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Sample records for dos marins sp

  1. Norisoprenoids from the marine sponge Spheciospongia sp.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Xu, Min-Juang; Wu, Li-Jun; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Lin, Wen-Han

    2009-09-01

    Chemical examination of a marine sponge Spheciospongia sp. collected from South China Sea resulted in the isolation of five norisoprenoid derivatives (1-5), of which two new compounds were designated with trivial names of spheciospongones A (1) and B (2). Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR, and MS spectroscopic data analysis in association with circular dichroism. Norisoprenoids were found from the sponge genus Spheciospongia for the first time, and were suggested to be the chemical marks for chemical taxonomy.

  2. Two new alkaloids from marine sponge Callyspongia sp.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Tao, Huaming; Zhou, Xuefeng; Lin, Xiu-Ping; Liu, Yonghong

    2013-03-01

    Two new alkaloids, callylactam A (1) and callyimine A (4), along with three known ones (2, 3 and 5), were isolated from the marine sponge Callyspongia sp. The structures were determined on the basis of NMR and MS analysis.

  3. Nucleosides from the marine sponge Haliclona sp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Dong, Junde; Zhou, Xuefeng; Lee, Kyung Jin; Huang, Riming; Zhang, Si; Liu, Yonghong

    2009-01-01

    Three known nucleosides were isolated from the sponge Haliclona sp. The structures were established on the basis of NMR data and comparison with those reported, and chemotaxonomic relationships of the sponge nucleosides were discussed.

  4. Coagulation-flocculation of marine Chlorella sp. for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Sanyano, Naruetsawan; Chetpattananondh, Pakamas; Chongkhong, Sininart

    2013-11-01

    Harvesting of marine Chlorella sp. by autoflocculation and flocculation by addition of coagulant with pH adjustment was investigated in this study. Autoflocculation provided low efficiency. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the coagulant dosage and pH for flocculation. Aluminium sulfate and ferric chloride were investigated coagulants. The empirical models from RSM are in a good agreement with the experimental results. The optimum flocculation was achieved at ferric chloride dosage 143 mg/L, pH 8.1 and settling time 40 min. Biomass concentration also presented the significant effect on harvesting efficiency. Lipid extracted from marine Chlorella sp. cultivated in urea fertilizer medium with hexane as a solvent is suitable to produce biodiesel according to it contains high proportion of saturated fatty acids. The crude lipid should be purified to remove some impurities before making biodiesel. As the free fatty acid content was higher than 1% a two-step biodiesel production is recommended.

  5. New cytotoxic cyclic peroxide acids from Plakortis sp. marine sponge

    PubMed Central

    Hoye, Thomas R.; Alarif, Walied M.; Basaif, Salim S.; Abo-Elkarm, Mohamed; Hamann, Mark T.; Wahba, Amir E.; Ayyad, Seif-Eldin N.

    2016-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract of Jamaican marine sponge Plakortis sp. followed by preparative TLC and HPLC yielded several known methyl ester cyclic peroxides (1a, 2a, 3a, 4, 5), known plakortides (6,7), known bicyclic lactone (8) and new cyclic peroxide acids (1b, 2b, 3b). The chemical structures were elucidated by extensive interpretation of their spectroscopic data. These natural products showed remarkable in vitro cytotoxicity against several cancer cell lines. PMID:26835518

  6. The marine mites Hyadesia sp. and Copidognathus sp. Associated with the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Martínez, J; Vásquez-Yeomans, R; Rentería, Y G; Curiel-Ramírez, S; Valdéz, J A; Rivas, G

    2000-10-01

    Two species of marine mites belonging to the families Hyadesiidae and Halacaridae, Hyadesia sp. and Copidognathus sp., respectively, were found associated with the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from Baja California in NW México. The first species was found inside the mussel gut with an intensity ranging from one to six mites per mussel and their prevalence was from 20.0 to 46.7%; this species was also found living free in the sediment at a density of 0.7 mite/100 ml. The second species was found on the mantle and gills of the host with an intensity ranging from one to three mites per host and their prevalence was from 3.3 to 6.7%; this species was abundant (4.5 mites/100 ml) and living free in the sediment around mussel clumps. Hyadesia sp. was found alive and attached in the gut of the mussel. A histological analysis revealed this species in the lumen of intestine surrounded by mucus and attached to the epithelial cells of the intestine, where some disorder of epithelial cells was associated. Moreover, this mite may be encapsulated by hemocytes inside the digestive diverticulum, the reproductive follicle, or the connective tissue surrounding the diverticulum. No damages to branches or gills resulting from the presence of Copidognathus sp. were observed. The results suggest that these mites are occasional invaders of mussels; however, as a result of this infestation, Hyadesia sp. may produce damage in the host's tissues. This is the first record of marine mites inside the gut, reproductive follicles, branches, and mantle of a marine bivalve.

  7. Diversity of culturable actinobacteria isolated from marine sponge Haliclona sp.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shumei; Sun, Wei; Chen, Minjie; Dai, Shikun; Zhang, Long; Liu, Yonghong; Lee, Kyung Jin; Li, Xiang

    2007-11-01

    This study describes actinobacteria isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona sp. collected in shallow water of the South China Sea. A total of 54 actinobacteria were isolated using media selective for actinobacteria. Species diversity and natural product diversity of isolates from marine sponge Haliclona sp. were analysed. Twenty-four isolates were selected on the basis of their morphology on different media and assigned to the phylum Actinobacteria by a combination of 16S rRNA gene based restriction enzymes digestion and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The 16S rRNA genes of 24 isolates were digested by restriction enzymes TaqI and MspI and assigned to different groups according to their restriction enzyme pattern. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the isolates belonged to the genera Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Micromonospora and Verrucosispora; one other isolate was recovered that does not belong to known genera based on its unique 16S rRNA gene sequence. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a bacterium classified as Verrucosispora sp. that has been isolated from a marine sponge. The majority of the strains tested belong to the genus Streptomyces and three isolates may be new species. All of the 24 isolates were screened for genes encoding polyketide synthases (PKS) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). PKS and NRPS sequences were detected in more than half of the isolates and the different "PKS-I-PKS-II-NRPS" combinations in different isolates belonging to the same species are indicators of their potential natural product diversity and divergent genetic evolution.

  8. Highly brominated antimicrobial metabolites from a marine Pseudoalteromonas sp.

    PubMed

    Fehér, Domonkos; Barlow, Russell; McAtee, Jesse; Hemscheidt, Thomas K

    2010-11-29

    Extracts of a marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. (CMMED 290) isolated from the surface of a nudibranch collected in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, displayed significant antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the lipophilic extract led to the isolation and structure elucidation of two new highly brominated compounds, 2,3,5,7-tetrabromobenzofuro[3,2-b]pyrrole (1) and 4,4',6-tribromo-2,2'-biphenol (2). In addition, we have identified the known compounds pentabromopseudilin and bromophene. We describe the isolation and structure elucidation of the compounds 1 and 2 together with their antimicrobial activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:20973551

  9. Polyketides from a marine-derived fungus Xylariaceae sp.

    PubMed

    Nong, Xu-Hua; Zheng, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Lu, Xin-Hua; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2013-05-01

    Eighteen polyketides (1-18) including six citrinin derivatives, two phenol derivatives, one cyclopentenone, two naphthol derivatives, and seven tetralone derivatives were isolated from the culture broth of a marine-derived fungal strain Xylariaceae sp. SCSGAF0086. Five of these compounds (1, 2, 8, 9, and 10) were new, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 4, 6, 7, and 17 showed enzyme-inhibitory activities towards several tested enzymes, and 6 and 7 showed strong antifouling activity against Bugula neritina larvae settlement. This is the first time that the antifouling and enzyme-inhibitory activities of these compounds has been reported. PMID:23697953

  10. Polyketides from a marine-derived fungus Xylariaceae sp.

    PubMed

    Nong, Xu-Hua; Zheng, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Lu, Xin-Hua; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2013-05-01

    Eighteen polyketides (1-18) including six citrinin derivatives, two phenol derivatives, one cyclopentenone, two naphthol derivatives, and seven tetralone derivatives were isolated from the culture broth of a marine-derived fungal strain Xylariaceae sp. SCSGAF0086. Five of these compounds (1, 2, 8, 9, and 10) were new, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 4, 6, 7, and 17 showed enzyme-inhibitory activities towards several tested enzymes, and 6 and 7 showed strong antifouling activity against Bugula neritina larvae settlement. This is the first time that the antifouling and enzyme-inhibitory activities of these compounds has been reported.

  11. Lipopeptides from the Tropical Marine Cyanobacterium Symploca sp.

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A collection of the tropical marine cyanobacterium Symploca sp., collected near Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea, previously yielded several new metabolites including kimbeamides A–C, kimbelactone A, and tasihalide C. Investigations into a more polar cytotoxic fraction yielded three new lipopeptides, tasiamides C–E (1–3). The planar structures were deduced by 2D NMR spectroscopy and tandem mass spectrometry, and their absolute configurations were determined by a combination of Marfey’s and chiral-phase GC-MS analysis. These new metabolites are similar to several previously isolated compounds, including tasiamide (4), grassystatins (5, 6), and symplocin A, all of which were isolated from similar filamentous marine cyanobacteria. PMID:24588245

  12. A Norsesterterpene Peroxide from a Marine Sponge Hippospongia sp.

    PubMed

    Su, Ching-chyuan; Su, Huey-jen; Liang, Kai-ju; Tsaif, Su-june; Su, Jui-hsin

    2016-04-01

    One new norsesterterpene peroxide, rhopaloic acid H (1), along with two known related metabolites 2 and 3, were isolated from a marine sponge Hippospongia sp. The structures of compounds were elucidated by means of IR, MS, and NMR techniques and comparison of the NMR data with those of known analogues. Evaluation of the cytotoxicities revealed that compound 2 exhibited significant cytotoxicity against DLD-1, Molt 4, T47D and K-562 cell lines, with IC50 values of 3.18, 0.69, 2.22 and 1.06 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, compound 3 also showed significant K562 inhibitory activity, with IC50 value of 3.65 µg/mL.

  13. Bioactive Polycyclic Quinones from Marine Streptomyces sp. 182SMLY

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Ying; Xie, Xin; Chen, Lu; Yan, Shilun; Ye, Xuewei; Anjum, Komal; Huang, Haocai; Lian, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Zhizhen

    2016-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the cultures of marine Streptomyces sp. 182SMLY led to the discovery of two new polycyclic anthraquinones, which were elucidated as N-acetyl-N-demethylmayamycin (1) and streptoanthraquinone A (2) based on the extensive spectroscopic analysis including 2D NMR, HRESIMS, and an electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation. Both anthraquinones remarkably suppressed the proliferation of four different glioma cell lines with IC50 values in a range from 0.5 to 7.3 μM and induced apoptosis in the glioma cells. The ratios of IC50 for normal human astrocytes to IC50 for glioma cells were 6.4–53 for 1 and >14–31 for 2. N-acetyl-N-demethylmayamycin (1) also inhibited the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with MIC 20.0 μM. PMID:26751456

  14. A Norsesterterpene Peroxide from a Marine Sponge Hippospongia sp.

    PubMed

    Su, Ching-chyuan; Su, Huey-jen; Liang, Kai-ju; Tsaif, Su-june; Su, Jui-hsin

    2016-04-01

    One new norsesterterpene peroxide, rhopaloic acid H (1), along with two known related metabolites 2 and 3, were isolated from a marine sponge Hippospongia sp. The structures of compounds were elucidated by means of IR, MS, and NMR techniques and comparison of the NMR data with those of known analogues. Evaluation of the cytotoxicities revealed that compound 2 exhibited significant cytotoxicity against DLD-1, Molt 4, T47D and K-562 cell lines, with IC50 values of 3.18, 0.69, 2.22 and 1.06 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, compound 3 also showed significant K562 inhibitory activity, with IC50 value of 3.65 µg/mL. PMID:27396188

  15. Streptomyces glycovorans sp. nov., Streptomyces xishensis sp. nov. and Streptomyces abyssalis sp. nov., isolated from marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; He, Jie; Tian, Xin-Peng; Li, Jie; Yang, Ling-Ling; Xie, Qiong; Tang, Shu-Kun; Chen, Yi-Guang; Zhang, Si; Li, Wen-Jun

    2012-10-01

    Strains YIM M 10366(T), YIM M 10378(T) and YIM M 10400(T) were isolated from marine sediments collected from the Xisha Islands in the South China Sea. All three isolates were able to grow optimally at pH 7.0, 28-37 °C and 0-3% (w/v) NaCl. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that these strains are members of the genus Streptomyces, exhibiting moderately high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 97.0-98.8% to members of the most closely related Streptomyces species. Morphological characteristics, physiological characteristics and compositions of whole-cell sugars and phospholipids are consistent with the diagnostic characteristics of the genus Streptomyces, but still allowed differentiation amongst the three strains and their neighbours. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data, strains YIM M 10366(T), YIM M 10378(T) and YIM M 10400(T) were identified as members of three novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the names Streptomyces glycovorans sp. nov. (type strain YIM M 10366(T)  =DSM 42021(T)  =CCTCC AA2010005(T)), Streptomyces xishensis sp. nov. (type strain YIM M 10378(T)  = DSM 42022(T)  =CCTCC AA 2010006(T)) and Streptomyces abyssalis sp. nov. (type strain YIM M 10400(T)  =DSM 42024(T)  = CCTCC AA 2010008(T)) are proposed.

  16. Idiomarina maris sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Jiao; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Zhao, Hui-Lin; Zhou, Ming-Yang; Li, Hui-Juan; Gao, Zhao-Ming; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Dang, Hong-Yue; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2012-02-01

    A protease-producing marine bacterium, designated CF12-14(T), was isolated from sediment of the South China Sea. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain CF12-14(T) formed a separate lineage within the genus Idiomarina (Gammaproteobacteria). The isolate showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Idiomarina salinarum ISL-52(T) (94.7 %), Idiomarina seosinensis CL-SP19(T) (94.6 %) and other members of the genus Idiomarina (91.9-94.6 %). Cells were gram-negative, aerobic, flagellated, straight or slightly curved, and often formed buds and prosthecae. Strain CF12-14(T) grew at 4-42 °C (optimum 30-35 °C) and with 0.1-15 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2-3 %). The isolate reduced nitrate to nitrite and hydrolysed DNA, but did not produce acids from sugars. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) (27.4 %), iso-C(17 : 0) (16.0 %) and iso-C(17 : 1)ω9c (15.8 %). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 8. The DNA G+C content was 50.4 mol%. The phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data supported the conclusion that CF12-14(T) represents a novel species of the genus Idiomarina, for which the name Idiomarina maris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CF12-14(T) ( = CCTCC AB 208166(T) = KACC 13974(T)).

  17. Maribacter lutimaris sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Hyun; Jin, Hyun Mi; Jeong, Hye Im; Jeon, Che Ok

    2016-04-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, moderately halophilic and strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain KJ4T, was isolated from marine sediment at Gangjin in South Korea. Cells were catalase- and oxidase-positive long rods with gliding motility. Growth of strain KJ4T was observed at 4-37 °C (optimum, 15-25 °C), at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-8.5) and in the presence of 1.0-7.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2.0-5.0%). Menaquinone 6 (MK-6) was the only isoprenoid quinone detected and iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0 3-OH, iso-C15:1 G and summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c) were the major cellular fatty acids. The polar lipids of strain KJ4T consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminophospholipid and five unidentified lipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 38.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain KJ4T formed a distinct phylogenetic lineage within the genus Maribacter. Strain KJ4T was most closely related to Maribacter orientalis KMM 3947T with 97.4% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular features, strain KJ4T clearly represents a novel species of the genus Maribacter, for which the name Maribacter lutimaris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KJ4T (=KACC 16438T=JCM 31154T). PMID:26828017

  18. Tropicimonas sediminicola sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Shin, Na-Ri; Roh, Seong Woon; Kim, Min-Soo; Yun, Bora; Whon, Tae Woong; Kim, Young-Ok; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2012-10-01

    A novel Gram-negative, obligately aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium, strain M97(T), was isolated from marine sediment of a cage-cultured ark clam farm on the south coast of Korea. Strain M97(T) was positive for oxidase and catalase. Optimal growth occurred at 37 °C, with 1-2 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 7-8. The main cellular fatty acids were C(16 : 0), C(18 : 1)ω7c, C(12 : 0) 3-OH and cyclo-C(19 : 0)ω8c. The polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, an unknown aminolipid and three unknown lipids. The predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10 (Q-10). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain M97(T) belongs to the genus Tropicimonas, with highest sequence similarity to Tropicimonas aquimaris DPG-21(T) (99.0 %). The DNA G+C content of strain M97(T) was 68.5 mol%. Mean DNA-DNA relatedness between strain M97(T) and T. aquimaris DPG-21(T) was 46 ± 10 %. Based on phylogenetic, phenotypic and genotypic analyses, strain M97(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Tropicimonas, for which the name Tropicimonas sediminicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M97(T) ( = KACC 15544(T) = JCM 17731(T)). PMID:22140172

  19. Halomarina salina sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen-Mei; Xu, Jia-Qi; Zhou, Yao; Li, Yang; Lü, Zhen-Zhen; Hou, Jing; Zhu, Lin; Cui, Heng-Lin

    2016-08-01

    A halophilic archaeal strain, designated ZS-57-S(T), was isolated from Zhoushan marine solar saltern, China. Cells were observed to be pleomorphic, stained Gram-negative and formed red pigmented colonies on agar plates. Optimal growth was obtained at 3.9 M NaCl (range 1.4-4.8 M), 0.3 M MgCl2 (range 0-1.0 M), 30 °C (range 20-55 °C) and pH 6.5-7.5 (range 5.5-9.0). The cells were found to lyse in distilled water and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell lysis was determined to be 5 % (w/v). The major polar lipids were identified as C20C20 and C20C25 diether derivatives of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, glucosyl mannosyl glucosyl diether and two unidentified glycolipids. The 16S rRNA gene and rpoB' gene of strain ZS-57-S(T) were phylogenetically related to the corresponding genes of Halomarina oriensis JCM 16495(T) (98.2 and 93.7 % similarities, respectively). The DNA G+C content of strain ZS-57-S(T) was determined to be 67.1 mol% (T m). The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggested that strain ZS-57-S(T) (=CGMCC 1.12543(T) = JCM 30039(T)) represents a new species of the genus Halomarina, for which the name Halomarina salina sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:27198657

  20. Deinococcus enclensis sp. nov., isolated from a marine sediment sample.

    PubMed

    Thorat, Meghana N; Mawlankar, Rahul; Sonalkar, Vidya V; Venkata Ramana, V; Joseph, Neetha; Shouche, Yogesh S; Dastager, Syed G

    2015-01-01

    A novel pale-pink coloured strain, designated NIO-1023(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample from Chorao Island, Goa, India. The taxonomic position of strain NIO-1023(T) was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. The cells were observed to be Gram-stain positive, coccal shaped and non-spore forming. Phylogenetic analyses using the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate indicated that the organism belongs to the genus Deinococcus. The strain NIO-1023(T) showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Deinococcus ficus (97.8 %), whereas other Deinococcus species showed less than 95 % sequence similarity. The DNA-DNA relatedness with respect to D. ficus CC-FR2-10(T) was 23.9 %. Chemotaxonomic data revealed that strain NIO-1023(T) contains only menaquinone MK-8 as the respiratory quinone and a complex polar lipid profile consisting of different unidentified glycolipids and polar lipids, two unknown phospholipids and three unknown phosphoglycolipids. As in other deinococci, one of these phosphoglycolipids was predominant in the profile. The predominant fatty acids were identified as C17:1 w8c, C16:1 w6c/w7c, C15:1 w6c and C17:1 w9c. The genomic DNA G + C content of strain NIO-1023(T) was determined to be 67.2 mol%. The biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties demonstrate that strain NIO-1023(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Deinococcus enclensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NIO-1023(T) (=DSM 25127(T) = NCIM 5456(T)).

  1. Pseudovibrio stylochi sp. nov., isolated from a marine flatworm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Qi; Tian, Renmao; Lai, Qiliang; Xu, Ying

    2016-05-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated UST20140214-052T, was isolated from a marine flatworm (polyclad). The bacterium was found to be catalase-positive and weakly oxidase-positive, and motile by means of several peritrichous or subpolar flagella. Strain UST20140214-052T grew optimally at 28 °C, at pH 7.0 and in the presence of 3 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain UST20140214-052T belongs to the genus Pseudovibrio, with highest sequence similarity to Pseudovibrio hongkongensis UST20140214-015BT (98.8 %), followed by Pseudovibrio japonicus WSF2T (96.2 %), Pseudovibrio ascidiaceicola F423T (96.2 %), Pseudovibrio denitrificans DN34T (95.9 %), Pseudovibrio axinellae Ad2T (95.9 %). All the other species shared < 95.5 % sequence similarity. The DNA-DNA hybridization estimate value between strain UST20140214-052T and P. hongkongensis UST20140214-015BT was 24.7 ± 2.4 %. The major fatty acid was summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c, as defined by the MIDI system; 62.6 %). The DNA G+C content was 47.0 mol%. The combined genotypic and phenotypic data show that strain UST20140214-052T represents a novel species within the genus Pseudovibrio, for which the name Pseudovibrio stylochi sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain UST20140214-052T ( = KCTC 42384T = MCCC 1K00452T).

  2. Pseudovibrio hongkongensis sp. nov., isolated from a marine flatworm.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Li, Qi; Tian, Renmao; Lai, Qiliang; Zhang, Yu

    2015-07-01

    A Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated UST20140214-015B(T), was isolated from a marine flatworm (Polyclad). The bacterium was found to be Gram-negative, oxidase and catalase positive, long-rod shaped, and motile by means of several peritrichous or subpolar flagella. Strain UST20140214-015B(T) grew optimally at 28 °C, at pH 7.0 and in the presence of 3 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain UST20140214-015B(T) belongs to the genus Pseudovibrio, with highest sequence similarity to Pseudovibrio japonicus WSF2(T) (96.9 %), followed by P. ascidiaceicola F423(T) (96.7 %), P. denitrificans DN34(T) (96.6 %), P. axinellae Ad2(T) (96.3 %). All the other species shared <95.5 % sequence similarity. The principal fatty acids were identified as summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω7c/ω6c, as defined by the MIDI system; 70.8 %), C16:0 (9.1 %), summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω6c/C16:1 ω7c; 5.7 %). The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was determined to be 53.3 mol%. The combined genotypic and phenotypic data show that strain UST20140214-015B(T) represents a novel species within the genus Pseudovibrio, for which the name Pseudovibrio hongkongensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain UST20140214-015B(T) (=KCTC 42383(T) = MCCC 1K00451(T)).

  3. Virgibacillus campisalis sp. nov., from a marine solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Young; Kang, Chul-Hyung; Oh, Tae-Kwang; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2012-02-01

    A Gram-staining-variable, motile, endospore-forming and rod-shaped bacterial strain, IDS-20(T), was isolated from a marine solar saltern in Korea and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic investigation. Strain IDS-20(T) grew optimally at 37 °C, at pH 7.5-8.0 and in the presence of 4-5 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain IDS-20(T) belongs to the genus Virgibacillus. Strain IDS-20(T) exhibited 93.4-96.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strains of species of the genus Virgibacillus. Strain IDS-20(T) had MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone and a cell-wall peptidoglycan based on meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0) and major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and two unidentified phospholipids. The DNA G+C content was 39.5 mol%. The phylogenetic distinctiveness and differential phenotypic characteristics of strain IDS-20(T) demonstrated that this strain can be distinguished from recognized species of the genus Virgibacillus. On the basis of the data presented, strain IDS-20(T) represents a novel species of the genus Virgibacillus, for which the name Virgibacillus campisalis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IDS-20(T) ( = KCTC 13727(T)  = CCUG 59308(T)). PMID:21441379

  4. Virgibacillus byunsanensis sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Kang, So-Jung; Jung, Yong-Taek; Lee, Keun Chul; Oh, Hyun Woo; Oh, Tae-Kwang

    2010-02-01

    A Gram-variable, motile, endospore-forming and rod-shaped bacterial strain, ISL-24(T), was isolated from a marine solar saltern of the Yellow Sea, Korea, and its taxonomic position was investigated by a polyphasic study. Strain ISL-24(T) grew optimally at pH 7.0-8.0, at 30-37 degrees C and in the presence of 8 % (w/v) NaCl. It contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone and anteiso-C(15 : 0) as the predominant fatty acid. The DNA G+C content was 37.6 mol%. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain ISL-24(T) fell within the genus Virgibacillus, clustering with Virgibacillus carmonensis LMG 20964(T) and Virgibacillus necropolis LMG 19488(T), with a bootstrap resampling value of 92.3 %, and exhibiting 97.3 and 97.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively, to these strains. Strain ISL-24(T) exhibited 94.8-96.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strains of the other Virgibacillus species. Mean DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain ISL-24(T) and V. carmonensis DSM 14868(T) and V. necropolis DSM 14866(T) were 11 and 19 %, respectively. Differential phenotypic properties of strain ISL-24(T), together with the phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness, revealed that this strain is different from recognized Virgibacillus species. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic and genetic data, strain ISL-24(T) represents a novel species of the genus Virgibacillus, for which the name Virgibacillus byunsanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ISL-24(T) (=KCTC 13259(T) =CCUG 56754(T)). PMID:19651717

  5. Pseudonocardia sediminis sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dao-Feng; Jiang, Zhao; Li, Li; Liu, Bing-Bing; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Tian, Xin-Peng; Zhang, Si; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-03-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic actinomycete, designated strain YIM M13141(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample from the South China Sea, and its taxonomic position was determined using a polyphasic approach. The strain produced branched substrate mycelium and aerial hyphae, but no diffusible pigments were produced on the media tested. At maturity, substrate mycelium was fragmented and spore chains were formed on aerial hyphae and substrate mycelium. Optimum growth occurred at 28 °C, 1-3% (w/v) NaCl and pH 7.0. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the isolate belongs to the genus Pseudonocardia, showing highest levels of similarity with respect to Pseudonocardia sichuanensis KLBMP 1115(T) (97.1%), Pseudonocardia tetrahydrofuranoxydans K1(T) (97.1%) and Pseudonocardia kunmingensis YIM 63158(T) (97.0%). Whole-organism hydrolysates of the strain contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the sugars galactose, glucose, mannose and arabinose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-8(H4). The polar lipids detected were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown phosphoglycolipids and two glycolipids. The major fatty acid was iso-C16 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 73.1 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness with P. tetrahydrofuranoxydans DSM 44239(T) was 42.8 ± 3.5% (mean±sd). Based on phylogenetic analysis, phenotypic and genotypic data, it is concluded that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Pseudonocardia, for which the name Pseudonocardia sediminis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM M13141(T) ( = DSM 45779(T) = JCM 18540(T)).

  6. Bacillus tianshenii sp. nov., isolated from a marine sediment sample.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhao; Zhang, Dao-Feng; Khieu, Thi-Nhan; Son, Chu Ky; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Cheng, Juan; Tian, Xin-Peng; Zhang, Si; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-06-01

    A novel Gram-stain-positive, motile, catalase- and oxidase-positive, aerobic, endospore-forming, peritrichous, rod-shaped bacterium, designated YIM M13235(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from the South China Sea. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM M13235(T) belonged to the genus Bacillus. The strain grew optimally at 30 °C, pH 7.0 and in the presence of 2-4% (w/v) NaCl. meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. Strain YIM M13235(T) exhibited a menaquinone system with MK-7, and the major polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, four unknown phospholipids and one unknown glycolipid. The major fatty acids (>5%) were iso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(17 : 0), iso-C(17 : 1)ω10c and summed feature 4 (anteiso-C(17 : 1) and/or iso-C(17 : 1)). The genomic DNA G+C content was 42.1 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain YIM M13235(T) and its close relatives (16S rRNA gene sequence similarities >97%) including Bacillus halmapalus DSM 8723(T), Bacillus horikoshii DSM 8719(T) and Bacillus zhanjiangensis JSM 099021(T) were 41%, 44% and 44%, respectively. On the basis of genotypic, phenotypic and DNA-DNA relatedness data, it is apparent that strain YIM M13235(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus tianshenii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM M13235(T) ( = DSM 25879(T) = KCTC 33044(T)).

  7. DOS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traven, Bill

    1988-01-01

    Discusses using the DOS PATH command (for MS-DOS) to enable the microcomputer user to move from directory to directory on a hard drive. Lists the commands to be programed, gives examples, and explains the use of each. (MVL)

  8. Development of lipid productivities under different CO2 conditions of marine microalgae Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Akihito; Aikawa, Shimpei; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Chen, Chun-Yen; Chang, Jo-Shu; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel production from microalgae has become a popular research topic. In this study, Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4 isolated from the southern coast of Taiwan was selected for a detailed study on cell growth and lipid accumulation under marine salinity (3.5% sea salt). Proper CO2 was supplied as the improvement of lipid productivity. Under the optimal condition, the highest lipid productivity was 169.1mg/L/d, which was significantly higher than those reported in current studies for marine green algae. To date, only very few studies have reported a marine algae strain with both high cell growth and lipid productivity. This study demonstrated that a newly isolated marine green alga Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4 would be a feasible oil producer due to its high biomass production and lipid productivity under marine salinity.

  9. Halosimplex litoreum sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Pan-Pan; Xu, Jia-Qi; Xu, Wen-Mei; Wang, Zhao; Yin, Shuai; Han, Dong; Zhang, Wen-Jiao; Cui, Heng-Lin

    2015-08-01

    A halophilic archaeal strain, YGH94(T), was isolated from the Yinggehai marine solar saltern near the Shanya city of Hainan Province, China. Cells of the strain were observed to be short rods, stain Gram-negative and to form red-pigmented colonies on solid media. Strain YGH94(T) was found to grow at 25-50 °C (optimum 40 °C), at 0.9-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 3.1 M), at 0-1.0 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.05 M) and at pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.5). The cells were found to lyse in distilled water and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell-lysis was determined to be 5 % (w/v). The major polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester and four major glycolipids (disulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether, sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether and two unidentified glycolipids chromatographically identical to glycolipids in Halosimplex carlsbadense JCM 11222(T)). Strain YGH94(T) was found to possess two heterogeneous 16S rRNA genes (rrnA and rrnB) and both are related to those of Hsx. carlsbadense JCM 11222(T) (92.7-98.6 % similarities), Halosimplex pelagicum R2(T) (94.6-99.2 % similarities) and Halosimplex rubrum R27(T) (92.9-98.8 % similarities). The rpoB' gene similarity between strain YGH94(T) and Hsx. carlsbadense JCM 11222(T), Hsx. pelagicum R2(T) and Hsx. rubrum R27(T) are 95.4, 94.9 and 95.1 %, respectively. The DNA G+C content of strain YGH94(T) was determined to be 64.0 mol%. Strain YGH94(T) showed low DNA-DNA relatedness (35-39 %) with the current three members of the genus Halosimplex. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggest that strain YGH94(T) (=CGMCC 1.12235(T) = JCM 18647(T)) represents a new species of the genus Halosimplex, for which the name Halosimplex litoreum sp. nov. is proposed.

  10. Evidence of Brucella sp. infection in marine mammals stranded along the coast of southern New England.

    PubMed

    Maratea, Jennifer; Ewalt, Darla R; Frasca, Salvatore; Dunn, J Lawrence; De Guise, Sylvain; Szkudlarek, Lech; St Aubin, David J; French, Richard A

    2003-09-01

    After recent isolations of Brucella sp. from pinnipeds and cetaceans, a survey was initiated to investigate the prevalence of Brucella sp. infections and serologic evidence of exposure in marine mammals stranded along the coasts of Connecticut and Rhode Island. One hundred and nineteen serum samples from four species of cetaceans and four species of pinnipeds were collected from 1985 to 2000 and tested for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the brucellosis card test, buffered acidified plate antigen test, and rivanol test. In addition, 20 of these were necropsied between 1998 and 2000, with lymphoid and visceral tissues cultured for Brucella sp. Three of 21 (14%) harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and four of 53 (8%) harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) were seropositive. Brucella sp. was isolated from two of four (50%) harbor seals and three of nine (33%) harp seals. Of the five animals with positive cultures, two were seropositive and three seronegative. Brucella sp. was most frequently cultured from the lung and axillary, inguinal, and prescapular lymph nodes. Tissues from which Brucella sp. was isolated showed no gross or histopathologic changes. These results indicate that marine mammals stranded along the coast of southern New England can be exposed to and infected with Brucella sp. PMID:14582787

  11. [Secondary metabolites of a marine mangrove fungus (Penicillium sp. no. 2556) from South China Sea].

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Yuan; Ding, Wei-Jia; Shao, Chang-Lun; She, Zhi-Gang; Lin, Yong-Cheng

    2008-07-01

    The metabolites of a marine mangrove fungus (Penicillium sp. No. 2556) were studied in this paper and six compounds were isolated from the fermentation liquid. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopy methods as Sch54796 (1), Sch54794 (2), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (3), urail (4), succinic acid (5), Vermopyrone (6). Among them, compounds 1, 2 and 6 were firstly isolated from Penicillium sp., Coumpounds 1 and 2 remarkably inhibited the growth of cancer cell lines hep2 and hepG2.

  12. Whole genome analyses of marine fish pathogenic isolate, Mycobacterium sp. 012931.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Satoru; Kabayama, Jun; Hwang, Seong Don; Nho, Seong Won; Hikima, Jun-ichi; Jung, Tae Sung; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Takeyama, Haruko; Mori, Tetsushi; Aoki, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium is a genus within the order Actinomycetales that comprises of a large number of well-characterized species, several of which includes pathogens known to cause serious disease in human and animal. Here, we report the whole genome sequence of Mycobacterium sp. strain 012931 isolated from the marine fish, yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata). Mycobacterium sp. 012931 is a fish pathogen causing serious damage to aquaculture farms in Japan. DNA dot plot analysis showed that Mycobacterium sp. 012931 was more closely related to Mycobacterium marinum when compared across several Mycobacterium species. However, little conservation of the gene order was observed between Mycobacterium sp. 012931 and M. marinum genome. The annotated 5,464 genes of Mycobacterium sp. 012931 was classified into 26 subsystems. The insertion/deletion gene analysis shows Mycobacterium sp. 012931 had 643 unique genes that were not found in the M. marinum strains. In the virulence, disease, and defense subsystem, both insertion and deletion genes of Mycobacterium sp. 012931 were associated with the PPE gene cluster of Mycobacteria. Of seven plcB genes in Mycobacterium sp. 012931, plcB_2 and plcB_3 showed low identities with those of M. marinum strains. Therefore, Mycobacterium sp. 012931 has differences on genetic and virulence from M. marinum and may induce different interaction mechanisms between host and pathogen. PMID:24879010

  13. Whole genome analyses of marine fish pathogenic isolate, Mycobacterium sp. 012931.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Satoru; Kabayama, Jun; Hwang, Seong Don; Nho, Seong Won; Hikima, Jun-ichi; Jung, Tae Sung; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Takeyama, Haruko; Mori, Tetsushi; Aoki, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium is a genus within the order Actinomycetales that comprises of a large number of well-characterized species, several of which includes pathogens known to cause serious disease in human and animal. Here, we report the whole genome sequence of Mycobacterium sp. strain 012931 isolated from the marine fish, yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata). Mycobacterium sp. 012931 is a fish pathogen causing serious damage to aquaculture farms in Japan. DNA dot plot analysis showed that Mycobacterium sp. 012931 was more closely related to Mycobacterium marinum when compared across several Mycobacterium species. However, little conservation of the gene order was observed between Mycobacterium sp. 012931 and M. marinum genome. The annotated 5,464 genes of Mycobacterium sp. 012931 was classified into 26 subsystems. The insertion/deletion gene analysis shows Mycobacterium sp. 012931 had 643 unique genes that were not found in the M. marinum strains. In the virulence, disease, and defense subsystem, both insertion and deletion genes of Mycobacterium sp. 012931 were associated with the PPE gene cluster of Mycobacteria. Of seven plcB genes in Mycobacterium sp. 012931, plcB_2 and plcB_3 showed low identities with those of M. marinum strains. Therefore, Mycobacterium sp. 012931 has differences on genetic and virulence from M. marinum and may induce different interaction mechanisms between host and pathogen.

  14. Genome Sequence of Marinobacter sp. Strain MCTG268 Isolated from the Cosmopolitan Marine Diatom Skeletonema costatum

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, William B.; Huntemann, Marcel; Copeland, Alex; Chen, Amy; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Pillay, Manoj; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Andersen, Evan; Pati, Amrita; Stamatis, Dimitrios; Reddy, T. B. K.; Ngan, Chew Yee; Chovatia, Mansi; Daum, Chris; Shapiro, Nicole; Cantor, Michael N.; Woyke, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Marinobacter sp. strain MCTG268 was isolated from the cosmopolitan marine diatom Skeletonema costatum and can degrade oil hydrocarbons as sole sources of carbon and energy. Here, we present the genome sequence of this strain, which is 4,449,396 bp with 4,157 genes and an average G+C content of 57.0%. PMID:27609918

  15. Nepheliosyne B, a New Polyacetylenic Acid from the New Caledonian Marine Sponge Niphates sp

    PubMed Central

    Legrave, Nathalie; Hamrouni-Buonomo, Souhir; Dufies, Maeva; Guérineau, Vincent; Vacelet, Jean; Auberger, Patrick; Amade, Philippe; Mehiri, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    A new C47 polyoxygenated acetylenic acid, nepheliosyne B (2), along with the previously described nepheliosyne A (1), have been isolated from the New Caledonian marine sponge Niphates sp. Their structures have been elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. These metabolites exhibited a moderate cytotoxicity against K562, U266, SKM1, and Kasumi cancer cell lines. PMID:23807547

  16. Development of a gene cloning system for the hydrogen-producing marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, T.; Matsunaga, N.; Tsubaki, K.; Tanaka, T.

    1986-10-01

    Seventy-six strains of marine photosynthetic bacteria were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis for plasmid DNA content. Among these strains, 12 carried two to four different plasmids with sizes ranging from 3.1 to 11.0 megadaltons. The marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 had two plasmids, pRD06S and pRD06L. The smaller plasmid, pRD06S, had a molecular weight of 3.8 megadaltons and was cut at a single site by restriction endonucleases SalI, SmaI, PstI, XhoI, and BglII. Moreover, the marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 containing plasmid pRD06 had a satisfactory growth rate (doubling time, 7.5 h), a hydrogen-producing rate of 0.96 ..mu..mol/mg (dry weight) of cells per h, and nitrogen fixation capability. Plasmid pRD06S, however, had neither drug resistance nor heavy-metal resistance, and its copy number was less than 10. Therefore, a recombinant plasmid consisting of pRD06S and Escherichia coli cloning vector pUC13 was constructed and cloned in E. coli. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106. As a result, Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 developed ampicillin resistance. Thus, a shuttle vector for gene transfer was constructed for marine photosynthetic bacteria.

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of the Proteorhodopsin-Containing Marine Bacterium Sediminicola sp. YIK13

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong Min

    2016-01-01

    Sediminicola sp. YIK13 is a marine flavobacterium, isolated from tidal flat sediment. Here, we present the first complete genome sequence of this genus, which consists of 3,569,807 bp with 39.4% GC content. This strain contains proteorhodopsin, as well as retinal biosynthesis genes, allowing it to utilize sunlight as an energy source. PMID:26823585

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Cyanobium sp. NIES-981, a Marine Strain Potentially Useful for Ecotoxicological Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Haruyo; Shimura, Yohei; Suzuki, Shigekatsu; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Kawachi, Masanobu

    2016-01-01

    Cyanobium sp. NIES-981 is a marine cyanobacterium isolated from tidal flat sands in Okinawa, Japan. Here, we report the complete 3.0-Mbp genome sequence of NIES-981, which is composed of a single chromosome, and its annotation. This sequence information may provide a basis for developing an ecotoxicological bioassay using this strain. PMID:27469961

  19. Development of a gene cloning system for the hydrogen-producing marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp.

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, T; Matsunaga, N; Tsubaki, K; Tanaka, T

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-six strains of marine photosynthetic bacteria were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis for plasmid DNA content. Among these strains, 12 carried two to four different plasmids with sizes ranging from 3.1 to 11.0 megadaltons. The marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 had two plasmids, pRD06S and pRD06L. The smaller plasmid, pRD06S, had a molecular weight of 3.8 megadaltons and was cut at a single site by restriction endonucleases SalI, SmaI, PstI, XhoI, and BglII. Moreover, the marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 containing plasmid pRD06 had a satisfactory growth rate (doubling time, 7.5 h), a hydrogen-producing rate of 0.96 mumol/mg (dry weight) of cells per h, and nitrogen fixation capability. Plasmid pRD06S, however, had neither drug resistance nor heavy-metal resistance, and its copy number was less than 10. Therefore, a recombinant plasmid consisting of pRD06S and Escherichia coli cloning vector pUC13 was constructed and cloned in E. coli. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106. As a result, Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 developed ampicillin resistance. Thus, a shuttle vector for gene transfer was constructed for marine photosynthetic bacteria. PMID:3020006

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of the Proteorhodopsin-Containing Marine Bacterium Sediminicola sp. YIK13.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong Min; Kim, Sang-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Sediminicola sp. YIK13 is a marine flavobacterium, isolated from tidal flat sediment. Here, we present the first complete genome sequence of this genus, which consists of 3,569,807 bp with 39.4% GC content. This strain contains proteorhodopsin, as well as retinal biosynthesis genes, allowing it to utilize sunlight as an energy source. PMID:26823585

  1. Puupehanol, a Sesquiterpene-Dihydroquinone Derivative from the Marine Sponge Hyrtios sp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puupehanol (1), a new sesquiterpene-dihydroquinone derivative, was isolated from the marine sponge Hyrtios sp., along with the known compounds puupehenone (2) and chloropuupehenone (3). The structure of 1 was established as (20R,21R)-21-hydroxy-20,21-dihydropuupehenone by interpretation of spectros...

  2. Genome Sequence of Marinobacter sp. Strain MCTG268 Isolated from the Cosmopolitan Marine Diatom Skeletonema costatum.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Tony; Whitman, William B; Huntemann, Marcel; Copeland, Alex; Chen, Amy; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Pillay, Manoj; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Andersen, Evan; Pati, Amrita; Stamatis, Dimitrios; Reddy, T B K; Ngan, Chew Yee; Chovatia, Mansi; Daum, Chris; Shapiro, Nicole; Cantor, Michael N; Woyke, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Marinobacter sp. strain MCTG268 was isolated from the cosmopolitan marine diatom Skeletonema costatum and can degrade oil hydrocarbons as sole sources of carbon and energy. Here, we present the genome sequence of this strain, which is 4,449,396 bp with 4,157 genes and an average G+C content of 57.0%. PMID:27609918

  3. Two novel alkaloids from the South China Sea marine sponge Dysidea sp.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shen; Ma, Wei; Xu, Tunhai; Lin, Xiuping; Yin, Hao; Yang, Bin; Zhou, Xue-Feng; Yang, Xian-Wen; Long, Lijuan; Lee, Kyung Jin; Gao, Qipin; Liu, Yonghong

    2010-12-01

    Two new alkaloids, dysideanins A (1) and B (2), along with two known diketopiperazines, cyclo-(Pro-Leu) (3) and cyclo-(Pro-Ile) (4), were isolated from the marine sponge Dysidea sp. The structures were established from NMR and MS analysis. Dysideanin B (2) exhibited antibacterial activity. The thiomethylated imidazolinium unit as found in dysideanin A is very rarely encountered in nature.

  4. Psychroflexus saliphilus sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped, orange pigmented strain, WDS4A13**T, was isolated from a marine solar saltern in Weihai, China. WDS4A13**T grows optimally at pH at 7.0-8.0, 33°C, with 6% (w/v) NaCl. The polar lipid profile of the novel isolate consisted of two unidentified phospholipi...

  5. Purification, Chemical Characterization, and Bioactivity of an Extracellular Polysaccharide Produced by the Marine Sponge Endogenous Fungus Alternaria sp. SP-32.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yin; Mao, Wen-Jun; Yan, Meng-Xia; Liu, Xue; Wang, Shu-Yao; Xia, Zheng; Xiao, Bo; Cao, Su-Jian; Yang, Bao-Qin; Li, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Marine sponges are ancient and simple multicellular filter-feeding invertebrates attached to solid substrates in benthic habitats and host a variety of fungi both inside and on their surface because of its unique ingestion and digest system. Investigation on marine sponge-associated fungi mainly focused on the small molecular metabolites, yet little attention had been paid to the extracellular polysaccharides. In this study, a homogeneous extracellular polysaccharide AS2-1 was obtained from the fermented broth of the marine sponge endogenous fungus Alternaria sp. SP-32 using ethanol precipitation, anion-exchange, and size-exclusion chromatography. Results of chemical and spectroscopic analyses showed that AS2-1 was composed of mannose, glucose, and galactose with a molar ratio of 1.00:0.67:0.35, and its molecular weight was 27.4 kDa. AS2-1 consists of a mannan core and a galactoglucan chain. The mannan core is composed of (1→6)-α-Manp substituted at C-2 by (1→2)-α-Manp with different degrees of polymerization. The galactoglucan chain consists of (1→6)-α-Glcp residues with (1→6)-β-Galf residues attached to the last glucopyranose residue at C-6. (1→6)-β-Galf residues have additional branches at C-2 consisting of disaccharide units of (1→2)-β-Galf and (1→2)-α-Glcp residues. The glucopyranose residue of the galactoglucan chain is linked to the mannan core. AS2-1 possessed a high antioxidant activity as evaluated by scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals in vitro. AS2-1 was also evaluated for cytotoxic activity on Hela, HL-60, and K562 cell lines by the MTT and SRB methods. The investigation demonstrated that AS2-1 was a novel extracellular polysaccharide with different characterization from extracellular polysaccharides produced by other marine microorganisms. PMID:27153822

  6. Antibiofilm Activity of the Marine Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain 3J6▿

    PubMed Central

    Dheilly, Alexandra; Soum-Soutéra, Emmanuelle; Klein, Géraldine L.; Bazire, Alexis; Compère, Chantal; Haras, Dominique; Dufour, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Biofilm formation results in medical threats or economic losses and is therefore a major concern in a variety of domains. In two-species biofilms of marine bacteria grown under dynamic conditions, Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain 3J6 formed mixed biofilms with Bacillus sp. strain 4J6 but was largely predominant over Paracoccus sp. strain 4M6 and Vibrio sp. strain D01. The supernatant of Pseudoalteromonas sp. 3J6 liquid culture (SN3J6) was devoid of antibacterial activity against free-living Paracoccus sp. 4M6 and Vibrio sp. D01 cells, but it impaired their ability to grow as single-species biofilms and led to higher percentages of nonviable cells in 48-h biofilms. Antibiofilm molecules of SN3J6 were able to coat the glass surfaces used to grow biofilms and reduced bacterial attachment about 2-fold, which might partly explain the biofilm formation defect but not the loss of cell viability. SN3J6 had a wide spectrum of activity since it affected all Gram-negative marine strains tested except other Pseudoalteromonas strains. Biofilm biovolumes of the sensitive strains were reduced 3- to 530-fold, and the percentages of nonviable cells were increased 3- to 225-fold. Interestingly, SN3J6 also impaired biofilm formation by three strains belonging to the human-pathogenic species Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli. Such an antibiofilm activity is original and opens up a variety of applications for Pseudoalteromonas sp. 3J6 and/or its active exoproducts in biofilm prevention strategies. PMID:20363799

  7. Characterization and identification of a novel marine Streptomyces sp. produced antibacterial substance.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingjian; Dong, Xin; Liu, Shu; Bie, Xiaomei

    2009-01-01

    Strain GB-2 is a marine microbe with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, isolated from soil taken from the coastal city Lianyungang in the JiangSu province of China. Analysis of its morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as chemical components of the cell wall strongly suggested that the strain GB-2 belonged to the Streptomyces sp. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of Streptomyces sp. GB-2 strain showed a strong similarity (98%) with the 16 rRNA gene of Streptomyces fradiae. Application to antibacterial substance of strain Streptomyces sp. GB-2 by various separation steps led to isolation of one active molecule having a retention time of 9.495 min, P(9.495 min), which possessed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. Through analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and mass/mass spectrometry of the peak, the molecular weight of the antibacterial substance (P(9.495 min) sample) was 447.5 Da and it was determined to be sisomicin according to the analysis of ion fragments. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the peak also demonstrated that the antibacterial substance was sisomicin. This study is the first to introduce the finding of sisomicin produced from marine Streptomyces sp. This work provides a preference for the production of sisomicin in pharmaceutical industries and a probability for studying the biodiversity of marine microbe.

  8. Biomass yield efficiency of the marine anammox bacterium, "Candidatus Scalindua sp.," is affected by salinity.

    PubMed

    Awata, Takanori; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Ozaki, Noriatsu; Ohashi, Akiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The growth rate and biomass yield efficiency of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria are markedly lower than those of most other autotrophic bacteria. Among the anammox bacterial genera, the growth rate and biomass yield of the marine anammox bacterium "Candidatus Scalindua sp." is still lower than those of other anammox bacteria enriched from freshwater environments. The activity and growth of marine anammox bacteria are generally considered to be affected by the presence of salinity and organic compounds. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of salinity and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on the anammox activity, inorganic carbon uptake, and biomass yield efficiency of "Ca. Scalindua sp." enriched from the marine sediments of Hiroshima Bay, Japan, were investigated in batch experiments. Differences in VFA concentrations (0-10 mM) were observed under varying salinities (0.5%-4%). Anammox activity was high at 0.5%-3.5% salinity, but was 30% lower at 4% salinity. In addition, carbon uptake was higher at 1.5%-3.5% salinity. The results of the present study clearly demonstrated that the biomass yield efficiency of the marine anammox bacterium "Ca. Scalindua sp." was significantly affected by salinity. On the other hand, the presence of VFAs up to 10 mM did not affect anammox activity, carbon uptake, or biomass yield efficiency.

  9. Pyruvatibacter mobilis gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium from the culture broth of Picochlorum sp. 122.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanghua; Tang, Mingxing; Wu, Hualian; Dai, Shikun; Li, Tao; Chen, Chenghao; He, Hui; Fan, Jiewei; Xiang, Wenzhou; Li, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic bacterium, designated strain GYP-11T, was isolated from the culture broth of a marine microalga, Picochloruma sp. 122. Cells were dimorphic rods; free living cells were motile by means of a single polar flagellum, and star-shaped-aggregate-forming cells were attached with stalks and non-motile. Sodium pyruvate or Tween 20 was required for growth on marine agar 2216.16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that this isolate shared 94.07 % similarity with its closest type strain, Parvibaculum hydrocarboniclasticum EPR92T. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that strain GYP-11T represents a distinct lineage in a robust clade consisting of strain GYP-11T, alphaproteobacterium GMD21A06 and Candidatus Phaeomarinobacter ectocarpi Ec32. This clade was close to the genera Parvibaculum and Tepidicaulis in the order Rhizobiales. Chemotaxonomic and physiological characteristics, including cellular fatty acids and carbon source profiles, also readily distinguished strain GYP-11T from all established genera and species. Thus, it is concluded that strain GYP-11T represents a novel species of a new genus in the order Rhizobiales, for which the name Pyruvatibacter mobilis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Pyruvatibacter mobilis is GYP-11T ( = CGMCC 1.15125T = KCTC 42509T).

  10. Photobacterium sanguinicancri sp. nov. isolated from marine animals.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Roque, Ana; Rotllant, Guiomar; Romalde, Jesus L; Doce, Alejandra; Eggermont, Mieke; Defoirdt, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Six strains were isolated from the hemolymph of the spider crab Maja brachydactyla, captured in Spain, and one from a diseased blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. The 16S rRNA gene sequences showed close similarity to the recently described Photobacterium swingsii (98.1 %) and to a lesser degree to Photobacterium aquimaris (97.8 %). MLSA analyses showed a monophyletic group including P. swingsii that form a new subclade. All genomic analyses (Average Nucleotide Identity, Average Amino Acid Identity, and in silico DNA-DNA) clearly separate the strains analysed from P. swingsii with values below the thresholds to delimit a new species. The phenotypic, genotypic and genomic data presented here clearly place these strains as a coherent group within the genus Photobacterium, for which we propose the name Photobacterium sanguinicancri sp. nov. Strain CAIM 1827(T) (=CECT 7579(T), =DSM 24670(T)) is proposed as the type strain of the species. PMID:27048242

  11. Maribacter spongiicola sp. nov. and Maribacter vaceletii sp. nov., isolated from marine sponges, and emended description of the genus Maribacter.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Stephen A; Kennedy, Jonathan; Morrissey, John P; O'Gara, Fergal; Dobson, Alan D W

    2015-07-01

    Two Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, orange, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-motile bacteria, designated W13M1A(T) and W15M10(T), were isolated from the marine sponges Suberites carnosus and Leucosolenia sp., respectively, which were sampled from Lough Hyne, Co. Cork, Ireland. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of these isolates revealed that they are members of the genus Maribacter, in the family Flavobacteriaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes. The type strain most closely related to strain W13M1A(T) is Maribacter forsetii DSM 18668(T) with a gene sequence similarity of 96.5%. The closest related type strain to strain W15M10(T) is Maribacter orientalis DSM 16471(T) with a gene sequence similarity of 98.3%. Phylogenetic inference and phenotypic data combined indicate that the isolates represent two novel species of the genus Maribacter, for which the names Maribacter spongiicola sp. nov. with type strain W15M10(T) ( = NCIMB 14725(T) = DSM 25233(T)) and Maribacter vaceletii sp. nov. with type strain W13M1A(T) ( = NCIMB 14724(T) = DSM 25230(T)), are proposed.

  12. [Secondary metabolites of a marine actinomycete Streptomyces sp. (No. 195-02) from South China Sea].

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Yuan; Ding, Wei-Jia; She, Zhi-Gang; Lin, Yong-Cheng

    2008-05-01

    The metabolites of a marine streptomyces sp. actinomycete (No. 195-02) were studied and eight compounds were isolated from the fermentation liquid, structures were elucidated by spectroscopy methods as p-hydroxy-benzonitrile (1), 2-methyl-furan-3-carboxylic acid(2), furan-2-carboxylic acid (3), cyclo(Phe-Phe) (4), cyclo(Leu-Ileu) (5), nicotinic acid (6), 2-(1H-indol-3-yl) acetic acid (7) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (8). The compounds 1, 3 and 8 were firstly isolated from Streptomyces sp., compounds 4 -7 were firstly found from marine actinomycetes. Coumpouds 4 and 5 evidently inhibited the growth of cancer cell lines hepG2 and hep2 at the concentration of 50 microg/ml.

  13. Bacillus oceanisediminis sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianli; Wang, Jiewei; Fang, Caiyuan; Song, Fei; Xin, Yuhua; Qu, Lei; Ding, Kai

    2010-12-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped and aerobic bacterium was isolated from a sediment sample from the South Sea in China. The isolate, designated H2(T), grew at 4-45 °C (optimum 37 °C) and pH 6-10 (optimum pH 7.0). The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 and the polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unknown aminophospholipid. The major fatty acid was iso-C(15 : 0). The genomic DNA G+C content of strain H2(T) was 44.8mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate formed a monophyletic clade with Bacillus firmus IAM 12464(T). DNA-DNA relatedness between the isolate and B. firmus ATCC 14575(T) was low (27.5 %). Strain H2(T) also had a phenotypic profile that readily distinguished it from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. It is evident from the combination of genotypic and phenotypic data that the organism should be classified in a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus oceanisediminis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H2(T) (=CGMCC 1.10115(T) =JCM 16506(T)).

  14. Hyrtinadines C and D, New Azepinoindole-Type Alkaloids from a Marine Sponge Hyrtios sp.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Takaaki; Nakamura, Kenta; Sakai, Kanae; Fromont, Jane; Gonoi, Tohru; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

    2016-01-01

    New bisindole alkaloids, hyrtinadines C (1) and D (2), have been isolated from an Okinawan marine sponge Hyrtios sp. The structures of hyrtinadines C (1) and D (2) were elucidated based on analyses of the spectral data. Hyrtinadines C (1) and D (2) were the relatively rare alkaloids possessing a 3,4-fused azepinoindole skeleton. Hyrtinadines C (1) and D (2) showed antimicrobial activity. PMID:27373657

  15. Genome Sequence of the Agar-Degrading Marine Bacterium Alteromonadaceae sp. Strain G7

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Min-Jung; Song, Ju Yeon; Kim, Byung Kwon; Chi, Won-Jae; Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Choi, Soobeom; Chang, Yong-Keun

    2012-01-01

    Here, we present the high-quality draft genome sequence of the agar-degrading marine gammaproteobacterium Alteromonadaceae sp. strain G7, which was isolated from coastal seawater to be utilized as a bioresource for production of agar-derived biofuels. The 3.91-Mb genome contains a number of genes encoding algal polysaccharide-degrading enzymes such as agarases and sulfatases. PMID:23209220

  16. A new macrolide from a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jie; Xu, Xin-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2013-08-01

    A new 16-membered macrolide named aspergillide D (1), along with six known compounds, including two polyketones (2-3) and four alkaloids (4-7), were isolated from the culture broth of a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSGAF 0076. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of NMR and mass spectra. Compound 5 showed an obvious inhibitory effect on influenza virus strains H1N1 and H3N2.

  17. Isolation and structural elucidation of chondrosterins F-H from the marine fungus Chondrostereum sp.

    PubMed

    Li, Hou-Jin; Chen, Ting; Xie, Ying-Lu; Chen, Wen-Dan; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Lan, Wen-Jian

    2013-02-01

    The marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. was collected from a soft coral of the species Sarcophyton tortuosum from the South China Sea. Three new compounds, chondrosterins F-H (1, 4 and 5), together with three known compounds, incarnal (2), arthrosporone (3), and (2E)-decene-4,6,8-triyn-1-ol (6), were isolated. Their structures were elucidated primarily based on NMR and MS data. Incarnal (2) exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines.

  18. A new taurine derivative from South China Sea marine sponge Axinella sp.

    PubMed

    Huang, Riming; Peng, Yan; Zhou, Xuefeng; Yang, Xianwen; Liu, Yonghong

    2013-01-01

    A new (1) and two known (2 and 3) acylated taurine derivatives were isolated from the South China Sea marine sponge Axinella sp. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectral analysis. Compounds 1-3 did not inhibit the growth of hepatoma carcinoma cell (HepG2), lung carcinoma cell (A549), human breast carcinoma (MCF-7), no-small cell lung cancer (NCI-H460) and human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines.

  19. Antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized by marine Ochrobactrum sp

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Roshmi; Janardhanan, Anju; Varghese, Rintu T.; Soniya, E.V.; Mathew, Jyothis; Radhakrishnan, E.K.

    2014-01-01

    Metal nanoparticle synthesis is an interesting area in nanotechnology due to their remarkable optical, magnetic, electrical, catalytic and biomedical properties, but there needs to develop clean, non-toxic and environmental friendly methods for the synthesis and assembly of nanoparticles. Biological agents in the form of microbes have emerged up as efficient candidates for nanoparticle synthesis due to their extreme versatility to synthesize diverse nanoparticles with varying size and shape. In the present study, an eco favorable method for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using marine bacterial isolate has been attempted. Very interestingly, molecular identification proved it as a strain of Ochrobactrum anhtropi. In addition, the isolate was found to have the potential to form silver nanoparticles intracellularly at room temperature within 24 h. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed a peak at 450 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. The SEM and TEM micrographs revealed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a size range from 38 nm – 85 nm. The silver nanoparticles synthesized by the isolate were also used to explore its antibacterial potential against pathogens like Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:25763025

  20. Winogradskyella sediminis sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, De-Chao; Liu, Yan-Xia; Huang, Hai-Jun; Weber, Karin; Margesin, Rosa

    2016-08-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, yellow-pigmented, gliding bacterial strain, designated S5-23-3T, was isolated from a sediment sample of the Yellow Sea in China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain S5-23-3T was related to the genus Winogradskyella and had highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Winogradskyella arenosi JCM 15527T (97.6 %), Winogradskyella rapida CECT 7392T (97.4 %) and Winogradskyella undariae KCTC 32261T (97.2 %). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. Strain S5-23-3T contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone. The polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylethanolamine, two aminolipids, one aminoglycolipid, one aminophospholipid, one unidentified phospholipid and seven unidentified polar lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain S5-23-3T was 36.1 mol%. Combined data from phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, phylogenetic and DNA-DNA relatedness studies demonstrated that strain S5-23-3T is a representative of a novel species of the genus Winogradskyella, for which the name Winogradskyellasediminis sp. nov. (type strain S5-23-3T=LMG 28075T=DSM 28134T) is proposed. PMID:27189204

  1. Thalassolituus marinus sp. nov., a hydrocarbon-utilizing marine bacterium.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ahyoung; Cho, Jang-Cheon

    2013-06-01

    Gram-negative strains, motile by a single polar flagellum, non-pigmented and with a curved rod-shaped morphology, designated IMCC1826(T) and IMCC1883, were isolated from a surface seawater sample from the Yellow Sea. The two strains shared 99.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and showed 92% DNA-DNA relatedness, suggesting that they belonged to the same genomic species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the two isolates were related most closely to the type strain of Thalassolituus oleivorans with a sequence similarity of 96.4% and formed a robust phyletic lineage with T. oleivorans. DNA-DNA relatedness between the two strains and T. oleivorans DSM 14913(T) was 8.7-11.6%. A putative alkane hydroxylase (alkB) gene was detected in strain IMCC1826(T) by PCR, but the amino acid sequence of the gene was distantly related to that of the AlkB homologue of T. oleivorans DSM 14913(T). As expected from the presence of the alkB gene, the new strains utilized n-tetradecane and n-hexadecane as a carbon source. The DNA G+C content was 54.6-56.0 mol% and the main isoprenoid quinone detected was Q-9. Polar lipids of strain IMCC1826(T) included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and amino-group-containing lipids. On the basis of taxonomic data obtained in this study, strains IMCC1826(T) and IMCC1883 represent a novel species of the genus Thalassolituus, for which the name Thalassolituus marinus sp. nov. is proposed, with IMCC1826(T) (=KCTC 23084(T)=NBRC 107590(T)) as the type strain. PMID:23148102

  2. Leisingera nanhaiensis sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fengqin; Wang, Baojiang; Liu, Xiupian; Lai, Qiliang; Du, Yaping; Li, Guangyu; Luo, Jie; Shao, Zongze

    2010-02-01

    An aerobic, Gram-staining-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, strain NH52F(T), was isolated from a sandy sediment sample taken from the South China Sea. On M2 agar medium (a complex medium), colonies were beige in colour. The isolate showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to members of the genera Leisingera (96.7 % similarity), Phaeobacter (95.4-96.0 %) and Marinovum (94.1 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain NH52F(T) formed a distinct cluster with Leisingera methylohalidivorans MB2(T) and Leisingera aquimarina LMG 24366(T). Optimal growth was observed at pH 7.0-8.5 and 25 degrees C and the new isolate required the presence of 1-4 % (w/v) NaCl. The major fatty acids were C(18 : 1)omega7c, C(16 : 0) 2-OH, C(10 : 0) 3-OH, C(12 : 0) 3-OH, C(16 : 0) and 11-methyl C(18 : 1)omega7c. The DNA G+C content was 60.5 mol%. The phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain NH52F(T) were similar to those of the genus Leisingera. However, the differences in phenotypic properties and the 16S rRNA gene similarity values demonstrated that the new isolate differed from recognized species of the genus Leisingera. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, this organism should be classified as a representative of a novel species in the genus Leisingera, for which the name Leisingera nanhaiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NH52F(T) (=LMG 24841(T)=CCTCC AB 208316(T)=MCCC 1A04178(T)).

  3. Genetic transformation of marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. CC9311 (Cyanophyceae) by electroporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huaxin; Lin, Hanzhi; Jiang, Peng; Li, Fuchao; Qin, Song

    2013-03-01

    Synechococcus sp. CC9311 is a marine cyanobacterium characterized by type IV chromatic acclimation (CA). A genetic transformation system was developed as a first step to elucidate the molecular mechanism of CA. The results show that Synechococcus sp. CC9311 cells were sensitive to four commonly used antibiotics: ampicillin, kanamycin, spectinomycin, and chloramphenicol. An integrative plasmid to disrupt the putative phycoerythrin lyase gene mpeV, using a kanamycin resistance gene as selectable marker, was constructed by recombinant polymerase chain reaction. The plasmid was then transformed into Synechococcus sp. CC9311 via electroporation. High transformation efficiency was achieved at a field strength of 2 kV/cm. DNA analysis showed that mpeV was fully disrupted following challenge of the transformants with a high concentration of kanamycin. In addition, the transformants that displayed poor growth on agar SN medium could be successfully plated on agarose SN medium.

  4. [Isolation and structural elucidation of secondary metabolites from marine Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 1934].

    PubMed

    Niu, Siwen; Li, Sumei; Tian, Xinpeng; Hu, Tao; Ju, Jianhua; Ynag, Xiaohong; Zhang, Si; Zhang, Changsheng

    2011-07-01

    Marine Actinobacteria are emerging as new resources for bioactive natural products with promise in novel drug discovery. In recent years, the richness and diversity of marine Actinobacteria from the South China Sea and their ability in producing bioactive products have been investigated. The objective of this work is to isolate and identify bioactive secondary metabolites from a marine actinobacterium SCSIO 1934 derived from sediments of South China Sea. The strain was identified as a Streptomyces spieces by analyzing its 16S rDNA sequence. Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 1934 was fermented under optimized conditions and seven bioactive secondary metabolites were isolated and purified by chromatographic methods including colum chromatography over silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were elucidated as 17-O-demethylgeldanamycin (1), lebstatin (2), 17-O-demethyllebstatin (3), nigericin (4), nigericin sodium salt (5), abierixin (6), respectively, by detailed NMR spectroscopic data (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC and HMBC). This work provided a new marine actinobacterium Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 1934, capable of producing diverse bioactive natural products.

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of a Novel Marine Bacterium, Paraglaciecola sp. Strain S66, with Hydrolytic Activity against Seaweed Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Schultz-Johansen, Mikkel; Glaring, Mikkel A.; Bech, Pernille K.

    2016-01-01

    A novel agarolytic gammaproteobacterium, Paraglaciecola sp. S66, was isolated from marine samples of eelgrass (Zostera sp.) and sequenced. The draft genome contains a large number of enzyme-encoding genes with predicted function against several complex polysaccharides found in the cell walls of algae. PMID:27103729

  6. Spongiibacter marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., a halophilic marine bacterium isolated from the boreal sponge Haliclona sp. 1.

    PubMed

    Graeber, Ingeborg; Kaesler, Ines; Borchert, Martin S; Dieckmann, Ralf; Pape, Thomas; Lurz, Rudi; Nielsen, Preben; von Döhren, Hans; Michaelis, Walter; Szewzyk, Ulrich

    2008-03-01

    Strain HAL40b(T) was isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona sp. 1 collected at the Sula Ridge off the Norwegian coast and characterized by physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic analyses. The isolate was a small rod with a polar flagellum. It was aerobic, Gram-negative and oxidase- and catalase-positive. Optimal growth was observed at 20-30 degrees C, pH 7-9 and in 3 % NaCl. Substrate utilization tests were positive for arabinose, Tween 40 and Tween 80. Enzyme tests were positive for alkaline phosphatase, esterase lipase (C8), leucine arylamidase, acid phosphatase, naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase. The predominant cellular fatty acid was C(17 : 1) omega8, followed by C(17 : 0) and C(18 : 1) omega7. Analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS was used to characterize the strain, producing a characteristic low-molecular-mass protein pattern that could be used as a fingerprint for identification of members of this species. The DNA G+C content was 69.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis supported by 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison classified the strain as a member of the class Gammaproteobacteria. Strain HAL40b(T) was only distantly related to other marine bacteria including Neptunomonas naphthovorans and Marinobacter daepoensis (type strain sequence similarity >90 %). Based on its phenotypic, physiological and phylogenetic characteristics, it is proposed that the strain should be placed into a new genus as a representative of a novel species, Spongiibacter marinus gen. nov., sp. nov.; the type strain of Spongiibacter marinus is HAL40b(T) (=DSM 17750(T) =CCUG 54896(T)).

  7. Antifouling and antibacterial polyketides from marine gorgonian coral-associated fungus Penicillium sp. SCSGAF 0023.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jie; Sun, Yu-Lin; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Han, Zhuang; Gao, Hai-Chun; He, Fei; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2013-04-01

    Two new polyketides, 6,8,5'6'-tetrahydroxy-3'-methylflavone (1) and paecilin C (2), together with six known analogs secalonic acid D (3), secalonic acid B (4) penicillixanthone A (5), emodin (6), citreorosein (7) and isorhodoptilometrin (8) were obtained from a broth of gorgonian coral-associated fungus Penicillium sp. SCSGAF 0023. Compounds 1 and 6-8 had significant antifouling activity against Balanus amphitrite larvae settlement with EC50 values of 6.7, 6.1, 17.9 and 13.7 μg ml(-1), respectively, and 3-5 showed medium antibacterial activity against four tested bacterial strains. This was the first report of antibacterial activity of 3-5 against marine bacteria and antifouling activity of 6-8 against marine biofouling organism's larvae. The results indicated that gorgonian coral-associated fungus Penicillium sp. SCSGAF 0023 strain could produce antifouling and antibacterial compounds that might aid the host gorgonian coral in protection against marine pathogen bacteria, biofouling organisms and other intruders.

  8. Cloning, expression and characterization of a new agarase-encoding gene from marine Pseudoalteromonas sp.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinzhi; Chu, Yan; Wu, Qianqian; Gu, Yuchao; Han, Feng; Yu, Wengong

    2009-10-01

    The beta-agarase gene agaA, cloned from a marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp. CY24, consists of 1,359 nucleotides encoding 453 amino acids in a sequence corresponding to a catalytic domain of glycosyl hydrolase family 16 (GH16) and a carbohydrate-binding module type 13 (CBM13). The recombinant enzyme is an endo-type agarase that hydrolyzes beta-1,4-linkages of agarose, yielding neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose as the predominant products. In two cleavage patterns, AgaA digested the smallest substrate, neoagarooctaose, into neoagarobiose, neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose. Site directed mutation was performed to investigate the differences between AgaA and AgaD of Vibrio sp. PO-303, identifying residues V(109)VTS(112) as playing a key role in the enzyme reaction. PMID:19504047

  9. Living together: the marine amoeba Thecamoeba hilla Schaeffer, 1926 and its endosymbiont Labyrinthula sp.

    PubMed

    Dyková, Iva; Fiala, Ivan; Dvoráková, Helena; Pecková, Hana

    2008-11-01

    Two protists isolated simultaneously from the same sample of gill tissue of Psetta maxima (L.) were identified as Thecamoeba hilla Schaeffer, 1926 and Labyrinthula sp. A Labyrinthula strain (LTH) derived from a mixed culture of both organisms was well established in a short time, while subcultures of T. hilla continued to be associated with Labyrinthula cells despite all efforts to eliminate them. Ultrastructural examination, repeated several times in the course of long-lasting subculturing of amoebae, revealed that trophozoites of T. hilla host in their cytoplasm multiplying labyrinthulid cells. Comparison of SSU rDNA sequences of the Labyrinthula strain LTH and those from labyrinthulid endosymbionts from T. hilla verified the assumption that the extra- and intra-cellularly multiplying Labyrinthula cells are identical organisms. The association of the marine amoeba T. hilla and Labyrinthula sp. displayed signs of mutualistic symbiosis.

  10. Fabivirga thermotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel marine bacterium isolated from culture broth of a marine cyanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Tang, M; Chen, C; Li, J; Xiang, W; Wu, H; Wu, J; Dai, S; Wu, H; Li, T; Wang, G

    2016-02-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, red, non-spore-forming, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain A4T, was isolated from culture broth of a marine cyanobacterium. Cells were flexible rods with gliding motility. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, revealed that strain A4T formed a coherent cluster with members of the genera Roseivirga and Fabibacter, and represents a distinct lineage in the family Flammeovirgaceae. Thermotolerance and a distinctive cellular fatty acid profile could readily distinguish this isolate from any bacteria of the genera Roseivirga and Fabibacter with a validly published name. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain A4T is suggested to represent a novel species in a novel genus, for which the name Fabivirga thermotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A4T ( = KCTC 42507T = CGMCC 1.15111T).

  11. Vibrio psychroerythrus sp. n.: Classification of the Psychrophilic Marine Bacterium, NRC 1004

    PubMed Central

    D'aoust, J. Y.; Kushner, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    A red-pigmented organism, formerly known as marine psychrophile NRC 1004, has been classified as Vibrio psychroerythrus sp. n. Classification was mainly based on morphology, the ability of the organism to oxidize and ferment glucose, its sensitivity to vibriostat 0/129, and its deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of 40.0 moles% guanine plus cytosine, determined by thermal denaturation. The organism gave positive reactions for catalase, oxidase, and starch hydrolysis and produced acid from maltose and dextrin but not from arabinose. It was indole- and citrate-negative and reduced nitrate to nitrite without producing gas. PMID:5053463

  12. New α-glucosidase inhibitors from marine algae-derived Streptomyces sp. OUCMDZ-3434

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhengbo; Hao, Jiejie; Wang, Liping; Wang, Yi; Kong, Fandong; Zhu, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    Wailupemycins H (1) and I (2) with a new skeleton coupled two 6-(2-phenylnaphthalene-1-yl)pyrane-2-one nuclei to a –CH2– linkage were identified from the culture of Streptomyces sp. OUCMDZ-3434 associated with the marine algae, Enteromorpha prolifera. Compounds 1 and 2 are two new α-glucosidase inhibitors with the Ki/IC50 values of 16.8/19.7 and 6.0/8.3 μM, respectively. In addition, the absolute configurations of wailupemycins D (3) and E (4) are also resolved in this paper for the first time. PMID:26822662

  13. (-)-Duryne and its homologues, cytotoxic acetylenes from a marine Sponge Petrosia sp.

    PubMed

    Hitora, Yuki; Takada, Kentaro; Okada, Shigeru; Ise, Yuji; Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2011-05-27

    Six linear acetylenes, (-)-duryne (1) and (-)-durynes B-F (2-6), were isolated from the marine sponge Petrosia sp. Their structures were elucidated by NMR and tandem FABMS analyses. The positions of the olefinic bonds were confirmed by ozonolysis experiments, and the absolute configurations were determined by the modified Mosher's method. Compound 1 was found to be the enantiomer of duryne, a previously reported sponge metabolite. Compounds 1-6 show cytotoxicity against HeLa cells with IC50 values between 0.08 and 0.50 μM. PMID:21534590

  14. Isolation, identification, and cytotoxicity of a new isobenzofuran derivative from marine Streptomyces sp. W007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Xie, Zeping; Lou, Tingting; Jiang, Peng

    2016-03-01

    A new isobenzofuran derivative ( 1) was isolated from the marine Streptomyces sp. W007 and its structure was determined through extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR, and ESI-MS. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was determined by a combination of experimental analyses and comparison with reported data, including biogenetic reasoning, J-coupling analysis, NOESY, and 1H-1HCOSY. Compound 1 exhibited no cytotoxicity against human cells of gastric cancer BGC-823, lung cancer A549, and breast cancer MCF7.

  15. Plakinamine M, a Steroidal Alkaloid from the Marine Sponge Corticium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhenyu; Koch, Michael; Harper, Mary Kay; Matainaho, Teatulohi K.; Barrows, Louis R.; Van Wagoner, Ryan M.; Ireland, Chris M.

    2013-01-01

    Using bioassay-guided fractionation, a new steroidal alkaloid, plakinamine M (1), and the known compound, plakinamine L (2), with a unique acyclic side chain, were isolated from the marine sponge Corticium sp. collected from New Britain, Papua New Guinea. The structures were determined on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. The two compounds showed inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with MIC values of 15.8 and 3.6 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:24195491

  16. Nahuoic Acids B-E, Polyhydroxy Polyketides from the Marine-Derived Streptomyces sp. SCSGAA 0027.

    PubMed

    Nong, Xu-Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Xin-Ya; Wang, Jie; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2016-01-22

    Four new polyol polyketides containing a decalin ring, nahuoic acids B-E (1-4), together with a known analogue, nahuoic acid A (5), possessing an unprecedented carbon skeleton, were isolated from a culture broth of the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. SCSGAA 0027. Their structures were determined by detailed analysis of spectroscopic data and chemical transformations including acetonide formation and Mosher's ester method. Compounds 1-5 showed weak antibiofilm activity against Shewanella onedensis MR-1 biofilm. This is the first series of analogues of the novel selective SETD8 inhibitor nahuoic acid A. PMID:26684286

  17. Solwaric acids A and B, antibacterial aromatic acids from a marine Solwaraspora sp.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Gregory A; Wyche, Thomas P; Fry, Charles G; Braun, Doug R; Bugni, Tim S

    2014-02-14

    Two novel trialkyl-substituted aromatic acids, solwaric acids A and B, were isolated from a marine Solwaraspora sp. cultivated from the ascidian Trididemnum orbiculatum. Solwaric acids A and B were isotopically labeled with U-¹³C glucose, and analysis of a ¹³C-¹³C COSY allowed for unambiguous determination of the location of the phenyl methyl group. The two novel compounds demonstrated antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA).

  18. Five sesquiterpenoids from a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. isolated from a gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea.

    PubMed

    Wei, Mei-Yan; Wang, Chang-Yun; Liu, Qing-Ai; Shao, Chang-Lun; She, Zhi-Gang; Lin, Yong-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Three new phenolic bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoids: (+)-methyl sydowate (1), 7-deoxy-7,14-didehydrosydonic acid (2), and 7-deoxy-7,8-didehydrosydonic acid (3), together with two known fungal metabolites were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp., which was isolated in turn from a gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea collected from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by combined spectroscopic methods, and the structure of 1 was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray data.

  19. Nahuoic Acids B-E, Polyhydroxy Polyketides from the Marine-Derived Streptomyces sp. SCSGAA 0027.

    PubMed

    Nong, Xu-Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Xin-Ya; Wang, Jie; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2016-01-22

    Four new polyol polyketides containing a decalin ring, nahuoic acids B-E (1-4), together with a known analogue, nahuoic acid A (5), possessing an unprecedented carbon skeleton, were isolated from a culture broth of the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. SCSGAA 0027. Their structures were determined by detailed analysis of spectroscopic data and chemical transformations including acetonide formation and Mosher's ester method. Compounds 1-5 showed weak antibiofilm activity against Shewanella onedensis MR-1 biofilm. This is the first series of analogues of the novel selective SETD8 inhibitor nahuoic acid A.

  20. Methylthio-aspochalasins from a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Zhao, Shizhe; Ding, Wanjing; Wang, Pinmei; Yang, Xianwen; Xu, Jinzhong

    2014-10-01

    Two novel aspochalasins, 20-β-methylthio-aspochalsin Q (named as aspochalasin V), (1) and aspochalasin W (2), were isolated from culture broth of Aspergillus sp., which was found in the gut of a marine isopod Ligia oceanica. The structures were determined on the basis of NMR and mass spectral data analysis. This is the first report about methylthio-substituted aspochalasin derivatives. Cytotoxicity against the prostate cancer PC3 cell line and HCT116 cell line was assayed using the MTT method. Apochalasin V showed moderate activity at IC50 values of 30.4 and 39.2 μM, respectively.

  1. Pretrichodermamides D–F from a Marine Algicolous Fungus Penicillium sp. KMM 4672

    PubMed Central

    Yurchenko, Anton N.; Smetanina, Olga F.; Ivanets, Elena V.; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I.; Khudyakova, Yuliya V.; Kirichuk, Natalya N.; Popov, Roman S.; Bokemeyer, Carsten; von Amsberg, Gunhild; Chingizova, Ekaterina A.; Afiyatullov, Shamil Sh.; Dyshlovoy, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    Three new epidithiodiketopiperazines pretrichodermamides D–F (1–3), together with the known N-methylpretrichodermamide B (4) and pretrichodermamide С (5), were isolated from the lipophilic extract of the marine algae-derived fungus Penicillium sp. KMM 4672. The structures of compounds 1–5 were determined based on spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of pretrichodermamide D (1) was established by a combination of modified Mosher′s method, NOESY data, and biogenetic considerations. N-Methylpretrichodermamide B (5) showed strong cytotoxicity against 22Rv1 human prostate cancer cells resistant to androgen receptor targeted therapies. PMID:27355960

  2. A bisamide and four diketopiperazines from a marine-derived Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Chen, Gang; Bai, Jiao; Jing, Yong-Kui; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2011-12-01

    A new bisamide N₁-acetyl-N₇-phenylacetyl cadaverine (1) and a series of diketopiperazines including a new diketopiperazine cyclo(2-hydroxy-Pro-R-Leu) (2), together with a new natural product cyclo(4-hydroxy-S-Pro-S-Trp) (3) and two known leucine-based diketopiperazines cyclo(4-hydroxy-R-Pro-S-Leu) (4) and cyclo (S-Pro-R-Leu) (5), were isolated from ethyl acetate extract of a fermentation broth of a marine-derived Streptomyces sp. Their structures were elucidated by the interpretation of spectroscopic analysis. The antitumor activities of compounds 1-3 against HL-60 cell lines were tested by MTT assay.

  3. Trace element accumulation in Cassiopea sp. (Scyphozoa) from urban marine environments in Australia.

    PubMed

    Templeman, Michelle A; Kingsford, Michael J

    2010-03-01

    Jellyfishes are robust, short-lived animals, tolerant to a wide range of environmental conditions and pollutants. The benthic jellyfish, Cassiopea sp. was collected from five locations along the north and eastern coast of Australia and analysed for trace elements to determine if this species has potential as a marine biomonitor. Both the oral arm and bell tissues readily accumulated aluminium, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc above ambient seawater levels. In contrast, lithium appeared to be actively regulated within the tissues while calcium, magnesium and strontium reflected the ambient environment. The multi-element signatures showed spatial variation, reflecting the geographical separations between locations, with locations closer together showing more similar elemental patterns. The combination of bioaccumulative capacity, life history traits and biophysical aspects indicate that this species has high potential as a biomonitor in coastal marine systems. PMID:19747724

  4. Trace element accumulation in Cassiopea sp. (Scyphozoa) from urban marine environments in Australia.

    PubMed

    Templeman, Michelle A; Kingsford, Michael J

    2010-03-01

    Jellyfishes are robust, short-lived animals, tolerant to a wide range of environmental conditions and pollutants. The benthic jellyfish, Cassiopea sp. was collected from five locations along the north and eastern coast of Australia and analysed for trace elements to determine if this species has potential as a marine biomonitor. Both the oral arm and bell tissues readily accumulated aluminium, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc above ambient seawater levels. In contrast, lithium appeared to be actively regulated within the tissues while calcium, magnesium and strontium reflected the ambient environment. The multi-element signatures showed spatial variation, reflecting the geographical separations between locations, with locations closer together showing more similar elemental patterns. The combination of bioaccumulative capacity, life history traits and biophysical aspects indicate that this species has high potential as a biomonitor in coastal marine systems.

  5. Rhodotorula portillonensis sp. nov., a basidiomycetous yeast isolated from Antarctic shallow-water marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Laich, Federico; Vaca, Inmaculada; Chávez, Renato

    2013-10-01

    During the characterization of the mycobiota associated with shallow-water marine environments from Antarctic sea, a novel pink yeast species was isolated. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rDNA gene and 5.8S-ITS regions revealed that the isolated yeast was closely related to Rhodotorula pallida CBS 320(T) and Rhodotorula benthica CBS 9124(T). On the basis of morphological, biochemical and physiological characterization and phylogenetic analyses, a novel basidiomycetous yeast species, Rhodotorula portillonensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is Pi2(T) ( = CBS 12733(T)  = CECT 13081(T)) which was isolated from shallow-water marine sediment in Fildes Bay, King George Island, Antarctica. PMID:23934251

  6. New mycotoxins from marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSGAF0093.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinya; He, Fei; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Bao, Jie; Qi, Shuhua

    2013-03-01

    Nine mycotoxins including six aspergillic acid group toxins, aluminiumneoaspergillin (1), zirconiumneoaspergillin (2), aspergilliamide (3), ferrineoaspergillin (5), flavacol (6), neoaspergillic acid (7), and three ochratoxins, ochratoxin A n-butyl ester (4), ochratoxin A (8), ochratoxin A methyl ester (9), were isolated from the fermentation broth of marine gorgonian derived fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSGAF0093. Four of them (1-4) were new mycotoxins, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. The bio-toxicity of compounds 1-9 were determined by brine shrimp lethality bioassay with median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values of 2.59-205.67 μM. This was the first report about zirconium complex obtained from nature and ochratoxins isolated from marine environment.

  7. Sustainable Hydrogen Photoproduction by Phosphorus-Deprived Marine Green Microalgae Chlorella sp.

    PubMed Central

    Batyrova, Khorcheska; Gavrisheva, Anastasia; Ivanova, Elena; Liu, Jianguo; Tsygankov, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    Previously it has been shown that green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is capable of prolonged H2 photoproduction when deprived of sulfur. In addition to sulfur deprivation (-S), sustained H2 photoproduction in C. reinhardtii cultures can be achieved under phosphorus-deprived (-P) conditions. Similar to sulfur deprivation, phosphorus deprivation limits O2 evolving activity in algal cells and causes other metabolic changes that are favorable for H2 photoproduction. Although significant advances in H2 photoproduction have recently been realized in fresh water microalgae, relatively few studies have focused on H2 production in marine green microalgae. In the present study phosphorus deprivation was applied for hydrogen production in marine green microalgae Chlorella sp., where sulfur deprivation is impossible due to a high concentration of sulfates in the sea water. Since resources of fresh water on earth are limited, the possibility of hydrogen production in seawater is more attractive. In order to achieve H2 photoproduction in P-deprived marine green microalgae Chlorella sp., the dilution approach was applied. Cultures diluted to about 0.5–1.8 mg Chl·L−1 in the beginning of P-deprivation were able to establish anaerobiosis, after the initial growth period, where cells utilize intracellular phosphorus, with subsequent transition to H2 photoproduction stage. It appears that marine microalgae during P-deprivation passed the same stages of adaptation as fresh water microalgae. The presence of inorganic carbon was essential for starch accumulation and subsequent hydrogen production by microalgae. The H2 accumulation was up to 40 mL H2 gas per 1iter of the culture, which is comparable to that obtained in P-deprived C. reinhardtii culture. PMID:25629229

  8. Sustainable hydrogen photoproduction by phosphorus-deprived marine green microalgae Chlorella sp.

    PubMed

    Batyrova, Khorcheska; Gavrisheva, Anastasia; Ivanova, Elena; Liu, Jianguo; Tsygankov, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    Previously it has been shown that green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is capable of prolonged H2 photoproduction when deprived of sulfur. In addition to sulfur deprivation (-S), sustained H2 photoproduction in C. reinhardtii cultures can be achieved under phosphorus-deprived (-P) conditions. Similar to sulfur deprivation, phosphorus deprivation limits O2 evolving activity in algal cells and causes other metabolic changes that are favorable for H2 photoproduction. Although significant advances in H2 photoproduction have recently been realized in fresh water microalgae, relatively few studies have focused on H2 production in marine green microalgae. In the present study phosphorus deprivation was applied for hydrogen production in marine green microalgae Chlorella sp., where sulfur deprivation is impossible due to a high concentration of sulfates in the sea water. Since resources of fresh water on earth are limited, the possibility of hydrogen production in seawater is more attractive. In order to achieve H2 photoproduction in P-deprived marine green microalgae Chlorella sp., the dilution approach was applied. Cultures diluted to about 0.5-1.8 mg Chl·L-1 in the beginning of P-deprivation were able to establish anaerobiosis, after the initial growth period, where cells utilize intracellular phosphorus, with subsequent transition to H2 photoproduction stage. It appears that marine microalgae during P-deprivation passed the same stages of adaptation as fresh water microalgae. The presence of inorganic carbon was essential for starch accumulation and subsequent hydrogen production by microalgae. The H2 accumulation was up to 40 mL H2 gas per 1iter of the culture, which is comparable to that obtained in P-deprived C. reinhardtii culture. PMID:25629229

  9. Crystal Structure of Allophycocyanin from Marine Cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. A09DM.

    PubMed

    Sonani, Ravi Raghav; Gupta, Gagan Deep; Madamwar, Datta; Kumar, Vinay

    2015-01-01

    Isolated phycobilisome (PBS) sub-assemblies have been widely subjected to X-ray crystallography analysis to obtain greater insights into the structure-function relationship of this light harvesting complex. Allophycocyanin (APC) is the phycobiliprotein always found in the PBS core complex. Phycocyanobilin (PCB) chromophores, covalently bound to conserved Cys residues of α- and β- subunits of APC, are responsible for solar energy absorption from phycocyanin and for transfer to photosynthetic apparatus. In the known APC structures, heterodimers of α- and β- subunits (known as αβ monomers) assemble as trimer or hexamer. We here for the first time report the crystal structure of APC isolated from a marine cyanobacterium (Phormidium sp. A09DM). The crystal structure has been refined against all the observed data to the resolution of 2.51 Å to Rwork (Rfree) of 0.158 (0.229) with good stereochemistry of the atomic model. The Phormidium protein exists as a trimer of αβ monomers in solution and in crystal lattice. The overall tertiary structures of α- and β- subunits, and trimeric quaternary fold of the Phormidium protein resemble the other known APC structures. Also, configuration and conformation of the two covalently bound PCB chromophores in the marine APC are same as those observed in fresh water cyanobacteria and marine red algae. More hydrophobic residues, however, constitute the environment of the chromophore bound to α-subunit of the Phormidium protein, owing mainly to amino acid substitutions in the marine protein. PMID:25923120

  10. Crystal Structure of Allophycocyanin from Marine Cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. A09DM

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Gagan Deep; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-01-01

    Isolated phycobilisome (PBS) sub-assemblies have been widely subjected to X-ray crystallography analysis to obtain greater insights into the structure-function relationship of this light harvesting complex. Allophycocyanin (APC) is the phycobiliprotein always found in the PBS core complex. Phycocyanobilin (PCB) chromophores, covalently bound to conserved Cys residues of α- and β- subunits of APC, are responsible for solar energy absorption from phycocyanin and for transfer to photosynthetic apparatus. In the known APC structures, heterodimers of α- and β- subunits (known as αβ monomers) assemble as trimer or hexamer. We here for the first time report the crystal structure of APC isolated from a marine cyanobacterium (Phormidium sp. A09DM). The crystal structure has been refined against all the observed data to the resolution of 2.51 Å to Rwork (Rfree) of 0.158 (0.229) with good stereochemistry of the atomic model. The Phormidium protein exists as a trimer of αβ monomers in solution and in crystal lattice. The overall tertiary structures of α- and β- subunits, and trimeric quaternary fold of the Phormidium protein resemble the other known APC structures. Also, configuration and conformation of the two covalently bound PCB chromophores in the marine APC are same as those observed in fresh water cyanobacteria and marine red algae. More hydrophobic residues, however, constitute the environment of the chromophore bound to α-subunit of the Phormidium protein, owing mainly to amino acid substitutions in the marine protein. PMID:25923120

  11. Crystal Structure of Allophycocyanin from Marine Cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. A09DM.

    PubMed

    Sonani, Ravi Raghav; Gupta, Gagan Deep; Madamwar, Datta; Kumar, Vinay

    2015-01-01

    Isolated phycobilisome (PBS) sub-assemblies have been widely subjected to X-ray crystallography analysis to obtain greater insights into the structure-function relationship of this light harvesting complex. Allophycocyanin (APC) is the phycobiliprotein always found in the PBS core complex. Phycocyanobilin (PCB) chromophores, covalently bound to conserved Cys residues of α- and β- subunits of APC, are responsible for solar energy absorption from phycocyanin and for transfer to photosynthetic apparatus. In the known APC structures, heterodimers of α- and β- subunits (known as αβ monomers) assemble as trimer or hexamer. We here for the first time report the crystal structure of APC isolated from a marine cyanobacterium (Phormidium sp. A09DM). The crystal structure has been refined against all the observed data to the resolution of 2.51 Å to Rwork (Rfree) of 0.158 (0.229) with good stereochemistry of the atomic model. The Phormidium protein exists as a trimer of αβ monomers in solution and in crystal lattice. The overall tertiary structures of α- and β- subunits, and trimeric quaternary fold of the Phormidium protein resemble the other known APC structures. Also, configuration and conformation of the two covalently bound PCB chromophores in the marine APC are same as those observed in fresh water cyanobacteria and marine red algae. More hydrophobic residues, however, constitute the environment of the chromophore bound to α-subunit of the Phormidium protein, owing mainly to amino acid substitutions in the marine protein.

  12. Biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanaotes by a novel facultatively anaerobic Vibrio sp. under marine conditions.

    PubMed

    Numata, Keiji; Doi, Yoshiharu

    2012-06-01

    Marine bacteria have recently attracted attention as potentially useful candidates for the production of practical materials from marine ecosystems, including the oceanic carbon dioxide cycle. The advantages of using marine bacteria for the biosynthesis of poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA), one of the eco-friendly bioplastics, include avoiding contamination with bacteria that lack salt-water resistance, ability to use filtered seawater as a culture medium, and the potential for extracellular production of PHA, all of which would contribute to large-scale industrial production of PHA. A novel marine bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain KN01, was isolated and characterized in PHA productivity using various carbon sources under aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic marine conditions. The PHA contents of all the samples under the aerobic-anaerobic condition, especially when using soybean oil as the sole carbon source, were enhanced by limiting the amount of dissolved oxygen. The PHA accumulated using soybean oil as a sole carbon source under the aerobic-anaerobic condition contained 14% 3-hydroxypropionate (3HP) and 3% 5-hydroxyvalerate (5HV) units in addition to (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) units and had a molecular weight of 42 × 10³ g/mol. The present result indicates that the activity of the beta-oxidation pathway under the aerobic-anaerobic condition is reduced due to a reduction in the amount of dissolved oxygen. These findings have potential for use in controlling the biosynthesis of long main-chain PHA by regulating the activity of the beta-oxidation pathway, which also could be regulated by varying the dissolved oxygen concentration. PMID:22068389

  13. EPR study of radicals produced by gamma-irradiation in marine mollusc (Venus sp.) fossils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koseoglu, R.; Koksal, F.; Ciftci, E.

    2004-08-01

    In this study, gamma-irradiated marine mollusc (Venus sp.) fossils were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at ambient temperature. Powder X-ray diffraction technique indicates that the Venus sp. fossils were made mainly of CaCO3. Before gamma-irradiation, the EPR lines of the powder of fossil samples showed the existence of Mn2+ (I = 5/2, 100% natural abundance) ions with g(av) = 2.0055 and A(av) = 9.4 mT gamma-Irradiation-induced additional defects in Venus sp. fossil were attributed to axial CO3- (gperpendicular to = 2.0171, g// = 2.0048), orthorhombic CO2- (g(x) = 2.0030, g(z) = 2.0018, g(y) = 1.9973, g(av) = 2.0007), freely rotating CO2- (g(iso) = 2.0007), isotropic SO2- (g = 2.0057), axial SO3- (g perpendicular to = 2.0036, g// = 2.0024) and isotropic SO3- (g = 2.0032) free radicals. The g-values of these free radicals were compared with the literature data belonging to similar defects.

  14. Inhibition of marine Vibrio sp. by pyoverdine from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiwei; Liang, Weikang; Li, Chenghua

    2016-01-25

    Siderophores are low-molecular-weight chemicals that are secreted by many microorganisms to chelate iron from the external environment in order to facilitate their growth and diverse metabolisms. In this study, a fluorescent siderophore, pyoverdine, secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1 was purified by affinity chromatography using Cu-sepharose. Pyoverdine was determined to have a molecular mass of 1333.54 Da, as determined by MALDI-TOF/TOF, and belong to type I pyoverdine, as determined by PCR analysis of its corresponding outer membrane ferri-pyoverdine receptor. Pyoverdine showed different degrees of inhibitory effects on the growth of marine Vibrio sp. strains. It was also shown that the biofilm developed by Vibrio parahaemolyticus WzW1 and Wz2121 and Vibrio cyclitrophicus HS12 was significantly reduced, alone with the repressed growth in the presence of pyoverdine. Siderophore production was determined in the strains of Vibrio sp. in response to the pyoverdine-induced iron-limited conditions. The siderophore production of most Vibrio sp. was up-regulated, with the exception of the bacteria that produced little siderophore. Furthermore, Apostichopus japonicus cultured in pyoverdine pretreated seawater showed a relative percent of survival of 89% when they were challenged by Vibrio splendidus. Our results demonstrated that pyoverdine may be a promising agent that could be potentially applied to treat vibriosis. PMID:26476308

  15. Two new monoterpenoid α-pyrones from a fungus Nectria sp. HLS206 associated with the marine sponge Gelliodes carnosa.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ting; Zhen, Xin; Li, Bing-Juan; Yang, Jin-Ling; Zhu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Two new monoterpenoid α-pyrones, named nectriapyrones C and D (1 and 2), along with a known α-pyrone (nectriapyrone, 3) were isolated from a marine-derived fungus Nectria sp. HLS206 associated with the marine sponge Gelliodes carnosa collected from the South China Sea. Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D NMR, 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS methods.

  16. Nocardiopsis oceani sp. nov. and Nocardiopsis nanhaiensis sp. nov., actinomycetes isolated from marine sediment of the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hua-Qi; Zhang, Dao-Feng; Li, Li; Jiang, Zhao; Cheng, Juan; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Wang, Hong-Fei; Hu, Jiang-Chun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-10-01

    Two actinomycete strains, designated 10A08AT and 10A08BT, were isolated from marine sediment samples of the South China Sea and their taxonomic positions were determined by a polyphasic approach. The two Gram-stain-positive, aerobic strains produced branched substrate mycelium and aerial hyphae, and no diffusible pigment was produced in the media tested. At maturity, spore chains were formed on aerial hyphae and all mycelium fragmented with age. Whole-cell hydrolysates of both strains contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and no diagnostic sugars. Their predominant menaquinones (>10 %) were MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6) and MK-10(H6) for strain 10A08AT and MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6), MK-10(H4) and MK-10(H6) for strain 10A08BT. The polar lipids detected from the two strains were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and unknown phosphoglycolipids and phospholipids. The major fatty acids (>10 %) of both strains were iso-C16 : 0 and summed feature 4 (iso-C17 : 1 I and/or anteiso-C17 : 1 B). The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains 10A08AT and 10A08BT were 70.9 and 71.6 mol%, respectively. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, the two strains were shown to be most closely related to species of the genus Nocardiopsis. DNA–DNA hybridization relatedness values of < 70 % between these two isolates and their closest neighbour, Nocardiopsis terrae YIM 90022T, and between the two strains supported the conclusion that they represent two novel species. Based on phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic and genotypic data, it is concluded that the two isolates belong to the genus Nocardiopsis, and the names Nocardiopsis oceani sp. nov. (type strain 10A08AT = DSM 45931T = BCRC 16951T) and Nocardiopsis nanhaiensis sp. nov. (type strain 10A08BT = CGMCC 47227T = BCRC 16952T) are proposed.

  17. Elevated lytic phage production as a consequence of particle colonization by a marine Flavobacterium (Cellulophaga sp.).

    PubMed

    Riemann, Lasse; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2008-10-01

    Bacteria growing on marine particles generally have higher densities and cell-specific activities than free-living bacteria. Since rapidity of phage adsorption is dependent on host density, while infection productivity is a function of host physiological status, we hypothesized that marine particles are sites of elevated phage production. In the present study, organic-matter-rich agarose beads and a marine phage-host pair (Cellulophaga sp., PhiS(M)) were used as a model system to examine whether bacterial colonization of particles increases phage production. While no production of phages was observed in plain seawater, the presence of beads enhanced attachment and growth of bacteria, as well as phage production. This was observed because of extensive lysis of bacteria in the presence of beads and a subsequent increase in phage abundance both on beads and in the surrounding water. After 12 h, extensive phage lysis reduced the density of attached bacteria; however, after 32 h, bacterial abundance increased again. Reexposure to phages and analyses of bacterial isolates suggested that this regrowth on particles was by phage-resistant clones. The present demonstration of elevated lytic phage production associated with model particles illustrates not only that a marine phage has the ability to successfully infect and lyse surface-attached bacteria but also that acquisition of resistance may affect temporal phage-host dynamics on particles. These findings from a model system may have relevance to the distribution of phage production in environments rich in particulate matter (e.g., in coastal areas or during phytoplankton blooms) where a significant part of phage production may be directly linked to these nutrient-rich "hot spots."

  18. Hysterothylacium pseudotumbili n.sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from the marine fishes of Visakhapatnam, Bay of Bengal.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, I R; Rao, K H; Shyamasundari, K

    1991-01-01

    Hysterothylacium pseudotumbili n.sp. from the stomach and body cavity of marine fishes. Chrorinemus tol Couvier. Saurida undosquamis (Richardson), Lutianus russelli (Bleeker), Rastrilliger kanagurta (Cuvier) and Saurida pseudotumbili Dutt and Vidyasagar collected from Visakhapatnam (Bay of Bengal) is described and figured. A detailed examination has allowed us to erect a new species of Hysterothylacium to accommodate the worm. It shows remarkable differences from other known species of Hysterothylacium in respect of body measurements, the papillae on the lips arrangement, location of nerve ring and excretory pore, long intestinal caecum, position of vulva, number and arrangement of caudal papillae and size of the spicules. The new species is designated as Hysterothylacium pseudotumbili. Saurida pseudotumbili is the new host record. This is the first report of the genus in this host. Visakhapatnam coast is the new locality record. PMID:1844137

  19. Topsensterols A–C, Cytotoxic Polyhydroxylated Sterol Derivatives from a Marine Sponge Topsentia sp.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min; Wu, Xu-Dong; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Three new polyhydroxylated sterol derivatives topsensterols A–C (1–3) have been isolated from a marine sponge Topsentia sp. collected from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by detailed analysis of the spectroscopic data, especially the NOESY spectra. Topsensterols A–C (l–3) possess novel 2β,3α,4β,6α-tetrahydroxy-14α-methyl Δ9(11) steroidal nuclei with unusual side chains. Compound 2 exhibited cytotoxicity against human gastric carcinoma cell line SGC-7901 with an IC50 value of 8.0 μM. Compound 3 displayed cytotoxicity against human erythroleukemia cell line K562 with an IC50 value of 6.0 μM. PMID:27490555

  20. Stable and biocompatible cystine knot peptides from the marine sponge Asteropus sp.

    PubMed

    Su, Mingzhi; Li, Huayue; Wang, Haibo; Kim, Eun La; Kim, Hyung Sik; Kim, Eun-Hee; Lee, Jaewon; Jung, Jee H

    2016-07-01

    Two new cystine knot peptides, asteropsins F (ASPF) and G (ASPG), were isolated from the marine sponge Asteropus sp. ASPF and ASPG are composed of 33 and 32 amino acids, respectively, and contain six cysteines which are involved in three disulfide bonds. They shared the characteristic features of the asteropsin family, such as, N-terminal pyroglutamate modification, incorporation of cis prolines, and the unique anionic profile, which distinguish them from other knottin families. Tertiary structures of the peptides were determined by high resolution NMR. ASPF and ASPG were found to be remarkably resistant not only to digestive enzymes (chymotrypsin, pepsin, elastase, and trypsin) but also to thermal degradation. In addition, these peptides were pharmacologically inert; non-hemolytic to human and fish red blood cells, non-stimulatory to murine macrophage cells, and nontoxic in vitro or in vivo. These observations support their stability and biocompatibility as suitable carrier scaffolds for the design of oral peptide drug. PMID:27189887

  1. Thalassomonas viridans gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel marine gamma-proteobacterium.

    PubMed

    Macián, M C; Ludwig, W; Schleifer, K H; Garay, E; Pujalte, M J

    2001-07-01

    A new genus and species are proposed for two halophilic, strictly aerobic, chemo-organotrophic, marine bacterial strains. These bacteria are gram-negative, motile rods isolated from oysters cultivated off the Mediterranean coast at Valencia (Spain). They produce green/blue-green diffusible pigment. The G+C content of the DNA of the proposed type strain (XOM25T) is 48.4 mol %. A 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of the two strains has shown that the new isolates represent a branch within the gamma-Proteobacteria, close to the genus Colwellia. The type species of the new genus is Thalassomonas viridans gen. nov., sp. nov., with the type strain XOM25T (= CECT 5083T = DSM 13754T).

  2. Topsensterols A-C, Cytotoxic Polyhydroxylated Sterol Derivatives from a Marine Sponge Topsentia sp.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Wu, Xu-Dong; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Three new polyhydroxylated sterol derivatives topsensterols A-C (1-3) have been isolated from a marine sponge Topsentia sp. collected from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by detailed analysis of the spectroscopic data, especially the NOESY spectra. Topsensterols A-C (l-3) possess novel 2β,3α,4β,6α-tetrahydroxy-14α-methyl Δ(9(11)) steroidal nuclei with unusual side chains. Compound 2 exhibited cytotoxicity against human gastric carcinoma cell line SGC-7901 with an IC50 value of 8.0 μM. Compound 3 displayed cytotoxicity against human erythroleukemia cell line K562 with an IC50 value of 6.0 μM. PMID:27490555

  3. Hormaomycins B and C: New Antibiotic Cyclic Depsipeptides from a Marine Mudflat-Derived Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Munhyung; Chung, Beomkoo; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon; Oh, Dong-Chan

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in microbial culture conditions may trigger the production of diverse bioactive secondary metabolites. While applying various culture conditions and monitoring secondary metabolite profiles using LC/MS, hormaomycins B and C (1 and 2) were discovered from a marine mudflat-derived actinomycete, Streptomyces sp., collected in Mohang, Korea. The planar structures of the hormaomycins, which bear structurally-unique units, such as 4-(Z)-propenylproline, 3-(2-nitrocyclopropyl)alanine, 5-chloro-1-hydroxypyrrol-2-carboxylic acid and β-methylphenylalanine, were established as the first natural analogues belonging to the hormaomycin peptide class. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were deduced by comparing their CD spectra with that of hormaomycin. These hormaomycins exhibited significant inhibitory effects against various pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26287218

  4. Topsensterols A-C, Cytotoxic Polyhydroxylated Sterol Derivatives from a Marine Sponge Topsentia sp.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Wu, Xu-Dong; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Three new polyhydroxylated sterol derivatives topsensterols A-C (1-3) have been isolated from a marine sponge Topsentia sp. collected from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by detailed analysis of the spectroscopic data, especially the NOESY spectra. Topsensterols A-C (l-3) possess novel 2β,3α,4β,6α-tetrahydroxy-14α-methyl Δ(9(11)) steroidal nuclei with unusual side chains. Compound 2 exhibited cytotoxicity against human gastric carcinoma cell line SGC-7901 with an IC50 value of 8.0 μM. Compound 3 displayed cytotoxicity against human erythroleukemia cell line K562 with an IC50 value of 6.0 μM.

  5. A new diketopiperazine from South China Sea marine sponge Callyspongia sp.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinning; Peng, Yan; Gao, Chenghai; Huang, Riming

    2014-01-01

    Further chemical investigation on the marine sponge Callyspongia sp. collected from South China Sea led to the isolation of a new diketopiperazine, named callysponine A (1), as well as four known diketopiperazines, namely cyclo-(Gly-Pro) (2), cyclo-(Thr-Pro) (3), cyclo-(Ile-Pro) (4) and cyclo-(Pro-Pro) (5). The new structure was determined on the basis of NMR and MS analysis, and the absolute stereochemistry was defined by analysis of the coupling constants and optical rotation. The structures of the known compounds were identified by comparing their spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Compounds 1-5 did not inhibit the growth of HepG2 (hepatoma carcinoma cell), A549 (lung carcinoma cell) and HeLa (cervical cancer cell) cell lines.

  6. Salaramides A and B; two alpha-oxoamides isolated from the marine sponge Hippospongia sp. (Porifera, Dictyoceratida).

    PubMed

    Bensemhoun, Julia; Rudi, Amira; Kashman, Yoel; Gaydou, Emile M; Vacelet, Jean; Aknin, Maurice

    2010-02-01

    Two novel alpha-oxoamides, salaramide A (1) and its homologue salaramide B (2), were isolated from the Madagascar marine sponge, Hippospongia sp., collected in Salary Bay, north of Tulear. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by interpretation of mass spectra, 1D and 2D NMR spectra, and confirmed by chemical transformation.

  7. Pentacyclic ingamine-type alkaloids, a new antiplasmodial pharmacophore from the marine sponge petrosid Ng5 Sp5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new pentacyclic ingamine- type alkaloids, namely 22(S)-hydroxyingamine A (2) and dihydroingenamine D (3), together with the known ingamine A (1) have been isolated from marine sponge Petrosid Ng5 Sp5 (Family: Petrosiidae) obtained from the open repository of National Cancer Institute, USA. The s...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Arenibacter sp. Strain C-21, an Iodine-Accumulating Bacterium Isolated from Surface Marine Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kohei; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Yamamura, Shigeki; Tomita, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Arenibacter sp. strain C-21, isolated from surface marine sediment of Japan, accumulates iodine in the presence of glucose and iodide (I-). We report here the draft genome sequence of this strain to provide insight into the molecular mechanism underlying its iodine-accumulating ability. PMID:27738047

  9. Cryptosporidium sp. infections in green turtles, Chelonia mydas, as a potential source of marine waterborne oocysts in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, T.K.; Balazs, G.H.; Work, T.M.; Aguirre, A.A.; Ellis, D.M.; Murakawa, S.K.K.; Morris, R.

    1997-01-01

    For the first time, Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were identified in fecal and intestinal samples from free-ranging marine turtles, Chelonia mydas, from the Hawaiian Islands. The oocysts produced positive reactions with commercial test kits recommended for the detection of human-infectious waterborne oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum.

  10. Cryptosporidium sp. Infections in Green Turtles, Chelonia mydas, as a Potential Source of Marine Waterborne Oocysts in the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Graczyk, T. K.; Balazs, G. H.; Work, T.; Aguirre, A. A.; Ellis, D. M.; Murakawa, S.; Morris, R.

    1997-01-01

    For the first time, Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were identified in fecal and intestinal samples from free-ranging marine turtles, Chelonia mydas, from the Hawaiian Islands. The oocysts produced positive reactions with commercial test kits recommended for the detection of human-infectious waterborne oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum. PMID:16535658

  11. A Novel Nitrate/Nitrite Permease in the Marine Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 7002

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Toshio; Inoue-Sakamoto, Kaori; Bryant, Donald A.

    1999-01-01

    The nrtP and narB genes, encoding nitrate/nitrite permease and nitrate reductase, respectively, were isolated from the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 and characterized. NrtP is a member of the major facilitator superfamily and is unrelated to the ATP-binding cassette-type nitrate transporters that previously have been described for freshwater strains of cyanobacteria. However, NrtP is similar to the NRT2-type nitrate transporters found in diverse organisms. An nrtP mutant strain consumes nitrate at a 4.5-fold-lower rate than the wild type, and this mutant grew exponentially on a medium containing 12 mM nitrate at a rate approximately 2-fold lower than that of the wild type. The nrtP mutant cells could not consume nitrite as rapidly as the wild type at pH 10, suggesting that NrtP also functions in nitrite uptake. A narB mutant was unable to grow on a medium containing nitrate as a nitrogen source, although this mutant could grow on media containing urea or nitrite with rates similar to those of the wild type. Exogenously added nitrite enhanced the in vivo activity of nitrite reductase in the narB mutant; this suggests that nitrite acts as a positive effector of nitrite reductase. Transcripts of the nrtP and narB genes were detected in cells grown on nitrate but were not detected in cells grown on urea or ammonia. Transcription of the nrtP and narB genes is probably controlled by the NtcA transcription factor for global nitrogen control. The discovery of a nitrate/nitrite permease in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 suggests that significant differences in nutrient transporters may occur in marine and freshwater cyanobacteria. PMID:10572142

  12. Biodegradation of PAHs by Burkholderia sp. VITRSB1 Isolated from Marine Sediments.

    PubMed

    Revathy, T; Jayasri, M A; Suthindhiran, K

    2015-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution to the environment is a major threat to the living organisms, and hence the degradation of these PAHs is necessary. Studies on PAHs degrading bacteria have focussed on terrestrial microbes and the potential of marine derived microbes is undermined. Herein we report the isolation and characterization of PAHs degrading Burkholderia sp. from lagoon sediments collected at the Southern coast of India. The strain was Gram negative, rod-shaped, motile, and ∼2-5 μm in length. Based on the phylogenetic data the strain was identified as Burkholderia and designated as VITRSB1. Initial PAHs degradation ability of the strain was assessed using basal salt medium supplemented with diesel, kerosene, toluene, aniline, naphthalene, and phenol. The strain was found to be effectively degrading kerosene, diesel, toluene, and aniline even at higher concentration (1%). However, naphthalene and aniline were degraded only at lower concentration (0.1%) and phenol, camphor, and DAP inhibited the growth of the strain. Furthermore, the degraded end products of the PAHs were determined using FTIR. Notably, none of the end products were found to be toxic to the biosphere. Our results indicate that the isolated Burkholderia sp. could be a prospective candidate for the effective degradation of selective PAHs. PMID:26605106

  13. Screening and production of ligninolytic enzyme by a marine-derived fungal Pestalotiopsis sp. J63.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Ying; Xue, Dong-Sheng; Feng, Xiao-Yu; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2011-12-01

    Marine-derived fungi are prone to produce structurally unique secondary metabolites, a considerable number of which display the promising biological properties and/or industrial applications. Among those, ligninolytic enzymes have attracted great interest in recent years. In this work, about 20 strains were isolated from sea mud samples collected in the East China Sea and then screened for their capacity to produce lignin-degrading enzymes. The results showed that a strain, named J63, had a great potential to secrete a considerable amount of laccase. Using molecular method, it was identified as an endophytic fungus, Pestalotiopsis sp. which was rarely reported as ligninolytic enzyme producer in the literature. The production of laccase by Pestalotiopsis sp. J63 was investigated under submerged fermentation (SF) and solid state fermentation (SSF) with various lignocellulosic by-products as substrates. The SSF of rice straw powder accumulated the highest level of laccase activity (10,700 IU/g substrate), whereas the SF of untreated sugarcane bagasse provided the maximum amount of laccase activity (2,000 IU/ml). The value was far higher than those reported by other reports. In addition, it produced 0.11 U/ml cellulase when alkaline-pretreated sugarcane bagasse was used as growth substrate under SF. Meanwhile, the growth of fungi and laccase production under different salinity conditions were also studied. It appeared to be a moderately halo-tolerant organism. PMID:21947763

  14. Anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) substance from the marine bacterium Pseudomonas sp. UJ-6.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Sung; Eom, Sung-Hwan; Jeong, Seong-Yun; Shin, Hee Jae; Je, Jae-Young; Lee, Eun-Woo; Chung, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Young-Mog; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Myung-Suk

    2013-03-01

    A multivalent approach to discover a novel antibiotic substance against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a marine bacterium, UJ-6, exhibiting an antibacterial activity against MRSA was isolated from seawater. The isolated strain was identified to be Pseudomonas sp. by the morphology, biochemical, and genetical analyses. The ethyl acetate extract of Pseudomonas sp. UJ-6 culture showed significant ant-MRSA activity. Bioassay-guided isolation of the extract using a growth inhibitory assay led to the isolation and identification of an active compound exhibiting anti-MRSA activity. Based on the analyses of the physicochemical and spectroscopic data including nuclear magnetic resonance and mass, the compound was identified to be 1-acetyl-beta-carboline. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the compound was determined to be in a range of 32-128 μg/ml against MRSA strains. The MIC values against MRSA were superior or equal to those of other natural compounds such as catechins, suggesting that 1-acetyl-beta-carboline would be a good candidate in applications of the treatment of MRSA infection.

  15. Biodegradation of PAHs by Burkholderia sp. VITRSB1 Isolated from Marine Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Revathy, T.; Jayasri, M. A.; Suthindhiran, K.

    2015-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution to the environment is a major threat to the living organisms, and hence the degradation of these PAHs is necessary. Studies on PAHs degrading bacteria have focussed on terrestrial microbes and the potential of marine derived microbes is undermined. Herein we report the isolation and characterization of PAHs degrading Burkholderia sp. from lagoon sediments collected at the Southern coast of India. The strain was Gram negative, rod-shaped, motile, and ∼2–5 μm in length. Based on the phylogenetic data the strain was identified as Burkholderia and designated as VITRSB1. Initial PAHs degradation ability of the strain was assessed using basal salt medium supplemented with diesel, kerosene, toluene, aniline, naphthalene, and phenol. The strain was found to be effectively degrading kerosene, diesel, toluene, and aniline even at higher concentration (1%). However, naphthalene and aniline were degraded only at lower concentration (0.1%) and phenol, camphor, and DAP inhibited the growth of the strain. Furthermore, the degraded end products of the PAHs were determined using FTIR. Notably, none of the end products were found to be toxic to the biosphere. Our results indicate that the isolated Burkholderia sp. could be a prospective candidate for the effective degradation of selective PAHs. PMID:26605106

  16. Metabolomic Profiling and Genomic Study of a Marine Sponge-Associated Streptomyces sp

    PubMed Central

    Viegelmann, Christina; Margassery, Lekha Menon; Kennedy, Jonathan; Zhang, Tong; O’Brien, Ciarán; O’Gara, Fergal; Morrissey, John P.; Dobson, Alan D. W.; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomics and genomics are two complementary platforms for analyzing an organism as they provide information on the phenotype and genotype, respectively. These two techniques were applied in the dereplication and identification of bioactive compounds from a Streptomyces sp. (SM8) isolated from the sponge Haliclona simulans from Irish waters. Streptomyces strain SM8 extracts showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. NMR analysis of the active fractions proved that hydroxylated saturated fatty acids were the major components present in the antibacterial fractions. Antimycin compounds were initially putatively identified in the antifungal fractions using LC-Orbitrap. Their presence was later confirmed by comparison to a standard. Genomic analysis of Streptomyces sp. SM8 revealed the presence of multiple secondary metabolism gene clusters, including a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of the antifungal antimycin family of compounds. The antimycin gene cluster of Streptomyces sp. SM8 was inactivated by disruption of the antimycin biosynthesis gene antC. Extracts from this mutant strain showed loss of antimycin production and significantly less antifungal activity than the wild-type strain. Three butenolides, 4,10-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (1), 4,11-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (2), and 4-hydroxy-10-methyl-11-oxo-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (3) that had previously been reported from marine Streptomyces species were also isolated from SM8. Comparison of the extracts of Streptomyces strain SM8 and its host sponge, H. simulans, using LC-Orbitrap revealed the presence of metabolites common to both extracts, providing direct evidence linking sponge metabolites to a specific microbial symbiont. PMID:24893324

  17. Genomics of the Proteorhodopsin-Containing Marine Flavobacterium Dokdonia sp. Strain MED134▿†

    PubMed Central

    González, José M.; Pinhassi, Jarone; Fernández-Gómez, Beatriz; Coll-Lladó, Montserrat; González-Velázquez, Mónica; Puigbò, Pere; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Gómez-Consarnau, Laura; Fernàndez-Guerra, Antoni; Goesmann, Alexander; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Proteorhodopsin phototrophy is expected to have considerable impact on the ecology and biogeochemical roles of marine bacteria. However, the genetic features contributing to the success of proteorhodopsin-containing bacteria remain largely unknown. We investigated the genome of Dokdonia sp. strain MED134 (Bacteroidetes) for features potentially explaining its ability to grow better in light than darkness. MED134 has a relatively high number of peptidases, suggesting that amino acids are the main carbon and nitrogen sources. In addition, MED134 shares with other environmental genomes a reduction in gene copies at the expense of important ones, like membrane transporters, which might be compensated by the presence of the proteorhodopsin gene. The genome analyses suggest Dokdonia sp. MED134 is able to respond to light at least partly due to the presence of a strong flavobacterial consensus promoter sequence for the proteorhodopsin gene. Moreover, Dokdonia sp. MED134 has a complete set of anaplerotic enzymes likely to play a role in the adaptation of the carbon anabolism to the different sources of energy it can use, including light or various organic matter compounds. In addition to promoting growth, proteorhodopsin phototrophy could provide energy for the degradation of complex or recalcitrant organic matter, survival during periods of low nutrients, or uptake of amino acids and peptides at low concentrations. Our analysis suggests that the ability to harness light potentially makes MED134 less dependent on the amount and quality of organic matter or other nutrients. The genomic features reported here may well be among the keys to a successful photoheterotrophic lifestyle. PMID:22003006

  18. Metabolomic profiling and genomic study of a marine sponge-associated Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Viegelmann, Christina; Margassery, Lekha Menon; Kennedy, Jonathan; Zhang, Tong; O'Brien, Ciarán; O'Gara, Fergal; Morrissey, John P; Dobson, Alan D W; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie

    2014-06-01

    Metabolomics and genomics are two complementary platforms for analyzing an organism as they provide information on the phenotype and genotype, respectively. These two techniques were applied in the dereplication and identification of bioactive compounds from a Streptomyces sp. (SM8) isolated from the sponge Haliclona simulans from Irish waters. Streptomyces strain SM8 extracts showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. NMR analysis of the active fractions proved that hydroxylated saturated fatty acids were the major components present in the antibacterial fractions. Antimycin compounds were initially putatively identified in the antifungal fractions using LC-Orbitrap. Their presence was later confirmed by comparison to a standard. Genomic analysis of Streptomyces sp. SM8 revealed the presence of multiple secondary metabolism gene clusters, including a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of the antifungal antimycin family of compounds. The antimycin gene cluster of Streptomyces sp. SM8 was inactivated by disruption of the antimycin biosynthesis gene antC. Extracts from this mutant strain showed loss of antimycin production and significantly less antifungal activity than the wild-type strain. Three butenolides, 4,10-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (1), 4,11-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (2), and 4-hydroxy-10-methyl-11-oxo-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (3) that had previously been reported from marine Streptomyces species were also isolated from SM8. Comparison of the extracts of Streptomyces strain SM8 and its host sponge, H. simulans, using LC-Orbitrap revealed the presence of metabolites common to both extracts, providing direct evidence linking sponge metabolites to a specific microbial symbiont. PMID:24893324

  19. Bioremoval of the synthetic dye malachite green by marine Trichoderma sp.

    PubMed

    Saravanakumar, Kandasamy; Kathiresan, Kandasamy

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a marine strain of Trichoderma sp was used for degradation of a synthetic dye, malachite green. Individual and interaction effects of the physical and chemical factors that influenced the percentage of dye degradation were tested by response surface methodology. For optimization, enzyme production and dye degradation were assessed under different temperatures (5-40°C), pH values (3-11), yeast extract (5-9 g L(-1)) and incubation period (0-15 days). The optimum conditions found for dye degradation, were 30°C, pH 5.8, 5.81 mg L(-1) yeast extract for an incubation period of 10 days. Whereas for laccase production they were 29°C, pH 5.3, 7.7 mg L(-1) yeast extract for an incubation period of 12 days. It was confirmed that laccase production required the higher nitrogen source. Degradation of dye was confirmed by using analytical techniques such as FTIR, UV-vis spectral and scanning electron microscope analysis. Furthermore, toxicity effect of degraded and undegraded dye solutions was tested with Artemia salina. Hundred percent mortality was observed in undegraded dye solution as against only 2-5% in degraded dye solution. This work proved the potential of marine strain of Trichoderma Hypocrea lixii on dye degradation.

  20. Leisingera methylohalidivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine methylotroph that grows on methyl bromide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaefer, J.K.; Goodwin, K.D.; McDonald, I.R.; Murrell, J.C.; Oremland, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    A marine methylotroph, designated strain MB2T, was isolated for its ability to grow on methyl bromide as a sole carbon and energy source. Methyl chloride and methyl iodide also supported growth, as did methionine and glycine betaine. A limited amount of growth was observed with dimethyl sulfide. Growth was also noted with unidentified components of the complex media marine broth 2216, yeast extract and Casamino acids. No growth was observed on methylated amines, methanol, formate, acetate, glucose or a variety of other substrates. Growth on methyl bromide and methyl iodide resulted in their oxidation to CO2 with stoichiometric release of bromide and iodide, respectively. Strain MB2T exhibited growth optima at NaCl and Mg2+ concentrations similar to that of seawater. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence placed this strain in the ??-Proteobacteria in proximity to the genera Ruegeria and Roseobacter. It is proposed that strain MB2T (= ATCC BAA-92T = DSM 14336T) be designated Leisingera methylohalidivorans gen. nov., sp. nov.

  1. Bioremoval of the synthetic dye malachite green by marine Trichoderma sp.

    PubMed

    Saravanakumar, Kandasamy; Kathiresan, Kandasamy

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a marine strain of Trichoderma sp was used for degradation of a synthetic dye, malachite green. Individual and interaction effects of the physical and chemical factors that influenced the percentage of dye degradation were tested by response surface methodology. For optimization, enzyme production and dye degradation were assessed under different temperatures (5-40°C), pH values (3-11), yeast extract (5-9 g L(-1)) and incubation period (0-15 days). The optimum conditions found for dye degradation, were 30°C, pH 5.8, 5.81 mg L(-1) yeast extract for an incubation period of 10 days. Whereas for laccase production they were 29°C, pH 5.3, 7.7 mg L(-1) yeast extract for an incubation period of 12 days. It was confirmed that laccase production required the higher nitrogen source. Degradation of dye was confirmed by using analytical techniques such as FTIR, UV-vis spectral and scanning electron microscope analysis. Furthermore, toxicity effect of degraded and undegraded dye solutions was tested with Artemia salina. Hundred percent mortality was observed in undegraded dye solution as against only 2-5% in degraded dye solution. This work proved the potential of marine strain of Trichoderma Hypocrea lixii on dye degradation. PMID:25392801

  2. Uptake of iodide in the marine haptophyte Isochrysis sp. (T.ISO) driven by iodide oxidation.

    PubMed

    van Bergeijk, Stef A; Hernández Javier, Laura; Heyland, Andreas; Manchado, Manuel; Pedro Cañavate, José

    2013-08-01

    Uptake of iodide was studied in the marine microalga Isochrysis sp. (isol. Haines, T.ISO) during short-term incubations with radioactive iodide ((125) I(-) ). Typical inhibitors of the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) did not inhibit iodide uptake, suggesting that iodide is not taken up through this transport protein, as is the case in most vertebrate animals. Oxidation of iodide was found to be an essential step for its uptake by T.ISO and it seemed likely that hypoiodous acid (HOI) was the form of iodine taken up. Uptake of iodide was inhibited by the addition of thiourea and of other reducing agents, like L-ascorbic acid, L-glutathione and L-cysteine and increased after the addition of oxidized forms of the transition metals Fe and Mn. The simultaneous addition of both hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and a known iodide-oxidizing myeloperoxidase (MPO) significantly increased iodine uptake, but the addition of H2 O2 or MPO separately, had no effect on uptake. This confirms the observation that iodide is oxidized prior to uptake, but it puts into doubt the involvement of H2 O2 excretion and membrane-bound or extracellular haloperoxidase activity of T.ISO. The increase of iodide uptake by T.ISO upon Fe(III) addition suggests the nonenzymatic oxidation of iodide by Fe(III) in a redox reaction and subsequent influx of HOI. This is the first report on the mechanism of iodide uptake in a marine microalga.

  3. Observations on a cucullanid nematode of marine fishes from Taiwan Strait, Dichelyne (Cucullanellus) jialaris n. sp.

    PubMed

    Luo, Damin; Guo, Shulin; Fang, Wenzhen; Huang, Heqin

    2004-06-01

    During a helminthological examination of marine fishes from south of the Minnan-Taiwan Bank Fishing Ground, Taiwan Strait, Fujian, China, a new cucullanid nematode, Dichelyne (Cucullanellus) jialaris n. sp., was removed from the intestine of the red seabream, Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel, 1834). The new species differs from its congeners mainly in the following characters: body size medium but with relative long spicules of 1.01 mm (0.97-1.06) in length or 20.0% (18.21-21.8%) of the body length; proximal end of spicules somewhat expanded and distal end rounded; gubernaculum I-shaped, slightly narrow in the middle part, both ends rounded; both anterior and posterior cloaca lips round or oval, prominent and unequal in size. The anterior cloaca lip is at least 2 times larger than the posterior one. There is a conspicuous papilliform structure within the central of anterior and posterior cloacal lip. Vulva of female is not prominent, slightly postequatorial; distance from vulva to anterior end of body is 4.3 (3.0-5.5) mm or 58.0% (54.0-62.0%) of the body length. Considering the result of comparing the structure of so-called unpaired median papilla with the 10 pairs of caudal petiolated papillae in the body of the same individual. the papilliform structures are just a backstop for the cloacal lips, this new species represents the first record of a nematode of the Dichelyne, subgenus Cucullanellus in marine fishes of China Sea.

  4. Sinomicrobium oceani gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Tian, Xin-Peng; Liu, Yu-Juan; Li, Jie; Kim, Chang-Jin; Yin, Hao; Li, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Si

    2013-03-01

    A marine bacterium, designated SCSIO 03483(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from the Nansha Islands in the South China Sea. The strain produced roundish colonies with diffusible yellow-coloured pigment on nutrient agar medium or marine agar 2216. Optimal growth occurred in the presence of 0-4 % (w/v) NaCl, at pH 7.0 and a temperature range of 28-37 °C. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the isolate belonged to the family Flavobacteriaceae and showed relatively high sequence similarity with Imtechella halotolerans K1(T) (92.7 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolate shared a lineage with members of the genera Imtechella, Joostella and Zhouia. Phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids and three unknown polar lipids. The major respiratory quinone was MK-6 and the major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω6c/C16 : 1ω7c). The DNA G+C content of strain SCSIO 03483(T) was 38.4 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular data, strain SCSIO 03483(T) represents a novel species in a new genus in the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Sinomicrobium oceani gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Sinobacterium oceani is SCSIO 03483(T) ( = KCTC 23994(T) = CGMCC 1.12145(T)).

  5. Evaluation of the Marine Algae Gracilaria salicornia and Sargassum sp. For the Biosorption of Cr (VI) from Aqueous Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams Khorramabadi, Gh.; Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, R.

    In this study, the adsorption properties of two different marine algae (Gracilaria salicornia (red algae) and Sargassum sp. (brown algae) were investigated. Equilibrium isotherms were studied to evaluate the relative ability of the two algae to sequester Cr (VI) from aqueous solutions. The maximum biosorption capacity obtained was 45.959 mg g-1 for G. salicornia and 33.258 mg g-1 for Sargassum sp. at a solution pH of 4 and 50 mg L-1 initial chromium concentration. A significant fraction of the total Cr (VI) uptake was achieved within 60 min. Biosorbed chromium ions concentrations increased with increasing concentrations of biosorbents and increasing pH. The biosorption of Cr (VI) on G. salicornia and Sargassum sp. could best be described by the Langmuir model (R2>0.997 for Sargassum sp. and R2>0.999 for G. salicornia).

  6. Biomass Yield Efficiency of the Marine Anammox Bacterium, “Candidatus Scalindua sp.,” is Affected by Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Awata, Takanori; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Ozaki, Noriatsu; Ohashi, Akiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The growth rate and biomass yield efficiency of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria are markedly lower than those of most other autotrophic bacteria. Among the anammox bacterial genera, the growth rate and biomass yield of the marine anammox bacterium “Candidatus Scalindua sp.” is still lower than those of other anammox bacteria enriched from freshwater environments. The activity and growth of marine anammox bacteria are generally considered to be affected by the presence of salinity and organic compounds. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of salinity and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on the anammox activity, inorganic carbon uptake, and biomass yield efficiency of “Ca. Scalindua sp.” enriched from the marine sediments of Hiroshima Bay, Japan, were investigated in batch experiments. Differences in VFA concentrations (0–10 mM) were observed under varying salinities (0.5%–4%). Anammox activity was high at 0.5%–3.5% salinity, but was 30% lower at 4% salinity. In addition, carbon uptake was higher at 1.5%–3.5% salinity. The results of the present study clearly demonstrated that the biomass yield efficiency of the marine anammox bacterium “Ca. Scalindua sp.” was significantly affected by salinity. On the other hand, the presence of VFAs up to 10 mM did not affect anammox activity, carbon uptake, or biomass yield efficiency. PMID:25740428

  7. Vitroprocines, new antibiotics against Acinetobacter baumannii, discovered from marine Vibrio sp. QWI-06 using mass-spectrometry-based metabolomics approach

    PubMed Central

    Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Chen, Pei-Chin; Shih, Chao-Jen; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Lai, Ying-Mi; Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Yang, Yu-Liang

    2015-01-01

    A robust and convenient research strategy integrating state-of-the-art analytical techniques is needed to efficiently discover novel compounds from marine microbial resources. In this study, we identified a series of amino-polyketide derivatives, vitroprocines A-J, from the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. QWI-06 by an integrated approach using imaging mass spectroscopy and molecular networking, as well as conventional bioactivity-guided fractionation and isolation. The structure-activity relationship of vitroprocines against Acinetobacter baumannii is proposed. In addition, feeding experiments with 13C-labeled precursors indicated that a pyridoxal 5′-phosphate-dependent mechanism is involved in the biosynthesis of vitroprocines. Elucidation of amino-polyketide derivatives from a species of marine bacteria for the first time demonstrates the potential of this integrated metabolomics approach to uncover marine bacterial biodiversity. PMID:26238555

  8. Vitroprocines, new antibiotics against Acinetobacter baumannii, discovered from marine Vibrio sp. QWI-06 using mass-spectrometry-based metabolomics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Chen, Pei-Chin; Shih, Chao-Jen; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Lai, Ying-Mi; Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Yang, Yu-Liang

    2015-08-01

    A robust and convenient research strategy integrating state-of-the-art analytical techniques is needed to efficiently discover novel compounds from marine microbial resources. In this study, we identified a series of amino-polyketide derivatives, vitroprocines A-J, from the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. QWI-06 by an integrated approach using imaging mass spectroscopy and molecular networking, as well as conventional bioactivity-guided fractionation and isolation. The structure-activity relationship of vitroprocines against Acinetobacter baumannii is proposed. In addition, feeding experiments with 13C-labeled precursors indicated that a pyridoxal 5‧-phosphate-dependent mechanism is involved in the biosynthesis of vitroprocines. Elucidation of amino-polyketide derivatives from a species of marine bacteria for the first time demonstrates the potential of this integrated metabolomics approach to uncover marine bacterial biodiversity.

  9. Anti-MRSA and anti-TB metabolites from marine-derived Verrucosispora sp. MS100047.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pei; Xie, Feng; Ren, Biao; Wang, Qian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Qi; Abdel-Mageed, Wael M; Liu, Miaomiao; Han, Jianying; Oyeleye, Ayokunmi; Shen, Jinzhao; Song, Fuhang; Dai, Huanqin; Liu, Xueting; Zhang, Lixin

    2016-09-01

    Microbes belonging to the genus Verrucosispora possess significant chemical diversity and biological properties. They have attracted the interests of many researchers and are becoming promising resources in the marine natural product research field. A bioassay-guided isolation from the crude extract of Verrucosispora sp. strain MS100047, isolated from sediments collected from the South China Sea, has led to the identification of a new salicylic derivative, glycerol 1-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl benzoate (1), along with three known compounds, brevianamide F (2), abyssomicin B (3), and proximicin B (4). Compound 1 showed selective activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 12.5 μg/mL. Brevianamide F (2), which was isolated from actinomycete for the first time, showed a good anti-BCG activity with a MIC value of 12.5 μg/mL that has not been reported previously in literatures. Proximicin B (4) showed significant anti-MRSA (MIC = 3.125 μg/mL), anti-BCG (MIC = 6.25 μg/mL), and anti-tuberculosis (TB) (MIC = 25 μg/mL) activities. This is the first report on the anti-tubercular activities of proximicins. In addition, Verrucosispora sp. strain MS100047 was found to harbor 18 putative secondary metabolite gene clusters based on genomic sequence analysis. These include the biosynthetic loci encoding polyketide synthase (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) consistent with abyssomicins and proximicins, respectively. The biosynthetic pathways of these isolated compounds have been proposed. These results indicate that MS100047 possesses a great potential as a source of active secondary metabolites.

  10. Amphritea spongicola sp. nov., isolated from a marine sponge, and emended description of the genus Amphritea.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hani; Yang, Sung-Hyun; Seo, Hyun-Seok; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Sang-Jin; Kwon, Kae Kyoung

    2015-06-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped (1.2-2.1 μm × 0.8-0.9 μm), flagellated and motile marine bacterium, designated MEBiC05461T, was isolated from a marine sponge inhabiting Micronesia. Strain MEBiC05461T was oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. Growth was observed at 8.0-35.6 °C (optimum 30.0 °C), at pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and with 1.5-6.0 % (w/v, optimum 2.0-2.5 %) NaCl. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain MEBiC05461T showed high similarity to members of the genus Amphritea (96.4-96.6 %). The predominant cellular fatty acids were C16:0 (23.9 %), summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c; 39.7 %) and summed feature 8 (C18:1ω7c and/or C18:1ω6c; 22.0 %). The DNA G+C content was 48.5 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was Q-8.Phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified glycolipid, one unidentified aminolipid, one unidentified glycophospholipid and two unidentified lipids were detected as the major polar lipids. On the basis of the data from this polyphasic taxonomic study, strain MEBiC05461T should be classified as a representative of a novel species in the genus Amphritea, and the name proposed is Amphritea spongicola sp. nov. The type strain is MEBiC05461T ( = KCCM 42943T = JCM 16668T). Emendations of the genus Amphritea and species Amphritea atlanticaGärtner et al. 2008 and Amphritea balenaeMiyazaki et al. 2008 are were also given. PMID:25766110

  11. Methylomarinum vadi gen. nov., sp. nov., a methanotroph isolated from two distinct marine environments.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Hisako; Fuse, Hiroyuki; Abe, Mariko; Miyazaki, Masayuki; Nakamura, Takamichi; Nunoura, Takuro; Furushima, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Takai, Ken

    2013-03-01

    Two aerobic methane-oxidizing bacterial strains were isolated from distinct marine environments in Japan. Strains IT-4(T) and T2-1 were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, motile, plump short rods or oval-shaped bacteria with a single polar flagellum and type I intracytoplasmic membranes. They were obligate methanotrophs that grew only on methane or methanol. Each strain possessed the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO). The ribulose monophosphate pathway was operative for carbon assimilation. The strains grew best at 37 °C, and did not grow at 45 °C. NaCl was required for growth within a concentration range of 1-8 % (w/v). The major phospholipid fatty acids were C16 : 0, C16 : 1ω7c, and C16 : 1ω5t. The major isoprenoid quinone was MQ-8. The DNA G+C content was 50.9-51.7 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the strains showed 99.4 % similarity to each other, and DNA-DNA hybridization analysis indicated that the strains were representatives of the same species. The 16S rRNA gene sequences were highly similar to some marine environmental sequences (94.0-97.7 % similarity), but did not show similarities more than 94 % with sequences of members of other related genera, such as Methylomicrobium, Methylobacter, Methylomonas and Methylosarcina. Phylogenies based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and deduced partial PmoA sequences, and the physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics revealed that strains IT-4(T) and T2-1 represent a novel species of a new genus in the family Methylococcaceae, for which the name Methylomarinum vadi gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IT-4(T) ( = JCM 13665(T) = DSM 18976(T)).

  12. Pentacyclic ingamine alkaloids, a new antiplasmodial pharmacophore from the marine sponge Petrosid Ng5 Sp5.

    PubMed

    Ilias, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Khan, Shabana I; Jacob, Melissa R; Tekwani, Babu L; Walker, Larry A; Samoylenko, Vladimir

    2012-10-01

    Two new pentacyclic ingamine alkaloids, namely 22(S)-hydroxyingamine A (2) and dihydroingenamine D (3), together with the known ingamine A (1), have been isolated from marine sponge Petrosid Ng5 Sp5 (family Petrosiidae) obtained from the open repository of the National Cancer Institute, USA. The structures of compounds 1-3 were determined using 1D and 2D NMR, and HRESIMS techniques. The absolute configuration of both the C9 and C22 of 2 was determined as (S) using a modified Mosher esterification method. Compounds 1 and 3 showed strong antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and -resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC₅₀ values of 90 and 78 ng/mL and 72 and 57 ng/mL, respectively, while 2 was found to be less active (IC₅₀ values of 200 and 140 ng/mL, respectively). Compounds 1-3 were found to be devoid of in vitro cytotoxicity against human solid tumor cells of breast (BT-549), ovary (SK-OV-3), and epidermoid (KB) carcinomas and skin melanoma (SK-MEL), as well as against noncancerous monkey kidney fibroblasts (VERO) and pig kidney epithelial (LLC-PK₁₁) cells, up to a maximum concentration of 10 µg/mL. Compounds 1-3 also displayed weak antimicrobial and moderate antileishmanial activities against Leishmania donovani promastigotes. These polycyclic ingamine alkaloids represent the first example of antiplasmodial leads without a β-carboline ring, which is known to be responsible for the cytotoxicity of the well-known manzamine class of marine alkaloids related to 1-3. PMID:22903383

  13. Effect of electron donors on the fractionation of sulfur isotopes by a marine Desulfovibrio sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Min Sub; Ono, Shuhei; Donovan, Katie; Templer, Stefanie P.; Bosak, Tanja

    2011-08-01

    Sulfur isotope effects produced by microbial dissimilatory sulfate reduction are used to reconstruct the coupled cycling of carbon and sulfur through geologic time, to constrain the evolution of sulfur-based metabolisms, and to track the oxygenation of Earth's surface. In this study, we investigate how the coupling of carbon and sulfur metabolisms in batch and continuous cultures of a recently isolated marine sulfate reducing bacterium DMSS-1, a Desulfovibrio sp ., influences the fractionation of sulfur isotopes. DMSS-1 grown in batch culture on seven different electron donors (ethanol, glycerol, fructose, glucose, lactate, malate and pyruvate) fractionates 34S/ 32S ratio from 6‰ to 44‰, demonstrating that the fractionations by an actively growing culture of a single incomplete oxidizing sulfate reducing microbe can span almost the entire range of previously reported values in defined cultures. The magnitude of isotope effect correlates well with cell specific sulfate reduction rates (from 0.7 to 26.1 fmol/cell/day). DMSS-1 grown on lactate in continuous culture produces a larger isotope effect (21-37‰) than the lactate-grown batch culture (6‰), indicating that the isotope effect also depends on the supply rate of the electron donor and microbial growth rate. The largest isotope effect in continuous culture is accompanied by measurable changes in cell length and cellular yield that suggest starvation. The use of multiple sulfur isotopes in the model of metabolic fluxes of sulfur shows that the loss of sulfate from the cell and the intracellular reoxidation of reduced sulfur species contribute to the increase in isotope effects in a correlated manner. Isotope fractionations produced during sulfate reduction in the pure culture of DMSS-1 expand the previously reported range of triple sulfur isotope effects ( 32S, 33S, and 34S) by marine sulfate reducing bacteria, implying that microbial sulfur disproportionation may have a smaller 33S isotopic fingerprint

  14. Selective uptake of prokaryotic picoplankton by a marine sponge ( Callyspongia sp.) within an oligotrophic coastal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Christine E.; McLaughlin, M. James; Hyndes, Glenn A.; Strzelecki, Joanna

    2009-09-01

    Marine sponges are key players in the transfer of carbon from the pelagic microbial food web into the benthos. Selective uptake of prokaryotic picoplankton (<2 μm) by a demosponge ( Callyspongia sp.), and carbon flux through this process, were examined for the first time in the oligotrophic coastal waters of southwestern Australia, where sponge abundance and biodiversity ranks among the highest in the world. Water sampling and flow rate measurements were conducted over five sampling occasions following the InEx method of Yahel et al. (2005), with heterotrophic bacteria and autotrophic Synechococcus cyanobacteria identified and enumerated by flow cytometry. Callyspongia sp. demonstrated high filtration efficiencies, particularly for high DNA (HDNA) bacteria (up to 85.3% in summer 2008) and Synechococcus (up to 91.1% in autumn 2007), however efficiency varied non-uniformly with time and food type ( p < 0.01). Overall filtration efficiency for Synechococcus (86.6 ± 6.3%; mean ± s.d.) was always significantly higher ( p < 0.05) than for low DNA (LDNA) bacteria (40 ± 17.2%), except during winter 2007 ( p = 0.14) when ambient Synechococcus concentrations were lowest. When compared to ambient abundances of the different food types, Callyspongia sp. exhibited consistently negative selectivity for LDNA bacteria and positive selectivity for Synechococcus, while HDNA bacteria was generally a neutral or positive selection. The total carbon removal rate (sum of all prokaryotic picoplankton cells), calculated on a per unit area basis, varied significantly with time ( p < 0.01), with lowest rates recorded during the winter (0.5 ± 0.4-0.6 ± 0.8 mg C m -2 d -1) and highest values recorded in summer (3.5 ± 1.9 mg C m -2 d -1). These flux estimates quantify the role of a demosponge species in the ultimate fate of prokaryotic picoplankton within the nearshore food webs of southwestern Australia, and support the conclusion that sponges actively select food particles that

  15. Paulinella longichromatophora sp. nov., a New Marine Photosynthetic Testate Amoeba Containing a Chromatophore.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunju; Park, Myung Gil

    2016-02-01

    The freshwater testate filose amoeba Paulinella chromatophora is the sole species in the genus to have plastids, usually termed "chromatophores", of a Synechococcus/Prochlorococcus-like cyanobacterial origin. Here, we report a new marine phototrophic species, Paulinella longichromatophora sp. nov., using light and electron microscopy and molecular data. This new species contains two blue-green U-shaped chromatophores reaching up to 40 μm in total length. Further, the new Paulinella species is characterized by having five oral scales surrounding the pseudostomal aperture. All trees generated using three nuclear rDNA datasets (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, and the concatenated 18S + 28S rDNA) demonstrated that three photosynthetic Paulinella species (two freshwater species, P. chromatophora and Paulinella strain FK01, and one marine species, P. longichromatophora) congruently formed a monophyletic group with strong support (≥ 90% of ML and ≥ 0.90 of PP), but their relationship to each other within the clade remained unresolved in all trees. P. longichromatophora, nevertheless, clustered consistently together with Paulinella strain FK01 with very low support, but the clade received strong support in plastid phylogenies. Phylogenetic analyses inferred from plastid-encoded 16S rDNA and a concatenated dataset of plastid 16S+23S rDNA demonstrated that chromatophores of all photosynthetic Paulinella species were monophyletic. The monophyletic group fell within a cyanobacteria clade having a close relationship to an α-cyanobacterial clade containing Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus species with very robust support (100% of ML and 1.0 of PP). Additionally, phylogenetic analyses of nuclear 18S rDNA and plastid 16S rDNA suggested divergent evolution within the photosynthetic Paulinella population after a single acquisition of the chromatophore. After the single acquisition of the chromatophore, ancestral photosynthetic Paulinella appears to have diverged into at least two

  16. Paulinella longichromatophora sp. nov., a New Marine Photosynthetic Testate Amoeba Containing a Chromatophore.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunju; Park, Myung Gil

    2016-02-01

    The freshwater testate filose amoeba Paulinella chromatophora is the sole species in the genus to have plastids, usually termed "chromatophores", of a Synechococcus/Prochlorococcus-like cyanobacterial origin. Here, we report a new marine phototrophic species, Paulinella longichromatophora sp. nov., using light and electron microscopy and molecular data. This new species contains two blue-green U-shaped chromatophores reaching up to 40 μm in total length. Further, the new Paulinella species is characterized by having five oral scales surrounding the pseudostomal aperture. All trees generated using three nuclear rDNA datasets (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, and the concatenated 18S + 28S rDNA) demonstrated that three photosynthetic Paulinella species (two freshwater species, P. chromatophora and Paulinella strain FK01, and one marine species, P. longichromatophora) congruently formed a monophyletic group with strong support (≥ 90% of ML and ≥ 0.90 of PP), but their relationship to each other within the clade remained unresolved in all trees. P. longichromatophora, nevertheless, clustered consistently together with Paulinella strain FK01 with very low support, but the clade received strong support in plastid phylogenies. Phylogenetic analyses inferred from plastid-encoded 16S rDNA and a concatenated dataset of plastid 16S+23S rDNA demonstrated that chromatophores of all photosynthetic Paulinella species were monophyletic. The monophyletic group fell within a cyanobacteria clade having a close relationship to an α-cyanobacterial clade containing Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus species with very robust support (100% of ML and 1.0 of PP). Additionally, phylogenetic analyses of nuclear 18S rDNA and plastid 16S rDNA suggested divergent evolution within the photosynthetic Paulinella population after a single acquisition of the chromatophore. After the single acquisition of the chromatophore, ancestral photosynthetic Paulinella appears to have diverged into at least two

  17. A new alkaline lipase obtained from the metagenome of marine sponge Ircinia sp.

    PubMed

    Su, Jing; Zhang, Fengli; Sun, Wei; Karuppiah, Valliappan; Zhang, Guangya; Li, Zhiyong; Jiang, Qun

    2015-07-01

    Microorganisms associated with marine sponges are potential resources for marine enzymes. In this study, culture-independent metagenomic approach was used to isolate lipases from the complex microbiome of the sponge Ircinia sp. obtained from the South China Sea. A metagenomic library was constructed, containing 6568 clones, and functional screening on 1 % tributyrin agar resulted in the identification of a positive lipase clone (35F4). Following sequence analysis 35F4 clone was found to contain a putative lipase gene lipA. Sequence analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of LipA revealed that it is a member of subfamily I.1 of lipases, with 63 % amino acid similarity to the lactonizing lipase from Aeromonas veronii (WP_021231793). Based on the predicted secondary structure, LipA was predicted to be an alkaline enzyme by sequence/structure analysis. Heterologous expression of lipA in E. coli BL21 (DE3) was performed and the characterization of the recombinant enzyme LipA showed that it is an alkaline enzyme with high tolerance to organic solvents. The isolated lipase LipA was active in the broad alkaline range, with the highest activity at pH 9.0, and had a high level of stability over a pH range of 7.0-12.0. The activity of LipA was increased in the presence of 5 mM Ca(2+) and some organic solvents, e.g. methanol, acetone and isopropanol. The optimum temperature for the activity of LipA is 40 °C and the molecular weight of LipA was determined to be ~30 kDa by SDS-PAGE. LipA is an alkaline lipase and shows good tolerance to some organic solvents, which make it of potential utility in the detergent industry and enzyme mediated organic synthesis. The result of this study has broadened the diversity of known lipolytic genes and demonstrated that marine sponges are an important source for new enzymes.

  18. Optimization and characterization of biosurfactant production from marine Vibrio sp. strain 3B-2

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoke; Wang, Caixia; Wang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    A biosurfactant-producing bacterium, designated 3B-2, was isolated from marine sediment and identified as Vibrio sp. by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The culture medium composition was optimized to increase the capability of 3B-2 for producing biosurfactant. The produced biosurfactant was characterized in terms of protein concentration, surface tension, and oil-displacement efficiency. The optimal medium for biosurfactant production contained: 0.5% lactose, 1.1% yeast extract, 2% sodium chloride, and 0.1% disodium hydrogen phosphate. Under optimal conditions (28°C), the surface tension of crude biosurfactant could be reduced to 41 from 71.5 mN/m (water), while its protein concentration was increased to up to 6.5 g/L and the oil displacement efficiency was improved dramatically at 6.5 cm. Two glycoprotein fractions with the molecular masses of 22 and 40 kDa were purified from the biosurfactant, which held great potential for applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation. PMID:26441908

  19. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Five Marine Cyanophages Propagated on Synechococcus sp. Strain WH7803

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, William H.; Joint, Ian R.; Carr, Noel G.; Mann, Nicholas H.

    1993-01-01

    Five marine cyanophages propagated on Synechococcus sp. strain WH7803 were isolated from three different oceanographic provinces during the months of August and September 1992: coastal water from the Sargasso Sea, Bermuda; Woods Hole harbor, Woods Hole, Mass.; and coastal water from the English Channel, off Plymouth Sound, United Kingdom. The five cyanophage isolates were found to belong to two families, Myoviridae and Styloviridae, on the basis of their morphology observed in the transmission electron microscope. DNA purified from each of the cyanophage isolates was restricted with a selection of restriction endonucleases, and three distinguishably different patterns were observed. DNA isolated from Myoviridae isolates from Bermuda and the English Channel had highly related restriction patterns, as did DNA isolated from Styloviridae isolates from Bermuda and the English Channel. DNA isolated from the Myoviridae isolate from Woods Hole had a unique restriction pattern. The genome size for each of the Myoviridae isolates was ca. 80 to 85 kb, and it was ca. 90 to 100 kb for each of the Styloviridae isolates. Southern blotting analysis revealed that there was a limited degree of homology among all cyanophage DNAs probed, but clear differences were observed between cyanophage DNA from the Myoviridae and that from the Styloviridae isolates. Polypeptide analysis revealed a clear difference between Myoviridae and Styloviridae polypeptide profiles, although the major, presumably structural, protein in each case was ca. 53 to 54 kDa. Images PMID:16349088

  20. Genome shuffling of marine derived bacterium Nocardia sp. ALAA 2000 for improved ayamycin production.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Mervat M A; El-Bondkly, Ahmed M A

    2011-05-01

    Genome shuffling is a recent development in microbiology. The advantage of this technique is that genetic changes can be made in a microorganism without knowing its genetic background. Genome shuffling was applied to the marine derived bacterium Nocardia sp. ALAA 2000 to achieve rapid improvement of ayamycin production. The initial mutant population was generated by treatment with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) combined with UV irradiation of the spores, resulting in an improved population (AL/11, AL/136, AL/213 and AL/277) producing tenfold (150 μg/ml) more ayamycin than the original strain. These mutants were used as the starting strains for three rounds of genome shuffling and after each round improved strains were screened and selected based on their ayamycin productivity. The population after three rounds of genome shuffling exhibited an improved ayamycin yield. Strain F3/22 yielded 285 μg/ml of ayamycin, which was 19-fold higher than that of the initial strain and 1.9-fold higher than the mutants used as the starting point for genome shuffling. We evaluated the genetic effect of UV + EMS-mutagenesis and three rounds of genome shuffling on the nucleotide sequence by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Many differences were noticed in mutant and recombinant strains compared to the wild type strain. These differences in RAPD profiles confirmed the presence of genetic variations in the Nocardia genome after mutagenesis and genome shuffling. PMID:21240675

  1. Insight into glucosidase II from the red marine microalga Porphyridium sp. (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Levy-Ontman, Oshrat; Fisher, Merav; Shotland, Yoram; Tekoah, Yoram; Malis Arad, Shoshana

    2015-12-01

    N-glycosylation of proteins is one of the most important post-translational modifications that occur in various organisms, and is of utmost importance for protein function, stability, secretion, and loca-lization. Although the N-linked glycosylation pathway of proteins has been extensively characterized in mammals and plants, not much information is available regarding the N-glycosylation pathway in algae. We studied the α 1,3-glucosidase glucosidase II (GANAB) glycoenzyme in a red marine microalga Porphyridium sp. (Rhodophyta) using bioinformatic and biochemical approaches. The GANAB-gene was found to be highly conserved evolutionarily (compo-sed of all the common features of α and β subunits) and to exhibit similar motifs consistent with that of homolog eukaryotes GANAB genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed its wide distribution across an evolutionarily vast range of organisms; while the α subunit is highly conserved and its phylogenic tree is similar to the taxon evolutionary tree, the β subunit is less conserved and its pattern somewhat differs from the taxon tree. In addition, the activity of the red microalgal GANAB enzyme was studied, including functional and biochemical characterization using a bioassay, indicating that the enzyme is similar to other eukaryotes ortholog GANAB enzymes. A correlation between polysaccharide production and GANAB activity, indicating its involvement in polysaccharide biosynthesis, is also demonstrated. This study represents a valuable contribution toward understanding the N-glycosylation and polysaccharide biosynthesis pathways in red microalgae.

  2. Purification and characterization of catalase from marine bacterium Acinetobacter sp. YS0810.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xinhua; Wang, Wei; Hao, Jianhua; Zhu, Xianglin; Sun, Mi

    2014-01-01

    The catalase from marine bacterium Acinetobacter sp. YS0810 (YS0810CAT) was purified and characterized. Consecutive steps were used to achieve the purified enzyme as follows: ethanol precipitation, DEAE Sepharose ion exchange, Superdex 200 gel filtration, and Resource Q ion exchange. The active enzyme consisted of four identical subunits of 57.256 kDa. It showed a Soret peak at 405 nm, indicating the presence of iron protoporphyrin IX. The catalase was not apparently reduced by sodium dithionite but was inhibited by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, hydroxylamine hydrochloride, and sodium azide. Peroxidase-like activity was not found with the substrate o-phenylenediamine. So the catalase was determined to be a monofunctional catalase. N-terminal amino acid of the catalase analysis gave the sequence SQDPKKCPVTHLTTE, which showed high degree of homology with those of known catalases from bacteria. The analysis of amino acid sequence of the purified catalase by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed that it was a new catalase, in spite of its high homology with those of known catalases from other bacteria. The catalase showed high alkali stability and thermostability.

  3. Actinophytocola sediminis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from a marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dao-Feng; Jiang, Zhao; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Yang, Ling-Ling; Tian, Xin-Peng; Long, Li-Juan; Zhang, Si; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-08-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, designated YIM M13705(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample of the South China Sea and its characteristics were determined by a polyphasic approach. The slowly growing, Gram-stain-positive, aerobic strain produced branched substrate mycelium and aerial hyphae, and no diffusible pigment was produced on the media tested. At maturity, spore chains were formed on aerial hyphae and substrate mycelium was not fragmented. Whole-cell hydrolysates of the strain contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and galactose, glucose, ribose and rhamnose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H4) and MK-10(H2). The polar lipids detected were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxyphosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and ninhydrin-positive phosphoglycolipids. The major fatty acid was iso-C(16 : 0). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.2 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence, the strain was shown to be most closely related to species of the genus Actinophytocola. DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness values (<70%) of the isolate with its closest neighbour Actinophytocola xinjiangensis QAIII60(T) supported classification of the isolate as a representative of a novel species. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, and phenotypic and genotypic data, it is concluded that the new isolate belongs to a novel species of the genus Actinophytocola, for which the name Actinophytocola sediminis sp. nov. (type strain YIM M13705(T) = DSM 45939(T) = BCRC 16956(T)) is proposed.

  4. A new κ-carrageenase CgkS from marine bacterium Shewanella sp. Kz7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linna; Li, Shangyong; Zhang, Shilong; Li, Jiejing; Yu, Wengong; Gong, Qianhong

    2015-08-01

    A new κ-carrageenase gene cgkS was cloned from marine bacterium Shewanella sp. Kz7 by using degenerate and site-finding PCR. The gene was comprised of an open reading frame of 1224 bp, encoding 407 amino acid residues, with a signal peptide of 24 residues. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, the κ-carrageenase CgkS was classified into the Glycoside Hydrolase family 16. The cgkS gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant enzyme was purified to homogeneity with a specific activity of 716.8 U mg-1 and a yield of 69%. Recombinant CgkS was most active at 45°C and pH 8.0. It was stable at pH 6.0-9.0 and below 30°C. The enzyme did not require NaCl for activity, although its activity was enhanced by NaCl. CgkS degraded κ-carrageenan in an endo-fashion releasing tetrasaccharides and disaccharides as main hydrolysis products.

  5. Cochleicola gelatinilyticus gen. nov., sp. nov., Isolated from a Marine Gastropod, Reichia luteostoma.

    PubMed

    Shin, Su-Kyoung; Kim, Eunji; Choi, Sungmi; Yi, Hana

    2016-08-28

    A yellow, rod-shaped, non-motile, gram-negative, and strictly aerobic bacterial strain, designated LPB0005(T), was isolated from a marine gastropod, Reichia luteostoma. Here the genome sequence was determined, which comprised 3,395,737 bp with 2,962 protein-coding genes. The DNA G+C content was 36.3 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the isolate represents a novel genus and species in the family Flavobacteriaceae, with relatively low sequence similarities to other closely related genera. The isolate showed chemotaxonomic properties within the range reported for the family Flavobacteriaceae, but possesses many physiological and biochemical characteristics that distinguished it from species in the closely related genera Ulvibacter, Jejudonia, and Aureitalea. Based on phylogenetic, phenotypic, and genomic analyses, strain LPB0005(T) represents a novel genus and species, for which the name Cochleicola gelatinilyticus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LPB0005(T) (= KACC 18693(T) = JCM 31218(T)). PMID:27197669

  6. Sphingomonas japonica sp. nov., isolated from the marine crustacean Paralithodes camtschatica.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Tanaka, Naoto; Frolova, Galina M; Mikhailov, Valery V

    2009-05-01

    A Sphingomonas-like bacterium, strain KC7(T), was isolated from a marine crustacean specimen obtained from the Sea of Japan and subjected to a polyphasic study. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis positioned the novel strain in the genus Sphingomonas as an independent lineage adjacent to a subclade containing Sphingomonas trueperi LMG 2142(T), Sphingomonas pituitosa EDIV(T) and Sphingomonas azotifigens NBRC 15497(T). Strain KC7(T) shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (96.1 %) with S. trueperi LMG 2142(T), Sphingomonas dokdonensis DS-4(T) and S. azotifigens NBRC 15497(T); similarities to strains of other recognized Sphingomonas species were lower (96.0-93.9 %). The strain contained sphingoglycolipid and the predominant fatty acids were C(16 : 1), C(16 : 0) and C(18 : 1); 2-OH C(14 : 0) was the major 2-hydroxy fatty acid. Previously, these lipids have been found to be characteristic of members of the genus Sphingomonas sensu stricto. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis and physiological and biochemical characterization, strain KC7(T) represents a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonas japonica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KC7(T) (=KMM 3038(T) =NRIC 0738(T) =JCM 15438(T)).

  7. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Oleaginous Marine Diatom Fistulifera sp. Strain JPCC DA0580

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yue; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Sunaga, Yoshihiko; Muto, Masaki; Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Studies of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biosynthesis in microalgae are of great importance for many reasons, including the production of biofuel and variable omega 3-long chain PUFAs. The elucidation of the PUFA biosynthesis pathway is necessary for bioengineering to increase or decrease PUFA content in certain microalgae. In this study, we identified the PUFA synthesis pathway in the oleaginous marine diatom, Fistulifera sp. strain JPCC DA0580, a promising candidate for biodiesel production. The data revealed not only the presence of the desaturases and elongases involved in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) synthesis, but also the unexpected localization of ω3-desaturase expression in the chloroplast. This suggests that this microalga might perform the final step of EPA synthesis in the chloroplast and not in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) like other diatoms. The detailed fatty acid profile suggests that the EPA was synthesized only through the ω6-pathway in this strain, which was also different from other diatoms. Finally, the transcriptome analysis demonstrated an overall down-regulation of desaturases and elongases over incubation time. These genetic features might explain the decrease of PUFA percentage over incubation time in this strain. The important insights into metabolite synthesis acquired here will be useful for future metabolic engineering to control PUFA content in this diatom. PMID:24335525

  8. New Metabolites and Bioactive Actinomycins from Marine-Derived Streptomyces sp. ZZ338

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiufang; Ye, Xuewei; Chai, Weiyun; Lian, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Zhizhen

    2016-01-01

    An extract prepared from the culture of a marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. ZZ338 was found to have significant antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. A chemical investigation of this active extract resulted in the isolation of three known bioactive actinomycins (1–3) and two new metabolites (4 and 5). The structures of the isolated compounds were identified as actinomycins D (1), V (2), X0β (3), 2-acetylamino-3-hydroxyl-4-methyl-benzoic acid methyl ester (4), and N-1S-(4-methylaminophenylmethyl)-2-oxo-propyl acetamide (5) based on their nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HRESIMS) data as well as their optical rotation. This class of new compound 5 had never before been found from a natural resource. Three known actinomycins showed activities in inhibiting the proliferation of glioma cells and the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans and are responsible for the activity of the crude extract. Actinomycin D (1) was also found to downregulate several glioma metabolic enzymes of glycolysis, glutaminolysis, and lipogenesis, suggesting that targeting multiple tumor metabolic regulators might be a new anti-glioma mechanism of actinomycin D. This is the first report of such a possible mechanism for the class of actinomycins. PMID:27727167

  9. The Halicylindramides, Farnesoid X Receptor Antagonizing Depsipeptides from a Petrosia sp. Marine Sponge Collected in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Dongyup; Kim, Hiyoung; Yang, Inho; Chin, Jungwook; Hwang, Hoosang; Won, Dong Hwan; Lee, Byoungchan; Nam, Sang-Jip; Ekins, Merrick; Choi, Hyukjae; Kang, Heonjoong

    2016-03-25

    Three new structurally related depsipeptides, halicylindramides F-H (1-3), and two known halicylindramides were isolated from a Petrosia sp. marine sponge collected off the shore of Youngdeok-Gun, East Sea, Republic of Korea. Their planar structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic data analyses including 1D and 2D NMR data as well as MS data. The absolute configurations of halicylindramides F-H (1-3) were determined by Marfey's method in combination with Edman degradation. The absolute configurations at C-4 of the dioxyindolyl alanine (Dioia) residues of halicylindramides G (2) and H (3) were determined as 4S and 4R, respectively, based on ECD spectroscopy. The C-2 configurations of Dioia in 2 and 3 were speculated to both be 2R based on the shared biogenesis of the halicylindramides. Halicylindramides F (1), A (4), and C (5) showed human farnesoid X receptor (hFXR) antagonistic activities, but did not bind directly to hFXR. PMID:26821210

  10. Acanthocephaloides irregularis n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Arhythmacanthidae) from marine fishes off the Ukrainian Black Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Oğuz, Mehmet C; Heckmann, Richard A; Tepe, Yahya; Kvach, Yuriy

    2011-10-01

    Acanthocephaloides irregularis n. sp. (Arhythmacanthidae) is described from four species of marine fishes in the Gulf of Odessa and Sukhyi Lyman, Ukrainan Black Sea waters, making it the tenth species of the genus. The hosts are the combtooth blenny Parablennius zvonimiri (Kolombatovic) (Blenniidae), the mushroom goby Ponticola eurycephalus (Kessler) (Gobiidae), the tubenose goby Proterorhinus marmoratus (Pallas) (Gobiidae) and the black-striped pipefish Syngnathus abaster Risso (Syngnathidae). The new species is most similar to its closest relative, Acanthocephaloides propinquus (Dujardin, 1845), in proboscis shape and armature (12 longitudinal rows of 5 hooks) and the shape of the trunk, reproductive system and lemnisci, but differs in having randomly distributed trunk spines. These trunk spines are organised in circular rings of individual spines separated by aspinose zones. The new species is also unique in having an anterior trunk collar, a very large triangular cephalic ganglion, nucleated pouches at the posterior end of the proboscis receptacle, and hooks and spines with roots bearing anterior manubria. Valid and invalid species of Acanthocephaloides Meyer, 1932 are listed and a key to all ten species is included.

  11. Structural properties of the tubular appendage spinae from marine bacterium Roseobacter sp. strain YSCB

    PubMed Central

    Bernadac, A.; Wu, L.-F.; Santini, C.-L.; Vidaud, C.; Sturgis, J. N.; Menguy, N.; Bergam, P.; Nicoletti, C.; Xiao, T.

    2012-01-01

    Spinae are tubular surface appendages broadly found in Gram-negative bacteria. Little is known about their architecture, function or origin. Here, we report structural characterization of the spinae from marine bacteria Roseobacter sp. YSCB. Electron cryo-tomography revealed that a single filament winds into a hollow flared base with progressive change to a cylinder. Proteinase K unwound the spinae into proteolysis-resistant filaments. Thermal treatment ripped the spinae into ribbons that were melted with prolonged heating. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed a dominant beta-structure of the spinae. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses showed three endothermic transformations at 50–85°C, 98°C and 123°C, respectively. The heating almost completely disintegrated the spinae, abolished the 98°C transition and destroyed the beta-structure. Infrared spectroscopy identified the amide I spectrum maximum at a position similar to that of amyloid fibrils. Therefore, the spinae distinguish from other bacterial appendages, e.g. flagella and stalks, in both the structure and mechanism of assembly. PMID:23230515

  12. Spongiispira norvegica gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from the boreal sponge Isops phlegraei.

    PubMed

    Kaesler, Ines; Graeber, Ingeborg; Borchert, Martin S; Pape, Thomas; Dieckmann, Ralf; von Döhren, Hans; Nielsen, Preben; Lurz, Rudi; Michaelis, Walter; Szewzyk, Ulrich

    2008-08-01

    The bacterial strain Gp_4_7.1T, isolated from the marine sponge Isops phlegraei collected at the Sula Ridge off the Norwegian coast, was characterized. The isolate was a motile spirillum that was monopolarly and monotrichously flagellated. It was aerobic, Gram-negative, oxidase-positive and catalase-negative. Optimal growth occurred between 20 and 30 degrees C, at pH 7-8 and with a salt concentration of 2-3 % (w/v). The isolate showed a relatively restricted nutritional profile. Substrate utilization tests were only positive for arabinose. Enzyme tests were positive for esterase lipase C8, lipase C14, leucine arylamidase and naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase. The strain was not able to reduce nitrate. The major cellular fatty acids were C16:1 omega7 and C16:0. The DNA G+C content was 62.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison classified the strain as a member of the order Oceanospirillales in the class Gammaproteobacteria. Strain Gp_4_7.1T formed a distinct phyletic line with less than 94 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to its closest relatives with validly published names. Based on the determined data, it is proposed that the strain represents a novel species in a new genus, Spongiispira norvegica gen. nov., sp. nov.; the type strain of Spongiispira norvegica is Gp_4_7.1T (=DSM 17749T =NCIMB 14401T).

  13. Genome Sequence of Vibrio sp. Strain EJY3, an Agarolytic Marine Bacterium Metabolizing 3,6-Anhydro-l-Galactose as a Sole Carbon Source

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Hanseong; Yun, Eun Ju; Lee, Saeyoung; Ko, Hyeok-Jin; Kim, Sujin; Kim, Byung-Yong; Song, Heesang; Lim, Kwang-il

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic fate of 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose (l-AHG) is unknown in the global marine carbon cycle. Vibrio sp. strain EJY3 is an agarolytic marine bacterium that can utilize l-AHG as a sole carbon source. To elucidate the metabolic pathways of l-AHG, we have sequenced the complete genome of Vibrio sp. strain EJY3. PMID:22535948

  14. Alkane production by the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. NKBG15041c possessing the α-olefin biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Tomoko; Liang, Yue; Arai, Daichi; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Honda, Toru; Muto, Masaki; Kakunaka, Natsumi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2015-02-01

    The production of alkanes in a marine cyanobacterium possessing the α-olefin biosynthesis pathway was achieved by introducing an exogenous alkane biosynthesis pathway. Cyanobacterial hydrocarbons are synthesized via two separate pathways: the acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase/aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase (AAR/ADO) pathway for the alkane biosynthesis and the α-olefin synthase (OLS) pathway for the α-olefin biosynthesis. Coexistence of these pathways has not yet been reported. In this study, the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. NKBG15041c was shown to produce α-olefins similar to those of Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 via the α-olefin biosynthesis pathway. The production of heptadecane in Synechococcus sp. NKBG15041c was achieved by expressing the AAR/ADO pathway genes from Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. The production yields of heptadecane in Synechococcus sp. NKBG15041c varied with the expression level of the aar and ado genes. The maximal yield of heptadecane was 4.2 ± 1.2 μg/g of dried cell weight in the transformant carrying a homologous promoter. Our results also suggested that the effective activation of ADO may be more important for the enhancement of alkane production by cyanobacteria.

  15. Aliidiomarina iranensis sp. nov., a haloalkaliphilic bacterium from a coastal-marine wetland.

    PubMed

    Ali Amoozegar, Mohammad; Shahinpei, Azadeh; Abolhassan Shahzadeh Fazeli, Seyed; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Ventosa, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, straight rod-shaped, non-pigmented, slightly halophilic and alkaliphilic bacterium, designated strain GBPy7T, was isolated from a sample of the coastal-marine wetland Gomishan in Iran. Cells of strain GBPy7T were motile. Growth occurred on media with 1-15 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 3 %), at pH 7-10 (optimum pH 8.5) and at 4-45 °C (optimum 37 °C). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison indicated that strain GBPy7T belonged to the family Idiomarinaceae. Its closest relatives were Aliidiomarina shirensis AIST (98.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and other Aliidiomarina species (95.9-94.2 %), together with Idiomarina seosinensis CL-SP19T (94.3 %) and Idiomarina fontislapidosi F23T (94.3 %). The major cellular fatty acids of the isolate were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0, iso-C17 : 1ω9c and C18 : 1ω7c and its polar lipid profile comprised phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown phospholipid and one unknown aminophospholipid. Cells of strain GBPy7T contained ubiquinone Q-8. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of this strain was 51.6 mol%. The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain GBPy7T and A. shirensis IBRC-M 10414T was 21 %. The physiological, biochemical, genotypic and phylogenetic differences between strain GBPy7T and other previously described taxa indicate that the strain represents a novel species of the genus Aliidiomarina within the family Idiomarinaceae, for which the name Aliidiomarina iranensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GBPy7T ( = IBRC-M 10763T = CECT 8339T). PMID:26928783

  16. Aliidiomarina iranensis sp. nov., a haloalkaliphilic bacterium from a coastal-marine wetland.

    PubMed

    Ali Amoozegar, Mohammad; Shahinpei, Azadeh; Abolhassan Shahzadeh Fazeli, Seyed; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Ventosa, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, straight rod-shaped, non-pigmented, slightly halophilic and alkaliphilic bacterium, designated strain GBPy7T, was isolated from a sample of the coastal-marine wetland Gomishan in Iran. Cells of strain GBPy7T were motile. Growth occurred on media with 1-15 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 3 %), at pH 7-10 (optimum pH 8.5) and at 4-45 °C (optimum 37 °C). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison indicated that strain GBPy7T belonged to the family Idiomarinaceae. Its closest relatives were Aliidiomarina shirensis AIST (98.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and other Aliidiomarina species (95.9-94.2 %), together with Idiomarina seosinensis CL-SP19T (94.3 %) and Idiomarina fontislapidosi F23T (94.3 %). The major cellular fatty acids of the isolate were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0, iso-C17 : 1ω9c and C18 : 1ω7c and its polar lipid profile comprised phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown phospholipid and one unknown aminophospholipid. Cells of strain GBPy7T contained ubiquinone Q-8. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of this strain was 51.6 mol%. The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain GBPy7T and A. shirensis IBRC-M 10414T was 21 %. The physiological, biochemical, genotypic and phylogenetic differences between strain GBPy7T and other previously described taxa indicate that the strain represents a novel species of the genus Aliidiomarina within the family Idiomarinaceae, for which the name Aliidiomarina iranensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GBPy7T ( = IBRC-M 10763T = CECT 8339T).

  17. Inhibitory activity of an extract from a marine bacterium Halomonas sp. HSB07 against the red-tide microalga Gymnodinium sp. (Pyrrophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Juan; Li, Fuchao; Liu, Ling; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Zhaopu

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, red tides occurred frequently in coastal areas worldwide. Various methods based on the use of clay, copper sulfate, and bacteria have been successful in controlling red tides to some extent. As a new defensive agent, marine microorganisms are important sources of compounds with potent inhibitory bioactivities against red-tide microalgae, such as Gymnodinium sp. (Pyrrophyta). In this study, we isolated a marine bacterium, HSB07, from seawater collected from Hongsha Bay, Sanya, South China Sea. Based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence and biochemical characteristics, the isolated strain HSB07 was identified as a member of the genus Halomonas. A crude ethyl acetate extract of strain HSB07 showed moderate inhibition activity against Gymnodinium sp. in a bioactive prescreening experiment. The extract was further separated into fractions A, B, and C by silica gel column chromatography. Fractions B and C showed strong inhibition activities against Gymnodinium. This is the first report of inhibitory activity of secondary metabolites of a Halomonas bacterium against a red-tide-causing microalga.

  18. A halotolerant thermostable lipase from the marine bacterium Oceanobacillus sp. PUMB02 with an ability to disrupt bacterial biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Seghal Kiran, George; Nishanth Lipton, Anuj; Kennedy, Jonathan; Dobson, Alan DW; Selvin, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    A halotolerant thermostable lipase was purified and characterized from the marine bacterium Oceanobacillus sp. PUMB02. This lipase displayed a high degree of stability over a wide range of conditions including pH, salinity, and temperature. It was optimally active at 30 °C and pH 8.0 respectively and was stable at higher temperatures (50–70 °C) and alkaline pH. The molecular mass of the lipase was approximately 31 kDa based on SDS-PAGE and MALDI-ToF fingerprint analysis. Conditions for enhanced production of lipase by Oceanobacillus sp. PUMB02 were attained in response surface method-guided optimization with factors such as olive oil, sucrose, potassium chromate, and NaCl being evaluated, resulting in levels of 58.84 U/ml being achieved. The biofilm disruption potential of the PUMB02 lipase was evaluated and compared with a marine sponge metagenome derived halotolerant lipase Lpc53E1. Good biofilm disruption activity was observed with both lipases against potential food pathogens such as Bacillus cereus MTCC1272, Listeria sp. MTCC1143, Serratia sp. MTCC4822, Escherichia coli MTCC443, Pseudomonas fluorescens MTCC1748, and Vibrio parahemolyticus MTCC459. Phase contrast microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed very effective disruption of pathogenic biofilms. This study reveals that marine derived hydrolytic enzymes such as lipases may have potential utility in inhibiting biofilm formation in a food processing environment and is the first report of the potential application of lipases from the genus Oceanobacillus in biofilm disruption strategies. PMID:25482232

  19. Kocuria subflava sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment from the Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhao; Zhang, Wei-Hua; Yuan, Chang-Guo; Chen, Jia-Yang; Cao, Li-Xiang; Park, Dong-Jin; Xiao, Min; Kim, Chang-Jin; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-12-01

    A novel Gram-staining positive, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, aerobic, non-motile coccus, designated strain YIM 13062(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from the Indian Ocean. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM 13062(T) belongs to the genus Kocuria, and is closely related to Kocuria polaris NBRC 103063(T) (97.8 % similarity), Kocuria rosea NBRC 3768(T) (97.6 % similarity) and Kocuria carniphila JCM 14118(T) (97.4 % similarity). The strain grew optimally at 28 °C, pH 8.0 and in the presence of 2-4 % (w/v) NaCl. Cell-wall peptidoglycan type was Lys-Ala3 (type A3α). The major isoprenoid quinones were MK-6(H2) and MK-7(H2). The polar lipids of strain YIM 13062(T) consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), one unidentified phospholipid (PL), one unidentified aminophospholipid (APL), two unidentified aminolipids (AL) and four unidentified lipids (L). Major fatty acids of the novel isolate were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C14:0 and C18:1 2OH. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain YIM 13062(T) was 68.0 mol%. The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain YIM 13062(T) and K. polaris NBRC 103063(T), K. rosea NBRC 3768(T), K. carniphila JCM 14118(T) were 53.2, 48.8 and 42.6 %, respectively. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic data, it is apparent that strain YIM 13062(T) represents a novel species of the genus Kocuria, for which the name Kocuria subflava sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 13062(T) (=CGMCC 4.7252(T)=KCTC 39547(T)).

  20. Nocardioides nanhaiensis sp. nov., an actinobacterium isolated from a marine sediment sample.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dao-Feng; Zhong, Jing-Mei; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Jiang, Zhao; Zhou, En-Min; Tian, Xin-Peng; Zhang, Si; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-08-01

    A rod- to coccus-shaped, non-spore-forming actinobacterium, strain YIM M13091(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from the South China Sea and examined by a polyphasic approach to clarify its taxonomic position. This Gram-staining-positive, aerobic actinobacterium did not produce substrate mycelium and aerial hyphae, and no diffusible pigments were produced on the media tested. The optimum growth occurred at 30 °C, 1% (w/v) NaCl and pH 8.0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate belongs to the genus Nocardioides, with low levels (≤96.2%) of sequence similarity with respect to Nocardioides kribbensis KSL-2(T) and other members of the genus Nocardioides. Whole-organism hydrolysates of the strain contained ll-2,6-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The predominant menaquinone was MK-8(H4), with MK-8 in a minor amount. Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, hydroxyphosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine, were the main polar lipids detected, while iso-C(16 : 0) and C(18 : 1)ω9c were the major fatty acids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.5 mol%. Based on phylogenetic analysis, phenotypic and genotypic data, it is concluded that the isolate represents a member of the genus Nocardioides, and the name Nocardioides nanhaiensis sp. nov. (Type strain YIM M13091(T) = JCM 18127(T) = CCTCC AA 2011020(T)) is proposed for the novel species.

  1. Kocuria subflava sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment from the Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhao; Zhang, Wei-Hua; Yuan, Chang-Guo; Chen, Jia-Yang; Cao, Li-Xiang; Park, Dong-Jin; Xiao, Min; Kim, Chang-Jin; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-12-01

    A novel Gram-staining positive, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, aerobic, non-motile coccus, designated strain YIM 13062(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from the Indian Ocean. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM 13062(T) belongs to the genus Kocuria, and is closely related to Kocuria polaris NBRC 103063(T) (97.8 % similarity), Kocuria rosea NBRC 3768(T) (97.6 % similarity) and Kocuria carniphila JCM 14118(T) (97.4 % similarity). The strain grew optimally at 28 °C, pH 8.0 and in the presence of 2-4 % (w/v) NaCl. Cell-wall peptidoglycan type was Lys-Ala3 (type A3α). The major isoprenoid quinones were MK-6(H2) and MK-7(H2). The polar lipids of strain YIM 13062(T) consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), one unidentified phospholipid (PL), one unidentified aminophospholipid (APL), two unidentified aminolipids (AL) and four unidentified lipids (L). Major fatty acids of the novel isolate were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C14:0 and C18:1 2OH. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain YIM 13062(T) was 68.0 mol%. The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain YIM 13062(T) and K. polaris NBRC 103063(T), K. rosea NBRC 3768(T), K. carniphila JCM 14118(T) were 53.2, 48.8 and 42.6 %, respectively. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic data, it is apparent that strain YIM 13062(T) represents a novel species of the genus Kocuria, for which the name Kocuria subflava sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 13062(T) (=CGMCC 4.7252(T)=KCTC 39547(T)). PMID:26362332

  2. Sphingomonas molluscorum sp. nov., a novel marine isolate with antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Uchino, Masataka; Frolova, Galina M; Tanaka, Naoto; Kalinovskaya, Natalia I; Latyshev, Nicolai; Mikhailov, Valery V

    2007-02-01

    An aerobic, Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented, non-motile bacterium, designated strain KMM 3882T, was isolated from a marine bivalve (Anadara broughtoni) collected from Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan, and was subjected to phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses. Strain KMM 3882T was found to exert a remarkable inhibitory activity against a number of Gram-positive micro-organisms. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed strain KMM 3882T within the genus Sphingomonas, as an independent lineage adjacent to Sphingomonas dokdonensis DS-4T and Sphingomonas panni DSM 15761T. Strain KMM 3882T showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Sphingomonas dokdonensis DS-4T (97.3 %); similarities of 96.5-96.7 % were obtained with Sphingomonas pituitosa DSM 13101T, Sphingomonas azotifigens NBRC 15497T, Sphingomonas asaccharolytica NBRC 15499T, Sphingomonas trueperi DSM 7225T and Sphingomonas panni DSM 15761T. Chemotaxonomically, strain KMM 3882T contained sphingoglycolipid, C(16 : 0) and C(18 : 1) as predominant fatty acids and 2-OH C(14 : 0) as a major 2-hydroxy fatty acid, confirming the affiliation of strain KMM 3882T with the genus Sphingomonas. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological and biochemical characterization, strain KMM 3882T should be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonas molluscorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KMM 3882T (=An 18T=NRIC 0685T=JCM 14122T=CIP 109223T).

  3. Actinophytocola sediminis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from a marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dao-Feng; Jiang, Zhao; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Yang, Ling-Ling; Tian, Xin-Peng; Long, Li-Juan; Zhang, Si; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-08-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, designated YIM M13705(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample of the South China Sea and its characteristics were determined by a polyphasic approach. The slowly growing, Gram-stain-positive, aerobic strain produced branched substrate mycelium and aerial hyphae, and no diffusible pigment was produced on the media tested. At maturity, spore chains were formed on aerial hyphae and substrate mycelium was not fragmented. Whole-cell hydrolysates of the strain contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and galactose, glucose, ribose and rhamnose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H4) and MK-10(H2). The polar lipids detected were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxyphosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and ninhydrin-positive phosphoglycolipids. The major fatty acid was iso-C(16 : 0). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.2 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence, the strain was shown to be most closely related to species of the genus Actinophytocola. DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness values (<70%) of the isolate with its closest neighbour Actinophytocola xinjiangensis QAIII60(T) supported classification of the isolate as a representative of a novel species. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, and phenotypic and genotypic data, it is concluded that the new isolate belongs to a novel species of the genus Actinophytocola, for which the name Actinophytocola sediminis sp. nov. (type strain YIM M13705(T) = DSM 45939(T) = BCRC 16956(T)) is proposed. PMID:24867173

  4. Ornithinimicrobium algicola sp. nov., a marine actinobacterium isolated from the green alga of the genus Ulva.

    PubMed

    Ramaprasad, E V V; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-staining-positive, non-spore-forming actinobacterium, strain JC311T, isolated from marine green alga of the genus Ulva was studied to examine its taxonomic position. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies, strain JC311T was shown represent a member of the genus Ornithinimicrobium and to be closely related to Ornithinimicrobium pekingense LW6T (98.6 %), Ornithinimicrobium kibberense K22-20T (98.3 %) and Ornithinimicrobium humiphilum HKI 0124T (98.1 %). However, strain JC311T showed less than 22 % DNA reassociation value (based on DNA-DNA hybridization) with O. pekingense JCM14001T, O. kibberense JCM12763T and O. humiphilum KCTC19901T. The predominant menaquinone of strain JC311T was MK-8(H4). The peptidoglycan contained l-ornithine as the diagnostic diamino acid. The polar lipid profile consisted of the lipids diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, glycophospholipid, aminophospholipid, phospholipid and two unidentified lipids. The major fatty acids iso-C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 1ω9c and iso-C17 : 0 were consistent with the fatty acid patterns reported for members of the genus Ornithinimicrobium. The distinct genomic, morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic differences from the previously described taxa support the classification of JC311T as a representative of a novel species of the genus Ornithinimicrobium, for which we propose the name Ornithinimicrobium algicola sp. nov., with the type strain JC311T ( = KCTC 39559 T =  LMG 28808T).

  5. Housing tubes from the marine worm Chaetopterus sp.: biomaterials with exceptionally broad thermomechanical properties

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Darshil U.; Vollrath, Fritz; Porter, David; Stires, John; Deheyn, Dimitri D.

    2014-01-01

    The housing tube material of the marine worm Chaetopterus sp. exhibits thermal stability up to 250°C, similar to other biological materials such as mulberry silkworm cocoons. Interestingly, however, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis conducted in both air and water elucidated the lack of a glass transition in the organic tube wall material. In fact, the viscoelastic properties of the anhydrous and undried tube were remarkably stable (i.e. constant and reversible) between –75°C and 200°C in air, and 5°C and 75°C in water, respectively. Moreover, it was found that hydration and associated-water plasticization were key to the rubber-like flexible properties of the tube; dehydration transformed the material behaviour to glass-like. The tube is made of bionanocomposite fibrils in highly oriented arrangement, which we argue favours the biomaterial to be highly crystalline or cross-linked, with extensive hydrogen and/or covalent bonds. Mechanical property characterization in the longitudinal and transverse directions ascertained that the tubes were not quasi-isotropic structures. In general, the higher stiffness and strength in the transverse direction implied that there were more nanofibrils orientated at ±45° and ±65° than at 0° to the tube axis. The order of the mechanical properties of the soft–tough tubes was similar to synthetic rubber-like elastomers and even some viscid silks. The complex structure–property relations observed indicated that the worm has evolved to produce a tubular housing structure which can (i) function stably over a broad range of temperatures, (ii) endure mechanical stresses from specific planes/axes, and (iii) facilitate rapid growth or repair. PMID:25008085

  6. Defluviimonas indica sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent environment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lijing; Xu, Hongxiu; Shao, Zongze; Long, Minnan

    2014-06-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, chemoheterotrophic marine bacterium, designated 20V17(T), was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney collected from the South-west Indian Ridge. Cells of strain 20V17(T) were motile, short rods, 1.2-1.8 µm in length and 0.5-0.7 µm in width. Growth was observed at between 20 and 37 °C (optimum 25 °C-28 °C), pH 5.0 and 8.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and 0.5 and 8% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 1.5-2.0% NaCl). The major fatty acids were C(18 : 1)ω7c (74.4%), C(19 : 0) cyclo ω8c (11%), C(18 : 0) (5.1%) and C(18 : 0) 3-OH (2.8%), and the polar lipid profile comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified glycolipid and four unidentified phospholipids. Ubiquinone 10 was the major quinone. The G+C content of genomic DNA was 66.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain 20V17(T) belonged to the genus Defluviimonas and shared 96.5 and 96.1% sequence similarity with Defluviimonas denitrificans D9-3(T) and Defluviimonas aestuarii BS14(T), respectively. On the basis of the taxonomic data obtained in this study, strain 20V17(T) represents a novel species of the genus Defluviimonas, for which the name Defluviimonas indica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 20V17(T) (CGMCC 1.10859(T) = JCM 17871(T) = MCCC 1A01802(T)).

  7. [Identification of tetracenomycin X from a marine-derived Saccharothrix sp. guided by genes sequence analysis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Tan, Yi; Gan, Mao-Luo; Zhou, Hong-Xia; Wang, Yi-Guang; Ping, Yu-Hui; Li, Bin; Yang, Zhao-Yong; Xiao, Chun-Ling

    2014-02-01

    The crude extracts of the fermentation broth from a marine sediment-derived actinomycete strain, Saccharothrix sp. 10-10, showed significant antibacterial activities against drug-resistant pathogens. A genome-mining PCR-based experiment targeting the genes encoding key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites indicated that the strain 10-10 showed the potential to produce tetracenomycin-like compounds. Further chemical investigation of the cultures of this strain led to the identification of two antibiotics, including a tetracenomycin (Tcm) analogs, Tcm X (1), and a tomaymycin derivative, oxotomaymycin (2). Their structures were identified by spectroscopic data analysis, including UV, 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR and MS spectra. Tcm X (1) showed moderate antibacterial activities against a number of drug-resistant pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) pathogens, with the MIC values in the range of 32-64 microg x mL(-1). In addition, 1 also displayed significant cytotoxic activities against human cancer cell lines, including HL60 (leukemia), HepG2 (liver), and MCF-7 (breast) with the IC 50 values of 5.1, 9.7 and 18.0 micromol x L(-1), respectively. Guided by the PCR-based gene sequence analysis, Tcm X (1) and oxotomaymycin (2) were identified from the genus of Saccharothrix and their 13C NMR data were correctly assigned on the basis of 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis for the first time. PMID:24761614

  8. Enhanced textile dye decolorization by marine-derived basidiomycete Peniophora sp. CBMAI 1063 using integrated statistical design.

    PubMed

    Bonugli-Santos, Rafaella C; Vieira, Gabriela A L; Collins, Catherine; Fernandes, Thaís Cristina C; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida; Murray, Patrick; Sette, Lara D

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, the biotechnological potential of the marine-derived fungus Peniophora sp. CBMAI 1063 was investigated in relation to Reactive Black 5 (RB5) dye decolorization and degradation using an integrated statistical design composed of Plackett-Burman design (P&B), central composite design (CCD), and response surface methodology (RSM). RB5 dye was effectively decolorized (94 %) in saline conditions, without any detection of mutagenic compounds, and simultaneously, 57 % of total organic carbon (TOC) was removed in 7 days. The activity of lignin peroxidase (LiP) was not detected during the process. The gene expression of laccase (Lac) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) enzymes produced during the process was evaluated, and results from this experiment coupled with LC-MS analyses revealed that in the early stage of dye decolorization, a higher MnP gene expression and significant enzymatic activity was detected in Peniophora sp. CBMAI 1063 with the formation of p-Base and TAHNDS compounds. This paper reports innovative data related to the textile dye decolorization by the marine-derived basidiomycete Peniophora sp. CBMAI 1063, showing the metabolites formed and enzymatic action throughout the process in saline condition. The strategy used showed to be an efficient statistical approach that provides an attractive solution for the screening and simultaneous optimization of the degradation process.

  9. Optimization of culturing condition and medium composition for the production of alginate lyase by a marine Vibrio sp. YKW-34

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiaoting; Lin, Hong; Kim, Sang Moo

    2008-02-01

    Carbohydrases secreted by marine Vibrio sp. YKW-34 with strong Laminaria cell wall degrading ability were screened, and among them alginate lyase was found to be dominant. The effects of medium composition and culturing condition on the production of alginate lyase by marine Vibrio sp. YKW-34 in flask were investigated in this study. In the culture medium of marine broth, no alginate lyase was produced. The activity of the alginate lyase, after being induced, reached 5 UmL-1. The best inoculum volume and inoculum age were 10% and 12 h, respectively. The optimal temperature for alginate lyase production was 25°C. The fermentation medium was composed of 0.5% of Laminaria powder and 0.2% of KNO3 with an initial acidity of pH 8.0. Alginate could induce alginate lyase production but not as efficiently as Laminaria powder did. The addition of fucoidan, cellulose and glucose had negative effect on the alginate lyase production. Other kinds of nitrogen sources, such as yeast extract, beef extract and peptone, had positive effect on the growth of the microorganism and negative effect on alginate lyase production. In addition, the time course of alginate lyase production under the optimized condition was described. The optimal harvest time was 48 h.

  10. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Rapid Secondary-Metabolite Profiling of Marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. M2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo Jung; Kim, Young Ok; Kim, Jin Hee; Nam, Bo-Hye; Kim, Dong-Gyun; An, Cheul Min; Lee, Jun Sik; Kim, Pan Soo; Lee, Hye Min; Oh, Joa-Sup; Lee, Jong Suk

    2016-01-20

    The ocean is a rich resource of flora, fauna, and food. A wild-type bacterial strain showing confluent growth on marine agar with antibacterial activity was isolated from marine water, identified using 16S rDNA sequence analysis as Pseudoalteromonas sp., and designated as strain M2. This strain was found to produce various secondary metabolites including quinolone alkaloids. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, we identified nine secondary metabolites of 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinoline (pseudane-III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, and XI). Additionally, this strain produced two novel, closely related compounds, 2-isopentylqunoline-4-one and 2-(2,3-dimetylbutyl)qunoline-4-(1H)-one, which have not been previously reported from marine bacteria. From the metabolites produced by Pseudoalteromonas sp. M2, 2-(2,3-dimethylbutyl)quinolin-4-one, pseudane-VI, and pseudane-VII inhibited melanin synthesis in Melan-A cells by 23.0%, 28.2%, and 42.7%, respectively, wherein pseudane-VII showed the highest inhibition at 8 µg/mL. The results of this study suggest that liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS-based metabolite screening effectively improves the efficiency of novel metabolite discovery. Additionally, these compounds are promising candidates for further bioactivity development.

  11. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Rapid Secondary-Metabolite Profiling of Marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. M2

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woo Jung; Kim, Young Ok; Kim, Jin Hee; Nam, Bo-Hye; Kim, Dong-Gyun; An, Cheul Min; Lee, Jun Sik; Kim, Pan Soo; Lee, Hye Min; Oh, Joa-Sup; Lee, Jong Suk

    2016-01-01

    The ocean is a rich resource of flora, fauna, and food. A wild-type bacterial strain showing confluent growth on marine agar with antibacterial activity was isolated from marine water, identified using 16S rDNA sequence analysis as Pseudoalteromonas sp., and designated as strain M2. This strain was found to produce various secondary metabolites including quinolone alkaloids. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, we identified nine secondary metabolites of 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinoline (pseudane-III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, and XI). Additionally, this strain produced two novel, closely related compounds, 2-isopentylqunoline-4-one and 2-(2,3-dimetylbutyl)qunoline-4-(1H)-one, which have not been previously reported from marine bacteria. From the metabolites produced by Pseudoalteromonas sp. M2, 2-(2,3-dimethylbutyl)quinolin-4-one, pseudane-VI, and pseudane-VII inhibited melanin synthesis in Melan-A cells by 23.0%, 28.2%, and 42.7%, respectively, wherein pseudane-VII showed the highest inhibition at 8 µg/mL. The results of this study suggest that liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS-based metabolite screening effectively improves the efficiency of novel metabolite discovery. Additionally, these compounds are promising candidates for further bioactivity development. PMID:26805856

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Rhodovulum sp. Strain NI22, a Naphthalene-Degrading Marine Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lisa M.; Gunasekera, Thusitha S.; Bowen, Loryn L.

    2015-01-01

    Rhodovulum sp. strain NI22 is a hydrocarbon-degrading member of the genus Rhodovulum. The draft genome of Rhodovulum sp. NI22 is 3.8 Mb in size, with 3,756 coding sequences and 64.4% G+C content. The catechol and gentisate pathways for naphthalene degradation are predicted to be present in Rhodovulum sp. NI22. PMID:25614575

  13. Dispensability of a sulfolipid for photoautotrophic cell growth and photosynthesis in a marine cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002.

    PubMed

    Sato, Norihiro; Kamimura, Ryohei; Tsuzuki, Mikio

    2016-09-01

    Sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol, which mainly comprises thylakoid membranes in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, plays species-dependent roles in freshwater microbes. In this study, a sulfoquinovosyl-diacylglycerol deficient mutant was generated in a cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, for the first time among marine microbes to gain more insight into its physiological significance. The mutation had little deleterious impact on photoautotrophic cell growth, and functional and structural properties of the photosystem II complex. These findings were similar to previous observations for a freshwater cyanobacterium, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, but were distinct from those for another freshwater cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, and a green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, both of which require sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol for cell growth and/or photosystem II. Therefore, the functionality of PSII to dispense with sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, similar to that in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, seemed to have been excluded from the evolution of the PSII complex from cyanobacteria to green algal chloroplasts. Meanwhile, sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol was found to contribute to photoheterotrophic growth of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, which revealed a novel species-dependent strategy for utilizing SQDG in physiological processes. PMID:27372425

  14. The Inhibition and Resistance Mechanisms of Actinonin, Isolated from Marine Streptomyces sp. NHF165, against Vibrio anguillarum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Na; Sun, Chaomin

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio sp. is the most serious pathogen in marine aquaculture, and the development of anti-Vibrio agents is urgently needed. However, it is extreme lack of high-throughput screening (HTS) model for searching anti-Vibrio compounds. Here, we established a protein-based HTS screening model to identify agents targeting peptide deformylase (PDF) of Vibrio anguillarum. To find potential anti-Vibrio compounds, crude extracts derived from marine actinomycetes were applied for screening with this model. Notably, crude extract of strain Streptomyces sp. NHF165 inhibited dramatically both on V. anguillarum PDF (VaPDF) activity and V. anguillarum cell growth. And actinonin was further identified as the functional component. Anti-VaPDF and anti-V. anguillarum activities of actinonin were dose-dependent, and the IC50 values were 6.94 and 2.85 μM, respectively. To understand the resistance of V. anguillarum against actinonin, spontaneous V. anguillarum mutants with resistance against actinonin were isolated. Surprisingly, for the resistant strains, the region between 774 and 852 base pairs was found to be absent in the gene folD which produces 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate, a donor of N-formyl to Met-tRNA(fmet). When compared to the wild type strain, ΔfolD mutant showed eight times of minimum inhibition concentration on actinonin, however, the folD complementary strain could not grow on the medium supplemented with actinonin, which suggested that folD gene mutation was mainly responsible for the actinonin resistance. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that marine derived Streptomyces sp. could produce actinonin with anti-VaPDF activity and the resistance against actinonin by V. anguillarum is mediated by mutation in folD gene. PMID:27679625

  15. The Inhibition and Resistance Mechanisms of Actinonin, Isolated from Marine Streptomyces sp. NHF165, against Vibrio anguillarum

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Na; Sun, Chaomin

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio sp. is the most serious pathogen in marine aquaculture, and the development of anti-Vibrio agents is urgently needed. However, it is extreme lack of high-throughput screening (HTS) model for searching anti-Vibrio compounds. Here, we established a protein-based HTS screening model to identify agents targeting peptide deformylase (PDF) of Vibrio anguillarum. To find potential anti-Vibrio compounds, crude extracts derived from marine actinomycetes were applied for screening with this model. Notably, crude extract of strain Streptomyces sp. NHF165 inhibited dramatically both on V. anguillarum PDF (VaPDF) activity and V. anguillarum cell growth. And actinonin was further identified as the functional component. Anti-VaPDF and anti-V. anguillarum activities of actinonin were dose-dependent, and the IC50 values were 6.94 and 2.85 μM, respectively. To understand the resistance of V. anguillarum against actinonin, spontaneous V. anguillarum mutants with resistance against actinonin were isolated. Surprisingly, for the resistant strains, the region between 774 and 852 base pairs was found to be absent in the gene folD which produces 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate, a donor of N-formyl to Met-tRNAfmet. When compared to the wild type strain, ΔfolD mutant showed eight times of minimum inhibition concentration on actinonin, however, the folD complementary strain could not grow on the medium supplemented with actinonin, which suggested that folD gene mutation was mainly responsible for the actinonin resistance. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that marine derived Streptomyces sp. could produce actinonin with anti-VaPDF activity and the resistance against actinonin by V. anguillarum is mediated by mutation in folD gene. PMID:27679625

  16. The Inhibition and Resistance Mechanisms of Actinonin, Isolated from Marine Streptomyces sp. NHF165, against Vibrio anguillarum

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Na; Sun, Chaomin

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio sp. is the most serious pathogen in marine aquaculture, and the development of anti-Vibrio agents is urgently needed. However, it is extreme lack of high-throughput screening (HTS) model for searching anti-Vibrio compounds. Here, we established a protein-based HTS screening model to identify agents targeting peptide deformylase (PDF) of Vibrio anguillarum. To find potential anti-Vibrio compounds, crude extracts derived from marine actinomycetes were applied for screening with this model. Notably, crude extract of strain Streptomyces sp. NHF165 inhibited dramatically both on V. anguillarum PDF (VaPDF) activity and V. anguillarum cell growth. And actinonin was further identified as the functional component. Anti-VaPDF and anti-V. anguillarum activities of actinonin were dose-dependent, and the IC50 values were 6.94 and 2.85 μM, respectively. To understand the resistance of V. anguillarum against actinonin, spontaneous V. anguillarum mutants with resistance against actinonin were isolated. Surprisingly, for the resistant strains, the region between 774 and 852 base pairs was found to be absent in the gene folD which produces 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate, a donor of N-formyl to Met-tRNAfmet. When compared to the wild type strain, ΔfolD mutant showed eight times of minimum inhibition concentration on actinonin, however, the folD complementary strain could not grow on the medium supplemented with actinonin, which suggested that folD gene mutation was mainly responsible for the actinonin resistance. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that marine derived Streptomyces sp. could produce actinonin with anti-VaPDF activity and the resistance against actinonin by V. anguillarum is mediated by mutation in folD gene.

  17. Lysobacter hymeniacidonis sp. nov., isolated from a crude oil-contaminated marine sponge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yanjuan; Qu, Junge; Xu, Junyi; Wu, Peichun; Cao, Xupeng; Xue, Song

    2015-12-01

    An aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium, strain 2-5T, was isolated from a crude oil-contaminated marine sponge collected near Dalian Bay, China, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic investigation. Cells of strain 2-5T were non-spore forming, non-motile, rods 0.2-0.3 µm wide and 1.1-1.2µm long. Strain 2-5T grew well on nutrient agar, TSA, R2A agar and LB agar. Colonies of strain 2-5T on LB agar were circular, smooth with entire margins, non-transparent and pale yellow after 3 d of incubation at 30°C. Growth of strain 2-5T occurred in LN medium with 0-6% NaCl; no growth occurred in the presence of 8.0% NaCl. Strain 2-5T grew at 15-42°C and at pH 6.0-8.0. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 2-5T clustered with the species of the genus Lysobacter. Its closet neighbors were the type strains of Lysobacter concretionis KCTC 12205T (97% similarity), Lysobacter arseniciresistens ZS79T (96%), and Lysobacter defluii APB-9T (96%). The value for DNA-DNA relatedness between strain 2-5T and L. concretionis KCTC 12205T was 23%. Branched fatty acids iso-C16: 0, iso-C15: 0, iso-C 11: 0 3-OH, iso-C17: 1ω9 c and iso-C11: 0 were found to be predominant. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. Strain 2-5T had a DNA G+C content of 63.8 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, DNA-DNA hybridization and phylogenetic data, strain 2-5T represents a novel species of the genus Lysobacter, for which the name Lysobacter hymeniacidonis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 2-5T (=CGMCC 1.12190T = JCM 18137T).

  18. Shewanella arctica sp. nov., an iron-reducing bacterium isolated from Arctic marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Jeong; Park, Soo-Je; Oh, Yong-Sik; Lee, Sang-Ah; Shin, Kee-Sun; Roh, Dong-Hyun; Rhee, Sung-Keun

    2012-05-01

    Two strains of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria, which could couple lactate oxidation to iron reduction for energy conservation, were isolated from Arctic marine sediment. The strains, IR12(T) and IR26, were both Gram-staining-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive and facultative anaerobes. Their cells were rod-shaped and motile by means of a polar flagellum. Both strains grew in the presence of 0.5-3.5 % (w/v) NaCl, with an absolute requirement for Na(+). Both were psychrotolerant since they could grow at 4-28 °C but had an optimum growth temperature of 20 °C. Both grew at pH 4.5-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.5). The major fatty acids of strains IR12(T) and IR26 were summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)ω6c and/or C(16 : 1)ω7c) and C(16 : 0). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strains IR12(T) and IR26 belonged to the class Gammaproteobacteria and were most closely related to Shewanella vesiculosa M7(T), Shewanella livingstonensis NF22(T) and Shewanella frigidimarina ACAM 591(T) (with 98.5 and 98.8 %, 98.5 and 98.8 %, and 98.5 and 98.8 % sequence similarities, respectively). The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains IR12(T) and IR26 were 40.0 and 40.3 mol%, respectively. DNA-DNA relatedness data indicated that the two novel strains represented a single species that was distinct from S. vesiculosa M7(T), S. livingstonensis NF22(T) and S. frigidimarina ACAM 591(T). Based on the phylogenetic, phenotypic and DNA-DNA relatedness data, the two new strains represent a single novel species of the genus Shewanella, for which the name Shewanella arctica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IR12(T) ( = KCTC 23109(T) = JCM 16723(T)).

  19. Pretreatment for simultaneous production of total lipids and fermentable sugars from marine alga, Chlorella sp.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choon-Geun; Kang, Do-Hyung; Lee, Dong-Bog; Lee, Hyeon-Yong

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the optimal pretreatment process for the extraction of lipids and reducing sugars to facilitate the simultaneous production of biodiesel and bioethanol from the marine microalga Chorella sp. With a single pretreatment process, the optimal ultrasonication pretreatment process was 10 min at 47 KHz, and extraction yields of 6.5 and 7.1 (percentage, w/w) of the lipids and reducing sugars, respectively, were obtained. The optimal microwave pretreatment process was 10 min at 2,450 MHz, and extraction yields of 6.6 and 7.0 (percentage, w/w) of the lipids and reducing sugars, respectively, were obtained. Lastly, the optimal high-pressure homogenization pretreatment process was two cycles at a pressure of 20,000 psi, and extraction yields of 12.5 and 12.8 (percentage, w/w) of the lipids and reducing sugars, respectively, were obtained. However, because the single pretreatment processes did not markedly improve the extraction yields compared to the results of previous studies, a combination of two pretreatment processes was applied. The yields of lipids and reducing sugars from the combined application of the high-pressure homogenization process and the microwave process were 24.4 and 24.9 % (w/w), respectively, which was up to three times greater than the yields obtained using the single pretreatment processes. Furthermore, the oleic acid content, which is a fatty acid suitable for biodiesel production, was 23.39 % of the fatty acids (w/w). The contents of glucose and xylose, which are among the fermentable sugars useful for bioethanol production, were 77.5 and 13.3 % (w/w) of the fermentable sugars, respectively, suggesting the possibility of simultaneously producing biodiesel and bioethanol. Based on the results of this study, the combined application of the high-pressure homogenization and microwave pretreatment processes is the optimal method to increase the extraction yields of lipids and reducing sugars that are essential for

  20. Kinetics of Mn(II) oxidation by spores of the marine Bacillus sp. SG-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Tebo, Bradley M.

    2016-09-01

    The kinetics of Mn(II) oxidation by spores of the marine Bacillus sp. SG-1 was measured under controlled conditions of the initial Mn(II) concentration, spore concentration, chemical speciation, pH, O2, and temperature. Mn(II) oxidation experiments were performed with spore concentrations ranging from 0.7 to 11 × 109 spores/L, a pH range from 5.8 to 8.1, temperatures between 4 and 58 °C, a range of dissolved oxygen from 2 to 270 μM, and initial Mn(II) concentrations from 1 to 200 μM. The Mn(II) oxidation rates were directly proportional to the spore concentrations over these ranges of concentration. The Mn(II) oxidation rate increased with increasing initial Mn(II) concentration to a critical concentration, as described by the Michaelis-Menten model (Km = ca. 3 μM). Whereas with starting Mn(II) concentrations above the critical concentration, the rate was almost constant in low ionic solution (I = 0.05, 0.08). At high ionic solution (I = 0.53, 0.68), the rate was inversely correlated with Mn(II) concentration. Increase in the Mn(II) oxidation rate with the dissolved oxygen concentration followed the Michaelis-Menten model (Km = 12-19 μM DO) in both a HEPES-buffered commercial drinking (soft) water and in artificial and natural seawater. Overall, our results suggest that the mass transport limitations of Mn(II) ions due to secondary Mn oxide products accumulating on the spores cause a significant decrease of the oxidation rate at higher initial Mn(II) concentration on a spore basis, as well as in more concentrated ionic solutions. The optimum pH for Mn(II) oxidation was approximately 7.0 in low ionic solutions (I = 0.08). The high rates at the alkaline side (pH > 7.5) may suggest a contribution by heterogeneous reactions on manganese bio-oxides. The effect of temperature on the Mn(II) oxidation rate was studied in three solutions (500 mM NaCl, ASW, NSW solutions). Thermal denaturation occurred at 58 °C and spore germination was evident at 40 °C in all three

  1. A Novel Erythromycin Resistance Plasmid from Bacillus Sp. Strain HS24, Isolated from the Marine Sponge Haliclona Simulans

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Dara; Morrissey, John P.; Adams, Claire; Dobson, Alan D. W.; O’Gara, Fergal

    2014-01-01

    A better understanding of the origin and natural reservoirs of resistance determinants is fundamental to efficiently tackle antibiotic resistance. This paper reports the identification of a novel 5.8 kb erythromycin resistance plasmid, from Bacillus sp. HS24 isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona simulans. pBHS24B has a mosaic structure and carries the erythromycin resistance gene erm(T). This is the first report of an erythromycin resistance plasmid from a sponge associated bacteria and of the Erm(T) determinant in the genus Bacillus. PMID:25548909

  2. Additional New Cytotoxic Triquinane-Type Sesquiterpenoids Chondrosterins K–M from the Marine Fungus Chondrostereum sp

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Lan, Wen-Jian; Deng, Rong; Feng, Gong-Kan; Xu, Qing-Yan; Hu, Zhi-Yu; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Hou-Jin

    2016-01-01

    By the method of 1H NMR prescreening and tracing the diagnostic proton signals of the methyl groups, three additional new triquinane-type sesquiterpenoids—chondrosterins K–M (1–3) and the known sesquiterpenoid anhydroarthrosporone (4)—were isolated from the marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of MS, 1D, and 2D NMR data. Chondrosterin K is a rare hirsutane sesquiterpenoid, in which a methyl group was migrated from C-2 to C-6 and has a double bond between C-2 and C-3. Compounds 1–3 showed significant cytotoxicities against various cancer cell lines in vitro. PMID:27571085

  3. New bisabolane sesquiterpenoids from a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. isolated from the sponge Xestospongia testudinaria.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ling-Ling; Shao, Chang-Lun; Chen, Jian-Feng; Guo, Zhi-Yong; Fu, Xiu-Mei; Chen, Min; Chen, Yi-Yan; Li, Rui; de Voogd, Nicole J; She, Zhi-Gang; Lin, Yong-Cheng; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2012-02-01

    Three new phenolic bisabolane sesquiterpenoid dimers, disydonols A-C (1-3), and one known compound (S)-(+)-sydonol (4) were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp., which was isolated from the sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectral analysis including 1D and 2D NMR spectra and HR-ESI-MS. These compounds were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against HepG-2 and Caski human tumour cell lines. Among them, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited cytotoxicity against the two cell lines.

  4. Apoptosis-Inducing Activity of Marine Sponge Haliclona sp. Extracts Collected from Kosrae in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Bae, Woori; Lim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Kyoung Mee; Cho, Hyosun; Lee, Sun Yi; Jeong, Choon-Sik; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Jung, Joohee

    2015-01-01

    Although various anticancer drugs have been developed for the treatment of nonsmall cell lung cancer, chemotherapeutic efficacy is still limited. Natural products such as phytochemicals have been screened as novel alternative materials, but alternative funds such as marine bioresources remain largely untapped. Of these resources, marine sponges have undergone the most scrutiny for their biological activities, including antiinflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer properties. However, the biological mechanisms of the activities of these marine sponges are still unclear. We investigated the anticancer activity of marine sponges collected from Kosrae in Micronesia and examined their mechanisms of action using nonsmall cell lung cancer A549 cells as a model system. Of 20 specimens, the Haliclona sp. (KO1304-328) showed both dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity. Further, methanol extracts of Haliclona sp. significantly inhibited cell proliferation and cell viability. A549 cells treated with Haliclona sp. demonstrated induced expression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p53, p21, caspase-8, and caspase-3. The percentage of apoptotic cells significantly increased in A549 cultures treated with Haliclona sp. These results indicate that Haliclona sp. induces apoptosis via the JNK-p53 pathway and caspase-8, suggesting that this marine sponge is a good resource for the development of drugs for treatment of nonsmall cell lung cancer. PMID:26236382

  5. Optimizing biodiesel production in marine Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4 through metabolic profiling and an innovative salinity-gradient strategy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biodiesel production from marine microalgae has received much attention as microalgae can be cultivated on non-arable land without the use of potable water, and with the additional benefits of mitigating CO2 emissions and yielding biomass. However, there is still a lack of effective operational strategies to promote lipid accumulation in marine microalgae, which are suitable for making biodiesel since they are mainly composed of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Moreover, the regulatory mechanisms involved in lipid biosynthesis in microalgae under environmental stress are not well understood. Results In this work, the combined effects of salinity and nitrogen depletion stresses on lipid accumulation of a newly isolated marine microalga, Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4, were explored. Metabolic intermediates were profiled over time to observe transient changes during the lipid accumulation triggered by the combination of the two stresses. An innovative cultivation strategy (denoted salinity-gradient operation) was also employed to markedly improve the lipid accumulation and lipid quality of the microalga, which attained an optimal lipid productivity of 223.2 mg L-1 d-1 and a lipid content of 59.4% per dry cell weight. This performance is significantly higher than reported in most related studies. Conclusions This work demonstrated the synergistic integration of biological and engineering technologies to develop a simple and effective strategy for the enhancement of oil production in marine microalgae. PMID:25002905

  6. Defluviimonas denitrificans gen. nov., sp. nov., and Pararhodobacter aggregans gen. nov., sp. nov., non-phototrophic Rhodobacteraceae from the biofilter of a marine aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Foesel, Bärbel U; Drake, Harold L; Schramm, Andreas

    2011-11-01

    Three Gram-negative bacterial strains were isolated from the biofilter of a recirculating marine aquaculture. They were non-pigmented rods, mesophiles, moderately halophilic, and showed chemo-organoheterotrophic growth on various sugars, fatty acids, and amino acids, with oxygen as electron acceptor; strains D9-3(T) and D11-58 were in addition able to denitrify. Phototrophic or fermentative growth could not be demonstrated. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences placed D9-3(T) and D11-58, and D1-19(T) on two distinct branches within the alpha-3 proteobacterial Rhodobacteraceae, affiliated with, but clearly separate from, the genera Rhodobacter, Rhodovulum, and Rhodobaca. Based on morphological, physiological, and 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic characteristics, the isolated strains are proposed as new species of two novel genera, Defluviimonas denitrificans gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain D9-3(T)=DSM 18921(T)=ATCC BAA-1447(T); additional strain D11-58=DSM19039=ATCC BAA-1448) and Pararhodobacter aggregans gen. nov., sp. nov (type strain D1-19(T)=DSM 18938(T)=ATCC BAA-1446(T)).

  7. Aliikangiella marina gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium from the culture broth of Picochlorum sp. 122, and proposal of Kangiellaceae fam. nov. in the order Oceanospirillales.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanghua; Tang, Mingxing; Wu, Huanlian; Dai, Shikun; Li, Tao; Chen, Chenghao; He, Hui; Fan, Jiewei; Xiang, Wenzhou; Li, Xiang

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, long rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain GYP-15T, was isolated from the culture broth of a marine microalga, Picochloruma sp. 122. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that strain GYP-15T shared 90.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with its closest relative, Kangiella aquimarina KCTC 12183T, and represents a distinct phylogenetic lineage in a robust clade consisting of GYP-15T and members of the genera Kangiella and Pleionea in the order Oceanospirillales. Chemotaxonomic and physiological characteristics, including major cellular fatty acids, NaCl tolerance and pattern of carbon source utilization, could also readily distinguish strain GYP-15T from all established genera and species. Thus, it is concluded that strain GYP-15T represents a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Aliikangiella marina gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Aliikangiella marina is GYP-15T ( = MCCC 1K01163T = KCTC 42667T). Based on phylogenetic results, 16S rRNA gene signature nucleotide pattern and some physiological characteristics, the three genera Kangiella, Pleionea and Aliikangiella are proposed to make up a novel family, Kangiellaceae fam. nov., in the order Oceanospirillales.

  8. Wenzhouxiangella marina gen. nov, sp. nov, a marine bacterium from the culture broth of Picochlorum sp. 122, and proposal of Wenzhouxiangellaceae fam. nov. in the order Chromatiales.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanghua; Tang, Mingxing; Li, Tao; Dai, Shikun; Wu, Huanlian; Chen, Chenghao; He, Hui; Fan, Jiewei; Xiang, Wenzhou; Li, Xiang

    2015-06-01

    A Gram-stain negative, non-motile, non-phototrophic, non-alkaliphilic, obligately aerobic, chemoheterotrophic, and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain Ma-11(T), was isolated from the culture broth of a marine microalga, Picochloruma sp. 122. Phylogenetic analyses showed that strain Ma-11(T) has less than 91 % similarity to its closest relative, Thioalkalivibrio sulfidiphilus HL-EbGR7(T), represents a distinct phylogenetic lineage in the order Chromatiales, and could not be assigned to any defined families in this order. Chemotaxonomic, genetic and physiological characteristics, including major fatty acids, genomic G+C content, lack of motility, aerophilicity and chemoheterotrophicity, could readily distinguish strain Ma-11(T) from any established members of the order Chromatiales. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and its signature nucleotide pattern, a new family Wenzhouxiangellaceae fam. nov. comprising the genus Wenzhouxiangella gen. nov. and species Wenzhouxiangella marina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Ma-11(T) (=CGMCC 1.14936(T) = KCTC 42284(T) = MCCC 1K00261(T)).

  9. Antioxidant alkaloid from the South China Sea marine sponge Iotrochota sp.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yonghong; Ji, Hong; Dong, Junde; Zhang, Si; Lee, Kyung Jin; Matthew, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Purpurone was isolated from the sponge Iotrochota sp. by bioactivity-guided fractionation. The compound showed antioxidant activity using the DPPH assay. The structure was established on the basis of NMR data and comparison with data reported.

  10. A Comparative biochemical study on two marine endophytes, Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS, Isolated from red sea algae.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Eman Fadl; Hassan, Hossam Mokhtar; Rateb, Mostafa Ezzat; Abdel-Wahab, Noha; Sameer, Somayah; Aly Taie, Hanan Anwar; Abdel-Hameed, Mohammed Sayed; Hammouda, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Two marine endophytic bacteria were isolated from the Red Sea algae; a red alga; Acanthophora dendroides and the brown alga Sargassum sabrepandum. The isolates were identified based on their 16SrRNA sequences as Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential anti-microbial and antioxidant activities of the extracts of the isolated bacteria grown in different nutrient conditions. Compared to amoxicillin (25μg/disk) and erythromycin (15μg/disk), the extracts of Bacterium SRCn min media II, III, IV and V were potent inhibitors of the gram-positive bacterium Sarcina maxima even at low concentrations. Also, the multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) was more sensitive to the metabolites produced in medium (II) of the same endophyte than erythromycin (15μg/disk). A moderate activity of the Bacillus sp. JS extracts of media I and II was obtained against the same pathogen. The total compounds (500ug/ml) of both isolated endophytes showed moderate antioxidant activities (48.9% and 46.1%, respectively). LC/MS analysis of the bacterial extracts was carried out to investigate the likely natural products produced. Cyclo(D-cis-Hyp-L-Leu), dihydrosphingosine and 2-Amino-1,3-hexadecanediol were identified in the fermentation medium of Bacterium SRCnm, whereas cyclo (D-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo (L-Leu-L-Pro) were the suggested compounds of Bacillus sp. JS. PMID:26826831

  11. Cobalt(II) Oxidation by the Marine Manganese(II)-Oxidizing Bacillus sp. Strain SG-1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon; Tebo, Bradley M.

    1994-01-01

    The geochemical cycling of cobalt (Co) has often been considered to be controlled by the scavenging and oxidation of Co(II) on the surface of manganese [Mn(III,IV)] oxides or manganates. Because Mn(II) oxidation in the environment is often catalyzed by bacteria, we have investigated the ability of Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria to bind and oxidize Co(II) in the absence of Mn(II) to determine whether some Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria also oxidize Co(II) independently of Mn oxidation. We used the marine Bacillus sp. strain SG-1, which produces mature spores that oxidize Mn(II), apparently due to a protein in their spore coats (R.A. Rosson and K. H. Nealson, J. Bacteriol. 151:1027-1034, 1982; J. P. M. de Vrind et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52:1096-1100, 1986). A method to measure Co(II) oxidation using radioactive 57Co as a tracer and treatments with nonradioactive (cold) Co(II) and ascorbate to discriminate bound Co from oxidized Co was developed. SG-1 spores were found to oxidize Co(II) over a wide range of pH, temperature, and Co(II) concentration. Leucoberbelin blue, a reagent that reacts with Mn(III,IV) oxides forming a blue color, was found to also react with Co(III) oxides and was used to verify the presence of oxidized Co in the absence of added Mn(II). Co(II) oxidation occurred optimally around pH 8 and between 55 and 65°C. SG-1 spores oxidized Co(II) at all Co(II) concentrations tested from the trace levels found in seawater to 100 mM. Co(II) oxidation was found to follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics. An Eadie-Hofstee plot of the data suggests that SG-1 spores have two oxidation systems, a high-affinity-low-rate system (Km, 3.3 × 10-8 M; Vmax, 1.7 × 10-15 M · spore-1 · h-1) and a low-affinity-high-rate system (Km, 5.2 × 10-6 M; Vmax, 8.9 × 10-15 M · spore-1 · h-1). SG-1 spores did not oxidize Co(II) in the absence of oxygen, also indicating that oxidation was not due to abiological Co(II) oxidation on the surface of preformed Mn(III,IV) oxides. These

  12. Tritodynamia serratipes sp. nov., a new marine crab from Singapore (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Macrophthalmidae).

    PubMed

    Anker, Arthur; Ng, Peter K L

    2014-06-30

    Tritodynamia serratipes sp. nov. is described based on a female specimen dredged on soft mud at a depth of 6.3-6.5 m, near Marina East, only a few kilometers from Singapore's city centre. The new species differs from all other species of Tritodynamia Ortmann, 1894 by a unique combination of morphological characters, including the posterior margin of the propodus of the second ambulatory leg armed with a row of particularly strong teeth, and the cutting edges of dactylus and pollex each proximally armed with two stout teeth. Tritodynamia serratipes sp. nov. is the second species of the genus described from tropical Asia.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of the Anti-Algal Marine Actinomycete Streptomyces sp. JS01

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huajun; Zhang, Su; Peng, Yun; Li, Yi; Chen, Zhangran; Zheng, Wei; Xu, Hong; Yu, Zhiming

    2014-01-01

    Streptomyces sp. JS01 is the producer of an anti-algal compound that shows inhibitory activity against a harmful algal species Phaeocystis globosa and can also produce a red pigment. Its genome sequence will allow for the characterization of the anti-algal compound and the molecular mechanisms underlying its beneficial properties. PMID:25477414

  14. Biohythane production from marine macroalgae Sargassum sp. coupling dark fermentation and anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Costa, José C; Oliveira, João V; Pereira, Maria A; Alves, Maria M; Abreu, Angela A

    2015-08-01

    Potential biohythane production from Sargassum sp. was evaluated in a two stage process. In the first stage, hydrogen dark fermentation was performed by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus. Sargassum sp. concentrations (VS) of 2.5, 4.9 and 7.4gL(-1) and initial inoculum concentrations (CDW) of 0.04 and 0.09gL(-1) of C. saccharolyticus were used in substrate/inoculum ratios ranging from 28 to 123. The end products from hydrogen production process were subsequently used for biogas production. The highest hydrogen and methane production yields, 91.3±3.3Lkg(-1) and 541±10Lkg(-1), respectively, were achieved with 2.5gL(-1) of Sargassum sp. (VS) and 0.09gL(-1)of inoculum (CDW). The biogas produced contained 14-20% of hydrogen. Potential energy production from Sargassum sp. in two stage process was estimated in 242GJha(-1)yr(-1). A maximum energy supply of 600EJyr(-1) could be obtained from the ocean potential area for macroalgae production. PMID:25958149

  15. Asteltoxins with Antiviral Activities from the Marine Sponge-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSIO XWS02F40.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yong-Qi; Lin, Xiu-Ping; Wang, Zhen; Zhou, Xue-Feng; Qin, Xiao-Chu; Kaliyaperumal, Kumaravel; Zhang, Tian-Yu; Tu, Zheng-Chao; Liu, Yonghong

    2015-12-26

    Two new asteltoxins named asteltoxin E (2) and F (3), and a new chromone (4), together with four known compounds were isolated from a marine sponge-derived fungus, Aspergillus sp. SCSIO XWS02F40. The structures of the compounds (1-7) were determined by the extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra, and HRESIMS spectrometry. All the compounds were tested for their antiviral (H1N1 and H3N2) activity. Compounds 2 and 3 showed significant activity against H3N2 with the prominent IC50 values of 6.2 ± 0.08 and 8.9 ± 0.3 μM, respectively. In addition, compound 2 also exhibited inhibitory activity against H1N1 with an IC50 value of 3.5 ± 1.3 μM.

  16. Sesquiterpene Hydroquinones with Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inhibitory Activities from a Dysidea sp. Marine Sponge Collected in Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Abdjul, Delfly B; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Ukai, Kazuyo; Namikoshi, Michio

    2016-07-22

    Three new sesquiterpene hydroquinones, avapyran (1), 17-O-acetylavarol (2), and 17-O-acetylneoavarol (3), were isolated from a Dysidea sp. marine sponge collected in Okinawa together with five known congeners: avarol (4), neoavarol (5), 20-O-acetylavarol (6), 20-O-acetylneoavarol (7), and 3'-aminoavarone (8). The structures of 1-3 were assigned on the basis of their spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-3 inhibited the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B with IC50 values of 11, 9.5, and 6.5 μM, respectively, while known compounds 4-8 gave IC50 values of 12, >32, 10, 8.6, and 18 μM, respectively. In a preliminary investigation on structure-activity relationships, six ester and methoxy derivatives (9-14) were prepared from 4 and 5.

  17. Sesquiterpene Hydroquinones with Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inhibitory Activities from a Dysidea sp. Marine Sponge Collected in Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Abdjul, Delfly B; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Ukai, Kazuyo; Namikoshi, Michio

    2016-07-22

    Three new sesquiterpene hydroquinones, avapyran (1), 17-O-acetylavarol (2), and 17-O-acetylneoavarol (3), were isolated from a Dysidea sp. marine sponge collected in Okinawa together with five known congeners: avarol (4), neoavarol (5), 20-O-acetylavarol (6), 20-O-acetylneoavarol (7), and 3'-aminoavarone (8). The structures of 1-3 were assigned on the basis of their spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-3 inhibited the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B with IC50 values of 11, 9.5, and 6.5 μM, respectively, while known compounds 4-8 gave IC50 values of 12, >32, 10, 8.6, and 18 μM, respectively. In a preliminary investigation on structure-activity relationships, six ester and methoxy derivatives (9-14) were prepared from 4 and 5. PMID:27336796

  18. Apralactone A and a New Stereochemical Class of Curvularins from the Marine-Derived Fungus Curvularia sp

    PubMed Central

    Greve, Hendrik; Schupp, Peter J.; Eguereva, Ekaterina; Kehraus, Stefan; Kelter, Gerhard; Maier, Armin; Fiebig, Heinz-Herbert; König, Gabriele M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical investigations of the cytotoxic extract of the marine-derived fungus Curvularia sp. (strain no. 768), isolated from the red alga Acanthophora spicifera, yielded the novel macrolide apralactone A (1), as well as the antipodes of curvularin macrolides 2–7. Compound 8, a dimeric curvularin was recognised as an artefact. The structures of 1–8 were elucidated by interpretation of their spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR, CD, MS, UV and IR). Apralactone A (1) is a 14-membered phenyl acetic acid macrolactone, and the first such compound with a 4-chromanone substructure. Compounds 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 were found to be cytotoxic towards human tumor cell lines with mean IC50 values in the range of 1.25 to 30.06 µM. PMID:24260014

  19. Neamphamide B, new cyclic depsipeptide, as an anti-dormant mycobacterial substance from a Japanese marine sponge of Neamphius sp.

    PubMed

    Yamano, Yoshi; Arai, Masayoshi; Kobayashi, Motomasa

    2012-07-15

    A new cyclic depsipeptide, designated neamphamide B (1), was isolated from a marine sponge of Neamphius sp. collected at Okinawa, Japan in 1993 as an anti-mycobacterial substance against active and dormant bacilli. The planar structure of neamphamide B (1) was determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, and stereostructure of amino acid was deduced by chromatographic comparison of the acid hydrolysate of 1 with appropriate amino acid standards after derivatizing with FDAA or GITC. Neamphamide B (1) showed potent anti-mycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis under standard aerobic growth conditions as well as dormancy-inducing hypoxic conditions with MIC of 1.56 μg/mL. Neamphamide B (1) was also effective to Mycobacterium bovis BCG with MIC in the ranging of 6.25-12.5 μg/mL.

  20. Cellular localization of debromohymenialdisine and hymenialdisine in the marine sponge Axinella sp. using a newly developed cell purification protocol.

    PubMed

    Song, Yue-Fan; Qu, Yi; Cao, Xu-Peng; Zhang, Wei

    2011-10-01

    Sponges (Porifera), as the best known source of bioactive marine natural products in metazoans, play a significant role in marine drug discovery and development. As sessile filter-feeding animals, a considerable portion of the sponge biomass can be made of endosymbiotic and associated microorganisms. Understanding the cellular origin of targeted bioactive compounds from sponges is therefore important not only for providing chemotaxonomic information but also for defining the bioactive production strategy in terms of sponge aquaculture, cell culture, or fermentation of associated bacteria. The two alkaloids debromohymenialdisine (DBH) and hymenialdisine (HD), which are cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors with pharmacological activities for treating osteoarthritis and Alzheimer's disease, have been isolated from the sponge Axinella sp. In this study, the cellular localization of these two alkaloids was determined through the quantification of these alkaloids in different cell fractions by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). First, using a differential centrifugation method, the dissociated cells were separated into different groups according to their sizes. The two bioactive alkaloids were mainly found in sponge cells obtained from low-speed centrifugation. Further cell purifications were accomplished by a newly developed multi-step protocol. Four enriched cell fractions (C1, C2, C3, and C4) were obtained and subjected to light and transmission electron microscopy, cytochemical staining, and HPLC quantification. Compared to the low concentrations in other cell fractions, DBH and HD accounted for 10.9% and 6.1%, respectively, of dry weight in the C1 fraction. Using the morphological characteristics and cytochemical staining results, cells in the C1 fraction were speculated to be spherulous cells. This result shows that DBH and HD in Axinella sp. are located in sponge cells and mostly stored in spherulous cells.

  1. Dinomyces arenysensis gen. et sp. nov. (Rhizophydiales, Dinomycetaceae fam. nov.), a chytrid infecting marine dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Lepelletier, Frédéric; Karpov, Sergey A; Alacid, Elisabet; Le Panse, Sophie; Bigeard, Estelle; Garcés, Esther; Jeanthon, Christian; Guillou, Laure

    2014-03-01

    Environmental 18S rRNA gene surveys of microbial eukaryotes have recently revealed the diversity of major parasitic agents in pelagic freshwater systems, consisting primarily of chytrid fungi. To date, only a few studies have reported the presence of chydrids in the marine environment and a limited number of marine chytrids have been properly identified and characterized. Here, we report the isolation and cultivation of a marine chytrid from samples taken during a bloom of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum in the Arenys de Mar harbour (Mediterranean Sea, Spain). Cross-infections using cultures and natural phytoplankton communities revealed that this chytrid is only able to infect certain species of dinoflagellates, with a rather wide host range but with a relative preference for Alexandrium species. Phylogenetic analyses showed that it belongs to the order Rhizophydiales, but cannot be included in any of the existing families within this order. Several ultrastructural characters confirmed the placement of this taxon within the Rhizophydiales as well its novelty notably in terms of zoospore structure. This marine chytridial parasitoid is described as a new genus and species, Dinomyces arenysensis, within the Dinomycetaceae fam. nov.

  2. Lipid Composition of a Psychrophilic Marine Vibrio sp. During Starvation-Induced Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, James D.; Stringer, William F.

    1984-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative changes with time in phospholipids and fatty acids were examined after suspension of cells of a psychrophilic marine bacterium in nutrient-free artificial seawater at 5°C. Viability was maintained throughout the 21-day examination period, with plate counts and acridine orange direct counts indicating a slight increase in cell number. Gravimetric data, however, showed a significant decrease in bacterial biomass during the 3-week study. Levels of ATP per cell also decreased significantly (59%) during the starvation period. Since starvation (resulting in dormancy) is probably the typical physiological state of marine bacteria, estimation of bacterial density in marine waters by using ATP data obtained from log-phase cells is probably inaccurate. Total lipid phosphate decreased (65%) during the starvation period, with phosphatidylethanolamine showing the greatest loss. A large increase (57%) in the neutral lipid fraction was also detected, especially during the first week of starvation. A selective increase in palmitoleate at the expense of myristate was detected in the membrane lipids. The effects of these changes on membrane fluidity and the possible consequences for these cells in the marine environment are discussed. PMID:16346485

  3. Diversity of ABBA Prenyltransferases in Marine Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509: Promiscuous Enzymes for the Biosynthesis of Mixed Terpenoid Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Leipoldt, Franziska; Zeyhle, Philipp; Kulik, Andreas; Kalinowski, Jörn; Heide, Lutz; Kaysser, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Terpenoids are arguably the largest and most diverse family of natural products, featuring prominently in e.g. signalling, self-defence, UV-protection and electron transfer. Prenyltransferases are essential players in terpenoid and hybrid isoprenoid biosynthesis that install isoprene units on target molecules and thereby often modulate their bioactivity. In our search for new prenyltransferase biocatalysts we focused on the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509, a particularly rich source of meroterpenoid chemistry. Sequencing and analysis of the genome of Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509 revealed seven putative phenol/phenazine-specific ABBA prenyltransferases, and one putative indole-specific ABBA prenyltransferase. To elucidate the substrate specificity of the ABBA prenyltransferases and to learn about their role in secondary metabolism, CnqP1 –CnqP8 were produced in Escherichia coli and incubated with various aromatic and isoprenoid substrates. Five of the eight prenyltransferases displayed enzymatic activity. The efficient conversion of dihydroxynaphthalene derivatives by CnqP3 (encoded by AA958_24325) and the co-location of AA958_24325 with genes characteristic for the biosynthesis of THN (tetrahydroxynaphthalene)-derived natural products indicates that the enzyme is involved in the formation of debromomarinone or other naphthoquinone-derived meroterpenoids. Moreover, CnqP3 showed high flexibility towards a range of aromatic and isoprenoid substrates and thus represents an interesting new tool for biocatalytic applications. PMID:26659564

  4. Antioxidative Metabolites Synthesized by Marine Pigmented Vibrio sp. and Its Protection on Oxidative Deterioration of Membrane Lipids.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Ravindra; Mohandass, C; Dastager, Syed G; Kolekar, Yogesh M; Malwankar, Rahul

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial strain Vibrio sp. (PIGB 184) isolated from water samples of the Arabian Sea and identified through 16S rRNA demonstrated the production of pigmentary antioxidants with higher ABTS activities 90.9 ± 0.42 % in comparison with the standard commercial pigmented antioxidant, quercetin 88.8 ± 1.4 %. Antioxidative metabolites of this strain substantially inhibit the lipid peroxidation (LPO) reactions tested in sheep liver and brain. The antioxidant compounds produced by the Vibrio sp. (PIGB 184), analysed by GC-MS, reveals that it is composed mostly of phenol, 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) and pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione,hexahydro-3-(2-methylpropyl). The interrelationship assessed between LPO and the phenolic compounds showed significant correlation with anti-LPO properties (R (2) = 0.9698 to 0.9861). These compounds are responsible for obstruction of harmful radical associated biochemical reactions in biological systems. Pigmented metabolites also tested for attributive biological properties against pathogenic bacteria showed prominent inhibition towards Gram-positive organisms (31.25 to 62.5 μg ml(-1)). From this study, it may be suggested that the marine bacterium PIGB 184 could be used as a potential bio-resource for antioxidants and needs to be worked out for mass production. PMID:26815500

  5. Identification and bioactivity of compounds from the fungus Penicillium sp. CYE-87 isolated from a marine tunicate.

    PubMed

    Shaala, Lamiaa A; Youssef, Diaa T A

    2015-04-01

    In the course of our continuous interest in identifying bioactive compounds from marine microbes, we have investigated a tunicate-derived fungus, Penicillium sp. CYE-87. A new compound with the 1,4-diazepane skeleton, terretrione D (2), together with the known compounds, methyl-2-([2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]carbamoyl)acetate (1), tryptamine (3), indole-3-carbaldehyde (4), 3,6-diisobutylpyrazin-2(1H)-one (5) and terretrione C (6), were isolated from Penicillium sp. CYE-87. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by spectral analysis, including 1D (1H, 13C) and 2D (COSY, multiplicity edited-HSQC and HMBC) NMR and HRESIMS, as well as comparison of their NMR data with those in the literature. The compounds were evaluated for their antimigratory activity against the human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) and their antiproliferation activity against HeLa cells. Compounds 2 and 6 showed significant antimigratory activity against MDA-MB-231, as well as antifungal activity against C. albicans. PMID:25815893

  6. Diversity of ABBA Prenyltransferases in Marine Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509: Promiscuous Enzymes for the Biosynthesis of Mixed Terpenoid Compounds.

    PubMed

    Leipoldt, Franziska; Zeyhle, Philipp; Kulik, Andreas; Kalinowski, Jörn; Heide, Lutz; Kaysser, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Terpenoids are arguably the largest and most diverse family of natural products, featuring prominently in e.g. signalling, self-defence, UV-protection and electron transfer. Prenyltransferases are essential players in terpenoid and hybrid isoprenoid biosynthesis that install isoprene units on target molecules and thereby often modulate their bioactivity. In our search for new prenyltransferase biocatalysts we focused on the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509, a particularly rich source of meroterpenoid chemistry. Sequencing and analysis of the genome of Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509 revealed seven putative phenol/phenazine-specific ABBA prenyltransferases, and one putative indole-specific ABBA prenyltransferase. To elucidate the substrate specificity of the ABBA prenyltransferases and to learn about their role in secondary metabolism, CnqP1 -CnqP8 were produced in Escherichia coli and incubated with various aromatic and isoprenoid substrates. Five of the eight prenyltransferases displayed enzymatic activity. The efficient conversion of dihydroxynaphthalene derivatives by CnqP3 (encoded by AA958_24325) and the co-location of AA958_24325 with genes characteristic for the biosynthesis of THN (tetrahydroxynaphthalene)-derived natural products indicates that the enzyme is involved in the formation of debromomarinone or other naphthoquinone-derived meroterpenoids. Moreover, CnqP3 showed high flexibility towards a range of aromatic and isoprenoid substrates and thus represents an interesting new tool for biocatalytic applications.

  7. A new aurone glycoside with antifungal activity from marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp. FJ-1.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan-xia; Ma, Qiang; Li, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Endophytic fungi which reside in the tissue of mangrove plants seem to play an important role in the discovery of new biologically active substances. During the course of screening for the antimicrobial metabolites from the endophytic fugus Penicillium sp. FJ-1 of mangrove plant Avicennia marina, a new aurone glycoside (1) was isolated by repeated column chromatography on silica gel and recrystallization methods. The structure of 1 was elucidated as (Z)-7,4'-dimethoxy-6-hydroxy-aurone-4-O-β-glucopyranoside, on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Compound 1 exhibited antifungal activity against Candida sp., with the potency comparable to amphotericin B and much better than fluconazole. Compound 1 can also inhibit extracellular phospholipase secretion in a concentration-dependent manner.

  8. Analysis of N-acetylglucosamine metabolism in the marine bacterium Pirellula sp. strain 1 by a proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Rabus, Ralf; Gade, Dörte; Helbig, Roger; Bauer, Margarete; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Kube, Michael; Schlesner, Heinz; Reinhardt, Richard; Amann, Rudolf

    2002-06-01

    Pirellula sp. strain 1 is a marine bacterium that can grow with the chitin monomer N-acetylglucosamine as sole source of carbon and nitrogen under aerobic conditions, and that is a member of the bacterial phylum Planctomycetes. As a basis for the proteomic studies we quantified growth of strain 1 with N-acetylglucosamine and glucose, revealing doubling times of 14 and 10 h, respectively. Studies with dense cell suspensions indicated that the capacity to degrade N-acetylglucosamine and glucose may not be tightly regulated. Proteins from soluble extracts prepared from exponential cultures grown either with N-acetylglucosamine or glucose were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and visualized by fluorescence staining (Sypro Ruby). Analysis of the protein patterns revealed the presence of several protein spots only detectable in soluble extracts of N-acetylglucosamine grown cells. Determination of amino acid sequences and peptide mass fingerprints from tryptic fragments of the most abundant one of these spots allowed the identification of the coding gene on the genomic sequence of Pirellula sp. strain 1. This gene showed similarities to a dehydrogenase from Bacillus subtilis, and is closely located to a gene similar to glucosamine-6-phosphate isomerase from B. subtilis. Genes of two other proteins expressed during growth on N-acetylglucosamine as well as on glucose were also identified and found to be similar to a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase and a NADH-dehydrogenase, respectively. Thus the coding genes of three proteins expressed during growth of Pirellula sp. strain 1 on carbohydrates were identified and related by sequence similarity to carbohydrate metabolism.

  9. Ontogenesis and molecular phylogeny of a new marine urostylid ciliate, Anteholosticha petzi n. sp. (Ciliophora, Urostylida).

    PubMed

    Shao, Chen; Gao, Feng; Hu, Xiaozhong; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A; Warren, Alan

    2011-01-01

    A new urostylid ciliate, Anteholosticha petzi n. sp., isolated from the northern China seas, was studied using live observation and protargol impregnation. It differs from all the congeners mainly in the highly flexible and variable body shape, its red-brown to brick-red colour, and the possession of three types of cortical granules. Analysis of morphometric and molecular data confirm the validity of A. petzi as a distinct species. Anteholosticha petzi n. sp. is characterized as follows: by having 3 frontal, 1 buccal, 2 frontoterminal, 2 pretransverse, and 8-11 transverse cirri; a midventral row that comprises 10-16 cirral pairs and extends ca. 60% of cell length; and 3 bipolar dorsal kineties. Ontogenesis is similar to that in Anteholosticha warreni except for the formation of the oral primordium and is characterized by: (1) the parental adoral membranelles are completely renewed and the oral primordium is formed de novo; and (2) the anlagen for the frontal-ventral-transverse cirri are formed as primary primordia. The small subunit rRNA gene sequence of A. petzi n. sp. was also compared with that of its congeners with the sequence differences ranging from 0.39% to 8.62%. Phylogenetic trees based on the SSU rRNA gene sequence were constructed, indicating the nonmonophyly of the genus Anteholosticha, as supported by the approximately unbiased test.

  10. Morphology and molecular phylogeny of a new marine hypotrichous ciliate, Hypotrichidium paraconicum n. sp. (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia).

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingyun; Liu, Weiwei; Liu, An; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Shao, Chen

    2013-01-01

    A new saline hypotrich, Hypotrichidium paraconicum n. sp., found in coastal waters near Hong Kong, China, was investigated with emphasis on its living morphology, infraciliature, ontogenesis, and phylogenetic position. A body that is pyriform, with a posterior end that is twisted helically toward the left, a distinct tail and a dark colour, characterizes H. paraconicum n. sp. The buccal cavity is prominent and the cortical granules, which are scattered or sparsely distributed, are colourless, round, and about 1 μm in diam. The contractile vacuole is near the left middle of the cell and there are one or two frontal cirri, four meridional rows and five or six cirral rows which exhibit a left-handed spiral and which are distributed in the posterior portion on both sides. Three dorsal kineties are distributed in the anterior portion of the dorsal side. In our molecular phylogenies, based on SSU rRNA gene sequences, the position of H. paraconicum n. sp. is rather poorly resolved, providing some indication of a relationship with Neokeronopsis aurea and Rubrioxytricha ferruginea, which fall into the assemblage of oxytrichids (s.l.). PMID:23865734

  11. Umboniibacter marinipuniceus gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine gammaproteobacterium isolated from the mollusc Umbonium costatum from the Sea of Japan.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Tanaka, Naoto; Frolova, Galina M

    2010-03-01

    Two bacterial strains, KMM 3891(T) and KMM 3892, were isolated from internal tissues of the marine mollusc Umbonium costatum collected from the Sea of Japan. The novel isolates were Gram-negative, aerobic, faint pink-reddish-pigmented, rod-shaped, non-motile, stenohaline and psychrotolerant bacteria that were unable to degrade most tested complex polysaccharides. Polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. Fatty acid analysis revealed C(17 : 1)omega6c, C(17 : 0), C(16 : 0) and C(16 : 1)omega7c as the dominant components. The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-7. The DNA G+C content of strain KMM 3891(T) was 51.7 mol%. According to phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, strains KMM 3891(T) and KMM 3892 were positioned within the Gammaproteobacteria as a separate branch, sharing <93 % sequence similarity to their phylogenetic relatives including Saccharophagus degradans, Microbulbifer species, Endozoicomonas elysicola, Simiduia agarivorans and Teredinibacter turnerae. Based on phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic distance, the novel marine isolates KMM 3891(T) and KMM 3892 represent a new genus and species, for which the name Umboniibacter marinipuniceus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Umboniibacter marinipuniceus is KMM 3891(T) (=NRIC 0753(T) =JCM 15738(T)).

  12. Marinactinospora thermotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine actinomycete isolated from a sediment in the northern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xin-Peng; Tang, Shu-Kun; Dong, Jun-De; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhang, Si; Li, Wen-Jun

    2009-05-01

    A novel marine actinomycete, designated SCSIO 00652(T), was isolated from a marine sediment collected from the northern South China Sea at a depth of 3865 m. The strain formed branched substrate mycelia and no fragmentation was found. Abundant aerial mycelia differentiated into long spore chains and the spores had a wrinkled surface. Growth occurred on ISP medium 2 with 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl and at 10-55 degrees C. The whole-cell hydrolysate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and glucose as the whole-cell sugar. blast search results based on an almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence showed the novel strain had the highest similarity (96.5 %) with Nocardiopsis trehalosi VKM Ac-942(T). The phylogenetic tree of the family Nocardiopsaceae indicated that strain SCSIO 00652(T) formed a distinct lineage at the deepest branch with a high bootstrap value. Additionally, the profiles of menaquinones, phospholipids and fatty acids showed there were marked differences between strain SCSIO 00652(T) and the recognized genera of the family Nocardiopsaceae. Based on the polyphasic data, a new genus, Marinactinospora gen. nov., is proposed within the family Nocardiopsaceae with the type species Marinactinospora thermotolerans sp. nov. The type strain of the type species is SCSIO 00652(T) (=DSM 45154(T)=CCTCC AA 208041(T)).

  13. Actinoranone, A Cytotoxic Meroterpenoid of Unprecedented Structure from a Marine Adapted Streptomyces sp

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sang-Jip; Kauffman, Christopher A.; Paul, Lauren A.; Jensen, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    The isolation and structure elucidation of a new meroterpenoid, actinoranone (1), produced by a marine bacterium closely related to the genus Streptomyces is reported. Actinoranone is composed of an unprecedented dihydronaphthalenone polyketide linked to a bicyclic diterpenoid. The stereochemistry of 1 was defined by application of the advanced Mosher's method and by interpretation of spectroscopic data. Actinoranone (1) is significantly cytotoxic to HCT-116 human colon cancer cells with an LD50 = 2.0 μg/mL. PMID:24152065

  14. Longibacter salinarum gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bacterial strain, designated WDS2C18**T, was isolated from a marine solar saltern in the coast of Weihai, Shandong Province, PR China. Cells of strain WDS2C18**T were long rod-shaped, red, and approximately 6.0–12.0 µm in length and 0.3–0.6 µm in width. The strain was Gram-stain-negative, facultat...

  15. Polycyclovorans algicola gen. nov., sp. nov., an aromatic-hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacterium found associated with laboratory cultures of marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Tony; Green, David H; Nichols, Peter D; Whitman, William B; Semple, Kirk T; Aitken, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    A strictly aerobic, halotolerant, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain TG408, was isolated from a laboratory culture of the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum (CCAP1077/1C) by enrichment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as the sole carbon source. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed this organism within the order Xanthomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria. Its closest relatives included representatives of the Hydrocarboniphaga-Nevskia-Sinobacter clade (<92% sequence similarity) in the family Sinobacteraceae. The strain exhibited a narrow nutritional spectrum, preferring to utilize aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds and small organic acids. Notably, it displayed versatility in degrading two- and three-ring PAHs. Moreover, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity was detected in lysates, indicating that this strain utilizes the meta-cleavage pathway for aromatic compound degradation. Cells produced surface blebs and contained a single polar flagellum. The predominant isoprenoid quinone of strain TG408 was Q-8, and the dominant fatty acids were C(16:0), C(16:1) ω7c, and C(18:1) ω7c. The G+C content of the isolate's DNA was 64.3 mol% ± 0.34 mol%. On the basis of distinct phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain TG408 represents a novel genus and species in the class Gammaproteobacteria for which the name Polycyclovorans algicola gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. Quantitative PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene of this strain were developed and used to show that this organism is found associated with other species of marine phytoplankton. Phytoplankton may be a natural biotope in the ocean where new species of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria await discovery and which contribute significantly to natural remediation processes. PMID:23087039

  16. Maribacter gen. nov., a new member of the family Flavobacteriaceae, isolated from marine habitats, containing the species Maribacter sedimenticola sp. nov., Maribacter aquivivus sp. nov., Maribacter orientalis sp. nov. and Maribacter ulvicola sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Kim, Seung Bum; Han, Suk Kyun; Lysenko, Anatoly M; Rohde, Manfred; Rhee, Moon-Soo; Frolova, Galina M; Falsen, Enevold; Mikhailov, Valery V; Bae, Kyung Sook

    2004-07-01

    Six novel gliding, heterotrophic, Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented, aerobic, oxidase- and catalase-positive bacteria were isolated from the green alga Ulva fenestrata, sea water and a bottom sediment sample collected in the Gulf of Peter the Great, Sea of Japan. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strains studied were members of the family Flavobacteriaceae. On the basis of their phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, the novel bacteria have been assigned to the new genus Maribacter gen. nov., as Maribacter sedimenticola sp. nov., Maribacter orientalis sp. nov., Maribacter aquivivus sp. nov. and Maribacter ulvicola sp. nov., with the type strains KMM 3903T (=KCTC 12966T=CCUG 47098T), KMM 3947T (=KCTC 12967T=CCUG 48008T), KMM 3949T (=KCTC 12968T=CCUG 48009T) and KMM 3951T (=KCTC 12969T=DSM 15366T), respectively.

  17. The Role of Spongia sp. in the Discovery of Marine Lead Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Máximo, Patrícia; Ferreira, Luísa M.; Branco, Paula; Lima, Pedro; Lourenço, Ana

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive review on the chemistry of Spongia sp. is here presented, together with the biological activity of the isolated compounds. The compounds are grouped in sesquiterpene quinones, diterpenes, C21 and other linear furanoterpenes, sesterterpenes, sterols (including secosterols), macrolides and miscellaneous compounds. Among other reports we include studies on the intraspecific diversity of a Mediterranean species, compounds isolated from associated sponge and nudibranch and compounds isolated from S. zimocca and the red seaweed Laurentia microcladia. Under biological activity a table of the reported biological activities of the various compounds and the biological screening of extracts are described. The present review covers the literature from 1971 to 2015. PMID:27455286

  18. The Role of Spongia sp. in the Discovery of Marine Lead Compounds.

    PubMed

    Máximo, Patrícia; Ferreira, Luísa M; Branco, Paula; Lima, Pedro; Lourenço, Ana

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive review on the chemistry of Spongia sp. is here presented, together with the biological activity of the isolated compounds. The compounds are grouped in sesquiterpene quinones, diterpenes, C21 and other linear furanoterpenes, sesterterpenes, sterols (including secosterols), macrolides and miscellaneous compounds. Among other reports we include studies on the intraspecific diversity of a Mediterranean species, compounds isolated from associated sponge and nudibranch and compounds isolated from S. zimocca and the red seaweed Laurentia microcladia. Under biological activity a table of the reported biological activities of the various compounds and the biological screening of extracts are described. The present review covers the literature from 1971 to 2015. PMID:27455286

  19. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of polyketide metabolite from marine Streptomyces sp. AP-123 and its cytotoxic effect.

    PubMed

    Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2013-01-01

    A Gram positive, filamentous, spore forming antagonistic Streptomyces sp. AP-123 derived from marine region of Andra Pradesh, India, was studied for its medical importance. Among the 210 Streptomyces strains screened at 64.3% exhibited activity against Gram positive bacteria, 48.5% showed activity towards Gram negative bacteria, 38.8% exhibited both Gram positive and negative bacteria and 80.85% strains revealed significant antifungal activity. However, primary screening revealed that Streptomyces sp. AP-123 exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria compared to other Streptomyces strains. The presence of l-diaminopimelic acid and glycine in the cell wall hydrolysates and streptomycin resistance indicated the strain belonged to Streptomyces genus. The 16S rDNA gene based phylogenetic affiliation was determined by using bioinformatic tools and it was identified as Streptomyces sp. AP-123 with 99% sequence similarity to Streptomyces flavogriseus. The antimicrobial substances were extracted by hexane and ethyl acetate from spent medium in which Streptomyces sp. AP-123 was cultivated at 30 °C for 5 d. The antimicrobial activity was assessed using broth micro-dilution technique. A compound was obtained by eluting the crude extract using varying concentrations of solvents followed by the chromatographic purification. Based on the IR, (13)C NMR and (1)H NMR spectral data, the compound was identified as polyketide related antibiotic. It exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and also showed a potent cytotoxic activity against cell lines viz. Vero (Green monkey kidney) and HEP2 (laryngeal carcinoma cells) in vitro. The lowest Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the compound against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus were 25 and 37.5 μg mL(-1), respectively. Against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa it exhibited MIC of 50 and 37.58 μg mL(-1), respectively

  20. Purification and characterization of novel κ-carrageenase from marine Tamlana sp. HC4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Feixue; Ma, Yuexin; Wang, Ying; Liu, Qian

    2010-11-01

    We isolated a bacterial strain (HC4) that is able to degrade κ-carrageenan from a live specimen of the red alga Hyalosiphonia caespitosa. With 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we identified the strain as Tamlana sp., and then purified an extracellular κ-carrageenase from a culture of Tamlana sp. HC4 by ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sephadex G-200 gel filtration chromatography, and DE-cellulose 52 anion-exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme yields a single band on SDS-PAGE with a molecular mass of 66.4 kDa. The optimal pH and temperature for κ-carrageenase activity are at 8.0 and 30°C, respectively. The enzyme is stable over the range of pH 7.2-8.6 below 45°C. The enzyme activity is strongly inhibited by Zn2+ and Cu2+ at 1 mmol/L. The enzyme-catalyzed reaction follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics with the Michaelis constant ( K m ) at 7.63 mg/ml. Analysis of the degradation products of the κ-carrageenase by ESI-MS and 13C-NMR spectroscopy indicates that the enzyme degrades κ-carrageenan down to the level of κ-neocarrabiose sulfate.

  1. [Cloning and expression of endoglucanase of marine cold-adapted bacteria Pseudoalteromonas sp. MB-1].

    PubMed

    You, Yin-wei; Wang, Tian-hong

    2005-02-01

    The cold-adapted gram-negative rod bacterium MB-1 which could secret cellulase was screened from mud of the bottom of the Huanghai. According to the sequence of 16S rDNA, this bacterium screened was identified as one species of Pseudoalteromonas and was named as Pseudoalteromonas sp. MB-1. The gene celA encoding cold-adapted endogluanase was cloned and then jointed to pGEX-4T-1 to construct expression plasmid pGEX-celA which was expressed in E. coli BL21. Analysis to the supernatant of E. coli sonicate revealed that the concentration of GST-CelA was about 78.5 mg/L. Properties of the fusion enzyme of GST-CelA including the optimum temperature at 35 degrees C and the optimum pH about 7.2, showed that this fusion enzyme still belonged to cold-adapted enzyme and neutral enzyme. The result lays solid base for the fundamental theory and application research on cold-adapted cellulase from Pseudoalteromonas sp. MB-1.

  2. Synthesis of marine polyacetylenes callyberynes A-C by transition-metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions to sp centers.

    PubMed

    López, Susana; Fernandez-Trillo, Francisco; Midón, Pilar; Castedo, Luis; Saa, Carlos

    2006-03-31

    Efficient total syntheses of the sponge-derived hydrocarbon polyacetylenes callyberynes A-C have been achieved using metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of highly unsaturated 1,3-diyne fragments as the key steps, namely: Cadiot-Chodkiewicz reaction under Alami's optimized conditions (sp-sp), sequential Sonogashira reaction of a cis,cis-divinyl dihalide (sp2-sp), and Kumada-Corriu reaction of an unactivated alkyl iodide (sp3-sp). This last approach constitutes the first application of a metal-catalyzed sp3-sp Kumada-Corriu cross-coupling reaction to the synthesis of a natural product.

  3. Interactions between marine facultative epiphyte Chlamydomonas sp. (Chlamydomonadales, Chlorophyta) and ceramiaceaen algae (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Klochkova, Tatyana A; Cho, Ga Youn; Boo, Sung Min; Chung, Ki Wha; Kim, Song Ja; Kim, Gwang Hoon

    2008-07-01

    Previously unrecorded marine Chlamydomonas that grew epiphytic on ceramiaceaen algae was collected from the western coast of Korea and isolated into a unialgal culture. The isolate was subjected to 18S rDNA phylogenetic analysis as well as ultrastructure and life cycle studies. It had an affinity with the marine Chlamydomonas species and was less related to freshwater/terrestrial representatives of this genus. It had flagella shorter than the cell body two-layered cell wall with striated outer surface and abundant mucilaginous material beneath the innermost layer and no contractile vacuoles. This alga grew faster in mixed cultures with ceramiaceaen algae rather than in any tested unialgal culture condition; the cells looked healthier and zoosporangia and motile flagellated vegetative cells appeared more often. These results suggested that this Chlamydomonas might be a facultative epiphyte benefiting from its hosts. Several ceramiaceaen algae were tested as host plants. Meanwhile, cell deformation or collapse of the whole thallus was caused to Aglaothamnion byssoides, and preliminary study suggested that a substance released from Chlamydomonas caused the response. This is first report on harmful epiphytic interactions between Chlamydomonas species and red ceramiaceaen algae.

  4. Indigo production by Pseudomonas sp. J26, a marine naphthalene-degrading strain.

    PubMed

    Mercadal, Juan Pablo Riva; Isaac, Paula; Siñeriz, Faustino; Ferrero, Marcela Alejandra

    2010-06-01

    A technique developed to determine naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) activity was optimized and used to study the biotransformation of indole to indigo by Pseudomonas sp. J26 whole cells. The maximum production of indigo was achieved at 25 degrees C using 2.5 mM indole when J26 was grown in the complex medium JPP, while indole concentrations higher than 4 mM proved toxic for cells. The maximum rate of indigo production was 0.56 nmol min(-1) mg dry biomass(-1), obtaining 75.5 microM of indigo after 8 h of incubation, while a maximal concentration (138.1 microM) of indigo was obtained after 20 h. PMID:20473955

  5. Anti-Mycobacterial Nucleoside Antibiotics from a Marine-Derived Streptomyces sp. TPU1236A

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Ying-Yue; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Ukai, Kazuyo; Namikoshi, Michio

    2014-01-01

    Five new nucleoside antibiotics, named streptcytosines A–E (1–5), and six known compounds, de-amosaminyl-cytosamine (6), plicacetin (7), bamicetin (8), amicetin (9), collismycin B (10), and SF2738 C (11), were isolated from a culture broth of Streptomyces sp. TPU1236A collected in Okinawa, Japan. The structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic data (HRFABMS, IR, UV, and 2D NMR experiments including 1H-1H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY spectra). Streptcytosine A (1) belonged to the amicetin group antibiotics, and streptcytosines B–E (2–5) were derivatives of de-amosaminyl-cytosamine (6), 2,3,6-trideoxyglucopyranosyl cytosine. Compound 1 inhibited the growth of Mycobacterium smegmatis (MIC = 32 µg/mL), while compounds 2–5 were not active at 50 µg/disc. Bamicetin (8) and amicetin (9) showed the MICs of 16 and 8 µg/mL, respectively. PMID:25522318

  6. Separacenes A–D, Novel Polyene Polyols from the Marine Actinomycete, Streptomyces sp

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Munhyung; Kim, Heegyu; Shin, Yoonho; Kim, Byung Yong; Lee, Sang Kook; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon; Oh, Dong-Chan

    2013-01-01

    Separacenes A–D (1–4), novel polyene polyols, were isolated from Streptomyces sp. collected from the southern area of Jeju Island, Korea. The chemical structures of 1–4 were established by NMR, mass, UV, and IR spectroscopy as well as the modified Mosher’s method. Separacenes A–B (1–2), which share an identical planar structure but possess different relative configurations, bear tetraene units flanked by two diol moieties, whereas the stereoisomeric separacenes C–D (3–4) possess a triene moiety between two diol substructures. Separacenes A–D each contain a terminal olefinic methylene. Separacene A displayed inhibitory activity against Candida albicans isocitrate lyase and weak cytotoxicity against both the colon carcinoma cell line HCT-116 and the lung cancer cell line A549. PMID:23945600

  7. Oceanicola nitratireducens sp. nov., a marine alphaproteobacterium isolated from the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qiang; Chen, Chuang; Wang, Ya-Nan; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2010-07-01

    A Gram-negative, non-motile, short-rod-shaped bacterial strain (JLT1210(T)) that accumulates poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granules was isolated from the Beibu Gulf in the South China Sea. Cells have polar or subpolar flagella. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belongs to the genus Oceanicola in the order Rhodobacterales, class Alphaproteobacteria. The closest neighbours were Oceanicola nanhaiensis SS011B1-20(T) (96.5 % similarity) and Oceanicola batsensis HTCC2597(T) (96.4 %). The predominant respiratory ubiquinone of strain JLT1210(T) was Q-10 and the DNA G+C content was 72.8 mol%. Evidence from genotypic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data shows that strain JLT1210(T) represents a novel species of the genus Oceanicola, for which the name Oceanicola nitratireducens sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is JLT1210(T) (=LMG 24663(T)=CGMCC 1.7292(T)).

  8. Dibromotyrosine and histamine derivatives from the tropical marine sponge Aplysina sp.

    PubMed

    Santalova, Elena A; Denisenko, Vladimir A; Stonik, Valentin A

    2010-03-01

    Two new compounds, 3-amino-7,8-dihydroimidazo-[1,5-c]-pyrimidin-5(6H)-one (1) and ethyl 3-(2-amino-1H-imidazol-4-yl)propylcarbamate (2), along with the previously known 7,8-dihydroimidazo-[1,5-c]-pyrimidin-5(6H)-one (3), aeroplysinin-1 (4), dibromoverongiaquinol (5), bisoxazolidinone derivative (6), aerophobins-1 (7) and -2 (8), purealidins J (9) and L, have been isolated from Aplysina sp. from the South China Sea. The structures were elucidated on the basis of 1H, 13C NMR, MS and IR analyses. The histamine-derived alkaloids 1-3 may be unknown bioconversion products of purealidin J (9), aerophobin-2 (8) and aerophobin-1 (7), respectively, when 7-9 are cleaved at C-8-C-9 in reactions of activated chemical defense in Aplysina sponge.

  9. Antarctic marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. 22b as a source of cold-adapted beta-galactosidase.

    PubMed

    Turkiewicz, Marianna; Kur, Józef; Białkowska, Aneta; Cieśliński, Hubert; Kalinowska, Halina; Bielecki, Stanisław

    2003-07-01

    The marine, psychrotolerant, rod-shaped and Gram-negative bacterium 22b (the best of 41 beta-galactosidase producers out of 107 Antarctic strains subjected to screening), classified as Pseudoalteromonas sp. based on 16S rRNA gene sequence, isolated from the alimentary tract of Antarctic krill Thyssanoessa macrura, synthesizes an intracellular cold-adapted beta-galactosidase, which efficiently hydrolyzes lactose at 0-20 degrees C, as indicated by its specific activity of 21-67 U mg(-1) of protein (11-35% of maximum activity) in this temperature range, as well as k(cat) of 157 s(-1), and k(cat)/K(m) of 47.5 mM(-1) s(-1) at 20 degrees C. The maximum enzyme synthesis (lactose as a sufficient inducer) was observed at 6 degrees C, thus below the optimum growth temperature of the bacterium (15 degrees C). The enzyme extracted from cells was purified to homogeneity (25% recovery) by using the fast, three-step procedure, including affinity chromatography on PABTG-Sepharose. The enzyme is a tetramer composed of roughly 115 kDa subunits. It is maximally active at 40 degrees C (190 U mg(-1) of protein) and pH 6.0-8.0. PNPG is its preferred substrate (50% higher activity than against ONPG). The Pseudoalteromonas sp. 22b beta-galactosidase is activated by thiol compounds (70% rise in activity in the presence of 10 mM dithiotreitol), some metal ions (K(+), Na(+), Mn(2+)-40% increase, Mg(2+)-15% enhancement), and markedly inactivated by pCMB and heavy metal ions, particularly Cu(2+). Noteworthy, Ca(2+) ions do not affect the enzyme activity, and the homogeneous protein is stable at 4 degrees C for at least 30 days without any stabilizers.

  10. Nocardiamides A and B, two cyclohexapeptides from the marine-derived actinomycete Nocardiopsis sp. CNX037.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zheng-Chao; Li, Sumei; Nam, Sang-Jip; Liu, Zhong; Zhang, Changsheng

    2013-04-26

    Two new cyclic hexapeptides, nocardiamides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the culture broth of marine-derived actinomycete CNX037 strain that was identified as a Nocardiopsis species. The planar structures of nocardiamides A (1) and B (2) were assigned on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic analyses. Their absolute configurations were deduced by the advanced Marfey's method and chiral-phase HPLC analysis. The challenge of locating two d- and one l-valine residue in 1 and 2 was accomplished by total synthesis using solid-phase peptide synthetic methods. Both 1 and 2 showed negligible antimicrobial activities against seven indicator strains and exhibited no cytotoxicity against HCT-116.

  11. In vitro quenching of fish pathogen Edwardsiella tarda AHL production using marine bacterium Tenacibaculum sp. strain 20J cell extracts.

    PubMed

    Romero, Manuel; Muras, Andrea; Mayer, Celia; Buján, Noemí; Magariños, Beatriz; Otero, Ana

    2014-04-01

    Quorum quenching (QQ) has become an interesting alternative for solving the problem of bacterial antibiotic resistance, especially in the aquaculture industry, since many species of fish-pathogenic bacteria control their virulence factors through quorum sensing (QS) systems mediated by N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). In a screening for bacterial strains with QQ activity in different marine environments, Tenacibaculum sp. strain 20J was identified and selected for its high degradation activity against a wide range of AHLs. In this study, the QQ activity of live cells and crude cell extracts (CCEs) of strain 20J was characterized and the possibilities of the use of CCEs of this strain to quench the production of AHLs in cultures of the fish pathogen Edwardsiella tarda ACC35.1 was explored. E. tarda ACC35.1 produces N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) and N-oxohexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (OC6-HSL). This differs from profiles registered for other E. tarda strains and indicates an important intra-specific variability in AHL production in this species. The CCEs of strain 20J presented a wide-spectrum QQ activity and, unlike Bacillus thuringiensis serovar Berliner ATCC10792 CCEs, were effective in eliminating the AHLs produced in E. tarda ACC35.1 cultures. The fast and wide-spectrum AHL-degradation activity shown by this member of the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroidetes group consolidates this strain as a promising candidate for the control of AHL-based QS pathogens, especially in the marine fish farming industry.

  12. Trypanosoma epinepheli n. sp. (Kinetoplastida) from a farmed marine fish in China, the brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus).

    PubMed

    Su, Youlu; Feng, Juan; Jiang, Jingzhe; Guo, Zhixun; Liu, Guangfeng; Xu, Liwen

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in farmed Epinephelus fuscoguttatus in Xincun Bay, province of Hainan, South China Sea. The infected fish showed loss of appetite, lethargy, emaciation, severe anemia, and splenomegaly. Light and scanning electron microscopic examination of bloodstream trypomastigotes revealed morphological features typical for small-sized marine fish trypanosomes. The trypanosome possesses a short body length (mean 22.3 μm, range 17.6-25.9 μm) and narrow body width (mean1.7 μm, range 1.3-2.0 μm), a central nucleus, a narrow but distinct undulating membrane, and a relatively long free flagellum (mean 10.1 μm, range 7.4-13.3 μm). The kinetoplast is situated at approximately one quarter of body length from posterior extremity. The division process of this trypanosome was observed in the peripheral blood of the host, and occurred by transverse constriction at a point between the kinetoplasts. Comparison of the small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) sequences revealed that the trypanosome from E. fuscoguttatus showed 93.4-97.1% identity with the available sequences from Trypanosoma spp. from other piscine hosts. Phylogenetic analysis supported the existence of an aquatic clade, and the present trypanosome grouped with other marine fish trypanosomes, in a subclade together with Trypanosoma senegalense. Based on the differences in morphological characteristics, host species, and molecular data, the trypanosome infecting E. fuscoguttatus is considered to be a new species, for which we propose the name Trypanosoma epinepheli n. sp.

  13. Characterization of antifungal chitinase from marine Streptomyces sp. DA11 associated with South China Sea sponge Craniella australiensis.

    PubMed

    Han, Yue; Yang, Bingjie; Zhang, Fengli; Miao, Xiaoling; Li, Zhiyong

    2009-01-01

    The gene cloning, purification, properties, kinetics, and antifungal activity of chitinase from marine Streptomyces sp. DA11 associated with South China sponge Craniella australiensis were investigated. Alignment analysis of the amino acid sequence deduced from the cloned conserved 451 bp DNA sequence shows the chitinase belongs to ChiC type with 80% similarity to chitinase C precursor from Streptomyces peucetius. Through purification by 80% ammonium sulfate, affinity binding to chitin and diethylaminoethyl-cellulose anion-exchange chromatography, 6.15-fold total purification with a specific activity of 2.95 Umg(-1) was achieved. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed a molecular weight of approximately 34 kDa and antifungal activities were observed against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The optimal pH, temperature, and salinity for chitinase activity were 8.0, 50 degrees C, and 45 g per thousand psu, respectively, which may contribute to special application of this marine microbe-derived chitinase compared with terrestrial chitinases. The chitinase activity was increased by Mn(2+), Cu(2+), and Mg(2+), while strongly inhibited by Fe(2+) and Ba(2+). Meanwhile, SDS, ethyleneglycoltetraacetic acid, urea, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid were found to have significantly inhibitory effect on chitinase activity. With colloidal chitin as substrates instead of powder chitin, higher V (max) (0.82 mg product/min.mg protein) and lower K (m) (0.019 mg/ml) values were achieved. The sponge's microbial symbiont with chitinase activity may contribute to chitin degradation and antifungal defense. To our knowledge, it was the first time to study sponge-associated microbial chitinase.

  14. Methanosarcina acetivorans sp. nov., an Acetotrophic Methane-Producing Bacterium Isolated from Marine Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Sowers, Kevin R.; Baron, Stephen F.; Ferry, James G.

    1984-01-01

    A new acetotrophic marine methane-producing bacterium that was isolated from the methane-evolving sediments of a marine canyon is described. Exponential phase cultures grown with sodium acetate contained irregularly shaped cocci that aggregated in the early stationary phase and finally differentiated into communal cysts that released individual cocci when ruptured or transferred to fresh medium. The irregularly shaped cocci (1.9 ± 0.2 mm in diameter) were gram negative and occurred singly or in pairs. Cells were nonmotile, but possessed a single fimbria-like structure. Micrographs of thin sections showed a monolayered cell wall approximately 10 nm thick that consisted of protein subunits. The cells in aggregates were separated by visible septation. The communal cysts contained several single cocci encased in a common envelope. An amorphous form of the communal cyst that had incomplete septation and internal membrane-like vesicles was also present in late exponential phase cultures. Sodium acetate, methanol, methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine were substrates for growth and methanogenesis; H2-CO2 (80:20) and sodium formate were not. The optimal growth temperature was 35 to 40°C. The optimal pH range was 6.5 to 7.0. Both NaCl and Mg2+ were required for growth, with maximum growth rates at 0.2 M NaCl and 0.05 M MgSO4. The DNA base composition was 41 ± 1% guanine plus cytosine. Methanosarcina acetivorans is the proposed species. C2A is the type strain (DSM 2834, ATCC 35395). Images PMID:16346552

  15. Statistical approach for production of PUFA from Kocuria sp. BRI 35 isolated from marine water sample.

    PubMed

    Pote, Swanandi; Bhadekar, Rama

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Plackett-Burman design was used to identify the most influential parameters affecting PUFA production by Kocuria sp. BRI 35 isolated from Antarctic water sample. Amongst 10 variables evaluated, magnesium chloride, protease peptone, glucose, and temperature were significant. Response surface methodology consisting of a central composite design was developed to study the interactions between the variables and to determine optimal values of significant variables. A quadratic model (R = 0.9652, F = 14.64, P < 0.0001) was built. The contour plots indicated that the isolate produced maximum PUFA at lower concentrations of magnesium sulfate (0.9 g/L) and higher concentrations of protease peptone (5 g/L) and glucose (10 g/L) at 15°C. MgSO4 and glucose exhibited quadratic as well as interactive effect on PUFA production whereas protease peptone and temperature showed interactive effects only. After optimization, PUFA production per unit biomass increased from 0.94 mg/g to 11.12 mg/g. This represented an increase from 3% to 58.62% of the total fatty acids. Among PUFAs, the yield of ω -6 fatty acids increased from 9.66 mg/L to 107.71 mg/L with significant increase in linoleic acid (20.36 mg/L) whereas ω -3 fatty acids increased up to 12.37 mg/L with DHA being the major ω -3 fatty acid produced. PMID:25032215

  16. Isolation and classification of a novel marine Bacteroidetes as Frondibacter aureus gen. nov., sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Adachi, Kyoko; Kasai, Hiroaki

    2015-02-01

    A facultatively anaerobic, Gram-stain negative, golden-yellow pigmented, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain A5Q-67(T) was isolated from leaf litter collected at the mangrove estuary of Nakama River, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed the novel isolate was affiliated with the family Flavobacteriaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes and that it showed highest sequence similarity (94.2 %) to Imtechella halotolerans K1(T). The strain could be differentiated phenotypically from recognized members of the family Flavobacteriaceae. The major fatty acids of strain A5Q-67(T) were identified as iso-C17:0 3-OH, summed feature 1 (iso-C15:1 H and/or C13:0 3-OH) and iso-C15:0 as defined by the MIDI system. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 36.7 mol%, the major respiratory quinone was identified as menaquinone 6 (MK-6) and a polar lipid profile was present consisting of phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids and an unidentified lipid. From the distinct phylogenetic position and combination of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the strain is considered to represent a novel genus for which the name Frondibacter aureus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of F. aureus is A5Q-67(T) (=KCTC 32991(T) = NBRC 110021(T)). PMID:25385000

  17. Polaribacter butkevichii sp. nov., a novel marine mesophilic bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Kim, Seung Bum; Lysenko, Anatoly M; Kalinovskaya, Nataliya I; Mikhailov, Valery V; Kim, In Seop; Bae, Kyung Sook

    2005-12-01

    A novel heterotrophic, yellow pigmented, aerobic, Gram-negative, nonmotile, oxidase- and catalase-positive bacterium KMM 3,938(T) was isolated from sea water collected in the Sea of Japan, Russia. The strain grew at mesophilic temperature range, and required the presence of NaCl for growth. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain KMM 3,938(T) is a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae. The predominant fatty acids were C13:0 iso, C14:0 iso, C15:0 iso, C15:0, C15:1Delta6, 3OH-C15:0:3 iso, and 3OH-C15:0. The G + C content of the DNA of KMM 3938(T) was 32.4 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, genotypic, and phylogenetic characteristics, the novel bacterium was assigned to the genus Polaribacter as Polaribacter butkevichii sp. nov. The type strain is KMM 3938(T )(= KCTC 12100(T) = CCUG 48005(T)).

  18. Remispora spitsbergenensis sp. nov., a marine lignicolous ascomycete from Svalbard, Norway.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ka-Lai; Chiang, Michael W L; Vrijmoed, Lilian L P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Remispora was established for R. maritima, a fungus with globose/subglobose, lightly colored and coriaceous ascomata; deliquescing asci; ellipsoidal ascospores; and bipolar, pleomorphic ascospore appendages. Seven species currently are included in Remispora: R crispa, R. galerita, R maritima, R. minuta, R. pilleata, R. quadriremis and R stellata. Variations on ascospore appendages can be observed in Remispora. In general the appendage is exosporic in nature and comprises an amorphous, electron-transparent matrix, and a fibrous, electron-dense component. An eighth Remispora species, R. spitsbergenensis sp. nov., is described here, discovered from washed-up wood collected at the shore of Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway. Ascospore appendages of R. spitsbergenensis appear as fibrous strands and amorphic material under the scanning electron microscope, which are characteristic of a Remispora species. Remispora spitsbergenensis resembles R. quadriremis and R. stellata because all possess four or more ascospore appendages at one end. Remispora spitsbergenensis possesses consistently four polar appendages at each end in contrast to six in R. stellata. Also ascospore appendages of R. spitsbergenensis are ribbon-like, compared with the obclavate, curved and attenuate appendages in R. quadriremis and R. stellata. A key for the identification of the eight Remispora species is provided.

  19. Fabibacter misakiensis sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from coastal surface water.

    PubMed

    Wong, Shu-Kuan; Park, Sanghwa; Lee, Jung-Sook; Lee, Keun Chul; Chiura, Hiroshi Xavier; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Hamasaki, Koji

    2015-10-01

    A slightly curved-rod-shaped, pink-pigmented, Gram-stain-negative, aerobic bacterial strain with gliding motility, designated SK-8T, was isolated from coastal surface water of Misaki, Japan. Phylogenetic trees generated using 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SK-8T belonged to the genus Fabibacter and showed 96.0 % sequence similarity to the type strain of the most closely related species, Fabibacter pacificus DY53T. The novel isolate was phenotypically and physiologically different from previously described strains. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. Major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two aminophospholipids and an unidentified phospholipid. The DNA G+C content was 39.1 mol% and MK-7 was the only predominant isoprenoid quinone. On the basis of this taxonomic study employing a polyphasic approach, it was suggested that strain SK-8T represents a novel species of the genus Fabibacter, with the newly proposed name Fabibacter misakiensis sp. nov. The type strain is SK-8T ( = NBRC 110216T = KCTC 32969T). PMID:26296998

  20. Bioflocculant production by Bacillus sp. Gilbert isolated from a marine environment in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ugbenyen, A M; Cosa, S; Mabinya, L V; Okoh, A I

    2014-01-01

    In our previous study we reported on the bioflocculant production by a Bacillus species isolated from sediment samples of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. In current study we carried out further evaluation on the effect of different culture conditions on the bioflocculant production, as well as characterised the bioflocculant produced in detail. The bacteria produced bioflocculant optimally under the following conditions: using sodium carbonate (95.2% flocculating activity) and potassium nitrate (76.6% flocculating activity) as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively; inoculum size of 3% (v/v); initial pH 9.0; and Al3+ as coagulant aid. The crude bioflocculant retained 44.2% residual flocculating activity after heating at 100 degrees C for 15 min. Chemical analysis of the Bacillus sp. Gilbert purified bioflocculant demonstrated that it was composed mainly of polysaccharide. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and methylene groups in the bioflocculant and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis detected the elemental composition in mass proportion (% w/w) of C, N, O, S and P as 4.12 : 7.40: 39.92: 3.00: 13.91. Scanning electron micrograph image of the bioflocculant revealed an amorphous compound. PMID:25272753

  1. Simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification by the marine origin bacterium Pseudomonas sp. ADN-42.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ruofei; Liu, Tianqi; Liu, Guangfei; Zhou, Jiti; Huang, Jianyu; Wang, Aijie

    2015-02-01

    Recent research has highlighted the existence of some bacteria that are capable of performing heterotrophic nitrification and have a phenomenal ability to denitrify their nitrification products under aerobic conditions. A high-salinity-tolerant strain ADN-42 was isolated from Hymeniacidon perleve and found to display high heterotrophic ammonium removal capability. This strain was identified as Pseudomonas sp. via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Gene cloning and sequencing analysis indicated that the bacterial genome contains N2O reductase function (nosZ) gene. NH3-N removal rate of ADN-42 was very high. And the highest removal rate was 6.52 mg/L · h in the presence of 40 g/L NaCl. Under the condition of pure oxygen (DO >8 mg/L), NH3-N removal efficiency was 56.9 %. Moreover, 38.4 % of oxygen remained in the upper gas space during 72 h without greenhouse gas N2O production. Keeping continuous and low level of dissolved oxygen (DO <3 mg/L) was helpful for better denitrification performance. All these results indicated that the strain has heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification abilities, which guarantee future application in wastewater treatment.

  2. Arenibacter nanhaiticus sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment of the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fengqin; Wang, Baojiang; Du, Yaping; Liu, Xiupian; Lai, Qiliang; Li, Guangyu; Luo, Jie; Shao, Zongze

    2010-01-01

    An aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterial isolate, strain NH36A(T), was isolated from a sandy sediment sample from the South China Sea. Colonies of the isolate were dark orange on M2 agar. Optimal growth was observed at pH 7.0-8.5, 30 degrees C and in the presence of 0.5-4.0 % (w/v) NaCl. The major fatty acids were C(15 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(15 : 1), iso-C(15 : 0) 3-OH, iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH and summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and/or C(16 : 1)omega7c). The DNA G+C content was 38.9 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain NH36A(T) was most closely related to members of the genus Arenibacter, exhibiting 94.3-96.2 % sequence similarity to the type strains of Arenibacter species. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, this organism should be classified as a representative of a novel species in the genus Arenibacter. The name Arenibacter nanhaiticus sp. nov. is proposed and the type strain is NH36A(T) (=LMG 24842(T)=CCTCC AB 208315(T)=MCCC 1A04137(T)).

  3. Erythrobacter nanhaisediminis sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment of the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mingshuang; Xin, Yuhua; Yu, Yong; Zhang, Jianli; Zhou, Yuguang; Liu, Hongcan; Tian, Jiesheng; Li, Ying

    2010-09-01

    A novel Gram-negative, orange-pigmented, slightly halophilic, rod-shaped bacterium, strain T30(T), was isolated from sediment from the South China Sea. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain T30(T) was a member of the genus Erythrobacter, sharing highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Erythrobacter aquimaris JCM 12189(T) (99.5 %) and Erythrobacter vulgaris DSM 17792(T) (99.0 %). Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain T30(T) and closely related strains of Erythrobacter species ranged from 14.5 to 56.9 %.The isolate lacked bacteriochlorophyll a and contained ubiquinone-10 as the predominant respiratory lipoquinone. The major fatty acids of this strain were C(18 : 1) ω(38.2 %) and C(16 : 1) ω 7c /C(16 : 1) ω 6c (17.4 %). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content of strain T30(T) was 59.5 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic data, a novel species, Erythrobacter nanhaisediminis sp. nov., is proposed; the type strain is T30(T) (=CGMCC 1.7715(T)=JCM 16125(T)).

  4. Streptomyces nanhaiensis sp. nov., a marine streptomycete isolated from a deep-sea sediment.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xin-Peng; Long, Li-Juan; Wang, Fa-Zuo; Xu, Ying; Li, Jie; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Chang-Sheng; Zhang, Si; Li, Wen-Jun

    2012-04-01

    A novel aerobic streptomycete, strain SCSIO 01248T, was isolated from a sample of deep-sea sediment collected from the northern South China Sea, at a depth of 1632 m. This isolate formed yellow-white substrate mycelium and grey-white aerial hyphae. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain SCSIO 01248T was most closely related to Streptomyces radiopugnans R97T (98.8 % sequence similarity), S. macrosporus NBRC 14748T (97.5 %) and S. megasporus NBRC 14749T (97.3 %). The novel strain could, however, be readily differentiated from S. radiopugnans DSM 41901T on the basis of some physiological and cellular chemical characteristics; the level of DNA-DNA relatedness between these two strains was only 40 %. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, strain SCSIO 01248T represents a novel species, for which the name Streptomyces nanhaiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SCSIO 01248T (=DSM 41926T=KCTC 19401T=CCTCC AA 208007T).

  5. Amphibacillus marinus sp. nov., a member of the genus Amphibacillus isolated from marine mud.

    PubMed

    Ren, Biao; Yang, Na; Wang, Jian; Ma, Xiao-Long; Wang, Qian; Xie, Feng; Guo, Hui; Liu, Zhi-Heng; Pugin, Benoît; Zhang, Li-Xin

    2013-04-01

    A gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, designated J1(T) was isolated from deep-sea mud collected from the South China Sea and subjected to polyphasic taxonomic investigation. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that J1(T) clustered with the type strains of Amphibacillus cookii, Amphibacillus sediminis and Amphibacillus jilinensis and exhibited a range of similarity of 93.9-97.0 % to members of the genus Amphibacillus. The DNA G+C content was 36.7 mol%. Chemotaxonomic analysis showed no quinones, and the cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid for strain J1(T). The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. Strain J1(T) was positive for catalase activity and negative for oxidase activity. On the basis of phylogenetic position and phenotypic properties, strain J1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Amphibacillus and the name Amphibacillus marinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is J1(T) ( = CGMCC 1.10434(T) = JCM 17099(T)).

  6. Simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification by the marine origin bacterium Pseudomonas sp. ADN-42.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ruofei; Liu, Tianqi; Liu, Guangfei; Zhou, Jiti; Huang, Jianyu; Wang, Aijie

    2015-02-01

    Recent research has highlighted the existence of some bacteria that are capable of performing heterotrophic nitrification and have a phenomenal ability to denitrify their nitrification products under aerobic conditions. A high-salinity-tolerant strain ADN-42 was isolated from Hymeniacidon perleve and found to display high heterotrophic ammonium removal capability. This strain was identified as Pseudomonas sp. via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Gene cloning and sequencing analysis indicated that the bacterial genome contains N2O reductase function (nosZ) gene. NH3-N removal rate of ADN-42 was very high. And the highest removal rate was 6.52 mg/L · h in the presence of 40 g/L NaCl. Under the condition of pure oxygen (DO >8 mg/L), NH3-N removal efficiency was 56.9 %. Moreover, 38.4 % of oxygen remained in the upper gas space during 72 h without greenhouse gas N2O production. Keeping continuous and low level of dissolved oxygen (DO <3 mg/L) was helpful for better denitrification performance. All these results indicated that the strain has heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification abilities, which guarantee future application in wastewater treatment. PMID:25432342

  7. Two anisakid nematodes from marine fishes off New Caledonia, including Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) nemipteri n. sp. from Nemipterus furcosus.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2005-10-01

    One new and one known species of the ascaridoid family Anisakidae are reported from marine fishes off the southwestern coast of New Caledonia: Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) nemipteri n. sp. from the intestine of the forked-tailed threadfin bream Nemipterus furcosus (Nemipteridae, Perciformes) and Hysterothylacium cenaticum (Bruce and Cannon, 1989) from the intestine of the striped marlin Tetrapturus audax (Istiophoridae, Perciformes). R. nemipteri is characterised mainly by the shape (wider than long) of the lips, the length of the spicules (225-399 microm, which represent 2.7-4.2% of the body length), the number (22-33) of caudal pre-anal papillae, the position of the vulva (at 16-20% of the body length), and the presence of cuticular spines on the tip of the female tail. Specimens of H. cenaticum from New Caledonia generally exhibited smaller body measurements than those originally described from Australian waters; the deirids and eggs are described for the first time. Maricostula Bruce and Cannon, 1989 is considered a junior synonym of Hysterothylacium, to which three species are transferred as H. cenaticum (Bruce and Cannon, 1989) n. comb., H. makairi (Bruce and Cannon, 1989) n. comb. and H. tetrapteri (Bruce and Cannon, 1989) n. comb. PMID:16167119

  8. Moorea producens gen. nov., sp. nov. and Moorea bouillonii comb. nov., tropical marine cyanobacteria rich in bioactive secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Engene, Niclas; Rottacker, Erin C; Kaštovský, Jan; Byrum, Tara; Choi, Hyukjae; Ellisman, Mark H; Komárek, Jiří; Gerwick, William H

    2012-05-01

    The filamentous cyanobacterial genus Moorea gen. nov., described here under the provisions of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, is a cosmopolitan pan-tropical group abundant in the marine benthos. Members of the genus Moorea are photosynthetic (containing phycocyanin, phycoerythrin, allophycocyanin and chlorophyll a), but non-diazotrophic (lack heterocysts and nitrogenase reductase genes). The cells (discoid and 25-80 µm wide) are arranged in long filaments (<10 cm in length) and often form extensive mats or blooms in shallow water. The cells are surrounded by thick polysaccharide sheaths covered by a rich diversity of heterotrophic micro-organisms. A distinctive character of this genus is its extraordinarily rich production of bioactive secondary metabolites. This is matched by genomes rich in polyketide synthase and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase biosynthetic genes which are dedicated to secondary metabolism. The encoded natural products are sometimes responsible for harmful algae blooms and, due to morphological resemblance to the genus Lyngbya, this group has often been incorrectly cited in the literature. We here describe two species of the genus Moorea: Moorea producens sp. nov. (type species of the genus) with 3L(T) as the nomenclature type, and Moorea bouillonii comb. nov. with PNG5-198(R) as the nomenclature type.

  9. Taxonomic description and genome sequence of Salinicoccus sediminis sp. nov., a halotolerant bacterium isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajendran Mathan; Kaur, Gurwinder; Kumar, Narender; Kumar, Anand; Singh, Nitin Kumar; Bala, Monu; Kaur, Navjot; Mayilraj, Shanmugam

    2015-11-01

    A Gram-staining-positive, coccoid, halotolerant bacterial strain, designated SV-16T, was isolated from marine sediment and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The strain exhibited phenotypic properties that included chemotaxonomic characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Salinicoccus. Growth occurred at temperatures in the range 25-37 °C (optimum 30 °C), at pH 7.0-11.0 (optimum pH 8.0) and at NaCl concentrations of up to 25.0% (optimum 15.0%). The highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was with Salinicoccus carnicancri CrmT (98.6%) followed by Salinicoccus halodurans W24T (96.6%). The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylglycerol. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, iso-C17:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The draft genome of strain SV-16T consisted of 2,591,284 bp with a DNA G+C content of 48.7 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and genotypic distinctiveness of strain SV-16T, it should be classified within a novel species of the genus Salinicoccus, for which the name Salinicoccus sediminis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SV-16T ( = MTCC 11832T = DSM 28797T). PMID:26956594

  10. Pseudoalteromonas bacteriolytica sp. nov., a marine bacterium that is the causative agent of red spot disease of Laminaria japonica.

    PubMed

    Sawabe, T; Makino, H; Tatsumi, M; Nakano, K; Tajima, K; Iqbal, M M; Yumoto, I; Ezura, Y; Christen, R

    1998-07-01

    An aerobic, polarly flagellated marine bacterium that produces a prodigiosin-like pigment was isolated from the red-spotted culture beds of Laminaria japonica. Five isolates had unique bacteriolytic activity for both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, which had never been observed among Alteromonas or related species. The isolates were identified as the causative agent of red spot disease of L. japonica seeds. The phenotypic features of the isolates were similar to these of Pseudoalteromonas rubra ATCC 29570T, but they could be differentiated using 10 traits (growth at 37 degrees C, requirement for organic growth factors, bacteriolytic activity, utilization of sucrose, N-acetylglucosamine, fumarate, succinate, D-galactose, L-proline and acetate). The G+C content of DNAs from the isolates was 44-46 mol%. The isolates constitute a new species, distinct from the other Alteromonas and Pseudoalteromonas species, as shown by DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phylogenetic clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences, for which the name Pseudoalteromonas bacteriolytica sp. nov. (type strain = IAM 14595T) is proposed. A set of phenotypic features which differentiate this new species from closely related Pseudoalteromonas and Alteromonas species is provided. PMID:9734030

  11. Real-time kinetics of electrogenic Na+ transport by rhodopsin from the marine flavobacterium Dokdonia sp. PRO95

    PubMed Central

    Bogachev, Alexander V.; Bertsova, Yulia V.; Verkhovskaya, Marina L.; Mamedov, Mahir D.; Skulachev, Vladimir P.

    2016-01-01

    Discovery of the light-driven sodium-motive pump Na+-rhodopsin (NaR) has initiated studies of the molecular mechanism of this novel membrane-linked energy transducer. In this paper, we investigated the photocycle of NaR from the marine flavobacterium Dokdonia sp. PRO95 and identified electrogenic and Na+-dependent steps of this cycle. We found that the NaR photocycle is composed of at least four steps: NaR519 + hv → K585 → (L450↔M495) → O585 → NaR519. The third step is the only step that depends on the Na+ concentration inside right-side-out NaR-containing proteoliposomes, indicating that this step is coupled with Na+ binding to NaR. For steps 2, 3, and 4, the values of the rate constants are 4×104 s–1, 4.7 × 103 M–1 s–1, and 150 s–1, respectively. These steps contributed 15, 15, and 70% of the total membrane electric potential (Δψ ~ 200 mV) generated by a single turnover of NaR incorporated into liposomes and attached to phospholipid-impregnated collodion film. On the basis of these observations, a mechanism of light-driven Na+ pumping by NaR is suggested. PMID:26864904

  12. New records of marine tardigrades from Moorea, French Polynesia, with the description of Styraconyx turbinarium sp. nov. (Arthrotardigrada, Halechiniscidae).

    PubMed

    Bartels, Paul J; Fontoura, Paulo; Nelson, Diane R

    2015-05-05

    Five marine arthrotardigrade species are recorded from Moorea, Society Islands, French Polynesia. Four were collected from coral sand; two, Dipodarctus anaholiensis Pollock, 1995 and Florarctus kwoni Chang & Rho, 1997, are new records for the region, and two, Halechiniscus perfectus Schulz, 1955 and Styraconyx kristenseni kristenseni Renaud-Mornant, 1981, have been previously reported. The fifth, a new species Styraconyx turbinarium sp. nov., is described and was collected from the drifting brown alga Turbinaria ornata. The new species is characterized by the presence of peduncles on all digits, an elongate primary clava, and the lateral cirrus A arising from a common pedestal and enveloped by a common membrane extending almost to the claval tip. The new species differs from the most similar species, Styraconyx tyrrhenus D'Addabbo Gallo, Morone De Lucia & de Zio Grimaldi, 1989, by having longer and differently shaped primary clavae which are elongated in the new species and club-shaped in S. tyrrhenus. By having a dorsal cuticle that is coarsely punctated but without folds or other ornamentations, the new species can be easily distinguished from S. craticulus (Pollock, 1983), a species with similar primary clavae, but with cuticular dorsal folds ornamented with a grid-like pattern.

  13. A New Analogue of Echinomycin and a New Cyclic Dipeptide from a Marine-Derived Streptomyces sp. LS298

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Xin; Gong, Ting; Liu, Fu; Zhang, Pei-Cheng; Zhou, Wan-Qi; Li, Yan; Zhu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Quinomycin G (1), a new analogue of echinomycin, together with a new cyclic dipeptide, cyclo-(l-Pro-4-OH-l-Leu) (2), as well as three known antibiotic compounds tirandamycin A (3), tirandamycin B (4) and staurosporine (5), were isolated from Streptomyces sp. LS298 obtained from a marine sponge Gelliodes carnosa. The planar and absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 2 were established by MS, NMR spectral data analysis and Marfey’s method. Furthermore, the differences in NMR data of keto-enol tautomers in tirandamycins were discussed for the first time. Antibacterial and anti-tumor activities of compound 1 were measured against 15 drug-sensitive/resistant strains and 12 tumor cell lines. Compound 1 exhibited moderate antibacterial activities against Staphylococcuse pidermidis, S. aureus, Enterococcus faecium, and E. faecalis with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranged from 16 to 64 μg/mL. Moreover, it displayed remarkable anti-tumor activities; the highest activity was observed against the Jurkat cell line (human T-cell leukemia) with an IC50 value of 0.414 μM. PMID:26593927

  14. A New Analogue of Echinomycin and a New Cyclic Dipeptide from a Marine-Derived Streptomyces sp. LS298.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Xin; Gong, Ting; Liu, Fu; Zhang, Pei-Cheng; Zhou, Wan-Qi; Li, Yan; Zhu, Ping

    2015-11-01

    Quinomycin G (1), a new analogue of echinomycin, together with a new cyclic dipeptide, cyclo-(l-Pro-4-OH-l-Leu) (2), as well as three known antibiotic compounds tirandamycin A (3), tirandamycin B (4) and staurosporine (5), were isolated from Streptomyces sp. LS298 obtained from a marine sponge Gelliodes carnosa. The planar and absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 2 were established by MS, NMR spectral data analysis and Marfey's method. Furthermore, the differences in NMR data of keto-enol tautomers in tirandamycins were discussed for the first time. Antibacterial and anti-tumor activities of compound 1 were measured against 15 drug-sensitive/resistant strains and 12 tumor cell lines. Compound 1 exhibited moderate antibacterial activities against Staphylococcuse pidermidis, S. aureus, Enterococcus faecium, and E. faecalis with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranged from 16 to 64 μg/mL. Moreover, it displayed remarkable anti-tumor activities; the highest activity was observed against the Jurkat cell line (human T-cell leukemia) with an IC50 value of 0.414 μM. PMID:26593927

  15. Psychrobium conchae gen. nov., sp. nov., a psychrophilic marine bacterium isolated from the Iheya North hydrothermal field.

    PubMed

    Nogi, Yuichi; Abe, Mariko; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Hirayama, Hisako

    2014-11-01

    A novel psychrophilic, marine, bacterial strain designated BJ-1(T) was isolated from the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Okinawa Trough off Japan. Cells were Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, aerobic chemo-organotrophs and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Growth occurred at temperatures below 16 °C, with the optimum between 9 and 12 °C. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the closest relatives of strain BJ-1(T) were Shewanella denitrificans OS-217(T) (93.5% similarity), Shewanella profunda DSM 15900(T) (92.9%), Shewanella gaetbuli TF-27(T) (92.9%), Paraferrimonas sedimenticola Mok-106(T) (92.1%) and Ferrimonas kyonanensis Asr22-7(T) (91.7%). The major respiratory quinone was Q-8. The predominant fatty acids were C(16:1)ω7c and C(16:0). The G+C content of the novel strain was 40.5 mol%. Based on phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic evidence, it is proposed that strain BJ-1(T) represents a novel species in a new genus, for which the name Psychrobium conchae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Psychrobium conchae is BJ-1(T) ( =JCM 30103(T) =DSM 28701(T)).

  16. Feifantangia zhejiangensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from seawater of the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Gang; Chen, Zuo-Guo; Jiang, Ri-Jin; Yang, Zhi-Jian

    2015-12-01

    A marine bacterium, NMD7(T), was isolated from seawater of the East China Sea. The cells were found to be aerobic, Gram-stain negative, non-motile rods. Growth of strain NMD7(T) could be observed in the medium without Na(+). Flexirubin-type pigments were observed to be produced. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain NMD7(T) is an authentic member of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum, forming a monophyletic clade as retrieved in neighbor-joining, maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony phylogenetic trees, and is closely related to Formosa spongicola A2(T) (96.0 %). The predominant respiratory quinone was determined to be MK-6. Major cellular fatty acids were identified as iso-C15:0, iso-C15:1 G and iso-C17:0 3-OH. The main polar lipids were found to consist of phosphatidylethanolamine, one aminophospholipid, three aminolipids and five unidentified lipids. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, it is proposed that strain NMD7(T) be classified as representing a new genus, Feifantangia gen. nov. and a new species, Feifantangia zhejiangensis sp. nov. The type strain is NMD7(T) (=KCTC 42445T =MCCC 1K00458T). PMID:26410371

  17. Marinobacterium mangrovicola sp. nov., a marine nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from mangrove roots of Rhizophora mangle.

    PubMed

    Alfaro-Espinoza, Gabriela; Ullrich, Matthias S

    2014-12-01

    A nitrogen-fixing marine bacterium, designated strain Gal22(T), was isolated from mangrove roots of Rhizophora mangle. Cells were Gram-stain-negative rods, motile with a single polar flagellum. Growth was observed at 4-42 °C, pH 5.5 to 10 and with 0-18 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain Gal22(T) was positive for catalase and oxidase. Q-8 was the predominant lipoquinone. The DNA G+C content was 57.0 mol%. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene, strain Gal22(T) belongs to the genus Marinobacterium. The closely related strains were shown to be Marinobacterium lutimaris DSM 22012(T) and Marinobacterium litorale IMCC1877(T) with 99 % and 96 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. DNA-DNA relatedness analysis indicated that strain Gal22(T) was different from M. lutimaris DSM 22012(T). On the basis of genotypic, morphological and biochemical characteristics, a novel species, Marinobacterium mangrovicola sp. nov. (type strain, Gal22(T) = DSM 27697(T) = CIP 110653(T)), is proposed. PMID:25217624

  18. Characterization of a new marine nitrite oxidizing bacterium, Nitrospina watsonii sp. nov., a member of the newly proposed phylum "Nitrospinae".

    PubMed

    Spieck, Eva; Keuter, Sabine; Wenzel, Thilo; Bock, Eberhard; Ludwig, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Nitrite oxidizing bacteria are an integral part of the nitrogen cycle in marine waters, but the knowledge about their diversity is limited. Recently, a high abundance of Nitrospina-like 16S rRNA gene sequences has been detected in oceanic habitats with low oxygen content by molecular methods. Here, we describe a new strain of Nitrospina, which was sampled in 100m depth from the Black Sea. It coexisted with a not-yet cultivated chemoorganotrophic gammaproteobacterium and could be purified by classical isolation methods including Percoll density gradient centrifugation. The new Nitrospina-like bacterium grew lithoautotrophically at 28°C in diluted seawater supplemented with inorganic salts and nitrite. Gram-negative rods were characterized morphologically, physiologically and partly biochemically. The 16S rRNA gene of the new strain of Nitrospina is 97.9% similar to the described species N. gracilis and DNA/DNA hybridization experiments revealed a relatedness of 30.0%. The data from both Nitrospina species and environmental clones were used for an extensive 16S rRNA based phylogenetic study applying high quality filtering. Treeing analyses confirm the newly defined phylum status for "Nitrospinae" [18]. The results of phylogenetic and genotypic analyses support the proposal of a novel species Nitrospina watsonii sp. nov. (type strain 347(T), LMG 27401(T), NCIMB 14887(T)). PMID:24581679

  19. Gellan gum microspheres containing a novel α-amylase from marine Nocardiopsis sp. strain B2 for immobilization.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Samrat; Jana, Sougata; Gandhi, Arijit; Sen, Kalyan Kumar; Zhiang, Wang; Kokare, Chandrakant

    2014-09-01

    A Nocardiopsis sp. stain B2 with an ability to produce stable α-amylase was isolated from marine sediments. The characterization of microorganism was done by biochemical tests and 16S rDNA sequencing. The α-amylase was purified by gel filtration chromatography by using sephadex G-75. The molecular mass of the amylase was found to be 45 kDa by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration chromatography. The isolated α-amylase was immobilized by ionotropic gelation technique using gellan gum (GG). These microspheres were spherical with average particle size of 375.62±21.76 to 492.54±32.18 μm. The entrapment efficiency of these α-amylase loaded GG microspheres was found 74.76±1.32 to 87.64±1.52%. Characterization of α-amylase-gellan gum microspheres was confirmed using FTIR and SEM analysis. The in vitro amylase release kinetic have been studied by various mathematical models that follow the Korsmeyer-Peppas model (R2=0.9804-0.9831) with anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion release mechanism.

  20. Production of cold-adapted amylase by marine bacterium Wangia sp. C52: optimization, modeling, and partial characterization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Hu; Dang, Hongyue; Lu, Jianren; Cui, Zhanfeng

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this work was to optimize the fermentation parameters in the shake-flask culture of marine bacterium Wangia sp. C52 to increase cold-adapted amylase production using two statistical experimental methods including Plackett-Burman design, which was applied to find the key ingredients for the best medium composition, and response surface methodology, which was used to determine the optimal concentrations of these components. The results showed starch, tryptone, and initial pH had significant effects on the cold-adapted amylase production. A central composite design was then employed to further optimize these three factors. The experimental results indicated that the optimized composition of medium was 6.38 g  L(-1) starch, 33.84 g  L(-1) tryptone, 3.00 g  L(-1) yeast extract, 30 g  L(-1) NaCl, 0.60 g  L(-1) MgSO(4) and 0.56 g  L(-1) CaCl(2). The optimized cultivation conditions for amylase production were pH 7.18, a temperature of 20°C, and a shaking speed of 180 rpm. Under the proposed optimized conditions, the amylase experimental yield (676.63 U  mL(-1)) closely matched the yield (685.60 U  mL(-1)) predicted by the statistical model. The optimization of the medium contributed to tenfold higher amylase production than that of the control in shake-flask experiments.

  1. Genome Sequence of the Fructan-Degrading Organism Marinimicrobium sp. Strain LS-A18, Isolated from a Marine Solar Saltern.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei-Dong; Pang, Hai-Qiang; Guo, Li-Zhong

    2013-10-03

    Marinimicrobium sp. strain LS-A18 is a fructan-degrading organism isolated from a brine sample from a marine solar saltern in Jiaozhou Bay, China. The draft genome sequence of this bacterium is 3,815,107 bp in length, with a G+C content of 59.03%. To our knowledge, this is the first genome announcement of a fructan-degrading strain of the genus Marinimicrobium.

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Cellulophaga sp. E6, a Marine Algal Epibiont That Produces a Quorum-Sensing Inhibitory Compound Active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Lafleur, J. E.; Costa, S. K.; Bitzer, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Cellulophaga is composed of obligate aerobic Gram-negative bacteria commonly found in association with marine algae. We report the approximately 4.42-Mbp draft genome sequence of Cellulophaga sp. E6, which inhibits N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C12-HSL)–mediated quorum sensing (QS), lasB transcription, and biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:25676769

  3. Speciation and phylogeography in the cosmopolitan marine moon jelly, Aurelia sp

    PubMed Central

    Schroth, Werner; Jarms, Gerhard; Streit, Bruno; Schierwater, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Background The cosmopolitan moon jelly Aurelia is characterized by high degrees of morphological and ecological plasticity, and subsequently by an unclear taxonomic status. The latter has been revised repeatedly over the last century, dividing the genus Aurelia in as many as 12 or as little as two species. We used molecular data and phenotypic traits to unravel speciation processes and phylogeographic patterns in Aurelia. Results Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data (16S and ITS-1/5.8S rDNA) from 66 world-wide sampled specimens reveal star-like tree topologies, unambiguously differentiating 7 (mtDNA) and 8 (ncDNA) genetic entities with sequence divergences ranging from 7.8 to 14% (mtDNA) and 5 to 32% (ncDNA), respectively. Phylogenetic patterns strongly suggest historic speciation events and the reconstruction of at least 7 different species within Aurelia. Both genetic divergences and life history traits showed associations to environmental factors, suggesting ecological differentiation forced by divergent selection. Hybridization and introgression between Aurelia lineages likely occurred due to secondary contacts, which, however, did not disrupt the unambiguousness of genetic separation. Conclusions Our findings recommend Aurelia as a model system for using the combined power of organismic, ecological, and molecular data to unravel speciation processes in cosmopolitan marine organisms. PMID:11801181

  4. Penicillium jejuense sp. nov., isolated from the marine environments of Jeju Island, Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Myung Soo; Fong, Jonathan J; Oh, Seung-Yoon; Houbraken, Jos; Sohn, Jae Hak; Hong, Seung-Beom; Lim, Young Woon

    2015-01-01

    Three strains of an unidentified Penicillium species were isolated during a fungal diversity survey of marine environments in Korea. These strains are described here as a new species following a multigene phylogenetic analyses of nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer barcodes (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2), genes for β-tubulin, calmodulin and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit, and observation of macro-and micromorphological characters. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the three strains formed a strongly supported monophyletic group distinct from previously reported species of section Aspergilloides. Morphologically this species can be distinguished from its sister species, P. crocicola, by the reverse color on Czapek yeast autolysate agar, abundant production of sclerotia on malt extract agar and colony characters on yeast extract sucrose agar. We name this new species P. jejuense, after the locality where it was discovered. At 25 C for 7 d, P. jejuense colonies grew to 55-60 mm on CYA, 45-48 mm on MEA, 48-52 mm on YES and 23-26 mm on CREA. Conidia (2.2-3.4 × 2.0-2.6 μm) and sclerotia (160-340 × 125-210 μm) were globose to ellipsoidal.

  5. Isolation and Characterization of a Methylotrophic Marine Methanogen, Methanococcoides methylutens gen. nov., sp. nov

    PubMed Central

    Sowers, Kevin R.; Ferry, James G.

    1983-01-01

    A new genus of marine methanogenic bacteria is described that utilizes trimethylamine, diethylamine, monomethylamine, and methanol as substrates for growth and methanogenesis. Methane was not produced from H2-CO2, sodium formate, or sodium acetate. Growth on trimethylamine was stimulated by yeast extract, Trypticase (BBL Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, Md.), rumen fluid, or B vitamins. The optimal growth temperature was 30 to 35°C. The maximum growth rate was between pH 7.0 and 7.5. Na+ (0.4 M) and MgSO4 (0.05 M) were required for maximum growth. Colonies of the type strain, TMA-10, were yellow, circular, and convex with entire edges. Cells were nonmotile, nonsporeforming, irregular cocci 1 μm in diameter which stained gram negative and occurred singly or in pairs. Micrographs of thin sections revealed a monolayered cell wall approximately 10-nm thick which consisted of protein. Cells were lysed in 0.01% sodium dodecyl sulfate or 0.001% Triton X-100. The DNA base composition was 42 mol% guanine plus cytosine. Methanococcoides is the proposed genus and Methanococcoides methylutens is the type species. TMA-10 is the type strain (ATCC 33938). Images PMID:16346215

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Methanomicrobium paynteri sp. nov., a Mesophilic Methanogen Isolated from Marine Sediments †

    PubMed Central

    Rivard, Christopher J.; Henson, J. Michael; Thomas, Michael V.; Smith, Paul H.

    1983-01-01

    A new mesophilic methanogenic bacterial species isolated from marine sediments collected in the Cayman Islands is described. Cells are small rods occuring singly without filaments, are not motile, and do not possess flagella. Colonies are semitransparent and off-white in color. After 2 weeks of incubation at 37°C colonies are 1 to 2 mm in size, circular, and have entire edges. Only hydrogen-carbon dioxide is a substrate for growth and methane formation. Cells can tolerate a variety of organic secondary buffers (bicarbonate-CO2 being the primary buffer). Cells do not require yeast extract or Trypticase, but do require acetate, for growth. The optimum growth temperature is 40°C. The optimum sodium concentration is 0.15 M. The optimum pH for growth is 7.0. The minimum generation time is 4.8 h. The DNA base composition is 44.9 mol% guanine plus cytosine. The name Methanomicrobium paynteri is proposed in honor of M. J. B. Paynter. The type strain is G-2000 (=ATCC 33997, =DSM 2545). Images PMID:16346371

  7. Three antimycobacterial metabolites identified from a marine-derived Streptomyces sp. MS100061.

    PubMed

    Chen, Caixia; Wang, Jian; Guo, Hui; Hou, Weiyuan; Yang, Na; Ren, Biao; Liu, Mei; Dai, Huanqin; Liu, Xueting; Song, Fuhang; Zhang, Lixin

    2013-05-01

    In the course of a screening program for bioactive compounds from a marine natural product library, a newly isolated Actinomycetes strain, designated as MS100061, exhibited strong anti-Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) activity. The strain belongs to the genus Streptomyces according to its morphological and 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis. Bioassay-guided isolation resulted in a new spirotetronate, lobophorin G (1), together with two known compounds, lobophorins A (2) and B (3). The structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods and comparison with literatures. Compounds 1-3 were subjected to anti-BCG, antituberculosis, and antibacterial screening and exhibited potent anti-BCG activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 1.56, 1.56, and 0.78 μg/ml, respectively, and moderate anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv activity with MIC values of 32, 32, and 16 μg/ml, respectively. The MIC values of compounds 1-3 against Bacillus subtilis were 3.125, 12.5, and 1.56 μg/ml, respectively, indicating great potential for antibacterial drugs. In addition, this is the first report of the anti-BCG and antituberculosis activities of lobophorins.

  8. Isolation and characterization of a methylotrophic marine methanogen, Methanococcoides methylutens gen. nov. , sp

    SciTech Connect

    Sowers, K.R.; Ferry, J.G.

    1983-02-01

    A new genus of marine methanogenic bacteria is described that utilizes trimethylamine, diethylamine, monomethylamine, and methanol as substrates for growth and methanogenesis. Methane was not produced from H/sub 2/-CO/sub 2/, sodium formate, or sodium acetate. Growth on trimethylamine was stimulated by yeast extract, Trypticase (BBL Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, MD), rumen fluid, or B vitamins. The optimal growth temperature was 30 to 35/sup 0/C. The maximum growth rate was between pH 7.0 and 7.5. Na/sup +/ (0.4 M) and MgSO/sub 4/ (0.05 M) were required for maximum growth. Colonies of the type strain, TMA-10, were yellow, circular, and convex with entire edges. Cells were nonmotile, nonsporeforming, irregular cocci 1 ..mu..m in diameter which stained gram negative and occurred singly or in pairs. Micrographs of thin sections revealed a monolayered cell wall approximately 10-nm thick which consisted of protein. Cells were lysed in 0.01% sodium dodecyl sulfate or 0.001% Triton X-100. The DNA base composition was 42 mol% guanine plus cytosine. Methanococcoides is the proposed genus and Methanococcoides methylutens is the type species. TMA-10 is the type strain (ATCC 33938).

  9. A polysaccharide-degrading marine bacterium Flammeovirga sp. MY04 and its extracellular agarase system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wenjun; Gu, Jingyan; Yan, Qiujie; Li, Jungang; Wu, Zhihong; Gu, Qianqun; Li, Yuezhong

    2012-09-01

    Bacteria of the genus Flammeovirga can digest complex polysaccharides (CPs), but no details have been reported regarding the CP depolymerases of these bacteria. MY04, an agarolytic marine bacterium isolated from coastal sediments, has been identified as a new member of the genus Flammeovirga. The MY04 strain is able to utilize multiple CPs as a sole carbon source and grows well on agarose, mannan, or xylan. This strain produces high concentrations of extracellular proteins (490 mg L-1 ± 18.2 mg L-1 liquid culture) that exhibit efficient and extensive degradation activities on various polysaccharides, especially agarose. These proteins have an activity of 310 U mg-1 ± 9.6 U mg-1 proteins. The extracellular agarase system (EAS) in the crude extracellular enzymes contains at least four agarose depolymerases, which are with molecular masses of approximately 30-70 kDa. The EAS is stable at a wide range of pH values (6.0-11.0), temperatures (0-50°C), and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations (0-0.9 mol L-1). Two major degradation products generated from agarose by the EAS are identified to be neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose, suggesting that β-agarases are the major constituents of the MY04 EAS. These results suggest that the Flammeovirga strain MY04 and its polysaccharide-degradation system hold great promise in industrial applications.

  10. Antibacterial and cytotoxic new napyradiomycins from the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 10428.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhengchao; Li, Sumei; Li, Jie; Chen, Yuchan; Saurav, Kumar; Zhang, Qingbo; Zhang, Haibo; Zhang, Wenjun; Zhang, Weimin; Zhang, Si; Zhang, Changsheng

    2013-06-01

    Three new napyradiomycins (1-3) were isolated from the culture broth of a marine-derived actinomycete strain SCSIO 10428, together with six known related analogues napyradiomycin A1 (4), 18-oxonapyradiomycin A1 (5), napyradiomycin B1 (6), napyradiomycin B3 (7), naphthomevalin (8), and napyradiomycin SR (9). The strain SCSIO 10428 was identified as a Streptomyces species by the sequence analysis of its 16S rRNA gene. The structures of new compounds 1-3, designated 4-dehydro-4a-dechlorona pyradiomycin A1 (1), 3-dechloro-3-bromonapyradiomycin A1 (2), and 3-chloro-6, 8-dihydroxy-8-α-lapachone (3), respectively, were elucidated by comparing their 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data with known congeners. None of the napyradiomycins 1-9 showed antioxidative activities. Napyradiomycins 1-8 displayed antibacterial activities against three Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus and Bacillus strains with MIC values ranging from 0.25 to 32 μg mL⁻¹, with the exception that compound 3 had a MIC value of above 128 μg mL⁻¹ against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213. Napyradiomycins 2, 4, 6, and 7 exhibited moderate cytotoxicities against four human cancer cell lines SF-268, MCF-7, NCI-H460, and HepG-2 with IC₅₀ values below 20 μM, while the IC₅₀ values for other five napyradiomycins 1, 3, 5, 8 and 9 were above 20 μM.

  11. Thalassolituus oleivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel marine bacterium that obligately utilizes hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Yakimov, Michail M; Giuliano, Laura; Denaro, Renata; Crisafi, Ermanno; Chernikova, Tatiana N; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer; Luensdorf, Heinrich; Timmis, Kenneth N; Golyshin, Peter N

    2004-01-01

    An aerobic, heterotrophic, Gram-negative, curved bacterial strain, designated MIL-1T, was isolated by extinction dilution from an n-tetradecane enrichment culture that was established from sea water/sediment samples collected in the harbour of Milazzo, Italy. In the primary enrichment, the isolate formed creamy-white, medium-sized colonies on the surface of the agar. The isolate did not grow in the absence of NaCl; growth was optimal at 2.7% NaCl. Only a narrow spectrum of organic compounds, including aliphatic hydrocarbons (C7-C20), their oxidized derivatives and acetate, were used as growth substrates. The isolate was not able to grow under denitrifying conditions. The DNA G+C content and genome size of strain MIL-1T were estimated to be 53.2 mol% and 2.2 Mbp, respectively. The major cellular and phospholipid fatty acids were palmitoleic, palmitic and oleic acids (33.5, 29.5 and 11.0% and 18, 32 and 31%, respectively). 3-hydroxy lauric acid was the only hydroxy fatty acid detected. Thirteen different compounds that belonged to two types of phospholipid (phosphatidylethylamine and phosphatidylglycerol) were identified. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that this isolate represents a distinct phyletic lineage within the gamma-Proteobacteria and has about 94.4% sequence similarity to Oceanobacter kriegii (the closest bacterial species with a validly published name). The deduced protein sequence of the putative alkane hydrolase, AlkB, of strain MIL-1T is related to the corresponding enzymes of Alcanivorax borkumensis and Pseudomonas oleovorans (81 and 80% similarity, respectively). On the basis of the analyses performed, Thalassolituus oleivorans gen. nov., sp. nov. is described. Strain MIL-1T (=DSM 14913T=LMG 21420T) is the type and only strain of T. oleivorans. PMID:14742471

  12. Domibacillus enclensis sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment, and emended description of the genus Domibacillus.

    PubMed

    Sonalkar, Vidya V; Mawlankar, Rahul; Krishnamurthi, Srinivasan; Tang, Shan-Kun; Dastager, Syed G

    2014-12-01

    A novel red-pigmented bacterial strain, designated NIO-1016(T), was isolated from a sediment sample from Chorao Island, India and was investigated by a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strain was Gram-reaction-positive, strictly aerobic, motile and catalase-positive and produced spherical to slightly ellipsoidal endospores with subterminal position on swollen sporangia. The genomic DNA G+C content was 46.9 mol%. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0. The predominant quinones were MK-6 (89.3 %) and MK-7 (8.7 %). The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and an unidentified phospholipid. meso-Diaminopimelic acid (type A1γ) was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan and the major whole-cell sugars were glucose and ribose. The closest phylogenetic neighbours were identified as Domibacillus robiginosus DSM 25058(T) (98.0 % similarity) and Domibacillus indicus DSM 28032(T) (97.2 % similarity), other species of the genus Bacillus displayed below 96 % similarity. Phylogenetic, physiological, biochemical and morphological differences between strain NIO-1016(T) and its closest neighbours indicate that this strain represents a novel species in the genus Domibacillus in the family Bacillaceae for which the name Domibacillus enclensis sp. nov. is proposed with the type species NIO-1016(T) ( = DSM 25145(T) = NCIM 5462(T) = CCTCC AB 2011121(T)).

  13. Seasonal Preservation Success of the Marine Dinoflagellate Coral Symbiont, Symbiodinium sp.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Mary; Carter, Virginia L

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs are some of the most diverse and productive ecosystems on the planet, but are threatened by global and local stressors, mandating the need for incorporating ex situ conservation practices. One approach that is highly protective is the development of genome resource banks that preserve the species and its genetic diversity. A critical component of the reef are the endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium sp., living within most coral that transfer energy-rich sugars to their hosts. Although Symbiodinium are maintained alive in culture collections around the world, the cryopreservation of these algae to prevent loss and genetic drift is not well-defined. This study examined the quantum yield physiology and freezing protocols that resulted in survival of Symbiodinium at 24 h post-thawing. Only the ultra-rapid procedure called vitrification resulted in success whereas conventional slow freezing protocols did not. We determined that success also depended on using a thin film of agar with embedded Symbiodinium on Cryotops, a process that yielded a post-thaw viability of >50% in extracted and vitrified Symbiodinium from Fungia scutaria, Pocillopora damicornis and Porites compressa. Additionally, there also was a seasonal influence on vitrification success as the best post-thaw survival of F. scutaria occurred in winter and spring compared to summer and fall (P < 0.05). These findings lay the foundation for developing a viable genome resource bank for the world's Symbiodinium that, in turn, will not only protect this critical element of coral functionality but serve as a resource for understanding the complexities of symbiosis, support selective breeding experiments to develop more thermally resilient strains of coral, and provide a 'gold-standard' genomics collection, allowing for full genomic sequencing of unique Symbiodinium strains. PMID:26422237

  14. Seasonal Preservation Success of the Marine Dinoflagellate Coral Symbiont, Symbiodinium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Hagedorn, Mary; Carter, Virginia L.

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs are some of the most diverse and productive ecosystems on the planet, but are threatened by global and local stressors, mandating the need for incorporating ex situ conservation practices. One approach that is highly protective is the development of genome resource banks that preserve the species and its genetic diversity. A critical component of the reef are the endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium sp., living within most coral that transfer energy-rich sugars to their hosts. Although Symbiodinium are maintained alive in culture collections around the world, the cryopreservation of these algae to prevent loss and genetic drift is not well-defined. This study examined the quantum yield physiology and freezing protocols that resulted in survival of Symbiodinium at 24 h post-thawing. Only the ultra-rapid procedure called vitrification resulted in success whereas conventional slow freezing protocols did not. We determined that success also depended on using a thin film of agar with embedded Symbiodinium on Cryotops, a process that yielded a post-thaw viability of >50% in extracted and vitrified Symbiodinium from Fungia scutaria, Pocillopora damicornis and Porites compressa. Additionally, there also was a seasonal influence on vitrification success as the best post-thaw survival of F. scutaria occurred in winter and spring compared to summer and fall (P < 0.05). These findings lay the foundation for developing a viable genome resource bank for the world’s Symbiodinium that, in turn, will not only protect this critical element of coral functionality but serve as a resource for understanding the complexities of symbiosis, support selective breeding experiments to develop more thermally resilient strains of coral, and provide a ‘gold-standard’ genomics collection, allowing for full genomic sequencing of unique Symbiodinium strains. PMID:26422237

  15. Vallitalea pronyensis sp. nov., isolated from a marine alkaline hydrothermal chimney.

    PubMed

    Ben Aissa, Fatma; Postec, Anne; Erauso, Gaël; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Hamdi, Moktar; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2014-04-01

    A novel thermotolerant, anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming bacterium was isolated from a hydrothermal chimney in Prony Bay, New Caledonia. This strain, designated FatNI3(T), grew at 15-55 °C (optimum 30 °C) and at pH 5.8-8.9 (optimum 7.7). It was slightly halophilic, requiring at least 0.5 % NaCl for growth (optimum 2.5-3.0 %), and was able to grow at up to 6 % NaCl. Sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite were not used as terminal electron acceptors. Growth of strain FatNI3(T) was inhibited in the presence of sulfite (2 mM) or nitrite (2 mM). Strain FatNI3(T) fermented cellobiose, glucose, mannose, maltose, sucrose, galactose, lactose, ribose, fructose, rhamnose, raffinose, xylose, yeast extract, peptone and biotrypticase. The main fermentation products from glucose metabolism were acetate, ethanol, H2 and CO2. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The main polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and unknown glycolipids and phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 36.6 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic and physiological properties, strain FatNI3(T) ( = DSM 25904 = JCM 18391) belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, class Clostridia, order Clostridiales, is proposed as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Vallitalea, for which the name Vallitalea pronyensis sp. nov. is proposed.

  16. Winogradskyella eckloniae sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from the brown alga Ecklonia cava.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Young; Park, So-Hyun; Seo, Ga-Young; Kim, Young-Ju; Oh, Duck-Chul

    2015-09-01

    A novel bacterial strain, designated EC29(T), was isolated from the brown alga Ecklonia cava collected on Jeju Island, Republic of Korea. Cells of strain EC29(T) were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and motile by gliding. Growth was observed at 10-30 °C (optimum, 20-25 °C), at pH 6.0-9.5 (optimum, pH 7.5) and in the presence of 1-5% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the strain belonged to the genus Winogradskyella. Strain EC29(T) exhibited the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, of 96.5-97.8%, to the type strains of Winogradskyella pulchriflava EM106(T), Winogradskyella echinorum KMM 6211(T) and Winogradskyella ulvae KMM 6390(T). Strain EC29(T) exhibited < 27% DNA-DNA relatedness with Winogradskyella pulchriflava EM106(T) and Winogradskyella echinorum KMM 6211(T). The predominant fatty acids of strain EC29(T) were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G, C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and anteiso-C15 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 31.1 mol% and the major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6 (MK-6). Based on a polyphasic study, strain EC29(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Winogradskyella, for which the name Winogradskyella eckloniae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EC29(T) ( = KCTC 32172(T) = JCM 18703(T)). PMID:25979633

  17. Flavobacterium jejuensis sp. nov., isolated from marine brown alga Ecklonia cava.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Young; Kim, Young-Ju; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2015-11-01

    A bacterial strain, designated EC11(T) was isolated from brown alga Ecklonia cava collected from Jeju Island, Korea. EC11(T) was identified as a Gram-negative, rod-shaped and yellow-pigmented bacterial strain. The strain EC11(T) grew over a temperature range of 10 °C to 30 °C (optimally at 25 °C), and a pH range of 6.0-10.5 (optimally at pH 7.5). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain EC11(T) belongs to the genus Flavobacterium. Strain EC11(T) shared close similarity with Flavobacterium jumunjinense HME7102(T) (96.4%), Flavobacterium dongtanense LW30(T) (95.8%), Flavobacterium haoranii LQY-7(T) (95.3%), and Flavobacterium urocaniciphilum (95.1%). The major fatty acids (> 5%) were iso-C17:0 3-OH (22.4%), iso-C15:0 3-OH (19.0%), C15:0 (12.4%), summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ω7c/ C16:1 ω6c; 9.78%), iso-C15:1 G (9.6%), and iso-C16:0 3-OH (9.0%). The DNA G+C content was 28.1 mol% and the strain contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown aminolipids and three unknown polar lipids. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analysis, strain EC11T represents a novel species of the Flavobacterium genus, for which the name Flavobacterium jejuensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of F. jejuensis is EC11(T) (=KCTC 42149(T) = JCM 30735(T)). PMID:26502959

  18. Crystal structure analysis of C-phycoerythrin from marine cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. A09DM.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinay; Sonani, Ravi R; Sharma, Mahima; Gupta, Gagan D; Madamwar, Datta

    2016-07-01

    The role of unique sequence features of C-phycoerythrin, isolated from Phormidium sp. A09DM, has been investigated by crystallographic studies. Two conserved indels (i.e. inserts or deletions) are found in the β-subunit of Phormidium phycoerythrin that are distinctive characteristics of large number of cyanobacterial sequences. The identified signatures are a two-residue deletion from position 21 and a nine-residue insertion at position 146. Crystals of Phormidium phycoerythrin were obtained at pH values of 5 and 8.5, and structures have been resolved to high precision at 1.95 and 2.1 Å resolution, respectively. In both the structures, heterodimers of α- and β- subunits assemble as hexamers. The 7-residue insertion at position 146 significantly reduces solvent exposure of π-conjugated A-C rings of a phycoerythrobilin (PEB) chromophore, and can influence energy absorption and energy transfer characteristics. The structural analyses (with 12-fold redundancy) suggest that protein micro-environment alone dictates the conformation of bound chromophores. The low- and high-energy absorbing chromophores are identified based on A-B ring coplanarity. The spatial distribution of these is found to be similar to that observed in R-phycoerythrin, suggesting the direction of energy transfer from outer-surface of hexamer to inner-hollow cavity in the Phormidium protein. The crystal structures also reveal that a commonly observed Hydrogen-bonding network in phycobiliproteins, involving chromophore bound to α-subunit and amino acid at position 73 of β-subunit, may not be essential for structural and functional integrity of C-phycoerythrin orthologs. In solution, the protein displays slight red shift and decrease in fluorescence emission at acidic pH. The mechanism for which may be static and correlates with the proximity of +ve electric field of Arg148 to the C-ring of a PEB chromophore. PMID:27068646

  19. Validity of eucaryote inhibitors for assessing production and grazing mortality of marine bacterioplankton. [Cyclidium sp

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.T.; Pace, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Application of eucaryote inhibitors to the estimation of production and grazing mortality of bacterioplankton was evaluated. Exposure to a range of concentrations of thiram, cycloheximide, and neutral red (0.4 to 210, 36 to 1777, 4 to 346 ..mu..M, respectively) was 98 to 100% effective at inhibiting growth of a chrysomonad in culture. Exposure to colchicine and griseofulvin (50 to 1000 ..mu..M for both) yielded only 24 to 94 and 53 to 79% inhibition, respectively. Exposures to thiram, neutral red, and griseofulvin were 90 to 100% effective at inhibiting the growth in culture of a ciliate, Cyclidium sp., and the responses to colchicine and cycloheximide were variable (64 to 100 and 0 to 100% inhibition, respectively). Thiram and neutral red inhibited field populations of nanozooplankton more effectively than cycloheximide and colchicine. Direct effects of eucaryote inhibitors on growing cultures of bacterioplankton varied with parameters measured and duration of exposure. After 3-day exposures, specific growth rates and instantaneous heterotrophic potential ((/sup 14/C)glucose uptake) were not consistently affected, but biosynthetic activity (RNA and DNA syntheses) was depressed. The degree of inhibition of isolates and field populations of phytoplankton depended upon type of inhibitor and phytoplankton species. In field experiments, it was possible to calculate rates of bacterioplankton production and grazing mortality for only 16 of 29 inhibitor experiments and for 4 of 10 size fractionation experiments. Because of the inconsistent results obtained in this investigation, the authors strongly recommend exercising caution in the application of inhibitor techniques to ecological problems, especially in phototrophically dominated systems.

  20. Vallitalea pronyensis sp. nov., isolated from a marine alkaline hydrothermal chimney.

    PubMed

    Ben Aissa, Fatma; Postec, Anne; Erauso, Gaël; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Hamdi, Moktar; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2014-04-01

    A novel thermotolerant, anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming bacterium was isolated from a hydrothermal chimney in Prony Bay, New Caledonia. This strain, designated FatNI3(T), grew at 15-55 °C (optimum 30 °C) and at pH 5.8-8.9 (optimum 7.7). It was slightly halophilic, requiring at least 0.5 % NaCl for growth (optimum 2.5-3.0 %), and was able to grow at up to 6 % NaCl. Sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite were not used as terminal electron acceptors. Growth of strain FatNI3(T) was inhibited in the presence of sulfite (2 mM) or nitrite (2 mM). Strain FatNI3(T) fermented cellobiose, glucose, mannose, maltose, sucrose, galactose, lactose, ribose, fructose, rhamnose, raffinose, xylose, yeast extract, peptone and biotrypticase. The main fermentation products from glucose metabolism were acetate, ethanol, H2 and CO2. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The main polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and unknown glycolipids and phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 36.6 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic and physiological properties, strain FatNI3(T) ( = DSM 25904 = JCM 18391) belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, class Clostridia, order Clostridiales, is proposed as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Vallitalea, for which the name Vallitalea pronyensis sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:24408522

  1. Altererythrobacter gangjinensis sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from a tidal flat.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sang Hyeon; Jin, Hyun Mi; Lee, Hyo Jung; Jeon, Che Ok

    2013-03-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, ochre-pigmented, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain KJ7(T), was isolated from a tidal flat of the Gangjin bay in South Korea. Cells were halotolerant, non-motile, catalase- and oxidase-positive rods. Growth of strain KJ7(T) was observed at 5-35 °C (optimum, 25 °C), at pH 6.0-9.5 (optimum, pH 6.5-7.0) and in the presence of 0-9 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2 %). The major cellular fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c, C17 : 1ω6c, summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and C16 : 0. The polar lipid pattern indicated the presence of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, a sphingoglycolipid, an unidentified phospholipid and two unidentified lipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 60.2±0.9 mol% and the predominant respiratory quinone was Q-10. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain KJ7(T) formed a phyletic lineage distinct from other members of the genus Altererythrobacter and was most closely related to Altererythrobacter luteolus SW-109(T) and Altererythrobacter namhicola KYW48(T) (95.6 and 95.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular features, strain KJ7(T) represents a novel species of the genus Altererythrobacter, for which the name Altererythrobacter gangjinensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KJ7(T) ( = KACC 16190(T) = JCM 17802(T)). PMID:22685101

  2. Statistical Approach for Production of PUFA from Kocuria sp. BRI 35 Isolated from Marine Water Sample

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Plackett-Burman design was used to identify the most influential parameters affecting PUFA production by Kocuria sp. BRI 35 isolated from Antarctic water sample. Amongst 10 variables evaluated, magnesium chloride, protease peptone, glucose, and temperature were significant. Response surface methodology consisting of a central composite design was developed to study the interactions between the variables and to determine optimal values of significant variables. A quadratic model (R = 0.9652, F = 14.64, P < 0.0001) was built. The contour plots indicated that the isolate produced maximum PUFA at lower concentrations of magnesium sulfate (0.9 g/L) and higher concentrations of protease peptone (5 g/L) and glucose (10 g/L) at 15°C. MgSO4 and glucose exhibited quadratic as well as interactive effect on PUFA production whereas protease peptone and temperature showed interactive effects only. After optimization, PUFA production per unit biomass increased from 0.94 mg/g to 11.12 mg/g. This represented an increase from 3% to 58.62% of the total fatty acids. Among PUFAs, the yield of ω-6 fatty acids increased from 9.66 mg/L to 107.71 mg/L with significant increase in linoleic acid (20.36 mg/L) whereas ω-3 fatty acids increased up to 12.37 mg/L with DHA being the major ω-3 fatty acid produced. PMID:25032215

  3. Virgibacillus zhanjiangensis sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from sea water.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qing-Zhong; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Chen, Qi-Hui; Peng, De-Jiao; Cui, Xiao-Long; Li, Wen-Jun; Chen, Yi-Guang

    2009-11-01

    A Gram-positive, endospore-forming, catalase- and oxidase-positive, motile, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, designated strain JSM 079157(T), was isolated from surface seawater off the coastline of Naozhou Island in South China Sea. The organism was able to grow with 1-15% (w/v) total salts (optimum, 4-7%), and at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.5) and 10-45 degrees C (optimum, 30 degrees C). meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7, and the polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0) (45.1%) and anteiso-C(17:0) (16.2%), and the DNA G + C content was 39.5 mol%. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain JSM 079157(T) should be assigned to the genus Virgibacillus, being related most closely to the type strains of Virgibacillus litoralis (97.4% sequence similarity), Virgibacillus necropolis (97.3%) and Virgibacillus carmonensis (97.1%). These four strains formed a distinct subcluster in the phylogenetic tree. The levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between the new isolate and the type strains of V. litoralis, V. necropolis and V. carmonensis were 30.4, 19.3 and 12.6%, respectively. The results of the phylogenetic analysis, combined with DNA-DNA relatedness data, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic information, support the suggestion that strain JSM 079157(T) represents a new species of the genus Virgibacillus, for which the name Virgibacillus zhanjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JSM 079157(T) (=DSM 21084(T) = KCTC 13227(T)). PMID:19774482

  4. Shewanella algicola sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from brown algae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Young; Yoo, Han-Su; Lee, Dong-Heon; Park, So-Hyun; Kim, Young-Ju; Oh, Duck-Chul

    2016-06-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium motile by means of a single polar flagella, strain ST-6T, was isolated from a brown alga (Sargassum thunbergii) collected in Jeju, Republic of Korea. Strain ST-6T was psychrotolerant, growing at 4-30 °C (optimum 20 °C). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences revealed that strain ST-6T belonged to a distinct lineage in the genus Shewanella. Strain ST-6T was related most closely to Shewanella basaltis J83T, S. gaetbuli TF-27T, S. arctica IT12T, S. vesiculosa M7T and S. aestuarii SC18T, showing 96-97 % and 85-70 % 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences similarities, respectively. DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain ST-6T and the type strains of two species of the genus Shewanella were <22.6 %. The major cellular fatty acids (>5 %) were summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1ω7c and/ or iso-C15:0 2-OH), C16:0, iso-C13:0 and C17:1ω8c. The DNA G+C content of strain ST-6Twas 42.4 mol%, and the predominant isoprenoid quinones were menaquinone MK-7 and ubiquinones Q-7 and Q-8. On the basis of its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain ST-6T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Shewanella, for which the name Shewanella algicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ST-6T (= KCTC 23253T = JCM 31091T). PMID:26962005

  5. Jeotgalicoccus marinus sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from a sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Shi, Jin-Xiao; Xiao, Huai-Dong; Tang, Shu-Kun; Liu, Zhu-Xiang; Huang, Ke; Cui, Xiao-Long; Li, Wen-Jun

    2009-07-01

    A novel non-sporulating, non-motile, catalase- and oxidase-positive, facultatively anaerobic, moderately halophilic, Gram-positive coccus, designated JSM 076033(T), was isolated from a sea urchin (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus) collected from the South China Sea. Strain JSM 076033(T) was able to grow in the presence of 0.5-25.0 % (w/v) total salts and at pH 6.0-10.0 and 10-45 degrees C; optimum growth was observed with 5.0-10.0 % (w/v) total salts and at pH 7.0-8.0 and 25-30 degrees C. The major amino acid constituents of the cell wall were glycine, lysine and alanine. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0). The respiratory quinones were MK-7 (60.7 %) and MK-6 (39.3 %) and the polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified phospholipid. The DNA G+C content was 40.3 mol%. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain JSM 076033(T) should be assigned to the genus Jeotgalicoccus. The sequence similarities between the novel isolate and the type strains of recognized Jeotgalicoccus species were in the range 95.2-97.2 %. The results of the phylogenetic analysis, combined with DNA-DNA relatedness data, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic information, support the view that strain JSM 076033(T) represents a novel species of the genus Jeotgalicoccus, for which the name Jeotgalicoccus marinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JSM 076033(T) (=CCTCC AA 207028(T) =DSM 19772(T) =KCTC 13189(T)).

  6. Marivirga lumbricoides sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongle; Zhang, Rui; Li, Qipei; Liu, Keshao; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2015-02-01

    A novel, aerobic, heterotrophic, orange-pigmented, Gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped, gliding bacterial strain, designated JLT2000(T), was isolated from surface water of the South China Sea. The strain was oxidase- and catalase-positive. The major cellular fatty acids of strain JLT2000 T: were C12 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), C16 : 0 and C18 : 0. MK-7 was the major respiratory quinone and the major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain JLT2000(T) was 37.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain JLT2000(T) formed a branch within the genus Marivirga, but was clearly separated from the two established species of this genus, Marivirga tractuosa and Marivirga sericea. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of strain JLT2000(T) with the type strains of these two species was 95.8 % and 96.1 %, respectively. Strain JLT2000(T) had a shorter cell length and wider growth range in different temperatures and salinities than those of Marivirga tractuosa NBRC 15989(T) and Marivirga sericea NBRC 15983(T). In addition, strain JLT2000(T) could utilize more carbon sources and hydrolyse more polymers than Marivirga tractuosa NBRC 15989(T) and Marivirga sericea NBRC 15983(T). Based on this polyphasic analysis, strain JLT2000(T) represents a novel species of the genus Marivirga, for which the name Marivirga lumbricoides sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JLT2000(T) ( = JCM 18012(T) = CGMCC 1.10832(T)).

  7. Roseovarius nanhaiticus sp. nov., a member of the Roseobacter clade isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baojiang; Sun, Fengqin; Lai, Qiliang; Du, Yaping; Liu, Xiupian; Li, Guangyu; Luo, Jie; Shao, Zongze

    2010-06-01

    An aerobic, Gram-staining-negative, rod or ovoid-shaped bacterial isolate, strain NH52J(T), was isolated from a sandy sediment sample from the South China Sea. Strain NH52J(T) exhibited tumbling motility, formed beige or faint pink colonies, gave a positive reaction in tests for catalase and oxidase and required NaCl for growth. Optimal growth was observed at pH 7.8-9.3, at 30 degrees C and in the presence of 2.0-4.0 % (w/v) NaCl. The novel strain did not synthesize bacteriochlorophyll a, and the DNA G+C content was 62 %. The major fatty acids were C(18 : 1)omega7c, C(16 : 0) and C(18 : 1)omega7c 11-methyl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain NH52J(T) was affiliated to the genus Roseovarius of the class Alphaproteobacteria. Roseovarius pacificus and Roseovarius aestuarii were the most closely related recognized species to strain NH52J(T) with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 95.0 and 95.7 %, respectively. Sequence similarity values between strain NH52J(T) and other phylogenetically related species were all below 95.0 %. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data presented, strain NH52J(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Roseovarius, for which the name Roseovarius nanhaiticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NH52J(T) (=LMG 24840(T)=CCTCC AB 208317(T)=MCCC 1A03543(T)).

  8. Virgibacillus zhanjiangensis sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from sea water.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qing-Zhong; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Chen, Qi-Hui; Peng, De-Jiao; Cui, Xiao-Long; Li, Wen-Jun; Chen, Yi-Guang

    2009-11-01

    A Gram-positive, endospore-forming, catalase- and oxidase-positive, motile, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, designated strain JSM 079157(T), was isolated from surface seawater off the coastline of Naozhou Island in South China Sea. The organism was able to grow with 1-15% (w/v) total salts (optimum, 4-7%), and at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.5) and 10-45 degrees C (optimum, 30 degrees C). meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7, and the polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0) (45.1%) and anteiso-C(17:0) (16.2%), and the DNA G + C content was 39.5 mol%. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain JSM 079157(T) should be assigned to the genus Virgibacillus, being related most closely to the type strains of Virgibacillus litoralis (97.4% sequence similarity), Virgibacillus necropolis (97.3%) and Virgibacillus carmonensis (97.1%). These four strains formed a distinct subcluster in the phylogenetic tree. The levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between the new isolate and the type strains of V. litoralis, V. necropolis and V. carmonensis were 30.4, 19.3 and 12.6%, respectively. The results of the phylogenetic analysis, combined with DNA-DNA relatedness data, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic information, support the suggestion that strain JSM 079157(T) represents a new species of the genus Virgibacillus, for which the name Virgibacillus zhanjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JSM 079157(T) (=DSM 21084(T) = KCTC 13227(T)).

  9. Bacillus neizhouensis sp. nov., a halophilic marine bacterium isolated from a sea anemone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Wang, Yong-Xia; Liu, Zhi-Xiong; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Xiao, Huai-Dong; Tang, Shu-Kun; Cui, Xiao-Long; Li, Wen-Jun

    2009-12-01

    A novel Gram-stain-positive, slightly halophilic, facultatively alkaliphilic, non-motile, catalase- and oxidase-positive, endospore-forming, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, strain JSM 071004(T), was isolated from a sea anemone collected from Neizhou Bay in the South China Sea. Growth occurred with 0.5-10 % (w/v) total salts (optimum 2-4 %) and at pH 6.5-10.0 (optimum pH 8.5) and 4-30 degrees C (optimum 25 degrees C). meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7) and the polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(15 : 0). The genomic DNA G+C content was 39.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JSM 071004(T) belongs to the genus Bacillus, being related most closely to the type strain of Bacillus agaradhaerens (sequence similarity 97.3 %), followed by the type strains of Bacillus cellulosilyticus (96.2 %), Bacillus clarkii (96.1 %) and Bacillus polygoni (96.0 %). The combination of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data support the proposal that strain JSM 071004(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus neizhouensis sp. nov. is proposed, with JSM 071004(T) (=CCTCC AB 207161(T) =DSM 19794(T) =KCTC 13187(T)) as the type strain.

  10. Zooshikella marina sp. nov. a cycloprodigiosin- and prodigiosin-producing marine bacterium isolated from beach sand.

    PubMed

    Ramaprasad, E V V; Bharti, Dave; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2015-12-01

    A red-pigmented bacterium producing a metallic green sheen, designated strain JC333T, was isolated from a sand sample collected from Shivrajpur-Kachigad beach, Gujarat, India. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain JC333T showed highest sequence similarity to Zooshikella ganghwensis JC2044T (99.24 %) and less than 91.94 % similarity with other members of the class Gammaproteobacteria. DNA-DNA hybridizations between JC333T and Z. ganghwensis JC2044T showed low relatedness values of 19 ± 1.3 % (reciprocal 21 ± 2.2 %). The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-9 (Q9) and the polar lipid profile was composed of the major components diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminophospholipid and an unidentified lipid. The presence of C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c, C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω7c and C12 : 0 as major fatty acids supported the affiliation of strain JC333T to the genus Zooshikella. Prodigiosin, cycloprodigiosin and eight other prodigiosin analogues were the pigments of JC333T. Characterization based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, physiological parameters, pigment analysis, ubiquinone, and polar lipid and fatty acid compositions revealed that JC333T represents a novel species of the genus Zooshikella, for which the name Zooshikella marina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC333T ( = KCTC 42659T = LMG 28823T).

  11. Chondroitin Lyase from a Marine Arthrobacter sp. MAT3885 for the Production of Chondroitin Sulfate Disaccharides.

    PubMed

    Kale, Varsha; Friðjónsson, Ólafur; Jónsson, Jón Óskar; Kristinsson, Hörður G; Ómarsdóttir, Sesselja; Hreggviðsson, Guðmundur Ó

    2015-08-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) saccharides from cartilage tissues have potential application in medicine or as dietary supplements due to their therapeutic bioactivities. Studies have shown that depolymerized CS saccharides may display enhanced bioactivity. The objective of this study was to isolate a CS-degrading enzyme for an efficient production of CS oligo- or disaccharides. CS-degrading bacteria from marine environments were enriched using in situ artificial support colonization containing CS from shark cartilage as substrate. Subsequently, an Arthrobacter species (strain MAT3885) efficiently degrading CS was isolated from a CS enrichment culture. The genomic DNA from strain MAT3885 was pyro-sequenced by using the 454 FLX sequencing technology. Following assembly and annotation, an orf, annotated as family 8 polysaccharide lyase genes, was identified, encoding an amino acid sequence with a similarity to CS lyases according to NCBI blastX. The gene, designated choA1, was cloned in Escherichia coli and expressed downstream of and in frame with the E. coli malE gene for obtaining a high yield of soluble recombinant protein. Applying a dual-tag system (MalE-Smt3-ChoA1), the MalE domain was separated from ChoA1 with proteolytic cleavage using Ulp1 protease. ChoA1 was defined as an AC-type enzyme as it degraded chondroitin sulfate A, C, and hyaluronic acid. The optimum activity of the enzyme was at pH 5.5-7.5 and 40 °C, running a 10-min reaction. The native enzyme was estimated to be a monomer. As the recombinant chondroitin sulfate lyase (designated as ChoA1R) degraded chondroitin sulfate efficiently compared to a benchmark enzyme, it may be used for the production of chondroitin sulfate disaccharides for the food industry or health-promoting products.

  12. Anti-amoebic properties of a Malaysian marine sponge Aaptos sp. on Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    PubMed

    Nakisah, M A; Ida Muryany, M Y; Fatimah, H; Nor Fadilah, R; Zalilawati, M R; Khamsah, S; Habsah, M

    2012-03-01

    Crude methanol extracts of a marine sponge, Aaptos aaptos, collected from three different localities namely Kapas, Perhentian and Redang Islands, Terengganu, Malaysia, were tested in vitro on a pathogenic Acanthamoeba castellanii (IMR isolate) to examine their anti-amoebic potential. The examination of anti-Acanthamoebic activity of the extracts was conducted in 24 well plates for 72 h at 30 °C. All extracts possessed anti-amoebic activity with their IC(50) values ranging from 0.615 to 0.876 mg/mL. The effect of the methanol extracts on the surface morphology of A. castellanii was analysed under scanning electron microscopy. The ability of the extracts to disrupt the amoeba cell membrane was indicated by extensive cell's blebbing, changes in the surface morphology, reduced in cell size and with cystic appearance of extract-treated Acanthamoeba. Number of acanthapodia and food cup was also reduced in this Acanthamoeba. Morphological criteria of apoptosis in Acanthamoeba following treatment with the sponge's extracts was determined by acridine orange-propidium iodide staining and observed by fluorescence microscopy. By this technique, apoptotic and necrotic cells can be visualized and quantified. The genotoxic potential of the methanol extracts was performed by the alkaline comet assay. All methanol extracts used were significantly induced DNA damage compared to untreated Acanthamoeba by having high percentage of scores 1, 2, and 3 of the DNA damage. Results from cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies carried out in the present study suggest that all methanol extracts of A. aaptos have anti-amoebic properties against A. castellanii. PMID:22805843

  13. Rheinheimera aestuari sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from coastal sediment.

    PubMed

    Baek, Kyunghwa; Jeon, Che Ok

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-pigmented, motile bacterium with a single polar flagellum, designated H29T, was isolated from coastal sediment of Jeju Island, South Korea. Cells were non-spore-forming rods showing catalase- and oxidase-positive reactions. Growth of strain H29T was observed at 10-40 °C (optimum, 20-25 °C) and pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-8.0), and in the presence of 1-4% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2-3%). Strain H29T contained C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c) as the major fatty acids and ubiquinone-8 (Q-8) as the sole isoprenoid quinone. Phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol were identified as the major polar lipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 46.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain H29T formed a phyletic lineage with Rheinheimera hassiensis E48T within the genus Rheinheimera of the family Chromatiaceae. Strain H29T was most closely related to Rheinheimera pacifica KMM 1406T, Rheinheimera muenzenbergensis E49T, Rheinheimera hassiensis E48T and Rheinheimera baltica OSBAC1T with 97.8%, 97.6%, 97.4% and 97.2% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively. However, DNA-DNA hybridization values of strain H29T with type strains of these species were lower than 70%. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular properties, strain H29T represents a novel species of the genus Rheinheimera, for which the name Rheinheimeraaestuarii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H29T ( = KACC 18251T = JCM 30404T). PMID:25957052

  14. Shewanella aestuarii sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from a tidal flat.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Yoon; Jeon, Che Ok

    2013-12-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, facultatively anaerobic bacterium, designated strain SC18(T), was isolated from a tidal flat of Suncheon bay in South Korea. Cells were rod-shaped and motile by means of a polar flagellum. Cells were catalase-, oxidase- and β-haemolysis-positive. Growth was observed at 4-37 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C), at pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and in the presence of 0-5.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0-2 %). The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0. The polar lipid pattern indicated the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, an unidentified aminolipid and three unidentified lipids. Strain SC18(T) contained Q-7, Q-8, MK-7 and MMK-7 as the dominant respiratory quinones and the G+C content of the genomic DNA was 41.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and gyrase B (gyrB) gene sequences showed that strain SC18(T) formed a tight phyletic lineage with members of the genus Shewanella. Strain SC18(T) was related most closely to Shewanella denitrificans OS217(T) (97.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Shewanella gaetbuli TF-27(T) (97.1 %), but the DNA-DNA relatedness levels between strain SC18(T) and the type strains of S. denitrificans and S. gaetbuli were 18.3±2.8 and 22.5±1.6 % (mean±sd), respectively. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular features, strain SC18(T) represents a novel species of the genus Shewanella, for which the name Shewanella aestuarii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SC18(T) ( = KACC 16187(T) = JCM 17801(T)).

  15. [Growth and metabolite production of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. (Chroococcales) in function to irradiance].

    PubMed

    Rosales-Loaiza, Néstor; Guevara, Miguel; Lodeiros, César; Morales, Ever

    2008-06-01

    Changes in salinity, temperature and irradiance during wet and dry seasons have induced metabolic versatility in cyanobacteria from saline environments. Cyanobacteria from these environments have biotechnological potential for the production of metabolites with pharmaceutical and industrial interest. We studied the growth, dry mass and metabolite production of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. MOF-03 in function of irradiance (78, 156 and 234 micromol q m(-2) s(-1)). All batch cultures were maintained by triplicate in constant aeration, 12:12 h photoperiod, 30 +/- 2 degrees C and 35% per hundred. Maximum values of protein, carbohydrates and lipids, of 530.19 +/- 11.16, 408.94 +/- 4.27 and 56.20 +/- 1.17 microg ml(-1), respectively, were achieved at 78 micromol q m(-2) s(-1). Pigments, analyzed by HPLC, showed maximum values at 78 micromol q m(-2) s(-1) for chlorophyll a with 7.72 +/- 0.16 microg ml(-1), and at 234 micromol q m(-2) s(-1) for beta-carotene and zeaxanthin with 0.70 +/- 0.01 and 0.67 +/- 0.05 microg ml(-1). Chlorophyll a:beta-carotene ratio decreased from 17.15 to 6.91 at 78 and 234 micromol q m(-2) s(-'1); whereas beta-carotene:zeaxanthin ratio showed no changes between 78 and 156 micromol q m(-2) s(-1), around 1.21, and decreased at 234 micromol q m(-2) s(-1), to 1.04. Also, this cyanobacterium produced the greatest cell density and dry mass at 156 micromol q m(-2) s(-1), with 406.13 +/- 21.74 x l0(6) cell ml(-1) and 1.49 +/- 0.11 mg ml(-1), respectively. Exopolysaccharide production was stable between 156 y 234 micromol q m(-2) s(-1), around 110 microg ml(-1). This Synechococcus strain shows a great potential for the production of enriched biomass with high commercial value metabolites.

  16. Muricauda antarctica sp. nov., a marine member of the Flavobacteriaceae isolated from Antarctic seawater.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue-Hong; Yu, Pei-Song; Zhou, Ya-Dong; Xu, Lin; Wang, Chun-Sheng; Wu, Min; Oren, Aharon; Xu, Xue-Wei

    2013-09-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterium with appendages, designated Ar-22(T), was isolated from a seawater sample collected from the western part of Prydz Bay, near Cape Darnley, Antarctica. Strain Ar-22(T) grew optimally at 35 °C, at pH 7.5 and in the presence of 1-3% (w/v) NaCl. The isolate was positive for casein, gelatin and Tween 20 decomposition and negative for H2S production and indole formation. Chemotaxonomic analysis showed that MK-6 was the major isoprenoid quinone and phosphatidylethanolamine was the major polar lipid. The major fatty acids were iso-C(17:0) 3-OH, iso-C(15:1) G, iso-C(15:0) and C(16:1)ω7c/iso-C(15:0) 2OH. The genomic DNA G+C content was 44.8 mol%. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain Ar-22(T) is closely related to members of the genus Muricauda, sharing 94.2-97.3% sequence similarity with the type strains of species of the genus Muricauda and being most closely related to the Muricauda aquimarina. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison confirmed that strain Ar-22(T) formed a deep lineage with Muricauda flavescens. Sequence similarity between strain Ar-22(T) and Muricauda ruestringensis DSM 13258(T), the type species of the genus Muricauda, was 96.9%. Strain Ar-22(T) exhibited mean DNA-DNA relatedness values of 40.1%, 49.4% and 25.7% to M. aquimarina JCM 11811(T), M. flavescens JCM 11812(T) and Muricauda lutimaris KCTC 22173(T), respectively. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, strain Ar-22(T) represents a novel species of the genus Muricauda, for which the name Muricauda antarctica sp. nov. (type strain Ar-22(T) =CGMCC 1.12174(T) = JCM 18450(T)) is proposed.

  17. Rheinheimera gaetbuli sp. nov., a Marine Bacterium Isolated from a Tidal Flat.

    PubMed

    Baek, Kyunghwa; Jeon, Che Ok

    2016-03-01

    A gram-staining-negative, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped, and motile bacterium with a single polar flagellum, designated H26(T), was isolated from tidal flat sediment in Jeju Island, South Korea. Growth of strain H26(T) was observed at 4-35 °C (optimum, 20-25 °C), pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-8.0), and 1-4 % NaCl (optimum, 2-3 %). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain H26(T) formed a phyletic lineage within the genus Rheinheimera, family Chromatiaceae. Strain H26(T) was most closely related to Rheinheimera baltica OSBAC1(T), Rheinheimera aestuarii H29(T), Rheinheimera muenzenbergensis E49(T), and Rheinheimera aquimaris SW-353(T) with 98.5, 98.1, 97.8, and 97.5 % of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively. The DNA-DNA relatedness levels between strain H26(T) and the type strains of R. baltica, R. aestuarii, R. muenzenbergensis, and R. aquimaris were 35.5 ± 3.2, 33.4 ± 1.5, 31.2 ± 2.2, and 28.7 ± 0.9 %, respectively. The major fatty acids of strain H26(T) were iso-C15:0 3-OH, summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c), C16:0, summed feature 8 (comprising C18:1 ω7c/C18:1 ω6c), iso-C17:0 3-OH, and C12:0 3-OH and the strain contained ubiquinone (Q-8) as the sole isoprenoid quinone. Phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and an aminolipid were identified as the major polar lipids and the G + C content of the genomic DNA was 52.0 mol%. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and molecular properties, strain H26(T) represents a novel species of the genus Rheinheimera, for which the name Rheinheimera gaetbuli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain was H26(T) (=KACC 18254(T) = JCM 30403(T)). PMID:26660082

  18. Nocardiopsis litoralis sp. nov., a halophilic marine actinomycete isolated from a sea anemone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Wang, Yong-Xia; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Tang, Shu-Kun; Liu, Zhi-Xiong; Xiao, Huai-Dong; Xu, Li-Hua; Cui, Xiao-Long; Li, Wen-Jun

    2009-11-01

    A Gram-positive, moderately halophilic, alkalitolerant, filamentous, aerobic actinomycete, designated strain JSM 073097(T), was isolated from a sea anemone collected from a tidal flat in the South China Sea. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the new isolate was a member of the genus Nocardiopsis and was most closely related to Nocardiopsis kunsanensis HA-9(T), Nocardiopsis xinjiangensis YIM 90004(T) and Nocardiopsis salina YIM 90010(T) (99.6, 98.5 and 98.1 % similarity, respectively). Phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data also indicated that strain JSM 073097(T) was a member of the genus Nocardiopsis. The strain grew well on most of the media tested, producing white to yellow-white substrate mycelium and white aerial mycelium and straight to flexuous hyphae. The substrate mycelium was well developed and fragmented with age; the aerial mycelium produced long, straight to flexuous spore chains with non-motile, smooth-surfaced, rod-shaped spores. The strain grew in the presence of 1-15 % (w/v) total salts and at pH 6.0-10.5 and 20-35 degrees C; optimum growth occurred in the presence of 5-7 % (w/v) total salts and at pH 8.5 and 25 degrees C. Whole-cell hydrolysates of strain JSM 073097(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and no diagnostic sugars. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H(4)), MK-10(H(6)) and MK-10(H(8)). The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0), anteiso-C(16 : 0) and 10-methyl C(18 : 0). Polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content of strain JSM 073097(T) was 70.4 mol%. The combination of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness data, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data supported the suggestion that strain JSM 073097(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nocardiopsis, for which the name Nocardiopsis litoralis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JSM 073097(T) (=DSM 45168(T)=KCTC 19473

  19. Erythrobacter vulgaris sp. nov., a novel organism isolated from the marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Elena P; Bowman, John P; Lysenko, Anatoly M; Zhukova, Natalia V; Gorshkova, Nataliya M; Kuznetsova, Tatyana A; Kalinovskaya, Nataliya I; Shevchenko, Ludmila S; Mikhailov, Valery V

    2005-03-01

    Four yellow-pigmented, gram-negative, chemoorganotrophic aerobic bacteria were isolated from starfish Stellaster equestris (strains 022-2-10T, 022-2-9, and 022-2-12) and soft coral (unidentified species) (strain 022-4-7) collected in the South China Sea. 16S rRNA gene sequence-based analyses of the new organisms revealed that Erythrobacter spp. were the closest relatives and shared the highest similarity of 98.7% to E. citreus, 98.5% to E. flavus, 97.9% to E. litoralis and 97.6% to E. longus. The novel organisms were tolerant to 3-6% NaCl, grew between 10 degrees C and 40 degrees C, and were not able to degrade gelatin, casein, and agar, while degraded Tween 80. Two strains (022-2-9 and 022-2-12) could weakly degrade starch. All strains produced a large pool of carotenoids and did not have Bacteriochlorophyll a. Phosphatidylethanolamine (30-36%), phosphatidylglycerol (39-46%), and phosphatidylcholine (21-27%) were the predominant phospholipids. Sphingoglycolipid was not detected. The major fatty acids were 16:0 (6-11%), 16:1omega7 (12-15%), and 18:1omega7 (46-49%). The two-hydroxy fatty acids, 13:0-2OH, 14:0-2OH, 15:0-2OH, 16:0-2OH were also present. The G + C content of the DNAs ranged from 61 to 62 mol%. The level of DNA similarity among four strains was conspecific and ranged from 94% to 98%. Even though new strains and other species of the genus had rather high level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, DNA-DNA hybridization experiments showed only 33-39% of binding with the DNA of the type strains. On the basis of these results and the significant differences demonstrated in the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, it is suggested that the new organisms be classified as a novel species; the name Erythrobacter vulgaris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 022-2-10T (= KMM 3465T = CIP 107841T).

  20. Physiologic and metabolic characterization of a new marine isolate (BM39) of Pantoea sp. producing high levels of exopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Marine environments are the widest fonts of biodiversity representing a resource of both unexploited or unknown microorganisms and new substances having potential applications. Among microbial products, exopolysaccharides (EPS) have many physiological functions and practical applications. Since EPS production by many bacteria is too scarce for practical use and only few species are known for their high levels of production, the search of new high EPS producers is of paramount importance. Many marine bacteria, that produce EPS to cope with strong environmental stress, could be potentially exploited at the industrial level. Results A novel bacterium, strain BM39, previously isolated from sediments collected in the Tyrrhenian Sea, was selected for its production of very high levels of EPS. BM39 was affiliated to Pantoea sp. (Enterobacteriaceae) by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical tests. According to the phylogenetic tree, this strain, being quite far from the closest known Pantoea species (96% identity with P. agglomerans and P. ananatis) could belong to a new species. EPS production was fast (maximum of ca. 21 g/L in 24 h on glucose medium) and mainly obtained during the exponential growth. Preliminary characterization, carried out by thin layer and gel filtration chromatography, showed that the EPS, being a glucose homopolymer with MW of ca. 830 kDa, appeared to be different from those of other bacteria of same genus. The bacterium showed a typical slightly halophilic behavior growing optimally at NaCl 40 ‰ (growing range 0-100 ‰). Flow cytometry studies indicated that good cell survival was maintained for 24 h at 120 ‰. Survival decreased dramatically with the increase of salinity being only 1 h at 280 ‰. The biochemical characterization, carried out with the Biolog system, showed that MB39 had a rather limited metabolic capacity. Its ability, rather lower than that of P. agglomerans, was almost only confined to the metabolization of

  1. Morphology and molecular phylogeny of a marine interstitial tetraflagellate with putative endosymbionts: Auranticordis quadriverberis n. gen. et sp. (Cercozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Chantangsi, Chitchai; Esson, Heather J; Leander, Brian S

    2008-01-01

    Background Comparative morphological studies and environmental sequencing surveys indicate that marine benthic environments contain a diverse assortment of microorganisms that are just beginning to be explored and characterized. The most conspicuous predatory flagellates in these habitats range from about 20–150 μm in size and fall into three major groups of eukaryotes that are very distantly related to one another: dinoflagellates, euglenids and cercozoans. The Cercozoa is a diverse group of amoeboflagellates that cluster together in molecular phylogenies inferred mainly from ribosomal gene sequences. These molecular phylogenetic studies have demonstrated that several enigmatic taxa, previously treated as Eukaryota insertae sedis, fall within the Cercozoa, and suggest that the actual diversity of this group is largely unknown. Improved knowledge of cercozoan diversity is expected to help resolve major branches in the tree of eukaryotes and demonstrate important cellular innovations for understanding eukaryote evolution. Results A rare tetraflagellate, Auranticordis quadriverberis n. gen. et sp., was isolated from marine sand samples. Uncultured cells were in low abundance and were individually prepared for electron microscopy and DNA sequencing. These flagellates possessed several novel features, such as (1) gliding motility associated with four bundled recurrent flagella, (2) heart-shaped cells about 35–75 μm in diam., and (3) bright orange coloration caused by linear arrays of muciferous bodies. Each cell also possessed about 2–30 pale orange bodies (usually 4–5 μm in diam.) that were enveloped by two membranes and sac-like vesicles. The innermost membrane invaginated to form unstacked thylakoids that extended towards a central pyrenoid containing tailed viral particles. Although to our knowledge, these bodies have never been described in any other eukaryote, the ultrastructure was most consistent with photosynthetic endosymbionts of cyanobacterial

  2. Streptococcus hongkongensis sp. nov., isolated from a patient with an infected puncture wound and from a marine flatfish.

    PubMed

    Lau, Susanna K P; Curreem, Shirly O T; Lin, Cherry C N; Fung, Ami M Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2013-07-01

    A bacterium, HKU30(T), was isolated from the infected tissue of a patient with wound infection after puncture by a fish fin. Cells are facultative anaerobic, non-spore-forming, non-motile, Gram-positive cocci arranged in chains. Colonies were non-haemolytic. The strain was catalase, oxidase, urease and Voges-Proskauer test negative. It reacted with Lancefield's group G antisera and was resistant to optochin. It grew on bile aesculin agar and in 5 % NaCl. It was unidentified by three commercial identification systems. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the bacterium shared 98.2, 97.7, 97.4 and 97.1 % nucleotide identities with Streptococcus iniae, Streptococcus pseudoporcinus, Streptococcus parauberis and Streptococcus uberis, respectively. The DNA G+C content was 35.6 ± 0.9 mol% (mean ± sd). In view of the occupational exposure of the patient, an epidemiological study was performed to isolate the bacterium from marine fish. Two strains, with similar phenotypic and genotypic characteristics to those of HKU30(T), were isolated from a three-lined tongue sole (Cynoglossus abbreviatus) and an olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of four additional housekeeping genes, groEL, gyrB, sodA and rpoB, showed that the three isolates formed a distinct branch among known species of the genus Streptococcus, being most closely related to S. parauberis (CCUG 39954(T)). DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated ≤ 53.8 % DNA relatedness between the three isolates and related species of the genus Streptococcus. A novel species, Streptococcus hongkongensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is HKU30(T) ( = DSM 26014(T) = CECT 8154(T)).

  3. Preparation and Evaluation of the Chelating Nanocomposite Fabricated with Marine Algae Schizochytrium sp. Protein Hydrolysate and Calcium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiaping; Cai, Xixi; Tang, Mengru; Wang, Shaoyun

    2015-11-11

    Marine algae have been becoming a popular research topic because of their biological implication. The algae peptide-based metal-chelating complex was investigated in this study. Schizochytrium sp. protein hydrolysate (SPH) possessing high Ca-binding capacity was prepared through stepwise enzymatic hydrolysis to a degree of hydrolysis of 22.46%. The nanocomposites of SPH chelated with calcium ions were fabricated in aqueous solution at pH 6 and 30 °C for 20 min, with the ratio of SPH to calcium 3:1 (w/w). The size distribution showed that the nanocomposite had compact structure with a radius of 68.16 ± 0.50 nm. SPH was rich in acidic amino acids, accounting for 33.55%, which are liable to bind with calcium ions. The molecular mass distribution demonstrated that the molecular mass of SPH was principally concentrated at 180-2000 Da. UV scanning spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested that the primary sites of calcium-binding corresponded to the carboxyl groups, carbonyl groups, and amino groups of SPH. The results of fluorescent spectroscopy, size distribution, atomic force microscope, and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy suggested that calcium ions chelated with SPH would cause intramolecular and intermolecular folding and aggregating. The SPH-calcium chelate exerted remarkable stability and absorbability under either acidic or basic conditions, which was in favor of calcium absorption in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans. The investigation suggests that SPH-calcium chelate has the potential prospect to be utilized as a nutraceutical supplement to improve bone health in the human body. PMID:26499390

  4. [Desulfovibrio hontreensis sp. nov., a Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Isolated from Marine Biofoulings at the South Vietnam Coastal Area].

    PubMed

    Tarasov, A L; Osipov, G A; Borzenkov, I A

    2015-01-01

    A Desulfovibrio strain physiologically similar to and phylogeneticall related to "D. caledoniensis" SEBR 7250, D. portus MSL79, and D. dechloracetivorans ATCC 700912 (96.9, 95.9, and 95.8% similarity of the 16S rRNA gen sequences, respectively) was isolated from marine biofouling in the coastal zone of the South China Sae (Nha Trang, South Vietnam). The cells of strain ME were gram-negative motile vibrios (0.4-0.6 x 1.3-2 μm) with a single flagellum. The strain grew at 20 to 39 degrees C (growth optimum at 34-37 degrees C), pH 5.8 to 8.5 (pH optimum at 6.8-7.5), and salinity from 0.08 to 1.1 M Na+ (optimum at 0.2-0.3 M Na+). In the presence of sulfate, the strain grew autotrophically with hydrogen or on lactate, formate, pyruvate, fumarate, and malate. Weak growth occurred on succinate, glycerol, and fructose. In the absence of sulfate, the strain was able to ferment pyruvate, malate (weakly), but not lactate. Sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, and dimethyl sulfoxide were used as electron acceptors. Vitamins and yeast extract were not required for growth. The G+C content was 52.4 mol %. Predominant fatty acids were C18:0 (13.9%), C16:0 (9.6%), iso-C16:0 (9.5%), C18: 1w7 (8.8%), anteiso-C15:0 (8.1%), and iso-C 17:1 (7.2%). The fatty acid composition was close to that of D. dechloracetivorans BO and has some similarity to that of D. portus. Based on its genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, strain ME maybe considered as a new species, for which the name Desulfovibrio hontrensis sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:27169246

  5. Photobacterium panuliri sp. nov., an alkalitolerant marine bacterium isolated from eggs of spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus from Andaman Sea.

    PubMed

    Deep, Kamal; Poddar, Abhijit; Das, Subrata K

    2014-11-01

    A facultative anaerobe, alkalitolerant, gram-negative marine bacterium strain LBS5(T), was isolated from eggs carried on the pleopods of female spiny lobster (Panulirus penicillatus) in Andaman Sea from a depth of 3.5 m. Heterotrophic growth was observed at 15-38 °C and pH 5.5-11. Optimum growth occurred at 28 °C and pH 7.5. It can grow in the presence of 0.5-7 % NaCl (w/v), and the optimal NaCl required for growth was 2-4 %. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed the strain LBS5(T) belongs to the genus Photobacterium and showed 99.6 % similarity with P. aquae AE6(T), 98.2 % with P. aphoticum M46(T), 97 % with P. rosenbergii CC1(T), 96.9 % with P. lutimaris DF-42(T), and 96.6 % with P. halotolerans MACL01(T). The DNA-DNA similarities between strains LBS5(T) with other closely related strains were well below 70 %. The DNA G + C content was 50.52 (±0.9) mol%. The major fatty acids were C16:1w7c/w6c, C18:1w6c/w7c, C16:0, C15:0 iso, C16:0 10-methyl/17:1 iso w9c, C17:0 iso. Polar lipids included a phosphatidylglycerol, a diphosphatidylglycerol, a phosphatidylethanolamine, and one unidentified lipid. Based on the polyphasic evidences, strain LBS5(T) represents a novel species of the genus Photobacterium for which Photobacterium panuliri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LBS5(T) (=DSM 27646(T) = LMG 27617(T) = JCM 19199(T)).

  6. Vibrio oceanisediminis sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from an artificial oil-spill marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang Rim; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Lee, Sang-Seob

    2015-10-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, halophilic, facultatively anaerobic, motile, rod-shaped and nitrogen-fixing bacterium, designated strain S37T, was isolated from an artificial oil-spill sediment sample from the coast of Taean, South Korea. Cells grew at 10-37 °C and pH 5.0-9.0, with optimal growth at 28 °C and pH 6.0-8.0. Growth was observed with 1-9 % (w/v) NaCl in marine broth, with optimal growth with 3-5 % NaCl, but no growth was observed in the absence of NaCl. According to the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain S37T represents a member of the genus Vibrio of the class Gammaproteobacteria and forms a clade with Vibrio plantisponsor MSSRF60T (97.38 %), Vibrio diazotrophicus ATCC 33466T (97.31 %), Vibrio aestuarianus ATCC 35048T (97.07 %) Vibrio areninigrae J74T (96.76 %) and Vibrio hispanicus LMG 13240T (96.76 %). The major fatty acids were C16 : 0, C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c and C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c. The DNA G+C content was 41.9 %. The DNA-DNA hybridization analysis results showed a 30.2 % association value with the closely related type strain V. plantisponsor DSM 21026T. On the basis of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain S37T represents a novel species of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio oceanisediminis sp. nov., is proposed with the type strain S37T ( = KEMB 2255-005T = JCM 30409T).

  7. Preparation and Evaluation of the Chelating Nanocomposite Fabricated with Marine Algae Schizochytrium sp. Protein Hydrolysate and Calcium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiaping; Cai, Xixi; Tang, Mengru; Wang, Shaoyun

    2015-11-11

    Marine algae have been becoming a popular research topic because of their biological implication. The algae peptide-based metal-chelating complex was investigated in this study. Schizochytrium sp. protein hydrolysate (SPH) possessing high Ca-binding capacity was prepared through stepwise enzymatic hydrolysis to a degree of hydrolysis of 22.46%. The nanocomposites of SPH chelated with calcium ions were fabricated in aqueous solution at pH 6 and 30 °C for 20 min, with the ratio of SPH to calcium 3:1 (w/w). The size distribution showed that the nanocomposite had compact structure with a radius of 68.16 ± 0.50 nm. SPH was rich in acidic amino acids, accounting for 33.55%, which are liable to bind with calcium ions. The molecular mass distribution demonstrated that the molecular mass of SPH was principally concentrated at 180-2000 Da. UV scanning spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested that the primary sites of calcium-binding corresponded to the carboxyl groups, carbonyl groups, and amino groups of SPH. The results of fluorescent spectroscopy, size distribution, atomic force microscope, and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy suggested that calcium ions chelated with SPH would cause intramolecular and intermolecular folding and aggregating. The SPH-calcium chelate exerted remarkable stability and absorbability under either acidic or basic conditions, which was in favor of calcium absorption in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans. The investigation suggests that SPH-calcium chelate has the potential prospect to be utilized as a nutraceutical supplement to improve bone health in the human body.

  8. Photobacterium panuliri sp. nov., an alkalitolerant marine bacterium isolated from eggs of spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus from Andaman Sea.

    PubMed

    Deep, Kamal; Poddar, Abhijit; Das, Subrata K

    2014-11-01

    A facultative anaerobe, alkalitolerant, gram-negative marine bacterium strain LBS5(T), was isolated from eggs carried on the pleopods of female spiny lobster (Panulirus penicillatus) in Andaman Sea from a depth of 3.5 m. Heterotrophic growth was observed at 15-38 °C and pH 5.5-11. Optimum growth occurred at 28 °C and pH 7.5. It can grow in the presence of 0.5-7 % NaCl (w/v), and the optimal NaCl required for growth was 2-4 %. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed the strain LBS5(T) belongs to the genus Photobacterium and showed 99.6 % similarity with P. aquae AE6(T), 98.2 % with P. aphoticum M46(T), 97 % with P. rosenbergii CC1(T), 96.9 % with P. lutimaris DF-42(T), and 96.6 % with P. halotolerans MACL01(T). The DNA-DNA similarities between strains LBS5(T) with other closely related strains were well below 70 %. The DNA G + C content was 50.52 (±0.9) mol%. The major fatty acids were C16:1w7c/w6c, C18:1w6c/w7c, C16:0, C15:0 iso, C16:0 10-methyl/17:1 iso w9c, C17:0 iso. Polar lipids included a phosphatidylglycerol, a diphosphatidylglycerol, a phosphatidylethanolamine, and one unidentified lipid. Based on the polyphasic evidences, strain LBS5(T) represents a novel species of the genus Photobacterium for which Photobacterium panuliri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LBS5(T) (=DSM 27646(T) = LMG 27617(T) = JCM 19199(T)). PMID:24962598

  9. Lutibacter litoralis gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from tidal flat sediment.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong H; Cho, Byung C

    2006-04-01

    A rod-shaped marine bacterium, designated strain CL-TF09T, isolated from a tidal flat in Ganghwa, Korea, was characterized based on its physiological and biochemical features, fatty acid profile and phylogenetic position. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed a clear affiliation with the family Flavobacteriaceae. Strain CL-TF09T showed the closest phylogenetic relationship with the genera Tenacibaculum and Polaribacter; sequence similarities between CL-TF09T and the type strains of Tenacibaculum and Polaribacter species ranged from 90.7 to 91.8 %. Cells of strain CL-TF09T were non-motile and grew on solid media as yellow colonies. The strain grew in the presence of 1-5 % sea salts, within a temperature range of 5-30 degrees C and at pH 7-8. The strain had iso-C(15 : 0) 3-OH (17.4 %), iso-C(15 : 0) (16.7 %), anteiso-C(15 : 0) (15.1 %) and iso-C(16 : 0) 3-OH (13.4 %) as predominant fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 33.9 mol%. Based on the physiological, fatty acid composition and phylogenetic data presented, strain CL-TF09T is considered to represent a novel genus and species of the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Lutibacter litoralis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CL-TF09T (=KCCM 42118T = JCM 13034T).

  10. Antibiofilm Activity of the Marine Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. 3J6 Against Vibrio tapetis, the Causative Agent of Brown Ring Disease.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Sophie; Paillard, Christine; Dufour, Alain; Bazire, Alexis

    2015-03-01

    Vibrio tapetis CECT4600 is a pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium causing the brown ring disease in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. This vibriosis is induced by bacterial attachment on the periostracal lamina, yielding a decalcification of the bivalve shell. As in many bacterial species, pathogenesis is likely related to biofilm formation. The proteinaceous exoproducts of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. 3J6 inhibit the formation of biofilm by most of the tested marine bacteria without affecting their planktonic growth. In the present work, we examined the sensitivity of V. tapetis to Pseudoalteromonas sp. 3J6 and its exoproducts. In V. tapetis CECT4600-GFP-Pseudoalteromonas sp. 3J6 co-cultures, the latter outcompeted V. tapetis whatever the growth mode (planktonic or biofilm), which could result from a slower growth of V. tapetis. Biofilms containing only V. tapetis were grown in vitro on a glass substratum under dynamic conditions. When the glass was coated with a culture supernatant of Pseudoalteromonas sp. 3J6 (SN(3J6)) prior to inoculating V. tapetis CECT4600-GFP, the bacterial attachment was about fivefold lower than in control experiment without SN3J6 and the biofilm formation was delayed by about 24 h: A full biofilm was obtained at 48 versus 24 h for the control. Moreover, a preformed V. tapetis biofilm (grown on SN(3J6)-free glass substratum) could be disrupted by incubating it with SN3J6. This data suggest that Pseudoalteromonas sp. 3J6 is a good candidate to set up an anti-V. tapetis strategy usable in aquaculture to grow V. tapetis-free Manila clam spats.

  11. Towards Sustainable Aquafeeds: Complete Substitution of Fish Oil with Marine Microalga Schizochytrium sp. Improves Growth and Fatty Acid Deposition in Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Pallab K.; Kapuscinski, Anne R.; Lanois, Alison J.; Livesey, Erin D.; Bernhard, Katie P.; Coley, Mariah L.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a 84-day nutritional feeding experiment with dried whole cells of DHA-rich marine microalga Schizochytrium sp. (Sc) to determine the optimum level of fish-oil substitution (partial or complete) for maximum growth of Nile tilapia. When we fully replaced fish oil with Schizochytrium (Sc100 diet), we found significantly higher weight gain and protein efficiency ratio (PER), and lower (improved) feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake compared to a control diet containing fish oil (Sc0); and no significant change in SGR and survival rate among all diets. The Sc100 diet had the highest contents of 22:6n3 DHA, led to the highest DHA content in fillets, and consequently led to the highest DHA:EPA ratios in tilapia fillets. Schizochytrium sp. is a high quality candidate for complete substitution of fish oil in juvenile Nile tilapia feeds, providing an innovative means to formulate and optimize the composition of tilapia juvenile feed while simultaneously raising feed efficiency of tilapia aquaculture and to further develop environmentally and socially sustainable aquafeeds. Results show that replacing fish oil with DHA-rich marine Sc improves the deposition of n3 LC PUFA levels in tilapia fillet. These results support further studies to lower Schizochytrium production costs and to combine different marine microalgae to replace fish oil and fishmeal into aquafeeds. PMID:27258552

  12. Towards Sustainable Aquafeeds: Complete Substitution of Fish Oil with Marine Microalga Schizochytrium sp. Improves Growth and Fatty Acid Deposition in Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Sarker, Pallab K; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Lanois, Alison J; Livesey, Erin D; Bernhard, Katie P; Coley, Mariah L

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a 84-day nutritional feeding experiment with dried whole cells of DHA-rich marine microalga Schizochytrium sp. (Sc) to determine the optimum level of fish-oil substitution (partial or complete) for maximum growth of Nile tilapia. When we fully replaced fish oil with Schizochytrium (Sc100 diet), we found significantly higher weight gain and protein efficiency ratio (PER), and lower (improved) feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake compared to a control diet containing fish oil (Sc0); and no significant change in SGR and survival rate among all diets. The Sc100 diet had the highest contents of 22:6n3 DHA, led to the highest DHA content in fillets, and consequently led to the highest DHA:EPA ratios in tilapia fillets. Schizochytrium sp. is a high quality candidate for complete substitution of fish oil in juvenile Nile tilapia feeds, providing an innovative means to formulate and optimize the composition of tilapia juvenile feed while simultaneously raising feed efficiency of tilapia aquaculture and to further develop environmentally and socially sustainable aquafeeds. Results show that replacing fish oil with DHA-rich marine Sc improves the deposition of n3 LC PUFA levels in tilapia fillet. These results support further studies to lower Schizochytrium production costs and to combine different marine microalgae to replace fish oil and fishmeal into aquafeeds.

  13. Towards Sustainable Aquafeeds: Complete Substitution of Fish Oil with Marine Microalga Schizochytrium sp. Improves Growth and Fatty Acid Deposition in Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Sarker, Pallab K; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Lanois, Alison J; Livesey, Erin D; Bernhard, Katie P; Coley, Mariah L

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a 84-day nutritional feeding experiment with dried whole cells of DHA-rich marine microalga Schizochytrium sp. (Sc) to determine the optimum level of fish-oil substitution (partial or complete) for maximum growth of Nile tilapia. When we fully replaced fish oil with Schizochytrium (Sc100 diet), we found significantly higher weight gain and protein efficiency ratio (PER), and lower (improved) feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake compared to a control diet containing fish oil (Sc0); and no significant change in SGR and survival rate among all diets. The Sc100 diet had the highest contents of 22:6n3 DHA, led to the highest DHA content in fillets, and consequently led to the highest DHA:EPA ratios in tilapia fillets. Schizochytrium sp. is a high quality candidate for complete substitution of fish oil in juvenile Nile tilapia feeds, providing an innovative means to formulate and optimize the composition of tilapia juvenile feed while simultaneously raising feed efficiency of tilapia aquaculture and to further develop environmentally and socially sustainable aquafeeds. Results show that replacing fish oil with DHA-rich marine Sc improves the deposition of n3 LC PUFA levels in tilapia fillet. These results support further studies to lower Schizochytrium production costs and to combine different marine microalgae to replace fish oil and fishmeal into aquafeeds. PMID:27258552

  14. The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bullard, S.G.; Lambert, G.; Carman, M.R.; Byrnes, J.; Whitlatch, R.B.; Ruiz, G.; Miller, R.J.; Harris, L.; Valentine, P.C.; Collie, J.S.; Pederson, J.; McNaught, D.C.; Cohen, A.N.; Asch, R.G.; Dijkstra, J.; Heinonen, K.

    2007-01-01

    Didemnum sp. A is a colonial ascidian with rapidly expanding populations on the east and west coasts of North America. The origin of Didemum sp. A is unknown. Populations were first observed on the northeast coast of the U.S. in the late 1980s and on the west coast during the 1990s. It is currently undergoing a massive population explosion and is now a dominant member of many subtidal communities on both coasts. To determine Didemnum sp. A's current distribution, we conducted surveys from Maine to Virginia on the east coast and from British Columbia to southern California on the west coast of the U.S. between 1998 and 2005. In nearshore locations Didemnum sp. A currently ranges from Eastport, Maine to Shinnecock Bay, New York on the east coast. On the west coast it has been recorded from Humboldt Bay to Port San Luis in California, several sites in Puget Sound, Washington, including a heavily fouled mussel culture facility, and several sites in southwestern British Columbia on and adjacent to oyster and mussel farms. The species also occurs at deeper subtidal sites (up to 81 m) off New England, including Georges, Stellwagen and Tillies Banks. On Georges Bank numerous sites within a 230 km2 area are 50–90% covered by Didemnum sp. A; large colonies cement the pebble gravel into nearly solid mats that may smother infaunal organisms. These observations suggest that Didemnum sp. A has the potential to alter marine communities and affect economically important activities such as fishing and aquaculture.

  15. N-Methylniphatyne A, a New 3-Alkylpyridine Alkaloid as an Inhibitor of the Cancer Cells Adapted to Nutrient Starvation, from an Indonesian Marine Sponge of Xestospongia sp.

    PubMed

    Arai, Masayoshi; Kamiya, Kentaro; Shin, Dayoung; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Hisa, Tomoya; Setiawan, Andi; Kotoku, Naoyuki; Kobayashi, Motomasa

    2016-01-01

    In the course of searching for selective growth inhibitors of the cancer cells adapted to nutrient starvation, a new 3-alkylpyridine alkaloid named N-methylniphatyne A (1) was isolated from an Indonesian marine sponge of Xestospongia sp. The chemical structure of 1 was determined on the basis of the spectroscopic analysis and comparison with the synthesized 1 and its analogues. Compound 1 showed the cytotoxic activity against PANC-1 cells under the condition of glucose starvation with IC50 value of 16 µM, whereas no growth-inhibition was observed up to 100 µM under the general culture conditions. PMID:27373630

  16. A monogenean fish parasite, Gyrodactylus chileani n. sp., belonging to a novel marine species lineage found in the South-Eastern Pacific and the Mediterranean and North Seas.

    PubMed

    Ziętara, Marek S; Lebedeva, Dar'ya; Muñoz, Gabriela; Lumme, Jaakko

    2012-10-01

    Gyrodactylus chileani n. sp. is the first Gyrodactylus species reported from Chile. It is an ectoparasite living on fins and skin of a small fish, the Chilean tidal pond dweller Helcogrammoides chilensis (Cancino) (Perciformes: Tripterygiidae). A phylogenetic analysis based on 5.8S+ITS2 of rDNA placed the new species close to marine Gyrodactylus species found in Europe: G. orecchiae Paladini, Cable, Fioravanti, Faria, Cave & Shinn, 2009 on gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L. from the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Sea fish farms (Perciformes: Sparidae), and an undescribed species on the black goby Gobius niger L. from the North Sea (Perciformes: Gobiidae). A morphological description of the latter species is unavailable. These geographically distant parasite samples on different host families form a new well supported Gyrodactylus orecchiae lineage. Using molecular phylogenetics, it is shown that the marine species groups of Gyrodactylus may have a worldwide distribution. PMID:22983803

  17. Complete genome sequence of the marine, cellulose and xylan degrading bacterium Glaciecola sp. 4H-3-7+YE-5

    SciTech Connect

    Klippel, Dr Barbara; Bruce, David; Davenport, Karen W.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Han, James; Han, Shunsheng; Land, Miriam L; Mikhailova, Natalia; Nolan, Matt; Pennacchio, Len; Pitluck, Sam; Tapia, Roxanne; Woyke, Tanja; Wiebusch, Sigrid; Basner, Alexander; Abe, Fumiyoshi; Horikoshi, Koki; Antranikian, Garabed

    2011-01-01

    Glaciecola sp. 4H-3-7+YE-5 was isolated from deep sea sediments at Suruga Bay in Japan and is capable of efficiently hydrolyzing cellulose and xylan. The complete genome sequence of Glaciecola sp. 4H-3-7+YE-5 revealed several genes encoding putatively novel glycoside hydrolases associated with plant biomass degradation.

  18. Molecular Phylogeny and Ultrastructure of Caliculium glossobalani n. gen. et sp. (Apicomplexa) from a Pacific Glossobalanus minutus (Hemichordata) Confounds the Relationships Between Marine and Terrestrial Gregarines.

    PubMed

    Wakeman, Kevin C; Reimer, James D; Jenke-Kodama, Holger; Leander, Brian S

    2014-01-01

    Gregarines are a diverse group of apicomplexan parasites with a conspicuous extracellular feeding stage, called a "trophozoite", that infects the intestines and other body cavities of invertebrate hosts. Although the morphology of trophozoites is very diverse in gregarines as a whole, high degrees of intraspecific variation combined with relatively low degrees of interspecific variation make the delimitation of different species based on trophozoite morphology observed with light microscopy difficult. The coupling of molecular phylogenetic data with comparative morphology has shed considerable light onto the boundaries and interrelationships of different gregarine species. In this study, we isolated a novel marine gregarine from the hepatic region of a Pacific representative of the hemichordate Glossobalanus minutus, and report the first ultrastructural and molecular data from any gregarine infecting this distinctive group of hosts. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of an SSU rDNA sequence derived from two single-cell isolates of this marine gregarine demonstrated a strong and unexpected affiliation with a clade of terrestrial gregarines (e.g. Gregarina). This molecular phylogenetic data combined with a comparison of the morphological features in previous reports of gregarines collected from Atlantic representatives of G. minutus justified the establishment of a new binomial for the new isolate, namely Caliculium glossobalani n. gen. et sp. The molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrated a clade of terrestrial gregarines associated with a sequence acquired from a marine species, which suggest that different groups of terrestrial/freshwater gregarines evolved independently from marine ancestors. PMID:24702818

  19. Molecular Phylogeny and Ultrastructure of Caliculium glossobalani n. gen. et sp. (Apicomplexa) from a Pacific Glossobalanus minutus (Hemichordata) Confounds the Relationships Between Marine and Terrestrial Gregarines.

    PubMed

    Wakeman, Kevin C; Reimer, James D; Jenke-Kodama, Holger; Leander, Brian S

    2014-01-01

    Gregarines are a diverse group of apicomplexan parasites with a conspicuous extracellular feeding stage, called a "trophozoite", that infects the intestines and other body cavities of invertebrate hosts. Although the morphology of trophozoites is very diverse in gregarines as a whole, high degrees of intraspecific variation combined with relatively low degrees of interspecific variation make the delimitation of different species based on trophozoite morphology observed with light microscopy difficult. The coupling of molecular phylogenetic data with comparative morphology has shed considerable light onto the boundaries and interrelationships of different gregarine species. In this study, we isolated a novel marine gregarine from the hepatic region of a Pacific representative of the hemichordate Glossobalanus minutus, and report the first ultrastructural and molecular data from any gregarine infecting this distinctive group of hosts. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of an SSU rDNA sequence derived from two single-cell isolates of this marine gregarine demonstrated a strong and unexpected affiliation with a clade of terrestrial gregarines (e.g. Gregarina). This molecular phylogenetic data combined with a comparison of the morphological features in previous reports of gregarines collected from Atlantic representatives of G. minutus justified the establishment of a new binomial for the new isolate, namely Caliculium glossobalani n. gen. et sp. The molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrated a clade of terrestrial gregarines associated with a sequence acquired from a marine species, which suggest that different groups of terrestrial/freshwater gregarines evolved independently from marine ancestors.

  20. Cytotoxic and antibacterial substances against multi-drug resistant pathogens from marine sponge symbiont: Citrinin, a secondary metabolite of Penicillium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Subramani, Ramesh; Kumar, Rohitesh; Prasad, Pritesh; Aalbersberg, William

    2013-01-01

    Objective To Isolate, purify, characterize, and evaluate the bioactive compounds from the sponge-derived fungus Penicillium sp. FF001 and to elucidate its structure. Methods The fungal strain FF001 with an interesting bioactivity profile was isolated from a marine Fijian sponge Melophlus sp. Based on conidiophores aggregation, conidia development and mycelia morphological characteristics, the isolate FF001 was classically identified as a Penicillium sp. The bioactive compound was identified using various spectral analysis of UV, high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectra, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data. Further minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) assay and brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay were also carried out to evaluate the biological properties of the purified compound. Results Bioassay guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract of a static culture of this Penicillium sp. by different chromatographic methods led the isolation of an antibacterial, anticryptococcal and cytotoxic active compound, which was identified as citrinin (1). Further, citrinin (1) is reported for its potent antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), rifampicin-resistant S. aureus, wild type S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium showed MICs of 3.90, 0.97, 1.95 and 7.81 µg/mL, respectively. Further citrinin (1) displayed significant activity against the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC 3.90 µg/mL), and exhibited cytotoxicity against brine shrimp larvae LD50 of 96 µg/mL. Conclusions Citrinin (1) is reported from sponge associated Penicillium sp. from this study and for its strong antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant human pathogens including cytotoxicity against brine shrimp larvae, which indicated that sponge associated Penicillium spp. are promising sources of natural bioactive metabolites. PMID:23620853

  1. Optimization of the marinating conditions of cassava fish (Pseudotolithus sp.) fillet for Lanhouin production through application of Doehlert experimental design.

    PubMed

    Kindossi, Janvier Mêlégnonfan; Anihouvi, Victor Bienvenu; Vieira-Dalodé, Générose; Akissoé, Noël Houédougbé; Hounhouigan, Djidjoho Joseph

    2016-03-01

    Lanhouin is a traditional fermented salted fish made from the spontaneous and uncontrolled fermentation of whole salted cassava fish (Pseudotolithus senegalensis) mainly produced in the coastal regions of West Africa. The combined effects of NaCl, citric acid concentration, and marination time on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of the fish fillet used for Lanhouin production were studied using a Doehlert experimental design with the objective of preserving its quality and safety. The marination time has significant effects on total viable and lactic acid bacteria counts, and NaCl content of the marinated fish fillet while the pH was significantly affected by citric acid concentration and marination duration with high regression coefficient R (2) of 0.83. The experiment showed that the best conditions for marination process of fish fillet were salt ratio 10 g/100 g, acid citric concentration 2.5 g/100 g, and marination time 6 h. These optimum marinating conditions obtained present the best quality of marinated flesh fish leading to the safety of the final fermented product. This pretreatment is necessary in Lanhouin production processes to ensure its safety quality. PMID:27004115

  2. Cytotoxic Activity of Bioactive Compound 1, 2- Benzene Dicarboxylic Acid, Mono 2- Ethylhexyl Ester Extracted from a Marine Derived Streptomyces sp. VITSJK8

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Kannabiran; Mani, Abirami; Jasmine, Subashini

    2014-01-01

    Marine Streptomyces are prolific producers of majority of bioactive secondary metabolites which are used in pharmaceutical industry as effective drugs against life threatening diseases. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compound 1, 2- benzene dicarboxylic acid, mono 2- ethylhexyl ester (DMEHE) from marine derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. VITSJK8 was investigated against mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH 3T3) and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) normal cell lines, human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG 2) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines by using MTT assay. The compound DMEHE exhibited IC 50 values of 42, 100, 250 and 500 µg/ ml against HepG2, MCF-7, HaCaT and NIH 3T3 cell lines, respectively. The effect of DMEHE on the growth of cancer cell lines was expressed as the % of viability. Cell viability was recorded as 67.7%, 78.14%, 82.23% and 96. 11% in HepG2, MCF-7, HaCaT and NIH 3T3 cells, respectively. The results of the study conclude that the bioactive compound isolated from the potential isolate Streptomyces sp. VITSJK8 exhibited cytotoxic activity against HepG2 and MCF- 7 cancer cell lines and low toxicity against normal HaCaT and NIH 3T3 cell lines. PMID:25635251

  3. Recovery and phylogenetic diversity of culturable fungi associated with marine sponges Clathrina luteoculcitella and Holoxea sp. in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bo; Yin, Ying; Zhang, Fengli; Li, Zhiyong

    2011-08-01

    Sponge-associated fungi represent an important source of marine natural products, but little is known about the fungal diversity and the relationship of sponge-fungal association, especially no research on the fungal diversity in the South China Sea sponge has been reported. In this study, a total of 111 cultivable fungi strains were isolated from two South China Sea sponges Clathrina luteoculcitella and Holoxea sp. using eight different media. Thirty-two independent representatives were selected for analysis of phylogenetic diversity according to ARDRA and morphological characteristics. The culturable fungal communities consisted of at least 17 genera within ten taxonomic orders of two phyla (nine orders of the phylum Ascomycota and one order of the phylum Basidiomycota) including some potential novel marine fungi. Particularly, eight genera of Apiospora, Botryosphaeria, Davidiella, Didymocrea, Lentomitella, Marasmius, Pestalotiopsis, and Rhizomucor were isolated from sponge for the first time. Sponge C. luteoculcitella has greater culturable fungal diversity than sponge Holoxea sp. Five genera of Aspergillus, Davidiella, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, and Penicillium were isolated from both sponges, while 12 genera of Apiospora, Botryosphaeria, Candida, Marasmius, Cladosporium, Didymocrea, Hypocrea, Lentomitella, Nigrospora, Pestalotiopsis, Rhizomucor, and Scopulariopsis were isolated from sponge C. luteoculcitella only. Order Eurotiales especially genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, and order Hypocreales represented the dominant culturable fungi in these two South China Sea sponges. Nigrospora oryzae strain PF18 isolated from sponge C. luteoculcitella showed a strong and broad spectrum antimicrobial activities suggesting the potential for antimicrobial compounds production.

  4. Characterization of a Brucella sp. Strain as a Marine-Mammal Type despite Isolation from a Patient with Spinal Osteomyelitis in New Zealand▿

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, W. L.; Jamaludin, R.; Mackereth, G.; Hansen, M.; Humphrey, S.; Short, P.; Taylor, T.; Swingler, J.; Dawson, C. E.; Whatmore, A. M.; Stubberfield, E.; Perrett, L. L.; Simmons, G.

    2006-01-01

    Naturally acquired infection of humans with a marine mammal-associated Brucella sp. has only been reported once previously in a study describing infections of two patients from Peru. We report the isolation and characterization of a strain of Brucella from a New Zealand patient that appears most closely related to strains previously identified from marine mammals. The isolate was preliminarily identified as Brucella suis using conventional bacteriological tests in our laboratory. However, the results profile was not an exact match, and the isolate was forwarded to four international reference laboratories for further identification. The reference laboratories identified the isolate as either B. suis or B. melitensis by traditional bacteriological methods in three laboratories and by a molecular test in the fourth laboratory. Molecular characterization by PCR, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and DNA sequencing of the bp26 gene; IS711; the omp genes omp25, omp31, omp2a, and omp2b; IRS-PCR fragments I, III, and IV; and five housekeeping gene fragments was conducted to resolve the discrepant identification of the isolate. The isolate was identified to be closely related to a Brucella sp. originating from a United States bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and common seals (Phoca vitulina). PMID:17035490

  5. Analysis of defence systems and a conjugative IncP-1 plasmid in the marine polyaromatic hydrocarbons-degrading bacterium Cycloclasticus sp. 78-ME.

    PubMed

    Yakimov, Michail M; Crisafi, Francesca; Messina, Enzo; Smedile, Francesco; Lopatina, Anna; Denaro, Renata; Pieper, Dietmar H; Golyshin, Peter N; Giuliano, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Marine prokaryotes have evolved a broad repertoire of defence systems to protect their genomes from lateral gene transfer including innate or acquired immune systems and infection-induced programmed cell suicide and dormancy. Here we report on the analysis of multiple defence systems present in the genome of the strain Cycloclasticus sp. 78-ME isolated from petroleum deposits of the tanker 'Amoco Milford Haven'. Cycloclasticus are ubiquitous bacteria globally important in polyaromatic hydrocarbons degradation in marine environments. Two 'defence islands' were identified in 78-ME genome: the first harbouring CRISPR-Cas with toxin-antitoxin system, while the second was composed by an array of genes for toxin-antitoxin and restriction-modification proteins. Among all identified spacers of CRISPR-Cas system only seven spacers match sequences of phages and plasmids. Furthermore, a conjugative plasmid p7ME01, which belongs to a new IncP-1θ ancestral archetype without any accessory mobile elements was found in 78-ME. Our results provide the context to the co-occurrence of diverse defence mechanisms in the genome of Cycloclasticus sp. 78-ME, which protect the genome of this highly specialized PAH-degrader. This study contributes to the further understanding of complex networks established in petroleum-based microbial communities. PMID:27345842

  6. Genome Sequence of the Marine Bacterium Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17, Which Forms Biofilms on Hydrophobic Organic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ghiglione, Jean-François; Cagnon, Christine; Lauga, Béatrice; Vaysse, Pierre-Joseph; Rodriguez-Blanco, Arturo; Mangenot, Sophie; Cruveiller, Stephane; Barbe, Valérie; Duran, Robert; Wu, Long-Fei; Talla, Emmanuel; Bonin, Patricia; Michotey, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 forms biofilms specifically at the interface between water and hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) that are used as carbon and energy sources. Biofilm formation at the HOC-water interface has been recognized as a strategy to overcome the low availability of these nearly water-insoluble substrates. Here, we present the genome sequence of SP17, which could provide further insights into the mechanisms of enhancement of HOCs assimilation through biofilm formation. PMID:22689231

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Marine Actinomycete Streptomyces sp. Strain NTK 937, Producer of the Benzoxazole Antibiotic Caboxamycin

    PubMed Central

    Olano, Carlos; Cano-Prieto, Carolina; Losada, Armando A.; Bull, Alan T.; Goodfellow, Michael; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Méndez, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Streptomyces sp. strain NTK 937 is the producer of the benzoxazole antibiotic caboxamycin, which has been shown to exert inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria, cytotoxic activity against several human tumor cell lines, and inhibition of the enzyme phosphodiesterase. In this genome announcement, we present a draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. NTK 937 in which we identified at least 35 putative secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters. PMID:24994793

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Marine Actinomycete Streptomyces sp. Strain NTK 937, Producer of the Benzoxazole Antibiotic Caboxamycin.

    PubMed

    Olano, Carlos; Cano-Prieto, Carolina; Losada, Armando A; Bull, Alan T; Goodfellow, Michael; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Méndez, Carmen; Salas, José A

    2014-07-03

    Streptomyces sp. strain NTK 937 is the producer of the benzoxazole antibiotic caboxamycin, which has been shown to exert inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria, cytotoxic activity against several human tumor cell lines, and inhibition of the enzyme phosphodiesterase. In this genome announcement, we present a draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. NTK 937 in which we identified at least 35 putative secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters.

  9. Experimental infection of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) with marine Eubothrium sp. (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea): observations on the life cycle, aspects of development and growth of the parasite.

    PubMed

    Saksvik, M; Nylund, A; Nilsen, F; Hodneland, K

    2001-01-01

    The life cycle of marine Eubothrium sp. (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea), from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) was experimentally completed in one year and included only one intermediate host (Acartia tonsa Dana) (Copepoda: Calanoida). Adult cestodes were collected from farmed salmon, and ripe eggs released by the cestodes were fed to Acartia tonsa. Ingested eggs hatched in the gut and the larvae developed in the haemocoel of the copepod for 15 days at 16 degrees C. A total of 170 seawater-reared salmon were exposed to infected copepods and the total prevalence of Eubothrium sp. in the salmon after infection was 95.3%, with a mean intensity of 15.0 (range 1-87). The infected salmon were kept in the laboratory where the growth of the cestodes was studied for eleven months. Mean length of the cestodes increased with time, but a large variation among the cestodes was observed. Growth and maturation of the cestodes were dependent on host size and the number of worms present in the intestine. No evidence of mortality of Eubothrium sp. was observed during the experimental period. PMID:11437125

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Marinobacter sp. Strain P4B1, an Electrogenic Perchlorate-Reducing Strain Isolated from a Long-Term Mixed Enrichment Culture of Marine Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Stepanov, Victor G; Xiao, Yeyuan; Lopez, April J; Roberts, Deborah J; Fox, George E

    2016-01-01

    The perchlorate-reducing strain Marinobacter sp. strain P4B1 was isolated from a long-term perchlorate-degrading enrichment culture seeded with marine sediment. The draft genome of Marinobacter sp. P4B1 is comprised of the bacterial chromosome (3.60 Mbp, G+C 58.51%, 3,269 predicted genes) and its associated plasmid pMARS01 (0.14 Mbp, G+C 52.95%, 165 predicted genes). PMID:26798109

  11. Cellular identity of a novel small subunit rDNA sequence clade of apicomplexans: description of the marine parasite Rhytidocystis polygordiae n. sp. (host: Polygordius sp., Polychaeta).

    PubMed

    Leander, Brian S; Ramey, Patricia A

    2006-01-01

    A new species of Rhytidocystis (Apicomplexa) is characterized from North American waters of the Atlantic Ocean using electron microscopy and phylogenetic analyses of small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences. Rhytidocystis polygordiae n. sp. is a parasite of the polychaete Polygordius sp. and becomes the fourth described species within this genus. The trophozoites of R. polygordiae were relatively small oblong cells (L=35-55 microm; W=20-25 microm) and distinctive in possessing subterminal indentations at both ends of the cell. The surface of the trophozoites had six to eight longitudinal series of small transverse folds and several micropores arranged in short linear rows. The trophozoites of R. polygordiae were positioned beneath the brush border of the intestinal epithelium but appeared to reside between the epithelial cells within the extracellular matrix rather than within the cells. The trophozoites possessed a uniform distribution of paraglycogen granules, putative apicoplasts, mitochondria with tubular cristae, and a centrally positioned nucleus. The trophozoites were non-motile and lacked a mucron and an apical complex. Intracellular sporozoites of R. polygordiae had a conoid, a few rhoptries, micronemes, dense granules, and a posteriorly positioned nucleus. Phylogenies inferred from SSU rDNA sequences demonstrated a close relationship between R. polygordiae and the poorly known parasite reported from the hemolymph of the giant clam Tridacna crocea. The rhytidocystid clade diverged early in the apicomplexan radiation and showed a weak affinity to a clade consisting of cryptosporidian parasites, monocystids, and neogregarines.

  12. Isolation, Characterization, and Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation Potential of Aerobic Bacteria from Marine Macrofaunal Burrow Sediments and Description of Lutibacterium anuloederans gen. nov., sp. nov., and Cycloclasticus spirillensus sp. nov.†

    PubMed Central

    Chung, W. K.; King, G. M.

    2001-01-01

    Two new polyaromatic hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacteria have been isolated from burrow wall sediments of benthic macrofauna by using enrichments on phenanthrene. Strain LC8 (from a polychaete) and strain M4-6 (from a mollusc) are aerobic and gram negative and require sodium chloride (>1%) for growth. Both strains can use 2- and 3-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as their sole carbon and energy sources, but they are nutritionally versatile. Physiological and phylogenetic analyses based on 16S ribosomal DNA sequences suggest that strain M4-6 belongs to the genus Cycloclasticus and represents a new species, Cycloclasticus spirillensus sp. nov. Strain LC8 appears to represent a new genus and species, Lutibacterium anuloederans gen. nov., sp. nov., within the Sphingomonadaceae. However, when inoculated into sediment slurries with or without exogenous phenanthrene, only L. anuloederans appeared to sustain a significant phenanthrene uptake potential throughout a 35-day incubation. In addition, only L. anuloederans appeared to enhance phenanthrene degradation in heavily contaminated sediment from Little Mystic Cove, Boston Harbor, Boston, Mass. PMID:11722910

  13. Photoinhibition of Phaeocystis globosa resulting from oxidative stress induced by a marine algicidal bacterium Bacillus sp. LP-10.

    PubMed

    Guan, Chengwei; Guo, Xiaoyun; Li, Yi; Zhang, Huajun; Lei, Xueqian; Cai, Guanjing; Guo, Jiajia; Yu, Zhiming; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms caused by Phaeocystis globosa have resulted in staggering losses to coastal countries because of their world-wide distribution. Bacteria have been studied for years to control the blooms of harmful alga, however, the action mechanism of them against harmful algal cells is still not well defined. Here, a previously isolated algicidal bacterium Bacillus sp. LP-10 was used to elucidate the potential mechanism involved in the dysfunction of P. globosa algal cells at physiological and molecular levels. Our results showed Bacillus sp. LP-10 induced an obvious rise of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was supposed to be major reason for algal cell death. Meanwhile, the results revealed a significant decrease of photosynthetic physiological indexes and apparent down-regulated of photosynthesis-related genes (psbA and rbcS) and protein (PSII reaction center protein D1), after treated by Bacillus sp. LP-10 filtrates, suggesting photoinhibition occurred in the algal cells. Furthermore, our results indicated that light played important roles in the algal cell death. Our work demonstrated that the major lethal reason of P. globosa cells treated by the algicidal bacterium was the photoinhibition resulted from oxidative stress induced by Bacillus sp. LP-10. PMID:26601700

  14. Photoinhibition of Phaeocystis globosa resulting from oxidative stress induced by a marine algicidal bacterium Bacillus sp. LP-10.

    PubMed

    Guan, Chengwei; Guo, Xiaoyun; Li, Yi; Zhang, Huajun; Lei, Xueqian; Cai, Guanjing; Guo, Jiajia; Yu, Zhiming; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-11-25

    Harmful algal blooms caused by Phaeocystis globosa have resulted in staggering losses to coastal countries because of their world-wide distribution. Bacteria have been studied for years to control the blooms of harmful alga, however, the action mechanism of them against harmful algal cells is still not well defined. Here, a previously isolated algicidal bacterium Bacillus sp. LP-10 was used to elucidate the potential mechanism involved in the dysfunction of P. globosa algal cells at physiological and molecular levels. Our results showed Bacillus sp. LP-10 induced an obvious rise of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was supposed to be major reason for algal cell death. Meanwhile, the results revealed a significant decrease of photosynthetic physiological indexes and apparent down-regulated of photosynthesis-related genes (psbA and rbcS) and protein (PSII reaction center protein D1), after treated by Bacillus sp. LP-10 filtrates, suggesting photoinhibition occurred in the algal cells. Furthermore, our results indicated that light played important roles in the algal cell death. Our work demonstrated that the major lethal reason of P. globosa cells treated by the algicidal bacterium was the photoinhibition resulted from oxidative stress induced by Bacillus sp. LP-10.

  15. Photoinhibition of Phaeocystis globosa resulting from oxidative stress induced by a marine algicidal bacterium Bacillus sp. LP-10

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Chengwei; Guo, Xiaoyun; Li, Yi; Zhang, Huajun; Lei, Xueqian; Cai, Guanjing; Guo, Jiajia; Yu, Zhiming; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms caused by Phaeocystis globosa have resulted in staggering losses to coastal countries because of their world-wide distribution. Bacteria have been studied for years to control the blooms of harmful alga, however, the action mechanism of them against harmful algal cells is still not well defined. Here, a previously isolated algicidal bacterium Bacillus sp. LP-10 was used to elucidate the potential mechanism involved in the dysfunction of P. globosa algal cells at physiological and molecular levels. Our results showed Bacillus sp. LP-10 induced an obvious rise of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was supposed to be major reason for algal cell death. Meanwhile, the results revealed a significant decrease of photosynthetic physiological indexes and apparent down-regulated of photosynthesis-related genes (psbA and rbcS) and protein (PSII reaction center protein D1), after treated by Bacillus sp. LP-10 filtrates, suggesting photoinhibition occurred in the algal cells. Furthermore, our results indicated that light played important roles in the algal cell death. Our work demonstrated that the major lethal reason of P. globosa cells treated by the algicidal bacterium was the photoinhibition resulted from oxidative stress induced by Bacillus sp. LP-10. PMID:26601700

  16. Aspertetranones A-D, Putative Meroterpenoids from the Marine Algal-Associated Fungus Aspergillus sp. ZL0-1b14.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuezhou; Qi, Shuang; Zhan, Ying; Zhang, Nanwen; Wu, An-An; Gui, Fu; Guo, Kai; Yang, Yanru; Cao, Shugeng; Hu, Zhiyu; Zheng, Zhonghui; Song, Siyang; Xu, Qingyan; Shen, Yuemao; Deng, Xianming

    2015-10-23

    Aspertetranones A-D (1-4), four new highly oxygenated putative rearranged triketide-sesquiterpenoid meroterpenes, were isolated from the marine algal-associated fungus Aspergillus sp. ZL0-1b14. On the basis of a comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, the planar structures of aspertetranones were determined to possess an unusual skeleton in the terpenoid part. The relative and absolute configurations of the aspertetranones were assigned on the basis of NOESY analysis, X-ray crystallography, and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Compounds 1-4 were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Aspertetranone D exhibited an inhibitory effect against IL-6 production with 69% inhibition at 40 μM.

  17. Philometra spicarae sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the abdominal cavity of the marine fish (picarel) Spicara smaris (Centracanthidae) off Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Gaglio, Gabriella; Giannetto, Salvatore; Marino, Fabio

    2010-07-01

    A new nematode species, Philometra spicarae sp. n. (Philometridae), is described from a gravid female found in the abdominal cavity of spicarel, Spicara smaris (Linnaeus) (Centracanthidae, Perciformes), from the Ionian Sea off Sicily, Italy. The new species differs from most other Philometra spp. parasitic in the abdominal cavity of marine fishes by the oesophagus without an anterior inflation, resembling thus only Philometra cheilopogoni Mordvinova, 1986 and Philometra justinei Moravec, Ternengo and Levron, 2006; these two species can be differentiated from P. spicarae by the relative length of the oesophagus to body length (0.6-0.8% vs. 6%) and some other features. From the gonad-infecting species Philometra filiformis (Stossich, 1896), a parasite of Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus), P. spicarae differs mainly in having a conspicuously long (1.4 mm) intestinal ligament. It is the first nominal philometrid species described from the fish of the family Centracanthidae.

  18. A novel algicide: evidence of the effect of a fatty acid compound from the marine bacterium, Vibrio sp. BS02 on the harmful dinoflagellate, Alexandrium tamarense.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Zhang, Huajun; Fu, Lijun; An, Xinli; Zhang, Bangzhou; Li, Yi; Chen, Zhangran; Zheng, Wei; Yi, Lin; Zheng, Tianling

    2014-01-01

    Alexandrium tamarense is a notorious bloom-forming dinoflagellate, which adversely impacts water quality and human health. In this study we present a new algicide against A. tamarense, which was isolated from the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. BS02. MALDI-TOF-MS, NMR and algicidal activity analysis reveal that this compound corresponds to palmitoleic acid, which shows algicidal activity against A. tamarense with an EC50 of 40 μg/mL. The effects of palmitoleic acid on the growth of other algal species were also studied. The results indicate that palmitoleic acid has potential for selective control of the Harmful algal blooms (HABs). Over extended periods of contact, transmission electron microscopy shows severe ultrastructural damage to the algae at 40 μg/mL concentrations of palmitoleic acid. All of these results indicate potential for controlling HABs by using the special algicidal bacterium and its active agent. PMID:24626054

  19. A novel algicide: evidence of the effect of a fatty acid compound from the marine bacterium, Vibrio sp. BS02 on the harmful dinoflagellate, Alexandrium tamarense.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Zhang, Huajun; Fu, Lijun; An, Xinli; Zhang, Bangzhou; Li, Yi; Chen, Zhangran; Zheng, Wei; Yi, Lin; Zheng, Tianling

    2014-01-01

    Alexandrium tamarense is a notorious bloom-forming dinoflagellate, which adversely impacts water quality and human health. In this study we present a new algicide against A. tamarense, which was isolated from the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. BS02. MALDI-TOF-MS, NMR and algicidal activity analysis reveal that this compound corresponds to palmitoleic acid, which shows algicidal activity against A. tamarense with an EC50 of 40 μg/mL. The effects of palmitoleic acid on the growth of other algal species were also studied. The results indicate that palmitoleic acid has potential for selective control of the Harmful algal blooms (HABs). Over extended periods of contact, transmission electron microscopy shows severe ultrastructural damage to the algae at 40 μg/mL concentrations of palmitoleic acid. All of these results indicate potential for controlling HABs by using the special algicidal bacterium and its active agent.

  20. New records of species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off New Caledonia, including P. cephalopholidis sp. n. from Cephalopholis sonnerati (Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-09-01

    Two different species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from marine perciform fishes, the tomato hind Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes) (Serranidae) and the painted sweetlips Diagramma pictum (Thunberg) (Haemulidae), from off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Nematodes (only males) from the gonad of C. sonnerati represent a new taxon, P. cephalopholidis sp. n., which is mainly characterized by almost equally long spicules (length 186-228 μm), the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip, and the structure of the caudal end. The nematodes (only gravid females) from abdominal tissues of D. pictum may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra cephalopholidis is the sixth nominal species of this genus recorded from fishes off New Caledonia and the thirteenth species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Serranidae.

  1. Dysiherbols A-C and Dysideanone E, Cytotoxic and NF-κB Inhibitory Tetracyclic Meroterpenes from a Dysidea sp. Marine Sponge.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wei-Hua; Shi, Guo-Hua; Xu, Ting-Ting; Chen, Guo-Dong; Gu, Bin-Bin; Wang, Zhuo; Peng, Shuang; Wang, Shu-Ping; Li, Jia; Han, Bing-Nan; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Hou-Wen

    2016-02-26

    Four new tetracyclic meroterpnes, dysiherbols A-C (1-3) and dysideanone E (4), were isolated from a Dysidea sp. marine sponge collected from the South China Sea. Their complete structures and absolute configurations were unambiguously determined by a combination of NMR spectroscopic data, ECD calculations, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Within the sesquiterpene quinol structures, dysiherbols A-C possess an intriguing 6/6/5/6-fused tetracyclic carbon skeleton. The NF-κB inhibitory and cytotoxic activity evaluation disclosed that dysiherbol A (1) showed potent activity with respective IC50 values of 0.49 and 0.58 μM, which were about 10-fold and 20-fold more potent than those of dysiherbols B (2) and C (3), which feature hydroxy and ketone carbonyl groups at the C-3 position. PMID:26863083

  2. A Novel Algicide: Evidence of the Effect of a Fatty Acid Compound from the Marine Bacterium, Vibrio sp. BS02 on the Harmful Dinoflagellate, Alexandrium tamarense

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Lijun; An, Xinli; Zhang, Bangzhou; Li, Yi; Chen, Zhangran; Zheng, Wei; Yi, Lin; Zheng, Tianling

    2014-01-01

    Alexandrium tamarense is a notorious bloom-forming dinoflagellate, which adversely impacts water quality and human health. In this study we present a new algicide against A. tamarense, which was isolated from the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. BS02. MALDI-TOF-MS, NMR and algicidal activity analysis reveal that this compound corresponds to palmitoleic acid, which shows algicidal activity against A. tamarense with an EC50 of 40 μg/mL. The effects of palmitoleic acid on the growth of other algal species were also studied. The results indicate that palmitoleic acid has potential for selective control of the Harmful algal blooms (HABs). Over extended periods of contact, transmission electron microscopy shows severe ultrastructural damage to the algae at 40 μg/mL concentrations of palmitoleic acid. All of these results indicate potential for controlling HABs by using the special algicidal bacterium and its active agent. PMID:24626054

  3. Dysiherbols A-C and Dysideanone E, Cytotoxic and NF-κB Inhibitory Tetracyclic Meroterpenes from a Dysidea sp. Marine Sponge.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wei-Hua; Shi, Guo-Hua; Xu, Ting-Ting; Chen, Guo-Dong; Gu, Bin-Bin; Wang, Zhuo; Peng, Shuang; Wang, Shu-Ping; Li, Jia; Han, Bing-Nan; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Hou-Wen

    2016-02-26

    Four new tetracyclic meroterpnes, dysiherbols A-C (1-3) and dysideanone E (4), were isolated from a Dysidea sp. marine sponge collected from the South China Sea. Their complete structures and absolute configurations were unambiguously determined by a combination of NMR spectroscopic data, ECD calculations, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Within the sesquiterpene quinol structures, dysiherbols A-C possess an intriguing 6/6/5/6-fused tetracyclic carbon skeleton. The NF-κB inhibitory and cytotoxic activity evaluation disclosed that dysiherbol A (1) showed potent activity with respective IC50 values of 0.49 and 0.58 μM, which were about 10-fold and 20-fold more potent than those of dysiherbols B (2) and C (3), which feature hydroxy and ketone carbonyl groups at the C-3 position.

  4. Penicacids A-C, three new mycophenolic acid derivatives and immunosuppressive activities from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp. SOF07.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ziming; Zheng, Zhihui; Huang, Hongbo; Song, Yongxiang; Zhang, Xuelian; Ma, Junying; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Changsheng; Ju, Jianhua

    2012-05-01

    Three new mycophenolic acid derivatives, penicacids A-C (1-3), together with two known analogues, mycophenolic acid (MPA, 4) and 4'-hydroxy-MPA (5), were isolated from a fungus Penicillium sp. SOF07 derived from a South China Sea marine sediment. The structures of compounds 1-3 were elucidated on the basis of MS and NMR ((1)H, (13)C, HSQC and HMBC) data analyses and comparisons with the known compounds. Structure-activity relationship studies of compounds 1-5 focused on inosine-monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibition revealed that hydroxylation at C-4', methylation at C-7-OH, dual hydroxylation at C-2'/C-3' double bond of MPA diminished bioactivity whereas glucosyl hydroxylation at C-4' correlated to bioactivity comparable to that observed for MPA.

  5. Molecular-targeted antitumor agents. 19. Furospongolide from a marine Lendenfeldia sp. sponge inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor-1 activation in breast tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Rui; Mao, Shui-Chun; Morgan, J Brian; Jekabsons, Mika B; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Nagle, Dale G

    2008-11-01

    A natural product chemistry-based approach was employed to discover small-molecule inhibitors of the important tumor-selective molecular target hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). Bioassay-guided isolation of an active lipid extract of a Saipan collection of the marine sponge Lendenfeldia sp. afforded the terpene-derived furanolipid furospongolide as the primary inhibitor of hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation (IC(50) 2.9 μM, T47D breast tumor cells). The active component of the extract also contained one new cytotoxic scalarane sesterterpene and two previously reported scalaranes. Furospongolide blocked the induction of the downstream HIF-1 target secreted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and was shown to suppress HIF-1 activation by inhibiting the hypoxic induction of HIF-1α protein. Mechanistic studies indicate that furospongolide inhibits HIF-1 activity primarily by suppressing tumor cell respiration via the blockade of NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I)-mediated mitochondrial electron transfer.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of a Novel Marine Bacterium, Paraglaciecola sp. Strain S66, with Hydrolytic Activity against Seaweed Polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Schultz-Johansen, Mikkel; Glaring, Mikkel A; Bech, Pernille K; Stougaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A novel agarolytic gammaproteobacterium, ITALIC! Paraglaciecolasp. S66, was isolated from marine samples of eelgrass ( ITALIC! Zosterasp.) and sequenced. The draft genome contains a large number of enzyme-encoding genes with predicted function against several complex polysaccharides found in the cell walls of algae. PMID:27103729

  7. Ascochytatin, a novel bioactive spirodioxynaphthalene metabolite produced by the marine-derived fungus, Ascochyta sp. NGB4.

    PubMed

    Kanoh, Kaneo; Okada, Ario; Adachi, Kyoko; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Nishizawa, Mugio; Matsuda, Satoru; Shizuri, Yoshikazu; Utsumi, Ryutaro

    2008-03-01

    Ascochytatin, a new spirodioxynaphthalene metabolite produced by a marine-derived fungus, was found from a screening program focused on the bacterial two-component regulatory system. The structure of ascochytatin was determined by spectroscopic methods, including NMR and MS. The relative stereochemistry was determined by an X-ray crystallographic analysis, and the absolute stereochemistry was determined by the modified Mosher's method.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of a Novel Marine Bacterium, Paraglaciecola sp. Strain S66, with Hydrolytic Activity against Seaweed Polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Schultz-Johansen, Mikkel; Glaring, Mikkel A; Bech, Pernille K; Stougaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A novel agarolytic gammaproteobacterium, ITALIC! Paraglaciecolasp. S66, was isolated from marine samples of eelgrass ( ITALIC! Zosterasp.) and sequenced. The draft genome contains a large number of enzyme-encoding genes with predicted function against several complex polysaccharides found in the cell walls of algae.

  9. Efficient Preparation of Streptochlorin from Marine Streptomyces sp. SYYLWHS-1-4 by Combination of Response Surface Methodology and High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; He, Shan; Ding, Lijian; Yuan, Ye; Zhu, Peng; Epstein, Slava; Fan, Jianzhong; Wu, Xiaokai; Yan, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Since first isolated from the lipophilic extract of Streptomyces sp. SF2583, streptochlorin, has attracted a lot of attention because of its various pharmacological properties, such as antibiotic, antiallergic, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. For the efficient preparation of streptochlorin from a producing strain Streptomyces sp. SYYLWHS-1-4, we developed a combinative method by using response surface methodology (RSM) and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). In the fermentation process, we used RSM to optimize the condition for the efficient accumulation of streptochlorin, and the optimal parameters were: yeast extract 1.889 g/L, soluble starch 8.636 g/L, K₂HPO₄ 0.359 g/L, CaCl₂ 2.5 g/L, MgSO₄ 0.625 g/L, marine salt 25 g/L, medium volume 50%, initial pH value 7.0, temperature 27.5 °C, which enhanced streptochlorin yield by 17.7-fold. During the purification process, the preparative HSCCC separation was performed using a petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (9:0.8:5:5, v/v/v/v) biphasic solvent system, where 300 mg of crude sample yielded 16.5 mg streptochlorin with over 95% purity as determined by UPLC. Consequently, the combination method provided a feasible strategy for highly effective preparation of streptochlorin, which ensured the supply of large amounts of streptochlorin for in vivo pharmacological assessments or other requirements.

  10. Efficient Preparation of Streptochlorin from Marine Streptomyces sp. SYYLWHS-1-4 by Combination of Response Surface Methodology and High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; He, Shan; Ding, Lijian; Yuan, Ye; Zhu, Peng; Epstein, Slava; Fan, Jianzhong; Wu, Xiaokai; Yan, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Since first isolated from the lipophilic extract of Streptomyces sp. SF2583, streptochlorin, has attracted a lot of attention because of its various pharmacological properties, such as antibiotic, antiallergic, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. For the efficient preparation of streptochlorin from a producing strain Streptomyces sp. SYYLWHS-1-4, we developed a combinative method by using response surface methodology (RSM) and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). In the fermentation process, we used RSM to optimize the condition for the efficient accumulation of streptochlorin, and the optimal parameters were: yeast extract 1.889 g/L, soluble starch 8.636 g/L, K₂HPO₄ 0.359 g/L, CaCl₂ 2.5 g/L, MgSO₄ 0.625 g/L, marine salt 25 g/L, medium volume 50%, initial pH value 7.0, temperature 27.5 °C, which enhanced streptochlorin yield by 17.7-fold. During the purification process, the preparative HSCCC separation was performed using a petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (9:0.8:5:5, v/v/v/v) biphasic solvent system, where 300 mg of crude sample yielded 16.5 mg streptochlorin with over 95% purity as determined by UPLC. Consequently, the combination method provided a feasible strategy for highly effective preparation of streptochlorin, which ensured the supply of large amounts of streptochlorin for in vivo pharmacological assessments or other requirements. PMID:27240330

  11. Description of a marine nematode Hopperia sinensis sp. nov. (Comesomatidae) from mangrove forests of Quanzhou, China, with a pictorial key to Hopperia species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yuqing; Chang, Yu; Chen, Yuzhen; Li, Yongxiang; Liu, Aiyuan

    2015-12-01

    A new free-living marine nematode species Hopperia sinensis sp. nov. from mangrove forests of Fujian Province, China, is identified and illustrated. Hopperia sinensis sp. nov. is characterized by its cephalic setae 2.4-2.8 µm long or 17%-20% head diameter, and amphids of 2.25-2.5 turns. Lateral differentiation appears with larger, more irregularly distributed dots behind 3-5 transverse rows of dots posterior to amphid. Buccal cavity is consisted of a shallow and weakly sclerotized cup-shaped portion with strongly sclerotized walls of 18-21 µm deep. There are three sclerotized and size-equally pointed teeth at the junction between the two parts. Spicules of 41-45 µm long are slightly curved with broadband velum and central strips at the proximal end. The gubernacula, with apparent lateral guiding pieces, are formed by one central tubular piece that is weakly sclerotized with 11-16 µm long dorso-caudally directed apophyses. There are 13-14 fine tubular precloacal supplements. Conico-cylindrical tail gradually tapers till pointed tail tip. Female is similar to male, but have a longer body and tail. Ovaries are opposed and outstretched, with anterior ovary to the left and posterior ovary to the right of the intestine. A pictorial key to all the valid known species in genus Hopperia is given.

  12. Morphological and molecular identification of Hysterothylacium longilabrum sp. nov. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and larvae of different stages from marine fishes in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Lu-Ping

    2012-08-01

    A new ascaridoid nematode Hysterothylacium longilabrum sp. nov. collected from the intestine and stomach of the marine fishes Siganus fuscescens (Houttuyn) and Siganus canaliculatus (Park) (Perciformes: Siganidae) in the South China Sea is described and illustrated. The new species differs from its congeners by the unusually long lips, the very short intestinal caecum and relatively long ventricular appendix (ratio of intestinal caecum to ventricular appendix, 1:2.38-5.50), the long spicules (1.96-3.28 mm long, representing 7.42-11.4% of the body length), the number and arrangement of male caudal papillae [38-43 pairs in total, arranged as: 31-34 pairs precloacal, 1 pair of paracloacal and 4-6 pairs postcloacal (the second or fourth pair double)] and the presence of a particular medioventral precloacal papilla in the male. Molecular analyses by sequencing and comparing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA of H. longilabrum sp. nov. with the closely related nematode sequences seem to support the validity of the new species based on the morphological observation. In addition, the third- and fourth-stage larvae of the new species are also exactly identified and described by analysing and comparing the ITS sequence with the adult, and the result is a substantial step toward elucidating its life cycle. PMID:22461007

  13. Morphological and molecular identification of Hysterothylacium longilabrum sp. nov. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and larvae of different stages from marine fishes in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Lu-Ping

    2012-08-01

    A new ascaridoid nematode Hysterothylacium longilabrum sp. nov. collected from the intestine and stomach of the marine fishes Siganus fuscescens (Houttuyn) and Siganus canaliculatus (Park) (Perciformes: Siganidae) in the South China Sea is described and illustrated. The new species differs from its congeners by the unusually long lips, the very short intestinal caecum and relatively long ventricular appendix (ratio of intestinal caecum to ventricular appendix, 1:2.38-5.50), the long spicules (1.96-3.28 mm long, representing 7.42-11.4% of the body length), the number and arrangement of male caudal papillae [38-43 pairs in total, arranged as: 31-34 pairs precloacal, 1 pair of paracloacal and 4-6 pairs postcloacal (the second or fourth pair double)] and the presence of a particular medioventral precloacal papilla in the male. Molecular analyses by sequencing and comparing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA of H. longilabrum sp. nov. with the closely related nematode sequences seem to support the validity of the new species based on the morphological observation. In addition, the third- and fourth-stage larvae of the new species are also exactly identified and described by analysing and comparing the ITS sequence with the adult, and the result is a substantial step toward elucidating its life cycle.

  14. Sneathiella glossodoripedis sp. nov., a marine alphaproteobacterium isolated from the nudibranch Glossodoris cincta, and proposal of Sneathiellales ord. nov. and Sneathiellaceae fam. nov.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, Midori; Fukunaga, Yukiyo; Harayama, Shigeaki; Yokota, Akira

    2008-03-01

    A novel marine bacterium, designated strain MKT133(T), was isolated from the foot epidermis of a nudibranch, Glossodoris cincta (Mollusca), collected in seawater off the coast of Japan at a depth of 4 m. This bacterium was Gram-negative, motile, mesophilic and strictly aerobic, with small rod-shaped cells. Colonies of the strain after 4-5 days incubation on marine agar 2216 at 30 degrees C were less than 1 mm in diameter. The strain required salt for growth and contained Q-10 as the predominant respiratory quinone, C(18 : 1) omega 7c, C(16 : 0) and C(17 : 1) as major cellular fatty acids and C(14 : 0) 3-OH as a hydroxy fatty acid. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolate had highest similarity to Sneathiella chinensis, with 97.2 % sequence similarity to the type strain. Our phylogenetic analysis also revealed that this clade represents a distinct lineage and forms a deep branch with less than 90 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the members of the eight known orders within the Alphaproteobacteria. Sufficient differences exist to distinguish this strain from Sneathiella chinensis. The name Sneathiella glossodoripedis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain MKT133(T) (=IAM 15419(T) =KCTC 12842(T)). The novel order Sneathiellales ord. nov. and family Sneathiellaceae fam. nov. are proposed for the distinct phyletic line represented by the genus Sneathiella. PMID:18319453

  15. Preparative Separation of Sulfur-Containing Diketopiperazines from Marine Fungus Cladosporium sp. Using High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography in Stepwise Elution Mode

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Binbin; Zhang, Yanying; Ding, Lijian; He, Shan; Wu, Bin; Dong, Junde; Zhu, Peng; Chen, Juanjuan; Zhang, Jinrong; Yan, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successively applied to the separation of three sulfur-containing diketopiperazines (DKPs) (including two new compounds cladosporin A (1) and cladosporin B (3), and a known compound haematocin (2)) from a marine fungus Cladosporium sp. The two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at (1:1:1:1, v/v) and (2:1:2:1, v/v), in stepwise elution mode, was used for HSCCC. The preparative HSCCC separation was performed on 300 mg of crude sample yielding 26.7 mg of compound 3 at a purity of over 95%, 53.6 mg of a mixture of compounds 1 and 2, which was further separated by preparative-HPLC yielding 14.3 mg of compound 1 and 25.4 mg of compound 2 each at a purity of over 95%. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods. The sulfur-containing DKPs suppressed the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. The present work represents the first application of HSCCC in the efficient preparation of marine fungal natural products. PMID:25584683

  16. Isolation and Characterization of Marine Brevibacillus sp. S-1 Collected from South China Sea and a Novel Antitumor Peptide Produced by the Strain

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Lanhong; Yi, Yao; Liu, Jia; Lin, Xiukun; Yang, Kangli; Lv, Mei; Zhou, Xinwen; Hao, Jianhua; Liu, Junzhong; Zheng, Yuan; Sun, Mi

    2014-01-01

    A Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, designated as S-1, was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from South China Sea. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that S-1 belongs to the genus Brevibacillus. A novel cytotoxic peptide was isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine-derived bacterium Brevibacillus sp. S-1, using ion-exchange chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC chromatography. The molecular weight of this peptide was determined as 1570 Da by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and its structure was proposed as a cyclic peptide elucidated by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry and de novo sequencing. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that this peptide exhibited cytotoxicity against BEL-7402 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, RKO human colon carcinoma cells, A549 human lung carcinoma cells, U251 human glioma cells and MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells. Additionally, SBP exhibited low cytotoxicity against HFL1 human normal fibroblast lung cells. The result suggested that the cytotoxic effect of the peptide is specific to tumor cells. PMID:25372839

  17. A solo luxI-type gene directs acylhomoserine lactone synthesis and contributes to motility control in the marine sponge symbiont Ruegeria sp. KLH11.

    PubMed

    Zan, Jindong; Choi, Okhee; Meharena, Hiruy; Uhlson, Charis L; Churchill, Mair E A; Hill, Russell T; Fuqua, Clay

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges harbour abundant and diverse bacterial communities, providing an ideal environment for bacterial cell-density-dependent cell-cell signalling, termed quorum sensing. The marine sponge symbiont Ruegeria sp. KLH11 produces mainly long chain acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) and has been developed as a quorum sensing model for roseobacterial sponge symbionts. Two pairs of luxR/I homologues were identified by genetic screening and were designated ssaRI and ssbRI (sponge-associated symbiont locus A or B, luxR/luxI homologue). In this study, we identified a third luxI-type gene, named sscI. The sscI gene does not have a cognate luxR homologue present at an adjacent locus and thus sscI is an AHL synthase solo. The sscI gene is required for production of long-chain hydroxylated AHLs, contributes to AHL pools and modestly influences flagellar motility in KLH11. A triple mutant for all luxI-type genes cannot produce AHLs, but still synthesizes para-coumaroyl-homoserine lactone.

  18. Effect of the antifreeze protein from the arctic yeast Leucosporidium sp. AY30 on cryopreservation of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Koh, Hye Yeon; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Han, Se Jong; Park, Hyun; Lee, Sung Gu

    2015-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins are a group of proteins that allow organisms to survive in subzero environments. These proteins possess thermal hysteresis and ice recrystallization inhibition activities. In the present study, we demonstrated the efficiency of a recombinant antifreeze protein from the Arctic yeast Leucosporidium sp. AY30, LeIBP, in cryopreservation of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, which is one of the classical model diatoms and has most widely been studied with regard to its ecology, physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology. P. tricornutum cells were frozen by either a fast or two-step freezing method in freezing medium containing 10 % dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, propylene glycol, and ethylene glycol, respectively, with or without LeIBP supplement. When cells were frozen using the two-step freezing method, cell survival was significantly increased and statistically the same as that of unfrozen native cells in the presence of 0.1 mg/ml LeIBP in 10 % propylene glycol or 10 % ethylene glycol at day 11 of post-thaw culture. In the presence of LeIBP, the concentration of chlorophyll a was dramatically increased to 14-, 48-, 1.6-, and 8.8-fold when cells were frozen in freezing medium containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), glycerol, propylene glycol (PG), and ethylene glycol (EG), respectively. Scanning electron microscopy observations demonstrated that the cells were also successfully preserved and epitheca or hypotheca were not deformed. These results demonstrate that LeIBP was successfully applied to improve cryopreservation of the marine diatom P. tricornutum.

  19. Potent Antifouling Marine Dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one-Containing Alkaloids from the Gorgonian Coral-Derived Fungus Scopulariopsis sp.

    PubMed

    Shao, Chang-Lun; Xu, Ru-Fang; Wang, Chang-Yun; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Wang, Kai-Ling; Wei, Mei-Yan

    2015-08-01

    Marine biofouling has a major economic impact, especially when it occurs on ship hulls or aquaculture facilities. Since the International Maritime Organization (IMO) treaty to ban the application of organotin-based paints to ships went into effect in 2008, there is an urgent demand for the development of efficient and environmentally friendly antifouling agents. Marine microorganisms have proved to be a potential source of antifouling natural compounds. In this study, six dihydroquinolin-2-one-containing alkaloids, three monoterpenoids combined with a 4-phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one (1-3) and three 4-phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one alkaloids (4-6), were isolated from the gorgonian coral-derived fungus Scopulariopsis sp. collected in the South China Sea. These dihydroquinolin-2-one-containing alkaloids were evaluated against the larval settlement of barnacle Balanus amphitrite, and antifouling activity was detected for the first time for this class of metabolites. All of them except 6 showed strong antifouling activity. Compounds 1 and 2 were discovered to be the most promising non-toxic antilarval settlement candidates. Especially, compound 1 is the strongest antifouling compound in nature until now which showed highly potent activity with picomolar level (EC50 17.5 pM) and a very safety and high therapeutic ratio (LC50/EC50 1200). This represents an effective non-toxic, anti-larval settlement structural class of promising antifouling lead compound. PMID:25833409

  20. Preparative separation of sulfur-containing diketopiperazines from marine fungus Cladosporium sp. using high-speed counter-current chromatography in stepwise elution mode.

    PubMed

    Gu, Binbin; Zhang, Yanying; Ding, Lijian; He, Shan; Wu, Bin; Dong, Junde; Zhu, Peng; Chen, Juanjuan; Zhang, Jinrong; Yan, Xiaojun

    2015-01-09

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successively applied to the separation of three sulfur-containing diketopiperazines (DKPs) (including two new compounds cladosporin A (1) and cladosporin B (3), and a known compound haematocin (2)) from a marine fungus Cladosporium sp. The two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at (1:1:1:1, v/v) and (2:1:2:1, v/v), in stepwise elution mode, was used for HSCCC. The preparative HSCCC separation was performed on 300 mg of crude sample yielding 26.7 mg of compound 3 at a purity of over 95%, 53.6 mg of a mixture of compounds 1 and 2, which was further separated by preparative-HPLC yielding 14.3 mg of compound 1 and 25.4 mg of compound 2 each at a purity of over 95%. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods. The sulfur-containing DKPs suppressed the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. The present work represents the first application of HSCCC in the efficient preparation of marine fungal natural products.

  1. A marine-derived Streptomyces sp. MS449 produces high yield of actinomycin X2 and actinomycin D with potent anti-tuberculosis activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Caixia; Song, Fuhang; Wang, Qian; Abdel-Mageed, Wael M; Guo, Hui; Fu, Chengzhang; Hou, Weiyuan; Dai, Huanqin; Liu, Xueting; Yang, Na; Xie, Feng; Yu, Ke; Chen, Ruxian; Zhang, Lixin

    2012-08-01

    In the course of our screening program for anti-Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (MTB H37Rv) agents from our marine natural product library, a newly isolated actinomycete strain, designated as MS449, was picked out for further investigation. The strain MS449, isolated from a sediment sample collected from South China Sea, produced actinomycin X(2) and actinomycin D in substantial quantities, which showed strong inhibition of BCG and MTB H37Rv. The structures of actinomycins were elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometric analysis. The strain MS449 was taxonomically characterized on the basis of morphological and phenotypic characteristics, genotypic data, and phylogenetic analysis. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the strain was determined and a database search indicated that the strain was closely associated with the type strain of Streptomyces avermitilis (99.7 % 16S rRNA gene similarity). S. avermitilis has not been previously reported to produce actinomycins. The marine-derived strain of Streptomyces sp. MS449 produced notably higher quantities of actinomycin X(2) (1.92 mg/ml) and actinomycin D (1.77 mg/ml) than previously reported actinomycins producing strains. Thus, MS449 was considered of great potential as a new industrial producing strain of actinomycin X(2) and actinomycin D.

  2. Potent Antifouling Marine Dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one-Containing Alkaloids from the Gorgonian Coral-Derived Fungus Scopulariopsis sp.

    PubMed

    Shao, Chang-Lun; Xu, Ru-Fang; Wang, Chang-Yun; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Wang, Kai-Ling; Wei, Mei-Yan

    2015-08-01

    Marine biofouling has a major economic impact, especially when it occurs on ship hulls or aquaculture facilities. Since the International Maritime Organization (IMO) treaty to ban the application of organotin-based paints to ships went into effect in 2008, there is an urgent demand for the development of efficient and environmentally friendly antifouling agents. Marine microorganisms have proved to be a potential source of antifouling natural compounds. In this study, six dihydroquinolin-2-one-containing alkaloids, three monoterpenoids combined with a 4-phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one (1-3) and three 4-phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one alkaloids (4-6), were isolated from the gorgonian coral-derived fungus Scopulariopsis sp. collected in the South China Sea. These dihydroquinolin-2-one-containing alkaloids were evaluated against the larval settlement of barnacle Balanus amphitrite, and antifouling activity was detected for the first time for this class of metabolites. All of them except 6 showed strong antifouling activity. Compounds 1 and 2 were discovered to be the most promising non-toxic antilarval settlement candidates. Especially, compound 1 is the strongest antifouling compound in nature until now which showed highly potent activity with picomolar level (EC50 17.5 pM) and a very safety and high therapeutic ratio (LC50/EC50 1200). This represents an effective non-toxic, anti-larval settlement structural class of promising antifouling lead compound.

  3. Isolation and characterization of marine Brevibacillus sp. S-1 collected from South China Sea and a novel antitumor peptide produced by the strain.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lanhong; Yi, Yao; Liu, Jia; Lin, Xiukun; Yang, Kangli; Lv, Mei; Zhou, Xinwen; Hao, Jianhua; Liu, Junzhong; Zheng, Yuan; Sun, Mi

    2014-01-01

    A Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, designated as S-1, was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from South China Sea. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that S-1 belongs to the genus Brevibacillus. A novel cytotoxic peptide was isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine-derived bacterium Brevibacillus sp. S-1, using ion-exchange chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC chromatography. The molecular weight of this peptide was determined as 1570 Da by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and its structure was proposed as a cyclic peptide elucidated by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry and de novo sequencing. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that this peptide exhibited cytotoxicity against BEL-7402 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, RKO human colon carcinoma cells, A549 human lung carcinoma cells, U251 human glioma cells and MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells. Additionally, SBP exhibited low cytotoxicity against HFL1 human normal fibroblast lung cells. The result suggested that the cytotoxic effect of the peptide is specific to tumor cells.

  4. Mariniradius saccharolyticus gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Cyclobacteriaceae isolated from marine aquaculture pond water, and emended descriptions of the genus Aquiflexum and Aquiflexum balticum.

    PubMed

    Bhumika, V; Srinivas, T N R; Ravinder, K; Kumar, P Anil

    2013-06-01

    A novel marine, Gram-stain-negative, oxidase- and catalase- positive, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain AK6(T), was isolated from marine aquaculture pond water collected in Andhra Pradesh, India. The fatty acids were dominated by iso-C15:0, iso-C17:1ω9c, iso-C15:1 G, iso-C17:0 3-OH and anteiso-C15:0. Strain AK6(T) contained MK-7 as the sole respiratory quinone and phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminophospholipid, one unidentified phospholipid and seven unidentified lipids as polar lipids. The DNA G+C content of strain AK6(T) was 45.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain AK6(T) formed a distinct branch within the family Cyclobacteriaceae and clustered with Aquiflexum balticum DSM 16537(T) and other members of the family Cyclobacteriaceae. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis confirmed that Aquiflexum balticum DSM 16537(T) was the nearest neighbour, with pairwise sequence similarity of 90.1%, while sequence similarity with the other members of the family was <88.5%. Based on differentiating phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic inference, strain AK6(T) is proposed as a representative of a new genus and species of the family Cyclobacteriaceae, as Mariniradius saccharolyticus gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Mariniradius saccharolyticus is AK6(T) (=MTCC 11279(T)=JCM 17389(T)). Emended descriptions of the genus Aquiflexum and Aquiflexum balticum are also proposed.

  5. Draft genome of Myxosarcina sp. strain GI1, a baeocytous cyanobacterium associated with the marine sponge Terpios hoshinota

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To date, genome sequences (complete or in draft form) from only six baeocytous cyanobacteria in four genera have been reported: Xenococcus, Chroococcidiopsis, Pleurocapsa, and Stanieria. To expand our knowledge on the diversity of baeocytous cyanobacteria, this study sequenced the genome of GI1, which is a Myxosarcina-like baeocytous cyanobacterium. GI1 is of interest not only because of its phylogenetic niche, but also because it is a cyanobiont isolated from the marine cyanobacteriosponge Terpios hoshinota, which has been shown to cause the death of corals. The ~7 Mb draft GI1 genome contains 6,891 protein-coding genes and 62 RNA genes. A comparison of genomes among the sequenced baeocytous cyanobacterial strains revealed the existence or absence of numerous discrete genes involved in nitrogen metabolism. It will be interesting to determine whether these genes are important for cyanobacterial adaptations and interactions between cyanobionts and their marine sponge hosts. PMID:26203339

  6. Enhancement of Biodiesel Production from Marine Alga, Scenedesmus sp. through In Situ Transesterification Process Associated with Acidic Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ga Vin; Choi, WoonYong; Kang, DoHyung; Lee, ShinYoung; Lee, HyeonYong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the yield of biodiesel produced by Scenedesmus sp. through in situ transesterification by optimizing various process parameters. Based on the orthogonal matrix analysis for the acidic catalyst, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of reaction temperature (47.5%) > solvent quantity (26.7%) > reaction time (17.5%) > catalyst amount (8.3%). Based on a Taguchi analysis, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of solvent ratio (34.36%) > catalyst (28.62%) > time (19.72%) > temperature (17.32%). The overall biodiesel production appeared to be better using NaOH as an alkaline catalyst rather than using H2SO4 in an acidic process, at 55.07 ± 2.18% (based on lipid weight) versus 48.41 ± 0.21%. However, in considering the purified biodiesel, it was found that the acidic catalyst was approximately 2.5 times more efficient than the alkaline catalyst under the following optimal conditions: temperature of 70°C (level 2), reaction time of 10 hrs (level 2), catalyst amount of 5% (level 3), and biomass to solvent ratio of 1 : 15 (level 2), respectively. These results clearly demonstrated that the acidic solvent, which combined oil extraction with in situ transesterification, was an effective catalyst for the production of high-quantity, high-quality biodiesel from a Scenedesmus sp. PMID:24689039

  7. Enhancement of biodiesel production from marine alga, Scenedesmus sp. through in situ transesterification process associated with acidic catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ga Vin; Choi, Woonyong; Kang, Dohyung; Lee, Shinyoung; Lee, Hyeonyong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the yield of biodiesel produced by Scenedesmus sp. through in situ transesterification by optimizing various process parameters. Based on the orthogonal matrix analysis for the acidic catalyst, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of reaction temperature (47.5%) > solvent quantity (26.7%) > reaction time (17.5%) > catalyst amount (8.3%). Based on a Taguchi analysis, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of solvent ratio (34.36%) > catalyst (28.62%) > time (19.72%) > temperature (17.32%). The overall biodiesel production appeared to be better using NaOH as an alkaline catalyst rather than using H2SO4 in an acidic process, at 55.07 ± 2.18% (based on lipid weight) versus 48.41 ± 0.21%. However, in considering the purified biodiesel, it was found that the acidic catalyst was approximately 2.5 times more efficient than the alkaline catalyst under the following optimal conditions: temperature of 70 °C (level 2), reaction time of 10 hrs (level 2), catalyst amount of 5% (level 3), and biomass to solvent ratio of 1 : 15 (level 2), respectively. These results clearly demonstrated that the acidic solvent, which combined oil extraction with in situ transesterification, was an effective catalyst for the production of high-quantity, high-quality biodiesel from a Scenedesmus sp.

  8. Effect of light quality on the C-phycoerythrin production in marine cyanobacteria Pseudanabaena sp. isolated from Gujarat coast, India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sanjiv K; Shrivastav, Anupama; Maurya, Rahulkumar R; Patidar, Shailesh K; Haldar, Soumya; Mishra, Sandhya

    2012-01-01

    The isolated cyanobacterium containing biopigments like chlorophyll-a, phycoerythrin, phycocyanin, and carotenoid was cultured under different quality of light modes to ascertain biomass and pigment productivity. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence, the isolate was identified as Pseudanabaena sp. Maximum biomass concentration obtained in white-, blue-, and green-light was 0.82, 0.94, and 0.89 g/L, respectively. It was observed that maximum phycoerythrin production was in green light (39.2 mg/L), ensued by blue light (32.2 mg/L), while phycocyanin production was maximum in red light (10.9 mg/L). In yellow light, pigment production as well as the growth rate gradually declined after 12 days. Carotenoid production decreased in blue-, white-, and red-light after 15 days, while in green light it had increased gradually. The present communication suggests that Pseudanabaena sp. can be used for commercial production of phycoerythrin when grown under green light. PMID:21906679

  9. Draft genome sequence of the marine Streptomyces sp. strain PP-C42, isolated from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Fan, Longjiang; Liu, Yun; Li, Zefeng; Baumann, Heike I; Kleinschmidt, Katrin; Ye, Wanzhi; Imhoff, Johannes F; Kleine, Michael; Cai, Daguang

    2011-07-01

    Streptomyces, a branch of aerobic Gram-positive bacteria, represents the largest genus of actinobacteria. The streptomycetes are characterized by a complex secondary metabolism and produce over two-thirds of the clinically used natural antibiotics today. Here we report the draft genome sequence of a Streptomyces strain, PP-C42, isolated from the marine environment. A subset of unique genes and gene clusters for diverse secondary metabolites as well as antimicrobial peptides could be identified from the genome, showing great promise as a source for novel bioactive compounds. PMID:21571991

  10. Draft genome sequence of the marine Streptomyces sp. strain PP-C42, isolated from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Fan, Longjiang; Liu, Yun; Li, Zefeng; Baumann, Heike I; Kleinschmidt, Katrin; Ye, Wanzhi; Imhoff, Johannes F; Kleine, Michael; Cai, Daguang

    2011-07-01

    Streptomyces, a branch of aerobic Gram-positive bacteria, represents the largest genus of actinobacteria. The streptomycetes are characterized by a complex secondary metabolism and produce over two-thirds of the clinically used natural antibiotics today. Here we report the draft genome sequence of a Streptomyces strain, PP-C42, isolated from the marine environment. A subset of unique genes and gene clusters for diverse secondary metabolites as well as antimicrobial peptides could be identified from the genome, showing great promise as a source for novel bioactive compounds.

  11. Strain and culture medium optimization for production enhancement of prodiginines from marine-derived Streptomyces sp. GQQ-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xueping; Zhang, Guojian; Zhu, Tianjiao; Li, Dehai; Gu, Qianqun

    2012-09-01

    A mutant (GQQ-M6) of a Sponge-Derived streptomyces sp. GQQ-10 obtained by UV-induced mutation was used for producing prodiginines (PGs). Single factor experiments and orthogonal array design (OAD) methods were employed for medium optimization. In the single factor method, the effects of soluble starch, glucose, soybean flour, yeast extract and sodium acetate on PGs production were investigated individually. In the subsequent OAD experiments, the concentrations of these 5 key nutritional components combined with salinity were further adjusted. The mutant strain GQQ-M6 gave a 2.2-fold higher PGs production than that of the parent strain; OAD experiments offered a PGs yield of 61mg L-1, which was 10 times higher than that of the initial GQQ-10 strain under the original cultivation mode.

  12. Thalassobacter stenotrophicus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel marine alpha-proteobacterium isolated from Mediterranean sea water.

    PubMed

    Macián, M C; Arahal, D R; Garay, E; Ludwig, W; Schleifer, K H; Pujalte, M J

    2005-01-01

    A Gram-negative, slightly halophilic, strictly aerobic, chemo-organotrophic bacterium was isolated from Mediterranean sea water near Valencia (Spain). 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that the isolate represented a separate branch within the alpha-3 subclass of the Proteobacteria, now included within the order 'Rhodobacterales'. Jannaschia helgolandensis was the closest relative, but their low sequence similarity and other features indicated that they were not related at the genus level. Isolate 5SM22T produced bacteriochlorophyll a and grew on solid media as regular salmon-pink colonies. Cells are motile rods, with polar flagella. The DNA G+C content is 59.1 mol%. Morphological, physiological and genotypic differences from related, thus far known genera support the description of Thalassobacter stenotrophicus gen. nov., sp. nov. with strain 5SM22T (=CECT 5294T=DSM 16310T) as the type strain.

  13. Structure elucidation of two new xanthone derivatives from the marine fungus Penicillium sp. (ZZF 32#) from the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Shao, Changlun; Wang, Changyun; Wei, Meiyan; Gu, Yucheng; Xia, Xuekui; She, Zhigang; Lin, Yongcheng

    2008-11-01

    Two new xanthones, 8-(methoxycarbonyl)-1-hydroxy-9-oxo-9H-xanthene-3-carboxylic acid (1) and dimethyl 8-methoxy-9-oxo-9H-xanthene-1,6-dicarboxylate (2) and one known xanthone methyl 8-hydroxy-6-methyl-9-oxo-9H-xanthene-1-carboxylate (3) were isolated from the culture broth of the mangrove fungus Penicillium sp. (ZZF 32#) collected from the South China Sea. Their structures were established by comprehensive analysis of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR data. The structure of compound 3 was confirmed by X-ray crystallography, which led to the suggestion that janthinone (4) might have the same structure as 3. Compounds 1-3 were inactive against KB or KBv200 cells during cytotoxicity evaluations.

  14. Wenyingzhuangia gracilariae sp. nov., a novel marine bacterium of the phylum Bacteroidetes isolated from the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Oku, Naoya; Kasai, Hiroaki

    2015-06-01

    A Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, beige-pigmented, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain designated N5DB13-4(T) was isolated from the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Rhodophyta) collected at Sodegaura Beach, Chiba, Japan. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the novel isolate is affiliated with the family Flavobacteriaceae within the phylum Bacteroidetes and that it showed highest sequence similarity (97.3 %) to Wenyingzhuangia heitensis H-MN17(T). The hybridization values for DNA-DNA relatedness between the strains N5DB13-4(T) and W. heitensis H-MN17(T) were 34.1 ± 3.5 %, which is below the threshold accepted for the phylogenetic definition of a novel prokaryotic species. The DNA G+C content of strain N5DB13-4(T) was determined to be 31.8 mol%; MK-6 was identified as the major menaquinone; and the presence of iso-C15:0, iso-C15:0 3-OH and iso-C17:0 3-OH as the major (>10 %) cellular fatty acids. A complex polar lipid profile was present consisting of phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified glycolipids and four unidentified lipids. From the distinct phylogenetic position and combination of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the strain is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Wenyingzhuangia for which the name Wenyingzhuangia gracilariae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of W. gracilariae sp. nov. is N5DB13-4(T) (=KCTC 42246 (T)=NBRC 110602(T)).

  15. Molecular and biochemical characteristics of β-propeller phytase from marine Pseudomonas sp. BS10-3 and its potential application for animal feed additives.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seung-Jeung; Kim, Young-Ok; Ko, Tae-Kyung; Kang, Jin-Ku; Chun, Kwang-Hoon; Auh, Joong-Hyuck; Lee, Chul-Soon; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Sunghoon; Oh, Byung-Chul

    2014-10-01

    Phytate is an antinutritional factor that impacts the bioavailability of essential minerals such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), and Fe(2+) by forming insoluble mineral-phytate salts. These insoluble mineral-phytate salts are hydrolyzed rarely by monogastric animals, because they lack the hydrolyzing phytases and thus excrete the majority of them. The β-propeller phytases (BPPs) hydrolyze these insoluble mineral-phytate salts efficiently. In this study, we cloned a novel BPP gene from a marine Pseudomonas sp. This Pseudomonas BPP gene (PsBPP) had low sequence identity with other known phytases and contained an extra internal repeat domain (residues 24-279) and a typical BPP domain (residues 280-634) at the C-terminus. Structurebased sequence alignment suggested that the N-terminal repeat domain did not possess the active-site residues, whereas the C-terminal BPP domain contained multiple calcium-binding sites, which provide a favorable electrostatic environment for substrate binding and catalytic activity. Thus, we overexpressed the BPP domain from Pseudomonas sp. to potentially hydrolyze insoluble mineral-phytate salts. Purified recombinant PsBPP required Ca(2+) or Fe(2+) for phytase activity, indicating that PsBPP hydrolyzes insoluble Fe(2+)-phytate or Ca2+-phytate salts. The optimal temperature and pH for the hydrolysis of Ca(2+)-phytate by PsBPP were 50°C and 6.0, respectively. Biochemical and kinetic studies clearly showed that PsBPP efficiently hydrolyzed Ca(2+)-phytate salts and yielded myo-inositol 2,4,6-trisphosphate and three phosphate groups as final products. Finally, we showed that PsBPP was highly effective for hydrolyzing rice bran with high phytate content. Taken together, our results suggest that PsBPP has great potential in the animal feed industry for reducing phytates. PMID:25112322

  16. Characterization of a potential β-lactamase inhibitory metabolite from a marine Streptomyces sp. PM49 active against multidrug-resistant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Shanthi, J; Senthil, A; Gopikrishnan, V; Balagurunathan, R

    2015-04-01

    Actinobacteria is a prolific producer of complex natural products; we isolated a potential marine Streptomyces sp. PM49 strain from Bay of Bengal coastal area of India. The strain PM49 exhibited highly efficient antibacterial properties on multidrug-resistant pathogens with a zone of inhibition of 14-17 mm. SSF was adopted for the production of the secondary metabolites from PM49 with ISP2; utilizing agricultural wastes for compound extraction was also attempted. Bioactive fraction of Rf value 0.69 resolved using chloroform and ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v) was obtained and subjected to further analysis. Based on UV, IR, ESI-MS, and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral analysis, it was revealed that the compound is closely similar to cyslabdan with a molecular mass of 467.66 corresponding to the molecular formula C25H41NO5S. ESBL and MBL production was screened in the hospital test isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. PCR amplification in the phenotypically positive strains was positive for bla IMP, bla SHV, bla CTX-M, and mec genes. The β-lactamase enzyme from tested strains had cephalosporinase activity with a 31-kDa protein and isolated compound from the strain possessing β-lactamase inhibitory potential. MIC of the active fraction was 16-32 μg/ml on ATCC strains; the ceftazidime and meropenem sensitive and resistant test strains showed MIC of 64-256 μg/ml. The Streptomyces sp. PM49 aerial mycelium was rectiflexibile; the 16S rRNA showed 99 % identity with Streptomyces rochei and submitted at Genbank with accession no JX904061.1. PMID:25737024

  17. Discovery and Characterization of a Distinctive Exo-1,3/1,4-β-Glucanase from the Marine Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain BB1▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Nakatani, Yoshio; Lamont, Iain L.; Cutfield, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Marine bacteria residing on local red, green, and brown seaweeds were screened for exo-1,3-β-glucanase (ExoP) activity. Of the 90 bacterial species isolated from 32 seaweeds, only one, a Pseudoalteromonas sp., was found to display such activity. It was isolated from a Durvillaea sp., a brown kelp known to contain significant amounts of the storage polysaccharide laminarin (1,3-β-d-glucan with some 1,6-β branching). Four chromatographic steps were utilized to purify the enzyme (ExoP). Chymotryptic digestion provided peptide sequences for primer design and subsequent gene cloning. The exoP gene coded for 840 amino acids and was located just 50 bp downstream from a putative lichenase (endo-1,3-1,4-β-glucanase) gene, suggesting possible cotranscription of these genes. Sequence comparisons revealed ExoP to be clustered within a group of bacterial glycosidases with high similarity to a group of glycoside hydrolase (GH3) plant enzymes, of which the barley exo-1,3/1,4-β-glucanase (ExoI) is the best characterized. The major difference between the bacterial and plant proteins is an extra 200- to 220-amino-acid extension at the C terminus of the former. This additional sequence does not correlate with any known functional domain, but ExoP was not active against laminarin when this region was removed. Production of recombinant ExoP allowed substrate specificity studies to be performed. The enzyme was found to possess similar levels of exoglucanase activity against both 1,4-β linkages and 1,3-β linkages, and so ExoP is designated an exo-1,3/1,4-β-exoglucanase, the first such bacterial enzyme to be characterized. This broader specificity could allow the enzyme to assist in digesting both cell wall cellulose and cytoplasmic laminarin. PMID:20729316

  18. Description and phylogeny of Tetrakeronopsis silvanetoi gen. nov., sp. nov. (Hypotricha, Pseudokeronopsidae), a new benthic marine ciliate from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Thiago da Silva; de Albuquerque, Amanda Ferreira Cavalcante; Borges, Bárbara do Nascimento; Harada, Maria Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    Pseudokeronopsidae Borror & Wicklow, 1983 are biotechnologically important ciliate protists which produce toxic defense substances; however, their diversity is still little known in Brazil. In the present study, Tetrakeronopsis silvanetoi, a new genus and species of marine pseudokeronopsid hypotrichs is described from samples of water with bottom sediment collected from the coast of São Paulo state. Its phylogenetic affinities to the "core urostyloids" are hypothesized based on analyses of the 18S-rDNA marker, and a new subfamily, the Nothoholostichinae subfam. nov., is erected to name the monophylum composed of pseudokeronopsids in which the anterior corona is usually formed by four frontal cirri. In addition, the new combination Monocoronella longissima comb. nov. is proposed for Nothoholosticha longissima (Dragesco & Dragesco-Kernéis, 1986) Li et al., 2009. PMID:24586456

  19. Description and phylogeny of Tetrakeronopsis silvanetoi gen. nov., sp. nov. (Hypotricha, Pseudokeronopsidae), a new benthic marine ciliate from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Thiago da Silva; de Albuquerque, Amanda Ferreira Cavalcante; Borges, Bárbara do Nascimento; Harada, Maria Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    Pseudokeronopsidae Borror & Wicklow, 1983 are biotechnologically important ciliate protists which produce toxic defense substances; however, their diversity is still little known in Brazil. In the present study, Tetrakeronopsis silvanetoi, a new genus and species of marine pseudokeronopsid hypotrichs is described from samples of water with bottom sediment collected from the coast of São Paulo state. Its phylogenetic affinities to the "core urostyloids" are hypothesized based on analyses of the 18S-rDNA marker, and a new subfamily, the Nothoholostichinae subfam. nov., is erected to name the monophylum composed of pseudokeronopsids in which the anterior corona is usually formed by four frontal cirri. In addition, the new combination Monocoronella longissima comb. nov. is proposed for Nothoholosticha longissima (Dragesco & Dragesco-Kernéis, 1986) Li et al., 2009.

  20. Description and Phylogeny of Tetrakeronopsis silvanetoi gen. nov., sp. nov. (Hypotricha, Pseudokeronopsidae), a New Benthic Marine Ciliate from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Thiago da Silva; de Albuquerque, Amanda Ferreira Cavalcante; Borges, Bárbara do Nascimento; Harada, Maria Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    Pseudokeronopsidae Borror & Wicklow, 1983 are biotechnologically important ciliate protists which produce toxic defense substances; however, their diversity is still little known in Brazil. In the present study, Tetrakeronopsis silvanetoi, a new genus and species of marine pseudokeronopsid hypotrichs is described from samples of water with bottom sediment collected from the coast of São Paulo state. Its phylogenetic affinities to the “core urostyloids” are hypothesized based on analyses of the 18S-rDNA marker, and a new subfamily, the Nothoholostichinae subfam. nov., is erected to name the monophylum composed of pseudokeronopsids in which the anterior corona is usually formed by four frontal cirri. In addition, the new combination Monocoronella longissima comb. nov. is proposed for Nothoholosticha longissima (Dragesco & Dragesco-Kernéis, 1986) Li et al., 2009. PMID:24586456

  1. A thermophilic, hydrogenogenic and carboxydotrophic bacterium, Calderihabitans maritimus gen. nov., sp. nov., from a marine sediment core of an undersea caldera.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Yasuko; Yoshida, Takashi; Yasuda, Hisato; Imada, Chiaki; Sako, Yoshihiko

    2013-10-01

    A hydrogenogenic, carboxydotrophic marine bacterium, strain KKC1(T), was isolated from a sediment core sample taken from a submerged marine caldera. Cells were non-motile, Gram-stain-negative, 1.0-3.0 µm straight rods, often observed with round endospores. Strain KKC1(T) grew at 55-68 °C, pH 5.2-9.2 and 0.8-14 % (w/v) salinity. Optimum growth occurred at 65 °C, pH 7.0-7.5 and 2.46 % salinity with a doubling time of 3.7 h. The isolate grew chemolithotrophically, producing H2 from carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation with reduction of various electron acceptors, e.g. sulfite, thiosulfate, fumarate, ferric iron and AQDS (9,10-anthraquinone 2,6-disulfonate). KKC1(T) grew heterotrophically on pyruvate, lactate, fumarate, glucose, fructose and mannose with thiosulfate as an electron acceptor. When grown mixotrophically on CO and pyruvate, C16 : 0 constituted almost half of the total cellular fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 50.6 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of KKC1(T) was most closely related to those of members of the genus Moorella with similarity ranging from 91 to 89 %. Based on physiological and phylogenetic novelty, we propose the isolate as a representative of a new genus and novel species with the name Calderihabitans maritimus gen. nov., sp. nov.; the type strain of the type species is KKC1(T) ( = DSM 26464(T) = NBRC 109353(T)).

  2. Portlandemys gracilis n. sp., a New Coastal Marine Turtle from the Late Jurassic of Porrentruy (Switzerland) and a Reconsideration of Plesiochelyid Cranial Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Anquetin, Jérémy; Püntener, Christian; Billon-Bruyat, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Several groups of stem cryptodires became adapted to coastal marine environments as early as the Late Jurassic, 40 million years before the Pan-Chelonioidea. The Plesiochelyidae are a major component of this first radiation of crown-group turtles into marine habitats. They are abundant in many European localities, but their systematics is still greatly confused. Only three species are represented by cranial material: Plesiochelys etalloni, Plesiochelys planiceps, and Portlandemys mcdowelli. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we describe a cranium and a mandible from the Kimmeridgian of Porrentruy (Switzerland), which we refer to a new species, Portlandemys gracilis n. sp. This new taxon differs from Portlandemys mcdowelli in several aspects of the cranium and mandible, notably in being generally more gracile, but the two species share a narrow skull, a more acute angle between the labial ridges on the mandible, and a unique configuration of the anterodorsal part of the basicranium. The cranial anatomy of plesiochelyid turtles is discussed in details based primarily on these new specimens and new cranial material of Plesiochelys etalloni from Solothurn, Switzerland. Conclusions/Significance Several characters (e.g., the contribution of the parietal to the foramen nervi trigemini, the configuration of the dorsum sellae and sella turcica, the presence of an infolding ridge on the posterior surface of the quadrate) appear as potential candidates to help elucidate plesiochelyid relationships. Some of these characters are included in a previously published phylogenetic dataset and help to stabilize the relationships of plesiochelyid turtles and closely related taxa. For the first time, our results suggest that plesiochelyids, 'Thalassemys' moseri, and Solnhofia parsonsi (representing the Eurysternidae) form a clade at the base of Eucryptodira. PMID:26106888

  3. Unicapsula species (Myxosporea: Trilosporidae) of Australian marine fishes, including the description of Unicapsula andersenae n. sp. in five teleost families off Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Miller, T L; Adlard, R D

    2013-08-01

    A survey of the myxosporean fauna of Australian marine fishes revealed the presence of three previously unreported species of Unicapsula (Multivalvulida: Trilosporidae) from sites off Southeast Queensland, off Lizard Island on the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, and from Jurien Bay in Western Australia. Morphometric data (spore, polar capsule and caudal appendage dimensions) combined with Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were used for species identification and to explore relationships among these taxa. The four species of Unicapsula for which DNA data are now available for comparative purposes (Unicapsula andersenae n. sp., Unicapsula pflugfelderi, Unicapsula seriolae and Unicapsula pyramidata) formed a well-supported monophyletic sister clade to the other major multivalvulidan group, the Kudoidae. The combined morphometric and genetic diagnostic approach identified an undescribed taxon, U. andersenae n. sp., from the muscle of Argyrosomus japonicus, Acanthopagrus australis and Eleutheronema tetradactylum off the Southeast Queensland coast and in Lutjanus russellii and Sillago ciliata off Lizard Island. Intra-specific variation within U. andersenae n. sp. varied from 2-4 (0.2-0.4%) nucleotides over the SSU region to 2-20 (0.3-3.2%) over the LSU region. Inter-specific variation between U. andersenae n. sp. and the other three species for which genetic sequence data are now available ranged from 15-66 (3-6.5%) nucleotides over the SSU region to 103-120 (17.6-21.2%) nucleotides over the LSU region. The host distribution observed here for U. andersenae n. sp. (five fish species from five different fish families) represents the broadest specificity known for a single species of Unicapsula. U. pyramidata Naidjenova & Zaika 1970, whose spore morphology and presence of caudal appendages immediately distinguish it from other species, was recovered from the nemipterid, Scolopsis monogramma

  4. A new cytotoxic brominated acetylenic hydrocarbon from the marine sponge Haliclona sp. with a selective effect against human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Alarif, Walied M; Abdel-Lateff, Ahmed; Al-Lihaibi, Sultan S; Ayyad, Seif-Eldin N; Badria, Farid A

    2013-01-01

    Three acetylenic brominated derivatives were isolated from a Red Sea sponge, Haliclona sp. One of them, 18-bromooctadeca-9(E),17(E)-dien-7,15-diynoic acid (3), is a known metabolite, and the other two are new compounds, (1E,5E,12E,19E)-1,22-dibromodocosa-1,5,12,19-tetraen-3,14,21-triyne (1) and methyl 18-bromooctadeca-9(E),17(E)-dien-7,15-diynoate (2) which was isolated for the first time as a natural metabolite. Structures of all compounds were determined based on extensive spectroscopic measurements [1D (1H, 13C and DEPT) and 2D (HSQC, HMBC and NOESY) NMR, MS, UV, and IR]. All compounds, except 3, were evaluated for their cytotoxicity employing four cancer cell lines, i.e. MCF-7 (human breast cancer), HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma), WI-38 (skin carcinoma), and Vero (African green monkey kidney). Compounds 1 and 2 had potent selective antitumour activity towards MCF-7 cells with IC50 values of 32.5 and 50.8 microM, respectively.

  5. A Pimarane Diterpene and Cytotoxic Angucyclines from a Marine-Derived Micromonospora sp. in Vietnam's East Sea.

    PubMed

    Mullowney, Michael W; Ó hAinmhire, Eoghainín; Tanouye, Urszula; Burdette, Joanna E; Pham, Van Cuong; Murphy, Brian T

    2015-09-01

    A screening of our actinomycete fraction library against the NCI-60 SKOV3 human tumor cell line led to the isolation of isopimara-2-one-3-ol-8,15-diene (1), lagumycin B (2), dehydrorabelomycin (3), phenanthroviridone (4), and WS-5995 A (5). These secondary metabolites were produced by a Micromonospora sp. isolated from sediment collected off the Cát Bà peninsula in the East Sea of Vietnam. Compound 1 is a novel Δ(8,9)-pimarane diterpene, representing one of approximately 20 actinomycete-produced diterpenes reported to date, while compound 2 is an angucycline antibiotic that has yet to receive formal characterization. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by combined NMR and MS analysis and the absolute configuration of 1 was assigned by analysis of NOESY NMR and CD spectroscopic data. Compounds 2-5 exhibited varying degrees of cytotoxicity against a panel of cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines. Overall, this study highlights our collaborative efforts to discover novel biologically active molecules from the large, underexplored, and biodiversity-rich waters of Vietnam's East Sea. PMID:26389922

  6. A Pimarane Diterpene and Cytotoxic Angucyclines from a Marine-Derived Micromonospora sp. in Vietnam's East Sea.

    PubMed

    Mullowney, Michael W; Ó hAinmhire, Eoghainín; Tanouye, Urszula; Burdette, Joanna E; Pham, Van Cuong; Murphy, Brian T

    2015-09-15

    A screening of our actinomycete fraction library against the NCI-60 SKOV3 human tumor cell line led to the isolation of isopimara-2-one-3-ol-8,15-diene (1), lagumycin B (2), dehydrorabelomycin (3), phenanthroviridone (4), and WS-5995 A (5). These secondary metabolites were produced by a Micromonospora sp. isolated from sediment collected off the Cát Bà peninsula in the East Sea of Vietnam. Compound 1 is a novel Δ(8,9)-pimarane diterpene, representing one of approximately 20 actinomycete-produced diterpenes reported to date, while compound 2 is an angucycline antibiotic that has yet to receive formal characterization. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by combined NMR and MS analysis and the absolute configuration of 1 was assigned by analysis of NOESY NMR and CD spectroscopic data. Compounds 2-5 exhibited varying degrees of cytotoxicity against a panel of cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines. Overall, this study highlights our collaborative efforts to discover novel biologically active molecules from the large, underexplored, and biodiversity-rich waters of Vietnam's East Sea.

  7. A Pimarane Diterpene and Cytotoxic Angucyclines from a Marine-Derived Micromonospora sp. in Vietnam’s East Sea

    PubMed Central

    Mullowney, Michael W.; Ó hAinmhire, Eoghainín; Tanouye, Urszula; Burdette, Joanna E.; Pham, Van Cuong; Murphy, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    A screening of our actinomycete fraction library against the NCI-60 SKOV3 human tumor cell line led to the isolation of isopimara-2-one-3-ol-8,15-diene (1), lagumycin B (2), dehydrorabelomycin (3), phenanthroviridone (4), and WS-5995 A (5). These secondary metabolites were produced by a Micromonospora sp. isolated from sediment collected off the Cát Bà peninsula in the East Sea of Vietnam. Compound 1 is a novel Δ8,9-pimarane diterpene, representing one of approximately 20 actinomycete-produced diterpenes reported to date, while compound 2 is an angucycline antibiotic that has yet to receive formal characterization. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by combined NMR and MS analysis and the absolute configuration of 1 was assigned by analysis of NOESY NMR and CD spectroscopic data. Compounds 2–5 exhibited varying degrees of cytotoxicity against a panel of cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines. Overall, this study highlights our collaborative efforts to discover novel biologically active molecules from the large, underexplored, and biodiversity-rich waters of Vietnam’s East Sea. PMID:26389922

  8. Cloning and characterization of the first polysaccharide lyase family 6 oligoalginate lyase from marine Shewanella sp. Kz7.

    PubMed

    Li, Shangyong; Wang, Linna; Han, Feng; Gong, Qianhong; Yu, Wengong

    2016-01-01

    Alginate, the most abundant carbohydrate in brown macroalgae, is widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Recently, alginate has attracted increasing attention, as it may serve as an alternative biomass for the production of biofuel. The degradation of alginate into monomeric units is the prerequisite for bioethanol production. All known oligoalginate lyases belong to the polysaccharide lyase (PL) family 7, 14, 15 and 17, and most of them preferred to degrade the polyM blocks to yield 4-deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid as the primary product. In this study, we cloned an oligoalginate lyase gene, oalS6, from Shewanella sp. Kz7 and expressed it in Escherichia coli. The PL family 6 oligoalginate lyase (OalS6) has no significant sequence similarity with other known oligoalginate lyases. OalS6 contains a chondroitinase-like domain and was assigned to the PL family 6. This lyase is an exo-type oligoalginate lyase and prefer to depolymerize polyG block into 2, 4, 5, 6-tetrahydroxytetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-carboxylic acid. All of these results indicate that OalS6 is a novel oligoalginate lyase that is structurally and functionally different from other known oligoalginate lyases. This finding provides new insights into the development of biofuel processing biotechnologies from seaweed.

  9. Actinoquinolines A and B, anti-inflammatory quinoline alkaloids from a marine-derived Streptomyces sp., strain CNP975.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hossam M; Boonlarppradab, Chollaratt; Fenical, William

    2016-07-01

    Actinomycete bacteria of the common genus Streptomyces can be routinely isolated from shallow and deep ocean sediments. Although commonly considered a terrestrial genus, and most abundantly found in soil, Streptomyces strains are found that have distinct requirements for seawater and routinely do not show significant similarity, with terrestrial strains by 16S ribosomal DNA phylogenetic sequence comparisons. Our examination of the culture broth of a Streptomyces sp., strain CNP975, isolated from a local La Jolla, California sediment sample, resulted in the isolation of actinoquinolines A and B (1, 2), which show significant inhibition of the arachidonic acid pathway enzymes cyclooxygenases-1 and -2. The new compounds contain the 3-hydroxyquinaldic acid (3HQA) motif found in numerous peptide antibiotics. In the actinoquinolines, 3HQA forms an amide linkage with a linear six-carbon fragment, formally a 2, 6-diamino-1, 5-dihydroxyhexane unit, a component of likely amino acid reductive off-loading origin. Actinoquinoline A illustrated amide rotational isomerism leading to complex NMR spectral data. Actinoquinoline B was assigned as the C-13 aldehyde analog isolated as an intramolecular hemiacetal. Reduction of 2 with NaBH4 yielded actinoquinoline A thus confirming the relative configurations of all centers in the actinoquinolines. PMID:27220408

  10. Flavobacterium ahnfeltiae sp. nov., a new marine polysaccharide-degrading bacterium isolated from a Pacific red alga.

    PubMed

    Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Balabanova, Larissa A; Zhukova, Natalia V; Kim, So-Jeong; Bakunina, Irina Y; Rhee, Sung-Keun

    2014-10-01

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, motile by gliding and yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain 10Alg 130(T), that displayed the ability to destroy polysaccharides of red and brown algae, was isolated from the red alga Ahnfeltia tobuchiensis. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence placed the novel strain within the genus Flavobacterium, the type genus of the family Flavobacteriaceae, the phylum Bacteroidetes, with sequence similarities of 96.2 and 95.7 % to Flavobacterium jumunjiense KCTC 23618(T) and Flavobacterium ponti CCUG 58402(T), and 95.3-92.5 % to other recognized Flavobacterium species. The prevalent fatty acids of strain 10Alg 130(T) were iso-C15:0, iso-C15:0 3-OH, iso-C17:0 3-OH, C15:0 and iso-C17:1ω9c. The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown aminolipids and three unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content of the type strain was 34.3 mol%. The new isolate and the type strains of recognized species of the genus Flavobacterium could strongly be distinguished by a number of phenotypic characteristics. A combination of the genotypic and phenotypic data showed that the algal isolate represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium ahnfeltiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 10Alg 130(T) (=KCTC 32467(T) = KMM 6686(T)).

  11. Antiproliferative effects of triterpenoidal derivatives, obtained from the marine sponge Siphonochalina sp., on human hepatic and colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Lateff, Ahmed; Al-Abd, Ahmed M; Alahdal, Abdulrahman M; Alarif, Walied M; Ayyad, Seif-Eldin N; Al-Lihaibi, Sultan S; Hegazy, Mohamed E; Al Mohammadi, Ameen; Abdelghany, Tamer M; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Moustafa, Mohamed A A; Banjer, Zainy M; Azhar, Ahmad S

    2016-01-01

    Three triterpenoidal derivatives [Sipholenol A (1), sipholenol L (2) and sipholenone A (3)] were isolated from the Red Sea sponge Siphonochalina sp. The structures were determined based on spectroscopic measurements (NMR, UV, IR and MS). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against three cancer cell lines; HepG2, Caco-2 and HT-29. Moreover, the effects of these metabolites on cell cycle progression as well as cell cycle regulating proteins were assessed. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 showed moderate activity against HepG2 cells with IC(50) values of 17.18 ± 1.18, 24.01 ± 0.59 and 35.06 ± 1.10 μM, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 exerted a considerable antiproliferative effect with IC(50) values of 4.80 ± 0.18 and 26.64 ± 0.30 μM, respectively, against Caco-2 cells. Finally, 1 and 2 exhibited antiproliferative activity against colorectal cancer cells (HT-29) with IC(50) values of 24.65 ± 0.80 and 4.48 ± 0.1 μM, respectively. Cell cycle analysis indicated that these compounds induced cell cycle arrest particularly in G0/G1 and S phases. Furthermore, the triterpenoids increased the expression of cyclin-B1, cyclin-D1 and cleaved caspase-3, as determined by immunofluorescence, indicating an important role of apoptosis in cell death induced by these compounds. PMID:26845717

  12. A new species of sublittoral marine gastrotrich, Lepidodasys ligni sp. n. (Macrodasyida, Lepidodasyidae), from the Atlantic coast of Florida

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Rick; Atherton, Sarah; Gross, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Lepidodasys is described from sublittoral sandy sediments off the Atlantic coast of Florida. Lepidodasys ligni sp. n. is a small species (≤ 450 µm) with a crossed-helical pattern of small, non-keeled, non-imbricated scales on the dorsal and lateral body surfaces, two columns of ventral, interciliary scales that form a herringbone pattern, and a series of anterior, lateral, dorsal and posterior adhesive tubes. Similar to Lepidodasys castoroides from the Faroe Islands, the new species possesses a caudal constriction that demarcates the posterior end containing the caudal organ. The frontal organ lies within the posterior constriction, which is heavily invested with somatic circular muscles. These muscles are also present throughout the trunk and represent a novel condition for species of Lepidodasys,which were previously considered to lack somatic circular muscles. Posterior of the caudal constriction is a large, barrel-shaped caudal organ that is wrapped in a series of interdigitating, spindle-shaped, incomplete circular muscle fibers. The caudal organ contains a sclerotized central canal, but the absence of distal cuticular endpieces distinguishes the new species from its morphologically similar congener, Lepidodasys castoroides. PMID:23794849

  13. Hysterothylacium gibsoni sp. nov. and H. tetrapteri (Bruce et Cannon, 1989) (Nematoda: Ascaridida) from the Chinese marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen; Li, Liang; Zhang, Lu-Ping

    2014-06-01

    A new species of ascaridoid nematode, Hysterothylacium gibsoni sp. nov., is described based on specimens collected from the intestine of the slender lizardfish Saurida elongata (Temminck et Schlegel) (Aulopiformes: Synodontidae) in the Yellow Sea, China. The new species differs from its congeners by its small body size (12.8-13.2 mm), the absence of cervical alae, a very short intestinal caecum (representing 8.86-9.52% of oesophageal length) and a long ventricular appendix (intestinal caecum to ventricular appendix ratio 1:15.3-20.0), short spicules (0.38-0.41 mm, representing 2.97-3.11% of body length), the number and arrangement of the caudal papillae (25-28 pairs arranged as follows: 18-22 pairs precloacal, 3 pairs paracloacal, and 3-4 pairs postcloacal). In addition, Hysterothylacium tetrapteri (Bruce et Cannon, 1989) is also redescribed based on the material collected from the striped marlin Kajikia audax (Philippi) (Perciformes: Istiophoridae) in the South China Sea. PMID:24827106

  14. Binariimonas pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov., a Novel Marine Bacterium of Family Sphingomonadaceae Isolated from East Pacific Ocean Surface Seawater.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhao; Sun, Jia; Zhang, Rui; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2016-03-01

    A novel rod-shaped binary fission, and yellow-pigmented bacterial strain, JLT 2480(T), was isolated from surface seawater in the East Pacific Ocean. The strain is Gram negative and oxidase negative. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicate that strain JLT 2480(T) falls in the family Sphingomonadaceae, sharing highest similarity (95.6 %) with the species Blastomonas ursincola. The DNA G+C content of JLT 2480(T) is 65.5 mol%, and the sole respiratory quinone is coenzyme Q10. The predominant polar lipids are sphingoglycolipids (SGL1 and SGL2), phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylethanolamines, phospholipids, glycolipids, and phosphatidylcholines. The predominant cellular fatty acids are C16:0, C18:0, C18:1ω7c, C12:0, and C16:1ω7c. Strain JLT 2480(T) is distinct from the B. ursincola type strain DSM 9006(T) as reflected by major chemotaxonomic distinctions between the two. Furthermore, two notable characteristics of the genus Blastomonas, that is, the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a and the puf genes, are not detected in JLT 2480(T). On the basis of present evidence, we consider JLT 2480(T) to be a novel species in a new genus of the family Sphingomonadaceae, and propose the name Binariimonas pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov., with strain JLT 2480(T) (=CGMCC 1.12850(T) = DSM 28646(T)) to be the type strain for genus Binariimonas. PMID:26613616

  15. Binariimonas pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov., a Novel Marine Bacterium of Family Sphingomonadaceae Isolated from East Pacific Ocean Surface Seawater.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhao; Sun, Jia; Zhang, Rui; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2016-03-01

    A novel rod-shaped binary fission, and yellow-pigmented bacterial strain, JLT 2480(T), was isolated from surface seawater in the East Pacific Ocean. The strain is Gram negative and oxidase negative. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicate that strain JLT 2480(T) falls in the family Sphingomonadaceae, sharing highest similarity (95.6 %) with the species Blastomonas ursincola. The DNA G+C content of JLT 2480(T) is 65.5 mol%, and the sole respiratory quinone is coenzyme Q10. The predominant polar lipids are sphingoglycolipids (SGL1 and SGL2), phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylethanolamines, phospholipids, glycolipids, and phosphatidylcholines. The predominant cellular fatty acids are C16:0, C18:0, C18:1ω7c, C12:0, and C16:1ω7c. Strain JLT 2480(T) is distinct from the B. ursincola type strain DSM 9006(T) as reflected by major chemotaxonomic distinctions between the two. Furthermore, two notable characteristics of the genus Blastomonas, that is, the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a and the puf genes, are not detected in JLT 2480(T). On the basis of present evidence, we consider JLT 2480(T) to be a novel species in a new genus of the family Sphingomonadaceae, and propose the name Binariimonas pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov., with strain JLT 2480(T) (=CGMCC 1.12850(T) = DSM 28646(T)) to be the type strain for genus Binariimonas.

  16. Hysterothylacium gibsoni sp. nov. and H. tetrapteri (Bruce et Cannon, 1989) (Nematoda: Ascaridida) from the Chinese marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen; Li, Liang; Zhang, Lu-Ping

    2014-06-01

    A new species of ascaridoid nematode, Hysterothylacium gibsoni sp. nov., is described based on specimens collected from the intestine of the slender lizardfish Saurida elongata (Temminck et Schlegel) (Aulopiformes: Synodontidae) in the Yellow Sea, China. The new species differs from its congeners by its small body size (12.8-13.2 mm), the absence of cervical alae, a very short intestinal caecum (representing 8.86-9.52% of oesophageal length) and a long ventricular appendix (intestinal caecum to ventricular appendix ratio 1:15.3-20.0), short spicules (0.38-0.41 mm, representing 2.97-3.11% of body length), the number and arrangement of the caudal papillae (25-28 pairs arranged as follows: 18-22 pairs precloacal, 3 pairs paracloacal, and 3-4 pairs postcloacal). In addition, Hysterothylacium tetrapteri (Bruce et Cannon, 1989) is also redescribed based on the material collected from the striped marlin Kajikia audax (Philippi) (Perciformes: Istiophoridae) in the South China Sea.

  17. Sciscionella marina gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine actinomycete isolated from a sediment in the northern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xin-Peng; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Qiu, Yun-Qi; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Tang, Shu-Kun; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhang, Si; Li, Wen-Jun

    2009-02-01

    The taxonomic position of an actinomycete, designated SCSIO 00231(T), isolated from a sediment sample collected from the northern South China Sea, was determined by using a polyphasic approach. The organism formed fragmented substrate hyphae and sparse aerial mycelium on modified ISP 2 medium. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain SCSIO 00231(T) fell into the family Pseudonocardiaceae, in which it formed a distinct lineage and was loosely associated with Thermocrispum municipale DSM 44069(T), with 93 % similarity. The other closest phylogenetic neighbours were Saccharopolyspora erythraea NRRL 2338(T) (92.6 % similarity) and Amycolatopsis sacchari DSM 44468(T) (93.1 % similarity). The isolate had cell-wall type IV (meso-diaminopimelic acid and whole-cell sugars arabinose, galactose and glucose) and phospholipid type III. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H(4)). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 69 mol%. Based on these data, strain SCSIO 00231(T) can be readily distinguished from previously described organisms and represents a new genus within the family Pseudonocardiaceae. The name Sciscionella gen. nov. is proposed, with the novel species Sciscionella marina sp. nov. The type strain of Sciscionella marina is SCSIO 00231(T) (=KCTC 19433(T) =CCTCC AA208009(T)).

  18. Mameliella alba gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium of the Roseobacter clade in the order Rhodobacterales.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qiang; Chen, Chuang; Yan, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Ya-Nan; Zeng, Yong-Hui; Hao, Li-Kai; He, Wei-Hong; Jiao, Nian-Zhi

    2010-04-01

    A Gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain, JLT354-W(T), that accumulates poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granules was isolated from the South China Sea. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain was related to members of the genera Antarctobacter, Sagittula, Oceanicola and Loktanella; levels of similarity between strain JLT354-W(T) and members of the above genera were less than 92.0 %. The predominant fatty acid of strain JLT354-W(T) was C(18 : 1)omega7c (83.1 %); significant amounts of C(18 : 0) (7.9 %) and C(12 : 1) 3-OH (3.7 %) were also present. The predominant respiratory ubiquinone was Q-10. The DNA G+C content of strain JLT354-W(T) was 63.7 mol%. The isolate was distinguishable from members of the order Rhodobacterales based on phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. On the basis of the taxonomic data presented, strain JLT354-W(T) is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Mameliella alba gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Mameliella alba is JLT354-W(T) (=LMG 24665(T)=CGMCC 1.7290(T)).

  19. Antipathogenic potential of marine Bacillus sp. SS4 on N-acyl-homoserine-lactone-mediated virulence factors production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1).

    PubMed

    Musthafa, K Syed; Saroja, V; Pandian, S Karutha; Ravi, A Veera

    2011-03-01

    Antipathogenic therapy is an outcome of the quorum-sensing inhibition (QSI) mechanism, which targets autoinducer-dependent virulent gene expression in bacterial pathogens. N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) acts as a key regulator in the production of virulence factors and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and violacein pigment production in Chromobacterium violaceum. In the present study, the marine bacterial strain SS4 showed potential QSI activity in a concentration-dependent manner (0.5-2 mg/ml) against the AHL-mediated violacein production in C. violaceum (33-86%) and biofilm formation (33-88%), total protease (20-65%), LasA protease (59-68%), LasB elastase (36-68%), pyocyanin (17-86%) and pyoverdin productions in PAO1. The light and confocal laser scanning microscopic analyses confirmed the reduction of the biofilm-forming ability of PAO1 when treated with SS4 extract. Furthermore, the antibiofilm potential was confirmed through static biofilm ring assay, in which ethyl acetate extract of SS4 showed concentration-dependent reduction in the biofilm-forming ability of PAO1. Thus, the result of this study clearly reveals the antipathogenic and antibiofilm properties of the bacterial isolate SS4. Through 16S rDNA analysis, the strain SS4 was identified as Bacillus sp. (GenBank Accession Number: GU471751). PMID:21451248

  20. Biochemical characterization and structural analysis of a new cold-active and salt-tolerant esterase from the marine bacterium Thalassospira sp.

    PubMed

    De Santi, Concetta; Leiros, Hanna-Kirsti S; Di Scala, Alessia; de Pascale, Donatella; Altermark, Bjørn; Willassen, Nils-Peder

    2016-05-01

    A gene encoding an esterase, ThaEst2349, was identified in the marine psychrophilic bacterium Thalassospira sp. GB04J01. The gene was cloned and overexpressed in E. coli as a His-tagged fusion protein. The recombinant enzyme showed optimal activity at 45 °C and the thermal stability displayed a retention of 75 % relative activity at 40 °C after 2 h. The optimal pH was 8.5 but the enzyme kept more than 75 % of its maximal activity between pH 8.0 and 9.5. ThaEst2349 also showed remarkable tolerance towards high concentrations of salt and it was active against short-chain p-nitrophenyl esters, displaying optimal activity with the acetate. The enzyme was tested for tolerance of organic solvents and the results are suggesting that it could function as an interesting candidate for biotechnological applications. The crystal structure of ThaEst2349 was determined to 1.69 Å revealing an asymmetric unit containing two chains, which also is the biological unit. The structure has a characteristic cap domain and a catalytic triad comprising Ser158, His285 and Asp255. To explain the cold-active nature of the enzyme, we compared it against thermophilic counterparts. Our hypothesis is that a high methionine content, less hydrogen bonds and less ion pairs render the enzyme more flexible at low temperatures. PMID:27016194

  1. Indirect Oxidation of Co(II) in the Presence of the Marine Mn(II)-Oxidizing Bacterium Bacillus Sp. Strain SG-1

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, K.J.; Webb, S.M.; Bargar, J.R.; Tebo, B.M.; /Scripps Inst. Oceanography /SLAC, SSRL /Oregon Health Sci. U.

    2009-04-29

    Cobalt(II) oxidation in aquatic environments has been shown to be linked to Mn(II) oxidation, a process primarily mediated by bacteria. This work examines the oxidation of Co(II) by the spore-forming marine Mn(II)-oxidizing bacterium Bacillus sp. strain SG-1, which enzymatically catalyzes the formation of reactive nanoparticulate Mn(IV) oxides. Preparations of these spores were incubated with radiotracers and various amounts of Co(II) and Mn(II), and the rates of Mn(II) and Co(II) oxidation were measured. Inhibition of Mn(II) oxidation by Co(II) and inhibition of Co(II) oxidation by Mn(II) were both found to be competitive. However, from both radiotracer experiments and X-ray spectroscopic measurements, no Co(II) oxidation occurred in the complete absence of Mn(II), suggesting that the Co(II) oxidation observed in these cultures is indirect and that a previous report of enzymatic Co(II) oxidation may have been due to very low levels of contaminating Mn. Our results indicate that the mechanism by which SG-1 oxidizes Co(II) is through the production of the reactive nanoparticulate Mn oxide.

  2. Gageopeptins A and B, new inhibitors of zoospore motility of the phytopathogen Phytophthora capsici from a marine-derived bacterium Bacillus sp. 109GGC020.

    PubMed

    Tareq, Fakir Shahidullah; Hasan, Choudhury M; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Lee, Yeon-Ju; Lee, Jong Seok; Surovy, Musrat Zahan; Islam, Md Tofazzal; Shin, Hee Jae

    2015-08-15

    The motility of zoospores is critical in the disease cycles of the peronosporomycetes that cause devastating diseases in plants, fishes, vertebrates, and microbes. In the course of screening for secondary metabolites regulating the motility of zoospores of Phytophthora capsici, we discovered two new inhibitors from the ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth of a marine-derived strain Bacillus sp. 109GGC020. The structures of these novel metabolites were elucidated as new cyclic lipopeptides and named gageopeptins A (1) and B (2) by spectroscopic analyses including high resolution MS and extensive 1D and 2D NMR. The stereoconfigurations of 1 and 2 were assigned based on the chemical derivatization studies and reviews of the literature data. Although compounds 1 and 2 impaired the motility of zoospores of P. capsici in dose- and time-dependent manners, compound 1 (IC50 = 1 μg/ml) was an approximately 400-fold stronger motility inhibitor than 2 (IC50 = 400 μg/ml). Interestingly, the zoospores halted by compound 1 were subsequently lysed at higher concentrations (IC50 = 50 μg/ml). Compounds 1 and 2 were also tested against some bacteria and fungi by broth dilution assay, and exhibited moderate antibacterial and good antifungal activities.

  3. Whole Genome Sequencing of the Symbiont Pseudovibrio sp. from the Intertidal Marine Sponge Polymastia penicillus Revealed a Gene Repertoire for Host-Switching Permissive Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Alex, Anoop; Antunes, Agostinho

    2015-10-31

    Sponges harbor a complex consortium of microbial communities living in symbiotic relationship benefiting each other through the integration of metabolites. The mechanisms influencing a successful microbial association with a sponge partner are yet to be fully understood. Here, we sequenced the genome of Pseudovibrio sp. POLY-S9 strain isolated from the intertidal marine sponge Polymastia penicillus sampled from the Atlantic coast of Portugal to identify the genomic features favoring the symbiotic relationship. The draft genome revealed an exceptionally large genome size of 6.6 Mbp compared with the previously reported genomes of the genus Pseudovibrio isolated from a coral and a sponge larva. Our genomic study detected the presence of several biosynthetic gene clusters-polyketide synthase, nonribosomal peptide synthetase and siderophore-affirming the potential ability of the genus Pseudovibrio to produce a wide variety of metabolic compounds. Moreover, we identified a repertoire of genes encoding adaptive symbioses factors (eukaryotic-like proteins), such as the ankyrin repeats, tetratrico peptide repeats, and Sel1 repeats that improve the attachment to the eukaryotic hosts and the avoidance of the host's immune response : The genome also harbored a large number of mobile elements (∼5%) and gene transfer agents, which explains the massive genome expansion and suggests a possible mechanism of horizontal gene transfer. In conclusion, the genome of POLY-S9 exhibited an increase in size, number of mobile DNA, multiple metabolite gene clusters, and secretion systems, likely to influence the genome diversification and the evolvability.

  4. Optimization of flocculation efficiency of lipid-rich marine Chlorella sp. biomass and evaluation of its composition in different cultivation modes.

    PubMed

    Mandik, Yohanis Irenius; Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Boonsawang, Piyarat; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to optimize flocculation efficiency of lipid-rich marine Chlorella sp. biomass and evaluate its composition in different cultivation modes. Among three flocculants including Al(3+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) tested, Al(3+) was most effective for harvesting microalgal biomass. Four important parameters for flocculation were optimized through response surface methodology. The maximum flocculation efficiency in photoautotrophic culture was achieved at pH 10, flocculation time of 15 min, Al(3+) concentration of 2.22 mM and microalgal cells of 0.47 g/L. The flocculation in mixotrophic culture required lower amount of Al(3+) (0.74 mM) than that in photoautotrophic and heterotrophic cultures (2.22 mM). The biomass harvested from mixotrophic culture contained lipid at the highest content of 42.08 ± 0.58% followed by photoautotrophic (32.08 ± 3.88%) and heterotrophic (30.42 ± 1.13%) cultures. The lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) contained protein as high as 38-44% and several minerals showing their potential use as animal feed and their carbohydrate content were 16-29%.

  5. Toxicity of Bioactive and Probiotic Marine Bacteria and Their Secondary Metabolites in Artemia sp. and Caenorhabditis elegans as Eukaryotic Model Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Neu, Anna Katrin; Månsson, Maria; Prol-García, María J.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously reported that some strains belonging to the marine Actinobacteria class, the Pseudoalteromonas genus, the Roseobacter clade, and the Photobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families produce both antibacterial and antivirulence compounds, and these organisms are interesting from an applied point of view as fish probiotics or as a source of pharmaceutical compounds. The application of either organisms or compounds requires that they do not cause any side effects, such as toxicity in eukaryotic organisms. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these bacteria or their compounds have any toxic side effects in the eukaryotic organisms Artemia sp. and Caenorhabditis elegans. Arthrobacter davidanieli WX-11, Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea S4060, P. piscicida S2049, P. rubra S2471, Photobacterium halotolerans S2753, and Vibrio coralliilyticus S2052 were lethal to either or both model eukaryotes. The toxicity of P. luteoviolacea S4060 could be related to the production of the antibacterial compound pentabromopseudilin, while the adverse effect observed in the presence of P. halotolerans S2753 and V. coralliilyticus S2052 could not be explained by the production of holomycin nor andrimid, the respective antibiotic compounds in these organisms. In contrast, the tropodithietic acid (TDA)-producing bacteria Phaeobacter inhibens DSM17395 and Ruegeria mobilis F1926 and TDA itself had no adverse effect on the target organisms. These results reaffirm TDA-producing Roseobacter bacteria as a promising group to be used as probiotics in aquaculture, whereas Actinobacteria, Pseudoalteromonas, Photobacteriaceae, and Vibrionaceae should be used with caution. PMID:24141121

  6. Whole Genome Sequencing of the Symbiont Pseudovibrio sp. from the Intertidal Marine Sponge Polymastia penicillus Revealed a Gene Repertoire for Host-Switching Permissive Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Alex, Anoop; Antunes, Agostinho

    2015-11-01

    Sponges harbor a complex consortium of microbial communities living in symbiotic relationship benefiting each other through the integration of metabolites. The mechanisms influencing a successful microbial association with a sponge partner are yet to be fully understood. Here, we sequenced the genome of Pseudovibrio sp. POLY-S9 strain isolated from the intertidal marine sponge Polymastia penicillus sampled from the Atlantic coast of Portugal to identify the genomic features favoring the symbiotic relationship. The draft genome revealed an exceptionally large genome size of 6.6 Mbp compared with the previously reported genomes of the genus Pseudovibrio isolated from a coral and a sponge larva. Our genomic study detected the presence of several biosynthetic gene clusters-polyketide synthase, nonribosomal peptide synthetase and siderophore-affirming the potential ability of the genus Pseudovibrio to produce a wide variety of metabolic compounds. Moreover, we identified a repertoire of genes encoding adaptive symbioses factors (eukaryotic-like proteins), such as the ankyrin repeats, tetratrico peptide repeats, and Sel1 repeats that improve the attachment to the eukaryotic hosts and the avoidance of the host's immune response : The genome also harbored a large number of mobile elements (∼5%) and gene transfer agents, which explains the massive genome expansion and suggests a possible mechanism of horizontal gene transfer. In conclusion, the genome of POLY-S9 exhibited an increase in size, number of mobile DNA, multiple metabolite gene clusters, and secretion systems, likely to influence the genome diversification and the evolvability. PMID:26519859

  7. Toxicity of bioactive and probiotic marine bacteria and their secondary metabolites in Artemia sp. and Caenorhabditis elegans as eukaryotic model organisms.

    PubMed

    Neu, Anna Katrin; Månsson, Maria; Gram, Lone; Prol-García, María J

    2014-01-01

    We have previously reported that some strains belonging to the marine Actinobacteria class, the Pseudoalteromonas genus, the Roseobacter clade, and the Photobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families produce both antibacterial and antivirulence compounds, and these organisms are interesting from an applied point of view as fish probiotics or as a source of pharmaceutical compounds. The application of either organisms or compounds requires that they do not cause any side effects, such as toxicity in eukaryotic organisms. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these bacteria or their compounds have any toxic side effects in the eukaryotic organisms Artemia sp. and Caenorhabditis elegans. Arthrobacter davidanieli WX-11, Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea S4060, P. piscicida S2049, P. rubra S2471, Photobacterium halotolerans S2753, and Vibrio coralliilyticus S2052 were lethal to either or both model eukaryotes. The toxicity of P. luteoviolacea S4060 could be related to the production of the antibacterial compound pentabromopseudilin, while the adverse effect observed in the presence of P. halotolerans S2753 and V. coralliilyticus S2052 could not be explained by the production of holomycin nor andrimid, the respective antibiotic compounds in these organisms. In contrast, the tropodithietic acid (TDA)-producing bacteria Phaeobacter inhibens DSM17395 and Ruegeria mobilis F1926 and TDA itself had no adverse effect on the target organisms. These results reaffirm TDA-producing Roseobacter bacteria as a promising group to be used as probiotics in aquaculture, whereas Actinobacteria, Pseudoalteromonas, Photobacteriaceae, and Vibrionaceae should be used with caution. PMID:24141121

  8. Transcription of a novel P450 gene varies with some factors (pollutant exposure, temperature, time, and body region) in a marine oligochaete (Thalassodrilides sp.).

    PubMed

    Ito, Mana; Ito, Katsutoshi; Ohta, Kohei; Hano, Takeshi; Onduka, Toshimitsu; Mochida, Kazuhiko

    2016-08-15

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes play important roles in the metabolism of exogenous compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A novel, full-length CYP gene (CYP4V30) was identified in the oligochaete Thalassodrilides sp. CYP4V30 mRNA expression was studied in worms exposed to PAH-polluted (Σ16PAHs; 37441ng/g dry weight) or unpolluted (Σ16PAHs; 19ng/g dry weight) sediment. CYP4V30 expression was much higher in worms exposed to contaminated sediments than in those exposed to unpolluted sediments at some temperatures (20 and 25°C) and exposure durations (11-fold increase at 20°C, 10-day exposure), but not at 15°C or other exposure durations (P<0.05). CYP4V30 mRNA expression was higher in the middle of the body than in the posterior (P<0.05). The variation in transcriptional response with exposure time, temperature, and body region indicates that these factors should be considered when monitoring marine sediment pollution. PMID:27251443

  9. Effect of Fe nanoparticle on growth and glycolipid biosurfactant production under solid state culture by marine Nocardiopsis sp. MSA13A

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron is an essential element in several pathways of microbial metabolism, and therefore low iron toxicity is expected on the usage of Fe nanoparticles (NPs). This study aims to determine the effect of Fe NPs on biosurfactant production by marine actinobacterium Nocardiopsis sp. MSA13A under solid state culture. Foam method was used in the production of Fe NPs which were long and fiber shaped in nature. Results The SEM observation showed non toxic nature of Fe NPs as no change in the morphology of the filamentous structure of Nocardiopsis MSA13A. The production of biosurfactant by Nocardiopsis MSA13A under solid state culture supplemented with Fe NPs increased to 80% over control. The biosurfactant produced by Nocardiopsis MSA13A was characterized as glycolipid derivative which effectively disrupted the pre-formed biofilm of Vibrio pathogen. Conclusion The use of metal NPs as supplement would reduce the impact of non-metallic ions of the metal salts in a fermentation process. This would ultimately useful to achieve greener production process for biosurfactants. The present results are first report on the optimization of biosurfactant production under SSC using Fe NPs. PMID:24885470

  10. Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), a new species of marine red algae from the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gavio, Brigitte; Reyes-Gómez, Viviana P; Wynne, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    In the Colombian Caribbean, the marine macroalgal flora of the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve has been little studied, despite its ecological importance. Historical records have reported only 201 macroalgae species within its area of almost 350,000 km2. However, recent surveys have shown a diversity of small algae previously overlooked. With the aim to determine the macroalgal diversity in the Reserve, we undertook field surveys in different ecosystems: coral reefs, seagrass beds, and rocky and sandy substrates, at different depths, from intertidal to 37 m. During these field surveys, we collected a small described species belonging to the genus Crouania (Callithamniaceae, Rhodophyta), Crouania pumila sp. nov. that is decribed in this paper. This new species was distinguished from other species of the genus by a distinctive suite of traits including its diminutive size (to only 3.5 mm in length), its decumbent, slightly calcified habit (epiphytic on other algae), its ramisympodial branching, the ecorticate main axes, and the elongate shape of the terminal cells of the cortical filaments. The observations were provided for both female (cystocarpic) and tetrasporangiate thalli; however, male thalli were not seen. Further studies have to be undertaken in this Reserve in order to carry out other macroalgal analysis and descriptions.

  11. Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), a new species of marine red algae from the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gavio, Brigitte; Reyes-Gómez, Viviana P; Wynne, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    In the Colombian Caribbean, the marine macroalgal flora of the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve has been little studied, despite its ecological importance. Historical records have reported only 201 macroalgae species within its area of almost 350,000 km2. However, recent surveys have shown a diversity of small algae previously overlooked. With the aim to determine the macroalgal diversity in the Reserve, we undertook field surveys in different ecosystems: coral reefs, seagrass beds, and rocky and sandy substrates, at different depths, from intertidal to 37 m. During these field surveys, we collected a small described species belonging to the genus Crouania (Callithamniaceae, Rhodophyta), Crouania pumila sp. nov. that is decribed in this paper. This new species was distinguished from other species of the genus by a distinctive suite of traits including its diminutive size (to only 3.5 mm in length), its decumbent, slightly calcified habit (epiphytic on other algae), its ramisympodial branching, the ecorticate main axes, and the elongate shape of the terminal cells of the cortical filaments. The observations were provided for both female (cystocarpic) and tetrasporangiate thalli; however, male thalli were not seen. Further studies have to be undertaken in this Reserve in order to carry out other macroalgal analysis and descriptions. PMID:24027904

  12. Thalassemys bruntrutana n. sp., a new coastal marine turtle from the Late Jurassic of Porrentruy (Switzerland), and the paleobiogeography of the Thalassemydidae

    PubMed Central

    Anquetin, Jérémy; Billon-Bruyat, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Swiss Jura Mountains are a key region for Late Jurassic eucryptodiran turtles. Already in the mid 19th century, the Solothurn Turtle Limestone (Solothurn, NW Switzerland) yielded a great amount of Kimmeridgian turtles that are traditionally referred to Plesiochelyidae, Thalassemydidae, and Eurysternidae. In the past few years, fossils of these coastal marine turtles were also abundantly discovered in the Kimmeridgian of the Porrentruy region (NW Switzerland). These findings include numerous sub-complete shells, out of which we present two new specimens of Thalassemys (Thalassemydidae) in this study. Methods. We compare the new material from Porrentruy to the type species Th. hugii, which is based on a well preserved specimen from the Solothurn Turtle Limestone (Solothurn, Switzerland). In order to improve our understanding of the paleogeographic distribution of Thalassemys, anatomical comparisons are extended to Thalassemys remains from other European countries, notably Germany and England. Results. While one of the two Thalassemys specimens from Porrentruy can be attributed to Th. hugii, the other specimen represents a new species, Th. bruntrutana n. sp. It differs from Th. hugii by several features: more elongated nuchal that strongly thickens anterolaterally; wider vertebral scales; proportionally longer plastron; broader and less inclined xiphiplastron; wider angle between scapular process and acromion process. Our results show that Th. hugii and Th. bruntrutana also occur simultaneously in the Kimmeridgian of Solothurn as well as in the Kimmeridgian of England (Kimmeridge Clay). This study is an important step towards a better understanding of the paleobiogeographic distribution of Late Jurassic turtles in Europe. PMID:26468437

  13. Anti-dormant mycobacterial activity and target molecule of melophlins, tetramic acid derivatives isolated from a marine sponge of Melophlus sp.

    PubMed

    Arai, Masayoshi; Yamano, Yoshi; Kamiya, Kentaro; Setiawan, Andi; Kobayashi, Motomasa

    2016-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, is a major world health problem that is responsible for the deaths of 1.5 million people each year. In addition, the requirement for long-term therapy to cure TB complicates treatment of the disease. One of the major reasons for the extended chemotherapeutic regimens and wide epidemicity of TB is that M. tuberculosis has the ability to persist in a dormant state. We therefore established a new screening system to search for substances with activity against dormant mycobacteria using M. smegmatis and M. bovis BCG cultivated in medium containing propionate as sole carbon source to induce dormancy. Subsequently, melophlins A (1), G (2), H (3), and I (4), tetramic acid derivatives, were re-discovered from the Indonesian marine sponge of Melophlus sp. as anti-dormant mycobacterial substances. Moreover, target analysis of melophlin A indicated that it targeted the BCG1083 protein of putative exopolyphosphatase and the BCG1321c protein of diadenosine 5',5‴-P(1),P(4)-tetraphosphate phosphorylase. PMID:27193014

  14. Determination of trace metal baseline values in Posidonia oceanica, Cystoseira sp., and other marine environmental biomonitors: a quality control method for a study in South Tyrrhenian coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Mecozzi, Mauro; Finoia, Maria Grazia

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we investigated Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile leaves and in the brown algae Cystoseira sp. sampled along a 280-km transect in the Tyrrhenian Sea, from the Ustica to Linosa Islands (Sicily, Italy) with the aim to determine their control charts (baseline levels). By applying the Johnson's (Biometrika 36:149-175, 1949) probabilistic method, we determined the metal concentration overlap ranges in a group of five biomonitors. Here, we propose the use of the indexes of bioaccumulation with respect to the lowest (L'i) and the highest (L i) extreme values of the overlap metal concentration ranges. These indexes allow the identification of the most opportune organism (or a suite of them) to better managing particular environmental conditions. Posidonia leaves have generally high L i indexes for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, and this suggests its use as biomonitor for baseline marine areas. Our results confirm the high aptitude of Patella as a good biomonitor for Cd levels in seawater. From this study, Ustica resulted with higher levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn than the other Sicilian Islands. PMID:25253055

  15. Thalassemys bruntrutana n. sp., a new coastal marine turtle from the Late Jurassic of Porrentruy (Switzerland), and the paleobiogeography of the Thalassemydidae.

    PubMed

    Püntener, Christian; Anquetin, Jérémy; Billon-Bruyat, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Swiss Jura Mountains are a key region for Late Jurassic eucryptodiran turtles. Already in the mid 19th century, the Solothurn Turtle Limestone (Solothurn, NW Switzerland) yielded a great amount of Kimmeridgian turtles that are traditionally referred to Plesiochelyidae, Thalassemydidae, and Eurysternidae. In the past few years, fossils of these coastal marine turtles were also abundantly discovered in the Kimmeridgian of the Porrentruy region (NW Switzerland). These findings include numerous sub-complete shells, out of which we present two new specimens of Thalassemys (Thalassemydidae) in this study. Methods. We compare the new material from Porrentruy to the type species Th. hugii, which is based on a well preserved specimen from the Solothurn Turtle Limestone (Solothurn, Switzerland). In order to improve our understanding of the paleogeographic distribution of Thalassemys, anatomical comparisons are extended to Thalassemys remains from other European countries, notably Germany and England. Results. While one of the two Thalassemys specimens from Porrentruy can be attributed to Th. hugii, the other specimen represents a new species, Th. bruntrutana n. sp. It differs from Th. hugii by several features: more elongated nuchal that strongly thickens anterolaterally; wider vertebral scales; proportionally longer plastron; broader and less inclined xiphiplastron; wider angle between scapular process and acromion process. Our results show that Th. hugii and Th. bruntrutana also occur simultaneously in the Kimmeridgian of Solothurn as well as in the Kimmeridgian of England (Kimmeridge Clay). This study is an important step towards a better understanding of the paleobiogeographic distribution of Late Jurassic turtles in Europe. PMID:26468437

  16. Cyclobacterium lianum sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from sediment of an oilfield in the South China Sea, and emended description of the genus Cyclobacterium.

    PubMed

    Ying, Jiao-Yan; Wang, Bao-Jun; Yang, Su-Sheng; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

    2006-12-01

    The marine bacterial strain HY9(T) was isolated from sediment from the South China Sea. Strain HY9(T) is aerobic, heterotrophic and rose-pigmented. The cells are non-motile and curved, i.e. ring-like or horseshoe-shaped. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain HY9(T) was determined and blast searches revealed that it possessed significant sequence similarities with respect to Cyclobacterium species (92.8-93.6 %). Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that strain HY9(T) was tightly clustered with members of the genus Cyclobacterium. The cellular morphology and chemotaxonomic and phenotypic properties of strain HY9(T) showed that it should be classified as a member of the genus Cyclobacterium. Significant evolutionary distances and a range of phenotypic features distinguished strain HY9(T) from previously described Cyclobacterium species. Hence, strain HY9(T) represents a novel species in the genus Cyclobacterium, for which the name Cyclobacterium lianum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HY9(T) (=CGMCC 1.6102(T)=JCM 14011(T)). On the basis of this study and previously described properties of Cyclobacterium species, an emended description of the genus Cyclobacterium is proposed.

  17. In silico molecular docking, preclinical evaluation of spiroindimicins A-D, lynamicin A and D isolated from deep marine sea derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 03032.

    PubMed

    Saurav, Kumar; Zhang, Wenjun; Saha, Subhasish; Zhang, Haibo; Li, Sumei; Zhang, Qingbo; Wu, Zhengchao; Zhang, Guangtao; Zhu, Yiguang; Verma, Gaurav

    2014-09-01

    The criteria used for successful drug discovery involves high throughput screening for preclinical evaluation and its interaction with target enzymes. In silico approach resulting in the creation of drug like library and identification of essential reactions and pathways spreads across several parts of metabolism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the preclinical property and interaction to various drug target enzymes for spiroindimicins A-D and lynamicin A and D isolated from deep marine sea derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 03032 with 7 selected drug target enzymes. The preclinical and molecular docking simulation was performed using In silico pharmacology and docking tool. Drug likeliness, ADME and toxicity testing findings suggested the compounds with oral drug candidate's probability. Interaction of isolated compounds against drug target enzymes was satisfactory with Spiroindimicins C, D and Lynamicin D emerging as most potent Topoisomerase II, Cathepsin K, Cytochrome P4503A4, Aromatase P450, protein kinase and histone deacetylase inhibitors. Our results suggest that In silico approach in drug discovery procedure in later stage of development can ease up making lead molecules library.

  18. DOS basics

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, P.

    1994-09-01

    DOS is an acronym for Disk Operating System. It is actually a set of programs that allows you to control your personal computer. DOS offers the capabilities to create and manage files; organize and maintain information placed on disks; use application programs such as WordPerfect, Lotus 123, Excel, Windows, etc. In addition, DOS provides the basic utilities needed to copy files from one area to another, delete files and list files. The latest version of DOS also offers more advanced features that include hard disk compression and memory management. Basic DOS commands are discussed.

  19. 2-n-Pentyl-4-Quinolinol Produced by a Marine Alteromonas sp. and Its Potential Ecological and Biogeochemical Roles†

    PubMed Central

    Long, Richard A.; Qureshi, Asfia; Faulkner, D. John; Azam, Farooq

    2003-01-01

    Bacterium-bacterium interactions occur at intimate spatial scales on the order of micrometers, but our knowledge of interactions at this level is rudimentary. Antagonism is a potential interaction in such microenvironments. To study the ecological role of antibiosis, we developed a model system involving an antibiotic-producing isolate (SWAT5) derived from a marine particle and its dominant antibiotic product, 2-n-pentyl-4-quinolinol (PQ). This system was used to address questions about the significance of this antibiotic for microbial ecology and carbon cycling on particles. We characterized the chemical and inhibitory properties of PQ in relation to the mechanisms used by particle-associated bacteria in interacting with particles and with other attached bacteria. PQ was produced by SWAT5 only on surfaces. When SWAT5 was grown in polysaccharide matrices, PQ diffused within the matrices but not into the surrounding seawater. SWAT5 might thus be able to generate a localized zone of high antibiotic concentration on particles suspended or sinking through seawater. Target bacterial respiration was most sensitive to PQ (75 nM), while inhibition of DNA synthesis, protein synthesis, and bacterial motility required higher (micromolar) PQ levels. The presence of PQ altered the composition of the bacterial community that colonized and developed in a model particle system. PQ also inhibited Synechococcus and phytoplankton growth. Our results suggest that antibiosis may significantly influence community composition and activities of attached bacterial and thus regulate the biogeochemical fate of particulate organic matter in the ocean. PMID:12514043

  20. New Isocoumarin Derivatives and Meroterpenoids from the Marine Sponge-Associated Fungus Aspergillus similanensis sp. nov. KUFA 0013

    PubMed Central

    Prompanya, Chadaporn; Dethoup, Tida; Bessa, Lucinda J.; Pinto, Madalena M. M.; Gales, Luís; Costa, Paulo M.; Silva, Artur M. S.; Kijjoa, Anake

    2014-01-01

    Two new isocoumarin derivatives, including a new 5-hydroxy-8-methyl-2H, 6H-pyrano[3,4-g]chromen-2,6-dione (1) and 6,8-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethylisocoumarin (2b), a new chevalone derivative, named chevalone E (3), and a new natural product pyripyropene S (6) were isolated together with 6, 8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin (2a), reticulol (2c), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, chevalone B, chevalone C, S14-95 (4), and pyripyropene E (5) from the ethyl acetate extract of the undescribed marine sponge-associated fungus Aspergillus similanensis KUFA 0013. The structures of the new compounds were established based on 1D and 2D NMR spectral analysis, and in the case of compound 3, X-ray analysis was used to confirm its structure and the absolute configuration of its stereogenic carbons. Compounds 1, 2a–c and 3–6 were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, and multidrug-resistant isolates from the environment. Chevalone E (3) was found to show synergism with the antibiotic oxacillin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). PMID:25317534

  1. New isocoumarin derivatives and meroterpenoids from the marine sponge-associated fungus Aspergillus similanensis sp. nov. KUFA 0013.

    PubMed

    Prompanya, Chadaporn; Dethoup, Tida; Bessa, Lucinda J; Pinto, Madalena M M; Gales, Luís; Costa, Paulo M; Silva, Artur M S; Kijjoa, Anake

    2014-10-01

    Two new isocoumarin derivatives, including a new 5-hydroxy-8-methyl-2H, 6H-pyrano[3,4-g]chromen-2,6-dione (1) and 6,8-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethylisocoumarin (2b), a new chevalone derivative, named chevalone E (3), and a new natural product pyripyropene S (6) were isolated together with 6, 8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin (2a), reticulol (2c), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, chevalone B, chevalone C, S14-95 (4), and pyripyropene E (5) from the ethyl acetate extract of the undescribed marine sponge-associated fungus Aspergillus similanensis KUFA 0013. The structures of the new compounds were established based on 1D and 2D NMR spectral analysis, and in the case of compound 3, X-ray analysis was used to confirm its structure and the absolute configuration of its stereogenic carbons. Compounds 1, 2a-c and 3-6 were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, and multidrug-resistant isolates from the environment. Chevalone E (3) was found to show synergism with the antibiotic oxacillin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). PMID:25317534

  2. Oleiphilaceae fam. nov., to include Oleiphilus messinensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel marine bacterium that obligately utilizes hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Golyshin, Peter N; Chernikova, Tatiana N; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Timmis, Kenneth N; Yakimov, Michail M

    2002-05-01

    A bacterial isolate, ME102T, was obtained from an n-hexadecane enrichment culture of seawater/sediment samples collected in the harbour of Messina (Italy). This gram-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacterium used a narrow spectrum of organic compounds, including aliphatic hydrocarbons, alkanoates and alkanoles, as carbon and energy sources. None of the sugars, organic acids or amino acids tested was used. During cultivation on n-alkanes as the sole source of carbon and energy, the cells formed a biofilm on the surface of the alkane droplets. Large-scale (sometimes >50% of the cell mass) intracellular accumulation of alkanoates occurred in cells adsorbed on the alkane surface and under nitrogen-limiting conditions. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that this isolate represents a distinct lineage in the gamma-Proteobacteria and has about 91% sequence identity to members of Marinobacter and Alcanivorax, the closest genera. Four different types of polar lipid could be detected, phosphatidyl glycerol, phosphatidyl ethylamine, phosphatidyl dimethylethylamine and lipids belonging to an unknown type of phospholipid (m/z between 861 and 879). The principal fatty acids in the polar lipid fatty acid profile were 16:0 and 16:1. The putative gene encoding the key enzyme of alkane catabolism, alkane hydroxylase (AlkB), has been cloned. The protein sequence of the putative AlkB of the isolate ME102T was related to the AlkB of Pseudomonas oleovorans and Alcanivorax borkumensis, showing about 60% sequence identity. On the basis of physiological studies and taking into account the distant phylogenetic position of isolate ME102T relative to previously described organisms, a novel genus and species is proposed, Oleiphilus messinensis gen. nov., sp. nov., within a new family, Oleiphilaceae fam. nov. Strain ME102T (= DSM 13489T = LMG 20357T) is the type and only strain of O. messinensis. PMID:12054256

  3. Cloning and characterization of a new κ-carrageenase gene from marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. QY203

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoyan; Li, Shangyong; Yang, Xuemei; Yu, Wengong; Han, Feng

    2015-12-01

    κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides exhibit various biological activities. Enzymatic degradation by κ-carrageenase is safe and controllable. Therefore, κ-carrageenases have captured more and more attentions. In this study, a κ-carrageenase encoding gene, cgkX, was cloned from Pseudoalteromonas sp. QY203 with degenerate and inverse PCR. It comprised an ORF of 1194 bp in length, encoding a protein with 397 amino acid residues. CgkX is a new member of glycoside hydrolase family 16. The deduced amino acid sequence shared a high similarity with CgkX of Pseudoalteromonas κ-carrageenase; however, the recombinant CgkX showed different biochemical characteristics. The recombinant enzyme was most active at pH 7.0 and 55°C in the presence of 300 mmol L-1 NaCl. It was stable in a broad range of acidity ranging from pH 3.0 to pH 10.0 when temperature was below 40°C. More than 80% of its activity was maintained after being incubated at pH 3.6-10.0 and 4°C for 24 h. CgkX retained more than 90% of activity after being incubated at 40°C for 1 h. EDTA and SDS (1 mmol L-1) did not inhibit its activity. CgkX hydrolyzed κ-carrageenan into disaccharide and tetrasaccharide as an endo-cleaver. All these characteristics demonstrated that CgkX is applicable to both κ-carrageenan oligosaccharide production and κ-carrageenase structure-function research.

  4. Burkholderia insulsa sp. nov., a facultatively chemolithotrophic bacterium isolated from an arsenic-rich shallow marine hydrothermal system.

    PubMed

    Rusch, Antje; Islam, Shaer; Savalia, Pratixa; Amend, Jan P

    2015-01-01

    Enrichment cultures inoculated with hydrothermally influenced nearshore sediment from Papua New Guinea led to the isolation of an arsenic-tolerant, acidophilic, facultatively aerobic bacterial strain designated PNG-April(T). Cells of this strain were Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, motile and did not form spores. Strain PNG-April(T) grew at temperatures between 4 °C and 40 °C (optimum 30-37 °C), at pH 3.5 to 8.3 (optimum pH 5-6) and in the presence of up to 2.7% NaCl (optimum 0-1.0%). Both arsenate and arsenite were tolerated up to concentrations of at least 0.5 mM. Metabolism in strain PNG-April(T) was strictly respiratory. Heterotrophic growth occurred with O2 or nitrate as electron acceptors, and aerobic lithoautotrophic growth was observed with thiosulfate or nitrite as electron donors. The novel isolate was capable of N2-fixation. The respiratory quinones were Q-8 and Q-7. Phylogenetically, strain PNG-April(T) belongs to the genus Burkholderia and shares the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the type strains of Burkholderia fungorum (99.8%), Burkholderia phytofirmans (98.8%), Burkholderia caledonica (98.4%) and Burkholderia sediminicola (98.4%). Differences from these related species in several physiological characteristics (lipid composition, carbohydrate utilization, enzyme profiles) and DNA-DNA hybridization suggested the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Burkholderia, for which we propose the name Burkholderia insulsa sp. nov. The type strain is PNG-April(T) ( = DSM 28142(T) = LMG 28183(T)).

  5. Optimization of culture conditions and medium composition for the marine algicidal bacterium Alteromonas sp. DH46 by uniform design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jing; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yun; Wang, Guizhong; Zheng, Tianling

    2013-09-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have led to extensive ecological and environmental issues and huge economic losses. Various HAB control techniques have been developed, and biological methods have been paid more attention. Algicidal bacteria is a general designation for bacteria which inhibit algal growth in a direct or indirect manner, and kill or damage the algal cells. A metabolite which is strongly toxic to the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense was produced by strain DH46 of the alga-lysing bacterium Alteromonas sp. The culture conditions were optimized using a single-factor test method. Factors including carbon source, nitrogen source, temperature, initial pH value, rotational speed and salinity were studied. The results showed that the cultivation of the bacteria at 28°C and 180 r min-1 with initial pH 7 and 30 salt contcentration favored both the cell growth and the lysing effect of strain DH46. The optimal medium composition for strain DH46 was determined by means of uniform design experimentation, and the most important components influencing the cell density were tryptone, yeast extract, soluble starch, NaNO3 and MgSO4. When the following culture medium was used (tryptone 14.0g, yeast extract 1.63g, soluble starch 5.0 g, NaNO3 1.6 g, MgSO4 2.3 g in 1L), the largest bacterial dry weight (7.36 g L-1) was obtained, which was an enhancement of 107% compared to the initial medium; and the algal lysis rate was as high as 98.4% which increased nearly 10% after optimization.

  6. Hydrogen production from organic substrates in an aerobic nitrogen-fixing marine unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain Miami BG 043511

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y.H.; Mitsui, A. )

    1994-11-20

    Synechococcus sp. strain Miami BG 043511 exhibits very high H[sub 2] photoproduction from water, but the H[sub 2] photo-production capability is lost rapidly with the age of the batch culture. The decrease of the capability coincides with the decrease of cellular glucose content. However, H[sub 2] photoproduction capability can be restored by the addition of organic substrates. Among 40 organic compounds tested, carbohydrates such as glucose, fructose, maltose, and sucrose were effective electron donors. Among organic acids tested, only pyruvate was an effective electron donor. Among alcohols tested, glycerol was a good electron donor, whereas ethanol was a poor but positive electron donor. These results demonstrate that this unicellular cyanobacterium exhibits a wide substrate specificity for H[sub 2] photoproduction but has a different substrate specificity compared to photosynthetic bacteria. The maximum rates of H[sub 2] photoproduction from a 6-day-old batch culture with 25 mmol of pyruvate, glucose, maltose, sucrose, fructose, and glycerol were 1.11, 0.62, 0.05, 0.47, 0.30, and 0.39 [mu]moles per mg cell dry weight per hour respectively. Therefore, this cyanobacterial strain may have a potential significance in removing organic materials from the wastewater and simultaneously transforming them to H[sub 2] gas, a pollution-free energy. The activity of nitrogenase, which catalyzes hydrogen production, completely disappeared when intracellular glucose was used up, but it could be restored by the addition of organic substrates such as glucose and pyruvate.

  7. Physiological and Genetic Description of Dissimilatory Perchlorate Reduction by the Novel Marine Bacterium Arcobacter sp. Strain CAB

    PubMed Central

    Carlström, Charlotte I.; Wang, Ouwei; Melnyk, Ryan A.; Bauer, Stefan; Lee, Joyce; Engelbrektson, Anna; Coates, John D.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT A novel dissimilatory perchlorate-reducing bacterium (DPRB), Arcobacter sp. strain CAB, was isolated from a marina in Berkeley, CA. Phylogenetically, this halophile was most closely related to Arcobacter defluvii strain SW30-2 and Arcobacter ellisii. With acetate as the electron donor, strain CAB completely reduced perchlorate (ClO4−) or chlorate (ClO3−) [collectively designated (per)chlorate] to innocuous chloride (Cl−), likely using the perchlorate reductase (Pcr) and chlorite dismutase (Cld) enzymes. When grown with perchlorate, optimum growth was observed at 25 to 30°C, pH 7, and 3% NaCl. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) preparations were dominated by free-swimming straight rods with 1 to 2 polar flagella per cell. Strain CAB utilized a variety of organic acids, fructose, and hydrogen as electron donors coupled to (per)chlorate reduction. Further, under anoxic growth conditions strain CAB utilized the biogenic oxygen produced as a result of chlorite dismutation to oxidize catechol via the meta-cleavage pathway of aerobic catechol degradation and the catechol 2,3-dioxygenase enzyme. In addition to (per)chlorate, oxygen and nitrate were alternatively used as electron acceptors. The 3.48-Mb draft genome encoded a distinct perchlorate reduction island (PRI) containing several transposases. The genome lacks the pcrC gene, which was previously thought to be essential for (per)chlorate reduction, and appears to use an unrelated Arcobacter c-type cytochrome to perform the same function. PMID:23695836

  8. Marinobacter zhanjiangensis sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from sea water of a tidal flat of the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Da-Chun; Chen, Yi-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Tang, Shu-Kun; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Tan, Zhou-Cai; Li, Wen-Jun; Cui, Xiao-Long

    2009-10-01

    A novel Gram-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-sporulating, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, designated strain JSM 078120(T), was isolated from sea water collected from a tidal flat of Naozhou Island, South China Sea. Growth occurred with 1-15% (w/v) total salts (optimum, 2-4%), at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.5) and at 4-35 degrees C (optimum, 25-30 degrees C). The major cellular fatty acids were C(18:1) omega9c, C(16:0), C(12:0) 3-OH and C(16:1) omega7c. The predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone Q-9, and the genomic DNA G + C content was 60.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JSM 078120(T) should be assigned to the genus Marinobacter, being related most closely to the type strains of Marinobacter segnicrescens (sequence similarity 98.2%), Marinobacter bryozoorum (97.9%) and Marinobacter gudaonensis (97.6%). The sequence similarities between the novel isolate and the type strains of other recognized Marinobacter species ranged from 96.7 (with Marinobacter salsuginis) to 93.3% (with Marinobacter litoralis). The levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain JSM 078120(T) and the type strains of M. segnicrescens, M. bryozoorum and M. gudaonensis were 25.3, 20.6 and 18.8%, respectively. The combination of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data supported the view that strain JSM 078120(T) represents a novel species of the genus Marinobacter, for which the name Marinobacter zhanjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JSM 078120(T) (= CCTCC AB 208029(T) = DSM 21077(T) = KCTC 22280(T)).

  9. Oceanisphaera profunda sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from deep-sea sediment, and emended description of the genus Oceanisphaera.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhong; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Su, Hai-Nan; Yu, Zi-Chao; Liu, Chang; Li, Hai; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Song, Xiao-Yan; Xie, Bin-Bin; Qin, Qi-Long; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Shi, Mei; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2014-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, oxidase- and catalase-positive, flagellated, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated SM1222(T), was isolated from the deep-sea sediment of the South China Sea. The strain grew at 4-35 °C and with 0.5-8 % NaCl (w/v). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SM1222(T) was affiliated with the genus Oceanisphaera in the class Gammaproteobacteria. It shared the highest sequence similarity with the type strain of Oceanisphaera ostreae (96.8 %) and 95.4-96.6 % sequence similarities with type strains of other species of the genus Oceanisphaera with validly published names. Strain SM1222(T) contained summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH), C18 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0, C12 : 0 and summed feature 2 (C14 : 0 3-OH and/or iso-C16 : 1 I) as the major fatty acids and ubiquinone Q-8 as the predominant respiratory quinone. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain SM1222(T) was 51.5 mol%. On the basis of the evidence presented in this study, strain SM1222(T) represents a novel species of the genus Oceanisphaera, for which the name Oceanisphaera profunda sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Oceanisphaera profunda is SM1222(T) ( = CCTCC AB 2013241(T) = KCTC 32510(T)). An emended description of the genus Oceanisphaera Romanenko et al. 2003 emend. Choi et al. 2011 is also proposed.

  10. Analysis of the Astronomical Concepts Presented by Teachers of Science, Physics, and Mathematics of São José dos Campos / SP Municipality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira Gonzaga, Edson; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this work is to conduct a survey of alternative conceptions about the basic concepts of Astronomy from schoolteachers in the City of São José dos Campos. This study covers the the state-run education system and complies with legal documents related to the curriculum of educational systems, such as the Curriculum of São Paulo State and the Parameters of the National Curriculum (PCN). Alternative conceptions, mentioned in Langhi (2009) as very important, were used, because it is believed that if a student can learn these concepts before the methodological intervention, it is possible to prepare contextualized presentations for teachers, and consequently students, to compare what they already know with the new information they obtain in the sessions at the digital mobile planetarium (DMP) of the Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul. Afterwards, they may discuss in a forum, in the form of debate, seeking to draw conclusions relevant to the topic, and transmitting the same to students in Basic Education (EB). This is a case study with a quantitative survey and a qualitative analysis of data on astronomical concepts collected through two questionnaires, one before and one after the intervention, respecting the implementation period of the study,- here called methodological intervention of content presentations at the mobile planetarium - and on respective discussions.

  11. Techniques of remote sensing applied to the environmental analysis of part of an aquifer located in the São José dos Campos Region sp, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Mariana Affonseca; Dos Anjos, Célio Eustáquio

    2003-05-01

    The anthropogenic activity on the surface can modify and introduce new mechanisms of recharging the groundwater system, modifying the tax, the frequency and the quality of recharge of underground waters. The understanding of these mechanisms and the correct evaluation of such modifications are fundamental in determining the vulnerability of groundwater contamination. The groundwater flow of the South Paraíba Compartment, in the region of São José dos Campos, São Paulo, is directly related to structural features of the Taubaté Basin and, therefore, the analysis of its behaviour enhances the understanding of tectonic structure. The methodology adopted for this work consists in pre-processing and processing of the satellite images, visual interpretation of HSI products, field work and data integration. The derivation of the main structural features was based on visual analysis of the texture elements of drainage, and the relief in sedimentary and crystalline rocks. Statistical analysis of the feature densities and the metric-geometric relations between the analysed elements have been conducted. The crystalline rocks, on which the sediments were laying, conditions and controls the structural arrangement of sedimentary formations. The formation of the South Paraíba Grabén is associated with Cenozoic distensive movement which reactivated old features of crust weakness and generated previous cycles with normal characteristics. The environmental analysis is based on the integration of the existing methodology to characterise vulnerability of an universal pollutant and density fracture zone. The digital integration was processed using GIS (Geographic Information System) to delineate five defined vulnerability classes. The hydrogeological settings were analysed in each thematic map and, using fuzzy logic, an index for each different vulnerability class was compiled. Evidence maps could be combined in a series of steps using map algebra.

  12. Dethiosulfatibacter aminovorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel thiosulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from coastal marine sediment via sulfate-reducing enrichment with Casamino acids.

    PubMed

    Takii, Susumu; Hanada, Satoshi; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Ueno, Yutaka; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Ibe, Akihiro; Matsuura, Katsumi

    2007-10-01

    A sulfate-reducing enrichment culture originating from coastal marine sediment of the eutrophic Tokyo Bay, Japan, was successfully established with Casamino acids as a substrate. A thiosulfate reducer, strain C/G2(T), was isolated from the enrichment culture after further enrichment with glutamate. Cells of strain C/G2(T) were non-motile rods (0.6-0.8 microm x 2.2-4.8 microm) and were found singly or in pairs and sometimes in short chains. Spores were not formed. Cells of strain C/G2(T) stained Gram-negatively, despite possessing Gram-positive cell walls. The optimum temperature for growth was 28-30 degrees C, the optimum pH was around 7.8 and the optimum salt concentration was 20-30 g l(-1). Lactate, pyruvate, serine, cysteine, threonine, glutamate, histidine, lysine, arginine, Casamino acids, peptone and yeast extract were fermented as single substrates and no sugar was used as a fermentative substrate. A Stickland reaction was observed with some pairs of amino acids. Fumarate, alanine, proline, phenylalanine, tryptophan, glutamine and aspartate were utilized only in the presence of thiosulfate. Strain C/G2(T) fermented glutamate to H2, CO2, acetate and propionate. Thiosulfate and elemental sulfur were reduced to sulfide. Sulfate, sulfite and nitrate were not utilized as electron acceptors. The growth of strain C/G2(T) on Casamino acids or glutamate was enhanced by co-culturing with Desulfovibrio sp. isolated from the original mixed culture enriched with Casamino acids. The DNA G+C content of strain C/G2(T) was 41.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain C/G2(T) formed a distinct cluster with species of the genus Sedimentibacter. The closest relative was Sedimentibacter hydroxybenzoicus (with a gene sequence similarity of 91 %). On the basis of its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, strain C/G2(T) (=JCM 13356(T)=NBRC 101112(T)=DSM 17477(T)) is proposed as representing a new genus and novel species, Dethiosulfatibacter

  13. Pseudofulvibacter gastropodicola sp. nov., isolated from a marine conch and emended descriptions of the genus Pseudofulvibacter Yoon et al. 2013 and Pseudofulvibacter geojedonensis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sung-Hyun; Seo, Hyun-Seok; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Sang-Jin; Kyoung Kwon, Kae

    2016-01-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and non-motile marine bacterium, designated MEBiC08749T, was isolated from a marine conch collected at Samcheok Port in the East Sea, Korea (also known as the Sea of Japan). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain MEBiC08749T shared highest similarity with Pseudofulvibacter geojedonensis YCS-9T (94.9 %). Growth was observed at 5-31 °C (optimum, 25 °C), at pH 6.0-8.5 (optimum, pH 7.5) and with 0-6 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2.5 %). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c) and summed feature 9 (comprising 10-methyl C16 : 0 and/or iso-C17 : 1ω9c). The DNA G+C content was 30 mol%. The only respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6 (MK-6). Phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified lipids and two unidentified aminolipids were detected as major polar lipids. Several phenotypic characteristics, such as production of acetoin, activity of cystine arylamidase, utilization of some carbohydrates, organic acids and amino acids, differentiated strain MEBiC08749T from P. geojedonensis KCTC 23884T. On the basis of data from this polyphasic taxonomic study, strain MEBiC08749T should be classified as representing a novel species in the genus Pseudofulvibacter, for which the name Pseudofulvibacter gastropodicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MEBiC08749T ( = KCCM 43046T = JCM 30369T). Emended descriptions of the genus PseudofulvibacterYoon et al. 2013 and of Pseudofulvibacter geojedonensis are also given.

  14. The effect of Ca2+ ions and ionic strength on Mn(II) oxidation by spores of the marine Bacillus sp. SG-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Tebo, Bradley M.

    2013-01-01

    Manganese(IV) oxides, believed to form primarily through microbial activities, are extremely important mineral phases in marine environments where they scavenge a variety of trace elements and thereby control their distributions. The presence of various ions common in seawater are known to influence Mn oxide mineralogy yet little is known about the effect of these ions on the kinetics of bacterial Mn(II) oxidation and Mn oxide formation. We examined factors affecting bacterial Mn(II) oxidation by spores of the marine Bacillus sp. strain SG-1 in natural and artificial seawater of varying ionic conditions. Ca2+ concentration dramatically affected Mn(II) oxidation, while Mg2+, Sr2+, K+, Na+ and NO3- ions had no effect. The rate of Mn(II) oxidation at 10 mM Ca2+ (seawater composition) was four or five times that without Ca2+. The relationship between Ca2+ content and oxidation rate demonstrates that the equilibrium constant is small (on the order of 0.1) and the binding coefficient is 0.5. The pH optimum for Mn(II) oxidation changed depending on the amount of Ca2+ present, suggesting that Ca2+ exerts a direct effect on the enzyme perhaps as a stabilizing bridge between polypeptide components. We also examined the effect of varying concentrations of NaCl or KNO3 (0-2000 mM) on the kinetics of Mn(II) oxidation in solutions containing 10 mM Ca2+. Mn(II) oxidation was unaffected by changes in ionic strength (I) below 0.2, but it was inhibited by increasing salt concentrations above this value. Our results suggest that the critical coagulation concentration is around 200 mM of salt (I = ca. 0.2), and that the ionic strength of seawater (I > 0.2) accelerates the precipitation of Mn oxides around the spores. Under these conditions, the aggregation of Mn oxides reduces the supply of dissolved O2 and/or Mn2+ and inhibits the Mn(II) → Mn(III) step controlling the enzymatic oxidation of Mn(II). Our results suggest that the hardness and ionic strength of the aquatic environment

  15. Pseudofulvibacter gastropodicola sp. nov., isolated from a marine conch and emended descriptions of the genus Pseudofulvibacter Yoon et al. 2013 and Pseudofulvibacter geojedonensis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sung-Hyun; Seo, Hyun-Seok; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Sang-Jin; Kyoung Kwon, Kae

    2016-01-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and non-motile marine bacterium, designated MEBiC08749T, was isolated from a marine conch collected at Samcheok Port in the East Sea, Korea (also known as the Sea of Japan). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain MEBiC08749T shared highest similarity with Pseudofulvibacter geojedonensis YCS-9T (94.9 %). Growth was observed at 5-31 °C (optimum, 25 °C), at pH 6.0-8.5 (optimum, pH 7.5) and with 0-6 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2.5 %). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c) and summed feature 9 (comprising 10-methyl C16 : 0 and/or iso-C17 : 1ω9c). The DNA G+C content was 30 mol%. The only respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6 (MK-6). Phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified lipids and two unidentified aminolipids were detected as major polar lipids. Several phenotypic characteristics, such as production of acetoin, activity of cystine arylamidase, utilization of some carbohydrates, organic acids and amino acids, differentiated strain MEBiC08749T from P. geojedonensis KCTC 23884T. On the basis of data from this polyphasic taxonomic study, strain MEBiC08749T should be classified as representing a novel species in the genus Pseudofulvibacter, for which the name Pseudofulvibacter gastropodicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MEBiC08749T ( = KCCM 43046T = JCM 30369T). Emended descriptions of the genus PseudofulvibacterYoon et al. 2013 and of Pseudofulvibacter geojedonensis are also given. PMID:26537663

  16. Abyssicoccus albus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Staphylococcaceae isolated from marine sediment of the Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhao; Yuan, Chang-Guo; Xiao, Min; Tian, Xin-Peng; Khan, Inam-Ullah; Kim, Chang-Jin; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-08-01

    A Gram-stain positive, aerobic, non-motile, asporogenous, coccoid shaped bacterium, designated YIM M12140(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from the Indian Ocean. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain YIM M12140(T) forms a separate clade within the family Staphylococcaceae. Strain YIM M12140(T) shares high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Macrococcus brunensis DSM 19358(T) (92.9 %). The isolate was found to grow at 0-10 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2-3 %), pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 8.0) and temperature 5-40 °C (optimum, 28 °C). The polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified aminophospholipid and two unidentified polar lipids. The major cellular fatty acids of the strain were identified as anteiso-C15:0, -C17:0, iso-C16:0, anteiso-C19:0 and C20:0. The respiratory menaquinones were found to be MK-6 (94 %) and MK-7 (6 %). The cell wall amino acids were found to contain Lys, Ala, Glu, Gly, Asp, Ser and Thr. Whole cell sugars were identified as mannose, ribose, rhamnose, glucose, galactose and xylose. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain YIM M12140(T) was determined to be 42.4 mol %. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic data and phylogenetic analysis, it is proposed that strain YIM M12140(T) represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Staphylococcaceae, for which the name Abyssicoccus albus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM M12140(T) (= DSM 29158(T) = CCTCC AB 2014213(T)).

  17. Ochrovirga pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel agar-lytic marine bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from a seaweed.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young-Kyung; Kim, Ji Hyung; Kim, Jennifer Jooyoun; Yang, Sung-Hyun; Ye, Bo-Ram; Heo, Soo-Jin; Hyun, Jung-Ho; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Park, Heung-Sik; Kang, Do-Hyung; Oh, Chulhong

    2014-10-01

    A strain designated as S85(T) was isolated from a seaweed collected from coastal area of Chuuk State in Micronesia. The strain was gram-negative, rod-shaped, and non-motile and formed yellow colonies on the SWY agar (0.2 % yeast extract and 1.5 % agar in seawater) and Marine agar 2216. The strain grew at pH 5-9 (optimum, pH 8), at 15-40 °C (optimum, 25-28 °C), and with 1-9 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 3 %). The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain S85(T) was related to Lutibacter litoralis CL-TF09(T) and Maritimimonas rapanae A31(T) with 91.4 % and with 90.5 % similarity, respectively. The dominant fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C15:0 3-OH and iso-C17:0 3-OH, C16:0 3-OH and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH). The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-6. The DNA G+C content of the type strain was 34.6 mol %. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, an unknown glycolipid and two unknown polar lipids. Based on this polyphasic taxonomic data, strain S85(T) stands for a novel species of a new genus, and we propose the name Ochrovirga pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of O. pacifica is S85(T) (=KCCM 90106 =JCM 18327(T)).

  18. Vibrio panuliri sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus and transfer of Vibrio ponticus from Scophthalmi clade to the newly proposed Ponticus clade.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Prabla; Poddar, Abhijit; Schumann, Peter; Das, Subrata K

    2014-12-01

    A novel marine bacterium, strain LBS2(T) was isolated from eggs carried on pleopods of the spiny lobster collected from Andaman Sea. Heterotrophic growth occurred at 1-7% NaCl. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity revealed the strain LBS2(T) belonged to the genus Vibrio and showed above 97% similarity with eight type strains of the genus Vibrio. Multilocus analysis based on ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH recA, rpoA, and topA revealed LBS2(T) formed a separate cluster with Vibrio ponticus DSM 16217(T) with 89.8% multilocus gene sequence similarity. However, strain LBS2(T) is distantly related with other members of the Scophthalmi clade in terms of 16S rRNA signatures, phenotypic variations and multilocus gene sequence similarity, for which we propose LBS2(T) belongs to a new clade i.e. Ponticus clade with V. ponticus DSM 16217(T) as the representative type strain of the clade. DNA-DNA homologies between strain LBS2(T) and closely related strains were well below 70%. DNA G + C content was 45.3 mol%. On the basis of our polyphasic study, strain LBS2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio panuliri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LBS2(T) (= JCM 19500(T) = DSM 27724(T) = LMG 27902(T)).

  19. Bacillus mesophilus sp. nov., an alginate-degrading bacterium isolated from a soil sample collected from an abandoned marine solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-Xia; Liu, Guo-Hong; Liu, Bo; Chen, Guan-Jun; Du, Zong-Jun

    2016-07-01

    A novel Gram-stain positive, endospore-forming bacterium, designated SA4(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from an abandoned marine solar saltern at Wendeng, Shandong Province, PR China. Cells were observed to be rod shaped, alginase positive, catalase positive and motile. The strain was found to grow at temperatures ranging from 15 to 40 °C (optimum 35 °C), and pH 5.0-11.0 (optimum pH 8.0) with 0-7.0 % (w/v) NaCl concentration (optimum NaCl 3.0 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain SA4(T) belongs to the genus Bacillus and exhibits 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 96.6, 96.5, 96.3 and 96.2 % with Bacillus horikoshii DSM 8719(T), Bacillus acidicola 105-2(T), Bacillus shackletonii LMG 18435(T) and Bacillus pocheonensis Gsoil 420(T), respectively. The menaquinone was identified as MK-7 and the major polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major fatty acids detected were anteiso-C15:0 (22.3 %), iso-C15:0 (22.6 %), iso-C16:0 (14.8 %) and iso-C14:0 (14.7 %). The DNA G+C content was determined to be 42.4 mol %. Phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic properties clearly indicated that isolate SA4(T) represents a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus mesophius sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SA4(T) (=DSM 101000(T)=CCTCC AB 2015209(T)).

  20. Survival, stress resistance, and alterations and protein expression in the marine Vibrio sp. strain S14 during starvation for different individual nutrients

    SciTech Connect

    Nystroem, T.; Olsson, R.M.; Kjelleberg, S. )

    1992-01-01

    The response of the marine Vibrio sp. strain S14 to starvation for carbon, nitrogen, or phosphorus and to simultaneous depletion of all these nutrients (multiple-nutrient starvation) was examined with respect to survival, stress resistance, quantitative and qualitative alterations in protein and RNA synthesis, and the induction of the stringent control. Of the conditions tested, carbon starvation and multiple-nutrient starvation both promoted long-term starvation resistance and a rapid induction of the stringent control, as deduced from the kinetics of RNA synthesis. Carbon- and multiple-nutrient-starved cells were also found to become increasingly resistant to heat, UV, near-UV, and CdCl{sub 2} stress. Nitrogen- and phosphorus-starved cells demonstrated a poor ability to survive in the presence of carbon and did not develop a marked resistance to the stresses examined. The carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus starvation stimulons consisted of about 20 proteins each, while simultaneous starvation for all the nutrients elicited an increased synthesis of 42 polypeptides. Nine common proteins were found to be induced regardless of the starvation condition used and were tentatively termed general starvation proteins. It was also demonstrated that the total number of proteins induced in response to multiple-nutrient starvation was not a predictable sum of the different individual starvation stimulons. Multiple-nutrient starvation induced 14 protons which were not detected at increased levels of expression in response to individual starvation conditions. Furthermore, four out of five phosphorus starvation-specific polypeptides were not induced during simultaneous starvation for phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon.

  1. PTP1B Inhibitory and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Secondary Metabolites Isolated from the Marine-Derived Fungus Penicillium sp. JF-55

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Sung; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Ko, Wonmin; Kim, Kyoung-Su; Sohn, Jae Hak; Kang, Myeong-Suk; Ahn, Jong Seog; Kim, Youn-Chul; Oh, Hyuncheol

    2013-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) plays a major role in the negative regulation of insulin signaling, and is thus considered as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetes. Bioassay-guided investigation of the methylethylketone extract of marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp. JF-55 cultures afforded a new PTP1B inhibitory styrylpyrone-type metabolite named penstyrylpyrone (1), and two known metabolites, anhydrofulvic acid (2) and citromycetin (3). Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited PTP1B activity in a dose-dependent manner, and kinetic analyses of PTP1B inhibition suggested that these compounds inhibited PTP1B activity in a competitive manner. In an effort to gain more biological potential of the isolated compounds, the anti-inflammatory effects of compounds 1–3 were also evaluated. Among the tested compounds, only compound 1 inhibited the production of NO and PGE2, due to the inhibition of the expression of iNOS and COX-2. Penstyrylpyrone (1) also reduced TNF-α and IL-1β production, and these anti-inflammatory effects were shown to be correlated with the suppression of the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB-α, NF-κB nuclear translocation, and NF-κB DNA binding activity. In addition, using inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), an inhibitor of HO-1, it was verified that the inhibitory effects of penstyrylpyrone (1) on the pro-inflammatory mediators and NF-κB DNA binding activity were associated with the HO-1 expression. Therefore, these results suggest that penstyrylpyrone (1) suppresses PTP1B activity, as well as the production of pro-inflammatory mediators via NF-κB pathway, through expression of anti-inflammatory HO-1. PMID:23612372

  2. Global diversity of two widespread, colony-forming diatoms of the marine plankton, Chaetoceros socialis (syn. C. radians) and Chaetoceros gelidus sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Chamnansinp, Atchaneey; Li, Yang; Lundholm, Nina; Moestrup, Øjvind

    2013-12-01

    Marine phytoplankton samples containing diatoms of the Chaetoceros socialis group were collected from Thailand, China, Denmark, and Greenland, and cells were isolated into culture for light and electron microscopy and DNA sequencing of D1-D3 of the LSU rDNA. Species of this lineage are characterized by three short and one long setae extending from each cell, the long setae from several cells joining into a common center to form large colonies, which are sometimes visible with the naked eye. Phylogenetic analyses including sequences from other parts of the world revealed segregation into three groups. Most sequences fell into two large clades, one comprising material from cold waters, whereas the other contained material from warmer waters. Strain CCMP 172 from the Strait of Georgia, Washington State, USA, formed a separate group. The warm-water species included Chinese and Thai material and therefore probably also material from the type locality of C. socialis, Hong Kong. It is characterized by all setae being covered by spines and the setae extending from the valve at some distance from the margin. In the resting spores, both valves are ornamented with spines. The cold-water material is characterized by three spiny and one mostly smooth long setae, and the setae extend from the valve near the margin. Both valves of the resting spore are smooth. This material is described as C. gelidus sp. nov. C. radians, described from the Baltic in 1894, is considered a synonym of C. socialis. CCMP172 is in many ways intermediate and probably constitutes a separate species. The published evidence on this globally distributed and sometimes bloom-forming group of species indicates higher species diversity than presently thought.

  3. Thalassotalea marina sp. nov., isolated from a marine recirculating aquaculture system, reclassification of Thalassomonas eurytherma as Thalassotalea eurytherma comb. nov. and emended description of the genus Thalassotalea.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ting-Ting; Liu, Ying; Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Hong-Can; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacterium, strain QBLM2T, was isolated from rearing water of a marine recirculating aquaculture system in Tianjin, China. Its taxonomic position was investigated through a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain QBLM2T were non-spore-forming rods, motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Positive for oxidase and catalase. Growth occurred at 15-40 °C (optimum 30 °C), at pH 6.5-10.5 (optimum pH 7.5-8.5) and in the presence of 0-5.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 3 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain QBLM2T formed a distinct lineage within the genus Thalassotalea and exhibited sequence similarities of 94.5-96.3 % to members of the genus Thalassotalea. The predominant fatty acids (>10 %) were C17 : 1ω8c and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. Ubiquinone 8 (Q-8) was the major ubiquinone. The DNA G+C content was 37.1 mol%. Based on the data above, strain QBLM2T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Thalassotalea, for which the name Thalassotalea marina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is QBLM2T ( = CGMCC 1.12814T = KCTC 42731T). Phylogenetic analyses indicated that Thalassomonas eurytherma Za6a-12T fell within the genus Thalassotalea, so it is reclassified as Thalassotalea eurytherma comb. nov. and the description of the genus Thalassotalea is emended.

  4. Abyssicoccus albus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Staphylococcaceae isolated from marine sediment of the Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhao; Yuan, Chang-Guo; Xiao, Min; Tian, Xin-Peng; Khan, Inam-Ullah; Kim, Chang-Jin; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-08-01

    A Gram-stain positive, aerobic, non-motile, asporogenous, coccoid shaped bacterium, designated YIM M12140(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from the Indian Ocean. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain YIM M12140(T) forms a separate clade within the family Staphylococcaceae. Strain YIM M12140(T) shares high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Macrococcus brunensis DSM 19358(T) (92.9 %). The isolate was found to grow at 0-10 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2-3 %), pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 8.0) and temperature 5-40 °C (optimum, 28 °C). The polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified aminophospholipid and two unidentified polar lipids. The major cellular fatty acids of the strain were identified as anteiso-C15:0, -C17:0, iso-C16:0, anteiso-C19:0 and C20:0. The respiratory menaquinones were found to be MK-6 (94 %) and MK-7 (6 %). The cell wall amino acids were found to contain Lys, Ala, Glu, Gly, Asp, Ser and Thr. Whole cell sugars were identified as mannose, ribose, rhamnose, glucose, galactose and xylose. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain YIM M12140(T) was determined to be 42.4 mol %. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic data and phylogenetic analysis, it is proposed that strain YIM M12140(T) represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Staphylococcaceae, for which the name Abyssicoccus albus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM M12140(T) (= DSM 29158(T) = CCTCC AB 2014213(T)). PMID:27272908

  5. Vibrio panuliri sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus and transfer of Vibrio ponticus from Scophthalmi clade to the newly proposed Ponticus clade.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Prabla; Poddar, Abhijit; Schumann, Peter; Das, Subrata K

    2014-12-01

    A novel marine bacterium, strain LBS2(T) was isolated from eggs carried on pleopods of the spiny lobster collected from Andaman Sea. Heterotrophic growth occurred at 1-7% NaCl. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity revealed the strain LBS2(T) belonged to the genus Vibrio and showed above 97% similarity with eight type strains of the genus Vibrio. Multilocus analysis based on ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH recA, rpoA, and topA revealed LBS2(T) formed a separate cluster with Vibrio ponticus DSM 16217(T) with 89.8% multilocus gene sequence similarity. However, strain LBS2(T) is distantly related with other members of the Scophthalmi clade in terms of 16S rRNA signatures, phenotypic variations and multilocus gene sequence similarity, for which we propose LBS2(T) belongs to a new clade i.e. Ponticus clade with V. ponticus DSM 16217(T) as the representative type strain of the clade. DNA-DNA homologies between strain LBS2(T) and closely related strains were well below 70%. DNA G + C content was 45.3 mol%. On the basis of our polyphasic study, strain LBS2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio panuliri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LBS2(T) (= JCM 19500(T) = DSM 27724(T) = LMG 27902(T)). PMID:25445014

  6. Paracoccus halophilus sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment of the South China Sea, China, and emended description of genus Paracoccus Davis 1969.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Pei; Wang, Bao-Jun; Liu, Xing-Yu; Dai, Xin; Liu, Ying-Hao; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

    2008-01-01

    An aerobic bacterial isolate, strain HN-182(T), was isolated from sediments of the South China Sea. Cells of strain HN-182(T) are coccoid to short rods, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming and non-motile. Strain HN-182(T) is heterotrophic and grows well on marine broth (Difco 2216), and is not capable of growing autotrophically on reduced sulfur. Grows at temperatures ranging from 7 to 42 degrees C (optimum at 25 degrees C), but not at 4 or 45 degrees C, and at pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum at pH 7.0), but not at pH 4.5 or 9.5. NaCl is required for growth [0.5-8.5% (w/v)] with an optimum of 4.5%. Cells are positive for catalase, oxidase and urease activities. Nitrate is not reduced. Strain HN-182(T) contains ubiquinone-10 as sole respiratory quinone. The major polar lipids are phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, an unidentified phospholipid and an unidentified glycolipid. Major cellular fatty acids are C18:1omega7c (60.7 %), C16:0 (12.5%) and C18:0 (8.1%). DNA G+C content is 67.2 mol% (by T(m)). The analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain HN-182(T) was related to members of the genus Paracoccus, with similarities ranging from 91.2 to 96.7% (highest to Paracoccus versutus) and a close relationship with Paracoccus sulfuroxidans, indicating that strain HN-182(T) is a member of Paracoccus. Based on these results, it is concluded that strain HN-182(T) represents a novel species of the genus Paracoccus, for which the name Paracoccus halophilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HN-182(T) (=CGMCC 1.6117(T)=JCM 14014(T)).

  7. Meridianimaribacter flavus gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from marine sediment of the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baojiang; Sun, Fengqin; Du, Yaping; Liu, Xiupian; Li, Guangyu; Lai, Qiliang; Luo, Jie; Shao, Zongze

    2010-01-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped marine bacterium, designated strain NH57N(T), isolated from sandy sediment in the Mischief Reef of the South China Sea, was characterized based on its physiological and biochemical features, fatty acid profile and phylogenetic position. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed a clear affiliation with the family Flavobacteriaceae. Strain NH57N(T) showed the closest phylogenetic relationship with members of the genera Gaetbulibacter, Gelidibacter, Subsaxibacter, Subsaximicrobium and Yeosuana; levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain NH57N(T) and the type strains of related species ranged from 94.9 to 91.2 %. Cells of strain NH57N(T) were motile by gliding and grew on solid media as yellow colonies at 9-37 degrees C, pH 6.5-8.5 and in the presence of 0.5-4.0 % NaCl. The DNA G+C content was 32.7 mol% and the predominant fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 1) (22.7 % of the total), iso-C(15 : 0) (20.7 %), iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH (9.5 %), iso-C(16 : 0) 3-OH (8.3 %), C(15 : 0) (7.8 %) and iso-C(15 : 0) 3-OH (5.8 %). Based on the physiological and phylogenetic data, and on the fatty acid composition, strain NH57N(T) is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus in the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Meridianimaribacter flavus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Meridianimaribacter flavus is NH57N(T) (=CCTCC AB 208318(T)=LMG 24839(T)=MCCC 1A03544(T)).

  8. Phorbaketal A, Isolated from the Marine Sponge Phorbas sp., Exerts Its Anti-Inflammatory Effects via NF-κB Inhibition and Heme Oxygenase-1 Activation in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yun-Ji; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Rho, Jung-Rae; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges harbor a range of biologically active compounds. Phorbaketal A is a tricyclic sesterterpenoid isolated from the marine sponge Phorbas sp.; however, little is known about its biological activities and associated molecular mechanisms. In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects and underlying molecular mechanism of phorbaketal A in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. We found that phorbaketal A significantly inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), but not prostaglandin E2, in RAW 264.7 cells. Further, phorbaketal A suppressed the expression of inducible NO synthase at both the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, phorbaketal A reduced the LPS-induced production of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Treatment with phorbaketal A inhibited the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), a crucial signaling molecule in inflammation. Moreover, phorbaketal A up-regulated the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These data suggest that phorbaketal A, isolated from the marine sponge Phorbas sp., inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators via down-regulation of the NF-κB pathway and up-regulation of the HO-1 pathway. PMID:26610528

  9. Phorbaketal A, Isolated from the Marine Sponge Phorbas sp., Exerts Its Anti-Inflammatory Effects via NF-κB Inhibition and Heme Oxygenase-1 Activation in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yun-Ji; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Rho, Jung-Rae; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2015-11-01

    Marine sponges harbor a range of biologically active compounds. Phorbaketal A is a tricyclic sesterterpenoid isolated from the marine sponge Phorbas sp.; however, little is known about its biological activities and associated molecular mechanisms. In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects and underlying molecular mechanism of phorbaketal A in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. We found that phorbaketal A significantly inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), but not prostaglandin E₂, in RAW 264.7 cells. Further, phorbaketal A suppressed the expression of inducible NO synthase at both the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, phorbaketal A reduced the LPS-induced production of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Treatment with phorbaketal A inhibited the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), a crucial signaling molecule in inflammation. Moreover, phorbaketal A up-regulated the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These data suggest that phorbaketal A, isolated from the marine sponge Phorbas sp., inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators via down-regulation of the NF-κB pathway and up-regulation of the HO-1 pathway. PMID:26610528

  10. Implications of rRNA Operon Copy Number and Ribosome Content in the Marine Oligotrophic Ultramicrobacterium Sphingomonas sp. Strain RB2256

    PubMed Central

    Fegatella, Fitri; Lim, Julianne; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    1998-01-01

    Sphingomonas sp. strain RB2256 is a representative of the dominant class of ultramicrobacteria that are present in marine oligotrophic waters. In this study we examined the rRNA copy number and ribosome content of RB2256 to identify factors that may be associated with the relatively low rate of growth exhibited by the organism. It was found that RB2256 contains a single copy of the rRNA operon, in contrast to Vibrio spp., which contain more than eight copies. The maximum number of ribosomes per cell was observed during mid-log phase; however, this maximum content was low compared to those of faster-growing, heterotrophic bacteria (approximately 8% of the maximum ribosome content of Escherichia coli with a growth rate of 1.5 h−1). The low number of ribosomes per cell appears to correlate with the low rate of growth (0.16 to 0.18 h−1) and the presence of a single copy of the rRNA operon. However, on the basis of cell volume, RB2256 appears to have a higher concentration of ribosomes than E. coli (approximately double that of E. coli with a growth rate of 1.5 h−1). Ribosome numbers reached maximum levels during mid-log-phase growth but decreased rapidly to 10% of maximum during late log phase through 7 days of starvation. The cells in late log phase and at the onset of starvation displayed an immediate response to a sudden addition of excess glucose (3 mM). This result demonstrates that a ribosome content 10% of maximum is sufficient to allow cells to immediately respond to nutrient upshift and achieve maximum rates of growth. These data indicate that the bulk of the ribosome pool is not required for protein synthesis and that ribosomes are not the limiting factor contributing to a low rate of growth. Our findings show that the regulation of ribosome content, the number of ribosomes per cell, and growth rate responses in RB2256 are fundamentally different from those characteristics in fast-growing heterotrophs like E. coli and that they may be characteristics

  11. Cloning and characterization of the biosynthetic gene cluster of the bacterial RNA polymerase inhibitor tirandamycin from marine-derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO1666.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xuhua; Wang, Zhongwen; Wang, Bo; Ma, Junying; Huang, Hongbo; Tian, Xinpeng; Zhang, Si; Zhang, Changsheng; Ju, Jianhua

    2011-03-18

    Tirandamycins are bacterial RNA polymerase inhibitors holding great potential for antibacterial agent design. To elucidate the biosynthetic machinery and generate new derivatives, the tirandamycin biosynthetic gene cluster was cloned and sequenced from marine-derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO1666. The biosynthetic gene cluster of tirandamycin spans a DNA region of ∼56kb and consists of 15 open reading frames (ORFs) which encode three type I polyketide synthases (TrdAI, AII, AIII), one non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (TrdD), one phosphopantetheinyl transferase (TrdM), one Type II thioesterase (TrdB), one FAD-dependent oxidoreductase (TrdL), one cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (TrdI), three proteins related to resistance and regulations (TrdHJK), and four proteins with unknown function (TrdCEFG). To investigate the roles of the genes played in the biosynthetic machinery, seven genes (trdAI and trdBDFHIK) were inactivated via in frame replacement with an apramycin gene cassette using λ-RED recombination technology. The ΔtrdAI and ΔtrdD mutants targeting the ketosynthase and adenylation domain of TrdAI and TrdD, respectively, abolished the production of tirandamycins, confirming their involvement in the tirandamycin biosynthesis. TrdH showed high homology to LuxR family transcriptional regulatory proteins, disruption of which abolished the production of tirandamycins, indicating that TrdH is a positive regulator for tirandamycin biosynthesis. On the other hand, TrdK showed high homology to TetR-family transcriptional regulatory proteins, disruption of which significantly increased the yields of tirandamycins almost one-fold, implicating that TrdK is a negative regulator for tirandamycin biosynthesis. Disruption of the gene trdI resulted in the accumulation of the intermediate tirandamycin C (3) and a trace amount of new product tirandamycin C2 (5). A model of tirandamycin biosynthesis was proposed based on bioinformatics analyses, gene inactivation experiments and

  12. Trichoderone, a novel cytotoxic cyclopentenone and cholesta-7, 22-diene-3 beta, 5 alpha, 6 beta-triol, with new activities from the marine-derived fungus Trichoderma sp.

    PubMed

    You, Jianlan; Dai, Huanqin; Chen, Zhihui; Liu, Guangjie; He, Zhengxiang; Song, Fuhang; Yang, Xiang; Fu, Haian; Zhang, Lixin; Chen, Xiaoping

    2010-03-01

    The historical paradigm of the deep ocean as a biological 'desert' has shifted to one of a 'rainforest' owing to the isolation of many novel microbes and their associated bioactive compounds. To explore the potential of the bioactive compounds in our marine microbial natural product library, we screened it for the selective cytotoxicity of six different cancer cell lines to human normal lung fibroblast cell line HLF. The crude extract from a marine-derived fungal strain showed notable selectivity against cancer cell lines. For a bioactivity-guided fractionation and purification, a novel cyclopentenone, (-)-(4R *, 5S *)-3-ethyl-4,5-dihydroxycyclopent-2-enone (1, trichoderone), and a known compound with new activity, cholesta-7,22- diene-3 beta,5 alpha,6 beta-triol (2), were identified from a marine Trichoderma sp. that was isolated from the deep sea sediment of the South China Sea. Their structures were determined by NMR and MS data analyses. Trichoderone (1) displayed potent cytotoxicity against a panel of six cancer cell lines, whereas it did not show much cytotoxicity against normal human lung fibroblast cell line HLF even at a concentration of 7.02 mM. The selectivity index (SI) value for 1 was greater than 100. To the best of our knowledge, both compounds were isolated from marine fungi for the first time. They also exhibited bioactivities against HIV protease and Taq DNA polymerase. Optimization of the compounds would shed new light on treating cancer and infectious diseases.

  13. Cloning of thermostable DNA polymerases from hyperthermophilic marine Archaea with emphasis on Thermococcus sp. 9 degrees N-7 and mutations affecting 3'-5' exonuclease activity.

    PubMed Central

    Southworth, M W; Kong, H; Kucera, R B; Ware, J; Jannasch, H W; Perler, F B

    1996-01-01

    Five extremely thermophilic Archaea from hydrothermal vents were isolated, and their DNA polymerases were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Protein splicing elements (inteins) are present in many archaeal DNA polymerases, but only the DNA polymerase from strain GB-C contained an intein. Of the five cloned DNA polymerases, the Thermococcus sp. 9 degrees N-7 DNA polymerase was chosen for biochemical characterization. Thermococcus sp. 9 degrees N-7 DNA polymerase exhibited temperature-sensitive strand displacement activity and apparent Km values for DNA and dNTP similar to those of Thermococcus litoralis DNA polymerase. Six substitutions in the 3'-5' exonuclease motif I were constructed in an attempt to reduce the 3'-5' exonuclease activity of Thermococcus sp. 9 degrees N-7 DNA polymerase. Five mutants resulted in no detectable 3'-5' exonuclease activity, while one mutant (Glul43Asp) had <1% of wild-type activity. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8643567

  14. Genome Sequence of Halomonas sp. Strain KO116, an Ionic Liquid- Tolerant Marine Bacterium Isolated from a Lignin-Enriched Seawater Microcosm

    DOE PAGESBeta

    O'Dell, Kaela; Woo, Hannah L.; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Klingeman, Dawn Marie; Brown, Steven D.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2015-05-07

    Halomonas sp. strain KO116 was isolated from Nile Delta Mediterranean Sea surface water enriched with insoluble organosolv lignin. It was further screened for growth on alkali lignin minimal salts medium agar. The strain tolerates the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. Its complete genome sequence is presented in this report.

  15. Genome Sequence of Halomonas sp. Strain KO116, an Ionic Liquid-Tolerant Marine Bacterium Isolated from a Lignin-Enriched Seawater Microcosm.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, Kaela B; Woo, Hannah L; Utturkar, Sagar; Klingeman, Dawn; Brown, Steven D; Hazen, Terry C

    2015-01-01

    Halomonas sp. strain KO116 was isolated from Nile Delta Mediterranean Sea surface water enriched with insoluble organosolv lignin. It was further screened for growth on alkali lignin minimal salts medium agar. The strain tolerates the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. Its complete genome sequence is presented in this report. PMID:25953187

  16. Genome Sequence of Halomonas sp. Strain KO116, an Ionic Liquid-Tolerant Marine Bacterium Isolated from a Lignin-Enriched Seawater Microcosm

    PubMed Central

    O’Dell, Kaela B.; Woo, Hannah L.; Utturkar, Sagar; Klingeman, Dawn; Brown, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Halomonas sp. strain KO116 was isolated from Nile Delta Mediterranean Sea surface water enriched with insoluble organosolv lignin. It was further screened for growth on alkali lignin minimal salts medium agar. The strain tolerates the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. Its complete genome sequence is presented in this report. PMID:25953187

  17. Structures of Nahuoic Acids B-E Produced in Culture by a Streptomyces sp. Isolated from a Marine Sediment and Evidence for the Inhibition of the Histone Methyl Transferase SETD8 in Human Cancer Cells by Nahuoic Acid A.

    PubMed

    Williams, David E; Izard, Fanny; Arnould, Stéphanie; Dalisay, Doralyn S; Tantapakul, Cholpisut; Maneerat, Wisanu; Matainaho, Teatulohi; Julien, Eric; Andersen, Raymond J

    2016-02-19

    Nahuoic acids A-E (1-5) have been isolated from laboratory cultures of a Streptomyces sp. obtained from a tropical marine sediment. The structures of the new polyketides 2-5 were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data of the natural products and the chemical derivatives 6 and 7. Nahuoic acids 1-5 are in vitro inhibitors of the histone methyltransferase SETD8, and nahuoic acid A (1) and its pentaacetate derivative 8 inhibit the proliferation of several cancer cells lines in vitro with modest potency. At the IC50 for cancer cell proliferation, nahuoic acid A (1) showed selective inhibition of SETD8 in U2OS osteosarcoma cells that reflect its selectivity against a panel of pure histone methyl transferases. A cell cycle analysis revealed that the cellular toxicity of nahuoic acid A (1) is likely linked to its ability to inhibit SETD8 activity.

  18. Simultaneous production of H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} in closed vessels by marine cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. TU37-1 under high-cell-density conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kumazawa, Shuzo; Asakawa, Hidenori

    1995-05-20

    A marine cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. TU37-1, exhibited stable production of hydrogen and oxygen in closed vessels. About 8.4 and 4.3 mL (at atmospheric pressure) of hydrogen and oxygen accumulated, respectively, in flasks with 20 mL gas phase during 48 h incubation. Thus, concentration of H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} became 26 and 13% of the gas phase, respectively. Duration of hydrogen production was prolonged by the periodic gas replacement in the reaction vessel. The conversion efficiencies of photosynthetically active radiation (fluorescent light, 22 W/m{sup 2}) to hydrogen were 2.4 and 2.2% during the initial 12- and 24-h incubation periods respectively.

  19. The hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacterium Cobetia sp. strain MM1IDA2H-1 produces a biosurfactant that interferes with quorum sensing of fish pathogens by signal hijacking

    PubMed Central

    Ibacache-Quiroga, C; Ojeda, J; Espinoza-Vergara, G; Olivero, P; Cuellar, M; Dinamarca, M A

    2013-01-01

    Summary Biosurfactants are produced by hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacteria in response to the presence of water-insoluble hydrocarbons. This is believed to facilitate the uptake of hydrocarbons by bacteria. However, these diffusible amphiphilic surface-active molecules are involved in several other biological functions such as microbial competition and intra-or inter-species communication. We report the isolation and characterization of a marine bacterial strain identified as Cobetia sp. MM1IDA2H-1, which can grow using the sulfur-containing heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dibenzothiophene (DBT). As with DBT, when the isolated strain is grown in the presence of a microbial competitor, it produces a biosurfactant. Because the obtained biosurfactant was formed by hydroxy fatty acids and extracellular lipidic structures were observed during bacterial growth, we investigated whether the biosurfactant at its critical micelle concentration can interfere with bacterial communication systems such as quorum sensing. We focused on Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, a fish pathogen whose virulence relies on quorum sensing signals. Using biosensors for quorum sensing based on Chromobacterium violaceum and Vibrio anguillarum, we showed that when the purified biosurfactant was mixed with N-acyl homoserine lactones produced by A. salmonicida, quorum sensing was inhibited, although bacterial growth was not affected. In addition, the transcriptional activities of A. salmonicida virulence genes that are controlled by quorum sensing were repressed by both the purified biosurfactant and the growth in the presence of Cobetia sp. MM1IDA2H-1. We propose that the biosurfactant, or the lipid structures interact with the N-acyl homoserine lactones, inhibiting their function. This could be used as a strategy to interfere with the quorum sensing systems of bacterial fish pathogens, which represents an attractive alternative to classical antimicrobial therapies in fish

  20. INFLUENCE OF LARVAL EXPOSURE TO SALINITY AND CADMIUM STRESS ON JUVENILE PERFORMANCE OF TWO MARINE INVERTEBRATES, CAPITELLA SP I AND CREPIDULA FORNICATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Delayed metamorphosis and short-term food limitation reduce juvenile or adult fitness in a number of marine invertebrate species. In this study, we tested the ability of pollutant and salinity stress to bring about similar effects on juvenile or adult performance. Larvae of the p...

  1. Antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content and iron bioavailability from algae (Ulva sp., Sargassum sp. and Porphyra sp.) in human subjects.

    PubMed

    García-Casal, Maria N; Ramírez, José; Leets, Irene; Pereira, Ana C; Quiroga, Maria F

    2009-01-01

    Marine algae are easily produced and are good sources of Fe. If this Fe is bioavailable, algae consumption could help to combat Fe deficiency and anaemia worldwide. The objective of the present study was to evaluate Fe bioavailability, polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity from three species of marine algae distributed worldwide. A total of eighty-three subjects received maize- or wheat-based meals containing marine algae (Ulva sp., Sargassum sp. and Porphyra sp.) in different proportions (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g) added to the water to prepare the dough. All meals administered contained radioactive Fe. Absorption was evaluated calculating radioactive Fe incorporation in subjects' blood. The three species of marine algae were analysed for polyphenol content and reducing power. Algae significantly increased Fe absorption in maize- or wheat-based meals, especially Sargassum sp., due to its high Fe content. Increases in absorption were dose-dependent and higher in wheat- than in maize-based meals. Total polyphenol content was 10.84, 18.43 and 80.39 gallic acid equivalents/g for Ulva sp., Porphyra sp. and Sargassum sp., respectively. The antioxidant capacity was also significantly higher in Sargassum sp. compared with the other two species analysed. Ulva sp., Sargassum sp. and Porphyra sp. are good sources of bioavailable Fe. Sargassum sp. resulted in the highest Fe intake due to its high Fe content, and a bread containing 7.5 g Sargassum sp. covers daily Fe needs. The high polyphenol content found in Sargassum sp. could be partly responsible for the antioxidant power reported here, and apparently did not affect Fe absorption.

  2. Structural Confirmation of a Unique Carotenoid Lactoside, P457, in Symbiodinium sp. Strain nbrc 104787 Isolated from a Sea Anemone and its Distribution in Dinoflagellates and Various Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Wakahama, Takahiro; Laza-Martínez, Aitor; Bin Haji Mohd Taha, Ahmad Iskandar; Okuyama, Hidetoshi; Yoshida, Kiyohito; Kogame, Kazuhiro; Awai, Koichiro; Kawachi, Masanobu; Maoka, Takashi; Takaichi, Shinichi

    2012-12-01

    The molecular structure of the carotenoid lactoside P457, (3S,5R,6R,3'S,5'R,6'S)-13'-cis-5,6-epoxy-3',5'-dihydroxy-3-(β-d-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-d-glucosyl)oxy-6',7'-didehydro-5,6,7,8,5',6'-hexahydro-β,β-caroten-20-al, was confirmed by spectroscopic methods using Symbiodinium sp. strain NBRC 104787 cells isolated from a sea anemone. Among various algae, cyanobacteria, land plants, and marine invertebrates, the distribution of this unique diglycosyl carotenoid was restricted to free-living peridinin-containing dinoflagellates and marine invertebrates that harbor peridinin-containing zooxanthellae. Neoxanthin appeared to be a common precursor for biosynthesis of peridinin and P457, although neoxanthin was not found in peridinin-containing dinoflagellates. Fucoxanthin-containing dinoflagellates did not possess peridinin or P457; green dinoflagellates, which contain chlorophyll a and b, did not contain peridinin, fucoxanthin, or P457; and no unicellular algae containing both peridinin and P457, other than peridinin-containing dinoflagellates, have been observed. Therefore, the biosynthetic pathways for peridinin and P457 may have been coestablished during the evolution of dinoflagellates after the host heterotrophic eukaryotic microorganism formed a symbiotic association with red alga that does not contain peridinin or P457. PMID:27009990

  3. Isolation of a phenol-utilizing marine bacterium from Durban Harbour (South Africa) and its preliminary characterization as Marinobacter sp. KM2.

    PubMed

    Moxley, Karis; Schmidt, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Many aromatic hydrocarbons assigned to the so-called high production volume chemicals (HPVCs) are frequently encountered constituents of wastewaters that end up in the sea. Although the pollutant-degrading capabilities of freshwater bacteria are well known, the catabolism of pollutants by marine bacteria has received limited attention. A marine bacterium with the ability to aerobically utilize phenol - an HPVC and common aromatic pollutant - as its sole source of carbon and energy, was isolated from water samples from Durban Harbour, South Africa. The isolate, designated strain KM2, was assigned to the genus Marinobacter based on a variety of phenotypic properties and by analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence. The isolate displays an absolute growth requirement for NaCl which cannot be offset by replacement of NaCl with other salts. In addition to 4-methylphenol and 3,4-dimethylphenol, it utilizes a range of aliphatic hydrocarbons such as butan-1-ol and hexadecane under aerobic conditions. The transient formation of an intermediate exhibiting the UV-Vis spectral characteristics for 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde in cultures growing on phenol suggests that the isolate catabolizes this compound via the meta cleavage pathway. These results indicate that members of the genus Marinobacter might participate in the elimination of aromatic pollutants in South African marine environments. PMID:22339030

  4. Extracellular production of novel halotolerant, thermostable, and alkali-stable carboxymethyl cellulase by marine bacterium Marinimicrobium sp. LS-A18.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kun; Guo, Li-Zhong; Lu, Wei-Dong

    2012-10-01

    Cellulases which are active and stable under extreme conditions have attracted considerable attention because of their potential industrial applications. Marinimicrobium sp. LS-A18 showed high extracellular carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) activity when grown on mineral salt medium containing carboxymethylcellulose as the sole carbon source. Maximum CMCase activity was obtained at 55°C and pH 7.0 in the absence of NaCl. Under the optimized fermentation conditions, the yield of CMCase was increased up to 2.5 U/ml, which was 3.1-fold higher than that before optimization. The enzyme retained 84 % of residual activity after incubation at 60°C for 1 h and more than 88 % of residual activity after incubation for 72 h in the presence of different pH (5-11) and NaCl concentrations (0-25 %, w/v), indicating it was halotolerant, thermostable and alkali-stable. These characteristics made the CMCase from Marinimicrobium sp. LS-A18 as a potentially novel biocatalyst in biotechnological and industrial applications.

  5. Dereplication strategies for targeted isolation of new antitrypanosomal actinosporins A and B from a marine sponge associated-Actinokineospora sp. EG49.

    PubMed

    Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Cheng, Cheng; Viegelmann, Christina; Zhang, Tong; Grkovic, Tanja; Ahmed, Safwat; Quinn, Ronald J; Hentschel, Ute; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie

    2014-03-01

    High resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry (HRFTMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were employed as complementary metabolomic tools to dereplicate the chemical profile of the new and antitrypanosomally active sponge-associated bacterium Actinokineospora sp. EG49 extract. Principal Component (PCA), hierarchical clustering (HCA), and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used to evaluate the HRFTMS and NMR data of crude extracts from four different fermentation approaches. Statistical analysis identified the best culture one-strain-many-compounds (OSMAC) condition and extraction procedure, which was used for the isolation of novel bioactive metabolites. As a result, two new O-glycosylated angucyclines, named actinosporins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the broth culture of Actinokineospora sp. strain EG49, which was cultivated from the Red Sea sponge Spheciospongia vagabunda. The structures of actinosporins A and B were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques, as well as high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Testing for antiparasitic properties showed that actinosporin A exhibited activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei with an IC₅₀ value of 15 µM; however no activity was detected against Leishmania major and Plasmodium falciparum, therefore suggesting its selectivity against the parasite Trypanosoma brucei brucei; the causative agent of sleeping sickness. PMID:24663112

  6. Molecular cloning, characterization and enzymatic properties of a novel βeta-agarase from a marine isolate Psudoalteromonas SP. AG52

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chulhong; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Lee, Youngdeuk; Whang, Ilson; Kang, Do-Hyung; Heo, Soo-Jin; Choi, Young-Ung; Lee, Jehee

    2010-01-01

    An agar-degrading Pseudoalteromonas sp. AG52 bacterial strain was identified from the red seaweed Gelidium amansii collected from Jeju Island, Korea. A β-agarase gene which has 96.8% nucleotide identity to Aeromonas β-agarase was cloned from this strain, and was designated as agaA. The coding region is 870 bp, encoding 290 amino acids and possesses characteristic features of the glycoside hydrolase family (GHF)-16. The predicted molecular mass of the mature protein was 32 kDa. The recombinant β-agarase (rAgaA) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified as a fusion protein. The optimal temperature and pH for activity were 55 °C and 5.5, respectively. The enzyme had a specific activity of 105.1 and 79.5 unit/mg toward agar and agarose, respectively. The pattern of agar hydrolysis demonstrated that the enzyme is an endo-type β-agarase, producing neoagarohexaose and neoagarotetraose as the final main products. Since, Pseudoalteromonas sp. AG52 encodes an agaA gene, which has greater identity to Aeromonas β-agarase, the enzyme could be considered as novel, with its unique bio chemical characteristics. Altogether, the purified rAgaA has potential for use in industrial applications such as development of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. PMID:24031567

  7. Metals in marine environment (mollusc Patella sp., fish Labrus bergylta, crustacean Cancer pagurus, beach sand) in a nuclear area, the North Cotentin (France).

    PubMed

    Connan, Olivier; Tack, Karine

    2010-06-01

    The results of a 1-year long survey of trace metals concentrations (Al, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) measured in beach sand, limpets and, occasionally, in fish and shellfish from the North Cotentin area (France), where nuclear industries are implanted, are presented. The objective of these study was to provide useful data for the validation of models predicting the impact of these industries on the marine environment. Even if differences were noted between sites for various metals, the levels are consistent with existing data published for similar site and do not appear to give evidence of contamination by industrial sites.

  8. Myospora metanephrops (n. g., n. sp.) from marine lobsters and a proposal for erection of a new order and family (Crustaceacida; Myosporidae) in the Class Marinosporidia (Phylum Microsporidia).

    PubMed

    Stentiford, G D; Bateman, K S; Small, H J; Moss, J; Shields, J D; Reece, K S; Tuck, I

    2010-10-01

    In this study we describe, the first microsporidian parasite from nephropid lobsters. Metanephrops challengeri were captured from an important marine fishery situated off the south coast of New Zealand. Infected lobsters displayed an unusual external appearance and were lethargic. Histology was used to demonstrate replacement of skeletal and other muscles by merogonic and sporogonic stages of the parasite, while transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of diplokaryotic meronts, sporonts, sporoblasts and spore stages, all in direct contact with the host sarcoplasm. Analysis of the ssrDNA gene sequence from the lobster microsporidian suggested a close affinity with Thelohania butleri, a morphologically dissimilar microsporidian from marine shrimps. Whilst morphological features of the lobster parasite are consistent with members of the family Nosematidae, molecular data place the parasite closer to members of the family Thelohanidae. Due to the contradiction between morphological and molecular taxonomic data, we propose the erection of a new genus in which the lobster parasite is the type species (Myospora metanephrops). Furthermore, we recommend the erection of a new family (Myosporidae) and a new order (Crustaceacida) to contain this genus. The taxonomic framework presented could be further applied to the re-classification of existing members of the Phylum Microsporidia.

  9. Phenolic Polyketides from the Co-Cultivation of Marine-Derived Penicillium sp. WC-29-5 and Streptomyces fradiae 007

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Liping; Zhuang, Yibin; Kong, Fandong; Zhang, Cuixian; Zhu, Weiming

    2014-01-01

    Penicillium sp. WC-29-5 was co-cultured with Streptomyces fradiae 007 to produce five natural products (1–3, 4a and 4b) that were isolated and characterized by spectroscopic analysis. Interestingly, these compounds were found to be different from those produced in discrete fungal and bacterial controls. Among these compounds, the absolute configurations of compounds 4a and 4b were determined for the first time by X-ray single crystal diffraction experiments and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. An evaluation of the cytotoxic activities of these compounds revealed that 4b was moderately cytotoxic towards HL-60 and H1975 tumor cells with IC50 values of 3.73 and 5.73 µM, respectively, whereas compound 4a was only moderately cytotoxic towards H1975 cells with an IC50 value of 3.97 µM. PMID:24714124

  10. Species diversity among the genus Monorchis (Digenea: Monorchiidae) parasitic in marine teleosts: molecular, morphological and morphometrical studies with a description of Monorchis blennii n. sp.

    PubMed

    Jousson, O; Bartoli, P

    2002-03-01

    Molecular, morphological and morphometrical studies were conducted on two species of the genus Monorchis (Monorchiidae), Monorchis parvus and Monorchis monorchis, collected in different fish hosts from the Mediterranean Sea. The analysis of internal transcribed spacer 1 sequences of ribosomal DNA showed that M. monorchis specimens from Parablennius gattorugine were strongly divergent (12.9%) from specimens of this species collected in Spondyliosoma cantharus and Diplodus puntazzo. This high genetic variation was confirmed by the analysis of morphological structures and morphometrics, which showed that M. monorchis specimens from P. gattorugine can be distinguished from those of S. cantharus and D. puntazzo by several morphological characteristics, including body size, number and distribution of vitelline follicles, testis shape, structure of the cirrus pouch, and number of eggs. Our results show that M. monorchis specimens isolated from P. gattorugine represent a clearly distinct entity from M. monorchis found in the other hosts, which has enabled us to describe a new species, Monorchis blennii n. sp. PMID:11954908

  11. Anticancer potential of pyrrole (1, 2, a) pyrazine 1, 4, dione, hexahydro 3-(2-methyl propyl) (PPDHMP) extracted from a new marine bacterium, Staphylococcus sp. strain MB30.

    PubMed

    Lalitha, P; Veena, V; Vidhyapriya, P; Lakshmi, Pragna; Krishna, R; Sakthivel, N

    2016-05-01

    Marine bacterium, strain MB30 isolated from the deep sea sediment of Bay of Bengal, India, exhibited antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic bacteria. Based on the 16S rRNA sequence homology and subsequent phylogenetic tree analysis, the strain MB30 was identified as Staphylococcus sp. The bioactive metabolite produced by the strain MB30 was purified through silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Purified metabolite was further characterized by FT-IR, LC-MS and NMR analyses. On the basis of spectroscopic data, the metabolite was identified as pyrrole (1, 2, a) pyrazine 1, 4, dione, hexahydro 3-(2-methyl propyl) (PPDHMP). The PPDHMP exhibited in vitro anticancer potential against lung (A549) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner with the IC50 concentration of 19.94 ± 1.23 and 16.73 ± 1.78 μg ml(-1) respectively. The acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining of the IC50 concentration of PPDHMP-treated cancer cells exhibited an array of morphological changes such as nuclear condensation, cell shrinkage and formation of apoptotic bodies. The PPDHMP-treated cancer cells induced the progressive accumulation of fragmented DNA in a time-dependent manner. Based on the flow cytometric analysis, it has become evident that the compound was also effective in arresting the cell cycle at G1 phase. Further, the Western blotting analysis confirmed the down-regulation of cyclin-D1, cyclin dependent kinase (CDK-2), anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL), activation of caspase-9 and 3 with the cleavage of PARP. The PPDHMP-treated cancer cells also showed the inhibition of migration and invasive capacity of cancer cells. In the present investigation, for the first time, we have reported the extraction, purification and characterization of an anticancer metabolite, PPDHMP from a new marine bacterium, Staphylococcus sp. strain MB30. PMID:26852140

  12. Chlorizidine, a cytotoxic 5H-pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoindol-5-one-containing alkaloid from a marine Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Mico, Xavier; Jensen, Paul R; Fenical, William; Hughes, Chambers C

    2013-03-01

    Cultivation of an obligate marine Streptomyces strain has provided the cytotoxic natural product chlorizidine A. X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed that the metabolite is composed of a chlorinated 2,3-dihydropyrrolizine ring attached to a chlorinated 5H-pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoindol-5-one. The carbon stereocenter in the dihydropyrrolizine is S-configured. Remarkably, the 5H-pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoindol-5-one moiety has no precedence in the field of natural products. The presence of this ring system, which was demonstrated to undergo facile nucleophilic substitution reactions at the activated carbonyl group, is essential to the molecule's cytotoxicity against HCT-116 human colon cancer cells.

  13. Austrobdella cairae n. sp., an Oioxenous Marine Leech (Clitellata: Piscicolidae) from the Banded Guitarfish, Zapteryx exasperata, in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Curran, Stephen S; Phillips, Anna J; Overstreet, Robin M; Benz, George W; Henningsen, Alan D

    2016-04-01

    A new marine leech is herein described from specimens infecting the external surfaces, including the mouth and cloaca, of the banded guitarfish, Zapteryx exasperate, captured in the Gulf of California and eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of San Diego, California. The leech is assigned to Austrobdella by possessing continuous contractile coelomic channels that lie outside the somatic musculature along the lateral edges of the urosome (marginal lacunae), clitellar gland cells densely packed in the urosome, 5 pairs of testisacs, and 6-annulate mid-body somites. The new leech is distinguished from its 6 congeners on the basis of body size (maximum 10 mm long) and shape (sub-cylindrical trachelosome distinctly demarcated from wider urosome that is ventrally flattened, convex dorsally, and narrowing toward caudal sucker that is narrow, 20-25% of maximum body width), number of eyespots (2 pairs), shape and arrangement of the ovisacs (pyriform and limited to somites XII/XIII), and characteristics of the midgut (1 pair of mycetomes, 6 pairs of simple thin-walled crop ceca, ventral postceca wanting, and 2 pairs of dendritic diverticula emerging from anterior portion of thick-walled intestine). The new species occurs in the northeastern Pacific Ocean on a benthic elasmobranch. Examination of host specificity for each Austrobdella species using the quantitative Index of Phylogenetic Host Specificity revealed that the new species is 1 of 4 oioxenous specialists in the genus, and the remaining 3 congeners are relative generalists herein classified as euryxenous. This is the first time host specificity for members of the Piscicolidae has been quantitatively assessed. The analysis suggests that associations between marine leeches belonging in Austrobdella and their vertebrate hosts are driven by ecological influences rather than host taxonomic placement. PMID:26800278

  14. Austrobdella cairae n. sp., an Oioxenous Marine Leech (Clitellata: Piscicolidae) from the Banded Guitarfish, Zapteryx exasperata, in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Curran, Stephen S; Phillips, Anna J; Overstreet, Robin M; Benz, George W; Henningsen, Alan D

    2016-04-01

    A new marine leech is herein described from specimens infecting the external surfaces, including the mouth and cloaca, of the banded guitarfish, Zapteryx exasperate, captured in the Gulf of California and eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of San Diego, California. The leech is assigned to Austrobdella by possessing continuous contractile coelomic channels that lie outside the somatic musculature along the lateral edges of the urosome (marginal lacunae), clitellar gland cells densely packed in the urosome, 5 pairs of testisacs, and 6-annulate mid-body somites. The new leech is distinguished from its 6 congeners on the basis of body size (maximum 10 mm long) and shape (sub-cylindrical trachelosome distinctly demarcated from wider urosome that is ventrally flattened, convex dorsally, and narrowing toward caudal sucker that is narrow, 20-25% of maximum body width), number of eyespots (2 pairs), shape and arrangement of the ovisacs (pyriform and limited to somites XII/XIII), and characteristics of the midgut (1 pair of mycetomes, 6 pairs of simple thin-walled crop ceca, ventral postceca wanting, and 2 pairs of dendritic diverticula emerging from anterior portion of thick-walled intestine). The new species occurs in the northeastern Pacific Ocean on a benthic elasmobranch. Examination of host specificity for each Austrobdella species using the quantitative Index of Phylogenetic Host Specificity revealed that the new species is 1 of 4 oioxenous specialists in the genus, and the remaining 3 congeners are relative generalists herein classified as euryxenous. This is the first time host specificity for members of the Piscicolidae has been quantitatively assessed. The analysis suggests that associations between marine leeches belonging in Austrobdella and their vertebrate hosts are driven by ecological influences rather than host taxonomic placement.

  15. Streptomyces oceani sp. nov., a new obligate marine actinomycete isolated from a deep-sea sample of seep authigenic carbonate nodule in South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xin-Peng; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Li, Jie; Chen, Zhong; Kim, Chang-Jin; Li, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Chang-Sheng; Zhang, Si

    2012-08-01

    A novel aerobic actinomycete strain, designated as SCSIO 02100(T), was isolated from a deep sea sediment sample collected from Northern South China Sea at a depth of 578 m. This isolate requires sea water or a sodium-supplemented medium for growth. BLAST searches based on the almost full length of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, showed that strain SCSIO 02100(T) had the highest similarities with Streptomyces armeniacus (JCM 3070(T)) (97.1 %). Phylogenetic trees reconstructed on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SCSIO 02100(T) formed a distinct lineage with S. nanshensis SCSIO 01066(T) with 96.9 % similarity. Further analysis of the polyphasic taxonomic data, including morphological, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties, showed that strain SCSIO 02100(T) could be readily distinguished from the most closely related members of the genus Streptomyces. Thus, based on the polyphasic taxonomic data, a novel species, Streptomyces oceani sp. nov., is proposed, with the type strain SCSIO 02100(T) (=DSM 42043(T) = CGMCC 4.7007(T)).

  16. Nereida ignava gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel aerobic marine alpha-proteobacterium that is closely related to uncultured Prionitis (alga) gall symbionts.

    PubMed

    Pujalte, M J; Macián, M C; Arahal, D R; Ludwig, W; Schleifer, K H; Garay, E

    2005-03-01

    A Gram-negative, slightly halophilic, non-pigmented, strictly aerobic, chemo-organotrophic bacterium was isolated from Mediterranean sea water off the Spanish coast near Valencia. This strain was poorly reactive, being unable to grow in most carbon sources analysed in minimal medium. However, good growth was observed when more complex media and longer incubation times were used. Phylogenetic analysis based on an almost complete 16S rRNA gene sequence placed strain 2SM4(T) within the Roseobacter group, in the vicinity of uncultured bacteria described as gall symbionts of several species of the red alga Prionitis. Sequence similarity values between strain 2SM4(T) and the closest neighbouring species were below 95.0 %. The cellular fatty acid composition of the Mediterranean strain confirmed its position within the 'Alphaproteobacteria', sharing 18 : 1omega7c as the major cellular fatty acid. The phylogenetic distance from any taxon with a validly published name and also a number of distinguishing features support the designation of strain 2SM4(T) as representing a novel genus and species, for which the name Nereida ignava gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 2SM4(T) (=CECT 5292(T)=DSM 16309(T)=CIP 108404(T)=CCUG 49433(T)).

  17. Effects of PAR and UV Radiation on the Structural and Functional Integrity of Phycocyanin, Phycoerythrin and Allophycocyanin Isolated from the Marine Cyanobacterium Lyngbya sp. A09DM.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rajesh Prasad; Sonani, Ravi Raghav; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-01-01

    An in vitro analysis of the effects of photosynthetically active and ultraviolet radiations was executed to assess the photostability of biologically relevant pigments phycocyanin (PC), phycoerythrin (PE) and allophycocyanin (APC) isolated from Lyngbya sp. A09DM. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiances significantly affected the integrity of PC, PE and APC; however, PAR showed least effect. UV radiation affected the bilin chromophores covalently attached to phycobiliproteins (PBPs). Almost complete elimination of the chromophore bands associated with α- and β-subunit of PE and APC occurred after 4 h of UV-B exposure. After 5 h of UV-B exposure, the content of PC, PE and APC decreased by 51.65%, 96.8% and 96.53%, respectively. Contrary to PAR and UV-A radiation, a severe decrease in fluorescence of all PBPs was observed under UV-B irradiation. The fluorescence activity of extracted PBP was gradually inhibited immediately after 15-30 min of UV-B exposure. In comparison to the PC, the fluorescence properties of PE and APC were severely lost under UV-B radiation. Moreover, the present study indicates that UV-B radiation can damage the structural and functional integrity of phycobiliproteins leading to the loss of their ecological and biological functions. PMID:25763657

  18. On Paleozoic plants from marine strata: Trivena arkansana (Lyginopteridaceae) gen. et sp. nov., a lyginopterid from the Fayetteville Formation (middle Chesterian/Upper Mississippian) of Arkansas, USA.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Michael T; Rothwell, Gar W; Mapes, Gene

    2003-08-01

    Five permineralized seed fern stems from the Fayetteville Formation (middle Chesterian/Upper Mississippian) of Arkansas conform to the concept of lyginopterid seed ferns. However, these specimens are unlike all previously reported lyginopterids, and the name Trivena arkansana (Lyginopteridaceae) gen. et sp. nov. is proposed. The stems are up to 30 by 19 mm in diameter and have pentagonal pith and eustele of five cryptic sympodia. Secondary tissues include abundant xylem with numerous wide rays and phloem surrounded by a periderm. The cortex is parenchymatous with abundant sclerotic clusters: some clusters are randomly dispersed and some are in discontinuous rows. Sclerenchyma bands form the "Dictyoxylon"-type outer cortex. Leaf traces diverge in a 2/5 phyllotaxy. Traces, accompanied by concentric secondary xylem, increase in size as they extend through the secondary xylem of the stem. The trace assumes a squat C shape at the outer margin of the secondary xylem and in the cortex divides into three discrete bundles, each surrounded by secondary xylem. Galleries within the phloem contain arthropod coprolites and exhibit wound response, suggesting plant-arthropod coevolution. The discovery of this new lyginopterid stem adds to the growing list of unique taxa described from the Fayetteville Formation and further solidifies its reputation as one of the most important Upper Mississippian plant fossil sites in North America.

  19. Magnetococcus marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine, magnetotactic bacterium that represents a novel lineage (Magnetococcaceae fam. nov., Magnetococcales ord. nov.) at the base of the Alphaproteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Bazylinski, Dennis A; Williams, Timothy J; Lefèvre, Christopher T; Berg, Ryan J; Zhang, Chuanlun L; Bowser, Samuel S; Dean, Annette J; Beveridge, Terrence J

    2013-03-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are a morphologically, metabolically and phylogenetically disparate array of bacteria united by the ability to biomineralize membrane-encased, single-magnetic-domain mineral crystals (magnetosomes) that cause the cell to orientate along the Earth's geomagnetic field. The most commonly observed type of magnetotactic bacteria is the ubiquitous magnetotactic cocci, which comprise their own phylogenetic group. Strain MC-1(T), a member of this group, was isolated from water collected from the oxic-anoxic interface of the Pettaquamscutt Estuary in Rhode Island, USA, and cultivated in axenic culture. Cells of strain MC-1(T) are roughly spherical, with two sheathed bundles of flagella at a single pole (bilophotrichous). Strain MC-1(T) uses polar magnetotaxis, and has a single chain of magnetite crystals per cell. Cells grow chemolithoautotrophically with thiosulfate or sulfide as the electron donors, and chemo-organoheterotrophically on acetate. During autotrophic growth, strain MC-1(T) relies on the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle for CO2 fixation. The DNA G+C content is 54.2 mol%. The new genus and species Magnetococcus marinus gen. nov., sp. nov. are proposed to accommodate strain MC-1(T) ( = ATCC BAA-1437(T)  = JCM 17883(T)), which is nominated as the type strain of Magnetococcus marinus. A new order (Magnetococcales ord. nov.) and family (Magnetococcaceae fam. nov.) are proposed for the reception of Magnetococcus and related magnetotactic cocci, which are provisionally included in the Alphaproteobacteria as the most basal known lineage of this class. PMID:22581902

  20. Isolation and characterization of a thermophilic, obligately anaerobic and heterotrophic marine Chloroflexi bacterium from a Chloroflexi-dominated microbial community associated with a Japanese shallow hydrothermal system, and proposal for Thermomarinilinea lacunofontalis gen. nov., sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Nunoura, Takuro; Hirai, Miho; Miyazaki, Masayuki; Kazama, Hiromi; Makita, Hiroko; Hirayama, Hisako; Furushima, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Takai, Ken

    2013-01-01

    A novel marine thermophilic and heterotrophic Anaerolineae bacterium in the phylum Chloroflexi, strain SW7(T), was isolated from an in situ colonization system deployed in the main hydrothermal vent of the Taketomi submarine hot spring field located on the southern part of Yaeyama Archipelago, Japan. The microbial community associated with the hydrothermal vent was predominated by thermophilic heterotrophs such as Thermococcaceae and Anaerolineae, and the next dominant population was thermophilic sulfur oxidizers. Both aerobic and anaerobic hydrogenotrophs including methanogens were detected as minor populations. During the culture-dependent viable count analysis in this study, an Anaerolineae strain SW7(T) was isolated from an enrichment culture at a high dilution rate. Strain SW7(T) was an obligately anaerobic heterotroph that grew with fermentation and had non-motile thin rods 3.5-16.5 μm in length and 0.2 μm in width constituting multicellular filaments. Growth was observed between 37-65°C (optimum 60°C), pH 5.5-7.3 (optimum pH 6.0), and 0.5-3.5% (w/v) NaCl concentration (optimum 1.0%). Based on the physiological and phylogenetic features of a new isolate, we propose a new species representing a novel genus Thermomarinilinea: the type strain of Thermomarinilinea lacunofontalis sp. nov., is SW7(T) (=JCM15506(T)=KCTC5908(T)). PMID:23666537

  1. Methanococcoides vulcani sp. nov., a marine methylotrophic methanogen that uses betaine, choline and N,N-dimethylethanolamine for methanogenesis, isolated from a mud volcano, and emended description of the genus Methanococcoides.

    PubMed

    L'Haridon, Stéphane; Chalopin, Morgane; Colombo, Delphine; Toffin, Laurent

    2014-06-01

    A novel, strictly anaerobic, methylotrophic marine methanogen, strain SLH33(T), was isolated from deep sediment samples covered by an orange microbial mat collected from the Napoli Mud Volcano. Cells of strain SLH33(T) were Gram-stain-negative, motile, irregular cocci that occurred singly. Cells utilized trimethylamine, dimethylamine, monomethylamine, methanol, betaine, N,N-dimethylethanolamine and choline (N,N,N-trimethylethanolamine) as substrates for growth and methanogenesis. The optimal growth temperature was 30 °C; maximum growth rate was obtained at pH 7.0 in the presence of 0.5 M Na(+). The DNA G+C content of strain SLH33(T) was 43.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed strain SLH33(T) within the genus Methanococcoides. The novel isolate was related most closely to Methanococcoides methylutens TMA-10(T) (98.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) but distantly related to Methanococcoides burtonii DSM 6242(T) (97.6%) and Methanococcoides alaskense AK-5(T) (97.6%). DNA-DNA hybridization studies indicated that strain SLH33(T) represents a novel species, given that it shared less than 16% DNA-DNA relatedness with Methanococcoides methylutens TMA-10(T). The name Methanococcoides vulcani sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species, with strain SLH33(T) ( = DSM 26966(T) = JCM 19278(T)) as the type strain. An emended description of the genus Methanococcoides is also proposed.

  2. Acanthopleuribacter pedis gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from a chiton, and description of Acanthopleuribacteraceae fam. nov., Acanthopleuribacterales ord. nov., Holophagaceae fam. nov., Holophagales ord. nov. and Holophagae classis nov. in the phylum 'Acidobacteria'.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Yukiyo; Kurahashi, Midori; Yanagi, Kensuke; Yokota, Akira; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2008-11-01

    Strain FYK2218(T) was isolated from a specimen of the chiton Acanthopleura japonica, which had been collected from a beach on the Boso peninsula in Japan. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the strain belonged to the phylum 'Acidobacteria'. The most closely related type strains to strain FYK2218(T) were Holophaga foetida TMBS4(T) (83.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Geothrix fermentans H-5(T) (83.6 %) in subdivision 8 of the 'Acidobacteria'. Cells of FYK2218(T) were motile, rod-shaped, Gram-negative, mesophilic and strictly aerobic. The G+C content of the strain was 56.7 mol%. The strain had isoprenoid quinones MK-6 and MK-7 as major components. Major fatty acids of the strain were iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0), C(16 : 0) and C(20 : 5)omega3c (cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid). From the taxonomic data obtained in this study, it is proposed that the new marine isolate be placed into a novel genus and species named Acanthopleuribacter pedis gen. nov., sp. nov. within the new family, order and class Acanthopleuribacteraceae fam. nov., Acanthopleuribacterales ord. nov. and Holophagae classis nov. The family Holophagaceae fam. nov. is also described. The type strain of Acanthopleuribacter pedis is FYK2218(T) (=NBRC 101209(T) =KCTC 12899(T)).

  3. Acanthopleuribacter pedis gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from a chiton, and description of Acanthopleuribacteraceae fam. nov., Acanthopleuribacterales ord. nov., Holophagaceae fam. nov., Holophagales ord. nov. and Holophagae classis nov. in the phylum 'Acidobacteria'.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Yukiyo; Kurahashi, Midori; Yanagi, Kensuke; Yokota, Akira; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2008-11-01

    Strain FYK2218(T) was isolated from a specimen of the chiton Acanthopleura japonica, which had been collected from a beach on the Boso peninsula in Japan. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the strain belonged to the phylum 'Acidobacteria'. The most closely related type strains to strain FYK2218(T) were Holophaga foetida TMBS4(T) (83.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Geothrix fermentans H-5(T) (83.6 %) in subdivision 8 of the 'Acidobacteria'. Cells of FYK2218(T) were motile, rod-shaped, Gram-negative, mesophilic and strictly aerobic. The G+C content of the strain was 56.7 mol%. The strain had isoprenoid quinones MK-6 and MK-7 as major components. Major fatty acids of the strain were iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0), C(16 : 0) and C(20 : 5)omega3c (cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid). From the taxonomic data obtained in this study, it is proposed that the new marine isolate be placed into a novel genus and species named Acanthopleuribacter pedis gen. nov., sp. nov. within the new family, order and class Acanthopleuribacteraceae fam. nov., Acanthopleuribacterales ord. nov. and Holophagae classis nov. The family Holophagaceae fam. nov. is also described. The type strain of Acanthopleuribacter pedis is FYK2218(T) (=NBRC 101209(T) =KCTC 12899(T)). PMID:18984699

  4. Advanced Microbial Taxonomy Combined with Genome-Based-Approaches Reveals that Vibrio astriarenae sp. nov., an Agarolytic Marine Bacterium, Forms a New Clade in Vibrionaceae.

    PubMed

    Al-Saari, Nurhidayu; Gao, Feng; Rohul, Amin A K M; Sato, Kazumichi; Sato, Keisuke; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Meirelles, Pedro M; Thompson, Fabiano L; Thompson, Cristiane; Filho, Gilberto M A; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Sawabe, Toko; Sawabe, Tomoo

    2015-01-01

    Advances in genomic microbial taxonomy have opened the way to create a more universal and transparent concept of species but is still in a transitional stage towards becoming a defining robust criteria for describing new microbial species with minimum features obtained using both genome and classical polyphasic taxonomies. Here we performed advanced microbial taxonomies combined with both genome-based and classical approaches for new agarolytic vibrio isolates to describe not only a novel Vibrio species but also a member of a new Vibrio clade. Two novel vibrio strains (Vibrio astriarenae sp. nov. C7T and C20) showing agarolytic, halophilic and fermentative metabolic activity were isolated from a seawater sample collected in a coral reef in Okinawa. Intraspecific similarities of the isolates were identical in both sequences on the 16S rRNA and pyrH genes, but the closest relatives on the molecular phylogenetic trees on the basis of 16S rRNA and pyrH gene sequences were V. hangzhouensis JCM 15146T (97.8% similarity) and V. agarivorans CECT 5085T (97.3% similarity), respectively. Further multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) on the basis of 8 protein coding genes (ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA) obtained by the genome sequences clearly showed the V. astriarenae strain C7T and C20 formed a distinct new clade protruded next to V. agarivorans CECT 5085T. The singleton V. agarivorans has never been included in previous MLSA of Vibrionaceae due to the lack of some gene sequences. Now the gene sequences are completed and analysis of 100 taxa in total provided a clear picture describing the association of V. agarivorans into pre-existing concatenated network tree and concluded its relationship to our vibrio strains. Experimental DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) data showed that the strains C7T and C20 were conspecific but were separated from all of the other Vibrio species related on the basis of both 16S rRNA and pyrH gene phylogenies (e.g., V. agarivorans CECT

  5. Advanced Microbial Taxonomy Combined with Genome-Based-Approaches Reveals that Vibrio astriarenae sp. nov., an Agarolytic Marine Bacterium, Forms a New Clade in Vibrionaceae.

    PubMed

    Al-Saari, Nurhidayu; Gao, Feng; Rohul, Amin A K M; Sato, Kazumichi; Sato, Keisuke; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Meirelles, Pedro M; Thompson, Fabiano L; Thompson, Cristiane; Filho, Gilberto M A; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Sawabe, Toko; Sawabe, Tomoo

    2015-01-01

    Advances in genomic microbial taxonomy have opened the way to create a more universal and transparent concept of species but is still in a transitional stage towards becoming a defining robust criteria for describing new microbial species with minimum features obtained using both genome and classical polyphasic taxonomies. Here we performed advanced microbial taxonomies combined with both genome-based and classical approaches for new agarolytic vibrio isolates to describe not only a novel Vibrio species but also a member of a new Vibrio clade. Two novel vibrio strains (Vibrio astriarenae sp. nov. C7T and C20) showing agarolytic, halophilic and fermentative metabolic activity were isolated from a seawater sample collected in a coral reef in Okinawa. Intraspecific similarities of the isolates were identical in both sequences on the 16S rRNA and pyrH genes, but the closest relatives on the molecular phylogenetic trees on the basis of 16S rRNA and pyrH gene sequences were V. hangzhouensis JCM 15146T (97.8% similarity) and V. agarivorans CECT 5085T (97.3% similarity), respectively. Further multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) on the basis of 8 protein coding genes (ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA) obtained by the genome sequences clearly showed the V. astriarenae strain C7T and C20 formed a distinct new clade protruded next to V. agarivorans CECT 5085T. The singleton V. agarivorans has never been included in previous MLSA of Vibrionaceae due to the lack of some gene sequences. Now the gene sequences are completed and analysis of 100 taxa in total provided a clear picture describing the association of V. agarivorans into pre-existing concatenated network tree and concluded its relationship to our vibrio strains. Experimental DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) data showed that the strains C7T and C20 were conspecific but were separated from all of the other Vibrio species related on the basis of both 16S rRNA and pyrH gene phylogenies (e.g., V. agarivorans CECT

  6. Advanced Microbial Taxonomy Combined with Genome-Based-Approaches Reveals that Vibrio astriarenae sp. nov., an Agarolytic Marine Bacterium, Forms a New Clade in Vibrionaceae

    PubMed Central

    Al-saari, Nurhidayu; Gao, Feng; A.K.M. Rohul, Amin; Sato, Kazumichi; Sato, Keisuke; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Meirelles, Pedro M.; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Thompson, Cristiane; A. Filho, Gilberto M.; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Sawabe, Toko; Sawabe, Tomoo

    2015-01-01

    Advances in genomic microbial taxonomy have opened the way to create a more universal and transparent concept of species but is still in a transitional stage towards becoming a defining robust criteria for describing new microbial species with minimum features obtained using both genome and classical polyphasic taxonomies. Here we performed advanced microbial taxonomies combined with both genome-based and classical approaches for new agarolytic vibrio isolates to describe not only a novel Vibrio species but also a member of a new Vibrio clade. Two novel vibrio strains (Vibrio astriarenae sp. nov. C7T and C20) showing agarolytic, halophilic and fermentative metabolic activity were isolated from a seawater sample collected in a coral reef in Okinawa. Intraspecific similarities of the isolates were identical in both sequences on the 16S rRNA and pyrH genes, but the closest relatives on the molecular phylogenetic trees on the basis of 16S rRNA and pyrH gene sequences were V. hangzhouensis JCM 15146T (97.8% similarity) and V. agarivorans CECT 5085T (97.3% similarity), respectively. Further multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) on the basis of 8 protein coding genes (ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA) obtained by the genome sequences clearly showed the V. astriarenae strain C7T and C20 formed a distinct new clade protruded next to V. agarivorans CECT 5085T. The singleton V. agarivorans has never been included in previous MLSA of Vibrionaceae due to the lack of some gene sequences. Now the gene sequences are completed and analysis of 100 taxa in total provided a clear picture describing the association of V. agarivorans into pre-existing concatenated network tree and concluded its relationship to our vibrio strains. Experimental DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) data showed that the strains C7T and C20 were conspecific but were separated from all of the other Vibrio species related on the basis of both 16S rRNA and pyrH gene phylogenies (e.g., V. agarivorans CECT

  7. Rheinheimera nanhaiensis sp. nov., isolated from marine sediments, and emended description of the genus Rheinheimera Brettar et al. 2002 emend. Merchant et al. 2007.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Zhang, Yan-Jiao; Zhou, Ming-Yang; Gao, Zhao-Ming; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Dang, Hong-Yue; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2011-05-01

    A Gram-negative, facultatively aerobic, oxidase- and catalase-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain E407-8(T), was isolated from a sediment sample from the South China Sea. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain E407-8(T) was affiliated with the genus Rheinheimera, sharing the highest sequence similarity with Rheinheimera pacifica KMM 1406(T) (97.5 %) and Rheinheimera aquimaris SW-353(T) (97.4 %) and showing less than 97 % sequence similarity to the type strains of other recognized Rheinheimera species. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness of strain E407-8(T) to R. pacifica DSM 17616(T) and R. aquimaris JCM 14331(T) were 25.2 % (25.3 % in the duplicate measurement) and 9.4 % (6.5 %), respectively. The bacterium could grow at 10-48 °C (optimum 37 °C) and in the presence of 0-8 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0.5-2.5 %). The major cellular fatty acids of strain E407-8(T) were summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)ω7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH), C(17 : 1)ω8c, C(16 : 0) and C(18 : 1)ω7c. The predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone Q-8. The DNA G+C content was 51.0 mol%. Based on the results of our polyphasic taxonomic study, strain E407-8(T) represents a novel species in the genus Rheinheimera, for which the name Rheinheimera nanhaiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is E407-8(T) ( = CCTCC AB 209089(T)  = KACC 14030(T)). An emended description of the genus Rheinheimera Brettar et al. 2002 emend. Merchant et al. 2007 is also proposed. PMID:20511463

  8. Rheinheimera nanhaiensis sp. nov., isolated from marine sediments, and emended description of the genus Rheinheimera Brettar et al. 2002 emend. Merchant et al. 2007.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Zhang, Yan-Jiao; Zhou, Ming-Yang; Gao, Zhao-Ming; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Dang, Hong-Yue; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2011-05-01

    A Gram-negative, facultatively aerobic, oxidase- and catalase-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain E407-8(T), was isolated from a sediment sample from the South China Sea. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain E407-8(T) was affiliated with the genus Rheinheimera, sharing the highest sequence similarity with Rheinheimera pacifica KMM 1406(T) (97.5 %) and Rheinheimera aquimaris SW-353(T) (97.4 %) and showing less than 97 % sequence similarity to the type strains of other recognized Rheinheimera species. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness of strain E407-8(T) to R. pacifica DSM 17616(T) and R. aquimaris JCM 14331(T) were 25.2 % (25.3 % in the duplicate measurement) and 9.4 % (6.5 %), respectively. The bacterium could grow at 10-48 °C (optimum 37 °C) and in the presence of 0-8 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0.5-2.5 %). The major cellular fatty acids of strain E407-8(T) were summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)ω7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH), C(17 : 1)ω8c, C(16 : 0) and C(18 : 1)ω7c. The predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone Q-8. The DNA G+C content was 51.0 mol%. Based on the results of our polyphasic taxonomic study, strain E407-8(T) represents a novel species in the genus Rheinheimera, for which the name Rheinheimera nanhaiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is E407-8(T) ( = CCTCC AB 209089(T)  = KACC 14030(T)). An emended description of the genus Rheinheimera Brettar et al. 2002 emend. Merchant et al. 2007 is also proposed.

  9. Mameliella atlantica sp. nov., a marine bacterium of the Roseobacter clade isolated from deep-sea sediment of the South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongxiu; Jiang, Lijing; Li, Shaoneng; Zeng, Xiang; Shao, Zongze

    2015-07-01

    A taxonomic study was carried out on strain L6M1-5(T), which was isolated from deep-sea sediment collected from the South Atlantic Ocean. The isolate was Gram-reaction-negative, oxidase-negative and catalase-weakly positive. Growth was observed in the presence of 0.5-15% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 3-5%), at 10-41 °C (optimum 28-30 °C), and pH 5.0-10.5 (optimum pH 7.0). The principal fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c/ω6c) (84.2%), C18 : 0 (6.3%), C12 : 1 3-OH (3.2%) and C16 : 0 (2.7%). The polar lipid profile comprised phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified aminolipids, two unknown phospholipids and one unknown lipid. Ubiquinone-10 was the major quinone. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 66.0 mol %. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain L6M1-5(T) belonged to the genus Mameliella and shared 95.8% sequence similarity with Mameliella alba JLT354-W(T). The combined genotypic and phenotypic data show that strain L6M1-5(T) represents a novel species of the genus Mameliella, for which the name Mameliella. atlantica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is L6M1-5(T) ( = MCCC 1A07531(T) = JCM 30230(T)).

  10. Morphological and molecular genetic characterization of two Kudoa spp., K. musculoliquefaciens, and K. pleurogrammi n. sp. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida), causing myoliquefaction of commercial marine fish.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Akihiro; Li, Ying-Chun; Mafie, Eliakunda; Sato, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    Genetic characterization of myxosporean species, including members of the genus Kudoa, has advanced dramatically throughout the last decade. This is in stark contrast to those species described further back in time. Kudoa musculoliquefaciens described from the jellied muscle of swordfish, Xiphias gladius, in the western Pacific Ocean off the Sanriku Coast, northern Japan, is one such species. In the present study, multiple pseudocysts (0.66-1.35 mm average length and 0.06-0.10 mm average width) containing K. musculoliquefaciens spores were collected from three host groups: muscle blocks of swordfish caught in the western Pacific Ocean off the Sanriku Coast, or the northern Indian Ocean, and Indo-Pacific sailfish, Istiophorus platypterus, in the western Pacific Ocean off Kochi, western Japan. Subspherical K. musculoliquefaciens spores, 8.0-10.3 μm in width, 7.3-10.0 μm in thickness, 6.4-7.9 μm in sutural thickness, and 5.5-8.1 μm in length, had four subspherical polar capsules, 2.8-4.0 μm in length by 2.2-3.2 μm in width. The kudoid spores found in the different host groups showed morphometric variations to some extent but had essentially identical nucleotide sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA), closest to those of Kudoa hemiscylli or Kudoa carcharhini recorded from elasmobranchs in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Another kudoid species, Kudoa pleurogrammi n. sp., was recorded from the jellied and normal muscles of Atka mackerel, Pleurogrammus monopterygius and Pleurogrammus azonus, fished in the northern Pacific Ocean or northern Sea of Japan. Subquadrate spores found in round-ended pseudocysts (1.15-3.85 mm in length and 0.11-0.26 mm in width) in myofibers were 8.2-9.1 μm in width, 7.1-8.2 μm in thickness, 5.4-7.7 μm in sutural thickness, and 5.6-6.8 μm in length, with four ovoid polar capsules, 2.7-2.9 μm in length by 1.4-2.0 μm in width. Kudoid spores from both jellied and normal muscles or different host fish species had identical 18S

  11. Aii20J, a wide-spectrum thermostable N-acylhomoserine lactonase from the marine bacterium Tenacibaculum sp. 20J, can quench AHL-mediated acid resistance in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mayer, C; Romero, M; Muras, A; Otero, A

    2015-11-01

    Acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) are produced by many Gram-negative bacteria to coordinate gene expression in cellular density dependent mechanisms known as quorum sensing (QS). Since the disruption of the communication systems significantly reduces virulence, the inhibition of quorumsensing processes or quorum quenching (QQ) represents an interesting anti-pathogenic strategy to control bacterial infections. Escherichia coli does not produce AHLs but possesses an orphan AHL receptor, SdiA, which is thought to be able to sense the QS signals produced by other bacteria and controls important traits as the expression of glutamate-dependent acid resistance mechanism, therefore constituting a putative target for QQ. A novel AHL-lactonase, named Aii20J, has been identified, cloned and over expressed from the marine bacterium Tenacibaculum sp. strain 20 J presenting a wide-spectrum QQ activity. The enzyme, belonging to the metallo-β-lactamase family, shares less than 31 % identity with the lactonase AiiA from Bacillus spp. Aii20J presents a much higher specific activity than the Bacillus enzyme, maintains its activity after incubation at 100 ºC for 10 minutes, is resistant to protease K and α-chymotrypsin, and is unaffected by wide ranges of pH. The addition of Aii20J (20 μg/mL) to cultures of E. coli K-12 to which OC6-HSL was added resulted in a significant reduction in cell viability in comparison with the acidresistant cultures derived from the presence of the signal. Results confirm the interaction between AHLs and SdiA in E. coli for the expression of virulence-related genes and reveal the potential use of Aii20J as anti-virulence strategy against important bacterial pathogens and in other biotechnological applications.

  12. Inhibitory effects of benzaldehyde derivatives from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 on inflammatory mediators via the induction of heme oxygenase-1 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Su; Cui, Xiang; Lee, Dong-Sung; Ko, Wonmin; Sohn, Jae Hak; Yim, Joung Han; An, Ren-Bo; Kim, Youn-Chul; Oh, Hyuncheol

    2014-12-19

    Two benzaldehyde derivatives, flavoglaucin (1) and isotetrahydro-auroglaucin (2), were isolated from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 through bioassay- and 1H NMR-guided investigation. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of these compounds in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. We demonstrated that compounds 1 and 2 markedly inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by suppressing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression without affecting cell viability. We also demonstrated that the compounds reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 inhibited LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by suppressing phosphorylation of IkappaB (IκB). These results indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects of these benzaldehyde derivatives in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were due to the inactivation of the NF-κB pathway. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression through the nuclear transcription factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) translocation. The inhibitory effects of compounds 1 and 2 on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and on NF-κB binding activity were reversed by HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP). Thus, the anti-inflammatory effects of compounds 1 and 2 also correlated with their ability of inducing HO-1 expression.

  13. Methanococcoides vulcani sp. nov., a marine methylotrophic methanogen that uses betaine, choline and N,N-dimethylethanolamine for methanogenesis, isolated from a mud volcano, and emended description of the genus Methanococcoides.

    PubMed

    L'Haridon, Stéphane; Chalopin, Morgane; Colombo, Delphine; Toffin, Laurent

    2014-06-01

    A novel, strictly anaerobic, methylotrophic marine methanogen, strain SLH33(T), was isolated from deep sediment samples covered by an orange microbial mat collected from the Napoli Mud Volcano. Cells of strain SLH33(T) were Gram-stain-negative, motile, irregular cocci that occurred singly. Cells utilized trimethylamine, dimethylamine, monomethylamine, methanol, betaine, N,N-dimethylethanolamine and choline (N,N,N-trimethylethanolamine) as substrates for growth and methanogenesis. The optimal growth temperature was 30 °C; maximum growth rate was obtained at pH 7.0 in the presence of 0.5 M Na(+). The DNA G+C content of strain SLH33(T) was 43.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed strain SLH33(T) within the genus Methanococcoides. The novel isolate was related most closely to Methanococcoides methylutens TMA-10(T) (98.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) but distantly related to Methanococcoides burtonii DSM 6242(T) (97.6%) and Methanococcoides alaskense AK-5(T) (97.6%). DNA-DNA hybridization studies indicated that strain SLH33(T) represents a novel species, given that it shared less than 16% DNA-DNA relatedness with Methanococcoides methylutens TMA-10(T). The name Methanococcoides vulcani sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species, with strain SLH33(T) ( = DSM 26966(T) = JCM 19278(T)) as the type strain. An emended description of the genus Methanococcoides is also proposed. PMID:24614846

  14. Aii20J, a wide-spectrum thermostable N-acylhomoserine lactonase from the marine bacterium Tenacibaculum sp. 20J, can quench AHL-mediated acid resistance in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mayer, C; Romero, M; Muras, A; Otero, A

    2015-11-01

    Acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) are produced by many Gram-negative bacteria to coordinate gene expression in cellular density dependent mechanisms known as quorum sensing (QS). Since the disruption of the communication systems significantly reduces virulence, the inhibition of quorumsensing processes or quorum quenching (QQ) represents an interesting anti-pathogenic strategy to control bacterial infections. Escherichia coli does not produce AHLs but possesses an orphan AHL receptor, SdiA, which is thought to be able to sense the QS signals produced by other bacteria and controls important traits as the expression of glutamate-dependent acid resistance mechanism, therefore constituting a putative target for QQ. A novel AHL-lactonase, named Aii20J, has been identified, cloned and over expressed from the marine bacterium Tenacibaculum sp. strain 20 J presenting a wide-spectrum QQ activity. The enzyme, belonging to the metallo-β-lactamase family, shares less than 31 % identity with the lactonase AiiA from Bacillus spp. Aii20J presents a much higher specific activity than the Bacillus enzyme, maintains its activity after incubation at 100 ºC for 10 minutes, is resistant to protease K and α-chymotrypsin, and is unaffected by wide ranges of pH. The addition of Aii20J (20 μg/mL) to cultures of E. coli K-12 to which OC6-HSL was added resulted in a significant reduction in cell viability in comparison with the acidresistant cultures derived from the presence of the signal. Results confirm the interaction between AHLs and SdiA in E. coli for the expression of virulence-related genes and reveal the potential use of Aii20J as anti-virulence strategy against important bacterial pathogens and in other biotechnological applications. PMID:26092757

  15. Hyper-Cryptic Marine Meiofauna: Species Complexes in Nemertodermatida

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Wachsmuth, Inga; Curini Galletti, Marco; Jondelius, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Nemertodermatida are microscopically small, benthic marine worms. Specimens of two nominal species, Sterreria psammicola and Nemertinoides elongatus from 33 locations worldwide were sequenced for three molecular markers. Species delimitation and validation was done using gene trees, haplotype networks and multilocus Bayesian analysis. We found 20 supported species of which nine: Nemertinoides glandulosum n.sp., N. wolfgangi n.sp., Sterreria boucheti n.sp., S. lundini n.sp., S. martindalei n.sp., S. monolithes n.sp., S. papuensis n.sp., S. variabilis n.sp. and S. ylvae n.sp., are described including nucleotide-based diagnoses. The distribution patterns indicate transoceanic dispersal in some of the species. Sympatric species were found in many cases. The high level of cryptic diversity in this meiofauna group implies that marine diversity may be higher than previously estimated. PMID:25225981

  16. Marine Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Bernard L.

    The five papers in this publication on marine careers were selected so that science teachers, guidance councilors, and students could benefit from the experience and knowledge of individuals active in marine science. The areas considered are indicated by the titles: Professional Careers in Marine Science with the Federal Government, Marine Science…

  17. Draft Genome Sequences of Gammaproteobacterial Methanotrophs Isolated from Marine Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, James D.; Hirayama, Hisako; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Dunfield, Peter F.; Knief, Claudia; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Khmelenina, Valentina N.; Trotsenko, Yuri A.; Murrell, J. Colin; Semrau, Jeremy D.; Svenning, Mette M.; Stein, Lisa Y.; Kyrpides, Nikos; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Bringel, Françoise; Vuilleumier, Stéphane; DiSpirito, Alan A.

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequences of Methylobacter marinus A45, Methylobacter sp. strain BBA5.1, and Methylomarinum vadi IT-4 were obtained. These aerobic methanotrophs are typical members of coastal and hydrothermal vent marine ecosystems. PMID:26798114

  18. Toxicity of chlorinated benzenes to marine algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yan-Jun; Wang, Xiu-Lin; Yu, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Li-Jun; Sun, Han-Zhang

    1997-12-01

    Growth of Chlorella marine, Nannochloropsis oculata, Pyramidomonas sp., Platymonas subcordiformis and Phaeodactylum tricornutum exposed to monochlorobenzene (MCB), 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB), 1, 2, 3, 4-tetrachlorobenzene (1, 2, 3, 4-TeCB) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) was tested. Tests of 72 h- EC 50 values showed that the toxicity ranged in the order: MCB<1,2-DCB<1,2,3,4-TeCBmarine algae was almost in the order: Pyramidomonas sp. < Platymonas subcordiformis < Nannochloropsis oculata < Chlorella marine < Phaeodactylum tricomutum. Study of the QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship) between K OW and toxicity of CBs to marine algae showed good relationships between -log EC 50 and log K OW.

  19. Marine biology

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  20. Amoeba-like infections in cultured marine fishes: systemic infection in pompano Trachinotus falcatus L. from Singapore and gill disease associated with Paramoeba sp. in sea bream Sparus aurata L. from Greece.

    PubMed

    Athanassopoulou, F; Cawthorn, R; Lytra, K

    2002-10-01

    Two cases of Amoeba-like infections in cultured warmwater marine fish are described, an unusual systemic infection in pompano Trachinotus falcatus L. from Singapore and a gill infection in Mediterranean sea bream Sparus aurata L. All pompano showed marked systemic infection of Amoeba-like parasites in gills, kidney, intestine, pancreas and spleen. The most severe lesions were in the gills and renal tissue with minimal tissue reaction in other organs.