T), was isolated from coastal seawater (10 m depth) of the East Sea, Korea. The temperature, pH and NaCl ranges for growth were 15-30 degrees C, pH 5.0-10.0 and 1.5-10 % NaCl. The colonies of the strain were very small, having a mean diameter of 0.05 mm. 16S rRNA gene sequence data indicated that the strain was most closely related to genera within the class Gammaproteobacteria. Members of the most closely related genera showed less than 90 % sequence similarity and included Saccharospirillum (89.3 %), Oleiphilus (88.7 %), Reinekea (88.2 %), Alcanivorax (86.4-87.6 %) and Zooshikella (87.6 %), which represent five different families of the order Oceanospirillales. Phylogenetic analyses showed that this marine strain represented a distinct phylogenetic lineage in the order Oceanospirillales and could not be assigned to any of the defined families in the order. The predominant fatty acids were C(16 : 1) omega 7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH, C(18 : 1) omega 7c and C(10 : 0) 3-OH, and the DNA G+C content was 57.9 mol%. These chemotaxonomic properties, together with phenotypic characteristics, served to differentiate the strain from phylogenetically closely related genera. The very low sequence similarities (<90 %) and distant relationships between IMCC1097(T) and members of the order Oceanospirillales suggested that the strain merited classification within a novel genus within a novel family in the order. On the basis of taxonomic evidence collected in this study, a novel genus and species are proposed, Litoricola lipolytica gen. nov., sp. nov., within a new family Litoricolaceae fam. nov. Strain IMCC1097(T) (=KCCM 42360(T) =NBRC 102074(T)) is the type strain of Litoricola lipolytica.

  2. Desulfobulbus aggregans sp. nov., a Novel Sulfate Reducing Bacterium Isolated from Marine Sediment from the Gulf of Gabes.

    PubMed

    Kharrat, Hanen; Karray, Fatma; Bartoli, Manon; Ben Hnia, Wajdi; Mhiri, Najla; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Bennour, Feten; Kamoun, Lotfi; Alazard, Didier; Sayadi, Sami

    2017-04-01

    Three sulfate-reducing bacterial strains designated SM40(T), SM41, and SM43 were isolated from marine sediment in the region of Skhira located in the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia). These strains grew in anaerobic media with phosphogypsum as a sulfate source and sodium lactate as an electron and carbon source. One of them, strain SM40(T), was characterized by phenotypic and phylogenetic methods. Cells were ovoid, Gram-stain-negative and non-motile. The temperature limits for growth were 10 and 55 °C with an optimum at 35 °C and the pH range was 6.5-8.1 with an optimum at pH 7.5. Growth was observed at salinities ranging from 10 to 80 g NaCl l(-1) with an optimum at 30 g NaCl l(-1). Strain SM40(T) was able to utilize butanol, ethanol, formate, L-glucose, glycerol, lactate, propanol, propionate, and pyruvate as electron donors for the reduction of sulfate, sulfite, or thiosulfate to H2S. Without electron acceptors, strain SM40(T) fermented butanol and pyruvate. The DNA G+C content of strain SM40(T) was 52.6 mol %. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate revealed that strain SM40(T) was closely related to the species in the genus Desulfobulbus of the family Desulfobulbaceae. The sequence similarity between strain SM40 and Desulfobulbus marinus was 95.4%. The phylogenetic analysis, DNA G+C content, and differences in substrate utilization suggested that strain SM40 represents a new species of the genus Desulfobulbus, D. aggregans sp. nov. The type strain is strain SM40(T) (=DSM 28693(T) = JCM 19994(T)).

  3. Rubritalea sabuli sp. nov., a carotenoid- and squalene-producing member of the family Verrucomicrobiaceae, isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Matsuo, Yoshihide; Matsuda, Satoru; Adachi, Kyoko; Kasai, Hiroaki; Yokota, Akira

    2008-04-01

    The taxonomic status of a verrucomicrobial strain isolated from marine sediment was established based on a polyphasic examination. The novel isolate, strain YM29-052T, was obligately aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, coccoid or rod-shaped and chemoheterotrophic. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that the new isolate shared approximately 94-99 % sequence similarity with members of genus Rubritalea of the family Verrucomicrobiaceae within the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia'. Genomic DNA-DNA hybridization between strain YM29-052T and Rubritalea squalenifaciens HOact23T showed relatedness of <70 %, the value commonly accepted as the threshold for the phylogenetic definition of a species. Strain YM29-052T produces carotenoid compounds that render the cell biomass a pink colour; the strain also contains squalene. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of the novel strain contains muramic acid and meso-diaminopimelic acid. The DNA G+C content of strain YM29-052T was 47.7 mol%; MK-8 and MK-9 were the major menaquinones. The presence of iso-C14 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and C16 : 1 omega 7c as major cellular fatty acids supported the identification of the novel isolate as a member of the genus Rubritalea. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic evidence, it was concluded that strain YM29-052T should be classified within a novel species of the genus Rubritalea, for which the name Rubritalea sabuli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YM29-052T (=MBIC08323T =KCTC 22127T).

  4. Novel Carbohydrate-Binding Module of β-1,3-Xylanase from a Marine Bacterium, Alcaligenes sp. Strain XY-234

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Fumiyoshi; Tamaru, Yutaka; Hashikawa, Shinnosuke; Li, Yu-Teh; Araki, Toshiyoshi

    2002-01-01

    A β-1,3-xylanase gene (txyA) from a marine bacterium, Alcaligenes sp. strain XY-234, has been cloned and sequenced. txyA consists of a 1,410-bp open reading frame that encodes 469 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 52,256 Da. The domain structure of the β-1,3-xylanase (TxyA) consists of a signal peptide of 22 amino acid residues, followed by a catalytic domain which belongs to family 26 of the glycosyl hydrolases, a linker region with one array of DGG and six repeats of DNGG, and a novel carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) at the C terminus. The recombinant TxyA hydrolyzed β-1,3-xylan but not other polysaccharides such as β-1,4-xylan, carboxymethylcellulose, curdlan, glucomannan, or β-1,4-mannan. TxyA was capable of binding specifically to β-1,3-xylan. The analysis using truncated TxyA lacking either the N- or C-terminal region indicated that the region encoding the CBM was located between residues 376 and 469. Binding studies on the CBM revealed that the Kd and the maximum amount of protein bound to β-1,3-xylan were 4.2 μM and 18.2 μmol/g of β-1,3-xylan, respectively. Furthermore, comparison of the enzymatic properties between proteins with and without the CBM strongly indicated that the CBM of TxyA plays an important role in the hydrolysis of β-1,3-xylan. PMID:11948152

  5. Vibrio oceanisediminis sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from an artificial oil-spill marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang Rim; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Lee, Sang-Seob

    2015-10-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, halophilic, facultatively anaerobic, motile, rod-shaped and nitrogen-fixing bacterium, designated strain S37T, was isolated from an artificial oil-spill sediment sample from the coast of Taean, South Korea. Cells grew at 10-37 °C and pH 5.0-9.0, with optimal growth at 28 °C and pH 6.0-8.0. Growth was observed with 1-9 % (w/v) NaCl in marine broth, with optimal growth with 3-5 % NaCl, but no growth was observed in the absence of NaCl. According to the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain S37T represents a member of the genus Vibrio of the class Gammaproteobacteria and forms a clade with Vibrio plantisponsor MSSRF60T (97.38 %), Vibrio diazotrophicus ATCC 33466T (97.31 %), Vibrio aestuarianus ATCC 35048T (97.07 %) Vibrio areninigrae J74T (96.76 %) and Vibrio hispanicus LMG 13240T (96.76 %). The major fatty acids were C16 : 0, C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c and C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c. The DNA G+C content was 41.9 %. The DNA-DNA hybridization analysis results showed a 30.2 % association value with the closely related type strain V. plantisponsor DSM 21026T. On the basis of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain S37T represents a novel species of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio oceanisediminis sp. nov., is proposed with the type strain S37T ( = KEMB 2255-005T = JCM 30409T).

  6. Regulation of ntcA Expression and Nitrite Uptake in the Marine Synechococcus sp. Strain WH 7803

    PubMed Central

    Lindell, Debbie; Padan, Etana; Post, Anton F.

    1998-01-01

    NtcA is a transcriptional activator involved in global nitrogen control in cyanobacteria. In the absence of ammonium it regulates the transcription of a series of genes encoding proteins required for the uptake and assimilation of alternative nitrogen sources (I. Luque, E. Flores, and A. Herrero, EMBO J. 13:2862–2869, 1994). ntcA, present in a single copy in the marine Synechococcus sp. strain WH 7803, was cloned and sequenced. The putative amino acid sequence shows a high degree of identity to NtcA from freshwater cyanobacteria in two functional domains. The expression of ntcA was negatively regulated by ammonium from a putative transcription start point located downstream of an NtcA consensus recognition sequence. Addition of either rifampin or ammonium led to a rapid decline in ntcA transcript levels with half-lives of less than 2 min in both cases. Nitrate-grown cells showed high ntcA transcript levels, as well as the capacity for active nitrite uptake. However, ammonium-grown cells showed low levels of the ntcA transcript and did not utilize nitrite. The addition of ammonium to nitrite uptake-active cells resulted in a gradual decline in the rate of uptake over a 24-h period. Active nitrite uptake was not induced in cells transferred to medium lacking a nitrogen source despite evidence of elevated expression of ntcA, indicating that ntcA expression is not sufficient for uptake capacity to develop. Nitrate and nitrite addition led to the development of nitrite uptake, whereas the addition of leucine did not. Furthermore, nitrite addition triggered the de novo protein synthesis required for uptake capacity to develop. These data suggest that nitrite and nitrate act as specific inducers for the synthesis of proteins required for nitrite uptake. PMID:9537388

  7. Isolation and diversity of natural product biosynthetic genes of cultivable bacteria associated with marine sponge Mycale sp. from the coast of Fujian, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Pei; Wang, De-Xiang; Ding, Shao-Xiong; Zhao, Jing

    2014-04-01

    The marine sponge Mycale sp., a potential source of natural bioactive products, is widely distributed along the coast of Fujian, China. The cultivable bacterial community associated with Mycale sp., the antibacterial activities, and the PKS (polyketide synthase) and NRPS (nonribosomal peptide synthetase) gene diversity of these bacteria were investigated. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that the 51 isolates from Mycale sp. belonged to Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Among them, some bacteria were first isolated from marine sponge. The 20 isolates with antimicrobial activities were primarily clustered within the groups Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacillus. Strain HNS054, which showed 99% similarity to Streptomyces labedae, exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 1430, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 441) and Vibrio species. The screening of natural product biosynthetic genes revealed that 8 Actinobacteria species with antimicrobial activities possessed PKS-KS (ketosynthase) or NRPS-A domains, and the Nocardiopsis species contained a hybrid or mixed PKS-NRPS system. The phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences indicated that the identified KS domains clustered with those from diverse bacterial groups, including Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Firmicutes. Most KS domain sequences had high homology (>80%) to type I KSs, but the KS domain of Nocardiopsis sp. strain HNS048 had 77% similarity to the type II KS domain of Burkholderia gladioli. The NRPS-A domains of the 8 isolates were grouped into the Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes groups. The NRPS-A gene of strain HNS052, identified as Nocardiopsis cyriacigeorgica, showed only 54% similarity to Rhodococcus opacus. All results suggested that Mycale sp. harboured diverse bacteria that could contribute to the production of novel

  8. Expression of the ggpS Gene, Involved in Osmolyte Synthesis in the Marine Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 7002, Revealed Regulatory Differences between This Strain and the Freshwater Strain Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Engelbrecht, Friederike; Marin, Kay; Hagemann, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Synthesis of the osmolyte glucosylglycerol (GG) in the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 was characterized. The ggpS gene, which encodes the key enzyme (GG-phosphate synthase [GgpS]) in GG biosynthesis, was cloned by using PCR. A 2,030-bp DNA sequence which contained one open reading frame (ORF) was obtained. The protein deduced from this ORF exhibited 85% similarity to the GgpS of the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. The function of the protein was confirmed by generating a ggpS null mutant, which was not able to synthesize GG and thus exhibited a salt-sensitive phenotype. Expression of the ggpS gene was analyzed in salt-shocked cells by performing Northern blot and immunoblot experiments. While almost no expression was detected in cells grown in low-salt medium, immediately after a salt shock the amounts of ggpS mRNA and GgpS protein increased up to 100-fold. The finding that salt-induced expression occurred was confirmed by measuring enzyme activities, which were negligible in control cells but clearly higher in salt-treated Synechococcus sp. cells. The salt-induced increase in GgpS activity could be inhibited by adding chloramphenicol, while in protein extracts of the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 a constitutive, high level of enzyme activity that was not affected by chloramphenicol was found. A comparison of GG accumulation in the two cyanobacteria revealed that in the marine strain osmolyte synthesis seemed to be regulated mainly by transcriptional control, whereas in the freshwater strain control seemed to be predominantly posttranslational. PMID:10543792

  9. Towards Sustainable Aquafeeds: Complete Substitution of Fish Oil with Marine Microalga Schizochytrium sp. Improves Growth and Fatty Acid Deposition in Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Sarker, Pallab K; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Lanois, Alison J; Livesey, Erin D; Bernhard, Katie P; Coley, Mariah L

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a 84-day nutritional feeding experiment with dried whole cells of DHA-rich marine microalga Schizochytrium sp. (Sc) to determine the optimum level of fish-oil substitution (partial or complete) for maximum growth of Nile tilapia. When we fully replaced fish oil with Schizochytrium (Sc100 diet), we found significantly higher weight gain and protein efficiency ratio (PER), and lower (improved) feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake compared to a control diet containing fish oil (Sc0); and no significant change in SGR and survival rate among all diets. The Sc100 diet had the highest contents of 22:6n3 DHA, led to the highest DHA content in fillets, and consequently led to the highest DHA:EPA ratios in tilapia fillets. Schizochytrium sp. is a high quality candidate for complete substitution of fish oil in juvenile Nile tilapia feeds, providing an innovative means to formulate and optimize the composition of tilapia juvenile feed while simultaneously raising feed efficiency of tilapia aquaculture and to further develop environmentally and socially sustainable aquafeeds. Results show that replacing fish oil with DHA-rich marine Sc improves the deposition of n3 LC PUFA levels in tilapia fillet. These results support further studies to lower Schizochytrium production costs and to combine different marine microalgae to replace fish oil and fishmeal into aquafeeds.

  10. Towards Sustainable Aquafeeds: Complete Substitution of Fish Oil with Marine Microalga Schizochytrium sp. Improves Growth and Fatty Acid Deposition in Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Pallab K.; Kapuscinski, Anne R.; Lanois, Alison J.; Livesey, Erin D.; Bernhard, Katie P.; Coley, Mariah L.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a 84-day nutritional feeding experiment with dried whole cells of DHA-rich marine microalga Schizochytrium sp. (Sc) to determine the optimum level of fish-oil substitution (partial or complete) for maximum growth of Nile tilapia. When we fully replaced fish oil with Schizochytrium (Sc100 diet), we found significantly higher weight gain and protein efficiency ratio (PER), and lower (improved) feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake compared to a control diet containing fish oil (Sc0); and no significant change in SGR and survival rate among all diets. The Sc100 diet had the highest contents of 22:6n3 DHA, led to the highest DHA content in fillets, and consequently led to the highest DHA:EPA ratios in tilapia fillets. Schizochytrium sp. is a high quality candidate for complete substitution of fish oil in juvenile Nile tilapia feeds, providing an innovative means to formulate and optimize the composition of tilapia juvenile feed while simultaneously raising feed efficiency of tilapia aquaculture and to further develop environmentally and socially sustainable aquafeeds. Results show that replacing fish oil with DHA-rich marine Sc improves the deposition of n3 LC PUFA levels in tilapia fillet. These results support further studies to lower Schizochytrium production costs and to combine different marine microalgae to replace fish oil and fishmeal into aquafeeds. PMID:27258552

  11. The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bullard, S.G.; Lambert, G.; Carman, M.R.; Byrnes, J.; Whitlatch, R.B.; Ruiz, G.; Miller, R.J.; Harris, L.; Valentine, P.C.; Collie, J.S.; Pederson, J.; McNaught, D.C.; Cohen, A.N.; Asch, R.G.; Dijkstra, J.; Heinonen, K.

    2007-01-01

    Didemnum sp. A is a colonial ascidian with rapidly expanding populations on the east and west coasts of North America. The origin of Didemum sp. A is unknown. Populations were first observed on the northeast coast of the U.S. in the late 1980s and on the west coast during the 1990s. It is currently undergoing a massive population explosion and is now a dominant member of many subtidal communities on both coasts. To determine Didemnum sp. A's current distribution, we conducted surveys from Maine to Virginia on the east coast and from British Columbia to southern California on the west coast of the U.S. between 1998 and 2005. In nearshore locations Didemnum sp. A currently ranges from Eastport, Maine to Shinnecock Bay, New York on the east coast. On the west coast it has been recorded from Humboldt Bay to Port San Luis in California, several sites in Puget Sound, Washington, including a heavily fouled mussel culture facility, and several sites in southwestern British Columbia on and adjacent to oyster and mussel farms. The species also occurs at deeper subtidal sites (up to 81 m) off New England, including Georges, Stellwagen and Tillies Banks. On Georges Bank numerous sites within a 230 km2 area are 50–90% covered by Didemnum sp. A; large colonies cement the pebble gravel into nearly solid mats that may smother infaunal organisms. These observations suggest that Didemnum sp. A has the potential to alter marine communities and affect economically important activities such as fishing and aquaculture.

  12. Theletrum lamothei sp. nov. (Digenea), parasite of Echidna nocturna from Cuajiniquil, Guanacaste, and other digenes of marine fishes from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ponce de León, G; León-Règagnon, V; Monks, S

    1998-06-01

    A new species of Theletrum is described from the intestine of two palenose morays, Echidna nocturna, collected in Cuajiniquil, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica. The new species differs from the type species, T. fustiforme Linton, 1910 by having a subspherical pars prostatica, a subspherical seminal vesicle extending anteriorly to the anterior border of the acetabulum, by the presence of a poorly developed hermaphroditic sac, and by having a larger body size. We also report eight additional species of digeneans parasitizing marine fishes in several localities along the Atlantic and Pacific coast of Costa Rica: Bianium simonei, Didymozoinae (metacercariae), Ectenurus virgulus, Hypocreadium myohelicatum, Lecithochirium microstomum, Pseudolecithaster sp., Stephanostomum casum, and Tergestia laticollis. In addition, we present an updated list of helminth parasites of marine fish from Costa Rica and discuss the importance of including parasites as an integral part of biodiversity inventories.

  13. A monogenean fish parasite, Gyrodactylus chileani n. sp., belonging to a novel marine species lineage found in the South-Eastern Pacific and the Mediterranean and North Seas.

    PubMed

    Ziętara, Marek S; Lebedeva, Dar'ya; Muñoz, Gabriela; Lumme, Jaakko

    2012-10-01

    Gyrodactylus chileani n. sp. is the first Gyrodactylus species reported from Chile. It is an ectoparasite living on fins and skin of a small fish, the Chilean tidal pond dweller Helcogrammoides chilensis (Cancino) (Perciformes: Tripterygiidae). A phylogenetic analysis based on 5.8S+ITS2 of rDNA placed the new species close to marine Gyrodactylus species found in Europe: G. orecchiae Paladini, Cable, Fioravanti, Faria, Cave & Shinn, 2009 on gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L. from the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Sea fish farms (Perciformes: Sparidae), and an undescribed species on the black goby Gobius niger L. from the North Sea (Perciformes: Gobiidae). A morphological description of the latter species is unavailable. These geographically distant parasite samples on different host families form a new well supported Gyrodactylus orecchiae lineage. Using molecular phylogenetics, it is shown that the marine species groups of Gyrodactylus may have a worldwide distribution.

  14. Lacinutrix himadriensis sp. nov., a psychrophilic bacterium isolated from a marine sediment, and emended description of the genus Lacinutrix.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, T N R; Prasad, S; Manasa, P; Sailaja, B; Begum, Z; Shivaji, S

    2013-02-01

    A novel gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile, psychrophilic bacterium, designated strain E4-9a(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected at a depth of 276 m from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, in the Arctic Ocean. The colony colour was golden yellow. Strain E4-9a(T) was positive for amylase activity at 5 °C. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 1) G (21.8 %), anteiso-C(15 : 0) (19.1 %), anteiso-C(15 : 1) A (18.6 %), iso-C(15 : 0) (13.8 %) and iso-C(16 : 1) H (6.4 %). Strain E4-9a(T) contained MK-6 as the major respiratory quinone. The polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified aminolipids (AL1, AL4 and AL5), an unidentified phospholipid and four unidentified lipids (L1, L4 to L6). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, it was ascertained that the closest related species to E4-9a(T) were Lacinutrix copepodicola, L. algicola and L. mariniflava, with sequence similarity to the respective type strains of 98.5, 96.5 and 95.8 %. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain E4-9a(T) clustered with the type strain of L. copepodicola and with those of L. algicola and L. mariniflava at distances of 1.5 and 4.8 % (98.5 and 95.2 % similarity), respectively. However, DNA-DNA hybridization with L. copepodicola DJ3(T) showed 59 % relatedness with respect to strain E4-9a(T). The DNA G+C content of strain E4-9a(T) was 29 mol%. Based on the results of DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic data, it appears that strain E4-9a(T) represents a novel species of the genus Lacinutrix, for which the name Lacinutrix himadriensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is E4-9a(T) ( = CIP 110310(T)  = KCTC 23612(T)).

  15. Cribrihabitans marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a biological filter in a marine recirculating aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Liu, Ying; Liu, Liang-Zi; Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Zhi-Pei; Liu, Ying

    2014-04-01

    A Gram-negative bacterium, strain CZ-AM5(T), was isolated from an aerated biological filter in a marine recirculating aquaculture system in Tianjin, China. Its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain CZ-AM5(T) were non-spore-forming rods, 0.5-0.8 µm wide and 1.2-2.0 µm long, and motile by means of one or two polar or lateral flagella. Strain CZ-AM5(T) was strictly aerobic, heterotrophic, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. Growth occurred at 15-40 °C (optimum, 30-35 °C), at pH 6.5-10.5 (optimum, pH 7.0-7.5) and in the presence of 0-12.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 4.0 %). The predominant fatty acid was C18 : 1ω7c (80.3 %). Ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) was the sole respiratory quinone. The polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminolipid, an unknown phospholipid and three unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content was 60.4 mol%. Strain CZ-AM5(T) showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (96.5 %) to Phaeobacter caeruleus LMG 24369(T); it exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 95.0-96.5, 95.2-96.3, 96.2, 94.6-95.7 and 94.8-95.8 % to members of the genera Phaeobacter, Ruegeria, Citreimonas, Leisingera and Donghicola, respectively. However, phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain CZ-AM5(T) did not join any of the above genera, but formed a distinct lineage in the trees. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, strain CZ-AM5(T) is considered to represent a novel genus and species of the family Rhodobacteraceae, for which the name Cribrihabitans marinus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Cribrihabitans marinus is CZ-AM5(T) ( = CGMCC 1.13219(T) = JCM 19401(T)).

  16. Metabolites with Gram-negative bacteria quorum sensing inhibitory activity from the marine animal endogenic fungus Penicillium sp. SCS-KFD08.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fan Dong; Zhou, Li Man; Ma, Qing Yun; Huang, Sheng Zhuo; Wang, Pei; Dai, Hao Fu; Zhao, You Xing

    2017-01-01

    Three new compounds named penicitor A, aculene E and penicitor B, as well as four known compounds, were isolated from the fermentation broth of Penicillium sp. SCS-KFD08 associated with a marine animal Sipunculus nudus from the Haikou bay of China. Their planar structures and absolute configurations were unambiguously elucidated by spectroscopic data, Mosher's method, CD spectrum analysis along with quantum ECD calculation. Among them, compounds 2-7 showed quorum sensing inhibitory activity against Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, and could significantly reduce violacein production in N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) induced C. violaceum CV026 cultures at sub-inhibitory concentrations.

  17. Characterization of a New S8 serine Protease from Marine Sedimentary Photobacterium sp. A5–7 and the Function of Its Protease-Associated Domain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui-Juan; Tang, Bai-Lu; Shao, Xuan; Liu, Bai-Xue; Zheng, Xiao-Yu; Han, Xiao-Xu; Li, Ping-Yi; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Song, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Xiu-Lan

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial extracellular proteases are important for bacterial nutrition and marine sedimentary organic nitrogen degradation. However, only a few proteases from marine sedimentary bacteria have been characterized. Some subtilases have a protease-associated (PA) domain inserted in the catalytic domain. Although structural analysis and deletion mutation suggests that the PA domain in subtilases is involved in substrate binding, direct evidence to support this function is still absent. Here, a protease, P57, secreted by Photobacterium sp. A5-7 isolated from marine sediment was characterized. P57 could hydrolyze casein, gelatin and collagen. It showed the highest activity at 40°C and pH 8.0. P57 is a new subtilase, with 63% sequence identity to the closest characterized protease. Mature P57 contains a catalytic domain and an inserted PA domain. The recombinant PA domain from P57 was shown to have collagen-binding ability, and Phe349 and Tyr432 were revealed to be key residues for collagen binding in the PA domain. This study first shows direct evidence that the PA domain of a subtilase can bind substrate, which provides a better understanding of the function of the PA domain of subtilases and bacterial extracellular proteases from marine sediment. PMID:28066343

  18. Molecular Phylogeny and Ultrastructure of Caliculium glossobalani n. gen. et sp. (Apicomplexa) from a Pacific Glossobalanus minutus (Hemichordata) Confounds the Relationships Between Marine and Terrestrial Gregarines.

    PubMed

    Wakeman, Kevin C; Reimer, James D; Jenke-Kodama, Holger; Leander, Brian S

    2014-01-01

    Gregarines are a diverse group of apicomplexan parasites with a conspicuous extracellular feeding stage, called a "trophozoite", that infects the intestines and other body cavities of invertebrate hosts. Although the morphology of trophozoites is very diverse in gregarines as a whole, high degrees of intraspecific variation combined with relatively low degrees of interspecific variation make the delimitation of different species based on trophozoite morphology observed with light microscopy difficult. The coupling of molecular phylogenetic data with comparative morphology has shed considerable light onto the boundaries and interrelationships of different gregarine species. In this study, we isolated a novel marine gregarine from the hepatic region of a Pacific representative of the hemichordate Glossobalanus minutus, and report the first ultrastructural and molecular data from any gregarine infecting this distinctive group of hosts. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of an SSU rDNA sequence derived from two single-cell isolates of this marine gregarine demonstrated a strong and unexpected affiliation with a clade of terrestrial gregarines (e.g. Gregarina). This molecular phylogenetic data combined with a comparison of the morphological features in previous reports of gregarines collected from Atlantic representatives of G. minutus justified the establishment of a new binomial for the new isolate, namely Caliculium glossobalani n. gen. et sp. The molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrated a clade of terrestrial gregarines associated with a sequence acquired from a marine species, which suggest that different groups of terrestrial/freshwater gregarines evolved independently from marine ancestors.

  19. Characterization of a New S8 serine Protease from Marine Sedimentary Photobacterium sp. A5-7 and the Function of Its Protease-Associated Domain.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Juan; Tang, Bai-Lu; Shao, Xuan; Liu, Bai-Xue; Zheng, Xiao-Yu; Han, Xiao-Xu; Li, Ping-Yi; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Song, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Xiu-Lan

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial extracellular proteases are important for bacterial nutrition and marine sedimentary organic nitrogen degradation. However, only a few proteases from marine sedimentary bacteria have been characterized. Some subtilases have a protease-associated (PA) domain inserted in the catalytic domain. Although structural analysis and deletion mutation suggests that the PA domain in subtilases is involved in substrate binding, direct evidence to support this function is still absent. Here, a protease, P57, secreted by Photobacterium sp. A5-7 isolated from marine sediment was characterized. P57 could hydrolyze casein, gelatin and collagen. It showed the highest activity at 40°C and pH 8.0. P57 is a new subtilase, with 63% sequence identity to the closest characterized protease. Mature P57 contains a catalytic domain and an inserted PA domain. The recombinant PA domain from P57 was shown to have collagen-binding ability, and Phe349 and Tyr432 were revealed to be key residues for collagen binding in the PA domain. This study first shows direct evidence that the PA domain of a subtilase can bind substrate, which provides a better understanding of the function of the PA domain of subtilases and bacterial extracellular proteases from marine sediment.

  20. Complete genome sequence of the marine, cellulose and xylan degrading bacterium Glaciecola sp. 4H-3-7+YE-5

    SciTech Connect

    Klippel, Dr Barbara; Bruce, David; Davenport, Karen W.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Han, James; Han, Shunsheng; Land, Miriam L; Mikhailova, Natalia; Nolan, Matt; Pennacchio, Len; Pitluck, Sam; Tapia, Roxanne; Woyke, Tanja; Wiebusch, Sigrid; Basner, Alexander; Abe, Fumiyoshi; Horikoshi, Koki; Antranikian, Garabed

    2011-01-01

    Glaciecola sp. 4H-3-7+YE-5 was isolated from deep sea sediments at Suruga Bay in Japan and is capable of efficiently hydrolyzing cellulose and xylan. The complete genome sequence of Glaciecola sp. 4H-3-7+YE-5 revealed several genes encoding putatively novel glycoside hydrolases associated with plant biomass degradation.

  1. Comparative study on fatty acid metabolism of early stages of two crustacean species: Artemia sp. metanauplii and Grapsus adscensionis zoeae, as live prey for marine animals.

    PubMed

    Reis, Diana B; Acosta, Nieves G; Almansa, Eduardo; Navarro, Juan C; Tocher, Douglas R; Andrade, José P; Sykes, António V; Rodríguez, Covadonga

    2017-02-01

    The present study compared the lipid composition and in vivo capability of Artemia sp. metanauplii (the main live prey used in aquaculture) and Grapsus adscensionis zoeae (as a wild zooplankton model) to metabolise unsaturated fatty acids. The two species were incubated in vivo with 0.3μM of individual [1-(14)C]fatty acids (FA) including 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 20:4n-6 (ARA), 20:5n-3 (EPA) and 22:6n-3 (DHA) bound to bovine serum albumin (BSA). Compared to metanauplii, zoeae contained twice the content of polar lipids (PL) and eight-fold the content of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Artemia sp. metanauplii showed increased short chain fatty acid de novo synthesis from beta-oxidation of [1-(14)C]LC-PUFA, preferentially DHA. Of the LC-PUFA, DHA showed the highest esterification rate into Artemia sp. triacylglycerols. In contrast, in Grapsus zoeae [1-(14)C]DHA displayed the highest transformation rate into longer chain-length FAs and was preferentially esterified into PL. EPA and ARA, tended to be more easily incorporated and/or retained than DHA in Artemia sp. Moreover, both EPA and ARA were preferentially esterified into Artemia PL, which theoretically would favour their bioavailability to the larvae. In addition to the inherent better nutritional value of Grapsus zoeae due to their intrinsic lipid composition, the changes taking place after the lipid incorporation, point at two distinct models of lipid metabolism that indicate zoeae as a more suitable prey than Artemia sp. for the feeding of marine animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cytotoxic and antibacterial substances against multi-drug resistant pathogens from marine sponge symbiont: Citrinin, a secondary metabolite of Penicillium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Subramani, Ramesh; Kumar, Rohitesh; Prasad, Pritesh; Aalbersberg, William

    2013-01-01

    Objective To Isolate, purify, characterize, and evaluate the bioactive compounds from the sponge-derived fungus Penicillium sp. FF001 and to elucidate its structure. Methods The fungal strain FF001 with an interesting bioactivity profile was isolated from a marine Fijian sponge Melophlus sp. Based on conidiophores aggregation, conidia development and mycelia morphological characteristics, the isolate FF001 was classically identified as a Penicillium sp. The bioactive compound was identified using various spectral analysis of UV, high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectra, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data. Further minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) assay and brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay were also carried out to evaluate the biological properties of the purified compound. Results Bioassay guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract of a static culture of this Penicillium sp. by different chromatographic methods led the isolation of an antibacterial, anticryptococcal and cytotoxic active compound, which was identified as citrinin (1). Further, citrinin (1) is reported for its potent antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), rifampicin-resistant S. aureus, wild type S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium showed MICs of 3.90, 0.97, 1.95 and 7.81 µg/mL, respectively. Further citrinin (1) displayed significant activity against the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC 3.90 µg/mL), and exhibited cytotoxicity against brine shrimp larvae LD50 of 96 µg/mL. Conclusions Citrinin (1) is reported from sponge associated Penicillium sp. from this study and for its strong antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant human pathogens including cytotoxicity against brine shrimp larvae, which indicated that sponge associated Penicillium spp. are promising sources of natural bioactive metabolites. PMID:23620853

  3. The marine bacterium Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 degrades a wide range of lipids and hydrocarbons through the formation of oleolytic biofilms with distinct gene expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Mounier, Julie; Camus, Arantxa; Mitteau, Isabelle; Vaysse, Pierre-Joseph; Goulas, Philippe; Grimaud, Régis; Sivadon, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    Hydrophobic organic compounds (mainly lipids and hydrocarbons) represent a significant part of the organic matter in marine waters, and their degradation has an important impact in the carbon fluxes within oceans. However, because they are nearly insoluble in the water phase, their degradation by microorganisms occurs at the interface with water and thus requires specific adaptations such as biofilm formation. We show that Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 develops biofilms, referred to as oleolytic biofilms, on a large variety of hydrophobic substrates, including hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols, fatty acids, triglycerides, and wax esters. Microarray analysis revealed that biofilm growth on n-hexadecane or triolein involved distinct genetic responses, together with a core of common genes that might concern general mechanisms of biofilm formation. Biofilm growth on triolein modulated the expression of hundreds of genes in comparison with n-hexadecane. The processes related to primary metabolism and genetic information processing were downregulated. Most of the genes that were overexpressed on triolein had unknown functions. Surprisingly, their genome localization was restricted to a few regions identified as putative genomic islands or mobile elements. These results are discussed with regard to the adaptive responses triggered by M. hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 to occupy a specific niche in marine ecosystems.

  4. Recovery and phylogenetic diversity of culturable fungi associated with marine sponges Clathrina luteoculcitella and Holoxea sp. in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bo; Yin, Ying; Zhang, Fengli; Li, Zhiyong

    2011-08-01

    Sponge-associated fungi represent an important source of marine natural products, but little is known about the fungal diversity and the relationship of sponge-fungal association, especially no research on the fungal diversity in the South China Sea sponge has been reported. In this study, a total of 111 cultivable fungi strains were isolated from two South China Sea sponges Clathrina luteoculcitella and Holoxea sp. using eight different media. Thirty-two independent representatives were selected for analysis of phylogenetic diversity according to ARDRA and morphological characteristics. The culturable fungal communities consisted of at least 17 genera within ten taxonomic orders of two phyla (nine orders of the phylum Ascomycota and one order of the phylum Basidiomycota) including some potential novel marine fungi. Particularly, eight genera of Apiospora, Botryosphaeria, Davidiella, Didymocrea, Lentomitella, Marasmius, Pestalotiopsis, and Rhizomucor were isolated from sponge for the first time. Sponge C. luteoculcitella has greater culturable fungal diversity than sponge Holoxea sp. Five genera of Aspergillus, Davidiella, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, and Penicillium were isolated from both sponges, while 12 genera of Apiospora, Botryosphaeria, Candida, Marasmius, Cladosporium, Didymocrea, Hypocrea, Lentomitella, Nigrospora, Pestalotiopsis, Rhizomucor, and Scopulariopsis were isolated from sponge C. luteoculcitella only. Order Eurotiales especially genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, and order Hypocreales represented the dominant culturable fungi in these two South China Sea sponges. Nigrospora oryzae strain PF18 isolated from sponge C. luteoculcitella showed a strong and broad spectrum antimicrobial activities suggesting the potential for antimicrobial compounds production.

  5. Analysis of defence systems and a conjugative IncP-1 plasmid in the marine polyaromatic hydrocarbons-degrading bacterium Cycloclasticus sp. 78-ME.

    PubMed

    Yakimov, Michail M; Crisafi, Francesca; Messina, Enzo; Smedile, Francesco; Lopatina, Anna; Denaro, Renata; Pieper, Dietmar H; Golyshin, Peter N; Giuliano, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Marine prokaryotes have evolved a broad repertoire of defence systems to protect their genomes from lateral gene transfer including innate or acquired immune systems and infection-induced programmed cell suicide and dormancy. Here we report on the analysis of multiple defence systems present in the genome of the strain Cycloclasticus sp. 78-ME isolated from petroleum deposits of the tanker 'Amoco Milford Haven'. Cycloclasticus are ubiquitous bacteria globally important in polyaromatic hydrocarbons degradation in marine environments. Two 'defence islands' were identified in 78-ME genome: the first harbouring CRISPR-Cas with toxin-antitoxin system, while the second was composed by an array of genes for toxin-antitoxin and restriction-modification proteins. Among all identified spacers of CRISPR-Cas system only seven spacers match sequences of phages and plasmids. Furthermore, a conjugative plasmid p7ME01, which belongs to a new IncP-1θ ancestral archetype without any accessory mobile elements was found in 78-ME. Our results provide the context to the co-occurrence of diverse defence mechanisms in the genome of Cycloclasticus sp. 78-ME, which protect the genome of this highly specialized PAH-degrader. This study contributes to the further understanding of complex networks established in petroleum-based microbial communities.

  6. Cytotoxic Activity of Bioactive Compound 1, 2- Benzene Dicarboxylic Acid, Mono 2- Ethylhexyl Ester Extracted from a Marine Derived Streptomyces sp. VITSJK8

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Kannabiran; Mani, Abirami; Jasmine, Subashini

    2014-01-01

    Marine Streptomyces are prolific producers of majority of bioactive secondary metabolites which are used in pharmaceutical industry as effective drugs against life threatening diseases. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compound 1, 2- benzene dicarboxylic acid, mono 2- ethylhexyl ester (DMEHE) from marine derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. VITSJK8 was investigated against mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH 3T3) and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) normal cell lines, human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG 2) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines by using MTT assay. The compound DMEHE exhibited IC 50 values of 42, 100, 250 and 500 µg/ ml against HepG2, MCF-7, HaCaT and NIH 3T3 cell lines, respectively. The effect of DMEHE on the growth of cancer cell lines was expressed as the % of viability. Cell viability was recorded as 67.7%, 78.14%, 82.23% and 96. 11% in HepG2, MCF-7, HaCaT and NIH 3T3 cells, respectively. The results of the study conclude that the bioactive compound isolated from the potential isolate Streptomyces sp. VITSJK8 exhibited cytotoxic activity against HepG2 and MCF- 7 cancer cell lines and low toxicity against normal HaCaT and NIH 3T3 cell lines. PMID:25635251

  7. Cytotoxic Activity of Bioactive Compound 1, 2- Benzene Dicarboxylic Acid, Mono 2- Ethylhexyl Ester Extracted from a Marine Derived Streptomyces sp. VITSJK8.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Kannabiran; Mani, Abirami; Jasmine, Subashini

    2014-01-01

    Marine Streptomyces are prolific producers of majority of bioactive secondary metabolites which are used in pharmaceutical industry as effective drugs against life threatening diseases. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compound 1, 2- benzene dicarboxylic acid, mono 2- ethylhexyl ester (DMEHE) from marine derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. VITSJK8 was investigated against mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH 3T3) and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) normal cell lines, human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG 2) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines by using MTT assay. The compound DMEHE exhibited IC 50 values of 42, 100, 250 and 500 µg/ ml against HepG2, MCF-7, HaCaT and NIH 3T3 cell lines, respectively. The effect of DMEHE on the growth of cancer cell lines was expressed as the % of viability. Cell viability was recorded as 67.7%, 78.14%, 82.23% and 96. 11% in HepG2, MCF-7, HaCaT and NIH 3T3 cells, respectively. The results of the study conclude that the bioactive compound isolated from the potential isolate Streptomyces sp. VITSJK8 exhibited cytotoxic activity against HepG2 and MCF- 7 cancer cell lines and low toxicity against normal HaCaT and NIH 3T3 cell lines.

  8. Comparative ultrastructure and molecular phylogeny of Selenidium melongena n. sp. and S. terebellae Ray 1930 demonstrate niche partitioning in marine gregarine parasites (apicomplexa).

    PubMed

    Wakeman, Kevin C; Heintzelman, Matthew B; Leander, Brian S

    2014-08-01

    Gregarine apicomplexans are a diverse group of single-celled parasites that have feeding stages (trophozoites) and gamonts that generally inhabit the extracellular spaces of invertebrate hosts living in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial environments. Inferences about the evolutionary morphology of gregarine apicomplexans are being incrementally refined by molecular phylogenetic data, which suggest that several traits associated with the feeding cells of gregarines arose by convergent evolution. The study reported here supports these inferences by showing how molecular data reveals traits that are phylogenetically misleading within the context of comparative morphology alone. We examined the ultrastructure and molecular phylogenetic positions of two gregarine species isolated from the spaghetti worm Thelepus japonicus: Selenidium terebellaeRay 1930 and S. melongena n. sp. The ultrastructural traits of S. terebellae were very similar to other species of Selenidium sensu stricto, such as having vermiform trophozoites with an apical complex, few epicytic folds, and a dense array of microtubules underlying the trilayered pellicle. By contrast, S. melongena n. sp. lacked a comparably discrete assembly of subpellicular microtubules, instead employing a system of fibrils beneath the cell surface that supported a relatively dense array of helically arranged epicytic folds. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of small subunit rDNA sequences derived from single-cell PCR unexpectedly demonstrated that these two gregarines are close sister species. The ultrastructural differences between these two species were consistent with the fact that S. terebellae infects the inner lining of the host intestines, and S. melongena n. sp. primarily inhabits the coelom, infecting the outside wall of the host intestine. Altogether, these data demonstrate a compelling case of niche partitioning and associated morphological divergence in marine gregarine apicomplexans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  9. Experimental infection of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) with marine Eubothrium sp. (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea): observations on the life cycle, aspects of development and growth of the parasite.

    PubMed

    Saksvik, M; Nylund, A; Nilsen, F; Hodneland, K

    2001-01-01

    The life cycle of marine Eubothrium sp. (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea), from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) was experimentally completed in one year and included only one intermediate host (Acartia tonsa Dana) (Copepoda: Calanoida). Adult cestodes were collected from farmed salmon, and ripe eggs released by the cestodes were fed to Acartia tonsa. Ingested eggs hatched in the gut and the larvae developed in the haemocoel of the copepod for 15 days at 16 degrees C. A total of 170 seawater-reared salmon were exposed to infected copepods and the total prevalence of Eubothrium sp. in the salmon after infection was 95.3%, with a mean intensity of 15.0 (range 1-87). The infected salmon were kept in the laboratory where the growth of the cestodes was studied for eleven months. Mean length of the cestodes increased with time, but a large variation among the cestodes was observed. Growth and maturation of the cestodes were dependent on host size and the number of worms present in the intestine. No evidence of mortality of Eubothrium sp. was observed during the experimental period.

  10. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Secondary Metabolites of Marine Pseudomonas sp. in Human Neutrophils Are through Inhibiting P38 MAPK, JNK, and Calcium Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shun-Chin; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Kuo, Jimmy; Chen, Chun-Yu; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2014-01-01

    Activated neutrophils play a significant role in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. The metabolites of marine microorganisms are increasingly employed as sources for developing new drugs; however, very few marine drugs have been studied in human neutrophils. Herein, we showed that secondary metabolites of marine Pseudomonas sp. (N11) significantly inhibited superoxide anion generation and elastase release in formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP)-activated human neutrophils, with IC50 values of 0.67±0.38 µg/ml and 0.84±0.12 µg/ml, respectively. In cell-free systems, neither superoxide anion-scavenging effect nor inhibition of elastase activity was associated with the suppressive effects of N11. N11 inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase and JNK, but not Erk and Akt, in FMLP-induced human neutrophils. Also, N11 dose-dependently attenuated the transient elevation of intracellular calcium concentration in activated neutrophils. In contrast, N11 failed to alter phorbol myristate acetate-induced superoxide anion generation, and the inhibitory effects of N11 were not reversed by protein kinase A inhibitor. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory effects of N11 on superoxide anion generation and elastase release in activated human neutrophils are through inhibiting p38 MAP kinase, JNK, and calcium pathways. Our results suggest that N11 has the potential to be developed to treat neutrophil-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:25474595

  11. Extracellular signal molecule(s) involved in the carbon starvation response of marine Vibrio sp. strain S14.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, S; Ostling, J; Charlton, T; de Nys, R; Takayama, K; Kjelleberg, S

    1998-01-01

    The role of exogenous metabolites as putative signal molecules mediating and/or regulating the carbon starvation adaptation program in Vibrio sp. strain S14 was investigated. Addition of the stationary-phase supernatant extract (SSE) of Vibrio sp. strain S14 to logarithmic-phase cells resulted in a significant number of carbon starvation-induced proteins being up-regulated. Halogenated furanones, putative antagonists of acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs), inhibited the synthesis of proteins specifically induced upon carbon starvation. The effect of the furanone was the opposite of that caused by SSE with respect to the up- and down-regulation of protein expression, indicating that both the furanone and the putative signalling molecules were acting on the same regulatory pathway. Culturability was rapidly lost when Vibrio sp. strain S14 was starved in the presence of the furanone at a low concentration. The furanone also had a negative effect on the ability of carbon-starved cells to mount resistance against UV irradiation and hydrogen peroxide exposure. The SSE of Vibrio sp. strain S14 had the ability to provide cross-protection against the loss in viability caused by the furanone. We have further demonstrated that the SSE taken from low- as well as high-cell-density cultures of Vibrio sp. strain S14 induced luminescence in Vibrio harveyi. Taken together, the results in this report provide evidence that Vibrio sp. strain S14 produces extracellular signalling metabolites during carbon and energy starvation and that these molecules play an important role in the expression of proteins crucial to the development of starvation- and stress-resistant phenotypes.

  12. Photoinhibition of Phaeocystis globosa resulting from oxidative stress induced by a marine algicidal bacterium Bacillus sp. LP-10

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Chengwei; Guo, Xiaoyun; Li, Yi; Zhang, Huajun; Lei, Xueqian; Cai, Guanjing; Guo, Jiajia; Yu, Zhiming; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms caused by Phaeocystis globosa have resulted in staggering losses to coastal countries because of their world-wide distribution. Bacteria have been studied for years to control the blooms of harmful alga, however, the action mechanism of them against harmful algal cells is still not well defined. Here, a previously isolated algicidal bacterium Bacillus sp. LP-10 was used to elucidate the potential mechanism involved in the dysfunction of P. globosa algal cells at physiological and molecular levels. Our results showed Bacillus sp. LP-10 induced an obvious rise of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was supposed to be major reason for algal cell death. Meanwhile, the results revealed a significant decrease of photosynthetic physiological indexes and apparent down-regulated of photosynthesis-related genes (psbA and rbcS) and protein (PSII reaction center protein D1), after treated by Bacillus sp. LP-10 filtrates, suggesting photoinhibition occurred in the algal cells. Furthermore, our results indicated that light played important roles in the algal cell death. Our work demonstrated that the major lethal reason of P. globosa cells treated by the algicidal bacterium was the photoinhibition resulted from oxidative stress induced by Bacillus sp. LP-10. PMID:26601700

  13. Near-Complete Genome Sequence of Thalassospira sp. Strain KO164 Isolated from a Lignin-Enriched Marine Sediment Microcosm

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hannah L.; O’Dell, Kaela B.; Utturkar, Sagar; McBride, Kathryn R.; Huntemann, Marcel; Clum, Alicia; Pillay, Manoj; Palaniappan, Krishnaveni; Varghese, Neha; Mikhailova, Natalia; Stamatis, Dimitrios; Reddy, T. B. K.; Ngan, Chew Yee; Daum, Chris; Shapiro, Nicole; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Woyke, Tanja; Brown, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Thalassospira sp. strain KO164 was isolated from eastern Mediterranean seawater and sediment laboratory microcosms enriched on insoluble organosolv lignin under oxic conditions. The near-complete genome sequence presented here will facilitate analyses into this deep-ocean bacterium’s ability to degrade recalcitrant organics such as lignin. PMID:27881538

  14. Near-Complete Genome Sequence of Thalassospira sp. Strain KO164 Isolated from a Lignin-Enriched Marine Sediment Microcosm.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hannah L; O'Dell, Kaela B; Utturkar, Sagar; McBride, Kathryn R; Huntemann, Marcel; Clum, Alicia; Pillay, Manoj; Palaniappan, Krishnaveni; Varghese, Neha; Mikhailova, Natalia; Stamatis, Dimitrios; Reddy, T B K; Ngan, Chew Yee; Daum, Chris; Shapiro, Nicole; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Woyke, Tanja; Brown, Steven D; Hazen, Terry C

    2016-11-23

    Thalassospira sp. strain KO164 was isolated from eastern Mediterranean seawater and sediment laboratory microcosms enriched on insoluble organosolv lignin under oxic conditions. The near-complete genome sequence presented here will facilitate analyses into this deep-ocean bacterium's ability to degrade recalcitrant organics such as lignin.

  15. New records of species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off New Caledonia, including P. cephalopholidis sp. n. from Cephalopholis sonnerati (Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-09-01

    Two different species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from marine perciform fishes, the tomato hind Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes) (Serranidae) and the painted sweetlips Diagramma pictum (Thunberg) (Haemulidae), from off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Nematodes (only males) from the gonad of C. sonnerati represent a new taxon, P. cephalopholidis sp. n., which is mainly characterized by almost equally long spicules (length 186-228 μm), the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip, and the structure of the caudal end. The nematodes (only gravid females) from abdominal tissues of D. pictum may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra cephalopholidis is the sixth nominal species of this genus recorded from fishes off New Caledonia and the thirteenth species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Serranidae.

  16. Philometra spicarae sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the abdominal cavity of the marine fish (picarel) Spicara smaris (Centracanthidae) off Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Gaglio, Gabriella; Giannetto, Salvatore; Marino, Fabio

    2010-07-01

    A new nematode species, Philometra spicarae sp. n. (Philometridae), is described from a gravid female found in the abdominal cavity of spicarel, Spicara smaris (Linnaeus) (Centracanthidae, Perciformes), from the Ionian Sea off Sicily, Italy. The new species differs from most other Philometra spp. parasitic in the abdominal cavity of marine fishes by the oesophagus without an anterior inflation, resembling thus only Philometra cheilopogoni Mordvinova, 1986 and Philometra justinei Moravec, Ternengo and Levron, 2006; these two species can be differentiated from P. spicarae by the relative length of the oesophagus to body length (0.6-0.8% vs. 6%) and some other features. From the gonad-infecting species Philometra filiformis (Stossich, 1896), a parasite of Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus), P. spicarae differs mainly in having a conspicuously long (1.4 mm) intestinal ligament. It is the first nominal philometrid species described from the fish of the family Centracanthidae.

  17. A novel marine bacterium Isoptericola sp. JS-C42 with the ability to saccharifying the plant biomasses for the aid in cellulosic ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Santhi, Velayudhan Satheeja; Gupta, Ashutosh; Saranya, Somasundaram; Jebakumar, Solomon Robinson David

    2014-06-01

    The ever growing demands for food products such as starch and sugar produces; there is a need to find the sources for saccharification for cellulosic bioethanol production. This study provides the first evidence of the lignocellulolytic and saccharifying ability of a marine bacterium namely Isoptericola sp. JS-C42, a Gram positive actinobacterium with the cocci cells embedded on mycelia isolated from the Arabian Sea, India. It exhibited highest filter paper unit effect, endoglucanase, exoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, β-glucosidase, xylanase and ligninase effect. The hydrolytic potential of the enzymes displayed the efficient saccharification capability of steam pretreated biomass. It was also found to degrade the paddy, sorghum, Acacia mangium and Ficus religiosa into simple reducing sugars by its efficient lignocellulose enzyme complex with limited consumption of sugars. Production of ethanol was also achieved with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Overall, it offers a great potential for the cellulosic ethanol production in an economically reliable and eco-friendly point-of-care.

  18. Survival and retention of the probiotic properties of Bacillus sp. strains under marine stress starvation conditions and their potential use as a probiotic in Artemia culture.

    PubMed

    Mahdhi, Abdelkarim; Esteban, Maria Ángeles; Hmila, Zeineb; Bekir, Karima; Kamoun, Fathi; Bakhrouf, Amina; Krifi, Boubaker

    2012-12-01

    The probiotic properties of Bacillus strains isolated from Artemia culture and the effect of marine stress on viability and survival were investigated, as well as the changes occurring in their properties. Analyses showed that these bacteria corresponded to the genus Bacillus sp. Antagonism and adherence assays revealed that Bacillus strains have an inhibitory effect against tested pathogenic bacteria and are fairly adherent. Normal and starved cells showed different enzymatic profiles. Challenge tests performed with Artemia larvae provided evidence that the tested Bacillus strains were neither pathogenic nor toxic to the host and conferred protection for Artemia culture against pathogens. The tested strains maintained their viability and their probiotic properties during the period of study. The results suggest that the tested strains have suffered changes allowing them to survive in seawater in the absence of nutrients and outside their natural host, identifying them as potential probiotic candidates for Artemia culture.

  19. Antiviral Activity of Bacillus sp. Isolated from the Marine Sponge Petromica citrina against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, a Surrogate Model of the Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Juliana Cristina Santiago; Kohn, Luciana Konecny; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Padilla, Marina Aiello; Flores, Eduardo Furtado; da Silva, Bárbara Pereira; de Menezes, Cláudia Beatriz Afonso; Arns, Clarice Weis

    2013-01-01

    The Hepatitis C virus causes chronic infections in humans, which can develop to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The Bovine viral diarrhea virus is used as a surrogate model for antiviral assays for the HCV. From marine invertebrates and microorganisms isolated from them, extracts were prepared for assessment of their possible antiviral activity. Of the 128 tested, 2 were considered active and 1 was considered promising. The best result was obtained from the extracts produced from the Bacillus sp. isolated from the sponge Petromica citrina. The extracts 555 (500 µg/mL, SI>18) and 584 (150 µg/mL, SI 27) showed a percentage of protection of 98% against BVDV, and the extract 616, 90% of protection. All of them showed activity during the viral adsorption. Thus, various substances are active on these studied organisms and may lead to the development of drugs which ensure an alternative therapy for the treatment of hepatitis C. PMID:23628828

  20. Characterization of Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture and isolation of Fe (III)-reducing bacterium Enterobacter sp. L6 from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongyan; Wang, Hongyu

    2016-07-01

    To enrich the Fe (III)-reducing bacteria, sludge from marine sediment was inoculated into the medium using Fe (OH)3 as the sole electron acceptor. Efficiency of Fe (III) reduction and composition of Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture were analyzed. The results indicated that the Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture with the dominant bacteria relating to Clostridium and Enterobacter sp. had high Fe (III) reduction of (2.73 ± 0.13) mmol/L-Fe (II). A new Fe (III)-reducing bacterium was isolated from the Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture and identified as Enterobacter sp. L6 by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The Fe (III)-reducing ability of strain L6 under different culture conditions was investigated. The results indicated that strain L6 had high Fe (III)-reducing activity using glucose and pyruvate as carbon sources. Strain L6 could reduce Fe (III) at the range of NaCl concentrations tested and had the highest Fe (III) reduction of (4.63 ± 0.27) mmol/L Fe (II) at the NaCl concentration of 4 g/L. This strain L6 could reduce Fe (III) with unique properties in adaptability to salt variation, which indicated that it can be used as a model organism to study Fe (III)-reducing activity isolated from marine environment. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biodegradation of shrimp biowaste by marine Exiguobacterium sp. CFR26M and concomitant production of extracellular protease and antioxidant materials: production and process optimization by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Anil Kumar, P K; Suresh, P V

    2014-04-01

    Twelve marine bacterial cultures were screened for extracellular protease activity, and the bacterium CFR26M which exhibited the highest activity on caseinate agar plate was identified as an Exiguobacterium sp. Significant amount of extracellular protease (5.9 ± 0.3 U/ml) and antioxidant materials, measured as 2,2'-diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (44.4 ± 0.5 %), was produced by CFR26M in submerged fermentation using a shrimp biowaste medium. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the process variables for maximum production of protease and antioxidant materials by CFR26M. Among the seven variables screened by two-level 2**(7-2) fractional factorial design, the concentration of shrimp biowaste, sugar, and phosphate was found to be significant (p ≤ 0.05). The optimum levels of these variables were determined by employing the central composite design (CCD) of RSM. The coefficient of determination (R (2)) values of 0.9039 and 0.8924 for protease and antioxidant, respectively, indicates the accuracy of the CCD models. The optimum levels of shrimp biowaste, sugar, and phosphate were 21.2, 10.5, and 2.3 % (w/v) for production of protease and 28.8, 12, and 0.32 % (w/v) for production of antioxidant material, respectively. The concentration of shrimp biowaste, sugar, and phosphate had linear and quadratic effect on both protease and antioxidant productions. RSM optimization yielded 6.3-fold increases in protease activity and 1.6-fold in antioxidant material production. The crude protease of CFR26M had a maximum activity at 32 ± 2 °C with pH 7.6. This is the first report on the use of marine Exiguobacterium sp. for concomitant production of protease and antioxidant materials from shrimp biowaste.

  2. Efficient Preparation of Streptochlorin from Marine Streptomyces sp. SYYLWHS-1-4 by Combination of Response Surface Methodology and High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; He, Shan; Ding, Lijian; Yuan, Ye; Zhu, Peng; Epstein, Slava; Fan, Jianzhong; Wu, Xiaokai; Yan, Xiaojun

    2016-05-27

    Since first isolated from the lipophilic extract of Streptomyces sp. SF2583, streptochlorin, has attracted a lot of attention because of its various pharmacological properties, such as antibiotic, antiallergic, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. For the efficient preparation of streptochlorin from a producing strain Streptomyces sp. SYYLWHS-1-4, we developed a combinative method by using response surface methodology (RSM) and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). In the fermentation process, we used RSM to optimize the condition for the efficient accumulation of streptochlorin, and the optimal parameters were: yeast extract 1.889 g/L, soluble starch 8.636 g/L, K₂HPO₄ 0.359 g/L, CaCl₂ 2.5 g/L, MgSO₄ 0.625 g/L, marine salt 25 g/L, medium volume 50%, initial pH value 7.0, temperature 27.5 °C, which enhanced streptochlorin yield by 17.7-fold. During the purification process, the preparative HSCCC separation was performed using a petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (9:0.8:5:5, v/v/v/v) biphasic solvent system, where 300 mg of crude sample yielded 16.5 mg streptochlorin with over 95% purity as determined by UPLC. Consequently, the combination method provided a feasible strategy for highly effective preparation of streptochlorin, which ensured the supply of large amounts of streptochlorin for in vivo pharmacological assessments or other requirements.

  3. Description of a marine nematode Hopperia sinensis sp. nov. (Comesomatidae) from mangrove forests of Quanzhou, China, with a pictorial key to Hopperia species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yuqing; Chang, Yu; Chen, Yuzhen; Li, Yongxiang; Liu, Aiyuan

    2015-12-01

    A new free-living marine nematode species Hopperia sinensis sp. nov. from mangrove forests of Fujian Province, China, is identified and illustrated. Hopperia sinensis sp. nov. is characterized by its cephalic setae 2.4-2.8 µm long or 17%-20% head diameter, and amphids of 2.25-2.5 turns. Lateral differentiation appears with larger, more irregularly distributed dots behind 3-5 transverse rows of dots posterior to amphid. Buccal cavity is consisted of a shallow and weakly sclerotized cup-shaped portion with strongly sclerotized walls of 18-21 µm deep. There are three sclerotized and size-equally pointed teeth at the junction between the two parts. Spicules of 41-45 µm long are slightly curved with broadband velum and central strips at the proximal end. The gubernacula, with apparent lateral guiding pieces, are formed by one central tubular piece that is weakly sclerotized with 11-16 µm long dorso-caudally directed apophyses. There are 13-14 fine tubular precloacal supplements. Conico-cylindrical tail gradually tapers till pointed tail tip. Female is similar to male, but have a longer body and tail. Ovaries are opposed and outstretched, with anterior ovary to the left and posterior ovary to the right of the intestine. A pictorial key to all the valid known species in genus Hopperia is given.

  4. Philometra johnii sp. nov. (Nematoda, Philometridae), a new gonad-infecting philometrid from the sin croaker Johnius dussumieri (Cuvier) (Perciformes, Sciaenidae) from marine waters of Iraq.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Ali, Atheer Hussain

    2013-09-01

    A new nematode species, Philometra johnii sp. nov. (Philometridae), is described from male and female specimens found in the ovary of the sin croaker, Johnius dussumieri (Cuvier) (Perciformes, Sciaenidae), in the Arabian Gulf, off the southern coast of Iraq. Based on light and scanning electron microscopical examination, the new species differs from all other gonad-infecting Philometra spp. with dorsal lamella-like structures on the distal tip of the gubernaculum in having a dorsal bipartite protuberance formed by two subdorsal lamellated parts separated from each other by a smooth longitudinal field. This gubernaculum structure is unique among all philometrids. Other distinguishing features include the structure of the male tail, number (6 pairs) and arrangement of genital papillae and the length of spicules (102-153 μm). From eight congeneric, gonad-infecting species with unknown males, the new species can be distinguished by some morphological and biometrical features found in gravid females (absence of caudal projections, length of oesophagus, moderately developed anterior oesophageal inflation, length of first-stage larvae) by the host type (fish family) and geographical distribution. Philometra johnii sp. nov. is the fourth known philometrid species recorded from marine waters of Iraq.

  5. The CckA-ChpT-CtrA Phosphorelay System Is Regulated by Quorum Sensing and Controls Flagellar Motility in the Marine Sponge Symbiont Ruegeria sp. KLH11

    PubMed Central

    Zan, Jindong; Heindl, Jason E.; Liu, Yue; Fuqua, Clay; Hill, Russell T.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria respond to their environment via signal transduction pathways, often two-component type systems that function through phosphotransfer to control expression of specific genes. Phosphorelays are derived from two-component systems but are comprised of additional components. The essential cckA-chpT-ctrA phosphorelay in Caulobacter crescentus has been well studied and is important in orchestrating the cell cycle, polar development and flagellar biogenesis. Although cckA, chpT and ctrA homologues are widespread among the Alphaproteobacteria, relatively few is known about their function in the large and ecologically significant Roseobacter clade of the Rhodobacterales. In this study the cckA-chpT-ctrA system of the marine sponge symbiont Ruegeria sp. KLH11 was investigated. Our results reveal that the cckA, chpT and ctrA genes positively control flagellar biosynthesis. In contrast to C. crescentus, the cckA, chpT and ctrA genes in Ruegeria sp. KLH11 are non-essential and do not affect bacterial growth. Gene fusion and transcript analyses provide evidence for ctrA autoregulation and the control of motility-related genes. In KLH11, flagellar motility is controlled by the SsaRI system and acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) quorum sensing. SsaR and long chain AHLs are required for cckA, chpT and ctrA gene expression, providing a regulatory link between flagellar locomotion and population density in KLH11. PMID:23825536

  6. Ribosomes exist in large excess over the apparent demand for protein synthesis during carbon starvation in marine Vibrio sp. strain CCUG 15956.

    PubMed Central

    Flärdh, K; Cohen, P S; Kjelleberg, S

    1992-01-01

    Carbon starvation induces the development of a starvation- and stress-resistant cell state in marine Vibrio sp. strain S14 (CCUG 15956). The starved cells remain highly responsive to nutrients during prolonged starvation and exhibit instantaneous severalfold increases in the rates of protein synthesis and RNA synthesis when substrate is added. In order to elucidate the physiological basis for the survival of cells that are starved for a long time, as well as the capacity of these cells for rapid and efficient recovery, we analyzed the ribosome content of carbon-starved Vibrio sp. strain S14 cells. By using direct chemical measurements of the amounts of ribosomal particles in carbon-starved cultures, we demonstrated that ribosomes were lost relatively slowly (half life, 79 h) and that they existed in large excess over the apparent demand for protein synthesis. After 24 h of starvation the total rate of protein synthesis was 2.3% of the rate during growth, and after 3 days this rate was 0.7% of the rate during growth; the relative amounts of ribosomal particles at these times were 81 and 52%, respectively. The ribosome population consisted of 90% 70S monoribosomes, and no polyribosomes were detected in the starved cells. The 70S monoribosomes were responsible for the bulk of the protein synthesis during carbon starvation; some activity was also detected in the polyribosome size region on sucrose density gradients. We suggest that nongrowing carbon-starved Vibrio sp. strain S14 cells possess an excess protein synthesis capacity, which may be essential for their ability to immediately initiate an upshift program when substrate is added. PMID:1383195

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Marine Brevibacillus sp. S-1 Collected from South China Sea and a Novel Antitumor Peptide Produced by the Strain

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Lanhong; Yi, Yao; Liu, Jia; Lin, Xiukun; Yang, Kangli; Lv, Mei; Zhou, Xinwen; Hao, Jianhua; Liu, Junzhong; Zheng, Yuan; Sun, Mi

    2014-01-01

    A Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, designated as S-1, was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from South China Sea. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that S-1 belongs to the genus Brevibacillus. A novel cytotoxic peptide was isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine-derived bacterium Brevibacillus sp. S-1, using ion-exchange chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC chromatography. The molecular weight of this peptide was determined as 1570 Da by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and its structure was proposed as a cyclic peptide elucidated by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry and de novo sequencing. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that this peptide exhibited cytotoxicity against BEL-7402 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, RKO human colon carcinoma cells, A549 human lung carcinoma cells, U251 human glioma cells and MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells. Additionally, SBP exhibited low cytotoxicity against HFL1 human normal fibroblast lung cells. The result suggested that the cytotoxic effect of the peptide is specific to tumor cells. PMID:25372839

  8. A solo luxI-type gene directs acylhomoserine lactone synthesis and contributes to motility control in the marine sponge symbiont Ruegeria sp. KLH11

    PubMed Central

    Zan, Jindong; Choi, Okhee; Meharena, Hiruy; Uhlson, Charis L.; Churchill, Mair E. A.; Hill, Russell T.

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges harbour abundant and diverse bacterial communities, providing an ideal environment for bacterial cell-density-dependent cell–cell signalling, termed quorum sensing. The marine sponge symbiont Ruegeria sp. KLH11 produces mainly long chain acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) and has been developed as a quorum sensing model for roseobacterial sponge symbionts. Two pairs of luxR/I homologues were identified by genetic screening and were designated ssaRI and ssbRI (sponge-associated symbiont locus A or B, luxR/luxI homologue). In this study, we identified a third luxI-type gene, named sscI. The sscI gene does not have a cognate luxR homologue present at an adjacent locus and thus sscI is an AHL synthase solo. The sscI gene is required for production of long-chain hydroxylated AHLs, contributes to AHL pools and modestly influences flagellar motility in KLH11. A triple mutant for all luxI-type genes cannot produce AHLs, but still synthesizes para-coumaroyl-homoserine lactone. PMID:25355937

  9. A solo luxI-type gene directs acylhomoserine lactone synthesis and contributes to motility control in the marine sponge symbiont Ruegeria sp. KLH11.

    PubMed

    Zan, Jindong; Choi, Okhee; Meharena, Hiruy; Uhlson, Charis L; Churchill, Mair E A; Hill, Russell T; Fuqua, Clay

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges harbour abundant and diverse bacterial communities, providing an ideal environment for bacterial cell-density-dependent cell-cell signalling, termed quorum sensing. The marine sponge symbiont Ruegeria sp. KLH11 produces mainly long chain acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) and has been developed as a quorum sensing model for roseobacterial sponge symbionts. Two pairs of luxR/I homologues were identified by genetic screening and were designated ssaRI and ssbRI (sponge-associated symbiont locus A or B, luxR/luxI homologue). In this study, we identified a third luxI-type gene, named sscI. The sscI gene does not have a cognate luxR homologue present at an adjacent locus and thus sscI is an AHL synthase solo. The sscI gene is required for production of long-chain hydroxylated AHLs, contributes to AHL pools and modestly influences flagellar motility in KLH11. A triple mutant for all luxI-type genes cannot produce AHLs, but still synthesizes para-coumaroyl-homoserine lactone. © 2015 The Authors.

  10. Effect of the antifreeze protein from the arctic yeast Leucosporidium sp. AY30 on cryopreservation of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Koh, Hye Yeon; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Han, Se Jong; Park, Hyun; Lee, Sung Gu

    2015-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins are a group of proteins that allow organisms to survive in subzero environments. These proteins possess thermal hysteresis and ice recrystallization inhibition activities. In the present study, we demonstrated the efficiency of a recombinant antifreeze protein from the Arctic yeast Leucosporidium sp. AY30, LeIBP, in cryopreservation of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, which is one of the classical model diatoms and has most widely been studied with regard to its ecology, physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology. P. tricornutum cells were frozen by either a fast or two-step freezing method in freezing medium containing 10 % dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, propylene glycol, and ethylene glycol, respectively, with or without LeIBP supplement. When cells were frozen using the two-step freezing method, cell survival was significantly increased and statistically the same as that of unfrozen native cells in the presence of 0.1 mg/ml LeIBP in 10 % propylene glycol or 10 % ethylene glycol at day 11 of post-thaw culture. In the presence of LeIBP, the concentration of chlorophyll a was dramatically increased to 14-, 48-, 1.6-, and 8.8-fold when cells were frozen in freezing medium containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), glycerol, propylene glycol (PG), and ethylene glycol (EG), respectively. Scanning electron microscopy observations demonstrated that the cells were also successfully preserved and epitheca or hypotheca were not deformed. These results demonstrate that LeIBP was successfully applied to improve cryopreservation of the marine diatom P. tricornutum.

  11. Rapidithrix thailandica gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine gliding bacterium isolated from samples collected from the Andaman sea, along the southern coastline of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Srisukchayakul, Pornpoj; Suwanachart, Chatrudee; Sangnoi, Yutthapong; Kanjana-Opas, Akkharawit; Hosoya, Shoichi; Yokota, Akira; Arunpairojana, Vullapa

    2007-10-01

    The taxonomic positions of three strains of marine gliding bacteria, TISTR 1736, TISTR 1741 and TISTR 1750(T), isolated from the southern coastline of Thailand were evaluated by using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the three isolates formed a distinct lineage within the family 'Flammeovirgaceae', phylum Bacteroidetes, and were related to the genus Flexithrix. The DNA G+C contents of the isolates were in the range 40-43 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was MK-7. The major cellular fatty acids were 16 : 1omega5c (cis-5-hexadecenoic acid) and 15 : 0 (pentadecanoic acid). The major hydroxyl fatty acids were 3-OH 17 : 0 (3-hydroxyheptadecanoic acid), 3-OH 15 : 0 (3-hydroxypentadecanoic acid) and 3-OH 16 : 0 (3-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid). On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, genotypic and phylogenetic data, these marine bacteria are considered to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Rapidithrix thailandica gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Rapidithrix thailandica is TISTR 1750(T) (=IAM 15448(T)).

  12. Genome sequence of Bacillus sp. strain HYC-10, isolated from intestinal tract contents from a marine fish (Mugil cephalus).

    PubMed

    Lai, Qiliang; Liu, Yang; Shao, Zongze

    2012-12-01

    Bacillus sp. strain HYC-10 was isolated with intestinal tract content of a fish, Mugil cephalus, captured from the sea close to Xiamen Island, China. Here, we present the draft genome of strain HYC-10, which contains 3,611,918 bp with a G+C content of 41.30% and contains 3,687 protein-coding genes and 33 tRNA genes.

  13. Yamadazyma barbieri f.a. sp. nov., an ascomycetous anamorphic yeast isolated from a Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal site (-2300 m) and marine coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Burgaud, Gaëtan; Coton, Monika; Jacques, Noémie; Debaets, Stella; Maciel, Natália O P; Rosa, Carlos A; Gadanho, Mário; Sampaio, José Paulo; Casaregola, Serge

    2016-09-01

    Two yeast strains that are members of the same species were isolated from different marine habitats, i.e. one from Mid-Atlantic Ridge ocean water samples located in the direct vicinity of black smokers near the Rainbow deep-sea hydrothermal vent and one from Brazilian marine water samples off the Ipanema beach. Strains CLIB 1964T and CLIB 1965 are anamorphic ascomycetous yeasts affiliated to the Yamadazyma clade of Saccharomycetales. Interestingly, these strains were phylogenetically and distinctly positioned into a group of species comprising all species of the genus Yamadazyma isolated from marine habitats including deep-sea hydrothermal vents, i.e.Candida atmosphaerica,C. spencermartinsiae,C. atlantica,C. oceani and C. taylorii. These strains differed significantly in their D1/D2 domain sequences of the LSU rRNA gene from the closely related species mentioned above, by 2.6, 3.0, 3.4, 3.8 and 6.0 %, respectively. Internal transcribed spacer region sequence divergence was also significant and corresponded to 4.6, 4.7, 4.7, 12.0 and 24.7 % with C. atlantica,C. atmosphaerica, C. spencermartinsiae,C. oceani and C. taylorii, respectively. Phenotypically, strains CLIB 1964T and CLIB 1965 could be distinguished from closely related species by their inability to assimilate l-sorbose. CLIB 1964T (=CBS 14301T=UBOCC-A-214001T) is the designated type strain for Yamadazyma barbieri sp. nov. The MycoBank number is MB 815884.

  14. Larvicidal activity of isolated compound 5-(2,4-dimethylbenzyl) pyrrolidin-2-one from marine Streptomyces VITSVK5 sp. against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus.

    PubMed

    Saurav, Kumar; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Kannabiran, Krishnan; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Velayutham, Kanayairam; Elango, Gandhi; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Zahir, Abdul Abduz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the larvicidal property of marine actinobacterial compound 5-(2,4-dimethylbenzyl) pyrrolidin-2-one (DMBPO) extracted and isolated from Streptomyces VITSVK5 sp. tested against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini (Acari: Ixodidae), Anopheles stephensi Liston, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). The isolate bacteria was taxonomically characterized, identified, and designated as Streptomyces VITSVK5 sp. The crude extract was loaded on silica gel column and eluted with chloroform:methanol. The isolated pure compound was analyzed by thin layer chromatography using chloroform and methanol as the solvent system and confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The structure of the purified compound was established from infrared, ultraviolet, (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C-NMR, and mass spectral data. The chemical shift assignments obtained for the aliphatic compound from (1)H-NMR corresponding to the molecular formula C(13)H(17)NO. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of compound which was identified as DMBPO. In the present study, Streptomyces VITSVK5 sp. crude extract and different fractions were tested against the larvae of parasites at the concentration of 1,000 ppm. Those fractions showing 100% mortality in 24 h alone was selected for further column chromatographic separation. The purified compound, C(13)H(17)NO, was tested in the concentrations of 500, 250, 125, 62.5, and 31.25 ppm and observed the percent larval mortality of 100, 70, 64, 40, and 28 against R. microplus; 100, 79, 63, 36, and 22 against A. stephensi; and 100, 84, 67, 42, and 27 against C. tritaeniorhynchus, respectively. The crude extract showed parasitic effects after 24 h of exposure at 1,000 ppm, and parasite mortality was observed against the larvae of R. microplus (LC(50) = 210.39 ppm, r (2) = 0.873); A. stephensi (LC(50) = 169.38 ppm, r (2) = 0

  15. Description of Shewanella glacialipiscicola sp. nov. and Shewanella algidipiscicola sp. nov., isolated from marine fish of the Danish Baltic Sea, and proposal that Shewanella affinis is a later heterotypic synonym of Shewanella colwelliana.

    PubMed

    Satomi, Masataka; Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Gram, Lone

    2007-02-01

    Two novel species belonging to the genus Shewanella are described on the basis of a polyphasic taxonomic approach. A total of 40 strains of Gram-negative, psychrotolerant, H2S-producing bacteria were isolated from marine fish (cod and plaice) caught in the Baltic Sea off Denmark. Strains belonging to group 1 (seven strains) were a lactate-assimilating variant of Shewanella morhuae with a G+C content of 44 mol%. The strains of group 2 (33 strains) utilized lactate, N-acetylglucosamine and malate but did not produce DNase or ornithine decarboxylase. Their G+C content was 47 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence data placed the two novel species within the genus Shewanella. Group 1 showed greatest sequence similarity with S. morhuae ATCC BAA-1205T (99.9 %). However, gyrB gene sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization differentiated these isolates from S. morhuae, with 95.6 % sequence similarity and less than 57 % DNA relatedness, respectively. Group 2 strains shared more than 99 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the type strains of Shewanella colwelliana and Shewanella affinis, but gyrB sequence similarity ( approximately 85 %) and the results of DNA hybridization ( approximately 28 %) indicated that the new isolates represented a novel species. Furthermore, when compared to each other, the type strains of S. colwelliana and S. affinis had almost identical gyrB sequences and significantly high DNA reassociation values (76-83 %), indicating that they belonged to the same species. Based on the conclusions of this study, we propose the novel species Shewanella glacialipiscicola sp. nov. (type strain T147T=LMG 23744T=NBRC 102030T) for group 1 strains and Shewanella algidipiscicola sp. nov. (type strain S13T=LMG 23746T=NBRC 102032T) for group 2 strains, and we propose that Shewanella affinis as a later heterotypic synonym of Shewanella colwelliana.

  16. Mooreia alkaloidigena gen. nov., sp. nov. and Catalinimonas alkaloidigena gen. nov., sp. nov., alkaloid-producing marine bacteria in the proposed families Mooreiaceae fam. nov. and Catalimonadaceae fam. nov. in the phylum Bacteroidetes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun Ju; Beatty, Deanna S.; Paul, Lauren A.; Fenical, William

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial strains CNX-216T and CNU-914T were isolated from marine sediment samples collected from Palmyra Atoll and off Catalina Island, respectively. Both strains were Gram-negative and aerobic and produce deep-orange to pink colonies and alkaloid secondary metabolites. Cells of strain CNX-216T were short, non-motile rods, whereas cells of strain CNU-914T were short, curved rods with gliding motility. The DNA G+C contents of CNX-216T and CNU-914T were respectively 57.7 and 44.4 mol%. Strains CNX-216T and CNU-914T contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 1ω5c as the major fatty acids. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that both strains belong to the order Cytophagales in the phylum Bacteroidetes. Strain CNX-216T exhibited low 16S rRNA gene sequence identity (87.1 %) to the nearest type strain, Cesiribacter roseus 311T, and formed a well-supported lineage that is outside all currently described families in the order Cytophagales. Strain CNU-914T shared 97.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with ‘Porifericola rhodea’ N5EA6-3A2B and, together with ‘Tunicatimonas pelagia’ N5DB8-4 and four uncharacterized marine bacteria isolated as part of this study, formed a lineage that is clearly distinguished from other families in the order Cytophagales. Based on our polyphasic taxonomic characterization, we propose that strains CNX-216T and CNU-914T represent novel genera and species, for which we propose the names Mooreia alkaloidigena gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain CNX-216T  = DSM 25187T  = KCCM 90102T) and Catalinimonas alkaloidigena gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain CNU-914T  = DSM 25186T  = KCCM 90101T) within the new families Mooreiaceae fam. nov. and Catalimonadaceae fam. nov. PMID:22753528

  17. Chromopeptide A, a highly cytotoxic depsipeptide from the marine sediment-derived bacterium Chromobacterium sp. HS-13-94

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhenfang; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Jingya; Zheng, Linghui; Liu, Hongchun; Wang, Jidong; Shen, Aijun; Geng, Meiyu; Guo, Yuewei

    2015-01-01

    A bicyclic depsipeptide, chromopeptide A (1), was isolated from a deep-sea-derived bacterium Chromobacterium sp. HS-13-94. Its structure was determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis and by comparison with a related known compound. The absolute configuration of chromopeptide A was established by X-ray diffraction analysis employing graphite monochromated Mo Kα radiation (λ=0.71073 Å) with small Flack parameter 0.03. Chromopeptide A suppressed the proliferation of HL-60, K-562, and Ramos cells with average IC50 values of 7.7, 7.0, and 16.5 nmol/L, respectively. PMID:26579426

  18. Draft genome sequence of the marine Streptomyces sp. strain PP-C42, isolated from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Fan, Longjiang; Liu, Yun; Li, Zefeng; Baumann, Heike I; Kleinschmidt, Katrin; Ye, Wanzhi; Imhoff, Johannes F; Kleine, Michael; Cai, Daguang

    2011-07-01

    Streptomyces, a branch of aerobic Gram-positive bacteria, represents the largest genus of actinobacteria. The streptomycetes are characterized by a complex secondary metabolism and produce over two-thirds of the clinically used natural antibiotics today. Here we report the draft genome sequence of a Streptomyces strain, PP-C42, isolated from the marine environment. A subset of unique genes and gene clusters for diverse secondary metabolites as well as antimicrobial peptides could be identified from the genome, showing great promise as a source for novel bioactive compounds.

  19. Cytotoxic compounds from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. recovered from the sediments of the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Natália N; Rodrigues, Bárbara S F; Jimenez, Paula C; Guimarães, Larissa A; Torres, Maria C M; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Pfenning, Ludwig H; Abreu, Lucas M; Mafezoli, Jair; de Mattos, Marcos C; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V; de Oliveira, Maria da Conceição F

    2015-01-01

    A fungal strain of Aspergillus sp. (BRF 030) was isolated from the sediments collected in the northeast coast of Brazil, and the cytotoxic activity of its secondary metabolites was investigated against HCT-116 tumour cell line. The cytotoxicity-guided fractionation of the extracts from this fungus cultured in potato-dextrose-sea water for 14 days at room temperature yielded the hetero-spirocyclic γ-lactams pseurotin A (1), pseurotin D (2) and pseurotin FD-838 (7), the alkaloids fumitremorgin C (5), 12,13-dihydroxy fumitremorgin C (6), methylsulochrin (4) and bis(dethio)bis(methylthio)gliotoxin (3). Among them, fumitremorgin C (5) and 12,13-dihydroxy fumitremorgin C (6) were the most active. The cytotoxic activities of the extracts from Aspergillus sp. grown from 7 to 28 days were investigated, and they were associated with the kinetic production of the compounds. The most active extracts (14 and 21 days) were those with the highest relative concentrations of the compounds fumitremorgin C (5) and 12,13-dihydroxy fumitremorgin C (6).

  20. Reclassification of the larval pathogen for marine bivalves Vibrio tubiashii subsp. europaeus as Vibrio europaeus sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Dubert, Javier; Romalde, Jesús L; Spinard, Edward J; Nelson, David R; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta; Barja, Juan L

    2016-11-01

    The Orientalis clade has a relevant significance for bivalve aquaculture since it includes the pathogens Vibrio bivalvicida, Vibrio tubiashii subsp. tubiashii and Vibrio tubiashii subsp. europaeus. However, the previous taxonomic description of the subspecies of V. tubiashii shows some incongruities that should be emended. In the genomic age, the comparison between genome assemblies is the key to clarify the taxonomic position of both subspecies. With this purpose, we have tested the ability of multilocus sequence analysis based on eight housekeeping gene sequences (gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA and topA), different in silico genome-to-genome comparisons, chemotaxonomic features and phenotypic traits to reclassify the subspecies V. tubiashii subsp. europaeus within the Orientalis clade. This polyphasic approach clearly demonstrated that this subspecies is phylogenetically and phenotypically distinct from V. tubiashii and should be elevated to the rank of species as Vibrio europaeus sp. nov. This reclassification allows us to update the Orientalis clade (V. bivalvicida,V. brasiliensis, V. crosai, V. hepatarius, V. orientalis, V. sinaloensis, V. tubiashii and V. europaeus sp. nov.) and reconstruct a better phylogeny of the genus Vibrio. An emended description of V. tubiashii is provided. Finally, the proposed novel species is represented by emergent bivalve pathogens [type strain PP-638T (=CECT 8136T=DSM 27349T), PP2-843 and 07/118 T2] responsible for high mortalities in Spanish and French hatcheries.

  1. Improved composting of Undaria pinnatifida seaweed by inoculation with Halomonas and Gracilibacillus sp. isolated from marine environments.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jingchun; Wang, Min; Zhou, Qixing; Nagata, Shinichi

    2011-02-01

    Composting of the Undaria pinnatifida (wakame) seaweed was conducted after inoculation with 6×10(8) CFU g(-1)Halomonas sp. AW4 and the alginate-degrading bacterium Gracilibacillus sp. A7. Inoculation with strains A7 and AW4 resulted in 27.8% and 24.7% degradation of U. pinnatifida dry mass after 168 h, whereas only 17.5% degradation occurred in the uninoculated control. The C/N ratio decreased in the A7 and AW4 inoculated compost by 7.0% and 9.2% after 72 h, but increased by 11.5% in the control. Inoculation with A7 resulted in 2.8 times faster degradation of alginate and 1.2 and 1.6 times higher levels of reducing sugars and unsaturated sugars than inoculation with AW4. The compost produced from the inoculation with A7 had low plant toxicity as measured by germination experiment. The results suggest that inoculation of wakame with alginate-degrading bacteria not only shortened the length of composting but also created seaweed compost with good fertilizer qualities.

  2. Enhancement of Biodiesel Production from Marine Alga, Scenedesmus sp. through In Situ Transesterification Process Associated with Acidic Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ga Vin; Choi, WoonYong; Kang, DoHyung; Lee, ShinYoung; Lee, HyeonYong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the yield of biodiesel produced by Scenedesmus sp. through in situ transesterification by optimizing various process parameters. Based on the orthogonal matrix analysis for the acidic catalyst, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of reaction temperature (47.5%) > solvent quantity (26.7%) > reaction time (17.5%) > catalyst amount (8.3%). Based on a Taguchi analysis, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of solvent ratio (34.36%) > catalyst (28.62%) > time (19.72%) > temperature (17.32%). The overall biodiesel production appeared to be better using NaOH as an alkaline catalyst rather than using H2SO4 in an acidic process, at 55.07 ± 2.18% (based on lipid weight) versus 48.41 ± 0.21%. However, in considering the purified biodiesel, it was found that the acidic catalyst was approximately 2.5 times more efficient than the alkaline catalyst under the following optimal conditions: temperature of 70°C (level 2), reaction time of 10 hrs (level 2), catalyst amount of 5% (level 3), and biomass to solvent ratio of 1 : 15 (level 2), respectively. These results clearly demonstrated that the acidic solvent, which combined oil extraction with in situ transesterification, was an effective catalyst for the production of high-quantity, high-quality biodiesel from a Scenedesmus sp. PMID:24689039

  3. ­Genomic data mining of the marine actinobacteria Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 unveils insights into multi-stress related genes and metabolic pathways involved in antimicrobial synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Undabarrena, Agustina; Ugalde, Juan A.; Seeger, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 is an actinobacterial strain isolated from marine sediments of a Chilean Patagonian fjord. Morphological characterization together with antibacterial activity was assessed in various culture media, revealing a carbon-source dependent activity mainly against Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and L. monocytogenes). Genome mining of this antibacterial-producing bacterium revealed the presence of 26 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) for secondary metabolites, where among them, 81% have low similarities with known BGCs. In addition, a genomic search in Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 unveiled the presence of a wide variety of genetic determinants related to heavy metal resistance (49 genes), oxidative stress (69 genes) and antibiotic resistance (97 genes). This study revealed that the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 bacterium has the capability to tolerate a diverse set of heavy metals such as copper, cobalt, mercury, chromate and nickel; as well as the highly toxic tellurite, a feature first time described for Streptomyces. In addition, Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 possesses a major resistance towards oxidative stress, in comparison to the soil reference strain Streptomyces violaceoruber A3(2). Moreover, Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 showed resistance to 88% of the antibiotics tested, indicating overall, a strong response to several abiotic stressors. The combination of these biological traits confirms the metabolic versatility of Streptomyces sp. H-KF8, a genetically well-prepared microorganism with the ability to confront the dynamics of the fjord-unique marine environment. PMID:28229018

  4. Thalassobacter stenotrophicus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel marine alpha-proteobacterium isolated from Mediterranean sea water.

    PubMed

    Macián, M C; Arahal, D R; Garay, E; Ludwig, W; Schleifer, K H; Pujalte, M J

    2005-01-01

    A Gram-negative, slightly halophilic, strictly aerobic, chemo-organotrophic bacterium was isolated from Mediterranean sea water near Valencia (Spain). 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that the isolate represented a separate branch within the alpha-3 subclass of the Proteobacteria, now included within the order 'Rhodobacterales'. Jannaschia helgolandensis was the closest relative, but their low sequence similarity and other features indicated that they were not related at the genus level. Isolate 5SM22T produced bacteriochlorophyll a and grew on solid media as regular salmon-pink colonies. Cells are motile rods, with polar flagella. The DNA G+C content is 59.1 mol%. Morphological, physiological and genotypic differences from related, thus far known genera support the description of Thalassobacter stenotrophicus gen. nov., sp. nov. with strain 5SM22T (=CECT 5294T=DSM 16310T) as the type strain.

  5. Wenyingzhuangia gracilariae sp. nov., a novel marine bacterium of the phylum Bacteroidetes isolated from the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Oku, Naoya; Kasai, Hiroaki

    2015-06-01

    A Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, beige-pigmented, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain designated N5DB13-4(T) was isolated from the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Rhodophyta) collected at Sodegaura Beach, Chiba, Japan. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the novel isolate is affiliated with the family Flavobacteriaceae within the phylum Bacteroidetes and that it showed highest sequence similarity (97.3 %) to Wenyingzhuangia heitensis H-MN17(T). The hybridization values for DNA-DNA relatedness between the strains N5DB13-4(T) and W. heitensis H-MN17(T) were 34.1 ± 3.5 %, which is below the threshold accepted for the phylogenetic definition of a novel prokaryotic species. The DNA G+C content of strain N5DB13-4(T) was determined to be 31.8 mol%; MK-6 was identified as the major menaquinone; and the presence of iso-C15:0, iso-C15:0 3-OH and iso-C17:0 3-OH as the major (>10 %) cellular fatty acids. A complex polar lipid profile was present consisting of phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified glycolipids and four unidentified lipids. From the distinct phylogenetic position and combination of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the strain is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Wenyingzhuangia for which the name Wenyingzhuangia gracilariae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of W. gracilariae sp. nov. is N5DB13-4(T) (=KCTC 42246 (T)=NBRC 110602(T)).

  6. A Metalloprotease (MprIII) Involved in the Chitinolytic System of a Marine Bacterium, Alteromonas sp. Strain O-7

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Katsushiro; Nukui, Eiji; Hirose, Mariko; Nagai, Fumi; Sato, Takaji; Inamori, Yoshihiko; Tsujibo, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    Alteromonas sp. strain O-7 secretes several proteins in addition to chitinolytic enzymes in response to chitin induction. In this paper, we report that one of these proteins, designated MprIII, is a metalloprotease involved in the chitin degradation system of the strain. The gene encoding MprIII was cloned in Escherichia coli. The open reading frame of mprIII encoded a protein of 1,225 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 137,016 Da. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of MprIII revealed that the enzyme consisted of four domains: the signal sequence, the N-terminal proregion, the protease region, and the C-terminal extension. The C-terminal extension (PkdDf) was characterized by four polycystic kidney disease domains and two domains of unknown function. Western and real-time quantitative PCR analyses demonstrated that mprIII was induced in the presence of insoluble polysaccharides, such as chitin and cellulose. Native MprIII was purified to homogeneity from the culture supernatant of Alteromonas sp. strain O-7 and characterized. The molecular mass of mature MprIII was estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to be 115 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature of MprIII were 7.5 and 50°C, respectively, when gelatin was used as a substrate. Pretreatment of native chitin with MprIII significantly promoted chitinase activity. Furthermore, the combination of MprIII and a novel chitin-binding protease (AprIV) remarkably promoted the chitin hydrolysis efficiency of chitinase. PMID:12406750

  7. Discovery and Characterization of a Distinctive Exo-1,3/1,4-β-Glucanase from the Marine Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain BB1▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Nakatani, Yoshio; Lamont, Iain L.; Cutfield, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Marine bacteria residing on local red, green, and brown seaweeds were screened for exo-1,3-β-glucanase (ExoP) activity. Of the 90 bacterial species isolated from 32 seaweeds, only one, a Pseudoalteromonas sp., was found to display such activity. It was isolated from a Durvillaea sp., a brown kelp known to contain significant amounts of the storage polysaccharide laminarin (1,3-β-d-glucan with some 1,6-β branching). Four chromatographic steps were utilized to purify the enzyme (ExoP). Chymotryptic digestion provided peptide sequences for primer design and subsequent gene cloning. The exoP gene coded for 840 amino acids and was located just 50 bp downstream from a putative lichenase (endo-1,3-1,4-β-glucanase) gene, suggesting possible cotranscription of these genes. Sequence comparisons revealed ExoP to be clustered within a group of bacterial glycosidases with high similarity to a group of glycoside hydrolase (GH3) plant enzymes, of which the barley exo-1,3/1,4-β-glucanase (ExoI) is the best characterized. The major difference between the bacterial and plant proteins is an extra 200- to 220-amino-acid extension at the C terminus of the former. This additional sequence does not correlate with any known functional domain, but ExoP was not active against laminarin when this region was removed. Production of recombinant ExoP allowed substrate specificity studies to be performed. The enzyme was found to possess similar levels of exoglucanase activity against both 1,4-β linkages and 1,3-β linkages, and so ExoP is designated an exo-1,3/1,4-β-exoglucanase, the first such bacterial enzyme to be characterized. This broader specificity could allow the enzyme to assist in digesting both cell wall cellulose and cytoplasmic laminarin. PMID:20729316

  8. Molecular and biochemical characteristics of β-propeller phytase from marine Pseudomonas sp. BS10-3 and its potential application for animal feed additives.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seung-Jeung; Kim, Young-Ok; Ko, Tae-Kyung; Kang, Jin-Ku; Chun, Kwang-Hoon; Auh, Joong-Hyuck; Lee, Chul-Soon; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Sunghoon; Oh, Byung-Chul

    2014-10-01

    Phytate is an antinutritional factor that impacts the bioavailability of essential minerals such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), and Fe(2+) by forming insoluble mineral-phytate salts. These insoluble mineral-phytate salts are hydrolyzed rarely by monogastric animals, because they lack the hydrolyzing phytases and thus excrete the majority of them. The β-propeller phytases (BPPs) hydrolyze these insoluble mineral-phytate salts efficiently. In this study, we cloned a novel BPP gene from a marine Pseudomonas sp. This Pseudomonas BPP gene (PsBPP) had low sequence identity with other known phytases and contained an extra internal repeat domain (residues 24-279) and a typical BPP domain (residues 280-634) at the C-terminus. Structurebased sequence alignment suggested that the N-terminal repeat domain did not possess the active-site residues, whereas the C-terminal BPP domain contained multiple calcium-binding sites, which provide a favorable electrostatic environment for substrate binding and catalytic activity. Thus, we overexpressed the BPP domain from Pseudomonas sp. to potentially hydrolyze insoluble mineral-phytate salts. Purified recombinant PsBPP required Ca(2+) or Fe(2+) for phytase activity, indicating that PsBPP hydrolyzes insoluble Fe(2+)-phytate or Ca2+-phytate salts. The optimal temperature and pH for the hydrolysis of Ca(2+)-phytate by PsBPP were 50°C and 6.0, respectively. Biochemical and kinetic studies clearly showed that PsBPP efficiently hydrolyzed Ca(2+)-phytate salts and yielded myo-inositol 2,4,6-trisphosphate and three phosphate groups as final products. Finally, we showed that PsBPP was highly effective for hydrolyzing rice bran with high phytate content. Taken together, our results suggest that PsBPP has great potential in the animal feed industry for reducing phytates.

  9. Marinilactibacillus piezotolerans sp. nov., a novel marine lactic acid bacterium isolated from deep sub-seafloor sediment of the Nankai Trough.

    PubMed

    Toffin, Laurent; Zink, Klaus; Kato, Chiaki; Pignet, Patricia; Bidault, Adeline; Bienvenu, Nadège; Birrien, Jean-Louis; Prieur, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    A piezotolerant, mesophilic, marine lactic acid bacterium (strain LT20T) was isolated from a deep sub-seafloor sediment core collected at Nankai Trough, off the coast of Japan. Cells were Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-sporulating and non-motile. The NaCl concentration range for growth was 0-120 g l(-1), with the optimum at 10-20 g l(-1). The temperature range for growth at pH 7.0 was 4-50 degrees C, with the optimum at 37-40 degrees C. The optimum pH for growth was 7.0-8.0. The optimum pressure for growth was 0.1 MPa with tolerance up to 30 MPa. The main cellular phospholipids were phosphatidylglycerols (25 %), diphosphatidylglycerols (34 %) and a group of compounds tentatively identified as ammonium-containing phosphatidylserines (32 %); phosphatidylethanolamines (9 %) were minor components. The fatty acid composition was dominated by side chains of 16 : 0, 14 : 0 and 16 : 1. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 42 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and the secondary structure of the V6 region, this organism was found to belong to the genus Marinilactibacillus and was closely related to Marinilactibacillus psychrotolerans M13-2(T) (99 %), Marinilactibacillus sp. strain MJYP.25.24 (99 %) and Alkalibacterium olivapovliticus strain ww2-SN4C (97 %). Despite the high similarity between their 16S rRNA gene sequences (99 %), the DNA-DNA hybridization levels were less than 20 %. On the basis of physiological and genetic characteristics, it is proposed that this organism be classified as a novel species, Marinilactibacillus piezotolerans sp. nov. The type strain is LT20T (=DSM 16108T=JCM 12337T).

  10. A pluripotent polyphenol oxidase from the melanogenic marine Alteromonas sp shares catalytic capabilities of tyrosinases and laccases.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Amat, A; Solano, F

    1997-11-26

    The recently characterized marine melanogenic bacterium MMB-1 contains a pluripotent polyphenol oxidase (PPO) which catalyzes the oxidation of a very wide range of substrates considered specific for tyrosinase or laccase. This range includes monophenols such as L-tyrosine, o-diphenols such as L-dopa, p-diphenols such as hydroquinone, o-aminophenols such as 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, activated monophenols such as 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and syringaldazine, and chromophores such as ABTS. This is the first report of an enzyme that is able to catalyze the oxidation of compounds so far considered specific for tyrosinases (L-tyrosine) or laccase (syringaldazine), showing cresolase, catechol oxidase and laccase activities. Such PPO could be a very useful model to study the structural requirements, catalytic mechanisms and involvement of the copper sites existing in non-blue and blue copper-oxidases.

  11. Description and Phylogeny of Tetrakeronopsis silvanetoi gen. nov., sp. nov. (Hypotricha, Pseudokeronopsidae), a New Benthic Marine Ciliate from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Thiago da Silva; de Albuquerque, Amanda Ferreira Cavalcante; Borges, Bárbara do Nascimento; Harada, Maria Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    Pseudokeronopsidae Borror & Wicklow, 1983 are biotechnologically important ciliate protists which produce toxic defense substances; however, their diversity is still little known in Brazil. In the present study, Tetrakeronopsis silvanetoi, a new genus and species of marine pseudokeronopsid hypotrichs is described from samples of water with bottom sediment collected from the coast of São Paulo state. Its phylogenetic affinities to the “core urostyloids” are hypothesized based on analyses of the 18S-rDNA marker, and a new subfamily, the Nothoholostichinae subfam. nov., is erected to name the monophylum composed of pseudokeronopsids in which the anterior corona is usually formed by four frontal cirri. In addition, the new combination Monocoronella longissima comb. nov. is proposed for Nothoholosticha longissima (Dragesco & Dragesco-Kernéis, 1986) Li et al., 2009. PMID:24586456

  12. Description and phylogeny of Tetrakeronopsis silvanetoi gen. nov., sp. nov. (Hypotricha, Pseudokeronopsidae), a new benthic marine ciliate from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Thiago da Silva; de Albuquerque, Amanda Ferreira Cavalcante; Borges, Bárbara do Nascimento; Harada, Maria Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    Pseudokeronopsidae Borror & Wicklow, 1983 are biotechnologically important ciliate protists which produce toxic defense substances; however, their diversity is still little known in Brazil. In the present study, Tetrakeronopsis silvanetoi, a new genus and species of marine pseudokeronopsid hypotrichs is described from samples of water with bottom sediment collected from the coast of São Paulo state. Its phylogenetic affinities to the "core urostyloids" are hypothesized based on analyses of the 18S-rDNA marker, and a new subfamily, the Nothoholostichinae subfam. nov., is erected to name the monophylum composed of pseudokeronopsids in which the anterior corona is usually formed by four frontal cirri. In addition, the new combination Monocoronella longissima comb. nov. is proposed for Nothoholosticha longissima (Dragesco & Dragesco-Kernéis, 1986) Li et al., 2009.

  13. A thermophilic, hydrogenogenic and carboxydotrophic bacterium, Calderihabitans maritimus gen. nov., sp. nov., from a marine sediment core of an undersea caldera.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Yasuko; Yoshida, Takashi; Yasuda, Hisato; Imada, Chiaki; Sako, Yoshihiko

    2013-10-01

    A hydrogenogenic, carboxydotrophic marine bacterium, strain KKC1(T), was isolated from a sediment core sample taken from a submerged marine caldera. Cells were non-motile, Gram-stain-negative, 1.0-3.0 µm straight rods, often observed with round endospores. Strain KKC1(T) grew at 55-68 °C, pH 5.2-9.2 and 0.8-14 % (w/v) salinity. Optimum growth occurred at 65 °C, pH 7.0-7.5 and 2.46 % salinity with a doubling time of 3.7 h. The isolate grew chemolithotrophically, producing H2 from carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation with reduction of various electron acceptors, e.g. sulfite, thiosulfate, fumarate, ferric iron and AQDS (9,10-anthraquinone 2,6-disulfonate). KKC1(T) grew heterotrophically on pyruvate, lactate, fumarate, glucose, fructose and mannose with thiosulfate as an electron acceptor. When grown mixotrophically on CO and pyruvate, C16 : 0 constituted almost half of the total cellular fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 50.6 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of KKC1(T) was most closely related to those of members of the genus Moorella with similarity ranging from 91 to 89 %. Based on physiological and phylogenetic novelty, we propose the isolate as a representative of a new genus and novel species with the name Calderihabitans maritimus gen. nov., sp. nov.; the type strain of the type species is KKC1(T) ( = DSM 26464(T) = NBRC 109353(T)).

  14. Portlandemys gracilis n. sp., a New Coastal Marine Turtle from the Late Jurassic of Porrentruy (Switzerland) and a Reconsideration of Plesiochelyid Cranial Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Anquetin, Jérémy; Püntener, Christian; Billon-Bruyat, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Several groups of stem cryptodires became adapted to coastal marine environments as early as the Late Jurassic, 40 million years before the Pan-Chelonioidea. The Plesiochelyidae are a major component of this first radiation of crown-group turtles into marine habitats. They are abundant in many European localities, but their systematics is still greatly confused. Only three species are represented by cranial material: Plesiochelys etalloni, Plesiochelys planiceps, and Portlandemys mcdowelli. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we describe a cranium and a mandible from the Kimmeridgian of Porrentruy (Switzerland), which we refer to a new species, Portlandemys gracilis n. sp. This new taxon differs from Portlandemys mcdowelli in several aspects of the cranium and mandible, notably in being generally more gracile, but the two species share a narrow skull, a more acute angle between the labial ridges on the mandible, and a unique configuration of the anterodorsal part of the basicranium. The cranial anatomy of plesiochelyid turtles is discussed in details based primarily on these new specimens and new cranial material of Plesiochelys etalloni from Solothurn, Switzerland. Conclusions/Significance Several characters (e.g., the contribution of the parietal to the foramen nervi trigemini, the configuration of the dorsum sellae and sella turcica, the presence of an infolding ridge on the posterior surface of the quadrate) appear as potential candidates to help elucidate plesiochelyid relationships. Some of these characters are included in a previously published phylogenetic dataset and help to stabilize the relationships of plesiochelyid turtles and closely related taxa. For the first time, our results suggest that plesiochelyids, 'Thalassemys' moseri, and Solnhofia parsonsi (representing the Eurysternidae) form a clade at the base of Eucryptodira. PMID:26106888

  15. Croceicoccus naphthovorans sp. nov., a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-degrading and acylhomoserine-lactone-producing bacterium isolated from marine biofilm, and emended description of the genus Croceicoccus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yili; Zeng, Yanhua; Feng, Hao; Wu, Yuehong; Xu, Xuewei

    2015-05-01

    A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-degrading and acylhomoserine-lactone-producing marine bacterium, designated strain PQ-2(T), was isolated from marine biofilm collected from a boat shell at a harbour of Zhoushan island in Zhejiang Province, PR China. Strain PQ-2(T) is Gram-stain-negative, yellow-pigmented, non-motile and short rod-shaped. Optimal growth of strain PQ-2(T) was observed at 32 °C, at pH 7.0 and in 2% (w/v) NaCl. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain PQ-2(T) showed highest similarity to Croceicoccus marinus E4A9(T) (96.3%) followed by Novosphingobium malaysiense MUSC 273(T) (95.6%) and Altererythrobacter marinus H32(T) (95.6%). Phylogenetic analysis with all species of the family Erythrobacteraceae with validly published names revealed that strain PQ-2(T) formed a phyletic line with Croceicoccus marinus E4A9(T) that was distinct from other members of the family Erythrobacteraceae . The sole respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 10 (Q-10). The predominant fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c, C17 : 1ω6c and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH). The genomic DNA G+C content was 61.7 mol%. In the polar lipid profile, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified phospholipid and one sphingoglycolipid were the major compounds; and another sphingoglycolipid was present in a minor amount. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic data, strain PQ-2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Croceicoccus , for which the name Croceicoccus naphthovorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PQ-2(T) ( =CGMCC 1.12805(T) =NBRC 110381(T)). In addition, emended descriptions for the genus Croceicoccus and the species C. marinus are given. © 2015 IUMS.

  16. Psychrilyobacter atlanticus gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine member of the phylum Fusobacteria that produces H2 and degrades nitramine explosives under low temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Shen; Manno, Dominic; Hawari, Jalal

    2009-03-01

    A Gram-negative and obligately anaerobic marine bacterium, strain HAW-EB21(T), was isolated in a previous study from marine sediment from the Atlantic Ocean, near Halifax Harbor, Canada, and found to have the potential to degrade both hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine. In the present study, phylogenetic analyses showed that strain HAW-EB21(T) was only distantly related to the genera Propionigenium and Ilyobacter with 6.6-7.5 % and 8.2-10.5 % dissimilarity as measured by 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA gene sequence analyses, respectively. Strain HAW-EB21(T) displayed unique properties in being psychrotrophic (18.5 degrees C optimum) and unable to utilize any of the carbon substrates (succinate, l-tartrate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, quinate or shikimate) used for isolating members of the genera Propionigenium and Ilyobacter. Strain HAW-EB21(T) utilized glucose, fructose, maltose, N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, citrate, pyruvate, fumarate and Casitone as carbon sources and produced H(2) and acetate as the major fermentation products. Cells grown at 10 degrees C produced C(15 : 1) (30 %), C(16 : 1)omega7 (15 %) and C(16 : 0) (16 %) as major membrane fatty acids. The novel strain had a genomic DNA G+C content of 28.1 mol%, lower than the values of the genera Ilyobacter and Propionigenium. Based on the present results, the novel isolate is suggested to be a member of a new genus for which the name Psychrilyobacter atlanticus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is HAW-EB21(T) (=DSM 19335(T)=JCM 14977(T)).

  17. Marine Bacteria from Danish Coastal Waters Show Antifouling Activity against the Marine Fouling Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain S91 and Zoospores of the Green Alga Ulva australis Independent of Bacteriocidal Activity▿†

    PubMed Central

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Harder, Tilmann; Gram, Lone

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if marine bacteria from Danish coastal waters produce antifouling compounds and if antifouling bacteria could be ascribed to specific niches or seasons. We further assess if antibacterial effect is a good proxy for antifouling activity. We isolated 110 bacteria with anti-Vibrio activity from different sample types and locations during a 1-year sampling from Danish coastal waters. The strains were identified as Pseudoalteromonas, Phaeobacter, and Vibrionaceae based on phenotypic tests and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The numbers of bioactive bacteria were significantly higher in warmer than in colder months. While some species were isolated at all sampling locations, others were niche specific. We repeatedly isolated Phaeobacter gallaeciensis at surfaces from one site and Pseudoalteromonas tunicata at two others. Twenty-two strains, representing the major taxonomic groups, different seasons, and isolation strategies, were tested for antiadhesive effect against the marine biofilm-forming bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91 and zoospores of the green alga Ulva australis. The antiadhesive effects were assessed by quantifying the number of strain S91 or Ulva spores attaching to a preformed biofilm of each of the 22 strains. The strongest antifouling activity was found in Pseudoalteromonas strains. Biofilms of Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, and Pseudoalteromonas ulvae prevented Pseudoalteromonas S91 from attaching to steel surfaces. P. piscicida killed S91 bacteria in the suspension cultures, whereas P. tunicata and P. ulvae did not; however, they did prevent adhesion by nonbactericidal mechanism(s). Seven Pseudoalteromonas species, including P. piscicida and P. tunicata, reduced the number of settling Ulva zoospores to less than 10% of the number settling on control surfaces. The antifouling alpP gene was detected only in P. tunicata strains (with purple and yellow pigmentation), so

  18. Marine bacteria from Danish coastal waters show antifouling activity against the marine fouling bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91 and zoospores of the green alga Ulva australis independent of bacteriocidal activity.

    PubMed

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Harder, Tilmann; Gram, Lone

    2011-12-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if marine bacteria from Danish coastal waters produce antifouling compounds and if antifouling bacteria could be ascribed to specific niches or seasons. We further assess if antibacterial effect is a good proxy for antifouling activity. We isolated 110 bacteria with anti-Vibrio activity from different sample types and locations during a 1-year sampling from Danish coastal waters. The strains were identified as Pseudoalteromonas, Phaeobacter, and Vibrionaceae based on phenotypic tests and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The numbers of bioactive bacteria were significantly higher in warmer than in colder months. While some species were isolated at all sampling locations, others were niche specific. We repeatedly isolated Phaeobacter gallaeciensis at surfaces from one site and Pseudoalteromonas tunicata at two others. Twenty-two strains, representing the major taxonomic groups, different seasons, and isolation strategies, were tested for antiadhesive effect against the marine biofilm-forming bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91 and zoospores of the green alga Ulva australis. The antiadhesive effects were assessed by quantifying the number of strain S91 or Ulva spores attaching to a preformed biofilm of each of the 22 strains. The strongest antifouling activity was found in Pseudoalteromonas strains. Biofilms of Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, and Pseudoalteromonas ulvae prevented Pseudoalteromonas S91 from attaching to steel surfaces. P. piscicida killed S91 bacteria in the suspension cultures, whereas P. tunicata and P. ulvae did not; however, they did prevent adhesion by nonbactericidal mechanism(s). Seven Pseudoalteromonas species, including P. piscicida and P. tunicata, reduced the number of settling Ulva zoospores to less than 10% of the number settling on control surfaces. The antifouling alpP gene was detected only in P. tunicata strains (with purple and yellow pigmentation), so

  19. A marine dinoflagellate, Amphidinium eilatiensis n. sp., from the benthos of a mariculture sedimentation pond in Eilat, Israel.

    PubMed

    Lee, John J; Olea, Raul; Cevasco, Megan; Pochon, Xavier; Correia, Maria; Shpigel, Muki; Pawlowski, Jan

    2003-01-01

    A species of Amphidinium bloomed in a mariculture sedimentation pond that was used to grow bivalves near the Gulf of Eilat, Israel. Its overall length averaged 13 microm, the hypocone was 11 microm, and its width was 8 microm. It has a ventral ridge. The sulcus begins at the longitudinal flagellar pore and does not project forward in the apex toward the transverse flagellar pore and left margin of the cingulum. The sulcus is a very shallow groove that projects variably about a third of the body length toward the antapex. The cingulum is a deep groove as it circles the cell from the left ventral side to the dorsal side and then becomes very shallow on the right ventral side as it arches posterior toward the longitudinal flagellar pore. Using a modified method for studying dinoflagellate chromosomes in the SEM, we observed 31 chromosomes. The plastid is dorsal and peripheral with 6 ventrally projecting peripheral digital lobes that wrap around the sides of the ventral and posterior nucleus. Amphidinium eilatiensis n. sp. is morphologically closest to Amphidinium carterae and Amphidinium rhynchocephalum, but it does not have the obvious thecal plates or polygonal units described for the former species. Instead, it has a series of spicules, bumps, and ridges on its surface. It differs from A. rhynchocephalum by two morphological characters: surface morphology and gross plastid architecture. The amplified fragments of the rDNA from A. eilatiensis n. sp. isolated from 2 separate sedimentation ponds in Eilat include the 3'- end of the SSU rDNA (about 100 nt), the whole ITS region (ITS1 + 5.8S + ITS2) and the 5'-end of the LSU rDNA (about 900 nts). The total length of the sequences ranged from 1,460 nt. (A. eilatiensis isolate #1) to 1,461 nts. (A. eilatiensis isolate #2). The latter sequences are identical, the difference in length being due to three insertions. Amphidinium eilatiensis is genetically more closely related to A. carterae than to A. klebsii, with

  20. Flavobacterium ahnfeltiae sp. nov., a new marine polysaccharide-degrading bacterium isolated from a Pacific red alga.

    PubMed

    Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Balabanova, Larissa A; Zhukova, Natalia V; Kim, So-Jeong; Bakunina, Irina Y; Rhee, Sung-Keun

    2014-10-01

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, motile by gliding and yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain 10Alg 130(T), that displayed the ability to destroy polysaccharides of red and brown algae, was isolated from the red alga Ahnfeltia tobuchiensis. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence placed the novel strain within the genus Flavobacterium, the type genus of the family Flavobacteriaceae, the phylum Bacteroidetes, with sequence similarities of 96.2 and 95.7 % to Flavobacterium jumunjiense KCTC 23618(T) and Flavobacterium ponti CCUG 58402(T), and 95.3-92.5 % to other recognized Flavobacterium species. The prevalent fatty acids of strain 10Alg 130(T) were iso-C15:0, iso-C15:0 3-OH, iso-C17:0 3-OH, C15:0 and iso-C17:1ω9c. The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown aminolipids and three unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content of the type strain was 34.3 mol%. The new isolate and the type strains of recognized species of the genus Flavobacterium could strongly be distinguished by a number of phenotypic characteristics. A combination of the genotypic and phenotypic data showed that the algal isolate represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium ahnfeltiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 10Alg 130(T) (=KCTC 32467(T) = KMM 6686(T)).

  1. Cloning and characterization of the first polysaccharide lyase family 6 oligoalginate lyase from marine Shewanella sp. Kz7

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shangyong; Wang, Linna; Han, Feng; Gong, Qianhong; Yu, Wengong

    2016-01-01

    Alginate, the most abundant carbohydrate in brown macroalgae, is widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Recently, alginate has attracted increasing attention, as it may serve as an alternative biomass for the production of biofuel. The degradation of alginate into monomeric units is the prerequisite for bioethanol production. All known oligoalginate lyases belong to the polysaccharide lyase (PL) family 7, 14, 15 and 17, and most of them preferred to degrade the polyM blocks to yield 4-deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid as the primary product. In this study, we cloned an oligoalginate lyase gene, oalS6, from Shewanella sp. Kz7 and expressed it in Escherichia coli. The PL family 6 oligoalginate lyase (OalS6) has no significant sequence similarity with other known oligoalginate lyases. OalS6 contains a chondroitinase-like domain and was assigned to the PL family 6. This lyase is an exo-type oligoalginate lyase and prefer to depolymerize polyG block into 2, 4, 5, 6-tetrahydroxytetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-carboxylic acid. All of these results indicate that OalS6 is a novel oligoalginate lyase that is structurally and functionally different from other known oligoalginate lyases. This finding provides new insights into the development of biofuel processing biotechnologies from seaweed. PMID:26232404

  2. Verrucosispora maris sp. nov., a novel deep-sea actinomycete isolated from a marine sediment which produces abyssomicins.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, Michael; Stach, James E M; Brown, Roselyn; Bonda, Avinash Naga Venkata; Jones, Amanda L; Mexson, Joanne; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Bull, Alan T

    2012-01-01

    Verrucosispora isolate AB-18-032(T), the abyssomicin- and proximicin-producing actinomycete, has chemotaxonomic and morphological properties consistent with its classification in the genus Verrucosispora. The organism formed a distinct phyletic line in the Verrucosispora 16S rRNA gene tree sharing similarities of 99.7%, 98.7% and 98.9% with Verrucosispora gifhornensis DSM 44337(T), Verrucosispora lutea YIM 013(T) and Verrucosispora sediminis MS 426(T), respectively. It was readily distinguished from the two latter species using a range of phenotypic features and from V. gifhornensis DSM 44337(T), its nearest phylogenetic neighbor, by a DNA G+C content of 65.5 mol% obtained by thermal denaturation and fluorometry and DNA:DNA relatedness values of 64.0% and 65.0% using renaturation and fluorometric methods, respectively. It is apparent from the combined genotypic and phenotypic data that strain AB-18-032(T) should be classified in the genus Verrucosispora as a new species. The name Verrucosispora maris sp. nov. is proposed for this taxon with isolate AB-18-032(T) (= DSM 45365(T) = NRRL B-24793(T)) as the type strain.

  3. Inhibitors of BRD4 Protein from a Marine-Derived Fungus Alternaria sp. NH-F6

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hui; Zhang, Dashan; Zhou, Biao; Ma, Zhongjun

    2017-01-01

    Bromodomains (BRD) are readers of the epigenetic code that regulate gene transcription through their recognition of acetyl-lysine modified histone tails. Recently, bromodomain-containing proteins such as BRD4 have been demonstrated to be druggable through the discovery of potent inhibitors. These protein–protein interaction inhibitors have the potential to modulate multiple diseases by their profound anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects. In order to explore new BRD4 inhibitors as well as lead compounds for the development of new drugs, the secondary metabolites of Alternaria sp. NH-F6, a fungus isolated from deep-sea sediment samples, were analyzed systematically. Five new compounds including two new perylenequinones (1–2), one new alternaric acid (3), 2-(N-vinylacetamide)-4-hydroxymethyl-3-ene-butyrolactone (4), one new cerebroside (5), together with 19 known compounds (6–24) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of this strain. Their structures were elucidated using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS) analyses. Finally, all these compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against BRD4 protein, and compound 2 exhibited a potent inhibition rate of 88.1% at a concentration of 10 µM. This research provides a new BRD4 inhibitor which may possess potential antitumoral, antiviral, or anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical values. PMID:28300771

  4. Characterization of Francisella sp., GM2212, the first Francisella isolate from marine fish, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Ottem, Karl F; Nylund, Are; Karlsbakk, Egil; Friis-Møller, Alice; Krossøy, Bjørn

    2007-05-01

    A Francisella sp., isolate GM2212(T), previously isolated from diseased farmed Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in Norway is characterized. The complete 16S rDNA, 16S-23S intergenic spacer, 23S rDNA, 23S-5S intergenic spacer, 5S rDNA, FopA, lipoprotein TUL4 (LpnA), malate dehydrogenase and a hypothetical lipoprotein (LpnB) is sequenced and compared with Francisella tularensis and Francisella philomiragia. All these sequences support a close relationship between GM2212(T) and F. philomiragia. The bacterium grows at 10-25 degrees C with an optimum at about 20 degrees C, a temperature range clearly different from F. tularensis and F. philomiragia. GM2212(T) is catalase-positive, indole positive, oxidase-negative, do not produce H(2)S in Triple Sugar Iron agar, and does not hydrolyze gelatin, is resistant to erythromycin and susceptible to ceftazidime, the latter five characteristics separating it from F. philomiragia. Cysteine enhances growth. Acid is produced from D: -glucose, maltose, sucrose (weak) but not from lactose or glycerol. GM2212(T) grows on both MacConkey agar and in nutrient broth (6% NaCl). The bacterium is resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, penicillines, cefuroxime and erythromycin; but is susceptible to ceftazidime, tetracycline, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin. Based on the molecular and phenotypical characteristics, we suggest that this GM2212 isolate, may represent a new species of Francisella. Isolate GM2212(T) (=CNCM I-3481(T) = CNCM I-3511(T) = DSM 18777(T)).

  5. A new species of sublittoral marine gastrotrich, Lepidodasys ligni sp. n. (Macrodasyida, Lepidodasyidae), from the Atlantic coast of Florida

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Rick; Atherton, Sarah; Gross, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Lepidodasys is described from sublittoral sandy sediments off the Atlantic coast of Florida. Lepidodasys ligni sp. n. is a small species (≤ 450 µm) with a crossed-helical pattern of small, non-keeled, non-imbricated scales on the dorsal and lateral body surfaces, two columns of ventral, interciliary scales that form a herringbone pattern, and a series of anterior, lateral, dorsal and posterior adhesive tubes. Similar to Lepidodasys castoroides from the Faroe Islands, the new species possesses a caudal constriction that demarcates the posterior end containing the caudal organ. The frontal organ lies within the posterior constriction, which is heavily invested with somatic circular muscles. These muscles are also present throughout the trunk and represent a novel condition for species of Lepidodasys,which were previously considered to lack somatic circular muscles. Posterior of the caudal constriction is a large, barrel-shaped caudal organ that is wrapped in a series of interdigitating, spindle-shaped, incomplete circular muscle fibers. The caudal organ contains a sclerotized central canal, but the absence of distal cuticular endpieces distinguishes the new species from its morphologically similar congener, Lepidodasys castoroides. PMID:23794849

  6. Shewanella olleyana sp. nov., a marine species isolated from a temperate estuary which produces high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Skerratt, Jennifer H; Bowman, John P; Nichols, Peter D

    2002-11-01

    Two polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) producing strains (ACEM 6 and ACEM 9(T)) isolated from a temperate, humic-rich river estuary in Tasmania, Australia, were found to be members of the genus Shewanella. These strains were able to utilize humic compounds (tannic acid) and derivatives (2,6-anthraquinone disulfonate) as sole carbon sources and as electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration. The major fatty acids were typical of the genus Shewanella; however, PUFAs mostly made up of eicosapentaenoic acid were produced at high levels (10.2-23.6% of total fatty acids) and at relatively high incubation temperatures (10.2% at 24 degrees C). Sequence analysis indicated that ACEM 6 and ACEM 9(T) had identical 16S rDNA sequences and were most closely related to Shewanella japonica (sequence similarity 97.1%). DNA hybridization and phenotypic characteristics confirmed that the isolates constituted a novel species of the genus Shewanella, which is designated Shewanella olleyana sp. nov. (type strain ACEM 9(T) = ACAM 644(T) = LMG 21437(T)).

  7. Characterization of Chitinase C from a Marine Bacterium, Alteromonas sp. Strain O-7, and Its Corresponding Gene and Domain Structure

    PubMed Central

    Tsujibo, Hiroshi; Orikoshi, Hideyuki; Shiotani, Kayoko; Hayashi, Miyuki; Umeda, Junko; Miyamoto, Katsushiro; Imada, Chiaki; Okami, Yoshiro; Inamori, Yoshihiko

    1998-01-01

    One of the chitinase genes of Alteromonas sp. strain O-7, the chitinase C-encoding gene (chiC), was cloned, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. An open reading frame coded for a protein of 430 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 46,680 Da. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence demonstrated that ChiC contained three functional domains, the N-terminal domain, a fibronectin type III-like domain, and a catalytic domain. The N-terminal domain (59 amino acids) was similar to that found in the C-terminal extension of ChiA (50 amino acids) of this strain and furthermore showed significant sequence homology to the regions found in several chitinases and cellulases. Thus, to evaluate the role of the domain, we constructed the hybrid gene that directs the synthesis of the fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase activity. Both the fusion protein and the N-terminal domain itself bound to chitin, indicating that the N-terminal domain of ChiC constitutes an independent chitin-binding domain. PMID:9464381

  8. Cloning and characterization of the first polysaccharide lyase family 6 oligoalginate lyase from marine Shewanella sp. Kz7.

    PubMed

    Li, Shangyong; Wang, Linna; Han, Feng; Gong, Qianhong; Yu, Wengong

    2016-01-01

    Alginate, the most abundant carbohydrate in brown macroalgae, is widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Recently, alginate has attracted increasing attention, as it may serve as an alternative biomass for the production of biofuel. The degradation of alginate into monomeric units is the prerequisite for bioethanol production. All known oligoalginate lyases belong to the polysaccharide lyase (PL) family 7, 14, 15 and 17, and most of them preferred to degrade the polyM blocks to yield 4-deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid as the primary product. In this study, we cloned an oligoalginate lyase gene, oalS6, from Shewanella sp. Kz7 and expressed it in Escherichia coli. The PL family 6 oligoalginate lyase (OalS6) has no significant sequence similarity with other known oligoalginate lyases. OalS6 contains a chondroitinase-like domain and was assigned to the PL family 6. This lyase is an exo-type oligoalginate lyase and prefer to depolymerize polyG block into 2, 4, 5, 6-tetrahydroxytetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-carboxylic acid. All of these results indicate that OalS6 is a novel oligoalginate lyase that is structurally and functionally different from other known oligoalginate lyases. This finding provides new insights into the development of biofuel processing biotechnologies from seaweed.

  9. Food uptake and fine structure of Cryothecomonas longipes sp. nov., a marine nanoflagellate incertae sedis feeding phagotrophically on large diatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepf, E.; Kühn, S. F.

    2000-05-01

    Cryothecomonas longipes Schnepf and Kühn sp. nov. is a colourless biflagellate organism, 9-14 µm long and 7-9 µm wide when not filled with food vacuoles. It was detected in the North Sea, feeding with pseudopodia on diatoms. It penetrates the host shell, while the main body of the flagellate remains outside the frustule. Cells are covered with a multilayered theca. The pseudopodium protrudes through a preformed slit in the theca. Each flagellum also emerges through a pit in which the theca forms a funnel of complex structure that girdles each flagellum. The anterior flagellum is 9-15 µm long and oriented forward; the ventral flagellum, posteriorly directed, is 20-24 µm long and bears fine hairs. The flagellar roots consist of microtubules that emerge at satellites around the basal bodies and run along the flagellar pits. In addition, the ventral flagellum is accompanied by a band of six microtubules. It is proximally attached to a small fibrillar band, which interconnects the basal bodies. Cryothecomonas longipes has two or three types of extrusomes which pierce the theca when discharged. Their mode of discharge is discussed. Microbody-like vesicles containing small tubules are closely associated with older digestion vacuoles. Cryothecomonas longipes is compared with other species of the genus and a diagnosis is given.

  10. In silico molecular docking, preclinical evaluation of spiroindimicins A-D, lynamicin A and D isolated from deep marine sea derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 03032.

    PubMed

    Saurav, Kumar; Zhang, Wenjun; Saha, Subhasish; Zhang, Haibo; Li, Sumei; Zhang, Qingbo; Wu, Zhengchao; Zhang, Guangtao; Zhu, Yiguang; Verma, Gaurav

    2014-09-01

    The criteria used for successful drug discovery involves high throughput screening for preclinical evaluation and its interaction with target enzymes. In silico approach resulting in the creation of drug like library and identification of essential reactions and pathways spreads across several parts of metabolism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the preclinical property and interaction to various drug target enzymes for spiroindimicins A-D and lynamicin A and D isolated from deep marine sea derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 03032 with 7 selected drug target enzymes. The preclinical and molecular docking simulation was performed using In silico pharmacology and docking tool. Drug likeliness, ADME and toxicity testing findings suggested the compounds with oral drug candidate's probability. Interaction of isolated compounds against drug target enzymes was satisfactory with Spiroindimicins C, D and Lynamicin D emerging as most potent Topoisomerase II, Cathepsin K, Cytochrome P4503A4, Aromatase P450, protein kinase and histone deacetylase inhibitors. Our results suggest that In silico approach in drug discovery procedure in later stage of development can ease up making lead molecules library.

  11. Toxicity of Bioactive and Probiotic Marine Bacteria and Their Secondary Metabolites in Artemia sp. and Caenorhabditis elegans as Eukaryotic Model Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Neu, Anna Katrin; Månsson, Maria; Prol-García, María J.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously reported that some strains belonging to the marine Actinobacteria class, the Pseudoalteromonas genus, the Roseobacter clade, and the Photobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families produce both antibacterial and antivirulence compounds, and these organisms are interesting from an applied point of view as fish probiotics or as a source of pharmaceutical compounds. The application of either organisms or compounds requires that they do not cause any side effects, such as toxicity in eukaryotic organisms. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these bacteria or their compounds have any toxic side effects in the eukaryotic organisms Artemia sp. and Caenorhabditis elegans. Arthrobacter davidanieli WX-11, Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea S4060, P. piscicida S2049, P. rubra S2471, Photobacterium halotolerans S2753, and Vibrio coralliilyticus S2052 were lethal to either or both model eukaryotes. The toxicity of P. luteoviolacea S4060 could be related to the production of the antibacterial compound pentabromopseudilin, while the adverse effect observed in the presence of P. halotolerans S2753 and V. coralliilyticus S2052 could not be explained by the production of holomycin nor andrimid, the respective antibiotic compounds in these organisms. In contrast, the tropodithietic acid (TDA)-producing bacteria Phaeobacter inhibens DSM17395 and Ruegeria mobilis F1926 and TDA itself had no adverse effect on the target organisms. These results reaffirm TDA-producing Roseobacter bacteria as a promising group to be used as probiotics in aquaculture, whereas Actinobacteria, Pseudoalteromonas, Photobacteriaceae, and Vibrionaceae should be used with caution. PMID:24141121

  12. Whole Genome Sequencing of the Symbiont Pseudovibrio sp. from the Intertidal Marine Sponge Polymastia penicillus Revealed a Gene Repertoire for Host-Switching Permissive Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Alex, Anoop; Antunes, Agostinho

    2015-10-31

    Sponges harbor a complex consortium of microbial communities living in symbiotic relationship benefiting each other through the integration of metabolites. The mechanisms influencing a successful microbial association with a sponge partner are yet to be fully understood. Here, we sequenced the genome of Pseudovibrio sp. POLY-S9 strain isolated from the intertidal marine sponge Polymastia penicillus sampled from the Atlantic coast of Portugal to identify the genomic features favoring the symbiotic relationship. The draft genome revealed an exceptionally large genome size of 6.6 Mbp compared with the previously reported genomes of the genus Pseudovibrio isolated from a coral and a sponge larva. Our genomic study detected the presence of several biosynthetic gene clusters-polyketide synthase, nonribosomal peptide synthetase and siderophore-affirming the potential ability of the genus Pseudovibrio to produce a wide variety of metabolic compounds. Moreover, we identified a repertoire of genes encoding adaptive symbioses factors (eukaryotic-like proteins), such as the ankyrin repeats, tetratrico peptide repeats, and Sel1 repeats that improve the attachment to the eukaryotic hosts and the avoidance of the host's immune response : The genome also harbored a large number of mobile elements (∼5%) and gene transfer agents, which explains the massive genome expansion and suggests a possible mechanism of horizontal gene transfer. In conclusion, the genome of POLY-S9 exhibited an increase in size, number of mobile DNA, multiple metabolite gene clusters, and secretion systems, likely to influence the genome diversification and the evolvability.

  13. Anti-Melanogenic Activity of Gagunin D, a Highly Oxygenated Diterpenoid from the Marine Sponge Phorbas sp., via Modulating Tyrosinase Expression and Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho Yeon; Jang, Eun Jeong; Bae, Song Yi; Jeon, Ju-eun; Park, Hyen Joo; Shin, Jongheon; Lee, Sang Kook

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosinase is the rate-limiting enzyme critical for melanin synthesis and controls pigmentation in the skin. The inhibition of tyrosinase is currently the most common approach for the development of skin-whitening cosmetics. Gagunin D (GD), a highly oxygenated diterpenoid isolated from the marine sponge Phorbas sp., has exhibited cytotoxicity toward human leukemia cells. However, the effect of GD on normal cells and the molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we identified for the first time the anti-melanogenic activity of GD and its precise underlying mechanisms in mouse melan-a cells. GD significantly inhibited melanin synthesis in the melan-a cells and a reconstructed human skin model. Further analysis revealed that GD suppressed the expression of tyrosinase and increased the rate of tyrosinase degradation. GD also inhibited tyrosinase enzymatic activity. In addition, GD effectively suppressed the expression of proteins associated with melanosome transfer. These findings suggest that GD is a potential candidate for cosmetic formulations due to its multi-functional properties. PMID:27869664

  14. Bioactive secondary metabolites of a marine Bacillus sp. inhibit superoxide generation and elastase release in human neutrophils by blocking formyl peptide receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shun-Chin; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Chang, Wen-Yi; Kuo, Jimmy; Huang, Yin-Ting; Chung, Pei-Jen; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2013-06-03

    It is well known that overwhelming neutrophil activation is closely related to acute and chronic inflammatory injuries. Formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) plays an important role in activation of neutrophils and may represent a potent therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we demonstrated that IA-LBI07-1 (IA), an extract of bioactive secondary metabolites from a marine Bacillus sp., has anti-inflammatory effects in human neutrophils. IA significantly inhibited superoxide generation and elastase release in formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP)-activated neutrophils, but failed to suppress the cell responses activated by non-FPR1 agonists. IA did not alter superoxide production and elastase activity in cell-free systems. IA also attenuated the downstream signaling from FPR1, such as the Ca2+, MAP kinases and AKT pathways. In addition, IA inhibited the binding of N-formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-fluorescein, a fluorescent analogue of FMLP, to FPR1 in human neutrophils and FPR1-transfected HEK293 cells. Taken together, these results show that the anti-inflammatory effects of IA in human neutrophils are through the inhibition of FPR1. Also, our data suggest that IA may have therapeutic potential to decrease tissue damage induced by human neutrophils.

  15. Thalassemys bruntrutana n. sp., a new coastal marine turtle from the Late Jurassic of Porrentruy (Switzerland), and the paleobiogeography of the Thalassemydidae

    PubMed Central

    Anquetin, Jérémy; Billon-Bruyat, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Swiss Jura Mountains are a key region for Late Jurassic eucryptodiran turtles. Already in the mid 19th century, the Solothurn Turtle Limestone (Solothurn, NW Switzerland) yielded a great amount of Kimmeridgian turtles that are traditionally referred to Plesiochelyidae, Thalassemydidae, and Eurysternidae. In the past few years, fossils of these coastal marine turtles were also abundantly discovered in the Kimmeridgian of the Porrentruy region (NW Switzerland). These findings include numerous sub-complete shells, out of which we present two new specimens of Thalassemys (Thalassemydidae) in this study. Methods. We compare the new material from Porrentruy to the type species Th. hugii, which is based on a well preserved specimen from the Solothurn Turtle Limestone (Solothurn, Switzerland). In order to improve our understanding of the paleogeographic distribution of Thalassemys, anatomical comparisons are extended to Thalassemys remains from other European countries, notably Germany and England. Results. While one of the two Thalassemys specimens from Porrentruy can be attributed to Th. hugii, the other specimen represents a new species, Th. bruntrutana n. sp. It differs from Th. hugii by several features: more elongated nuchal that strongly thickens anterolaterally; wider vertebral scales; proportionally longer plastron; broader and less inclined xiphiplastron; wider angle between scapular process and acromion process. Our results show that Th. hugii and Th. bruntrutana also occur simultaneously in the Kimmeridgian of Solothurn as well as in the Kimmeridgian of England (Kimmeridge Clay). This study is an important step towards a better understanding of the paleobiogeographic distribution of Late Jurassic turtles in Europe. PMID:26468437

  16. Marine Streptomyces sp. derived antimycin analogues suppress HeLa cells via depletion HPV E6/E7 mediated by ROS-dependent ubiquitin–proteasome system

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiyi; Che, Qian; Tan, Hongsheng; Qi, Xin; Li, Jing; Li, Dehai; Gu, Qianqun; Zhu, Tianjiao; Liu, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Four new antimycin alkaloids (1–4) and six related known analogs (5–10) were isolated from the culture of a marine derived Streptomyces sp. THS-55, and their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. All of the compounds exhibited potent cytotoxicity in vitro against HPV-transformed HeLa cell line. Among them, compounds 6–7 were derived as natural products for the first time, and compound 5 (NADA) showed the highest potency. NADA inhibited the proliferation, arrested cell cycle distribution, and triggered apoptosis in HeLa cancer cells. Our molecular mechanic studies revealed NADA degraded the levels of E6/E7 oncoproteins through ROS-mediated ubiquitin-dependent proteasome system activation. This is the first report that demonstrates antimycin alkaloids analogue induces the degradation of high-risk HPV E6/E7 oncoproteins and finally induces apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. The present work suggested that these analogues could serve as lead compounds for the development of HPV-infected cervical cancer therapeutic agents, as well as research tools for the study of E6/E7 functions. PMID:28176847

  17. Optimization of flocculation efficiency of lipid-rich marine Chlorella sp. biomass and evaluation of its composition in different cultivation modes.

    PubMed

    Mandik, Yohanis Irenius; Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Boonsawang, Piyarat; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to optimize flocculation efficiency of lipid-rich marine Chlorella sp. biomass and evaluate its composition in different cultivation modes. Among three flocculants including Al(3+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) tested, Al(3+) was most effective for harvesting microalgal biomass. Four important parameters for flocculation were optimized through response surface methodology. The maximum flocculation efficiency in photoautotrophic culture was achieved at pH 10, flocculation time of 15 min, Al(3+) concentration of 2.22 mM and microalgal cells of 0.47 g/L. The flocculation in mixotrophic culture required lower amount of Al(3+) (0.74 mM) than that in photoautotrophic and heterotrophic cultures (2.22 mM). The biomass harvested from mixotrophic culture contained lipid at the highest content of 42.08 ± 0.58% followed by photoautotrophic (32.08 ± 3.88%) and heterotrophic (30.42 ± 1.13%) cultures. The lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) contained protein as high as 38-44% and several minerals showing their potential use as animal feed and their carbohydrate content were 16-29%.

  18. Determination of trace metal baseline values in Posidonia oceanica, Cystoseira sp., and other marine environmental biomonitors: a quality control method for a study in South Tyrrhenian coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Mecozzi, Mauro; Finoia, Maria Grazia

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we investigated Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile leaves and in the brown algae Cystoseira sp. sampled along a 280-km transect in the Tyrrhenian Sea, from the Ustica to Linosa Islands (Sicily, Italy) with the aim to determine their control charts (baseline levels). By applying the Johnson's (Biometrika 36:149-175, 1949) probabilistic method, we determined the metal concentration overlap ranges in a group of five biomonitors. Here, we propose the use of the indexes of bioaccumulation with respect to the lowest (L'i) and the highest (L i) extreme values of the overlap metal concentration ranges. These indexes allow the identification of the most opportune organism (or a suite of them) to better managing particular environmental conditions. Posidonia leaves have generally high L i indexes for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, and this suggests its use as biomonitor for baseline marine areas. Our results confirm the high aptitude of Patella as a good biomonitor for Cd levels in seawater. From this study, Ustica resulted with higher levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn than the other Sicilian Islands.

  19. Natural osmolytes are much less effective substrates than glycogen for catabolic energy production in the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002.

    PubMed

    Guerra, L Tiago; Xu, Yu; Bennette, Nicholas; McNeely, Kelsey; Bryant, Donald A; Dismukes, G Charles

    2013-07-10

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, encoded by glgC, catalyzes the first step of glycogen and glucosylglycer(ol/ate) biosynthesis. Here we report the construction of the first glgC null mutant of a marine cyanobacterium (Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002) and investigate its impact on dark anoxic metabolism (autofermentation). The glgC mutant had 98% lower ADP-glucose, synthesized no glycogen and produced appreciably more soluble sugars (mainly sucrose) than wild type (WT). Some glucosylglycerol was still observed, which suggests that the mutant has another, inefficient ADP-glucose synthesis pathway. In contrast, hypersaline conditions (1M NaCl) were lethal to the mutant strain, indicating that, unlike other strains, the elevated sucrose does not compensate for the reduced GG as osmolyte. In contrast to WT, nitrate limitation did not cause bleaching of N-containing pigments or carbohydrate accumulation in the glgC mutant, indicating impaired recycling of nitrogen stores. Despite the 2-fold increase in osmolytes, both the respiration and autofermentation rates of the glgC mutant were appreciably slower (2-4-fold) and correlated quantitatively with the lower fraction of insoluble carbohydrates relative to WT (85% vs. 12%). However, the remaining insoluble carbohydrates still accounted for a high fraction of the carbohydrate catabolized (38%), indicating that insoluble carbohydrates rather than osmolytes were the preferred substrate for autofermentation.

  20. A light-dark shift strategy derived from light-responded metabolic behaviors for polyketides production in marine fungus Halorosellinia sp.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; He, Hao; Yin, Ying; Zhou, Weiqiang; Cai, Menghao; Zhou, Xiangshan; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2016-03-10

    Light, as an important environmental signal, generally brings about a broad regulation in fungal metabolism. In this work, we aim to explore the light-responded metabolic rules so as to further develop a feasible and effective light regulation strategy for production of anticancer polyketide 1403C by marine fungus Halorosellinia sp.. Light derived production enhancement of polyketides was first found in shake flask. To further understand this well working black box, light-responded cell growth, polyketides biosynthesis, metabolic behaviors (enzymes activities and organic acids levels) and mycelia morphology were then investigated in 5-L bioreactor. By comparing cultures under constant irradiation and dark conditions, the entire bioprocess was divided into two phases. During 0-60h, light presumably stimulated relevant metabolism to generate sufficient energy, NADPH and carbon skeleton, particularly malonyl-CoA, which was favorable for mycelia growth and polyketides accumulation. After 60h, light did harm to biomass and polyketides production. Consequently, a light-dark shift strategy was proposed and verified in 5-L bioreactor. It led to a maximal 1403C production of 1.67g/L, which was 24% and 74% higher than those obtained under constant irradiation and dark conditions, respectively.

  1. Role of Light Intensity and Temperature in the Regulation of Hydrogen Photoproduction by the Marine Cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp. Strain Miami BG7.

    PubMed

    Phlips, E J; Mitsui, A

    1983-04-01

    The effects of several key environmental factors on the development and control of hydrogen production in the marine blue-green alga (cyanobacterium) Oscillatoria sp. strain Miami BG7 were studied in relation to the potential application of this strain to a bio-solar energy technology. The production of cellular biomass capable of evolving hydrogen gas was strongly affected by light intensity, temperature, and the input of ammonia as a nutrient. Depletion of combined nitrogen from the growth media was a prerequisite for the initiation of hydrogen production. Maximum hydrogen-producing capability coincided with the end of the linear phase of growth. Hydrogen production exhibited considerable flexibility to environmental extremes. The rate of production saturated at low light intensities (i.e., 15 to 30 muEinsteins/m per s), and no photoinhibition was observed at high light intensity (i.e., 1,000 muEinsteins/m per s). The upper temperature limit for production was 46 degrees C. Above the light compensation point for O(2) evolution H(2) production was inhibited. However, this problem was alleviated by two related phenomena. (i) The capacity of cells to evolve oxygen deteriorated with increasing culture age and nitrogen depletion, and (ii) the ability of these cells to produce oxygen in closed anaerobic hydrogen production systems was temporally limited.

  2. Role of Light Intensity and Temperature in the Regulation of Hydrogen Photoproduction by the Marine Cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp. Strain Miami BG7

    PubMed Central

    Phlips, E. J.; Mitsui, A.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of several key environmental factors on the development and control of hydrogen production in the marine blue-green alga (cyanobacterium) Oscillatoria sp. strain Miami BG7 were studied in relation to the potential application of this strain to a bio-solar energy technology. The production of cellular biomass capable of evolving hydrogen gas was strongly affected by light intensity, temperature, and the input of ammonia as a nutrient. Depletion of combined nitrogen from the growth media was a prerequisite for the initiation of hydrogen production. Maximum hydrogen-producing capability coincided with the end of the linear phase of growth. Hydrogen production exhibited considerable flexibility to environmental extremes. The rate of production saturated at low light intensities (i.e., 15 to 30 μEinsteins/m2 per s), and no photoinhibition was observed at high light intensity (i.e., 1,000 μEinsteins/m2 per s). The upper temperature limit for production was 46°C. Above the light compensation point for O2 evolution H2 production was inhibited. However, this problem was alleviated by two related phenomena. (i) The capacity of cells to evolve oxygen deteriorated with increasing culture age and nitrogen depletion, and (ii) the ability of these cells to produce oxygen in closed anaerobic hydrogen production systems was temporally limited. PMID:16346266

  3. Proton efflux coupled to dark H2 oxidation in whole cells of a marine sulfur photosynthetic bacterium (Chromatium sp. strain Miami PBS1071).

    PubMed

    Kumazawa, S; Izawa, S; Mitsui, A

    1983-04-01

    Whole cells of photoanaerobically grown Chromatium sp. strain Miami PBS1071, a marine sulfur purple bacterium, oxidized H2 in the dark through the oxyhydrogen reaction at rates of up to 59 nmol of H2 per mg (dry weight) per min. H2 oxidation was routinely measured in H2 pulse experiments with air-equilibrated cells. The reaction was accompanied by a reversible H+ efflux from the cells, suggesting an outward H+ translocation reaction coupled to H2 oxidation. The H+/e- ratio, calculated from simultaneous measurements of H2, O2, and H+ changes in the medium, varied with the cultures from 0.7 to 1.2. The ratio increased considerably when the backflow of H+ was taken into account. Anaerobic H2 uptake with 2,5-dimethyl-p-benzoguinone as an oxidant also showed a weak H+-translocating activity. No H+-translocating activity was detected with methylene blue as an oxidant. Carbonylcyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (1 microM) stimulated H2 oxidation and abolished the associated H+ changes when H2 oxidation was observed in O2 pulse experiments with H2-Ar-equilibrated cells. However, the uncoupler inhibited both H2 oxidation and H+ changes when measurements were made in H2 pulse experiments with air-equilibrated cells. It is suggested that in this bacterium the susceptibility of hydrogenase to reversible O2 inactivation in situ is enhanced by the presence of uncoupling agents.

  4. Biochemical characterization and structural analysis of a new cold-active and salt-tolerant esterase from the marine bacterium Thalassospira sp.

    PubMed

    De Santi, Concetta; Leiros, Hanna-Kirsti S; Di Scala, Alessia; de Pascale, Donatella; Altermark, Bjørn; Willassen, Nils-Peder

    2016-05-01

    A gene encoding an esterase, ThaEst2349, was identified in the marine psychrophilic bacterium Thalassospira sp. GB04J01. The gene was cloned and overexpressed in E. coli as a His-tagged fusion protein. The recombinant enzyme showed optimal activity at 45 °C and the thermal stability displayed a retention of 75 % relative activity at 40 °C after 2 h. The optimal pH was 8.5 but the enzyme kept more than 75 % of its maximal activity between pH 8.0 and 9.5. ThaEst2349 also showed remarkable tolerance towards high concentrations of salt and it was active against short-chain p-nitrophenyl esters, displaying optimal activity with the acetate. The enzyme was tested for tolerance of organic solvents and the results are suggesting that it could function as an interesting candidate for biotechnological applications. The crystal structure of ThaEst2349 was determined to 1.69 Å revealing an asymmetric unit containing two chains, which also is the biological unit. The structure has a characteristic cap domain and a catalytic triad comprising Ser158, His285 and Asp255. To explain the cold-active nature of the enzyme, we compared it against thermophilic counterparts. Our hypothesis is that a high methionine content, less hydrogen bonds and less ion pairs render the enzyme more flexible at low temperatures.

  5. Effect of Fe nanoparticle on growth and glycolipid biosurfactant production under solid state culture by marine Nocardiopsis sp. MSA13A

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron is an essential element in several pathways of microbial metabolism, and therefore low iron toxicity is expected on the usage of Fe nanoparticles (NPs). This study aims to determine the effect of Fe NPs on biosurfactant production by marine actinobacterium Nocardiopsis sp. MSA13A under solid state culture. Foam method was used in the production of Fe NPs which were long and fiber shaped in nature. Results The SEM observation showed non toxic nature of Fe NPs as no change in the morphology of the filamentous structure of Nocardiopsis MSA13A. The production of biosurfactant by Nocardiopsis MSA13A under solid state culture supplemented with Fe NPs increased to 80% over control. The biosurfactant produced by Nocardiopsis MSA13A was characterized as glycolipid derivative which effectively disrupted the pre-formed biofilm of Vibrio pathogen. Conclusion The use of metal NPs as supplement would reduce the impact of non-metallic ions of the metal salts in a fermentation process. This would ultimately useful to achieve greener production process for biosurfactants. The present results are first report on the optimization of biosurfactant production under SSC using Fe NPs. PMID:24885470

  6. A new alkaliphilic cold-active esterase from the psychrophilic marine bacterium Rhodococcus sp.: functional and structural studies and biotechnological potential.

    PubMed

    De Santi, Concetta; Tedesco, Pietro; Ambrosino, Luca; Altermark, Bjørn; Willassen, Nils-Peder; de Pascale, Donatella

    2014-03-01

    The special features of cold-adapted lipolytic biocatalysts have made their use possible in several industrial applications. In fact, cold-active enzymes are known to be able to catalyze reactions at low temperatures, avoiding side reactions taking place at higher temperatures and preserving the integrity of products. A lipolytic gene was isolated from the Arctic marine bacterium Rhodococcus sp. AW25M09 and expressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies. The recombinant enzyme (hereafter called RhLip) showed interesting cold-active esterase activity. The refolded purified enzyme displayed optimal activity at 30 °C and was cold-active with retention of 50% activity at 10 °C. It is worth noting that the optimal pH was 11, and the low relative activity below pH 10 revealed that RhLip was an alkaliphilic esterase. The enzyme was active toward short-chain p-nitrophenyl esters (C2-C6), displaying optimal activity with the butyrate (C4) ester. In addition, the enzyme revealed a good organic solvent and salt tolerance. These features make this an interesting enzyme for exploitation in some industrial applications.

  7. Proton efflux coupled to dark H/sub 2/ oxidation in whole cells of a marine sulfur photosynthetic bacterium (Chromatium sp. strain Miami PBS1071)

    SciTech Connect

    Kumazawa, S.; Izawa, S.; Mitsui, A.

    1983-04-01

    Whole cells of photoanaerobically grown Chromatium sp. strain Miami PBS1071, a marine sulfur purple bacterium, oxidized H/sub 2/ in the dark through the oxyhydrogen reaction at rates of up to 59 nmol of H/sub 2/ per mg (dry weight) per min. H/sub 2/ oxidation was routinely measured in H/sub 2/ pulse experiments with air-equilibrated cells. The reaction was accompanied by a reversible H/sup +/ efflux from the cells, suggesting an outward H/sup +/ translocation reaction coupled to H/sub 2/ oxidation. Anaerobic H/sub 2/ uptake with 2,5-dimethyl-p-benzoguinone as an oxidant also showed a weak H/sup +/-translocating activity. Carbonylcyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (1 ..mu..M) stimulated H/sub 2/ oxidation and abolished the associated H/sup +/ changes when H/sub 2/ oxidation was observed in O/sub 2/ pulse experiments with H/sub 2/-Ar-equilibrated cells. However, the uncoupler inhibited both H/sub 2/ oxidation and H/sup +/ changes when measurements were made in H/sub 2/ pulse experiments with air-equilibrated cells. It is suggested that in this bacterium the susceptibility of hydrogenase to reversible O/sub 2/ inactivation in situ is enhanced by the presence of uncoupling agents.

  8. Penicyrones A and B, an epimeric pair of α-pyrone-type polyketides produced by the marine-derived Penicillium sp.

    PubMed

    Bu, Ying-Yue; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Ukai, Kazuyo; Namikoshi, Michio

    2016-01-01

    Two polyketides containing an α-pyrone unit, named penicyrones A (1) and B (2), were isolated from a culture broth of the marine-derived Penicillium sp. TPU1271 together with nine known compounds: verrucosidin (3), fructigenine A (4), verrucofortine (5), cyclo-(L-Trp-L-Phe) (6), cyclopenol (7), cyclopenin (8), penipratynolene (9), aspterric acid (10) and viridicatol (11). The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by analyzing the spectroscopic data of 1, 2 and their O-acetyl derivatives (1a and 2a). Compounds 1 and 2 were epimers of each other at the C-9 position. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were assigned on the basis of NOESY data for 1, 2, 1a and 2a, a conformational analysis and the identity of the biogenetic pathway with verrucosidin (3). The planar structure of penicyrones was found in the SciFinder as a compound in the commercial chemical libraries; however, the stereostructure and spectroscopic data were not available. Therefore, this is the first study on the isolation and structure elucidation, including the absolute configurations, of penicyrones A (1) and B (2) as fungal metabolites. Compound 3 exhibited growth inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis at 40 μg per disc (inhibition zone of 11 mm). This is the first study to demonstrate that verrucosidin (3) exhibited anti-mycobacterial activity.

  9. Chrodrimanins K-N and Related Meroterpenoids from the Fungus Penicillium sp. SCS-KFD09 Isolated from a Marine Worm, Sipunculus nudus.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fan-Dong; Ma, Qing-Yun; Huang, Sheng-Zhuo; Wang, Pei; Wang, Jun-Feng; Zhou, Li-Man; Yuan, Jing-Zhe; Dai, Hao-Fu; Zhao, You-Xing

    2017-02-17

    Six new meroterpenoids, chrodrimanins K-N (1-4), including two uncommon chlorinated ones (1 and 2), and verruculides B2 (5) and B3 (6), as well as seven known ones (7-13), were isolated from the fermentation broth of Penicillium sp. SCS-KFD09 isolated from a marine worm, Sipunculus nudus, from Haikou Bay, China. The structures including the absolute configurations of the new compounds were unambiguously elucidated by spectroscopic data, X-ray diffraction analysis, and ECD spectra analysis along with quantum ECD calculations. In addition, the X-ray crystal structures and absolute configurations of two previously reported meroterpenoids, chrodrimanins F (9) and A (11), are described for the first time. Compounds 1, 4, and 7 displayed anti-H1N1 activity with IC50 values of 74, 58, and 34 μM, respectively, while compound 5 showed weak inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus with an MIC of 32 μg/mL.

  10. Hydrolysis of protein and model dipeptide substrated by attached and nonattached marine Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIMB 2021

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, P.C.; Fletcher, M. )

    1991-08-01

    Rates of substrate hydrolysis by nonattached bacteria and by bacteria attached to particles derived from marine diatom frustules were estimated by using two substrates, a dipeptide analog and a protein. Adsorption of the two substrates onto the particles was also evaluated. Methyl-coumarinyl-amide-leucine (MCA-leucine) was used to estimate hydrolysis of dipeptides by measuring an increase in fluorescence as MCA-leucine was hydrolyzed to leucine and the fluorochrome methylcoumarin. To examine hydrolysis of a larger molecule, was prepared a radiolabeled protein by {sup 14}C-methylation of bovine serum albumin. The rate of protein hydrolysis in samples of particle-attached or nonattached bacteria was estimated by precipitating all nonhydrolyzed protein with cold trichloroacetic acid and then determining the trichloroacetic acid-soluble radiolabeled material, which represented methyl-{sup 14}C-peptides and -amino acids. About 25% of the MCA-leucine adsorbed to the particles. MCA-leucine was hydrolyzed faster by nonattached than attached bacteria, which was probably related to its tendency to remain dissolved in the liquid phase. In contrast, almost 100% of the labeled protein adsorbed to the particles. Accordingly, protein was much less available to nonattached bacteria but was rapidly hydrolyzed by attached bacteria.

  11. 2-n-Pentyl-4-Quinolinol Produced by a Marine Alteromonas sp. and Its Potential Ecological and Biogeochemical Roles†

    PubMed Central

    Long, Richard A.; Qureshi, Asfia; Faulkner, D. John; Azam, Farooq

    2003-01-01

    Bacterium-bacterium interactions occur at intimate spatial scales on the order of micrometers, but our knowledge of interactions at this level is rudimentary. Antagonism is a potential interaction in such microenvironments. To study the ecological role of antibiosis, we developed a model system involving an antibiotic-producing isolate (SWAT5) derived from a marine particle and its dominant antibiotic product, 2-n-pentyl-4-quinolinol (PQ). This system was used to address questions about the significance of this antibiotic for microbial ecology and carbon cycling on particles. We characterized the chemical and inhibitory properties of PQ in relation to the mechanisms used by particle-associated bacteria in interacting with particles and with other attached bacteria. PQ was produced by SWAT5 only on surfaces. When SWAT5 was grown in polysaccharide matrices, PQ diffused within the matrices but not into the surrounding seawater. SWAT5 might thus be able to generate a localized zone of high antibiotic concentration on particles suspended or sinking through seawater. Target bacterial respiration was most sensitive to PQ (75 nM), while inhibition of DNA synthesis, protein synthesis, and bacterial motility required higher (micromolar) PQ levels. The presence of PQ altered the composition of the bacterial community that colonized and developed in a model particle system. PQ also inhibited Synechococcus and phytoplankton growth. Our results suggest that antibiosis may significantly influence community composition and activities of attached bacterial and thus regulate the biogeochemical fate of particulate organic matter in the ocean. PMID:12514043

  12. Lamellarin O, a Pyrrole Alkaloid from an Australian Marine Sponge, Ianthella sp., Reverses BCRP Mediated Drug Resistance in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao-Cong; Xiao, Xue; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Talele, Tanaji T.; Salim, Angela A.; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Capon, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, such as P-gp, BCRP and MRP1, can increase efflux of clinical chemotherapeutic agents and lead to multi-drug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells. While the discovery and development of clinically useful inhibitors has proved elusive to date, this molecular target nevertheless remains a promising strategy for addressing and potentially overcoming MDR. In a search for new classes of inhibitor, we used fluorescent accumulation and efflux assays supported by cell flow cytometry and MDR reversal assays, against a panel of sensitive and MDR human cancer cell lines, to evaluate the marine sponge co-metabolites 1–12 as inhibitors of P-gp, BCRP or MRP1 initiated MDR. These studies identified and characterized lamellarin O (11) as a selective inhibitor of BCRP mediated drug efflux. A structure–activity relationship analysis inclusive of the natural products 1–12 and the synthetic analogues 13–19, supported by in silico docking studies, revealed key structural requirements for the lamellarin O (11) BCRP inhibitory pharmacophore. PMID:24979269

  13. Characterization of solvent, detergent and oxidizing agent stable protease from isolated Antarctic marine Streptomyces sp. XE-1.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yannan; Lu, Yuanyuan; Xing, Yingying; Xi, Tao

    2015-03-04

    A polar marine actinobacterium (XE-1) was selected and used to produce a protease with special characteristics. The XE-1 was identified as Streptomyces based on morphological, biochemical and molecular characterizations (16S rRNA gene sequence analysis). The protease was purified by 3 purification steps, including ethanol precipitation, ion exchange and gel chromatography. Its apparent molecular mass was estimated by SDS-PAGE. A solvent, detergent and oxidizing agent stable alkaline serine protease (with a low weight molecular, 14 kDa by SDS-PAGE) , secreted by strain XE-1, was purified and characterized. The protease was stable in the pH range between 5 and 10, with optimal pH 8.2 and optimal temperature 55 degrees C. K(m) and V(max) towards casein activity were 1.9 mg/mL and 973 U/mL, respectively. The protease was more active and stable in various hydrophilic organic solvents (such as dimethylformamid and toluene). Moreover, it was also active and stable in bleaching agents (such as hydrogen peroxide) ; and stable in denaturant agents (such as urea and guanidine hydrochloride) at the concentration from 0.2 mol/L to 4 mol/L, which were the new characteristics. These biochemical characteristics suggest this enzyme has the potential value in numerous industrial applications.

  14. Antiplasmodial activities of homogentisic acid derivative protein kinase inhibitors isolated from a Vanuatu marine sponge Pseudoceratina sp.

    PubMed

    Lebouvier, Nicolas; Jullian, Valérie; Desvignes, Isabelle; Maurel, Séverine; Parenty, Arnaud; Dorin-Semblat, Dominique; Doerig, Christian; Sauvain, Michel; Laurent, Dominique

    2009-11-23

    As part of our search for new antimalarial drugs in South Pacific marine sponges, we have looked for inhibitors of Pfnek-1, a specific protein kinase of Plasmodium falciparum. On the basis of promising activity in a preliminary screening, the ethanolic crude extract of a new species of Pseudoceratina collected in Vanuatu was selected for further investigation. A bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of a derivative of homogentisic acid [methyl (2,4-dibromo-3,6-dihydroxyphenyl)acetate, 4a] which inhibited Pfnek-1 with an IC(50) around 1.8 muM. This product was moderately active in vitro against a FcB1 P. falciparum strain (IC(50) = 12 muM). From the same sponge, we isolated three known compounds [11,19-dideoxyfistularin-3 (1), 11-deoxyfistularin-3 (2) and dibromo-verongiaquinol (3)] which were inactive against Pfnek-1. Synthesis and biological evaluation of some derivatives of 4a are reported.

  15. Optimization of culture conditions and medium composition for the marine algicidal bacterium Alteromonas sp. DH46 by uniform design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jing; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yun; Wang, Guizhong; Zheng, Tianling

    2013-09-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have led to extensive ecological and environmental issues and huge economic losses. Various HAB control techniques have been developed, and biological methods have been paid more attention. Algicidal bacteria is a general designation for bacteria which inhibit algal growth in a direct or indirect manner, and kill or damage the algal cells. A metabolite which is strongly toxic to the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense was produced by strain DH46 of the alga-lysing bacterium Alteromonas sp. The culture conditions were optimized using a single-factor test method. Factors including carbon source, nitrogen source, temperature, initial pH value, rotational speed and salinity were studied. The results showed that the cultivation of the bacteria at 28°C and 180 r min-1 with initial pH 7 and 30 salt contcentration favored both the cell growth and the lysing effect of strain DH46. The optimal medium composition for strain DH46 was determined by means of uniform design experimentation, and the most important components influencing the cell density were tryptone, yeast extract, soluble starch, NaNO3 and MgSO4. When the following culture medium was used (tryptone 14.0g, yeast extract 1.63g, soluble starch 5.0 g, NaNO3 1.6 g, MgSO4 2.3 g in 1L), the largest bacterial dry weight (7.36 g L-1) was obtained, which was an enhancement of 107% compared to the initial medium; and the algal lysis rate was as high as 98.4% which increased nearly 10% after optimization.

  16. Marivibrio halodurans gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium in the family Rhodospirillaceae isolated from underground rock salt.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoxing; Xu, Yao; Zheng, Chen; Ke, Li-Xia

    2017-09-18

    Gram-negative, spiral or curved rod-shaped cells of a bacterial strain, designated ZC80T, were isolated from a rock salt sample collected at Yunnan salt mine, China. Analysis of the strain's 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed a clear affiliation of this novel strain within the family Rhodospirillaceae. Strain ZC80T formed a robust cluster with Pelagibius litoralis CL-UU02T at a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity level of 88.1 %. Strain ZC80T shared no more than 91.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the type strains of other species in the family Rhodospirillaceae. Strain ZC80T was able to grow in the presence of 2-15 % (w/v) NaCl, and grew at 10-50 °C and pH 6.0-10.0. The major fatty acids were C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c (41.3 %). The major isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone 10 (Q-10). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified aminolipid. The DNA G+C content of strain ZC80T was 60.8 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses and chemotaxonomic and physiological data, strain ZC80T is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus in the family Rhodospirillaceae, for which the name Marivibrio halodurans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Marivibrio halodurans is ZC80T (=CGMCC 1.15697T=NBRC 112461T).

  17. Physiological and Genetic Description of Dissimilatory Perchlorate Reduction by the Novel Marine Bacterium Arcobacter sp. Strain CAB

    PubMed Central

    Carlström, Charlotte I.; Wang, Ouwei; Melnyk, Ryan A.; Bauer, Stefan; Lee, Joyce; Engelbrektson, Anna; Coates, John D.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT A novel dissimilatory perchlorate-reducing bacterium (DPRB), Arcobacter sp. strain CAB, was isolated from a marina in Berkeley, CA. Phylogenetically, this halophile was most closely related to Arcobacter defluvii strain SW30-2 and Arcobacter ellisii. With acetate as the electron donor, strain CAB completely reduced perchlorate (ClO4−) or chlorate (ClO3−) [collectively designated (per)chlorate] to innocuous chloride (Cl−), likely using the perchlorate reductase (Pcr) and chlorite dismutase (Cld) enzymes. When grown with perchlorate, optimum growth was observed at 25 to 30°C, pH 7, and 3% NaCl. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) preparations were dominated by free-swimming straight rods with 1 to 2 polar flagella per cell. Strain CAB utilized a variety of organic acids, fructose, and hydrogen as electron donors coupled to (per)chlorate reduction. Further, under anoxic growth conditions strain CAB utilized the biogenic oxygen produced as a result of chlorite dismutation to oxidize catechol via the meta-cleavage pathway of aerobic catechol degradation and the catechol 2,3-dioxygenase enzyme. In addition to (per)chlorate, oxygen and nitrate were alternatively used as electron acceptors. The 3.48-Mb draft genome encoded a distinct perchlorate reduction island (PRI) containing several transposases. The genome lacks the pcrC gene, which was previously thought to be essential for (per)chlorate reduction, and appears to use an unrelated Arcobacter c-type cytochrome to perform the same function. PMID:23695836

  18. Oleiphilaceae fam. nov., to include Oleiphilus messinensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel marine bacterium that obligately utilizes hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Golyshin, Peter N; Chernikova, Tatiana N; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Timmis, Kenneth N; Yakimov, Michail M

    2002-05-01

    A bacterial isolate, ME102T, was obtained from an n-hexadecane enrichment culture of seawater/sediment samples collected in the harbour of Messina (Italy). This gram-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacterium used a narrow spectrum of organic compounds, including aliphatic hydrocarbons, alkanoates and alkanoles, as carbon and energy sources. None of the sugars, organic acids or amino acids tested was used. During cultivation on n-alkanes as the sole source of carbon and energy, the cells formed a biofilm on the surface of the alkane droplets. Large-scale (sometimes >50% of the cell mass) intracellular accumulation of alkanoates occurred in cells adsorbed on the alkane surface and under nitrogen-limiting conditions. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that this isolate represents a distinct lineage in the gamma-Proteobacteria and has about 91% sequence identity to members of Marinobacter and Alcanivorax, the closest genera. Four different types of polar lipid could be detected, phosphatidyl glycerol, phosphatidyl ethylamine, phosphatidyl dimethylethylamine and lipids belonging to an unknown type of phospholipid (m/z between 861 and 879). The principal fatty acids in the polar lipid fatty acid profile were 16:0 and 16:1. The putative gene encoding the key enzyme of alkane catabolism, alkane hydroxylase (AlkB), has been cloned. The protein sequence of the putative AlkB of the isolate ME102T was related to the AlkB of Pseudomonas oleovorans and Alcanivorax borkumensis, showing about 60% sequence identity. On the basis of physiological studies and taking into account the distant phylogenetic position of isolate ME102T relative to previously described organisms, a novel genus and species is proposed, Oleiphilus messinensis gen. nov., sp. nov., within a new family, Oleiphilaceae fam. nov. Strain ME102T (= DSM 13489T = LMG 20357T) is the type and only strain of O. messinensis.

  19. Methanoculleus taiwanensis sp. nov., a methanogen isolated from deep marine sediment at the deformation front area near Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chieh-Yin; Chen, Sheng-Chung; Lai, Mei-Chin; Wu, Sue-Yao; Lin, Saulwood; Yang, Tsanyao F; Chen, Po-Chun

    2015-03-01

    A mesophilic, hydrogenotrophic methanogen, strain CYW4(T), was isolated from deep-sea sediment obtained by the Ocean Researcher I cruiser, ORI-961, in 2011. The sediment was from the deformation front area offshore of south-western Taiwan. Here, seismic reflections indicated that methane hydrates were abundant. The methanogenic substrates utilized by strain CYW4(T) were formate and H2/CO2, but not acetate, secondary alcohols, methylamines, methanol and ethanol. Cells of strain CYW4(T) were non-motile, irregular cocci and 0.6-1.5 µm in diameter. The S-layer protein had an Mr of 112 000. The optimum growth conditions were at 37 °C, pH 8.1 and 0.08 M NaCl. Growth of the strain was stimulated by acetate. The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA of strain CYW4(T) was 61 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain CYW4(T) was most closely related to Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1(T) (96.82 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Based on the morphological, phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics presented here, it is evident that strain CYW4(T) represents a novel species of the genus Methanoculleus, and the name Methanoculleus taiwanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CYW4(T) ( = BCRC AR10043(T) = NBRC 110782(T)). The optical density of cultures of strain CYW4(T) dropped abruptly upon entering the stationary growth phase. During this time numerous particles of approximately 50 nm in diameter were observed on and around the cells. This suggests that strain CYW4(T) harbours a lytic virus that is induced in the stationary phase, which is of interest because only a few lytic viruses have been reported in methanogens.

  20. Hydrogen production from organic substrates in an aerobic nitrogen-fixing marine unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain Miami BG 043511

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y.H.; Mitsui, A. )

    1994-11-20

    Synechococcus sp. strain Miami BG 043511 exhibits very high H[sub 2] photoproduction from water, but the H[sub 2] photo-production capability is lost rapidly with the age of the batch culture. The decrease of the capability coincides with the decrease of cellular glucose content. However, H[sub 2] photoproduction capability can be restored by the addition of organic substrates. Among 40 organic compounds tested, carbohydrates such as glucose, fructose, maltose, and sucrose were effective electron donors. Among organic acids tested, only pyruvate was an effective electron donor. Among alcohols tested, glycerol was a good electron donor, whereas ethanol was a poor but positive electron donor. These results demonstrate that this unicellular cyanobacterium exhibits a wide substrate specificity for H[sub 2] photoproduction but has a different substrate specificity compared to photosynthetic bacteria. The maximum rates of H[sub 2] photoproduction from a 6-day-old batch culture with 25 mmol of pyruvate, glucose, maltose, sucrose, fructose, and glycerol were 1.11, 0.62, 0.05, 0.47, 0.30, and 0.39 [mu]moles per mg cell dry weight per hour respectively. Therefore, this cyanobacterial strain may have a potential significance in removing organic materials from the wastewater and simultaneously transforming them to H[sub 2] gas, a pollution-free energy. The activity of nitrogenase, which catalyzes hydrogen production, completely disappeared when intracellular glucose was used up, but it could be restored by the addition of organic substrates such as glucose and pyruvate.

  1. Cloning and characterization of a new κ-carrageenase gene from marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. QY203

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoyan; Li, Shangyong; Yang, Xuemei; Yu, Wengong; Han, Feng

    2015-12-01

    κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides exhibit various biological activities. Enzymatic degradation by κ-carrageenase is safe and controllable. Therefore, κ-carrageenases have captured more and more attentions. In this study, a κ-carrageenase encoding gene, cgkX, was cloned from Pseudoalteromonas sp. QY203 with degenerate and inverse PCR. It comprised an ORF of 1194 bp in length, encoding a protein with 397 amino acid residues. CgkX is a new member of glycoside hydrolase family 16. The deduced amino acid sequence shared a high similarity with CgkX of Pseudoalteromonas κ-carrageenase; however, the recombinant CgkX showed different biochemical characteristics. The recombinant enzyme was most active at pH 7.0 and 55°C in the presence of 300 mmol L-1 NaCl. It was stable in a broad range of acidity ranging from pH 3.0 to pH 10.0 when temperature was below 40°C. More than 80% of its activity was maintained after being incubated at pH 3.6-10.0 and 4°C for 24 h. CgkX retained more than 90% of activity after being incubated at 40°C for 1 h. EDTA and SDS (1 mmol L-1) did not inhibit its activity. CgkX hydrolyzed κ-carrageenan into disaccharide and tetrasaccharide as an endo-cleaver. All these characteristics demonstrated that CgkX is applicable to both κ-carrageenan oligosaccharide production and κ-carrageenase structure-function research.

  2. Methylosphaera hansonii gen. nov., sp. nov., a psychrophilic, group I methanotroph from Antarctic marine-salinity, meromictic lakes.

    PubMed

    Bowman, J P; McCammon, S A; Skerratt, J H

    1997-04-01

    Methanotrophic bacteria were enumerated and isolated from the chemocline and surface sediments of marine-salinity Antarctic meromictic lakes located in the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica (68 degrees S 78 degrees E). Most probable number (MPN) analysis indicated that at the chemocline of Ace Lake the methanotroph population made up only a small proportion of the total microbial population and was sharply stratified, with higher populations detected in the surface sediments collected at the edge of Ace Lake and Burton Lake. Methanotrophs were not detected in Pendant Lake. Only a single phenotypic group of methanotrophs was successfully enriched, enumerated and isolated into pure culture from the lake samples. Strains of this group were non-motile, coccoidal in morphology, did not form resting cells, reproduced by constriction, and required seawater for growth. The strains were also psychrophilic, with optimal growth occurring at 10-13 degrees C and maximum growth temperatures of 16-21 degrees C. The ribulose monophosphate pathway but not the serine pathway for incorporation of C1 compounds was detectable in the strains. The guanine plus cytosine (G + C) content of the genomic DNA was 43-46 mol%. Whole-cell fatty acid analysis indicated that 16:1 omega 8c (37-41%), 16:1 omega 6c (17-19%), 16:1 omega 7c (15-19%) and 16:0 (14-15%) were the major fatty acids in the strains. 16s rDNA sequence analysis revealed that the strains form a distinct line of descent in the family Methylococcaceae (group I methanotrophs), with the closest relative being the Louisiana Slope methanotrophic mytilid endosymbiont (91.8-92.3% sequence similarity). On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic characteristics the Antarctic lake isolates represent a novel group I methanotrophic genus with the proposed name Methylosphaera hansonii (type strain ACAM 549).

  3. Desulfobaculum xiamenensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Desulfovibrionaceae isolated from marine mangrove sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chao; Gao, Zhaoming; Qin, Qiwei; Li, Fuying; Ruan, Lingwei

    2012-07-01

    A taxonomic study was carried out on strain P1(T), which was isolated from mangrove sediment samples collected from Qinglan Port (Hainan, China). Cells were curved rods, that were motile, with a single polar flagellum. The strain was non-spore-forming with a cell size of 0.6×1.5-2.2 µm. Catalase and oxidase activities were not detected. Growth was observed in the temperature range 22-44 °C (optimum, 35-40 °C) and pH range 5.5-8.5 (optimum, pH 7.0). NaCl was required for growth and tolerated at up to 3.5% (w/v) (optimum, 0.5%). Strain P1(T) utilized hydrogen, succinate, L-malate, citrate, oxalate, DL-lactate, pyruvate, or cysteine as electron donors, and sulfate or sulfite as electron acceptors. Fermentation products from pyruvate were acetate, H(2) and CO(2). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain P1(T) formed a distinct evolutionary lineage within the family Desulfovibrionaceae. Strain P1(T) was most closely related to members of the genera Desulfovibrio (92.0-94.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Desulfocurvus (91.1%), Bilophila (87.9%) and Lawsonia (86.0%) of the family Desulfovibrionaceae. The DNA G+C content of strain P1(T) was 64.5 mol% and the major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15:0) (18.8%), anteiso-C(15:0) (5.0%), C(16:0) (14.2%) and iso-C(17:1)ω9c (24.4%). The predominant menaquinone was MK-7 (97%). Major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. Strain P1(T) was distinguishable from members of phylogenetically related genera by differences in several phenotypic properties. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, strain P1(T) represents a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Desulfobaculum xiamenensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Desulfobaculum xiamenensis is P1(T) (=CGMCC 1.5166(T)=DSM 24233(T)).

  4. Labrenzia suaedae sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from a halophyte, and emended description of the genus Labrenzia.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Fehmida; Jeong, Jae Heon; Chung, Eu Jin; Jeon, Che Ok; Chung, Young Ryun

    2014-04-01

    An endophytic, Gram-staining-negative bacterium was isolated from sterilized roots of a plant, Suaeda maritima, growing on tidal flats. Cells of the strain were motile by means of a single polar flagellum and colonies were pigmented light brown. Strain YC6927(T) was able to grow at 15-37 °C (optimum at 28-30 °C) and at pH 5.0-10.0 (optimum at pH 7.0-8.0). The strain was able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 0-9.0 % (w/v), with optimum growth at 0-5.0 % NaCl. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain was a member of the genus Labrenzia, exhibiting the highest similarity to Labrenzia marina mano18(T) (97.6 % sequence similarity). Strain YC6927(T) produced light-brown carotenoid pigments. The major respiratory quinone was Q-10 and the DNA G+C content was 58.5 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness between strain YC6927(T) and closely related strains was between 8.2±1.8 and 20.3±1.5 %. Strain YC6927(T) contained summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c) and C14 : 0 3-OH as major fatty acids, confirming the affiliation of the strain with the genus Labrenzia. The polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, an unknown aminolipid, an unknown phospholipid and five unknown lipids. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, physiological and biochemical characterization and DNA-DNA hybridization data, strain YC6927(T) should be assigned to a novel species of the genus Labrenzia, for which the name Labrenzia suaedae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC6927(T) ( = KACC 13772(T) = DSM 22153(T)). An emended description of the genus Labrenzia is also proposed.

  5. Aerosol Hygroscopicity in the Marine Atmosphere: a Closure Study Using High- Resolution, Size-Resolved AMS and Multiple-RH DASH-SP Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hersey, S. P.; Sorooshian, A.; Murphy, S.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2008-12-01

    We have conducted the first closure study to couple high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) composition data with size-resolved, multiple-RH, high-time-resolution hygroscopic growth factor (GF) measurements from the differential aerosol sizing and hygroscopicity spectrometer probe (DASH-SP). These data were collected off the coast of Central California during seven of the 16 flights carried out during the MASE-II field campaign in July 2007. Two of the seven flights were conducted in airmasses that originated over the continental United States. These flights exhibited elevated organic volume fractions (VForganic =~0.46 ± 0.22, as opposed to 0.24 ± 0.18 for all other flights), corresponding to significantly suppressed GFs at high RH (1.61 ± 0.14 at 92%RH, as compared with 1.91 ± 0.07 for all other flights), more moderate GF suppression at intermediate RH (1.53 ± 0.10 at 85%, compared with 1.58 ± 0.08 for all other flights, and no measurable GF suppression at low RH (1.31 ± 0.06 at 74%, compared with 1.31 ± 0.07 for all other flights). Organic loadings were slightly elevated in above-cloud aerosols, as compared with below-cloud aerosols, and corresponded to a similar trend of significantly suppressed GF at high RH, but more moderate impacts at lower values of RH. A hygroscopic closure based on a volume-weighted mixing rule provided excellent agreement with DASH-SP measurements (R2 = 0.79). Minimization of root mean square error between observations and predictions indicated mission-averaged organic GFs of 1.20, 1.43, and 1.46 at 74, 85, and 92% RH, respectively. These values agree with previously reported values for water-soluble organics such as dicarboxylic and multifunctional acids, and correspond to a highly oxidized, presumably water-soluble, organic fraction (O:C = 0.92 ± 0.33). Finally, a backward stepwise linear regression revealed that, other than RH, the most important predictor for GF is VForganic, indicating that a simple emperical model

  6. Aerosol hygroscopicity in the marine atmosphere: a closure study using high-resolution, size-resolved AMS and multiple-RH DASH-SP data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hersey, S. P.; Sorooshian, A.; Murphy, S. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2008-09-01

    We have conducted the first closure study to couple high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) composition data with size-resolved, multiple-RH, high-time-resolution hygroscopic growth factor (GF) measurements from the differential aerosol sizing and hygroscopicity spectrometer probe (DASH-SP). These data were collected off the coast of Central California during seven of the 16 flights carried out during the MASE-II field campaign in July 2007. Two of the seven flights were conducted in airmasses that originated over the continental United States. These flights exhibited elevated organic volume fractions (VForganic=0.46±0.22, as opposed to 0.24±0.18 for all other flights), corresponding to significantly suppressed GFs at high RH (1.61±0.14 at 92% RH, as compared with 1.91±0.07 for all other flights), more moderate GF suppression at intermediate RH (1.53±0.10 at 85%, compared with 1.58±0.08 for all other flights, and no measurable GF suppression at low RH (1.31±0.06 at 74%, compared with 1.31±0.07 for all other flights). Organic loadings were slightly elevated in above-cloud aerosols, as compared with below-cloud aerosols, and corresponded to a similar trend of significantly suppressed GF at high RH, but more moderate impacts at lower values of RH. A hygroscopic closure based on a volume-weighted mixing rule provided excellent agreement with DASH-SP measurements (R2=0.79). Minimization of root mean square error between observations and predictions indicated mission-averaged organic GFs of 1.20, 1.43, and 1.46 at 74, 85, and 92% RH, respectively. These values agree with previously reported values for water-soluble organics such as dicarboxylic and multifunctional acids, and correspond to a highly oxidized, presumably water-soluble, organic fraction (O:C=0.92±0.33). Finally, a backward stepwise linear regression revealed that, other than RH, the most important predictor for GF is VForganic, indicating that a simple emperical model relating GF, RH, and

  7. Dethiosulfatibacter aminovorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel thiosulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from coastal marine sediment via sulfate-reducing enrichment with Casamino acids.

    PubMed

    Takii, Susumu; Hanada, Satoshi; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Ueno, Yutaka; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Ibe, Akihiro; Matsuura, Katsumi

    2007-10-01

    A sulfate-reducing enrichment culture originating from coastal marine sediment of the eutrophic Tokyo Bay, Japan, was successfully established with Casamino acids as a substrate. A thiosulfate reducer, strain C/G2(T), was isolated from the enrichment culture after further enrichment with glutamate. Cells of strain C/G2(T) were non-motile rods (0.6-0.8 microm x 2.2-4.8 microm) and were found singly or in pairs and sometimes in short chains. Spores were not formed. Cells of strain C/G2(T) stained Gram-negatively, despite possessing Gram-positive cell walls. The optimum temperature for growth was 28-30 degrees C, the optimum pH was around 7.8 and the optimum salt concentration was 20-30 g l(-1). Lactate, pyruvate, serine, cysteine, threonine, glutamate, histidine, lysine, arginine, Casamino acids, peptone and yeast extract were fermented as single substrates and no sugar was used as a fermentative substrate. A Stickland reaction was observed with some pairs of amino acids. Fumarate, alanine, proline, phenylalanine, tryptophan, glutamine and aspartate were utilized only in the presence of thiosulfate. Strain C/G2(T) fermented glutamate to H2, CO2, acetate and propionate. Thiosulfate and elemental sulfur were reduced to sulfide. Sulfate, sulfite and nitrate were not utilized as electron acceptors. The growth of strain C/G2(T) on Casamino acids or glutamate was enhanced by co-culturing with Desulfovibrio sp. isolated from the original mixed culture enriched with Casamino acids. The DNA G+C content of strain C/G2(T) was 41.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain C/G2(T) formed a distinct cluster with species of the genus Sedimentibacter. The closest relative was Sedimentibacter hydroxybenzoicus (with a gene sequence similarity of 91 %). On the basis of its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, strain C/G2(T) (=JCM 13356(T)=NBRC 101112(T)=DSM 17477(T)) is proposed as representing a new genus and novel species, Dethiosulfatibacter

  8. The effect of Ca2+ ions and ionic strength on Mn(II) oxidation by spores of the marine Bacillus sp. SG-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Tebo, Bradley M.

    2013-01-01

    Manganese(IV) oxides, believed to form primarily through microbial activities, are extremely important mineral phases in marine environments where they scavenge a variety of trace elements and thereby control their distributions. The presence of various ions common in seawater are known to influence Mn oxide mineralogy yet little is known about the effect of these ions on the kinetics of bacterial Mn(II) oxidation and Mn oxide formation. We examined factors affecting bacterial Mn(II) oxidation by spores of the marine Bacillus sp. strain SG-1 in natural and artificial seawater of varying ionic conditions. Ca2+ concentration dramatically affected Mn(II) oxidation, while Mg2+, Sr2+, K+, Na+ and NO3- ions had no effect. The rate of Mn(II) oxidation at 10 mM Ca2+ (seawater composition) was four or five times that without Ca2+. The relationship between Ca2+ content and oxidation rate demonstrates that the equilibrium constant is small (on the order of 0.1) and the binding coefficient is 0.5. The pH optimum for Mn(II) oxidation changed depending on the amount of Ca2+ present, suggesting that Ca2+ exerts a direct effect on the enzyme perhaps as a stabilizing bridge between polypeptide components. We also examined the effect of varying concentrations of NaCl or KNO3 (0-2000 mM) on the kinetics of Mn(II) oxidation in solutions containing 10 mM Ca2+. Mn(II) oxidation was unaffected by changes in ionic strength (I) below 0.2, but it was inhibited by increasing salt concentrations above this value. Our results suggest that the critical coagulation concentration is around 200 mM of salt (I = ca. 0.2), and that the ionic strength of seawater (I > 0.2) accelerates the precipitation of Mn oxides around the spores. Under these conditions, the aggregation of Mn oxides reduces the supply of dissolved O2 and/or Mn2+ and inhibits the Mn(II) → Mn(III) step controlling the enzymatic oxidation of Mn(II). Our results suggest that the hardness and ionic strength of the aquatic environment

  9. Potential role of a novel psychrotolerant member of the family Geobacteraceae, Geopsychrobacter electrodiphilus gen. nov., sp. nov., in electricity production by a marine sediment fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Dawn E; Nicoll, Julie S; Bond, Daniel R; Lovley, Derek R

    2004-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that members of the family Geobacteraceae that attach to the anodes of sediment fuel cells are directly involved in harvesting electricity by oxidizing organic compounds to carbon dioxide and transferring the electrons to the anode. In order to learn more about this process, microorganisms from the anode surface of a marine sediment fuel cell were enriched and isolated with Fe(III) oxide. Two unique marine isolates were recovered, strains A1(T) and A2. They are gram-negative, nonmotile rods, with abundant c-type cytochromes. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, recA, gyrB, fusA, rpoB, and nifD genes indicated that strains A1(T) and A2 represent a unique phylogenetic cluster within the Geobacteraceae. Both strains were able to grow with an electrode serving as the sole electron acceptor and transferred ca. 90% of the electrons available in their organic electron donors to the electrodes. These organisms are the first psychrotolerant members of the Geobacteraceae reported thus far and can grow at temperatures between 4 and 30 degrees C, with an optimum temperature of 22 degrees C. Strains A1(T) and A2 can utilize a wide range of traditional electron acceptors, including all forms of soluble and insoluble Fe(III) tested, anthraquinone 2,6-disulfonate, and S(0). In addition to acetate, both strains can utilize a number of other organic acids, amino acids, long-chain fatty acids, and aromatic compounds to support growth with Fe(III) nitrilotriacetic acid as an electron acceptor. The metabolism of these organisms differs in that only strain A1(T) can use acetoin, ethanol, and hydrogen as electron donors, whereas only strain A2 can use lactate, propionate, and butyrate. The name Geopsychrobacter electrodiphilus gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed for strains A1(T) and A2, with strain A1(T) (ATCC BAA-880(T); DSM 16401(T); JCM 12469) as the type strain. Strains A1(T) and A2 (ATCC BAA-770; JCM 12470) represent the first organisms recovered from

  10. Planktomarina temperata gen. nov., sp. nov., belonging to the globally distributed RCA cluster of the marine Roseobacter clade, isolated from the German Wadden Sea.

    PubMed

    Giebel, Helge-Ansgar; Kalhoefer, Daniela; Gahl-Janssen, Renate; Choo, Yoe-Jin; Lee, Kiyoung; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Tindall, Brian J; Rhiel, Erhard; Beardsley, Christine; Aydogmus, Omer O; Voget, Sonja; Daniel, Rolf; Simon, Meinhard; Brinkhoff, Thorsten

    2013-11-01

    Four heterotrophic bacterial strains belonging to the globally distributed marine RCA (Roseobacter clade-affiliated) cluster (family Rhodobacteraceae, class Alphaproteobacteria) were obtained from coastal seawater samples. Strain RCA23(T) was isolated from a 10(-7) dilution culture inoculated with seawater from the German Wadden Sea (southern North Sea), reflecting the high abundance of RCA bacteria in this habitat. Strains IMCC1909, IMCC1923 and IMCC1933 were isolated from diluted seawater (10(-3)) of the Yellow Sea, South Korea. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison, Octadecabacter antarcticus 307(T) is the closest described relative of the RCA strains, with 95.4-95.5 % sequence similarity. Cells of RCA23(T), IMCC1909, IMCC1923 and IMCC1933 are small motile rods requiring sodium ions. Optimal growth of RCA23(T) occurs at 25 °C and within a very narrow pH range (pH 7-8, optimum pH 7.5). The DNA G+C base content of RCA23(T) is 53.67 mol%. The major respiratory lipoquinone is ubiquinone-10 (Q-10) and the dominant fatty acids (>1 %) are 12 : 1 3-OH, 16 : 1ω7c, 16 : 0, 18 : 1ω7c, 18 : 0 and 11-methyl 18 : 1ω7c. The polar lipid pattern indicated the presence of phosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified phospholipids. On marine agar, RCA23(T) forms non-pigmented, transparent to light beige, small (<1 mm), circular, convex colonies. Strain RCA23(T) harbours all genes for the production of bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a). Genes encoding the light-harvesting reaction centre of BChl a (pufM) were identified in all RCA strains. No visible pigmentation was observed for any of the strains under laboratory conditions, but spectrophotometric analysis revealed weak production of BChl a by RCA23(T). Morphological, physiological and genotypic features of strain RCA23(T) suggest that it represents a novel species of a new genus within the Rhodobacteraceae, for which we propose the name Planktomarina temperata gen. nov

  11. Parasphingopyxis algicola sp. nov., isolated from a marine red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis and emended description of the genus Parasphingopyxis Uchida et al. 2012.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sang Eun; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Baek, Kyunghwa; Jeon, Che Ok

    2017-09-08

    An aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain ATAX6-5T, was isolated from a marine red alga, Asparagopsistaxiformis, in South Korea. Cells were non-motile rods showing catalase- and oxidase-positive reactions. Growth of strain ATAX6-5T was observed at 5-35 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH 6.0-9.5 (optimum, pH 7.0) and in the presence of 0-6.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2 %). Ubiquinone-10 was detected as the sole isoprenoid quinone and C18 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0 and C17 : 1ω6c were identified as the major cellular fatty acids. Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylcholine, an unknown phospholipid and four unknown glycolipids were detected as polar lipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 60.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain ATAX6-5T formed a tight phylogenic lineage with Parasphingopyxis lamellibrachiae JAMH 0132T with a 100 % bootstrap value. Strain ATAX6-5T was most closely related to P. lamellibrachiae JAMH 0132T with a 96.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular features, strain ATAX6-5T clearly represents a novel species of the genus Parasphingopyxis, for which the name Parasphingopyxis algicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ATAX6-5T (=KACC 18993T=JCM 31719T). An emended description of the genus Parasphingopyxis is also proposed.

  12. Whole genome sequencing of the symbiont Pseudovibrio sp. from the intertidal marine sponge Polymastia penicillus revealed a gene repertoire for host-switching permissive lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Alex, Anoop; Antunes, Agostinho

    2015-10-31

    Sponges harbour a complex consortium of microbial communities living in symbiotic relationship benefiting each other through the integration of metabolites. The mechanisms influencing a successful microbial association with a sponge partner are yet to be fully understood. Here, we sequenced the genome of Pseudovibrio sp. POLY-S9 strain isolated from the intertidal marine sponge Polymastia penicillus sampled from the Atlantic coast of Portugal to identify the genomic features favoring the symbiotic relationship. The draft genome revealed an exceptionally large genome size of 6.6 Mbp compared to the previously reported genomes of the genus Pseudovibrio isolated from a coral and a sponge larvae. Our genomic study detected the presence of several biosynthetic gene clusters- polyketide synthase (PKS), non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and siderophore, affirming the potential ability of the genus Pseudovibrio to produce a wide variety of metabolic compounds. Moreover, we identified a repertoire of genes encoding adaptive symbioses factors (eukaryotic-like proteins), such as the ankyrin-repeats (ANKs), tetratrico peptide repeats (TPRs) and Sel1 repeats that improve the attachment to the eukaryotic hosts and the avoidance of the host's immune response. The genome also harbored a large number of mobile elements (~5%) and gene transfer agents (GTA), which explains the massive genome expansion and suggest a possible mechanism of horizontal gene transfer. In conclusion, the genome of POLY-S9 exhibited an increase in size, number of mobile-DNA, multiple metabolite gene clusters and secretion systems, likely to influence the genome diversification and the evolvability. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  13. PTP1B Inhibitory and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Secondary Metabolites Isolated from the Marine-Derived Fungus Penicillium sp. JF-55

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Sung; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Ko, Wonmin; Kim, Kyoung-Su; Sohn, Jae Hak; Kang, Myeong-Suk; Ahn, Jong Seog; Kim, Youn-Chul; Oh, Hyuncheol

    2013-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) plays a major role in the negative re