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Sample records for dos marins sp

  1. Actinobacteria Associated with the Marine Sponges Cinachyra sp., Petrosia sp., and Ulosa sp. and Their Culturability

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shams Tabrez; Takagi, Motoki; Shin-ya, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Actinobacteria associated with 3 marine sponges, Cinachyra sp., Petrosia sp., and Ulosa sp., were investigated. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed that actinobacterial diversity varied greatly and that Ulosa sp. was most diverse, while Cinachyra sp. was least diverse. Culture-based approaches failed to isolate actinobacteria from Petrosia sp. or Ulosa sp., but strains belonging to 10 different genera and 3 novel species were isolated from Cinachyra sp. PMID:22214828

  2. The marine mites Hyadesia sp. and Copidognathus sp. Associated with the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Martínez, J; Vásquez-Yeomans, R; Rentería, Y G; Curiel-Ramírez, S; Valdéz, J A; Rivas, G

    2000-10-01

    Two species of marine mites belonging to the families Hyadesiidae and Halacaridae, Hyadesia sp. and Copidognathus sp., respectively, were found associated with the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from Baja California in NW México. The first species was found inside the mussel gut with an intensity ranging from one to six mites per mussel and their prevalence was from 20.0 to 46.7%; this species was also found living free in the sediment at a density of 0.7 mite/100 ml. The second species was found on the mantle and gills of the host with an intensity ranging from one to three mites per host and their prevalence was from 3.3 to 6.7%; this species was abundant (4.5 mites/100 ml) and living free in the sediment around mussel clumps. Hyadesia sp. was found alive and attached in the gut of the mussel. A histological analysis revealed this species in the lumen of intestine surrounded by mucus and attached to the epithelial cells of the intestine, where some disorder of epithelial cells was associated. Moreover, this mite may be encapsulated by hemocytes inside the digestive diverticulum, the reproductive follicle, or the connective tissue surrounding the diverticulum. No damages to branches or gills resulting from the presence of Copidognathus sp. were observed. The results suggest that these mites are occasional invaders of mussels; however, as a result of this infestation, Hyadesia sp. may produce damage in the host's tissues. This is the first record of marine mites inside the gut, reproductive follicles, branches, and mantle of a marine bivalve.

  3. Oil from the tropical marine benthic-diatom Navicula sp.

    PubMed

    Nurachman, Zeily; Brataningtyas, Dewi Susan; Hartati; Panggabean, Lily Maria Goretty

    2012-11-01

    The potential of the tropical marine benthic-diatom Navicula sp. for biodiesel feedstock was investigated. Growth profiles were analyzed by changing nutrient compositions in three different media (Walne, plain seawater, and modified seawater) and irradiance intensities. Navicula sp. cells showed significant growth in Walne and modified seawater medium but not in plain seawater medium. The microalgae grew well in a pH range of 7.8-8.4, and the cells were very sensitive to the intensity of direct sunlight exposure. The average cell concentration obtained from the cultures in plain seawater, Walne, and modified seawater media at the beginning of the stationary phase was 0.70, 2.17, and 2.54 g/L, respectively. Electron spray ionization-ion trap-mass spectrometry showed that the triacylglycerols of the algae oil were identified as POP (palmitic-oleic-palmitic), POO (palmitic-oleic-oleic), and OOLn (oleic-oleic-linoleic). The oil productivity of Navicula sp. cultivated in Walne and modified seawater media was 90 and 124 μL L(-1) culture d(-1). The Navicula sp. biodiesel exhibited a kinematic viscosity of 1.299 mm(2)/s, density of 0.8347 g/mL, and internal energy of 0.90 kJ/mL.

  4. Antifouling activities of marine bacteria associated with sponge ( Sigmadocia sp.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satheesh, S.; Soniamby, A. R.; Sunjaiy Shankar, C. V.; Mary Josephine Punitha, S.

    2012-09-01

    The present study aimed at assessing the antifouling activity of bacteria associated with marine sponges. A total of eight bacterial strains were isolated from the surface of sponge Sigmadocia sp., of them, SS02, SS05 and SS06 showed inhibitory activity against biofilm-forming bacteria. The extracts of these 3 strains considerably affected the extracellular polymeric substance producing ability and adhesion of biofilm-forming bacterial strains. In addition to disc diffusion assay, microalgal settlement assay was carried out with the extracts mixed with polyurethane wood polish and coated onto stainless steel coupons. The extract of strain SS05 showed strong microalgal settlement inhibitory activity. Strain SS05 was identified as Bacillus cereus based on its 16S rRNA gene. Metabolites of the bacterial strains associated with marine invertebrates promise to be developed into environment-friendly antifouling agents.

  5. New streptophenazines from marine Streptomyces sp. 182SMLY.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ying; Chen, Lu; Ye, Xuewei; Anjum, Komal; Lian, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Zhizhen

    2017-02-01

    Six phenazines including three new ones were isolated from the culture of a marine actinomycete Streptomyces sp. 182SMLY. Based on the analyses of NMR, HRESIMS, optical rotation value, and CD data, the structures of these isolated compounds were determined as new phenazines of (-)-streptophenazines M-O and known phenazines of 1-carbomethoxyphenazine and (-)-streptophenazines A and B. (-)-Streptophenazine B showed activity in suppressing the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with MIC value of 4.2 μg/mL.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Microbacterium sp. Strain Alg239_V18, an Actinobacterium Retrieved from the Marine Sponge Spongia sp.

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Elham; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.; Reis, Margarida

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we describe the draft genome sequence of Microbacterium sp. strain Alg239_V18, an actinobacterium retrieved from the marine sponge Spongia sp. Genome annotation revealed a vast gene repertoire involved in antibiotic and heavy metal-resistance, and a versatile carbohydrate assimilation metabolism with potential for chitin utilization. PMID:28104653

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Microbacterium sp. Strain Alg239_V18, an Actinobacterium Retrieved from the Marine Sponge Spongia sp.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Elham; Gonçalves, Jorge M S; Reis, Margarida; Costa, Rodrigo

    2017-01-19

    Here, we describe the draft genome sequence of Microbacterium sp. strain Alg239_V18, an actinobacterium retrieved from the marine sponge Spongia sp. Genome annotation revealed a vast gene repertoire involved in antibiotic and heavy metal-resistance, and a versatile carbohydrate assimilation metabolism with potential for chitin utilization.

  8. Alkaloidal metabolites from a marine-derived Aspergillus sp. fungus.

    PubMed

    Liao, Lijuan; You, Minjung; Chung, Beom Koo; Oh, Dong-Chan; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon

    2015-03-27

    Fumiquinazoline S (1), a new quinazoline-containing alkaloid, and the known fumiquinazolines F (6) and L (7) of the same structural class were isolated from the solid-substrate culture of an Aspergillus sp. fungus collected from marine-submerged wood. In addition, isochaetominines A-C (2-4) and 14-epi-isochaetominine C (5), new alkaloids possessing an unusual amino acid-based tetracyclic core framework related to the fumiquinazolines, were isolated from the same fungal strain. The structures of these compounds were determined by combined spectroscopic methods, and the absolute configurations were assigned by NOESY, ROESY, and advanced Marfey's analyses along with biogenetic considerations. The new compounds exhibited weak inhibition against Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase.

  9. Bioactive Polycyclic Quinones from Marine Streptomyces sp. 182SMLY

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Ying; Xie, Xin; Chen, Lu; Yan, Shilun; Ye, Xuewei; Anjum, Komal; Huang, Haocai; Lian, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Zhizhen

    2016-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the cultures of marine Streptomyces sp. 182SMLY led to the discovery of two new polycyclic anthraquinones, which were elucidated as N-acetyl-N-demethylmayamycin (1) and streptoanthraquinone A (2) based on the extensive spectroscopic analysis including 2D NMR, HRESIMS, and an electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation. Both anthraquinones remarkably suppressed the proliferation of four different glioma cell lines with IC50 values in a range from 0.5 to 7.3 μM and induced apoptosis in the glioma cells. The ratios of IC50 for normal human astrocytes to IC50 for glioma cells were 6.4–53 for 1 and >14–31 for 2. N-acetyl-N-demethylmayamycin (1) also inhibited the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with MIC 20.0 μM. PMID:26751456

  10. Salinispora pacifica sp. nov., an actinomycete from marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Lina; Jensen, Paul R; Freel, Kelle C; Brown, Ros; Jones, Amanda L; Kim, Byung-Yong; Goodfellow, Michael

    2013-05-01

    A polyphasic analysis was carried out to clarify the taxonomic status of four marine actinomycete strains that share a phylogenetic relationship and phenotypic characteristics with the genus Salinispora. These strains formed a distinct lineage within the Salinispora 16S rRNA and gyrB trees and were found to possess a range of phenotypic properties and DNA:DNA hybridization values that distinguished them from the type strains of the two validly named species in this genus, Salinispora tropica (CNB-440(T), ATCC BAA-916(T)) and Salinispora arenicola (CNH-643(T), ATCC BAA-917(T)). The combined genotypic and phenotypic data support this conclusion. It is proposed that the strains be designated as Salinispora pacifica sp. nov., the type strain of which is CNR-114(T) (DSMZ YYYYT = KACC 17160(T)).

  11. Symbiotic Fungus of Marine Sponge Axinella sp. Producing Antibacterial Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trianto, A.; Widyaningsih, S.; Radjasa, OK; Pribadi, R.

    2017-02-01

    The emerging of multidrug resistance pathogenic bacteria cause the treatment of the diseaseshave become ineffective. There for, invention of a new drug with novel mode of action is an essential for curing the disease caused by an MDR pathogen. Marine fungi is prolific source of bioactive compound that has not been well explored. This study aim to obtain the marine sponges-associated fungus that producing anti-MDR bacteria substaces. We collected the sponge from Riung water, NTT, Indonesia. The fungus was isolated with affixed method, followed with purification with streak method. The overlay and disk diffusion agar methods were applied for bioactivity test for the isolate and the extract, respectively. Molecular analysis was employed for identification of the isolate. The sponge was identified based on morphological and spicular analysis. The ovelay test showed that the isolate KN15-3 active against the MDR Staphylococcus aureus and Eschericia coli. The extract of the cultured KN15-3 was also inhibited the S. aureus and E. coli with inhibition zone 2.95 mm and 4.13 mm, respectively. Based on the molecular analysis, the fungus was identified as Aspergillus sydowii. While the sponge was identified as Axinella sp.

  12. Pseudomonas pachastrellae sp. nov., isolated from a marine sponge.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Uchino, Masataka; Falsen, Enevold; Frolova, Galina M; Zhukova, Natalia V; Mikhailov, Valery V

    2005-03-01

    Two Gram-negative, non-fermentative, non-denitrifying, non-pigmented, rod-shaped bacteria that were motile by means of polar flagella, designated strains KMM 330(T) and KMM 331, were isolated from a deep-sea sponge specimen and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The new isolates exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.9 %, and their mean level of DNA-DNA relatedness was 82 %. Phylogenetic analysis based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the strains within the genus Pseudomonas as an independent deep clade. Strain KMM 330(T) shared highest sequence similarity (96.3 %) with each of Pseudomonas fulva NRIC 0180(T), Pseudomonas parafulva AJ 2129(T) and Pseudomonas luteola IAM 13000(T); sequence similarity to other recognized species of the genus Pseudomonas was below 95.7 %. The marine sponge isolates KMM 330(T) and KMM 331 could be distinguished from the other recognized Pseudomonas species based on a unique combination of their phenotypic characteristics, including growth in 8 or 10 % NaCl, the absence of pigments, the inability to denitrify and lack of carbohydrate utilization. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, physiological and biochemical characterization, strains KMM 330(T) and KMM 331 should be classified as a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas pachastrellae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KMM 330(T) (=JCM 12285(T)=NRIC 0583(T)=CCUG 46540(T)).

  13. Micromonospora profundi sp. nov., isolated from deep marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Veyisoglu, Aysel; Carro, Lorena; Cetin, Demet; Guven, Kiymet; Spröer, Cathrin; Pötter, Gabriele; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Sahin, Nevzat; Goodfellow, Michael

    2016-11-01

    A novel actinobacterial strain, designated DS3010T, was isolated from a Black Sea marine sediment and characterized using a polyphasic approach. The strain was shown to have chemotaxonomic, morphological and phylogenetic properties consistent with classification as representing a member of the genus Micromonospora. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence studies showed that the strain was most closely related to the type strains of Micromonospora saelicesensis (99.5 %), Micromonospora chokoriensis (99.4 %) and Micromonospora violae (99.3 %). Similarly, a corresponding analysis based on partial gyrB gene sequences showed that it formed a distinct phyletic branch in a subclade that included the type strains of Micromonosporazamorensis, 'Micromonospora zeae', 'Micromonospora jinlongensis', M. saelicesensis and Micromonospora lupini. DS3010T was distinguished from its closest phylogenetic neighbours by low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness and by a combination of chemotaxonomic and phenotypic properties. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that the isolate should be assigned to the genus Micromonospora as Micromonospora profundi sp. nov. with isolate DS3010T (=DSM 45981T=KCTC 29243T) as the type strain.

  14. Saccharicrinis marinus sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian-Qian; Li, Juan; Xiao, Di; Lu, Jin-Xing; Chen, Guan-Jun; Du, Zong-Jun

    2015-10-01

    A novel bacterial strain, designated Y11T, was isolated from marine sediment at Weihai in China. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that the novel isolate showed highest similarity to Saccharicrinis fermentans DSM 9555T (94.0 %) and Saccharicrinis carchari SS12T (92.7 %). Strain Y11T was a Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-endospore-forming, yellow-pigmented bacterium and was able to hydrolyse agar weakly. It was catalase-negative, oxidase-positive, facultatively anaerobic and motile by gliding. Optimal growth occurred at 28-30 °C, at pH 7.0-7.5 and in the presence of 2-3 % (w/v) NaCl. The DNA G+C content was 34.4 mol%. The strain contained MK-7 as the prevalent menaquinone. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and C15 : 1ω6c. The predominant polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and two unknown lipids. Data from the present polyphasic taxonomic study clearly place the strain as representing a novel species within the genus Saccharicrinis, for which the name Saccharicrinis marinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Y11T ( = CICC10837T = KCTC42400T).

  15. Marinagarivorans algicola gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from marine algae.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ling-Yun; Li, Dong-Qi; Sang, Jin; Chen, Guan-Jun; Du, Zong-Jun

    2016-01-27

    Novel agar-degrading, Gram-staining-negative, motile, heterotrophic, facultatively anaerobic and pale yellow-pigmented bacterial strains, designated Z1T and JL1, were isolated from marine algae Gelidium amansii (Lamouroux) and Gracilaria verrucosa, respectively. Growth of the isolates was optimal at 28-30 °C, pH 7.0-7.5 and 1-3% (w/v) NaCl. Both strains contained Q-8 as the sole respiratory quinone. The major cellular fatty acids in strain Z1T were C18:1 ω7c, C16:0 and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH). The predominant polar lipids in strain Z1T were phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and aminolipid (AL). The genomic DNA G+C content of both strains was 45.1 mol%. Strains Z1T and JL1 were closely related, with 99.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) value between strains Z1T and JL1 was 99.3%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains Z1T and JL1 form a distinct phyletic line within the class Gammaproteobacteria, with less than 92.3% similarity to their closest relatives. Based on data from the current polyphasic study, the isolates are proposed to belong to a new genus and species designated Marinagarivorans algicola gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Marinagarivorans algicola is Z1T (=ATCC BAA-2617T=CICC 10859T).

  16. Removal of Pb (II) by immobilized and free filaments of marine Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 and Phormidium sp. NTMS02.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Muthukannan Satheesh; Rajeshwari, Kamaraj; Johnson, Shani; Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Gunasekaran, Muthukumaran

    2011-09-01

    Pb(2+) removal ability of the immobilized and free filaments of marine cyanobacteria Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 and Phormidium sp. NTMS02 was studied using batch experiments. Biosorption of lead by immobilized filaments was studied as a function of pH (2, 4, 6, 8, 10), contact time (5-180 min) and initial lead concentration (1, 3, 5, 7 mg/L) and the removal efficiency of free filaments was studied by culturing in the marine medium with the initial concentration (1, 3, 5, 7 mg/L) at pH 7 and incubated for 10 days. The maximum percentage removal was observed at 25 min for immobilized Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 and 30 min for immobilized Phormidium sp. NTMS02. At 4th and 6th day of incubation, 89% and 77% removal was observed at 1 mg/L of initial lead concentration by free filaments of Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 and Phormidium sp. NTMS02 respectively and further the removal was decreased with increasing concentration. Chlorophyll-a content was decreased in a dose dependent manner. About 40 and 50% reduction of chlorophyll-a was observed at higher concentration in Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 and Phormidium sp. NTMS02 respectively. The adsorption capacity of immobilized Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 was found to be (Q(max)) 217.39 which is comparatively higher than other sorbents. The Pb(2+) removal efficiency was performed as described in terms of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. These organisms is found to fit better by the Langmuir isotherms.

  17. Kordia ulvae sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from the surface of green marine algae Ulva sp.

    PubMed

    Qi, Feng; Huang, Zhaobin; Lai, Qiliang; Li, Dengfeng; Shao, Zongze

    2016-04-20

    A novel bacterial strain SC2T was isolated from Ulva sp. a green marine algae. Strain SC2T was Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and had no flagellum. Oxidase and catalase were positive. Strain SC2T can degrade skim milk, agar, soluble starch, Tween 20 and Tween 80. The optimal salinity and temperature of strain SC2T were 2% and 30 °C, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene indicated that strain SC2T was affiliated to the genus Kordia, with highest sequence similarity to Kordia algicida OT-1T (97.23%), Kordia antarctica IMCC3317T (97.23%) and Kordia jejudonensis SSK3-3T (97.02%); other species of the genus Kordia shared 93.98%-95.78% sequence similarity. The ANI value and the DNA-DNA hybridization estimated value between strain SC2T and three type strains (K. algicida OT-1T, K. antarctica IMCC3317T and K. jejudonensis SSK3-3T) were found to be 79.4%-82.4% and 24.2%-27.0%, respectively. The predominant fatty acids (>5.0%) were C16:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C15:0 3-OH, iso-C17:0 3-OH, summed feature 3 (comprised C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c), summed feature 8 (comprised C18:1 ω7c/C18:1 ω6c) and summed feature 9 (comprised iso-C17:1 ω9c/C16:0 10-methyl). The respiratory quinone was Menaquinone-6 (MK-6). The polar lipid profile consisted of four unknown lipids, three unidentified phospholipids, one unidentified aminolipid and one phosphatidylethanolamine. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 34.5 mol%. The combined genotypic and phenotypic data showed that strain SC2T represents a novel species within the genus Kordia, for which the name Kordia ulvae sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain SC2T (= KCTC 42872T = MCCC 1A01772T = LMG 29123T).

  18. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. H-KF8, a Marine Actinobacterium Isolated from a Northern Chilean Patagonian Fjord.

    PubMed

    Undabarrena, Agustina; Ugalde, Juan Antonio; Castro-Nallar, Eduardo; Seeger, Michael; Cámara, Beatriz

    2017-02-09

    Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 is a fjord-derived marine actinobacterium capable of producing antimicrobial activity. Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 was isolated from sediments of the Comau fjord, located in the northern Chilean Patagonia. Here, we report the 7.7-Mb genome assembly, which represents the first genome of a Chilean marine actinobacterium.

  19. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. H-KF8, a Marine Actinobacterium Isolated from a Northern Chilean Patagonian Fjord

    PubMed Central

    Undabarrena, Agustina; Ugalde, Juan Antonio; Castro-Nallar, Eduardo; Seeger, Michael

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 is a fjord-derived marine actinobacterium capable of producing antimicrobial activity. Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 was isolated from sediments of the Comau fjord, located in the northern Chilean Patagonia. Here, we report the 7.7-Mb genome assembly, which represents the first genome of a Chilean marine actinobacterium. PMID:28183776

  20. Havispora longyearbyenensis gen. et sp. nov.: an arctic marine fungus from Svalbard, Norway.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ka-Lai; Chiang, Michael W L; Vrijmoed, Lilian L P

    2008-01-01

    Information on the diversity and ecology of arctic marine fungi is lacking. During a short visit to Longyearbyen (78 degrees 13'N 15 degrees 33'E), Svalbard, Norway, a new marine fungus growing on driftwood collected at the shore was encountered. This taxon belongs to the Halosphaeriales (Ascomycota), a fungal order of mostly marine species. Havispora longyearbyenensis gen. et sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Nautosphaeria and Nereiospora, all with tufts of appendages at polar and equatorial positions of the ascospore but differing in color and septation of the ascospore and morphology and ontogeny of the ascospore appendage.

  1. Cyclobacterium halophilum sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from a coastal-marine wetland.

    PubMed

    Shahinpei, Azadeh; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Sepahy, Abbas Akhavan; Schumann, Peter; Ventosa, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, slightly halophilic bacterium, designated strain GASx41(T), was isolated from soil of the coastal-marine wetland Gomishan in Iran. Cells of strain GASx41(T) were curved, ring-like or horseshoe-shaped rods and non-motile. Strain GASx41(T) was strictly aerobic, and catalase- and oxidase-positive. The strain was able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 1-10% (w/v), with optimum growth occurring at 2.5-3% (w/v) NaCl. The optimum temperature and pH for growth were 25-30 °C and pH 7.5-8.0. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain GASx41(T) was shown to belong to the genus Cyclobacterium within the phylum Bacteroidetes and showed closest phylogenetic similarity to 'Cyclobacterium jeungdonense' HMD3055 (98.0%). The DNA G+C content of strain GASx41(T) was 48.1 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids of strain GASx41(T) were iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 4 (iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c), anteiso-C15 : 0 2-OH, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, and its polar lipid pattern consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and 12 unknown lipids. The only quinone present was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). All these features confirmed the placement of isolate GASx41(T) within the genus Cyclobacterium. On the basis of evidence from this study, a novel species of the genus Cyclobacterium, Cyclobacterium halophilum sp. nov., is proposed, with strain GASx41(T) ( = IBRC-M 10761(T) = CECT 8341(T)) as the type strain.

  2. Sterols from Thai Marine Sponge Petrosia (Strongylophora) sp. and Their Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Pailee, Phanruethai; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Prachyawarakorn, Vilailak

    2017-01-01

    Eight new sterols (1–5 and 11–13), together with eight known compounds (6–10 and 14–16) were isolated from marine sponge Petrosia sp. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The cytotoxicity of some compounds against a panel of human cancer cell lines is also reported. PMID:28241489

  3. Genome Sequence of Marinobacter sp. Strain MCTG268 Isolated from the Cosmopolitan Marine Diatom Skeletonema costatum

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, William B.; Huntemann, Marcel; Copeland, Alex; Chen, Amy; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Pillay, Manoj; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Andersen, Evan; Pati, Amrita; Stamatis, Dimitrios; Reddy, T. B. K.; Ngan, Chew Yee; Chovatia, Mansi; Daum, Chris; Shapiro, Nicole; Cantor, Michael N.; Woyke, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Marinobacter sp. strain MCTG268 was isolated from the cosmopolitan marine diatom Skeletonema costatum and can degrade oil hydrocarbons as sole sources of carbon and energy. Here, we present the genome sequence of this strain, which is 4,449,396 bp with 4,157 genes and an average G+C content of 57.0%. PMID:27609918

  4. Genome Sequence of Marinobacter sp. Strain MCTG268 Isolated from the Cosmopolitan Marine Diatom Skeletonema costatum.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Tony; Whitman, William B; Huntemann, Marcel; Copeland, Alex; Chen, Amy; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Pillay, Manoj; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Andersen, Evan; Pati, Amrita; Stamatis, Dimitrios; Reddy, T B K; Ngan, Chew Yee; Chovatia, Mansi; Daum, Chris; Shapiro, Nicole; Cantor, Michael N; Woyke, Tanja

    2016-09-08

    Marinobacter sp. strain MCTG268 was isolated from the cosmopolitan marine diatom Skeletonema costatum and can degrade oil hydrocarbons as sole sources of carbon and energy. Here, we present the genome sequence of this strain, which is 4,449,396 bp with 4,157 genes and an average G+C content of 57.0%.

  5. Development of a gene cloning system for the hydrogen-producing marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, T.; Matsunaga, N.; Tsubaki, K.; Tanaka, T.

    1986-10-01

    Seventy-six strains of marine photosynthetic bacteria were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis for plasmid DNA content. Among these strains, 12 carried two to four different plasmids with sizes ranging from 3.1 to 11.0 megadaltons. The marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 had two plasmids, pRD06S and pRD06L. The smaller plasmid, pRD06S, had a molecular weight of 3.8 megadaltons and was cut at a single site by restriction endonucleases SalI, SmaI, PstI, XhoI, and BglII. Moreover, the marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 containing plasmid pRD06 had a satisfactory growth rate (doubling time, 7.5 h), a hydrogen-producing rate of 0.96 ..mu..mol/mg (dry weight) of cells per h, and nitrogen fixation capability. Plasmid pRD06S, however, had neither drug resistance nor heavy-metal resistance, and its copy number was less than 10. Therefore, a recombinant plasmid consisting of pRD06S and Escherichia coli cloning vector pUC13 was constructed and cloned in E. coli. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106. As a result, Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 developed ampicillin resistance. Thus, a shuttle vector for gene transfer was constructed for marine photosynthetic bacteria.

  6. Puupehanol, a Sesquiterpene-Dihydroquinone Derivative from the Marine Sponge Hyrtios sp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puupehanol (1), a new sesquiterpene-dihydroquinone derivative, was isolated from the marine sponge Hyrtios sp., along with the known compounds puupehenone (2) and chloropuupehenone (3). The structure of 1 was established as (20R,21R)-21-hydroxy-20,21-dihydropuupehenone by interpretation of spectros...

  7. Taxonomy of Marine Bacteria: Beneckea nigrapulchrituda sp. n

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Paul; Baumann, Linda; Mandel, M.; Allen, Richard D.

    1971-01-01

    Fourteen bacterial strains of marine origin, which formed colonies containing crystals of a blue-black pigment, were submitted to a morphological, physiological, and nutritional characterization. The results indicated that these organisms form a new species of the genus Beneckea. Images PMID:4945200

  8. Psychroflexus saliphilus sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped, orange pigmented strain, WDS4A13**T, was isolated from a marine solar saltern in Weihai, China. WDS4A13**T grows optimally at pH at 7.0-8.0, 33°C, with 6% (w/v) NaCl. The polar lipid profile of the novel isolate consisted of two unidentified phospholipi...

  9. Marine Pseudovibrio sp. as a Novel Source of Antimicrobials

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Susan P.; O’Gara, Fergal; O’Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D.; Dobson, Alan D. W.

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance among pathogenic microorganisms is becoming ever more common. Unfortunately, the development of new antibiotics which may combat resistance has decreased. Recently, however the oceans and the marine animals that reside there have received increased attention as a potential source for natural product discovery. Many marine eukaryotes interact and form close associations with microorganisms that inhabit their surfaces, many of which can inhibit the attachment, growth or survival of competitor species. It is the bioactive compounds responsible for the inhibition that is of interest to researchers on the hunt for novel bioactives. The genus Pseudovibrio has been repeatedly identified from the bacterial communities isolated from marine surfaces. In addition, antimicrobial activity assays have demonstrated significant antimicrobial producing capabilities throughout the genus. This review will describe the potency, spectrum and possible novelty of the compounds produced by these bacteria, while highlighting the capacity for this genus to produce natural antimicrobial compounds which could be employed to control undesirable bacteria in the healthcare and food production sectors. PMID:25501794

  10. Discorhabdins from the Korean marine sponge Sceptrella sp.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ju-Eun; Na, Zeyei; Jung, Misong; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Sim, Chung J; Nahm, Keepyung; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon

    2010-02-26

    Two new pyrroloiminoquinone alkaloids of the discorhabdin class, along with 12 compounds including one previously described synthetic derivative of the same and related skeletal classes, were isolated from the sponge Sceptrella sp., collected from Gageodo, Korea. The structures of these new compounds, designated as (-)-3-dihydrodiscorhabdin D (11) and (-)-discorhabdin Z (12), were determined by combined spectroscopic analyses. Compound 12 possesses an unusual hemiaminal group among the discorhabdin alkaloids. These compounds exhibited moderate to significant cytotoxicity, antibacterial activity, and inhibitory activity against sortase A.

  11. Antibiofilm Activity of the Marine Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain 3J6▿

    PubMed Central

    Dheilly, Alexandra; Soum-Soutéra, Emmanuelle; Klein, Géraldine L.; Bazire, Alexis; Compère, Chantal; Haras, Dominique; Dufour, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Biofilm formation results in medical threats or economic losses and is therefore a major concern in a variety of domains. In two-species biofilms of marine bacteria grown under dynamic conditions, Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain 3J6 formed mixed biofilms with Bacillus sp. strain 4J6 but was largely predominant over Paracoccus sp. strain 4M6 and Vibrio sp. strain D01. The supernatant of Pseudoalteromonas sp. 3J6 liquid culture (SN3J6) was devoid of antibacterial activity against free-living Paracoccus sp. 4M6 and Vibrio sp. D01 cells, but it impaired their ability to grow as single-species biofilms and led to higher percentages of nonviable cells in 48-h biofilms. Antibiofilm molecules of SN3J6 were able to coat the glass surfaces used to grow biofilms and reduced bacterial attachment about 2-fold, which might partly explain the biofilm formation defect but not the loss of cell viability. SN3J6 had a wide spectrum of activity since it affected all Gram-negative marine strains tested except other Pseudoalteromonas strains. Biofilm biovolumes of the sensitive strains were reduced 3- to 530-fold, and the percentages of nonviable cells were increased 3- to 225-fold. Interestingly, SN3J6 also impaired biofilm formation by three strains belonging to the human-pathogenic species Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli. Such an antibiofilm activity is original and opens up a variety of applications for Pseudoalteromonas sp. 3J6 and/or its active exoproducts in biofilm prevention strategies. PMID:20363799

  12. Pseudomonas creosotenesis sp. n., a Creosote-tolerant Marine Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Thomas B.; Drisko, Richard W.; Hochman, Harry

    1961-01-01

    In a study of the marine biological environment in which creosoted pilings are located, a previously unreported species of bacteria was isolated. This species was detected on creosoted piling from 11 widely differing locations and was the predominant species of bacteria found on these piling. The new organism was identified as a gram-negative rod belonging to the genus Pseudomonas and has been named Pseudomonas creosotensis. It has been completely described by the standard morphological and biochemical tests. Images FIG. 1 PMID:14480909

  13. New Marine Sterols from a Gorgonian Pinnigorgia sp.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Chia; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Chao, Chih-Hua; Sung, Ping-Jyun

    2017-03-03

    Continuous chemical investigation of the gorgonian coral Pinnigorgia sp. resulted in the isolation of two new sterols, 5α,6α-epoxy-(22E,24R)-3β,11-dihydroxy-9,11-secoergosta-7-en-9-one (1) and (22R)-acetoxy-(24ξ)-ergosta-5-en-3β,25-diol (2). The structures of sterols 1 and 2 were elucidated using spectroscopic methods. Sterol 1 displayed inhibitory effects on the generation of superoxide anions and the release of elastase by human neutrophils with IC50 values of 8.65 and 5.86 μM, respectively. The structure of a known metabolite, pubinernoid A (3), is revised as (+)-loliolide (4).

  14. Bacillus cellulasensis sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Mawlankar, Rahul; Thorat, Meghana N; Krishnamurthi, Srinivasan; Dastager, Syed G

    2016-01-01

    A novel bacterial strain NIO-1130(T) was isolated from sediment sample taken from Chorao Island, Goa Province, India, and subjected to a taxonomic investigation. The strain was Gram-positive, aerobic, and motile. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the isolate within the genus Bacillus and strain NIO-1130(T) showed highest sequence similarity with Bacillus halosaccharovorans DSM 25387(T) (98.4%) and Bacillus niabensis CIP 109816(T) (98.1%), whereas other Bacillus species showed <97.0% similarity. Tree based on gyrB gene sequence revealed that strain bacillus group. The major menaquinone was MK-7 and the predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, iso-C17:0, and anteiso-C17:0. The strain showed a DNA G+C content of 39.9 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization studies revealed that strain NIO-1130(T) exhibits 70% similarity with Bacillus halosaccharovorans DSM 25387(T) and Bacillus niabensis CIP 109816(T). On the basis of physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, we consider the isolate to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus cellulasensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is NIO-1130(T) (=NCIM 5461(T)=CCTCC AB 2011126(T)).

  15. Optimization of medium and cultivation conditions for enhanced exopolysaccharide yield by marine Cyanothece sp. 113

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chuandong; Chi, Zhenming; Lu, Weidong

    2007-10-01

    Cyanothece sp. 113 is a unicellular, aerobic, diazotrophic and photosynthetic marine cyanobacterium. The optimal medium for exopolysaccharide yield by the strain was 70.0 g/L of NaCl, and 0.9 g/L of MgSO4 based on the modified F/2 medium for cultivation of marine algae. The optimal cultivation condition for exopolysaccharide yield by this cyanobacterial strain was 29°C, aeration, and continuous illumination at 86.0 μE/M2/S. Under the optimal conditions, over 18.4 g/L of exopolysaccharide was produced within 12 days. This was so far the highest exopolysaccharide yield produced with strains of Cyanothece sp. obtained.

  16. Antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized by marine Ochrobactrum sp.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Roshmi; Janardhanan, Anju; Varghese, Rintu T; Soniya, E V; Mathew, Jyothis; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2014-01-01

    Metal nanoparticle synthesis is an interesting area in nanotechnology due to their remarkable optical, magnetic, electrical, catalytic and biomedical properties, but there needs to develop clean, non-toxic and environmental friendly methods for the synthesis and assembly of nanoparticles. Biological agents in the form of microbes have emerged up as efficient candidates for nanoparticle synthesis due to their extreme versatility to synthesize diverse nanoparticles with varying size and shape. In the present study, an eco favorable method for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using marine bacterial isolate has been attempted. Very interestingly, molecular identification proved it as a strain of Ochrobactrum anhtropi. In addition, the isolate was found to have the potential to form silver nanoparticles intracellularly at room temperature within 24 h. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed a peak at 450 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. The SEM and TEM micrographs revealed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a size range from 38 nm - 85 nm. The silver nanoparticles synthesized by the isolate were also used to explore its antibacterial potential against pathogens like Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus.

  17. Genome Sequence of the Agar-Degrading Marine Bacterium Alteromonadaceae sp. Strain G7

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Min-Jung; Song, Ju Yeon; Kim, Byung Kwon; Chi, Won-Jae; Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Choi, Soobeom; Chang, Yong-Keun

    2012-01-01

    Here, we present the high-quality draft genome sequence of the agar-degrading marine gammaproteobacterium Alteromonadaceae sp. strain G7, which was isolated from coastal seawater to be utilized as a bioresource for production of agar-derived biofuels. The 3.91-Mb genome contains a number of genes encoding algal polysaccharide-degrading enzymes such as agarases and sulfatases. PMID:23209220

  18. Isolation and Structural Elucidation of Chondrosterins F–H from the Marine Fungus Chondrostereum sp

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hou-Jin; Chen, Ting; Xie, Ying-Lu; Chen, Wen-Dan; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Lan, Wen-Jian

    2013-01-01

    The marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. was collected from a soft coral of the species Sarcophyton tortuosum from the South China Sea. Three new compounds, chondrosterins F–H (1, 4 and 5), together with three known compounds, incarnal (2), arthrosporone (3), and (2E)-decene-4,6,8-triyn-1-ol (6), were isolated. Their structures were elucidated primarily based on NMR and MS data. Incarnal (2) exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines. PMID:23434797

  19. A new 3-alkylpyridine alkaloid from the marine sponge Haliclona sp. and its cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huawei; Loveridge, Steven T; Tenney, Karen; Crews, Phillip

    2016-06-01

    A new alkaloid, 3-dodecyl pyridine containing a terminal cyano group (1), was isolated from the methanol extract of an Indonesia marine sponge Haliclona sp. Its chemical structure was determined by a combination of spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR. Bioassay results indicated that compound 1 had moderate cytotoxity against tumour cell lines A549, MCF-7 and Hela with IC50 values of 41.8, 48.4 and 33.2 μM, respectively.

  20. Complete genome sequence of the marine planctomycete Pirellula sp. strain 1

    PubMed Central

    Glöckner , F. O.; Kube, M.; Bauer , M.; Teeling, H.; Lombardot, T.; Ludwig, W.; Gade, D.; Beck, A.; Borzym, K.; Heitmann, K.; Rabus, R.; Schlesner, H.; Amann, R.; Reinhardt , R.

    2003-01-01

    Pirellula sp. strain 1 (“Rhodopirellula baltica”) is a marine representative of the globally distributed and environmentally important bacterial order Planctomycetales. Here we report the complete genome sequence of a member of this independent phylum. With 7.145 megabases, Pirellula sp. strain 1 has the largest circular bacterial genome sequenced so far. The presence of all genes required for heterolactic acid fermentation, key genes for the interconversion of C1 compounds, and 110 sulfatases were unexpected for this aerobic heterotrophic isolate. Although Pirellula sp. strain 1 has a proteinaceous cell wall, remnants of genes for peptidoglycan synthesis were found. Genes for lipid A biosynthesis and homologues to the flagellar L- and P-ring protein indicate a former Gram-negative type of cell wall. Phylogenetic analysis of all relevant markers clearly affiliates the Planctomycetales to the domain Bacteria as a distinct phylum, but a deepest branching is not supported by our analyses. PMID:12835416

  1. Genetic transformation of marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. CC9311 (Cyanophyceae) by electroporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huaxin; Lin, Hanzhi; Jiang, Peng; Li, Fuchao; Qin, Song

    2013-03-01

    Synechococcus sp. CC9311 is a marine cyanobacterium characterized by type IV chromatic acclimation (CA). A genetic transformation system was developed as a first step to elucidate the molecular mechanism of CA. The results show that Synechococcus sp. CC9311 cells were sensitive to four commonly used antibiotics: ampicillin, kanamycin, spectinomycin, and chloramphenicol. An integrative plasmid to disrupt the putative phycoerythrin lyase gene mpeV, using a kanamycin resistance gene as selectable marker, was constructed by recombinant polymerase chain reaction. The plasmid was then transformed into Synechococcus sp. CC9311 via electroporation. High transformation efficiency was achieved at a field strength of 2 kV/cm. DNA analysis showed that mpeV was fully disrupted following challenge of the transformants with a high concentration of kanamycin. In addition, the transformants that displayed poor growth on agar SN medium could be successfully plated on agarose SN medium.

  2. Two new Huffmanela species, H. japonica n. sp. and H. shikokuensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Trichosomoididae), from marine fishes in Japan.

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Koudela, B; Ogawa, K; Nagasawa, K

    1998-06-01

    Two new species of trichuroid nematodes. Huffmanela japonica n. sp. and Huffmanela shikokuensis n. sp., are established on the basis of their egg morphology and biological characters; the eggs of both species occur in the musculature of marine fishes from the Inland Sea of Japan. The dark-shelled eggs of H. japonica are found locally in masses ("black spots") in the flesh of Upeneus bensasi (Temminck et Schlegel) (Mullidae, Perciformes) and are characterized mainly by their shape and size (58-69 x 26-30 microm), an aspinose superficial transparent envelope enclosing the egg proper, relatively small polar plugs, and by their thick egg wall (4-5 microm). The eggs of H. shikokuensis are also dark-colored and are found evenly distributed in the musculature of Stephanolepis cirrhifer (Temminck et Schlegel) (Monacanthidae, Tetraodontiformes); they are characterized mainly by their shape and size (78-90 X 36-45 microm), by a very thin and aspinose superficial transparent envelope, large polar plugs, and relatively thin egg wall (3 microm). Histological sections of the host's infected musculature showed the presence of H. shikokuensis nematodes inside the muscle cells and in the intercellular spaces. A key to Huffmanela species based on egg morphology is provided.

  3. Bile acids are new products of a marine bacterium, Myroides sp. strain SM1.

    PubMed

    Maneerat, Suppasil; Nitoda, Teruhiko; Kanzaki, Hiroshi; Kawai, Fusako

    2005-06-01

    Strain SM1 was isolated as a biosurfactant-producing microorganism from seawater and presumptively identified as Myroides sp., based on morphology, biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence. The strain produced surface-active compounds in marine broth, which were purified, using emulsification activity for n-hexadecane as an indicator. The purified compounds were identified by thin-layer chromatography, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectra and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry as cholic acid, deoxycholic acid and their glycine conjugates. Type strains of the genus Myroides, M. odoratus JCM7458 and M. odoramitimus JCM7460, also produced these compounds. Myroides sp. strain SM1 possessed a biosynthetic route to cholic acid from cholesterol. Thus, bile acids were found as new products of prokaryotic cells, genus Myroides.

  4. Living together: the marine amoeba Thecamoeba hilla Schaeffer, 1926 and its endosymbiont Labyrinthula sp.

    PubMed

    Dyková, Iva; Fiala, Ivan; Dvoráková, Helena; Pecková, Hana

    2008-11-01

    Two protists isolated simultaneously from the same sample of gill tissue of Psetta maxima (L.) were identified as Thecamoeba hilla Schaeffer, 1926 and Labyrinthula sp. A Labyrinthula strain (LTH) derived from a mixed culture of both organisms was well established in a short time, while subcultures of T. hilla continued to be associated with Labyrinthula cells despite all efforts to eliminate them. Ultrastructural examination, repeated several times in the course of long-lasting subculturing of amoebae, revealed that trophozoites of T. hilla host in their cytoplasm multiplying labyrinthulid cells. Comparison of SSU rDNA sequences of the Labyrinthula strain LTH and those from labyrinthulid endosymbionts from T. hilla verified the assumption that the extra- and intra-cellularly multiplying Labyrinthula cells are identical organisms. The association of the marine amoeba T. hilla and Labyrinthula sp. displayed signs of mutualistic symbiosis.

  5. Hydrogen production of a salt tolerant strain Bacillus sp. B2 from marine intertidal sludge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongyan; Wang, Guangce

    2012-01-01

    To isolate a salt tolerant hydrogen-producing bacterium, we used the sludge from the intertidal zone of a bathing beach in Tianjin as inoculum to enrich hydrogen-producing bacteria. The sludge was treated by heat-shock pretreatment with three different temperature (80, 100 and 121°C) respectively. A hydrogen-producing bacterium was isolated from the sludge pretreated at 80°C by sandwich plate technique and identified using microscopic examination and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The isolated bacterium was named as Bacillus sp. B2. The present study examined the hydrogen-producing ability of Bacillus sp. B2. The strain was able to produce hydrogen over a wide range of initial pH from 5.0 to 10.0, with an optimum at pH 7.0. The level of hydrogen production was also affected by the salt concentration. Strain B2 has unique capability to adapt high salt concentration. It could produce hydrogen at the salt concentration from 4 to 60‰. The maximum of hydrogen-producing yield of strain B2 was 1.65 ± 0.04 mol H(2)/mol glucose (mean ± SE) at an initial pH value of 7.0 in marine culture conditions. Hydrogen production under fresh culture conditions reached a higher level than that in marine ones. As a result, it is likely that Bacillus sp. B2 could be applied to biohydrogen production using both marine and fresh organic waste.

  6. Trace element accumulation in Cassiopea sp. (Scyphozoa) from urban marine environments in Australia.

    PubMed

    Templeman, Michelle A; Kingsford, Michael J

    2010-03-01

    Jellyfishes are robust, short-lived animals, tolerant to a wide range of environmental conditions and pollutants. The benthic jellyfish, Cassiopea sp. was collected from five locations along the north and eastern coast of Australia and analysed for trace elements to determine if this species has potential as a marine biomonitor. Both the oral arm and bell tissues readily accumulated aluminium, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc above ambient seawater levels. In contrast, lithium appeared to be actively regulated within the tissues while calcium, magnesium and strontium reflected the ambient environment. The multi-element signatures showed spatial variation, reflecting the geographical separations between locations, with locations closer together showing more similar elemental patterns. The combination of bioaccumulative capacity, life history traits and biophysical aspects indicate that this species has high potential as a biomonitor in coastal marine systems.

  7. The Electrospray Ionization - Mass Spectra of Erythromycin A Obtained from a Marine Streptomyces sp. Mutant

    PubMed Central

    El-Bondkly, A. M.; Abd-Alla, Howaida I.; Shaaban, M.; Shaaban, K. A.

    2008-01-01

    In our ongoing search for production improvements of bioactive secondary metabolites from marine Streptomyces through the induction of mutations using UV light, out of 145 isolates, mutant 10/14 was able to produce potent antibacterial metabolites other than the parent strain as established by chromatographic analysis. Up-scaling fermentation of mutant 10/14, followed by working up and isolation delivered five metabolites, phenazine, 1-acetyl-β -carboline, perlolyrin and erythromycin A, along with an oily substance. The latter two compounds were responsible for the antibacterial activity of the strain. In this article, we discuss with the mutation of the marine Streptomyces sp. AH2, bioactivity evaluation, fermentation and isolation of the microbial metabolites. Moreover, we study to first time in detail the 1D and 2D NMR and ESI MS data including ESI MS2 and MS3 patterns combined with HRESI MS of erythromycin A. PMID:20046738

  8. Identification and characterization of a library of surfactins and fengycins from a marine endophytic Bacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Nair, Divya; Vanuopadath, Muralidharan; Nair, Bipin G; Pai, Jayashree Gopalakrishna; Nair, Sudarslal Sadasivan

    2016-11-01

    An endophytic bacterial strain from a marine green alga, Ulva lactuca, was isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing method. The bacterial isolate was found to secrete two major families of cyclic depsilipopeptides, surfactins, and fengycins. Sequencing of the isolated lipopeptides was carried out using the MS(n) data obtained from an electrospray ionization (ESI) ion trap mass spectrometer coupled to an HPLC system. The assigned sequences were confirmed by a chemical derivatization approach involving esterification followed by mass spectrometric analysis. Distinction of leucine residues from isoleucine was established through a combined electron transfer dissociation-collision-induced dissociation (ETD-CID) method. The fengycins described in this study were found to cause significant delay of growth of two plants, Vigna radiata (mung bean) and Oryza sativa (rice). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study describing identification and characterization of cyclic peptides from an endophytic Bacillus sp. isolated from marine algae.

  9. Plakinamine M, a Steroidal Alkaloid from the Marine Sponge Corticium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhenyu; Koch, Michael; Harper, Mary Kay; Matainaho, Teatulohi K.; Barrows, Louis R.; Van Wagoner, Ryan M.; Ireland, Chris M.

    2013-01-01

    Using bioassay-guided fractionation, a new steroidal alkaloid, plakinamine M (1), and the known compound, plakinamine L (2), with a unique acyclic side chain, were isolated from the marine sponge Corticium sp. collected from New Britain, Papua New Guinea. The structures were determined on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. The two compounds showed inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with MIC values of 15.8 and 3.6 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:24195491

  10. Two new antibiotic pyridones produced by a marine fungus, Trichoderma sp. strain MF106.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Oesker, Vanessa; Wiese, Jutta; Schmaljohann, Rolf; Imhoff, Johannes F

    2014-03-06

    Two unusual pyridones, trichodin A (1) and trichodin B (2), together with the known compound, pyridoxatin (3), were extracted from mycelia and culture broth of the marine fungus, Trichoderma sp. strain MF106 isolated from the Greenland Seas. The structures of the new compounds were characterized as an intramolecular cyclization of a pyridine basic backbone with a phenyl group. The structure and relative configuration of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic means. The new compound 1 and the known compound 3 showed antibiotic activities against the clinically relevant microorganism, Staphylococcus epidermidis, with IC₅₀ values of 24 μM and 4 μM, respectively.

  11. Isolation, identification, and cytotoxicity of a new isobenzofuran derivative from marine Streptomyces sp. W007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Xie, Zeping; Lou, Tingting; Jiang, Peng

    2016-03-01

    A new isobenzofuran derivative ( 1) was isolated from the marine Streptomyces sp. W007 and its structure was determined through extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR, and ESI-MS. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was determined by a combination of experimental analyses and comparison with reported data, including biogenetic reasoning, J-coupling analysis, NOESY, and 1H-1HCOSY. Compound 1 exhibited no cytotoxicity against human cells of gastric cancer BGC-823, lung cancer A549, and breast cancer MCF7.

  12. Pretrichodermamides D–F from a Marine Algicolous Fungus Penicillium sp. KMM 4672

    PubMed Central

    Yurchenko, Anton N.; Smetanina, Olga F.; Ivanets, Elena V.; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I.; Khudyakova, Yuliya V.; Kirichuk, Natalya N.; Popov, Roman S.; Bokemeyer, Carsten; von Amsberg, Gunhild; Chingizova, Ekaterina A.; Afiyatullov, Shamil Sh.; Dyshlovoy, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    Three new epidithiodiketopiperazines pretrichodermamides D–F (1–3), together with the known N-methylpretrichodermamide B (4) and pretrichodermamide С (5), were isolated from the lipophilic extract of the marine algae-derived fungus Penicillium sp. KMM 4672. The structures of compounds 1–5 were determined based on spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of pretrichodermamide D (1) was established by a combination of modified Mosher′s method, NOESY data, and biogenetic considerations. N-Methylpretrichodermamide B (5) showed strong cytotoxicity against 22Rv1 human prostate cancer cells resistant to androgen receptor targeted therapies. PMID:27355960

  13. New α-glucosidase inhibitors from marine algae-derived Streptomyces sp. OUCMDZ-3434

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhengbo; Hao, Jiejie; Wang, Liping; Wang, Yi; Kong, Fandong; Zhu, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    Wailupemycins H (1) and I (2) with a new skeleton coupled two 6-(2-phenylnaphthalene-1-yl)pyrane-2-one nuclei to a –CH2– linkage were identified from the culture of Streptomyces sp. OUCMDZ-3434 associated with the marine algae, Enteromorpha prolifera. Compounds 1 and 2 are two new α-glucosidase inhibitors with the Ki/IC50 values of 16.8/19.7 and 6.0/8.3 μM, respectively. In addition, the absolute configurations of wailupemycins D (3) and E (4) are also resolved in this paper for the first time. PMID:26822662

  14. Mass Spectrometric Characteristics of Prenylated Indole Derivatives from Marine-Derived Penicillium sp. NH-SL.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hui; Ding, Wanjing; Ma, Zhongjun

    2017-03-22

    Two prenylated indole alkaloids were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of a marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp. NH-SL and one of them exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against mouse hepa 1c1c7 cells. In order to detect other bioactive analogs, we used liquid chromatogram tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to analyze the mass spectrometric characteristics of the isolated compounds as well as the crude extracts. As a result, three other analogs were detected, and their structures were deduced according to the similar fragmentation patterns. This is the first systematic report on the mass spectrometric characteristics of prenylated indole derivatives.

  15. Mass Spectrometric Characteristics of Prenylated Indole Derivatives from Marine-Derived Penicillium sp. NH-SL

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hui; Ding, Wanjing; Ma, Zhongjun

    2017-01-01

    Two prenylated indole alkaloids were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of a marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp. NH-SL and one of them exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against mouse hepa 1c1c7 cells. In order to detect other bioactive analogs, we used liquid chromatogram tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to analyze the mass spectrometric characteristics of the isolated compounds as well as the crude extracts. As a result, three other analogs were detected, and their structures were deduced according to the similar fragmentation patterns. This is the first systematic report on the mass spectrometric characteristics of prenylated indole derivatives. PMID:28327529

  16. Two New Antibiotic Pyridones Produced by a Marine Fungus, Trichoderma sp. Strain MF106

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bin; Oesker, Vanessa; Wiese, Jutta; Schmaljohann, Rolf; Imhoff, Johannes F.

    2014-01-01

    Two unusual pyridones, trichodin A (1) and trichodin B (2), together with the known compound, pyridoxatin (3), were extracted from mycelia and culture broth of the marine fungus, Trichoderma sp. strain MF106 isolated from the Greenland Seas. The structures of the new compounds were characterized as an intramolecular cyclization of a pyridine basic backbone with a phenyl group. The structure and relative configuration of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic means. The new compound 1 and the known compound 3 showed antibiotic activities against the clinically relevant microorganism, Staphylococcus epidermidis, with IC50 values of 24 μM and 4 μM, respectively. PMID:24663111

  17. Vibrio psychroerythrus sp. n.: Classification of the Psychrophilic Marine Bacterium, NRC 1004

    PubMed Central

    D'aoust, J. Y.; Kushner, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    A red-pigmented organism, formerly known as marine psychrophile NRC 1004, has been classified as Vibrio psychroerythrus sp. n. Classification was mainly based on morphology, the ability of the organism to oxidize and ferment glucose, its sensitivity to vibriostat 0/129, and its deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of 40.0 moles% guanine plus cytosine, determined by thermal denaturation. The organism gave positive reactions for catalase, oxidase, and starch hydrolysis and produced acid from maltose and dextrin but not from arabinose. It was indole- and citrate-negative and reduced nitrate to nitrite without producing gas. PMID:5053463

  18. Plakinamine M, a steroidal alkaloid from the marine sponge Corticium sp.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhenyu; Koch, Michael; Harper, Mary Kay; Matainaho, Teatulohi K; Barrows, Louis R; Van Wagoner, Ryan M; Ireland, Chris M

    2013-11-22

    By means of bioassay-guided fractionation, a new steroidal alkaloid, plakinamine M (1), and the known compound, plakinamine L (2), with a unique acyclic side chain, were isolated from the marine sponge Corticium sp. collected from New Britain, Papua New Guinea. The structures were determined on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. The two compounds showed inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with MIC values of 15.8 and 3.6 μg/mL, respectively.

  19. Solwaric acids A and B, antibacterial aromatic acids from a marine Solwaraspora sp.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Gregory A; Wyche, Thomas P; Fry, Charles G; Braun, Doug R; Bugni, Tim S

    2014-02-14

    Two novel trialkyl-substituted aromatic acids, solwaric acids A and B, were isolated from a marine Solwaraspora sp. cultivated from the ascidian Trididemnum orbiculatum. Solwaric acids A and B were isotopically labeled with U-¹³C glucose, and analysis of a ¹³C-¹³C COSY allowed for unambiguous determination of the location of the phenyl methyl group. The two novel compounds demonstrated antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA).

  20. Lacinutrix gracilariae sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from the surface of a marine red alga Gracilaria sp.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhaobin; Li, Guizhen; Lai, Qiliang; Gu, Li; Shao, Zongze

    2015-11-09

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, non-flagellated, rod-shaped bacterium, designated as strain Lxc1T, was isolated from the surface of a marine red alga, Gracilaria sp., which was collected from the coastal regions in Jinjiang, Fujian Province, China. The colony of the strain was orange-yellow, circular and smooth. The 16S rRNA gene of Lxc1T had maximum sequence similarity with Lacinutrix himadriensis E4-9aT (97.1%), followed by L. jangbogonensis PAMC 27137T, L. copepodicola DJ3T, L. algicola AKS293T, and L. mariniflava AKS 432T (similarities <96.4%). Phylogenetic analysis showed strain Lxc1T formed a tight cluster with L. himadriensis E4-9aT and L. copepodicola DJ3T, but represented a novel lineage belonging to the genus Lacinutrix. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C15:1 G (18.3%), iso-C15:0 (16.7%), iso-C17:0-3OH (10.6%), and iso-C15:0-3OH (8.6%). Menaquinone-6 (MK-6) was the only respiratory quinone present. The DNA G+C content of Lxc1T was 31.7 mol%. Combining the results above, it was ascertained that the strain Lxc1T represented a novel species of the genus Lacinutrix, for which the name Lacinutrix gracilariae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Lxc1T (=MCCC 1A01567T=KCTC 42808T).

  1. Crystal Structure of Allophycocyanin from Marine Cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. A09DM

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Gagan Deep; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-01-01

    Isolated phycobilisome (PBS) sub-assemblies have been widely subjected to X-ray crystallography analysis to obtain greater insights into the structure-function relationship of this light harvesting complex. Allophycocyanin (APC) is the phycobiliprotein always found in the PBS core complex. Phycocyanobilin (PCB) chromophores, covalently bound to conserved Cys residues of α- and β- subunits of APC, are responsible for solar energy absorption from phycocyanin and for transfer to photosynthetic apparatus. In the known APC structures, heterodimers of α- and β- subunits (known as αβ monomers) assemble as trimer or hexamer. We here for the first time report the crystal structure of APC isolated from a marine cyanobacterium (Phormidium sp. A09DM). The crystal structure has been refined against all the observed data to the resolution of 2.51 Å to Rwork (Rfree) of 0.158 (0.229) with good stereochemistry of the atomic model. The Phormidium protein exists as a trimer of αβ monomers in solution and in crystal lattice. The overall tertiary structures of α- and β- subunits, and trimeric quaternary fold of the Phormidium protein resemble the other known APC structures. Also, configuration and conformation of the two covalently bound PCB chromophores in the marine APC are same as those observed in fresh water cyanobacteria and marine red algae. More hydrophobic residues, however, constitute the environment of the chromophore bound to α-subunit of the Phormidium protein, owing mainly to amino acid substitutions in the marine protein. PMID:25923120

  2. Aurantibacter crassamenti gen. nov., sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Kasai, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, orange-colored, rod-shaped, chemoheterotrophic bacterium, designated HG732(T), was isolated from marine sediment in Japan. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the novel marine strain was affiliated with the family Flavobacteriaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes and that it shared the highest (94.1 %) sequence similarity with Kriegella aquimaris KMM 3665(T). The strain could be differentiated phenotypically from related members of the family Flavobacteriaceae. Major fatty acids of strain HG732(T) were iso-C15:1 G, iso-C15:0 and iso-C17:0 3-OH. The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, three unidentidied aminolipids and two unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content of the strain was determined to be 35.2 mol%, and the major respiratory quinone was identified as menaquinone 6 (MK-6). From the distinct phylogenetic position and combination of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the strain is considered to represent a novel genus in the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Aurantibacter crassamenti gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. crassamenti gen. nov., sp. nov. is HG732(T) (= KCTC 52207(T) = NBRC 112211(T)).

  3. Marine Sponge-Derived Streptomyces sp. SBT343 Extract Inhibits Staphylococcal Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Srikkanth; Othman, Eman M.; Kampik, Daniel; Stopper, Helga; Hentschel, Ute; Ziebuhr, Wilma; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A.; Abdelmohsen, Usama R.

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are opportunistic pathogens that cause nosocomial and chronic biofilm-associated infections. Indwelling medical devices and contact lenses are ideal ecological niches for formation of staphylococcal biofilms. Bacteria within biofilms are known to display reduced susceptibilities to antimicrobials and are protected from the host immune system. High rates of acquired antibiotic resistances in staphylococci and other biofilm-forming bacteria further hamper treatment options and highlight the need for new anti-biofilm strategies. Here, we aimed to evaluate the potential of marine sponge-derived actinomycetes in inhibiting biofilm formation of several strains of S. epidermidis, S. aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results from in vitro biofilm-formation assays, as well as scanning electron and confocal microscopy, revealed that an organic extract derived from the marine sponge-associated bacterium Streptomyces sp. SBT343 significantly inhibited staphylococcal biofilm formation on polystyrene, glass and contact lens surfaces, without affecting bacterial growth. The extract also displayed similar antagonistic effects towards the biofilm formation of other S. epidermidis and S. aureus strains tested but had no inhibitory effects towards Pseudomonas biofilms. Interestingly the extract, at lower effective concentrations, did not exhibit cytotoxic effects on mouse fibroblast, macrophage and human corneal epithelial cell lines. Chemical analysis by High Resolution Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) of the Streptomyces sp. SBT343 extract proportion revealed its chemical richness and complexity. Preliminary physico-chemical characterization of the extract highlighted the heat-stable and non-proteinaceous nature of the active component(s). The combined data suggest that the Streptomyces sp. SBT343 extract selectively inhibits staphylococcal biofilm formation without interfering with bacterial cell viability. Due to

  4. Marine Sponge-Derived Streptomyces sp. SBT343 Extract Inhibits Staphylococcal Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Srikkanth; Othman, Eman M; Kampik, Daniel; Stopper, Helga; Hentschel, Ute; Ziebuhr, Wilma; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A; Abdelmohsen, Usama R

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are opportunistic pathogens that cause nosocomial and chronic biofilm-associated infections. Indwelling medical devices and contact lenses are ideal ecological niches for formation of staphylococcal biofilms. Bacteria within biofilms are known to display reduced susceptibilities to antimicrobials and are protected from the host immune system. High rates of acquired antibiotic resistances in staphylococci and other biofilm-forming bacteria further hamper treatment options and highlight the need for new anti-biofilm strategies. Here, we aimed to evaluate the potential of marine sponge-derived actinomycetes in inhibiting biofilm formation of several strains of S. epidermidis, S. aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results from in vitro biofilm-formation assays, as well as scanning electron and confocal microscopy, revealed that an organic extract derived from the marine sponge-associated bacterium Streptomyces sp. SBT343 significantly inhibited staphylococcal biofilm formation on polystyrene, glass and contact lens surfaces, without affecting bacterial growth. The extract also displayed similar antagonistic effects towards the biofilm formation of other S. epidermidis and S. aureus strains tested but had no inhibitory effects towards Pseudomonas biofilms. Interestingly the extract, at lower effective concentrations, did not exhibit cytotoxic effects on mouse fibroblast, macrophage and human corneal epithelial cell lines. Chemical analysis by High Resolution Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) of the Streptomyces sp. SBT343 extract proportion revealed its chemical richness and complexity. Preliminary physico-chemical characterization of the extract highlighted the heat-stable and non-proteinaceous nature of the active component(s). The combined data suggest that the Streptomyces sp. SBT343 extract selectively inhibits staphylococcal biofilm formation without interfering with bacterial cell viability. Due to

  5. Extraction and Identification of Antibacterial Secondary Metabolites from Marine Streptomyces sp. VITBRK2

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Benita Mercy; Kannabiran, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    Actinomycetes were isolated from marine sediment samples collected from the east coast of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Well diffusion and agar plug methods were used for the evaluation of antibiotic production by these isolates against drug resistant Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE). The potential isolate VITBRK2 was mass cultured for morphological and physiological characterization. The culturing conditions of the isolate were optimized and the recommendations of International Streptomyces Project were followed for the assimilation of carbon and nitrogen sources. The isolate was identified by comparing the properties with representative species in the key of Nonomura and Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Ethyl acetate extract prepared from the cell free culture broth of the isolate was analyzed using HPLC- diode array technique to characterize the metabolites and identify the antibiotics. VITBRK2 was found to be Gram-positive rod grey color aerial mycelium production. It was also non motile in nature with spiral spore chain morphology. VITBRK2 was identified as Streptomyces and designated as Streptomyces sp. VITBRK2. HPLC-DAD analysis showed the presence of indolo compounds (3- methyl-indole and 2-methyl- indole) along with amicoumacin antibiotic. The observed activity of Streptomyces sp. VITBRK2 against MRSA and VRE strains may be due to the presence of indolo compounds in the isolate. The results of this study suggested that secondary metabolites produced by Streptomyces sp. VITBRK2 could be used as a lead to control drug resistant bacterial pathogens. PMID:25317399

  6. Comparative genomic analysis provides insights into the evolution and niche adaptation of marine Magnetospira sp. QH-2 strain.

    PubMed

    Ji, Boyang; Zhang, Sheng-Da; Arnoux, Pascal; Rouy, Zoe; Alberto, François; Philippe, Nadège; Murat, Dorothée; Zhang, Wei-Jia; Rioux, Jean-Baptiste; Ginet, Nicolas; Sabaty, Monique; Mangenot, Sophie; Pradel, Nathalie; Tian, Jiesheng; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Lichen; Zhang, Wenyan; Pan, Hongmiao; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M; Li, Ying; Xiao, Tian; Médigue, Claudine; Barbe, Valérie; Pignol, David; Talla, Emmanuel; Wu, Long-Fei

    2014-02-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are capable of synthesizing intracellular organelles, the magnetosomes, that are membrane-bounded magnetite or greigite crystals arranged in chains. Although MTB are widely spread in various ecosystems, few axenic cultures are available, and only freshwater Magnetospirillum spp. have been genetically analysed. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of a marine magnetotactic spirillum, Magnetospira sp. QH-2. The high number of repeats and transposable elements account for the differences in QH-2 genome structure compared with other relatives. Gene cluster synteny and gene correlation analyses indicate that the insertion of the magnetosome island in the QH-2 genome occurred after divergence between freshwater and marine magnetospirilla. The presence of a sodium-quinone reductase, sodium transporters and other functional genes are evidence of the adaptive evolution of Magnetospira sp. QH-2 to the marine ecosystem. Genes well conserved among freshwater magnetospirilla for nitrogen fixation and assimilatory nitrate respiration are absent from the QH-2 genome. Unlike freshwater Magnetospirillum spp., marine Magnetospira sp. QH-2 neither has TonB and TonB-dependent receptors nor does it grow on trace amounts of iron. Taken together, our results show a distinct, adaptive evolution of Magnetospira sp. QH-2 to marine sediments in comparison with its closely related freshwater counterparts.

  7. Accelerator analysis of tributyltin adsorbed onto the surface of a tributyltin resistant marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. cell.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Haruo; Sato, Ryusei; Sasaki, Yu; Furuyama, Yuichi; Taniike, Akira; Yoshida, Kazutoshi; Kitamura, Akira

    2008-10-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) released into seawater from ship hulls is a stable marine pollutant and obviously remains in marine environments. We isolated a TBT resistant marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. TBT1 from sediment of a ship's ballast water. The isolate (10(9.3 +/- 0.2) colony-forming units mL(-1)) adsorbed TBT in proportion to the concentrations of TBTCl externally added up to 3 mM, where the number of TBT adsorbed by a single cell was estimated to be 10(8.2). The value was reduced to about one-fifth when the lysozyme-treated cells were used. The surface of ethanol treated cells became rough, but the capacity of TBT adsorption was the same as that for native cells. These results indicate that the function of the cell surface, rather than that structure, plays an important role to the adsorption of TBT. The adsorption state of TBT seems to be multi-layer when the number of more than 10(6.8) TBT molecules is adsorbed by a single cell.

  8. Accelerator Analysis of Tributyltin Adsorbed onto the Surface of a Tributyltin Resistant Marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. Cell

    PubMed Central

    Mimura, Haruo; Sato, Ryusei; Sasaki, Yu; Furuyama, Yuichi; Taniike, Akira; Yoshida, Kazutoshi; Kitamura, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) released into seawater from ship hulls is a stable marine pollutant and obviously remains in marine environments. We isolated a TBT resistant marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. TBT1 from sediment of a ship’s ballast water. The isolate (109.3 ± 0.2 colony-forming units mL−1) adsorbed TBT in proportion to the concentrations of TBTCl externally added up to 3 mM, where the number of TBT adsorbed by a single cell was estimated to be 108.2. The value was reduced to about one-fifth when the lysozyme-treated cells were used. The surface of ethanol treated cells became rough, but the capacity of TBT adsorption was the same as that for native cells. These results indicate that the function of the cell surface, rather than that structure, plays an important role to the adsorption of TBT. The adsorption state of TBT seems to be multi-layer when the number of more than 106.8 TBT molecules is adsorbed by a single cell. PMID:19325731

  9. Shewanella hafniensis sp. nov. and Shewanella morhuae sp. nov., isolated from marine fish of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Satomi, Masataka; Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Gram, Lone; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2006-01-01

    Two novel species belonging to the genus Shewanella are described on the basis of their phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences and levels of DNA-DNA hybridization. A total of 47 strains belonging to two novel Gram-negative, psychrotolerant, H2S-producing bacterial species were isolated from marine fish (cod and flounder) caught from the Baltic Sea off Denmark. The phenotypic characteristics of strains belonging to group 1 (14 strains) indicated that these represented a non-sucrose-assimilating variant of Shewanella baltica with a DNA G+C content of 47.0 mol%. Strains of group 2 (33 isolates) did not utilize the carbon substrates assimilated by S. baltica except gluconate, N-acetylglucosamine and malate. Their DNA G+C content was 44.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence data placed the two novel species within the genus Shewanella. Group 1 strains showed greatest sequence similarity to Shewanella putrefaciens ATCC 8071T (99.0 %) and with S. baltica NCTC 10375(T) (98.3 %). However, gyrB gene sequence analysis showed these isolates to share only 90.0 % sequence similarity with S. putrefaciens ATCC 8071T and 93.9 % with S. baltica NCTC 10375T. Similarly, DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed DNA relatedness levels of 38 % between the group 1 isolates and S. putrefaciens ATCC 8071T and 43 % with S. baltica NCTC 10375T. The group 2 strains shared less than 97 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with recognized Shewanella species. Comparisons between the two novel species indicated 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of approximately 98 %, gyrB gene sequence similarity of approximately 89 % and DNA-DNA reassociation values of 20-34 %. Based on the evidence presented, two novel species, Shewanella hafniensis sp. nov. (type strain P010T = ATCC BAA-1207T = NBRC 100975T) and Shewanella morhuae sp. nov. (type strain U1417T = ATCC BAA-1205T = NBRC 100978T), are described.

  10. Nocardiopsis oceani sp. nov. and Nocardiopsis nanhaiensis sp. nov., actinomycetes isolated from marine sediment of the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hua-Qi; Zhang, Dao-Feng; Li, Li; Jiang, Zhao; Cheng, Juan; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Wang, Hong-Fei; Hu, Jiang-Chun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-10-01

    Two actinomycete strains, designated 10A08AT and 10A08BT, were isolated from marine sediment samples of the South China Sea and their taxonomic positions were determined by a polyphasic approach. The two Gram-stain-positive, aerobic strains produced branched substrate mycelium and aerial hyphae, and no diffusible pigment was produced in the media tested. At maturity, spore chains were formed on aerial hyphae and all mycelium fragmented with age. Whole-cell hydrolysates of both strains contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and no diagnostic sugars. Their predominant menaquinones (>10 %) were MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6) and MK-10(H6) for strain 10A08AT and MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6), MK-10(H4) and MK-10(H6) for strain 10A08BT. The polar lipids detected from the two strains were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and unknown phosphoglycolipids and phospholipids. The major fatty acids (>10 %) of both strains were iso-C16 : 0 and summed feature 4 (iso-C17 : 1 I and/or anteiso-C17 : 1 B). The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains 10A08AT and 10A08BT were 70.9 and 71.6 mol%, respectively. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, the two strains were shown to be most closely related to species of the genus Nocardiopsis. DNA–DNA hybridization relatedness values of < 70 % between these two isolates and their closest neighbour, Nocardiopsis terrae YIM 90022T, and between the two strains supported the conclusion that they represent two novel species. Based on phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic and genotypic data, it is concluded that the two isolates belong to the genus Nocardiopsis, and the names Nocardiopsis oceani sp. nov. (type strain 10A08AT = DSM 45931T = BCRC 16951T) and Nocardiopsis nanhaiensis sp. nov. (type strain 10A08BT = CGMCC 47227T = BCRC 16952T) are proposed.

  11. Genome sequence of Vibrio sp. strain EJY3, an agarolytic marine bacterium metabolizing 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose as a sole carbon source.

    PubMed

    Roh, Hanseong; Yun, Eun Ju; Lee, Saeyoung; Ko, Hyeok-Jin; Kim, Sujin; Kim, Byung-Yong; Song, Heesang; Lim, Kwang-il; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Choi, In-Geol

    2012-05-01

    The metabolic fate of 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose (L-AHG) is unknown in the global marine carbon cycle. Vibrio sp. strain EJY3 is an agarolytic marine bacterium that can utilize L-AHG as a sole carbon source. To elucidate the metabolic pathways of L-AHG, we have sequenced the complete genome of Vibrio sp. strain EJY3.

  12. Molecular and morphological characterization of the association between bacterial endosymbionts and the marine nematode Astomonema sp. from the Bahamas.

    PubMed

    Musat, Niculina; Giere, Olav; Gieseke, Armin; Thiermann, Frank; Amann, Rudolf; Dubilier, Nicole

    2007-05-01

    Marine nematode worms without a mouth or functional gut are found worldwide in intertidal sandflats, deep-sea muds and methane-rich pock marks, and morphological studies show that they are associated with endosymbiotic bacteria. While it has been hypothesized that the symbionts are chemoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers, to date nothing is known about the phylogeny or function of endosymbionts from marine nematodes. In this study, we characterized the association between bacterial endosymbionts and the marine nematode Astomonema sp. from coral reef sediments in the Bahamas. Phylogenetic analysis of the host based on its 18S rRNA gene showed that Astomonema sp. is most closely related to non-symbiotic nematodes of the families Linhomoeidae and Axonolaimidae and is not closely related to marine stilbonematinid nematodes with ectosymbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. In contrast, phylogenetic analyses of the symbionts of Astomonema sp. using comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that these are closely related to the stilbonematinid ectosymbionts (95-96% sequence similarity) as well as to the sulfur-oxidizing endosymbionts from gutless marine oligochaetes. The closest free-living relatives of these gammaproteobacterial symbionts are sulfur-oxidizing bacteria from the family Chromatiaceae. Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the bacterial symbionts completely fill the gut lumen of Astomonema sp., suggesting that these are their main source of nutrition. The close phylogenetic relationship of the Astomonema sp. symbionts to known sulfur-oxidizing bacteria as well as the presence of the aprA gene, typically found in sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, indicates that the Astomonema sp. symbionts use reduced sulfur compounds as an energy source to provide their hosts with nutrition.

  13. Aranciamycins I and J, Antimycobacterial Anthracyclines from an Australian Marine-Derived Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Zeinab G; Raju, Ritesh; Piggott, Andrew M; Salim, Angela A; Blumenthal, Antje; Capon, Robert J

    2015-04-24

    Chemical analysis of an Australian marine-derived Streptomyces sp. (CMB-M0150) yielded two new anthracycline antibiotics, aranciamycins I (1) and J (2), as well as the previously reported aranciamycin A (3) and aranciamycin (4). The aranciamycins 1-4, identified by detailed spectroscopic analysis, were noncytotoxic when tested against selected Gram-negative bacteria and fungi (IC50 >30 μM) and exhibited moderate and selective cytotoxicity against Gram-positive bacteria (IC50 >1.1 μM) and a panel of human cancer cell lines (IC50 > 7.5 μM). Significantly, 1-4 were cytotoxic (IC50 0.7-1.7 μM) against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis surrogate M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin.

  14. Topsensterols A–C, Cytotoxic Polyhydroxylated Sterol Derivatives from a Marine Sponge Topsentia sp.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min; Wu, Xu-Dong; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Three new polyhydroxylated sterol derivatives topsensterols A–C (1–3) have been isolated from a marine sponge Topsentia sp. collected from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by detailed analysis of the spectroscopic data, especially the NOESY spectra. Topsensterols A–C (l–3) possess novel 2β,3α,4β,6α-tetrahydroxy-14α-methyl Δ9(11) steroidal nuclei with unusual side chains. Compound 2 exhibited cytotoxicity against human gastric carcinoma cell line SGC-7901 with an IC50 value of 8.0 μM. Compound 3 displayed cytotoxicity against human erythroleukemia cell line K562 with an IC50 value of 6.0 μM. PMID:27490555

  15. Hormaomycins B and C: New Antibiotic Cyclic Depsipeptides from a Marine Mudflat-Derived Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Munhyung; Chung, Beomkoo; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon; Oh, Dong-Chan

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in microbial culture conditions may trigger the production of diverse bioactive secondary metabolites. While applying various culture conditions and monitoring secondary metabolite profiles using LC/MS, hormaomycins B and C (1 and 2) were discovered from a marine mudflat-derived actinomycete, Streptomyces sp., collected in Mohang, Korea. The planar structures of the hormaomycins, which bear structurally-unique units, such as 4-(Z)-propenylproline, 3-(2-nitrocyclopropyl)alanine, 5-chloro-1-hydroxypyrrol-2-carboxylic acid and β-methylphenylalanine, were established as the first natural analogues belonging to the hormaomycin peptide class. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were deduced by comparing their CD spectra with that of hormaomycin. These hormaomycins exhibited significant inhibitory effects against various pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26287218

  16. Isolation, structure determination and cytotoxicity studies of tryptophan alkaloids from an Australian marine sponge Hyrtios sp.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Shahan; Feng, Yunjiang; Campitelli, Marc R; Ekins, Merrick G; Hooper, John N A; Beattie, Karren D; Sadowski, Martin C; Nelson, Colleen C; Davis, Rohan A

    2014-08-01

    Mass-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract from a specimen of the Australian marine sponge Hyrtios sp. resulted in the isolation of two new tryptophan alkaloids, 6-oxofascaplysin (2), and secofascaplysic acid (3), in addition to the known metabolites fascaplysin (1) and reticulatate (4). The structures of all molecules were determined following NMR and MS data analysis. Structural ambiguities in 2 were addressed through comparison of experimental and DFT-generated theoretical NMR spectral values. Compounds 1-4 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against a prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP) and were shown to display IC50 values ranging from 0.54 to 44.9 μM.

  17. Unique modification of adenine in genomic DNA of the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium sp. strain NIBB 1067.

    PubMed Central

    Zehr, J P; Ohki, K; Fujita, Y; Landry, D

    1991-01-01

    The genomic DNA of the marine nonheterocystous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium sp. strain NIBB 1067 was found to be highly resistant to DNA restriction endonucleases. The DNA was digested extensively by the restriction enzyme DpnI, which requires adenine methylation for activity. The DNA composition, determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), was found to be 69% AT. Surprisingly, it was found that a modified adenine which was not methylated at the usual N6 position was present and made up 4.7 mol% of the nucleosides in Trichodesmium DNA (15 mol% of deoxyadenosine). In order for adenine residues to be modified at this many positions, there must be many modifying enzymes or at least one of the modifying enzymes must have a degenerate recognition site. The reason(s) for this extensive methylation has not yet been determined but may have implications for the ecological success of this microorganism in nature. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:1657876

  18. Cryptosporidium sp. infections in green turtles, Chelonia mydas, as a potential source of marine waterborne oocysts in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, T.K.; Balazs, G.H.; Work, T.M.; Aguirre, A.A.; Ellis, D.M.; Murakawa, Shawn K. K.; Morris, Robert

    1997-01-01

    For the first time, Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were identified in fecal and intestinal samples from free-ranging marine turtles, Chelonia mydas, from the Hawaiian Islands. The oocysts produced positive reactions with commercial test kits recommended for the detection of human-infectious waterborne oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum.

  19. Pentacyclic ingamine-type alkaloids, a new antiplasmodial pharmacophore from the marine sponge petrosid Ng5 Sp5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new pentacyclic ingamine- type alkaloids, namely 22(S)-hydroxyingamine A (2) and dihydroingenamine D (3), together with the known ingamine A (1) have been isolated from marine sponge Petrosid Ng5 Sp5 (Family: Petrosiidae) obtained from the open repository of National Cancer Institute, USA. The s...

  20. Salaramides A and B; two alpha-oxoamides isolated from the marine sponge Hippospongia sp. (Porifera, Dictyoceratida).

    PubMed

    Bensemhoun, Julia; Rudi, Amira; Kashman, Yoel; Gaydou, Emile M; Vacelet, Jean; Aknin, Maurice

    2010-02-01

    Two novel alpha-oxoamides, salaramide A (1) and its homologue salaramide B (2), were isolated from the Madagascar marine sponge, Hippospongia sp., collected in Salary Bay, north of Tulear. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by interpretation of mass spectra, 1D and 2D NMR spectra, and confirmed by chemical transformation.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of a Selenite- and Tellurite-Reducing Marine Bacterium, Lysinibacillus sp. Strain ZYM-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yonghe; Dong, Yuxuan; Zhang, Yiwen; Che, Lin; Pan, Haixia

    2016-01-01

    Lysinibacillus sp. ZYM-1, a Gram-positive strain isolated from marine sediments, reduces selenite and tellurite efficiently. Meanwhile, it also exhibits high resistance to Zn2+ and Mn2+. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of strain ZYM-1, which contains genes related to selenite and tellurite reduction and also metal resistance. PMID:26769938

  2. Physiological conditions for nitrogen fixation in a unicellular marine cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. strain SF1.

    PubMed Central

    Spiller, H; Shanmugam, K T

    1987-01-01

    A marine, unicellular, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium was isolated from the blades of a brown alga, Sargassum fluitans. This unicellular cyanobacterium, identified as Synechococcus sp. strain SF1, is capable of photoautotrophic growth with bicarbonate as the sole carbon source and dinitrogen as the sole nitrogen source. Among the organic carbon compounds tested, glucose and sucrose supported growth. Of the nitrogen compounds tested, with bicarbonate serving as the carbon source, both ammonia and nitrate produced the highest growth rates. Most amino acids failed to support growth when present as sole sources of nitrogen. Nitrogenase activity in Synechococcus sp. strain SF1 was induced after depletion of ammonia from the medium. This activity required the photosynthetic utilization of bicarbonate, but pyruvate and hydrogen gas were also effective sources of reductant for nitrogenase activity. Glucose, fructose, and sucrose also supported nitrogenase activity but to a lesser extent. Optimum light intensity for nitrogenase activity was found to be 70 microE/m2 per s, while the optimum oxygen concentration in the gas phase for nitrogenase activity was about 1%. A hydrogenase activity was coinduced with nitrogenase activity. It is proposed that this light- and oxygen-insensitive hydrogenase functions in recycling the hydrogen produced by nitrogenase under microaerobic conditions. PMID:3119563

  3. Characterization of acetonitrile-tolerant marine bacterium Exiguobacterium sp. SBH81 and its tolerance mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kongpol, Ajiraporn; Kato, Junichi; Tajima, Takahisa; Vangnai, Alisa S

    2012-01-01

    A Gram-positive marine bacterium, Exiguobacterium sp. SBH81, was isolated as a hydrophilic organic-solvent tolerant bacterium, and exhibited high tolerance to various types of toxic hydrophilic organic solvents, including acetonitrile, at relatively high concentrations (up to 6% [v/v]) under the growing conditions. Investigation of its tolerance mechanisms illustrated that it does not rely on solvent inactivation processes or modification of cell surface characteristics, but rather, increase of the cell size lowers solvent partitioning into cells and the extrusion of solvents through the efflux system. A test using efflux pump inhibitors suggested that secondary transporters, i.e. resistance nodulation cell division (RND) and the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family, are involved in acetonitrile tolerance in this strain. In addition, its acetonitrile tolerance ability could be stably and significantly enhanced by repetitive growth in the presence of toxic acetonitrile. The marked acetonitrile tolerance of Exiguobacterium sp. SBH81 indicates its potential use as a host for biotechnological fermentation processes as well as bioremediation.

  4. Biodegradation of PAHs by Burkholderia sp. VITRSB1 Isolated from Marine Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Revathy, T.; Jayasri, M. A.; Suthindhiran, K.

    2015-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution to the environment is a major threat to the living organisms, and hence the degradation of these PAHs is necessary. Studies on PAHs degrading bacteria have focussed on terrestrial microbes and the potential of marine derived microbes is undermined. Herein we report the isolation and characterization of PAHs degrading Burkholderia sp. from lagoon sediments collected at the Southern coast of India. The strain was Gram negative, rod-shaped, motile, and ∼2–5 μm in length. Based on the phylogenetic data the strain was identified as Burkholderia and designated as VITRSB1. Initial PAHs degradation ability of the strain was assessed using basal salt medium supplemented with diesel, kerosene, toluene, aniline, naphthalene, and phenol. The strain was found to be effectively degrading kerosene, diesel, toluene, and aniline even at higher concentration (1%). However, naphthalene and aniline were degraded only at lower concentration (0.1%) and phenol, camphor, and DAP inhibited the growth of the strain. Furthermore, the degraded end products of the PAHs were determined using FTIR. Notably, none of the end products were found to be toxic to the biosphere. Our results indicate that the isolated Burkholderia sp. could be a prospective candidate for the effective degradation of selective PAHs. PMID:26605106

  5. Metabolomic Profiling and Genomic Study of a Marine Sponge-Associated Streptomyces sp

    PubMed Central

    Viegelmann, Christina; Margassery, Lekha Menon; Kennedy, Jonathan; Zhang, Tong; O’Brien, Ciarán; O’Gara, Fergal; Morrissey, John P.; Dobson, Alan D. W.; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomics and genomics are two complementary platforms for analyzing an organism as they provide information on the phenotype and genotype, respectively. These two techniques were applied in the dereplication and identification of bioactive compounds from a Streptomyces sp. (SM8) isolated from the sponge Haliclona simulans from Irish waters. Streptomyces strain SM8 extracts showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. NMR analysis of the active fractions proved that hydroxylated saturated fatty acids were the major components present in the antibacterial fractions. Antimycin compounds were initially putatively identified in the antifungal fractions using LC-Orbitrap. Their presence was later confirmed by comparison to a standard. Genomic analysis of Streptomyces sp. SM8 revealed the presence of multiple secondary metabolism gene clusters, including a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of the antifungal antimycin family of compounds. The antimycin gene cluster of Streptomyces sp. SM8 was inactivated by disruption of the antimycin biosynthesis gene antC. Extracts from this mutant strain showed loss of antimycin production and significantly less antifungal activity than the wild-type strain. Three butenolides, 4,10-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (1), 4,11-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (2), and 4-hydroxy-10-methyl-11-oxo-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (3) that had previously been reported from marine Streptomyces species were also isolated from SM8. Comparison of the extracts of Streptomyces strain SM8 and its host sponge, H. simulans, using LC-Orbitrap revealed the presence of metabolites common to both extracts, providing direct evidence linking sponge metabolites to a specific microbial symbiont. PMID:24893324

  6. Bioremoval of the synthetic dye malachite green by marine Trichoderma sp.

    PubMed

    Saravanakumar, Kandasamy; Kathiresan, Kandasamy

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a marine strain of Trichoderma sp was used for degradation of a synthetic dye, malachite green. Individual and interaction effects of the physical and chemical factors that influenced the percentage of dye degradation were tested by response surface methodology. For optimization, enzyme production and dye degradation were assessed under different temperatures (5-40°C), pH values (3-11), yeast extract (5-9 g L(-1)) and incubation period (0-15 days). The optimum conditions found for dye degradation, were 30°C, pH 5.8, 5.81 mg L(-1) yeast extract for an incubation period of 10 days. Whereas for laccase production they were 29°C, pH 5.3, 7.7 mg L(-1) yeast extract for an incubation period of 12 days. It was confirmed that laccase production required the higher nitrogen source. Degradation of dye was confirmed by using analytical techniques such as FTIR, UV-vis spectral and scanning electron microscope analysis. Furthermore, toxicity effect of degraded and undegraded dye solutions was tested with Artemia salina. Hundred percent mortality was observed in undegraded dye solution as against only 2-5% in degraded dye solution. This work proved the potential of marine strain of Trichoderma Hypocrea lixii on dye degradation.

  7. Streptomyces atlanticus sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from marine sponge Aplysina fulva (Pallas, 1766).

    PubMed

    Silva, Fábio Sérgio Paulino; Souza, Danilo Tosta; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Pansa, Camila Cristiane; de Figueiredo Vasconcellos, Rafael Leandro; Crevelin, Eduardo José; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Melo, Itamar Soares

    2016-11-01

    The taxonomic position of a novel marine actinomycete isolated from a marine sponge, Aplysina fulva, which had been collected in the Archipelago of Saint Peter and Saint Paul (Equatorial Atlantic Ocean), was determined by using a polyphasic approach. The organism showed a combination of morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Streptomyces and forms a distinct branch within the Streptomyces somaliensis 16S rRNA gene tree subclade. It is closely related to Streptomyces violascens ISP 5183(T) (97.27 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Streptomyces hydrogenans NBRC 13475(T) (97.15 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The 16S rRNA gene similarities between the isolate and the remaining members of the subclade are lower than 96.77 %. The organism can be distinguished readily from other members of the S. violacens subclade using a combination of phenotypic properties. On the basis of these results, it is proposed that isolate 103(T) (=NRRL B-65309(T) = CMAA 1378(T)) merits recognition as the type strain of a new Streptomyces species, namely Streptomyces atlanticus sp. nov.

  8. Leisingera methylohalidivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine methylotroph that grows on methyl bromide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaefer, J.K.; Goodwin, K.D.; McDonald, I.R.; Murrell, J.C.; Oremland, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    A marine methylotroph, designated strain MB2T, was isolated for its ability to grow on methyl bromide as a sole carbon and energy source. Methyl chloride and methyl iodide also supported growth, as did methionine and glycine betaine. A limited amount of growth was observed with dimethyl sulfide. Growth was also noted with unidentified components of the complex media marine broth 2216, yeast extract and Casamino acids. No growth was observed on methylated amines, methanol, formate, acetate, glucose or a variety of other substrates. Growth on methyl bromide and methyl iodide resulted in their oxidation to CO2 with stoichiometric release of bromide and iodide, respectively. Strain MB2T exhibited growth optima at NaCl and Mg2+ concentrations similar to that of seawater. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence placed this strain in the ??-Proteobacteria in proximity to the genera Ruegeria and Roseobacter. It is proposed that strain MB2T (= ATCC BAA-92T = DSM 14336T) be designated Leisingera methylohalidivorans gen. nov., sp. nov.

  9. Vitroprocines, new antibiotics against Acinetobacter baumannii, discovered from marine Vibrio sp. QWI-06 using mass-spectrometry-based metabolomics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Chen, Pei-Chin; Shih, Chao-Jen; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Lai, Ying-Mi; Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Yang, Yu-Liang

    2015-08-01

    A robust and convenient research strategy integrating state-of-the-art analytical techniques is needed to efficiently discover novel compounds from marine microbial resources. In this study, we identified a series of amino-polyketide derivatives, vitroprocines A-J, from the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. QWI-06 by an integrated approach using imaging mass spectroscopy and molecular networking, as well as conventional bioactivity-guided fractionation and isolation. The structure-activity relationship of vitroprocines against Acinetobacter baumannii is proposed. In addition, feeding experiments with 13C-labeled precursors indicated that a pyridoxal 5‧-phosphate-dependent mechanism is involved in the biosynthesis of vitroprocines. Elucidation of amino-polyketide derivatives from a species of marine bacteria for the first time demonstrates the potential of this integrated metabolomics approach to uncover marine bacterial biodiversity.

  10. Vitroprocines, new antibiotics against Acinetobacter baumannii, discovered from marine Vibrio sp. QWI-06 using mass-spectrometry-based metabolomics approach.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Chen, Pei-Chin; Shih, Chao-Jen; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Lai, Ying-Mi; Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Yang, Yu-Liang

    2015-08-04

    A robust and convenient research strategy integrating state-of-the-art analytical techniques is needed to efficiently discover novel compounds from marine microbial resources. In this study, we identified a series of amino-polyketide derivatives, vitroprocines A-J, from the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. QWI-06 by an integrated approach using imaging mass spectroscopy and molecular networking, as well as conventional bioactivity-guided fractionation and isolation. The structure-activity relationship of vitroprocines against Acinetobacter baumannii is proposed. In addition, feeding experiments with (13)C-labeled precursors indicated that a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent mechanism is involved in the biosynthesis of vitroprocines. Elucidation of amino-polyketide derivatives from a species of marine bacteria for the first time demonstrates the potential of this integrated metabolomics approach to uncover marine bacterial biodiversity.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Deep-Sea Alteromonas sp. Strain V450 Isolated from the Marine Sponge Leiodermatium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Nolan H.; McCarthy, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The proteobacterium Alteromonas sp. strain V450 was isolated from the Atlantic deep-sea sponge Leiodermatium sp. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, with a genome size of approx. 4.39 Mb and a G+C content of 44.01%. The results will aid deep-sea microbial ecology, evolution, and sponge-microbe association studies. PMID:28153886

  12. Taxonomic characterization of Vorticella fuscaPrecht, 1935 and Vorticella parapulchella n. sp., two marine peritrichs (Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea) from China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping; Song, Weibo; Clamp, John; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S

    2006-01-01

    Two marine peritrich ciliates, Vorticella fuscaPrecht (1935) and Vorticella parapulchella n. sp. were discovered in the littoral zone of Qingdao, northern China. Their morphology, infraciliature, and silverline system were described using live observation and silver impregnation. The poorly known species V. fusca is redescribed, adding information about the oral infraciliature and pellicular morphology. Vorticella parapulchella n. sp. is superficially similar to Vorticella pulchellaSommer (1951) but is distinguished from it by being markedly smaller and having much more widely spaced pellicular ridges. The infundibular infraciliature of V. parapulchella is extremely unusual in having infundibular polykinety 3 reduced to two rows, one of which has almost disappeared.

  13. Two novel phycoerythrin-associated linker proteins in the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain WH8102.

    PubMed

    Six, Christophe; Thomas, Jean-Claude; Thion, Laurent; Lemoine, Yves; Zal, Frank; Partensky, Frédéric

    2005-03-01

    The recent availability of the whole genome of Synechococcus sp. strain WH8102 allows us to have a global view of the complex structure of the phycobilisomes of this marine picocyanobacterium. Genomic analyses revealed several new characteristics of these phycobilisomes, consisting of an allophycocyanin core and rods made of one type of phycocyanin and two types of phycoerythrins (I and II). Although the allophycocyanin appears to be similar to that found commonly in freshwater cyanobacteria, the phycocyanin is simpler since it possesses only one complete set of alpha and beta subunits and two rod-core linkers (CpcG1 and CpcG2). It is therefore probably made of a single hexameric disk per rod. In contrast, we have found two novel putative phycoerythrin-associated linker polypeptides that appear to be specific for marine Synechococcus spp. The first one (SYNW2000) is unusually long (548 residues) and apparently results from the fusion of a paralog of MpeC, a phycoerythrin II linker, and of CpeD, a phycoerythrin-I linker. The second one (SYNW1989) has a more classical size (300 residues) and is also an MpeC paralog. A biochemical analysis revealed that, like MpeC, these two novel linkers were both chromophorylated with phycourobilin. Our data suggest that they are both associated (partly or totally) with phycoerythrin II, and we propose to name SYNW2000 and SYNW1989 MpeD and MpeE, respectively. We further show that acclimation of phycobilisomes to high light leads to a dramatic reduction of MpeC, whereas the two novel linkers are not significantly affected. Models for the organization of the rods are proposed.

  14. Two Novel Phycoerythrin-Associated Linker Proteins in the Marine Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Strain WH8102

    PubMed Central

    Six, Christophe; Thomas, Jean-Claude; Thion, Laurent; Lemoine, Yves; Zal, Frank; Partensky, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    The recent availability of the whole genome of Synechococcus sp. strain WH8102 allows us to have a global view of the complex structure of the phycobilisomes of this marine picocyanobacterium. Genomic analyses revealed several new characteristics of these phycobilisomes, consisting of an allophycocyanin core and rods made of one type of phycocyanin and two types of phycoerythrins (I and II). Although the allophycocyanin appears to be similar to that found commonly in freshwater cyanobacteria, the phycocyanin is simpler since it possesses only one complete set of α and β subunits and two rod-core linkers (CpcG1 and CpcG2). It is therefore probably made of a single hexameric disk per rod. In contrast, we have found two novel putative phycoerythrin-associated linker polypeptides that appear to be specific for marine Synechococcus spp. The first one (SYNW2000) is unusually long (548 residues) and apparently results from the fusion of a paralog of MpeC, a phycoerythrin II linker, and of CpeD, a phycoerythrin-I linker. The second one (SYNW1989) has a more classical size (300 residues) and is also an MpeC paralog. A biochemical analysis revealed that, like MpeC, these two novel linkers were both chromophorylated with phycourobilin. Our data suggest that they are both associated (partly or totally) with phycoerythrin II, and we propose to name SYNW2000 and SYNW1989 MpeD and MpeE, respectively. We further show that acclimation of phycobilisomes to high light leads to a dramatic reduction of MpeC, whereas the two novel linkers are not significantly affected. Models for the organization of the rods are proposed. PMID:15716439

  15. Two new species of nematode parasites, Cucullanus epinepheli sp. n. (Cucullanidae) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sinespinis sp. n. (Camallanidae), from marine serranid and haemulid fishes off New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2017-04-05

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new species of parasitic nematodes are described from marine perciform fishes off New Caledonia: Cucullanus epinepheli sp. n. (Cucullanidae) from the intestine of the brownspotted grouper Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes) (Serranidae) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sinespinis sp. n. from the intestine of the silver grunt Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål) (Haemulidae). Cucullanus epinepheli sp. n. differs from its congeners mainly in possessing a unique structure of the anterior, elevated cloacal lip with a large posterior outgrowth covering the cloacal aperture and in the presence of cervical alae and two small preanal papillae on the median dome-shaped precloacal elevation. This is the second known nominal species of this genus parasitising fishes of the family Serranidae and the second representative of Cucullanus Müller, 1777 recorded from fishes in New Caledonian waters. Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sinespinis sp. n. is mainly characterised by 10-12 spiral ridges in the buccal capsule, the presence of wide caudal alae, three pairs of pedunculate preanal papillae, two unequally long spicules (465-525 µm and 218-231 µm) and by the tail tip with a knob-like structure in the male, and the broad, rounded tail with a terminal digit-like protrusion without cuticular spikes in the female. This is the fifth nominal species of the subgenus Spirocamallanus Olsen, 1952 reported from fishes in New Caledonian waters.

  16. Insight into glucosidase II from the red marine microalga Porphyridium sp. (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Levy-Ontman, Oshrat; Fisher, Merav; Shotland, Yoram; Tekoah, Yoram; Malis Arad, Shoshana

    2015-12-01

    N-glycosylation of proteins is one of the most important post-translational modifications that occur in various organisms, and is of utmost importance for protein function, stability, secretion, and loca-lization. Although the N-linked glycosylation pathway of proteins has been extensively characterized in mammals and plants, not much information is available regarding the N-glycosylation pathway in algae. We studied the α 1,3-glucosidase glucosidase II (GANAB) glycoenzyme in a red marine microalga Porphyridium sp. (Rhodophyta) using bioinformatic and biochemical approaches. The GANAB-gene was found to be highly conserved evolutionarily (compo-sed of all the common features of α and β subunits) and to exhibit similar motifs consistent with that of homolog eukaryotes GANAB genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed its wide distribution across an evolutionarily vast range of organisms; while the α subunit is highly conserved and its phylogenic tree is similar to the taxon evolutionary tree, the β subunit is less conserved and its pattern somewhat differs from the taxon tree. In addition, the activity of the red microalgal GANAB enzyme was studied, including functional and biochemical characterization using a bioassay, indicating that the enzyme is similar to other eukaryotes ortholog GANAB enzymes. A correlation between polysaccharide production and GANAB activity, indicating its involvement in polysaccharide biosynthesis, is also demonstrated. This study represents a valuable contribution toward understanding the N-glycosylation and polysaccharide biosynthesis pathways in red microalgae.

  17. Screening and characterization of a thermostable lipase from marine Streptomyces sp. strain W007.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dongjuan; Lan, Dongming; Xin, Ruipu; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    A screening method along with the combination of genome sequence of microorganism, pairwise alignment, and lipase classification was used to search the thermostable lipase. Then, a potential thermostable lipase (named MAS1) from marine Streptomyces sp. strain W007 was expressed in Pichia pastoris X-33, and the biochemical properties were characterized. Lipase MAS1 belongs to the subfamily I.7, and it has 38% identity to the well-characterized Bacillus subtilis thermostable lipases in the subfamily I.4. The purified enzyme was estimated to be 29 kDa. The enzyme showed optimal temperature at 40 °C, and retained more than 80% of initial activity after 1 H incubation at 60 °C, suggesting that MAS1 was a thermostable lipase. MAS1 was an alkaline enzyme with optimal pH value at 7.0 and had stable activity for 12 H of incubation at pH 6.0-9.0. It was stable and retained about 90% of initial activity in the presence of Cu(2+) , Ca(2+) , Ni(2+) , and Mg(2+) , whereas 89.05% of the initial activity was retained when ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid was added. MAS1 showed the tolerance to organic solvents, but was inhibited by various surfactants. MAS1 was verified to be a triglyceride lipase and could hydrolyze triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol. The result represents a good example for researchers to discover thermostable lipase for industrial application.

  18. Identification, cloning, and expression of L-amino acid oxidase from marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. B3.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhiliang; Zhou, Ning; Qiao, Hua; Qiu, Juanping

    2014-01-01

    L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) is attracting more attentions due to its broad and important biological functions. Recently, an LAAO-producing marine microorganism (strain B3) was isolated from the intertidal zone of Dinghai sea area, China. Physiological, biochemical, and molecular identifications together with phylogenetic analysis congruously suggested that it belonged to the genus Pseudoalteromonas. Therefore, it was designated as Pseudoalteromonas sp. B3. Its capability of LAAO production was crossly confirmed by measuring the products of H2O2, a-keto acids, and NH4+ in oxidization reaction. Two rounds of PCR were performed to gain the entire B3-LAAO gene sequence of 1608 bps in length encoding for 535 amino acid residues. This deduced amino acid sequence showed 60 kDa of the calculated molecular mass, supporting the SDS-PAGE result. Like most of flavoproteins, B3-LAAO also contained two conserved typical motifs, GG-motif and βαβ-dinucleotide-binding domain motif. On the other hand, its unique substrate spectra and sequence information suggested that B3-LAAO was a novel LAAO. Our results revealed that it could be functionally expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) using vectors, pET28b(+) and pET20b(+). However, compared with the native LAAO, the expression level of the recombinant one was relatively low, most probably due to the formation of inclusion bodies. Several solutions are currently being conducted in our lab to increase its expression level.

  19. Genome shuffling of marine derived bacterium Nocardia sp. ALAA 2000 for improved ayamycin production.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Mervat M A; El-Bondkly, Ahmed M A

    2011-05-01

    Genome shuffling is a recent development in microbiology. The advantage of this technique is that genetic changes can be made in a microorganism without knowing its genetic background. Genome shuffling was applied to the marine derived bacterium Nocardia sp. ALAA 2000 to achieve rapid improvement of ayamycin production. The initial mutant population was generated by treatment with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) combined with UV irradiation of the spores, resulting in an improved population (AL/11, AL/136, AL/213 and AL/277) producing tenfold (150 μg/ml) more ayamycin than the original strain. These mutants were used as the starting strains for three rounds of genome shuffling and after each round improved strains were screened and selected based on their ayamycin productivity. The population after three rounds of genome shuffling exhibited an improved ayamycin yield. Strain F3/22 yielded 285 μg/ml of ayamycin, which was 19-fold higher than that of the initial strain and 1.9-fold higher than the mutants used as the starting point for genome shuffling. We evaluated the genetic effect of UV + EMS-mutagenesis and three rounds of genome shuffling on the nucleotide sequence by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Many differences were noticed in mutant and recombinant strains compared to the wild type strain. These differences in RAPD profiles confirmed the presence of genetic variations in the Nocardia genome after mutagenesis and genome shuffling.

  20. The Halicylindramides, Farnesoid X Receptor Antagonizing Depsipeptides from a Petrosia sp. Marine Sponge Collected in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Dongyup; Kim, Hiyoung; Yang, Inho; Chin, Jungwook; Hwang, Hoosang; Won, Dong Hwan; Lee, Byoungchan; Nam, Sang-Jip; Ekins, Merrick; Choi, Hyukjae; Kang, Heonjoong

    2016-03-25

    Three new structurally related depsipeptides, halicylindramides F-H (1-3), and two known halicylindramides were isolated from a Petrosia sp. marine sponge collected off the shore of Youngdeok-Gun, East Sea, Republic of Korea. Their planar structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic data analyses including 1D and 2D NMR data as well as MS data. The absolute configurations of halicylindramides F-H (1-3) were determined by Marfey's method in combination with Edman degradation. The absolute configurations at C-4 of the dioxyindolyl alanine (Dioia) residues of halicylindramides G (2) and H (3) were determined as 4S and 4R, respectively, based on ECD spectroscopy. The C-2 configurations of Dioia in 2 and 3 were speculated to both be 2R based on the shared biogenesis of the halicylindramides. Halicylindramides F (1), A (4), and C (5) showed human farnesoid X receptor (hFXR) antagonistic activities, but did not bind directly to hFXR.

  1. Glaciecola agarilytica sp. nov., an agar-digesting marine bacterium from the East Sea, Korea.

    PubMed

    Yong, Jeong-Joong; Park, Soo-Je; Kim, Hyeon-Ju; Rhee, Sung-Keun

    2007-05-01

    A taxonomic study was carried out on an isolate, strain NO2(T), from marine sediment collected from the East Sea, Korea. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence studies showed that this strain belonged to the Gammaproteobacteria and was most closely related to Glaciecola mesophila KMM 241(T) and Glaciecola polaris LMG 21857(T) (98.6 and 98.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). The isolate was Gram-negative, aerobic and slightly halophilic and grew in 2-8 % NaCl and at 7-30 degrees C. Strain NO2(T) shared some physiological and biochemical properties with G. mesophila KMM 241(T) and G. polaris LMG 21857(T). The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain NO2(T) was 45 mol%. Strain NO2(T) possessed C(16 : 0), summed feature 4 (C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH) and summed feature 7 (C(18 : 1)omega9c/omega12t/omega7c) as the major cellular fatty acids. DNA-DNA relatedness data indicated that strain NO2(T) represents a distinct species that is separate from G. mesophila and G. polaris. On the basis of polyphasic evidence, it is proposed that strain NO2(T) (=KCTC 12755(T)=LMG 23762(T)) represents the type strain of a novel species, Glaciecola agarilytica sp. nov.

  2. Shimia sagamensis sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from cold-seep sediment.

    PubMed

    Nogi, Yuichi; Mori, Kozue; Uchida, Hiromi; Hatada, Yuji

    2015-09-01

    A novel marine bacterial strain designated JAMH 011(T) was isolated from the cold-seep sediment in Sagami Bay, Japan. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, aerobic chemo-organotrophs and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Growth occurred at temperatures below 31 °C, with the optimum at 25 °C. The major respiratory quinone was Q-10. The predominant fatty acid was C18 : 1ω7c. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolated strain was closely affiliated with members of the genus Shimia in the class Alphaproteobacteria, and the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of the novel isolate with the type strain of the closest related species, Shimia haliotis WM35(T), was 98.1%. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 57.3 mol%. The hybridization values for DNA-DNA relatedness between strain JAMH 011(T) and reference strains belonging to the genus Shimia were less than 9.4 ± 0.7%. Based on differences in taxonomic characteristics, the isolated strain represents a novel species of the genus Shimia, for which the name Shimia sagamensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JAMH 011(T) ( = JCM 30583(T) = DSM 29734(T)).

  3. Thalassobius abyssi sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from the cold-seep sediment.

    PubMed

    Nogi, Yuichi; Mori, Kozue; Makita, Hiroko; Hatada, Yuji

    2015-11-09

    A novel marine bacterial strain designated JAMH 043T was isolated from the cold-seep sediment in Sagami Bay, Japan. Cells were Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile and aerobic chemo-organotrophs. The cells of the isolate grew optimally at 25 °C, pH 7.0-7.5, and with 3% (w/v) NaCl. The major respiratory quinone was Q-10. The predominant fatty acid was C18:1ω7c. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolated strain was closely affiliated with members of the genus Thalassobius in the class Alphaproteobacteria, and the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of the novel isolate with the type strain of closest related species, Thalassobius aestuarii JC2049T, was 98.4 %. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 58.0 mol%. The hybridization values for DNA-DNA relatedness between strain JAMH043T and reference strains belonging to the genus Thalassobius were less than 14.1±2.2 %. Based on differences in taxonomic characteristics, the isolated strain represents a novel species of the genus Thalassobius, for which the name Thalassobius abyssi sp. nov. is proposed. Type strain is JAMH 043T (=JCM 30900T =DSMZ 100673T).

  4. Purification and Characterization of a New Alginate Lyase from Marine Bacterium Vibrio sp. SY08

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shangyong; Wang, Linna; Hao, Jianhua; Xing, Mengxin; Sun, Jingjing; Sun, Mi

    2016-01-01

    Unsaturated alginate disaccharides (UADs), enzymatically derived from the degradation of alginate polymers, are considered powerful antioxidants. In this study, a new high UAD-producing alginate lyase, AlySY08, has been purified from the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. SY08. AlySY08, with a molecular weight of about 33 kDa and a specific activity of 1070.2 U/mg, showed the highest activity at 40 °C in phosphate buffer at pH 7.6. The enzyme was stable over a broad pH range (6.0–9.0) and retained about 75% activity after incubation at 40 °C for 2 h. Moreover, the enzyme was active in the absence of salt ions and its activity was enhanced by the addition of NaCl and KCl. AlySY08 resulted in an endo-type alginate lyase that degrades both polyM and polyG blocks, yielding UADs as the main product (81.4% of total products). All these features made AlySY08 a promising candidate for industrial applications in the production of antioxidants from alginate polysaccharides. PMID:28025527

  5. Optimization and characterization of biosurfactant production from marine Vibrio sp. strain 3B-2

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoke; Wang, Caixia; Wang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    A biosurfactant-producing bacterium, designated 3B-2, was isolated from marine sediment and identified as Vibrio sp. by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The culture medium composition was optimized to increase the capability of 3B-2 for producing biosurfactant. The produced biosurfactant was characterized in terms of protein concentration, surface tension, and oil-displacement efficiency. The optimal medium for biosurfactant production contained: 0.5% lactose, 1.1% yeast extract, 2% sodium chloride, and 0.1% disodium hydrogen phosphate. Under optimal conditions (28°C), the surface tension of crude biosurfactant could be reduced to 41 from 71.5 mN/m (water), while its protein concentration was increased to up to 6.5 g/L and the oil displacement efficiency was improved dramatically at 6.5 cm. Two glycoprotein fractions with the molecular masses of 22 and 40 kDa were purified from the biosurfactant, which held great potential for applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation. PMID:26441908

  6. A new κ-carrageenase CgkS from marine bacterium Shewanella sp. Kz7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linna; Li, Shangyong; Zhang, Shilong; Li, Jiejing; Yu, Wengong; Gong, Qianhong

    2015-08-01

    A new κ-carrageenase gene cgkS was cloned from marine bacterium Shewanella sp. Kz7 by using degenerate and site-finding PCR. The gene was comprised of an open reading frame of 1224 bp, encoding 407 amino acid residues, with a signal peptide of 24 residues. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, the κ-carrageenase CgkS was classified into the Glycoside Hydrolase family 16. The cgkS gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant enzyme was purified to homogeneity with a specific activity of 716.8 U mg-1 and a yield of 69%. Recombinant CgkS was most active at 45°C and pH 8.0. It was stable at pH 6.0-9.0 and below 30°C. The enzyme did not require NaCl for activity, although its activity was enhanced by NaCl. CgkS degraded κ-carrageenan in an endo-fashion releasing tetrasaccharides and disaccharides as main hydrolysis products.

  7. Structural properties of the tubular appendage spinae from marine bacterium Roseobacter sp. strain YSCB

    PubMed Central

    Bernadac, A.; Wu, L.-F.; Santini, C.-L.; Vidaud, C.; Sturgis, J. N.; Menguy, N.; Bergam, P.; Nicoletti, C.; Xiao, T.

    2012-01-01

    Spinae are tubular surface appendages broadly found in Gram-negative bacteria. Little is known about their architecture, function or origin. Here, we report structural characterization of the spinae from marine bacteria Roseobacter sp. YSCB. Electron cryo-tomography revealed that a single filament winds into a hollow flared base with progressive change to a cylinder. Proteinase K unwound the spinae into proteolysis-resistant filaments. Thermal treatment ripped the spinae into ribbons that were melted with prolonged heating. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed a dominant beta-structure of the spinae. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses showed three endothermic transformations at 50–85°C, 98°C and 123°C, respectively. The heating almost completely disintegrated the spinae, abolished the 98°C transition and destroyed the beta-structure. Infrared spectroscopy identified the amide I spectrum maximum at a position similar to that of amyloid fibrils. Therefore, the spinae distinguish from other bacterial appendages, e.g. flagella and stalks, in both the structure and mechanism of assembly. PMID:23230515

  8. Acanthocephaloides irregularis n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Arhythmacanthidae) from marine fishes off the Ukrainian Black Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Oğuz, Mehmet C; Heckmann, Richard A; Tepe, Yahya; Kvach, Yuriy

    2011-10-01

    Acanthocephaloides irregularis n. sp. (Arhythmacanthidae) is described from four species of marine fishes in the Gulf of Odessa and Sukhyi Lyman, Ukrainan Black Sea waters, making it the tenth species of the genus. The hosts are the combtooth blenny Parablennius zvonimiri (Kolombatovic) (Blenniidae), the mushroom goby Ponticola eurycephalus (Kessler) (Gobiidae), the tubenose goby Proterorhinus marmoratus (Pallas) (Gobiidae) and the black-striped pipefish Syngnathus abaster Risso (Syngnathidae). The new species is most similar to its closest relative, Acanthocephaloides propinquus (Dujardin, 1845), in proboscis shape and armature (12 longitudinal rows of 5 hooks) and the shape of the trunk, reproductive system and lemnisci, but differs in having randomly distributed trunk spines. These trunk spines are organised in circular rings of individual spines separated by aspinose zones. The new species is also unique in having an anterior trunk collar, a very large triangular cephalic ganglion, nucleated pouches at the posterior end of the proboscis receptacle, and hooks and spines with roots bearing anterior manubria. Valid and invalid species of Acanthocephaloides Meyer, 1932 are listed and a key to all ten species is included.

  9. Purification and biochemical characterization of an alkaline protease from marine bacteria Pseudoalteromonas sp. 129-1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shimei; Liu, Ge; Zhang, Dechao; Li, Chaoxu; Sun, Chaomin

    2015-12-01

    An extracellular alkaline protease produced by marine bacteria strain Pseudoalteromonas sp. 129-1 was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, anion exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. The purity of the protease was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and molecular mass was estimated to be 35 kDa. The protease maintained considerable activity and stability at a wide temperature range of 10-60 °C and pH range of 6-11, and optimum activity was detected at temperature of 50 °C and pH of 8. Metallo-protease inhibitor, EDTA, had no inhibitory effect on protease activity even at concentration up to 15 mM, whereas 15 mM PMSF, a common serine protease inhibitor, greatly inactivated the protease. The high stability of the protease in the presence of surfactants (SDS, Tween 80, and Triton X-100), oxidizing agent H(2)O(2), and commercial detergents was observed. Moreover, the protease was tolerant to most of the tested organic solvents, and saline tolerant up to 30%. Interestingly, biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was greatly reduced by 0.01 mg ml(-1) of the protease, and nearly completely abolished with the concentration of 1 mg ml(-1). Collectively, the protease showed valuable feathers as an additive in laundry detergent and non-toxic anti-biofilm agent.

  10. Ultrastructure of Amastigomonas bermudensis ATCC 50234 sp. nov.: A new heterotrophic marine flagellate.

    PubMed

    Molina, F I; Nerad, T A

    1991-11-29

    The ultrastructure of a new marine heterotrophic flagellate is described. The cell is dorso-ventrally flattened and displays a steady gliding forward movement. A longitudinal groove whose lips are appressed to the substrate runs along the ventral aspect of the cell. The two heterodynamic flagella originate from the proximal end of a cytoplasmic sheath that enfolds most of the length of the anterior flagellum. The lips of this sheath are continuous with the margins of the ventral groove. The posterior trailing flagellum is held closely appressed to the cell body on one side of the ventral groove. Three bands of microtubules extend posteriorly into the cell body and are associated with the kinetosomes. The part of the surface membrane extending over the cell's dorsal and lateral aspect is five-layered, giving the semblance of two fused cell membranes. There is a fibrillar layer underneath these membranes. There is also a fibrous network whose arrays are oriented in different directions within the cytoplasm. Mitochondria have tubular cristae. Based on a comparison with previously described species of Amastigomonas, we establish the species, A. bermudensis n.sp. We further conclude that Thecamonas is a junior synonym of Amastigomonas and move the three nominal species to the latter genus.

  11. Prosthecochloris indica sp. nov., a novel green sulfur bacterium from a marine aquaculture pond, Kakinada, India.

    PubMed

    Anil Kumar, Pinnaka; Naga Radha Srinivas, Tanuku; Sasikala, Chintalapati; Venkata Ramana, Chintalapati; Süling, Jorg; Imhoff, Johannes

    2009-04-01

    A green sulfur bacterium, strain JAGS6T was isolated from a marine aquaculture pond located near Kakinada on the east coast of India. Cells of strain JAGS6T were Gram-negative, non-motile, coccoid, 1-1.2 microm in diameter, with prosthecae. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain JAGS6T clusters with members of the genus Prosthecochloris and the sequence similarity with the nearest relative, Prosthecochloris vibrioformis, is 96.7%. Cultures of strain JAGS6T are green in color and the cells contain bacteriochlorophyll c and most likely carotenoids of the chlorobactene series as photosynthetic pigments. Strain JAGS6T is mesophilic, halotolerant (up to 7% NaCl) and is obligately phototrophic, utilizing sulfide but not thiosulfate as a photosynthetic electron donor. Sulfur globules are deposited outside the cells during oxidation of sulfide. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and its morphological and physiological characteristics, strain JAGS6T is distinct from described species of the genus Prosthecochloris and we propose to describe it as a new species, Prosthecochloris indica, sp. nov. The type strain is JAGS6T (=JCM 13299T=ATCC BAA1214T).

  12. Dragmacidins G and H, Bisindole Alkaloids Tethered by a Guanidino Ethylthiopyrazine Moiety, from a Lipastrotethya sp. Marine Sponge.

    PubMed

    Hitora, Yuki; Takada, Kentaro; Ise, Yuji; Okada, Shigeru; Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2016-11-23

    LCMS analysis of the extract and a cytotoxicity assay of the HPLC fractions generated from a small-scale extract of a Lipastrotethya sp. marine sponge demonstrated the presence of bisindole alkaloids that were associated with the cytotoxic activity. Two bisindole alkaloids tethered by a guanidino ethylthiopyrazine moiety, dragmacidins G (1) and H (2), were isolated, and their structures were assigned by analysis of the MS and NMR data. They showed moderate cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells.

  13. Genome Sequence of Vibrio sp. Strain EJY3, an Agarolytic Marine Bacterium Metabolizing 3,6-Anhydro-l-Galactose as a Sole Carbon Source

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Hanseong; Yun, Eun Ju; Lee, Saeyoung; Ko, Hyeok-Jin; Kim, Sujin; Kim, Byung-Yong; Song, Heesang; Lim, Kwang-il

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic fate of 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose (l-AHG) is unknown in the global marine carbon cycle. Vibrio sp. strain EJY3 is an agarolytic marine bacterium that can utilize l-AHG as a sole carbon source. To elucidate the metabolic pathways of l-AHG, we have sequenced the complete genome of Vibrio sp. strain EJY3. PMID:22535948

  14. Alkane production by the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. NKBG15041c possessing the α-olefin biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Tomoko; Liang, Yue; Arai, Daichi; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Honda, Toru; Muto, Masaki; Kakunaka, Natsumi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2015-02-01

    The production of alkanes in a marine cyanobacterium possessing the α-olefin biosynthesis pathway was achieved by introducing an exogenous alkane biosynthesis pathway. Cyanobacterial hydrocarbons are synthesized via two separate pathways: the acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase/aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase (AAR/ADO) pathway for the alkane biosynthesis and the α-olefin synthase (OLS) pathway for the α-olefin biosynthesis. Coexistence of these pathways has not yet been reported. In this study, the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. NKBG15041c was shown to produce α-olefins similar to those of Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 via the α-olefin biosynthesis pathway. The production of heptadecane in Synechococcus sp. NKBG15041c was achieved by expressing the AAR/ADO pathway genes from Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. The production yields of heptadecane in Synechococcus sp. NKBG15041c varied with the expression level of the aar and ado genes. The maximal yield of heptadecane was 4.2 ± 1.2 μg/g of dried cell weight in the transformant carrying a homologous promoter. Our results also suggested that the effective activation of ADO may be more important for the enhancement of alkane production by cyanobacteria.

  15. Molecular systematics of marine gregarines (Apicomplexa) from North-eastern Pacific polychaetes and nemerteans, with descriptions of three novel species: Lecudina phyllochaetopteri sp. nov., Difficilina tubulani sp. nov. and Difficilina paranemertis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Rueckert, Sonja; Chantangsi, Chitchai; Leander, Brian S

    2010-11-01

    Most eugregarine apicomplexans infecting the intestines of marine invertebrates have been described within the family Lecudinidae and the type genus Lecudina. The diversity of these parasites is vast and poorly understood and only a tiny number of species has been characterized at the molecular phylogenetic level. DNA sequences coupled with high-resolution micrographs of trophozoites provide an efficient and precise approach for delimiting gregarine lineages from one another and also facilitate our overall understanding of gregarine biodiversity. In this study, phylogenetic analyses of small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences from five (uncultivated) gregarines isolated from polychaetes and nemerteans in the North-eastern Pacific Ocean are presented. Lecudina phyllochaetopteri sp. nov. was isolated from the intestines of the parchment tubeworm Phyllochaetopterus prolifica (Polychaeta). Lecudina longissima and Lecudina polymorpha were both isolated from the intestines of Lumbrineris japonica (Polychaeta). Difficilina tubulani sp. nov. was isolated from the nemertean Tubulanus polymorpha and Difficilina paranemertis sp. nov. was isolated from the nemertean Paranemertes peregrina. This is the first report of molecular sequence data from gregarines that infect nemerteans. The two novel species of the genus Difficilina described in this study formed a strongly supported clade in the phylogenetic analyses. This Difficilina clade formed the sister group to a robust subclade of lecudinids consisting of Lecudina longissima, Lecudina phyllochaetopteri sp. nov. (which lacked epicytic folds), Lecudina tuzetae, species of the genus Lankesteria and several sequences derived from previous environmental DNA surveys of marine biodiversity.

  16. Inhibitory activity of an extract from a marine bacterium Halomonas sp. HSB07 against the red-tide microalga Gymnodinium sp. (Pyrrophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Juan; Li, Fuchao; Liu, Ling; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Zhaopu

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, red tides occurred frequently in coastal areas worldwide. Various methods based on the use of clay, copper sulfate, and bacteria have been successful in controlling red tides to some extent. As a new defensive agent, marine microorganisms are important sources of compounds with potent inhibitory bioactivities against red-tide microalgae, such as Gymnodinium sp. (Pyrrophyta). In this study, we isolated a marine bacterium, HSB07, from seawater collected from Hongsha Bay, Sanya, South China Sea. Based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence and biochemical characteristics, the isolated strain HSB07 was identified as a member of the genus Halomonas. A crude ethyl acetate extract of strain HSB07 showed moderate inhibition activity against Gymnodinium sp. in a bioactive prescreening experiment. The extract was further separated into fractions A, B, and C by silica gel column chromatography. Fractions B and C showed strong inhibition activities against Gymnodinium. This is the first report of inhibitory activity of secondary metabolites of a Halomonas bacterium against a red-tide-causing microalga.

  17. Winogradskyella psychrotolerans sp. nov., a marine bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from Arctic sediment.

    PubMed

    Begum, Z; Srinivas, T N R; Manasa, P; Sailaja, B; Sunil, B; Prasad, S; Shivaji, S

    2013-05-01

    A novel Gram-negative, rod-coccus shaped, non-motile, strain, RS-3(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from the marine transect of Kongsfjorden, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Arctic. Colonies and broth cultures were yellowish in colour due to the presence of carotenoids. Strain RS-3(T) was positive for oxidase, aesculinase, caseinase, gelatinase and urease activities and negative for amylase, catalase, lipase, lysine decarboxylase, ornithine decarboxylase, DNase and β-galactosidase activities. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 (18.0), anteiso-C15 : 0 (16.8), iso-C15 : 1 G (14.2), anteiso-C15 : 1 A (6.0) and iso-C15 : 0 3-OH (6.8). Strain RS-3(T) contained MK-6 (72.42 %) and MK-7 (27.58 %) as the major respiratory quinones and phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified lipids make up the polar lipid composition. The DNA G+C content of strain RS-3(T) was 34.7±1.2 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that Winogradskyella pacifica and Winogradskyella thalassocola are the most closely related species with sequence similarities to the type strains of these species of 98.5 and 97.7 %, respectively. However, DNA-DNA hybridization with Winogradskyella pacifica KCTC 22997(T) and Winogradskyella thalassocola DSM 15363(T) showed a relatedness of 22 and 42.5 % with respect to strain RS-3(T). Based on the DNA-DNA hybridization values, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics and phylogenetic inference, strain RS-3(T) is proposed as a novel species of the genus Winogradskyella, for which the name Winogradskyella psychrotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Winogradskyella psychrotolerans sp. nov. is RS-3(T) ( = CIP 110154(T) = NBRC 106169(T)). An emended description of the genus Winogradskyella is provided.

  18. A halotolerant thermostable lipase from the marine bacterium Oceanobacillus sp. PUMB02 with an ability to disrupt bacterial biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Seghal Kiran, George; Nishanth Lipton, Anuj; Kennedy, Jonathan; Dobson, Alan DW; Selvin, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    A halotolerant thermostable lipase was purified and characterized from the marine bacterium Oceanobacillus sp. PUMB02. This lipase displayed a high degree of stability over a wide range of conditions including pH, salinity, and temperature. It was optimally active at 30 °C and pH 8.0 respectively and was stable at higher temperatures (50–70 °C) and alkaline pH. The molecular mass of the lipase was approximately 31 kDa based on SDS-PAGE and MALDI-ToF fingerprint analysis. Conditions for enhanced production of lipase by Oceanobacillus sp. PUMB02 were attained in response surface method-guided optimization with factors such as olive oil, sucrose, potassium chromate, and NaCl being evaluated, resulting in levels of 58.84 U/ml being achieved. The biofilm disruption potential of the PUMB02 lipase was evaluated and compared with a marine sponge metagenome derived halotolerant lipase Lpc53E1. Good biofilm disruption activity was observed with both lipases against potential food pathogens such as Bacillus cereus MTCC1272, Listeria sp. MTCC1143, Serratia sp. MTCC4822, Escherichia coli MTCC443, Pseudomonas fluorescens MTCC1748, and Vibrio parahemolyticus MTCC459. Phase contrast microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed very effective disruption of pathogenic biofilms. This study reveals that marine derived hydrolytic enzymes such as lipases may have potential utility in inhibiting biofilm formation in a food processing environment and is the first report of the potential application of lipases from the genus Oceanobacillus in biofilm disruption strategies. PMID:25482232

  19. Housing tubes from the marine worm Chaetopterus sp.: biomaterials with exceptionally broad thermomechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Shah, Darshil U; Vollrath, Fritz; Porter, David; Stires, John; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2014-09-06

    The housing tube material of the marine worm Chaetopterus sp. exhibits thermal stability up to 250°C, similar to other biological materials such as mulberry silkworm cocoons. Interestingly, however, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis conducted in both air and water elucidated the lack of a glass transition in the organic tube wall material. In fact, the viscoelastic properties of the anhydrous and undried tube were remarkably stable (i.e. constant and reversible) between -75°C and 200°C in air, and 5°C and 75°C in water, respectively. Moreover, it was found that hydration and associated-water plasticization were key to the rubber-like flexible properties of the tube; dehydration transformed the material behaviour to glass-like. The tube is made of bionanocomposite fibrils in highly oriented arrangement, which we argue favours the biomaterial to be highly crystalline or cross-linked, with extensive hydrogen and/or covalent bonds. Mechanical property characterization in the longitudinal and transverse directions ascertained that the tubes were not quasi-isotropic structures. In general, the higher stiffness and strength in the transverse direction implied that there were more nanofibrils orientated at ± 45° and ± 65° than at 0° to the tube axis. The order of the mechanical properties of the soft-tough tubes was similar to synthetic rubber-like elastomers and even some viscid silks. The complex structure-property relations observed indicated that the worm has evolved to produce a tubular housing structure which can (i) function stably over a broad range of temperatures, (ii) endure mechanical stresses from specific planes/axes, and (iii) facilitate rapid growth or repair.

  20. Quorum sensing of microalgae associated marine Ponticoccus sp. PD-2 and its algicidal function regulation.

    PubMed

    Chi, Wendan; Zheng, Li; He, Changfei; Han, Bin; Zheng, Minggang; Gao, Wei; Sun, Chengjun; Zhou, Gefei; Gao, Xiangxing

    2017-12-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) systems play important roles in regulating many physiological functions of microorganisms, such as biofilm formation, bioluminescence, and antibiotic production. One marine algicidal bacterium, Ponticoccus sp. PD-2, was isolated from the microalga Prorocentrum donghaiense, and its N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated QS system was verified. In this study, we analyzed the AHLs profile of strain PD-2. Two AHLs, 3-oxo-C8-HSL and 3-oxo-C10-HSL, were detected using a biosensor overlay assay and GC-MS methods. Two complete AHL-QS systems (designated zlaI/R and zlbI/R) were identified in the genome of strain PD-2. When expressed in Escherichia coli, both zlaI and zlbI genes could each produce 3-oxo-C8-HSL and 3-oxo-C10-HSL. Algicidal activity was investigated by evaluating the inhibitory rate (IR) of microalgae growth by measuring the fluorescence of viable cells. We found that the metabolites of strain PD-2 had algicidal activity against its host P. donghaiense (IR 84.81%) and two other red tide microalgae, Phaeocystis globosa (IR 78.91%) and Alexandrium tamarense (IR 67.14%). β-cyclodextrin which binds to AHLs and inhibits the QS system reduced the algicidal activity more than 50%. This indicates that inhibiting the QS system may affect the algicidal metabolites production of strain PD-2. Our study indicated that a QS-regulated algicidal system may play a potential role in the process of red tides disintegration. QS might be a potential way to control red tides.

  1. Kocuria subflava sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment from the Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhao; Zhang, Wei-Hua; Yuan, Chang-Guo; Chen, Jia-Yang; Cao, Li-Xiang; Park, Dong-Jin; Xiao, Min; Kim, Chang-Jin; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-12-01

    A novel Gram-staining positive, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, aerobic, non-motile coccus, designated strain YIM 13062(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from the Indian Ocean. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM 13062(T) belongs to the genus Kocuria, and is closely related to Kocuria polaris NBRC 103063(T) (97.8 % similarity), Kocuria rosea NBRC 3768(T) (97.6 % similarity) and Kocuria carniphila JCM 14118(T) (97.4 % similarity). The strain grew optimally at 28 °C, pH 8.0 and in the presence of 2-4 % (w/v) NaCl. Cell-wall peptidoglycan type was Lys-Ala3 (type A3α). The major isoprenoid quinones were MK-6(H2) and MK-7(H2). The polar lipids of strain YIM 13062(T) consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), one unidentified phospholipid (PL), one unidentified aminophospholipid (APL), two unidentified aminolipids (AL) and four unidentified lipids (L). Major fatty acids of the novel isolate were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C14:0 and C18:1 2OH. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain YIM 13062(T) was 68.0 mol%. The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain YIM 13062(T) and K. polaris NBRC 103063(T), K. rosea NBRC 3768(T), K. carniphila JCM 14118(T) were 53.2, 48.8 and 42.6 %, respectively. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic data, it is apparent that strain YIM 13062(T) represents a novel species of the genus Kocuria, for which the name Kocuria subflava sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 13062(T) (=CGMCC 4.7252(T)=KCTC 39547(T)).

  2. Cloning, expression and functional characterization of a novel trehalose synthase from marine Pseudomonas sp. P8005.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yun; Xi, Yue; Lu, Xiao-Ling; Zheng, Heng; Hu, Bo; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Jiao, Bing-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Trehalose synthase (TreS) catalyzes the reversible interconversion of maltose and trehalose. A novel treS gene with a length of 3,369 bp, encoding a protein of 1,122 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 126 kDa, was cloned from a marine Pseudomonas sp. P8005 (CCTCC: M2010298) and expressed in Escherichia coli. The amino acid sequence identities between this novel TreS and other reported TreS is relatively low. The purified recombinant TreS showed an optimum pH and temperature of 7.2 and 37 °C, respectively. The enzyme displayed a high conversion rate (70 %) of maltose to trehalose during equilibrium and had a higher catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m) for maltose than for trehalose, suggesting its application in the production of trehalose. In addition to maltose and trehalose, this enzyme can also act on sucrose, although this activity is relatively low. Mutagenesis studies demonstrated that enzymatic activity was reduced dramatically by individually substitution with alanine for D78, Y81, H121, D219, E261, H331 or D332, which implied that these residues might be important in P8005-TreS. Experiments using isotope-labeled substrates showed that [(2)H2]trehalose combined with unlabeled trehalose was converted to [(2)H2]maltose and maltose, but without any production of [(2)H]maltose or [(2)H]trehalose and with no incorporation of exogenous [(2)H7]glucose into the disaccharides during the conversion catalyzed by this enzyme. This finding indicated the involvement of an intramolecular mechanism in P8005-TreS catalyzing the reversible interconversion of maltose and trehalose.

  3. Description of Persicirhabdus sediminis gen. nov., sp. nov., Roseibacillus ishigakijimensis gen. nov., sp. nov., Roseibacillus ponti sp. nov., Roseibacillus persicicus sp. nov., Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Luteolibacter algae sp. nov., six marine members of the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia', and emended descriptions of the class Verrucomicrobiae, the order Verrucomicrobiales and the family Verrucomicrobiaceae.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Matsuo, Yoshihide; Adachi, Kyoko; Nozawa, Midori; Matsuda, Satoru; Kasai, Hiroaki; Yokota, Akira

    2008-04-01

    Ten pale-pink- and pale-yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped, chemoheterotrophic bacteria designated strains YM20-087T, YM21-151, MN1-741T, YM27-120T, YM26-010T, YM24-184, YM20-122, A4T-83T, A5J-41-2T and A5J-40 were isolated from various marine environments and were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic investigation. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that these isolates belonged to the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia' (subdivision 1) and represented three independent lineages that were distinct from species of genera of the family Verrucomicrobiaceae with validly published names. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of these strains contained muramic acid and meso-diaminopimelic acid. Strains MN1-741T, YM27-120T, YM26-010T, YM24-184 and YM20-122 produced pinkish carotenoid pigments. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic evidence, it was concluded that these strains should be classified within three new genera, Persicirhabdus gen. nov. (with one species, the type species Persicirhabdus sediminis sp. nov.), Roseibacillus gen. nov. (with three species; type species Roseibacillus ishigakijimensis sp. nov.) and Luteolibacter gen. nov. (with two species; type species Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis sp. nov.), of the family Verrucomicrobiaceae within the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia'. The names Persicirhabdus sediminis gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain YM20-087T =MBIC08313T =KCTC 22039T), Roseibacillus ishigakijimensis gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain MN1-741T =MBIC08315T =KCTC 12986T), Roseibacillus ponti sp. nov. (type strain YM27-120T =MBIC08316T =KCTC 12987T), Roseibacillus persicicus sp. nov. (type strain YM26-010T =MBIC08317T =KCTC 12988T), Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain A4T-83T =MBIC08322T =KCTC 22041T) and Luteolibacter algae sp. nov. (type strain A5J-41-2T =MBIC08320T =KCTC 22040T) are therefore proposed. Emended descriptions of the class Verrucomicrobiae, the order Verrucomicrobiales and the family

  4. Enhanced textile dye decolorization by marine-derived basidiomycete Peniophora sp. CBMAI 1063 using integrated statistical design.

    PubMed

    Bonugli-Santos, Rafaella C; Vieira, Gabriela A L; Collins, Catherine; Fernandes, Thaís Cristina C; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida; Murray, Patrick; Sette, Lara D

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, the biotechnological potential of the marine-derived fungus Peniophora sp. CBMAI 1063 was investigated in relation to Reactive Black 5 (RB5) dye decolorization and degradation using an integrated statistical design composed of Plackett-Burman design (P&B), central composite design (CCD), and response surface methodology (RSM). RB5 dye was effectively decolorized (94 %) in saline conditions, without any detection of mutagenic compounds, and simultaneously, 57 % of total organic carbon (TOC) was removed in 7 days. The activity of lignin peroxidase (LiP) was not detected during the process. The gene expression of laccase (Lac) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) enzymes produced during the process was evaluated, and results from this experiment coupled with LC-MS analyses revealed that in the early stage of dye decolorization, a higher MnP gene expression and significant enzymatic activity was detected in Peniophora sp. CBMAI 1063 with the formation of p-Base and TAHNDS compounds. This paper reports innovative data related to the textile dye decolorization by the marine-derived basidiomycete Peniophora sp. CBMAI 1063, showing the metabolites formed and enzymatic action throughout the process in saline condition. The strategy used showed to be an efficient statistical approach that provides an attractive solution for the screening and simultaneous optimization of the degradation process.

  5. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Rapid Secondary-Metabolite Profiling of Marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. M2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo Jung; Kim, Young Ok; Kim, Jin Hee; Nam, Bo-Hye; Kim, Dong-Gyun; An, Cheul Min; Lee, Jun Sik; Kim, Pan Soo; Lee, Hye Min; Oh, Joa-Sup; Lee, Jong Suk

    2016-01-20

    The ocean is a rich resource of flora, fauna, and food. A wild-type bacterial strain showing confluent growth on marine agar with antibacterial activity was isolated from marine water, identified using 16S rDNA sequence analysis as Pseudoalteromonas sp., and designated as strain M2. This strain was found to produce various secondary metabolites including quinolone alkaloids. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, we identified nine secondary metabolites of 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinoline (pseudane-III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, and XI). Additionally, this strain produced two novel, closely related compounds, 2-isopentylqunoline-4-one and 2-(2,3-dimetylbutyl)qunoline-4-(1H)-one, which have not been previously reported from marine bacteria. From the metabolites produced by Pseudoalteromonas sp. M2, 2-(2,3-dimethylbutyl)quinolin-4-one, pseudane-VI, and pseudane-VII inhibited melanin synthesis in Melan-A cells by 23.0%, 28.2%, and 42.7%, respectively, wherein pseudane-VII showed the highest inhibition at 8 µg/mL. The results of this study suggest that liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS-based metabolite screening effectively improves the efficiency of novel metabolite discovery. Additionally, these compounds are promising candidates for further bioactivity development.

  6. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Rapid Secondary-Metabolite Profiling of Marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. M2

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woo Jung; Kim, Young Ok; Kim, Jin Hee; Nam, Bo-Hye; Kim, Dong-Gyun; An, Cheul Min; Lee, Jun Sik; Kim, Pan Soo; Lee, Hye Min; Oh, Joa-Sup; Lee, Jong Suk

    2016-01-01

    The ocean is a rich resource of flora, fauna, and food. A wild-type bacterial strain showing confluent growth on marine agar with antibacterial activity was isolated from marine water, identified using 16S rDNA sequence analysis as Pseudoalteromonas sp., and designated as strain M2. This strain was found to produce various secondary metabolites including quinolone alkaloids. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, we identified nine secondary metabolites of 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinoline (pseudane-III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, and XI). Additionally, this strain produced two novel, closely related compounds, 2-isopentylqunoline-4-one and 2-(2,3-dimetylbutyl)qunoline-4-(1H)-one, which have not been previously reported from marine bacteria. From the metabolites produced by Pseudoalteromonas sp. M2, 2-(2,3-dimethylbutyl)quinolin-4-one, pseudane-VI, and pseudane-VII inhibited melanin synthesis in Melan-A cells by 23.0%, 28.2%, and 42.7%, respectively, wherein pseudane-VII showed the highest inhibition at 8 µg/mL. The results of this study suggest that liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS-based metabolite screening effectively improves the efficiency of novel metabolite discovery. Additionally, these compounds are promising candidates for further bioactivity development. PMID:26805856

  7. New natural products identified by combined genomics-metabolomics profiling of marine Streptomyces sp. MP131-18

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Constanze; Rebets, Yuriy; Tokovenko, Bogdan; Nadmid, Suvd; Terekhova, Larisa P.; Myronovskyi, Maksym; Zotchev, Sergey B.; Rückert, Christian; Braig, Simone; Zahler, Stefan; Kalinowski, Jörn; Luzhetskyy, Andriy

    2017-01-01

    Marine actinobacteria are drawing more and more attention as a promising source of new natural products. Here we report isolation, genome sequencing and metabolic profiling of new strain Streptomyces sp. MP131-18 isolated from marine sediment sample collected in the Trondheim Fjord, Norway. The 16S rRNA and multilocus phylogenetic analysis showed that MP131-18 belongs to the genus Streptomyces. The genome of MP131-18 isolate was sequenced, and 36 gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of 18 different types of secondary metabolites were predicted using antiSMASH analysis. The combined genomics-metabolics profiling of the strain led to the identification of several new biologically active compounds. As a result, the family of bisindole pyrroles spiroindimicins was extended with two new members, spiroindimicins E and F. Furthermore, prediction of the biosynthetic pathway for unusual α-pyrone lagunapyrone isolated from MP131-18 resulted in foresight and identification of two new compounds of this family – lagunapyrones D and E. The diversity of identified and predicted compounds from Streptomyces sp. MP131-18 demonstrates that marine-derived actinomycetes are not only a promising source of new natural products, but also represent a valuable pool of genes for combinatorial biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. PMID:28186197

  8. Optimization of culturing condition and medium composition for the production of alginate lyase by a marine Vibrio sp. YKW-34

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiaoting; Lin, Hong; Kim, Sang Moo

    2008-02-01

    Carbohydrases secreted by marine Vibrio sp. YKW-34 with strong Laminaria cell wall degrading ability were screened, and among them alginate lyase was found to be dominant. The effects of medium composition and culturing condition on the production of alginate lyase by marine Vibrio sp. YKW-34 in flask were investigated in this study. In the culture medium of marine broth, no alginate lyase was produced. The activity of the alginate lyase, after being induced, reached 5 UmL-1. The best inoculum volume and inoculum age were 10% and 12 h, respectively. The optimal temperature for alginate lyase production was 25°C. The fermentation medium was composed of 0.5% of Laminaria powder and 0.2% of KNO3 with an initial acidity of pH 8.0. Alginate could induce alginate lyase production but not as efficiently as Laminaria powder did. The addition of fucoidan, cellulose and glucose had negative effect on the alginate lyase production. Other kinds of nitrogen sources, such as yeast extract, beef extract and peptone, had positive effect on the growth of the microorganism and negative effect on alginate lyase production. In addition, the time course of alginate lyase production under the optimized condition was described. The optimal harvest time was 48 h.

  9. New natural products identified by combined genomics-metabolomics profiling of marine Streptomyces sp. MP131-18.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Constanze; Rebets, Yuriy; Tokovenko, Bogdan; Nadmid, Suvd; Terekhova, Larisa P; Myronovskyi, Maksym; Zotchev, Sergey B; Rückert, Christian; Braig, Simone; Zahler, Stefan; Kalinowski, Jörn; Luzhetskyy, Andriy

    2017-02-10

    Marine actinobacteria are drawing more and more attention as a promising source of new natural products. Here we report isolation, genome sequencing and metabolic profiling of new strain Streptomyces sp. MP131-18 isolated from marine sediment sample collected in the Trondheim Fjord, Norway. The 16S rRNA and multilocus phylogenetic analysis showed that MP131-18 belongs to the genus Streptomyces. The genome of MP131-18 isolate was sequenced, and 36 gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of 18 different types of secondary metabolites were predicted using antiSMASH analysis. The combined genomics-metabolics profiling of the strain led to the identification of several new biologically active compounds. As a result, the family of bisindole pyrroles spiroindimicins was extended with two new members, spiroindimicins E and F. Furthermore, prediction of the biosynthetic pathway for unusual α-pyrone lagunapyrone isolated from MP131-18 resulted in foresight and identification of two new compounds of this family - lagunapyrones D and E. The diversity of identified and predicted compounds from Streptomyces sp. MP131-18 demonstrates that marine-derived actinomycetes are not only a promising source of new natural products, but also represent a valuable pool of genes for combinatorial biosynthesis of secondary metabolites.

  10. Assessment of bioflocculant production by Bacillus sp. Gilbert, a marine bacterium isolated from the bottom sediment of Algoa Bay.

    PubMed

    Nontembiso, Piyo; Sekelwa, Cosa; Leonard, Mabinya V; Anthony, Okoh I

    2011-01-01

    The bioflocculant-producing potentials of a marine bacteria isolated from the bottom sediment of Algoa Bay was investigated using standard methods. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed 98% similarity to that of Bacillus sp. HXG-C1 and the nucleotide sequence was deposited in GenBank as Bacillus sp. Gilbert with accession number HQ537128. Bioflocculant was optimally produced when sucrose (72% flocculating activity) and ammonium chloride (91% flocculating activity) were used as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively; an initial pH 6.2 of the production medium; and Mg²⁺ as cation. Chemical analysis of the purified bioflocculant revealed the compound to be a polysaccharide.

  11. Identification and Antibacterial Activity of Bacteria Isolated from Marine Sponge Haliclona (Reniera) sp. against Multi-Drug Resistant Human Pathogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardhanu Asagabaldan, Meezan; Ayuningrum, D.; Kristiana, R.; Sabdono, A.; Radjasa, O. K.; Trianto, A.

    2017-02-01

    The marine sponge Haliclona (Reniera) sp. was a potential source of natural bioactive compounds. This sponge widely distributed along the coast of Panjang Island, Jepara, Indonesia. The aims of this research were to isolate the associated bacteria with Haliclona (Reniera) sp. and to screen the antibacterial activity against Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) bacteria. Amount five bacteria were isolated using media selective for bacteria. The antibacterial activities of bacteria were performed by overlay methods. The bacteria strain PSP. 39-04 had the best activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Enterobacter cloaceae. Based on colony morphology and phylogenetic characterization using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, PSP 39-04 was closely related with Chromohalobacter salixigens strain DSM3043.

  12. Assessment of Bioflocculant Production by Bacillus sp. Gilbert, a Marine Bacterium Isolated from the Bottom Sediment of Algoa Bay

    PubMed Central

    Nontembiso, Piyo; Sekelwa, Cosa; Leonard, Mabinya V.; Anthony, Okoh I.

    2011-01-01

    The bioflocculant-producing potentials of a marine bacteria isolated from the bottom sediment of Algoa Bay was investigated using standard methods. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed 98% similarity to that of Bacillus sp. HXG-C1 and the nucleotide sequence was deposited in GenBank as Bacillus sp. Gilbert with accession number HQ537128. Bioflocculant was optimally produced when sucrose (72% flocculating activity) and ammonium chloride (91% flocculating activity) were used as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively; an initial pH 6.2 of the production medium; and Mg2+ as cation. Chemical analysis of the purified bioflocculant revealed the compound to be a polysaccharide. PMID:21822413

  13. The Inhibition and Resistance Mechanisms of Actinonin, Isolated from Marine Streptomyces sp. NHF165, against Vibrio anguillarum

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Na; Sun, Chaomin

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio sp. is the most serious pathogen in marine aquaculture, and the development of anti-Vibrio agents is urgently needed. However, it is extreme lack of high-throughput screening (HTS) model for searching anti-Vibrio compounds. Here, we established a protein-based HTS screening model to identify agents targeting peptide deformylase (PDF) of Vibrio anguillarum. To find potential anti-Vibrio compounds, crude extracts derived from marine actinomycetes were applied for screening with this model. Notably, crude extract of strain Streptomyces sp. NHF165 inhibited dramatically both on V. anguillarum PDF (VaPDF) activity and V. anguillarum cell growth. And actinonin was further identified as the functional component. Anti-VaPDF and anti-V. anguillarum activities of actinonin were dose-dependent, and the IC50 values were 6.94 and 2.85 μM, respectively. To understand the resistance of V. anguillarum against actinonin, spontaneous V. anguillarum mutants with resistance against actinonin were isolated. Surprisingly, for the resistant strains, the region between 774 and 852 base pairs was found to be absent in the gene folD which produces 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate, a donor of N-formyl to Met-tRNAfmet. When compared to the wild type strain, ΔfolD mutant showed eight times of minimum inhibition concentration on actinonin, however, the folD complementary strain could not grow on the medium supplemented with actinonin, which suggested that folD gene mutation was mainly responsible for the actinonin resistance. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that marine derived Streptomyces sp. could produce actinonin with anti-VaPDF activity and the resistance against actinonin by V. anguillarum is mediated by mutation in folD gene. PMID:27679625

  14. Pretreatment for simultaneous production of total lipids and fermentable sugars from marine alga, Chlorella sp.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choon-Geun; Kang, Do-Hyung; Lee, Dong-Bog; Lee, Hyeon-Yong

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the optimal pretreatment process for the extraction of lipids and reducing sugars to facilitate the simultaneous production of biodiesel and bioethanol from the marine microalga Chorella sp. With a single pretreatment process, the optimal ultrasonication pretreatment process was 10 min at 47 KHz, and extraction yields of 6.5 and 7.1 (percentage, w/w) of the lipids and reducing sugars, respectively, were obtained. The optimal microwave pretreatment process was 10 min at 2,450 MHz, and extraction yields of 6.6 and 7.0 (percentage, w/w) of the lipids and reducing sugars, respectively, were obtained. Lastly, the optimal high-pressure homogenization pretreatment process was two cycles at a pressure of 20,000 psi, and extraction yields of 12.5 and 12.8 (percentage, w/w) of the lipids and reducing sugars, respectively, were obtained. However, because the single pretreatment processes did not markedly improve the extraction yields compared to the results of previous studies, a combination of two pretreatment processes was applied. The yields of lipids and reducing sugars from the combined application of the high-pressure homogenization process and the microwave process were 24.4 and 24.9 % (w/w), respectively, which was up to three times greater than the yields obtained using the single pretreatment processes. Furthermore, the oleic acid content, which is a fatty acid suitable for biodiesel production, was 23.39 % of the fatty acids (w/w). The contents of glucose and xylose, which are among the fermentable sugars useful for bioethanol production, were 77.5 and 13.3 % (w/w) of the fermentable sugars, respectively, suggesting the possibility of simultaneously producing biodiesel and bioethanol. Based on the results of this study, the combined application of the high-pressure homogenization and microwave pretreatment processes is the optimal method to increase the extraction yields of lipids and reducing sugars that are essential for

  15. Kinetics of Mn(II) oxidation by spores of the marine Bacillus sp. SG-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Tebo, Bradley M.

    2016-09-01

    The kinetics of Mn(II) oxidation by spores of the marine Bacillus sp. SG-1 was measured under controlled conditions of the initial Mn(II) concentration, spore concentration, chemical speciation, pH, O2, and temperature. Mn(II) oxidation experiments were performed with spore concentrations ranging from 0.7 to 11 × 109 spores/L, a pH range from 5.8 to 8.1, temperatures between 4 and 58 °C, a range of dissolved oxygen from 2 to 270 μM, and initial Mn(II) concentrations from 1 to 200 μM. The Mn(II) oxidation rates were directly proportional to the spore concentrations over these ranges of concentration. The Mn(II) oxidation rate increased with increasing initial Mn(II) concentration to a critical concentration, as described by the Michaelis-Menten model (Km = ca. 3 μM). Whereas with starting Mn(II) concentrations above the critical concentration, the rate was almost constant in low ionic solution (I = 0.05, 0.08). At high ionic solution (I = 0.53, 0.68), the rate was inversely correlated with Mn(II) concentration. Increase in the Mn(II) oxidation rate with the dissolved oxygen concentration followed the Michaelis-Menten model (Km = 12-19 μM DO) in both a HEPES-buffered commercial drinking (soft) water and in artificial and natural seawater. Overall, our results suggest that the mass transport limitations of Mn(II) ions due to secondary Mn oxide products accumulating on the spores cause a significant decrease of the oxidation rate at higher initial Mn(II) concentration on a spore basis, as well as in more concentrated ionic solutions. The optimum pH for Mn(II) oxidation was approximately 7.0 in low ionic solutions (I = 0.08). The high rates at the alkaline side (pH > 7.5) may suggest a contribution by heterogeneous reactions on manganese bio-oxides. The effect of temperature on the Mn(II) oxidation rate was studied in three solutions (500 mM NaCl, ASW, NSW solutions). Thermal denaturation occurred at 58 °C and spore germination was evident at 40 °C in all three

  16. Manganese Oxide Biomineralization by Spores of the Marine Bacillus sp. Strain SG-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargar, J. R.; Tebo, B. M.; Pecher, K. H.; McCubbery, D.; Chiu, V.; Tonner, B. P.

    2001-12-01

    Biogenic Mn oxides are ubiquitous in natural waters, have high sorptive capacities for metal ions, and oxidize organic and inorganic substances such as aromatic hydrocarbons, Cr(III), and hydrogen sulfide. In this fashion, Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria impact the biogeochemical cycling of essential nutrients and toxic trace constituents of natural waters. In spite of their importance, the molecular mechanisms, intermediates, and products of Mn oxide biomineralization are poorly understood. Similarly, the relationship between biotic and abiotic Mn oxidation mechanisms is not well documented. We have studied Mn oxide biomineralization by spores of the marine Bacillus sp. strain SG-1 as functions of reaction time (10 min to 77 d), Mn(II) concentration (0.01 to 1 mM), major ion composition (50 mM NaCl to sea water), O2 partial pressure, and temperature. SG-1 spores are an ideal subject because they are dormant, Mn-oxidation is not inactivated by the x-rays utilized, and they previously have been extensively studied. Reaction products and Mn oxidation state evolution were directly observed in order to infer mechanisms and phase dominance. To obtain this information, a combination of Mn(II) uptake measurements, K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), L-edge scanning transmission x-ray microspectroscopy (STXM, 60 nm nominal spot size), and synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction measurements were performed. All samples were measured under fully hydrated conditions to prevent dehydration of reaction products. This set of techniques provides chemical and structural information on Mn in amorphous and crystalline states in the samples. Mn oxide biomineralization products were sensitive to [Mn(II)]. At 0.01 mM [Mn(II)], biogenic Mn oxides were found to contain highly oxidized Mn (80-85% Mn(IV)) as observed after 48 hr. reaction. The dominant phase is identified as an amorphous Mn(IV) oxide similar to d-MnO2. K-edge XAS measurements suggest this phase forms within minutes of

  17. Cyclobacterium qasimii sp. nov., a psychrotolerant bacterium isolated from Arctic marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Shivaji, S; Reddy, P Vishnu Vardhan; Rao, S S S Nageshwara; Begum, Zareena; Manasa, Poorna; Srinivas, T N R

    2012-09-01

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, horseshoe-shaped, non-motile bacterium, designated strain M12-11B(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected at a depth of 200 m from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. The colony colour was orangish red due to the presence of carotenoids. Fatty acids were dominated by branched and unsaturated fatty acids (90.8 %), with a high abundance of iso-C(15 : 0) (14.9 %), anteiso-C(15 : 0) (11.4 %), iso-C(15 : 1) G (13.1 %), C(15 : 1)ω6c (5.4 %), C(17 : 1)ω6c (6.7 %), summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)ω7c and/or C(16 : 1)ω6c; 9.3 %) and summed feature 9 (10-methyl C(16 : 0) and/or iso-C(17 : 1)ω9c; 5.9 %). Strain M12-11B(T) contained MK-7 as the major respiratory quinone. The polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminolipid and three unidentified lipids. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, the type strains of Cyclobacterium amurskyense, Cyclobacterium marinum and Cyclobacterium lianum were most closely related to M12-11B(T) with sequence similarities of 98.2, 96.8 and 93.3 %, respectively. Other members of the family Cyclobacteriaceae had sequence similarities of <92.0 %. However, DNA-DNA hybridization with Cyclobacterium amurskyense KCTC 12363(T) and Cyclobacterium marinum DSM 745(T) showed relatedness values of only 24.5 and 32.5 % with respect to strain M12-11B(T). Based on the results of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data, it appears that strain M12-11B(T) represents a novel species of the genus Cyclobacterium, for which the name Cyclobacterium qasimii sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is M12-11B(T) (= KCTC 23011(T) = NBRC 106168(T)) and it has a DNA G+C content of 40.5 mol%.

  18. Shewanella arctica sp. nov., an iron-reducing bacterium isolated from Arctic marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Jeong; Park, Soo-Je; Oh, Yong-Sik; Lee, Sang-Ah; Shin, Kee-Sun; Roh, Dong-Hyun; Rhee, Sung-Keun

    2012-05-01

    Two strains of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria, which could couple lactate oxidation to iron reduction for energy conservation, were isolated from Arctic marine sediment. The strains, IR12(T) and IR26, were both Gram-staining-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive and facultative anaerobes. Their cells were rod-shaped and motile by means of a polar flagellum. Both strains grew in the presence of 0.5-3.5 % (w/v) NaCl, with an absolute requirement for Na(+). Both were psychrotolerant since they could grow at 4-28 °C but had an optimum growth temperature of 20 °C. Both grew at pH 4.5-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.5). The major fatty acids of strains IR12(T) and IR26 were summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)ω6c and/or C(16 : 1)ω7c) and C(16 : 0). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strains IR12(T) and IR26 belonged to the class Gammaproteobacteria and were most closely related to Shewanella vesiculosa M7(T), Shewanella livingstonensis NF22(T) and Shewanella frigidimarina ACAM 591(T) (with 98.5 and 98.8 %, 98.5 and 98.8 %, and 98.5 and 98.8 % sequence similarities, respectively). The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains IR12(T) and IR26 were 40.0 and 40.3 mol%, respectively. DNA-DNA relatedness data indicated that the two novel strains represented a single species that was distinct from S. vesiculosa M7(T), S. livingstonensis NF22(T) and S. frigidimarina ACAM 591(T). Based on the phylogenetic, phenotypic and DNA-DNA relatedness data, the two new strains represent a single novel species of the genus Shewanella, for which the name Shewanella arctica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IR12(T) ( = KCTC 23109(T) = JCM 16723(T)).

  19. Vibrio caribbeanicus sp. nov., isolated from the marine sponge Scleritoderma cyanea.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Maria; Monday, Steven R; Allard, Marc W; Strain, Errol A; Whittaker, Paul; Naum, Marianna; McCarthy, Peter J; Lopez, Jose V; Fischer, Markus; Brown, Eric W

    2012-08-01

    A Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile, curved rod-shaped bacterium, strain N384(T), was isolated from a marine sponge (Scleritoderma cyanea; phylum Porifera) collected from a depth of 795 feet (242 m) off the west coast of Curaçao. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, strain N384(T) was shown to belong to the genus Vibrio, most closely related to Vibrio brasiliensis LMG 20546(T) (98.8% similarity), Vibrio nigripulchritudo ATCC 27043(T) (98.5%), Vibrio tubiashii ATCC 19109(T) (98.6%) and V. sinaloensis DSM 21326(T) (98.2%). The DNA G+C content of strain N384(T) was 41.6 mol%. An analysis of concatenated sequences of five genes (gyrB, rpoA, pyrH, mreB and ftsZ; 4068 bp) demonstrated a clear separation between strain N384(T) and its closest neighbours and clustered strain N384(T) into the 'Orientalis' clade of vibrios. Phenotypically, the novel species belonged to the arginine dihydrolase-positive, lysine decarboxylase- and ornithine decarboxylase-negative (A+/L-/O-) cluster. The novel species was also differentiated on the basis of fatty acid composition, specifically that the proportions of iso-C(13:0), iso-C(15:0), C(15:0), iso-C(16:0), C(16:0), iso-C(17:0), C(17:1)ω8c and C(17:0) were significantly different from those found in V. brasiliensis and V. sinaloensis. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, average nucleotide identity and physiological and biochemical tests further allowed differentiation of this strain from other described species of the genus Vibrio. Collectively, these findings confirm that strain N384(T) represents a novel Vibrio species, for which the name Vibrio caribbeanicus sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain N384(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2122(T) = DSM 23640(T)).

  20. Lysobacter hymeniacidonis sp. nov., isolated from a crude oil-contaminated marine sponge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yanjuan; Qu, Junge; Xu, Junyi; Wu, Peichun; Cao, Xupeng; Xue, Song

    2015-12-01

    An aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium, strain 2-5T, was isolated from a crude oil-contaminated marine sponge collected near Dalian Bay, China, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic investigation. Cells of strain 2-5T were non-spore forming, non-motile, rods 0.2-0.3 µm wide and 1.1-1.2µm long. Strain 2-5T grew well on nutrient agar, TSA, R2A agar and LB agar. Colonies of strain 2-5T on LB agar were circular, smooth with entire margins, non-transparent and pale yellow after 3 d of incubation at 30°C. Growth of strain 2-5T occurred in LN medium with 0-6% NaCl; no growth occurred in the presence of 8.0% NaCl. Strain 2-5T grew at 15-42°C and at pH 6.0-8.0. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 2-5T clustered with the species of the genus Lysobacter. Its closet neighbors were the type strains of Lysobacter concretionis KCTC 12205T (97% similarity), Lysobacter arseniciresistens ZS79T (96%), and Lysobacter defluii APB-9T (96%). The value for DNA-DNA relatedness between strain 2-5T and L. concretionis KCTC 12205T was 23%. Branched fatty acids iso-C16: 0, iso-C15: 0, iso-C 11: 0 3-OH, iso-C17: 1ω9 c and iso-C11: 0 were found to be predominant. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. Strain 2-5T had a DNA G+C content of 63.8 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, DNA-DNA hybridization and phylogenetic data, strain 2-5T represents a novel species of the genus Lysobacter, for which the name Lysobacter hymeniacidonis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 2-5T (=CGMCC 1.12190T = JCM 18137T).

  1. Tartrolon D, a cytotoxic macrodiolide from the marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. MDG-04-17-069.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Marta; Crespo, Cristina; Schleissner, Carmen; Rodríguez, Pilar; Zúñiga, Paz; Reyes, Fernando

    2009-12-01

    Exploration of marine-derived actinomycetes as a source of antitumor compounds has led to the isolation of a new member of the tartrolon series, tartrolon D (4). This new compound was obtained from Streptomyces sp. MDG-04-17-069 fermentation broths and displayed strong cytotoxic activity against three human tumor cell lines. Additionally, the known compound ikarugamycin (5) was also found in the culture broths of the same microorganism. The structure of this new tartrolon was established by a combination of spectroscopic techniques (1D and 2D NMR, HRMS, and UV) as well as by comparison with published data for similar compounds.

  2. Biosorption of copper, cobalt and nickel by marine brown alga Sargassum sp. in fixed-bed column.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Soufi, Samira; Rustaiyan, Abdolhossein; Safaiyan, Shila; Mirian, Simin; Fallahe, Gila; Moazami, Nasrin

    2007-11-01

    The biosorption of copper, cobalt and nickel by marine brown alga Sargassum sp. were investigated in a fixed-bed column (temperature = 30 degrees C; different pH). Langmuir and Freundlich sorption models were used to represent the equilibrium data. The maximum Cu2+ uptake was obtained at pH 4 and the optimum Co2+ and Ni2+ uptake were at pH 7. Different dosage of biosorbent did not have an effect on the results, but the 3.5 and 5 g of biosorbent were shown higher uptake. The metal removal rates were rapid, with about 80% of the total adsorption tacking place within 40 min.

  3. A Novel Erythromycin Resistance Plasmid from Bacillus Sp. Strain HS24, Isolated from the Marine Sponge Haliclona Simulans

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Dara; Morrissey, John P.; Adams, Claire; Dobson, Alan D. W.; O’Gara, Fergal

    2014-01-01

    A better understanding of the origin and natural reservoirs of resistance determinants is fundamental to efficiently tackle antibiotic resistance. This paper reports the identification of a novel 5.8 kb erythromycin resistance plasmid, from Bacillus sp. HS24 isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona simulans. pBHS24B has a mosaic structure and carries the erythromycin resistance gene erm(T). This is the first report of an erythromycin resistance plasmid from a sponge associated bacteria and of the Erm(T) determinant in the genus Bacillus. PMID:25548909

  4. Anti-dormant mycobacterial activity and target analysis of nybomycin produced by a marine-derived Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Arai, Masayoshi; Kamiya, Kentaro; Pruksakorn, Patamaporn; Sumii, Yuji; Kotoku, Naoyuki; Joubert, Jean-Pierre; Moodley, Prashini; Han, Chisu; Shin, Dayoung; Kobayashi, Motomasa

    2015-07-01

    In the course of our search for anti-dormant Mycobacterial substances, nybomycin (1) was re-discovered from the culture broth of a marine-derived Streptomyces sp. on the bioassay-guided separation. Compound 1 showed anti-microbial activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG with the MIC of 1.0μg/mL under both actively growing aerobic conditions and dormancy inducing hypoxic conditions. Compound 1 is also effective to Mycobacterium tuberculosis including the clinically isolated strains. The mechanistic analysis indicated that 1 bound to DNA and induces a unique morphological change to mycobacterial bacilli leading the bacterial cell death.

  5. Additional New Cytotoxic Triquinane-Type Sesquiterpenoids Chondrosterins K–M from the Marine Fungus Chondrostereum sp

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Lan, Wen-Jian; Deng, Rong; Feng, Gong-Kan; Xu, Qing-Yan; Hu, Zhi-Yu; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Hou-Jin

    2016-01-01

    By the method of 1H NMR prescreening and tracing the diagnostic proton signals of the methyl groups, three additional new triquinane-type sesquiterpenoids—chondrosterins K–M (1–3) and the known sesquiterpenoid anhydroarthrosporone (4)—were isolated from the marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of MS, 1D, and 2D NMR data. Chondrosterin K is a rare hirsutane sesquiterpenoid, in which a methyl group was migrated from C-2 to C-6 and has a double bond between C-2 and C-3. Compounds 1–3 showed significant cytotoxicities against various cancer cell lines in vitro. PMID:27571085

  6. Optimizing biodiesel production in marine Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4 through metabolic profiling and an innovative salinity-gradient strategy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biodiesel production from marine microalgae has received much attention as microalgae can be cultivated on non-arable land without the use of potable water, and with the additional benefits of mitigating CO2 emissions and yielding biomass. However, there is still a lack of effective operational strategies to promote lipid accumulation in marine microalgae, which are suitable for making biodiesel since they are mainly composed of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Moreover, the regulatory mechanisms involved in lipid biosynthesis in microalgae under environmental stress are not well understood. Results In this work, the combined effects of salinity and nitrogen depletion stresses on lipid accumulation of a newly isolated marine microalga, Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4, were explored. Metabolic intermediates were profiled over time to observe transient changes during the lipid accumulation triggered by the combination of the two stresses. An innovative cultivation strategy (denoted salinity-gradient operation) was also employed to markedly improve the lipid accumulation and lipid quality of the microalga, which attained an optimal lipid productivity of 223.2 mg L-1 d-1 and a lipid content of 59.4% per dry cell weight. This performance is significantly higher than reported in most related studies. Conclusions This work demonstrated the synergistic integration of biological and engineering technologies to develop a simple and effective strategy for the enhancement of oil production in marine microalgae. PMID:25002905

  7. Molecular and morphological descriptions of Ceratomyxa collarae n. sp. and Ceratomyxa leucosternoni n. sp. from marine ornamental fishes of Indian waters.

    PubMed

    Sanil, N K; Chandran, Archana; Shamal, P; Binesh, C P

    2017-02-01

    Two novel species of Ceratomyxa infecting marine ornamental fishes from Indian waters are described. Marine ornamentals, Chaetodon collare and Chaetodon decussatus, collected from Vizhinjam, along the southwest coast of India and Acanthurus leucosternon collected from Lakshadweep islands of Arabian Sea revealed Ceratomyxa infections in their gall bladders. Mature spores of Ceratomyxa from Chaetodon collare and Chaetodon decussatus were elongate and slightly crescentic, with rounded ends, and measured 5.20 ± 0.32 μm in length and 16.32 ± 1.29 μm in thickness. Polar capsules spherical, equal in size and measured 2.23 ± 0.16 μm long and 2.24 ± 0.20 μm wide. Posterior angle measured 157.75 ± 8.650. Principle Component Analysis and molecular analysis using partial SSUrDNA sequences showed the isolates from these two hosts to be identical. Morphological, morphometric and molecular analysis using partial SSUrDNA sequences revealed the taxonomic novelty of isolates and are hence treated as Ceratomyxa collarae n. sp. Mature spores of Ceratomyxa from Acanthurus leucosternon were elongate, slightly tapering with rounded ends, and measured 7.34 ± 0.92 μm in length and 24.37 ± 2.34 μm in thickness. Shell valves were equal, joined by a narrow suture line. Polar capsules spherical in shape, equal in size, 2.59 ± 0.32 μm long and 2.46 ± 0.32 μm wide, and polar filament measured 18.68 ± 2.54 μm. Based on morphological, morphometric and molecular analyses, the present species of Ceratomyxa is distinct, considered as a new species and named Ceratomyxa leucosternoni n. sp. The paper also discusses the prevalence of the recovered parasites and host specificity of Ceratomyxa collarae n. sp.

  8. Shewanella marinintestina sp. nov., Shewanella schlegeliana sp. nov. and Shewanella sairae sp. nov., novel eicosapentaenoic-acid-producing marine bacteria isolated from sea-animal intestines.

    PubMed

    Satomi, Masataka; Oikawa, Hiroshi; Yano, Yutaka

    2003-03-01

    Three novel Shewanella species are described on the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic studies. A total of six novel halophilic, aerobic organisms with the ability to produce eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were isolated from various sea animals in Japan. Cells of all six isolates were Gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile by means of polar flagella. They were able to produce large amounts of EPA (about 20% of the total fatty acids) and had isoprenoid quinones Q-7 and Q-8 as major components. Analysis of the nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequences of the novel isolates showed that they are very close phylogenetically (sequence similarity > 99%) and the closest species was Shewanella pealeana, with 97% sequence similarity. However, analysis of gyrB sequences indicated that the novel isolates were divided into three groups at sufficient phylogenetic distance to indicate that they are different species (< 90% sequence similarity). DNA-DNA hybridization experiments supported this conclusion. The first group (three strains) had positive reactions for lipase, DNase, ONPG and trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) reduction and had G + C contents of 43 mol% (determined by HPLC). The second group (two strains) was positive for urease, DNase, ONPG and TMAO reduction but not lipase. Their G + C content was 45 mol%. The third group (one strain) was negative for ONPG, DNase and TMAO reduction and had a G + C content of 43 mol%. Strains of the second group, but not those of the first or third groups, grew at 32 degrees C. On the basis of the polyphasic taxonomic data, the novel strains isolated from intestines of sea animals are placed in three novel species of the genus Shewanella: Shewanella marinintestina sp. nov. (type strain: JCM 11558T =LMG 21403T), Shewanella schlegeliana sp. nov. (type strain: JCM 11561T =LMG 21406T) and Shewanella sairae sp. nov. (type strain: JCM 11563T =LMG 21408T).

  9. Spongiimicrobium salis gen. nov., sp. nov., a bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from a marine sponge.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Adachi, Kyoko; Kasai, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, pale-yellow pigmented, rod-shaped, chemoheterotrophic bacterium, designated A6F-11(T), was isolated from a marine sponge collected in Japan. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the novel marine strain was affiliated with the family Flavobacteriaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes and that it shared the highest (92.9 %) sequence similarity with Arenibacter palladensis LMG 21972(T). The strain could be differentiated phenotypically from related members of the family Flavobacteriaceae. The major fatty acids of strain A6F-11(T) were iso-C15:1 G, iso-C15:0, C16:1 ω6c and/or C16:1 ω7c and iso-C17:0 3-OH. The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content was 34.7 mol%, and the major respiratory quinone was menaquinone 6 (MK-6). From the distinct phylogenetic position and combination of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the strain is considered to represent a novel taxon in the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Spongiimicrobium salis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of S. salis gen. nov., sp. nov. is A6F-11(T) (= KCTC 42753(T) = NBRC 111401(T)).

  10. Phylogenetic position of Sphaerospora testicularis and Latyspora scomberomori n. gen. n. sp. (Myxozoa) within the marine urinary clade.

    PubMed

    Bartošová, Pavla; Freeman, Mark A; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Caffara, Monica; Fiala, Ivan

    2011-03-01

    An amendment of the family Sinuolineidae (Myxosporea) is proposed in order to include a newly described genus Latyspora n. gen. The type species Latyspora scomberomori n. gen. n. sp. is a coelozoic parasite in the kidney tubules of Scomberomorus guttatus. In addition to the morphological and molecular characterization of L. scomberomori n. gen. n. sp., we also present novel SSU rDNA data on Sphaerospora testicularis, a serious parasite of Dicentrarchus labrax. Performed phylogenetic analyses revealed that both species cluster within the marine urinary clade encompassing the representatives with a shared insertion within their V4 SSU rRNA region and grouping according to the shape of their spores' sutural line and their similar tissue tropism in the host. Sphaerospora testicularis is the closest relative to Parvicapsula minibicornis within the Parvicapsula subclade and L. scomberomori n. gen. n. sp. is the basal species of the Zschokkella subclade. The phylogenetic position of S. testicularis, outwith the basal Sphaerospora sensu stricto clade, and its morphology suggest it being a non-typical Sphaerospora. The sequence data provided on S. testicularis can help in future revisions of the strongly polyphyletic genus Sphaerospora. We recommend re-sequencing of several sphaerosporids as an essential step before such taxonomic changes are accomplished.

  11. A Comparative biochemical study on two marine endophytes, Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS, Isolated from red sea algae.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Eman Fadl; Hassan, Hossam Mokhtar; Rateb, Mostafa Ezzat; Abdel-Wahab, Noha; Sameer, Somayah; Aly Taie, Hanan Anwar; Abdel-Hameed, Mohammed Sayed; Hammouda, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Two marine endophytic bacteria were isolated from the Red Sea algae; a red alga; Acanthophora dendroides and the brown alga Sargassum sabrepandum. The isolates were identified based on their 16SrRNA sequences as Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential anti-microbial and antioxidant activities of the extracts of the isolated bacteria grown in different nutrient conditions. Compared to amoxicillin (25μg/disk) and erythromycin (15μg/disk), the extracts of Bacterium SRCn min media II, III, IV and V were potent inhibitors of the gram-positive bacterium Sarcina maxima even at low concentrations. Also, the multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) was more sensitive to the metabolites produced in medium (II) of the same endophyte than erythromycin (15μg/disk). A moderate activity of the Bacillus sp. JS extracts of media I and II was obtained against the same pathogen. The total compounds (500ug/ml) of both isolated endophytes showed moderate antioxidant activities (48.9% and 46.1%, respectively). LC/MS analysis of the bacterial extracts was carried out to investigate the likely natural products produced. Cyclo(D-cis-Hyp-L-Leu), dihydrosphingosine and 2-Amino-1,3-hexadecanediol were identified in the fermentation medium of Bacterium SRCnm, whereas cyclo (D-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo (L-Leu-L-Pro) were the suggested compounds of Bacillus sp. JS.

  12. A description of seven Antarctic marine gymnamoebae including a new subspecies, two new species and a new genus: Neoparamoeba aestuarina antarctica n. subsp., Platyamoeba oblongata n. sp., Platyamoeba contorta n. sp. and Vermistella antarctica n. gen. n. sp.

    PubMed

    Moran, Dawn M; Anderson, O Roger; Dennett, Mark R; Caron, David A; Gast, Rebecca J

    2007-01-01

    Seven marine gymnamoebae were isolated from different environments of seawater, slush (pack ice meltwater), and sediment in the Ross Sea area of Antarctica. All amoebae were isolated and maintained at temperatures below 4 degrees C. Growth, rate of locomotion, and general morphology were observed at an environmentally appropriate temperature (1 degrees C) and at room temperature (approximately 25 degrees C). Molecular (srDNA sequences) and microscopical techniques were used to identify the gymnamoebae and establish their phylogenetic affinities. Three isolates (S-131-2, SL-200, and W4-3) were assigned to a psychrophilic subspecies of Neoparamoeba aestuarina, N. aestuarina antarctica n. subsp., one isolate (S-205) was assigned to a new species of Platyamoeba, P. oblongata n. sp., two isolates (W51C#4 & W51C#5) were also assigned to a new species of Platyamoeba, P. contorta n. sp., and one isolate (S-241) was a novel psychrophilic gymnamoeba Vermistella antarctica n. gen. n. sp. Molecular and morphological results revealed that V. antarctica was not related to any described family of gymnamoebae. Strains S-205, W51C#4, and W51C#5 were capable of locomotion at room temperature, while strains SL-200, S-131-2, W4-3, and S-241 exhibited locomotion only below approximately 10 degrees C. Our results imply that the Antarctic environment is host both to cosmopolitan gymnamoebae that have acquired adaptations for existence at low environmental temperature and to apparently novel psychrophilic amoebae described here for the first time.

  13. Anticancer Effects of the Marine Sponge Lipastrotethya sp. Extract on Wild-Type and p53 Knockout HCT116 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kiheon; Lim, Hyun Kyung; Oh, Sung Ryong; Chung, Woo-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Interest in marine bioresources is increasing in the drug development sector. In particular, marine sponges produce a wide range of unique metabolites that enable them to survive in challenging environments, which makes them attractive sources of candidate pharmaceuticals. In previous study, we investigated over 40 marine specimens collected in Micronesia and provided by the Korean Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, for their antiproliferative effects on various cancer cell lines, and Lipastrotethya sp. extract (LSSE) was found to have a marked antiproliferative effect. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism responsible for its anticancer effect on wild-type p53 (WT) or p53 knockout (KO) HCT116 cells. LSSE inhibited cell viability and induced apoptotic cell death more so in HCT116 p53 KO cells than the WT. HCT116 WT cells treated with LSSE underwent apoptosis associated with the induction of p53 and its target genes. On the other hand, in HCT116 p53 KO cells, LSSE reduced mTOR and Bcl-2 and increased Beclin-1 and LC3-II protein levels, suggesting autophagy induction. These results indicate that the mechanisms responsible for the anticancer effect of LSSE depend on p53 status. PMID:28127380

  14. Efficacy of protease inhibitor from marine Streptomyces sp. VITBVK2 against Leishmania donovani - An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Sreedharan, Veena; Bhaskara Rao, K V

    2017-03-01

    In the present study the leishmanicidal effect of potential protease inhibitor producing marine actinobacterial isolate has been investigated against Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis. Among 89 marine actinobacteria isolated from a salt pan in Kanyakumari, only one isolate (BVK2) showed 97% of protease inhibition activity against trypsin. Moderate to high protease inhibitor activity was shown by isolate BVK2 on proteinase (30%) and chymotrypsin (85%). In optimization study for protease inhibitor production glucose as carbon source and casein as nitrogen source showed the best activity. In the in-vitro Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) assay, 100 μg/ml of BVK2 extract was active against amastigotes in infected J774A.1 macrophages and showed 87% of parasitic inhibition. The isolate BVK2 showed significant anti-parasitic activity with an IC50 of 27.1 μg/ml after double doses were administered. The potential isolate was identified by molecular 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Streptomyces sp. VITBVK2. The results obtained suggest that the marine actinobacterial extract which have novel metabolites can be considered as a potential source for the development of drugs.

  15. Antibacterial and brine shrimp lethality effect of marine actinobacterium Streptomyces sp. CAS72 against human pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sivasankar, Palaniappan; Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Vijayanand, Packiyaraj; Sivakumar, Kannan; Sugesh, Shanmugam; Poongodi, Subramaniam; Maharani, Viswanathan; Vijayalakshmi, Shanmugam; Balasubramanian, Thangavel

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria and brine shrimp lethality bioassay of the marine actinobacterium. Methods Forty six marine actinobacterial strains were isolated from sediment samples of Uppanar estuary, Cuddalore, India. Preliminary screening was done by cross-streak method and the potential strain was identified by morphological, chemotaxonomical and molecular methods. Fermentation was done and the metabolite was obtained by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate and purified by silica gel (100-200 mesh) column chromatography. The purified metabolite was tested for antibacterial activity, minimal inhibitory concentration and brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results Among the forty six strains, CAS72 was found effective against human pathogenic bacteria. The strain CAS72 was identified as Streptomyces sp. The purified metabolite exhibited a significant in vitro antibacterial activity. The MIC value was also determined against human pathogenic bacteria and a strong cytotoxic activity in brine shrimp lethality assay was observed and the LC50 value was 23.5 µg/mL. Conclusions The present investigation reveals that the marine actinobacteria are well obtainable in Uppanar estuary environment and it can provide a definite source for novel bioactive metabolites.

  16. -Genomic data mining of the marine actinobacteria Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 unveils insights into multi-stress related genes and metabolic pathways involved in antimicrobial synthesis.

    PubMed

    Undabarrena, Agustina; Ugalde, Juan A; Seeger, Michael; Cámara, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 is an actinobacterial strain isolated from marine sediments of a Chilean Patagonian fjord. Morphological characterization together with antibacterial activity was assessed in various culture media, revealing a carbon-source dependent activity mainly against Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and L. monocytogenes). Genome mining of this antibacterial-producing bacterium revealed the presence of 26 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) for secondary metabolites, where among them, 81% have low similarities with known BGCs. In addition, a genomic search in Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 unveiled the presence of a wide variety of genetic determinants related to heavy metal resistance (49 genes), oxidative stress (69 genes) and antibiotic resistance (97 genes). This study revealed that the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 bacterium has the capability to tolerate a diverse set of heavy metals such as copper, cobalt, mercury, chromate and nickel; as well as the highly toxic tellurite, a feature first time described for Streptomyces. In addition, Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 possesses a major resistance towards oxidative stress, in comparison to the soil reference strain Streptomyces violaceoruber A3(2). Moreover, Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 showed resistance to 88% of the antibiotics tested, indicating overall, a strong response to several abiotic stressors. The combination of these biological traits confirms the metabolic versatility of Streptomyces sp. H-KF8, a genetically well-prepared microorganism with the ability to confront the dynamics of the fjord-unique marine environment.

  17. Biodegradable and Biocompatible Biomaterial, Polyhydroxybutyrate, Produced by an Indigenous Vibrio sp. BM-1 Isolated from Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yu-Hong; Chen, Wei-Chuan; Wu, Ho-Shing; Janarthanan, Om-Murugan

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is one of the polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) which has biodegradable and biocompatible properties. They are adopted in the biomedical field, in, for example, medical implants and drug delivery carriers. This study seeks to promote the production of PHB by Vibrio sp. BM-1, isolated from a marine environment by improving constituents of medium and implementing an appropriate fermentation strategy. This study successfully developed a glycerol-yeast extract-tryptone (GYT) medium that can facilitate the growth of Vibrio sp. BM-1 and lead to the production of 1.4 g/L PHB at 20 h cultivation. This study also shows that 1.57 g/L PHB concentration and 16% PHB content were achieved, respectively, when Vibrio sp. BM-1 was cultivated with MS-GYT medium (mineral salts-supplemented GYT medium) for 12 h. Both cell dry weight (CDW) and residual CDW remained constant at around 8.2 g/L and 8.0 g/L after the 12 h of cultivation, until the end of the experiment. However, both 16% of PHB content and 1.57 g/L of PHB production decreased rapidly to 3% and 0.25 g/L, respectively from 12 h of cultivation to 40 h of cultivation. The results suggest that the secretion of PHB depolymerase that might be caused by the addition of mineral salts reduced PHB after 12 h of cultivation. However, work will be done to explain the effect of adding mineral salts on the production of PHB by Vibrio sp. BM-1 in the near future. PMID:21731553

  18. Enhanced Oil Production by the Tropical Marine Diatom Thalassiosira Sp. Cultivated in Outdoor Photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Kusumaningtyas, Pintaka; Nurbaiti, Santi; Suantika, Gede; Amran, Muhammad Bachri; Nurachman, Zeily

    2017-01-23

    Microalgae-derived oils have potential as a biofuel feedstock. To produce microalgal oils at a large scale, large amounts of nutrients and energy are needed to grow the algae. In this study, we evaluated three types of agricultural fertilizer (AF)-based culture media (AF1, AF2, and AF3) based on a previously published enriched seawater (ES) medium to produce biomass and oils from Thalassiosira sp. Under laboratory conditions, the highest cell productivity of Thalassiosira sp. was obtained with the AF3 medium. Thalassiosira sp. cultured in the AF3 medium produced 10.4 ± 0.9 mg L(-1) day(-1)oils, which is significantly higher than the 5.8 ± 0.7 mg L(-1) day(-1)produced in the ES medium. The higher production was due to the presence of nitrate and trace elements, both of which played roles in enhancing biomass and oil content, respectively. During cell growth, resting spores appeared inside the cells and were a marker to harvest the cells. Because of the abundant availability of sunlight in the tropics during the year, the oil production of Thalassiosira sp. in the AF3 medium was scaled up using outdoor photobioreactors under different weather conditions (rainy and dry seasons). Thalassiosira sp. produced more unsaturated fatty acids during the rainy season and produced more saturated fatty acids during the dry season. This study also demonstrated that it was possible to culture Thalassiosira sp. under outdoor conditions using a low-cost agricultural fertilizer-based culture medium (AF3 medium) to produce biodiesel feedstock with an annual production of 8.1 ± 0.4 t ha(-1) during the dry season and of 23.9 ± 6.8 t ha(-1) during the rainy season.

  19. Strain identification and quorum sensing inhibition characterization of marine-derived Rhizobium sp. NAO1

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hong; Zhu, Xiaoshan; Yu, Shenchen; Chen, Lu; Jin, Hui; Cai, Zhonghua

    2017-01-01

    A novel strategy for combating pathogens is through the ongoing development and use of anti-quorum sensing (QS) treatments such as therapeutic bacteria or their anti-QS substances. Relatively little is known about the bacteria that inhabit the open ocean and of their potential anti-pathogenic attributes; thus, in an initiative to identify these types of therapeutic bacteria, planktonic microbes from the North Atlantic Ocean were collected, isolated, cultured and screened for anti-QS activity. Screening analysis identified one such strain, Rhizobium sp. NAO1. Extracts of Rhizobium sp. NAO1 were identified via ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) analysis. They were shown to contain N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based QS analogues (in particular, the N-butyryl homoserine lactone (C4-AHL) analogue) and could disrupt biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. QS inhibition was confirmed using confocal scanning laser microscopy and growth curves, and it was shown to occur in a dose-dependent manner without affecting bacterial growth. Secondary metabolites of Rhizobium sp. NAO1 inhibited PAO1 pathogenicity by downregulating AHL-mediated virulence factors such as elastase activity and siderophore production. Furthermore, as a result of biofilm structure damage, the secondary metabolite products of Rhizobium sp. NAO1 significantly increased the sensitivity of PAO1 to aminoglycoside antibiotics. Our results demonstrated that Rhizobium sp. strain NAO1 has the ability to disrupt P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm architecture, in addition to attenuating P. aeruginosa PAO1 virulence factor production and pathogenicity. Therefore, the newly identified ocean-derived Rhizobium sp. NAO1 has the potential to serve as a QS inhibitor and may be a new microbial resource for drug development.

  20. Tritodynamia serratipes sp. nov., a new marine crab from Singapore (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Macrophthalmidae).

    PubMed

    Anker, Arthur; Ng, Peter K L

    2014-06-30

    Tritodynamia serratipes sp. nov. is described based on a female specimen dredged on soft mud at a depth of 6.3-6.5 m, near Marina East, only a few kilometers from Singapore's city centre. The new species differs from all other species of Tritodynamia Ortmann, 1894 by a unique combination of morphological characters, including the posterior margin of the propodus of the second ambulatory leg armed with a row of particularly strong teeth, and the cutting edges of dactylus and pollex each proximally armed with two stout teeth. Tritodynamia serratipes sp. nov. is the second species of the genus described from tropical Asia.

  1. Aceticlastic and NaCl-Requiring Methanogen “Methanosaeta pelagica” sp. nov., Isolated from Marine Tidal Flat Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Iino, Takao; Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro; Yamaguchi, Kaoru; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    Among methanogens, only 2 genera, Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina, are known to contribute to methanogenesis from acetate, and Methanosaeta is a specialist that uses acetate specifically. However, Methanosaeta strains so far have mainly been isolated from anaerobic digesters, despite the fact that it is widespread, not only in anaerobic methanogenic reactors and freshwater environments, but also in marine environments, based upon extensive 16S rRNA gene-cloning analyses. In this study, we isolated an aceticlastic methanogen, designated strain 03d30qT, from a tidal flat sediment. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and mcrA genes revealed that the isolate belongs to the genus Methanosaeta. Unlike the other known Methanosaeta species, this isolate grows at Na+ concentrations of 0.20 to 0.80 M, with an optimum concentration of 0.28 M. Quantitative estimation using real-time PCR detected the 16S rRNA gene of the genus Methanosaeta in the marine sediment, and relative abundance ranged from 3.9% to 11.8% of the total archaeal 16S rRNA genes. In addition, the number of Methanosaeta organisms increased with increasing depth and was much higher than that of Methanosarcina organisms, suggesting that aceticlastic methanogens contribute to acetate metabolism to a greater extent than previously thought in marine environments, where sulfate-reducing acetate oxidation prevails. This is the first report on marine Methanosaeta species, and based on phylogenetic and characteristic studies, the name “Methanosaeta pelagica” sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species, with type strain 03d30q. PMID:22344667

  2. Talarolide A, a Cyclic Heptapeptide Hydroxamate from an Australian Marine Tunicate-Associated Fungus, Talaromyces sp. (CMB-TU011).

    PubMed

    Dewapriya, Pradeep; Prasad, Pritesh; Damodar, Rakesh; Salim, Angela A; Capon, Robert J

    2017-04-06

    A miniaturized 24-well plate microbioreactor approach was used to explore secondary metabolite media dependence in an Australian marine tunicate-associated fungus, Talaromyces sp. (CMB TU011). Detailed chemical investigations of an antifungal M1-saline cultivation yielded talarolide A (1), only the second reported natural cyclic peptide hydroxamate, and the first from a fungus. The antifungal properties of the M1-saline extract were attributed to the known diterpene glycoside sordarin (2). Structure elucidation of 1 and 2 was achieved by detailed spectroscopic analysis, with amino acid configurations in 1 assigned by the C3 and C18 Marfey's methods, and l-Ala and d-Ala regiochemistry by the recently reported 2D C3 Marfey's method.

  3. Sesquiterpene Hydroquinones with Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inhibitory Activities from a Dysidea sp. Marine Sponge Collected in Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Abdjul, Delfly B; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Ukai, Kazuyo; Namikoshi, Michio

    2016-07-22

    Three new sesquiterpene hydroquinones, avapyran (1), 17-O-acetylavarol (2), and 17-O-acetylneoavarol (3), were isolated from a Dysidea sp. marine sponge collected in Okinawa together with five known congeners: avarol (4), neoavarol (5), 20-O-acetylavarol (6), 20-O-acetylneoavarol (7), and 3'-aminoavarone (8). The structures of 1-3 were assigned on the basis of their spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-3 inhibited the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B with IC50 values of 11, 9.5, and 6.5 μM, respectively, while known compounds 4-8 gave IC50 values of 12, >32, 10, 8.6, and 18 μM, respectively. In a preliminary investigation on structure-activity relationships, six ester and methoxy derivatives (9-14) were prepared from 4 and 5.

  4. Violapyrones H and I, New Cytotoxic Compounds Isolated from Streptomyces sp. Associated with the Marine Starfish Acanthaster planci

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hee Jae; Lee, Hwa-Sun; Lee, Jong Seok; Shin, Junho; Lee, Min Ah; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Lee, Yeon-Ju; Yun, Jieun; Kang, Jong Soon

    2014-01-01

    Two new α-pyrone derivatives, violapyrones H (1) and I (2), along with known violapyrones B (3) and C (4) were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine actinomycete Streptomyces sp. The strain was derived from a crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, collected from Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia. The structures of violapyrones were elucidated by the analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and HR-ESIMS data. Violapyrones (1–4) exhibited cytotoxicity against 10 human cancer cell lines with GI50 values of 1.10–26.12 μg/mL when tested using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. This is the first report on the cytotoxicity of violapyrones against cancer cell lines and the absolute configuration of violapyrone C. PMID:24886866

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Rhodococcus sp. Strain WMMA185, a Marine Sponge-Associated Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Adnani, Navid; Braun, Doug R.; McDonald, Bradon R.; Chevrette, Marc G.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2016-01-01

    The Rhodococcus strain WMMA185 was isolated from the marine sponge Chondrilla nucula as part of ongoing drug discovery efforts. Analysis of the 4.44-Mb genome provides information regarding interspecies interactions as pertains to regulation of secondary metabolism and natural product biosynthetic potentials. PMID:27979952

  6. Identification and bioactivity of compounds from the fungus Penicillium sp. CYE-87 isolated from a marine tunicate.

    PubMed

    Shaala, Lamiaa A; Youssef, Diaa T A

    2015-03-25

    In the course of our continuous interest in identifying bioactive compounds from marine microbes, we have investigated a tunicate-derived fungus, Penicillium sp. CYE-87. A new compound with the 1,4-diazepane skeleton, terretrione D (2), together with the known compounds, methyl-2-([2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]carbamoyl)acetate (1), tryptamine (3), indole-3-carbaldehyde (4), 3,6-diisobutylpyrazin-2(1H)-one (5) and terretrione C (6), were isolated from Penicillium sp. CYE-87. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by spectral analysis, including 1D (1H, 13C) and 2D (COSY, multiplicity edited-HSQC and HMBC) NMR and HRESIMS, as well as comparison of their NMR data with those in the literature. The compounds were evaluated for their antimigratory activity against the human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) and their antiproliferation activity against HeLa cells. Compounds 2 and 6 showed significant antimigratory activity against MDA-MB-231, as well as antifungal activity against C. albicans.

  7. Diversity of ABBA Prenyltransferases in Marine Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509: Promiscuous Enzymes for the Biosynthesis of Mixed Terpenoid Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Leipoldt, Franziska; Zeyhle, Philipp; Kulik, Andreas; Kalinowski, Jörn; Heide, Lutz; Kaysser, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Terpenoids are arguably the largest and most diverse family of natural products, featuring prominently in e.g. signalling, self-defence, UV-protection and electron transfer. Prenyltransferases are essential players in terpenoid and hybrid isoprenoid biosynthesis that install isoprene units on target molecules and thereby often modulate their bioactivity. In our search for new prenyltransferase biocatalysts we focused on the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509, a particularly rich source of meroterpenoid chemistry. Sequencing and analysis of the genome of Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509 revealed seven putative phenol/phenazine-specific ABBA prenyltransferases, and one putative indole-specific ABBA prenyltransferase. To elucidate the substrate specificity of the ABBA prenyltransferases and to learn about their role in secondary metabolism, CnqP1 –CnqP8 were produced in Escherichia coli and incubated with various aromatic and isoprenoid substrates. Five of the eight prenyltransferases displayed enzymatic activity. The efficient conversion of dihydroxynaphthalene derivatives by CnqP3 (encoded by AA958_24325) and the co-location of AA958_24325 with genes characteristic for the biosynthesis of THN (tetrahydroxynaphthalene)-derived natural products indicates that the enzyme is involved in the formation of debromomarinone or other naphthoquinone-derived meroterpenoids. Moreover, CnqP3 showed high flexibility towards a range of aromatic and isoprenoid substrates and thus represents an interesting new tool for biocatalytic applications. PMID:26659564

  8. Aerobic-heterotrophic nitrogen removal through nitrate reduction and ammonium assimilation by marine bacterium Vibrio sp. Y1-5.

    PubMed

    Li, Yating; Wang, Yanru; Fu, Lin; Gao, Yizhan; Zhao, Haixia; Zhou, Weizhi

    2017-04-01

    An aerobic marine bacterium Vibrio sp. Y1-5 was screened to achieve efficient nitrate and ammonium removal simultaneously and fix nitrogen in cells without N loss. Approximately 98.0% of nitrate (100mg/L) was removed in 48h through assimilatory nitrate reduction and nitrate reductase was detected in the cytoplasm. Instead of nitrification, the strain assimilated ammonium directly, and it could tolerate as high as 1600mg/L ammonium concentration while removing 844.6mg/L. In addition, ammonium assimilation occurred preferentially in the medium containing nitrate and ammonium with a total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency of 80.4%. The results of nitrogen balance and Fourier infrared spectra illustrated that the removed nitrogen was all transformed to protein or stored as organic nitrogen substances in cells and no N was lost in the process. Toxicological studies with the brine shrimp species Artemia naupliia indicated that Vibrio sp. Y1-5 can be applied in aquatic ecosystems safely.

  9. Microbial biodiesel production from oil palm biomass hydrolysate using marine Rhodococcus sp. YHY01.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Shashi Kant; Kim, Junyoung; Song, Hun-Seok; Kim, Hyun Joong; Jeon, Jong-Min; Sathiyanarayanan, Ganesan; Yoon, Jeong-Jun; Park, Kyungmoon; Kim, Yun-Gon; Yang, Yung-Hun

    2017-02-20

    The effect of various biomass derived inhibitors (i.e. furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), vanillin, 4-hydroxy benzaldehyde (4-HB) and acetate) was investigated for fatty acid accumulation in Rhodococcus sp. YHY 01. Rhodococcus sp. YHY01 was able to utilize acetate, vanillin, and 4-HB for biomass production and fatty acid accumulation. The IC50 value for furfural (3.1mM), HMF (3.2mM), vanillin (2.0mM), 4-HB (2.7mM) and acetate (3.7mM) was calculated. HMF and vanillin affect fatty acid composition and increase saturated fatty acid content. Rhodococcus sp. YHY 01 cultured with empty fruit bunch hydrolysate (EFBH) as the main carbon source resulted in enhanced biomass (20%) and fatty acid productivity (37%), in compression to glucose as a carbon source. Overall, this study showed the beneficial effects of inhibitory molecules on growth and fatty acid production, and support the idea of biomass hydrolysate utilization for biodiesel production by avoiding complex efforts to remove inhibitory compounds.

  10. Lethality of shock pressures to a marine Vibrio sp. isolated from a ship's ballast water.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Haruo; Abe, Akihisa; Katakura, Ryo; Kawasaki, Hideki; Yoshida, Kazutoshi; Ishida, Hiroshi

    2006-12-01

    The lethal effects of shock pressure treatment on suspended Vibrio sp. cells were examined. Lethality of shock pressures to the Vibrio sp. cells increased with the increase in the values of maximum shock pressures generated in the cell suspension. When the value was around 114 MPa, the total number of colony-forming cells was reduced from 10(8.5+/-0.1) colony-forming units (CFU) to 10(3.3) - 10(3.4) CFU/ml, and complete loss of colony-forming ability was seen at the maximum value of 282 MPa. Almost all the cells could survive after the exposure to shock pressures including the maximum value of around 189 MPa in the presence of 2% sodium ascorbate (VitC-Na), whereas the total number of colony-forming cells was reduced to 10(1.6)-10(2.1) CFU/ml in the absence of VitC-Na. The surviving cells, however, showed sensitivity to 0.8% sodium cholate, a strong detergent. About 11% of cell-associated proteins had leaked out when the cells were exposed to lethal shock pressures including the maximum value of around 290 MPa in the absence of VitC-Na. These results indicate that the radicals generated in the cell suspension may be closely related to the loss of colony-forming ability of the Vibrio sp. cells. Damage to the outer membrane structure also seems to have occurred by the exposure to shock pressures.

  11. Umboniibacter marinipuniceus gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine gammaproteobacterium isolated from the mollusc Umbonium costatum from the Sea of Japan.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Tanaka, Naoto; Frolova, Galina M

    2010-03-01

    Two bacterial strains, KMM 3891(T) and KMM 3892, were isolated from internal tissues of the marine mollusc Umbonium costatum collected from the Sea of Japan. The novel isolates were Gram-negative, aerobic, faint pink-reddish-pigmented, rod-shaped, non-motile, stenohaline and psychrotolerant bacteria that were unable to degrade most tested complex polysaccharides. Polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. Fatty acid analysis revealed C(17 : 1)omega6c, C(17 : 0), C(16 : 0) and C(16 : 1)omega7c as the dominant components. The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-7. The DNA G+C content of strain KMM 3891(T) was 51.7 mol%. According to phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, strains KMM 3891(T) and KMM 3892 were positioned within the Gammaproteobacteria as a separate branch, sharing <93 % sequence similarity to their phylogenetic relatives including Saccharophagus degradans, Microbulbifer species, Endozoicomonas elysicola, Simiduia agarivorans and Teredinibacter turnerae. Based on phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic distance, the novel marine isolates KMM 3891(T) and KMM 3892 represent a new genus and species, for which the name Umboniibacter marinipuniceus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Umboniibacter marinipuniceus is KMM 3891(T) (=NRIC 0753(T) =JCM 15738(T)).

  12. Thiocapsa marina sp. nov., a novel, okenone-containing, purple sulfur bacterium isolated from brackish coastal and marine environments.

    PubMed

    Caumette, Pierre; Guyoneaud, Remy; Imhoff, Johannes F; Süling, Jörg; Gorlenko, Vladimir

    2004-07-01

    Four marine, phototrophic, purple sulfur bacteria (strains 5811T, 5812, BM-3 and BS-1) were isolated in pure culture from different brackish to marine sediments in the Mediterranean Sea, the White Sea and the Black Sea. Single cells of these strains were coccus-shaped, non-motile and did not contain gas vesicles. The colour of cell suspensions that were grown in the light was purple-red. Bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids of the okenone series were present as photosynthetic pigments. Photosynthetic membrane systems were of the vesicular type. Hydrogen sulfide, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur and molecular hydrogen were used as electron donors during photolithotrophic growth under anoxic conditions; carbon dioxide was utilized as the carbon source. During growth on sulfide, elemental sulfur globules were stored inside the cells. In the presence of hydrogen sulfide, several organic substances could be photoassimilated. Comparative 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed an affiliation of these four strains to the genus Thiocapsa. Both phylogenetic analysis and the results of DNA-DNA hybridization studies revealed that these strains formed a separate cluster within the genus Thiocapsa. Thus, according to phenotypic characteristics and mainly the carotenoid composition, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization data, it is proposed that these strains should be classified as a novel species, Thiocapsa marina sp. nov., with strain 5811T (=DSM 5653T=ATCC 43172T) as the type strain.

  13. Purification and characterization of a novel alginate lyase from the marine bacterium Cobetia sp. NAP1 isolated from brown algae.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Hisashi; Fujise, Asako; Itabashi, Narumi; Ohshiro, Takashi

    2016-12-01

    The application of marine resources, instead of fossil fuels, for biomass production is important for building a sustainable society. Seaweed is valuable as a source of marine biomass for producing biofuels such as ethanol, and can be used in various fields. Alginate is an anionic polysaccharide that forms the main component of brown algae. Various alginate lyases (e.g. exo- and endo-types and oligoalginate lyase) are generally used to degrade alginate. We herein describe a novel alginate lyase, AlgC-PL7, which belongs to the polysaccharide lyase 7 family. AlgC-PL7 was isolated from the halophilic Gram-negative bacterium Cobetia sp. NAP1 collected from the brown algae Padina arborescens Holmes. The optimal temperature and pH for AlgC-PL7 activity were 45 °C and 8, respectively. Additionally, AlgC-PL7 was thermostable and salt-tolerant, exhibited broad substrate specificity, and degraded alginate into monosaccharides. Therefore, AlgC-PL7 is a promising enzyme for the production of biofuels.

  14. Ultrastructure and phylogeny of the parasite Henneguya carolina sp. nov. (Myxozoa), from the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, S; Casal, G; Garcia, P; Matos, E; Al-Quraishy, S; Azevedo, C

    2014-12-02

    Microscopic and molecular procedures are used to describe a new myxosporean species, Henneguya carolina sp. nov., found infecting the intestine of the marine teleost fish Trachinotus carolinus on the southern Atlantic coast of Brazil. Spherical to ellipsoid cysts, measuring up to ~750 µm, display synchronous development. Mature myxospores are ellipsoidal with a bifurcated caudal process. Myxospore body length, width, and thickness are 12.7 ± 0.8 (12.0-13.4) µm, 8.8 ± 0.6 (7.5-9.6) µm, and 5.8 ± 0.4 (5.0-6.4) µm, respectively; 2 equal caudal processes are 16.8 ± 1.1 (15.9-18.0) µm long, and the total myxospore length is 29.4 ± 0.8 (28.4-30.4) µm. Two pyriform polar capsules measure 5.0 ± 0.5 (4.6-5.6) × 2.4 ± 0.4 (1.9-2.9) µm, and each contains a polar filament forming 3 to 4 coils. Sporoplasm is binucleated and presents a spherical vacuole surrounded by numerous globular sporoplasmosomes. Molecular analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene by maximum parsimony, neighbor joining, and maximum likelihood reveals the parasite clustering together with other myxobolids that are histozoic in marine fish of the order Perciformes, thereby strengthening the contention that the host phylogenetic relationships and aquatic environment are the strongest evolutionary signal for myxosporeans of the family Myxobolidae.

  15. Longibacter salinarum gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bacterial strain, designated WDS2C18**T, was isolated from a marine solar saltern in the coast of Weihai, Shandong Province, PR China. Cells of strain WDS2C18**T were long rod-shaped, red, and approximately 6.0–12.0 µm in length and 0.3–0.6 µm in width. The strain was Gram-stain-negative, facultat...

  16. Polycyclovorans algicola gen. nov., sp. nov., an Aromatic-Hydrocarbon-Degrading Marine Bacterium Found Associated with Laboratory Cultures of Marine Phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Green, David H.; Nichols, Peter D.; Whitman, William B.; Semple, Kirk T.; Aitken, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    A strictly aerobic, halotolerant, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain TG408, was isolated from a laboratory culture of the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum (CCAP1077/1C) by enrichment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as the sole carbon source. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed this organism within the order Xanthomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria. Its closest relatives included representatives of the Hydrocarboniphaga-Nevskia-Sinobacter clade (<92% sequence similarity) in the family Sinobacteraceae. The strain exhibited a narrow nutritional spectrum, preferring to utilize aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds and small organic acids. Notably, it displayed versatility in degrading two- and three-ring PAHs. Moreover, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity was detected in lysates, indicating that this strain utilizes the meta-cleavage pathway for aromatic compound degradation. Cells produced surface blebs and contained a single polar flagellum. The predominant isoprenoid quinone of strain TG408 was Q-8, and the dominant fatty acids were C16:0, C16:1 ω7c, and C18:1 ω7c. The G+C content of the isolate's DNA was 64.3 mol% ± 0.34 mol%. On the basis of distinct phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain TG408 represents a novel genus and species in the class Gammaproteobacteria for which the name Polycyclovorans algicola gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. Quantitative PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene of this strain were developed and used to show that this organism is found associated with other species of marine phytoplankton. Phytoplankton may be a natural biotope in the ocean where new species of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria await discovery and which contribute significantly to natural remediation processes. PMID:23087039

  17. Bioremediation of Bisphenol A and Benzophenone by Glycosylation with Immobilized Marine Microalga Pavlova sp.

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Kei; Hamada, Hiroki

    2009-01-01

    Cultured cells of Pavlova sp. glycosylated bisphenol A to its mono-glucoside, 2-(4-β-D-glucopyranosyloxyphenyl)-2-hydroxyphenylpropane (9%). Use of immobilized Pavlova cells in sodium alginate gel improved yield of the product (17%). On the other hand, Pavlova cell cultures converted benzophenone into diphenylmethanol (49%) and diphenylmethyl β-D-glucopyranoside (6%). Incubation of benzophenone with immobilized Pavlova cells gave products in higher yields; the yields of diphenylmethanol and diphenylmethyl β-D-glucopyranoside were 85 and 15%, respectively. PMID:20508758

  18. The Role of Spongia sp. in the Discovery of Marine Lead Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Máximo, Patrícia; Ferreira, Luísa M.; Branco, Paula; Lima, Pedro; Lourenço, Ana

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive review on the chemistry of Spongia sp. is here presented, together with the biological activity of the isolated compounds. The compounds are grouped in sesquiterpene quinones, diterpenes, C21 and other linear furanoterpenes, sesterterpenes, sterols (including secosterols), macrolides and miscellaneous compounds. Among other reports we include studies on the intraspecific diversity of a Mediterranean species, compounds isolated from associated sponge and nudibranch and compounds isolated from S. zimocca and the red seaweed Laurentia microcladia. Under biological activity a table of the reported biological activities of the various compounds and the biological screening of extracts are described. The present review covers the literature from 1971 to 2015. PMID:27455286

  19. Trematodes of marine fishes from South Australia. I. Paraneocreadium australiense gen. et sp. n. (Lepocreadiidae).

    PubMed

    Kruse, G O

    1978-06-01

    Paraneocreadium australiense gen. et sp. n. (Lepocreadiidae) is described from Psilocranium nigricans (Richardson) from the Aldinga Reef of South Australia. Paraneocreadium is most similar to Neocreadium Howell 1966 from Geniagnus in New Zealand and Neolepocreadium Thomas 1960 from Trachinotus in Ghana. It differs from both genera in being ovoid rather than elongate, in having a coiled rather than saccate internal seminal vesicle, and having no viteline follicles between the gonads. It differs further from Neocreadium in lacking lymphatic vessels and in the position of the genital pore.

  20. [Cloning and expression of endoglucanase of marine cold-adapted bacteria Pseudoalteromonas sp. MB-1].

    PubMed

    You, Yin-wei; Wang, Tian-hong

    2005-02-01

    The cold-adapted gram-negative rod bacterium MB-1 which could secret cellulase was screened from mud of the bottom of the Huanghai. According to the sequence of 16S rDNA, this bacterium screened was identified as one species of Pseudoalteromonas and was named as Pseudoalteromonas sp. MB-1. The gene celA encoding cold-adapted endogluanase was cloned and then jointed to pGEX-4T-1 to construct expression plasmid pGEX-celA which was expressed in E. coli BL21. Analysis to the supernatant of E. coli sonicate revealed that the concentration of GST-CelA was about 78.5 mg/L. Properties of the fusion enzyme of GST-CelA including the optimum temperature at 35 degrees C and the optimum pH about 7.2, showed that this fusion enzyme still belonged to cold-adapted enzyme and neutral enzyme. The result lays solid base for the fundamental theory and application research on cold-adapted cellulase from Pseudoalteromonas sp. MB-1.

  1. Purification and characterization of novel κ-carrageenase from marine Tamlana sp. HC4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Feixue; Ma, Yuexin; Wang, Ying; Liu, Qian

    2010-11-01

    We isolated a bacterial strain (HC4) that is able to degrade κ-carrageenan from a live specimen of the red alga Hyalosiphonia caespitosa. With 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we identified the strain as Tamlana sp., and then purified an extracellular κ-carrageenase from a culture of Tamlana sp. HC4 by ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sephadex G-200 gel filtration chromatography, and DE-cellulose 52 anion-exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme yields a single band on SDS-PAGE with a molecular mass of 66.4 kDa. The optimal pH and temperature for κ-carrageenase activity are at 8.0 and 30°C, respectively. The enzyme is stable over the range of pH 7.2-8.6 below 45°C. The enzyme activity is strongly inhibited by Zn2+ and Cu2+ at 1 mmol/L. The enzyme-catalyzed reaction follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics with the Michaelis constant ( K m ) at 7.63 mg/ml. Analysis of the degradation products of the κ-carrageenase by ESI-MS and 13C-NMR spectroscopy indicates that the enzyme degrades κ-carrageenan down to the level of κ-neocarrabiose sulfate.

  2. Polaromonas vacuolata gen. nov., sp. nov., a psychrophilic, marine, gas vacuolate bacterium from Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Irgens, R L; Gosink, J J; Staley, J T

    1996-07-01

    Several strains of a novel heterotrophic gas vacuolate bacterium were isolated from antarctic marine waters. The results of phylogenetic analyses in which 16S ribosomal DAN sequencing was used, coupled with phenotypic tests, indicated that strain 34-P(T) (T = type strain) belongs to a new genus and species of the beta subgroup of the Proteobacteria, for which the name Polaromonas vacuolata is proposed. Although the other four strains studied probably belong to this new species, DNA-DNA hybridization tests were not conducted. The closest phylogenetic relatives of P. vacuolata are the photosynthetic nonsulfur purple bacterium Rhodoferax fermentans and the hydrogen autotroph Variovorax paradoxus.

  3. Characterization of an autotrophic sulfide-oxidizing marine Arcobacter sp. that produces filamentous sulfur.

    PubMed

    Wirsen, C O; Sievert, S M; Cavanaugh, C M; Molyneaux, S J; Ahmad, A; Taylor, L T; DeLong, E F; Taylor, C D

    2002-01-01

    A coastal marine sulfide-oxidizing autotrophic bacterium produces hydrophilic filamentous sulfur as a novel metabolic end product. Phylogenetic analysis placed the organism in the genus Arcobacter in the epsilon subdivision of the Proteobacteria. This motile vibrioid organism can be considered difficult to grow, preferring to grow under microaerophilic conditions in flowing systems in which a sulfide-oxygen gradient has been established. Purified cell cultures were maintained by using this approach. Essentially all 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride-stained cells in a flowing reactor system hybridized with Arcobacter-specific probes as well as with a probe specific for the sequence obtained from reactor-grown cells. The proposed provisional name for the coastal isolate is "Candidatus Arcobacter sulfidicus." For cells cultured in a flowing reactor system, the sulfide optimum was higher than and the CO(2) fixation activity was as high as or higher than those reported for other sulfur oxidizers, such as Thiomicrospira spp. Cells associated with filamentous sulfur material demonstrated nitrogen fixation capability. No ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase could be detected on the basis of radioisotopic activity or by Western blotting techniques, suggesting an alternative pathway of CO(2) fixation. The process of microbial filamentous sulfur formation has been documented in a number of marine environments where both sulfide and oxygen are available. Filamentous sulfur formation by "Candidatus Arcobacter sulfidicus" or similar strains may be an ecologically important process, contributing significantly to primary production in such environments.

  4. Characterization of marine microalga, Scenedesmus sp. strain JPCC GA0024 toward biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Tadashi; Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Sato, Reiko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2009-09-01

    A marine microalga, strain JPCC GA0024 was selected as high amount of neutral lipid producers from marine microalgal culture collection toward biofuel production. The strain was tentatively identified as Scenedesmus rubescens by 18S rDNA analysis. The growth of strain JPCC GA0024 was influenced by artificial seawater concentrations. The optimum growth of 0.79 g/l was obtained at 100% artificial seawater. The lipid accumulation reached 73.0% of dry cell weight at 100% artificial seawater without additional nutrients for 11 days. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis indicates that lipid fraction mainly contained hydrocarbons including mainly hexadecane (C(16) H(34)) and 1-docosene (C(22) H(44)). Furthermore, calorimetric analysis revealed that the energy content of strain JPCC GA0024 was 6,160 kcal/kg (25.8 MJ/kg) of calorific value, which was equivalent to the coal engery. The strain JPCC GA0024, S. rubescens, will become a promising resource that can grow as a dominant species in the seawater for the production of both liquid and solid biofuels.

  5. Indigo production by Pseudomonas sp. J26, a marine naphthalene-degrading strain.

    PubMed

    Mercadal, Juan Pablo Riva; Isaac, Paula; Siñeriz, Faustino; Ferrero, Marcela Alejandra

    2010-06-01

    A technique developed to determine naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) activity was optimized and used to study the biotransformation of indole to indigo by Pseudomonas sp. J26 whole cells. The maximum production of indigo was achieved at 25 degrees C using 2.5 mM indole when J26 was grown in the complex medium JPP, while indole concentrations higher than 4 mM proved toxic for cells. The maximum rate of indigo production was 0.56 nmol min(-1) mg dry biomass(-1), obtaining 75.5 microM of indigo after 8 h of incubation, while a maximal concentration (138.1 microM) of indigo was obtained after 20 h.

  6. A novel cyclic dipeptide from deep marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSIOW2.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiang; Fang, Pingyan; Tang, Jianqiang; Wu, Zhiqin; Li, Xiaofan; Li, Shuiming; Wang, Yong; Liu, Gang; He, Zhendan; Gou, Deming; Yao, Xinsheng; Wang, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    A novel cyclic dipeptide, 14-hydroxy-cyclopeptine (1), was purified from a deep sea derived fungal isolate identified as an Aspergillus sp. The structure was elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analyses using 1D and 2D NMR experiments and high resolution mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of the amino acid was determined by Marfey's method. Two conformational isomers of 1 were established by ROE analyses. 1 inhibited nitric oxide production with IC50 values at 40.3 μg/mL in a lipopolysaccharide and recombinant mouse interferon-γ -activated macrophage-like cell line, RAW 264.7 and showed no cytotoxic effect in the tested dose range up to 100 μg/mL.

  7. Secondary Metabolites from the Marine-Derived Fungus Dichotomomyces sp. L-8 and Their Cytotoxic Activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Hong; Chen, Yan-Xiu; Yu, Jian-Chen; Yuan, Jie; Li, Hou-Jin; Ma, Wen-Zhe; Watanapokasin, Ramida; Hu, Kun-Chao; Niaz, Shah Iram; Yang, De-Po; Lan, Wen-Jian

    2017-03-11

    Bioassay-guided isolation of the secondary metabolites from the fungus Dichotomomyces sp. L-8 associated with the soft coral Lobophytum crassum led to the discovery of two new compounds, dichotones A and B (1 and 2), together with four known compounds including dichotocejpin C (3), bis-N-norgliovictin (4), bassiatin (5) and (3R,6R)-bassiatin (6). The structures of these compounds were determined by 1D, 2D NMR and mass spectrometry. (3R,6R)-bassiatin (6) displayed significant cytotoxic activities against the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-435 and the human lung cancer cell line Calu3 with IC50 values of 7.34 ± 0.20 and 14.54 ± 0.01 μM, respectively, while bassiatin (5), the diastereomer of compound 6, was not cytotoxic.

  8. Lower homologues of ahpatinin, aspartic protease inhibitors, from a marine Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Takada, Kentaro; Nogi, Yuichi; Okada, Shigeru; Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2014-07-25

    Two linear peptides, ahpatinin Ac (1) and ahpatinin Pr (2), were isolated together with the known ahpatinin (i)Bu, pepstatin Ac, pepstatin Pr, and pepsinostreptin from a Streptomyces sp. derived from a deep-sea sediment. The structure of ahpatinin Pr (2) was assigned by interpretation of NMR data and HPLC analysis of the hydrolysate after converting to the DNP-L-Val derivative. During the LCMS analysis of the acid hydrolysate, products arising from the retro-aldol cleavage of the statine and Ahppa units in 2 were observed and could facilitate the determination of the absolute configuration of the statine class of nonproteinogenic amino acids. Both ahpatinin Ac (1) and ahpatinin Pr (2) potently inhibited pepsin and moderately inhibited cathepsin B.

  9. Vibrio jasicida sp. nov., a member of the Harveyi clade, isolated from marine animals (packhorse lobster, abalone and Atlantic salmon).

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Susumu; Tsuruya, Yasuhiro; Fukui, Youhei; Sawabe, Tomoo; Yokota, Akira; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Higgins, Melissa; Carson, Jeremy; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2012-08-01

    Six isolates of a facultatively anaerobic bacterium were recovered in culture from marine invertebrates and vertebrates, including packhorse lobster (Jasus verreauxi), abalone (Haliotis sp.) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), between 1994 and 2002. The bacteria were Gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile by means of more than one polar flagellum, oxidase-positive, catalase-positive and able to grow in the presence of 0.5-8.0% NaCl (optimum 3.0-6.0%) and at 10-37 °C (optimum 25-30 °C). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using five loci (2443 bp; gyrB, pyrH, ftsZ, mreB and gapA), the closest phylogenetic neighbours of strain TCFB 0772(T) were the type strains of Vibrio communis (99.8 and 94.6 % similarity, respectively), Vibrio owensii (99.8 and 94.1%), Vibrio natriegens (99.4 and 88.8%), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (99.4 and 90.3%), Vibrio rotiferianus (99.2 and 94.4%), Vibrio alginolyticus (99.1 and 89.3%) and Vibrio campbellii (99.1 and 92.3%). DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that the six isolates constitute a unique taxon that is distinct from other known species of Vibrio. In addition, this taxon can be readily differentiated phenotypically from other Vibrio species. The six isolates therefore represent a novel species, for which the name Vibrio jasicida sp. nov. is proposed; the novel species is represented by the type strain TCFB 0772(T) ( = JCM 16453(T)  = LMG 25398(T)) (DNA G+C content 45.9 mol%) and reference strains TCFB 1977 ( = JCM 16454) and TCFB 1000 ( = JCM 16455).

  10. Two peptides, cycloaspeptide A and nazumamide A from a sponge associated marine actinobacterium Salinispora sp.

    PubMed

    Bose, Utpal; Hodson, Mark P; Shaw, P Nicholas; Fuerst, John A; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2014-04-01

    Marine sponges are a major component of benthic communities and act as a reservoir for microbial species. In terms of biomass, they are the richest source of secondary metabolite production, with the potential to influence both benthic and pelagic systems. In most cases it is the sponge-associated microbes that account for many of the secondary metabolites assigned to the host. Here we report the occurrence of cycloaspeptide A, a fungus-derived cyclic peptide, in a culturable bacterium Salinispora arenicola. We have also identified nazumamide A, a sponge-derived linear tetrapeptide currently used as a thrombin inhibitor, in Salinispora pacifica. Their structures were determined using an integrated approach consisting of: (1) HPLC-UV-Vis-QToF-MS analysis with multimode ionization (ESI and APCI) and fast polarity switching; (2) database searching and matching of monoisotopic masses, retention times, mass spectra of the precursor and product ions of the compounds of interest and the authentic reference standards thereof.

  11. Phosphate Limitation Triggers the Dissolution of Precipitated Iron by the Marine Bacterium Pseudovibrio sp. FO-BEG1

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Stefano; Bondarev, Vladimir; Kölling, Martin; Dittmar, Thorsten; Schulz-Vogt, Heide N.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for all living organisms. In bacteria, the preferential phosphorus source is phosphate, which is often a limiting macronutrient in many areas of the ocean. The geochemical cycle of phosphorus is strongly interconnected with the cycles of other elements and especially iron, because phosphate tends to adsorb onto iron minerals, such as iron oxide formed in oxic marine environments. Although the response to either iron or phosphate limitation has been investigated in several bacterial species, the metabolic interplay between these two nutrients has rarely been considered. In this study we evaluated the impact of phosphate limitation on the iron metabolism of the marine bacterium Pseudovibrio sp. FO-BEG1. We observed that phosphate limitation led to an initial decrease of soluble iron in the culture up to three times higher than under phosphate surplus conditions. Similarly, a decrease in soluble cobalt was more pronounced under phosphate limitation. These data point toward physiological changes induced by phosphate limitation that affect either the cellular surface and therefore the metal adsorption onto it or the cellular metal uptake. We discovered that under phosphate limitation strain FO-BEG1, as well as selected strains of the Roseobacter clade, secreted iron-chelating molecules. This leads to the hypothesis that these bacteria might release such molecules to dissolve iron minerals, such as iron-oxyhydroxide, in order to access the adsorbed phosphate. As the adsorption of phosphate onto iron minerals can significantly decrease phosphate concentrations in the environment, the observed release of iron-chelators might represent an as yet unrecognized link between the biogeochemical cycle of phosphorus and iron, and it suggests another biological function of iron-chelating molecules in addition to metal-scavenging. PMID:28352252

  12. Desulfoconvexum algidum gen. nov., sp. nov., a psychrophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from a permanently cold marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Könneke, Martin; Kuever, Jan; Galushko, Alexander; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2013-03-01

    A sulfate-reducing bacterium, designated JHA1(T), was isolated from a permanently cold marine sediment sampled in an Artic fjord on the north-west coast of Svalbard. The isolate was originally enriched at 4 °C in a highly diluted liquid culture amended with hydrogen and sulfate. Strain JHA1(T) was a psychrophile, growing fastest between 14 and 16 °C and not growing above 20 °C. Fastest growth was found at neutral pH (pH 7.2-7.4) and at marine concentrations of NaCl (20-30 g l(-1)). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain JHA1(T) was a member of the family Desulfobacteraceae in the Deltaproteobacteria. The isolate shared 99 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with an environmental sequence obtained from permanently cold Antarctic sediment. The closest recognized relatives were Desulfobacula phenolica DSM 3384(T) and Desulfobacula toluolica DSM 7467(T) (both <95 % sequence similarity). In contrast to its closest phylogenetic relatives, strain JHA1(T) grew chemolithoautotrophically with hydrogen as an electron donor. CO dehydrogenase activity indicated the operation of the reductive acetyl-CoA pathway for inorganic carbon assimilation. Beside differences in physiology and morphology, strain JHA1(T) could be distinguished chemotaxonomically from the genus Desulfobacula by the absence of the cellular fatty acid C16 : 0 10-methyl. Phylogenetic differentiation from other genera was further supported by DsrAB and AprBA sequence analysis. Based on the described phylogenetic and phenotypic differences between strain JHA1(T) and its closest relatives, the establishment of a novel genus and a novel species, Desulfoconvexum algidum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JHA1(T) ( = DSM 21856(T)  = JCM 16085(T)).

  13. Structure and Biological Evaluation of Novel Cytotoxic Sterol Glycosides from the Marine Red Alga Peyssonnelia sp.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, An-Shen; Engel, Sebastian; Smith, Benjamin A.; Fairchild, Craig R.; Aalbersberg, William; Hay, Mark E.; Kubanek, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the extract from a Fijian red alga Peyssonnelia sp. led to the isolation of two novel sterol glycosides 19-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-19-hydroxy-cholest-4-en-3-one (1) and 19-O-β-d-N-acetyl-2-aminoglucopyranosyl-19-hydroxy-cholest-4-en-3-one (2), and two known alkaloids indole-3-carboxaldehyde (3) and 3-(hydroxyacetyl)indole (4). Their structures were characterized by 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectral analysis. The sterol glycosides inhibited cancer cell growth with mean IC50 values (for 11 human cancer cell lines) of 1.63 and 1.41 µM for 1 and 2, respectively. The most sensitive cancer cell lines were MDA-MB-468 (breast) and A549 (lung), with IC50s in of 0.71–0.97 µM for 1 and 2. Modification of the sterol glycoside structures revealed that the α,β-unsaturated ketone at C-3 and oxygenation at C-19 of 1 and 2 are crucial for anticancer activity, whereas the glucosidic group was not essential but contributed to enhanced activity against the most sensitive cell lines. PMID:21036050

  14. Simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification by the marine origin bacterium Pseudomonas sp. ADN-42.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ruofei; Liu, Tianqi; Liu, Guangfei; Zhou, Jiti; Huang, Jianyu; Wang, Aijie

    2015-02-01

    Recent research has highlighted the existence of some bacteria that are capable of performing heterotrophic nitrification and have a phenomenal ability to denitrify their nitrification products under aerobic conditions. A high-salinity-tolerant strain ADN-42 was isolated from Hymeniacidon perleve and found to display high heterotrophic ammonium removal capability. This strain was identified as Pseudomonas sp. via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Gene cloning and sequencing analysis indicated that the bacterial genome contains N2O reductase function (nosZ) gene. NH3-N removal rate of ADN-42 was very high. And the highest removal rate was 6.52 mg/L · h in the presence of 40 g/L NaCl. Under the condition of pure oxygen (DO >8 mg/L), NH3-N removal efficiency was 56.9 %. Moreover, 38.4 % of oxygen remained in the upper gas space during 72 h without greenhouse gas N2O production. Keeping continuous and low level of dissolved oxygen (DO <3 mg/L) was helpful for better denitrification performance. All these results indicated that the strain has heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification abilities, which guarantee future application in wastewater treatment.

  15. Bioflocculant production by Bacillus sp. Gilbert isolated from a marine environment in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ugbenyen, A M; Cosa, S; Mabinya, L V; Okoh, A I

    2014-01-01

    In our previous study we reported on the bioflocculant production by a Bacillus species isolated from sediment samples of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. In current study we carried out further evaluation on the effect of different culture conditions on the bioflocculant production, as well as characterised the bioflocculant produced in detail. The bacteria produced bioflocculant optimally under the following conditions: using sodium carbonate (95.2% flocculating activity) and potassium nitrate (76.6% flocculating activity) as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively; inoculum size of 3% (v/v); initial pH 9.0; and Al3+ as coagulant aid. The crude bioflocculant retained 44.2% residual flocculating activity after heating at 100 degrees C for 15 min. Chemical analysis of the Bacillus sp. Gilbert purified bioflocculant demonstrated that it was composed mainly of polysaccharide. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and methylene groups in the bioflocculant and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis detected the elemental composition in mass proportion (% w/w) of C, N, O, S and P as 4.12 : 7.40: 39.92: 3.00: 13.91. Scanning electron micrograph image of the bioflocculant revealed an amorphous compound.

  16. Taxonomy of Nephroselmis viridis sp. nov. (Nephroselmidophyceae, Chlorophyta), a sister marine species to freshwater N. olivacea.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Haruyo; Suda, Shoichiro; Nakayama, Takeshi; Pienaar, Richard N; Chihara, Mitsuo; Inouye, Isao

    2011-01-01

    The genus Nephroselmis (Nephroselmidophyceae), which had been placed in the Prasinophyceae, is one of the primitive green flagellates that are important to our understanding of the early evolution of green plants. We studied a new species of Nephroselmis isolated from Japan, Fiji and South Africa. This species has been known for a long time as undescribed species 'N. viridis.' N. viridis possesses some ultrastructural characters shared with only the freshwater type species N. olivacea, including a disc-like structure beneath the pyrenoid and bipolar spiny body scales with 1-5-8-5-1 spines. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA also supports a sister relationship between N. viridis and N. olivacea. However, N. viridis is distinguishable from N. olivacea by the shape of its starch sheath, its scales, its pigment composition and its habitat. In this paper, we designate the formal description of N. viridis sp. nov. We also describe variability in the 18S rDNA introns of various N. viridis strains. This detailed study of N. viridis provides some insights into the evolution of Nephroselmis.

  17. Remispora spitsbergenensis sp. nov., a marine lignicolous ascomycete from Svalbard, Norway.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ka-Lai; Chiang, Michael W L; Vrijmoed, Lilian L P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Remispora was established for R. maritima, a fungus with globose/subglobose, lightly colored and coriaceous ascomata; deliquescing asci; ellipsoidal ascospores; and bipolar, pleomorphic ascospore appendages. Seven species currently are included in Remispora: R crispa, R. galerita, R maritima, R. minuta, R. pilleata, R. quadriremis and R stellata. Variations on ascospore appendages can be observed in Remispora. In general the appendage is exosporic in nature and comprises an amorphous, electron-transparent matrix, and a fibrous, electron-dense component. An eighth Remispora species, R. spitsbergenensis sp. nov., is described here, discovered from washed-up wood collected at the shore of Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway. Ascospore appendages of R. spitsbergenensis appear as fibrous strands and amorphic material under the scanning electron microscope, which are characteristic of a Remispora species. Remispora spitsbergenensis resembles R. quadriremis and R. stellata because all possess four or more ascospore appendages at one end. Remispora spitsbergenensis possesses consistently four polar appendages at each end in contrast to six in R. stellata. Also ascospore appendages of R. spitsbergenensis are ribbon-like, compared with the obclavate, curved and attenuate appendages in R. quadriremis and R. stellata. A key for the identification of the eight Remispora species is provided.

  18. Pseudomonas glareae sp. nov., a marine sediment-derived bacterium with antagonistic activity.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Tanaka, Naoto; Svetashev, Vassilii I; Mikhailov, Valery V

    2015-06-01

    An aerobic, Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium designated KMM 9500(T) was isolated from a sediment sample collected from the Sea of Japan seashore. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis affiliated strain KMM 9500(T) to the genus Pseudomonas as a distinct subline clustered with Pseudomonas marincola KMM 3042(T) and Pseudomonas segetis KCTC 12331(T) sharing the highest similarities of 98 and 97.9 %, respectively. Strain KMM 9500(T) was characterized by mainly possessing ubiquinone Q-9, and by the predominance of C18:1 ω7c, C16:1 ω7c, and C16:0 followed by C12:0 in its fatty acid profile. Polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminophospholipid, and unknown phospholipids. Strain KMM 9500(T) was found to inhibit growth of Gram-negative and Gram-positive indicatory microorganisms. Based on the phylogenetic analysis and distinctive phenotypic characteristics, strain 9500(T) is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas glareae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the species is strain KMM 9500(T) (=NRIC 0939(T)).

  19. Antimicrobial potential of phylogenetically unique actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. JRG-04 from marine origin.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Ganesan; Satheeja Santhi, Velayudhan; Jebakumar, Solomon Robinson David

    2014-11-01

    Due to the emergence of severe infectious diseases and thriving antibiotic resistance, there is a need to explore microbial-derived bioactive secondary metabolites from unexplored regions. Present study deals with a mangrove estuary derived strain of Streptomyces sp. with potent antimicrobial activity against various pathogens, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Bioactive compound was effective even at low MIC level, damages the membrane of methicillin resistant S. aureus and causes cell death, however it has no cytotoxic effect on H9C2 cells. 16S rRNA shared 99.5% sequence similarity to Streptomyces longispororuber. Optimum biomass and antimicrobial compound production were observed in production medium supplemented with 1.0% maltose and 0.5% yeast extract. The active compound purified from the chloroform extract of the cell-free supernatant was studied by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and LC ESI-MS and identified as aromatic polyketide. β-ketosynthase (KS) domain of the Streptomyces strain revealed 93.2% sequence similarity to the benzoisochromanequinone, an actinorhodin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). However, the region synthesizing the secondary metabolite produced by the S. longispororuber was not related to the KS domain of the strain, due to the phenomenon of horizontal gene transfer over the period of evolutionary process, thus generating metabolic compound diversity.

  20. The preparation and characterization of a novel sphingan WL from marine Sphingomonas sp. WG

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Jiao, Xue; Sun, Yajie; Sun, Shiwei; Feng, Zhimei; Zhou, Wanlong; Zhu, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Sphingans, a group of structurally closely related bacterial exopolysaccharides produced by members of the genus Sphingomonas, can be applied in a variety of industries such as food, cement, and personal care applications due to their high viscosity. A high sphingan-producing-bacterium, Sphingomonas sp. WG can secret large quantity of sphingan designated as WL. To enhance the production of WL, a three-stage control strategy was applied and the highest WL production can reach 33.3 g/L. The rheological analysis showed that the aqueous solution of WL had high viscosity, typical shearing-thinning behavior and great stability to high temperature, a wide range of pH (1 to 14), and high salinity. WL was composed principally of carbohydrate with 6.52% O-acyl groups. The carbohydrate portion of WL contained about 13% glucuronic acid and some neutral sugars including mannose, glucose and rhamnose in the molar ratio of 1:2.28:2.12. Partial acid hydrolysis of WL produced a new oligosaccharide WL-1. Structural resolution revealed that WL-1 consisted of α-L-Rha-(1→4)-β-L-Rha-(1→4)-β-D-Glc-(1→3)-α-D-Glc with β-D-Man substituent at the third glucose residue and carboxyl and O-acyl groups. These findings will broaden the applications of this novel sphingan in food, ink, oil and other industries. PMID:27883073

  1. Tenacibaculum dicentrarchi sp. nov., a marine bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from European sea bass.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro-Vidal, Maximino; Gijón, Daniel; Zarza, Carles; Santos, Ysabel

    2012-02-01

    A novel Gram-stain-negative rod-shaped gliding bacterial strain, designated 35/09(T), was isolated from diseased European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) in Spain. Colonies were pale-yellow-pigmented with uneven edges and did not adhere to the agar. The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 31.3 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated affiliation to the genus Tenacibaculum (family Flavobacteriaceae, phylum 'Bacteroidetes'). Sequence similarities between the isolate and type strains of other members of the genus were 93.1-97.3 %. The major fatty acids (>5 % of the total fatty acids) were iso-C(15 : 0) (24.8 %), iso-C(15 : 0) 3-OH (18.0 %), anteiso-C(15 : 0) (8.1 %), C(15 : 1)ω6c (6.9 %) and iso-C(15 : 1) (6.2 %). Genotypic and phenotypic data indicate that strain 35/09(T) should be classified as a representative of a novel species in the genus Tenacibaculum, for which the name Tenacibaculum dicentrarchi sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 35/09(T) ( = CECT 7612(T) = NCIMB 14598(T)).

  2. Biochemical properties of a new cold-active mono- and diacylglycerol lipase from marine member Janibacter sp. strain HTCC2649.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dongjuan; Lan, Dongming; Xin, Ruipu; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2014-06-12

    Mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase has been applied to industrial usage in oil modification for its special substrate selectivity. Until now, the reported mono- and di-acylglycerol lipases from microorganism are limited, and there is no report on the mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase from bacteria. A predicted lipase (named MAJ1) from marine Janibacter sp. strain HTCC2649 was purified and biochemical characterized. MAJ1 was clustered in the family I.7 of esterase/lipase. The optimum activity of the purified MAJ1 occurred at pH 7.0 and 30 °C. The enzyme retained 50% of the optimum activity at 5 °C, indicating that MAJ1 is a cold-active lipase. The enzyme activity was stable in the presence of various metal ions, and inhibited in EDTA. MAJ1 was resistant to detergents. MAJ1 preferentially hydrolyzed mono- and di-acylglycerols, but did not show activity to triacylglycerols of camellia oil substrates. Further, MAJ1 is low homologous to that of the reported fungal diacylglycerol lipases, including Malassezia globosa lipase 1 (SMG1), Penicillium camembertii lipase U-150 (PCL), and Aspergillus oryzae lipase (AOL). Thus, we identified a novel cold-active bacterial lipase with a sn-1/3 preference towards mono- and di-acylglycerides for the first time. Moreover, it has the potential, in oil modification, for special substrate selectivity.

  3. Gellan gum microspheres containing a novel α-amylase from marine Nocardiopsis sp. strain B2 for immobilization.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Samrat; Jana, Sougata; Gandhi, Arijit; Sen, Kalyan Kumar; Zhiang, Wang; Kokare, Chandrakant

    2014-09-01

    A Nocardiopsis sp. stain B2 with an ability to produce stable α-amylase was isolated from marine sediments. The characterization of microorganism was done by biochemical tests and 16S rDNA sequencing. The α-amylase was purified by gel filtration chromatography by using sephadex G-75. The molecular mass of the amylase was found to be 45 kDa by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration chromatography. The isolated α-amylase was immobilized by ionotropic gelation technique using gellan gum (GG). These microspheres were spherical with average particle size of 375.62±21.76 to 492.54±32.18 μm. The entrapment efficiency of these α-amylase loaded GG microspheres was found 74.76±1.32 to 87.64±1.52%. Characterization of α-amylase-gellan gum microspheres was confirmed using FTIR and SEM analysis. The in vitro amylase release kinetic have been studied by various mathematical models that follow the Korsmeyer-Peppas model (R2=0.9804-0.9831) with anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion release mechanism.

  4. New records of marine tardigrades from Moorea, French Polynesia, with the description of Styraconyx turbinarium sp. nov. (Arthrotardigrada, Halechiniscidae).

    PubMed

    Bartels, Paul J; Fontoura, Paulo; Nelson, Diane R

    2015-05-05

    Five marine arthrotardigrade species are recorded from Moorea, Society Islands, French Polynesia. Four were collected from coral sand; two, Dipodarctus anaholiensis Pollock, 1995 and Florarctus kwoni Chang & Rho, 1997, are new records for the region, and two, Halechiniscus perfectus Schulz, 1955 and Styraconyx kristenseni kristenseni Renaud-Mornant, 1981, have been previously reported. The fifth, a new species Styraconyx turbinarium sp. nov., is described and was collected from the drifting brown alga Turbinaria ornata. The new species is characterized by the presence of peduncles on all digits, an elongate primary clava, and the lateral cirrus A arising from a common pedestal and enveloped by a common membrane extending almost to the claval tip. The new species differs from the most similar species, Styraconyx tyrrhenus D'Addabbo Gallo, Morone De Lucia & de Zio Grimaldi, 1989, by having longer and differently shaped primary clavae which are elongated in the new species and club-shaped in S. tyrrhenus. By having a dorsal cuticle that is coarsely punctated but without folds or other ornamentations, the new species can be easily distinguished from S. craticulus (Pollock, 1983), a species with similar primary clavae, but with cuticular dorsal folds ornamented with a grid-like pattern.

  5. Algivirga pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel agar-degrading marine bacterium of the family Flammeovirgaceae isolated from Micronesia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jennifer Jooyoun; Kim, Ji Hyung; Kwon, Young-Kyung; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Yang, Sung-Hyun; Jang, Jiyi; Heo, Soo-Jin; Park, Heung-Sik; Jung, Won-Kyo; Lee, Youngdeuk; Kang, Do-Hyung; Oh, Chulhong

    2013-12-01

    An aerobic, Gram-negative, coccoid to short rod-shaped and non-flagellated marine bacterial strain S354(T) was isolated from seawater of Micronesia. The strain was capable to degrade agar-forming slight depression into agar plate. Growth occurred at a temperature range of 12-44 °C, a pH range of 5-9, and a salinity range of 1-7 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested that S354(T) belongs to the family Flammeovirgaceae. The novel strain was most closely related to Limibacter armeniacum YM 11-185(T) with similarity of 92.5 %. The DNA G+C content was 43.8 mol%. The major fatty acids (>10 %) were iso-C15:0 and C16:1 ω5c. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was determined to be MK-7. Polar lipid profile of S354(T) consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown polar lipid, and unknown glycolipids. Based on the phenotypic, phylogenetic, biochemical, and physiological tests conducted in this study, S354(T) is proposed to represent a type strain of a novel genus and species. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of S354(T) is registered in GenBank under the accession number JQ639084. The type of strain Algivirga pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov. is S354(T) (=KCCM 90107(T)=JCM 18326(T)).

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel beta-agarase, AgaB, from marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. CY24.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cuiping; Lu, Xinzhi; Shi, Chao; Li, Jingbao; Gu, Yuchao; Ma, Yiming; Chu, Yan; Han, Feng; Gong, Qianhong; Yu, Wengong

    2007-02-09

    Agarases are generally classified into glycoside hydrolase families 16, 50, and 86 and are found to degrade agarose to frequently generate neoagarobiose, neoagarotetraose, or neoagarohexaose as the main products. In this study we have cloned a novel endo-type beta-agarase gene, agaB, from marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. CY24. The novel agarase encoded by agaB gene has no significant sequence similarity with any known proteins including all glycoside hydrolases. It degrades agarose to generate neoagarooctaose and neoagarodecaose as the main end products. Based on the analyses of enzymatic kinetics and degradation patterns of different oligosaccharides, the agarase AgaB appears to have a large substrate binding cleft that accommodates 12 sugar units, with 8 sugar units toward the reducing end spanning subsites +1 to +8 and 4 sugar units toward the non-reducing end spanning subsites -4 to -1, and enzymatic cleavage taking place between subsites -1 and +1. In addition, 1H NMR analysis shows that this enzyme hydrolyzes the glycosidic bond with inversion of anomeric configuration, in contrast to other known agarases that are retaining. Altogether, AgaB is structurally and functionally different from other known agarases and appears to represent a new family of glycoside hydrolase.

  7. A New Analogue of Echinomycin and a New Cyclic Dipeptide from a Marine-Derived Streptomyces sp. LS298.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Xin; Gong, Ting; Liu, Fu; Zhang, Pei-Cheng; Zhou, Wan-Qi; Li, Yan; Zhu, Ping

    2015-11-18

    Quinomycin G (1), a new analogue of echinomycin, together with a new cyclic dipeptide, cyclo-(l-Pro-4-OH-l-Leu) (2), as well as three known antibiotic compounds tirandamycin A (3), tirandamycin B (4) and staurosporine (5), were isolated from Streptomyces sp. LS298 obtained from a marine sponge Gelliodes carnosa. The planar and absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 2 were established by MS, NMR spectral data analysis and Marfey's method. Furthermore, the differences in NMR data of keto-enol tautomers in tirandamycins were discussed for the first time. Antibacterial and anti-tumor activities of compound 1 were measured against 15 drug-sensitive/resistant strains and 12 tumor cell lines. Compound 1 exhibited moderate antibacterial activities against Staphylococcuse pidermidis, S. aureus, Enterococcus faecium, and E. faecalis with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranged from 16 to 64 μg/mL. Moreover, it displayed remarkable anti-tumor activities; the highest activity was observed against the Jurkat cell line (human T-cell leukemia) with an IC50 value of 0.414 μM.

  8. Characterization of an extracellular biofunctional alginate lyase from marine Microbulbifer sp. ALW1 and antioxidant activity of enzymatic hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanbing; Wu, Liyun; Chen, Yanhong; Ni, Hui; Xiao, Anfeng; Cai, Huinong

    2016-01-01

    A novel alginate-degrading marine bacterium Microbulbifer sp. ALW1 was isolated from rotten brown alga. An extracellular alginate lyase was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and had a molecular mass of about 26.0 kDa determined by SDS-PAGE and size exclusion chromatography. This enzyme showed activities towards both polyguluronate and polymannuronate indicating its bifunctionality while with preference for the former substrate. Using sodium alginate as a substrate, strain ALW1 alginate lyase was optimally active at 45 °C and pH 7.0. It was stable at 25 °C, 30 °C, 35 °C and 40 °C, but not stable at 50 °C. This alginate lyase showed good stability over a broad pH range (5.0-9.0). The enzyme activity was increased to 5.1 times by adding NaCl to a final concentration of 0.5M. Strain ALW1 alginate lyase produced disaccharide (majority) and trisaccharide from alginate indicating that this enzyme could be a good tool for preparation of alginate oligosaccharides with low degree of polymerization (DP). The alginate oligosaccharides displayed the scavenging abilities towards radicals (DPPH, ABTS(+) and hydroxyl) and the reducing power. Therefore, the hydrolysates exhibited the antioxidant activity and had potential as a natural antioxidant.

  9. Ultrastructure and phylogeny of Glugea arabica n. sp. (Microsporidia), infecting the marine fish Epinephelus polyphekadion from the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Carlos; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Rocha, Sónia; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Casal, Graça

    2016-02-01

    A new microsporidian species, Glugea arabica n. sp., is reported infecting the intestinal wall of the marine teleost Epinephelus polyphekadion (=microdon) collected from the Red Sea coast off Saudi Arabia, and described on the basis of microscopic and molecular procedures. Spherical blackish xenomas formed parasitophorous vacuoles completely packed with several parasitic developmental stages, including spores. The nuclei were monokaryotic in all developmental stages. Spores were ellipsoidal to pyriform and measured 6.3 ± 0.3 (5.9-6.6) μm in length and 3.3 ± 0.4 (2.9-3.7) μm in width. A lamellar polaroplast surrounded the uncoiled portion of the polar filament, which extended into the spore's posterior pole and formed 27-29 coils organized in three or four rows. The posterior vacuole, located at the spore's posterior pole, appeared surrounded by the polar filament coils and displayed an irregular matrix composed of light material, in which was located the posterosome. Molecular analysis of the rRNA genes, including the ITS region, was performed using maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methodologies. The ultrastructural features observed, in combination with the molecular data analysed, suggests the parasite to be a new species of the genus Glugea.

  10. Flavobacterium rakeshii sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment, and emended description of Flavobacterium beibuense Fu et al. 2011.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ishwinder; Kaur, Chandandeep; Khan, Fazlurrahman; Mayilraj, Shanmugam

    2012-12-01

    A Gram-negative, non-motile bacterial strain that formed straight rods and straw yellow colonies, designated FCS-5(T), was isolated from a marine sediment from the Arabian Sea. The isolate exhibited most of the phenotypic properties expected for a member of the genus Flavobacterium. The major fatty acids were iso-C(15:0), iso-C(17:0) 3-OH, C(17:1)ω9c and summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C(15:0) 2-OH and/or C(16:1)ω7c). The only isoprenoid quinone was MK-6. The only polyamine was homospermidine and the major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 32.4 mol%. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain FCS-5(T) belonged to the genus Flavobacterium and exhibited 99.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Flavobacterium beibuense F44-8(T) and 90.9-94.6% sequence similarity with other members of the genus Flavobacterium. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed the discrimination of the isolate from its phylogenetic relatives. Strain FCS-5(T) is a representative of a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium rakeshii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FCS-5(T) ( = MTCC 10967(T) = JCM 17928(T)). An emended description of F. beibuense is also proposed.

  11. Identification of a frustule-associated protein of the marine pennate diatom Fistulifera sp. strain JPCC DA0580.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Michiko; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Muto, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Mayama, Shigeki; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Among the proteins localized on the cell wall (frustule) of diatoms (frustule-associated proteins), several proteins tightly associated with the cell wall have been implicated in frustule formation. These proteins include diatom-specific unique serine- and lysine-rich sequences represented by silaffins. Taking advantage of available genome information, we used a recently described bioinformatics approach to screen silaffin-like proteins rich in serine and lysine from the genome of the marine pennate diatom Fistulifera sp. strain JPCC DA0580 and identified 7 proteins. All of the proteins shared a sequence motif called the XGXG domain, which was also confirmed in a silaffin-like protein identified in other diatoms. In vivo localization analysis revealed that one of the identified proteins, G7408, occurs throughout the frustule with a slightly uneven distribution. This novel frustule-associated protein could be a useful tool to elucidate the mechanism of biosilica formation in diatoms and to functionalize this strain for future biotechnological applications.

  12. A polysaccharide-degrading marine bacterium Flammeovirga sp. MY04 and its extracellular agarase system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wenjun; Gu, Jingyan; Yan, Qiujie; Li, Jungang; Wu, Zhihong; Gu, Qianqun; Li, Yuezhong

    2012-09-01

    Bacteria of the genus Flammeovirga can digest complex polysaccharides (CPs), but no details have been reported regarding the CP depolymerases of these bacteria. MY04, an agarolytic marine bacterium isolated from coastal sediments, has been identified as a new member of the genus Flammeovirga. The MY04 strain is able to utilize multiple CPs as a sole carbon source and grows well on agarose, mannan, or xylan. This strain produces high concentrations of extracellular proteins (490 mg L-1 ± 18.2 mg L-1 liquid culture) that exhibit efficient and extensive degradation activities on various polysaccharides, especially agarose. These proteins have an activity of 310 U mg-1 ± 9.6 U mg-1 proteins. The extracellular agarase system (EAS) in the crude extracellular enzymes contains at least four agarose depolymerases, which are with molecular masses of approximately 30-70 kDa. The EAS is stable at a wide range of pH values (6.0-11.0), temperatures (0-50°C), and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations (0-0.9 mol L-1). Two major degradation products generated from agarose by the EAS are identified to be neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose, suggesting that β-agarases are the major constituents of the MY04 EAS. These results suggest that the Flammeovirga strain MY04 and its polysaccharide-degradation system hold great promise in industrial applications.

  13. Penicillium jejuense sp. nov., isolated from the marine environments of Jeju Island, Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Myung Soo; Fong, Jonathan J; Oh, Seung-Yoon; Houbraken, Jos; Sohn, Jae Hak; Hong, Seung-Beom; Lim, Young Woon

    2015-01-01

    Three strains of an unidentified Penicillium species were isolated during a fungal diversity survey of marine environments in Korea. These strains are described here as a new species following a multigene phylogenetic analyses of nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer barcodes (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2), genes for β-tubulin, calmodulin and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit, and observation of macro-and micromorphological characters. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the three strains formed a strongly supported monophyletic group distinct from previously reported species of section Aspergilloides. Morphologically this species can be distinguished from its sister species, P. crocicola, by the reverse color on Czapek yeast autolysate agar, abundant production of sclerotia on malt extract agar and colony characters on yeast extract sucrose agar. We name this new species P. jejuense, after the locality where it was discovered. At 25 C for 7 d, P. jejuense colonies grew to 55-60 mm on CYA, 45-48 mm on MEA, 48-52 mm on YES and 23-26 mm on CREA. Conidia (2.2-3.4 × 2.0-2.6 μm) and sclerotia (160-340 × 125-210 μm) were globose to ellipsoidal.

  14. Shewanella algicola sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from brown algae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Young; Yoo, Han-Su; Lee, Dong-Heon; Park, So-Hyun; Kim, Young-Ju; Oh, Duck-Chul

    2016-06-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium motile by means of a single polar flagella, strain ST-6T, was isolated from a brown alga (Sargassum thunbergii) collected in Jeju, Republic of Korea. Strain ST-6T was psychrotolerant, growing at 4-30 °C (optimum 20 °C). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences revealed that strain ST-6T belonged to a distinct lineage in the genus Shewanella. Strain ST-6T was related most closely to Shewanella basaltis J83T, S. gaetbuli TF-27T, S. arctica IT12T, S. vesiculosa M7T and S. aestuarii SC18T, showing 96-97 % and 85-70 % 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences similarities, respectively. DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain ST-6T and the type strains of two species of the genus Shewanella were <22.6 %. The major cellular fatty acids (>5 %) were summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1ω7c and/ or iso-C15:0 2-OH), C16:0, iso-C13:0 and C17:1ω8c. The DNA G+C content of strain ST-6Twas 42.4 mol%, and the predominant isoprenoid quinones were menaquinone MK-7 and ubiquinones Q-7 and Q-8. On the basis of its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain ST-6T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Shewanella, for which the name Shewanella algicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ST-6T (= KCTC 23253T = JCM 31091T).

  15. Winogradskyella eckloniae sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from the brown alga Ecklonia cava.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Young; Park, So-Hyun; Seo, Ga-Young; Kim, Young-Ju; Oh, Duck-Chul

    2015-09-01

    A novel bacterial strain, designated EC29(T), was isolated from the brown alga Ecklonia cava collected on Jeju Island, Republic of Korea. Cells of strain EC29(T) were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and motile by gliding. Growth was observed at 10-30 °C (optimum, 20-25 °C), at pH 6.0-9.5 (optimum, pH 7.5) and in the presence of 1-5% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the strain belonged to the genus Winogradskyella. Strain EC29(T) exhibited the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, of 96.5-97.8%, to the type strains of Winogradskyella pulchriflava EM106(T), Winogradskyella echinorum KMM 6211(T) and Winogradskyella ulvae KMM 6390(T). Strain EC29(T) exhibited < 27% DNA-DNA relatedness with Winogradskyella pulchriflava EM106(T) and Winogradskyella echinorum KMM 6211(T). The predominant fatty acids of strain EC29(T) were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G, C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and anteiso-C15 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 31.1 mol% and the major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6 (MK-6). Based on a polyphasic study, strain EC29(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Winogradskyella, for which the name Winogradskyella eckloniae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EC29(T) ( = KCTC 32172(T) = JCM 18703(T)).

  16. Seasonal Preservation Success of the Marine Dinoflagellate Coral Symbiont, Symbiodinium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Hagedorn, Mary; Carter, Virginia L.

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs are some of the most diverse and productive ecosystems on the planet, but are threatened by global and local stressors, mandating the need for incorporating ex situ conservation practices. One approach that is highly protective is the development of genome resource banks that preserve the species and its genetic diversity. A critical component of the reef are the endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium sp., living within most coral that transfer energy-rich sugars to their hosts. Although Symbiodinium are maintained alive in culture collections around the world, the cryopreservation of these algae to prevent loss and genetic drift is not well-defined. This study examined the quantum yield physiology and freezing protocols that resulted in survival of Symbiodinium at 24 h post-thawing. Only the ultra-rapid procedure called vitrification resulted in success whereas conventional slow freezing protocols did not. We determined that success also depended on using a thin film of agar with embedded Symbiodinium on Cryotops, a process that yielded a post-thaw viability of >50% in extracted and vitrified Symbiodinium from Fungia scutaria, Pocillopora damicornis and Porites compressa. Additionally, there also was a seasonal influence on vitrification success as the best post-thaw survival of F. scutaria occurred in winter and spring compared to summer and fall (P < 0.05). These findings lay the foundation for developing a viable genome resource bank for the world’s Symbiodinium that, in turn, will not only protect this critical element of coral functionality but serve as a resource for understanding the complexities of symbiosis, support selective breeding experiments to develop more thermally resilient strains of coral, and provide a ‘gold-standard’ genomics collection, allowing for full genomic sequencing of unique Symbiodinium strains. PMID:26422237

  17. Seasonal Preservation Success of the Marine Dinoflagellate Coral Symbiont, Symbiodinium sp.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Mary; Carter, Virginia L

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs are some of the most diverse and productive ecosystems on the planet, but are threatened by global and local stressors, mandating the need for incorporating ex situ conservation practices. One approach that is highly protective is the development of genome resource banks that preserve the species and its genetic diversity. A critical component of the reef are the endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium sp., living within most coral that transfer energy-rich sugars to their hosts. Although Symbiodinium are maintained alive in culture collections around the world, the cryopreservation of these algae to prevent loss and genetic drift is not well-defined. This study examined the quantum yield physiology and freezing protocols that resulted in survival of Symbiodinium at 24 h post-thawing. Only the ultra-rapid procedure called vitrification resulted in success whereas conventional slow freezing protocols did not. We determined that success also depended on using a thin film of agar with embedded Symbiodinium on Cryotops, a process that yielded a post-thaw viability of >50% in extracted and vitrified Symbiodinium from Fungia scutaria, Pocillopora damicornis and Porites compressa. Additionally, there also was a seasonal influence on vitrification success as the best post-thaw survival of F. scutaria occurred in winter and spring compared to summer and fall (P < 0.05). These findings lay the foundation for developing a viable genome resource bank for the world's Symbiodinium that, in turn, will not only protect this critical element of coral functionality but serve as a resource for understanding the complexities of symbiosis, support selective breeding experiments to develop more thermally resilient strains of coral, and provide a 'gold-standard' genomics collection, allowing for full genomic sequencing of unique Symbiodinium strains.

  18. Shewanella profunda sp. nov., isolated from deep marine sediment of the Nankai Trough.

    PubMed

    Toffin, Laurent; Bidault, Adeline; Pignet, Patricia; Tindall, Brian J; Slobodkin, Alexander; Kato, Chiaki; Prieur, Daniel

    2004-11-01

    A novel piezotolerant, mesophilic, facultatively anaerobic, organotrophic, polarly flagellated bacterium (strain LT13a(T)) was isolated from a deep sediment layer in the Nankai Trough (Leg 190, Ocean Drilling Program) off the coast of Japan. This organism used a wide range of organic substrates as sole carbon and energy sources: pyruvate, glutamate, succinate, fumarate, lactate, citrate, peptone and tryptone. Oxygen, nitrate, fumarate, ferric iron and cystine were used as electron acceptors. Maximal growth rates were observed at a hydrostatic pressure of 10 MPa. Hydrostatic pressure for growth was in the range 0.1-50 MPa. Predominant cellular fatty acids were 16 : 1omega7c, 15 : 0 iso, 16 : 0 and 13 : 0 iso. The G+C content of the DNA was 44.9 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain LT13a(T) was shown to belong to the gamma-Proteobacteria, being closely related to Shewanella putrefaciens (98 %), Shewanella oneidensis (97 %) and Shewanella baltica (96 %). Levels of DNA homology between strain LT13a(T) and S. putrefaciens, S. oneidensis and S. baltica were <20 %, indicating that strain LT13a(T) represents a novel species. Genetic evidence and phenotypic characteristics showed that isolate LT13a(T) constitutes a novel species of the genus Shewanella. Because of the deep origin of the strain, the name Shewanella profunda sp. nov. is proposed, with LT13a(T) (=DSM 15900(T)=JCM 12080(T)) as the type strain.

  19. Flavobacterium jejuensis sp. nov., isolated from marine brown alga Ecklonia cava.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Young; Kim, Young-Ju; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2015-11-01

    A bacterial strain, designated EC11(T) was isolated from brown alga Ecklonia cava collected from Jeju Island, Korea. EC11(T) was identified as a Gram-negative, rod-shaped and yellow-pigmented bacterial strain. The strain EC11(T) grew over a temperature range of 10 °C to 30 °C (optimally at 25 °C), and a pH range of 6.0-10.5 (optimally at pH 7.5). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain EC11(T) belongs to the genus Flavobacterium. Strain EC11(T) shared close similarity with Flavobacterium jumunjinense HME7102(T) (96.4%), Flavobacterium dongtanense LW30(T) (95.8%), Flavobacterium haoranii LQY-7(T) (95.3%), and Flavobacterium urocaniciphilum (95.1%). The major fatty acids (> 5%) were iso-C17:0 3-OH (22.4%), iso-C15:0 3-OH (19.0%), C15:0 (12.4%), summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ω7c/ C16:1 ω6c; 9.78%), iso-C15:1 G (9.6%), and iso-C16:0 3-OH (9.0%). The DNA G+C content was 28.1 mol% and the strain contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown aminolipids and three unknown polar lipids. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analysis, strain EC11T represents a novel species of the Flavobacterium genus, for which the name Flavobacterium jejuensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of F. jejuensis is EC11(T) (=KCTC 42149(T) = JCM 30735(T)).

  20. Chondroitin Lyase from a Marine Arthrobacter sp. MAT3885 for the Production of Chondroitin Sulfate Disaccharides.

    PubMed

    Kale, Varsha; Friðjónsson, Ólafur; Jónsson, Jón Óskar; Kristinsson, Hörður G; Ómarsdóttir, Sesselja; Hreggviðsson, Guðmundur Ó

    2015-08-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) saccharides from cartilage tissues have potential application in medicine or as dietary supplements due to their therapeutic bioactivities. Studies have shown that depolymerized CS saccharides may display enhanced bioactivity. The objective of this study was to isolate a CS-degrading enzyme for an efficient production of CS oligo- or disaccharides. CS-degrading bacteria from marine environments were enriched using in situ artificial support colonization containing CS from shark cartilage as substrate. Subsequently, an Arthrobacter species (strain MAT3885) efficiently degrading CS was isolated from a CS enrichment culture. The genomic DNA from strain MAT3885 was pyro-sequenced by using the 454 FLX sequencing technology. Following assembly and annotation, an orf, annotated as family 8 polysaccharide lyase genes, was identified, encoding an amino acid sequence with a similarity to CS lyases according to NCBI blastX. The gene, designated choA1, was cloned in Escherichia coli and expressed downstream of and in frame with the E. coli malE gene for obtaining a high yield of soluble recombinant protein. Applying a dual-tag system (MalE-Smt3-ChoA1), the MalE domain was separated from ChoA1 with proteolytic cleavage using Ulp1 protease. ChoA1 was defined as an AC-type enzyme as it degraded chondroitin sulfate A, C, and hyaluronic acid. The optimum activity of the enzyme was at pH 5.5-7.5 and 40 °C, running a 10-min reaction. The native enzyme was estimated to be a monomer. As the recombinant chondroitin sulfate lyase (designated as ChoA1R) degraded chondroitin sulfate efficiently compared to a benchmark enzyme, it may be used for the production of chondroitin sulfate disaccharides for the food industry or health-promoting products.

  1. Muricauda antarctica sp. nov., a marine member of the Flavobacteriaceae isolated from Antarctic seawater.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue-Hong; Yu, Pei-Song; Zhou, Ya-Dong; Xu, Lin; Wang, Chun-Sheng; Wu, Min; Oren, Aharon; Xu, Xue-Wei

    2013-09-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterium with appendages, designated Ar-22(T), was isolated from a seawater sample collected from the western part of Prydz Bay, near Cape Darnley, Antarctica. Strain Ar-22(T) grew optimally at 35 °C, at pH 7.5 and in the presence of 1-3% (w/v) NaCl. The isolate was positive for casein, gelatin and Tween 20 decomposition and negative for H2S production and indole formation. Chemotaxonomic analysis showed that MK-6 was the major isoprenoid quinone and phosphatidylethanolamine was the major polar lipid. The major fatty acids were iso-C(17:0) 3-OH, iso-C(15:1) G, iso-C(15:0) and C(16:1)ω7c/iso-C(15:0) 2OH. The genomic DNA G+C content was 44.8 mol%. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain Ar-22(T) is closely related to members of the genus Muricauda, sharing 94.2-97.3% sequence similarity with the type strains of species of the genus Muricauda and being most closely related to the Muricauda aquimarina. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison confirmed that strain Ar-22(T) formed a deep lineage with Muricauda flavescens. Sequence similarity between strain Ar-22(T) and Muricauda ruestringensis DSM 13258(T), the type species of the genus Muricauda, was 96.9%. Strain Ar-22(T) exhibited mean DNA-DNA relatedness values of 40.1%, 49.4% and 25.7% to M. aquimarina JCM 11811(T), M. flavescens JCM 11812(T) and Muricauda lutimaris KCTC 22173(T), respectively. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, strain Ar-22(T) represents a novel species of the genus Muricauda, for which the name Muricauda antarctica sp. nov. (type strain Ar-22(T) =CGMCC 1.12174(T) = JCM 18450(T)) is proposed.

  2. [Growth and metabolite production of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. (Chroococcales) in function to irradiance].

    PubMed

    Rosales-Loaiza, Néstor; Guevara, Miguel; Lodeiros, César; Morales, Ever

    2008-06-01

    Changes in salinity, temperature and irradiance during wet and dry seasons have induced metabolic versatility in cyanobacteria from saline environments. Cyanobacteria from these environments have biotechnological potential for the production of metabolites with pharmaceutical and industrial interest. We studied the growth, dry mass and metabolite production of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. MOF-03 in function of irradiance (78, 156 and 234 micromol q m(-2) s(-1)). All batch cultures were maintained by triplicate in constant aeration, 12:12 h photoperiod, 30 +/- 2 degrees C and 35% per hundred. Maximum values of protein, carbohydrates and lipids, of 530.19 +/- 11.16, 408.94 +/- 4.27 and 56.20 +/- 1.17 microg ml(-1), respectively, were achieved at 78 micromol q m(-2) s(-1). Pigments, analyzed by HPLC, showed maximum values at 78 micromol q m(-2) s(-1) for chlorophyll a with 7.72 +/- 0.16 microg ml(-1), and at 234 micromol q m(-2) s(-1) for beta-carotene and zeaxanthin with 0.70 +/- 0.01 and 0.67 +/- 0.05 microg ml(-1). Chlorophyll a:beta-carotene ratio decreased from 17.15 to 6.91 at 78 and 234 micromol q m(-2) s(-'1); whereas beta-carotene:zeaxanthin ratio showed no changes between 78 and 156 micromol q m(-2) s(-1), around 1.21, and decreased at 234 micromol q m(-2) s(-1), to 1.04. Also, this cyanobacterium produced the greatest cell density and dry mass at 156 micromol q m(-2) s(-1), with 406.13 +/- 21.74 x l0(6) cell ml(-1) and 1.49 +/- 0.11 mg ml(-1), respectively. Exopolysaccharide production was stable between 156 y 234 micromol q m(-2) s(-1), around 110 microg ml(-1). This Synechococcus strain shows a great potential for the production of enriched biomass with high commercial value metabolites.

  3. Physiologic and metabolic characterization of a new marine isolate (BM39) of Pantoea sp. producing high levels of exopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Marine environments are the widest fonts of biodiversity representing a resource of both unexploited or unknown microorganisms and new substances having potential applications. Among microbial products, exopolysaccharides (EPS) have many physiological functions and practical applications. Since EPS production by many bacteria is too scarce for practical use and only few species are known for their high levels of production, the search of new high EPS producers is of paramount importance. Many marine bacteria, that produce EPS to cope with strong environmental stress, could be potentially exploited at the industrial level. Results A novel bacterium, strain BM39, previously isolated from sediments collected in the Tyrrhenian Sea, was selected for its production of very high levels of EPS. BM39 was affiliated to Pantoea sp. (Enterobacteriaceae) by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical tests. According to the phylogenetic tree, this strain, being quite far from the closest known Pantoea species (96% identity with P. agglomerans and P. ananatis) could belong to a new species. EPS production was fast (maximum of ca. 21 g/L in 24 h on glucose medium) and mainly obtained during the exponential growth. Preliminary characterization, carried out by thin layer and gel filtration chromatography, showed that the EPS, being a glucose homopolymer with MW of ca. 830 kDa, appeared to be different from those of other bacteria of same genus. The bacterium showed a typical slightly halophilic behavior growing optimally at NaCl 40 ‰ (growing range 0-100 ‰). Flow cytometry studies indicated that good cell survival was maintained for 24 h at 120 ‰. Survival decreased dramatically with the increase of salinity being only 1 h at 280 ‰. The biochemical characterization, carried out with the Biolog system, showed that MB39 had a rather limited metabolic capacity. Its ability, rather lower than that of P. agglomerans, was almost only confined to the metabolization of

  4. Streptococcus hongkongensis sp. nov., isolated from a patient with an infected puncture wound and from a marine flatfish.

    PubMed

    Lau, Susanna K P; Curreem, Shirly O T; Lin, Cherry C N; Fung, Ami M Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2013-07-01

    A bacterium, HKU30(T), was isolated from the infected tissue of a patient with wound infection after puncture by a fish fin. Cells are facultative anaerobic, non-spore-forming, non-motile, Gram-positive cocci arranged in chains. Colonies were non-haemolytic. The strain was catalase, oxidase, urease and Voges-Proskauer test negative. It reacted with Lancefield's group G antisera and was resistant to optochin. It grew on bile aesculin agar and in 5 % NaCl. It was unidentified by three commercial identification systems. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the bacterium shared 98.2, 97.7, 97.4 and 97.1 % nucleotide identities with Streptococcus iniae, Streptococcus pseudoporcinus, Streptococcus parauberis and Streptococcus uberis, respectively. The DNA G+C content was 35.6 ± 0.9 mol% (mean ± sd). In view of the occupational exposure of the patient, an epidemiological study was performed to isolate the bacterium from marine fish. Two strains, with similar phenotypic and genotypic characteristics to those of HKU30(T), were isolated from a three-lined tongue sole (Cynoglossus abbreviatus) and an olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of four additional housekeeping genes, groEL, gyrB, sodA and rpoB, showed that the three isolates formed a distinct branch among known species of the genus Streptococcus, being most closely related to S. parauberis (CCUG 39954(T)). DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated ≤ 53.8 % DNA relatedness between the three isolates and related species of the genus Streptococcus. A novel species, Streptococcus hongkongensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is HKU30(T) ( = DSM 26014(T) = CECT 8154(T)).

  5. Rubritalea sabuli sp. nov., a carotenoid- and squalene-producing member of the family Verrucomicrobiaceae, isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Matsuo, Yoshihide; Matsuda, Satoru; Adachi, Kyoko; Kasai, Hiroaki; Yokota, Akira

    2008-04-01

    The taxonomic status of a verrucomicrobial strain isolated from marine sediment was established based on a polyphasic examination. The novel isolate, strain YM29-052T, was obligately aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, coccoid or rod-shaped and chemoheterotrophic. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that the new isolate shared approximately 94-99 % sequence similarity with members of genus Rubritalea of the family Verrucomicrobiaceae within the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia'. Genomic DNA-DNA hybridization between strain YM29-052T and Rubritalea squalenifaciens HOact23T showed relatedness of <70 %, the value commonly accepted as the threshold for the phylogenetic definition of a species. Strain YM29-052T produces carotenoid compounds that render the cell biomass a pink colour; the strain also contains squalene. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of the novel strain contains muramic acid and meso-diaminopimelic acid. The DNA G+C content of strain YM29-052T was 47.7 mol%; MK-8 and MK-9 were the major menaquinones. The presence of iso-C14 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and C16 : 1 omega 7c as major cellular fatty acids supported the identification of the novel isolate as a member of the genus Rubritalea. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic evidence, it was concluded that strain YM29-052T should be classified within a novel species of the genus Rubritalea, for which the name Rubritalea sabuli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YM29-052T (=MBIC08323T =KCTC 22127T).

  6. Light History Influences the Response of the Marine Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. WH7803 to Oxidative Stress1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Blot, Nicolas; Mella-Flores, Daniella; Six, Christophe; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Boutte, Christophe; Peyrat, Anne; Monnier, Annabelle; Ratin, Morgane; Gourvil, Priscillia; Campbell, Douglas A.; Garczarek, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Marine Synechococcus undergo a wide range of environmental stressors, especially high and variable irradiance, which may induce oxidative stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). While light and ROS could act synergistically on the impairment of photosynthesis, inducing photodamage and inhibiting photosystem II repair, acclimation to high irradiance is also thought to confer resistance to other stressors. To identify the respective roles of light and ROS in the photoinhibition process and detect a possible light-driven tolerance to oxidative stress, we compared the photophysiological and transcriptomic responses of Synechococcus sp. WH7803 acclimated to low light (LL) or high light (HL) to oxidative stress, induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or methylviologen. While photosynthetic activity was much more affected in HL than in LL cells, only HL cells were able to recover growth and photosynthesis after the addition of 25 μm H2O2. Depending upon light conditions and H2O2 concentration, the latter oxidizing agent induced photosystem II inactivation through both direct damage to the reaction centers and inhibition of its repair cycle. Although the global transcriptome response appeared similar in LL and HL cells, some processes were specifically induced in HL cells that seemingly helped them withstand oxidative stress, including enhancement of photoprotection and ROS detoxification, repair of ROS-driven damage, and regulation of redox state. Detection of putative LexA binding sites allowed the identification of the putative LexA regulon, which was down-regulated in HL compared with LL cells but up-regulated by oxidative stress under both growth irradiances. PMID:21670225

  7. Lutibacter litoralis gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from tidal flat sediment.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong H; Cho, Byung C

    2006-04-01

    A rod-shaped marine bacterium, designated strain CL-TF09T, isolated from a tidal flat in Ganghwa, Korea, was characterized based on its physiological and biochemical features, fatty acid profile and phylogenetic position. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed a clear affiliation with the family Flavobacteriaceae. Strain CL-TF09T showed the closest phylogenetic relationship with the genera Tenacibaculum and Polaribacter; sequence similarities between CL-TF09T and the type strains of Tenacibaculum and Polaribacter species ranged from 90.7 to 91.8 %. Cells of strain CL-TF09T were non-motile and grew on solid media as yellow colonies. The strain grew in the presence of 1-5 % sea salts, within a temperature range of 5-30 degrees C and at pH 7-8. The strain had iso-C(15 : 0) 3-OH (17.4 %), iso-C(15 : 0) (16.7 %), anteiso-C(15 : 0) (15.1 %) and iso-C(16 : 0) 3-OH (13.4 %) as predominant fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 33.9 mol%. Based on the physiological, fatty acid composition and phylogenetic data presented, strain CL-TF09T is considered to represent a novel genus and species of the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Lutibacter litoralis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CL-TF09T (=KCCM 42118T = JCM 13034T).

  8. Towards Sustainable Aquafeeds: Complete Substitution of Fish Oil with Marine Microalga Schizochytrium sp. Improves Growth and Fatty Acid Deposition in Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Pallab K.; Kapuscinski, Anne R.; Lanois, Alison J.; Livesey, Erin D.; Bernhard, Katie P.; Coley, Mariah L.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a 84-day nutritional feeding experiment with dried whole cells of DHA-rich marine microalga Schizochytrium sp. (Sc) to determine the optimum level of fish-oil substitution (partial or complete) for maximum growth of Nile tilapia. When we fully replaced fish oil with Schizochytrium (Sc100 diet), we found significantly higher weight gain and protein efficiency ratio (PER), and lower (improved) feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake compared to a control diet containing fish oil (Sc0); and no significant change in SGR and survival rate among all diets. The Sc100 diet had the highest contents of 22:6n3 DHA, led to the highest DHA content in fillets, and consequently led to the highest DHA:EPA ratios in tilapia fillets. Schizochytrium sp. is a high quality candidate for complete substitution of fish oil in juvenile Nile tilapia feeds, providing an innovative means to formulate and optimize the composition of tilapia juvenile feed while simultaneously raising feed efficiency of tilapia aquaculture and to further develop environmentally and socially sustainable aquafeeds. Results show that replacing fish oil with DHA-rich marine Sc improves the deposition of n3 LC PUFA levels in tilapia fillet. These results support further studies to lower Schizochytrium production costs and to combine different marine microalgae to replace fish oil and fishmeal into aquafeeds. PMID:27258552

  9. Towards Sustainable Aquafeeds: Complete Substitution of Fish Oil with Marine Microalga Schizochytrium sp. Improves Growth and Fatty Acid Deposition in Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Sarker, Pallab K; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Lanois, Alison J; Livesey, Erin D; Bernhard, Katie P; Coley, Mariah L

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a 84-day nutritional feeding experiment with dried whole cells of DHA-rich marine microalga Schizochytrium sp. (Sc) to determine the optimum level of fish-oil substitution (partial or complete) for maximum growth of Nile tilapia. When we fully replaced fish oil with Schizochytrium (Sc100 diet), we found significantly higher weight gain and protein efficiency ratio (PER), and lower (improved) feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake compared to a control diet containing fish oil (Sc0); and no significant change in SGR and survival rate among all diets. The Sc100 diet had the highest contents of 22:6n3 DHA, led to the highest DHA content in fillets, and consequently led to the highest DHA:EPA ratios in tilapia fillets. Schizochytrium sp. is a high quality candidate for complete substitution of fish oil in juvenile Nile tilapia feeds, providing an innovative means to formulate and optimize the composition of tilapia juvenile feed while simultaneously raising feed efficiency of tilapia aquaculture and to further develop environmentally and socially sustainable aquafeeds. Results show that replacing fish oil with DHA-rich marine Sc improves the deposition of n3 LC PUFA levels in tilapia fillet. These results support further studies to lower Schizochytrium production costs and to combine different marine microalgae to replace fish oil and fishmeal into aquafeeds.

  10. The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bullard, S.G.; Lambert, G.; Carman, M.R.; Byrnes, J.; Whitlatch, R.B.; Ruiz, G.; Miller, R.J.; Harris, L.; Valentine, P.C.; Collie, J.S.; Pederson, J.; McNaught, D.C.; Cohen, A.N.; Asch, R.G.; Dijkstra, J.; Heinonen, K.

    2007-01-01

    Didemnum sp. A is a colonial ascidian with rapidly expanding populations on the east and west coasts of North America. The origin of Didemum sp. A is unknown. Populations were first observed on the northeast coast of the U.S. in the late 1980s and on the west coast during the 1990s. It is currently undergoing a massive population explosion and is now a dominant member of many subtidal communities on both coasts. To determine Didemnum sp. A's current distribution, we conducted surveys from Maine to Virginia on the east coast and from British Columbia to southern California on the west coast of the U.S. between 1998 and 2005. In nearshore locations Didemnum sp. A currently ranges from Eastport, Maine to Shinnecock Bay, New York on the east coast. On the west coast it has been recorded from Humboldt Bay to Port San Luis in California, several sites in Puget Sound, Washington, including a heavily fouled mussel culture facility, and several sites in southwestern British Columbia on and adjacent to oyster and mussel farms. The species also occurs at deeper subtidal sites (up to 81 m) off New England, including Georges, Stellwagen and Tillies Banks. On Georges Bank numerous sites within a 230 km2 area are 50–90% covered by Didemnum sp. A; large colonies cement the pebble gravel into nearly solid mats that may smother infaunal organisms. These observations suggest that Didemnum sp. A has the potential to alter marine communities and affect economically important activities such as fishing and aquaculture.

  11. Lacinutrix himadriensis sp. nov., a psychrophilic bacterium isolated from a marine sediment, and emended description of the genus Lacinutrix.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, T N R; Prasad, S; Manasa, P; Sailaja, B; Begum, Z; Shivaji, S

    2013-02-01

    A novel gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile, psychrophilic bacterium, designated strain E4-9a(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected at a depth of 276 m from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, in the Arctic Ocean. The colony colour was golden yellow. Strain E4-9a(T) was positive for amylase activity at 5 °C. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 1) G (21.8 %), anteiso-C(15 : 0) (19.1 %), anteiso-C(15 : 1) A (18.6 %), iso-C(15 : 0) (13.8 %) and iso-C(16 : 1) H (6.4 %). Strain E4-9a(T) contained MK-6 as the major respiratory quinone. The polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified aminolipids (AL1, AL4 and AL5), an unidentified phospholipid and four unidentified lipids (L1, L4 to L6). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, it was ascertained that the closest related species to E4-9a(T) were Lacinutrix copepodicola, L. algicola and L. mariniflava, with sequence similarity to the respective type strains of 98.5, 96.5 and 95.8 %. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain E4-9a(T) clustered with the type strain of L. copepodicola and with those of L. algicola and L. mariniflava at distances of 1.5 and 4.8 % (98.5 and 95.2 % similarity), respectively. However, DNA-DNA hybridization with L. copepodicola DJ3(T) showed 59 % relatedness with respect to strain E4-9a(T). The DNA G+C content of strain E4-9a(T) was 29 mol%. Based on the results of DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic data, it appears that strain E4-9a(T) represents a novel species of the genus Lacinutrix, for which the name Lacinutrix himadriensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is E4-9a(T) ( = CIP 110310(T)  = KCTC 23612(T)).

  12. Cribrihabitans marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a biological filter in a marine recirculating aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Liu, Ying; Liu, Liang-Zi; Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Zhi-Pei; Liu, Ying

    2014-04-01

    A Gram-negative bacterium, strain CZ-AM5(T), was isolated from an aerated biological filter in a marine recirculating aquaculture system in Tianjin, China. Its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain CZ-AM5(T) were non-spore-forming rods, 0.5-0.8 µm wide and 1.2-2.0 µm long, and motile by means of one or two polar or lateral flagella. Strain CZ-AM5(T) was strictly aerobic, heterotrophic, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. Growth occurred at 15-40 °C (optimum, 30-35 °C), at pH 6.5-10.5 (optimum, pH 7.0-7.5) and in the presence of 0-12.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 4.0 %). The predominant fatty acid was C18 : 1ω7c (80.3 %). Ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) was the sole respiratory quinone. The polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminolipid, an unknown phospholipid and three unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content was 60.4 mol%. Strain CZ-AM5(T) showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (96.5 %) to Phaeobacter caeruleus LMG 24369(T); it exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 95.0-96.5, 95.2-96.3, 96.2, 94.6-95.7 and 94.8-95.8 % to members of the genera Phaeobacter, Ruegeria, Citreimonas, Leisingera and Donghicola, respectively. However, phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain CZ-AM5(T) did not join any of the above genera, but formed a distinct lineage in the trees. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, strain CZ-AM5(T) is considered to represent a novel genus and species of the family Rhodobacteraceae, for which the name Cribrihabitans marinus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Cribrihabitans marinus is CZ-AM5(T) ( = CGMCC 1.13219(T) = JCM 19401(T)).

  13. Theletrum lamothei sp. nov. (Digenea), parasite of Echidna nocturna from Cuajiniquil, Guanacaste, and other digenes of marine fishes from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ponce de León, G; León-Règagnon, V; Monks, S

    1998-06-01

    A new species of Theletrum is described from the intestine of two palenose morays, Echidna nocturna, collected in Cuajiniquil, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica. The new species differs from the type species, T. fustiforme Linton, 1910 by having a subspherical pars prostatica, a subspherical seminal vesicle extending anteriorly to the anterior border of the acetabulum, by the presence of a poorly developed hermaphroditic sac, and by having a larger body size. We also report eight additional species of digeneans parasitizing marine fishes in several localities along the Atlantic and Pacific coast of Costa Rica: Bianium simonei, Didymozoinae (metacercariae), Ectenurus virgulus, Hypocreadium myohelicatum, Lecithochirium microstomum, Pseudolecithaster sp., Stephanostomum casum, and Tergestia laticollis. In addition, we present an updated list of helminth parasites of marine fish from Costa Rica and discuss the importance of including parasites as an integral part of biodiversity inventories.

  14. A monogenean fish parasite, Gyrodactylus chileani n. sp., belonging to a novel marine species lineage found in the South-Eastern Pacific and the Mediterranean and North Seas.

    PubMed

    Ziętara, Marek S; Lebedeva, Dar'ya; Muñoz, Gabriela; Lumme, Jaakko

    2012-10-01

    Gyrodactylus chileani n. sp. is the first Gyrodactylus species reported from Chile. It is an ectoparasite living on fins and skin of a small fish, the Chilean tidal pond dweller Helcogrammoides chilensis (Cancino) (Perciformes: Tripterygiidae). A phylogenetic analysis based on 5.8S+ITS2 of rDNA placed the new species close to marine Gyrodactylus species found in Europe: G. orecchiae Paladini, Cable, Fioravanti, Faria, Cave & Shinn, 2009 on gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L. from the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Sea fish farms (Perciformes: Sparidae), and an undescribed species on the black goby Gobius niger L. from the North Sea (Perciformes: Gobiidae). A morphological description of the latter species is unavailable. These geographically distant parasite samples on different host families form a new well supported Gyrodactylus orecchiae lineage. Using molecular phylogenetics, it is shown that the marine species groups of Gyrodactylus may have a worldwide distribution.

  15. Metabolites with Gram-negative bacteria quorum sensing inhibitory activity from the marine animal endogenic fungus Penicillium sp. SCS-KFD08.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fan Dong; Zhou, Li Man; Ma, Qing Yun; Huang, Sheng Zhuo; Wang, Pei; Dai, Hao Fu; Zhao, You Xing

    2017-01-01

    Three new compounds named penicitor A, aculene E and penicitor B, as well as four known compounds, were isolated from the fermentation broth of Penicillium sp. SCS-KFD08 associated with a marine animal Sipunculus nudus from the Haikou bay of China. Their planar structures and absolute configurations were unambiguously elucidated by spectroscopic data, Mosher's method, CD spectrum analysis along with quantum ECD calculation. Among them, compounds 2-7 showed quorum sensing inhibitory activity against Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, and could significantly reduce violacein production in N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) induced C. violaceum CV026 cultures at sub-inhibitory concentrations.

  16. Molecular Phylogeny and Ultrastructure of Caliculium glossobalani n. gen. et sp. (Apicomplexa) from a Pacific Glossobalanus minutus (Hemichordata) Confounds the Relationships Between Marine and Terrestrial Gregarines.

    PubMed

    Wakeman, Kevin C; Reimer, James D; Jenke-Kodama, Holger; Leander, Brian S

    2014-01-01

    Gregarines are a diverse group of apicomplexan parasites with a conspicuous extracellular feeding stage, called a "trophozoite", that infects the intestines and other body cavities of invertebrate hosts. Although the morphology of trophozoites is very diverse in gregarines as a whole, high degrees of intraspecific variation combined with relatively low degrees of interspecific variation make the delimitation of different species based on trophozoite morphology observed with light microscopy difficult. The coupling of molecular phylogenetic data with comparative morphology has shed considerable light onto the boundaries and interrelationships of different gregarine species. In this study, we isolated a novel marine gregarine from the hepatic region of a Pacific representative of the hemichordate Glossobalanus minutus, and report the first ultrastructural and molecular data from any gregarine infecting this distinctive group of hosts. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of an SSU rDNA sequence derived from two single-cell isolates of this marine gregarine demonstrated a strong and unexpected affiliation with a clade of terrestrial gregarines (e.g. Gregarina). This molecular phylogenetic data combined with a comparison of the morphological features in previous reports of gregarines collected from Atlantic representatives of G. minutus justified the establishment of a new binomial for the new isolate, namely Caliculium glossobalani n. gen. et sp. The molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrated a clade of terrestrial gregarines associated with a sequence acquired from a marine species, which suggest that different groups of terrestrial/freshwater gregarines evolved independently from marine ancestors.

  17. Characterization of a New S8 serine Protease from Marine Sedimentary Photobacterium sp. A5–7 and the Function of Its Protease-Associated Domain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui-Juan; Tang, Bai-Lu; Shao, Xuan; Liu, Bai-Xue; Zheng, Xiao-Yu; Han, Xiao-Xu; Li, Ping-Yi; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Song, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Xiu-Lan

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial extracellular proteases are important for bacterial nutrition and marine sedimentary organic nitrogen degradation. However, only a few proteases from marine sedimentary bacteria have been characterized. Some subtilases have a protease-associated (PA) domain inserted in the catalytic domain. Although structural analysis and deletion mutation suggests that the PA domain in subtilases is involved in substrate binding, direct evidence to support this function is still absent. Here, a protease, P57, secreted by Photobacterium sp. A5-7 isolated from marine sediment was characterized. P57 could hydrolyze casein, gelatin and collagen. It showed the highest activity at 40°C and pH 8.0. P57 is a new subtilase, with 63% sequence identity to the closest characterized protease. Mature P57 contains a catalytic domain and an inserted PA domain. The recombinant PA domain from P57 was shown to have collagen-binding ability, and Phe349 and Tyr432 were revealed to be key residues for collagen binding in the PA domain. This study first shows direct evidence that the PA domain of a subtilase can bind substrate, which provides a better understanding of the function of the PA domain of subtilases and bacterial extracellular proteases from marine sediment. PMID:28066343

  18. Comparative study on fatty acid metabolism of early stages of two crustacean species: Artemia sp. metanauplii and Grapsus adscensionis zoeae, as live prey for marine animals.

    PubMed

    Reis, Diana B; Acosta, Nieves G; Almansa, Eduardo; Navarro, Juan C; Tocher, Douglas R; Andrade, José P; Sykes, António V; Rodríguez, Covadonga

    2017-02-01

    The present study compared the lipid composition and in vivo capability of Artemia sp. metanauplii (the main live prey used in aquaculture) and Grapsus adscensionis zoeae (as a wild zooplankton model) to metabolise unsaturated fatty acids. The two species were incubated in vivo with 0.3μM of individual [1-(14)C]fatty acids (FA) including 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 20:4n-6 (ARA), 20:5n-3 (EPA) and 22:6n-3 (DHA) bound to bovine serum albumin (BSA). Compared to metanauplii, zoeae contained twice the content of polar lipids (PL) and eight-fold the content of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Artemia sp. metanauplii showed increased short chain fatty acid de novo synthesis from beta-oxidation of [1-(14)C]LC-PUFA, preferentially DHA. Of the LC-PUFA, DHA showed the highest esterification rate into Artemia sp. triacylglycerols. In contrast, in Grapsus zoeae [1-(14)C]DHA displayed the highest transformation rate into longer chain-length FAs and was preferentially esterified into PL. EPA and ARA, tended to be more easily incorporated and/or retained than DHA in Artemia sp. Moreover, both EPA and ARA were preferentially esterified into Artemia PL, which theoretically would favour their bioavailability to the larvae. In addition to the inherent better nutritional value of Grapsus zoeae due to their intrinsic lipid composition, the changes taking place after the lipid incorporation, point at two distinct models of lipid metabolism that indicate zoeae as a more suitable prey than Artemia sp. for the feeding of marine animals.

  19. Cytotoxic and antibacterial substances against multi-drug resistant pathogens from marine sponge symbiont: Citrinin, a secondary metabolite of Penicillium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Subramani, Ramesh; Kumar, Rohitesh; Prasad, Pritesh; Aalbersberg, William

    2013-01-01

    Objective To Isolate, purify, characterize, and evaluate the bioactive compounds from the sponge-derived fungus Penicillium sp. FF001 and to elucidate its structure. Methods The fungal strain FF001 with an interesting bioactivity profile was isolated from a marine Fijian sponge Melophlus sp. Based on conidiophores aggregation, conidia development and mycelia morphological characteristics, the isolate FF001 was classically identified as a Penicillium sp. The bioactive compound was identified using various spectral analysis of UV, high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectra, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data. Further minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) assay and brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay were also carried out to evaluate the biological properties of the purified compound. Results Bioassay guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract of a static culture of this Penicillium sp. by different chromatographic methods led the isolation of an antibacterial, anticryptococcal and cytotoxic active compound, which was identified as citrinin (1). Further, citrinin (1) is reported for its potent antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), rifampicin-resistant S. aureus, wild type S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium showed MICs of 3.90, 0.97, 1.95 and 7.81 µg/mL, respectively. Further citrinin (1) displayed significant activity against the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC 3.90 µg/mL), and exhibited cytotoxicity against brine shrimp larvae LD50 of 96 µg/mL. Conclusions Citrinin (1) is reported from sponge associated Penicillium sp. from this study and for its strong antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant human pathogens including cytotoxicity against brine shrimp larvae, which indicated that sponge associated Penicillium spp. are promising sources of natural bioactive metabolites. PMID:23620853

  20. Characterization of Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture and isolation of Fe (III)-reducing bacterium Enterobacter sp. L6 from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongyan; Wang, Hongyu

    2016-07-01

    To enrich the Fe (III)-reducing bacteria, sludge from marine sediment was inoculated into the medium using Fe (OH)3 as the sole electron acceptor. Efficiency of Fe (III) reduction and composition of Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture were analyzed. The results indicated that the Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture with the dominant bacteria relating to Clostridium and Enterobacter sp. had high Fe (III) reduction of (2.73 ± 0.13) mmol/L-Fe (II). A new Fe (III)-reducing bacterium was isolated from the Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture and identified as Enterobacter sp. L6 by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The Fe (III)-reducing ability of strain L6 under different culture conditions was investigated. The results indicated that strain L6 had high Fe (III)-reducing activity using glucose and pyruvate as carbon sources. Strain L6 could reduce Fe (III) at the range of NaCl concentrations tested and had the highest Fe (III) reduction of (4.63 ± 0.27) mmol/L Fe (II) at the NaCl concentration of 4 g/L. This strain L6 could reduce Fe (III) with unique properties in adaptability to salt variation, which indicated that it can be used as a model organism to study Fe (III)-reducing activity isolated from marine environment.

  1. Cytotoxic Activity of Bioactive Compound 1, 2- Benzene Dicarboxylic Acid, Mono 2- Ethylhexyl Ester Extracted from a Marine Derived Streptomyces sp. VITSJK8.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Kannabiran; Mani, Abirami; Jasmine, Subashini

    2014-01-01

    Marine Streptomyces are prolific producers of majority of bioactive secondary metabolites which are used in pharmaceutical industry as effective drugs against life threatening diseases. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compound 1, 2- benzene dicarboxylic acid, mono 2- ethylhexyl ester (DMEHE) from marine derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. VITSJK8 was investigated against mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH 3T3) and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) normal cell lines, human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG 2) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines by using MTT assay. The compound DMEHE exhibited IC 50 values of 42, 100, 250 and 500 µg/ ml against HepG2, MCF-7, HaCaT and NIH 3T3 cell lines, respectively. The effect of DMEHE on the growth of cancer cell lines was expressed as the % of viability. Cell viability was recorded as 67.7%, 78.14%, 82.23% and 96. 11% in HepG2, MCF-7, HaCaT and NIH 3T3 cells, respectively. The results of the study conclude that the bioactive compound isolated from the potential isolate Streptomyces sp. VITSJK8 exhibited cytotoxic activity against HepG2 and MCF- 7 cancer cell lines and low toxicity against normal HaCaT and NIH 3T3 cell lines.

  2. Cytotoxic Activity of Bioactive Compound 1, 2- Benzene Dicarboxylic Acid, Mono 2- Ethylhexyl Ester Extracted from a Marine Derived Streptomyces sp. VITSJK8

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Kannabiran; Mani, Abirami; Jasmine, Subashini

    2014-01-01

    Marine Streptomyces are prolific producers of majority of bioactive secondary metabolites which are used in pharmaceutical industry as effective drugs against life threatening diseases. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compound 1, 2- benzene dicarboxylic acid, mono 2- ethylhexyl ester (DMEHE) from marine derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. VITSJK8 was investigated against mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH 3T3) and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) normal cell lines, human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG 2) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines by using MTT assay. The compound DMEHE exhibited IC 50 values of 42, 100, 250 and 500 µg/ ml against HepG2, MCF-7, HaCaT and NIH 3T3 cell lines, respectively. The effect of DMEHE on the growth of cancer cell lines was expressed as the % of viability. Cell viability was recorded as 67.7%, 78.14%, 82.23% and 96. 11% in HepG2, MCF-7, HaCaT and NIH 3T3 cells, respectively. The results of the study conclude that the bioactive compound isolated from the potential isolate Streptomyces sp. VITSJK8 exhibited cytotoxic activity against HepG2 and MCF- 7 cancer cell lines and low toxicity against normal HaCaT and NIH 3T3 cell lines. PMID:25635251

  3. Analysis of defence systems and a conjugative IncP-1 plasmid in the marine polyaromatic hydrocarbons-degrading bacterium Cycloclasticus sp. 78-ME.

    PubMed

    Yakimov, Michail M; Crisafi, Francesca; Messina, Enzo; Smedile, Francesco; Lopatina, Anna; Denaro, Renata; Pieper, Dietmar H; Golyshin, Peter N; Giuliano, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Marine prokaryotes have evolved a broad repertoire of defence systems to protect their genomes from lateral gene transfer including innate or acquired immune systems and infection-induced programmed cell suicide and dormancy. Here we report on the analysis of multiple defence systems present in the genome of the strain Cycloclasticus sp. 78-ME isolated from petroleum deposits of the tanker 'Amoco Milford Haven'. Cycloclasticus are ubiquitous bacteria globally important in polyaromatic hydrocarbons degradation in marine environments. Two 'defence islands' were identified in 78-ME genome: the first harbouring CRISPR-Cas with toxin-antitoxin system, while the second was composed by an array of genes for toxin-antitoxin and restriction-modification proteins. Among all identified spacers of CRISPR-Cas system only seven spacers match sequences of phages and plasmids. Furthermore, a conjugative plasmid p7ME01, which belongs to a new IncP-1θ ancestral archetype without any accessory mobile elements was found in 78-ME. Our results provide the context to the co-occurrence of diverse defence mechanisms in the genome of Cycloclasticus sp. 78-ME, which protect the genome of this highly specialized PAH-degrader. This study contributes to the further understanding of complex networks established in petroleum-based microbial communities.

  4. The marine bacterium Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 degrades a wide range of lipids and hydrocarbons through the formation of oleolytic biofilms with distinct gene expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Mounier, Julie; Camus, Arantxa; Mitteau, Isabelle; Vaysse, Pierre-Joseph; Goulas, Philippe; Grimaud, Régis; Sivadon, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    Hydrophobic organic compounds (mainly lipids and hydrocarbons) represent a significant part of the organic matter in marine waters, and their degradation has an important impact in the carbon fluxes within oceans. However, because they are nearly insoluble in the water phase, their degradation by microorganisms occurs at the interface with water and thus requires specific adaptations such as biofilm formation. We show that Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 develops biofilms, referred to as oleolytic biofilms, on a large variety of hydrophobic substrates, including hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols, fatty acids, triglycerides, and wax esters. Microarray analysis revealed that biofilm growth on n-hexadecane or triolein involved distinct genetic responses, together with a core of common genes that might concern general mechanisms of biofilm formation. Biofilm growth on triolein modulated the expression of hundreds of genes in comparison with n-hexadecane. The processes related to primary metabolism and genetic information processing were downregulated. Most of the genes that were overexpressed on triolein had unknown functions. Surprisingly, their genome localization was restricted to a few regions identified as putative genomic islands or mobile elements. These results are discussed with regard to the adaptive responses triggered by M. hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 to occupy a specific niche in marine ecosystems.

  5. Comparative ultrastructure and molecular phylogeny of Selenidium melongena n. sp. and S. terebellae Ray 1930 demonstrate niche partitioning in marine gregarine parasites (apicomplexa).

    PubMed

    Wakeman, Kevin C; Heintzelman, Matthew B; Leander, Brian S

    2014-08-01

    Gregarine apicomplexans are a diverse group of single-celled parasites that have feeding stages (trophozoites) and gamonts that generally inhabit the extracellular spaces of invertebrate hosts living in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial environments. Inferences about the evolutionary morphology of gregarine apicomplexans are being incrementally refined by molecular phylogenetic data, which suggest that several traits associated with the feeding cells of gregarines arose by convergent evolution. The study reported here supports these inferences by showing how molecular data reveals traits that are phylogenetically misleading within the context of comparative morphology alone. We examined the ultrastructure and molecular phylogenetic positions of two gregarine species isolated from the spaghetti worm Thelepus japonicus: Selenidium terebellaeRay 1930 and S. melongena n. sp. The ultrastructural traits of S. terebellae were very similar to other species of Selenidium sensu stricto, such as having vermiform trophozoites with an apical complex, few epicytic folds, and a dense array of microtubules underlying the trilayered pellicle. By contrast, S. melongena n. sp. lacked a comparably discrete assembly of subpellicular microtubules, instead employing a system of fibrils beneath the cell surface that supported a relatively dense array of helically arranged epicytic folds. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of small subunit rDNA sequences derived from single-cell PCR unexpectedly demonstrated that these two gregarines are close sister species. The ultrastructural differences between these two species were consistent with the fact that S. terebellae infects the inner lining of the host intestines, and S. melongena n. sp. primarily inhabits the coelom, infecting the outside wall of the host intestine. Altogether, these data demonstrate a compelling case of niche partitioning and associated morphological divergence in marine gregarine apicomplexans.

  6. Experimental infection of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) with marine Eubothrium sp. (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea): observations on the life cycle, aspects of development and growth of the parasite.

    PubMed

    Saksvik, M; Nylund, A; Nilsen, F; Hodneland, K

    2001-01-01

    The life cycle of marine Eubothrium sp. (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea), from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) was experimentally completed in one year and included only one intermediate host (Acartia tonsa Dana) (Copepoda: Calanoida). Adult cestodes were collected from farmed salmon, and ripe eggs released by the cestodes were fed to Acartia tonsa. Ingested eggs hatched in the gut and the larvae developed in the haemocoel of the copepod for 15 days at 16 degrees C. A total of 170 seawater-reared salmon were exposed to infected copepods and the total prevalence of Eubothrium sp. in the salmon after infection was 95.3%, with a mean intensity of 15.0 (range 1-87). The infected salmon were kept in the laboratory where the growth of the cestodes was studied for eleven months. Mean length of the cestodes increased with time, but a large variation among the cestodes was observed. Growth and maturation of the cestodes were dependent on host size and the number of worms present in the intestine. No evidence of mortality of Eubothrium sp. was observed during the experimental period.

  7. Extracellular signal molecule(s) involved in the carbon starvation response of marine Vibrio sp. strain S14.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, S; Ostling, J; Charlton, T; de Nys, R; Takayama, K; Kjelleberg, S

    1998-01-01

    The role of exogenous metabolites as putative signal molecules mediating and/or regulating the carbon starvation adaptation program in Vibrio sp. strain S14 was investigated. Addition of the stationary-phase supernatant extract (SSE) of Vibrio sp. strain S14 to logarithmic-phase cells resulted in a significant number of carbon starvation-induced proteins being up-regulated. Halogenated furanones, putative antagonists of acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs), inhibited the synthesis of proteins specifically induced upon carbon starvation. The effect of the furanone was the opposite of that caused by SSE with respect to the up- and down-regulation of protein expression, indicating that both the furanone and the putative signalling molecules were acting on the same regulatory pathway. Culturability was rapidly lost when Vibrio sp. strain S14 was starved in the presence of the furanone at a low concentration. The furanone also had a negative effect on the ability of carbon-starved cells to mount resistance against UV irradiation and hydrogen peroxide exposure. The SSE of Vibrio sp. strain S14 had the ability to provide cross-protection against the loss in viability caused by the furanone. We have further demonstrated that the SSE taken from low- as well as high-cell-density cultures of Vibrio sp. strain S14 induced luminescence in Vibrio harveyi. Taken together, the results in this report provide evidence that Vibrio sp. strain S14 produces extracellular signalling metabolites during carbon and energy starvation and that these molecules play an important role in the expression of proteins crucial to the development of starvation- and stress-resistant phenotypes.

  8. Photoinhibition of Phaeocystis globosa resulting from oxidative stress induced by a marine algicidal bacterium Bacillus sp. LP-10

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Chengwei; Guo, Xiaoyun; Li, Yi; Zhang, Huajun; Lei, Xueqian; Cai, Guanjing; Guo, Jiajia; Yu, Zhiming; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms caused by Phaeocystis globosa have resulted in staggering losses to coastal countries because of their world-wide distribution. Bacteria have been studied for years to control the blooms of harmful alga, however, the action mechanism of them against harmful algal cells is still not well defined. Here, a previously isolated algicidal bacterium Bacillus sp. LP-10 was used to elucidate the potential mechanism involved in the dysfunction of P. globosa algal cells at physiological and molecular levels. Our results showed Bacillus sp. LP-10 induced an obvious rise of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was supposed to be major reason for algal cell death. Meanwhile, the results revealed a significant decrease of photosynthetic physiological indexes and apparent down-regulated of photosynthesis-related genes (psbA and rbcS) and protein (PSII reaction center protein D1), after treated by Bacillus sp. LP-10 filtrates, suggesting photoinhibition occurred in the algal cells. Furthermore, our results indicated that light played important roles in the algal cell death. Our work demonstrated that the major lethal reason of P. globosa cells treated by the algicidal bacterium was the photoinhibition resulted from oxidative stress induced by Bacillus sp. LP-10. PMID:26601700

  9. Near-Complete Genome Sequence of Thalassospira sp. Strain KO164 Isolated from a Lignin-Enriched Marine Sediment Microcosm

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hannah L.; O’Dell, Kaela B.; Utturkar, Sagar; McBride, Kathryn R.; Huntemann, Marcel; Clum, Alicia; Pillay, Manoj; Palaniappan, Krishnaveni; Varghese, Neha; Mikhailova, Natalia; Stamatis, Dimitrios; Reddy, T. B. K.; Ngan, Chew Yee; Daum, Chris; Shapiro, Nicole; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Woyke, Tanja; Brown, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Thalassospira sp. strain KO164 was isolated from eastern Mediterranean seawater and sediment laboratory microcosms enriched on insoluble organosolv lignin under oxic conditions. The near-complete genome sequence presented here will facilitate analyses into this deep-ocean bacterium’s ability to degrade recalcitrant organics such as lignin. PMID:27881538

  10. Near-Complete Genome Sequence of Thalassospira sp. Strain KO164 Isolated from a Lignin-Enriched Marine Sediment Microcosm.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hannah L; O'Dell, Kaela B; Utturkar, Sagar; McBride, Kathryn R; Huntemann, Marcel; Clum, Alicia; Pillay, Manoj; Palaniappan, Krishnaveni; Varghese, Neha; Mikhailova, Natalia; Stamatis, Dimitrios; Reddy, T B K; Ngan, Chew Yee; Daum, Chris; Shapiro, Nicole; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Woyke, Tanja; Brown, Steven D; Hazen, Terry C

    2016-11-23

    Thalassospira sp. strain KO164 was isolated from eastern Mediterranean seawater and sediment laboratory microcosms enriched on insoluble organosolv lignin under oxic conditions. The near-complete genome sequence presented here will facilitate analyses into this deep-ocean bacterium's ability to degrade recalcitrant organics such as lignin.

  11. Philometra spicarae sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the abdominal cavity of the marine fish (picarel) Spicara smaris (Centracanthidae) off Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Gaglio, Gabriella; Giannetto, Salvatore; Marino, Fabio

    2010-07-01

    A new nematode species, Philometra spicarae sp. n. (Philometridae), is described from a gravid female found in the abdominal cavity of spicarel, Spicara smaris (Linnaeus) (Centracanthidae, Perciformes), from the Ionian Sea off Sicily, Italy. The new species differs from most other Philometra spp. parasitic in the abdominal cavity of marine fishes by the oesophagus without an anterior inflation, resembling thus only Philometra cheilopogoni Mordvinova, 1986 and Philometra justinei Moravec, Ternengo and Levron, 2006; these two species can be differentiated from P. spicarae by the relative length of the oesophagus to body length (0.6-0.8% vs. 6%) and some other features. From the gonad-infecting species Philometra filiformis (Stossich, 1896), a parasite of Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus), P. spicarae differs mainly in having a conspicuously long (1.4 mm) intestinal ligament. It is the first nominal philometrid species described from the fish of the family Centracanthidae.

  12. New records of species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off New Caledonia, including P. cephalopholidis sp. n. from Cephalopholis sonnerati (Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-09-01

    Two different species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from marine perciform fishes, the tomato hind Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes) (Serranidae) and the painted sweetlips Diagramma pictum (Thunberg) (Haemulidae), from off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Nematodes (only males) from the gonad of C. sonnerati represent a new taxon, P. cephalopholidis sp. n., which is mainly characterized by almost equally long spicules (length 186-228 μm), the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip, and the structure of the caudal end. The nematodes (only gravid females) from abdominal tissues of D. pictum may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra cephalopholidis is the sixth nominal species of this genus recorded from fishes off New Caledonia and the thirteenth species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Serranidae.

  13. Survival and retention of the probiotic properties of Bacillus sp. strains under marine stress starvation conditions and their potential use as a probiotic in Artemia culture.

    PubMed

    Mahdhi, Abdelkarim; Esteban, Maria Ángeles; Hmila, Zeineb; Bekir, Karima; Kamoun, Fathi; Bakhrouf, Amina; Krifi, Boubaker

    2012-12-01

    The probiotic properties of Bacillus strains isolated from Artemia culture and the effect of marine stress on viability and survival were investigated, as well as the changes occurring in their properties. Analyses showed that these bacteria corresponded to the genus Bacillus sp. Antagonism and adherence assays revealed that Bacillus strains have an inhibitory effect against tested pathogenic bacteria and are fairly adherent. Normal and starved cells showed different enzymatic profiles. Challenge tests performed with Artemia larvae provided evidence that the tested Bacillus strains were neither pathogenic nor toxic to the host and conferred protection for Artemia culture against pathogens. The tested strains maintained their viability and their probiotic properties during the period of study. The results suggest that the tested strains have suffered changes allowing them to survive in seawater in the absence of nutrients and outside their natural host, identifying them as potential probiotic candidates for Artemia culture.

  14. Biodegradation of shrimp biowaste by marine Exiguobacterium sp. CFR26M and concomitant production of extracellular protease and antioxidant materials: production and process optimization by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Anil Kumar, P K; Suresh, P V

    2014-04-01

    Twelve marine bacterial cultures were screened for extracellular protease activity, and the bacterium CFR26M which exhibited the highest activity on caseinate agar plate was identified as an Exiguobacterium sp. Significant amount of extracellular protease (5.9 ± 0.3 U/ml) and antioxidant materials, measured as 2,2'-diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (44.4 ± 0.5 %), was produced by CFR26M in submerged fermentation using a shrimp biowaste medium. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the process variables for maximum production of protease and antioxidant materials by CFR26M. Among the seven variables screened by two-level 2**(7-2) fractional factorial design, the concentration of shrimp biowaste, sugar, and phosphate was found to be significant (p ≤ 0.05). The optimum levels of these variables were determined by employing the central composite design (CCD) of RSM. The coefficient of determination (R (2)) values of 0.9039 and 0.8924 for protease and antioxidant, respectively, indicates the accuracy of the CCD models. The optimum levels of shrimp biowaste, sugar, and phosphate were 21.2, 10.5, and 2.3 % (w/v) for production of protease and 28.8, 12, and 0.32 % (w/v) for production of antioxidant material, respectively. The concentration of shrimp biowaste, sugar, and phosphate had linear and quadratic effect on both protease and antioxidant productions. RSM optimization yielded 6.3-fold increases in protease activity and 1.6-fold in antioxidant material production. The crude protease of CFR26M had a maximum activity at 32 ± 2 °C with pH 7.6. This is the first report on the use of marine Exiguobacterium sp. for concomitant production of protease and antioxidant materials from shrimp biowaste.

  15. Description of a marine nematode Hopperia sinensis sp. nov. (Comesomatidae) from mangrove forests of Quanzhou, China, with a pictorial key to Hopperia species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yuqing; Chang, Yu; Chen, Yuzhen; Li, Yongxiang; Liu, Aiyuan

    2015-12-01

    A new free-living marine nematode species Hopperia sinensis sp. nov. from mangrove forests of Fujian Province, China, is identified and illustrated. Hopperia sinensis sp. nov. is characterized by its cephalic setae 2.4-2.8 µm long or 17%-20% head diameter, and amphids of 2.25-2.5 turns. Lateral differentiation appears with larger, more irregularly distributed dots behind 3-5 transverse rows of dots posterior to amphid. Buccal cavity is consisted of a shallow and weakly sclerotized cup-shaped portion with strongly sclerotized walls of 18-21 µm deep. There are three sclerotized and size-equally pointed teeth at the junction between the two parts. Spicules of 41-45 µm long are slightly curved with broadband velum and central strips at the proximal end. The gubernacula, with apparent lateral guiding pieces, are formed by one central tubular piece that is weakly sclerotized with 11-16 µm long dorso-caudally directed apophyses. There are 13-14 fine tubular precloacal supplements. Conico-cylindrical tail gradually tapers till pointed tail tip. Female is similar to male, but have a longer body and tail. Ovaries are opposed and outstretched, with anterior ovary to the left and posterior ovary to the right of the intestine. A pictorial key to all the valid known species in genus Hopperia is given.

  16. Genome sequence of Bacillus sp. strain HYC-10, isolated from intestinal tract contents from a marine fish (Mugil cephalus).

    PubMed

    Lai, Qiliang; Liu, Yang; Shao, Zongze

    2012-12-01

    Bacillus sp. strain HYC-10 was isolated with intestinal tract content of a fish, Mugil cephalus, captured from the sea close to Xiamen Island, China. Here, we present the draft genome of strain HYC-10, which contains 3,611,918 bp with a G+C content of 41.30% and contains 3,687 protein-coding genes and 33 tRNA genes.

  17. Ribosomes exist in large excess over the apparent demand for protein synthesis during carbon starvation in marine Vibrio sp. strain CCUG 15956.

    PubMed Central

    Flärdh, K; Cohen, P S; Kjelleberg, S

    1992-01-01

    Carbon starvation induces the development of a starvation- and stress-resistant cell state in marine Vibrio sp. strain S14 (CCUG 15956). The starved cells remain highly responsive to nutrients during prolonged starvation and exhibit instantaneous severalfold increases in the rates of protein synthesis and RNA synthesis when substrate is added. In order to elucidate the physiological basis for the survival of cells that are starved for a long time, as well as the capacity of these cells for rapid and efficient recovery, we analyzed the ribosome content of carbon-starved Vibrio sp. strain S14 cells. By using direct chemical measurements of the amounts of ribosomal particles in carbon-starved cultures, we demonstrated that ribosomes were lost relatively slowly (half life, 79 h) and that they existed in large excess over the apparent demand for protein synthesis. After 24 h of starvation the total rate of protein synthesis was 2.3% of the rate during growth, and after 3 days this rate was 0.7% of the rate during growth; the relative amounts of ribosomal particles at these times were 81 and 52%, respectively. The ribosome population consisted of 90% 70S monoribosomes, and no polyribosomes were detected in the starved cells. The 70S monoribosomes were responsible for the bulk of the protein synthesis during carbon starvation; some activity was also detected in the polyribosome size region on sucrose density gradients. We suggest that nongrowing carbon-starved Vibrio sp. strain S14 cells possess an excess protein synthesis capacity, which may be essential for their ability to immediately initiate an upshift program when substrate is added. PMID:1383195

  18. Rapidithrix thailandica gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine gliding bacterium isolated from samples collected from the Andaman sea, along the southern coastline of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Srisukchayakul, Pornpoj; Suwanachart, Chatrudee; Sangnoi, Yutthapong; Kanjana-Opas, Akkharawit; Hosoya, Shoichi; Yokota, Akira; Arunpairojana, Vullapa

    2007-10-01

    The taxonomic positions of three strains of marine gliding bacteria, TISTR 1736, TISTR 1741 and TISTR 1750(T), isolated from the southern coastline of Thailand were evaluated by using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the three isolates formed a distinct lineage within the family 'Flammeovirgaceae', phylum Bacteroidetes, and were related to the genus Flexithrix. The DNA G+C contents of the isolates were in the range 40-43 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was MK-7. The major cellular fatty acids were 16 : 1omega5c (cis-5-hexadecenoic acid) and 15 : 0 (pentadecanoic acid). The major hydroxyl fatty acids were 3-OH 17 : 0 (3-hydroxyheptadecanoic acid), 3-OH 15 : 0 (3-hydroxypentadecanoic acid) and 3-OH 16 : 0 (3-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid). On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, genotypic and phylogenetic data, these marine bacteria are considered to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Rapidithrix thailandica gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Rapidithrix thailandica is TISTR 1750(T) (=IAM 15448(T)).

  19. Effect of the antifreeze protein from the arctic yeast Leucosporidium sp. AY30 on cryopreservation of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Koh, Hye Yeon; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Han, Se Jong; Park, Hyun; Lee, Sung Gu

    2015-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins are a group of proteins that allow organisms to survive in subzero environments. These proteins possess thermal hysteresis and ice recrystallization inhibition activities. In the present study, we demonstrated the efficiency of a recombinant antifreeze protein from the Arctic yeast Leucosporidium sp. AY30, LeIBP, in cryopreservation of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, which is one of the classical model diatoms and has most widely been studied with regard to its ecology, physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology. P. tricornutum cells were frozen by either a fast or two-step freezing method in freezing medium containing 10 % dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, propylene glycol, and ethylene glycol, respectively, with or without LeIBP supplement. When cells were frozen using the two-step freezing method, cell survival was significantly increased and statistically the same as that of unfrozen native cells in the presence of 0.1 mg/ml LeIBP in 10 % propylene glycol or 10 % ethylene glycol at day 11 of post-thaw culture. In the presence of LeIBP, the concentration of chlorophyll a was dramatically increased to 14-, 48-, 1.6-, and 8.8-fold when cells were frozen in freezing medium containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), glycerol, propylene glycol (PG), and ethylene glycol (EG), respectively. Scanning electron microscopy observations demonstrated that the cells were also successfully preserved and epitheca or hypotheca were not deformed. These results demonstrate that LeIBP was successfully applied to improve cryopreservation of the marine diatom P. tricornutum.

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Marine Brevibacillus sp. S-1 Collected from South China Sea and a Novel Antitumor Peptide Produced by the Strain

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Lanhong; Yi, Yao; Liu, Jia; Lin, Xiukun; Yang, Kangli; Lv, Mei; Zhou, Xinwen; Hao, Jianhua; Liu, Junzhong; Zheng, Yuan; Sun, Mi

    2014-01-01

    A Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, designated as S-1, was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from South China Sea. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that S-1 belongs to the genus Brevibacillus. A novel cytotoxic peptide was isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine-derived bacterium Brevibacillus sp. S-1, using ion-exchange chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC chromatography. The molecular weight of this peptide was determined as 1570 Da by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and its structure was proposed as a cyclic peptide elucidated by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry and de novo sequencing. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that this peptide exhibited cytotoxicity against BEL-7402 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, RKO human colon carcinoma cells, A549 human lung carcinoma cells, U251 human glioma cells and MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells. Additionally, SBP exhibited low cytotoxicity against HFL1 human normal fibroblast lung cells. The result suggested that the cytotoxic effect of the peptide is specific to tumor cells. PMID:25372839

  1. Yamadazyma barbieri f.a. sp. nov., an ascomycetous anamorphic yeast isolated from a Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal site (-2300 m) and marine coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Burgaud, Gaëtan; Coton, Monika; Jacques, Noémie; Debaets, Stella; Maciel, Natália O P; Rosa, Carlos A; Gadanho, Mário; Sampaio, José Paulo; Casaregola, Serge

    2016-09-01

    Two yeast strains that are members of the same species were isolated from different marine habitats, i.e. one from Mid-Atlantic Ridge ocean water samples located in the direct vicinity of black smokers near the Rainbow deep-sea hydrothermal vent and one from Brazilian marine water samples off the Ipanema beach. Strains CLIB 1964T and CLIB 1965 are anamorphic ascomycetous yeasts affiliated to the Yamadazyma clade of Saccharomycetales. Interestingly, these strains were phylogenetically and distinctly positioned into a group of species comprising all species of the genus Yamadazyma isolated from marine habitats including deep-sea hydrothermal vents, i.e.Candida atmosphaerica,C. spencermartinsiae,C. atlantica,C. oceani and C. taylorii. These strains differed significantly in their D1/D2 domain sequences of the LSU rRNA gene from the closely related species mentioned above, by 2.6, 3.0, 3.4, 3.8 and 6.0 %, respectively. Internal transcribed spacer region sequence divergence was also significant and corresponded to 4.6, 4.7, 4.7, 12.0 and 24.7 % with C. atlantica,C. atmosphaerica, C. spencermartinsiae,C. oceani and C. taylorii, respectively. Phenotypically, strains CLIB 1964T and CLIB 1965 could be distinguished from closely related species by their inability to assimilate l-sorbose. CLIB 1964T (=CBS 14301T=UBOCC-A-214001T) is the designated type strain for Yamadazyma barbieri sp. nov. The MycoBank number is MB 815884.

  2. Description of Shewanella glacialipiscicola sp. nov. and Shewanella algidipiscicola sp. nov., isolated from marine fish of the Danish Baltic Sea, and proposal that Shewanella affinis is a later heterotypic synonym of Shewanella colwelliana.

    PubMed

    Satomi, Masataka; Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Gram, Lone

    2007-02-01

    Two novel species belonging to the genus Shewanella are described on the basis of a polyphasic taxonomic approach. A total of 40 strains of Gram-negative, psychrotolerant, H2S-producing bacteria were isolated from marine fish (cod and plaice) caught in the Baltic Sea off Denmark. Strains belonging to group 1 (seven strains) were a lactate-assimilating variant of Shewanella morhuae with a G+C content of 44 mol%. The strains of group 2 (33 strains) utilized lactate, N-acetylglucosamine and malate but did not produce DNase or ornithine decarboxylase. Their G+C content was 47 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence data placed the two novel species within the genus Shewanella. Group 1 showed greatest sequence similarity with S. morhuae ATCC BAA-1205T (99.9 %). However, gyrB gene sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization differentiated these isolates from S. morhuae, with 95.6 % sequence similarity and less than 57 % DNA relatedness, respectively. Group 2 strains shared more than 99 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the type strains of Shewanella colwelliana and Shewanella affinis, but gyrB sequence similarity ( approximately 85 %) and the results of DNA hybridization ( approximately 28 %) indicated that the new isolates represented a novel species. Furthermore, when compared to each other, the type strains of S. colwelliana and S. affinis had almost identical gyrB sequences and significantly high DNA reassociation values (76-83 %), indicating that they belonged to the same species. Based on the conclusions of this study, we propose the novel species Shewanella glacialipiscicola sp. nov. (type strain T147T=LMG 23744T=NBRC 102030T) for group 1 strains and Shewanella algidipiscicola sp. nov. (type strain S13T=LMG 23746T=NBRC 102032T) for group 2 strains, and we propose that Shewanella affinis as a later heterotypic synonym of Shewanella colwelliana.

  3. Mooreia alkaloidigena gen. nov., sp. nov. and Catalinimonas alkaloidigena gen. nov., sp. nov., alkaloid-producing marine bacteria in the proposed families Mooreiaceae fam. nov. and Catalimonadaceae fam. nov. in the phylum Bacteroidetes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun Ju; Beatty, Deanna S.; Paul, Lauren A.; Fenical, William

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial strains CNX-216T and CNU-914T were isolated from marine sediment samples collected from Palmyra Atoll and off Catalina Island, respectively. Both strains were Gram-negative and aerobic and produce deep-orange to pink colonies and alkaloid secondary metabolites. Cells of strain CNX-216T were short, non-motile rods, whereas cells of strain CNU-914T were short, curved rods with gliding motility. The DNA G+C contents of CNX-216T and CNU-914T were respectively 57.7 and 44.4 mol%. Strains CNX-216T and CNU-914T contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 1ω5c as the major fatty acids. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that both strains belong to the order Cytophagales in the phylum Bacteroidetes. Strain CNX-216T exhibited low 16S rRNA gene sequence identity (87.1 %) to the nearest type strain, Cesiribacter roseus 311T, and formed a well-supported lineage that is outside all currently described families in the order Cytophagales. Strain CNU-914T shared 97.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with ‘Porifericola rhodea’ N5EA6-3A2B and, together with ‘Tunicatimonas pelagia’ N5DB8-4 and four uncharacterized marine bacteria isolated as part of this study, formed a lineage that is clearly distinguished from other families in the order Cytophagales. Based on our polyphasic taxonomic characterization, we propose that strains CNX-216T and CNU-914T represent novel genera and species, for which we propose the names Mooreia alkaloidigena gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain CNX-216T  = DSM 25187T  = KCCM 90102T) and Catalinimonas alkaloidigena gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain CNU-914T  = DSM 25186T  = KCCM 90101T) within the new families Mooreiaceae fam. nov. and Catalimonadaceae fam. nov. PMID:22753528

  4. Chromopeptide A, a highly cytotoxic depsipeptide from the marine sediment-derived bacterium Chromobacterium sp. HS-13-94

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhenfang; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Jingya; Zheng, Linghui; Liu, Hongchun; Wang, Jidong; Shen, Aijun; Geng, Meiyu; Guo, Yuewei

    2015-01-01

    A bicyclic depsipeptide, chromopeptide A (1), was isolated from a deep-sea-derived bacterium Chromobacterium sp. HS-13-94. Its structure was determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis and by comparison with a related known compound. The absolute configuration of chromopeptide A was established by X-ray diffraction analysis employing graphite monochromated Mo Kα radiation (λ=0.71073 Å) with small Flack parameter 0.03. Chromopeptide A suppressed the proliferation of HL-60, K-562, and Ramos cells with average IC50 values of 7.7, 7.0, and 16.5 nmol/L, respectively. PMID:26579426

  5. Enhancement of Biodiesel Production from Marine Alga, Scenedesmus sp. through In Situ Transesterification Process Associated with Acidic Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ga Vin; Choi, WoonYong; Kang, DoHyung; Lee, ShinYoung; Lee, HyeonYong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the yield of biodiesel produced by Scenedesmus sp. through in situ transesterification by optimizing various process parameters. Based on the orthogonal matrix analysis for the acidic catalyst, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of reaction temperature (47.5%) > solvent quantity (26.7%) > reaction time (17.5%) > catalyst amount (8.3%). Based on a Taguchi analysis, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of solvent ratio (34.36%) > catalyst (28.62%) > time (19.72%) > temperature (17.32%). The overall biodiesel production appeared to be better using NaOH as an alkaline catalyst rather than using H2SO4 in an acidic process, at 55.07 ± 2.18% (based on lipid weight) versus 48.41 ± 0.21%. However, in considering the purified biodiesel, it was found that the acidic catalyst was approximately 2.5 times more efficient than the alkaline catalyst under the following optimal conditions: temperature of 70°C (level 2), reaction time of 10 hrs (level 2), catalyst amount of 5% (level 3), and biomass to solvent ratio of 1 : 15 (level 2), respectively. These results clearly demonstrated that the acidic solvent, which combined oil extraction with in situ transesterification, was an effective catalyst for the production of high-quantity, high-quality biodiesel from a Scenedesmus sp. PMID:24689039

  6. Improved composting of Undaria pinnatifida seaweed by inoculation with Halomonas and Gracilibacillus sp. isolated from marine environments.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jingchun; Wang, Min; Zhou, Qixing; Nagata, Shinichi

    2011-02-01

    Composting of the Undaria pinnatifida (wakame) seaweed was conducted after inoculation with 6×10(8) CFU g(-1)Halomonas sp. AW4 and the alginate-degrading bacterium Gracilibacillus sp. A7. Inoculation with strains A7 and AW4 resulted in 27.8% and 24.7% degradation of U. pinnatifida dry mass after 168 h, whereas only 17.5% degradation occurred in the uninoculated control. The C/N ratio decreased in the A7 and AW4 inoculated compost by 7.0% and 9.2% after 72 h, but increased by 11.5% in the control. Inoculation with A7 resulted in 2.8 times faster degradation of alginate and 1.2 and 1.6 times higher levels of reducing sugars and unsaturated sugars than inoculation with AW4. The compost produced from the inoculation with A7 had low plant toxicity as measured by germination experiment. The results suggest that inoculation of wakame with alginate-degrading bacteria not only shortened the length of composting but also created seaweed compost with good fertilizer qualities.

  7. Draft genome sequence of the marine Streptomyces sp. strain PP-C42, isolated from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Fan, Longjiang; Liu, Yun; Li, Zefeng; Baumann, Heike I; Kleinschmidt, Katrin; Ye, Wanzhi; Imhoff, Johannes F; Kleine, Michael; Cai, Daguang

    2011-07-01

    Streptomyces, a branch of aerobic Gram-positive bacteria, represents the largest genus of actinobacteria. The streptomycetes are characterized by a complex secondary metabolism and produce over two-thirds of the clinically used natural antibiotics today. Here we report the draft genome sequence of a Streptomyces strain, PP-C42, isolated from the marine environment. A subset of unique genes and gene clusters for diverse secondary metabolites as well as antimicrobial peptides could be identified from the genome, showing great promise as a source for novel bioactive compounds.

  8. ­Genomic data mining of the marine actinobacteria Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 unveils insights into multi-stress related genes and metabolic pathways involved in antimicrobial synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Undabarrena, Agustina; Ugalde, Juan A.; Seeger, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 is an actinobacterial strain isolated from marine sediments of a Chilean Patagonian fjord. Morphological characterization together with antibacterial activity was assessed in various culture media, revealing a carbon-source dependent activity mainly against Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and L. monocytogenes). Genome mining of this antibacterial-producing bacterium revealed the presence of 26 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) for secondary metabolites, where among them, 81% have low similarities with known BGCs. In addition, a genomic search in Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 unveiled the presence of a wide variety of genetic determinants related to heavy metal resistance (49 genes), oxidative stress (69 genes) and antibiotic resistance (97 genes). This study revealed that the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 bacterium has the capability to tolerate a diverse set of heavy metals such as copper, cobalt, mercury, chromate and nickel; as well as the highly toxic tellurite, a feature first time described for Streptomyces. In addition, Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 possesses a major resistance towards oxidative stress, in comparison to the soil reference strain Streptomyces violaceoruber A3(2). Moreover, Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 showed resistance to 88% of the antibiotics tested, indicating overall, a strong response to several abiotic stressors. The combination of these biological traits confirms the metabolic versatility of Streptomyces sp. H-KF8, a genetically well-prepared microorganism with the ability to confront the dynamics of the fjord-unique marine environment. PMID:28229018

  9. A Metalloprotease (MprIII) Involved in the Chitinolytic System of a Marine Bacterium, Alteromonas sp. Strain O-7

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Katsushiro; Nukui, Eiji; Hirose, Mariko; Nagai, Fumi; Sato, Takaji; Inamori, Yoshihiko; Tsujibo, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    Alteromonas sp. strain O-7 secretes several proteins in addition to chitinolytic enzymes in response to chitin induction. In this paper, we report that one of these proteins, designated MprIII, is a metalloprotease involved in the chitin degradation system of the strain. The gene encoding MprIII was cloned in Escherichia coli. The open reading frame of mprIII encoded a protein of 1,225 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 137,016 Da. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of MprIII revealed that the enzyme consisted of four domains: the signal sequence, the N-terminal proregion, the protease region, and the C-terminal extension. The C-terminal extension (PkdDf) was characterized by four polycystic kidney disease domains and two domains of unknown function. Western and real-time quantitative PCR analyses demonstrated that mprIII was induced in the presence of insoluble polysaccharides, such as chitin and cellulose. Native MprIII was purified to homogeneity from the culture supernatant of Alteromonas sp. strain O-7 and characterized. The molecular mass of mature MprIII was estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to be 115 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature of MprIII were 7.5 and 50°C, respectively, when gelatin was used as a substrate. Pretreatment of native chitin with MprIII significantly promoted chitinase activity. Furthermore, the combination of MprIII and a novel chitin-binding protease (AprIV) remarkably promoted the chitin hydrolysis efficiency of chitinase. PMID:12406750

  10. Wenyingzhuangia gracilariae sp. nov., a novel marine bacterium of the phylum Bacteroidetes isolated from the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Oku, Naoya; Kasai, Hiroaki

    2015-06-01

    A Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, beige-pigmented, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain designated N5DB13-4(T) was isolated from the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Rhodophyta) collected at Sodegaura Beach, Chiba, Japan. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the novel isolate is affiliated with the family Flavobacteriaceae within the phylum Bacteroidetes and that it showed highest sequence similarity (97.3 %) to Wenyingzhuangia heitensis H-MN17(T). The hybridization values for DNA-DNA relatedness between the strains N5DB13-4(T) and W. heitensis H-MN17(T) were 34.1 ± 3.5 %, which is below the threshold accepted for the phylogenetic definition of a novel prokaryotic species. The DNA G+C content of strain N5DB13-4(T) was determined to be 31.8 mol%; MK-6 was identified as the major menaquinone; and the presence of iso-C15:0, iso-C15:0 3-OH and iso-C17:0 3-OH as the major (>10 %) cellular fatty acids. A complex polar lipid profile was present consisting of phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified glycolipids and four unidentified lipids. From the distinct phylogenetic position and combination of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the strain is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Wenyingzhuangia for which the name Wenyingzhuangia gracilariae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of W. gracilariae sp. nov. is N5DB13-4(T) (=KCTC 42246 (T)=NBRC 110602(T)).

  11. Discovery and Characterization of a Distinctive Exo-1,3/1,4-β-Glucanase from the Marine Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain BB1▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Nakatani, Yoshio; Lamont, Iain L.; Cutfield, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Marine bacteria residing on local red, green, and brown seaweeds were screened for exo-1,3-β-glucanase (ExoP) activity. Of the 90 bacterial species isolated from 32 seaweeds, only one, a Pseudoalteromonas sp., was found to display such activity. It was isolated from a Durvillaea sp., a brown kelp known to contain significant amounts of the storage polysaccharide laminarin (1,3-β-d-glucan with some 1,6-β branching). Four chromatographic steps were utilized to purify the enzyme (ExoP). Chymotryptic digestion provided peptide sequences for primer design and subsequent gene cloning. The exoP gene coded for 840 amino acids and was located just 50 bp downstream from a putative lichenase (endo-1,3-1,4-β-glucanase) gene, suggesting possible cotranscription of these genes. Sequence comparisons revealed ExoP to be clustered within a group of bacterial glycosidases with high similarity to a group of glycoside hydrolase (GH3) plant enzymes, of which the barley exo-1,3/1,4-β-glucanase (ExoI) is the best characterized. The major difference between the bacterial and plant proteins is an extra 200- to 220-amino-acid extension at the C terminus of the former. This additional sequence does not correlate with any known functional domain, but ExoP was not active against laminarin when this region was removed. Production of recombinant ExoP allowed substrate specificity studies to be performed. The enzyme was found to possess similar levels of exoglucanase activity against both 1,4-β linkages and 1,3-β linkages, and so ExoP is designated an exo-1,3/1,4-β-exoglucanase, the first such bacterial enzyme to be characterized. This broader specificity could allow the enzyme to assist in digesting both cell wall cellulose and cytoplasmic laminarin. PMID:20729316

  12. Molecular and biochemical characteristics of β-propeller phytase from marine Pseudomonas sp. BS10-3 and its potential application for animal feed additives.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seung-Jeung; Kim, Young-Ok; Ko, Tae-Kyung; Kang, Jin-Ku; Chun, Kwang-Hoon; Auh, Joong-Hyuck; Lee, Chul-Soon; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Sunghoon; Oh, Byung-Chul

    2014-10-01

    Phytate is an antinutritional factor that impacts the bioavailability of essential minerals such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), and Fe(2+) by forming insoluble mineral-phytate salts. These insoluble mineral-phytate salts are hydrolyzed rarely by monogastric animals, because they lack the hydrolyzing phytases and thus excrete the majority of them. The β-propeller phytases (BPPs) hydrolyze these insoluble mineral-phytate salts efficiently. In this study, we cloned a novel BPP gene from a marine Pseudomonas sp. This Pseudomonas BPP gene (PsBPP) had low sequence identity with other known phytases and contained an extra internal repeat domain (residues 24-279) and a typical BPP domain (residues 280-634) at the C-terminus. Structurebased sequence alignment suggested that the N-terminal repeat domain did not possess the active-site residues, whereas the C-terminal BPP domain contained multiple calcium-binding sites, which provide a favorable electrostatic environment for substrate binding and catalytic activity. Thus, we overexpressed the BPP domain from Pseudomonas sp. to potentially hydrolyze insoluble mineral-phytate salts. Purified recombinant PsBPP required Ca(2+) or Fe(2+) for phytase activity, indicating that PsBPP hydrolyzes insoluble Fe(2+)-phytate or Ca2+-phytate salts. The optimal temperature and pH for the hydrolysis of Ca(2+)-phytate by PsBPP were 50°C and 6.0, respectively. Biochemical and kinetic studies clearly showed that PsBPP efficiently hydrolyzed Ca(2+)-phytate salts and yielded myo-inositol 2,4,6-trisphosphate and three phosphate groups as final products. Finally, we showed that PsBPP was highly effective for hydrolyzing rice bran with high phytate content. Taken together, our results suggest that PsBPP has great potential in the animal feed industry for reducing phytates.

  13. Marinilactibacillus piezotolerans sp. nov., a novel marine lactic acid bacterium isolated from deep sub-seafloor sediment of the Nankai Trough.

    PubMed

    Toffin, Laurent; Zink, Klaus; Kato, Chiaki; Pignet, Patricia; Bidault, Adeline; Bienvenu, Nadège; Birrien, Jean-Louis; Prieur, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    A piezotolerant, mesophilic, marine lactic acid bacterium (strain LT20T) was isolated from a deep sub-seafloor sediment core collected at Nankai Trough, off the coast of Japan. Cells were Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-sporulating and non-motile. The NaCl concentration range for growth was 0-120 g l(-1), with the optimum at 10-20 g l(-1). The temperature range for growth at pH 7.0 was 4-50 degrees C, with the optimum at 37-40 degrees C. The optimum pH for growth was 7.0-8.0. The optimum pressure for growth was 0.1 MPa with tolerance up to 30 MPa. The main cellular phospholipids were phosphatidylglycerols (25 %), diphosphatidylglycerols (34 %) and a group of compounds tentatively identified as ammonium-containing phosphatidylserines (32 %); phosphatidylethanolamines (9 %) were minor components. The fatty acid composition was dominated by side chains of 16 : 0, 14 : 0 and 16 : 1. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 42 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and the secondary structure of the V6 region, this organism was found to belong to the genus Marinilactibacillus and was closely related to Marinilactibacillus psychrotolerans M13-2(T) (99 %), Marinilactibacillus sp. strain MJYP.25.24 (99 %) and Alkalibacterium olivapovliticus strain ww2-SN4C (97 %). Despite the high similarity between their 16S rRNA gene sequences (99 %), the DNA-DNA hybridization levels were less than 20 %. On the basis of physiological and genetic characteristics, it is proposed that this organism be classified as a novel species, Marinilactibacillus piezotolerans sp. nov. The type strain is LT20T (=DSM 16108T=JCM 12337T).

  14. A pluripotent polyphenol oxidase from the melanogenic marine Alteromonas sp shares catalytic capabilities of tyrosinases and laccases.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Amat, A; Solano, F

    1997-11-26

    The recently characterized marine melanogenic bacterium MMB-1 contains a pluripotent polyphenol oxidase (PPO) which catalyzes the oxidation of a very wide range of substrates considered specific for tyrosinase or laccase. This range includes monophenols such as L-tyrosine, o-diphenols such as L-dopa, p-diphenols such as hydroquinone, o-aminophenols such as 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, activated monophenols such as 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and syringaldazine, and chromophores such as ABTS. This is the first report of an enzyme that is able to catalyze the oxidation of compounds so far considered specific for tyrosinases (L-tyrosine) or laccase (syringaldazine), showing cresolase, catechol oxidase and laccase activities. Such PPO could be a very useful model to study the structural requirements, catalytic mechanisms and involvement of the copper sites existing in non-blue and blue copper-oxidases.

  15. Portlandemys gracilis n. sp., a New Coastal Marine Turtle from the Late Jurassic of Porrentruy (Switzerland) and a Reconsideration of Plesiochelyid Cranial Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Anquetin, Jérémy; Püntener, Christian; Billon-Bruyat, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Several groups of stem cryptodires became adapted to coastal marine environments as early as the Late Jurassic, 40 million years before the Pan-Chelonioidea. The Plesiochelyidae are a major component of this first radiation of crown-group turtles into marine habitats. They are abundant in many European localities, but their systematics is still greatly confused. Only three species are represented by cranial material: Plesiochelys etalloni, Plesiochelys planiceps, and Portlandemys mcdowelli. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we describe a cranium and a mandible from the Kimmeridgian of Porrentruy (Switzerland), which we refer to a new species, Portlandemys gracilis n. sp. This new taxon differs from Portlandemys mcdowelli in several aspects of the cranium and mandible, notably in being generally more gracile, but the two species share a narrow skull, a more acute angle between the labial ridges on the mandible, and a unique configuration of the anterodorsal part of the basicranium. The cranial anatomy of plesiochelyid turtles is discussed in details based primarily on these new specimens and new cranial material of Plesiochelys etalloni from Solothurn, Switzerland. Conclusions/Significance Several characters (e.g., the contribution of the parietal to the foramen nervi trigemini, the configuration of the dorsum sellae and sella turcica, the presence of an infolding ridge on the posterior surface of the quadrate) appear as potential candidates to help elucidate plesiochelyid relationships. Some of these characters are included in a previously published phylogenetic dataset and help to stabilize the relationships of plesiochelyid turtles and closely related taxa. For the first time, our results suggest that plesiochelyids, 'Thalassemys' moseri, and Solnhofia parsonsi (representing the Eurysternidae) form a clade at the base of Eucryptodira. PMID:26106888

  16. A thermophilic, hydrogenogenic and carboxydotrophic bacterium, Calderihabitans maritimus gen. nov., sp. nov., from a marine sediment core of an undersea caldera.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Yasuko; Yoshida, Takashi; Yasuda, Hisato; Imada, Chiaki; Sako, Yoshihiko

    2013-10-01

    A hydrogenogenic, carboxydotrophic marine bacterium, strain KKC1(T), was isolated from a sediment core sample taken from a submerged marine caldera. Cells were non-motile, Gram-stain-negative, 1.0-3.0 µm straight rods, often observed with round endospores. Strain KKC1(T) grew at 55-68 °C, pH 5.2-9.2 and 0.8-14 % (w/v) salinity. Optimum growth occurred at 65 °C, pH 7.0-7.5 and 2.46 % salinity with a doubling time of 3.7 h. The isolate grew chemolithotrophically, producing H2 from carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation with reduction of various electron acceptors, e.g. sulfite, thiosulfate, fumarate, ferric iron and AQDS (9,10-anthraquinone 2,6-disulfonate). KKC1(T) grew heterotrophically on pyruvate, lactate, fumarate, glucose, fructose and mannose with thiosulfate as an electron acceptor. When grown mixotrophically on CO and pyruvate, C16 : 0 constituted almost half of the total cellular fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 50.6 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of KKC1(T) was most closely related to those of members of the genus Moorella with similarity ranging from 91 to 89 %. Based on physiological and phylogenetic novelty, we propose the isolate as a representative of a new genus and novel species with the name Calderihabitans maritimus gen. nov., sp. nov.; the type strain of the type species is KKC1(T) ( = DSM 26464(T) = NBRC 109353(T)).

  17. Psychrilyobacter atlanticus gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine member of the phylum Fusobacteria that produces H2 and degrades nitramine explosives under low temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Shen; Manno, Dominic; Hawari, Jalal

    2009-03-01

    A Gram-negative and obligately anaerobic marine bacterium, strain HAW-EB21(T), was isolated in a previous study from marine sediment from the Atlantic Ocean, near Halifax Harbor, Canada, and found to have the potential to degrade both hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine. In the present study, phylogenetic analyses showed that strain HAW-EB21(T) was only distantly related to the genera Propionigenium and Ilyobacter with 6.6-7.5 % and 8.2-10.5 % dissimilarity as measured by 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA gene sequence analyses, respectively. Strain HAW-EB21(T) displayed unique properties in being psychrotrophic (18.5 degrees C optimum) and unable to utilize any of the carbon substrates (succinate, l-tartrate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, quinate or shikimate) used for isolating members of the genera Propionigenium and Ilyobacter. Strain HAW-EB21(T) utilized glucose, fructose, maltose, N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, citrate, pyruvate, fumarate and Casitone as carbon sources and produced H(2) and acetate as the major fermentation products. Cells grown at 10 degrees C produced C(15 : 1) (30 %), C(16 : 1)omega7 (15 %) and C(16 : 0) (16 %) as major membrane fatty acids. The novel strain had a genomic DNA G+C content of 28.1 mol%, lower than the values of the genera Ilyobacter and Propionigenium. Based on the present results, the novel isolate is suggested to be a member of a new genus for which the name Psychrilyobacter atlanticus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is HAW-EB21(T) (=DSM 19335(T)=JCM 14977(T)).

  18. A marine dinoflagellate, Amphidinium eilatiensis n. sp., from the benthos of a mariculture sedimentation pond in Eilat, Israel.

    PubMed

    Lee, John J; Olea, Raul; Cevasco, Megan; Pochon, Xavier; Correia, Maria; Shpigel, Muki; Pawlowski, Jan

    2003-01-01

    A species of Amphidinium bloomed in a mariculture sedimentation pond that was used to grow bivalves near the Gulf of Eilat, Israel. Its overall length averaged 13 microm, the hypocone was 11 microm, and its width was 8 microm. It has a ventral ridge. The sulcus begins at the longitudinal flagellar pore and does not project forward in the apex toward the transverse flagellar pore and left margin of the cingulum. The sulcus is a very shallow groove that projects variably about a third of the body length toward the antapex. The cingulum is a deep groove as it circles the cell from the left ventral side to the dorsal side and then becomes very shallow on the right ventral side as it arches posterior toward the longitudinal flagellar pore. Using a modified method for studying dinoflagellate chromosomes in the SEM, we observed 31 chromosomes. The plastid is dorsal and peripheral with 6 ventrally projecting peripheral digital lobes that wrap around the sides of the ventral and posterior nucleus. Amphidinium eilatiensis n. sp. is morphologically closest to Amphidinium carterae and Amphidinium rhynchocephalum, but it does not have the obvious thecal plates or polygonal units described for the former species. Instead, it has a series of spicules, bumps, and ridges on its surface. It differs from A. rhynchocephalum by two morphological characters: surface morphology and gross plastid architecture. The amplified fragments of the rDNA from A. eilatiensis n. sp. isolated from 2 separate sedimentation ponds in Eilat include the 3'- end of the SSU rDNA (about 100 nt), the whole ITS region (ITS1 + 5.8S + ITS2) and the 5'-end of the LSU rDNA (about 900 nts). The total length of the sequences ranged from 1,460 nt. (A. eilatiensis isolate #1) to 1,461 nts. (A. eilatiensis isolate #2). The latter sequences are identical, the difference in length being due to three insertions. Amphidinium eilatiensis is genetically more closely related to A. carterae than to A. klebsii, with

  19. Marine Bacteria from Danish Coastal Waters Show Antifouling Activity against the Marine Fouling Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain S91 and Zoospores of the Green Alga Ulva australis Independent of Bacteriocidal Activity▿†

    PubMed Central

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Harder, Tilmann; Gram, Lone

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if marine bacteria from Danish coastal waters produce antifouling compounds and if antifouling bacteria could be ascribed to specific niches or seasons. We further assess if antibacterial effect is a good proxy for antifouling activity. We isolated 110 bacteria with anti-Vibrio activity from different sample types and locations during a 1-year sampling from Danish coastal waters. The strains were identified as Pseudoalteromonas, Phaeobacter, and Vibrionaceae based on phenotypic tests and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The numbers of bioactive bacteria were significantly higher in warmer than in colder months. While some species were isolated at all sampling locations, others were niche specific. We repeatedly isolated Phaeobacter gallaeciensis at surfaces from one site and Pseudoalteromonas tunicata at two others. Twenty-two strains, representing the major taxonomic groups, different seasons, and isolation strategies, were tested for antiadhesive effect against the marine biofilm-forming bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91 and zoospores of the green alga Ulva australis. The antiadhesive effects were assessed by quantifying the number of strain S91 or Ulva spores attaching to a preformed biofilm of each of the 22 strains. The strongest antifouling activity was found in Pseudoalteromonas strains. Biofilms of Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, and Pseudoalteromonas ulvae prevented Pseudoalteromonas S91 from attaching to steel surfaces. P. piscicida killed S91 bacteria in the suspension cultures, whereas P. tunicata and P. ulvae did not; however, they did prevent adhesion by nonbactericidal mechanism(s). Seven Pseudoalteromonas species, including P. piscicida and P. tunicata, reduced the number of settling Ulva zoospores to less than 10% of the number settling on control surfaces. The antifouling alpP gene was detected only in P. tunicata strains (with purple and yellow pigmentation), so

  20. Characterization of Francisella sp., GM2212, the first Francisella isolate from marine fish, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Ottem, Karl F; Nylund, Are; Karlsbakk, Egil; Friis-Møller, Alice; Krossøy, Bjørn

    2007-05-01

    A Francisella sp., isolate GM2212(T), previously isolated from diseased farmed Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in Norway is characterized. The complete 16S rDNA, 16S-23S intergenic spacer, 23S rDNA, 23S-5S intergenic spacer, 5S rDNA, FopA, lipoprotein TUL4 (LpnA), malate dehydrogenase and a hypothetical lipoprotein (LpnB) is sequenced and compared with Francisella tularensis and Francisella philomiragia. All these sequences support a close relationship between GM2212(T) and F. philomiragia. The bacterium grows at 10-25 degrees C with an optimum at about 20 degrees C, a temperature range clearly different from F. tularensis and F. philomiragia. GM2212(T) is catalase-positive, indole positive, oxidase-negative, do not produce H(2)S in Triple Sugar Iron agar, and does not hydrolyze gelatin, is resistant to erythromycin and susceptible to ceftazidime, the latter five characteristics separating it from F. philomiragia. Cysteine enhances growth. Acid is produced from D: -glucose, maltose, sucrose (weak) but not from lactose or glycerol. GM2212(T) grows on both MacConkey agar and in nutrient broth (6% NaCl). The bacterium is resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, penicillines, cefuroxime and erythromycin; but is susceptible to ceftazidime, tetracycline, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin. Based on the molecular and phenotypical characteristics, we suggest that this GM2212 isolate, may represent a new species of Francisella. Isolate GM2212(T) (=CNCM I-3481(T) = CNCM I-3511(T) = DSM 18777(T)).

  1. Characterization of Chitinase C from a Marine Bacterium, Alteromonas sp. Strain O-7, and Its Corresponding Gene and Domain Structure

    PubMed Central

    Tsujibo, Hiroshi; Orikoshi, Hideyuki; Shiotani, Kayoko; Hayashi, Miyuki; Umeda, Junko; Miyamoto, Katsushiro; Imada, Chiaki; Okami, Yoshiro; Inamori, Yoshihiko

    1998-01-01

    One of the chitinase genes of Alteromonas sp. strain O-7, the chitinase C-encoding gene (chiC), was cloned, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. An open reading frame coded for a protein of 430 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 46,680 Da. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence demonstrated that ChiC contained three functional domains, the N-terminal domain, a fibronectin type III-like domain, and a catalytic domain. The N-terminal domain (59 amino acids) was similar to that found in the C-terminal extension of ChiA (50 amino acids) of this strain and furthermore showed significant sequence homology to the regions found in several chitinases and cellulases. Thus, to evaluate the role of the domain, we constructed the hybrid gene that directs the synthesis of the fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase activity. Both the fusion protein and the N-terminal domain itself bound to chitin, indicating that the N-terminal domain of ChiC constitutes an independent chitin-binding domain. PMID:9464381

  2. Food uptake and fine structure of Cryothecomonas longipes sp. nov., a marine nanoflagellate incertae sedis feeding phagotrophically on large diatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepf, E.; Kühn, S. F.

    2000-05-01

    Cryothecomonas longipes Schnepf and Kühn sp. nov. is a colourless biflagellate organism, 9-14 µm long and 7-9 µm wide when not filled with food vacuoles. It was detected in the North Sea, feeding with pseudopodia on diatoms. It penetrates the host shell, while the main body of the flagellate remains outside the frustule. Cells are covered with a multilayered theca. The pseudopodium protrudes through a preformed slit in the theca. Each flagellum also emerges through a pit in which the theca forms a funnel of complex structure that girdles each flagellum. The anterior flagellum is 9-15 µm long and oriented forward; the ventral flagellum, posteriorly directed, is 20-24 µm long and bears fine hairs. The flagellar roots consist of microtubules that emerge at satellites around the basal bodies and run along the flagellar pits. In addition, the ventral flagellum is accompanied by a band of six microtubules. It is proximally attached to a small fibrillar band, which interconnects the basal bodies. Cryothecomonas longipes has two or three types of extrusomes which pierce the theca when discharged. Their mode of discharge is discussed. Microbody-like vesicles containing small tubules are closely associated with older digestion vacuoles. Cryothecomonas longipes is compared with other species of the genus and a diagnosis is given.

  3. Flavobacterium ahnfeltiae sp. nov., a new marine polysaccharide-degrading bacterium isolated from a Pacific red alga.

    PubMed

    Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Balabanova, Larissa A; Zhukova, Natalia V; Kim, So-Jeong; Bakunina, Irina Y; Rhee, Sung-Keun

    2014-10-01

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, motile by gliding and yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain 10Alg 130(T), that displayed the ability to destroy polysaccharides of red and brown algae, was isolated from the red alga Ahnfeltia tobuchiensis. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence placed the novel strain within the genus Flavobacterium, the type genus of the family Flavobacteriaceae, the phylum Bacteroidetes, with sequence similarities of 96.2 and 95.7 % to Flavobacterium jumunjiense KCTC 23618(T) and Flavobacterium ponti CCUG 58402(T), and 95.3-92.5 % to other recognized Flavobacterium species. The prevalent fatty acids of strain 10Alg 130(T) were iso-C15:0, iso-C15:0 3-OH, iso-C17:0 3-OH, C15:0 and iso-C17:1ω9c. The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown aminolipids and three unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content of the type strain was 34.3 mol%. The new isolate and the type strains of recognized species of the genus Flavobacterium could strongly be distinguished by a number of phenotypic characteristics. A combination of the genotypic and phenotypic data showed that the algal isolate represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium ahnfeltiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 10Alg 130(T) (=KCTC 32467(T) = KMM 6686(T)).

  4. Shewanella olleyana sp. nov., a marine species isolated from a temperate estuary which produces high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Skerratt, Jennifer H; Bowman, John P; Nichols, Peter D

    2002-11-01

    Two polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) producing strains (ACEM 6 and ACEM 9(T)) isolated from a temperate, humic-rich river estuary in Tasmania, Australia, were found to be members of the genus Shewanella. These strains were able to utilize humic compounds (tannic acid) and derivatives (2,6-anthraquinone disulfonate) as sole carbon sources and as electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration. The major fatty acids were typical of the genus Shewanella; however, PUFAs mostly made up of eicosapentaenoic acid were produced at high levels (10.2-23.6% of total fatty acids) and at relatively high incubation temperatures (10.2% at 24 degrees C). Sequence analysis indicated that ACEM 6 and ACEM 9(T) had identical 16S rDNA sequences and were most closely related to Shewanella japonica (sequence similarity 97.1%). DNA hybridization and phenotypic characteristics confirmed that the isolates constituted a novel species of the genus Shewanella, which is designated Shewanella olleyana sp. nov. (type strain ACEM 9(T) = ACAM 644(T) = LMG 21437(T)).

  5. Cloning and characterization of the first polysaccharide lyase family 6 oligoalginate lyase from marine Shewanella sp. Kz7

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shangyong; Wang, Linna; Han, Feng; Gong, Qianhong; Yu, Wengong

    2016-01-01

    Alginate, the most abundant carbohydrate in brown macroalgae, is widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Recently, alginate has attracted increasing attention, as it may serve as an alternative biomass for the production of biofuel. The degradation of alginate into monomeric units is the prerequisite for bioethanol production. All known oligoalginate lyases belong to the polysaccharide lyase (PL) family 7, 14, 15 and 17, and most of them preferred to degrade the polyM blocks to yield 4-deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid as the primary product. In this study, we cloned an oligoalginate lyase gene, oalS6, from Shewanella sp. Kz7 and expressed it in Escherichia coli. The PL family 6 oligoalginate lyase (OalS6) has no significant sequence similarity with other known oligoalginate lyases. OalS6 contains a chondroitinase-like domain and was assigned to the PL family 6. This lyase is an exo-type oligoalginate lyase and prefer to depolymerize polyG block into 2, 4, 5, 6-tetrahydroxytetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-carboxylic acid. All of these results indicate that OalS6 is a novel oligoalginate lyase that is structurally and functionally different from other known oligoalginate lyases. This finding provides new insights into the development of biofuel processing biotechnologies from seaweed. PMID:26232404

  6. Inhibitors of BRD4 Protein from a Marine-Derived Fungus Alternaria sp. NH-F6

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hui; Zhang, Dashan; Zhou, Biao; Ma, Zhongjun

    2017-01-01

    Bromodomains (BRD) are readers of the epigenetic code that regulate gene transcription through their recognition of acetyl-lysine modified histone tails. Recently, bromodomain-containing proteins such as BRD4 have been demonstrated to be druggable through the discovery of potent inhibitors. These protein–protein interaction inhibitors have the potential to modulate multiple diseases by their profound anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects. In order to explore new BRD4 inhibitors as well as lead compounds for the development of new drugs, the secondary metabolites of Alternaria sp. NH-F6, a fungus isolated from deep-sea sediment samples, were analyzed systematically. Five new compounds including two new perylenequinones (1–2), one new alternaric acid (3), 2-(N-vinylacetamide)-4-hydroxymethyl-3-ene-butyrolactone (4), one new cerebroside (5), together with 19 known compounds (6–24) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of this strain. Their structures were elucidated using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS) analyses. Finally, all these compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against BRD4 protein, and compound 2 exhibited a potent inhibition rate of 88.1% at a concentration of 10 µM. This research provides a new BRD4 inhibitor which may possess potential antitumoral, antiviral, or anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical values. PMID:28300771

  7. Binariimonas pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov., a Novel Marine Bacterium of Family Sphingomonadaceae Isolated from East Pacific Ocean Surface Seawater.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhao; Sun, Jia; Zhang, Rui; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2016-03-01

    A novel rod-shaped binary fission, and yellow-pigmented bacterial strain, JLT 2480(T), was isolated from surface seawater in the East Pacific Ocean. The strain is Gram negative and oxidase negative. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicate that strain JLT 2480(T) falls in the family Sphingomonadaceae, sharing highest similarity (95.6 %) with the species Blastomonas ursincola. The DNA G+C content of JLT 2480(T) is 65.5 mol%, and the sole respiratory quinone is coenzyme Q10. The predominant polar lipids are sphingoglycolipids (SGL1 and SGL2), phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylethanolamines, phospholipids, glycolipids, and phosphatidylcholines. The predominant cellular fatty acids are C16:0, C18:0, C18:1ω7c, C12:0, and C16:1ω7c. Strain JLT 2480(T) is distinct from the B. ursincola type strain DSM 9006(T) as reflected by major chemotaxonomic distinctions between the two. Furthermore, two notable characteristics of the genus Blastomonas, that is, the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a and the puf genes, are not detected in JLT 2480(T). On the basis of present evidence, we consider JLT 2480(T) to be a novel species in a new genus of the family Sphingomonadaceae, and propose the name Binariimonas pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov., with strain JLT 2480(T) (=CGMCC 1.12850(T) = DSM 28646(T)) to be the type strain for genus Binariimonas.

  8. Verrucosispora maris sp. nov., a novel deep-sea actinomycete isolated from a marine sediment which produces abyssomicins.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, Michael; Stach, James E M; Brown, Roselyn; Bonda, Avinash Naga Venkata; Jones, Amanda L; Mexson, Joanne; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Bull, Alan T

    2012-01-01

    Verrucosispora isolate AB-18-032(T), the abyssomicin- and proximicin-producing actinomycete, has chemotaxonomic and morphological properties consistent with its classification in the genus Verrucosispora. The organism formed a distinct phyletic line in the Verrucosispora 16S rRNA gene tree sharing similarities of 99.7%, 98.7% and 98.9% with Verrucosispora gifhornensis DSM 44337(T), Verrucosispora lutea YIM 013(T) and Verrucosispora sediminis MS 426(T), respectively. It was readily distinguished from the two latter species using a range of phenotypic features and from V. gifhornensis DSM 44337(T), its nearest phylogenetic neighbor, by a DNA G+C content of 65.5 mol% obtained by thermal denaturation and fluorometry and DNA:DNA relatedness values of 64.0% and 65.0% using renaturation and fluorometric methods, respectively. It is apparent from the combined genotypic and phenotypic data that strain AB-18-032(T) should be classified in the genus Verrucosispora as a new species. The name Verrucosispora maris sp. nov. is proposed for this taxon with isolate AB-18-032(T) (= DSM 45365(T) = NRRL B-24793(T)) as the type strain.

  9. Cloning and characterization of the first polysaccharide lyase family 6 oligoalginate lyase from marine Shewanella sp. Kz7.

    PubMed

    Li, Shangyong; Wang, Linna; Han, Feng; Gong, Qianhong; Yu, Wengong

    2016-01-01

    Alginate, the most abundant carbohydrate in brown macroalgae, is widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Recently, alginate has attracted increasing attention, as it may serve as an alternative biomass for the production of biofuel. The degradation of alginate into monomeric units is the prerequisite for bioethanol production. All known oligoalginate lyases belong to the polysaccharide lyase (PL) family 7, 14, 15 and 17, and most of them preferred to degrade the polyM blocks to yield 4-deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid as the primary product. In this study, we cloned an oligoalginate lyase gene, oalS6, from Shewanella sp. Kz7 and expressed it in Escherichia coli. The PL family 6 oligoalginate lyase (OalS6) has no significant sequence similarity with other known oligoalginate lyases. OalS6 contains a chondroitinase-like domain and was assigned to the PL family 6. This lyase is an exo-type oligoalginate lyase and prefer to depolymerize polyG block into 2, 4, 5, 6-tetrahydroxytetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-carboxylic acid. All of these results indicate that OalS6 is a novel oligoalginate lyase that is structurally and functionally different from other known oligoalginate lyases. This finding provides new insights into the development of biofuel processing biotechnologies from seaweed.

  10. A new species of sublittoral marine gastrotrich, Lepidodasys ligni sp. n. (Macrodasyida, Lepidodasyidae), from the Atlantic coast of Florida

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Rick; Atherton, Sarah; Gross, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Lepidodasys is described from sublittoral sandy sediments off the Atlantic coast of Florida. Lepidodasys ligni sp. n. is a small species (≤ 450 µm) with a crossed-helical pattern of small, non-keeled, non-imbricated scales on the dorsal and lateral body surfaces, two columns of ventral, interciliary scales that form a herringbone pattern, and a series of anterior, lateral, dorsal and posterior adhesive tubes. Similar to Lepidodasys castoroides from the Faroe Islands, the new species possesses a caudal constriction that demarcates the posterior end containing the caudal organ. The frontal organ lies within the posterior constriction, which is heavily invested with somatic circular muscles. These muscles are also present throughout the trunk and represent a novel condition for species of Lepidodasys,which were previously considered to lack somatic circular muscles. Posterior of the caudal constriction is a large, barrel-shaped caudal organ that is wrapped in a series of interdigitating, spindle-shaped, incomplete circular muscle fibers. The caudal organ contains a sclerotized central canal, but the absence of distal cuticular endpieces distinguishes the new species from its morphologically similar congener, Lepidodasys castoroides. PMID:23794849

  11. Whole Genome Sequencing of the Symbiont Pseudovibrio sp. from the Intertidal Marine Sponge Polymastia penicillus Revealed a Gene Repertoire for Host-Switching Permissive Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Alex, Anoop; Antunes, Agostinho

    2015-10-31

    Sponges harbor a complex consortium of microbial communities living in symbiotic relationship benefiting each other through the integration of metabolites. The mechanisms influencing a successful microbial association with a sponge partner are yet to be fully understood. Here, we sequenced the genome of Pseudovibrio sp. POLY-S9 strain isolated from the intertidal marine sponge Polymastia penicillus sampled from the Atlantic coast of Portugal to identify the genomic features favoring the symbiotic relationship. The draft genome revealed an exceptionally large genome size of 6.6 Mbp compared with the previously reported genomes of the genus Pseudovibrio isolated from a coral and a sponge larva. Our genomic study detected the presence of several biosynthetic gene clusters-polyketide synthase, nonribosomal peptide synthetase and siderophore-affirming the potential ability of the genus Pseudovibrio to produce a wide variety of metabolic compounds. Moreover, we identified a repertoire of genes encoding adaptive symbioses factors (eukaryotic-like proteins), such as the ankyrin repeats, tetratrico peptide repeats, and Sel1 repeats that improve the attachment to the eukaryotic hosts and the avoidance of the host's immune response : The genome also harbored a large number of mobile elements (∼5%) and gene transfer agents, which explains the massive genome expansion and suggests a possible mechanism of horizontal gene transfer. In conclusion, the genome of POLY-S9 exhibited an increase in size, number of mobile DNA, multiple metabolite gene clusters, and secretion systems, likely to influence the genome diversification and the evolvability.

  12. A light-dark shift strategy derived from light-responded metabolic behaviors for polyketides production in marine fungus Halorosellinia sp.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; He, Hao; Yin, Ying; Zhou, Weiqiang; Cai, Menghao; Zhou, Xiangshan; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2016-03-10

    Light, as an important environmental signal, generally brings about a broad regulation in fungal metabolism. In this work, we aim to explore the light-responded metabolic rules so as to further develop a feasible and effective light regulation strategy for production of anticancer polyketide 1403C by marine fungus Halorosellinia sp.. Light derived production enhancement of polyketides was first found in shake flask. To further understand this well working black box, light-responded cell growth, polyketides biosynthesis, metabolic behaviors (enzymes activities and organic acids levels) and mycelia morphology were then investigated in 5-L bioreactor. By comparing cultures under constant irradiation and dark conditions, the entire bioprocess was divided into two phases. During 0-60h, light presumably stimulated relevant metabolism to generate sufficient energy, NADPH and carbon skeleton, particularly malonyl-CoA, which was favorable for mycelia growth and polyketides accumulation. After 60h, light did harm to biomass and polyketides production. Consequently, a light-dark shift strategy was proposed and verified in 5-L bioreactor. It led to a maximal 1403C production of 1.67g/L, which was 24% and 74% higher than those obtained under constant irradiation and dark conditions, respectively.

  13. Natural osmolytes are much less effective substrates than glycogen for catabolic energy production in the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002.

    PubMed

    Guerra, L Tiago; Xu, Yu; Bennette, Nicholas; McNeely, Kelsey; Bryant, Donald A; Dismukes, G Charles

    2013-07-10

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, encoded by glgC, catalyzes the first step of glycogen and glucosylglycer(ol/ate) biosynthesis. Here we report the construction of the first glgC null mutant of a marine cyanobacterium (Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002) and investigate its impact on dark anoxic metabolism (autofermentation). The glgC mutant had 98% lower ADP-glucose, synthesized no glycogen and produced appreciably more soluble sugars (mainly sucrose) than wild type (WT). Some glucosylglycerol was still observed, which suggests that the mutant has another, inefficient ADP-glucose synthesis pathway. In contrast, hypersaline conditions (1M NaCl) were lethal to the mutant strain, indicating that, unlike other strains, the elevated sucrose does not compensate for the reduced GG as osmolyte. In contrast to WT, nitrate limitation did not cause bleaching of N-containing pigments or carbohydrate accumulation in the glgC mutant, indicating impaired recycling of nitrogen stores. Despite the 2-fold increase in osmolytes, both the respiration and autofermentation rates of the glgC mutant were appreciably slower (2-4-fold) and correlated quantitatively with the lower fraction of insoluble carbohydrates relative to WT (85% vs. 12%). However, the remaining insoluble carbohydrates still accounted for a high fraction of the carbohydrate catabolized (38%), indicating that insoluble carbohydrates rather than osmolytes were the preferred substrate for autofermentation.

  14. Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), a new species of marine red algae from the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gavio, Brigitte; Reyes-Gómez, Viviana P; Wynne, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    In the Colombian Caribbean, the marine macroalgal flora of the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve has been little studied, despite its ecological importance. Historical records have reported only 201 macroalgae species within its area of almost 350,000 km2. However, recent surveys have shown a diversity of small algae previously overlooked. With the aim to determine the macroalgal diversity in the Reserve, we undertook field surveys in different ecosystems: coral reefs, seagrass beds, and rocky and sandy substrates, at different depths, from intertidal to 37 m. During these field surveys, we collected a small described species belonging to the genus Crouania (Callithamniaceae, Rhodophyta), Crouania pumila sp. nov. that is decribed in this paper. This new species was distinguished from other species of the genus by a distinctive suite of traits including its diminutive size (to only 3.5 mm in length), its decumbent, slightly calcified habit (epiphytic on other algae), its ramisympodial branching, the ecorticate main axes, and the elongate shape of the terminal cells of the cortical filaments. The observations were provided for both female (cystocarpic) and tetrasporangiate thalli; however, male thalli were not seen. Further studies have to be undertaken in this Reserve in order to carry out other macroalgal analysis and descriptions.

  15. Determination of trace metal baseline values in Posidonia oceanica, Cystoseira sp., and other marine environmental biomonitors: a quality control method for a study in South Tyrrhenian coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Mecozzi, Mauro; Finoia, Maria Grazia

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we investigated Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile leaves and in the brown algae Cystoseira sp. sampled along a 280-km transect in the Tyrrhenian Sea, from the Ustica to Linosa Islands (Sicily, Italy) with the aim to determine their control charts (baseline levels). By applying the Johnson's (Biometrika 36:149-175, 1949) probabilistic method, we determined the metal concentration overlap ranges in a group of five biomonitors. Here, we propose the use of the indexes of bioaccumulation with respect to the lowest (L'i) and the highest (L i) extreme values of the overlap metal concentration ranges. These indexes allow the identification of the most opportune organism (or a suite of them) to better managing particular environmental conditions. Posidonia leaves have generally high L i indexes for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, and this suggests its use as biomonitor for baseline marine areas. Our results confirm the high aptitude of Patella as a good biomonitor for Cd levels in seawater. From this study, Ustica resulted with higher levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn than the other Sicilian Islands.

  16. Role of Light Intensity and Temperature in the Regulation of Hydrogen Photoproduction by the Marine Cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp. Strain Miami BG7.

    PubMed

    Phlips, E J; Mitsui, A

    1983-04-01

    The effects of several key environmental factors on the development and control of hydrogen production in the marine blue-green alga (cyanobacterium) Oscillatoria sp. strain Miami BG7 were studied in relation to the potential application of this strain to a bio-solar energy technology. The production of cellular biomass capable of evolving hydrogen gas was strongly affected by light intensity, temperature, and the input of ammonia as a nutrient. Depletion of combined nitrogen from the growth media was a prerequisite for the initiation of hydrogen production. Maximum hydrogen-producing capability coincided with the end of the linear phase of growth. Hydrogen production exhibited considerable flexibility to environmental extremes. The rate of production saturated at low light intensities (i.e., 15 to 30 muEinsteins/m per s), and no photoinhibition was observed at high light intensity (i.e., 1,000 muEinsteins/m per s). The upper temperature limit for production was 46 degrees C. Above the light compensation point for O(2) evolution H(2) production was inhibited. However, this problem was alleviated by two related phenomena. (i) The capacity of cells to evolve oxygen deteriorated with increasing culture age and nitrogen depletion, and (ii) the ability of these cells to produce oxygen in closed anaerobic hydrogen production systems was temporally limited.

  17. Bioactive secondary metabolites of a marine Bacillus sp. inhibit superoxide generation and elastase release in human neutrophils by blocking formyl peptide receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shun-Chin; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Chang, Wen-Yi; Kuo, Jimmy; Huang, Yin-Ting; Chung, Pei-Jen; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2013-06-03

    It is well known that overwhelming neutrophil activation is closely related to acute and chronic inflammatory injuries. Formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) plays an important role in activation of neutrophils and may represent a potent therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we demonstrated that IA-LBI07-1 (IA), an extract of bioactive secondary metabolites from a marine Bacillus sp., has anti-inflammatory effects in human neutrophils. IA significantly inhibited superoxide generation and elastase release in formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP)-activated neutrophils, but failed to suppress the cell responses activated by non-FPR1 agonists. IA did not alter superoxide production and elastase activity in cell-free systems. IA also attenuated the downstream signaling from FPR1, such as the Ca2+, MAP kinases and AKT pathways. In addition, IA inhibited the binding of N-formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-fluorescein, a fluorescent analogue of FMLP, to FPR1 in human neutrophils and FPR1-transfected HEK293 cells. Taken together, these results show that the anti-inflammatory effects of IA in human neutrophils are through the inhibition of FPR1. Also, our data suggest that IA may have therapeutic potential to decrease tissue damage induced by human neutrophils.

  18. Proton efflux coupled to dark H/sub 2/ oxidation in whole cells of a marine sulfur photosynthetic bacterium (Chromatium sp. strain Miami PBS1071)

    SciTech Connect

    Kumazawa, S.; Izawa, S.; Mitsui, A.

    1983-04-01

    Whole cells of photoanaerobically grown Chromatium sp. strain Miami PBS1071, a marine sulfur purple bacterium, oxidized H/sub 2/ in the dark through the oxyhydrogen reaction at rates of up to 59 nmol of H/sub 2/ per mg (dry weight) per min. H/sub 2/ oxidation was routinely measured in H/sub 2/ pulse experiments with air-equilibrated cells. The reaction was accompanied by a reversible H/sup +/ efflux from the cells, suggesting an outward H/sup +/ translocation reaction coupled to H/sub 2/ oxidation. Anaerobic H/sub 2/ uptake with 2,5-dimethyl-p-benzoguinone as an oxidant also showed a weak H/sup +/-translocating activity. Carbonylcyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (1 ..mu..M) stimulated H/sub 2/ oxidation and abolished the associated H/sup +/ changes when H/sub 2/ oxidation was observed in O/sub 2/ pulse experiments with H/sub 2/-Ar-equilibrated cells. However, the uncoupler inhibited both H/sub 2/ oxidation and H/sup +/ changes when measurements were made in H/sub 2/ pulse experiments with air-equilibrated cells. It is suggested that in this bacterium the susceptibility of hydrogenase to reversible O/sub 2/ inactivation in situ is enhanced by the presence of uncoupling agents.

  19. Biochemical characterization and structural analysis of a new cold-active and salt-tolerant esterase from the marine bacterium Thalassospira sp.

    PubMed

    De Santi, Concetta; Leiros, Hanna-Kirsti S; Di Scala, Alessia; de Pascale, Donatella; Altermark, Bjørn; Willassen, Nils-Peder

    2016-05-01

    A gene encoding an esterase, ThaEst2349, was identified in the marine psychrophilic bacterium Thalassospira sp. GB04J01. The gene was cloned and overexpressed in E. coli as a His-tagged fusion protein. The recombinant enzyme showed optimal activity at 45 °C and the thermal stability displayed a retention of 75 % relative activity at 40 °C after 2 h. The optimal pH was 8.5 but the enzyme kept more than 75 % of its maximal activity between pH 8.0 and 9.5. ThaEst2349 also showed remarkable tolerance towards high concentrations of salt and it was active against short-chain p-nitrophenyl esters, displaying optimal activity with the acetate. The enzyme was tested for tolerance of organic solvents and the results are suggesting that it could function as an interesting candidate for biotechnological applications. The crystal structure of ThaEst2349 was determined to 1.69 Å revealing an asymmetric unit containing two chains, which also is the biological unit. The structure has a characteristic cap domain and a catalytic triad comprising Ser158, His285 and Asp255. To explain the cold-active nature of the enzyme, we compared it against thermophilic counterparts. Our hypothesis is that a high methionine content, less hydrogen bonds and less ion pairs render the enzyme more flexible at low temperatures.

  20. A new alkaliphilic cold-active esterase from the psychrophilic marine bacterium Rhodococcus sp.: functional and structural studies and biotechnological potential.

    PubMed

    De Santi, Concetta; Tedesco, Pietro; Ambrosino, Luca; Altermark, Bjørn; Willassen, Nils-Peder; de Pascale, Donatella

    2014-03-01

    The special features of cold-adapted lipolytic biocatalysts have made their use possible in several industrial applications. In fact, cold-active enzymes are known to be able to catalyze reactions at low temperatures, avoiding side reactions taking place at higher temperatures and preserving the integrity of products. A lipolytic gene was isolated from the Arctic marine bacterium Rhodococcus sp. AW25M09 and expressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies. The recombinant enzyme (hereafter called RhLip) showed interesting cold-active esterase activity. The refolded purified enzyme displayed optimal activity at 30 °C and was cold-active with retention of 50% activity at 10 °C. It is worth noting that the optimal pH was 11, and the low relative activity below pH 10 revealed that RhLip was an alkaliphilic esterase. The enzyme was active toward short-chain p-nitrophenyl esters (C2-C6), displaying optimal activity with the butyrate (C4) ester. In addition, the enzyme revealed a good organic solvent and salt tolerance. These features make this an interesting enzyme for exploitation in some industrial applications.

  1. Thalassemys bruntrutana n. sp., a new coastal marine turtle from the Late Jurassic of Porrentruy (Switzerland), and the paleobiogeography of the Thalassemydidae

    PubMed Central

    Anquetin, Jérémy; Billon-Bruyat, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Swiss Jura Mountains are a key region for Late Jurassic eucryptodiran turtles. Already in the mid 19th century, the Solothurn Turtle Limestone (Solothurn, NW Switzerland) yielded a great amount of Kimmeridgian turtles that are traditionally referred to Plesiochelyidae, Thalassemydidae, and Eurysternidae. In the past few years, fossils of these coastal marine turtles were also abundantly discovered in the Kimmeridgian of the Porrentruy region (NW Switzerland). These findings include numerous sub-complete shells, out of which we present two new specimens of Thalassemys (Thalassemydidae) in this study. Methods. We compare the new material from Porrentruy to the type species Th. hugii, which is based on a well preserved specimen from the Solothurn Turtle Limestone (Solothurn, Switzerland). In order to improve our understanding of the paleogeographic distribution of Thalassemys, anatomical comparisons are extended to Thalassemys remains from other European countries, notably Germany and England. Results. While one of the two Thalassemys specimens from Porrentruy can be attributed to Th. hugii, the other specimen represents a new species, Th. bruntrutana n. sp. It differs from Th. hugii by several features: more elongated nuchal that strongly thickens anterolaterally; wider vertebral scales; proportionally longer plastron; broader and less inclined xiphiplastron; wider angle between scapular process and acromion process. Our results show that Th. hugii and Th. bruntrutana also occur simultaneously in the Kimmeridgian of Solothurn as well as in the Kimmeridgian of England (Kimmeridge Clay). This study is an important step towards a better understanding of the paleobiogeographic distribution of Late Jurassic turtles in Europe. PMID:26468437

  2. Optimization of flocculation efficiency of lipid-rich marine Chlorella sp. biomass and evaluation of its composition in different cultivation modes.

    PubMed

    Mandik, Yohanis Irenius; Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Boonsawang, Piyarat; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to optimize flocculation efficiency of lipid-rich marine Chlorella sp. biomass and evaluate its composition in different cultivation modes. Among three flocculants including Al(3+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) tested, Al(3+) was most effective for harvesting microalgal biomass. Four important parameters for flocculation were optimized through response surface methodology. The maximum flocculation efficiency in photoautotrophic culture was achieved at pH 10, flocculation time of 15 min, Al(3+) concentration of 2.22 mM and microalgal cells of 0.47 g/L. The flocculation in mixotrophic culture required lower amount of Al(3+) (0.74 mM) than that in photoautotrophic and heterotrophic cultures (2.22 mM). The biomass harvested from mixotrophic culture contained lipid at the highest content of 42.08 ± 0.58% followed by photoautotrophic (32.08 ± 3.88%) and heterotrophic (30.42 ± 1.13%) cultures. The lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) contained protein as high as 38-44% and several minerals showing their potential use as animal feed and their carbohydrate content were 16-29%.

  3. Anti-Melanogenic Activity of Gagunin D, a Highly Oxygenated Diterpenoid from the Marine Sponge Phorbas sp., via Modulating Tyrosinase Expression and Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho Yeon; Jang, Eun Jeong; Bae, Song Yi; Jeon, Ju-eun; Park, Hyen Joo; Shin, Jongheon; Lee, Sang Kook

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosinase is the rate-limiting enzyme critical for melanin synthesis and controls pigmentation in the skin. The inhibition of tyrosinase is currently the most common approach for the development of skin-whitening cosmetics. Gagunin D (GD), a highly oxygenated diterpenoid isolated from the marine sponge Phorbas sp., has exhibited cytotoxicity toward human leukemia cells. However, the effect of GD on normal cells and the molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we identified for the first time the anti-melanogenic activity of GD and its precise underlying mechanisms in mouse melan-a cells. GD significantly inhibited melanin synthesis in the melan-a cells and a reconstructed human skin model. Further analysis revealed that GD suppressed the expression of tyrosinase and increased the rate of tyrosinase degradation. GD also inhibited tyrosinase enzymatic activity. In addition, GD effectively suppressed the expression of proteins associated with melanosome transfer. These findings suggest that GD is a potential candidate for cosmetic formulations due to its multi-functional properties. PMID:27869664

  4. Effect of Fe nanoparticle on growth and glycolipid biosurfactant production under solid state culture by marine Nocardiopsis sp. MSA13A

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron is an essential element in several pathways of microbial metabolism, and therefore low iron toxicity is expected on the usage of Fe nanoparticles (NPs). This study aims to determine the effect of Fe NPs on biosurfactant production by marine actinobacterium Nocardiopsis sp. MSA13A under solid state culture. Foam method was used in the production of Fe NPs which were long and fiber shaped in nature. Results The SEM observation showed non toxic nature of Fe NPs as no change in the morphology of the filamentous structure of Nocardiopsis MSA13A. The production of biosurfactant by Nocardiopsis MSA13A under solid state culture supplemented with Fe NPs increased to 80% over control. The biosurfactant produced by Nocardiopsis MSA13A was characterized as glycolipid derivative which effectively disrupted the pre-formed biofilm of Vibrio pathogen. Conclusion The use of metal NPs as supplement would reduce the impact of non-metallic ions of the metal salts in a fermentation process. This would ultimately useful to achieve greener production process for biosurfactants. The present results are first report on the optimization of biosurfactant production under SSC using Fe NPs. PMID:24885470

  5. In silico molecular docking, preclinical evaluation of spiroindimicins A-D, lynamicin A and D isolated from deep marine sea derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 03032.

    PubMed

    Saurav, Kumar; Zhang, Wenjun; Saha, Subhasish; Zhang, Haibo; Li, Sumei; Zhang, Qingbo; Wu, Zhengchao; Zhang, Guangtao; Zhu, Yiguang; Verma, Gaurav

    2014-09-01

    The criteria used for successful drug discovery involves high throughput screening for preclinical evaluation and its interaction with target enzymes. In silico approach resulting in the creation of drug like library and identification of essential reactions and pathways spreads across several parts of metabolism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the preclinical property and interaction to various drug target enzymes for spiroindimicins A-D and lynamicin A and D isolated from deep marine sea derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 03032 with 7 selected drug target enzymes. The preclinical and molecular docking simulation was performed using In silico pharmacology and docking tool. Drug likeliness, ADME and toxicity testing findings suggested the compounds with oral drug candidate's probability. Interaction of isolated compounds against drug target enzymes was satisfactory with Spiroindimicins C, D and Lynamicin D emerging as most potent Topoisomerase II, Cathepsin K, Cytochrome P4503A4, Aromatase P450, protein kinase and histone deacetylase inhibitors. Our results suggest that In silico approach in drug discovery procedure in later stage of development can ease up making lead molecules library.

  6. Marine Streptomyces sp. derived antimycin analogues suppress HeLa cells via depletion HPV E6/E7 mediated by ROS-dependent ubiquitin–proteasome system

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiyi; Che, Qian; Tan, Hongsheng; Qi, Xin; Li, Jing; Li, Dehai; Gu, Qianqun; Zhu, Tianjiao; Liu, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Four new antimycin alkaloids (1–4) and six related known analogs (5–10) were isolated from the culture of a marine derived Streptomyces sp. THS-55, and their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. All of the compounds exhibited potent cytotoxicity in vitro against HPV-transformed HeLa cell line. Among them, compounds 6–7 were derived as natural products for the first time, and compound 5 (NADA) showed the highest potency. NADA inhibited the proliferation, arrested cell cycle distribution, and triggered apoptosis in HeLa cancer cells. Our molecular mechanic studies revealed NADA degraded the levels of E6/E7 oncoproteins through ROS-mediated ubiquitin-dependent proteasome system activation. This is the first report that demonstrates antimycin alkaloids analogue induces the degradation of high-risk HPV E6/E7 oncoproteins and finally induces apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. The present work suggested that these analogues could serve as lead compounds for the development of HPV-infected cervical cancer therapeutic agents, as well as research tools for the study of E6/E7 functions. PMID:28176847

  7. Penicyrones A and B, an epimeric pair of α-pyrone-type polyketides produced by the marine-derived Penicillium sp.

    PubMed

    Bu, Ying-Yue; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Ukai, Kazuyo; Namikoshi, Michio

    2016-01-01

    Two polyketides containing an α-pyrone unit, named penicyrones A (1) and B (2), were isolated from a culture broth of the marine-derived Penicillium sp. TPU1271 together with nine known compounds: verrucosidin (3), fructigenine A (4), verrucofortine (5), cyclo-(L-Trp-L-Phe) (6), cyclopenol (7), cyclopenin (8), penipratynolene (9), aspterric acid (10) and viridicatol (11). The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by analyzing the spectroscopic data of 1, 2 and their O-acetyl derivatives (1a and 2a). Compounds 1 and 2 were epimers of each other at the C-9 position. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were assigned on the basis of NOESY data for 1, 2, 1a and 2a, a conformational analysis and the identity of the biogenetic pathway with verrucosidin (3). The planar structure of penicyrones was found in the SciFinder as a compound in the commercial chemical libraries; however, the stereostructure and spectroscopic data were not available. Therefore, this is the first study on the isolation and structure elucidation, including the absolute configurations, of penicyrones A (1) and B (2) as fungal metabolites. Compound 3 exhibited growth inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis at 40 μg per disc (inhibition zone of 11 mm). This is the first study to demonstrate that verrucosidin (3) exhibited anti-mycobacterial activity.

  8. Chrodrimanins K-N and Related Meroterpenoids from the Fungus Penicillium sp. SCS-KFD09 Isolated from a Marine Worm, Sipunculus nudus.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fan-Dong; Ma, Qing-Yun; Huang, Sheng-Zhuo; Wang, Pei; Wang, Jun-Feng; Zhou, Li-Man; Yuan, Jing-Zhe; Dai, Hao-Fu; Zhao, You-Xing

    2017-02-17

    Six new meroterpenoids, chrodrimanins K-N (1-4), including two uncommon chlorinated ones (1 and 2), and verruculides B2 (5) and B3 (6), as well as seven known ones (7-13), were isolated from the fermentation broth of Penicillium sp. SCS-KFD09 isolated from a marine worm, Sipunculus nudus, from Haikou Bay, China. The structures including the absolute configurations of the new compounds were unambiguously elucidated by spectroscopic data, X-ray diffraction analysis, and ECD spectra analysis along with quantum ECD calculations. In addition, the X-ray crystal structures and absolute configurations of two previously reported meroterpenoids, chrodrimanins F (9) and A (11), are described for the first time. Compounds 1, 4, and 7 displayed anti-H1N1 activity with IC50 values of 74, 58, and 34 μM, respectively, while compound 5 showed weak inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus with an MIC of 32 μg/mL.

  9. Antiplasmodial activities of homogentisic acid derivative protein kinase inhibitors isolated from a Vanuatu marine sponge Pseudoceratina sp.

    PubMed

    Lebouvier, Nicolas; Jullian, Valérie; Desvignes, Isabelle; Maurel, Séverine; Parenty, Arnaud; Dorin-Semblat, Dominique; Doerig, Christian; Sauvain, Michel; Laurent, Dominique

    2009-11-23

    As part of our search for new antimalarial drugs in South Pacific marine sponges, we have looked for inhibitors of Pfnek-1, a specific protein kinase of Plasmodium falciparum. On the basis of promising activity in a preliminary screening, the ethanolic crude extract of a new species of Pseudoceratina collected in Vanuatu was selected for further investigation. A bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of a derivative of homogentisic acid [methyl (2,4-dibromo-3,6-dihydroxyphenyl)acetate, 4a] which inhibited Pfnek-1 with an IC(50) around 1.8 muM. This product was moderately active in vitro against a FcB1 P. falciparum strain (IC(50) = 12 muM). From the same sponge, we isolated three known compounds [11,19-dideoxyfistularin-3 (1), 11-deoxyfistularin-3 (2) and dibromo-verongiaquinol (3)] which were inactive against Pfnek-1. Synthesis and biological evaluation of some derivatives of 4a are reported.

  10. 2-n-Pentyl-4-Quinolinol Produced by a Marine Alteromonas sp. and Its Potential Ecological and Biogeochemical Roles†

    PubMed Central

    Long, Richard A.; Qureshi, Asfia; Faulkner, D. John; Azam, Farooq

    2003-01-01

    Bacterium-bacterium interactions occur at intimate spatial scales on the order of micrometers, but our knowledge of interactions at this level is rudimentary. Antagonism is a potential interaction in such microenvironments. To study the ecological role of antibiosis, we developed a model system involving an antibiotic-producing isolate (SWAT5) derived from a marine particle and its dominant antibiotic product, 2-n-pentyl-4-quinolinol (PQ). This system was used to address questions about the significance of this antibiotic for microbial ecology and carbon cycling on particles. We characterized the chemical and inhibitory properties of PQ in relation to the mechanisms used by particle-associated bacteria in interacting with particles and with other attached bacteria. PQ was produced by SWAT5 only on surfaces. When SWAT5 was grown in polysaccharide matrices, PQ diffused within the matrices but not into the surrounding seawater. SWAT5 might thus be able to generate a localized zone of high antibiotic concentration on particles suspended or sinking through seawater. Target bacterial respiration was most sensitive to PQ (75 nM), while inhibition of DNA synthesis, protein synthesis, and bacterial motility required higher (micromolar) PQ levels. The presence of PQ altered the composition of the bacterial community that colonized and developed in a model particle system. PQ also inhibited Synechococcus and phytoplankton growth. Our results suggest that antibiosis may significantly influence community composition and activities of attached bacterial and thus regulate the biogeochemical fate of particulate organic matter in the ocean. PMID:12514043

  11. Hydrolysis of protein and model dipeptide substrated by attached and nonattached marine Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIMB 2021

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, P.C.; Fletcher, M. )

    1991-08-01

    Rates of substrate hydrolysis by nonattached bacteria and by bacteria attached to particles derived from marine diatom frustules were estimated by using two substrates, a dipeptide analog and a protein. Adsorption of the two substrates onto the particles was also evaluated. Methyl-coumarinyl-amide-leucine (MCA-leucine) was used to estimate hydrolysis of dipeptides by measuring an increase in fluorescence as MCA-leucine was hydrolyzed to leucine and the fluorochrome methylcoumarin. To examine hydrolysis of a larger molecule, was prepared a radiolabeled protein by {sup 14}C-methylation of bovine serum albumin. The rate of protein hydrolysis in samples of particle-attached or nonattached bacteria was estimated by precipitating all nonhydrolyzed protein with cold trichloroacetic acid and then determining the trichloroacetic acid-soluble radiolabeled material, which represented methyl-{sup 14}C-peptides and -amino acids. About 25% of the MCA-leucine adsorbed to the particles. MCA-leucine was hydrolyzed faster by nonattached than attached bacteria, which was probably related to its tendency to remain dissolved in the liquid phase. In contrast, almost 100% of the labeled protein adsorbed to the particles. Accordingly, protein was much less available to nonattached bacteria but was rapidly hydrolyzed by attached bacteria.

  12. Lamellarin O, a Pyrrole Alkaloid from an Australian Marine Sponge, Ianthella sp., Reverses BCRP Mediated Drug Resistance in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao-Cong; Xiao, Xue; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Talele, Tanaji T.; Salim, Angela A.; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Capon, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, such as P-gp, BCRP and MRP1, can increase efflux of clinical chemotherapeutic agents and lead to multi-drug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells. While the discovery and development of clinically useful inhibitors has proved elusive to date, this molecular target nevertheless remains a promising strategy for addressing and potentially overcoming MDR. In a search for new classes of inhibitor, we used fluorescent accumulation and efflux assays supported by cell flow cytometry and MDR reversal assays, against a panel of sensitive and MDR human cancer cell lines, to evaluate the marine sponge co-metabolites 1–12 as inhibitors of P-gp, BCRP or MRP1 initiated MDR. These studies identified and characterized lamellarin O (11) as a selective inhibitor of BCRP mediated drug efflux. A structure–activity relationship analysis inclusive of the natural products 1–12 and the synthetic analogues 13–19, supported by in silico docking studies, revealed key structural requirements for the lamellarin O (11) BCRP inhibitory pharmacophore. PMID:24979269

  13. Optimization of culture conditions and medium composition for the marine algicidal bacterium Alteromonas sp. DH46 by uniform design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jing; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yun; Wang, Guizhong; Zheng, Tianling

    2013-09-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have led to extensive ecological and environmental issues and huge economic losses. Various HAB control techniques have been developed, and biological methods have been paid more attention. Algicidal bacteria is a general designation for bacteria which inhibit algal growth in a direct or indirect manner, and kill or damage the algal cells. A metabolite which is strongly toxic to the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense was produced by strain DH46 of the alga-lysing bacterium Alteromonas sp. The culture conditions were optimized using a single-factor test method. Factors including carbon source, nitrogen source, temperature, initial pH value, rotational speed and salinity were studied. The results showed that the cultivation of the bacteria at 28°C and 180 r min-1 with initial pH 7 and 30 salt contcentration favored both the cell growth and the lysing effect of strain DH46. The optimal medium composition for strain DH46 was determined by means of uniform design experimentation, and the most important components influencing the cell density were tryptone, yeast extract, soluble starch, NaNO3 and MgSO4. When the following culture medium was used (tryptone 14.0g, yeast extract 1.63g, soluble starch 5.0 g, NaNO3 1.6 g, MgSO4 2.3 g in 1L), the largest bacterial dry weight (7.36 g L-1) was obtained, which was an enhancement of 107% compared to the initial medium; and the algal lysis rate was as high as 98.4% which increased nearly 10% after optimization.

  14. Methanoculleus taiwanensis sp. nov., a methanogen isolated from deep marine sediment at the deformation front area near Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chieh-Yin; Chen, Sheng-Chung; Lai, Mei-Chin; Wu, Sue-Yao; Lin, Saulwood; Yang, Tsanyao F; Chen, Po-Chun

    2015-03-01

    A mesophilic, hydrogenotrophic methanogen, strain CYW4(T), was isolated from deep-sea sediment obtained by the Ocean Researcher I cruiser, ORI-961, in 2011. The sediment was from the deformation front area offshore of south-western Taiwan. Here, seismic reflections indicated that methane hydrates were abundant. The methanogenic substrates utilized by strain CYW4(T) were formate and H2/CO2, but not acetate, secondary alcohols, methylamines, methanol and ethanol. Cells of strain CYW4(T) were non-motile, irregular cocci and 0.6-1.5 µm in diameter. The S-layer protein had an Mr of 112 000. The optimum growth conditions were at 37 °C, pH 8.1 and 0.08 M NaCl. Growth of the strain was stimulated by acetate. The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA of strain CYW4(T) was 61 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain CYW4(T) was most closely related to Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1(T) (96.82 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Based on the morphological, phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics presented here, it is evident that strain CYW4(T) represents a novel species of the genus Methanoculleus, and the name Methanoculleus taiwanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CYW4(T) ( = BCRC AR10043(T) = NBRC 110782(T)). The optical density of cultures of strain CYW4(T) dropped abruptly upon entering the stationary growth phase. During this time numerous particles of approximately 50 nm in diameter were observed on and around the cells. This suggests that strain CYW4(T) harbours a lytic virus that is induced in the stationary phase, which is of interest because only a few lytic viruses have been reported in methanogens.

  15. Physiological and Genetic Description of Dissimilatory Perchlorate Reduction by the Novel Marine Bacterium Arcobacter sp. Strain CAB

    PubMed Central

    Carlström, Charlotte I.; Wang, Ouwei; Melnyk, Ryan A.; Bauer, Stefan; Lee, Joyce; Engelbrektson, Anna; Coates, John D.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT A novel dissimilatory perchlorate-reducing bacterium (DPRB), Arcobacter sp. strain CAB, was isolated from a marina in Berkeley, CA. Phylogenetically, this halophile was most closely related to Arcobacter defluvii strain SW30-2 and Arcobacter ellisii. With acetate as the electron donor, strain CAB completely reduced perchlorate (ClO4−) or chlorate (ClO3−) [collectively designated (per)chlorate] to innocuous chloride (Cl−), likely using the perchlorate reductase (Pcr) and chlorite dismutase (Cld) enzymes. When grown with perchlorate, optimum growth was observed at 25 to 30°C, pH 7, and 3% NaCl. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) preparations were dominated by free-swimming straight rods with 1 to 2 polar flagella per cell. Strain CAB utilized a variety of organic acids, fructose, and hydrogen as electron donors coupled to (per)chlorate reduction. Further, under anoxic growth conditions strain CAB utilized the biogenic oxygen produced as a result of chlorite dismutation to oxidize catechol via the meta-cleavage pathway of aerobic catechol degradation and the catechol 2,3-dioxygenase enzyme. In addition to (per)chlorate, oxygen and nitrate were alternatively used as electron acceptors. The 3.48-Mb draft genome encoded a distinct perchlorate reduction island (PRI) containing several transposases. The genome lacks the pcrC gene, which was previously thought to be essential for (per)chlorate reduction, and appears to use an unrelated Arcobacter c-type cytochrome to perform the same function. PMID:23695836

  16. Cloning and characterization of a new κ-carrageenase gene from marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. QY203

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoyan; Li, Shangyong; Yang, Xuemei; Yu, Wengong; Han, Feng

    2015-12-01

    κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides exhibit various biological activities. Enzymatic degradation by κ-carrageenase is safe and controllable. Therefore, κ-carrageenases have captured more and more attentions. In this study, a κ-carrageenase encoding gene, cgkX, was cloned from Pseudoalteromonas sp. QY203 with degenerate and inverse PCR. It comprised an ORF of 1194 bp in length, encoding a protein with 397 amino acid residues. CgkX is a new member of glycoside hydrolase family 16. The deduced amino acid sequence shared a high similarity with CgkX of Pseudoalteromonas κ-carrageenase; however, the recombinant CgkX showed different biochemical characteristics. The recombinant enzyme was most active at pH 7.0 and 55°C in the presence of 300 mmol L-1 NaCl. It was stable in a broad range of acidity ranging from pH 3.0 to pH 10.0 when temperature was below 40°C. More than 80% of its activity was maintained after being incubated at pH 3.6-10.0 and 4°C for 24 h. CgkX retained more than 90% of activity after being incubated at 40°C for 1 h. EDTA and SDS (1 mmol L-1) did not inhibit its activity. CgkX hydrolyzed κ-carrageenan into disaccharide and tetrasaccharide as an endo-cleaver. All these characteristics demonstrated that CgkX is applicable to both κ-carrageenan oligosaccharide production and κ-carrageenase structure-function research.

  17. Hydrogen production from organic substrates in an aerobic nitrogen-fixing marine unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain Miami BG 043511

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y.H.; Mitsui, A. )

    1994-11-20

    Synechococcus sp. strain Miami BG 043511 exhibits very high H[sub 2] photoproduction from water, but the H[sub 2] photo-production capability is lost rapidly with the age of the batch culture. The decrease of the capability coincides with the decrease of cellular glucose content. However, H[sub 2] photoproduction capability can be restored by the addition of organic substrates. Among 40 organic compounds tested, carbohydrates such as glucose, fructose, maltose, and sucrose were effective electron donors. Among organic acids tested, only pyruvate was an effective electron donor. Among alcohols tested, glycerol was a good electron donor, whereas ethanol was a poor but positive electron donor. These results demonstrate that this unicellular cyanobacterium exhibits a wide substrate specificity for H[sub 2] photoproduction but has a different substrate specificity compared to photosynthetic bacteria. The maximum rates of H[sub 2] photoproduction from a 6-day-old batch culture with 25 mmol of pyruvate, glucose, maltose, sucrose, fructose, and glycerol were 1.11, 0.62, 0.05, 0.47, 0.30, and 0.39 [mu]moles per mg cell dry weight per hour respectively. Therefore, this cyanobacterial strain may have a potential significance in removing organic materials from the wastewater and simultaneously transforming them to H[sub 2] gas, a pollution-free energy. The activity of nitrogenase, which catalyzes hydrogen production, completely disappeared when intracellular glucose was used up, but it could be restored by the addition of organic substrates such as glucose and pyruvate.

  18. Desulfobaculum xiamenensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Desulfovibrionaceae isolated from marine mangrove sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chao; Gao, Zhaoming; Qin, Qiwei; Li, Fuying; Ruan, Lingwei

    2012-07-01

    A taxonomic study was carried out on strain P1(T), which was isolated from mangrove sediment samples collected from Qinglan Port (Hainan, China). Cells were curved rods, that were motile, with a single polar flagellum. The strain was non-spore-forming with a cell size of 0.6×1.5-2.2 µm. Catalase and oxidase activities were not detected. Growth was observed in the temperature range 22-44 °C (optimum, 35-40 °C) and pH range 5.5-8.5 (optimum, pH 7.0). NaCl was required for growth and tolerated at up to 3.5% (w/v) (optimum, 0.5%). Strain P1(T) utilized hydrogen, succinate, L-malate, citrate, oxalate, DL-lactate, pyruvate, or cysteine as electron donors, and sulfate or sulfite as electron acceptors. Fermentation products from pyruvate were acetate, H(2) and CO(2). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain P1(T) formed a distinct evolutionary lineage within the family Desulfovibrionaceae. Strain P1(T) was most closely related to members of the genera Desulfovibrio (92.0-94.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Desulfocurvus (91.1%), Bilophila (87.9%) and Lawsonia (86.0%) of the family Desulfovibrionaceae. The DNA G+C content of strain P1(T) was 64.5 mol% and the major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15:0) (18.8%), anteiso-C(15:0) (5.0%), C(16:0) (14.2%) and iso-C(17:1)ω9c (24.4%). The predominant menaquinone was MK-7 (97%). Major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. Strain P1(T) was distinguishable from members of phylogenetically related genera by differences in several phenotypic properties. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, strain P1(T) represents a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Desulfobaculum xiamenensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Desulfobaculum xiamenensis is P1(T) (=CGMCC 1.5166(T)=DSM 24233(T)).

  19. Aerosol Hygroscopicity in the Marine Atmosphere: a Closure Study Using High- Resolution, Size-Resolved AMS and Multiple-RH DASH-SP Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hersey, S. P.; Sorooshian, A.; Murphy, S.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2008-12-01

    We have conducted the first closure study to couple high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) composition data with size-resolved, multiple-RH, high-time-resolution hygroscopic growth factor (GF) measurements from the differential aerosol sizing and hygroscopicity spectrometer probe (DASH-SP). These data were collected off the coast of Central California during seven of the 16 flights carried out during the MASE-II field campaign in July 2007. Two of the seven flights were conducted in airmasses that originated over the continental United States. These flights exhibited elevated organic volume fractions (VForganic =~0.46 ± 0.22, as opposed to 0.24 ± 0.18 for all other flights), corresponding to significantly suppressed GFs at high RH (1.61 ± 0.14 at 92%RH, as compared with 1.91 ± 0.07 for all other flights), more moderate GF suppression at intermediate RH (1.53 ± 0.10 at 85%, compared with 1.58 ± 0.08 for all other flights, and no measurable GF suppression at low RH (1.31 ± 0.06 at 74%, compared with 1.31 ± 0.07 for all other flights). Organic loadings were slightly elevated in above-cloud aerosols, as compared with below-cloud aerosols, and corresponded to a similar trend of significantly suppressed GF at high RH, but more moderate impacts at lower values of RH. A hygroscopic closure based on a volume-weighted mixing rule provided excellent agreement with DASH-SP measurements (R2 = 0.79). Minimization of root mean square error between observations and predictions indicated mission-averaged organic GFs of 1.20, 1.43, and 1.46 at 74, 85, and 92% RH, respectively. These values agree with previously reported values for water-soluble organics such as dicarboxylic and multifunctional acids, and correspond to a highly oxidized, presumably water-soluble, organic fraction (O:C = 0.92 ± 0.33). Finally, a backward stepwise linear regression revealed that, other than RH, the most important predictor for GF is VForganic, indicating that a simple emperical model

  20. Aerosol hygroscopicity in the marine atmosphere: a closure study using high-resolution, size-resolved AMS and multiple-RH DASH-SP data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hersey, S. P.; Sorooshian, A.; Murphy, S. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2008-09-01

    We have conducted the first closure study to couple high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) composition data with size-resolved, multiple-RH, high-time-resolution hygroscopic growth factor (GF) measurements from the differential aerosol sizing and hygroscopicity spectrometer probe (DASH-SP). These data were collected off the coast of Central California during seven of the 16 flights carried out during the MASE-II field campaign in July 2007. Two of the seven flights were conducted in airmasses that originated over the continental United States. These flights exhibited elevated organic volume fractions (VForganic=0.46±0.22, as opposed to 0.24±0.18 for all other flights), corresponding to significantly suppressed GFs at high RH (1.61±0.14 at 92% RH, as compared with 1.91±0.07 for all other flights), more moderate GF suppression at intermediate RH (1.53±0.10 at 85%, compared with 1.58±0.08 for all other flights, and no measurable GF suppression at low RH (1.31±0.06 at 74%, compared with 1.31±0.07 for all other flights). Organic loadings were slightly elevated in above-cloud aerosols, as compared with below-cloud aerosols, and corresponded to a similar trend of significantly suppressed GF at high RH, but more moderate impacts at lower values of RH. A hygroscopic closure based on a volume-weighted mixing rule provided excellent agreement with DASH-SP measurements (R2=0.79). Minimization of root mean square error between observations and predictions indicated mission-averaged organic GFs of 1.20, 1.43, and 1.46 at 74, 85, and 92% RH, respectively. These values agree with previously reported values for water-soluble organics such as dicarboxylic and multifunctional acids, and correspond to a highly oxidized, presumably water-soluble, organic fraction (O:C=0.92±0.33). Finally, a backward stepwise linear regression revealed that, other than RH, the most important predictor for GF is VForganic, indicating that a simple emperical model relating GF, RH, and

  1. Dethiosulfatibacter aminovorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel thiosulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from coastal marine sediment via sulfate-reducing enrichment with Casamino acids.

    PubMed

    Takii, Susumu; Hanada, Satoshi; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Ueno, Yutaka; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Ibe, Akihiro; Matsuura, Katsumi

    2007-10-01

    A sulfate-reducing enrichment culture originating from coastal marine sediment of the eutrophic Tokyo Bay, Japan, was successfully established with Casamino acids as a substrate. A thiosulfate reducer, strain C/G2(T), was isolated from the enrichment culture after further enrichment with glutamate. Cells of strain C/G2(T) were non-motile rods (0.6-0.8 microm x 2.2-4.8 microm) and were found singly or in pairs and sometimes in short chains. Spores were not formed. Cells of strain C/G2(T) stained Gram-negatively, despite possessing Gram-positive cell walls. The optimum temperature for growth was 28-30 degrees C, the optimum pH was around 7.8 and the optimum salt concentration was 20-30 g l(-1). Lactate, pyruvate, serine, cysteine, threonine, glutamate, histidine, lysine, arginine, Casamino acids, peptone and yeast extract were fermented as single substrates and no sugar was used as a fermentative substrate. A Stickland reaction was observed with some pairs of amino acids. Fumarate, alanine, proline, phenylalanine, tryptophan, glutamine and aspartate were utilized only in the presence of thiosulfate. Strain C/G2(T) fermented glutamate to H2, CO2, acetate and propionate. Thiosulfate and elemental sulfur were reduced to sulfide. Sulfate, sulfite and nitrate were not utilized as electron acceptors. The growth of strain C/G2(T) on Casamino acids or glutamate was enhanced by co-culturing with Desulfovibrio sp. isolated from the original mixed culture enriched with Casamino acids. The DNA G+C content of strain C/G2(T) was 41.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain C/G2(T) formed a distinct cluster with species of the genus Sedimentibacter. The closest relative was Sedimentibacter hydroxybenzoicus (with a gene sequence similarity of 91 %). On the basis of its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, strain C/G2(T) (=JCM 13356(T)=NBRC 101112(T)=DSM 17477(T)) is proposed as representing a new genus and novel species, Dethiosulfatibacter

  2. The effect of Ca2+ ions and ionic strength on Mn(II) oxidation by spores of the marine Bacillus sp. SG-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Tebo, Bradley M.

    2013-01-01

    Manganese(IV) oxides, believed to form primarily through microbial activities, are extremely important mineral phases in marine environments where they scavenge a variety of trace elements and thereby control their distributions. The presence of various ions common in seawater are known to influence Mn oxide mineralogy yet little is known about the effect of these ions on the kinetics of bacterial Mn(II) oxidation and Mn oxide formation. We examined factors affecting bacterial Mn(II) oxidation by spores of the marine Bacillus sp. strain SG-1 in natural and artificial seawater of varying ionic conditions. Ca2+ concentration dramatically affected Mn(II) oxidation, while Mg2+, Sr2+, K+, Na+ and NO3- ions had no effect. The rate of Mn(II) oxidation at 10 mM Ca2+ (seawater composition) was four or five times that without Ca2+. The relationship between Ca2+ content and oxidation rate demonstrates that the equilibrium constant is small (on the order of 0.1) and the binding coefficient is 0.5. The pH optimum for Mn(II) oxidation changed depending on the amount of Ca2+ present, suggesting that Ca2+ exerts a direct effect on the enzyme perhaps as a stabilizing bridge between polypeptide components. We also examined the effect of varying concentrations of NaCl or KNO3 (0-2000 mM) on the kinetics of Mn(II) oxidation in solutions containing 10 mM Ca2+. Mn(II) oxidation was unaffected by changes in ionic strength (I) below 0.2, but it was inhibited by increasing salt concentrations above this value. Our results suggest that the critical coagulation concentration is around 200 mM of salt (I = ca. 0.2), and that the ionic strength of seawater (I > 0.2) accelerates the precipitation of Mn oxides around the spores. Under these conditions, the aggregation of Mn oxides reduces the supply of dissolved O2 and/or Mn2+ and inhibits the Mn(II) → Mn(III) step controlling the enzymatic oxidation of Mn(II). Our results suggest that the hardness and ionic strength of the aquatic environment

  3. Potential role of a novel psychrotolerant member of the family Geobacteraceae, Geopsychrobacter electrodiphilus gen. nov., sp. nov., in electricity production by a marine sediment fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Dawn E; Nicoll, Julie S; Bond, Daniel R; Lovley, Derek R

    2004-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that members of the family Geobacteraceae that attach to the anodes of sediment fuel cells are directly involved in harvesting electricity by oxidizing organic compounds to carbon dioxide and transferring the electrons to the anode. In order to learn more about this process, microorganisms from the anode surface of a marine sediment fuel cell were enriched and isolated with Fe(III) oxide. Two unique marine isolates were recovered, strains A1(T) and A2. They are gram-negative, nonmotile rods, with abundant c-type cytochromes. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, recA, gyrB, fusA, rpoB, and nifD genes indicated that strains A1(T) and A2 represent a unique phylogenetic cluster within the Geobacteraceae. Both strains were able to grow with an electrode serving as the sole electron acceptor and transferred ca. 90% of the electrons available in their organic electron donors to the electrodes. These organisms are the first psychrotolerant members of the Geobacteraceae reported thus far and can grow at temperatures between 4 and 30 degrees C, with an optimum temperature of 22 degrees C. Strains A1(T) and A2 can utilize a wide range of traditional electron acceptors, including all forms of soluble and insoluble Fe(III) tested, anthraquinone 2,6-disulfonate, and S(0). In addition to acetate, both strains can utilize a number of other organic acids, amino acids, long-chain fatty acids, and aromatic compounds to support growth with Fe(III) nitrilotriacetic acid as an electron acceptor. The metabolism of these organisms differs in that only strain A1(T) can use acetoin, ethanol, and hydrogen as electron donors, whereas only strain A2 can use lactate, propionate, and butyrate. The name Geopsychrobacter electrodiphilus gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed for strains A1(T) and A2, with strain A1(T) (ATCC BAA-880(T); DSM 16401(T); JCM 12469) as the type strain. Strains A1(T) and A2 (ATCC BAA-770; JCM 12470) represent the first organisms recovered from

  4. Bacillus mesophilus sp. nov., an alginate-degrading bacterium isolated from a soil sample collected from an abandoned marine solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-Xia; Liu, Guo-Hong; Liu, Bo; Chen, Guan-Jun; Du, Zong-Jun

    2016-07-01

    A novel Gram-stain positive, endospore-forming bacterium, designated SA4(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from an abandoned marine solar saltern at Wendeng, Shandong Province, PR China. Cells were observed to be rod shaped, alginase positive, catalase positive and motile. The strain was found to grow at temperatures ranging from 15 to 40 °C (optimum 35 °C), and pH 5.0-11.0 (optimum pH 8.0) with 0-7.0 % (w/v) NaCl concentration (optimum NaCl 3.0 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain SA4(T) belongs to the genus Bacillus and exhibits 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 96.6, 96.5, 96.3 and 96.2 % with Bacillus horikoshii DSM 8719(T), Bacillus acidicola 105-2(T), Bacillus shackletonii LMG 18435(T) and Bacillus pocheonensis Gsoil 420(T), respectively. The menaquinone was identified as MK-7 and the major polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major fatty acids detected were anteiso-C15:0 (22.3 %), iso-C15:0 (22.6 %), iso-C16:0 (14.8 %) and iso-C14:0 (14.7 %). The DNA G+C content was determined to be 42.4 mol %. Phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic properties clearly indicated that isolate SA4(T) represents a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus mesophius sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SA4(T) (=DSM 101000(T)=CCTCC AB 2015209(T)).

  5. Characterization of Leuconostoc gasicomitatum sp. nov., Associated with Spoiled Raw Tomato-Marinated Broiler Meat Strips Packaged under Modified-Atmosphere Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Björkroth, K. Johanna; Geisen, Rolf; Schillinger, Ulrich; Weiss, Norbert; De Vos, Paul; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Korkeala, Hannu J.; Vandamme, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associated with gaseous spoilage of modified-atmosphere-packaged, raw, tomato-marinated broiler meat strips were identified on the basis of a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) (ribotyping) database containing DNAs coding for 16S and 23S rRNAs (rDNAs). A mixed LAB population dominated by a Leuconostoc species resembling Leuconostoc gelidum caused the spoilage of the product. Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus curvatus, and a gram-positive rod phenotypically similar to heterofermentative Lactobacillus species were the other main organisms detected. An increase in pH together with the extreme bulging of packages suggested a rare LAB spoilage type called “protein swell.” This spoilage is characterized by excessive production of gas due to amino acid decarboxylation, and the rise in pH is attributed to the subsequent deamination of amino acids. Protein swell has not previously been associated with any kind of meat product. A polyphasic approach, including classical phenotyping, whole-cell protein electrophoresis, 16 and 23S rDNA RFLP, 16S rDNA sequence analysis, and DNA-DNA reassociation analysis, was used for the identification of the dominant Leuconostoc species. In addition to the RFLP analysis, phenotyping, whole-cell protein analysis, and 16S rDNA sequence homology indicated that L. gelidum was most similar to the spoilage-associated species. The two spoilage strains studied possessed 98.8 and 99.0% 16S rDNA sequence homology with the L. gelidum type strain. DNA-DNA reassociation, however, clearly distinguished the two species. The same strains showed only 22 and 34% hybridization with the L. gelidum type strain. These results warrant a separate species status, and we propose the name Leuconostoc gasicomitatum sp. nov. for this spoilage-associated Leuconostoc species. PMID:10966388

  6. Abyssicoccus albus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Staphylococcaceae isolated from marine sediment of the Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhao; Yuan, Chang-Guo; Xiao, Min; Tian, Xin-Peng; Khan, Inam-Ullah; Kim, Chang-Jin; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-08-01

    A Gram-stain positive, aerobic, non-motile, asporogenous, coccoid shaped bacterium, designated YIM M12140(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from the Indian Ocean. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain YIM M12140(T) forms a separate clade within the family Staphylococcaceae. Strain YIM M12140(T) shares high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Macrococcus brunensis DSM 19358(T) (92.9 %). The isolate was found to grow at 0-10 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2-3 %), pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 8.0) and temperature 5-40 °C (optimum, 28 °C). The polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified aminophospholipid and two unidentified polar lipids. The major cellular fatty acids of the strain were identified as anteiso-C15:0, -C17:0, iso-C16:0, anteiso-C19:0 and C20:0. The respiratory menaquinones were found to be MK-6 (94 %) and MK-7 (6 %). The cell wall amino acids were found to contain Lys, Ala, Glu, Gly, Asp, Ser and Thr. Whole cell sugars were identified as mannose, ribose, rhamnose, glucose, galactose and xylose. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain YIM M12140(T) was determined to be 42.4 mol %. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic data and phylogenetic analysis, it is proposed that strain YIM M12140(T) represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Staphylococcaceae, for which the name Abyssicoccus albus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM M12140(T) (= DSM 29158(T) = CCTCC AB 2014213(T)).

  7. PTP1B Inhibitory and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Secondary Metabolites Isolated from the Marine-Derived Fungus Penicillium sp. JF-55

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Sung; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Ko, Wonmin; Kim, Kyoung-Su; Sohn, Jae Hak; Kang, Myeong-Suk; Ahn, Jong Seog; Kim, Youn-Chul; Oh, Hyuncheol

    2013-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) plays a major role in the negative regulation of insulin signaling, and is thus considered as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetes. Bioassay-guided investigation of the methylethylketone extract of marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp. JF-55 cultures afforded a new PTP1B inhibitory styrylpyrone-type metabolite named penstyrylpyrone (1), and two known metabolites, anhydrofulvic acid (2) and citromycetin (3). Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited PTP1B activity in a dose-dependent manner, and kinetic analyses of PTP1B inhibition suggested that these compounds inhibited PTP1B activity in a competitive manner. In an effort to gain more biological potential of the isolated compounds, the anti-inflammatory effects of compounds 1–3 were also evaluated. Among the tested compounds, only compound 1 inhibited the production of NO and PGE2, due to the inhibition of the expression of iNOS and COX-2. Penstyrylpyrone (1) also reduced TNF-α and IL-1β production, and these anti-inflammatory effects were shown to be correlated with the suppression of the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB-α, NF-κB nuclear translocation, and NF-κB DNA binding activity. In addition, using inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), an inhibitor of HO-1, it was verified that the inhibitory effects of penstyrylpyrone (1) on the pro-inflammatory mediators and NF-κB DNA binding activity were associated with the HO-1 expression. Therefore, these results suggest that penstyrylpyrone (1) suppresses PTP1B activity, as well as the production of pro-inflammatory mediators via NF-κB pathway, through expression of anti-inflammatory HO-1. PMID:23612372

  8. Techniques of remote sensing applied to the environmental analysis of part of an aquifer located in the São José dos Campos Region sp, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Mariana Affonseca; Dos Anjos, Célio Eustáquio

    2003-05-01

    The anthropogenic activity on the surface can modify and introduce new mechanisms of recharging the groundwater system, modifying the tax, the frequency and the quality of recharge of underground waters. The understanding of these mechanisms and the correct evaluation of such modifications are fundamental in determining the vulnerability of groundwater contamination. The groundwater flow of the South Paraíba Compartment, in the region of São José dos Campos, São Paulo, is directly related to structural features of the Taubaté Basin and, therefore, the analysis of its behaviour enhances the understanding of tectonic structure. The methodology adopted for this work consists in pre-processing and processing of the satellite images, visual interpretation of HSI products, field work and data integration. The derivation of the main structural features was based on visual analysis of the texture elements of drainage, and the relief in sedimentary and crystalline rocks. Statistical analysis of the feature densities and the metric-geometric relations between the analysed elements have been conducted. The crystalline rocks, on which the sediments were laying, conditions and controls the structural arrangement of sedimentary formations. The formation of the South Paraíba Grabén is associated with Cenozoic distensive movement which reactivated old features of crust weakness and generated previous cycles with normal characteristics. The environmental analysis is based on the integration of the existing methodology to characterise vulnerability of an universal pollutant and density fracture zone. The digital integration was processed using GIS (Geographic Information System) to delineate five defined vulnerability classes. The hydrogeological settings were analysed in each thematic map and, using fuzzy logic, an index for each different vulnerability class was compiled. Evidence maps could be combined in a series of steps using map algebra.

  9. Catenovulum maritimus sp. nov., a novel agarolytic gammaproteobacterium isolated from the marine alga Porphyra yezoensis Ueda (AST58-103), and emended description of the genus Catenovulum.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-Qi; Zhou, Yan-Xia; Liu, Tao; Chen, Guan-Jun; Du, Zong-Jun

    2015-08-01

    A novel agarolytic, Gram-stain negative, heterotrophic, facultatively anaerobic and pale-white pigmented bacterial strain, designated Q1(T), was isolated from the marine alga Porphyra yezoensis Ueda (AST58-103) collected from the coastal area of Weihai, China. The cells are motile by means of peritrichous flagella. The isolate requires NaCl for growth, while seawater is not necessary, and growth occurs optimally at about 30-33 °C, in 1-3 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 7-7.5. Strain Q1(T) shows oxidase-positive and catalase-negative activities, and possesses the ability to hydrolyse starch and alginate, but not cellulose, gelatin, urea or Tween-80. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain Q1(T) is affiliated with the family Alteromonadaceae within the class Gammaproteobacteria. The isolate, strain Q1(T), is most closely related to Catenovulum agarivorans YM01(T) (94.85 %), with less than 91.2 % sequence similarity to other close relatives with validly published names. The draft genome sequence of strain Q1(T) consists of 62 contigs (>200 bp) of 4,548,270 bp. The genomes of Q1(T) and YM01(T) have an ANI value of 70.7 %, and the POCP value between the two genomes is 64.4 %. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain Q1(T) is 37.9 mol% as calculated from the draft genome sequence. The main isoprenoid quinone is ubiquinone-8. The predominant cellular fatty acids are summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH), C16:0 and C18:1 ω7c. The major polar lipids are phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. Based on data from a polyphasic chemotaxonomic, physiological and biochemical study, strain Q1(T) should be classified as a novel species of the genus Catenovulum, for which the name Catenovulum maritimus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Q1(T) (=CICC 10836(T)=DSM 28813(T)).

  10. Cloning of thermostable DNA polymerases from hyperthermophilic marine Archaea with emphasis on Thermococcus sp. 9 degrees N-7 and mutations affecting 3'-5' exonuclease activity.

    PubMed Central

    Southworth, M W; Kong, H; Kucera, R B; Ware, J; Jannasch, H W; Perler, F B

    1996-01-01

    Five extremely thermophilic Archaea from hydrothermal vents were isolated, and their DNA polymerases were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Protein splicing elements (inteins) are present in many archaeal DNA polymerases, but only the DNA polymerase from strain GB-C contained an intein. Of the five cloned DNA polymerases, the Thermococcus sp. 9 degrees N-7 DNA polymerase was chosen for biochemical characterization. Thermococcus sp. 9 degrees N-7 DNA polymerase exhibited temperature-sensitive strand displacement activity and apparent Km values for DNA and dNTP similar to those of Thermococcus litoralis DNA polymerase. Six substitutions in the 3'-5' exonuclease motif I were constructed in an attempt to reduce the 3'-5' exonuclease activity of Thermococcus sp. 9 degrees N-7 DNA polymerase. Five mutants resulted in no detectable 3'-5' exonuclease activity, while one mutant (Glul43Asp) had <1% of wild-type activity. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8643567

  11. Genome Sequence of Halomonas sp. Strain KO116, an Ionic Liquid- Tolerant Marine Bacterium Isolated from a Lignin-Enriched Seawater Microcosm

    DOE PAGES

    O'Dell, Kaela; Woo, Hannah L.; Utturkar, Sagar M.; ...

    2015-05-07

    Halomonas sp. strain KO116 was isolated from Nile Delta Mediterranean Sea surface water enriched with insoluble organosolv lignin. It was further screened for growth on alkali lignin minimal salts medium agar. The strain tolerates the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. Its complete genome sequence is presented in this report.

  12. INFLUENCE OF LARVAL EXPOSURE TO SALINITY AND CADMIUM STRESS ON JUVENILE PERFORMANCE OF TWO MARINE INVERTEBRATES, CAPITELLA SP I AND CREPIDULA FORNICATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Delayed metamorphosis and short-term food limitation reduce juvenile or adult fitness in a number of marine invertebrate species. In this study, we tested the ability of pollutant and salinity stress to bring about similar effects on juvenile or adult performance. Larvae of the p...

  13. The hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacterium Cobetia sp. strain MM1IDA2H-1 produces a biosurfactant that interferes with quorum sensing of fish pathogens by signal hijacking.

    PubMed

    Ibacache-Quiroga, C; Ojeda, J; Espinoza-Vergara, G; Olivero, P; Cuellar, M; Dinamarca, M A

    2013-07-01

    Biosurfactants are produced by hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacteria in response to the presence of water-insoluble hydrocarbons. This is believed to facilitate the uptake of hydrocarbons by bacteria. However, these diffusible amphiphilic surface-active molecules are involved in several other biological functions such as microbial competition and intra- or inter-species communication. We report the isolation and characterization of a marine bacterial strain identified as Cobetia sp. MM1IDA2H-1, which can grow using the sulfur-containing heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dibenzothiophene (DBT). As with DBT, when the isolated strain is grown in the presence of a microbial competitor, it produces a biosurfactant. Because the obtained biosurfactant was formed by hydroxy fatty acids and extracellular lipidic structures were observed during bacterial growth, we investigated whether the biosurfactant at its critical micelle concentration can interfere with bacterial communication systems such as quorum sensing. We focused on Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, a fish pathogen whose virulence relies on quorum sensing signals. Using biosensors for quorum sensing based on Chromobacterium violaceum and Vibrio anguillarum, we showed that when the purified biosurfactant was mixed with N-acyl homoserine lactones produced by A. salmonicida, quorum sensing was inhibited, although bacterial growth was not affected. In addition, the transcriptional activities of A. salmonicida virulence genes that are controlled by quorum sensing were repressed by both the purified biosurfactant and the growth in the presence of Cobetia sp. MM1IDA2H-1. We propose that the biosurfactant, or the lipid structures interact with the N-acyl homoserine lactones, inhibiting their function. This could be used as a strategy to interfere with the quorum sensing systems of bacterial fish pathogens, which represents an attractive alternative to classical antimicrobial therapies in fish aquaculture.

  14. The hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacterium Cobetia sp. strain MM1IDA2H-1 produces a biosurfactant that interferes with quorum sensing of fish pathogens by signal hijacking

    PubMed Central

    Ibacache-Quiroga, C; Ojeda, J; Espinoza-Vergara, G; Olivero, P; Cuellar, M; Dinamarca, M A

    2013-01-01

    Summary Biosurfactants are produced by hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacteria in response to the presence of water-insoluble hydrocarbons. This is believed to facilitate the uptake of hydrocarbons by bacteria. However, these diffusible amphiphilic surface-active molecules are involved in several other biological functions such as microbial competition and intra-or inter-species communication. We report the isolation and characterization of a marine bacterial strain identified as Cobetia sp. MM1IDA2H-1, which can grow using the sulfur-containing heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dibenzothiophene (DBT). As with DBT, when the isolated strain is grown in the presence of a microbial competitor, it produces a biosurfactant. Because the obtained biosurfactant was formed by hydroxy fatty acids and extracellular lipidic structures were observed during bacterial growth, we investigated whether the biosurfactant at its critical micelle concentration can interfere with bacterial communication systems such as quorum sensing. We focused on Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, a fish pathogen whose virulence relies on quorum sensing signals. Using biosensors for quorum sensing based on Chromobacterium violaceum and Vibrio anguillarum, we showed that when the purified biosurfactant was mixed with N-acyl homoserine lactones produced by A. salmonicida, quorum sensing was inhibited, although bacterial growth was not affected. In addition, the transcriptional activities of A. salmonicida virulence genes that are controlled by quorum sensing were repressed by both the purified biosurfactant and the growth in the presence of Cobetia sp. MM1IDA2H-1. We propose that the biosurfactant, or the lipid structures interact with the N-acyl homoserine lactones, inhibiting their function. This could be used as a strategy to interfere with the quorum sensing systems of bacterial fish pathogens, which represents an attractive alternative to classical antimicrobial therapies in fish

  15. Antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content and iron bioavailability from algae (Ulva sp., Sargassum sp. and Porphyra sp.) in human subjects.

    PubMed

    García-Casal, Maria N; Ramírez, José; Leets, Irene; Pereira, Ana C; Quiroga, Maria F

    2009-01-01

    Marine algae are easily produced and are good sources of Fe. If this Fe is bioavailable, algae consumption could help to combat Fe deficiency and anaemia worldwide. The objective of the present study was to evaluate Fe bioavailability, polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity from three species of marine algae distributed worldwide. A total of eighty-three subjects received maize- or wheat-based meals containing marine algae (Ulva sp., Sargassum sp. and Porphyra sp.) in different proportions (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g) added to the water to prepare the dough. All meals administered contained radioactive Fe. Absorption was evaluated calculating radioactive Fe incorporation in subjects' blood. The three species of marine algae were analysed for polyphenol content and reducing power. Algae significantly increased Fe absorption in maize- or wheat-based meals, especially Sargassum sp., due to its high Fe content. Increases in absorption were dose-dependent and higher in wheat- than in maize-based meals. Total polyphenol content was 10.84, 18.43 and 80.39 gallic acid equivalents/g for Ulva sp., Porphyra sp. and Sargassum sp., respectively. The antioxidant capacity was also significantly higher in Sargassum sp. compared with the other two species analysed. Ulva sp., Sargassum sp. and Porphyra sp. are good sources of bioavailable Fe. Sargassum sp. resulted in the highest Fe intake due to its high Fe content, and a bread containing 7.5 g Sargassum sp. covers daily Fe needs. The high polyphenol content found in Sargassum sp. could be partly responsible for the antioxidant power reported here, and apparently did not affect Fe absorption.

  16. Monoxenic liquid culture with Escherichia coli of the free-living nematode Panagrolaimus sp. (strain NFS 24-5), a potential live food candidate for marine fish and shrimp larvae.

    PubMed

    Ayub, Farhana; Seychelles, Laurent; Strauch, Olaf; Wittke, Martina; Ehlers, Ralf-Udo

    2013-09-01

    The free-living, bacterial-feeding nematode Panagrolaimus sp. (strain NFS 24-5) has potential for use as live food for marine shrimp and fish larvae. Mass production in liquid culture is a prerequisite for its commercial exploitation. Panagrolaimus sp. was propagated in monoxenic liquid culture on Escherichia coli and parameters, like nematode density, population dynamics and biomass were recorded and compared with life history table data. A mean maximum nematode density of 174,278 mL(-1) and a maximum of 251,000 mL(-1) were recorded on day 17 after inoculation. Highest average biomass was 40 g L(-1) at day 13. The comparison with life history table data indicated that the hypothetical potential of liquid culture is much higher than documented during this investigation. Nematode development is delayed in liquid culture and egg production per female is more than five times lower than reported from life history trait analysis. The latter assessed a nematode generation time of 7.1 days, whereas the process time at maximum nematode density in liquid culture was 16 days indicating that a reduction of the process time can be achieved by further investigating the influence of nematode inoculum density on population development. The results challenge future research to reduce process time and variability and improve population dynamics also during scale-up of the liquid culture process.

  17. Halomonas sp. OKOH--a marine bacterium isolated from the bottom sediment of Algoa Bay--produces a polysaccharide bioflocculant: partial characterization and biochemical analysis of its properties.

    PubMed

    Mabinya, Leonard V; Cosa, Sekelwa; Mkwetshana, Noxolo; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-05-25

    A bioflocculant-producing bacterium isolated from seawater was identified based on 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence to have 99% similarity to that of Halomonas sp. Au160H and the nucleotide sequence was deposited as Halomonas sp. OKOH (Genbank accession number is HQ875722). Influences of carbon source, nitrogen source, salt ions and pH on flocculating activity were investigated. The bioflocculant was optimally produced when glucose (87% flocculating activity) and urea (88% flocculating activity) were used as sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. Also, initial pH of 7.0 and Ca²⁺ supported optimal production of the bioflocculant with flocculating activities of 87% respectively. Chemical analyses revealed the bioflocculant to be a polysaccharide.

  18. Structural Confirmation of a Unique Carotenoid Lactoside, P457, in Symbiodinium sp. Strain nbrc 104787 Isolated from a Sea Anemone and its Distribution in Dinoflagellates and Various Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Wakahama, Takahiro; Laza-Martínez, Aitor; Bin Haji Mohd Taha, Ahmad Iskandar; Okuyama, Hidetoshi; Yoshida, Kiyohito; Kogame, Kazuhiro; Awai, Koichiro; Kawachi, Masanobu; Maoka, Takashi; Takaichi, Shinichi

    2012-12-01

    The molecular structure of the carotenoid lactoside P457, (3S,5R,6R,3'S,5'R,6'S)-13'-cis-5,6-epoxy-3',5'-dihydroxy-3-(β-d-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-d-glucosyl)oxy-6',7'-didehydro-5,6,7,8,5',6'-hexahydro-β,β-caroten-20-al, was confirmed by spectroscopic methods using Symbiodinium sp. strain NBRC 104787 cells isolated from a sea anemone. Among various algae, cyanobacteria, land plants, and marine invertebrates, the distribution of this unique diglycosyl carotenoid was restricted to free-living peridinin-containing dinoflagellates and marine invertebrates that harbor peridinin-containing zooxanthellae. Neoxanthin appeared to be a common precursor for biosynthesis of peridinin and P457, although neoxanthin was not found in peridinin-containing dinoflagellates. Fucoxanthin-containing dinoflagellates did not possess peridinin or P457; green dinoflagellates, which contain chlorophyll a and b, did not contain peridinin, fucoxanthin, or P457; and no unicellular algae containing both peridinin and P457, other than peridinin-containing dinoflagellates, have been observed. Therefore, the biosynthetic pathways for peridinin and P457 may have been coestablished during the evolution of dinoflagellates after the host heterotrophic eukaryotic microorganism formed a symbiotic association with red alga that does not contain peridinin or P457.

  19. Anti-Inflammatory and Cytoprotective Effects of TMC-256C1 from Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp. SF-6354 via up-Regulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Murine Hippocampal and Microglial Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Cheol; Cho, Kwang-Ho; Ko, Wonmin; Yoon, Chi-Su; Sohn, Jae Hak; Yim, Joung Han; Kim, Youn-Chul; Oh, Hyuncheol

    2016-01-01

    In the course of searching for bioactive secondary metabolites from marine fungi, TMC-256C1 was isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. SF6354. TMC-256C1 displayed anti-neuroinflammatory effect in BV2 microglial cells induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) as well as neuroprotective effect against glutamate-stimulated neurotoxicity in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. TMC-256C1 was shown to develop a cellular resistance to oxidative damage caused by glutamate-induced cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in HT22 cells, and suppress the inflammation process in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Furthermore, the neuroprotective and anti-neuroinflammatory activities of TMC-256C1 were associated with upregulated expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in HT22 and BV2 cells. We also found that TMC-256C1 activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathways in HT22 and BV2 cells. These results demonstrated that TMC-256C1 activates HO-1 protein expression, probably by increasing nuclear Nrf2 levels via the activation of the p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways. PMID:27070586

  20. A Description of Biremis panamae sp. nov., a New Diatom Species from the Marine Littoral, with an Account of the Phylogenetic Position of Biremis D.G. Mann et E.J. Cox (Bacillariophyceae)

    PubMed Central

    Witkowski, Andrzej; Barka, Frederik; Mann, David G.; Li, Chunlian; Weisenborn, Jascha L. F.; Ashworth, Matt P.; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof J.; Zgłobicka, Izabela; Dobosz, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    Here we present a formal description of Biremis panamae Barka, Witkowski et Weisenborn sp. nov., which was isolated from the marine littoral environment of the Pacific Ocean coast of Panama. The description is based on morphology (light and electron microscopy) and the rbcL, psbC and SSU sequences of one clone of this species. The new species is included in Biremis due to its morphological features; i.e. two marginal rows of foramina, chambered striae, and girdle composed of numerous punctate copulae. The new species also possesses a striated valve face which is not seen in most known representatives of marine littoral Biremis species. In this study we also present the relationship of Biremis to other taxa using morphology, DNA sequence data and observations of auxosporulation. Our results based on these three sources point to an evolutionary relationship between Biremis, Neidium and Scoliopleura. The unusual silicified incunabular caps present in them are known otherwise only in Muelleria, which is probably related to the Neidiaceae and Scoliotropidaceae. We also discuss the relationship between Biremis and the recently described Labellicula and Olifantiella. PMID:25494095

  1. Actions of Mycobacterium sp. strain AP1 on the saturated- and aromatic-hydrocarbon fractions of fuel oil in a marine medium.

    PubMed

    Vila, Joaquim; Grifoll, Magdalena

    2009-10-01

    The pyrene-degrading Mycobacterium sp. strain AP1 grew in nutrient-supplemented artificial seawater with a heavy fuel oil as the sole carbon source, causing the complete removal of all linear (C(12) to C(40)) and branched alkanes from the aliphatic fraction, as well as an extensive degradation of the three- and four-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) phenanthrene (95%), anthracene (80%), fluoranthene (80%), pyrene (75%), and benzo(a)anthracene (30%). Alkylated PAHs, which are more abundant in crude oils than the nonsubstituted compounds, were selectively attacked at extents that varied from more than 90% for dimethylnaphthalenes, methylphenanthrenes, methylfluorenes, and methyldibenzothiophenes to about 30% for monomethylated fluoranthenes/pyrenes and trimethylated phenanthrenes and dibenzothiophenes. Identification of key metabolites indicated the utilization of phenanthrene, pyrene, and fluoranthene by known assimilatory metabolic routes, while other components were cooxidized. Detection of mono- and dimethylated phthalic acids demonstrated ring cleavage and further oxidation of alkyl PAHs. The extensive degradation of the alkanes, the two-, three-, and four-ring PAHs, and their 1-, 2-, and 3-methyl derivatives from a complex mixture of hydrocarbons by Mycobacterium sp. strain AP1 illustrates the great substrate versatility of alkane- and PAH-degrading mycobacteria.

  2. Dereplication Strategies for Targeted Isolation of New Antitrypanosomal Actinosporins A and B from a Marine Sponge Associated-Actinokineospora sp. EG49

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Cheng, Cheng; Viegelmann, Christina; Zhang, Tong; Grkovic, Tanja; Ahmed, Safwat; Quinn, Ronald J.; Hentschel, Ute; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie

    2014-01-01

    High resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry (HRFTMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were employed as complementary metabolomic tools to dereplicate the chemical profile of the new and antitrypanosomally active sponge-associated bacterium Actinokineospora sp. EG49 extract. Principal Component (PCA), hierarchical clustering (HCA), and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used to evaluate the HRFTMS and NMR data of crude extracts from four different fermentation approaches. Statistical analysis identified the best culture one-strain-many-compounds (OSMAC) condition and extraction procedure, which was used for the isolation of novel bioactive metabolites. As a result, two new O-glycosylated angucyclines, named actinosporins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the broth culture of Actinokineospora sp. strain EG49, which was cultivated from the Red Sea sponge Spheciospongia vagabunda. The structures of actinosporins A and B were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques, as well as high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Testing for antiparasitic properties showed that actinosporin A exhibited activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei with an IC50 value of 15 µM; however no activity was detected against Leishmania major and Plasmodium falciparum, therefore suggesting its selectivity against the parasite Trypanosoma brucei brucei; the causative agent of sleeping sickness. PMID:24663112

  3. Molecular cloning, characterization and enzymatic properties of a novel βeta-agarase from a marine isolate Psudoalteromonas SP. AG52

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chulhong; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Lee, Youngdeuk; Whang, Ilson; Kang, Do-Hyung; Heo, Soo-Jin; Choi, Young-Ung; Lee, Jehee

    2010-01-01

    An agar-degrading Pseudoalteromonas sp. AG52 bacterial strain was identified from the red seaweed Gelidium amansii collected from Jeju Island, Korea. A β-agarase gene which has 96.8% nucleotide identity to Aeromonas β-agarase was cloned from this strain, and was designated as agaA. The coding region is 870 bp, encoding 290 amino acids and possesses characteristic features of the glycoside hydrolase family (GHF)-16. The predicted molecular mass of the mature protein was 32 kDa. The recombinant β-agarase (rAgaA) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified as a fusion protein. The optimal temperature and pH for activity were 55 °C and 5.5, respectively. The enzyme had a specific activity of 105.1 and 79.5 unit/mg toward agar and agarose, respectively. The pattern of agar hydrolysis demonstrated that the enzyme is an endo-type β-agarase, producing neoagarohexaose and neoagarotetraose as the final main products. Since, Pseudoalteromonas sp. AG52 encodes an agaA gene, which has greater identity to Aeromonas β-agarase, the enzyme could be considered as novel, with its unique bio chemical characteristics. Altogether, the purified rAgaA has potential for use in industrial applications such as development of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. PMID:24031567

  4. Molecular cloning, overexpression, and enzymatic characterization of glycosyl hydrolase family 16 β-Agarase from marine bacterium Saccharophagus sp. AG21 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngdeuk; Oh, Chulhong; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Kim, Hyowon; Wickramaarachchi, Wickramaarachchige Don Niroshana; Whang, Ilson; Kang, Do-Hyung; Lee, Jehee

    2013-01-01

    An agar-degrading bacterium was isolated from red seaweed (Gelidium amansii) on a natural seawater agar plate, and identified as Saccharophagus sp. AG21. The β-agarase gene from Saccharophagus sp. AG21 (agy1) was screened by long and accurate (LA)-PCR. The predicted sequence has a 1,908 bp open reading frame encoding 636 amino acids (aa), and includes a glycosyl hydrolase family 16 (GH16) β-agarase module and two carbohydrate binding modules of family 6 (CBM6). The deduced aa sequence showed 93.7% and 84.9% similarity to β-agarase of Saccharophagus degradans and Microbulbifer agarilyticus, respectively. The mature agy1 was cloned and overexpressed as a His-tagged recombinant β-agarase (rAgy1) in Escherichia coli, and had a predicted molecular mass of 69 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.5. rAgy1 showed optimum activity at 55oC and pH 7.6, and had a specific activity of 85 U/mg. The rAgy1 activity was enhanced by FeSO4 (40%), KCl (34%), and NaCl (34%), compared with the control. The newly identified rAgy1 is a β-agarase, which acts to degrade agarose to neoagarotetraose (NA4) and neoagarohexaose (NA6) and may be useful for applications in the cosmetics, food, bioethanol, and reagent industries.

  5. Metals in marine environment (mollusc Patella sp., fish Labrus bergylta, crustacean Cancer pagurus, beach sand) in a nuclear area, the North Cotentin (France).

    PubMed

    Connan, Olivier; Tack, Karine

    2010-06-01

    The results of a 1-year long survey of trace metals concentrations (Al, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) measured in beach sand, limpets and, occasionally, in fish and shellfish from the North Cotentin area (France), where nuclear industries are implanted, are presented. The objective of these study was to provide useful data for the validation of models predicting the impact of these industries on the marine environment. Even if differences were noted between sites for various metals, the levels are consistent with existing data published for similar site and do not appear to give evidence of contamination by industrial sites.

  6. Preparation of RNA from bacteria infected with bacteriophages: a case study from the marine unicellular Synechococcus sp. WH7803 infected by phage S-PM2.

    PubMed

    Shan, Jinyu; Clokie, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Bacteriophages manipulate bacterial gene expression in order to express their own genes or influence bacterial metabolism. Gene expression can be studied using real-time PCR or microarrays. Either technique requires the prior isolation of high quality RNA uncontaminated by the presence of genomic DNA. We outline the considerations necessary when working with bacteriophage infected bacterial cells. We also give an example of a protocol for extraction and quantification of high quality RNA from infected bacterial cells, using the marine cyanobacterium WH7803 and the phage S-PM2 as a case study. This protocol can be modified to extract RNA from the host/bacteriophage of interest.

  7. Light-stick: A problem of marine pollution in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cesar-Ribeiro, Caio; Rosa, Helena Costi; Rocha, Daniele Oliveira; Dos Reis, Camila Galli Baldini; Prado, Tabata Sarti; Muniz, Daniela Hernandes Coimbra; Carrasco, Raquel; Silva, Flávia Milão; Martinelli-Filho, José Eduardo; Palanch-Hans, Maria Fernanda

    2017-04-15

    Light-sticks are used as bait in surface long-line fishing, to capture swordfish and other large pelagic predators. When discharged in the ocean, it may reach the beaches. The traditional Brazilian community of Costa dos Coqueiros, Bahia, use light-sticks as a medicine for rheumatism, vitiligo and mycoses. It may affect the marine life when its content leak in the open ocean. This work evaluated and identified the acute and chronic toxicity of the light-stick. A high acute toxicity was observed in the mobility/mortality of Artemia sp.; in the fertilization of sea urchin eggs, and a high chronic toxicity in the development of the pluteus larvae of the same sea urchin. The main compounds that probably caused toxicity were the volatiles such as the fluorescent PAH and oxidants such as the hydrogen peroxide. Its disposal in the open ocean is a potential threat for marine life.

  8. Diversity of Archaea in Marine Sediments from Skan Bay, Alaska, Including Cultivated Methanogens, and Description of Methanogenium boonei sp. nov.▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Melissa M.; Wardlaw, George D.; Tang, Chin F.; Bonin, Adam S.; Liu, Yitai; Valentine, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Methanogenesis in cold marine sediments is a globally important process leading to methane hydrate deposits, cold seeps, physical instability of sediment, and atmospheric methane emissions. We employed a multidisciplinary approach that combined culture-dependent and -independent analyses with geochemical measurements in the sediments of Skan Bay, Alaska (53°N, 167°W), to investigate methanogenesis there. Cultivation-independent analyses of the archaeal community revealed that uncultivated microbes of the kingdoms Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota are present at Skan Bay and that methanogens constituted a small proportion of the archaeal community. Methanogens were cultivated from depths of 0 to 60 cm in the sediments, and several strains related to the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales were isolated. Isolates were psychrotolerant marine-adapted strains and included an aceticlastic methanogen, strain AK-6, as well as three strains of CO2-reducing methanogens: AK-3, AK7, and AK-8. The phylogenetic positions and physiological characteristics of these strains are described. We propose a new species, Methanogenium boonei, with strain AK-7 as the type strain. PMID:17122405

  9. Genome sequence of obligate marine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-degrading bacterium Cycloclasticus sp. 78-ME, isolated from petroleum deposits of the sunken tanker Amoco Milford Haven, Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Messina, Enzo; Denaro, Renata; Crisafi, Francesca; Smedile, Francesco; Cappello, Simone; Genovese, Maria; Genovese, Lucrezia; Giuliano, Laura; Russo, Daniela; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshin, Peter; Yakimov, Michail M

    2016-02-01

    Cycloclasticus sp. 78-ME isolated from petroleum deposits of the sunken tanker “Amoco Milford Haven” (Gulf of Genoa, Ligurian Sea, Italy) could effectively degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of up to five condensed rings. The genome of 78-ME was sequenced and analysed to gain insights into its remarkable degrading capacities. It comprises two circular replicons, the 2,613,078 bp chromosome and the plasmid of 42,347 bp, with 41.84% and 53.28% of the G + C content respectively. A total of 2585 protein-coding genes were obtained, and three large operons with more than fifteen enzymes belonging to four different classes of ring-cleavage dioxygenases were found.

  10. The identity of ` Berkeleya scopulorum' from Northeast Asia: Report on Climaconeis mabikii sp. nov. from temperate marine waters with notes on biogeography of the genus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jinsoon; Lee, Jin Hwan; Khim, Jong Seong

    2016-12-01

    While there have been many reports of the species ` Berkeleya scopulorum' from Northeast Asia mainly as Navicula scopulorum, the observation of the living specimen of the species has revealed that the species should be the member of the genus Climaconeis. Here we describe the species as Climaconeis mabikii sp. nov. based on microscopic observations by means of both light (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). As part of the review, the regional distribution of C. mabikii as well as the worldwide biogeography of the taxa belonging to the genus Climaconeis are discussed. Newly described C. mabikii from the present study is the seventeenth member of the genus. The discovery of the true identity of the diatom identified for a long time as ` Berkeleya scopulorum' and its description as a new Climaconeis species contributes to the proper appreciation of the diversity of the Northeast Asian diatom assemblage and fills old gaps in the published records.

  11. Anticancer potential of pyrrole (1, 2, a) pyrazine 1, 4, dione, hexahydro 3-(2-methyl propyl) (PPDHMP) extracted from a new marine bacterium, Staphylococcus sp. strain MB30.

    PubMed

    Lalitha, P; Veena, V; Vidhyapriya, P; Lakshmi, Pragna; Krishna, R; Sakthivel, N

    2016-05-01

    Marine bacterium, strain MB30 isolated from the deep sea sediment of Bay of Bengal, India, exhibited antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic bacteria. Based on the 16S rRNA sequence homology and subsequent phylogenetic tree analysis, the strain MB30 was identified as Staphylococcus sp. The bioactive metabolite produced by the strain MB30 was purified through silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Purified metabolite was further characterized by FT-IR, LC-MS and NMR analyses. On the basis of spectroscopic data, the metabolite was identified as pyrrole (1, 2, a) pyrazine 1, 4, dione, hexahydro 3-(2-methyl propyl) (PPDHMP). The PPDHMP exhibited in vitro anticancer potential against lung (A549) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner with the IC50 concentration of 19.94 ± 1.23 and 16.73 ± 1.78 μg ml(-1) respectively. The acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining of the IC50 concentration of PPDHMP-treated cancer cells exhibited an array of morphological changes such as nuclear condensation, cell shrinkage and formation of apoptotic bodies. The PPDHMP-treated cancer cells induced the progressive accumulation of fragmented DNA in a time-dependent manner. Based on the flow cytometric analysis, it has become evident that the compound was also effective in arresting the cell cycle at G1 phase. Further, the Western blotting analysis confirmed the down-regulation of cyclin-D1, cyclin dependent kinase (CDK-2), anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL), activation of caspase-9 and 3 with the cleavage of PARP. The PPDHMP-treated cancer cells also showed the inhibition of migration and invasive capacity of cancer cells. In the present investigation, for the first time, we have reported the extraction, purification and characterization of an anticancer metabolite, PPDHMP from a new marine bacterium, Staphylococcus sp. strain MB30.

  12. Altererythrobacter epoxidivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., an epoxide hydrolase-active, mesophilic marine bacterium isolated from cold-seep sediment, and reclassification of Erythrobacter luteolus Yoon et al. 2005 as Altererythrobacter luteolus comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Woo, Jung-Hee; Yang, Sung-Hyun; Kang, Ji-Hyun; Kang, Sung Gyun; Kim, Sang-Jin; Sato, Takako; Kato, Chiaki

    2007-10-01

    A novel marine bacterium, strain JCS350(T), was isolated from marine sediment samples collected from a cold-seep area. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate showed high similarity to that of Erythrobacter luteolus SW-109(T) (95.9 % sequence similarity). Lower 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities were shown to other members of the genus Erythrobacter (94.6-95.4 %) and members of the genus Porphyrobacter (94.5-95.2 %). Phylogenetic analysis with all members of the family Erythrobacteraceae and several members of the family Sphingomonadaceae revealed that the isolate formed a phyletic line with [Erythrobacter] luteolus that was distinct from other members of the family Erythrobacteraceae. The dominant fatty acids of strain JCS350(T) were 18 : 1omega7c, 16 : 1omega7c and cyclopropane 17 : 0. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 10. The DNA G+C content was 54.5 mol%. The isolate did not contain bacteriochlorophyll a. Optimal growth required the presence of 2 % (w/v) NaCl with either 0.18 % CaCl(2) or 0.59 % MgCl(2), at pH 6.5 and at 35 degrees C. On the basis of the evidence of this polyphasic taxonomic study, strain JCS350(T) should be classified in a novel genus and species in the family Erythrobacteraceae, for which the name Altererythrobacter epoxidivorans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The misclassified species [Erythrobacter] luteolus is transferred to the new genus as Altererythrobacter luteolus comb. nov. The type strain of Altererythrobacter epoxidivorans is JCS350(T) (=KCCM 42314(T) =JCM 13815(T)) and the type strain of Altererythrobacter luteolus is SW-109(T) (=KCTC 12311(T) =JCM 12599(T)).

  13. Effects of PAR and UV Radiation on the Structural and Functional Integrity of Phycocyanin, Phycoerythrin and Allophycocyanin Isolated from the Marine Cyanobacterium Lyngbya sp. A09DM.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rajesh Prasad; Sonani, Ravi Raghav; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-01-01

    An in vitro analysis of the effects of photosynthetically active and ultraviolet radiations was executed to assess the photostability of biologically relevant pigments phycocyanin (PC), phycoerythrin (PE) and allophycocyanin (APC) isolated from Lyngbya sp. A09DM. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiances significantly affected the integrity of PC, PE and APC; however, PAR showed least effect. UV radiation affected the bilin chromophores covalently attached to phycobiliproteins (PBPs). Almost complete elimination of the chromophore bands associated with α- and β-subunit of PE and APC occurred after 4 h of UV-B exposure. After 5 h of UV-B exposure, the content of PC, PE and APC decreased by 51.65%, 96.8% and 96.53%, respectively. Contrary to PAR and UV-A radiation, a severe decrease in fluorescence of all PBPs was observed under UV-B irradiation. The fluorescence activity of extracted PBP was gradually inhibited immediately after 15-30 min of UV-B exposure. In comparison to the PC, the fluorescence properties of PE and APC were severely lost under UV-B radiation. Moreover, the present study indicates that UV-B radiation can damage the structural and functional integrity of phycobiliproteins leading to the loss of their ecological and biological functions.

  14. On Paleozoic plants from marine strata: Trivena arkansana (Lyginopteridaceae) gen. et sp. nov., a lyginopterid from the Fayetteville Formation (middle Chesterian/Upper Mississippian) of Arkansas, USA.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Michael T; Rothwell, Gar W; Mapes, Gene

    2003-08-01

    Five permineralized seed fern stems from the Fayetteville Formation (middle Chesterian/Upper Mississippian) of Arkansas conform to the concept of lyginopterid seed ferns. However, these specimens are unlike all previously reported lyginopterids, and the name Trivena arkansana (Lyginopteridaceae) gen. et sp. nov. is proposed. The stems are up to 30 by 19 mm in diameter and have pentagonal pith and eustele of five cryptic sympodia. Secondary tissues include abundant xylem with numerous wide rays and phloem surrounded by a periderm. The cortex is parenchymatous with abundant sclerotic clusters: some clusters are randomly dispersed and some are in discontinuous rows. Sclerenchyma bands form the "Dictyoxylon"-type outer cortex. Leaf traces diverge in a 2/5 phyllotaxy. Traces, accompanied by concentric secondary xylem, increase in size as they extend through the secondary xylem of the stem. The trace assumes a squat C shape at the outer margin of the secondary xylem and in the cortex divides into three discrete bundles, each surrounded by secondary xylem. Galleries within the phloem contain arthropod coprolites and exhibit wound response, suggesting plant-arthropod coevolution. The discovery of this new lyginopterid stem adds to the growing list of unique taxa described from the Fayetteville Formation and further solidifies its reputation as one of the most important Upper Mississippian plant fossil sites in North America.

  15. Streptomyces oceani sp. nov., a new obligate marine actinomycete isolated from a deep-sea sample of seep authigenic carbonate nodule in South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xin-Peng; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Li, Jie; Chen, Zhong; Kim, Chang-Jin; Li, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Chang-Sheng; Zhang, Si

    2012-08-01

    A novel aerobic actinomycete strain, designated as SCSIO 02100(T), was isolated from a deep sea sediment sample collected from Northern South China Sea at a depth of 578 m. This isolate requires sea water or a sodium-supplemented medium for growth. BLAST searches based on the almost full length of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, showed that strain SCSIO 02100(T) had the highest similarities with Streptomyces armeniacus (JCM 3070(T)) (97.1 %). Phylogenetic trees reconstructed on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SCSIO 02100(T) formed a distinct lineage with S. nanshensis SCSIO 01066(T) with 96.9 % similarity. Further analysis of the polyphasic taxonomic data, including morphological, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties, showed that strain SCSIO 02100(T) could be readily distinguished from the most closely related members of the genus Streptomyces. Thus, based on the polyphasic taxonomic data, a novel species, Streptomyces oceani sp. nov., is proposed, with the type strain SCSIO 02100(T) (=DSM 42043(T) = CGMCC 4.7007(T)).

  16. The marine isolate Novosphingobium sp. PP1Y shows specific adaptation to use the aromatic fraction of fuels as the sole carbon and energy source.

    PubMed

    Notomista, Eugenio; Pennacchio, Francesca; Cafaro, Valeria; Smaldone, Giovanni; Izzo, Viviana; Troncone, Luca; Varcamonti, Mario; Di Donato, Alberto

    2011-04-01

    Novosphingobium sp. PP1Y, isolated from a surface seawater sample collected from a closed bay in the harbour of Pozzuoli (Naples, Italy), uses fuels as its sole carbon and energy source. Like some other Sphingomonads, this strain can grow as either planktonic free cells or sessile-aggregated flocks. In addition, this strain was found to grow as biofilm on several types of solid and liquid hydrophobic surfaces including polystyrene, polypropylene and diesel oil. Strain PP1Y is not able to grow on pure alkanes or alkane mixtures but is able to grow on a surprisingly wide range of aromatic compounds including mono, bi, tri and tetracyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds. During growth on diesel oil, the organic layer is emulsified resulting in the formation of small biofilm-coated drops, whereas during growth on aromatic hydrocarbons dissolved in paraffin the oil layer is emulsified but the drops are coated only if the mixtures contain selected aromatic compounds, like pyrene, propylbenzene, tetrahydronaphthalene and heterocyclic compounds. These peculiar characteristics suggest strain PP1Y has adapted to efficiently grow at the water/fuel interface using the aromatic fraction of fuels as the sole carbon and energy source.

  17. Methanococcoides vulcani sp. nov., a marine methylotrophic methanogen that uses betaine, choline and N,N-dimethylethanolamine for methanogenesis, isolated from a mud volcano, and emended description of the genus Methanococcoides.

    PubMed

    L'Haridon, Stéphane; Chalopin, Morgane; Colombo, Delphine; Toffin, Laurent

    2014-06-01

    A novel, strictly anaerobic, methylotrophic marine methanogen, strain SLH33(T), was isolated from deep sediment samples covered by an orange microbial mat collected from the Napoli Mud Volcano. Cells of strain SLH33(T) were Gram-stain-negative, motile, irregular cocci that occurred singly. Cells utilized trimethylamine, dimethylamine, monomethylamine, methanol, betaine, N,N-dimethylethanolamine and choline (N,N,N-trimethylethanolamine) as substrates for growth and methanogenesis. The optimal growth temperature was 30 °C; maximum growth rate was obtained at pH 7.0 in the presence of 0.5 M Na(+). The DNA G+C content of strain SLH33(T) was 43.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed strain SLH33(T) within the genus Methanococcoides. The novel isolate was related most closely to Methanococcoides methylutens TMA-10(T) (98.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) but distantly related to Methanococcoides burtonii DSM 6242(T) (97.6%) and Methanococcoides alaskense AK-5(T) (97.6%). DNA-DNA hybridization studies indicated that strain SLH33(T) represents a novel species, given that it shared less than 16% DNA-DNA relatedness with Methanococcoides methylutens TMA-10(T). The name Methanococcoides vulcani sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species, with strain SLH33(T) ( = DSM 26966(T) = JCM 19278(T)) as the type strain. An emended description of the genus Methanococcoides is also proposed.

  18. Acanthopleuribacter pedis gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from a chiton, and description of Acanthopleuribacteraceae fam. nov., Acanthopleuribacterales ord. nov., Holophagaceae fam. nov., Holophagales ord. nov. and Holophagae classis nov. in the phylum 'Acidobacteria'.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Yukiyo; Kurahashi, Midori; Yanagi, Kensuke; Yokota, Akira; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2008-11-01

    Strain FYK2218(T) was isolated from a specimen of the chiton Acanthopleura japonica, which had been collected from a beach on the Boso peninsula in Japan. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the strain belonged to the phylum 'Acidobacteria'. The most closely related type strains to strain FYK2218(T) were Holophaga foetida TMBS4(T) (83.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Geothrix fermentans H-5(T) (83.6 %) in subdivision 8 of the 'Acidobacteria'. Cells of FYK2218(T) were motile, rod-shaped, Gram-negative, mesophilic and strictly aerobic. The G+C content of the strain was 56.7 mol%. The strain had isoprenoid quinones MK-6 and MK-7 as major components. Major fatty acids of the strain were iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0), C(16 : 0) and C(20 : 5)omega3c (cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid). From the taxonomic data obtained in this study, it is proposed that the new marine isolate be placed into a novel genus and species named Acanthopleuribacter pedis gen. nov., sp. nov. within the new family, order and class Acanthopleuribacteraceae fam. nov., Acanthopleuribacterales ord. nov. and Holophagae classis nov. The family Holophagaceae fam. nov. is also described. The type strain of Acanthopleuribacter pedis is FYK2218(T) (=NBRC 101209(T) =KCTC 12899(T)).

  19. QM-HiFSA-Aided Structure Determination of Succinilenes A–D, New Triene Polyols from a Marine-Derived Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Munhyung; Park, So Hyun; Kwon, Yun; Lee, Sang Kook; Shin, Jongheon; Nam, Joo-Won; Oh, Dong-Chan

    2017-01-01

    Based on profiles of secondary metabolites produced by marine bacteria obtained using LC/MS, succinilenes A–D (1–4), new triene polyols, were discovered from a culture of a Streptomyces strain SAK1, which was collected in the southern area of Jeju Island, Republic of Korea. The gross structures of 1–4 were primarily determined through analysis of NMR spectra. The double bond geometries of the succinilenes, which could not be established from conventional 1H NMR spectra because of the highly overlapped olefinic signals, were successfully deciphered using the recently developed quantum-mechanics-driven 1H iterative full spin analysis (QM-HiFSA). Succinilenes A–C (1–3) displayed inhibitory effects against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, indicating their anti-inflammatory significance. These three compounds (1–3) commonly bear a succinic acid moiety, although succinilene D (4), which did not inhibit NO production, does not have this moiety in its structure. The absolute configurations of succinilenes A–D (1–4) were established through J-based configuration analysis, the modified Mosher’s method following methanolysis, and CD spectral analysis. PMID:28216577

  20. Comparative Genomics Reveals Adaptation by Alteromonas sp. SN2 to Marine Tidal-Flat Conditions: Cold Tolerance and Aromatic Hydrocarbon Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Math, Renukaradhya K.; Jin, Hyun Mi; Kim, Jeong Myeong; Hahn, Yoonsoo; Park, Woojun; Madsen, Eugene L.; Jeon, Che Ok

    2012-01-01

    Alteromonas species are globally distributed copiotrophic bacteria in marine habitats. Among these, sea-tidal flats are distinctive: undergoing seasonal temperature and oxygen-tension changes, plus periodic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain SN2 of the genus Alteromonas was isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated sea-tidal flat sediment and has been shown to metabolize aromatic hydrocarbons there. Strain SN2's genomic features were analyzed bioinformatically and compared to those of Alteromonas macleodii ecotypes: AltDE and ATCC 27126. Strain SN2's genome differs from that of the other two strains in: size, average nucleotide identity value, tRNA genes, noncoding RNAs, dioxygenase gene content, signal transduction genes, and the degree to which genes collected during the Global Ocean Sampling project are represented. Patterns in genetic characteristics (e.g., GC content, GC skew, Karlin signature, CRISPR gene homology) indicate that strain SN2's genome architecture has been altered via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Experiments proved that strain SN2 was far more cold tolerant, especially at 5°C, than the other two strains. Consistent with the HGT hypothesis, a total of 15 genomic islands in strain SN2 likely confer ecological fitness traits (especially membrane transport, aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism, and fatty acid biosynthesis) specific to the adaptation of strain SN2 to its seasonally cold sea-tidal flat habitat. PMID:22563400

  1. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Sulfurimonas hongkongensis sp. nov., a strictly anaerobic denitrifying, hydrogen- and sulfur-oxidizing chemolithoautotroph isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lin; Shao, Ming-Fei; Zhang, Tong

    2014-06-15

    Here, we report a type strain AST-10 representing a novel species Sulfurimonas hongkongensis within Epsilonproteobacteria, which is involved in marine sedimentary sulfur oxidation and denitrification. Strain AST-10(T) (= DSM 22096(T) = JCM 18418(T)) was isolated from the coastal sediment at the Kai Tak Approach Channel connected to Victoria Harbour in Hong Kong. It grew chemolithoautotrophically using thiosulfate, sulfide or hydrogen as the sole electron donor and nitrate as the electron acceptor under anoxic conditions. It was rod-shaped and grew at 15-35°C (optimum at 30°C), pH 6.5-8.5 (optimum at 7.0-7.5), and 10-60 g L(-1) NaCl (optimum at 30 g L(-1)). Genome sequencing and annotation of strain AST-10(T) showed a 2,302,023 bp genome size, with 34.9% GC content, 2,290 protein-coding genes, and 42 RNA genes, including 3 rRNA genes.

  2. Advanced Microbial Taxonomy Combined with Genome-Based-Approaches Reveals that Vibrio astriarenae sp. nov., an Agarolytic Marine Bacterium, Forms a New Clade in Vibrionaceae

    PubMed Central

    Al-saari, Nurhidayu; Gao, Feng; A.K.M. Rohul, Amin; Sato, Kazumichi; Sato, Keisuke; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Meirelles, Pedro M.; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Thompson, Cristiane; A. Filho, Gilberto M.; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Sawabe, Toko; Sawabe, Tomoo

    2015-01-01

    Advances in genomic microbial taxonomy have opened the way to create a more universal and transparent concept of species but is still in a transitional stage towards becoming a defining robust criteria for describing new microbial species with minimum features obtained using both genome and classical polyphasic taxonomies. Here we performed advanced microbial taxonomies combined with both genome-based and classical approaches for new agarolytic vibrio isolates to describe not only a novel Vibrio species but also a member of a new Vibrio clade. Two novel vibrio strains (Vibrio astriarenae sp. nov. C7T and C20) showing agarolytic, halophilic and fermentative metabolic activity were isolated from a seawater sample collected in a coral reef in Okinawa. Intraspecific similarities of the isolates were identical in both sequences on the 16S rRNA and pyrH genes, but the closest relatives on the molecular phylogenetic trees on the basis of 16S rRNA and pyrH gene sequences were V. hangzhouensis JCM 15146T (97.8% similarity) and V. agarivorans CECT 5085T (97.3% similarity), respectively. Further multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) on the basis of 8 protein coding genes (ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA) obtained by the genome sequences clearly showed the V. astriarenae strain C7T and C20 formed a distinct new clade protruded next to V. agarivorans CECT 5085T. The singleton V. agarivorans has never been included in previous MLSA of Vibrionaceae due to the lack of some gene sequences. Now the gene sequences are completed and analysis of 100 taxa in total provided a clear picture describing the association of V. agarivorans into pre-existing concatenated network tree and concluded its relationship to our vibrio strains. Experimental DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) data showed that the strains C7T and C20 were conspecific but were separated from all of the other Vibrio species related on the basis of both 16S rRNA and pyrH gene phylogenies (e.g., V. agarivorans CECT

  3. Thioclava pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel facultatively autotrophic, marine, sulfur-oxidizing bacterium from a near-shore sulfidic hydrothermal area.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Dimitry Yu; Tourova, Tatjana P; Spiridonova, Elizaveta M; Rainey, Fred A; Muyzer, Gerard

    2005-05-01

    Strain TL 2(T) was isolated on mineral medium with thiosulfate from a near-shore sulfidic hydrothermal area in Matupi Harbour on the island of New Britain, Papua New Guinea. The cells varied from long filaments with swollen ends, often aggregated, to short rods, depending on the growth conditions. The bacterium was obligately aerobic and grew autotrophically with thiosulfate as energy source or heterotrophically with organic acids and sugars. In thiosulfate-limited continuous culture, mu(max) and Y(max) for autotrophic growth were 0.1 h(-1) and 3 g protein mol(-1), respectively. From the various reduced sulfur compounds tested, only thiosulfate and sulfide supported active respiration. Inorganic carbon was assimilated via the Calvin cycle. Presence of the 'green'-type of form I RubisCO gene was detected. Growth was possible from 15 to 47 degrees C with an optimum at 35 degrees C, pH 6.5-8.5 with an optimum at pH 8.0, and between 10 and 90 g NaCl l(-1) with an optimum at 35 g l(-1). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and cbbL gene sequences demonstrated that strain TL 2(T) forms a separate lineage within the alpha-3 subdivision of the Proteobacteria, distantly related to the genera Rhodovulum and Rhodobacter. On the basis of these results, a novel genus and species, Thioclava pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate strain TL 2(T) (= DSM 10166(T) = UNIQEM 229(T)).

  4. Lutibacter holmesii sp. nov., a marine bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius, and emended description of the genus Lutibacter.

    PubMed

    Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Van Trappen, Stefanie; Zhukova, Natalia V; De Vos, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Seven Gram-staining-negative, strictly aerobic, pale-yellow-pigmented, rod-shaped and non-motile strains were isolated from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius collected from Troitsa Bay, Sea of Japan. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that these isolates were affiliated with the family Flavobacteriaceae. The novel isolates showed 99.9-100 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to each other and were closely related to the type strains of the recognized members of the genus Lutibacter with sequence similarities of 95.8-98.4 %. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 35-36 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness among the sea urchin isolates was 95-99 % and between strain KMM 6277T and its most closely related type strains, Lutibacter agarilyticus KCTC 23842T and Lutibacter litoralis JCM 13034T, was 38 and 27 %, respectively. The prevalent fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1 ω7c fatty acids), iso-C15 : 1 and C15 : 0. The polar lipid profile was composed of the phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown aminolipid and one unknown lipid. The main respiratory isoprenoid quinone was MK-6.The results of phylogenetic, phenotypic and genotypic analyses indicated that the novel strains represent a novel species within the genus Lutibacter, for which the name Lutibacter holmesii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KMM 6277T ( = CCUG 62221T = LMG 26737T).

  5. Vibrio algivorus sp. nov., an alginate- and agarose-assimilating bacterium isolated from the gut flora of a turban shell marine snail.

    PubMed

    Doi, Hidetaka; Chinen, Akito; Fukuda, Hiroo; Usuda, Yoshihiro

    2016-08-01

    An agarose- and alginate-assimilating, Gram-reaction-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain SA2T, was isolated from the gut of a turban shell sea snail (Turbo cornutus) collected near Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain SA2T was 99.59 % identical to that of Vibrio rumoiensis DSM 19141T and 98.19 % identical to that of Vibrio litoralis DSM 17657T. This suggested that strain SA2T could be a subspecies of V. rumoiensis or V. litoralis. However, DNA-DNA hybridization results showed only 37.5 % relatedness to DSM 19141T and 44.7 % relatedness to DSM 17657T, which was far lower than the 70 % widely accepted to define common species. Strain SA2T could assimilate agarose as a sole carbon source, whereas strains DSM 19141T and DSM 17657T could not assimilate it at all. Furthermore, results using API 20NE and API ZYM kits indicated that their enzymic and physiological phenotypes were also different. These results suggested that strain SA2T represented a novel species within the genus Vibrio. The major isoprenoid quinone in SA2T was Q-8, and its major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. The major fatty acids were summed feature 3, (comprising C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c), C16 : 0, and summed feature 8 (comprising C18 : 1ω6c and/or C18 : 1ω7c). The DNA G+C content of SA2T was 40.7 mol%. The name proposed for this novel species of the genus Vibrio is Vibrio algivorus sp. nov., with the type strain designated SA2T (=DSM 29824T=NBRC 111146T).

  6. Inhibitory Effects of Benzaldehyde Derivatives from the Marine Fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 on Inflammatory Mediators via the Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Su; Cui, Xiang; Lee, Dong-Sung; Ko, Wonmin; Sohn, Jae Hak; Yim, Joung Han; An, Ren-Bo; Kim, Youn-Chul; Oh, Hyuncheol

    2014-01-01

    Two benzaldehyde derivatives, flavoglaucin (1) and isotetrahydro-auroglaucin (2), were isolated from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 through bioassay- and 1H NMR-guided investigation. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of these compounds in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. We demonstrated that compounds 1 and 2 markedly inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by suppressing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression without affecting cell viability. We also demonstrated that the compounds reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 inhibited LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by suppressing phosphorylation of IkappaB (IκB). These results indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects of these benzaldehyde derivatives in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were due to the inactivation of the NF-κB pathway. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression through the nuclear transcription factor-E2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) translocation. The inhibitory effects of compounds 1 and 2 on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and on NF-κB binding activity were reversed by HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP). Thus, the anti-inflammatory effects of compounds 1 and 2 also correlated with their ability of inducing HO-1 expression. PMID:25535073

  7. Hyper-Cryptic Marine Meiofauna: Species Complexes in Nemertodermatida

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Wachsmuth, Inga; Curini Galletti, Marco; Jondelius, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Nemertodermatida are microscopically small, benthic marine worms. Specimens of two nominal species, Sterreria psammicola and Nemertinoides elongatus from 33 locations worldwide were sequenced for three molecular markers. Species delimitation and validation was done using gene trees, haplotype networks and multilocus Bayesian analysis. We found 20 supported species of which nine: Nemertinoides glandulosum n.sp., N. wolfgangi n.sp., Sterreria boucheti n.sp., S. lundini n.sp., S. martindalei n.sp., S. monolithes n.sp., S. papuensis n.sp., S. variabilis n.sp. and S. ylvae n.sp., are described including nucleotide-based diagnoses. The distribution patterns indicate transoceanic dispersal in some of the species. Sympatric species were found in many cases. The high level of cryptic diversity in this meiofauna group implies that marine diversity may be higher than previously estimated. PMID:25225981

  8. Paraclostridium benzoelyticum gen. nov. sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment and reclassification of Clostridium bifermentans as Paraclostridium bifermentans comb. nov. Proposal of a new genus Paeniclostridium gen. nov. to accommodate Clostridium sordellii and Clostridium ghonii.

    PubMed

    T S, Sasi Jyothsna; L, Tushar; Ch, Sasikala; Ch V, Ramana

    2016-01-05

    Twenty three rod shaped, endospore forming, Gram-stain-positive, obligately anaerobic bacteria were isolated from different marine sediment samples of Gujarat. All the twenty three strains have 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of ~100%. Strain JC272T was designated as the type strain and has sequence similarity with Clostridium bifermentans ATCC638T (99.8%), Clostridium ghonii JCM1400T (98.0%), Clostridium sordellii ATCC9714T (97.9%) and other members of the genus Clostridium (<96.4%). C16:0, C18:0, C17:0, C16:1ω9C and iso-C16:0 are the major (>5%) fatty acids. Strain JC272T contains diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and unidentified amino lipids (AL1&AL2). However, genome based analysis of ANI and in silico DDH of strain JC272T with C. bifermentans ATCC 638T yielded values of 94.35% and 58.5+2.8%, respectively. G+C mol% of strain JC272T was 28.3%. Strain JC272T together with C. bifermentans fall outside Clostridium rRNA cluster I considered as Clostridium senso stricto. Based on ANI value, in-silico DDH, distinct morphological and physiological differences from the previously described taxa, we propose strain JC272T as a representative of a new genus and species in the family Clostridiaceae, for which the name Paraclostridium benzoelyticum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. Type strain is JC272T (=KCTC15476T =LMG28745T). It is also proposed to transfer C. bifermentans to this new genus, as Paraclostridium bifermentans comb. nov. (type strain is ATCC638T =DSM14991T =JCM1386T). We also propose the genus Paeniclostridium gen. nov. to accommodate Clostridium sordellii and Clostridium ghonii as Paeniclostridium sordellii comb. nov. (type strain is ATCC9714T =LMG15708T =JCM3814T) and Paeniclostridium ghonii comb. nov. (type strain is ATCC25757T = DSM15049T =JCM1400T).

  9. Merging nano-genotoxicology with eco-genotoxicology: an integrated approach to determine interactive genotoxic and sub-lethal toxic effects of C(60) fullerenes and fluoranthene in marine mussels, Mytilus sp.

    PubMed

    Al-Subiai, Sherain N; Arlt, Volker M; Frickers, Patricia E; Readman, James W; Stolpe, Björn; Lead, Jamie R; Moody, A John; Jha, Awadhesh N

    2012-06-14

    Whilst there is growing concern over the potential detrimental impact of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) on the natural environment, little is known about their interactions with other contaminants. In the present study, marine mussels (Mytilus sp.) were exposed for 3 days to C(60) fullerenes (C(60); 0.10-1 mg l(-1)) and a model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), fluoranthene (32-100 μg l(-1)), either alone or in combination. The first two experiments were conducted by exposing the organisms to different concentrations of C(60) and fluoranthene alone, in order to determine the effects on total glutathione levels (as a measure of generic oxidative stress), genotoxicity (DNA strand breaks using Comet assay in haemocytes), DNA adduct analyses (using (32)P-postlabelling method) in different organs, histopathological changes in different tissues (i.e. adductor muscle, digestive gland and gills) and physiological effects (feeding or clearance rate). Subsequently, in the third experiment, a combined exposure of C(60) plus fluoranthene (0.10 mg l(-1) and 32 μg l(-1), respectively) was carried out to evaluate all endpoints mentioned above. Both fluoranthene and C(60) on their own caused concentration-dependent increases in DNA strand breaks as determined by the Comet assay. Formation of DNA adducts however could not be detected for any exposure conditions. Combined exposure to C(60) and fluoranthene additively enhanced the levels of DNA strand breaks along with a 2-fold increase in the total glutathione content. In addition, significant accumulation of C(60) was observed in all organs, with highest levels in digestive gland (24.90 ± 4.91μg C(60) g(-1) ww). Interestingly, clear signs of abnormalities in adductor muscle, digestive gland and gills were observed by histopathology. Clearance rates indicated significant differences compared to the control with exposure to C(60), and C(60)/fluoranthene combined treatments, but not after fluoranthene exposure alone. This

  10. Binding and molecular dynamic studies of sesquiterpenes (2R-acetoxymethyl-1,3,3-trimethyl-4t-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-1t-cyclohexanol) derived from marine Streptomyces sp. VITJS8 as potential anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Naine, S Jemimah; Devi, C Subathra; Mohanasrinivasan, V; Doss, C George Priya; Kumar, D Thirumal

    2016-03-01

    The main aim of the current study is to explore the bioactive potential of Streptomyces sp. VITJS8 isolated from the marine saltern. The cultural, biochemical, and morphological studies were performed to acquire the characteristic features of the potent isolate VITJS8. The 16Sr DNA sequencing was performed to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between the Streptomyces genera. The structure of the compound was elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), infra-red (IR), and ultra-violet (UV) spectroscopic data analysis. The GC-MS showed the retention time at 22.39 with a single peak indicating the purity of the active compound, and the molecular formula was established as C14H9ONCl2 based on the peak at m/z 277 [M](+). Furthermore, separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), their retention time (t r) 2.761 was observed with the absorption maxima at 310 nm. The active compound showed effective inhibitory potential against four clinical pathogens at 500 μg/mL. The antioxidant activity was found effective at the IC50 value of 500 μg/mL with 90 % inhibition. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-ditetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay revealed the cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells at IC50 of 250 μg/mL. The progression of apoptosis was evidenced by morphological changes by nuclear staining. The DNA fragmentation pattern was observed at 250 μg/mL concentration. Based on flow cytometric analysis, it was evident that the compound was effective in inhibiting the sub-G0/G1 phase of cell cycle. The in vitro findings were also supported by the binding mode molecular docking studies. The active compound revealed minimum binding energy of -7.84 and showed good affinity towards the active region of topoisomerase-2α that could be considered as a suitable inhibitor. Lastly, we performed 30 ns molecular dynamic simulation analysis using GROMACS to aid in better designing of anticancer drugs. Simulation result of root mean square deviation (RMSD

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Shewanella sp. Strain CP20

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Carla; Martin Tay, Qi Xiang; Sun, Shuyang

    2015-01-01

    Shewanella sp. CP20 is a marine bacterium that survives ingestion by Tetrahymena pyriformis and is expelled from the protozoan within membrane-bound vacuoles, where the bacterial cells show long-term survival. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Shewanella sp. CP20 and discuss the potential mechanisms facilitating intraprotozoan survival. PMID:25858840

  12. Marine Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Bernard L.

    The five papers in this publication on marine careers were selected so that science teachers, guidance councilors, and students could benefit from the experience and knowledge of individuals active in marine science. The areas considered are indicated by the titles: Professional Careers in Marine Science with the Federal Government, Marine Science…

  13. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  14. Xylanolytic enzyme systems in Arthrobacter sp. MTCC 5214 and Lactobacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Khandeparker, Rakhee; Jalal, Thasneem

    2015-01-01

    The production of extracellular xylanolytic enzymes such as xylanase, α-l-arabinofuranosidase (α-l-AFase), and acetyl xylan esterase (Axe) by marine Arthrobacter sp. and Lactobacillus sp. was investigated using different carbon sources. Induction and repression of all these enzymes differed with carbon source and also with the organism. Wheat bran was the best carbon source for the production of xylanase and α-l-AFase, whereas both isolates showed maximum Axe production when grown on oat bran as a carbon source. Preferential utilization of a carbon source for enzyme production can give us better insights into regulatory mechanism in these marine bacteria. Elution profile as well as zymogram analysis indicated the possibility of bifunctional α-l-AFase-Axes in both marine bacteria.

  15. A review on biosynthesis of nanoparticles by marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Asmathunisha, N; Kathiresan, K

    2013-03-01

    Marine organisms produce remarkable nanofabricated structures in cell wall, shells, pearls and fish bones. Marine microorganisms such as bacteria (E. coli, Pseudomonas sp.), cyanobacteria (Spirulina platensis, Oscillatoria willei, Phormidium tenue), yeasts (Pichia capsulata, Rhodospiridium diobovatum), fungi (Thraustochytrium sp., Penicillium fellutanum, Aspergillus niger), and algae (Navicula atomus, Diadesmis gallica, Stauroneis sp. Sargassum wightii, Fucus vesiculosus) are reported to synthesize inorganic nanoparticles either inside or outside cells. Mangroves (Rhizophora mucronata, Xylocarpus mekongensis), salt marshes (Sesuvium portulacastrum and Suaeda sp.) and sand dune (Citrullus colocynthis) are also capable of synthesizing the nanoparticles, in addition to marine animals such as finfish and sponges. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles may be triggered by several compounds such as carbonyl groups, terpenoids, phenolics, flavonones, amines, amides, proteins, pigments, alkaloids and other reducing agents present in the biological extracts. Marine bio-nanotechnology has a great promise in nanomedicines, food stuff, pharmaceuticals and fabric industries for the future.

  16. Draft Genome Sequences of Gammaproteobacterial Methanotrophs Isolated from Marine Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, James D.; Hirayama, Hisako; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Dunfield, Peter F.; Knief, Claudia; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Khmelenina, Valentina N.; Trotsenko, Yuri A.; Murrell, J. Colin; Semrau, Jeremy D.; Svenning, Mette M.; Stein, Lisa Y.; Kyrpides, Nikos; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Bringel, Françoise; Vuilleumier, Stéphane; DiSpirito, Alan A.

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequences of Methylobacter marinus A45, Methylobacter sp. strain BBA5.1, and Methylomarinum vadi IT-4 were obtained. These aerobic methanotrophs are typical members of coastal and hydrothermal vent marine ecosystems. PMID:26798114

  17. Marine Ecological Index Survey of San Diego Bay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    nonindigenous EIS-JL-0040 Bryozoa Smittoidea prolifica 12-Jul-2011 Seasonally Hypersaline EIS-JL-0138 Cephalopoda Octopus bimaculatus/bimaculoides 12-Jul...Jul-2011 Estuarine nonindigenous; on Styela clava EIS-GL-0008 Chordata Molgula ficus 11-Jul-2011 Estuarine nonindigenous EIS-JL-0038 Bryozoa ...Hypersaline, Marine, Thermal Platyhelminthes Eurylepta aurantiaca SP Seasonally Hypersaline, Marine, Thermal Bryozoa Watersipora arcuata SP Seasonally

  18. Biosurfactants, bioemulsifiers and exopolysaccharides from marine microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Satpute, Surekha K; Banat, Ibrahim M; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K; Banpurkar, Arun G; Chopade, Balu A

    2010-01-01

    Marine biosphere offers wealthy flora and fauna, which represents a vast natural resource of imperative functional commercial grade products. Among the various bioactive compounds, biosurfactant (BS)/bioemulsifiers (BE) are attracting major interest and attention due to their structural and functional diversity. The versatile properties of surface active molecules find numerous applications in various industries. Marine microorganisms such as Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas, Halomonas, Myroides, Corynebacteria, Bacillus, Alteromonas sp. have been studied for production of BS/BE and exopolysaccharides (EPS). Due to the enormity of marine biosphere, most of the marine microbial world remains unexplored. The discovery of potent BS/BE producing marine microorganism would enhance the use of environmental biodegradable surface active molecule and hopefully reduce total dependence or number of new application oriented towards the chemical synthetic surfactant industry. Our present review gives comprehensive information on BS/BE which has been reported to be produced by marine microorganisms and their possible potential future applications.

  19. Marine biology

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  20. Amoeba-like infections in cultured marine fishes: systemic infection in pompano Trachinotus falcatus L. from Singapore and gill disease associated with Paramoeba sp. in sea bream Sparus aurata L. from Greece.

    PubMed

    Athanassopoulou, F; Cawthorn, R; Lytra, K

    2002-10-01

    Two cases of Amoeba-like infections in cultured warmwater marine fish are described, an unusual systemic infection in pompano Trachinotus falcatus L. from Singapore and a gill infection in Mediterranean sea bream Sparus aurata L. All pompano showed marked systemic infection of Amoeba-like parasites in gills, kidney, intestine, pancreas and spleen. The most severe lesions were in the gills and renal tissue with minimal tissue reaction in other organs.

  1. [Causative agent of human diphyllobothriasis--Diphyllobothrium klebanovskii sp. n].

    PubMed

    Muratov, I V; Posokhov, P S

    1988-01-01

    A new cestode species, Diphyllobothrium klebanovskii sp. n., is described on the basis of experimental examination and morphological study of 51 specimens expelled from men in lower part of the Amur river and 18 specimens expelled from golden hamsters. The larval stage of this cestode is plerocercoid of type F, which is localized in muscles of Oncorhynchus keta and O. gorbuscha. D. klebanovskii sp. n. is a marine species, it differs from D. latum and other species of the genus Diphyllobothrium.

  2. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  3. Marine Biomedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  4. Mariner 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Mariner 2 was the world's first successful interplanetary spacecraft. Launched August 27, 1962, on an Atlas-Agena rocket, Mariner 2 passed within about 34,000 kilometers (21,000 miles) of Venus, sending back valuable new information about interplanetary space and the Venusian atmosphere. Mariner 2 recorded the temperature at Venus for the first time, revealing the planet's very hot atmosphere of about 500 degrees Celsius (900 degrees Fahrenheit). The spacecraft's solar wind experiment measured for the first time the density, velocity, composition and variation over time of the solar wind.

  5. Recent Advances in Drug Discovery from South African Marine Invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Davies-Coleman, Michael T; Veale, Clinton G L

    2015-10-14

    Recent developments in marine drug discovery from three South African marine invertebrates, the tube worm Cephalodiscus gilchristi, the ascidian Lissoclinum sp. and the sponge Topsentia pachastrelloides, are presented. Recent reports of the bioactivity and synthesis of the anti-cancer secondary metabolites cephalostatin and mandelalides (from C. gilchristi and Lissoclinum sp., respectively) and various analogues are presented. The threat of drug-resistant pathogens, e.g., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is assuming greater global significance, and medicinal chemistry strategies to exploit the potent MRSA PK inhibition, first revealed by two marine secondary metabolites, cis-3,4-dihydrohamacanthin B and bromodeoxytopsentin from T. pachastrelloides, are compared.

  6. Recent Advances in Drug Discovery from South African Marine Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Davies-Coleman, Michael T.; Veale, Clinton G. L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in marine drug discovery from three South African marine invertebrates, the tube worm Cephalodiscus gilchristi, the ascidian Lissoclinum sp. and the sponge Topsentia pachastrelloides, are presented. Recent reports of the bioactivity and synthesis of the anti-cancer secondary metabolites cephalostatin and mandelalides (from C. gilchristi and Lissoclinum sp., respectively) and various analogues are presented. The threat of drug-resistant pathogens, e.g., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is assuming greater global significance, and medicinal chemistry strategies to exploit the potent MRSA PK inhibition, first revealed by two marine secondary metabolites, cis-3,4-dihydrohamacanthin B and bromodeoxytopsentin from T. pachastrelloides, are compared. PMID:26473891

  7. Marine stings.

    PubMed

    Gurry, D

    1992-01-01

    Our superb coastline attracts local tourists and overseas visitors seeking recreation. There is increasing contact with marine life. The unwary and unprepared holiday-maker can be at risk of serious injury from a number of common sea creatures.

  8. Marine enzymes.

    PubMed

    Debashish, Ghosh; Malay, Saha; Barindra, Sana; Joydeep, Mukherjee

    2005-01-01

    Marine enzyme biotechnology can offer novel biocatalysts with properties like high salt tolerance, hyperthermostability, barophilicity, cold adaptivity, and ease in large-scale cultivation. This review deals with the research and development work done on the occurrence, molecular biology, and bioprocessing of marine enzymes during the last decade. Exotic locations have been accessed for the search of novel enzymes. Scientists have isolated proteases and carbohydrases from deep sea hydrothermal vents. Cold active metabolic enzymes from psychrophilic marine microorganisms have received considerable research attention. Marine symbiont microorganisms growing in association with animals and plants were shown to produce enzymes of commercial interest. Microorganisms isolated from sediment and seawater have been the most widely studied, proteases, carbohydrases, and peroxidases being noteworthy. Enzymes from marine animals and plants were primarily studied for their metabolic roles, though proteases and peroxidases have found industrial applications. Novel techniques in molecular biology applied to assess the diversity of chitinases, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia-metabolizing, and pollutant-degrading enzymes are discussed. Genes encoding chitinases, proteases, and carbohydrases from microbial and animal sources have been cloned and characterized. Research on the bioprocessing of marine-derived enzymes, however, has been scanty, focusing mainly on the application of solid-state fermentation to the production of enzymes from microbial sources.

  9. Complete genome sequence of Oceanimonas sp. GK1, a halotolerant bacterium from Gavkhouni Wetland in Iran.

    PubMed

    Yeganeh, Laleh Parsa; Azarbaijani, Reza; Sarikhan, Sajjad; Mousavi, Hossein; Ramezani, Mohadeseh; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Fazeli, Abolhassan Shahzadeh; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2012-04-01

    Oceanimonas sp. GK1 (IBRC-M 10197) is a marine halotolerant gammaproteobacterium which was characterized as producing large amounts of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate. Here we present the whole-genome sequence of Oceanimonas sp. GK1, which consists of a single circular chromosome of 3,514,537 bp and two plasmids 8,462 and 4,245 bp in length.

  10. Aerosol hygroscopicity in the marine atmosphere: a closure study using high-time-resolution, multiple-RH DASH-SP and size-resolved C-ToF-AMS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hersey, S. P.; Sorooshian, A.; Murphy, S. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    We have conducted the first airborne hygroscopic growth closure study to utilize data from an Aerodyne compact Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) coupled with size-resolved, multiple-RH, high-time-resolution hygroscopic growth factor (GF) measurements from the differential aerosol sizing and hygroscopicity spectrometer probe (DASH-SP). These data were collected off the coast of Central California during seven of the 16 flights carried out during the MASE-II field campaign in July 2007. Two of the seven flights were conducted in airmasses characterized by continental origin. These flights exhibited elevated organic volume fractions (VForganic=0.56±0.19, as opposed to 0.39±0.20 for all other flights), corresponding to significantly suppressed GFs at high RH (1.61±0.14 at 92% RH, as compared with 1.91±0.07 for all other flights), more moderate GF suppression at intermediate RH (1.53±0.10 at 85%, compared with 1.58±0.08 for all other flights), and no measurable GF suppression at low RH (1.31±0.06 at 74%, compared with 1.31±0.07 for all other flights). Organic loadings were slightly elevated in above-cloud aerosols, as compared with below-cloud aerosols, and corresponded to a similar trend of significantly suppressed GF at high RH, but more moderate impacts at lower values of RH. A hygroscopic closure based on a volume-weighted mixing rule provided good agreement with DASH-SP measurements (R2=0.78). Minimization of root mean square error between observations and predictions indicated mission-averaged organic GFs of 1.22, 1.45, and 1.48 at 74, 85, and 92% RH, respectively. These values agree with previously reported values for water-soluble organics such as dicarboxylic and multifunctional acids, and correspond to a highly oxidized, presumably water-soluble, organic fraction (mission-averaged O:C=0.92±0.33). Finally, a backward stepwise linear regression revealed that, other than RH, the most important predictor for GF is VForganic, indicating

  11. Marine biosurfactants, I. Screening for biosurfactants among crude oil degrading marine microorganisms from the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Schulz, D; Passeri, A; Schmidt, M; Lang, S; Wagner, F; Wray, V; Gunkel, W

    1991-01-01

    Three bacterial strains of marine origin were isolated during a screening for biosurfactants among n-alkane degrading microorganisms. One strain-identified as Alcaligenes sp. MM1-produced a novel glucose lipid. In the case of Arthrobacter sp. EK 1 the well-known trehalose tetraester was found as major component. From another pure culture classified as Arthrobacter sp. SI 1, extracellular emulsifying agents with properties indicating high molecular weight substances were detected. Furthermore trehalose corynomycolates were found at up to 2 g/l. The isolated biosurfactants showed good interfacial and emulsifying properties.

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of a Coastal Cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. Strain NIES-970

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Yuu; Misawa, Naomi; Wakazuki, Sachiko; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Kanesaki, Yu; Yamaguchi, Haruyo; Kawachi, Masanobu

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Members of the cyanobacterial genus Synechococcus are abundant in marine environments. To better understand the genomic diversity of marine Synechococcus spp., we determined the complete genome sequence of a coastal cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. NIES-970. The genome had a size of 3.1 Mb, consisting of one chromosome and four plasmids. PMID:28385852

  13. Marine energy.

    PubMed

    Kerr, David

    2007-04-15

    Marine energy is renewable and carbon free and has the potential to make a significant contribution to energy supplies in the future. In the UK, tidal power barrages and wave energy could make the largest contribution, and tidal stream energy could make a smaller but still a useful contribution. This paper provides an overview of the current status and prospects for electrical generation from marine energy. It concludes that a realistic potential contribution to UK electricity supplies is approximately 80 TWh per year but that many years of development and investment will be required if this potential is to be realized.

  14. Albidovulum inexpectatum gen. nov., sp. nov., a nonphotosynthetic and slightly thermophilic bacterium from a marine hot spring that is very closely related to members of the photosynthetic genus Rhodovulum.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Luciana; Santos, João; Travassos, Pedro; Nobre, M Fernanda; Rainey, Fred A; Wait, Robin; Empadinhas, Nuno; Silva, Manuel T; da Costa, Milton S

    2002-09-01

    Several bacterial isolates, with an optimum growth temperature of about 50 degrees C, were recovered from the marine hot spring at Ferraria on the island of São Miguel in the Azores. The geothermal water emerged from a porous lava flow and rapidly cooled in contact with seawater except at low tide. The bacterial species represented by strains FRR-10(T) and FRR-11 was nonpigmented, strictly aerobic, and organotrophic. Several genes, bchZ, pufB, pufA, pufL, or pufM, encoding the photosynthetic reaction center proteins and the core light-harvesting complexes were not detected in these strains. The organism oxidized thiosulfate to sulfate with enhancement of growth. The organism did not require additional NaCl in the culture medium for growth, but NaCl at 1.0% enhanced growth. Phylogenetic analyses using the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain FRR-10(T) indicated that the new organism represented a new species of the alpha-3 subclass of the Proteobacteria and that it branches within the species of the genus Rhodovulum. The contradiction of classifying an organism which branches within the radiation of the genus Rhodovulum but does not possess the hallmark characteristics of this genus is discussed. However, the absence of several of these characteristics, namely, the lack of photosynthesis and pigmentation, which could be related to colonization of dark environments, and growth at high temperatures, leads to our proposal that strains FRR-10(T) and FRR-11 should be classified as a new species of a novel genus, Albidovulum inexpectatum, representing, at present, the most thermophilic organism within the alpha-3 subclass of the Proteobacteria.

  15. Marine envenomations.

    PubMed

    Balhara, Kamna S; Stolbach, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    This article describes the epidemiology and presentation of human envenomation from marine organisms. Venom pathophysiology, envenomation presentation, and treatment options are discussed for sea snake, stingray, spiny fish, jellyfish, octopus, cone snail, sea urchin, and sponge envenomation. The authors describe the management of common exposures that cause morbidity as well as the keys to recognition and treatment of life-threatening exposures.

  16. Marine Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  17. Marine Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Alan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  18. Mariner Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mariner was the name given to the earliest set of American space missions to explore the planets and to the spacecraft developed to carry them out. The missions were planned and executed by the JET PROPULSION LABORATORY (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology, which had been designated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as its lead center for planetary missions....

  19. Marine Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, J. W., III

    1975-01-01

    The papers presented in the marine session may be broadly grouped into several classes: microwave region instruments compared to infrared and visible region sensors, satellite techniques compared to aircraft techniques, open ocean applications compared to coastal region applications, and basic research and understanding of ocean phenomena compared to research techniques that offer immediate applications.

  20. Actinobacillus rossii sp. nov., Actinobacillus seminis sp. nov., nom. rev., Pasteurella bettii sp. nov., Pasteurella lymphangitidis sp. nov., Pasteurella mairi sp. nov., and Pasteurella trehalosi sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Sneath, P H; Stevens, M

    1990-04-01

    Evidence from numerical taxonomic analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization supports the proposal of new species in the genera Actinobacillus and Pasteurella. The following new species are proposed: Actinobacillus rossii sp. nov., from the vaginas of postparturient sows; Actinobacillus seminis sp. nov., nom. rev., associated with epididymitis of sheep; Pasteurella bettii sp. nov., associated with human Bartholin gland abscess and finger infections; Pasteurella lymphangitidis sp. nov. (the BLG group), which causes bovine lymphangitis; Pasteurella mairi sp. nov., which causes abortion in sows; and Pasteurella trehalosi sp. nov., formerly biovar T of Pasteurella haemolytica, which causes septicemia in older lambs.

  1. Aliterella atlantica gen. nov., sp. nov., and Aliterella antarctica sp. nov., novel members of coccoid Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Rigonato, Janaina; Gama, Watson Arantes; Alvarenga, Danillo Oliveira; Branco, Luis Henrique Zanini; Brandini, Frederico Pereira; Genuário, Diego Bonaldo; Fiore, Marli Fatima

    2016-09-01

    Two Cyanobacteria isolated from South Atlantic Ocean continental shelf deep water and from a marine green algae inhabiting the Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica were investigated based on morphological and ultrastructural traits, phylogeny of 16S rRNA gene sequences, secondary structure of the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer regions and phylogenomic analyses. The majority of these evaluations demonstrated that both strains differ from the genera of cyanobacteria with validly published names and, therefore, supported the description of the novel genus as Aliterella gen. nov. The identity and phylogeny of 16S rRNA gene sequences, together with the secondary structure of D1D1' and BoxB intergenic regions, further supported the two strains representing distinct species: Aliterella atlantica gen. nov., sp. nov. (type SP469036, strain CENA595T) and Aliterella antarctica sp. nov. (type SP469035, strain CENA408T). The phylogenomic analysis of A. atlantica sp. nov. CENA595T, based on 21 protein sequences, revealed that this genus belongs to the cyanobacterial order Chroococcidiopsidales. The isolation and cultivation of two geographically distant unicellular members of a novel cyanobacterial genus and the sequenced genome of the type strain bring new insights into the current classification of the coccoid group, and into the reconstruction of their evolutionary history.

  2. Evidence of Helicobacter sp. in dental plaque of captive dolphins (Tursiops gephyreus).

    PubMed

    Goldman, Cinthia G; Loureiro, Julio D; Quse, Viviana; Corach, Daniel; Calderon, Enrique; Caro, Ricardo A; Boccio, José; Rodríguez Heredia, Sergio; Di Carlo, Maria B; Zubillaga, Marcela B

    2002-07-01

    Gastrointestinal lesions have been extensively reported in wild and captive marine mammals. However, their etiology remains unclear. In humans and other animals, chronic gastritis and peptic ulcers have been associated with Helicobacter sp. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the presence of Helicobacter sp. in the gastric juice, dental plaque, and saliva of marine mammals living in a controlled environment. Five dolphins (Tursiops gephyreus), one killer whale (Orcinus orca), one false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens), three sea lions (Otaria flavescens), two elephant seals (Mirounga leonina), and two fur seals (Arctocephalus australis) were studied. Saliva, dental plaque, and gastric juice samples were examined for Helicobacter sp. using polymerase chain reaction. None of the gastric juice or saliva samples were positive for Helicobacter sp. However, Helicobacter sp. DNA was detected in dental plaque from two dolphins, suggesting the oral cavity might be a reservoir of this bacterium.

  3. Marine Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Andel, Tjeerd H.

    Marine geology was blessed early, about 30 years ago, with two great textbooks, one by P.H. Kuenen, the other by Francis P. Shepard, but in more recent years, no one has dared synthesize a field that has become so diverse and is growing so rapidly. There are many texts written for the beginning undergraduate student, mostly by marine geologists, but none can be handed conveniently to a serious advanced student or given to a colleague interested in what the field has wrought. The reason for this regrettable state is obvious; only an active, major scholar could hope to write such a book well, but the years would pass, his students dwindle, his grants vanish. He himself might be out of date before his book was. Kennett has earned a large measure of gratitude for his attempt to undertake this task. His personal price must have been high but so are our rewards.

  4. Marine pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, D J

    2000-02-01

    Marine organisms have provided a large proportion of the bioactive natural products reported over the last 20 years, but none of these compounds have reached the pharmaceutical marketplace. This review describes current progress in the development of a selection of new antiinflammatory and anticancer agents, discusses some difficulties encountered during the development process and suggests how these difficulties may be overcome in the near future through applications of recent advances in biotechnology.

  5. Description and phylogeny of Ceratomyxa anko sp. n. and Zschokkella lophii sp. n. from the Japanese anglerfish, Lophius litulon (Jordan).

    PubMed

    Freeman, M A; Yokoyama, H; Ogawa, K

    2008-12-01

    Two new species of myxozoans from the Japanese anglerfish, Lophius litulon, are described using myxospore morphology and small subunit rDNA sequences. Ceratomyxa anko sp. n. is a parasite of the gall bladder and had a prevalence of 57%. Mature spores of C. anko sp. n. are arcuate to crescent shaped with valves tapering to rounded tips. A prominent sutural line runs centrally between the round adjacent polar capsules containing the polar filament coiled two to three times. Spore measurements: length 10.8 (9.7-11.9) microm, width 41.9 (36.9-47.2) microm, polar capsule diameter 4.6 (4.1-5.3) microm. Ceratomyxa anko sp. n. can be distinguished from other Ceratomyxa spp. due to its spore dimensions and shape. Zschokkella lophii sp. n. is a parasite of the urinary bladder and had a prevalence of 70%. Mature spores are ellipsoidal to semicircular with bluntly pointed ends. The sutural line is curved or sinuous and the valves have no discernable surface ornamentation. Two almost spherical polar capsules are located separately in the ends of the spore, opening in almost opposite directions and contain the polar filament with five coils. Spore measurements: length 20.1 (16.8-24.0) microm, width 14.9 (12.7-16.8) microm, polar capsule diameter 5.1 (3.6-5.8) microm. Zschokkella lophii sp. n. can be distinguished from other Zschokkella spp. due to the terminal opening of the polar capsules within the spores and the site of infection within the host fish. In the phylogenetic analyses, C. anko sp. n. grouped with other members of the same genus forming a monophyly. Zschokkella lophii sp. n. forms a discrete clade with another Zschokkella sp. that infects the urinary bladder of marine fish. This grouping forms a sister clade to one containing members of the genus Parvicapsula, all of which are parasites of the urinary system in marine fish.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Labrenzia sp. Strain CP4, Isolated from a Self-Regenerating Biocathode Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng; Eddie, Brian J.; Malanoski, Anthony P.; Hervey, W. Judson; Lin, Baochuan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Labrenzia sp. strain CP4, isolated from an electricity-consuming marine biocathode biofilm. Labrenzia sp. strain CP4 consists of a circular 5.2 Mbp chromosome and an 88 Kbp plasmid. PMID:27174270

  7. Picocyanobacteria from a clade of marine Cyanobium revealed bioactive potential against microalgae, bacteria, and marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Costa, Maria Sofia; Costa, Margarida; Ramos, Vítor; Leão, Pedro N; Barreiro, Aldo; Vasconcelos, Vítor; Martins, Rosário

    2015-01-01

    The production of bioactive compounds either toxic or with pharmacological applications by cyanobacteria is well established. However, picoplanktonic forms within this group of organisms have rarely been studied in this context. In this study, the toxicological potential of picocyanobacteria from a clade of marine Cyanobium strains isolated from the Portuguese coast was examined using different biological models. First, strains were identified by applying morphological and molecular approaches and cultured under lab conditions. A crude extract and three fractions reflecting a preliminary segregation of lipophilic metabolites were tested for toxicity with the marine microalga Nannochloropsis sp., the bacteria Pseudomonas sp., the brine shrimp Artemia salina, and fertilized eggs of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. No significant apparent adverse effects were noted against Artemia salina. However, significant adverse effects were found in all other assays, with an inhibition of Nannochloropsis sp. and Pseudomonas sp. growth and marked reduction in Paracentrotus lividus larvae length. The results obtained indicated that Cyanobium genus may serve as a potential source of interesting bioactive compounds and emphasize the importance of also studying smaller picoplanktonic fractions of marine cyanobacteria.

  8. Marine Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

    Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

  9. Antifouling effect of bioactive compounds from selected marine organisms in the Obhur Creek, Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sofyani, Abdulmohsin; Marimuthu, N.; Wilson, J. Jerald; Pugazhendi, Arulazhagan; Dhavamani, Jeyakumar

    2016-06-01

    Three species of sponges and a tunicate were collected from Obhur creek of Jeddah coast for this bioactivity study. In order to assess the antifouling efficacy of selected marine organisms, methanolic extracts of these organisms were tested against different fouling bacterial forms and II-instar stage of the barnacle, Balanus amphitrite. Antibiosis, bioactivity and followed by multivariate analyses were carried out to check the efficacy of antifouling effect of the selected marine organisms. Principal component analysis revealed the exemplary antifouling efficacy of the sponge extracts of Stylissa sp. observed followed by Hyrtios sp. against bacterial forms in the laboratory study. De-trended correspondence analysis confirmed that the contribution of antifouling efficacy of the selected sponge extracts was observed to be more towards Bacillus sp., Vibrio sp. and Alteromonas sp. Moreover, the efficacy of Hyrtios sp. extract (20.430 μg mL-1) followed by Stylissa sp. (30.945 μg mL-1) showed higher against barnacle instar compared with other extracts in the bioactivity assay. Bray-Curtis cluster analysis under paired linkage categorized all the sponge extracts into one major cluster with 75% similarity, and one outlier tunicate. More than 80% similarity observed between Hyrtios sp. and Stylissa sp. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the contribution of major peaks found in the marine organisms were towards sulfones, sulfoxides, cyanates and ketones.

  10. Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a submission to the list of microorganisms with standing in nomenclature maintained by the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. We wish to have Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov. added to the list as a valid species belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. Three str...

  11. Marine mycoflora in backwater ecosystem of Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Gayatri R; Raveendran, K

    2009-09-01

    Back water system of Kerala is well known for its fertility. Fungi play a vital role in detritus decomposition, nutrient cycling and energy flow in marine food web including backwater ecosystem. Present investigation on the diversity of marine fungi from two back waters of Kerala resulted in the isolation of 20 marine fungi. These include 11 Ascomycetes, 1 Basidiomycete and 8 Mitosporic fungi. In terms of percent frequency of occurrence the most common species obtained were Aniptodera chesapeakensis, Verruculina enalia, Savoryella lignicola and Clavatospora bulbosa. Ascochyta sp. was represented by only a single isolate.

  12. In vitro screening of antifungal activity of marine sponge extracts against five phytopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    El Amraoui, Belkassem; El Wahidi, Majida; Fassouane, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our research is the screening of extracts of marine sponges for their antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi. The in vitro screening of hydroalcoholic and organic extracts of ten marine sponges from Atlantic coast of Morocco against five phytopathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris, Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium digitatum) showed that only two sponges (Haliclona viscosa and Cynachirella tarentina) are active against all phytopathogenic fungi studied.

  13. DOS cones along atomic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwapiński, Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    The electron transport properties of a linear atomic chain are studied theoretically within the tight-binding Hamiltonian and the Green’s function method. Variations of the local density of states (DOS) along the chain are investigated. They are crucial in scanning tunnelling experiments and give important insight into the electron transport mechanism and charge distribution inside chains. It is found that depending on the chain parity the local DOS at the Fermi level can form cone-like structures (DOS cones) along the chain. The general condition for the local DOS oscillations is obtained and the linear behaviour of the local density function is confirmed analytically. DOS cones are characterized by a linear decay towards the chain which is in contrast to the propagation properties of charge density waves, end states and Friedel oscillations in one-dimensional systems. We find that DOS cones can appear due to non-resonant electron transport, the spin–orbit scattering or for chains fabricated on a substrate with localized electrons. It is also shown that for imperfect chains (e.g. with a reduced coupling strength between two neighboring sites) a diamond-like structure of the local DOS along the chain appears.

  14. Marine antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Currie, Bart J

    2003-01-01

    There is an enormous diversity and complexity of venoms and poisons in marine animals. Fatalities have occurred from envenoming by sea snakes, jellyfish, venomous fish such as stonefish, cone snails, and blue-ringed octopus. Deaths have also followed ingestion of toxins in shellfish, puffer fish (Fugu), and ciguatoxin-containing fish. However antivenoms are generally only available for envenoming by certain sea snakes, the major Australian box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) and stonefish. There have been difficulties in characterizing the toxins of C. fleckeri venom, and there are conflicting animals studies on the efficacy of C. fleckeri antivenom. The vast majority of C. fleckeri stings are not life-threatening, with painful skin welts the major finding. However fatalities that do occur usually do so within 5 to 20 minutes of the sting. This unprecedented rapid onset of cardiotoxicity in clinical envenoming suggests that antivenom may need to be given very early (within minutes) and possibly in large doses if a life is to be saved. Forty years of anecdotal experience supports the beneficial effect of stonefish antivenom in relieving the excruciating pain after stonefish spine penetration. It remains uncertain whether stonefish antivenom is efficacious in stings from spines of other venomous fish, and the recommendation of giving the antivenom intramuscularly needs reassessment.

  15. Effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a Nigerian offshore oilfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okpokwasili, G. C.; Nnubia, C.

    1995-11-01

    Two marine bacterial isolates from drill mud cuttings obtained from Agbara oilfield, Staphylococcus sp. and Bacillus sp., were cultured aerobically in the presence of varying concentrations (0, 25, 50, and 75 μg/ml) of drilling fluids to determine the effects of concentration of toxicants on their growth. With the exception of Clairsol, Enviromul, and Baroid mineral oil, which had little or no effect, the exponential growth of Bacillus sp. was depressed by all other test chemicals. Additionally, all test chemicals except Clairsol had no effect on lag phase of growth of Bacillus sp. With Staphylococcus sp. the depressive effect on the exponential phase of growth was shown by almost all test chemicals. There was enhancement of both growth rate and generation times of Staphylococcus sp. and decrease of those of Bacillus sp. with increasing concentrations of drilling fluids. These results show that while some drilling fluids may be stimulatory or depressive to bacterial growth, others may be without effect.

  16. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  17. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  18. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  19. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  20. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  1. Ten new species of parasitic cyclopoid copepods (Crustacea) belonging to the families Bomolochidae, Philichthyidae, and Taeniacanthidae from marine fishes in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Il-Hoi; Moon, Seong Yong

    2013-12-01

    Ten new species of cyclopoid copepods are described as parasites of marine fishes from Korea. Three new species of the family Bomolochidae are described as gill parasites: Orbitacolax pteragogi n. sp. from Pteragogus flagellifer (Valenciennes), Orbitacolax trichiuri n. sp. from Trichurus lepturus Linnaeus, and Orbitacolax unguifer n. sp. from Evynnis japonica Tanaka. Four species of the genus Colobomatus Hesse, 1873 of the family Philichthyidae are described as internal parasites: Colobomatus unimanus n. sp. from Pseudolabrus eoethinus (Richardson), Colobomatus recticaudatus n. sp. from Halichoeres poecilopterus (Temminck and Schlegel), Colobomatus floridus n. sp. from Hapalogenys mucronatus (Eydoux and Souleyet), and Colobomatus orientalis n. sp. from Johnius grypotus (Richardson). Three new species of the family Taeniacanthidae, including a new species belonging to a new genus, are described as gill parasites: Taeniacanthus singularis n. sp. from Halieutaea fumosa Alcock, Triacanthus luteus n. gen. n. sp. from Odontamblyopus lacepedii (Temminck and Schlegel), and Umazuracola geminus n. sp. from Stephonolepis cirrhifer (Temminck and Schlegel).

  2. Production of induced secondary metabolites by a co-culture of sponge-associated actinomycetes, Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163.

    PubMed

    Dashti, Yousef; Grkovic, Tanja; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Hentschel, Ute; Quinn, Ronald J

    2014-05-22

    Two sponge-derived actinomycetes, Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163, were grown in co-culture and the presence of induced metabolites monitored by ¹H NMR. Ten known compounds, including angucycline, diketopiperazine and β-carboline derivatives 1-10, were isolated from the EtOAc extracts of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163. Co-cultivation of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163 induced the biosynthesis of three natural products that were not detected in the single culture of either microorganism, namely N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-acetamide (11), 1,6-dihydroxyphenazine (12) and 5a,6,11a,12-tetrahydro-5a,11a-dimethyl[1,4]benzoxazino[3,2-b][1,4]benzoxazine (13a). When tested for biological activity against a range of bacteria and parasites, only the phenazine 12 was active against Bacillus sp. P25, Trypanosoma brucei and interestingly, against Actinokineospora sp. EG49. These findings highlight the co-cultivation approach as an effective strategy to access the bioactive secondary metabolites hidden in the genomes of marine actinomycetes.

  3. Agarivorans gilvus sp. nov. isolated from seaweed.

    PubMed

    Du, Zong-Jun; Lv, Guo-Qiang; Rooney, Alejandro P; Miao, Ting-Ting; Xu, Qing-Qiang; Chen, Guan-Jun

    2011-03-01

    A novel agarase-producing, non-endospore-forming marine bacterium, WH0801(T), was isolated from a fresh seaweed sample collected from the coast of Weihai, China. Preliminary characterization based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that WH0801(T) shared 96.1  % similarity with Agarivorans albus MKT 106(T), the type species of the genus Agarivorans. A polyphasic taxonomic study was conducted and confirmed the phylogenetic affiliation of strain WH0801(T) to the genus Agarivorans. Isolate WH0801(T) produces light-yellow-pigmented colonies; cells are Gram-stain-negative, straight or curved rods, which are motile with a single polar flagellum. Strain WH0801(T) grew in 0.5-5  % NaCl, with optimum growth at 3  % NaCl, and its optimal pH and cultivation temperature were 8.4-8.6 and 28-32 °C, respectively. Data from biochemical tests, whole-cell fatty acid profiling, 16S rRNA gene sequence studies and DNA-DNA hybridization clearly indicated that isolate WH0801(T) represented a novel species within the genus Agarivorans, for which the name Agarivorans gilvus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Agarivorans gilvus sp. nov. is WH0801(T) (=NRRL B-59247(T) =CGMCC 1.10131(T)).

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Thalassotalea sp. Strain ND16A Isolated from Eastern Mediterranean Sea Water Collected from a Depth of 1,055 Meters

    SciTech Connect

    Stelling, Savannah C.; Techtmann, Stephen M.; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Alshibli, Noor K.; Brown, Steven D.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2014-11-26

    Thalassotalea sp. strain ND16A belongs to the family Colwelliaceae and was isolated from eastern Mediterranean Sea water at a depth of 1,055 m. Members of Colwelliaceae are ubiquitous marine heterotrophs. Lastly, here we report the draft genome sequence of Thalassotalea sp. strain ND16A, a member of the newly described genus Thalassotalea.

  5. Whole-Genome Sequence and Fosfomycin Resistance of Bacillus sp. Strain G3(2015) Isolated from Seawater off the Coast of Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Xin-Yue; Chen, Jian-Woon; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Hong, Kar-Wai; Chang, Chien-Yi; Yin, Wai-Fong

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacillus sp. is a Gram-positive bacterium that is commonly found in seawater. In this study, the genome of marine Bacillus sp. strain G3(2015) was sequenced using MiSeq. The fosfomycin resistant gene fosB was identified upon bacterial genome annotation. PMID:28360153

  6. SP-100 program developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnyer, A. D.; Sholtis, J. A., Jr.; Wahlquist, E. J.; Verga, R. L.; Wiley, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    An update is provided on the status of the Sp-100 Space Reactor Power Program. The historical background that led to the program is reviewed and the overall program objectives and development approach are discussed. The results of the mission studies identify applications for which space nuclear power is desirable and even essential. Results of a series of technology feasibility experiments are expected to significantly improve the earlier technology data base for engineering development. The conclusion is reached that a nuclear reactor space power system can be developed by the early 1990s to meet emerging mission performance requirements.

  7. Frontiers of marine science.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas J; Poloczanska, Elvira S

    2011-06-23

    On 9-13 October 2010 early career scientists from the UK and Australia across marine research fields were given the opportunity to come together in Perth, Australia to discuss the frontiers of marine research and exchange ideas.

  8. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  9. Synthesis and analysis of an alkenone-free biodiesel from Isochrysis sp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some marine microalgae, such as Isochrysis sp., produce high-melting (~70 ºC) lipids known as long-chain alkenones that detrimentally affect biodiesel fuel quality. A method has been developed for the production of an alkenone-free Isochrysis biodiesel. This material was prepared on sufficient scale...

  10. Decolorization improves the fuel properties of algal biodiesel from Isochrysis sp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Results from the comprehensive fuel testing according to the American Society for Testing and Materials International (ASTM) standards of an alkenone-free and decolorized biodiesel produced from the industrially grown marine microalgae Isochrysis sp. are presented. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) pro...

  11. Genome sequence of Oceanicaulis sp. strain HTCC2633, isolated from the Western Sargasso Sea.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyun-Myung; Kang, Ilnam; Vergin, Kevin L; Lee, Kiyoung; Giovannoni, Stephen J; Cho, Jang-Cheon

    2011-01-01

    The genus Oceanicaulis represents dimorphic rods that were originally isolated from a marine dinoflagellate. Here, we announce the genome sequence of Oceanicaulis sp. strain HTCC2633, isolated by dilution-to-extinction culturing from the Sargasso Sea. The genome information of strain HTCC2633 indicates a chemoorganotrophic way of life of this strain.

  12. Genome Sequence of Prosthecochloris sp. Strain CIB 2401 of the Phylum Chlorobi.

    PubMed

    Nabhan, Shaza; Bunk, Boyke; Spröer, Cathrin; Liu, Zhenfeng; Bryant, Donald A; Overmann, Jörg

    2016-11-03

    To date, only 13 genomes of green sulfur bacteria (family Chlorobiaceae) have been sequenced. The sequenced strains do not cover the full phylogenetic diversity of the family. We determined the complete genome sequence of Prosthecochloris sp. strain CIB 2401, thereby increasing the genome information for the poorly represented marine Chlorobiaceae.

  13. Genome Sequence of Prosthecochloris sp. Strain CIB 2401 of the Phylum Chlorobi

    PubMed Central

    Nabhan, Shaza; Bunk, Boyke; Spröer, Cathrin; Liu, Zhenfeng

    2016-01-01

    To date, only 13 genomes of green sulfur bacteria (family Chlorobiaceae) have been sequenced. The sequenced strains do not cover the full phylogenetic diversity of the family. We determined the complete genome sequence of Prosthecochloris sp. strain CIB 2401, thereby increasing the genome information for the poorly represented marine Chlorobiaceae. PMID:27811102

  14. Eranno carrerai sp. nov., a new polychaete worm (Lumbrineridae) from coastal waters of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wenqian; Li, Xinzheng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new polychaete species, Eranno carrerai sp. nov. from coastal areas of China, is described based on specimens deposited in the Marine Biological Museum of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, collected during 1957 to 1976 from the Yellow Sea, East China Sea and South China Sea at depths of 9-210 m.

  15. SP mountain data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

  16. Comparison of the numerical grazing response of two marine heterotrophic nanoflagellates fed with different bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, B. R.; Fukami, K.

    2004-08-01

    The numerical grazing responses of two marine heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF), Jakoba libera strain 5(2) and Cafeteria sp. strain 5(3) fed with three bacterial strains ( Alteromonas sp., Flavobacterium sp., and Pseudomonas sp.) and mixed bacterial communities (MBC) were compared. J. libera-5(2) had different numerical grazing responses to food bacteria. The net HNF cellular production, maximum specific growth rate (μ max) and maximum clearance rate (F max) values of J. libera-5(2) were highest with Pseudomonas sp., followed by Flavobacterium sp., MBC and Alteromonas sp. In contrast, Cafeteria sp.-5(3) showed the same numerical response to the food bacteria, and attained a 57-fold higher net stationary phase population, a 9-fold higher μ max, and a 5-fold higher F max than J. libera-5(2) with Alteromonas sp. as food bacteria. These differences in numerical grazing response of HNF may be important in structuring both the bacterial and protozoan species composition and succession in the marine environments.

  17. The tardigrade fauna of Australian marine caves: with descriptions of nine new species of Arthrotardigrada.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Aslak; Boesgaard, Tom M; Møbjerg, Nadja; Kristensen, Reinhardt M

    2014-05-28

    Marine caves are known to support a rich macrofauna; however, few studies have focused on meiofauna. Marine cave meiofaunal tardigrades have been reported from Japan and the Mediterranean Sea and a preliminary list of species including a redescription of Actinarctus neretinus Grimaldi de Zio, D'Addabbo Gallo, Morone De Lucia, Vaccarella and Grimaldi, 1982 was reported from Fish Rock Cave and Jim's Cave on the coast of Australia. This study is the fourth in a series describing the unique meiofauna in two Australian submarine caves located off the coast of New South Wales, describing nine new species.        Only 67 tardigrades were collected from the two caves, yet these contained a high diversity of at least 16 different species which are quite different in the two caves. The fauna includes nine arthrotardigrade genera: Actinarctus, Batillipes, Dipodarctus, Halechiniscus, Raiarctus, Styraconyx, Tanarctus, Tholoarctus, and Wingstrandarctus. This fauna is different from that reported for the high energy beaches along the East Coast of Australia.        We describe nine new species comprising a single batillipedid and eight halechiniscids: Batillipes solitarius nov. sp., Dipodarctus australiensis nov. sp., Dipodarctus susannae nov. sp., Raiarctus jesperi nov. sp., Raiarctus katrinae nov. sp., Tanarctus hirsutospinosus nov. sp., Tholoarctus oleseni nov. sp., Wingstrandarctus stinae nov. sp. and Wingstrandarctus unsculptus nov. sp.

  18. Chemical characterization, antioxidant and inhibitory effects of some marine sponges against carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background More than 15,000 marine products have been described up to now; Sponges are champion producers, concerning the diversity of products that have been found. Most bioactive compounds from sponges were classified into anti-inflammatory, antitumor, immuno- or neurosurpressive, antiviral, antimalarial, antibiotic, or antifouling. Evaluation of in vitro inhibitory effects of different extracts from four marine sponges versus some antioxidants indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes concerned with diabetes mellitus was studied. The chemical characterizations for the extracts of the predominating sponges; SP1 and SP3 were discussed. Methods All chemicals served in the biological study were of analytical grade and purchased from Sigma, Merck and Aldrich. All kits were the products of Biosystems (Spain), Sigma Chemical Company (USA), Biodiagnostic (Egypt). Carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes; α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and β-galactosidase (EC3.2.1.1, EC3.2.1.20, and EC3.2.1.23, respectively) were obtained from Sigma Chemical Company (USA). Results Four marine sponges; Smenospongia (SP1), Callyspongia (SP2), Niphates (SP3), and Stylissa (SP4), were collected from the Red Sea at Egyptian coasts, and taxonomically characterized. The sponges' extracts exhibited diverse inhibitory effects on oxidative stress indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in linear relationships to some extent with concentration of inhibitors (dose dependant). The extracts of sponges (3, 1, and 2) showed, respectively, potent-reducing power. Purification and Chemical characterization of sponge 1 using NMR and mass spectroscopy, recognized the existence of di-isobutyl phthalate (1), di-n-butyl phthalate (2), linoleic acid (3), β-sitosterol (4), and cholesterol (5). Sponge 3 produced bis-[2-ethyl]-hexyl-phthylester (6) and triglyceride fatty acid ester (7). Conclusion Marine sponges are promising sources for delivering of bioactive compounds. Four marine sponges, collected from

  19. Marine Education Materials System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammisch, Sue; Gray, Kevin

    1980-01-01

    Described is a marine education materials clearinghouse, the Marine Education Materials System (MEMS). MEMS classifies marine education documents and reproduces them on microfiche for distribution. There are 25 distribution centers, each of which has a collection of documents and provides assistance on a request basis to teachers. (Author/DS)

  20. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  1. A DOS Primer for Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, Henry

    1989-01-01

    Presents a basic orientation to the functions and capabilities of disk operating systems (DOS), aimed at the nontechnically oriented user of IBM personal computers and compatible microcomputers. Areas discussed include booting up, the use of floppy and hard disks, file storage and manipulation, and directories. Further readings are provided. (CLB)

  2. Protection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Michaela; Ciaccia, Ettore; Dekeling, René; Kvadsheim, Petter; Liddell, Kate; Gunnarsson, Stig-Lennart; Ludwig, Stefan; Nissen, Ivor; Lorenzen, Dirk; Kreimeyer, Roman; Pavan, Gianni; Meneghetti, Nello; Nordlund, Nina; Benders, Frank; van der Zwan, Timo; van Zon, Tim; Fraser, Leanne; Johansson, Torbjörn; Garmelius, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for European navies, consists of annual and seasonal distribution and density maps, random and systematic sightings, an encyclopedia providing knowledge on the characteristics of 126 marine mammal species, data on marine mammal protection areas, and audio information including numerous examples of various vocalizations. Special investigations on marine mammal acoustics were carried out to improve the detection and classification capabilities.

  3. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    PubMed Central

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  4. Acetobacter intermedius, sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Boesch, C; Trcek, J; Sievers, M; Teuber, M

    1998-03-01

    Strains of a new species in the genus Acetobacter, for which we propose the name A. intermedius sp. nov., were isolated and characterized in pure culture from different sources (Kombucha beverage, cider vinegar, spirit vinegar) and different countries (Switzerland, Slovenia). The isolated strains grow in media with 3% acetic acid and 3% ethanol as does A. europaeus, do, however, not require acetic acid for growth. These characteristics phenotypically position A. intermedius between A. europaeus and A. xylinus, DNA-DNA hybridizations of A. intermedius-DNA with DNA of the type strains of Acetobacter europaeus, A. xylinus, A. aceti, A. hansenii, A. liquefaciens, A. methanolicus, A. pasteurianus, A. diazotrophicus, Gluconobacter oxydans and Escherichia coli HB 101 indicated less than 60% DNA similarity. The important features of the new species are described. Acetobacter intermedius strain TF2 (DSM11804) isolated from the liquid phase of a tea fungus beverage (Kombucha) is the type strain.

  5. Use of a marine microbial community as inoculum for biomethane production.

    PubMed

    Fistarol, Giovana O; Rosato, Mario; Thompson, Fabiano L; do Valle, Rogerio de A B; Garcia-BlairsyReina, Guillermo; Salomon, Paulo S

    2016-01-01

    Marine substrates are prominent candidates for the production of biofuels, especially for biogas, which is a well-established technology that accepts different types of substrates for its production. However, the use of marine substrates in bioreactors may cause inhibition of methanogenic bacteria due to the addition of seasalts. Here, we explore a simple and economically viable way to circumvent the problem of inoculum inhibition. Based on the current knowledge of the diversity of microorganisms in marine sediments, we tested the direct use of methanogenic bacteria from an anoxic marine environment as inoculum for biomethane production. Both marine and freshwater substrates were added to this inoculum. No pretreatment (that may have enhanced methane production, but would have made the process more expensive) was applied either to the inoculum or to the substrates. For comparison, the same substrates were added to a standard inoculum (cow manure). Both the marine inoculum and cow manure produced methane by anaerobic digestion of the substrates added. The highest methane production (0.299 m(3) kg VS(-1)) was obtained by adding marine microalgae biomass (Chlorella sp. and Synechococcus sp.) to the marine inoculum. No inhibitory effects were observed due to differences in salinity between the inocula and substrates. Our results indicate the potential of using both marine inoculum and substrates for methane production.

  6. Different Roles of DosS and DosT in the Hypoxic Adaptation of Mycobacteria▿

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Ju; Park, Kwang-Jin; Ko, In-Jeong; Kim, Young Min; Oh, Jeong-Il

    2010-01-01

    The DosS (DevS) and DosT histidine kinases form a two-component system together with the DosR (DevR) response regulator in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. DosS and DosT, which have high sequence similarity to each other over the length of their amino acid sequences, contain two GAF domains (GAF-A and GAF-B) in their N-terminal sensory domains. Complementation tests in conjunction with phylogenetic analysis showed that DevS of Mycobacterium smegmatis is more closely related to DosT than DosS. We also demonstrated in vivo that DosS and DosT of M. tuberculosis play a differential role in hypoxic adaptation. DosT responds to a decrease in oxygen tension more sensitively and strongly than DosS, which might be attributable to their different autooxidation rates. The different responsiveness of DosS and DosT to hypoxia is due to the difference in their GAF-A domains accommodating the hemes. Multiple alignment analysis of the GAF-A domains of mycobacterial DosS (DosT) homologs and subsequent site-directed mutagenesis revealed that just one substitution of E87, D90, H97, L118, or T169 of DosS with the corresponding residue of DosT is sufficient to convert DosS to DosT with regard to the responsiveness to changes in oxygen tension. PMID:20675480

  7. Two new species of Echinoderes (Kinorhyncha, Cyclorhagida), E. romanoi sp. n. and E. joyceae sp. n., from the Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Landers, Stephen C.; Sørensen, Martin V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Meiofauna sampling on the continental shelf of the northern Gulf of Mexico has been ongoing since 2007, on annual cruises in collaboration with the National Marine Fisheries Service laboratory in Pascagoula, Mississippi. This sampling has resulted in numerous new species of kinorhynchs from the shelf sediment, two of which are described in detail in this paper. Other species descriptions from this research effort include Echinoderes augustae, Echinoderes skipperae, and Echinoderes charlotteae. We now describe Echinoderes romanoi sp. n. and Echinoderes joyceae sp. n., which are unique in their spine, tube, and glandular cell outlet patterns. PMID:27408558

  8. Two new species of Echinoderes (Kinorhyncha, Cyclorhagida), E. romanoi sp. n. and E. joyceae sp. n., from the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Landers, Stephen C; Sørensen, Martin V

    2016-01-01

    Meiofauna sampling on the continental shelf of the northern Gulf of Mexico has been ongoing since 2007, on annual cruises in collaboration with the National Marine Fisheries Service laboratory in Pascagoula, Mississippi. This sampling has resulted in numerous new species of kinorhynchs from the shelf sediment, two of which are described in detail in this paper. Other species descriptions from this research effort include Echinoderes augustae, Echinoderes skipperae, and Echinoderes charlotteae. We now describe Echinoderes romanoi sp. n. and Echinoderes joyceae sp. n., which are unique in their spine, tube, and glandular cell outlet patterns.

  9. Bioflocculant production by Virgibacillus sp. Rob isolated from the bottom sediment of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cosa, Sekelwa; Mabinya, Leonard V; Olaniran, Ademola O; Okoh, Omobola O; Bernard, Kim; Deyzel, Shaun; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-03-14

    A bioflocculant-producing marine bacterium previously isolated from marine sediment of Algoa Bay was screened for flocculant production. Comparative analysis of 16S rDNA sequence identified the isolate to have 99% similarity to Virgibacillus sp. XQ-1 and it was deposited in the GenBank as Virgibacillus sp. Rob with accession number HQ537127. The bacterium produced biflocculants optimally in glucose (70.4%) and peptone (70.4%) as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen, alkaline pH (12) (74%); and the presence of Fe2+ (74%). Chemical analysis of the bioflocculant revealed it to be a polysaccharide.

  10. [Modulating marine ecosystem by marine viruses--a review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Bai, Shijie; Cai, Wenwei; Zheng, Tianling

    2009-05-01

    Marine viruses play great roles in the marine ecological system such as modulating the biodiversity and species population, regulating the nutrient cycling, intervening gene transfer and influencing climate changes. Recent research achievements on marine viruses were reviewed in this paper. We focused on the modulating role of marine viruses in marine ecosystem and discussed future research perspectives.

  11. Novel Adociaquinone Derivatives from the Indonesian Sponge Xestospongia sp.

    PubMed Central

    He, Fei; Mai, Linh H.; Longeon, Arlette; Copp, Brent R.; Loaëc, Nadège; Bescond, Amandine; Meijer, Laurent; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise

    2015-01-01

    Seven new adociaquinone derivatives, xestoadociaquinones A (1a), B (1b), 14-carboxy-xestoquinol sulfate (2) and xestoadociaminals A–D (3a, 3c, 4a, 4c), together with seven known compounds (5–11) were isolated from an Indonesian marine sponge Xestospongia sp. Their structures were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometric data. All the compounds were evaluated for their potential inhibitory activity against eight different protein kinases involved in cell proliferation, cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders as well as for their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. PMID:25927661

  12. Activity of Haliscosamine against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis: in vitro and in vivo analysis.

    PubMed

    El Amraoui, Belakssem; Biard, Jean François; Ikbal, Fatima Ez-Zohra; El Wahidi, Majida; Kandil, Mostafa; El Amraoui, Mohammed; Fassouane, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges are a potential source of new molecules with diverse biological activities. We have previously isolated a sphingosine derivative, (9Z)-2-amino-docos-9-ene-1,3,13,14-tetraol (Haliscosamine) from the Moroccan sea sponge Haliclona viscosa. The aim of this study was to test Haliscosamine in vitro and in vivo for its antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis causing fusarium wilt of melon. Overall, in vitro test showed that haliscosamine has a similar effect as DESOGERME SP VEGETAUX®. In addition, in vivo showed a significant effect against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis. Taking to gather, our results suggest that haliscosamine constitutes a potential candidate against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis and the possibility to use in phytopathology.

  13. SP-100 space reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    The SP-100 space reactor power system is being developed to meet the large electrical power requirements of civilian and military missions planned for the 1990's and beyond. It will remove the restrictions on electrical power generation that have tended to limit missions and will enable the fuller exploration and utilization of space. This booklet describes the SP-100 space reactor power system and its development. Particular emphasis is given to safety. The design aand operational features as well as the design and safety review process that will assure that the SP-100 can be launched nd operated safely are described.

  14. Yersinia nurmii sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Murros-Kontiainen, Anna; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Korkeala, Hannu; Johansson, Per; Rahkila, Riitta; Björkroth, Johanna

    2011-10-01

    This study was set up to identify three Gram-negative, rod-shaped strains originating from broiler meat packaged under a modified atmosphere. A polyphasic taxonomic approach, including multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of five genes (16S rRNA, glnA, gyrB, recA and HSP60), DNA-DNA reassociation between the closest phylogenetic neighbours and determination of relevant phenotypic properties, was applied. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences grouped these strains together and within the genus Yersinia. MLSA of the 16S rRNA gene and four housekeeping genes showed that the strains formed a monophyletic group separate from other Yersinia species in all phylogenetic trees constructed. The strains had a phenotypic profile different from those of other representatives of the genus Yersinia, but most similar to that of Yersinia ruckeri. Typical virulence markers for pathogenic Yersinia were not detected. Based on phylogenetic, phenotypic and DNA-DNA reassociation data, a novel species, Yersinia nurmii sp. nov., is proposed for the isolated strains. The type strain is APN3a-c(T) ( = DSM 22296(T)  = LMG 25213(T)).

  15. 75 FR 76399 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XK54 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Williams, Long Marine Lab, Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California at Santa Cruz, 100...: The subject amendment to Permit No. 13602 was requested under the authority of the Marine...

  16. 75 FR 68605 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX23 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Science Center, Newport, OR has been issued a permit to conduct research on marine mammals... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the...

  17. Marine Indole Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Netz, Natalie; Opatz, Till

    2015-01-01

    Marine indole alkaloids comprise a large and steadily growing group of secondary metabolites. Their diverse biological activities make many compounds of this class attractive starting points for pharmaceutical development. Several marine-derived indoles were found to possess cytotoxic, antineoplastic, antibacterial and antimicrobial activities, in addition to the action on human enzymes and receptors. The newly isolated indole alkaloids of marine origin since the last comprehensive review in 2003 are reported, and biological aspects will be discussed. PMID:26287214

  18. Parasites and marine invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torchin, M.E.; Lafferty, K.D.; Kuris, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduced marine species are a major environmental and economic problem. The rate of these biological invasions has substantially increased in recent years due to the globalization of the world's economies. The damage caused by invasive species is often a result of the higher densities and larger sizes they attain compared to where they are native. A prominent hypothesis explaining the success of introduced species is that they are relatively free of the effects of natural enemies. Most notably, they may encounter fewer parasites in their introduced range compared to their native range. Parasites are ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, yet their role in marine invasions is relatively unexplored. Although data on parasites of marine organisms exist, the extent to which parasites can mediate marine invasions, or the extent to which invasive parasites and pathogens are responsible for infecting or potentially decimating native marine species have not been examined. In this review, we present a theoretical framework to model invasion success and examine the evidence for a relationship between parasite presence and the success of introduced marine species. For this, we compare the prevalence and species richness of parasites in several introduced populations of marine species with populations where they are native. We also discuss the potential impacts of introduced marine parasites on native ecosystems.

  19. 18. Marine Railway #1, location in foreground; Marine Railway #2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Marine Railway #1, location in foreground; Marine Railway #2 (broken cradle) center; cradle for Marine Railway #3 on right. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  20. Iron Limitation and the Role of Siderophores in Marine Synechococcus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    the pigments phycourobilin to phycoerythrobilin expressed as absorbance at 495 and 545 nm respectively. 10 A. R. Rivers, R. W. Jakuba and E. A. Webb...even the mechanism that first transports Fe through the outer membrane is undefined (Webb et al., 2001). As Fe is a cofactor in many photosynthetic ...K., and Straus, N.A. (1992) An iron stress operon involved in photosynthetic electron transport in the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC

  1. Actinoplanes couchii sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Huber, Birgit; Thummes, Kathrin; Grün-Wollny, Iris; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-04-01

    A Gram-positive bacterium, strain GW8-1761(T), was isolated from soil close to the Marmore waterfalls, Terni, Italy. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain GW8-1761(T) belonged to the genus Actinoplanes, being most closely related to Actinoplanes italicus JCM 3165(T) (98.9 %), A. rectilineatus IFO 13941(T) (98.5 %), A. palleronii JCM 7626(T) (97.8 %), A. utahensis IFO 13244(T) (97.6 %) and A. cyaneus DSM 46137(T) (97.6 %). Strain GW8-1761(T) could be distinguished from any other Actinoplanes species with validly published names by 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of less than 97.5 %. Chemotaxonomic data [major menaquinone MK-9(H(4)); major polar lipids diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol, with phosphatidylcholine and aminoglycolipids absent; major fatty acids C(15 : 0), C(16 : 0), C(16 : 0) iso, C(17 : 1)omega8c and summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or C(15 : 0) iso 2-OH)] supported the affiliation of strain GW8-1761(T) to the genus Actinoplanes. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain GW8-1761(T) from the most closely related species. Strain GW8-1761(T) therefore merits species status, and we propose the name Actinoplanes couchii sp. nov., with the type strain GW8-1761(T) (=DSM 45050(T)=CIP 109316(T)).

  2. 75 FR 76399 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ66 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE 3510-22-P...

  3. High iron content and bioavailability in humans from four species of marine algae.

    PubMed

    García-Casal, Maria N; Pereira, Ana C; Leets, Irene; Ramírez, José; Quiroga, Maria F

    2007-12-01

    Searching for economical, nonconventional sources of iron is important in underdeveloped countries to combat iron deficiency and anemia. Our objective was to study iron, vitamin C, and phytic acid composition and also iron bioavailability from 4 species of marine algae included in a rice-based meal. Marine algae (Ulva sp, Sargassum sp, Porphyra sp, and Gracilariopsis sp) were analyzed for monthly variations in iron and for ascorbic acid and phytic acid concentrations. A total of 96 subjects received rice-based meals containing the 4 species of marine algae in different proportions, raw or cooked. All meals contained radioactive iron. Absorption was evaluated by calculating the radioactive iron incorporation in subjects' blood. Iron concentrations in algae were high and varied widely, depending on the species and time of year. The highest iron concentrations were found in Sargassum (157 mg/100 g) and Gracilariopsis (196 mg/100 g). Phytates were not detected in the algae and ascorbic acid concentration fluctuated between 38 microg/g dry weight (Ulva) and 362 microg/g dry weight (Sargassum). Algae significantly increased iron absorption in rice-based meals. Cooking did not affect iron absorption compared with raw algae. Results indicate that Ulva sp, Sargassum sp, Porphyra sp, and Gracilariopsis sp are good sources of ascorbic acid and bioavailable iron. The percentage of iron absorption was similar among all algae tested, although Sargassum sp resulted in the highest iron intake. Based on these results, and on the high reproduction rates of algae during certain seasons, promoting algae consumption in some countries could help to improve iron nutrition.

  4. Marine biogeochemistry: Methylmercury manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossa, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    The neurotoxin methylmercury can accumulate in marine food webs, contaminating seafood. An analysis of the isotopic composition of fish in the North Pacific suggests that much of the mercury that enters the marine food web originates from low-oxygen subsurface waters.

  5. Monitoring Marine Microbial Fouling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two techniques developed for studying marine fouling. Methods originally developed to study fouling of materials used in Space Shuttle solid fuel booster rockets. Methods used to determine both relative fouling rates and efficacy of cleaning methods to remove fouling on various surfaces including paints, metals, and sealants intended for marine use.

  6. Marine Attitude Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…

  7. Marine Curators Gather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Floyd W.

    1977-01-01

    Reports on a recent meeting of marine curators in which data dissemination, standardization of marine curating techniques and methods, responsibilities of curators, funding problems, and sampling equipment were the main areas of discussion. A listing of the major deep sea sample collections in the United States is also provided. (CP)

  8. "Marinating" Our Urban Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Alan

    1981-01-01

    Describes marine education programs at the elementary and secondary levels in the New York City area. The city's extensive coastline and numerous learning centers comprise one of the richest educational resources in the country for studying the marine environment. (Author/WB)

  9. Marin Tsunami (video)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. The Marin coast could be struck by a tsunami. Whether you live in Marin County, visit the beaches, or rent or own a home near the coast, it is vital to understand the tsunami threat and take preparation seriously. Marin Tsunami tells the story of what several West Marin communities are doing to be prepared. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Marin Office of Emergency Services.

  10. Mining Genomes of Three Marine Sponge-Associated Actinobacterial Isolates for Secondary Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Hannes; Hentschel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequences of three actinobacterial isolates, Micromonospora sp. RV43, Rubrobacter sp. RV113, and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163 that had previously been isolated from Mediterranean sponges. The draft genomes were analyzed for the presence of gene clusters indicative of secondary metabolism using antiSMASH 3.0 and NapDos pipelines. Our findings demonstrated the chemical richness of sponge-associated actinomycetes and the efficacy of genome mining in exploring the genomic potential of sponge-derived actinomycetes. PMID:26430030

  11. Purification and characterization of C-Phycocyanin from cyanobacterial species of marine and freshwater habitat.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anamika; Mishra, Sandhya; Pawar, Richa; Ghosh, P K

    2005-04-01

    The present paper describes an efficient single step chromatographic method for purification of C-Phycocyanin from three cyanobacterial species, i.e., Spirulina sp. (freshwater), Phormidium sp. (marine water) and Lyngbya sp. (marine water). C-Phycocyanin from these cyanobacterial species was purified to homogeneity and some of their properties were investigated. The purification involves a multistep treatment of the crude extract by fractional precipitation with ammonium sulfate, followed by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B column. Pure C-Phycocyanin was finally obtained from Spirulina, Phormidium, and Lyngbya spp. with purity ratio (A620/A280) 4.42, 4.43, and 4.59, respectively, further the purity and homogeneity were confirmed by native and SDS-PAGE. The estimated molecular weights of purified C-PC from Spirulina, Phormidium, and Lyngbya spp. were 112, 131, and 81 kDa, respectively. SDS-PAGE of pure C-Phycocyanin yielded two bands corresponding to alpha and beta subunits. The results of SDS-PAGE demonstrate the same molecular weight of beta subunits (24.4 kDa) for all the three cyanobacterial species, whereas the molecular weight of the alpha subunit is different for all (17 kDa Spirulina sp., 19.1 kDa Phormidium sp., 15.2 kDa Lyngbya sp.). Thus, the C-Phycocyanin was characterized as (alphabeta)3 for Spirulina and Phormidium spp., while as (alphabeta)2 for Lyngbya sp.

  12. Marine cyanophages exhibit local and regional biogeography.

    PubMed

    Marston, Marcia F; Taylor, Samantha; Sme, Noel; Parsons, Rachel J; Noyes, Timothy J E; Martiny, Jennifer B H

    2013-05-01

    Biogeographic patterns have been demonstrated for a wide range of microorganisms. Nevertheless, the biogeography of marine viruses has been slower to emerge. Here we investigate biogeographic patterns of marine cyanophages that infect Synechococcus sp. WH7803 across multiple spatial and temporal scales. We compared cyanophage myoviral communities from nine coastal sites in Southern New England (SNE), USA, one site in Long Island NY, and four sites from Bermuda's inshore waters by assaying cyanophage isolates using the myoviral g43 DNA polymerase gene. Cyanophage community composition varied temporally at each of the sites. Further, 6 years of sampling at one Narragansett Bay site revealed annual seasonal variations in community composition, driven by the seasonal reoccurrence of specific viral taxa. Although the four Bermuda communities were similar to one another, they were significantly different than the North American coastal communities, with almost no overlap of taxa between the two regions. Among the SNE sites, cyanophage community composition also varied significantly and was correlated with the body of water sampled (e.g. Narragansett Bay, Cape Cod Bay, Vineyard Sound), although here, the same viral taxa were found at multiple sites. This study demonstrates that marine cyanophages display striking seasonal and spatial biogeographic patterns.

  13. Bioaccumulation factor of {sup 137}Cs in some marine biotas from West Bangka Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Suseno, Heny

    2014-03-24

    Radionuclides may be released from nuclear facilities to the marine environment. Concentrations of radionuclides within marine biotic systems can be influenced by a number of factors, including the type of biota, its source, the radionuclide, and specific characteristics of the sampled specimens and the marine environment (salinity, etc.). The bioconcentration factor for a marine organism is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in that organism to the concentration found in its marine water environment - under conditions of equilibrium. Information on the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 in marine organisms is required to risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health. Bioaccumulation of Cs was investigated in marine biota from west Bangka such as Marine cat fish (Arius thalassinus), Baramundi (Lates calcarifer), Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), Striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus), eel tailed fish (Euristhmus microceps), Yellowtail fusilier (Caesio erythrogaster), Coastal crab (Scylla sp), White shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and marine bivalve mollusk (Anadara granosa). Muscle of these marine biota, sediments and water were assayed for Cs-137 by HPGe gamma spectrometer. The bioaccumulation factor for fishes were calculated by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in water. The bioaccumulation factor for mollusks were calculates by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in sediments. The bioaccumulation factor were range 4.99 to 136.34.

  14. Bioaccumulation factor of 137Cs in some marine biotas from West Bangka Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suseno, Heny

    2014-03-01

    Radionuclides may be released from nuclear facilities to the marine environment. Concentrations of radionuclides within marine biotic systems can be influenced by a number of factors, including the type of biota, its source, the radionuclide, and specific characteristics of the sampled specimens and the marine environment (salinity, etc.). The bioconcentration factor for a marine organism is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in that organism to the concentration found in its marine water environment - under conditions of equilibrium. Information on the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 in marine organisms is required to risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health. Bioaccumulation of Cs was investigated in marine biota from west Bangka such as Marine cat fish (Arius thalassinus), Baramundi (Lates calcarifer), Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), Striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus), eel tailed fish (Euristhmus microceps), Yellowtail fusilier (Caesio erythrogaster), Coastal crab (Scylla sp), White shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and marine bivalve mollusk (Anadara granosa). Muscle of these marine biota, sediments and water were assayed for Cs-137 by HPGe gamma spectrometer. The bioaccumulation factor for fishes were calculated by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in water. The bioaccumulation factor for mollusks were calculates by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in sediments. The bioaccumulation factor were range 4.99 to 136.34.

  15. Extracts of marine algae show inhibitory activity against osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Tomoyuki

    2011-01-01

    Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells that play a crucial role in bone resorption. The imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation results in osteoporosis. Therefore, substances that can suppress osteoclast formation are potential candidate materials for drug development or functional foods. There have been reports that extracts or purified compounds from marine micro- and macroalgae can suppress osteoclast differentiation. Symbioimine, isolated from the cultured dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp., had suppressive effects against osteoclast differentiation in osteoclast-like cells. Norzoanthamine, isolated from the colonial zoanthid Zoanthas sp., has been shown to have antiosteoporosis activity in ovariectomized mice. With regard to marine extracts, the fucoxanthin-rich component from brown algae has been shown to have suppressive effects against osteoclast differentiation. An extract of Sargassum fusiforme has recently been shown to have antiosteoporosis activity. This extract suppressed both osteoclast differentiation and accelerated osteoblast formation in separate in vitro experiments. It also showed antiosteoporosis activity in ovariectomized mice by regulating the balance between bone resorption and bone formation. These marine algae and their extracts may be sources of marine medicinal foods for the prevention of osteoporosis.

  16. Temporal stability of parasite distribution and genetic variability values of Contracaecum osculatum sp. D and C. osculatum sp. E (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from fish of the Ross Sea (Antarctica)

    PubMed Central

    Mattiucci, Simonetta; Cipriani, Paolo; Paoletti, Michela; Nardi, Valentina; Santoro, Mario; Bellisario, Bruno; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The Ross Sea, Eastern Antarctica, is considered a “pristine ecosystem” and a biodiversity “hotspot” scarcely impacted by humans. The sibling species Contracaecum osculatum sp. D and C. osculatum sp. E are anisakid parasites embedded in the natural Antarctic marine ecosystem. Aims of this study were to: identify the larvae of C. osculatum (s.l.) recovered in fish hosts during the XXVII Italian Expedition to Antarctica (2011–2012); perform a comparative analysis of the contemporary parasitic load and genetic variability estimates of C. osculatum sp. D and C. osculatum sp. E with respect to samples collected during the expedition of 1993–1994; to provide ecological data on these parasites. 200 fish specimens (Chionodraco hamatus, Trematomus bernacchii, Trematomus hansoni, Trematomus newnesi) were analysed for Contracaecum sp. larvae, identified at species level by allozyme diagnostic markers and sequences analysis of the mtDNA cox2 gene. Statistically significant differences were found between the occurrence of C. osculatum sp. D and C. osculatum sp. E in different fish species. C. osculatum sp. E was more prevalent in T. bernacchii; while, a higher percentage of C. osculatum sp. D occurred in Ch. hamatus and T. hansoni. The two species also showed differences in the host infection site: C. osculatum sp. D showed higher percentage of infection in the fish liver. High genetic variability values at both nuclear and mitochondrial level were found in the two species in both sampling periods. The parasitic infection levels by C. osculatum sp. D and sp. E and their estimates of genetic variability showed no statistically significant variation over a temporal scale (2012 versus 1994). This suggests that the low habitat disturbance of the Antarctic region permits the maintenance of stable ecosystem trophic webs, which contributes to the maintenance of a large populations of anisakid nematodes with high genetic variability. PMID:26767164

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. Strain PTY087I2, Isolated from Styela canopus, a Panamanian Tunicate

    PubMed Central

    Gromek, Samantha M.; Sung, Anne A.

    2016-01-01

    Streptomyces sp. PTY087I2 is a marine bacterium isolated from Styela canopus, a tunicate collected in Bocas del Toro, Panama. Here, we report a draft genome sequence for this bacterium, found to have 94.7% average nucleotide identity (ANI) with Streptomyces roseosporus NRRL 11379, and containing a diverse suite of secondary metabolite gene clusters. PMID:27634989

  18. Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. from Puerto Madryn, Argentina (Polychaeta, Polynoidae)

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I.; González, Norma Emilia; Salazar-Silva, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Among polychaetes, polynoids have the highest number of symbiotic species found living with a wide variety of marine invertebrates, including other polychaetes. Lepidasthenia Malmgren, 1867 and Lepidametria Webster, 1879 were regarded as synonyms but belong to different subfamilies, although both have species associated with thelepodid or terebellid polychaetes. In this contribution Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. is described from several specimens associated with the thelepodid Thelepus antarcticus Kinberg, 1867, collected on a rocky shore near Puerto Madryn, Argentina. Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. can be confused with Lepidasthenia esbelta Amaral & Nonato, 1982 because both live with Thelepus, are of similar sizes with similar pigmentation patterns, and have giant neurochaetae. However, in Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. all eyes are of the same size, cephalic and parapodial cirri are tapered and mucronate, the second pair of elytra is larger than the third, the ventral cirri arise at the base of parapodia such that they do not reach chaetal lobe tips, and neuraciculae are tapered. On the contrary, in Lepidasthenia esbelta the posterior eyes are larger than anterior ones, cephalic and parapodial appendages are swollen subdistally, the second and third pairs of elytra are of the same size, the ventral cirri arise medially such that their tips reach the neurochaetal lobe tips, and the neuraciculae have falcate tips. Some comments about other genera in the Lepidastheniinae, a simplified key to its genera, and a key to Lepidasthenia species with giant neurochaetae are also included. PMID:26798303

  19. Viruses and marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Danovaro, R; Armeni, M; Corinaldesi, C; Mei, M L

    2003-03-01

    This short review summarises the present knowledge on pollutant impacts on marine viruses, virus-host systems and their potential ecological implications. Excess nutrients from sewage and river effluents are a primary cause of marine eutrophication and mucilage formation, often related to the development of large viral assemblages. At the same time, hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyl and pesticides alter ecosystem functioning and can determinate changes in the virus-host interactions, thus increasing the potential of viral infection. All these pollutants might have synergistic effects on the virus-host system and are able to induce prophage, thus increasing the impact of viruses on marine ecosystems.

  20. 76 FR 72680 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA078 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.... Environmental Research and Services, Fairbanks, AK, to conduct research on marine mammals in Alaska. ADDRESSES... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the...

  1. 77 FR 2512 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine...; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et...

  2. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XP18 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as...

  3. 76 FR 76949 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as...

  4. 77 FR 9627 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB005 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.../2\\ W. 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501, has applied in due form for a permit to take marine mammals in... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as...

  5. Improvement in the docosahexaenoic acid production of Schizochytrium sp. S056 by replacement of sea salt.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Zhou, Pengpeng; Zhu, Yuanmin; Xie, Chen; Ma, Lin; Wang, Xiaopeng; Bao, Zhendong; Yu, Longjiang

    2016-02-01

    Schizochytrium is a marine microalga that requires high concentrations of sea salt for growth, although problems arise with significant amounts of chloride ions in the culture medium, which corrodes the fermenters. In this work, we evaluated that cell growth and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production can be improved when using 1 % (w/v) sodium sulfate instead of 2 % (w/v) sea salt in the culture medium for Schizochytrium sp. S056. In practice, the use of sodium sulfate as the sodium salt led to chloride ion levels in the medium that can be completely removed, thus avoiding fermenter corrosion during Schizochytrium sp. S056 growth, reducing cost and increasing DHA production, and simplifying the disposal of fermentation wastewater. Additionally, we demonstrated that the osmolality of growth media did not play a crucial role in the production of DHA. These findings may be significantly important to companies involved in production of PUFAs by marine microbes.

  6. DIGLIB. PC-DOS Graphics Subroutine Library

    SciTech Connect

    Burleson, R.R.

    1989-02-01

    DIGLIB is a collection of general graphics subroutines. It was designed to be small, reasonably fast, device-independent, and compatible with DEC-supplied operating systems for VAXes, PDP-11s, and LSI-11s, and the DOS operating system for IBM PCs and IBM-compatible machines. DIGLIB/PC runs on IBM PCs under PC-DOS or MS-DOS. The software is readily usable by casual programmers for two-dimensional plotting.

  7. A new carotenoid glycosyl ester isolated from a marine microorganism, Fusarium strain T-1.

    PubMed

    Sakaki, Hideyuki; Kaneno, Hirokazu; Sumiya, Yasuji; Tsushima, Miyuki; Miki, Wataru; Kishimoto, Noriaki; Fujita, Tokio; Matsumoto, Sadayoshi; Komemushi, Sadao; Sawabe, Akiyoshi

    2002-11-01

    A new carotenoid glycosyl ester, neurosporaxanthin beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), together with neurosporaxanthin (1), beta-carotene, gamma-carotene, and torulene were isolated from cultured cells of a marine microorganism, strain T-1, which was identified as Fusarium sp. Their structures were determined by chemical and spectral data.

  8. THE MORPHOLOGY OF STINGING CELLS IN THE MARINE INVERTEBRATE NUDIBRANCH, CRATENA PILATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The association between the marine invertebrate nudibranch, Cratena pilata, and its food source has intrigued researchers for many years. These nudibranchs, or shell-less snails, obtain stinging cells by feeding on the jellyfish-like coelenterate, Tubularia sp. It is believed tha...

  9. Novel members of the family Flavobacteriaceae from Antarctic maritime habitats including Subsaximicrobium wynnwilliamsii gen. nov., sp. nov., Subsaximicrobium saxinquilinus sp. nov., Subsaxibacter broadyi gen. nov., sp. nov., Lacinutrix copepodicola gen. nov., sp. nov., and novel species of the genera Bizionia, Gelidibacter and Gillisia.

    PubMed

    Bowman, John P; Nichols, David S

    2005-07-01

    Several orange- and yellow-pigmented, halophilic, strictly aerobic, chemoheterotrophic, Gram-negative strains were isolated during investigations of maritime Antarctic habitats, including coastal fast sea-ice brine and algae, crustaceans and quartz stone sublithic cyanobacterial biofilms. Isolates investigated in this study belonged to the marine clade of the family Flavobacteriaceae and represented lineages that were either distinct from species with validly published names or appeared to be distinct species within existing genera. A polyphasic taxonomic analysis demonstrated the novelty of these strains, and several new taxa are proposed. Strains from quartz stone sublithic communities were grouped into two new genera designated Subsaximicrobium gen. nov. and Subsaxibacter gen. nov. The genus Subsaximicrobium included the species Subsaximicrobium wynnwilliamsii sp. nov. (type species; type strain G#7(T)=ACAM 1070(T)=CIP 108525(T)) and Subsaximicrobium saxinquilinus sp. nov. (type strain Y4-5(T)=ACAM 1063(T)=CIP 108526(T)). The genus Subsaxibacter contained a single species designated Subsaxibacter broadyi sp. nov. (type strain P7(T)=ACAM 1064(T)=CIP 108527(T)). A novel bacterial strain isolated from the lake-dwelling, calanoid copepod Paralabidocera antarctica was given the name Lacinutrix copepodicola gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain DJ3(T)=ACAM 1055(T)=CIP 108538(T)). Four novel species of the genus Bizionia were discovered, Bizionia algoritergicola sp. nov. (type strain APA-1(T)=ACAM 1056(T)=CIP 108533(T)) and Bizionia myxarmorum sp. nov. (type strain ADA-4(T)=ACAM 1058(T)=CIP 108535(T)), which were isolated from the carapace surfaces of sea-ice algae-feeding amphipods, and Bizionia gelidisalsuginis sp. nov. (type strain IC164(T)=ACAM 1057(T)=CIP 108536(T)) and Bizionia saleffrena sp. nov. (type strain HFD(T)=ACAM 1059(T)=CIP 108534(T)), which were isolated from sea-ice brines. Several other novel species were also isolated from sea-ice samples, including two

  10. Description of new filamentous toxic Cyanobacteria (Oscillatoriales) colonizing the sulfidic periphyton mat in marine mangroves.

    PubMed

    Guidi-Rontani, Chantal; Jean, Maïtena R N; Gonzalez-Rizzo, Silvina; Bolte-Kluge, Susanne; Gros, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    In this multidisciplinary study, we combined morphological, physiological, and phylogenetic approaches to identify three dominant water bloom-forming Cyanobacteria in a tropical marine mangrove in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences place these marine Cyanobacteria in the genera Oscillatoria (Oscillatoria sp. clone gwada, strain OG) or Planktothricoides ('Candidatus Planktothricoides niger' strain OB and 'Candidatus Planktothricoides rosea' strain OP; both provisionally novel species within the genus Planktothricoides). Bioassays showed that 'Candidatus Planktothricoides niger' and 'Candidatus Planktothricoides rosea' are toxin-producing organisms. This is the first report of the characterization of Cyanobacteria colonizing periphyton mats of a tropical marine mangrove. We describe two novel benthic marine species and provide new insight into Oscillatoriaceae and their potential role in marine sulfide-rich environments such as mangroves.

  11. Baseline arsenic levels in marine and terrestrial resources from a pristine environment: Isabel Island, Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Grinham, Alistair; Kvennefors, Charlotte; Fisher, Paul L; Gibbes, Badin; Albert, Simon

    2014-11-15

    Baseline records are crucial in understanding how chemicals of concern impact on the receiving environment. We analysed terrestrial and marine resources from a pristine site on Isabel Island, Solomon Islands, to provide environmental baseline levels for total arsenic and arsenic species composition for commonly consumed marine resources. Our data show that levels of the more toxic inorganic arsenic species were very low or below detectable limits, with the exception of the seaweed Sargassum sp. that contained pentavalent inorganic arsenic levels of 4.63 μg g(-1). Total arsenic concentrations in the majority of marine and terrestrial samples collected were below 2 μg g(-1). The less toxic arsenobetaine was the predominant arsenic species present in all marine fauna samples analysed. This work highlights the need for arsenic speciation analysis to accurately assess potential toxicity of marine resources and provides a crucial baseline to assess the impact of future development within this region.

  12. Marine Natural Products Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Clifford W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Reports the chemistry of saxitoxin, a paralytic shellfish poison, and other toxins, including the structure of aplysiatoxins. Discusses the chemical signals and defense agents used in intra- and inter- species communication; anticancer agents; and organometallics in the marine environment. (MA)

  13. Marine Life Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    As a result of widespread ocean dumping and other pollution problems, marine scientists at Morgan State University are studying the populations of various marine organisms to determine the effects of pollution. They are also compiling data on the aging of marine organisms. There now exists a new method of determining the age of the surf clam. They are applying digital image processing to clam aging investigations. Computer creates digitized images of clam sections with annual rings. The image is enhanced -- manipulated to emphasize certain features in order to improve and amplify the information that can be extracted from the image. Also useful in other marine organisms that have growth bands making it easier to get an accurate count.

  14. Marine medicinal glycomics

    PubMed Central

    Pomin, Vitor H.

    2014-01-01

    Glycomics is an international initiative aimed to understand the structure and function of the glycans from a given type of cell, tissue, organism, kingdom or even environment, as found under certain conditions. Glycomics is one of the latest areas of intense biological research. Glycans of marine sources are unique in terms of structure and function. They differ considerably from those of terrestrial origin. This review discusses the most known marine glycans of potential therapeutic properties. They are chitin, chitosan, and sulfated polysaccharides named glycosaminoglycans, sulfated fucans, and sulfated galactans. Their medical actions are very broad. When certain structural requirements are found, these glycans can exhibit beneficial effects in inflammation, coagulation, thrombosis, cancer growth/metastasis, and vascular biology. Both structure and therapeutic mechanisms of action of these marine glycans are discussed here in straight context with the current glycomic age through a project suggestively named marine medicinal glycomics. PMID:24524028

  15. JEP-MARINE CLEAN

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical product bulletin: aka ECOVOOM-MARINE, this surface washing agent is used in oil spill cleanups. Manual pump sprayers should be used to presoak contaminated areas, then pressure washers used to agitate after presoak has been applied.

  16. Mariner-Venus 1967

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Detailed information on the spacecraft performance, mission operations, and tracking and data acquisition is presented for the Mariner Venus 1967 and Mariner Venus 1967 extension projects. Scientific and engineering results and conclusions are discussed, and include the scientific mission, encounter with Venus, observations near Earth, and cruise phase of the mission. Flight path analysis, spacecraft subsystems, and mission-related hardware and computer program development are covered. The scientific experiments carried by Mariner 5 were ultraviolet photometer, solar plasma probe, helium magnetometer, trapped radiation detector, S-band radio occultation, dual-frequency radio propagation, and celestial mechanics. The engineering experience gained by converting a space Mariner Mars 1964 spacecraft into one flown to Venus is also described.

  17. Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Marine sanitation devices treat or retain sewage from vessels, and have performance standards set by the EPA. This page provides information on MSDs, including who must use an MSD, states' roles, types of MSDs and standards.

  18. Protecting the Marine Environment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA works with U.S. government agency partners, foreign nations, industry and nongovernmental organizations to ensure that international decisions and management of marine pollution issues support EPA's mission

  19. Marine & hydrokinetic technology development.

    SciTech Connect

    LiVecchi, Al; Jepsen, Richard Alan

    2010-06-01

    The Wind and Water Power Program supports the development of marine and hydrokinetic devices, which capture energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, the natural flow of water in rivers, and marine thermal gradients, without building new dams or diversions. The program works closely with industry and the Department of Energy's national laboratories to advance the development and testing of marine and hydrokinetic devices. In 2008, the program funded projects to develop and test point absorber, oscillating wave column, and tidal turbine technologies. The program also funds component design, such as techniques for manufacturing and installing coldwater pipes critical for ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems. Rigorous device testing is necessary to validate and optimize prototypes before beginning full-scale demonstration and deployment. The program supports device testing by providing technology developers with information on testing facilities. Technology developers require access to facilities capable of simulating open-water conditions in order to refine and validate device operability. The program has identified more than 20 tank testing operators in the United States with capabilities suited to the marine and hydrokinetic technology industry. This information is available to the public in the program's Hydrodynamic Testing Facilities Database. The program also supports the development of open-water, grid-connected testing facilities, as well as resource assessments that will improve simulations done in dry-dock and closed-water testing facilities. The program has established two university-led National Marine Renewable Energy Centers to be used for device testing. These centers are located on coasts and will have open-water testing berths, allowing researchers to investigate marine and estuary conditions. Optimal array design, development, modeling and testing are needed to maximize efficiency and electricity generation at marine and hydrokinetic power

  20. Marine biodiversity characteristics.

    PubMed

    Boeuf, Gilles

    2011-05-01

    Oceans contain the largest living volume of the "blue" planet, inhabited by approximately 235-250,000 described species, all groups included. They only represent some 13% of the known species on the Earth, but the marine biomasses are really huge. Marine phytoplankton alone represents half the production of organic matter on Earth while marine bacteria represent more than 10%. Life first appeared in the oceans more than 3.8 billion years ago and several determining events took place that changed the course of life, ranging from the development of the cell nucleus to sexual reproduction going through multi-cellular organisms and the capture of organelles. Of the 31 animal phyla currently listed, 12 are exclusively marine phyla and have never left the ocean. An interesting question is to try to understand why there are so few marine species versus land species? This pattern of distribution seems pretty recent in the course of Evolution. From an exclusively marine world, since the beginning until 440 million years ago, land number of species much increased 110 million years ago. Specific diversity and ancestral roles, in addition to organizational models and original behaviors, have made marine organisms excellent reservoirs for identifying and extracting molecules (>15,000 today) with pharmacological potential. They also make particularly relevant models for both fundamental and applied research. Some marine models have been the source of essential discoveries in life sciences. From this diversity, the ocean provides humankind with renewable resources, which are highly threatened today and need more adequate management to preserve ocean habitats, stocks and biodiversity.