Science.gov

Sample records for dos medios quirales

  1. Medio Communication: A Conceptualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Reed H.

    The classification of communication activity into interpersonal and mass communication is inadequate. A third category, "medio" communication, is also needed. Examples of this third type include point-to-point telecommunication (such as the telephone or mobile radio), surveillance telecommunication, and closed-circuit television. Medio…

  2. Cúmulos abiertos y su medio interestelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, J. R.; Arnal, E. M.; Morras, R.; Cappa, C.

    Se analiza la distribución del hidrógeno neutro en la vecindad de cuatro cúmulos abiertos ubicados en el cuarto cuadrante galáctico, con el fin de investigar su posible interacción con el medio interestelar circundante. El estudio se lleva a cabo en base a observaciones de la línea de 21 cm del HI obtenidos con la antena de 30 m del IAR.

  3. A rapid upward step challenges medio-lateral postural stability.

    PubMed

    Sims, K J; Brauer, S G

    2000-12-01

    A rapid step up was compared with a rapid step forward to assess the challenge they posed to postural stability in the medio-lateral (ML) direction. The center of pressure (COP) motion, and hip abductor muscle activity were compared between the two tasks in nine young healthy subjects. Analysis revealed that in the step up task there was a greater range and velocity of medio-lateral COP motion, an earlier gluteus medius onset time and a larger magnitude of gluteus medius activity than in the step forward task. The step up task appears to provide a greater challenge to ML postural stability than a step forward and thus may be an appropriate paradigm for the investigation of medio-lateral postural instability.

  4. Estudio multifrecuencia del medio interestelar cercano a HD 192281

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.; Cappa, C.; Cichowolski, S.; Pineault, S.; St-Louis, N.

    Una de las causas que modifica la estructura y dinámica del medio interestelar es la acción que los vientos de las estrellas de gran masa ejercen sobre el mismo. En este trabajo, mediante el uso de datos interferométricos obtenidos en la banda de radio en la transición de 21-cm del Hidrógeno neutro y de imágenes de la emisión de continuo en las bandas de 408 y 1420 MHz, de imágenes HIRES del satélite IRAS en 60 y 100 micrones, y de observaciones de continuo obtenidas con radiotelescopios de disco simple en 2695, 4850 y 8350 MHz se ha realizado un estudio multifrecuencia de los efectos que los vientos estelares de HD 192281, una estrella de tipo espectral O5 Vn((f))p, han tenido sobre el medio interestelar que rodea a la misma.

  5. The outcomes of midline versus medio-lateral episiotomy.

    PubMed

    Sooklim, Ratchadawan; Thinkhamrop, Jadsada; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Prasertcharoensuk, Witoon; Pattamadilok, Jeerichuda; Seekorn, Kanok; Chongsomchai, Chompilas; Pitak, Prakai; Chansamak, Sukanya

    2007-10-29

    Episiotomy is the surgical enlargement of the vaginal orifice by an incision of the perineum during the second stage of labor or just before delivery of the baby. During the 1970s, it was common to perform an episiotomy for almost all women having their first delivery, ostensibly for prevention of severe perineum tears and easier subsequent repair. However, there are no data available to indicate if an episiotomy should be midline or medio-lateral. We compared midline versus medio-lateral episiotomy for complication such as extended perineal tears, pain scores, wound infection rates and other complications. We conducted a prospective cohort including 1,302 women, who gave birth vaginally between April 2005 and February 2006 at Srinagarind Hospital - a tertiary care center in Northeast Thailand. All women included had low risk pregnancies and delivered at term. The outcome measures included deep perineal tears (including perineal tears with anal sphincter and/or rectum tears), other complications, and women's satisfaction at 48 hours and 6-weeks postpartum. In women with midline episiotomy, deep perineal tears occurred in 14.8%, which is statistically significantly higher compared to 7% in women who underwent a medio-lateral episiotomy (p-value < 0.05). There was no difference between the groups for other outcomes (such as blood loss, vaginal hematoma, infection, pain, dyspareunia, and women's satisfaction with the method). The risk factors for deep perineal tears were: midline episiotomy, primiparity, maternal height < 145 cm, fetal birth weight > 3,500 g and forceps extraction. Midline compared to medio-lateral episiotomy resulted in more deep perineal tears. It is more likely deep perineal tears would occur in cases with additional risk factors.

  6. The outcomes of midline versus medio-lateral episiotomy

    PubMed Central

    Sooklim, Ratchadawan; Thinkhamrop, Jadsada; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Prasertcharoensuk, Witoon; Pattamadilok, Jeerichuda; Seekorn, Kanok; Chongsomchai, Chompilas; Pitak, Prakai; Chansamak, Sukanya

    2007-01-01

    Background Episiotomy is the surgical enlargement of the vaginal orifice by an incision of the perineum during the second stage of labor or just before delivery of the baby. During the 1970s, it was common to perform an episiotomy for almost all women having their first delivery, ostensibly for prevention of severe perineum tears and easier subsequent repair. However, there are no data available to indicate if an episiotomy should be midline or medio-lateral. We compared midline versus medio-lateral episiotomy for complication such as extended perineal tears, pain scores, wound infection rates and other complications. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort including 1,302 women, who gave birth vaginally between April 2005 and February 2006 at Srinagarind Hospital – a tertiary care center in Northeast Thailand. All women included had low risk pregnancies and delivered at term. The outcome measures included deep perineal tears (including perineal tears with anal sphincter and/or rectum tears), other complications, and women's satisfaction at 48 hours and 6-weeks postpartum. Results In women with midline episiotomy, deep perineal tears occurred in 14.8%, which is statistically significantly higher compared to 7% in women who underwent a medio-lateral episiotomy (p-value < 0.05). There was no difference between the groups for other outcomes (such as blood loss, vaginal hematoma, infection, pain, dyspareunia, and women's satisfaction with the method). The risk factors for deep perineal tears were: midline episiotomy, primiparity, maternal height < 145 cm, fetal birth weight > 3,500 g and forceps extraction. Conclusion Midline compared to medio-lateral episiotomy resulted in more deep perineal tears. It is more likely deep perineal tears would occur in cases with additional risk factors. PMID:17967168

  7. Estudio multifrecuencia del medio interestelar cercano a HD 192281

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.; Cappa, C. E.; Cichowolski, S.; Pineault, S.; St-Louis, N.

    Una de las causas que modifica la estructura y dinámica del medio interestelar es la acción que los vientos de las estrellas de gran masa ejercen sobre el mismo. En este trabajo, mediante el uso de datos interferométricos obtenidos en la banda de radio en la transición de λ˜21-cm del hidrógeno neutro y de imágenes de la emisión de continuo en las bandas de 408 y 1420 MHz, de imágenes HIRES del satélite IRAS en 60 y 100μm, y de observaciones de continuo obtenidas con radiotelescopios de disco simple en 2695, 4850 y 8350 MHz se ha realizado un estudio multifrecuencia de los efectos que los vientos estelares de HD 192281, una estrella de tipo espectral O5,Vn((f))p, han tenido sobre el medio interestelar que rodea a la misma.

  8. DOS cones along atomic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwapiński, Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    The electron transport properties of a linear atomic chain are studied theoretically within the tight-binding Hamiltonian and the Green’s function method. Variations of the local density of states (DOS) along the chain are investigated. They are crucial in scanning tunnelling experiments and give important insight into the electron transport mechanism and charge distribution inside chains. It is found that depending on the chain parity the local DOS at the Fermi level can form cone-like structures (DOS cones) along the chain. The general condition for the local DOS oscillations is obtained and the linear behaviour of the local density function is confirmed analytically. DOS cones are characterized by a linear decay towards the chain which is in contrast to the propagation properties of charge density waves, end states and Friedel oscillations in one-dimensional systems. We find that DOS cones can appear due to non-resonant electron transport, the spin–orbit scattering or for chains fabricated on a substrate with localized electrons. It is also shown that for imperfect chains (e.g. with a reduced coupling strength between two neighboring sites) a diamond-like structure of the local DOS along the chain appears.

  9. Medio-lateral postural instability in subjects with tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Kapoula, Zoi; Yang, Qing; Lê, Thanh-Thuan; Vernet, Marine; Berbey, Nolwenn; Orssaud, Christophe; Londero, Alain; Bonfils, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Many patients show modulation of tinnitus by gaze, jaw or neck movements, reflecting abnormal sensorimotor integration, and interaction between various inputs. Postural control is based on multi-sensory integration (visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and oculomotor) and indeed there is now evidence that posture can also be influenced by sound. Perhaps tinnitus influences posture similarly to external sound. This study examines the quality of postural performance in quiet stance in patients with modulated tinnitus. Twenty-three patients with highly modulated tinnitus were selected in the ENT service. Twelve reported exclusively or predominately left tinnitus, eight right, and three bilateral. Eighteen control subjects were also tested. Subjects were asked to fixate a target at 40 cm for 51 s; posturography was performed with the platform (Technoconcept, 40 Hz) for both the eyes open and eyes closed conditions. For both conditions, tinnitus subjects showed abnormally high lateral body sway (SDx). This was corroborated by fast Fourrier Transformation (FFTx) and wavelet analysis. For patients with left tinnitus only, medio-lateral sway increased significantly when looking away from the center. Similarly to external sound stimulation, tinnitus could influence lateral sway by activating attention shift, and perhaps vestibular responses. Poor integration of sensorimotor signals is another possibility. Such abnormalities would be accentuated in left tinnitus because of the importance of the right cerebral cortex in processing both auditory-tinnitus eye position and attention.

  10. Medio-Lateral Postural Instability in Subjects with Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Kapoula, Zoi; Yang, Qing; Lê, Thanh-Thuan; Vernet, Marine; Berbey, Nolwenn; Orssaud, Christophe; Londero, Alain; Bonfils, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many patients show modulation of tinnitus by gaze, jaw or neck movements, reflecting abnormal sensorimotor integration, and interaction between various inputs. Postural control is based on multi-sensory integration (visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and oculomotor) and indeed there is now evidence that posture can also be influenced by sound. Perhaps tinnitus influences posture similarly to external sound. This study examines the quality of postural performance in quiet stance in patients with modulated tinnitus. Methods: Twenty-three patients with highly modulated tinnitus were selected in the ENT service. Twelve reported exclusively or predominately left tinnitus, eight right, and three bilateral. Eighteen control subjects were also tested. Subjects were asked to fixate a target at 40 cm for 51 s; posturography was performed with the platform (Technoconcept, 40 Hz) for both the eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Results: For both conditions, tinnitus subjects showed abnormally high lateral body sway (SDx). This was corroborated by fast Fourrier Transformation (FFTx) and wavelet analysis. For patients with left tinnitus only, medio-lateral sway increased significantly when looking away from the center. Conclusion: Similarly to external sound stimulation, tinnitus could influence lateral sway by activating attention shift, and perhaps vestibular responses. Poor integration of sensorimotor signals is another possibility. Such abnormalities would be accentuated in left tinnitus because of the importance of the right cerebral cortex in processing both auditory–tinnitus eye position and attention. PMID:21647364

  11. Los plaguicidas y la contaminacion del medio ambiente Venezolano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; Stickel, W.H.

    1972-01-01

    RESUMEN DE RECOMENDACIONES Recomendaciones para el Programa de Investigacion: 1. Establecer un sistema de muestreo biologico para detectar los niveles tendencias de los productos quimicos toxicos en un peque?o numero de si tios representativos. 2. Mantener continua vigilancia de la contaminacion ambiental, mediante la seleccion acertadamente dirigida de las zonas afectadas y de las fuentes de contaminacion. 3. Realizar estudios acerca de las poblaciones de animales silvestres, y del exito de los procesos reproductivos de las especies o grupos clayes de animales que se consideran mas gravemente afectados. 4. Preparar recomendaciones para una accion gubernamental de proteccion al hombre, a la fauna silvestre y al medio ambiente. Recomendaciones para la Accion Administrativa: 1. Establecer limites a la tolerancia de los residuos de plaguicidas en los alimentos. Constituye una medida clave para disminuir la contaminacion ambiental. 2. Establecer normas de calidad del agua para las corrientes, represas, la gos y otros cuerpos. Es la segunda medida clave para reducir la contaminacion del ambiente 3. Exigir un tratamiento adecuado de los efluentes industriales, especialmente antes de que se construyan las nuevas plantas. 4. Exigir a los agricultores que en el uso de plaguicidas sigan los consejos tecnicos autorizados y negar a los vendedores el derecho a recomendar productos por su cuenta. 5. Tomar medidas para recoger y eliminar los recipientes y sobrantes de los plaguicidas.

  12. A DOS Primer for Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, Henry

    1989-01-01

    Presents a basic orientation to the functions and capabilities of disk operating systems (DOS), aimed at the nontechnically oriented user of IBM personal computers and compatible microcomputers. Areas discussed include booting up, the use of floppy and hard disks, file storage and manipulation, and directories. Further readings are provided. (CLB)

  13. A DOS Primer for Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, Henry

    1989-01-01

    Presents a basic orientation to the functions and capabilities of disk operating systems (DOS), aimed at the nontechnically oriented user of IBM personal computers and compatible microcomputers. Areas discussed include booting up, the use of floppy and hard disks, file storage and manipulation, and directories. Further readings are provided. (CLB)

  14. Different Roles of DosS and DosT in the Hypoxic Adaptation of Mycobacteria▿

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Ju; Park, Kwang-Jin; Ko, In-Jeong; Kim, Young Min; Oh, Jeong-Il

    2010-01-01

    The DosS (DevS) and DosT histidine kinases form a two-component system together with the DosR (DevR) response regulator in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. DosS and DosT, which have high sequence similarity to each other over the length of their amino acid sequences, contain two GAF domains (GAF-A and GAF-B) in their N-terminal sensory domains. Complementation tests in conjunction with phylogenetic analysis showed that DevS of Mycobacterium smegmatis is more closely related to DosT than DosS. We also demonstrated in vivo that DosS and DosT of M. tuberculosis play a differential role in hypoxic adaptation. DosT responds to a decrease in oxygen tension more sensitively and strongly than DosS, which might be attributable to their different autooxidation rates. The different responsiveness of DosS and DosT to hypoxia is due to the difference in their GAF-A domains accommodating the hemes. Multiple alignment analysis of the GAF-A domains of mycobacterial DosS (DosT) homologs and subsequent site-directed mutagenesis revealed that just one substitution of E87, D90, H97, L118, or T169 of DosS with the corresponding residue of DosT is sufficient to convert DosS to DosT with regard to the responsiveness to changes in oxygen tension. PMID:20675480

  15. Implications of increased medio-lateral trunk sway for ambulatory mechanics.

    PubMed

    Mündermann, Annegret; Asay, Jessica L; Mündermann, Lars; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of this study was to test a mechanism to reduce the knee adduction moment by testing the hypothesis that increased medio-lateral trunk sway can reduce the knee adduction moment during ambulation in healthy subjects, and to examine the possibility that increasing medio-lateral trunk sway can produce similar potentially adverse secondary gait changes previously associated with reduced knee adduction moments in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Nineteen healthy adults performed walking trials with normal and increased medio-lateral trunk sway at a self-selected normal walking speed. Standard gait analysis was used to calculate three-dimensional lower extremity joint kinematics and kinetics. Knee and hip adduction moments were lower (-65.0% and -57.1%, respectively) for the increased medio-lateral trunk sway trials than for the normal trunk sway trials. Knee flexion angle at heel-strike was 3 degrees higher for the increased than for the normal trunk sway trials. Knee and hip abduction moments were higher for the increased medio-lateral trunk sway trials, and none of the other variables differed between the two conditions. Walking with increased medio-lateral trunk sway substantially reduces the knee adduction moment during walking in healthy subjects without some of the adverse secondary effects such as increased axial loading rates at the major joints of the lower extremity. This result supports the potential of using gait retraining for walking with increased medio-lateral trunk sway as treatment for patients with degenerative joint disease such as medial compartment knee osteoarthritis.

  16. Accelerated forgetting of contextual details due to focal medio-dorsal thalamic lesion

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Sicong; Miller, Laurie; Piguet, Olivier; Hornberger, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Effects of thalamic nuclei damage and related white matter tracts on memory performance are still debated. This is particularly evident for the medio-dorsal thalamus which has been less clear in predicting amnesia than anterior thalamus changes. The current study addresses this issue by assessing 7 thalamic stroke patients with consistent unilateral lesions focal to the left medio-dorsal nuclei for immediate and delayed memory performance on standard visual and verbal tests of anterograde memory, and over the long-term (>24 h) on an object-location associative memory task. Thalamic patients showed selective impairment to delayed recall, but intact recognition memory. Patients also showed accelerated forgetting of contextual details after a 24 h delay, compared to controls. Importantly, the mammillothalamic tract was intact in all patients, which suggests a role for the medio-dorsal nuclei in recall and early consolidation memory processes. PMID:25309371

  17. Accelerated forgetting of contextual details due to focal medio-dorsal thalamic lesion.

    PubMed

    Tu, Sicong; Miller, Laurie; Piguet, Olivier; Hornberger, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Effects of thalamic nuclei damage and related white matter tracts on memory performance are still debated. This is particularly evident for the medio-dorsal thalamus which has been less clear in predicting amnesia than anterior thalamus changes. The current study addresses this issue by assessing 7 thalamic stroke patients with consistent unilateral lesions focal to the left medio-dorsal nuclei for immediate and delayed memory performance on standard visual and verbal tests of anterograde memory, and over the long-term (>24 h) on an object-location associative memory task. Thalamic patients showed selective impairment to delayed recall, but intact recognition memory. Patients also showed accelerated forgetting of contextual details after a 24 h delay, compared to controls. Importantly, the mammillothalamic tract was intact in all patients, which suggests a role for the medio-dorsal nuclei in recall and early consolidation memory processes.

  18. [Lupus tuberculosis: a cause of medio-facial mutilation not to be ignored].

    PubMed

    Niamba, P; Traoré, A; Traoré-Barro, F; Ilboudo, L; Bonkoungou, M; Diatto, G; Ouoba, P K; Goumbri-Lompo, O

    2006-07-01

    Medio-facial mutilations are a real problem from a diagnosis and prognosis point of view. Various etiologies may be in question, namely bacterial, parasitic, mycotic, viral infections or yet predisposing factors such as denutrition or a immunodepression. Among these etiologies, the lupus tuberculosis remains a major concern to be taken into account in poor socio-economic background. We report two cases of lupus tuberculosis in teen-agers whose diagnosis difficulty induced sequellae although limited by a further appropriate care management. The clinical spectrum of the cutaneous tuberculosis and the place of this affection featuring ahead of other medio-facial mutilations etiologies remain important in tropical area.

  19. Kaon properties in dense nuclear matter: are there experimental evidences of in medio effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiarotti, A.

    2009-06-01

    Beyond the general interest for nuclear matter theory, the K- in medio mass modification could have important astrophysical consequences. Experimental evidences of how a nuclear medium affects K+ and K- properties will be summarised. To reach a firm conclusion about the K-, the missing information on the flow will be shown to be still relevant.

  20. Climatic controls on debris-flow activity and sediment aggradation: The Del Medio fan, NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savi, Sara; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Tofelde, Stefanie; Wittmann, Hella; Scherler, Dirk; Mey, Jürgen; Alonso, Ricardo N.; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2016-12-01

    In the Central Andes, several studies on alluvial terraces and valley fills have linked sediment aggradation to periods of enhanced sediment supply. However, debate continues over whether tectonic or climatic factors are most important in triggering the enhanced supply. The Del Medio catchment in the Humahuaca Basin (Eastern Cordillera, NW Argentina) is located within a transition zone between subhumid and arid climates and hosts the only active debris-flow fan within this intermontane valley. By combining 10Be analyses of boulder and sediment samples within the Del Medio catchment, with regional morphometric measurements of nearby catchments, we identify the surface processes responsible for aggradation in the Del Medio fan and their likely triggers. We find that the fan surface has been shaped by debris flows and channel avulsions during the last 400 years. Among potential tectonic, climatic, and autogenic factors that might influence deposition, our analyses point to a combination of several favorable factors that drive aggradation. These are in particular the impact of occasional abundant rainfall on steep slopes in rock types prone to failure, located in a region characterized by relatively low rainfall amounts and limited transport capacity. These characteristics are primarily associated with the climatic transition zone between the humid foreland and the arid orogen interior, which creates an imbalance between sediment supply and sediment transfer. The conditions and processes that drive aggradation in the Del Medio catchment today may provide a modern analog for the conditions and processes that drove aggradation in other nearby tributaries in the past.

  1. DIGLIB. PC-DOS Graphics Subroutine Library

    SciTech Connect

    Burleson, R.R.

    1989-02-01

    DIGLIB is a collection of general graphics subroutines. It was designed to be small, reasonably fast, device-independent, and compatible with DEC-supplied operating systems for VAXes, PDP-11s, and LSI-11s, and the DOS operating system for IBM PCs and IBM-compatible machines. DIGLIB/PC runs on IBM PCs under PC-DOS or MS-DOS. The software is readily usable by casual programmers for two-dimensional plotting.

  2. Ageing effects on medio-lateral balance during walking with increased and decreased step width.

    PubMed

    Nagano, H; Begg, R; Sparrow, W A

    2013-01-01

    The current study used falls direction to categorize falls and explore age-related effects on the biomechanics of medio-lateral balance control. Minimum lateral margin (MLM) was defined as the critical swing phase event where the medio-lateral length between center of mass (CoM) and stance heel became minimum and accordingly, any lateral balance perturbation at MLM was considered to increase the risk of balance loss lateral to the stance foot. Lateral center of pressure (CoP) displacement from toe-off to MLM was also monitored to assess the risk of medio-lateral balance perturbation. Gait testing involving 30 young and 26 older male subjects was conducted under the three step width conditions: preferred and ± 50% wider and narrower. For an overall description of gait, spatio-temporal parameters were also obtained. Typical ageing effects on spatio-temporal parameters such as lower step velocity, shorter step length and prolonged double support time were found, emerging most clearly in narrower, followed by wider and least in preferred width walking. MLM and CoP lateral displacement were not differentiated between the two age groups, but older adults demonstrated significantly more variable MLM and CoP in their non-dominant limb when walking with non-preferred widths. Variability of step width reduced in increased and decreased step width conditions while MLM and CoP variability increased, suggesting less consistent medio-lateral CoM control despite consistent foot control in altered width conditions. In summary, older adults were found to have less consistent control of CoM with respect to the non-dominant stance foot when walking with narrower and wider widths possibly due to more variable medio-lateral CoP control.

  3. Medial or medio-lateral graft tympanoplasty for repair of tympanic membrane perforation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Timothy; Kim, You Hyun; Kim, Yoon Hwan; Park, Seong Kook; Martin, Dusan

    2009-07-01

    To describe and evaluate the medio-lateral graft tympanoplasty(1) for the reconstruction of anterior or subtotal tympanic membrane (TM) perforation and medial graft tympanoplasty for posterior TM perforation. Retrospective study of 200 patients who underwent medio-lateral graft tympanoplasty (100 cases) and medial graft tympanoplasty (100 cases) at community and tertiary care medical centers from 1995 to 2006. All patients underwent preoperative and postoperative audiograms. In the medial graft tympanoplasty, the graft is placed entirely medial to the remaining TM and malleus. First, margin of TM perforation is denuded removing ring of squamous tissue. Tympanomeatal flap is elevated. Temporalis fascia is harvested, semidried, and grafted medial to the TM perforation and malleus with Gelfoam packing supporting the graft. In the medio-lateral graft technique, posterior tympanomeatal flap is elevated same as in the medial graft tympanoplasty first. Anterior-medial canal skin is elevated down to the annulus. At the annulus only squamous epithelial layer of TM is elevated up to anterior half of the TM perforation. Temporalis fascia is grafted medial to posterior half of the perforation and lateral to anterior half of the de-epithelialized TM perforation up to the annulus. Anterior canal skin is rotated to cover the fascia graft and TM perforation as a second layer closure. Patients were followed for at least six months. Outcome was considered successful if TM is healed and intact. There were four failures (96% success rate) in medial graft method for posterior TM perforation due to infection and re-perforation. In the medio-lateral graft tympanoplasty, there were three failures (97% success rate) due to a postoperative infection, anterior blunting and recurrent cholesteatoma. The medial graft tympanoplasty works well for posterior TM perforation. The medio-lateral graft method is an excellent method for the reconstruction of large anterior or subtotal TM perforation

  4. Self-regulating the effortful "social dos".

    PubMed

    Cortes, Kassandra; Kammrath, Lara K; Scholer, Abigail A; Peetz, Johanna

    2014-03-01

    In the current research, we explored differences in the self-regulation of the personal dos (i.e., engaging in active and effortful behaviors that benefit the self) and in the self-regulation of the social dos (engaging in those same effortful behaviors to benefit someone else). In 6 studies, we examined whether the same trait self-control abilities that predict task persistence on personal dos would also predict task persistence on social dos. That is, would the same behavior, such as persisting through a tedious and attentionally demanding task, show different associations with trait self-control when it is framed as benefitting the self versus someone else? In Studies 1-3, we directly compared the personal and social dos and found that trait self-control predicted self-reported and behavioral personal dos but not social dos, even when the behaviors were identical and when the incentives were matched. Instead, trait agreeableness--a trait linked to successful self-regulation within the social domain--predicted the social dos. Trait self-control did not predict the social dos even when task difficulty increased (Study 4), but it did predict the social don'ts, consistent with past research (Studies 5-6). The current studies provide support for the importance of distinguishing different domains of self-regulated behaviors and suggest that social dos can be successfully performed through routes other than traditional self-control abilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The reliability and validity of assessing medio-lateral patellar position: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Smith, Toby O; Davies, Leigh; Donell, Simon T

    2009-08-01

    Medio-lateral patellar position is regarded as a sign of patellofemoral pain syndrome and patellar instability. Its assessment is important in accurately performing patellofemoral therapeutic taping techniques. The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the literature to determine the reliability and validity of evaluating medio-lateral patellar position. An electronic database search was performed accessing AMED, British Nursing Index, CINAHL, the Cochrane database, EMBASE, Ovid Medline, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), PubMed and Zetoc to July 2008. Conference proceedings and grey literature were also scrutinised for future publications. All human subject, clinical trials, assessing the inter- or intra-tester reliability, or the criterion validity, were included. A CASP tool was employed to evaluate methodological quality. Nine papers including 237 patients (306 knees) were reviewed. The findings of this review suggest that the intra-tester reliability of assessing medio-lateral patellar position is good, but that inter-tester reliability is variable. The criterion validity of this test is at worse moderate. These are based on a limited evidence-base. Further study is recommended to compare the McConnell (1986) [McConnell J. The management of chondromalacia patellae: a long term solution. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 1986;32(4):215-23] and Herrington (2002) [Herrington LC. The inter-tester reliability of a clinical measurement used to determine the medial/lateral orientation of the patella. Manual Therapy 2002;7(3):163-7] methods of assessing medio-lateral patellar position in patients with well-defined patellofemoral disorders.

  6. Geometric analysis of medio-lateral position of patella: a new measuring tool.

    PubMed

    Aynur, Otag; Ilhan, Otag; Vedat, Sabanciogullari; Mehmet, Cimen

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of medio-lateral position of patella is necessary for diagnosis and treatment of patellofemoral diseases. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate medio-lateral patellar position differences and to define a new practical measuring tool which enables us to analyze relationships of the points at the knee. Total of 120 healthy volunteers (60 men and 60 women) were included in our study and both of their knees were measured. In the research, the gender groups and right-left differences were evaluated. In the measurements, a four-lever measuring tool designed for this study was used. The four anatomic points of the knee which are center of patella, epicondylus lateralis, epicondylus medialis and middle point of tuberositas tibiae were used. While patella is 76% lateral in the right knee, it is 90% lateral in the left knee in men. As for woman, while it is 50% lateral in the right-knee, it is 30% lateral in the left-knee. In medio-lateral patellar position, while bilateral asymmetry is 28% in men, it is 50% in women. In measurements of knees of women and men, significant differences were detected both in the right and left knees ( P < 0.05 and P < 0.001). The patellofemoral order differences between men and women can explain anatomic reasons of patellofemoral diseases, which are encountered more in women than men.

  7. Light touch and medio-lateral postural stability during short distance gait.

    PubMed

    Kodesh, E; Falash, F; Sprecher, E; Dickstein, R

    2015-01-01

    While standing, light fingertip touch on an external stable object attenuates sway and improves balance in healthy adults as well as in individuals with poor postural control. The effect of light touch on balance during gait is, however, not well known. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to study the effects of light fingertip touch on balance during gait. We hypothesized that similar to its effect during stance light touch would increase postural stability. Forty healthy young adults were tested under four gait conditions: (1) eyes open (EO), (2) eyes closed (EC), (3) eyes closed while lightly touching a static object on the right side of the walking lane (ECLTS), (4) eyes closed while lightly touching a dynamic object, namely, a stick that was moved forwards by the subject with the right hand (ECLTD). The main outcome measure was medio-lateral step width variability, a well established indicator of gait balance in the medio-lateral plane. During the EC condition, light touch of an external static object (ECLTS) decreased medio-lateral variability (i.e., balance improved); however, this stabilizing effect was not observed with light touch on the stick. The availability of self positional and spatial cues when touching a static external reference, and their absence when touching a stick that is moved forwards by the subject as he walks, can explain the different effects of light touch in the ECLTS vs the ECLTD gait conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The influence of a medio-lateral unstable sole on invertor and evertor activation while descending stairs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ki-sik; Park, Kyungyeon; Choi, Bo-ram

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of a medio-lateral unstable sole on invertor and evertor activation while descending stairs. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 30 university students with no history of ankle sprain. They descended stairs while wearing the medio-lateral unstable sole or with bare feet. Electromyography was used to record the activity of the tibialis anterior and peroneus longus and brevis muscles and paired t-tests were used to assess statistical significance. [Results] The medio-lateral unstable sole group showed increased tibialis anterior and peroneus longus and brevis muscle activation compared to the barefoot group. [Conclusion] Medio-lateral unstable sole can be used with exercises to prevent further ankle damage by activating both the inversion and eversion muscles. PMID:27630412

  9. The influence of a medio-lateral unstable sole on invertor and evertor activation while descending stairs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ki-Sik; Park, Kyungyeon; Choi, Bo-Ram

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of a medio-lateral unstable sole on invertor and evertor activation while descending stairs. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 30 university students with no history of ankle sprain. They descended stairs while wearing the medio-lateral unstable sole or with bare feet. Electromyography was used to record the activity of the tibialis anterior and peroneus longus and brevis muscles and paired t-tests were used to assess statistical significance. [Results] The medio-lateral unstable sole group showed increased tibialis anterior and peroneus longus and brevis muscle activation compared to the barefoot group. [Conclusion] Medio-lateral unstable sole can be used with exercises to prevent further ankle damage by activating both the inversion and eversion muscles.

  10. A DOS Primer for Librarians: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, Henry

    1990-01-01

    Provides an introduction to DOS commands and strategies for the effective organization and use of hard disks. Functions discussed include the creation of directories and subdirectories, enhanced copying, the assignment of disk drives, and backing up the hard disk. (CLB)

  11. A DOS Primer for Librarians: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, Henry

    1990-01-01

    Provides an introduction to DOS commands and strategies for the effective organization and use of hard disks. Functions discussed include the creation of directories and subdirectories, enhanced copying, the assignment of disk drives, and backing up the hard disk. (CLB)

  12. The "medio-latero-superior trajectory technique": an alternative cortical trajectory for pedicle fixation.

    PubMed

    Mobbs, Ralph J

    2013-02-01

    An alternative pedicle trajectory for use at the superior end of a construct to limit dissection of the mobile superior facet joint and reduce incision length and muscle dissection, thus minimizing approach-related trauma during pedicle fixation, is reported. The medio-latero-superior trajectory technique involves a starting point on the medial aspect of the pars and angulation of the pedicle screw in a mediolateral and caudocranial direction. This approach takes advantage of a predominantly cortical trajectory to assist with bone fixation. Drawbacks of this new screw trajectory are discussed along with its potential benefits.

  13. Moléculas orgánicas obtenidas en simulaciones experimentales del medio interestelar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Caro, Guillermo Manuel

    Las nubes moleculares son regiones de formación de estrellas, con temperaturas cinéticas entre 10-50 K y densidades de 103-106 átomos cm-3. Su materia está formada por gas y polvo interestelar. Estas partículas de polvo están cubiertas por una fina capa de hielo, de unos 0.01 μm, que contiene H2O y a menudo CO, CO2, CH3OH y NH3. El hielo es presumiblemente irradiado por fotones ultravioleta y rayos cósmicos en las zonas poco profundas de las nubes moleculares y las regiones circunestelares. En un sistema de vacío, P ˜ 10-7 mbar, simulamos la deposición de hielo a partir de 10 K y la irradiación ultravioleta por medio de una lámpara de descarga de hidrógeno activada con microondas. La evolución del hielo se observa por medio de un espectrómetro infrarrojo. De este modo es posible determinar la composición del hielo observado en el medio interestelar y predecir la presencia de moléculas aún no detectadas en el espacio, que han sido producto del procesamiento del hielo en nuestros experimentos. También es posible calentar el sistema hasta temperatura ambiente para sublimar el hielo depositado. Cuando el hielo ha sido previamente irradiado, se observa un residuo compuesto por moléculas orgánicas complejas, algunas prebióticas, como varios ácidos carboxílicos, aminas, amidas, ésteres y en menor proporción moléculas heterocíclicas y aminoácidos. Algunas de estas moléculas podrían detectarse en estado gaseoso por medio de observaciones milimétricas y de radio. También podrían estar presentes en el polvo cometario, cuyo análisis químico está planeado por las misiones Stardust y Rosetta. Mientras tanto, nuestro grupo está llevando a cabo el análisis de partículas de polvo interplanetario (IDPs), algunas de las cuales pueden ser de origen cometario. Al igual que ocurre con los productos obtenidos por irradiación del hielo en nuestros experimentos, algunas IDPs son ricas en material orgánico que contiene oxígeno.

  14. Asymmetrical morphogenesis and medio-lateral positioning of molars during mouse development.

    PubMed

    Cam, Yves; Fausser, Jean-Luc; Vonesch, Jean-Luc; Peterkova, Renata; Peterka, Miroslav; Halaskova, Milada; Lesot, Hervé

    2002-02-01

    The functionality of the dentition depends on occlusal relationships between opposing crown surfaces. To investigate the relative changes in positioning of upper and lower molar germs during mouse development, we used serial histological sections of late day 13 (embryonic day (ED)13.5) to early day 18 (ED18) foetus heads and performed computer-aided 3D reconstructions. From ED13.5 to ED15.5. the first lower molar (M1) got a less medial position relative to its upper counterpart (M1); superimposition progressed postero-anteriorly. From ED14.5, the apparent medial displacement of M(1) vs. M1 was partly due to the asymmetrical growth of the M(1) to give rise to the lingual row of cusps, conspicuous at ED17. The superimposition of M(2)/M2 along the medio-lateral axis was observed from their bud stage (ED14.5), and the one of M(1)/M1 was almost complete at ED15.5. However, this was not the final position. as at ED 18, M1 and M2 had a more lateral location than their upper counterparts. Immunostaining showed that differential expression of antigens associated to desmosomes but not to adherens junctions might be involved in the asymmetrical development of M(1) thus contributing to the relative medio-lateral positioning of the first molars at early stages.

  15. Medio-lateral balance impairment differentiates between Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Nonnekes, Jorik; Aerts, Marjolein B; Abdo, W F; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2014-01-01

    In early disease stages, it can be difficult to differentiate clinically between Parkinson's disease and the various forms of atypical parkinsonism, like multiple system atrophy or progressive supranuclear palsy. Balance impairment in the medio-lateral plane (i.e. sideways) is often seen in patients with a form of atypical parkinsonism, but not in patients with Parkinson's disease. This is reflected by the distance between the feet during gait, which is typically normal (or even narrow) in Parkinson's disease, but widened in atypical parkinsonism. Estimating this stance width depends on subjective judgement, and is difficult to quantify in clinical practice. Here, we emphasize that this medio-lateral balance impairment can also be revealed using two simple tests: (1) inability to perform tandem gait (taking one or more side steps being abnormal); and (2) self-report by patients who have lost the ability to ride a bicycle. Both tests have a good diagnostic yield in differentiating between Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonism, even early in the course of the disease.

  16. Notch activates Wnt-4 signalling to control medio-lateral patterning of the pronephros.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Richard W; Jones, Elizabeth A

    2009-11-01

    Previous studies have highlighted a role for the Notch signalling pathway during pronephrogenesis in the amphibian Xenopus laevis, and in nephron development in the mammalian metanephros, yet a mechanism for this function remains elusive. Here, we further the understanding of how Notch signalling patterns the early X. laevis pronephros anlagen, a function that might be conserved in mammalian nephron segmentation. Our results indicate that early phase pronephric Notch signalling patterns the medio-lateral axis of the dorso-anterior pronephros anlagen, permitting the glomus and tubules to develop in isolation. We show that this novel function acts through the Notch effector gene hrt1 by upregulating expression of wnt4. Wnt-4 then patterns the proximal pronephric anlagen to establish the specific compartments that span the medio-lateral axis. We also identified pronephric expression of lunatic fringe and radical fringe that is temporally and spatially appropriate for a role in regulating Notch signalling in the dorso-anterior region of the pronephros anlagen. On the basis of these results, along with data from previous publications, we propose a mechanism by which the Notch signalling pathway regulates a Wnt-4 function that patterns the proximal pronephric anlagen.

  17. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is located in northern Mendocino County, California, at the confluence of the Eel River and the Middle Fork of the Eel River. The area's boundaries are defined as follows— (1) Beginning in the... the Middle Fork of the Eel River, to the southeast corner of section 11, T21N, R13W (Dos...

  18. "DOS for Managers." Management Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion County Schools, Fairmont, WV.

    A plan is provided for a lesson on disk operating systems (DOS) for managers. Twenty-five lesson objectives are listed, followed by suggestions for learning activities and special resources. In the presentation section, key points and content are provided for 25 instructional topics that correspond to the 25 lesson objectives. The topics are as…

  19. The functional role of the medio dorsal thalamic nucleus in olfaction.

    PubMed

    Tham, Wendy W P; Stevenson, Richard J; Miller, Laurie A

    2009-12-11

    Olfaction is unique relative to other sensory modalities in terms of how its neuroanatomy is organized within the brain and its perceptual properties. Olfactory information processing occurs via connections made directly from primary processing areas (piriform cortex) to neocortical structures (orbitofrontal cortex) as well as indirectly via the medio-dorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MDNT). To date, little is known about the functional significance of the MDNT in olfactory information processing. The aim of this article is to review and discuss thalamic function in olfaction. We draw upon research in human neuroimaging, neuropsychology, as well as animal and neurophysiological studies on the thalamus and MDNT in general, before focusing our discussion on the effects of MDNT lesions specific to olfactory function. Finally, although these data are currently limited and sometimes conflicting, especially those based upon human pathology, the putative roles of the MDNT in olfactory information processing and notably its role in attention, are discussed.

  20. An oncoplastic procedure for central and medio-cranial breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fitzal, F; Nehrer, G; Hoch, D; Riedl, O; Gutharc, S; Deutinger, M; Jakesz, R; Gnant, M

    2007-12-01

    Breast conserving therapy shows remarkable oncologic results and is eligible for up to 73% of patients with breast cancer. Cosmetic results are good, however, in patients with central or medio-cranial ("no-man's land") located breast cancer, the cosmetic result may be unsatisfying. The use of different breast reduction techniques have been shown to increase resection free margins and improve cosmetic results. We report here about the use of the Hall Findlay breast reduction technique for oncoplastic surgery to improve the cosmetic result in 11 patients. The Hall Findlay technique shows good postoperative breast symmetry, all patients had resection free margins above 5mm and are free of disease at a mean follow-up of 12 months. The technique may be used for breast cancer at various locations and reduces scar visibility and morbidity.

  1. DOS: the discrete-ordinates system. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades, W. A.; Emmett, M. B.

    1982-09-01

    The Discrete Ordinates System determines the flux of neutrons or photons due either to fixed sources specified by the user or to sources generated by particle interaction with the problem materials. It also determines numerous secondary results which depend upon flux. Criticality searches can be performed. Numerous input, output, and file manipulation facilities are provided. The DOS driver program reads the problem specification from an input file and calls various program modules into execution as specified by the input file.

  2. DIGLIB. PC-DOS Graphics Subroutine Library

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, H.R.

    1989-02-01

    DIGLIB is a collection of general graphics subroutines. It was designed to be small, reasonably fast, device-independent, and compatible with DEC-supplied operating systems for VAXes, PDP-11s, and LSI-11s, and the DOS operating system for IBM PCs and IBM-compatible machines. DIGLIB/VMS runs on the VAX and MicroVAX series of computers under VMS. The software is readily usable by casual programmers for two-dimensional plotting.

  3. Disk Operating System--DOS. Teacher Packet. Learning Activity Packets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    The Learning Activity Packets (LAPs) contained in this manual are designed to assist the beginning user in understanding DOS (Disk Operating System). LAPs will not work with any version below DOS Version 3.0 and do not address the enhanced features of versions 4.0 or higher. These elementary activities cover only the DOS commands necessary to…

  4. Correlating field and laboratory rates of particle abrasion, Rio Medio, Sangre de Cristo Mountains, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polito, P. J.; Sklar, L. S.

    2006-12-01

    River bed sediments commonly fine downstream due to a combination of particle abrasion, selective transport of finer grains, and fining of the local sediment supply from hillslopes and tributaries. Particle abrasion rates can be directly measured in the laboratory using tumbling barrels and annular flumes, however, scaling experimental particle abrasion rates to the field has proven difficult due to the confounding effects of selective transport and local supply variations. Here we attempt to correlate laboratory and field rates of particle abrasion in a field setting where these confounding effects can be controlled. The Rio Medio, which flows westward from the crest of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in north central New Mexico, is one of several streams studied by John P. Miller in the early 1960's. Several kilometers downstream of its headwaters, the river crosses the Picuris-Pecos fault. Upstream of the fault the river receives quartzite, sandstone and shale clasts from the Ortega Formation, while downstream sediments are supplied by the Embudo Granite. Because the upstream lithologies are not resupplied downstream of the fault, any observed fining of these clasts should be due only to abrasion and selective transport. We hypothesize that we can account for the effects of selective transport by comparing relative fining rates for the different upstream lithologies from both the field and a laboratory tumbler. By correlating laboratory abrasion rates with rock strength, we can predict the relative fining rates due solely to abrasion expected in the field; differences between the predicted and observed fining rates could then be attributed to selective transport. We used point counts to measure bed surface sediment grain size distributions at 15 locations along a 25 kilometer reach of the Rio Medio, beginning just downstream of the fault and ending upstream of a developed area with disturbed channel conditions. We recorded intermediate particle diameter as well

  5. [Bacteriological variations in a medio-mineral water bottled in polyethylene terephthalate containers].

    PubMed

    De Fusco, R; Biscardi, D; Mazzacca, F R

    1989-01-01

    Containers made with PET (Polyethylene-terephthalate) are currently more and more employed in packing industry, particularly for the storage of mineral waters. The increasing utilization of such containers is due to the intrinsic properties of this polymer, which was shown particularly suitable for making bottles devoted to the storage of gassed drinks. The resistance of the PET to high pressure, hits by falls and top-to-down loads indeed makes PET bottles unbreakable; their gas-tightness warrants a good gas maintenance during the storage period; the high transparency of the PET allows a good vision of the contents; the light weight of the bottles and the low temperatures required for their production allow a remarkable saving of energy; lastly PET bottles can easily be recycled. Previous microbiological investigations carried out on several mineral waters bottled in glass bottles and non-PET plastic (i.e. PVC) bottles, had shown higher microbial counts in the water samples stored in plastic bottles. In the present work we have studied the growth rates of the bacterial flora in a sample of non gassed medio-mineral water stored in PET bottles, with respect to a control of the same kind of water, stored in glass bottles. Before using, both PET and glass bottles were washed with 5% Desogen, and sterilized by 100 vol. hydrogen peroxide. After the appropriate sterility checks, the bottles were filled directly from the spring with a non gassed medio-mineral water, and then subdivided into four groups, each consisting of the same number of bottles. A the time of bottling, a bacterial count on such water samples at 20 degrees C and 37 degrees C was performed, in order to establish the "zero" value. One of the two groups of PET bottles, and one of the two groups of glass bottles were stored in the darkness, while the other two groups were stored in the light. Afterwards, one bottle from each group was drawn once a week over one year, in order to measure the bacterial

  6. The effects of age on medio-lateral stability during normal and narrow base walking.

    PubMed

    Schrager, Matthew A; Kelly, Valerie E; Price, Robert; Ferrucci, Luigi; Shumway-Cook, Anne

    2008-10-01

    We examined age-related differences in frontal plane stability during performance of narrow base (NB) walking relative to usual gait. A cross-sectional analysis of participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) was performed on data from the BLSA Motion Analysis Laboratory. Participants were 34 adults aged 54-92 without history of falls. We measured step error rates during NB gait and spatial-temporal parameters, frontal plane stability, and gait variability during usual and NB gait. There was a non-significant age-associated linear increase in step error rate (P=0.12) during NB gait. With increasing age, step width increased (P=0.002) and step length and stride velocity decreased (P<0.001), especially during NB gait. Age-associated increases in medio-lateral (M-L) center of mass (COM) peak velocity (P<0.001) and displacement (P=0.005) were also greater during NB compared to usual gait. With increasing age there was greater variability in stride velocity (P=0.001) and step length (P<0.001) under both conditions. Age-associated differences related to M-L COM stability suggest that the quantification of COM control during NB gait may improve identification of older persons at increased falls risk.

  7. Inhibition of medio-dorsal thalamus disrupts thalamo-frontal connectivity and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Parnaudeau, S.; O'Neill, P.K.; Bolkan, S.; Ward, R.D.; Abbas, A.I.; Roth, B.L.; Balsam, P.; Gordon, J.A.; Kellendonk, C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Cognitive deficits are central to schizophrenia but the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. Imaging studies performed in patients point to decreased activity in the medio-dorsal thalamus (MD) and reduced functional connectivity between the MD and prefrontal cortex (PFC) as candidate mechanisms. However, a causal link is still missing. We used a pharmacogenetic approach in mice to diminish MD neuron activity and examined the behavioral and physiological consequences. We found that a subtle decrease in MD activity is sufficient to trigger selective impairments in prefrontal-dependent cognitive tasks. In vivo recordings in behaving animals revealed that MD-PFC beta-range synchrony is enhanced during acquisition and performance of a working memory task. Decreasing MD activity interfered with this task-dependent modulation of MD-PFC synchrony, which correlated with impaired working memory. These findings suggest that altered MD activity is sufficient to disrupt prefrontal-dependent cognitive behaviors, and could contribute to the cognitive symptoms observed in schizophrenia. PMID:23522049

  8. Role of medio-dorsal frontal and posterior parietal neurons during auditory detection performance in rats.

    PubMed

    Bohon, Kaitlin S; Wiest, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    To further characterize the role of frontal and parietal cortices in rat cognition, we recorded action potentials simultaneously from multiple sites in the medio-dorsal frontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex of rats while they performed a two-choice auditory detection task. We quantified neural correlates of task performance, including response movements, perception of a target tone, and the differentiation between stimuli with distinct features (different pitches or durations). A minority of units--15% in frontal cortex, 23% in parietal cortex--significantly distinguished hit trials (successful detections, response movement to the right) from correct rejection trials (correct leftward response to the absence of the target tone). Estimating the contribution of movement-related activity to these responses suggested that more than half of these units were likely signaling correct perception of the auditory target, rather than merely movement direction. In addition, we found a smaller and mostly not overlapping population of units that differentiated stimuli based on task-irrelevant details. The detection-related spiking responses we observed suggest that correlates of perception in the rat are sparsely represented among neurons in the rat's frontal-parietal network, without being concentrated preferentially in frontal or parietal areas.

  9. 3D localization of clustered microcalcifications using cranio-caudal and medio-lateral oblique views.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Chih; Hsu, Hsian-He; Hsu, Giu-Cheng; Chung, Pau-Choo; Guo, Shu-Mei; Lo, Chien-Shen; Yang, Ching-Wen; Lee, San-Kan; Chang, Chein-I

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents a 3D localization method to register clustered microcalcifications on mammograms from cranio-caudal (CC) and medio-lateral oblique (MLO) views. The method consists of three major components: registration of clustered microcalcifications in CC and MLO views, 3D localization of clustered microcalcifications and 3D visualization of clustered microcalcifications. The registration is performed based on three features, gradient, energy and local entropy codes that are independent of spatial locations of microcalcifications in two different views and are prioritized by discriminability in a binary decision tree. The 3D localization is determined by a sequence of coordinate corrections of calcified pixels using the breast nipple as a controlling point. Finally, the 3D visualization implements a virtual reality modeling language viewer (VRMLV) to view the exact location of the lesion as a guide for needle biopsy. In order to validate our proposed 3D localization system, a set of breast lesions, which appear both in mammograms and in MR Images is used for experiments where the depth of clustered microcalcifications can be verified by the MR images.

  10. Final Report (OO-ERD-056) MEDIOS: Modeling Earth Deformation Using Interferometric Observations from Space

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, P; Walter, B; Zucca, J; Larsen, S; Goldstein, P; Foxall, W; Ryerson, F

    2002-01-29

    This final report summarizes the accomplishments of the 2-year LDRD-ER project ''MEDIOS: Modeling Earth Deformation using Interferometric Observations from Space'' (00-ERD-056) which began in FY00 and ended in FY01. The structure of this report consists of this summary part plus two separate journal papers, each having their own UCRL number, which document in more detail the major results in two (of three) major categories of this study. The two categories and their corresponding paper titles are (1) Seismic Hazard Mitigation (''Aseismic Creep Events along the Southern San Andreas Fault System''), and (2) Ground-based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring, or GNEM (''New Signatures of Underground Nuclear Tests Revealed by Satellite Radar Interferometry''). The third category is Energy Exploitation Applications and does not have a separate journal article associated with it but is described briefly. The purpose of this project was to develop a capability within the Geophysics and Global Security Division to process and analyze InSAR data for the purposes of constructing more accurate ground deformation source models relevant to Hazards, Energy, and NAI applications. Once this was accomplished, an inversion tool was to be created that could be applied to many different types (sources) of surface deformation so that accurate source parameters could be determined for a variety of subsurface processes of interest to customers of the GGS Division. This new capability was desired to help attract new project funding for the division.

  11. Prediction of the skeletal medio-lateral dimension using non-invasive anthropometric measurements for the provision of ischial containment sockets: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Michael P; Laux, Stefan; Fernandez, Richard G D

    2014-04-01

    Great emphasis is placed on the skeletal medio-lateral to maintain the normal adduction of the remnant femur and to ensure coronal plane stability in an ischial containment socket. Given the invasiveness of the skeletal medio-lateral measurement, an alternative approach using prediction based on non-invasive measures would be welcomed. Determine the accuracy with which the skeletal medio-lateral dimension could be predicted using sex, stature, anterior-posterior dimension and iliofemoral angle. Cross-sectional. Anthropometric measurements on 77 persons were recorded and used as input data into a standard multiple regression. The regression model explained 59% of the variance in skeletal medio-lateral (r(2) = 0.59) that was statistically significant (F(4,72) = 25.37, p = 0.000). Only sex contributed significantly to the prediction of skeletal medio-lateral (β = 0.67, t = 6.15, p = 0.00). The degree of error associated with the regression model (sum of squared errors = 0.009) indicated that the actual skeletal medio-lateral could be predicted within ±18 mm in 95% of the cases. The regression model is not sufficiently accurate to predict skeletal medio-lateral for clinical purposes. Accuracy of the prediction could be improved with more accurate input data from computed tomography scans and use of other independent variables that explain the unique variance not already described by the participants' sex. Clinical relevance This pilot study demonstrates potential for the skeletal medio-lateral to be predicted using non-invasive anthropometric measurements. Given this proof of concept, future investigators should use more accurate input data from computed tomography scans and identify alternative independent variables that explain the variance in the skeletal medio-lateral not attributable to sex.

  12. Strains of the East Asian (W/Beijing) Lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Are DosS/DosT-DosR Two-Component Regulatory System Natural Mutants▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Fallow, Ashley; Domenech, Pilar; Reed, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    As part of our ongoing efforts to uncover the phenotypic consequences of genetic variability among clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, we previously reported that isolates of the “East Asian” or “W/Beijing” lineage constitutively overexpress the coordinately regulated transcriptional program known as the DosR regulon under standard in vitro conditions. This phenotype distinguishes the W/Beijing lineage from all other M. tuberculosis lineages, which normally induce expression of this regulon only once exposed to low oxygen or nitric oxide, both of which result in inhibition of bacterial respiration and replication. Transcription of the DosR regulon is controlled through a two-component regulatory system comprising the transcription factor DosR and two possible cognate histidine sensor kinases, DosS and DosT. Through sequence analysis of a carefully selected set of isolates representing each of the major M. tuberculosis lineages, we describe herein a naturally occurring frameshift mutation in the gene encoding the DosT sensor kinase for isolates of the most recently evolved W/Beijing sublineages. Intriguingly, the occurrence of the frameshift mutation correlates precisely with the appearance of the constitutive DosR regulon phenotype displayed by the same “modern” W/Beijing strains. However, complementation studies have revealed that the mutation in dosT alone is not directly responsible for the constitutive DosR regulon phenotype. Our data serve to highlight the evolutionary pressure that exists among distinct M. tuberculosis lineages to maintain tight control over DosR regulon expression. PMID:20154135

  13. Postural Preparation to Stepping: Coupled Center of Pressure Shifts in the Anterior-Posterior and Medio-Lateral Directions.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Clint; LaRue, Jacques; Do, Manh-Cuong; Latash, Mark L

    2016-12-01

    We explored changes in the postural preparation to stepping introduced by modifications of the initial coordinates of the center of pressure (COP). We hypothesized that the postural adjustments in the anterior-posterior direction would persist across all initial COP manipulations while the adjustments in the medio-lateral direction would be highly sensitive to the initial COP coordinate. Healthy subjects stood on a force plate, shifted the body weight to one of the initial conditions that spanned the range of COP coordinates in both directions, and initiated a single step or started to walk. No major changes were observed between the stepping and walking conditions. Changes in the initial COP coordinate in the medio-lateral direction led to scaling of the magnitude of the COP shift in that direction prior to stepping accompanied by a nearly proportional change in the COP shift in the anterior-posterior direction. Changes in the initial COP coordinate in the anterior-posterior direction led to scaling of the magnitude of the COP shift in that direction prior to stepping without consistent changes in the COP shift in the medio-lateral direction. We interpret the results as reflecting a neural organization using a small set of referent body configurations for the postural adjustments.

  14. Does medio-lateral motion occur in the normal knee? An in-vitro study in passive motion.

    PubMed

    Belvedere, C; Leardini, A; Giannini, S; Ensini, A; Bianchi, L; Catani, F

    2011-03-15

    Medio-lateral translation during knee flexion continues to raise controversy. Small population sizes, small joint flexion ranges, less-reliable measurement techniques and disparate experimental conditions led to inconsistent reports in the past. To study this subject with more accurate and reliable measurements, we carried out femur and tibia tracking in 22 intact cadaver knees during passive joint motion using a state-of-the-art surgical navigation system. Trackers with active light-emitting diodes were fixed onto the femur and tibia, and an instrumented pointer was used to digitize a number of anatomical landmarks. International recommendations were adopted for anatomical-based reference frame definitions and joint kinematic analysis. For the first time, knee joint translations were reported in both the femoral and tibial reference frames, and over a flexion/extension arc as large as 140°. During flexion, in the femoral reference frame, the center of the tibial plateau moved 4.8 ± 2.8mm medially when averaged over the specimens. In the tibial frame, the knee center moved 13.3 ± 5.7 mm laterally. The relative femoral-to-tibial medio-lateral translation was, on average over the specimens, nearly 20% of the width of the tibial plateau, and can be as large as 35%. Medio-lateral translation occurs in the natural normal knee joint. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Postural Preparation to Stepping: Coupled Center of Pressure Shifts in the Anterior-Posterior and Medio-Lateral Directions

    PubMed Central

    LaRue, Jacques; Do, Manh-Cuong; Latash, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We explored changes in the postural preparation to stepping introduced by modifications of the initial coordinates of the center of pressure (COP). We hypothesized that the postural adjustments in the anterior-posterior direction would persist across all initial COP manipulations while the adjustments in the medio-lateral direction would be highly sensitive to the initial COP coordinate. Healthy subjects stood on a force plate, shifted the body weight to one of the initial conditions that spanned the range of COP coordinates in both directions, and initiated a single step or started to walk. No major changes were observed between the stepping and walking conditions. Changes in the initial COP coordinate in the medio-lateral direction led to scaling of the magnitude of the COP shift in that direction prior to stepping accompanied by a nearly proportional change in the COP shift in the anterior-posterior direction. Changes in the initial COP coordinate in the anterior-posterior direction led to scaling of the magnitude of the COP shift in that direction prior to stepping without consistent changes in the COP shift in the medio-lateral direction. We interpret the results as reflecting a neural organization using a small set of referent body configurations for the postural adjustments. PMID:28031752

  16. Effect of a 4-week balance exercise with medio-lateral unstable sole on ankle joint functional ability.

    PubMed

    Nam, Su-Bin; Choi, Bo-Ram

    2017-07-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of 4-week of balance exercise with medio-lateral unstable sole on ankle muscle activation and functional ability. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty university students without current or past ankle injuries were assigned to either an experimental group or control group. The experimental group participated in a balance exercise program 3 times a week over 4 weeks, which consisted of one-leg stands and semi-squat exercises with medio-lateral unstable sole. The control group continued with their regular life activities without participation in the program. Electromyographic activities of peroneus longus and brevis muscles were recorded during stair descending immediately before and after the exercise program. Functional balance was tested with the Star Excursion Balance test immediately before and after the exercise program. Paired t-tests were used to assess statistical significance. [Results] Activation of peroneus longus and brevis and Star Excursion Balance Test scores in both groups did not show a significant difference between pre- and post-exercise. [Conclusion] A future study is suggested with increased level of medio-lateral perturbation during outcome measurements and exercises with addition of supervision in the exercise training and home program.

  17. Influence of temporal pressure on anticipatory postural control of medio-lateral stability during rapid leg flexion.

    PubMed

    Yiou, E; Hussein, T; Larue, J

    2012-03-01

    During leg flexion from erect posture, postural stability along the medio-lateral direction is organized in advance during "anticipatory postural adjustments" (APAs). This study aimed to investigate the influence of temporal pressure on this anticipatory postural control of medio-lateral stability. Eight young healthy participants performed series of leg flexions (1) as soon as possible in response to an acoustic signal (reaction-time condition; condition with temporal pressure) and (2) in a self-initiated condition (no temporal pressure). Results showed that APAs duration was shorter in the reaction-time condition as compared to the self-initiated condition; this shortening was compensated by an increase in the medio-lateral center-of-pressure displacement so that the dynamic stability reached at foot-off, as measured by the "extrapolated center-of-mass", remained unchanged. It is concluded that when a complex task is performed under temporal pressure, the central nervous system is able to modulate the spatio-temporal features of APAs in a way to both hasten the initiation of the voluntary movement and maintain optimal conditions of dynamic stability. In other words, it seems that the central nervous system does not "trade off optimal stability for speed of movement initiation under reaction-time condition", as it had been proposed in the literature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Medio-lateral Knee Fluency in Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Injured Athletes During Dynamic Movement Trials

    PubMed Central

    Panos, Joseph A.; Hoffman, Joshua T.; Wordeman, Samuel C.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Correction of neuromuscular impairments after anterior cruciate ligament injury is vital to successful return to sport. Frontal plane knee control during landing is a common measure of lower-extremity neuromuscular control and asymmetries in neuromuscular control of the knee can predispose injured athletes to additional injury and associated morbidities. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of anterior cruciate ligament injury on knee biomechanics during landing. Methods Two-dimensional frontal plane video of single leg drop, cross over drop, and drop vertical jump dynamic movement trials was analyzed for twenty injured and reconstructed athletes. The position of the knee joint center was tracked in ImageJ software for 500 milliseconds after landing to calculate medio-lateral knee motion velocities and determine normal fluency, the number of times per second knee velocity changed direction. The inverse of this calculation, analytical fluency, was used to associate larger numerical values with fluent movement. Findings Analytical fluency was decreased in involved limbs for single leg drop trials (P=0.0018). Importantly, analytical fluency for single leg drop differed compared to cross over drop trials for involved (P<0.001), but not uninvolved limbs (P=0.5029). For involved limbs, analytical fluency values exhibited a stepwise trend in relative magnitudes. Interpretation Decreased analytical fluency in involved limbs is consistent with previous studies. Fluency asymmetries observed during single leg drop tasks may be indicative of abhorrent landing strategies in the involved limb. Analytical fluency differences in unilateral tasks for injured limbs may represent neuromuscular impairment as a result of injury. PMID:26895446

  19. Medio-lateral knee fluency in anterior cruciate ligament-injured athletes during dynamic movement trials.

    PubMed

    Panos, Joseph A; Hoffman, Joshua T; Wordeman, Samuel C; Hewett, Timothy E

    2016-03-01

    Correction of neuromuscular impairments after anterior cruciate ligament injury is vital to successful return to sport. Frontal plane knee control during landing is a common measure of lower-extremity neuromuscular control and asymmetries in neuromuscular control of the knee can predispose injured athletes to additional injury and associated morbidities. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of anterior cruciate ligament injury on knee biomechanics during landing. Two-dimensional frontal plane video of single leg drop, cross over drop, and drop vertical jump dynamic movement trials was analyzed for twenty injured and reconstructed athletes. The position of the knee joint center was tracked in ImageJ software for 500 milliseconds after landing to calculate medio-lateral knee motion velocities and determine normal fluency, the number of times per second knee velocity changed direction. The inverse of this calculation, analytical fluency, was used to associate larger numerical values with fluent movement. Analytical fluency was decreased in involved limbs for single leg drop trials (P=0.0018). Importantly, analytical fluency for single leg drop differed compared to cross over drop trials for involved (P<0.001), but not uninvolved limbs (P=0.5029). For involved limbs, analytical fluency values exhibited a stepwise trend in relative magnitudes. Decreased analytical fluency in involved limbs is consistent with previous studies. Fluency asymmetries observed during single leg drop tasks may be indicative of abhorrent landing strategies in the involved limb. Analytical fluency differences in unilateral tasks for injured limbs may represent neuromuscular impairment as a result of injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Medio-lateral balance adjustments preceding reflexive limb withdrawal are modified by postural demands.

    PubMed

    Bent, L R; Potvin, J R; Brooke, J D; McIlroy, W E

    2001-09-28

    We have recently observed medio-lateral balance adjustments (BA) preceding reflexive stepping elicited by noxious stimulation. While task specific modulation is evident for BA prior to voluntary leg movement, it is unclear whether rapid BA reactions (prior to 'reflexive' stepping) represent a generic response to evoked limb withdrawal or can be modified to suit task-conditions. This study was designed to establish whether the CNS is able to modify rapid onset latency BAs to match task conditions. Reflexive stepping was evoked by applying a noxious stimulus (50 ms stimulus train, 1 ms pulses, 300 Hz, 4 x perceptual threshold) to the plantar surface of the either the left or right foot. Task conditions were varied prior to stimulation by having subjects maintain one of three different static positions: (1) lean left (70% body weight (BW) on left), (2) neutral (50% BW both sides), (3) lean right (70% BW on right). BAs were denoted by centre-of-pressure (CoP) excursions towards the swing foot after the onset of noxious stimulation (average onset latency of 128 ms). There was a significant increase in frequency of occurrence and a significant increase in magnitude of CoP shift when the stimulation was applied to a loaded limb (leaning with 70% BW on the stimulated foot) as compared to an unloaded limb (30% BW). In addition, 78% of loaded trials featured steps taken with the unstimulated foot, which delayed removal of the stimulated foot. Collectively, the results indicate modifiability of the very rapid onset balance adjustments that precede the onset of limb withdrawal revealing complex control of balance exists even over very brief latencies.

  1. Inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosRST signaling and persistence.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huiqing; Colvin, Christopher J; Johnson, Benjamin K; Kirchhoff, Paul D; Wilson, Michael; Jorgensen-Muga, Katriana; Larsen, Scott D; Abramovitch, Robert B

    2017-02-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) DosRST two-component regulatory system promotes the survival of Mtb during non-replicating persistence (NRP). NRP bacteria help drive the long course of tuberculosis therapy; therefore, chemical inhibition of DosRST may inhibit the ability of Mtb to establish persistence and thus shorten treatment. Using a DosRST-dependent fluorescent Mtb reporter strain, a whole-cell phenotypic high-throughput screen of a ∼540,000 compound small-molecule library was conducted. The screen discovered novel inhibitors of the DosRST regulon, including three compounds that were subject to follow-up studies: artemisinin, HC102A and HC103A. Under hypoxia, all three compounds inhibit Mtb-persistence-associated physiological processes, including triacylglycerol synthesis, survival and antibiotic tolerance. Artemisinin functions by disabling the heme-based DosS and DosT sensor kinases by oxidizing ferrous heme and generating heme-artemisinin adducts. In contrast, HC103A inhibits DosS and DosT autophosphorylation activity without targeting the sensor kinase heme.

  2. A modern analog of past climatic impacts on denudation rates and sediment transport: The Del Medio fan, NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savi, S.; Schildgen, T. F.; Tofelde, S.; Wittmann, H.; Strecker, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    The combined effects of tectonic and climatic forcing govern the evolution of landscapes, modifying erosional processes, changing river profiles, and ultimately impacting depositional systems. The complexity of the response, however, often means that we cannot predict a priori how a given landscape will react to climatic changes. The Del Medio catchment is located in the Humahuaca Basin, an intermontane valley of the Eastern Cordillera. This area coincides with a climatic divide between a sub-humid and a semi-arid environment. An extensive debris-flow fan sourced in the Del Medio catchment covers ca. 18.6 km2 of the lower basin. To investigate rates and timing of its evolution, we analyzed cosmogenic 10Be concentrations on large boulders from the fan surface, river sands and pebbles in 3 active channels, a depth profile, and bedrock exposed atop the drainage basin margins. Our CRN results illustrate the rapid rate at which the fan surface is subject to change, with each of the 16 analyzed boulder samples providing ages of < 400 years. The 15-m deep depth profile exposes three cycles of activity in the recent past. In addition, river sands record very high denudation rates (from several mm/yr to tens of mm/yr), despite bedrock denudation rates of < 0.04 mm/yr from most bedrock ridges. Interestingly, modern pebbles from tributaries with recent landslide activity consistently yield denudation rates that are faster than those from sands, while tributaries without landslide activity show the opposite pattern, documenting the importance of grain-size dependency for inferring the main mechanism of sediment transport within a catchment. Farther upstream in the more arid Humahuaca Basin, abandoned fluvial terrace sequences have been linked to wetter episodes during the late Quaternary. Within those fills, preliminary paleo-denudation rates reach values similar to those currently observed in the Del Medio catchment, while modern denudation rates from river sands are similar

  3. CRONUS, A Distributed Operating System. Volume 4. CRONUS DOS implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    3 VI’(of i,:oa4r) TC- ’ CRON S, A DISTRIBUTED OPERATING S YS^4T EM: CRONUS DOS Implementation .131N Laboratories Incorporated R~. Schantz, K...Classification) CRONUS , A DISTRIBUTED OPERATING SYSTEM: CRONUS DOS Implementation 1Z.P ERSONAL AUTHOR(S) R. Schantz, K. Schroder, M. Barrow, G. Bono, M. Dean, R...second contract phase for development of the Cronus Project. ’% Cronus is the name given to the distributed operating system (DOS) and system

  4. Pressure plate analysis of toe-heel and medio-lateral hoof balance at the walk and trot in sound sport horses.

    PubMed

    Oosterlinck, M; Hardeman, L C; van der Meij, B R; Veraa, S; van der Kolk, J H; Wijnberg, I D; Pille, F; Back, W

    2013-12-01

    Empirically, equine distal limb lameness is often linked to hoof imbalance. To objectively quantify dynamic toe-heel and medio-lateral hoof balance of the vertical ground reaction force in sound sport horses, seven Royal Dutch Sport Horses were led at the walk and trot over a dynamically calibrated pressure plate. Forelimb hoof prints were divided into a toe and heel region and a medial and lateral zone. Toe-heel and medio-lateral hoof balance of the vertical ground reaction force were calculated throughout the stance. Toe-heel balance was highly symmetrical between contralateral limbs at both gaits. At the walk, medio-lateral balance of both forelimbs presented higher loading in the lateral part of the hoof throughout the stance. However, at the trot, left medio-lateral balance presented higher loading of the medial part of the hoof at impact, whereas the right limb showed higher loading of the lateral part of the hoof in all horses, and both limbs presented increased lateral loading at the end of the stance. This study provides objective data for toe-heel and medio-lateral hoof balance in sound sport horses.

  5. Divorce Matters: Visitation Dos and Don'ts

    MedlinePlus

    divorce matters Visitation dos and don’ts For both parents and children, visitation is critical to maintaining ... sense of connectedness both during and after a divorce. But in the early stages of family restructuring ...

  6. A role for PHANTASTICA in medio-lateral regulation of adaxial domain development in tomato and tobacco leaves.

    PubMed

    Zoulias, Nicholas; Koenig, Daniel; Hamidi, Ashley; McCormick, Sheila; Kim, Minsung

    2012-02-01

    Diverse leaf forms in nature can be categorized into two groups: simple and compound. A simple leaf has a single blade unit, whilst a compound leaf is dissected into leaflets. For both simple and compound leaves, a MYB domain transcription factor PHANTASTICA (PHAN) plays an important role in establishing the adaxial domain in the leaf. Absence of PHAN in arabidopsis and antirrhinum leaves supresses blade development, and in tomato suppresses leaflet development. However, in the rachis and petiole regions of tomato leaves where PHAN and the adaxial domain coexist, it has been unclear why leaf blade and leaflets are not formed. We hypothesized that PHAN regulates the medio-lateral extent of the adaxial domain, thereby determining compound leaf architecture. To test this hypothesis, we generated and analysed transgenic tomato plants expressing tomato PHAN (SlPHAN) under the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in both sense and antisense orientations, and tobacco plants that over-express tomato SlPHAN. Modulations in SlPHAN resulted in a variety of leaf morphologies such as simple, ternate and compound in either a peltate or non-peltate arrangement. Measurements of the extent of the adaxial domain along the wild-type tomato leaf axis showed that the adaxial domain is narrowed in the rachis and petiole in comparison with regions where laminar tissue arises. In antiSlPHAN transgenic leaves, no blade or leaflet was formed where the adaxial domain was medio-laterally narrowed, and KNOX gene expression was correlatively upregulated. CaMV35S::SlPHAN expression led to widening of the adaxial domain and ectopic blade outgrowth in the rachis of tomato and in the petiole of tobacco. Taken together, these results suggest that SlPHAN plays a role in medio-lateral extension of the adaxial domain and contributes to final leaf morphology in tomato. This study provides a novel insight into leaf architecture in tomato and highlights how changes in the expression domain of a

  7. A role for PHANTASTICA in medio-lateral regulation of adaxial domain development in tomato and tobacco leaves

    PubMed Central

    Zoulias, Nicholas; Koenig, Daniel; Hamidi, Ashley; McCormick, Sheila; Kim, Minsung

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Diverse leaf forms in nature can be categorized into two groups: simple and compound. A simple leaf has a single blade unit, whilst a compound leaf is dissected into leaflets. For both simple and compound leaves, a MYB domain transcription factor PHANTASTICA (PHAN) plays an important role in establishing the adaxial domain in the leaf. Absence of PHAN in arabidopsis and antirrhinum leaves supresses blade development, and in tomato suppresses leaflet development. However, in the rachis and petiole regions of tomato leaves where PHAN and the adaxial domain coexist, it has been unclear why leaf blade and leaflets are not formed. We hypothesized that PHAN regulates the medio-lateral extent of the adaxial domain, thereby determining compound leaf architecture. Methods To test this hypothesis, we generated and analysed transgenic tomato plants expressing tomato PHAN (SlPHAN) under the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in both sense and antisense orientations, and tobacco plants that over-express tomato SlPHAN. Key Results Modulations in SlPHAN resulted in a variety of leaf morphologies such as simple, ternate and compound in either a peltate or non-peltate arrangement. Measurements of the extent of the adaxial domain along the wild-type tomato leaf axis showed that the adaxial domain is narrowed in the rachis and petiole in comparison with regions where laminar tissue arises. In antiSlPHAN transgenic leaves, no blade or leaflet was formed where the adaxial domain was medio-laterally narrowed, and KNOX gene expression was correlatively upregulated. CaMV35S::SlPHAN expression led to widening of the adaxial domain and ectopic blade outgrowth in the rachis of tomato and in the petiole of tobacco. Taken together, these results suggest that SlPHAN plays a role in medio-lateral extension of the adaxial domain and contributes to final leaf morphology in tomato. Conclusions This study provides a novel insight into leaf architecture in tomato and

  8. Validity and inter-rater reliability of medio-lateral knee motion observed during a single-limb mini squat.

    PubMed

    Ageberg, Eva; Bennell, Kim L; Hunt, Michael A; Simic, Milena; Roos, Ewa M; Creaby, Mark W

    2010-11-16

    Muscle function may influence the risk of knee injury and outcomes following injury. Clinical tests, such as a single-limb mini squat, resemble conditions of daily life and are easy to administer. Fewer squats per 30 seconds indicate poorer function. However, the quality of movement, such as the medio-lateral knee motion may also be important. The aim was to validate an observational clinical test of assessing the medio-lateral knee motion, using a three-dimensional (3-D) motion analysis system. In addition, the inter-rater reliability was evaluated. Twenty-five (17 women) non-injured participants (mean age 25.6 years, range 18-37) were included. Visual analysis of the medio-lateral knee motion, scored as knee-over-foot or knee-medial-to-foot by two raters, and 3-D kinematic data were collected simultaneously during a single-limb mini squat. Frontal plane 2-D peak tibial, thigh, and knee varus-valgus angles, and 3-D peak hip internal-external rotation, and knee varus-valgus angles were calculated. Ten subjects were scored as having a knee-medial-to-foot position and 15 subjects a knee-over-foot position assessed by visual inspection. In 2-D, the peak tibial angle (mean 89.0 (SE 0.7) vs mean 86.3 (SE 0.4) degrees, p = 0.001) and peak thigh angle (mean 77.4 (SE 1.0) vs mean 81.2 (SE 0.5) degrees, p = 0.001) with respect to the horizontal, indicated that the knee was more medially placed than the ankle and thigh, respectively. Thus, the knee was in more valgus (mean 11.6 (SE 1.5) vs 5.0 (SE 0.8) degrees, p < 0.001) in subjects with the knee-medial-to-foot than in those with a knee-over-foot position. In 3-D, the hip was more internally rotated in those with a knee-medial-to-foot than in those with a knee-over-foot position (mean 10.6 (SE 2.1) vs 4.8 (SE 1.8) degrees, p = 0.049), but there was no difference in knee valgus (mean 6.1 (SE 1.8) vs mean 5.0 (SE 1.2) degrees, p = 0.589). The kappa value and percent agreement, respectively, was >0.90 and 96 between raters

  9. Validity and inter-rater reliability of medio-lateral knee motion observed during a single-limb mini squat

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Muscle function may influence the risk of knee injury and outcomes following injury. Clinical tests, such as a single-limb mini squat, resemble conditions of daily life and are easy to administer. Fewer squats per 30 seconds indicate poorer function. However, the quality of movement, such as the medio-lateral knee motion may also be important. The aim was to validate an observational clinical test of assessing the medio-lateral knee motion, using a three-dimensional (3-D) motion analysis system. In addition, the inter-rater reliability was evaluated. Methods Twenty-five (17 women) non-injured participants (mean age 25.6 years, range 18-37) were included. Visual analysis of the medio-lateral knee motion, scored as knee-over-foot or knee-medial-to-foot by two raters, and 3-D kinematic data were collected simultaneously during a single-limb mini squat. Frontal plane 2-D peak tibial, thigh, and knee varus-valgus angles, and 3-D peak hip internal-external rotation, and knee varus-valgus angles were calculated. Results Ten subjects were scored as having a knee-medial-to-foot position and 15 subjects a knee-over-foot position assessed by visual inspection. In 2-D, the peak tibial angle (mean 89.0 (SE 0.7) vs mean 86.3 (SE 0.4) degrees, p = 0.001) and peak thigh angle (mean 77.4 (SE 1.0) vs mean 81.2 (SE 0.5) degrees, p = 0.001) with respect to the horizontal, indicated that the knee was more medially placed than the ankle and thigh, respectively. Thus, the knee was in more valgus (mean 11.6 (SE 1.5) vs 5.0 (SE 0.8) degrees, p < 0.001) in subjects with the knee-medial-to-foot than in those with a knee-over-foot position. In 3-D, the hip was more internally rotated in those with a knee-medial-to-foot than in those with a knee-over-foot position (mean 10.6 (SE 2.1) vs 4.8 (SE 1.8) degrees, p = 0.049), but there was no difference in knee valgus (mean 6.1 (SE 1.8) vs mean 5.0 (SE 1.2) degrees, p = 0.589). The kappa value and percent agreement, respectively, was >0

  10. Bi-cruciate substituting total knee arthroplasty improved medio-lateral instability in mid-flexion range.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Takao; Kono, Norihiko; Mochizuki, Yuta; Hada, Masaru; Toyoda, Shinya; Musha, Yoshiro

    2017-03-01

    Appropriate medio-lateral (ML) stability is an important factor of good clinical outcome following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We hypothesized that a newly introduced Bi-Cruciate Stabilized substituting (BCS) prosthesis reduces the medio-lateral instability in mid-flexion range. The purpose of this study was to measure the ML stability (varus ligament balance) using a new tensor device after implantation of BCS TKA and to analysis the association between varus ligament balance and clinical results after TKA. We evaluated 33 patients who underwent 39 Journey. 2. BCS TKA using the measured resection technique. We measured the gaps after implantation from extension to full flexion with reduced patella by constant distraction force with 120N. The varus ligament balance gap was defined as the gap calculated by subtracting from Lateral to medial component gap. The clinical results at 2years after operation was compared with intraoperative varus ligament balance. Varus ligament balance showed its maximum gap at full knee extension and 120° flexion. Varus ligament balance at 30°, 60° and 90° of flexion were significant differences in the varus ligament balance at full extension. (* p < 0.05). The varus ligament balance gap was negatively corrected with postoperative 2011 Knee society score (patient's satisfaction) (r = 0.661, p = 0.001). The most important findings of the present study are that BCS TKA can reduces the ML instability in mid-flexion range, and improve simultaneously the patient's satisfaction. Therapeutic study, Level III.

  11. Association between sensory function and medio-lateral knee position during functional tasks in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Cronström, Anna; Ageberg, Eva

    2014-12-13

    Patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury often exhibit reduced movement quality during functional tasks in the form of a knee-medial-to-foot position (KMFP). This movement pattern is suggested to be more common in women than in men, but the possible contributing sensorimotor factors for this altered knee position are poorly studied in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between sensory function and medio-lateral knee position during functional tasks in men and women with ACL injury. Fifty-one patients (23 women) aged 18-40 years with ACL injury were included in this cross-sectional study. Measures of sensory function were assessed by the threshold to detection of passive motion (TDPM) for knee kinesthesia and by the vibration perception threshold (VPT) for vibration sense. Movement quality was assessed by visual observation of the position of the knee relative to the foot during the following four functional tasks with different degrees of difficulty: the single-limb mini-squat, stair descending, the forward lunge, and the drop-jump. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between the sensory measures and the medio-lateral knee position during the functional tasks. Differences in TDPM and/or VPT between subjects with good and poor movement quality were evaluated using the independent t-test. Separate gender analyses were performed. Worse TDPM was associated with a KMFP during the drop jump in men. Worse VPT at the toe and ankle was associated with a KMFP during stair descending and the forward lunge in women, but no associations were found in men. Worse kinesthesia, measured by TDPM, might be associated with KMFP during the drop jump in men with ACL injury while worse vibration sense, measured by the VPT, at the foot and ankle might be related to KMFP in women. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.

  12. Neuromuscular response of hip-spanning and low back muscles to medio-lateral foot center of pressure manipulation during gait.

    PubMed

    Solomonow-Avnon, Deborah; Levin, Daniel; Elboim-Gabyzon, Michal; Rozen, Nimrod; Peled, Eli; Wolf, Alon

    2016-06-01

    Footwear-generated medio-lateral foot center of pressure manipulation has been shown to have potential positive effects on gait parameters of hip osteoarthritis patients, ultimately reducing maximum joint reaction forces. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of medio-lateral foot center of pressure manipulation on muscle activity of hip-spanning and back muscles during gait in bilateral hip osteoarthritis patients. Foot center of pressure was shifted along the medio-lateral foot axis using a foot-worn biomechanical device allowing controlled center of pressure manipulation. Sixteen female bilateral hip osteoarthritis patients underwent electromyography analysis while walking in the device set to three parasagittal configurations: neutral (control), medial, and lateral. Seven hip-spanning muscles (Gluteus Medius, Gluteus Maximus, Tensor Fascia Latae, Rectus Femoris, Semitendinosis, Biceps Femoris, Adductor Magnus) and one back muscle (Erector Spinae) were analyzed. Magnitude and temporal parameters were calculated. The amplitude and temporal parameter varied significantly between foot center of pressure positions for 5 out of 8 muscles each for either the more or less symptomatic leg in at least one subphase of the gait cycle. Medio-lateral foot center of pressure manipulation significantly affects neuromuscular pattern of hip and back musculature during gait in female hip bilateral osteoarthritis patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Izabel dos Santos and the training of the health workers.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Carlos Henrique Assunção

    2015-06-01

    This article discusses the career of Izabel dos Santos (1927-2010) as a means of examining the connections between health schools and agendas in contemporary Brazil. The article highlights dos Santos's training and her work in the Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública (SESP- Special Public Health Service), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and in the formulation and implementation of national training programs for human resources within the area of health from the late 1970s onwards. The article highlights dos Santos's central role in the formulation and implementation of training policies for health workers, especially nursing technicians and assistants, and demonstrates how she occupies an important place in the history of Brazilian public health.

  14. Isotopic and chemical investigations on Angra dos Reis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Tera, F.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Huneke, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    Isotope ratios and chemical abundance measurements for a variety of elements are reported for total meteorite and mineral separates of the Angra dos Reis achondrite. U-Pb, Th-Pb, and Pb-Pb ages are concordant at 4.54 eons for the total meteorite and for high-purity whitlockite, which indicates that Angra dos Reis is an early planetary differentiate that has not been disturbed for these systems since 4.54 eons ago. The implications of different ratios of Sr-87 and Sr-86 found in different components are discussed. Xe isotopic measurements show that Pu-244 was enriched in the whitlockite relative to the pyroxene by a factor of about 18. Chemical enrichment factors between the whitlockite and the fassaitic pyroxene in Angra dos Reis are presented

  15. When worlds collide - Mac to MS-DOS. [Data transfer to and from Apple Macintosh computers and MS-DOS based personal computers

    SciTech Connect

    Busbey, A.B.

    1989-04-01

    A number of methods and products, both hardware and software, to allow data exchange between Apple Macintosh computers and MS-DOS based systems. These included serial null modem connections, MS-DOS hardware and/or software emulation, MS-DOS disk-reading hardware and networking.

  16. 48 CFR 619.402-70 - DOS designee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 619.402-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Cooperation with the Small Business Administration 619.402-70 DOS designee. Where the FAR requires action by a Small Business Administration procurement center representative, but one has not been...

  17. Special Section--Library Workstations: Mac and DOS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valauskas, Ed; Flower, Eric

    1993-01-01

    Two articles discuss the library hardware marketplace. The first examines the Apple Macintosh in libraries from 1984 to the present, including linking libraries, computers, and endusers over large geographic distances. The second article discusses upgrading components of systems in the IBM compatible, MS-DOS, and Windows environments as costs…

  18. Bicompartmental versus total knee arthroplasty for medio-patellofemoral osteoarthritis: a comparison of early clinical and functional outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shah, Siddharth Mahesh; Dutton, Andrew Quoc; Liang, Shen; Dasde, Shamal

    2013-12-01

    Severe medio-patellofemoral osteoarthritis (MPFOA) is often managed with a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Bicompartmental knee arthroplasty (BKA), as compared with TKA can offer a bone and ligament preserving solution for MPFOA. We aimed to compare the early clinical and functional outcomes of modular BKA (n = 16) with TKA (n = 20) in MPFOA. Knee Society Score (KSS-clinical and function scores) and Knee injury & Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS-pain, symptoms, stiffness, and function scores) were recorded at 6, 12 and 24 months postoperatively and compared between the two groups. Pre- and postoperative radiographs were evaluated for alignment and radiolucencies. We found that none of the outcome scores were significantly different (p ≥ 0.137) between the two groups at any point in time. Postoperative knee range of motion (ROM) was significantly greater in the BKA group at all points in time (p ≤ 0.007). None of the patients in either group were revised or pending revision at the end of 24 months. To conclude, modular BKA resulted in better knee ROM but similar clinical and functional scores than TKA in MPFOA at short term. Modular BKA is a viable option for MPFOA but may not necessarily result in significant superior functional outcomes than with TKA. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Medio-lateral motion of the center of mass during obstacle crossing distinguishes elderly individuals with imbalance.

    PubMed

    Chou, Li-Shan; Kaufman, Kenton R; Hahn, Michael E; Brey, Robert H

    2003-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate whether elderly patients with imbalance can be distinguished from healthy elderly subjects by comparing their whole body center of mass (COM) motion in the medio-lateral (M-L) direction during obstacle crossing. Nine healthy elderly adults and six elderly patients having complaints of 'dizziness' or 'unsteadiness' during walking (three with bilateral/unilateral vestibular weakness and three with unclear diagnosis) were recruited to perform unobstructed level walking and crossing of obstacles set to 2.5, 5, 10 and 15% of each subject's height. Kinematics of the COM was calculated using a weighted sum average of a 13-segment biomechanical model. There were no significant group differences for the temporal-distance gait parameters during all testing conditions. However, elderly patients with balance disorders demonstrated significantly greater and faster lateral motion of the COM when crossing over obstacles. These measurements distinguish elderly patients with imbalance from healthy elderly subjects. Furthermore, the increased M-L motion of the COM during obstacle crossing showed a positive correlation with an increased M-L range of motion of the swing foot trajectory. This increase in M-L motion indicates a compensatory adjustment in the swing foot trajectory to land the swing foot at an appropriate location that would establish a new base of support to counter the balance disturbance in the frontal plane.

  20. Walking patterns of hip arthroplasty patients: some observations on the medio-lateral excursions of the trunk.

    PubMed

    Vogt, L; Brettmann, K; Pfeifer, K; Banzer, W

    2003-04-08

    This study examined the angular gait kinematics of the trunk and the pelvis in the frontal plane and their amount of side-to-side asymmetry in patients after total hip replacement arthroplasty. The angular gait kinematics of 12 male hip arthroplasty patients (53-70 years) were compared to ten age-matched and ten young (24-35 years) male control subjects. Average step times and medio-lateral oscillation amplitudes of the pelvic and thoracic recordings were calculated for each step. Between successive steps the asymmetry ratio was computed and the mean angle around which the side-to-side oscillations occurred was compared to the angle in a symmetrical standing trial. ANOVA indicated no significant side differences in relative step cycle durations. Patients and senior controls had significantly (p<0.01) less pelvis side-to-side displacements than the younger controls. No significant between-group differences could be detected for the average asymmetry ratio. However, during walking the patients showed a significantly (p<0.01) increased lateral thorax and pelvis deviation. Hip replacement patients' thoracic and pelvic position is characterized by a lateral shift throughout the gait cycle, while left and right symmetry of angular movements amplitudes remain at about the same value of unimpaired subjects.

  1. Influence of fear of falling on anticipatory postural control of medio-lateral stability during rapid leg flexion.

    PubMed

    Yiou, E; Deroche, T; Do, M C; Woodman, T

    2011-04-01

    During leg flexion from erect posture, postural stability is organized in advance during "anticipatory postural adjustments" (APA). During these APA, inertial forces are generated that propel the centre of gravity (CoG) laterally towards stance leg side. This study examined how fear of falling (FoF) may influence this anticipatory postural control of medio-lateral (ML) stability. Ten young healthy participants performed a series of leg flexions at maximal velocity from low and high surface heights (6 and 66 cm above ground, respectively). In this latter condition with increased FoF, stance foot was placed at the lateral edge of the support surface to induce maximal postural threat. Results showed that the amplitude of ML inertial forces generated during APA decreased with FoF; this decrease was compensated by an increase in APA duration so that the CoG position at time of swing foot-off was located further towards stance leg side. With these changes in ML APA, the CoG was propelled in the same final (unipodal) position above stance foot as in condition with low FoF. These results contrast with those obtained in the literature during quiet standing which showed that FoF did not have any influence on the ML component of postural control. It is proposed that ML APA are modified with increased FoF, in such a way that the risk of a sideway fall induced by the large CoG motion is attenuated.

  2. Control of saccadic eye movements and combined eye/head gaze shifts by the medio-posterior cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Pélisson, Denis; Goffart, Laurent; Guillaume, Alain

    2003-01-01

    The cerebellar areas involved in the control of saccades have recently been identified in the medio-posterior cerebellum (MPC). Unit activity recordings, experimental lesions and electrical microstimulation of this region in cats and monkeys have provided a considerable amount of data and allowed the development of new computational models. In this paper, we review these data and concepts about cerebellar function, discuss their importance and limitations and suggest future directions for research. The anatomical data indicate that the MPC has more than one site of action in the visuo-oculomotor system. In contrast, most models emphasize the role of cerebellar connections with immediate pre-oculomotor circuits in the reticular formation, and only one recent model also incorporates the ascending projections of the MPC to the superior colliculus. A major challenge for future studies, in continuation with this initial attempt, is to determine whether the various cerebellar output pathways correspond to distinct contributions to the control of saccadic eye movements. Also, a series of recent studies in the cat have indicated a more general role of the MPC in the control of orienting movements in space, calling for an increasing effort to the study of the MPC in the production of head-unrestrained saccadic gaze shifts.

  3. Ultrafast ligand dynamics in the heme-based GAF sensor domains of the histidine kinases DosS and DosT from Mycobacterium tuberculosis†

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Marten H.; Bouzhir-Sima, Latifa; Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Luo, Hao; Eaton-Rye, Julian J.; Ioanoviciu, Alexandra; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.; Liebl, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    The transcriptional regulator DosR from M. tuberculosis plays a crucial role in the virulence to dormancy transition of the pathogen. DosR can be activated by DosT and DosS, two histidine kinases with heme-containing sensor GAF domains, capable of diatomic ligand binding, To investigate the initial processes occurring upon ligand dissociation, we performed ultrafast time-resolved absorption spectroscopy of the isolated sensor domains ligated with O2, NO and CO. The results reveal a relatively closed heme pocket for both proteins. For DosT the yield of O2 escape from the heme pocket on the picoseconds timescale upon photodissociation was found to be very low (1.5%), similar to other heme-based oxygen sensor proteins, implying that this sensor acts as an effective O2 trap. Remarkably, this yield is an order of magnitude higher in DosS (18%). For CO, by contrast, the fraction of CO rebinding within the heme pocket is higher in DosS. Experiments with mutant DosT sensor domains and molecular dynamics simulations indicate an important role in ligand discrimination of the distal tyrosine, present in both proteins, which forms a hydrogen bond with heme-bound O2. We conclude that despite their similarity, DosT and DosS display ligand-specific different primary dynamics during the initial phases of intra-protein signaling. The distal tyrosine, present in both proteins, plays an important role in these processes. PMID:22142262

  4. On the use of knee functional calibration to determine the medio-lateral axis of the femur in gait analysis: Comparison with EOS biplanar radiographs as reference.

    PubMed

    Sauret, Christophe; Pillet, Hélène; Skalli, Wafa; Sangeux, Morgan

    2016-10-01

    Accurate calibration of the medio-lateral axis of the femur is crucial for clinical decision making based on gait analysis. This study proposes a protocol utilizing biplanar radiographs to provide a reference medio-lateral axis based on the anatomy of the femur. The biplanar radiographs allowed 3D modelling of the bones of the lower limbs and the markers used for motion capture, in the standing posture. A comprehensive analysis was performed and results from biplanar radiographs were reliable for 3D marker localization (±0.35mm) and for 3D localization of the anatomical landmarks (±1mm), leading to a precision of 1° for the orientation of the condylar axis of the femur and a 95% confidence interval of ±3° after registration with motion capture data. The anatomical condylar axis was compared to a conventional, marker-based, axis and three functional calibration techniques (axis transformation, geometric axis fit and DynaKAD). Results for the conventional method show an average difference with the condylar axis of 15° (SD: 6°). Results indicate DynaKAD functional axis was the closest to the anatomical condylar axis, mean: 1° (SD: 5°) when applied to passive knee flexion movement. However, the range of the results exceeded 15° for all methods. Hence, the use of biplanar radiographs, or an alternative imaging technique, may be required to locate the medio-lateral axis of the femur reliably prior to clinical decision making for femur derotational osteotomies.

  5. Coordination of pelvis-HAT (head, arms and trunk) in anterior-posterior and medio-lateral directions during treadmill gait in preadolescents with/without Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Masayoshi; Ulrich, Beverly

    2006-06-01

    In human biped gait, movements in the frontal plane such as side-to-side rocking, are as essential as the alternating movement of the legs in the sagittal plane. In addition, the top-heavy structure of human body necessitates control of the trunk during walking. In this study, we evaluated the pelvis and HAT (head, arms and trunk) movements and their coordination during treadmill walking in the anterior-posterior and medio-lateral directions in children with typical development (TD) and those with Down syndrome (DS). Participants were 12 children with DS aged 8-10 years and 10 age-matched children with TD. They walked on a treadmill at 40%, 75% and 110% of their preferred overground walking speeds. Kinematic data were collected using a 3D-motion-capture system; movements of the mid-point of hip joints (OPELVIS) and the center of mass of HAT (COMHAT) were reduced. Children with DS showed larger and speed dependent amplitude responses compared to their TD peers. Coordination patterns for children with DS were less stable, especially in medio-lateral direction at slow speed. Differences in amplitude response may be the result of poorer trunk control in children with DS or, alternatively, part of a necessary and sufficient propulsion/stabilization mechanism for this population with reduced tone and muscle strength. Response differences observed between the anterior-posterior and medio-lateral directions for both groups may reflect relative differences in the involvement of active neuromuscular control.

  6. Deceiving entropy-based DoS detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özçelik, Ä.°lker; Brooks, Richard R.

    2014-06-01

    Denial of Service (DoS) attacks disable network services for legitimate users. A McAfee report shows that eight out of ten Critical Infrastructure Providers (CIPs) surveyed had a significant Distributed DoS (DDoS) attack in 2010.1 Researchers proposed many approaches for detecting these attacks in the past decade. Anomaly based DoS detection is the most common. In this approach, the detector uses statistical features; such as the entropy of incoming packet header fields like source IP addresses or protocol type. It calculates the observed statistical feature and triggers an alarm if an extreme deviation occurs. However, intrusion detection systems (IDS) using entropy based detection can be fooled by spoofing. An attacker can sniff the network to collect header field data of network packets coming from distributed nodes on the Internet and fuses them to calculate the entropy of normal background traffic. Then s/he can spoof attack packets to keep the entropy value in the expected range during the attack. In this study, we present a proof of concept entropy spoofing attack that deceives entropy based detection approaches. Our preliminary results show that spoofing attacks cause significant detection performance degradation.

  7. 33 CFR 105.245 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DoS and for handling DoS requests from a vessel. (b) At MARSEC Level 1, a facility receiving a cruise ship or a manned vessel carrying Certain Dangerous Cargo, in bulk, must comply with the following:...

  8. 33 CFR 105.245 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DoS and for handling DoS requests from a vessel. (b) At MARSEC Level 1, a facility receiving a cruise ship or a manned vessel carrying Certain Dangerous Cargo, in bulk, must comply with the following:...

  9. 33 CFR 105.245 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DoS and for handling DoS requests from a vessel. (b) At MARSEC Level 1, a facility receiving a cruise ship or a manned vessel carrying Certain Dangerous Cargo, in bulk, must comply with the following:...

  10. Q-angle undervalued? The relationship between Q-angle and medio-lateral position of the patella.

    PubMed

    Herrington, Lee; Nester, Chris

    2004-12-01

    For an accurate quadriceps angle measurement, the patella must be centralised in the femoral trochlear groove, numerous authors have described lateral displacement of the patella in patellofemoral pain patients, this leads to the intriguing possibility that the Q-angle might be undervalued within patellofemoral pain patients who have laterally displaced patella. 109 asymptomatic subjects (51 male, 58 female) were assessed. Medio-lateral patella position was measured using a previous validated method and Q-angle was measured in standing with the quadriceps relaxed. Mean Q-angle was 11.6 degrees (SD 5.2) left knee, 11.3 degrees (SD 4.9) right knee in the male subjects and 14.4 degrees (SD 5.2) left knee, 13.3 degrees (SD 5.5) right knee for female subjects. 40 females and 28 males had laterally displaced patellae. 13 subjects had centrally placed patellae (7 females, 6 males) with 28 subjects having medially displaced patellae (11 females, 17 males). Recalculation of Q-angle for the laterally displaced group brought about a statistically significant increase in angle. In the medial displaced group failed to produce a statistically significant decrease. The adjusted Q-angle values for medially and neutral placed patellae brought the values very much into the centre of the reported ranges for Q-angles. After adjustment for lateral patella displacement, Q-angle values were towards the under end of values reported as normal, especially female values which were close to the previously reported pathological cut off point. Because of the inverse relationship between quadriceps strength and the magnitude of Q-angle and quadriceps crucial role in the aetiology of patellofemoral pain, any method which improves the reliability and applicability of Q-angle measurement could prove useful in investigations into the aetiology of and outcome from treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome.

  11. Medio-lateral stability of sit-to-walk performance in older individuals with and without fear of falling.

    PubMed

    Aberg, Anna Cristina; Frykberg, Gunilla Elmgren; Halvorsen, Kjartan

    2010-04-01

    Most falls in older people are due to loss of balance during everyday locomotion, e.g., when initiating walking from sitting; sit-to-walk (STW). It has been considered that the broader stride width in walking that is seen in many people with fear of falling (FoF) does not increase stability, but could be predictive of future falls because of increased medio-lateral (ML) velocity of the body centre of mass (CoM). This study was aimed to examine step-, velocity- and stability-related parameters, focusing on ML stability, in STW performance of people with and without FoF. Ten subjects with FoF and 10 matched controls, aged > or = 70 years, were included. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected in a laboratory. Stability parameters were calculated from a formula implying that the vertical projection of the CoM extrapolated by adding its velocity times a factor radicall/g (height of inverted pendulum divided by gravity) should fall within the base of support (BoS). A related spatial margin of stability (SMoS), defined as the minimum distance from the extrapolated CoM (XCoM) to the boundaries of the BoS, was also calculated. In the phase 'seat-off-second-toe-off', the FoF group had significantly (p<0.05) shorter and broader steps, lower forward but similar ML CoM velocity, and broader CoM and XCoM widths. The FoF group therefore exhibited a disproportionately large sideways velocity compared to the controls. This indicates that STW may be a hazardous transfer for older people with FoF, which should be relevant in assessment and training aimed at preventing falls. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Deficits in medio-lateral balance control and the implications for falls in individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Morrison, S; Rynders, C A; Sosnoff, J J

    2016-09-01

    A major health concern faced by individuals with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the heightened risk of falling. Reasons for this increased risk can often be traced back to declines in neurophysiological mechanisms underlying balance control and/or muscular strength. The aim of this study was to assess differences between persons with MS and age-matched healthy adults in regards to their falls risk, strength, reactions and directional control of balance. Twenty-two persons with multiple sclerosis (mean age 56.3±8.9 years) and 22 age-matched healthy adults (mean age 59.1±7.1 years) participated in the study. Assessments of falls risk, balance, fear of falling, lower limb strength, and reaction time were performed. Balance control was assessed under four conditions where the combined effects of vision (eyes open/closed) and standing surface (firm/pliable surface) were evaluated. Results demonstrated that, in comparison to healthy older adults, persons with MS had a significantly higher falls risk, slower reaction times, and weaker lower- limb strength. For balance, persons with MS exhibited greater overall COP motion in both the medio-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions compared to older adults. Additionally, during more challenging balance conditions, persons from the MS group exhibited greater ML motion compared to sway in the AP direction. Overall, the results confirm that persons with MS are often at a heightened risk of falling, due to the multitude of neuromuscular changes brought about by this disease process. However, the increased ML sway for the MS group could reflect a decreased ability to control side-to-side motion in comparison to controlling AP sway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Medio-dorsal thalamus and confabulations: Evidence from a clinical case and combined MRI/DTI study.

    PubMed

    Onofrj, Valeria; Delli Pizzi, Stefano; Franciotti, Raffaella; Taylor, John-Paul; Perfetti, Bernardo; Caulo, Massimo; Onofrj, Marco; Bonanni, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The Medio-Dorsal Nuclei (MDN) including the thalamic magnocellular and parvocellular thalamic regions has been implicated in verbal memory function. In a 77 year old lady, with a prior history of a clinically silent infarct of the left MDN, we observed the acute onset of spontaneous confabulations when an isolated new infarct occurred in the right MDN. The patient and five age-matched healthy subjects underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). The thalamic lesions were localized by overlapping Morel Thalamic Atlas with structural MRI data. DTI was used to assess: i) white matter alterations (Fractional Anisotropy, FA) within fibers connecting the ischemic areas to cortex; ii) the micro-structural damage (Mean Diffusivity) within the thalamic sub-regions defined by their structural connectivity to the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) and to the temporal lobes. These target regions were chosen because their damage is considered associated with the appearance of confabulations. Thalamic lesions were localized within the parvocellular regions of the right and left MDNs. The structural connectivity study showed that the fiber tracts, connecting the bilaterally damaged thalamic regions with the frontal cortex, corresponded to the anterior thalamic radiations (ATR). FA within these tracts was significantly lower in the patient as compared to controls. Mean diffusivity within the MDNs projecting to Broadman area (BA) 24, BA25 and BA32 of ACC was significantly higher in the patient than in control group. Mean diffusivity values within the MDN projecting to temporal lobes in contrast were not different between patient and controls. Our findings suggest the involvement of bilateral MDNs projections to ACC in the genesis of confabulations and help provide clarity to the longstanding debate on the origin of confabulations.

  14. Structures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR and DosR-DNA Complex Involved in Gene Activation during Adaptation to Hypoxic Latency

    SciTech Connect

    Wisedchaisri, Goragot; Wu, Meiting; Rice, Adrian E; Roberts, David M; Sherman, David R; Hol, Wim G.J.

    2010-07-20

    On encountering low oxygen conditions, DosR activates the transcription of 47 genes, promoting long-term survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a non-replicating state. Here, we report the crystal structures of the DosR C-terminal domain and its complex with a consensus DNA sequence of the hypoxia-induced gene promoter. The DosR C-terminal domain contains four {alpha}-helices and forms tetramers consisting of two dimers with non-intersecting dyads. In the DNA-bound structure, each DosR C-terminal domain in a dimer places its DNA-binding helix deep into the major groove, causing two bends in the DNA. DosR makes numerous protein-DNA base contacts using only three amino acid residues per subunit: Lys179, Lys182, and Asn183. The DosR tetramer is unique among response regulators with known structures.

  15. The Neuro-Mechanical Processes That Underlie Goal-Directed Medio-Lateral APA during Gait Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Honeine, Jean-Louis; Schieppati, Marco; Crisafulli, Oscar; Do, Manh-Cuong

    2016-01-01

    Gait initiation (GI) involves passing from bipedal to unipedal stance. It requires a rapid movement of the center of foot pressure (CoP) towards the future swing foot and of the center of mass (CoM) in the direction of the stance foot prior to the incoming step. This anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) allows disengaging the swing leg from the ground and establishing favorable conditions for stepping. This study aimed to describe the neuro-mechanical process that underlies the goal-directed medio-lateral (ML) APA. We hypothesized that controlled knee flexion of the stance leg contributes to the initial ML displacement of the CoP and to the calibration of the first step. Fourteen subjects initiated gait starting from three different initial stance widths of 15 cm (Small), 30 cm (Medium), and 45 cm (Large). Optoelectronic, force platform and electromyogram (EMG) measurements were performed. During APA, soleus activity diminished bilaterally, while tibialis anterior (TA) activity increased, more so in the stance leg than in the swing leg, and to a larger extent with increasing initial stance width. Knee flexion of the stance leg was observed during APA and correlated with the ML CoP displacement towards the swing leg. ML CoP and CoM displacements during APA increased with increasing stance width. The activity of stance-leg TA was correlated with the degree of knee flexion. Swing-leg tensor fasciae latae (TFL) was also active during APA. Across subjects, when stance-leg tibialis activity was low, TFL activity was large and vice versa. The modulation of the ML CoP position during APA allowed the gravity-driven torque to place the CoM just lateral to the stance foot during step execution. Accordingly, the gravity-driven torque, the ML CoM velocity during step execution, and the step width at foot contact (FC) were lower in the Small and greater in the Large condition. Consequently, the position of the stepping foot at FC remained close to the sagittal plane in all

  16. The Neuro-Mechanical Processes That Underlie Goal-Directed Medio-Lateral APA during Gait Initiation.

    PubMed

    Honeine, Jean-Louis; Schieppati, Marco; Crisafulli, Oscar; Do, Manh-Cuong

    2016-01-01

    Gait initiation (GI) involves passing from bipedal to unipedal stance. It requires a rapid movement of the center of foot pressure (CoP) towards the future swing foot and of the center of mass (CoM) in the direction of the stance foot prior to the incoming step. This anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) allows disengaging the swing leg from the ground and establishing favorable conditions for stepping. This study aimed to describe the neuro-mechanical process that underlies the goal-directed medio-lateral (ML) APA. We hypothesized that controlled knee flexion of the stance leg contributes to the initial ML displacement of the CoP and to the calibration of the first step. Fourteen subjects initiated gait starting from three different initial stance widths of 15 cm (Small), 30 cm (Medium), and 45 cm (Large). Optoelectronic, force platform and electromyogram (EMG) measurements were performed. During APA, soleus activity diminished bilaterally, while tibialis anterior (TA) activity increased, more so in the stance leg than in the swing leg, and to a larger extent with increasing initial stance width. Knee flexion of the stance leg was observed during APA and correlated with the ML CoP displacement towards the swing leg. ML CoP and CoM displacements during APA increased with increasing stance width. The activity of stance-leg TA was correlated with the degree of knee flexion. Swing-leg tensor fasciae latae (TFL) was also active during APA. Across subjects, when stance-leg tibialis activity was low, TFL activity was large and vice versa. The modulation of the ML CoP position during APA allowed the gravity-driven torque to place the CoM just lateral to the stance foot during step execution. Accordingly, the gravity-driven torque, the ML CoM velocity during step execution, and the step width at foot contact (FC) were lower in the Small and greater in the Large condition. Consequently, the position of the stepping foot at FC remained close to the sagittal plane in all

  17. A modern analog of past climatic impacts on sedimentary processes and landscape evolution in an intermontane basin: The Del Medio fan, NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savi, Sara; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Tofelde, Stefanie; Wittmann, Hella; Strecker, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    The combined effects of tectonic and climatic forcing govern the evolution of landscapes, setting the scale of topographic relief and the pace of landscape changes over time. Tectonic uplift or changes in precipitation regimes can fundamentally modify erosional processes and sediment flux from hillslopes, change river profiles, and ultimately impact depositional systems downstream. The complexity of the response, however, often means that we cannot predict a priori how a given landscape will react to future changes in climate, or how it responded in the past to multiple episodes of climate change. The Del Medio catchment is located in the southern part of the Humahuaca Basin, an intermontane valley within the Eastern Cordillera in transition to the Puna Plateau. This area coincides with a climatic and vegetation divide between a sub-humid environment downstream and the semi-arid upper Humahuaca Basin. An extensive fan sourced in the Del Medio catchment covers ca. 18.6 km2 of the basin outlet. The fan stratigraphy and surface morphology suggest that the fan dynamics are dominated by debris-flow processes. The surface comprises abandoned channels, levees and lobes, while exposed sections in channel cuts reveal unsorted, matrix-dominated deposits, with individual boulders reaching a diameter of 5 m. To investigate rates and timing of the Del Medio fan evolution, we analyzed cosmogenic 10Be concentrations on the surfaces of large boulders from the fan surface, river sands in active channels, a depth profile, and bedrock exposed atop the drainage basin margins. Our preliminary CRN results illustrate the rapid rate at which the active fan surface is subject to change, with each of the 11 analyzed boulder samples providing ages of < 200 years. In addition, river sands record very high denudation rates that range from several mm/yr to tens of mm/yr, despite bedrock denudation rates from the basin margins of only 0.04 mm/yr. These contrasting denudation rates likely result

  18. Detection of DoS attacks using intrusion detection sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishna, Pathmenanthan; Maarof, Mohd A.

    2002-09-01

    Intrusion detection systems have usually been developed using large host-based components. These components impose an extra load on the system where they run (sometimes even requiring a dedicated system) and are subject to tampering or disabling by an intruder. Additionally, intrusion detection systems have usually obtained information about host behavior through indirect means, such as audit trails or network packet traces. This potentially allows intruders to modify the information before the intrusion detection system obtains it and slows down the detection and prevention of DoS attacks, making it possible for an intruder to hide his activities. In this paper we propose work that will attempt to show that it is possible to perform intrusion detection mechanism of DoS attacks using small sensors embedded in a computer system. These sensors will look for signs of specific intrusions. They will perform target monitoring by observing the behavior of the through an audit trail or other indirect means in real time while the Snort IDS running. Furthermore, by being built into the computer system it could provide a flexible alert sensor which may not impose a considerable extra load on the host they monitor.

  19. Sedimentation survey of Lago Dos Bocas, Puerto Rico, June 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinones, Ferdinand; Melendez, Frank; Bonnet, Carlos

    1989-01-01

    A survey of the sedimentation of Dos Bocas reservoir, in central Puerto Rico, was conducted during July 1985. The survey showed that the capacity of the reservoir has declined from 30,420 acre-ft in 1942 to about 19,620 acre-ft. Sediment is accumulating in the reservoir at an average rate of about 251 acre-ft/yr, or about 0.83%/yr of the original capacity. The expected usable life of the reservoir on the basis of the long-term sedimentation rate is about 78 years. However, the sedimentation rate appears to have increased significantly since 1979. During the last six years, the average sedimentation rate has exceeded 600 acre-ft/yr. If this rate is maintained, the expected usable life of the reservoir would be about 32 years. (Author 's abstract)

  20. Document image archive transfer from DOS to UNIX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, Susan E.; Gill, Michael J.; Thoma, George R.

    1994-01-01

    An R&D division of the National Library of Medicine has developed a prototype system for automated document image delivery as an adjunct to the labor-intensive manual interlibrary loan service of the library. The document image archive is implemented by a PC controlled bank of optical disk drives which use 12 inch WORM platters containing bitmapped images of over 200,000 pages of medical journals. Following three years of routine operation which resulted in serving patrons with articles both by mail and fax, an effort is underway to relocate the storage environment from the DOS-based system to a UNIX-based jukebox whose magneto-optical erasable 5 1/4 inch platters hold the images. This paper describes the deficiencies of the current storage system, the design issues of modifying several modules in the system, the alternatives proposed and the tradeoffs involved.

  1. Impact of posterior tibial nail malpositioning on iatrogenic injuries by distal medio-lateral interlocking screws. A cadaveric study on plastinated specimens.

    PubMed

    Wegmann, Kilian; Burkhart, Klaus Josef; Buhl, Jörg; Gausepohl, Thomas; Koebke, Jürgen; Müller, Lars Peter

    2012-12-01

    In intramedullary tibial nailing, multi-planar locking makes stabilization of proximal and distal metaphyseal fractures possible. A known complication in intramedullary nailing of the tibia is iatrogenic injury to neuro-vascular structures caused by the insertion of locking screws. As shown in previous studies, the distal positioning of the nail is important, as it determines the course of the locking bolts. The goal of the present study was to display the consequences of posterior nail malpositioning with respect to the safety of the distal medio-lateral locking screws and the available options. Human cadaveric legs were plastinated according to the sequential plastination technique after intramedullary nailing of the tibia and were then cut transversely. The tibial nails were placed centrally or posteriorly. Macroscopic analysis showed a distinct drawback of posterior nail positioning, with diminished options for the placement of the locking screws and thereby a risk of damaging the anterior and posterior neuro-vascular bundles by distal medio-lateral locking screws.

  2. The mormyrid mesencephalon. II. The medio-dorsal nucleus of the torus semicircularis: afferent and efferent connections studied with the HRP method.

    PubMed

    Haugedé-Carré, F

    1983-05-23

    The connections of the medio-dorsal nucleus (nMD) were established with the HRP tracing method in two mormyrid species, Brienomyrus niger and Gnathonemus petersii. The medio-dorsal nucleus (nMD) is the second largest nucleus of the mormyrid torus semicircularis which comprises 7 nuclei. According to our histological observations, the nMD is composed of three regions: anterior (a), medialis (m) and posterior (p), each has distinct connections. The nMD receives medullary, rhombencephalic inputs, and mesencephalic inputs. The rhombencephalic afferents arising from the acoustico-lateral area constitute the most extensive projection: they arise from nucleus octavius, nuclear anterior and a 'crest cell layer'. The largest part of these rhombo-mesencephalic connections is bilateral. The bifurcated axons are gathered in the pars medialis of the lemnisci laterales and end, respectively, in the three subdivisions--pars posterior, pars medialis, pars anterior--of the nMD. The contralateral projections are larger than the ipsilateral ones except for the octavo-mesencephalic projection, where the ipsilateral is predominant. Collaterals of these axons end bilaterally in the mesencephalic paralemniscal nuclei (nPL). The mesencephalic afferents originate in the contralateral nPL, while medullary afferents arise in the contralateral nucleus subfunicularis (nSF). None of these projections show topological specificity within the nMD. Concerning the efferent connections, the nMD projects to the ipsilateral tectum opticum and valvula cerebelli.

  3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth following aerobic expression of the DosR regulon.

    PubMed

    Minch, Kyle; Rustad, Tige; Sherman, David R

    2012-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis regulator DosR is induced by multiple stimuli including hypoxia, nitric oxide and redox stress. Overlap of these stimuli with conditions thought to promote latency in infected patients fuels a model in which DosR regulon expression is correlated with bacteriostasis in vitro and a proxy for latency in vivo. Here, we find that inducing the DosR regulon to wildtype levels in aerobic, replicating M. tuberculosis does not alter bacterial growth kinetics. We conclude that DosR regulon expression alone is insufficient for bacterial latency, but rather is expressed during a range of growth states in a dynamic environment.

  4. DosS Is required for the complete virulence of mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice with classical granulomatous lesions.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Uma S; McGillivray, Amanda; Mehra, Smriti; Didier, Peter J; Midkiff, Cecily C; Kissee, Ryan S; Golden, Nadia A; Alvarez, Xavier; Niu, Tianhua; Rengarajan, Jyothi; Sherman, David R; Kaushal, Deepak

    2015-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) must counter hypoxia within granulomas to persist. DosR, in concert with sensor kinases DosS and DosT, regulates the response to hypoxia. Yet Mtb lacking functional DosR colonize the lungs of C57Bl/6 mice, presumably owing to the lack of organized lesions with sufficient hypoxia in that model. We compared the phenotype of the Δ-dosR, Δ-dosS, and Δ-dosT mutants to Mtb using C3HeB/FeJ mice, an alternate mouse model where lesions develop hypoxia. C3HeB/FeJ mice were infected via aerosol. The progression of infection was analyzed by tissue bacterial burden and histopathology. A measure of the comparative global immune responses was also analyzed. Although Δ-dosR and Δ-dosT grew comparably to wild-type Mtb, Δ-dosS exhibited a significant defect in bacterial burden and pathology in vivo, accompanied by ablated proinflammatory response. Δ-dosS retained the ability to induce DosR. The Δ-dosS mutant was also attenuated in murine macrophages ex vivo, with evidence of reduced expression of the proinflammatory signature. Our results show that DosS, but not DosR and DosT, is required by Mtb to survive in C3HeB/FeJ mice. The attenuation of Δ-dosS is not due to its inability to induce the DosR regulon, nor is it a result of the accumulation of hypoxia. That the in vivo growth restriction of Δ-dosS could be mimicked ex vivo suggested sensitivity to macrophage oxidative burst. Anoxic caseous centers within tuberculosis lesions eventually progress to cavities. Our results provide greater insight into the molecular mechanisms of Mtb persistence within host lungs.

  5. America Inc.: John Dos Passos'"USA" as Professional Writing Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Renzo, Anthony

    While working as a special consultant for General Mills in 1948, John Dos Passos wrote a report explaining the latest scientific research and technological advancements and how the postwar economy was affecting General Mills and the cereal market. General Mills, using a real writer for a corporate freelance, profited from Dos Passos' expertise and…

  6. Antiplasmodial and Cytotoxic Activity of Raw Plant Extracts as Reported by Knowledgeable Indigenous People of the Amazon Region (Vaupés Medio in Colombia).

    PubMed

    Pabón, Adriana; Ramirez, Otoniel; Ríos, Alexandra; López, Ena; de Las Salas, Briegel; Cardona, Felipe; Blair, Silvia

    2016-05-01

    The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of 122 raw extracts prepared in ethanol and water from 35 medicinal plants reported by the Cubeo indigenous village of the Amazon region (Vaupés Medio in Colombia) was evaluated for efficacy against 3D7 (sensitive to chloroquine) and FCR-3 (resistant to chloroquine) Plasmodium falciparum strains. Five percent of these extracts presented a significant antiplasmodial activity (< 5 µg/mL) and 83 % of them were not cytotoxic. These findings highlight the importance of investigating traditional medicinal plants implemented by these ancestral communities of the Amazon region as well as their potential to become a source of new drugs against malaria. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Altered biomechanical strategies and medio-lateral control of the knee represent incomplete recovery of individuals with injury during single leg hop.

    PubMed

    Roos, Paulien E; Button, Kate; Sparkes, Valerie; van Deursen, Robert W M

    2014-02-07

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury can result in failure to return to pre-injury activity levels and future osteoarthritis predisposition. Single leg hop is used in late rehabilitation to evaluate recovery and inform treatment but biomechanical understanding of this activity is insufficient. This study investigated single leg hop for distance aiming to evaluate if ACL patients had recovered: (1) landing strategies and (2) medio-lateral knee control. We hypothesized that patients with reconstructive surgery (ACLR) would have more similar landing strategies and knee control to healthy controls than patients treated conservatively (ACLD). 16 ACLD and 23 ACLR subjects were compared to 20 healthy controls (CONT). Kinematic and ground reaction force data were collected while subjects hopped their maximum distance. The main output parameters were hop distance, peak knee flexor angles and extensor moments and Fluency (a measure introduced to represent medio-lateral knee control). Statistical differences between ACL and control groups were analyzed using a general linear model univariate analysis, with COM velocity prior to landing as covariate. Hop distance was the smallest for ACLD and largest for CONT (p<0.001; ACLD 57.1±14.1; ACLR 75.1±17.8; CONT 77.7±14.07% height). ACLR used a similar kinematic strategy to CONT, but had a reduced peak knee extensor moment (p<0.001; ACLD 0.32±0.14; ACLR 0.31±0.16; CONT 0.42±0.13 BW.height). Fluency was reduced in both ACLD and ACLR (p=0.006; ACLD 0.13±0.34; ACLR 0.14±0.34; CONT 0.17±0.41s). Clinical practice uses hopping distance to evaluate ACL patients' recovery. This study demonstrated that aspects such as movement strategies and knee control need to be evaluated. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Altered biomechanical strategies and medio-lateral control of the knee represent incomplete recovery of individuals with injury during single leg hop☆

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Paulien E.; Button, Kate; Sparkes, Valerie; van Deursen, Robert W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury can result in failure to return to pre-injury activity levels and future osteoarthritis predisposition. Single leg hop is used in late rehabilitation to evaluate recovery and inform treatment but biomechanical understanding of this activity is insufficient. This study investigated single leg hop for distance aiming to evaluate if ACL patients had recovered: (1) landing strategies and (2) medio-lateral knee control. We hypothesized that patients with reconstructive surgery (ACLR) would have more similar landing strategies and knee control to healthy controls than patients treated conservatively (ACLD). 16 ACLD and 23 ACLR subjects were compared to 20 healthy controls (CONT). Kinematic and ground reaction force data were collected while subjects hopped their maximum distance. The main output parameters were hop distance, peak knee flexor angles and extensor moments and Fluency (a measure introduced to represent medio-lateral knee control). Statistical differences between ACL and control groups were analyzed using a general linear model univariate analysis, with COM velocity prior to landing as covariate. Hop distance was the smallest for ACLD and largest for CONT (p<0.001; ACLD 57.1±14.1; ACLR 75.1±17.8; CONT 77.7±14.07% height). ACLR used a similar kinematic strategy to CONT, but had a reduced peak knee extensor moment (p<0.001; ACLD 0.32±0.14; ACLR 0.31±0.16; CONT 0.42±0.13 BW.height). Fluency was reduced in both ACLD and ACLR (p=0.006; ACLD 0.13±0.34; ACLR 0.14±0.34; CONT 0.17±0.41 s). Clinical practice uses hopping distance to evaluate ACL patients' recovery. This study demonstrated that aspects such as movement strategies and knee control need to be evaluated. PMID:24342500

  9. Unique Regulation of the DosR Regulon in the Beijing Lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Domenech, Pilar; Zou, Jason; Averback, Alexandra; Syed, Nishath; Curtis, Daniele; Donato, Samuel; Reed, Michael B

    2017-01-15

    The DosR regulon, a set of 48 genes normally expressed in Mycobacterium tuberculosis under conditions that inhibit aerobic respiration, is controlled via the DosR-DosS/DosT two-component system. While the regulon requires induction in most M. tuberculosis isolates, for members of the Beijing lineage, its expression is uncoupled from the need for signaling. In our attempts to understand the mechanistic basis for this uncoupling in the Beijing background, we previously reported the identification of two synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the adjacent Rv3134c gene. In the present study, we have interrogated the impact of these SNPs on dosR expression in wild-type strains, as well as a range of dosR-dosS-dosT mutants, for both Beijing and non-Beijing M. tuberculosis backgrounds. In this manner, we have unequivocally determined that the C601T dosR promoter SNP is the sole requirement for the dramatic shift in the pattern of DosR regulon expression seen in this globally important lineage. Interestingly, we also show that DosT is completely nonfunctional within these strains. Thus, a complex series of evolutionary steps has led to the present-day Beijing DosR phenotype that, in turn, potentially confers a fitness advantage in the face of some form of host-associated selective pressure. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing lineage have been described as being of enhanced virulence compared to other lineages, and in certain regions, they are associated with the dramatic spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). In terms of trying to understand the functional basis for these broad epidemiological phenomena, it is interesting that, in contrast to the other major lineages, the Beijing strains all constitutively overexpress members of the DosR regulon. Here, we identify the mutational events that led to the evolution of this unique phenotype. In addition, our work highlights the fact that important phenotypic differences exist between

  10. The DosR regulon of M. tuberculosis and antibacterial tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Bartek, I.L.; Rutherford, R.; Gruppo, V.; Morton, R.A.; Morris, R.P.; Klein, M.R.; Visconti, K.C.; Ryan, G.J.; Schoolnik, G.K.; Lenaerts, A.; Voskuil, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Adaptation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to an anaerobic dormant state that is tolerant to several antibacterials is mediated largely by a set of highly expressed genes controlled by DosR. A DosR mutant was constructed to investigate whether the DosR regulon is involved in antibacterial tolerance. We demonstrate that induction of the regulon is not required for drug tolerance either in vivo during a mouse infection or in vitro during anaerobic dormancy. Thus, drug tolerance observed in these models is due to other mechanisms such as the bacilli simply being in a non-replicating or low metabolic state. Our data also demonstrate that the DosR regulon is not essential for virulence during chronic murine infection. However, decreased lung pathology was observed in the DosR mutant. We also show that the DosR regulon genes are more highly conserved in environmental mycobacteria, than in pathogenic mycobacteria lacking a latent phase or environmental reservoir. It is possible that the DosR regulon could contribute to drug tolerance in human infections; however, it is not the only mechanism and not the primary mechanism for tolerance during a mouse infection. These data suggest that the regulon evolved not for pathogenesis or drug tolerance but for adaptation to anaerobic conditions in the environment and has been adapted by M. tuberculosis for survival during latent infection. PMID:19577518

  11. The Rio dos Sinos watershed: an economic and social space and its interface with environmental status.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, J A S; Drumm, E; Rodrigues, M A S; Spilki, F R

    2010-12-01

    The Rio dos Sinos watershed is located in the eastern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul and includes 32 municipalities. These municipalities develop several different economic activities such as farming and livestock along the 190 km length of the Rio dos Sinos, one of the rivers with the worst quality of water in Brazil. The region is also characterised by growing urbanisation and heavy industrialisation. The main economic activity is the leather and footwear industry. This diversified land use puts the Rio dos Sinos watershed at risk of a wide range of potential environmental impacts. The aim of the present article is to discuss the socioeconomic process currently implemented in the Rio dos Sinos watershed and the effect of these human actions on the environmental quality described throughout this special issue of the Brazilian Journal of Biology.

  12. DosR-regulon genes induction in Mycobacterium bovis BCG under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Flores Valdez, Mario Alberto; Schoolnik, Gary K

    2010-05-01

    In this report we demonstrated that under aerobic conditions, Mycobacterium bovis BCG expressing an hsp60-driven second copy of the hypoxia-related transcriptional regulator DosR increased 2-fold or greater the expression of 38 out of the 48 genes belonging to the DosR regulon, including the latency antigens Rv1733c, Rv2029, Rv2627, and Rv2628. Expression of DosR under these conditions slightly delayed in vitro growth, but did not promote a non-replicating state as opposed to microaerobic and hypoxic adaptation. Our results suggest BCG producing DosR can be cultured under standard in vitro conditions, allowing evaluation of this strain as a latency-specific vaccine candidate.

  13. Linking Social Media Reports to Network Indicators of DoS Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-15

    reporting in fast-paced social media such as Twitter, but these reports are rarely linked to quantiable network behavior. A data set of network-based...FEB 2015 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Linking Social Media Reports to Network Indicators of DoS Attacks 5a...Random sample of 30 (D, E) pairs yielding 21 unique entities (E) Linking Social Media Reports to Network Indicators of DoS Attacks Evan Wright

  14. Measurements of degree of sensitization (DoS) in aluminum alloys using EMAT ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Xiang, Dan; Qin, Yexian; Pond, Robert B; Slusarski, Kyle

    2011-07-01

    Sensitization in 5XXX aluminum alloys is an insidious problem characterized by the gradual formation and growth of beta phase (Mg(2)Al(3)) at grain boundaries, which increases the susceptibility of alloys to intergranular corrosion (IGC) and intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (IGSCC). The degree of sensitization (DoS) is currently quantified by the ASTM G67 Nitric Acid Mass Loss Test, which is destructive and time consuming. A fast, reliable, and non-destructive method for rapid detection and the assessment of the condition of DoS in AA5XXX aluminum alloys in the field is highly desirable. In this paper, we describe a non-destructive method for measurements of DoS in aluminum alloys with an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT). AA5083 aluminum alloy samples were sensitized at 100°C with processing times varying from 7days to 30days. The DoS of sensitized samples was first quantified with the ASTM 67 test in the laboratory. Both ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in sensitized specimens were then measured using EMAT and the results were correlated with the DoS data. We found that the longitudinal wave velocity was almost a constant, independent of the sensitization, which suggests that the longitudinal wave can be used to determine the sample thickness. The shear wave velocity and especially the shear wave attenuation are sensitive to DoS. Relationships between DoS and the shear velocity, as well as the shear attenuation have been established. Finally, we performed the data mining to evaluate and improve the accuracy in the measurements of DoS in aluminum alloys with EMAT. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. DataPlus™ - a revolutionary applications generator for DOS hand-held computers

    Treesearch

    David Dean; Linda Dean

    2000-01-01

    DataPlus allows the user to easily design data collection templates for DOS-based hand-held computers that mimic clipboard data sheets. The user designs and tests the application on the desktop PC and then transfers it to a DOS field computer. Other features include: error checking, missing data checks, and sensor input from RS-232 devices such as bar code wands,...

  16. Medio-frontal and anterior temporal abnormalities in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during an acoustic antisaccade task as revealed by electro-cortical source reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Goepel, Johanna; Kissler, Johanna; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Paul-Jordanov, Isabella

    2011-01-12

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent disorders in children and adolescence. Impulsivity is one of three core symptoms and likely associated with inhibition difficulties. To date the neural correlate of the antisaccade task, a test of response inhibition, has not been studied in children with (or without) ADHD. Antisaccade responses to visual and acoustic cues were examined in nine unmedicated boys with ADHD (mean age 122.44 ± 20.81 months) and 14 healthy control children (mean age 115.64 ± 22.87 months, three girls) while an electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Brain activity before saccade onset was reconstructed using a 23-source-montage. When cues were acoustic, children with ADHD had a higher source activity than control children in Medio-Frontal Cortex (MFC) between -230 and -120 ms and in the left-hemispheric Temporal Anterior Cortex (TAC) between -112 and 0 ms before saccade onset, despite both groups performing similarly behaviourally (antisaccades errors and saccade latency). When visual cues were used EEG-activity preceding antisaccades did not differ between groups. Children with ADHD exhibit altered functioning of the TAC and MFC during an antisaccade task elicited by acoustic cues. Children with ADHD need more source activation to reach the same behavioural level as control children.

  17. Dos, a heme-binding PAS protein from Escherichia coli, is a direct oxygen sensor.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Nixon, V M; Gonzalez, G; Gilles-Gonzalez, M A

    2000-03-14

    A direct sensor of O(2), the Dos protein, has been found in Escherichia coli. Previously, the only biological sensors known to respond to O(2) by direct and reversible binding were the FixL proteins of Rhizobia. A heme-binding region in Dos is 60% homologous to the O(2)-sensing PAS domain of the FixL protein, but the remainder of Dos does not resemble FixL. Specifically, the C-terminal domain of Dos, presumed to be a regulatory partner that couples to its heme-binding domain, is not a histidine kinase but more closely resembles a phosphodiesterase. The absorption spectra of Dos indicate that both axial positions of the heme iron are coordinated to side chains of the protein. Nevertheless, O(2) and CO bind to Dos with K(d) values of 13 and 10 microM, respectively, indicating a strong discrimination against CO binding. Association rate constants for binding of O(2) (3 mM(-)(1) s(-)(1)), CO (1 mM(-)(1) s(-)(1)) and even NO (2 mM(-)(1) s(-)(1)) are extraordinarily low and very similar. Displacement of an endogenous ligand, probably Met 95, from the heme iron in Dos triggers a conformational change that alters the activity of the enzymatic domain. This sensing mechanism differs from that of FixL but resembles that of the CO sensor CooA of Rhodospirillum rubrum. Overall the results provide evidence for a heme-binding subgroup of PAS-domain proteins whose working range, signaling mechanisms, and regulatory partners can vary considerably.

  18. Non-invasive tissue temperature measurements based on quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) of water.

    PubMed

    Chung, S H; Cerussi, A E; Merritt, S I; Ruth, J; Tromberg, B J

    2010-07-07

    We describe the development of a non-invasive method for quantitative tissue temperature measurements using Broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS). Our approach is based on well-characterized opposing shifts in near-infrared (NIR) water absorption spectra that appear with temperature and macromolecular binding state. Unlike conventional reflectance methods, DOS is used to generate scattering-corrected tissue water absorption spectra. This allows us to separate the macromolecular bound water contribution from the thermally induced spectral shift using the temperature isosbestic point at 996 nm. The method was validated in intralipid tissue phantoms by correlating DOS with thermistor measurements (R=0.96) with a difference of 1.1+/-0.91 degrees C over a range of 28-48 degrees C. Once validated, thermal and hemodynamic (i.e. oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration) changes were measured simultaneously and continuously in human subjects (forearm) during mild cold stress. DOS-measured arm temperatures were consistent with previously reported invasive deep tissue temperature studies. These results suggest that DOS can be used for non-invasive, co-registered measurements of absolute temperature and hemoglobin parameters in thick tissues, a potentially important approach for optimizing thermal diagnostics and therapeutics.

  19. Non-invasive tissue temperature measurements based on quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) of water

    PubMed Central

    Chung, SH; Cerussi, AE; Merritt, SI; Ruth, J; Tromberg, BJ

    2012-01-01

    We describe the development of a non-invasive method for quantitative tissue temperature measurements using Broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS). Our approach is based on well-characterized opposing shifts in near-infrared (NIR) water absorption spectra that appear with temperature and macromolecular binding state. Unlike conventional reflectance methods, DOS is used to generate scattering-corrected tissue water absorption spectra. This allows us to separate the macromolecular bound water contribution from the thermally induced spectral shift using the temperature isosbestic point at 996 nm. The method was validated in intralipid tissue phantoms by correlating DOS with thermistor measurements (R = 0.96) with a difference of 1.1 ± 0.91 °C over a range of 28–48 °C. Once validated, thermal and hemodynamic (i.e. oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration) changes were measured simultaneously and continuously in human subjects (forearm) during mild cold stress. DOS-measured arm temperatures were consistent with previously reported invasive deep tissue temperature studies. These results suggest that DOS can be used for non-invasive, co-registered measurements of absolute temperature and hemoglobin parameters in thick tissues, a potentially important approach for optimizing thermal diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:20551502

  20. The effects of blurring vision on medio-lateral balance during stepping up or down to a new level in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Buckley, John G; Heasley, Karen; Scally, Andy; Elliott, David B

    2005-10-01

    Visual impairment is an important risk factor for falls, but relatively little is known about how it affects stair negotiation. The present study determined how medio-lateral (ML) dynamics of stepping and single limb support stability when stepping up or down to a new level were affected by blurring the vision of healthy elderly subjects. Twelve elderly subjects (72.3 +/- 4.2 years) were analysed performing single steps up and single steps down to a new level (7.2, 14.4 and 21.6 cm). Stepping dynamics were assessed by determining the ML ground reaction force (GRF) impulse, lateral position of the centre of mass (CM) relative to the supporting foot (average horizontal ML distance between CM and CP during single support) and movement time. Stability was determined as the rms fluctuation in ML position of the centre of pressure (CP) during single support. Differences between optimal and blurred visual conditions were analysed using a random effects model. Duration of double and single support, and the ML GRF impulse were significantly greater when vision was blurred, while the average CM-CP ML distance and ML stability was reduced. ML stability decreased with increasing step height and was further decreased when stepping down than when stepping up. These findings indicate that ML balance during stepping up and down was significantly affected by blurring vision. In particular, single limb support stability was considerably reduced, especially so during stepping down. The findings highlight the importance of accurate visual feedback in the precise control of stepping dynamics when stepping up or down to a new level, and suggest that correcting common visual problems, such as uncorrected refractive errors and cataract may be an important intervention strategy in improving how the elderly negotiate stairs.

  1. Effect of prenatal sound stimulation on medio-rostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale region of chick forebrain: a morphometric and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Panicker, Harsha; Wadhwa, Shashi; Roy, Tara S

    2002-07-01

    The higher auditory association area in chick forebrain, i.e. medio-rostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale region (MNH), is involved in juvenile auditory filial imprinting. Studies show that neuronal size as well as expression of calcium-binding proteins, parvalbumin (PV) and calbindin D28K (CaBP) are regulated by neuronal activation. In the present study, we have determined the effect of extra auditory stimulation, given as a prenatal sound enrichment protocol, on MNH neurons of posthatch day 1 chicks. Patterned species-specific or musical (sitar) sounds were provided in a graded manner from embryonic day 10 through hatching. Thionin and immunohistochemically stained (PV and CaBP) neurons were evaluated by morphometric methods. The thionin-stained MNH neurons of both the auditory stimulated groups showed a significant increase in nuclear area compared to controls. The change in nuclear dimension was greater in the music-stimulated than in the species-specific sounds-stimulated group. These observations indicate a positive influence of prenatal sound stimulation on MNH neurons. The auditory stimulated groups also demonstrated an increase in the proportion of PV- and CaBP-neurons compared to controls, with the species-specific sounds-stimulated group showing a significantly higher percentage of immunostained cells than the music-stimulated group. However, immunostained cells of both the auditory stimulated groups did not show a significant change in size. These cytoplasmic proteins, by acting as intracellular buffers, enable neurons to display high electrical activity without calcium overload. The influx of Ca(2+) ions is essential for long-term potentiation, a phenomenon important for learning and memory. The increase in percentage of the neurons containing calcium-binding proteins may provide a morphological basis for enhancement of auditory imprinting and learning.

  2. The INMA-INfancia y Medio Ambiente-(Environment and Childhood) project: More than 10 years contributing to environmental and neuropsychological research.

    PubMed

    Gascon, Mireia; Guxens, Mònica; Vrijheid, Martine; Torrent, Maties; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Fano, Eduardo; Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Fernández, Mariana F; Tardón, Adonina; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Sunyer, Jordi

    2017-06-01

    In 2003 the INMA-INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood) project, a Spanish national network of birth cohorts including more than 3500 participants, was set up with the aim to assess the health impacts of pre- and postnatal environmental exposures on children. The project has published more than 60 papers on maternal and environmental factors related to neuropsychological development in children, one of the main research interests within the project. With the present review, we evaluate the evidence provided by the INMA project on this topic and discuss how the data can contribute to cover the challenges that children's environmental health research will face in the coming years. The INMA project has contributed to provide increasing evidence of the association between prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and child neuropsychological development, but it has also shown, using innovative methodologies, that postnatal exposure to these compounds does not play a role in this association. The project has also contributed to show the detrimental influence of certain air pollutants on child neuropsychological development, as well as how a balanced maternal fish intake can protect from the potential adverse effects of prenatal exposure to mercury. Also, the project has contributed to the understanding of impacts of nutritional factors including supplement intake and vitamin D levels during pregnancy and the role of breastfeeding on the neuropsychological benefits. INMA findings underscore the importance of continued research on the delineation of the sensitive windows of exposure both during pregnancy and postnatally and on the combined effects of environmental exposures, denoted the exposome. In terms of health policy, INMA findings have important implications for the development of public health policies to advance the health and development of children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Documenting 35 years of land cover change: Lago Cachet Dos drainage, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friesen, Beverly A.; Nimick, David A.; Mcgrath, Daniel; Cole, Christopher J.; Wilson, Earl M.; Noble, Suzanne M.; Fahey, Mark J.; Leidich, Jonathan; O'Kuinghttons Villena, Jorge I.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Special Applications Science Center is monitoring temporal changes at the Colonia Glacier and Lago Cachet Dos, Northern Patagonia Icefield of southern Chile. This location is one of the newest international sites in the USGS Global Fiducial Program (GFP)—a program which provides systematic monitoring of dynamic and environmentally critical areas with high-resolution imagery (http://gfp.usgs.gov/). In 2008, Lago Cachet Dos began experiencing glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) during which the entire pool of water (about 200 million cubic meters) rapidly drains from the lake and flows south-southeast through the Colonia Glacier. These catastrophic events cause massive erosion of valley-fill deposits and consequent upstream expansion of Lago Cachet Dos towards Lago Cachet Uno.  Panchromatic and multispectral images for 1979, 2007, and 2014 highlight the dramatic changes that have occurred at this site over a 35-year period. The lake was smallest in 1979, when the Colonia Glacier was at its maximum extent during the study period. Between 1979 and 2007, the glacier shrank causing an increase in the surface area of the lake. The size of the lake increased substantially, from 2.98 square kilometers (km2) in 1979 to 4.41 km2 in 2014, primarily due to erosion of valley-fill deposits upstream of its northern edge by the 15 GLOFs that occurred between April 2008 and February 2014. Ongoing studies of the Colonia Glacier and Lago Cachet Dos are focused on providing real-time monitoring of Lago Cachet Dos lake levels, understanding the history of advances and retreats of the Colonia Glacier, and determining the physical mechanisms and hazards associated with the GLOFs that come from Lago Cachet Dos.

  4. WE-E-BRB-10: DosCheck - an Electronic Chart Checking Tool for Dosimetrists.

    PubMed

    Yang, D; Wu, Y; Yaddanapudi, S; Moore, K; Pierbuxg, B; Brame, S; Mutic, S

    2012-06-01

    In addition to treatment planning, dosimetrists have to prepare documentation and manually enter data in treatment management system (TMS) which did not transfer or setup automatically. The required documents and data are dependent on the disease site, treatment machine and clinical workflow. Errors and inconsistencies can cause redundant work, treatment delays and potentially treatment errors. To address these issues, an electronic checking software tool, DosCheck was clinically implemented to check the existence of necessary documentations and the integrity of manually-entered data. The purpose of this software is to reduce the frequency of human errors and to improve efficiency. DosCheck reads data and documents from 1) TMS, 2) Pinnacle TPS, and 3) DICOM plan files stored in a DICOM-RT PACS. It processes documents in Word and PDF format, treatment plan data in Pinnacle native format and DICOM format, and Mosaiq data in database records. The software cross-checks data accuracy and consistency by following rules that are pre-defined according to the clinical requirements and treatment sties. It interacts with dosimetrists and presents instantaneous results via graphical user interface. DosCheck has been implemented in C#. It performs a full check for a patient with 20 seconds. It has been clinically commissioned and is used daily by all dosimetrists at our institution. Retrospective analysis shows that DosCheck identifies 30% to 40% of previously reported dosimetrist human errors. Additional ∼30% errors are checked by other tools that could be integrated DosCheck in the near future. As an electronic data checking tool, DosCheck can obtain and process data and documents from multiple clinical computer systems in the radiation oncology department, and perform checks according to clinical rules. It is able to improve the accuracy and efficiency of clinical data and document process, and therefore to reduce any potential inconsistencies and errors. © 2012 American

  5. Reagent based DOS: a "Click, Click, Cyclize" strategy to probe chemical space.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, Alan; Lushington, Gerald H; Hanson, Paul R

    2010-05-07

    The synthesis of small organic molecules as probes for discovering new therapeutic agents has been an important aspect of chemical-biology. Herein we report a reagent-based, diversity-oriented synthetic (DOS) strategy to probe chemical and biological space via a "Click, Click, Cyclize" protocol. In this DOS approach, three sulfonamide linchpins underwent cyclization protocols with a variety of reagents to yield a collection of structurally diverse S-heterocycles. In silico analysis is utilized to evaluate the diversity of the compound collection against chemical space (PC analysis), shape space (PMI) and polar surface area (PSA) calculations.

  6. Sedimentation survey of Lago Dos Bocas, Utuado, Puerto Rico, January 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2014-01-01

    Lago Dos Bocas reservoir was completed in 1942 to provide water for hydroelectric power generation along the northern coast of Puerto Rico. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 37.50 million cubic meters (Mm3). The dam is located about 9 kilometers (km) northeast of the town of Utuado, immediately downstream of the original confluence of the Río Grande de Arecibo and the Río Caonillas (fig. 1). The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) owns and operates the Lago Dos Bocas reservoir, and since 1996, the reservoir has become an essential part of the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) North Coast Superaqueduct Project. The Superaqueduct is supplied by controlled releases for hydroelectric power generation that replenish the public-supply raw-water intake pool located about 10 km downstream from the Lago Dos Bocas Dam (fig. 1). As of 2005, the Superaqueduct supplies about 4.03 cubic meters per second (m3/s) (348,192 cubic meters per day [m3/d]) of potable water to communities along the northern coast, from Arecibo to the San Juan metropolitan area. Because of the importance of the reservoir to the North Coast Superaqueduct, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with PRASA, conducted a sedimentation survey of Lago Dos Bocas in January 2009. The results of this survey were used to estimate the useful life and the firm yield of the reservoir, and evaluate the need to dredge the reservoir.

  7. Content Analysis Schedule for Bilingual Education Programs: Programa en Dos Lenguas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludanyi, R. P.; Shore, Marietta Saravia

    This content analysis schedule for the "Programa en Dos Lenguas" of Fort Worth, Texas, presents information on the history, funding, and scope of the project. Included are sociolinguistic process variables such as the native and dominant languages of students and their interaction. Information is provided on staff selection and the…

  8. Function, regulation and pathological roles of the Gab/DOS docking proteins

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Since their discovery a little more than a decade ago, the docking proteins of the Gab/DOS family have emerged as important signalling elements in metazoans. Gab/DOS proteins integrate and amplify signals from a wide variety of sources including growth factor, cytokine and antigen receptors as well as cell adhesion molecules. They also contribute to signal diversification by channelling the information from activated receptors into signalling pathways with distinct biological functions. Recent approaches in protein biochemistry and systems biology have revealed that Gab proteins are subject to complex regulation by feed-forward and feedback phosphorylation events as well as protein-protein interactions. Thus, Gab/DOS docking proteins are at the centre of entire signalling subsystems and fulfil an important if not essential role in many physiological processes. Furthermore, aberrant signalling by Gab proteins has been increasingly linked to human diseases from various forms of neoplasia to Alzheimer's disease. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of the structure, effector functions, regulation and evolution of the Gab/DOS family. We also summarize recent findings implicating Gab proteins, in particular the Gab2 isoform, in leukaemia, solid tumours and other human diseases. PMID:19737390

  9. Pygmy Rice Rat as Potential Host of Castelo dos Sonhos Hantavirus

    PubMed Central

    Travassos da Rosa, Elizabeth S.; Medeiros, Daniele B. A.; Nunes, Márcio R.T.; Simith, Darlene B.; Pereira, Armando de Souza; Elkhoury, Mauro R.; Lavocat, Marília; Marques, Aparecido A.R.; Via, Alba Valéria; D’Andrea, Paulo; Bonvicino, Cibele R.; Lemos, Elba Regina S.

    2011-01-01

    To study the dynamics of wild rodent populations and identify potential hosts for hantavirus, we conducted an eco-epidemiologic study in Campo Novo do Parecis, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. We detected and genetically characterized Castelo dos Sonhos virus found in a species of pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys utiaritensis). PMID:21801642

  10. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  11. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  12. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  13. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  14. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  15. 33 CFR 105.245 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) of this section. (e) At MARSEC Levels 1 and 2, FSOs of facilities that frequently interface with the... part to implement a DoS with the VSO prior to any vessel-to-facility interface when he or she deems it...

  16. 33 CFR 105.245 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) of this section. (e) At MARSEC Levels 1 and 2, FSOs of facilities that frequently interface with the... part to implement a DoS with the VSO prior to any vessel-to-facility interface when he or she deems it...

  17. Stretching the Software Dollar: MS-DOS Shareware and Public Domain Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosch, Audrey N.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses shareware and public domain software for MS-DOS systems that are available through bulletin board systems (BBS). Problems with computer viruses are discussed; shareware available for communications, database and file management, spreadsheets, word processing, and menuing software is described; and source information for software is…

  18. Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds: Youth Violence Prevention for Acculturating Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smokowski, Paul R.; Bacallao, Martica

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the efficacy of Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds (EDM) prevention for Latino adolescents. Method: In an experimental trial to compare implementation formats, 41 Latino families were randomly assigned to EDM action-oriented skills training groups, and 47 families were randomly assigned to unstructured EDM support…

  19. Low-Budget, Cost-Effective OCR: Optical Character Recognition for MS-DOS Micros.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Ernest

    1990-01-01

    Discusses optical character recognition (OCR) for use with MS-DOS microcomputers. Cost effectiveness is considered, three types of software approaches to character recognition are explained, hardware and operation requirements are described, possible library applications are discussed, future OCR developments are suggested, and a list of OCR…

  20. Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds: Youth Violence Prevention for Acculturating Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smokowski, Paul R.; Bacallao, Martica

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the efficacy of Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds (EDM) prevention for Latino adolescents. Method: In an experimental trial to compare implementation formats, 41 Latino families were randomly assigned to EDM action-oriented skills training groups, and 47 families were randomly assigned to unstructured EDM support…

  1. Low-Budget, Cost-Effective OCR: Optical Character Recognition for MS-DOS Micros.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Ernest

    1990-01-01

    Discusses optical character recognition (OCR) for use with MS-DOS microcomputers. Cost effectiveness is considered, three types of software approaches to character recognition are explained, hardware and operation requirements are described, possible library applications are discussed, future OCR developments are suggested, and a list of OCR…

  2. Comparison and evaluation of atmospheric correction algorithms of QUAC, DOS, and FLAASH for HICO hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Liangliang; Mao, Zhihua; Chen, Peng; Han, Sha'ou; Gong, Fang; Zhu, Qiankun

    2016-10-01

    In order to obtain the spectral information of objects and improve the retrieval of quantitative parameters from remotely sensing data accurately on land or over water bodies, atmospheric correction is a vital step, certainly, it is also a prerequisite to hyperspectral imagery data analysis approaches. On the base of previous studies, the atmospheric correction algorithms were divided to two categories: image-based empirical and model-based correction methods. The Quick Atmospheric Correction (QUAC) and Dark Object Subtraction (DOS) methods belong to the empirical or semiempirical methods, however, the Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercube (FLAASH) method was developed from the radiative transfer model. In this paper, we initially evaluated the performance from Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) of 16 Nov 2013 using QUAC, DOS, and MODTRAN integrated in FLAASH, and compared the results of these correction methods with in situ data. The results indicate that the method of FLAASH model performs much better than DOS and QUAC in atmospheric correction for HICO hyperspectral imagery, although the DOS and QUAC method is conducted more easily and do not require inputs of complex parameters.

  3. Sedimentation History of Lago Dos Bocas, Puerto Rico, 1942-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2007-01-01

    The Lago Dos Bocas Dam, located in the municipality of Utuado in north central Puerto Rico, was constructed in 1942 for hydroelectric power generation. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 37.50 million cubic meters and a drainage area of 440 square kilometers. In 1948, the construction of the Lago Caonillas Dam on the Rio Caonillas branch of Lago Dos Bocas reduced the natural sediment-contributing drainage area to 310 square kilometers; therefore, the Lago Caonillas Dam is considered an effective sediment trap. Sedimentation in Lago Dos Bocas reservoir has reduced the storage capacity from 37.50 million cubic meters in 1942 to 17.26 million cubic meters in 2005, which represents a storage loss of about 54 percent. The long-term annual water-storage capacity loss rate remained nearly constant at about 320,000 cubic meters per year to about 1997. The inter-survey sedimentation rate between 1997 and 1999, however, is higher than the long-term rate at about 1.09 million cubic meters per year. Between 1999 and 2005 the rate is lower than the long-term rate at about 0.13 million cubic meters per year. The Lago Dos Bocas effective sediment-contributing drainage area had an average sediment yield of about 1,400 cubic meters per square kilometer per year between 1942 and 1997. This rate increased substantially by 1999 to about 4,600 cubic meters per square kilometer per year, probably resulting from the historical magnitude floods caused by Hurricane Georges in 1998. Recent data indicate that the Lago Dos Bocas drainage area sediment yield decreased substantially to about 570 cubic meters per square kilometer per year, which is much lower than the 1942-1997 area normalized sedimentation rate of 1,235 cubic meters per square kilometer per year. The impact of Hurricane Georges on the basin sediment yield could have been the cause of this change, since the magnitude of the floods could have nearly depleted the Lago Dos Bocas drainage area of easily erodible and

  4. 76 FR 25733 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-7001 and DS-7005, DOS-Sponsored Academic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-7001 and DS- 7005, DOS-Sponsored Academic Exchange Program... preceding submission to OMB. We are conducting this process in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: DOS-Sponsored Academic Exchange Program Application. OMB...

  5. Observational Assessment of Preschool Disruptive Behavior, Part II: Validity of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Keenan, Kate; Egger, Helen L.; Cicchetti, Domenic; Burns, James; Carter, Alice S.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to determine whether the multidomain, multicontext Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS) is a valid observational method for assessing disruptive behavior of preschool children. It is concluded that the DB-DOS is a valid method for a direct observational assessment of clinically significant disruptive…

  6. Observational Assessment of Preschool Disruptive Behavior, Part II: Validity of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Keenan, Kate; Egger, Helen L.; Cicchetti, Domenic; Burns, James; Carter, Alice S.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to determine whether the multidomain, multicontext Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS) is a valid observational method for assessing disruptive behavior of preschool children. It is concluded that the DB-DOS is a valid method for a direct observational assessment of clinically significant disruptive…

  7. 48 CFR 653.217-70 - DOS form DS-1921, Award/Modification of Interagency Acquisition Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOS form DS-1921, Award... Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 653.217-70 DOS form DS-1921, Award/Modification of Interagency Acquisition Agreement. As prescribed in 617.504-70(b)(5)(i), DS...

  8. Models that Teach about the Computer: AppleWorks and ProDOS, the Computer's Memory and Disk Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niess, Margaret L.

    1989-01-01

    This final article in a series on creating models for teaching about computer memory and disk storage and retrieval focuses on AppleWorks software and the Professional Disk Operating System (ProDOS). Instructions for creating a paper model of the AppleWorks menu system and the ProDOS disk file are given. (LRW)

  9. ACONF DOS

    SciTech Connect

    Atcitty, Stanley; Butler, Paul; Symons, Phlip; & Corey, Garth

    2009-03-25

    ACONF is a system which has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories. ACONF is a system for optimizing the interaction between generator, photovoltaic system, batteries, and load in independent non-grid-tied electrical systems. It is primarily used in rural locations where running utility lines proves costly if it is possible at all. It is controlled by an Ampro PC-104 Coremodule 400 controller system. The code for this system is written in the BASIC programming language. The routine contained in this document was written originally by Phil Symons. ACONF is intended to increase the efficiency of freestanding electrical systems to increase battery life and more efficiently use generator fuel.

  10. Effect of modulation frequency bandwidth on measurement accuracy and precision for digital diffuse optical spectroscopy (dDOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Justin; Istfan, Raeef; Roblyer, Darren

    2014-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) frequency-domain Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy (DOS) is an emerging technology with a growing number of potential clinical applications. In an effort to reduce DOS system complexity and improve portability, we recently demonstrated a direct digital sampling method that utilizes digital signal generation and detection as a replacement for more traditional analog methods. In our technique, a fast analog-to-digital converter (ADC) samples the detected time-domain radio frequency (RF) waveforms at each modulation frequency in a broad-bandwidth sweep (50- 300MHz). While we have shown this method provides comparable results to other DOS technologies, the process is data intensive as digital samples must be stored and processed for each modulation frequency and wavelength. We explore here the effect of reducing the modulation frequency bandwidth on the accuracy and precision of extracted optical properties. To accomplish this, the performance of the digital DOS (dDOS) system was compared to a gold standard network analyzer based DOS system. With a starting frequency of 50MHz, the input signal of the dDOS system was swept to 100, 150, 250, or 300MHz in 4MHz increments and results were compared to full 50-300MHz networkanalyzer DOS measurements. The average errors in extracted μa and μs' with dDOS were lowest for the full 50-300MHz sweep (less than 3%) and were within 3.8% for frequency bandwidths as narrow as 50-150MHz. The errors increased to as much as 9.0% when a bandwidth of 50-100MHz was tested. These results demonstrate the possibility for reduced data collection with dDOS without critical compensation of optical property extraction.

  11. Trace Element Distribution Between Olivine and Kirschsteinite in Angra Dos Reis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fittipaldo, M. M.; Jones, R. H.; Shearer, C. K.

    2003-01-01

    The angrites are a small and enigmatic group of basaltic achondrites that possess unique mineralogical and chemical properties. The dominant mineralogy of the seven angrite members (Angra dos Reis, LEW 86010, LEW 87051, Asuka 881371, Sahara 99555, D Orbigny, and a new Moroccan member) is fassaite, olivine, and plagioclase. Angrites display a wide range of thermal histories, with Angra dos Reis (AdoR) exhibiting a cooling history different from that of the rapidly cooled members and from LEW86010, a more slowly cooled member. AdoR could represent either a cumulate or a porphyritic igneous rock that was later altered by metamorphism. We are re-examining the thermal history of AdoR in light of the more recently described angrite members. Our emphasis is a trace element study of low-Ca olivine, which we refer to as olivine, and high-Ca olivine, which we refer to as kirschsteinite, in AdoR.

  12. Using satellite images to monitor glacial-lake outburst floods: Lago Cachet Dos drainage, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friesen, Beverly A.; Cole, Christopher J.; Nimick, David A.; Wilson, Earl M.; Fahey, Mark J.; McGrath, Daniel J.; Leidich, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    During 2008–2013, 14 GLOFs were released from Lago Cachet Dos and created environmental and safety concerns for downstream residents and to infrastructure. If GLOFs and the consequent headward erosion continue, the moraine that creates Lago Cachet Uno could be destabilized and breached, and the two lakes could merge. If the two lakes become connected, the volume of future GLOFs likely would be greater and thus cause longer and (or) more extensive flooding downstream. Additional GLOFs from Lago Cachet Dos are expected in the future, and continued environmental monitoring could provide an early warning system as well as scientific information that could increase our understanding of GLOFs and their consequences. GLOFs occur in glaciated areas around the world and remote sensing technologies can allow researchers to better understand—and potentially predict—future GLOF events.

  13. Magnetic field effects on the DOS of a Kondo quantum dot coupled to LL leads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kai-Hua; Qin, Chang-Dong; Wang, Huai-Yu; Wang, Xu

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the joint effects of a magnetic field and electron-electron interaction on the tunneling density of states (DOS) of a quantum dot coupled to the Luttinger liquid leads in the Kondo regime. We find that for intralead electron interaction, the DOS develops two peaks deviated from the origin by the Zeeman energy. With the increase of the intralead interaction, a phase transition occurs. For moderately strong interaction, the Zeeman splitting peaks develop into two dips. The splitting of the Kondo peak and dip is not symmetric with respect to up and down spins. In the limit of strong interaction the Zeeman splitting behavior disappears and there appears a power-law scaling behavior.

  14. Application of a sparse matrix design strategy to the synthesis of dos libraries.

    PubMed

    Akella, Lakshmi B; Marcaurelle, Lisa A

    2011-07-11

    We have implemented an interactive and practical sparse matrix design strategy for the synthesis of DOS libraries, which facilitates the selection of diverse library members within a user-defined range of physicochemical properties while still maintaining synthetic efficiency. The utility of this approach is illustrated with the synthesis of an 8000-membered library of stereochemically diverse medium-sized rings accessible via a build/couple/pair DOS strategy. Diverse library members were selected from a virtual library by applying the maximum dissimilarity method, while the selection of similar analogs around each diverse product was ensured by picking near neighbors algorithmically based on fingerprint comparison. Adjustable filters on compound properties, which can be tailored to suit the needs of the target biology, facilitated subset selection from the synthetically accessible compounds.

  15. A Comparison of Three LISP Interpreters for MS-DOS-Based Microcomputers

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Stephen N.; Johannes, Richard S.

    1985-01-01

    We report a comparison of three commercially available LISP interpreters running on MS-DOS-based microcomputers. Marked differences were found between the different products' memory addressing abilities, error handling and debugging facilities. Editing tools, tutoring environments, windowing, graphic capabilities, operating system and port call facilities are also contrasted. Speed was tested via a group of LISP functions (benchmarks) that attempt to isolate list manipulation, iteration, function calling, recursion and mathematical calculation performance.

  16. Adaptive Suspicious Prevention for Defending DoS Attacks in SDN-Based Convergent Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Nhu-Ngoc; Kim, Joongheon; Park, Minho; Cho, Sungrae

    2016-01-01

    The convergent communication network will play an important role as a single platform to unify heterogeneous networks and integrate emerging technologies and existing legacy networks. Although there have been proposed many feasible solutions, they could not become convergent frameworks since they mainly focused on converting functions between various protocols and interfaces in edge networks, and handling functions for multiple services in core networks, e.g., the Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS) technique. Software-defined networking (SDN), on the other hand, is expected to be the ideal future for the convergent network since it can provide a controllable, dynamic, and cost-effective network. However, SDN has an original structural vulnerability behind a lot of advantages, which is the centralized control plane. As the brains of the network, a controller manages the whole network, which is attractive to attackers. In this context, we proposes a novel solution called adaptive suspicious prevention (ASP) mechanism to protect the controller from the Denial of Service (DoS) attacks that could incapacitate an SDN. The ASP is integrated with OpenFlow protocol to detect and prevent DoS attacks effectively. Our comprehensive experimental results show that the ASP enhances the resilience of an SDN network against DoS attacks by up to 38%. PMID:27494411

  17. Adaptive Suspicious Prevention for Defending DoS Attacks in SDN-Based Convergent Networks.

    PubMed

    Dao, Nhu-Ngoc; Kim, Joongheon; Park, Minho; Cho, Sungrae

    2016-01-01

    The convergent communication network will play an important role as a single platform to unify heterogeneous networks and integrate emerging technologies and existing legacy networks. Although there have been proposed many feasible solutions, they could not become convergent frameworks since they mainly focused on converting functions between various protocols and interfaces in edge networks, and handling functions for multiple services in core networks, e.g., the Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS) technique. Software-defined networking (SDN), on the other hand, is expected to be the ideal future for the convergent network since it can provide a controllable, dynamic, and cost-effective network. However, SDN has an original structural vulnerability behind a lot of advantages, which is the centralized control plane. As the brains of the network, a controller manages the whole network, which is attractive to attackers. In this context, we proposes a novel solution called adaptive suspicious prevention (ASP) mechanism to protect the controller from the Denial of Service (DoS) attacks that could incapacitate an SDN. The ASP is integrated with OpenFlow protocol to detect and prevent DoS attacks effectively. Our comprehensive experimental results show that the ASP enhances the resilience of an SDN network against DoS attacks by up to 38%.

  18. FlexyDos3D: a deformable anthropomorphic 3D radiation dosimeter: radiation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deene, Y.; Skyt, P. S.; Hil, R.; Booth, J. T.

    2015-02-01

    Three dimensional radiation dosimetry has received growing interest with the implementation of highly conformal radiotherapy treatments. The radiotherapy community faces new challenges with the commissioning of image guided and image gated radiotherapy treatments (IGRT) and deformable image registration software. A new three dimensional anthropomorphically shaped flexible dosimeter, further called ‘FlexyDos3D’, has been constructed and a new fast optical scanning method has been implemented that enables scanning of irregular shaped dosimeters. The FlexyDos3D phantom can be actuated and deformed during the actual treatment. FlexyDos3D offers the additional advantage that it is easy to fabricate, is non-toxic and can be molded in an arbitrary shape with high geometrical precision. The dosimeter formulation has been optimized in terms of dose sensitivity. The influence of the casting material and oxygen concentration has also been investigated. The radiophysical properties of this new dosimeter are discussed including stability, spatial integrity, temperature dependence of the dosimeter during radiation, readout and storage, dose rate dependence and tissue equivalence. The first authors Y De Deene and P S Skyt made an equivalent contribution to the experimental work presented in this paper.

  19. Fotometría CCD de dos cúmulos abiertos con estrellas WR: NGC 6231 y TR 27

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baume, G.; Vázquez, R. A.; Feinstein, A.

    Se ha realizado fotometría CCD en los filtros UBVI del sistema de Cousins en las zonas de los cúmulos abiertos NGC 6231 y Trumpler 27, llegando hasta aproximadamente magnitud V=19. Ambos objetos presentan estrellas WR en su proximidad. Se ha re-determinado el Eb-v en esas direcciones, asi como la distancia a la que se encontrarían los cúmulos y sus edades por medio de un ajuste de la ZAMS y de un conjunto de isocronas respectivamente.

  20. OptaDOS: A tool for obtaining density of states, core-level and optical spectra from electronic structure codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Andrew J.; Nicholls, Rebecca J.; Pickard, Chris J.; Yates, Jonathan R.

    2014-05-01

    We present OptaDOS, a program for calculating core-electron and low-loss electron energy loss spectra (EELS) and optical spectra along with total-, projected- and joint-density of electronic states (DOS) from single-particle eigenenergies and dipole transition coefficients. Energy-loss spectroscopy is an important tool for probing bonding within a material. Interpreting these spectra can be aided by first principles calculations. The spectra are generated from the eigenenergies through integration over the Brillouin zone. An important feature of this code is that this integration is performed using a choice of adaptive or linear extrapolation broadening methods which we show produces higher accuracy spectra than standard fixed-width Gaussian broadening. OptaDOS may be straightforwardly interfaced to any electronic structure code. OptaDOS is freely available under the GNU General Public licence from http://www.optados.org.

  1. T cell responses to DosR and Rpf proteins in actively and latently infected individuals from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Riaño, Felipe; Arroyo, Leonar; París, Sara; Rojas, Mauricio; Friggen, Annemieke H; van Meijgaarden, Krista E; Franken, Kees L M C; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; García, Luis F; Barrera, Luis F

    2012-03-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR regulon-encoded proteins elicit strong immune T-cell responses in individuals with latent tuberculosis (LTBI). Also, resuscitation (Rpf) proteins can induce such responses. However, variations in the immunogenicity of the DosR and Rpf proteins have been observed in European and African populations, and no data are published from other geographic areas. In Colombian LTBI and patients with recently diagnosed PTB, we therefore studied the immune response to DosR, Rpf, stress, and nominal antigens from Mtb, in 7-day stimulated cultures. Three DosR (Rv1737c, Rv2029c, Rv2628c) and 2 Rpf (Rv0867 and Rv2389c) antigens were recognized most prominently on the basis of the net IFNγ production (DosR) or the percentage of responding individuals (Rpf). Results show that the selected DosR antigens induced a higher proportion of CD4-T cells producing IFNγ from LTBI, compared to pulmonary TB patients (PTB), while there were no differences in the proportion of CD8-T cells. An increased frequency of CD4, but not CD8 T-cells with a CD45RO(+)CD27(+) phenotype was observed in LTBI in response to Rv2029c, Rv0867c, and Rv2389c, compared to PTB. The levels of cytokines and chemokines in the supernatants of stimulated cells, showed that the DosR and Rpf antigens induced higher levels of IFNγ in cultures from LTBI compared to PTB, although the induced pattern of cytokines and chemokines was also antigen dependent. In summary, our results are consistent with the significant immunogenicity of Mtb DosR and Rpf antigens in LTBI individuals, and confirm and extend previously reported data from other TB affected human populations.

  2. DoS detection in IEEE 802.11 with the presence of hidden nodes

    PubMed Central

    Soryal, Joseph; Liu, Xijie; Saadawi, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a novel technique to detect Denial of Service (DoS) attacks applied by misbehaving nodes in wireless networks with the presence of hidden nodes employing the widely used IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocols described in the IEEE standard [1]. Attacker nodes alter the IEEE 802.11 DCF firmware to illicitly capture the channel via elevating the probability of the average number of packets transmitted successfully using up the bandwidth share of the innocent nodes that follow the protocol standards. We obtained the theoretical network throughput by solving two-dimensional Markov Chain model as described by Bianchi [2], and Liu and Saadawi [3] to determine the channel capacity. We validated the results obtained via the theoretical computations with the results obtained by OPNET simulator [4] to define the baseline for the average attainable throughput in the channel under standard conditions where all nodes follow the standards. The main goal of the DoS attacker is to prevent the innocent nodes from accessing the channel and by capturing the channel’s bandwidth. In addition, the attacker strives to appear as an innocent node that follows the standards. The protocol resides in every node to enable each node to police other nodes in its immediate wireless coverage area. All innocent nodes are able to detect and identify the DoS attacker in its wireless coverage area. We applied the protocol to two Physical Layer technologies: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and the results are presented to validate the algorithm. PMID:25685510

  3. DoS detection in IEEE 802.11 with the presence of hidden nodes.

    PubMed

    Soryal, Joseph; Liu, Xijie; Saadawi, Tarek

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents a novel technique to detect Denial of Service (DoS) attacks applied by misbehaving nodes in wireless networks with the presence of hidden nodes employing the widely used IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocols described in the IEEE standard [1]. Attacker nodes alter the IEEE 802.11 DCF firmware to illicitly capture the channel via elevating the probability of the average number of packets transmitted successfully using up the bandwidth share of the innocent nodes that follow the protocol standards. We obtained the theoretical network throughput by solving two-dimensional Markov Chain model as described by Bianchi [2], and Liu and Saadawi [3] to determine the channel capacity. We validated the results obtained via the theoretical computations with the results obtained by OPNET simulator [4] to define the baseline for the average attainable throughput in the channel under standard conditions where all nodes follow the standards. The main goal of the DoS attacker is to prevent the innocent nodes from accessing the channel and by capturing the channel's bandwidth. In addition, the attacker strives to appear as an innocent node that follows the standards. The protocol resides in every node to enable each node to police other nodes in its immediate wireless coverage area. All innocent nodes are able to detect and identify the DoS attacker in its wireless coverage area. We applied the protocol to two Physical Layer technologies: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and the results are presented to validate the algorithm.

  4. Studies of Brazilian meteorites. III - Origin and history of the Angra dos Reis achondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinz, M.; Keil, K.; Hlava, P. F.; Berkley, J. L.; Gomes, C. B.; Curvello, W. S.

    1977-01-01

    The mineral composition of the Angra dos Reis meteorite, which fell in 1869, is described. This achondrite contains phases reported in a meteorite for the first time. Petrofabric analysis shows that fassaite has a preferred orientation and lineation, which is interpreted as being due to cumulus processes, possibly the effect of post-depositional magmatic current flow or laminar flow of a crystalline mush. The mineral chemistry indicates crystallization from a highly silica-undersaturated melt at low pressure. Several aspects of the mineral composition are discussed with reference to the implications of crystallization conditions.

  5. Anaerobic Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell death stems from intracellular acidification mitigated by the DosR regulon.

    PubMed

    Reichlen, Matthew J; Leistikow, Rachel L; Scobey, Micah S; Born, Sarah E M; Voskuil, Martin I

    2017-09-05

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a strict aerobe capable of prolonged survival in the absence of oxygen. We investigated the ability of anaerobic Mtb to counter challenges to internal pH homeostasis in the absence of aerobic respiration, the primary mechanism of proton efflux for aerobic bacilli. Anaerobic Mtb populations were markedly impaired for survival under a mildly acidic pH relative to standard culture conditions. Acidic environmental pH greatly increased the susceptibility of anaerobic bacilli to collapse of proton motive force by protonophores, to antimicrobial compounds that target entry into the electron transport system, and to small organic acids with uncoupling activity. However, anaerobic bacilli exhibited high tolerance to these challenges at near neutral pH. At a slightly alkaline pH which was near the optimum intracellular pH, protonophore addition even improved long-term bacilli survival. Although anaerobic Mtb in acidic conditions maintained 40% lower ATP levels than bacilli at standard culture conditions, ATP loss alone could not explain the viability drop. Protonophores decreased ATP levels by more than 90% regardless of extracellular pH but were bactericidal only under acidic conditions, indicating anaerobic bacilli could survive extreme ATP loss provided the external pH was within viable intracellular parameters. Acidic conditions drastically decreased anaerobic survival of a DosR mutant while an alkaline environment improved survival of the DosR mutant. Together these findings indicate intracellular acidification is a primary challenge for anaerobic Mtb survival and that the DosR regulon plays a critical role in sustaining internal pH homeostasis.Importance: During infection, Mtb bacilli are prevalent in environments largely devoid of oxygen. Yet the factors that influence survival of these severely growth- and metabolically-limited bacilli remain poorly understood. We determined how anaerobic bacilli respond to fluctuations in

  6. Volcanic and structural controls of mineralization in the Dos Cabezas Mountains of southeastern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Drewes, H.; Klein, D.P.; Birmingham, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    A combination of geophysical, geochemical, and geological features suggests that a central part of the Dos Cabezas Mountains probably has considerable potential for blind deposits, chiefly base metals. The area exposes the root zone of a Paleocene( ) volcanic complex and its underlying granitic stocks, which were emplaced next to a major northwest-trending, much reactivated fault zone. The new data, combined with the knowledge of past mining activity in the area, lead them to propose several exploration targets that may lead to ore bodies in breccia pipes along the base of the volcanic pile and along a possible concealed fault or caldera margin.

  7. Pinch-off dynamics and dripping-onto-substrate (DoS) rheometry of complex fluids.

    PubMed

    Dinic, Jelena; Jimenez, Leidy Nallely; Sharma, Vivek

    2017-01-31

    Liquid transfer and drop formation/deposition processes involve complex free-surface flows including the formation of columnar necks that undergo spontaneous capillary-driven instability, thinning and pinch-off. For simple (Newtonian and inelastic) fluids, a complex interplay of capillary, inertial and viscous stresses determines the nonlinear dynamics underlying finite-time singularity as well as self-similar capillary thinning and pinch-off dynamics. In rheologically complex fluids, extra elastic stresses as well as non-Newtonian shear and extensional viscosities dramatically alter the nonlinear dynamics. Stream-wise velocity gradients that arise within the thinning columnar neck create an extensional flow field, and many complex fluids exhibit a much larger resistance to elongational flows than Newtonian fluids with similar shear viscosity. Characterization of pinch-off dynamics and the response to both shear and extensional flows that influence drop formation/deposition in microfluidic and printing applications requires bespoke instrumentation not available, or easily replicated, in most laboratories. Here we show that dripping-onto-substrate (DoS) rheometry protocols that involve visualization and analysis of capillary-driven thinning and pinch-off dynamics of a columnar neck formed between a nozzle and a sessile drop can be used for measuring shear viscosity, power law index, extensional viscosity, relaxation time and the most relevant processing timescale for printing. We showcase the versatility of DoS rheometry by characterizing and contrasting the pinch-off dynamics of a wide spectrum of simple and complex fluids: water, printing inks, semi-dilute polymer solutions, yield stress fluids, food materials and cosmetics. We show that DoS rheometry enables characterization of low viscosity printing inks and polymer solutions that are beyond the measurable range of commercially-available capillary break-up extensional rheometer (CaBER). We show that for high

  8. Age and isotopic relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra dos Reis

    SciTech Connect

    Lugmair, G.W. ); Galer, S.J.G. Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Chemie, Mainz )

    1992-04-01

    Results of a wide-ranging isotopic investigation of the unique Antarctican angrite LEW-86010 (LEW) are presented, together with a reassessment of the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR). The principal objectives of this study are to obtain precise radiometric ages, initial Sr isotopic compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the short-lived nuclei {sup 146}Sm and {sup 26}Al via their daughter products. The isotopic compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were also measured. This allows a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the genealogy of, these two angrites.

  9. PrDOS: prediction of disordered protein regions from amino acid sequence.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Takashi; Kinoshita, Kengo

    2007-07-01

    PrDOS is a server that predicts the disordered regions of a protein from its amino acid sequence (http://prdos.hgc.jp). The server accepts a single protein amino acid sequence, in either plain text or FASTA format. The prediction system is composed of two predictors: a predictor based on local amino acid sequence information and one based on template proteins. The server combines the results of the two predictors and returns a two-state prediction (order/disorder) and a disorder probability for each residue. The prediction results are sent by e-mail, and the server also provides a web-interface to check the results.

  10. Use of Remote Sensing and Local Knowledge for Geoconservation of Regiao dos Lagos, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avelar, S.; Vasconcelos, G.; Mansur, K. L.; Anjos, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    A series of lagoons can be found along the coastline of Rio de Janeiro, in the so-called Regiao dos Lagos. The lagoons differ in size, physicochemical, sedimentological and biological characteristics. Rare examples of litifying microbialites that produce stromatolites, the oldest fossils on Earth, can be found living in this lagoon system. The occurrence of stromatolites in the region is of great scientific interest because it enables the study of possible analogues of the earliest life on Earth. However, this region has been suffering from intense human activities and degradations. Geoconservation planning requires an assessment of the characteristics of the region and its potential threats. The primary goal of this study is to assess physical environmental changes and anthropogenic impacts over the last four decades in Regiao dos Lagos. Using a broad integrative assessment combining remote sensing, GIS, field studies and local knowledge of communities, land-cover and land-use classes were identified, as well as the main human activities impacting the environment. The seasonal and weekend tourism and urban sprawl in this coastal area of Rio de Janeiro triggers the occupation of new areas and the removal of natural vegetation, especially on lagoon margins. This disorderly occupation by an ever increasing population, with both legal and illegal constructions and the subsequent overload of the local infrastructure, e.g. increase of electrical energy consumption, volume of vehicles, pollution in air, water and soil and problems with water supply and wastewater treatment, are hastening the gradual degradation of the lake ecosystem. The main driving forces to environmental changes over the last four decades in Regiao dos Lagos were the change of dense vegetation, saline and bare soil classes into built-up areas, adding to the poor waste treatment and inadequate sewage disposal. This analysis provides a basis for a better control of anthropogenic impacts and

  11. The Intraplate Seismogenic Zone of Porto dos Gauchos in the Amazon Craton, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, L. V.; Assumpcao, M. S.; Quintero, R. Q.

    2007-05-01

    The Porto dos Gauchos Seismogenic Zone (PGSZ), in the center north of Mato Grosso State, in the contact between the southern Amazonian Craton and northern Parecis Basin, represents one of the most important area of seismic activity in Brazil, with the largest magnitude ever observed in the stable continent of the South America plate (6.2 mb on January 31, 1955). Focal mechanism studies indicated a pure reverse faulting regime with compressional SHmax. oriented in SE-NW direction. After the 1955 earthquake, located in Serra do Tombador, a recurrent seismicity has been detected in Porto dos Gauchos, 100 km northeast of Serra do Tombador. No recent events have been detected in the area of the 1955 epicenter, suggesting a long recurrence time or mislocation of Serra do Tombador earthquake. The Porto dos Gauchos recurrent seismicity has been observed since 1959, when a 4.5 macroseismic estimated magnitude was felt by local inhabitants settled in that remote area two years earlier. In subsequent years, with deployment of regional stations in Brazilian Amazon region earthquakes were detected in 1981 (3.8 mb), 1989 (3.3 mb), 1993 (3.8 mb), 1996 (4.4 mb), 1997 (3.3 mb), and finally on March 10, 1998 (5.1 mb). The aftershocks of 1998 main shock were studied with a local network with up to eight 3- component stations. Such network detected more than 2500 events until December of 2002, when the network was deactivated, but only 100 were accurately located. Based on this set of events and a controlled source experiment we determined a 1-D velocity model for the area, a composite focal mechanism with P wave polarities, spectral analysis studies to estimate the source dimension, stress drop and moment magnitudes for the main shock and some others events of the set. On March 23, 2005 another shock occurred in the same seismogenic area of Porto dos Gauchos, with magnitude 4.7 to 5.0. One week later five stations were installed again to monitor the aftershock activity, detecting

  12. RighTime: A real time clock correcting program for MS-DOS-based computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, G. Thomas

    1993-01-01

    A computer program is described which effectively eliminates the misgivings of the DOS system clock in PC/AT-class computers. RighTime is a small, sophisticated memory-resident program that automatically corrects both the DOS system clock and the hardware 'CMOS' real time clock (RTC) in real time. RighTime learns what corrections are required without operator interaction beyond the occasional accurate time set. Both warm (power on) and cool (power off) errors are corrected, usually yielding better than one part per million accuracy in the typical desktop computer with no additional hardware, and RighTime increases the system clock resolution from approximately 0.0549 second to 0.01 second. Program tools are also available which allow visualization of RighTime's actions, verification of its performance, display of its history log, and which provide data for graphing of the system clock behavior. The program has found application in a wide variety of industries, including astronomy, satellite tracking, communications, broadcasting, transportation, public utilities, manufacturing, medicine, and the military.

  13. Quality control and assurance for validation of DOS/I measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerussi, Albert; Durkin, Amanda; Kwong, Richard; Quang, Timothy; Hill, Brian; Tromberg, Bruce J.; MacKinnon, Nick; Mantulin, William W.

    2010-02-01

    Ongoing multi-center clinical trials are crucial for Biophotonics to gain acceptance in medical imaging. In these trials, quality control (QC) and assurance (QA) are key to success and provide "data insurance". Quality control and assurance deal with standardization, validation, and compliance of procedures, materials and instrumentation. Specifically, QC/QA involves systematic assessment of testing materials, instrumentation performance, standard operating procedures, data logging, analysis, and reporting. QC and QA are important for FDA accreditation and acceptance by the clinical community. Our Biophotonics research in the Network for Translational Research in Optical Imaging (NTROI) program for breast cancer characterization focuses on QA/QC issues primarily related to the broadband Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging (DOS/I) instrumentation, because this is an emerging technology with limited standardized QC/QA in place. In the multi-center trial environment, we implement QA/QC procedures: 1. Standardize and validate calibration standards and procedures. (DOS/I technology requires both frequency domain and spectral calibration procedures using tissue simulating phantoms and reflectance standards, respectively.) 2. Standardize and validate data acquisition, processing and visualization (optimize instrument software-EZDOS; centralize data processing) 3. Monitor, catalog and maintain instrument performance (document performance; modularize maintenance; integrate new technology) 4. Standardize and coordinate trial data entry (from individual sites) into centralized database 5. Monitor, audit and communicate all research procedures (database, teleconferences, training sessions) between participants ensuring "calibration". This manuscript describes our ongoing efforts, successes and challenges implementing these strategies.

  14. Reproductive Dynamics of Sterna hirundinacea Lesson, 1831 in Ilha dos Cardos, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fracasso, Hélio Augusto Alves; Branco, Joaquim Olinto; Efe, Márcio Amorim

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we intend to describe the reproductive dynamics of Sterna hirundinacea in an island from South Brazil. We studied the reproductive biology of this species in its natural environment and provide data on their growth, survival, and reproductive success in Ilha dos Cardos, Santa Catarina, South Brazil. Samplings were carried out daily on the island throughout the reproductive seasons of 2003, 2005, and 2006 and the different stages of development of the chicks were characterized according to age, length of the beak, and plumage characteristics. We provide a basic equation Lm = 167.91 (1 − e −0.062t−(−0.23)) to determine the approximate age of individuals using their body mass. The main cause of chick mortality on the island was natural (63.17% in 2003, 81.41% in 2005, and 79.96% in 2006), whereas predation contributed to mortality in a proportion of 38.83% in 2003, 18.59% in 2005, and 20.04% in 2006. The absence in the area of the chicks' main predator, Kelp gull (Larus dominicanus), the large number of chicks that reached the final stages of development, and their reproductive success demonstrate that Ilha dos Cardos is an important breeding site for the species in southern Brazil. PMID:24977100

  15. Electron spin resonance dating of megafauna from Lagoa dos Porcos, Piauí, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Angela; Mayer, Elver; Ribau Mendes, Vinícius; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2014-06-01

    Excavations performed at Lagoa dos Porcos site revealed a vast amount of extinct mammal fossil remains, becoming one of the richest palaeontological occurrences in the Serra da Capivara National Park region, a UNESCO World Heritage. Although anatomic and taxonomic aspects of extinct Quaternary mammals are relatively well known, chronologic information for deposits is rare. In this context, electron spin resonance (ESR) dating of megafauna samples provides important information for establishing a chronological background. This work presents the ESR dating of two teeth, one of Gomphotheriidae and other of Toxodontinae. Dose-response curves of each sample were constructed using spectra acquired with a JEOL FA-200 X-Band spectrometer resulting in equivalent dose (De) of 220 ± 40 Gy and 39 ± 2 Gy for Toxodontinae and Gomphotheriidae tooth, respectively. The conversion of De in age was made using ROSY ESR dating software resulting in 26 ± 4 and 22 ± 3 ka. These results place Lagoa dos Porcos fossil assemblage within the Late Pleistocene. These dates overlap with a period of abrupt increase in rainfall in northeast Brazil, and it is possible that this environmental change is related to the formation of this deposit.

  16. Prevalence and predictors of orthorexia nervosa among German students using the 21-item-DOS.

    PubMed

    Depa, Julia; Schweizer, Jenny; Bekers, Sandra-Kristin; Hilzendegen, Carolin; Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette

    2017-03-01

    Orthorexia nervosa (ON) describes the constant pathological preoccupation with "healthy" nutrition. The current results regarding the prevalence of ON differ widely possibly because of invalid measurement tools. This study aimed to investigate ON prevalence in a sample of German students and to examine age, gender, semester, and nutritional knowledge as potential predictors of ON by comparing nutrition science (NS) with economics (ES) students. A total of 446 university students participated in the survey (NS 188, ES 268). ON was determined using the 21-item-DOS, which is a well-constructed, validated, and reliability-tested questionnaire. Age, gender, and semester were also assessed. Of the total sample, 3.3 % were classified as having ON and 9.0 % were at risk of developing ON. Older students scored significantly higher on the subscale "avoidance of additives" compared with younger students and students of lower semester suffered significantly more often from ON than students of higher semester. In addition, comparing field of study showed no significant difference in the prevalence of ON or the risk of developing ON between female NS and ES students. However, mean values for the three DOS subscales were higher among female NS students, albeit far below values indicating pathological behavior. The prevalence of ON appears to be low in this sample of German university students. Female NS students do not seem to have higher prevalence of ON or risk of developing ON.

  17. "Las Dos Cosas," or Why Mexican American Mothers Breast-Feed, But Not for Long.

    PubMed

    Flores, Angela; Anchondo, Inés; Huang, Cindy; Villanos, MariaTeresa; Finch, Casey

    2016-01-01

    To determine why mothers in El Paso, Texas, choose to breast-feed but not exclusively and why breast-feeding duration is short. This was a cross-sectional observational study of 300, mostly Mexican American, low-income mothers delivering at a county hospital who answered questions about breast-feeding and formula feeding, sociodemographics, and health habits. Most mothers (92.6%) in our study initiated breast-feeding, but only 20.3% breast-fed exclusively at the time of hospital discharge. Most mothers (73%) self-identified as Mexicans or Mexican Americans living on the border of the United States and Mexico. Mothers in our study chose to breast-feed if they decided to breast-feed during pregnancy, had breast-fed a previous child, had support from a female relative, and had attended college. Distinctively, most mothers in our study chose "las dos cosas" or to breast-feed and formula feed together early after birth. Acculturation failed to explain the breast-feeding decisions. Mexican American mothers who decided to breast-feed during pregnancy, breast-fed another child, attended college, and enlist a female relative's breast-feeding help were more likely to choose breast-feeding exclusively. Most Mexican American low-income mothers in our study chose "las dos cosas."

  18. RighTime: A real time clock correcting program for MS-DOS-based computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, G. Thomas

    1993-01-01

    A computer program is described which effectively eliminates the misgivings of the DOS system clock in PC/AT-class computers. RighTime is a small, sophisticated memory-resident program that automatically corrects both the DOS system clock and the hardware 'CMOS' real time clock (RTC) in real time. RighTime learns what corrections are required without operator interaction beyond the occasional accurate time set. Both warm (power on) and cool (power off) errors are corrected, usually yielding better than one part per million accuracy in the typical desktop computer with no additional hardware, and RighTime increases the system clock resolution from approximately 0.0549 second to 0.01 second. Program tools are also available which allow visualization of RighTime's actions, verification of its performance, display of its history log, and which provide data for graphing of the system clock behavior. The program has found application in a wide variety of industries, including astronomy, satellite tracking, communications, broadcasting, transportation, public utilities, manufacturing, medicine, and the military.

  19. Crystal Structures of the Response Regulator DosR From Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Suggest a Helix Rearrangement Mechanism for Phosphorylation Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Wisedchaisri, G.; Wu, M.; Sherman, D.R.; Hol, W.G.J.

    2009-05-26

    The response regulator DosR is essential for promoting long-term survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under low oxygen conditions in a dormant state and may be responsible for latent tuberculosis in one-third of the world's population. Here, we report crystal structures of full-length unphosphorylated DosR at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution and its C-terminal DNA-binding domain at 1.7 {angstrom} resolution. The full-length DosR structure reveals several features never seen before in other response regulators. The N-terminal domain of the full-length DosR structure has an unexpected ({beta}{alpha}){sub 4} topology instead of the canonical ({beta}{alpha}){sub 5} fold observed in other response regulators. The linker region adopts a unique conformation that contains two helices forming a four-helix bundle with two helices from another subunit, resulting in dimer formation. The C-terminal domain in the full-length DosR structure displays a novel location of helix {alpha}10, which allows Gln199 to interact with the catalytic Asp54 residue of the N-terminal domain. In contrast, the structure of the DosR C-terminal domain alone displays a remarkable unstructured conformation for helix {alpha}10 residues, different from the well-defined helical conformations in all other known structures, indicating considerable flexibility within the C-terminal domain. Our structures suggest a mode of DosR activation by phosphorylation via a helix rearrangement mechanism.

  20. Crystal Structures of the Response Regulator DosR from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Suggest a Helix Rearrangement Mechanism for Phosphorylation Activation

    PubMed Central

    Wisedchaisri, Goragot; Wu, Meiting; Sherman, David R.; Hol, Wim G. J.

    2008-01-01

    The response regulator DosR is essential for promoting long-term survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under low oxygen conditions in a dormant state and may be responsible for latent tuberculosis in one third of the world’s population. Here we report crystal structures of full-length unphosphorylated DosR at 2.2 Å and its C-terminal DNA-binding domain at 1.7 Å resolution. The full-length DosR structure reveals several features never seen before in other response regulators. The N-terminal domain of the full-length DosR structure has an unexpected (βα)4 topology instead of the canonical (βα)5 fold observed in other response regulators. The linker region adopts a unique conformation which contains two helices forming a four-helix bundle with two helices from another subunit, resulting in dimer formation. The C-terminal domain in the full-length DosR structure displays a novel location of helix α10 which provides Gln199 to interact with the catalytic Asp54 residue of the N-terminal domain. In contrast, the structure of the DosR C-terminal domain alone displays a remarkable unstructured conformation for helix α10 residues different from the well-defined helical conformations in all other known structures, indicating considerable flexibility within the C-terminal domain. Our structures suggest a mode of DosR activation by phosphorylation via a helix rearrangement mechanism. PMID:18353359

  1. Observational Assessment of Preschool Disruptive Behavior, Part I: reliability of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS).

    PubMed

    Wakschlag, Lauren S; Hill, Carri; Carter, Alice S; Danis, Barbara; Egger, Helen L; Keenan, Kate; Leventhal, Bennett L; Cicchetti, Domenic; Maskowitz, Katie; Burns, James; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2008-06-01

    To examine the reliability of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS), a new observational method for assessing preschool disruptive behavior. The DB-DOS is a structured clinic-based assessment designed to elicit clinically salient behaviors relevant to the diagnosis of disruptive behavior in preschoolers. Child behavior is assessed in three interactional contexts that vary by partner (parent versus examiner) and level of support provided. Twenty-one disruptive behaviors are coded within two domains: problems in Behavioral Regulation and problems in Anger Modulation. A total of 364 referred and nonreferred preschoolers participated: interrater reliability and internal consistency were assessed on a primary sample (n = 335) and test-retest reliability was assessed in a separate sample (n = 29). The DB-DOS demonstrated good interrater and test-retest reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated an excellent fit of the DB-DOS multidomain model of disruptive behavior. The DB-DOS is a reliable observational tool for clinic-based assessment of preschool disruptive behavior. This standardized assessment method holds promise for advancing developmentally sensitive characterization of preschool psychopathology.

  2. A Direct Method to Extract Transient Sub-Gap Density of State (DOS) Based on Dual Gate Pulse Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dai, Mingzhi; Khan, Karim; Zhang, Shengnan; Jiang, Kemin; Zhang, Xingye; Wang, Weiliang; Liang, Lingyan; Cao, Hongtao; Wang, Pengjun; Wang, Peng; Miao, Lijing; Qin, Haiming; Jiang, Jun; Xue, Lixin; Chu, Junhao

    2016-06-14

    Sub-gap density of states (DOS) is a key parameter to impact the electrical characteristics of semiconductor materials-based transistors in integrated circuits. Previously, spectroscopy methodologies for DOS extractions include the static methods, temperature dependent spectroscopy and photonic spectroscopy. However, they might involve lots of assumptions, calculations, temperature or optical impacts into the intrinsic distribution of DOS along the bandgap of the materials. A direct and simpler method is developed to extract the DOS distribution from amorphous oxide-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on Dual gate pulse spectroscopy (GPS), introducing less extrinsic factors such as temperature and laborious numerical mathematical analysis than conventional methods. From this direct measurement, the sub-gap DOS distribution shows a peak value on the band-gap edge and in the order of 10(17)-10(21)/(cm(3)·eV), which is consistent with the previous results. The results could be described with the model involving both Gaussian and exponential components. This tool is useful as a diagnostics for the electrical properties of oxide materials and this study will benefit their modeling and improvement of the electrical properties and thus broaden their applications.

  3. A Direct Method to Extract Transient Sub-Gap Density of State (DOS) Based on Dual Gate Pulse Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Mingzhi; Khan, Karim; Zhang, Shengnan; Jiang, Kemin; Zhang, Xingye; Wang, Weiliang; Liang, Lingyan; Cao, Hongtao; Wang, Pengjun; Wang, Peng; Miao, Lijing; Qin, Haiming; Jiang, Jun; Xue, Lixin; Chu, Junhao

    2016-06-01

    Sub-gap density of states (DOS) is a key parameter to impact the electrical characteristics of semiconductor materials-based transistors in integrated circuits. Previously, spectroscopy methodologies for DOS extractions include the static methods, temperature dependent spectroscopy and photonic spectroscopy. However, they might involve lots of assumptions, calculations, temperature or optical impacts into the intrinsic distribution of DOS along the bandgap of the materials. A direct and simpler method is developed to extract the DOS distribution from amorphous oxide-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on Dual gate pulse spectroscopy (GPS), introducing less extrinsic factors such as temperature and laborious numerical mathematical analysis than conventional methods. From this direct measurement, the sub-gap DOS distribution shows a peak value on the band-gap edge and in the order of 1017-1021/(cm3·eV), which is consistent with the previous results. The results could be described with the model involving both Gaussian and exponential components. This tool is useful as a diagnostics for the electrical properties of oxide materials and this study will benefit their modeling and improvement of the electrical properties and thus broaden their applications.

  4. DOS-HEATING6: A general conduction code with nuclear heat generation derived from DOT-IV transport calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.L.; Yuecel, A.; Nadkarny, S.

    1988-05-01

    The HEATING6 heat conduction code is modified to (a) read the multigroup particle fluxes from a two-dimensional DOT-IV neutron- photon transport calculation, (b) interpolate the fluxes from the DOT-IV variable (optional) mesh to the HEATING6 control volume mesh, and (c) fold the interpolated fluxes with kerma factors to obtain a nuclear heating source for the heat conduction equation. The modified HEATING6 is placed as a module in the ORNL discrete ordinates system (DOS), and has been renamed DOS-HEATING6. DOS-HEATING6 provides the capability for determining temperature distributions due to nuclear heating in complex, multi-dimensional systems. All of the original capabilities of HEATING6 are retained for the nuclear heating calculation; e.g., generalized boundary conditions (convective, radiative, finned, fixed temperature or heat flux), temperature and space dependent thermal properties, steady-state or transient analysis, general geometry description, etc. The numerical techniques used in the code are reviewed and the user input instructions and JCL to perform DOS-HEATING6 calculations are presented. Finally a sample problem involving coupled DOT-IV and DOS-HEATING6 calculations of a complex space-reactor configurations described, and the input and output of the calculations are listed. 10 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. A Direct Method to Extract Transient Sub-Gap Density of State (DOS) Based on Dual Gate Pulse Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Mingzhi; Khan, Karim; Zhang, Shengnan; Jiang, Kemin; Zhang, Xingye; Wang, Weiliang; Liang, Lingyan; Cao, Hongtao; Wang, Pengjun; Wang, Peng; Miao, Lijing; Qin, Haiming; Jiang, Jun; Xue, Lixin; Chu, Junhao

    2016-01-01

    Sub-gap density of states (DOS) is a key parameter to impact the electrical characteristics of semiconductor materials-based transistors in integrated circuits. Previously, spectroscopy methodologies for DOS extractions include the static methods, temperature dependent spectroscopy and photonic spectroscopy. However, they might involve lots of assumptions, calculations, temperature or optical impacts into the intrinsic distribution of DOS along the bandgap of the materials. A direct and simpler method is developed to extract the DOS distribution from amorphous oxide-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on Dual gate pulse spectroscopy (GPS), introducing less extrinsic factors such as temperature and laborious numerical mathematical analysis than conventional methods. From this direct measurement, the sub-gap DOS distribution shows a peak value on the band-gap edge and in the order of 1017–1021/(cm3·eV), which is consistent with the previous results. The results could be described with the model involving both Gaussian and exponential components. This tool is useful as a diagnostics for the electrical properties of oxide materials and this study will benefit their modeling and improvement of the electrical properties and thus broaden their applications. PMID:27297030

  6. First-principle calculation of the electronic structure, DOS and effective mass TlInSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismayilova, N. A.; Orudzhev, G. S.; Jabarov, S. H.

    2017-05-01

    The electronic structure, density of states (DOS), effective mass are calculated for tetragonal TlInSe2 from first principle in the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The electronic structure of TlInSe2 has been investigated by Quantum Wise within GGA. The calculated band structure by Hartwigsen-Goedecker-Hutter (HGH) pseudopotentials (psp) shows both the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum located at the T point of the Brillouin zone. Valence band maximum at the T point and the surrounding parts originate mainly from 6s states of univalent Tl ions. Bottom of the conduction band is due to the contribution of 6p-states of Tl and 5s-states of In atoms. Calculated DOS effective mass for holes and electrons are mDOS h∗ = 0.830m e, mDOS h∗ = 0.492m e, respectively. Electron effective masses are fairly isotropic, while the hole effective masses show strong anisotropy. The calculated electronic structure, density of states and DOS effective masses of TlInSe2 are in good agreement with existing theoretical and experimental results.

  7. Age and isotopic relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra dos Reis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugmair, G. W.; Galer, S. J. G.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents results of a wide-ranging isotopic investigation of the the Antarctic angrite LEW-86010 (LEW), and reassesses the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR) in order to obtain precise radiometric ages and initial Sr isotopic compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the short-lived nuclei Sm-146 and Al-26 via their daughter products. The isotopic compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were measured to allow a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the geneology of, these two angrites. LEW proves to be severely contaminated with modern terrestrial Pb, which is shown to result from terrestrial weathering. Concordant Pb-Pb model ages of pyroxene separates are obtained; uranium isotopic compositions are normal within error. Overall, striking age and isotopic similarities between LEW and ADOR were found, suggesting almost simultaneous production on the same asteroid, even though recent experimental studies imply that the two are not comagmatic.

  8. Estudio dinámico de un potencial perturbador dependiente de dos parámetros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O.; Brunini, A.

    El objeto del presente trabajo consiste en el estudio dinámico de un sistema dinámico caracterizado por la función hamiltoniana correspondiente a un satélite planetario perturbado por la acción del Sol y del achatamiento del planeta madre. Cuando dicha Hamiltoniana se promedia respecto de los términos de corto período, esta queda con dos grados de libertad, y su estudio puede ser realizado con las herramientas clásicas de la dinámica no-lineal. Se tratará de determinar regiones regulares y caóticas de movimiento. En el caso de estas últimas, es de particular interés la determinación de su orígen.

  9. On securing wireless sensor network--novel authentication scheme against DOS attacks.

    PubMed

    Raja, K Nirmal; Beno, M Marsaline

    2014-10-01

    Wireless sensor networks are generally deployed for collecting data from various environments. Several applications specific sensor network cryptography algorithms have been proposed in research. However WSN's has many constrictions, including low computation capability, less memory, limited energy resources, vulnerability to physical capture, which enforce unique security challenges needs to make a lot of improvements. This paper presents a novel security mechanism and algorithm for wireless sensor network security and also an application of this algorithm. The proposed scheme is given to strong authentication against Denial of Service Attacks (DOS). The scheme is simulated using network simulator2 (NS2). Then this scheme is analyzed based on the network packet delivery ratio and found that throughput has improved.

  10. Age and isotopic relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra dos Reis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugmair, G. W.; Galer, S. J. G.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents results of a wide-ranging isotopic investigation of the the Antarctic angrite LEW-86010 (LEW), and reassesses the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR) in order to obtain precise radiometric ages and initial Sr isotopic compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the short-lived nuclei Sm-146 and Al-26 via their daughter products. The isotopic compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were measured to allow a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the geneology of, these two angrites. LEW proves to be severely contaminated with modern terrestrial Pb, which is shown to result from terrestrial weathering. Concordant Pb-Pb model ages of pyroxene separates are obtained; uranium isotopic compositions are normal within error. Overall, striking age and isotopic similarities between LEW and ADOR were found, suggesting almost simultaneous production on the same asteroid, even though recent experimental studies imply that the two are not comagmatic.

  11. Measured oxygen fugacities of the Angra dos Reis achondrite as a function of temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brett, R.; Stephen, Huebner J.; Sato, M.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of the oxygen fugacity (f{hook}O2) as a function of temperature (T) were made on an interior bulk sample of the cumulate achondrite, Angra dos Reis. Data clustered between the f{hook}O2-T relationship of the iron-wu??stite assemblage and 1.2 log atm units above iron-wu??stite. Interpretation of the data indicates that, throughout most of the cooling history of the meteorite, f{hook}O2 values were defined by equilibria involving iron-bearing species at values close to the f{hook}O2 of the assemblage iron-wu??stite. Measured f{hook}O2 data are compatible with crystallization and cooling at pressures greater than 50 bars. ?? 1977.

  12. Revisiting DoS Attacks and Privacy in RFID-Enabled Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arco, Paolo; Scafuro, Alessandra; Visconti, Ivan

    Vaudenay presented in [ASIACRYPT 2007] a general RFID security and privacy model that abstracts some previous works in a single, concise, and much more understandable framework. He introduced eight distinct notions of privacy, corresponding to adversaries of different strength, and proved some possibility and impossibility results for such privacy notions. However, some interesting problems as: 1) achieving stronger privacy using low-cost tags (i.e., tags that usually can not perform public-key cryptography), 2) achieving stronger privacy in presence of side-channel attacks (e.g., DoS attacks, detection of the outputs of identification protocols), and 3) achieving stronger privacy under standard complexity-theoretic assumptions, are still left open.

  13. An MS-DOS-based program for analyzing plutonium gamma-ray spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhter, W.D.; Buckley, W.M.

    1989-09-07

    A plutonium gamma-ray analysis system that operates on MS-DOS-based computers has been developed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to perform in-field analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra for plutonium isotopics. The program titled IAEAPU consists of three separate applications: a data-transfer application for transferring spectral data from a CICERO multichannel analyzer to a binary data file, a data-analysis application to analyze plutonium gamma-ray spectra, for plutonium isotopic ratios and weight percents of total plutonium, and a data-quality assurance application to check spectral data for proper data-acquisition setup and performance. Volume 3 contains the software listings for these applications.

  14. The Secret List of Dos and Don'ts for Filmmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, N.

    2012-12-01

    Science is a massive black box to billions of people who walk the streets. However, the process of filmmaking can be equally as mystifying. As with the development of many scientific experiments, the process starts on a napkin at a restaurant…but then what? The road to scientific publication is propelled by a canonical list of several dos and don't that fit most situations. An equally useful list exists for up-and-coming producers. The list streamlines efforts, optimizes your use of the tools at your fingertips and enhances impact. Many fundamentals can be learned from books, but during this talk we will project and discuss several examples of best practices, from honing a story, to identifying audience appeal, filming, editing and the secrets of inexpensively acquiring expert help. Whether your goal is a two-minute webisode or a 90 minute documentary, these time-tested practices, with a little awareness, can give life to your films.;

  15. [Anterior cruciate ligament-plasty using the "U-dos" technique].

    PubMed

    Morales-Trevizo, C; Paz-García, M; Leal-Berumen, I; Leal-Contreras, C; Berumen-Nafarrate, E

    2013-01-01

    The knee is a compound diarthrodial joint, vulnerable to serious injuries such as ligament injuries of: medial collateral ligament, lateral collateral ligament, anterior cruciate ligament and posterior cruciate ligament, as cruciate ligaments limit rotation movement in the joint. The purpose of our study was to create a new technique to treat injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament, which is composed of two bundles--anteromedial and posterolateral--trying to achieve an anatomical reconstruction that allows for a normal biomechanical recovery. This technique reduces the use of fixation material and costs. The diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament injuries was made with the pivot shift test. There are currently two repair methods for anterior cruciate ligament injuries: single bundle or double bundle repair; none of these techniques is considered as the gold standard, as their results are very similar. This paper describes a technique used for the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament injuries, known as "U-dos", and its clinical results. Cross-sectional, observational study that enrolled 20 patients with total anterior cruciate ligament injuries who underwent anterior cruciate ligament plasty using the "U-dos" technique between June 2009 and June 2010. The technique requires the use of bone bank allograft, in this case of the anterior tibial ligament. Patients were assessed using the Lysholm scale and the pivot shift test. Our results show that all the pivot shift tests were negative and assessments according to the Lysholm scale were from normal to excellent in 95% of cases (19/20). Only one failure was reported, with avulsion of the graft attachment which required a surgical intervention.

  16. Creating a Global Fiducials Program (GFP) Site: Lago Cachet Dos example in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, B. A.; Nimick, D. A.; Wilson, E. M.

    2012-12-01

    The USGS has been acquiring remotely sensed imagery from all over the world, collecting thousands of images at more than 200 sites, and creating Literal Image Derived Products (LIDPs) as part of the Global Fiducials Program (GFP). The GFP program enables scientists to use these images to study our rapidly changing planet at carefully selected locations around the world. New GFP Sites are created and added each year. Researchers at the University of Alaska, for instance, added areas susceptible to coastal erosion for monitoring the long-term effects of high tides and storms. This presentation will guide you through the process of creating a new GFP site for your area of interest. We will describe the components of the GFP and its archive, the Global Fiducials Library. The Global Fiducials Program—Initial Site Proposal form will be presented and we will show you how to complete each component in order to propose a new site. Lago Cachet Dos, a glacier-dammed lake in southern Chile, is currently being proposed as a new GFP site and will be used as the example for this exercise. In addition, USGS web sites will be used to illustrate how a long-term imagery record can tell a story and to demonstrate viewing and downloading the type of data that will be available online and free of charge through the GFP.

  17. A proposed application of an industrial DOS computer for distribution substation monitoring and control

    SciTech Connect

    Batur, I. . Aselsan Military); Guven, A.N.; Ozay, N. . Electrical Engineering Dept.)

    1994-04-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an intelligent controller intended for use in distribution substations to perform monitoring and control duties within the framework of distribution automation needs. The hardware of the developed controller is a DOS based industrial computer running on ECB-BUS. The application software handles all input/output tasks, data collection, manipulation and control decisions with its flexible structure. This embedded controller measures bus voltage, transformer and feeder currents and calculates the real and reactive power, power factor, frequency, and total harmonic distortion of voltage and current. In addition to its local and remote data acquisition and monitoring functions by means of console and SCADA outputs, the system, through its relay outputs, is capable of performing automation tasks such as integrated Volt/Var control, overload and underfrequency detection and load shedding at the substation level. This reliable, high capacity and low cost system is completely programmable so that it can handle new requirements with new configurations easily.

  18. Environmental discrimination among soft-bottom mollusc associations off Lagoa dos Patos, South Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Absalão, R. S.

    1991-01-01

    Sublittoral benthic molluscs established in the outlet of Lagoa dos Patos (South Brazil) were sampled with a rectangular dredge and the malacological associations delineated by cluster analysis (WPGA) using the Baroni-Urbani and Buser similarity index. Three main associations were characterized in bands parallel to the beach with relative concordance with specific sedimentological facies. The multiple discriminant analysis showed that there was a high correlation between these associations and the following environmental parameters: depth, average grain size, skewness of the sediment, medium sand, coarse sand, total sand and total mud. The effect of reducing the multidimensionality of the data to two factors, ecologically explained, brings out the importance of depth, average grain size, total sand and total mud. The first appears to be a bathymetric gradient of stability/disturbance; the disturbance from storms becomes less frequent with increasing depth. This is partially supported by the results of the Caswell neutral model, and is in agreement with the intermediate disturbance hypothesis predictions. The second sedimentological factor is the relative percentages of sand and mud in determining the specific composition of these associations.

  19. Endocrine disruptors in water filters used in the Rio dos Sinos Basin region, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Furtado, C M; von Mühlen, C

    2015-05-01

    The activated carbon filter is used in residences as another step in the treatment of drinking water, based on a physical-chemical process to absorb pollutants that are not removed in conventional treatment. Endocrine disruptors (EDCs) are exogenous substances or mixtures of substances that acts on the endocrine system similarly to the endogenously produced hormones, triggering malfunctions and harmful changes to human and animal health. The objective of the present work was to study EDCs through semi-quantitative analysis of residential water filters collected in the region of Rio dos Sinos basin, focusing on two specific classes: hormones and phenols. The solid phase extraction principle was used for the extraction of compounds and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for the separation and characterization of EDCs. Four samples of residential filters collected from public water distribution and artesian wells, from the cities of Novo Hamburgo and São Leopoldo were analysed. Using the developed methodology, it was possible to detect and comparatively quantify selected EDCs in all studied samples, which indicates the presence of these contaminants in drinking water from different sources.

  20. Urano y sus dos satélites irregulares recientemente descubiertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, M. G.; Brunini, A.

    Hasta hace poco tiempo, Urano era el único de los Planetas Gigantes que no poseía satélites irregulares. Esto lo diferenciaba del resto de los planetas Gigantes, al igual que la peculiar oblicuidad de su eje de spin. La gran inclinación de su eje de rotación se debe probablemente a una colisión que sufrió el planeta con otro embrión planetario al final del proceso de formación. Esta colisión habría desligado satélites exteriores preexistentes del planeta. Recientemente se han descubierto dos satélites irregulares de Urano, lo que introduce algunas nuevas cotas y condiciones en el escenario de la "Hipótesis de la Gran Colisión" . Los satélites irregulares de Urano tuvieron que ser capturados en una etapa posterior a la del escenario de la Gran Colisión, de no ser así, hubieran sido eyectados del sistema por el impulso impartido con ese gran impacto. En este trabajo, se discuten los posibles mecanismos de captura de los satélites irregulares y se presenta un nuevo posible mecanismo para dicha captura.

  1. Dos and don'ts for using climate information for water resource planning and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vano, J. A.; Clark, M. P.; Nijssen, B.; Wood, A.; Gutmann, E. D.; Arnold, J.

    2016-12-01

    Increasingly water managers and planners are being required to incorporate climate change information into their planning processes. This is generally seen as a step in the right direction. However, the continuously evolving and expanding realm of climate information can be confusing to use and easy to apply in ways the information producers never intended, and often in ways those producers might say are not viable. Additionally, advice on how various products should be used is not usually straightforward - it may require an extended dialogue between scientists and end users, which is not always feasible with current resources. While rarely is there a one-size fits all approach, there are usually preferable paths forward. To help the water resource planning and management community navigate the ever-changing climate science landscape, we present a set of guidelines for better practices when using climate information. These are divided into two categories: (1) process-based recommendations for developing an effective approach for using climate change scenarios, and (2) product-based cautions for using climate change information. This collection of dos and don'ts provides context on why certain strategies are preferable, including real-world examples. This work is intended to provide a foundation that can be built on through dialogue within and between the climate science and application communities to increase the usefulness of climate information.

  2. Geochemical and isotopic constraints on the tectonic setting of Serra dos Carajas belt, eastern Para, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olszewski, W. J., Jr.; Gibbs, A. K.; Wirth, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    The lower part of the Serra dos Carajas belt is the metavolcanic and metasedimentary Grao para Group (GPG). The GPG is thought to unconformably overlie the older (but undated) Xingu Complex, composed of medium and high-grade gneisses and amphibolite and greenstone belts. The geochemical data indicate that the GPG has many features in common with ancient and modern volcanic suites erupted through continental crust. The mafic rocks clearly differ from those of most Archean greenstone belts, and modern MORB, IAB, and hot-spot basalts. The geological, geochemical, and isotopic data are all consistent with deposition on continental crust, presumably in a marine basin formed by crustal extension. The isotopic data also suggest the existence of depleted mantle as a source for the parent magmas of the GPG. The overall results suggest a tectonic environment, igneous sources, and petrogenesis similar to many modern continental extensional basins, in contrast to most Archean greenstone belts. The Hammersley basin in Australia and the circum-Superior belts in Canada may be suitable Archean and Proterozoic analogues, respectively.

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE PICO DOS DIAS SURVEY HERBIG Ae/Be CANDIDATES

    SciTech Connect

    Sartori, Marilia J.; Rodrigues, Claudia V.; Batalha, Celso

    2010-01-15

    A large sample of Herbig Ae/Be (HAeBe) candidates, distributed in different Galactic regions south to declination +30 deg., were identified by the Pico dos Dias Survey (a search for young stellar objects based on IRAS colors). Most of the candidates are nearby or associated with star-forming clouds, but several others are considered isolated objects. Aiming to verify the young nature of 93 HAeBe candidates, we searched for additional information that could be useful to confirm if they are pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars or evolved objects, which coincidentally show similar IRAS colors. By adopting a spectral index that is related to the amount of infrared excess and the shape of the spectral energy distribution, we have classified the sample according to three groups, which are analyzed on the basis of (1) circumstellar luminosity; (2) spatial distribution; (3) optical polarization; (4) near-infrared colors; (5) stellar parameters (mass, age, effective temperature); and (5) intensity of emission lines. Our analysis indicates that only 76% of the studied sample, mainly the group with intermediate to low levels of circumstellar emission, can be more confidently considered PMS stars. The nature of the remaining stars, which are in the other group that contains the highest levels of infrared excess, remains to be confirmed. They share the same characteristics of evolved objects, requiring complementary studies in order to correctly classify them. At least seven objects show characteristics typical of post-asymptotic giant branch or proto-planetary nebulae.

  4. 48 CFR 653.219-70 - DOS form DS-1910, Small Business Agency Review-Actions Above the Simplified Acquisition Threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOS form DS-1910, Small... 653.219-70 DOS form DS-1910, Small Business Agency Review—Actions Above the Simplified Acquisition Threshold. As prescribed in 619.501(c), DS-1910 is prescribed for use in documenting set-aside decisions. ...

  5. Cross-Reactive Immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR Regulon-Encoded Antigens in Individuals Infected with Environmental, Nontuberculous Mycobacteria▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lin, May Young; Reddy, T. B. K.; Arend, Sandra M.; Friggen, Annemieke H.; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; van Meijgaarden, Krista E.; Verduyn, Marleen J. C.; Schoolnik, Gary K.; Klein, Michel R.; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR regulon-encoded antigens are highly immunogenic in M. tuberculosis-infected humans and are associated with latent tuberculosis infection. We have investigated the hypothesis that infection with or exposure to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can induce cross-reactive immunity to M. tuberculosis DosR regulon-encoded antigens since responsiveness has been observed in non-M. tuberculosis-exposed but purified protein derivative-responsive individuals. M. tuberculosis DosR regulon-encoded antigen-specific T-cell responses were studied in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of NTM-infected/exposed individuals. BLASTP was used to determine the presence of M. tuberculosis DosR regulon-encoded protein orthologs among environmental mycobacteria and nonmycobacteria. Significant gamma interferon production was observed in PBMCs from NTM-infected/exposed individuals in response to M. tuberculosis DosR regulon-encoded antigens. DosR regulon-encoded protein orthologs were prominently present in tuberculous and environmental mycobacteria and surprisingly also in nonmycobacteria. The ubiquitous presence of the highly conserved DosR master regulator protein Rv3133c suggests that this is a general adaptive bacterial response regulator. We report a first series of M. tuberculosis antigens to which cross-reactive immunity is induced by NTM infection/exposure. The high conservation of M. tuberculosis DosR regulon-encoded antigens most likely enables them to induce cross-reactive T-cell responses. PMID:19737909

  6. Lessons Learned from Sleep Education in Schools: A Review of Dos and Don'ts

    PubMed Central

    Blunden, Sarah; Rigney, Gabrielle

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep duration and quality are associated with negative neuropsychological and psychosocial outcomes in children and adolescents. However, community awareness of this is low and sleep education programs in schools are attempting to address this issue. Several studies now exist assessing the efficacy of these sleep education programs for improving sleep knowledge, sleep hygiene and sleep patterns. This paper presents these sleep education programs, most particularly, it presents the strengths and weaknesses of the current available studies in the hope that this can identify areas where future sleep education programs can improve. Methods: A systematic search of all school-based sleep education studies in adolescents was undertaken. Studies were scrutinized for author, teacher and participant comment regarding strengths and limitations of each study, which were then extracted and summarized. Results: Two specific types of sleep education programs emerged from the review, those that sought to change sleep behavior and those that sought simply to disseminate information. Issues that dictated the strength or weakness of a particular study including who delivers the program, the theoretical basis, the tools utilized to measure sleep patterns, the content, and their capacity to engage students were assessed. Sleep education was considered important by teachers, students and parents alike. Conclusions: Future sleep education programs need to take into account lessons learned from previous sleep education efforts in order to maximize the potential for sleep education programs to improve the sleep health of our young people. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 595. Citation: Blunden S, Rigney G. Lessons learned from sleep education in schools: a review of dos and don'ts. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(6):671–680. PMID:25766709

  7. Las dos cosas: an analysis of attitudes of latina women on non-exclusive breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Bartick, Melissa; Reyes, Catherine

    2012-02-01

    Non-exclusive breastfeeding among Latina women is commonly seen in the newborn period. The reasons behind las dos cosas ("both things") are not well understood but have included the beliefs that formula has vitamins and that adding formula will result in a chubbier baby, which is desirable. Many previous studies involved Mexican and Puerto Rican women living in the mainland United States. We performed detailed semistructured interviews with 17 Latina mothers in late pregnancy or the newborn period at a community hospital and an affiliated clinic in Massachusetts, serving a large Dominican population. Women were asked about their beliefs about breastfeeding, colostrum, and infant formula. Transcripts were analyzed using Nvivo 9 software (QSR International Pty. Ltd., Melbourne, Australia) to identify the frequencies of common trends. The most common reasons for introducing formula were treatment for insufficient milk, to keep the baby fuller longer, and planning for return to work. None of the women understood the potential risks of introducing formula on the establishment of breastfeeding, particularly on milk supply. Many thought that even limited amounts of breastfeeding were sufficient to produce a healthier child, failing to understand a negative dose-response effect of formula on health and milk production. While every woman saw breastfeeding as healthier, only one saw formula as unhealthy, an important distinction. None of the women expressed familiarity with medical recommendations around breastfeeding duration or exclusivity, with many believing that breastmilk alone would be insufficient to satisfy the hunger or nutritional needs of a growing child after as little as 3 months. Women consistently demonstrated a willingness to learn from health professionals. In counseling Latina women, it may be important to discuss the risks of formula to infant health, breastfeeding, and milk supply and to include the medical recommendations for breastfeeding exclusivity

  8. Implementation of DoS attack and mitigation strategies in IEEE 802.11b/g WLAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Julia; Meng, Ke; Xiao, Yang; Xu, Roger

    2010-04-01

    IEEE 802.11 wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) becomes very prevalent nowadays. Either as a simple range extender for a home wired Ethernet interface, or as a wireless deployment throughout an enterprise, WLAN provides mobility, convenience, and low cost. However, an IEEE 802.11b/g wireless network uses the frequency of unlicensed 2.4GHz, which makes the network unsafe and more vulnerable than traditional Ethernet networks. As a result, anyone who is familiar with wireless network may initiate a Denial of Service (DoS) attack to influence the common communication of the network or even make it crash. In this paper, we present our studies on the DoS attacks and mitigation strategies for IEEE 802.11b/g WLANs and describe some initial implementations using IEEE 802.11b/g wireless devices.

  9. The chicken immediate-early gene ZENK is expressed in the medio-rostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale, a brain region involved in acoustic imprinting, and is up-regulated after exposure to an auditory stimulus.

    PubMed

    Thode, C; Bock, J; Braun, K; Darlison, M G

    2005-01-01

    The immediate-early gene zenk (an acronym for the avian orthologue of the mammalian genes zif-268, egr-1, ngfi-a and krox-24) has been extensively employed, in studies on oscine birds, as a marker of neuronal activity to reveal forebrain structures that are involved in the memory processes associated with the acquisition, perception and production of song. Audition-induced expression of this gene, in brain, has also recently been reported for the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Whilst the anatomical distribution of zenk expression was described for the quail, corresponding data for the chicken were not reported. We have, therefore, used in situ hybridisation to localise the mRNA that encodes the product of the zenk gene (which we call ZENK) within the brain of the 1-day-old chick. We demonstrate that this transcript is present in a number of forebrain structures including the medio-rostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale (MNH), a region that has been strongly implicated in auditory imprinting (which is a form of recognition memory), and Field L, the avian analog of the mammalian auditory cortex. Because of this pattern of gene expression, we have compared the level of the ZENK mRNA in chicks that have been subjected to a 30-min acoustic imprinting paradigm and in untrained controls. Our results reveal a significant increase (P< or =0.05) in the level of the ZENK mRNA in MNH and Field L, and in the two forebrain hemispheres; no increase was seen in the ectostriatum, which is a visual projection area. The data obtained implicate the immediate-early gene, zenk, in auditory imprinting, which is an established model of juvenile learning. In addition, our results indicate that the ZENK mRNA may be used as a molecular marker for MNH, a region that is difficult to anatomically and histochemically delineate.

  10. Video movie making using remote procedure calls and 4BSD Unix sockets on Unix, UNICOS, and MS-DOS systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.W.; Johnston, W.E.; Hall, D.E.; Rosenblum, M.

    1990-03-01

    We describe the use of the Sun Remote Procedure Call and Unix socket interprocess communication mechanisms to provide the network transport for a distributed, client-server based, image handling system. Clients run under Unix or UNICOS and servers run under Unix or MS-DOS. The use of remote procedure calls across local or wide-area networks to make video movies is addressed.

  11. Diverted organic synthesis (DOS): accessing a new, natural product inspired, neurotrophically active scaffold through an intramolecular Pauson-Khand reaction.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Goverdhan; Samineni, Ramesh; Srihari, Pabbaraja; Reddy, R Gajendra; Chakravarty, Sumana

    2012-09-14

    Drawing inspiration from the impressive neurotrophic activity exhibited by the natural product paecilomycine A, we have designed a new natural product-like scaffold employing an intramolecular Pauson-Khand reaction. Several compounds based on the new designer scaffold exhibited promising neurotrophic activity and are worthy of further biological evaluation. Our findings also highlight the importance of a DOS strategy in creating useful therapeutical leads.

  12. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  13. Research on a Denial of Service (DoS) Detection System Based on Global Interdependent Behaviors in a Sensor Network Environment

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae-gu; Jung, Sungmo; Kim, Jong Hyun; Seo, Dong Il; Kim, Seoksoo

    2010-01-01

    This research suggests a Denial of Service (DoS) detection method based on the collection of interdependent behavior data in a sensor network environment. In order to collect the interdependent behavior data, we use a base station to analyze traffic and behaviors among nodes and introduce methods of detecting changes in the environment with precursor symptoms. The study presents a DoS Detection System based on Global Interdependent Behaviors and shows the result of detecting a sensor carrying out DoS attacks through the test-bed. PMID:22163475

  14. El medio interestelar alrededor de estrellas Of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, N.; Cappa, C.

    Se analiza la distribución del hidrógeno neutro interestelar en la vecindad de algunas estrellas Of con el fin de investigar la presencia de burbujas de H I vinculadas a las estrellas. Se determinan los parámetros físicos de las burbujas de H I encontradas y se comparan con estructuras similares vinculadas a estrellas Wolf-Rayet. El estudio se lleva a cabo en base a datos pertenecientes al relevamiento de Weaver y Willians (1973).

  15. Inflammation and Cancer: In Medio Stat Nano.

    PubMed

    Molinaro, Roberto; Corbo, Claudia; Livingston, Megan; Evangelopoulos, Michael; Parodi, Alessandro; Boada, Christian; Agostini, Marco; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2017-09-20

    Cancer treatment still remains a challenge due to the several limitations of currently used chemotherapeutics, such as their poor pharmacokinetics, unfavorable chemical properties, as well as inability to discriminate between healthy and diseased tissue. Nanotechnology offered potent tools to overcome these limitations. Drug encapsulation within a delivery system permitted i) to protect the payload from enzymatic degradation/inactivation in the blood stream, ii) to improve the physicochemical properties of poorly water-soluble drugs, like paclitaxel, and iii) to selectively deliver chemotherapeutics to the cancer lesions, thus reducing the off-target toxicity, and promoting the intracellular internalization. To accomplish this purpose, several strategies have been developed, based on biological and physical changes happening locally and systemically as consequence of tumorigenesis. Here, we will discuss the role of inflammation in the different steps of tumor development and the strategies based on the use of nanoparticles that exploit the inflammatory pathways in order to selectively target the tumor-associated microenvironment for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. The pulmonary artery catheter: in medio virtus.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Pinsky, Michael R; Sprung, Charles L; Levy, Mitchell; Marini, John J; Payen, Didier; Rhodes, Andrew; Takala, Jukka

    2008-11-01

    To clarify the role of the pulmonary artery catheter in the intensive care unit. Recent and relevant literature from MEDLINE and authors' personal databases. Studies on pulmonary artery catheter use and use of other monitoring devices in critically ill patients. Based largely on clinical experience and assessment of the relevant published literature and in response to recent articles attacking the pulmonary artery catheter, we propose that the pulmonary artery catheter is still a valuable tool for the hemodynamic monitoring of patients with complex disease processes in whom the information obtained from the pulmonary artery catheter may influence management. We suggest that there is a need to revisit the basics of hemodynamic management and reassess the way in which the pulmonary artery catheter is used, applying three key principles: correct measurement, correct data interpretation, and correct application. The pulmonary artery catheter is still a valuable tool for hemodynamic monitoring when used in selected patients and by physicians adequately trained to correctly interpret and apply the data provided.

  17. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 197 - Procedures for the Department of State (DoS) Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) Series

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the DoS for the FRUS series under Public Law No. 102-138. b. Request authorization from the CIA, NSC.... Submit to the respective Agency a list of CIA and NSC documents copied and released to the...

  18. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 197 - Procedures for the Department of State (DoS) Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) Series

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the DoS for the FRUS series under Public Law No. 102-138. b. Request authorization from the CIA, NSC.... Submit to the respective Agency a list of CIA and NSC documents copied and released to the...

  19. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 197 - Procedures for the Department of State (DoS) Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) Series

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the DoS for the FRUS series under Public Law No. 102-138. b. Request authorization from the CIA, NSC.... Submit to the respective Agency a list of CIA and NSC documents copied and released to the...

  20. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 197 - Procedures for the Department of State (DoS) Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) Series

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the DoS for the FRUS series under Public Law No. 102-138. b. Request authorization from the CIA, NSC.... Submit to the respective Agency a list of CIA and NSC documents copied and released to the...

  1. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 197 - Procedures for the Department of State (DoS) Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) Series

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the DoS for the FRUS series under Public Law No. 102-138. b. Request authorization from the CIA, NSC.... Submit to the respective Agency a list of CIA and NSC documents copied and released to the...

  2. Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report: Certificate Number: 900125N1. 10258, R. R. Software, Inc., Janus/Ada 2.1.3 386 to DOS Bell 386 Under Ms-Dos 4 Host

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-25

    Ada Validation Vabkdim Swmy Re t AVF-VSR-90502/69 R R Softmm Im 3MW/Ada 21.3 316 to DOS chaplerl - Page I of 5 INTRODUCTION Organization ( AVO ). On...1.2 USE OF THIS VALIDATION SUMMARY REPORT Consistent with the national laws of the originating country, the AVO may make full and free public...contained in the Ada Compiler Validation Procedures and Guidelines. AVO The Ada Validation Organization. The AVO has oversight authority over all AVF

  3. Whole of Government Approach: Maximizing Unity of Effort Between the Department of Defense (DOD), Department of State (DOS), and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-13

    WHOLE OF GOVERNMENT APPROACH: MAXIMIZING UNITY OF EFFORT BETWEEN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE (DOD), DEPARTMENT OF STATE (DOS), AND THE...UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (USAID) A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff...Government Approach: Maximizing Unity of Effort between the Department of Defense (DoD), Department of State (DoS), and the United States Agency for

  4. Effect of maternal high dosages of folic acid supplements on neurocognitive development in children at 4-5 y of age: the prospective birth cohort Infancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) study.

    PubMed

    Valera-Gran, Desirée; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva M; Garcia de la Hera, Manuela; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Tardón, Adonina; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Balluerka, Nekane; Murcia, Mario; González-Safont, Llúcia; Romaguera, Dora; Julvez, Jordi; Vioque, Jesús

    2017-09-01

    Background: The benefits of the use of folic acid supplements (FASs) during the periconception period to prevent neural tube defects and to ensure normal brain development in offspring are well known. There is concern, however, about the long-term effects of the maternal use of high dosages of FASs that exceed the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) (≥1000 μg/d) on child neurocognitive outcomes.Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the association between the use of high dosages of FASs during pregnancy and child neuropsychological development at ages 4-5 y.Design: The multicenter prospective mother-child cohort study, the Infancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project, was conducted in 4 regions of Spain: Asturias, Sabadell, Gipuzkoa, and Valencia. Pregnant women were recruited between 2003 and 2008. Data on 1682 mother-child pairs were included in the final analyses. The pregnant women completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire that was validated to estimate typical dietary folate intake and the use of FASs at 10-13 and 28-32 wk of gestation. Neuropsychological development scores at 4-5 y of age were estimated with the use of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Multiple linear regression and meta-analysis were used to obtain combined-effect estimates.Results: During the periconception period, one-third of the women (n = 502) took FAS dosages ≥1000 μg/d. The use of FAS dosages ≥1000 μg/d in this period was negatively associated with several neuropsychological outcomes scores in children: global verbal (β = -2.49; 95% CI: -4.71, -0.27), verbal memory (β = -3.59; 95% CI: -6.95, -0.23), cognitive function of posterior cortex (β = -2.31; 95% CI: -4.45, -0.18), and cognitive function of left posterior cortex (β = -3.26; 95% CI: -5.51, -1.01).Conclusions: The use of FAS dosages exceeding the UL (≥1000 μg/d) during the periconception period was associated with lower levels of cognitive development in children aged 4-5 y. The use

  5. The FG loop of a heme-based gas sensor enzyme, Ec DOS, functions in heme binding, autoxidation and catalysis.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shinya; Igarashi, Jotaro; Shimizu, Toru

    2009-10-01

    Ec DOS is a heme-based gas sensor enzyme that catalyzes conversion from cyclic-di-GMP to linear-di-GMP in response to gas molecules, such as oxygen, CO and NO. Ec DOS contains an N-terminal heme-binding PAS domain and C-terminal phosphodiesterase domain. Based on crystal structures of the isolated heme-binding domain, it is suggested that the FG loop is involved in intra-molecular signal transduction to the catalytic domain. We generated nine full-length proteins mutated at ionic and non-ionic polar residues between positions 83 and 96 corresponding to the F-helix and FG loop, and examined the heme binding properties, autoxidation rates, and catalytic activities of mutant proteins. N84A and R85A mutant proteins displayed lower heme binding affinities, consistent with the finding that Asn84 interacts with propionate of protoporphyrin IX, and Arg85 with Asp40 on the heme proximal side. Autoxidation rates (0.058-0.54 min(-1)) of R91A, S96A and K89A/R91A/E93A mutant proteins were significantly higher than that (0.0053 min(-1)) of wild-type protein, suggesting that these residues in the FG loop form heme distal architecture conferring stability to the Fe(II)-O(2) complex. Catalytic activities of N84A and R85A mutant proteins with low heme affinity were significantly higher than those of wild-type protein in the absence of gas molecules. Accordingly, we propose that loss of heme binding enhances basal catalysis without the gas molecule, consistent with previous reports on heme inhibition of Ec DOS catalysis.

  6. Expression, maturation and turnover of DrrS, an unusually stable, DosR regulated small RNA in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Moores, Alexandra; Riesco, Ana B.; Schwenk, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends on the ability to adjust to stresses encountered in a range of host environments, adjustments that require significant changes in gene expression. Small RNAs (sRNAs) play an important role as post-transcriptional regulators of prokaryotic gene expression, where they are associated with stress responses and, in the case of pathogens, adaptation to the host environment. In spite of this, the understanding of M. tuberculosis RNA biology remains limited. Here we have used a DosR-associated sRNA as an example to investigate multiple aspects of mycobacterial RNA biology that are likely to apply to other M. tuberculosis sRNAs and mRNAs. We have found that accumulation of this particular sRNA is slow but robust as cells enter stationary phase. Using reporter gene assays, we find that the sRNA core promoter is activated by DosR, and we have renamed the sRNA DrrS for DosR Regulated sRNA. Moreover, we show that DrrS is transcribed as a longer precursor, DrrS+, which is rapidly processed to the mature and highly stable DrrS. We characterise, for the first time in mycobacteria, an RNA structural determinant involved in this extraordinary stability and we show how the addition of a few nucleotides can lead to acute destabilisation. Finally, we show how this RNA element can enhance expression of a heterologous gene. Thus, the element, as well as its destabilising derivatives may be employed to post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in mycobacteria in combination with different promoter variants. Moreover, our findings will facilitate further investigations into the severely understudied topic of mycobacterial RNA biology and into the role that regulatory RNA plays in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis. PMID:28323872

  7. Expression, maturation and turnover of DrrS, an unusually stable, DosR regulated small RNA in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Moores, Alexandra; Riesco, Ana B; Schwenk, Stefan; Arnvig, Kristine B

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends on the ability to adjust to stresses encountered in a range of host environments, adjustments that require significant changes in gene expression. Small RNAs (sRNAs) play an important role as post-transcriptional regulators of prokaryotic gene expression, where they are associated with stress responses and, in the case of pathogens, adaptation to the host environment. In spite of this, the understanding of M. tuberculosis RNA biology remains limited. Here we have used a DosR-associated sRNA as an example to investigate multiple aspects of mycobacterial RNA biology that are likely to apply to other M. tuberculosis sRNAs and mRNAs. We have found that accumulation of this particular sRNA is slow but robust as cells enter stationary phase. Using reporter gene assays, we find that the sRNA core promoter is activated by DosR, and we have renamed the sRNA DrrS for DosR Regulated sRNA. Moreover, we show that DrrS is transcribed as a longer precursor, DrrS+, which is rapidly processed to the mature and highly stable DrrS. We characterise, for the first time in mycobacteria, an RNA structural determinant involved in this extraordinary stability and we show how the addition of a few nucleotides can lead to acute destabilisation. Finally, we show how this RNA element can enhance expression of a heterologous gene. Thus, the element, as well as its destabilising derivatives may be employed to post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in mycobacteria in combination with different promoter variants. Moreover, our findings will facilitate further investigations into the severely understudied topic of mycobacterial RNA biology and into the role that regulatory RNA plays in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis.

  8. Rare earth elements in Angra dos Reis and Lewis Cliff 86010, two meteorites with similar but distinct magma evolutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozaz, Ghislaine; Mckay, Gordon

    1990-01-01

    Data are presented on ion microprobe measurements of REE and selected trace element abundances in individual grains of merrillite, fassaite, olivine, kirschsteinite, and plagioclase of Lewis Cliff 86010 (LEW 86010) meteorite and in merrillite and fassaite grains of Angra dos Reis (ADOR). Results show a close relationship between the two meteorites and support a magmatic origin for LEW 86010. However, the measurements indicate that, despite numerous common characteristics, the two meteorites must have been produced in separate magmatic events involving similar but distinct processes and parent melts.

  9. The influence of climate change on wine production - the case of the Touriga Nacional grape variety (Quinta dos Termos, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, João

    2017-04-01

    The regional and local climate, heavily influenced by global climate change, has strong implications for agriculture. Wine production which has specific characteristics in terms of climate and soil is undoubtedly one of the economic activities strongly influenced by climate change. Quinta dos Termos located in Beira Interior (Belmonte, Portugal) is the largest wine producer in the DOC Beira Interior region, producing premium to hiper premium wines of excellence, marketed at both national and international levels, and cultivates the vineyards according to the rules of Integrated Crop Management. Moreover, grapes are free from herbicides, pesticides or any other chemicals that can be harmful to the environment and health. These factors have contributed to the socio-economic development of the region, creating wealth, favoring employment and promoting tourism. The quality of the wines produced by Quinta dos Termos result from its terroir, given its granite region, the sun exposure, the wind protection, the atmospheric humidity and temperature, the soil water content, the mineralogical/organic composition and soil porosity. These factors favor unique conditions for the cultivation of Touriga Nacional grape variety, which is recognized by its extremely complex color and aroma, which allows the production of wines with great balance and a good ageing potential. Touriga Nacional, a red grape variety of Portuguese origin with high qualitative excellence and reputation and much appreciated worldwide, is versatile to several types of soils and resistant to high thermal amplitudes. Nevertheless, the climatic changes that has been gradually verified, the type of crop management, and in particular the reputation of Touriga Nacional grape variety, may be compromised in the long term, given that these characteristics are strongly influenced by the climate and soil. Aware of that, Quinta dos Termos has been performing a monitoring of the vineyards in terms of pedological treatment

  10. Evolution of the Astronomy Concepts Along Basic Education Cycle. (Breton Title: Evolução dos Conceitos de Astronomia no Decorrer da Educação Básica.) La Evolución de los Conceptos de Astronomía Durante la Educación Básica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Becker da Rosa, Álvaro; Samudio Pèrez, Carlos Ariel

    2014-07-01

    learning of astronomy in basic education. Embora a astronomia seja considerada uma das ciências mais antigas da humanidade e ainda que a compreensão de seus conceitos tenha trazido enormes avanços para a Ciência e, consequentemente, para a sociedade, observa-se que uma parcela significativa de pessoas encontra-se à margem desses conhecimentos. De acordo com os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Básica, cabe à escola a difusão dos conceitos cientificamente corretos, entre eles os relacionados à área de astronomia. Pertinente a essa questão, apresenta-se uma pesquisa realizada com 140 estudantes do nono ano do ensino fundamental e com 120 estudantes da terceira série do ensino médio de quatro escolas da região de Passo Fundo/RS. Buscou-se averiguar, por meio de um questionário composto de questões abertas e de múltipla escolha, o conhecimento desse grupo de estudantes acerca de termos e fenômenos astronômicos básicos e, também, verificar se o índice de acertos cresce à medida que eles avançam nas diferentes e gradativas séries dos ensinos fundamental e médio. De modo geral, os resultados apresentados demonstram que o ensino de astronomia na educação básica enfrenta deficiências. Das 20 questões investigadas, em 17 os índices de acertos são semelhantes nas respostas dadas por estudantes de nível fundamental e médio, revelando que muitas concepções equivocadas permanecem ao longo da educação básica. Isso evidencia que tais temas não são - ou são pouco - abordados durante esses dois níveis de escolarização. Assim, conclui-se que a discussão dos conceitos relacionados com a astronomia deve receber maior ênfase na abordagem dos diferentes conteúdos, sendo necessária uma ação nacional em prol do seu ensino. Acredita-se que essa ação nacional deve estar apoiada em um pilar triplo de atores coletivos: comunidade científica, comunidade astronômica semiprofissional e comunidade escolar. Por fim, esse pilar seria

  11. Perfil de temperatura dos funis magnetosféricos de estrelas T Tauri com aquecimento alfvênico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, M. J.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas T Tauri Clássicas são objetos jovens circundados por discos de gás e poeira e que apresentam uma intensa atividade magnética. Seu espectro mostra linhas de emissão alargadas que são razoavelmente reproduzidas nos modelos de acresção magnetosférica. No entanto, o perfil de temperatura dos funis magnéticos é desconhecido. Aquecimento magnético compressional e difusão ambipolar foram considerados para estas estruturas, porém as temperaturas obtidas não são suficientes para explicar as observações. Neste trabalho, examinamos o aquecimento gerado pelo amortecimento de ondas Alfvén através de quatro mecanismos, os amortecimentos não-linear, turbulento, viscoso-resistivo e colisional como função da freqüência da onda. Inicialmente, a temperatura é ajustada para reproduzir as observações e o grau de turbulência requerido para que o mecanismo seja viável é calculado. Os resultados mostram que este é compatível com os dados observacionais. Apresentam-se, também, resultados preliminares do cálculo auto-consistente do perfil de temperatura dos funis, levando-se em conta fontes de aquecimento Alfvênica e fontes de resfriamento.

  12. Species richness of fern and lycophyte in an urban park in the Rio dos Sinos basin, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, J L; Goetz, M N B

    2010-12-01

    In the northeastern region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul in Southern Brazil, specifically in the Rio dos Sinos basin, urban parks are an important alternative for the conservation of the remaining natural habitats, as well as for the maintenance and perpetuation of biodiversity. A floristic survey of fern and lycophyte species in the Parque Municipal Henrique Luís Roessler (PMHLR) (29º 41' S and 51º 06' W; alt. 16.4 m) in Novo Hamburgo, (State of Rio Grande do Sul, RS) described their life-forms, as well as substrates and preferential environments. Forty-three species, 30 genera and 15 families were found, 39 of which were ferns. The hemicryptophytes had the highest species richness (26), 17 of which were repent, and nine, rosulate. Most species were found in terrestrial substrates (32) and inside the forest (29). Species richness in the PMHLR corresponded to about 13% of the total fern and lycophyte species listed for the State of Rio Grande do Sul, which demonstrates the importance of conservation areas in the Rio dos Sinos basin as an alternative to the preservation of local biodiversity.

  13. Didelphidae marsupials (Mammalia, Didelphimorphia) from the late Pleistocene deposit of the Gruta dos Moura Cave, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nova, Patricia Villa; Avilla, Leonardo S; Oliveira, Édison V

    2015-03-01

    The present study acknowledges the diversity of fossil marsupials from the Gruta dos Moura cave, as well as environmental and climatic aspects during the Quaternary. The results show that this is the largest diversity of Pleistocene marsupials recorded in a single cave: Didelphis albiventris, D. aurita, Gracilinanus agilis, G. microtarsus, Marmosa murina, Monodelphis brevicaudata, M. domestica and Sairadelphys tocantinensis. Furthermore, the described specimens are also part of the only fossil assemblage unequivocally referable to the late Pleistocene. Paleontological studies suggest an intimate association with dry and open environments with high abundance of water sources. Since most of the identified taxa are characteristic of open forests and gallery forests, this could represent the actual environment around the Gruta dos Moura cave. Recent studies identified sympatric occurrences between species from open and dry environments and species from humid forests that were identified among our material and are characteristic of humid regions. Therefore, these species could inhabit gallery forests and capons, or even ecotones, inside a dry and open environment. Moreover, the extinction of Sairadelphys could also indicate that the climatic and environmental conditions changed or that the past environment was more heterogeneous than the current environment of the region.

  14. Cmr is a redox-responsive regulator of DosR that contributes to M. tuberculosis virulence

    PubMed Central

    Bochkareva, Aleksandra; Rolfe, Matthew D.; Hunt, Debbie M.; Kahramanoglou, Christina; Braun, Yvonne; Rodgers, Angela; Blockley, Alix; Coade, Stephen; Lougheed, Kathryn E.A.; Hafneh, Nor Azian; Glenn, Sarah M.; Crack, Jason C.; Le Brun, Nick E.; Saldanha, José W.; Makarov, Vadim; Nobeli, Irene; Mukamolova, Galina V.; Buxton, Roger S.; Green, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) is the causative agent of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). MTb colonizes the human lung, often entering a non-replicating state before progressing to life-threatening active infections. Transcriptional reprogramming is essential for TB pathogenesis. In vitro, Cmr (a member of the CRP/FNR super-family of transcription regulators) bound at a single DNA site to act as a dual regulator of cmr transcription and an activator of the divergent rv1676 gene. Transcriptional profiling and DNA-binding assays suggested that Cmr directly represses dosR expression. The DosR regulon is thought to be involved in establishing latent tuberculosis infections in response to hypoxia and nitric oxide. Accordingly, DNA-binding by Cmr was severely impaired by nitrosation. A cmr mutant was better able to survive a nitrosative stress challenge but was attenuated in a mouse aerosol infection model. The complemented mutant exhibited a ∼2-fold increase in cmr expression, which led to increased sensitivity to nitrosative stress. This, and the inability to restore wild-type behaviour in the infection model, suggests that precise regulation of the cmr locus, which is associated with Region of Difference 150 in hypervirulent Beijing strains of Mtb, is important for TB pathogenesis. PMID:28482027

  15. Supporting Security against SYN Flooding Attack in Distributed DoS Via Measuring IPFIX-Based Traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipour, H.; Kia, M. Kashefi; Esmaeili, M.

    Distributed denial-of-service attacks on public servers after 2000 have become a serious problem. In the distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks often seen recently, multiple distributed nodes concurrently attack a single server. To assure that network services will not be interrupted, faster and more effective defense mechanisms is needed to protect against malicious traffic, especially SYN floods. One problem in detecting SYN flood traffic is that server nodes or firewalls cannot distinguish the SYN packets of normal TCP connections from those of a SYN flood attack. Our method, FDFIX, relies on the use of monitoring and measurement techniques to evaluate the impact of DoS attacks. It uses flow based measurements. Capturing flow information is very important for detecting DoS and also other kinds of attacks. Flow monitoring allows detecting suspicious traffics and in the next step can analyze attacking flows and the results can be used for defense methods. Our method provides required information for many mechanisms that use traffic measurement as their input.

  16. Degradability of dimethyl terephthalate by Variovorax paradoxus T4 and Sphingomonas yanoikuyae DOS01 isolated from deep-ocean sediments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu Ping; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2006-08-01

    Two strains of bacteria were isolated from deep-ocean sediments of the South China Sea using enrichment culturing technique and they were identified as Sphingomonas yanoikuyae DOS01 (AY878409) and Variovorax paradoxus T4 (AY878410) based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. S. yanoikuyae DOS01 was only capable of transforming dimethyl terephthalate (DMTP) to monomethyl terephthalate (MMTP) without further degradation while V. paradoxus T4 exhibited ability in mineralizing DMTP as the sole source of carbon and energy. The biochemical pathway of DMTP degradation was through MMTP and terephthalic acid (TA) as major detectable degradation intermediates in the culture media by both microorganisms. V. paradoxus T4 utilized DMTP and MMTP via hydrolysis of diester and monoester in the initial steps in degradation as confirmed by total organic carbon analysis of the culture medium and esterase activity assay of the lysed cells and fraction. The specific hydrolysis activity of esterase induced by DMTP or MMTP showed that greater hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate by esterase induced by DMTP-grown cells than that induced by MMTP. Results of this research suggest that the cleavage of the two identical carboxylic ester groups of phthalate diester are carried out by highly specific esterases of the same bacteria in the environment.

  17. Contextual variation in young children's observed disruptive behavior on the DB-DOS: implications for early identification.

    PubMed

    Petitclerc, Amélie; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Estabrook, Ryne; Burns, James L; Anderson, Erica L; McCarthy, Kimberly J; Wakschlag, Lauren S

    2015-09-01

    Contextual variation in child disruptive behavior is well documented but remains poorly understood. We first examine how variation in observed disruptive behavior across interactional contexts is associated with maternal reports of contextual variation in oppositional-defiant behavior and functional impairment. Second, we test whether child inhibitory control explains the magnitude of contextual variation in observed disruptive behavior. Participants are 497 young children (mean age = 4 years, 11 months) from a subsample of the MAPS, a sociodemographically diverse pediatric sample, enriched for risk of disruptive behavior. Observed anger modulation and behavioral regulation problems were coded on the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS) during interactions with parent and examiner. Oppositional-defiant behavior, and impairment in relationships, with parents and nonparental adults, were measured with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) interview with the mother. Functional impairment in the home and out-and-about was assessed with the Family Life Impairment Scale (FLIS), and expulsion from child care/school was measured with the baseline survey and FLIS. Observed disruptive behavior on the DB-DOS Parent Context was associated with oppositional-defiant behavior with parents, and with impairment at home and out-and-about. Observed disruptive behavior with the Examiner was associated with oppositional-defiant behavior with both parents and nonparental adults, impairment in relationships with nonparental adults, and child care/school expulsion. Differences in observed disruptive behavior in the Parent versus Examiner Contexts was related to the differences in maternal reports of oppositional-defiant behavior with parents versus nonparental adults. Children with larger decreases in disruptive behavior from Parent to Examiner Context had better inhibitory control and fewer attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. The DB-DOS

  18. Contextual variation in young children’s observed disruptive behavior on the DB-DOS: implications for early identification

    PubMed Central

    Petitclerc, Amélie; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Estabrook, Ryne; Burns, James L.; Anderson, Erica L.; McCarthy, Kimberly J.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Contextual variation in child disruptive behavior is well documented but remains poorly understood. We first examine how variation in observed disruptive behavior across interactional contexts is associated with maternal reports of contextual variation in oppositional-defiant behavior and functional impairment. Second, we test whether child inhibitory control explains the magnitude of contextual variation in observed disruptive behavior. Methods Participants are 497 young children (mean age = 4 years, 11 months) from a subsample of the MAPS, a sociodemographically diverse pediatric sample, enriched for risk of disruptive behavior. Observed anger modulation and behavioral regulation problems were coded on the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS) during interactions with parent and examiner. Oppositional-defiant behavior, and impairment in relationships, with parents and nonparental adults, were measured with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) interview with the mother. Functional impairment in the home and out-and-about was assessed with the Family Life Impairment Scale (FLIS), and expulsion from child care/school was measured with the baseline survey and FLIS. Results Observed disruptive behavior on the DB-DOS Parent Context was associated with oppositional-defiant behavior with parents, and with impairment at home and out-and-about. Observed disruptive behavior with the Examiner was associated with oppositional-defiant behavior with both parents and nonparental adults, impairment in relationships with nonparental adults, and child care/school expulsion. Differences in observed disruptive behavior in the Parent versus Examiner Contexts was related to the differences in maternal reports of oppositional-defiant behavior with parents versus nonparental adults. Children with larger decreases in disruptive behavior from Parent to Examiner Context had better inhibitory control and fewer attention

  19. [The Arabic influence in the "Colóquios dos simples e drogas da India" of Garcia da Orta].

    PubMed

    Ricordel, Joëlle

    2015-09-01

    The "Colóquios dos simples e drogas he cousas medicinais de Índia" (Conversations on the simples, drugs and medicinal substances of India) (1563) of Garcia da Orta is a botanical and pharmacognosy book. The author is a Portuguese physician who studied in the Spanish universities and practiced medicine mainly in India. He studies in short chapters presented in the form of dialogues about sixty simples. Sources to which he refers are indicative of a "classical" training, but also the mark of a curious and open mind to different cultures. The Arabic sources are numerous and mainly concern the identification of substances by abundant synonyms of their names in foreign languages and different medicinal uses that may have been done by the ancient physicians. However, Da Orta is critical with respect to these sources, seeking contradictions and differences of opinion among authors. He confronts them with the oral information collected thanks to a wide network of contacts.

  20. NGC 2287: Un cúmulo abierto rico en binarias espectroscópicas de dos espectros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levato, H.; Malaroda, S.; García, B.; Grosso, M.

    NGC 2287 contiene 100 estrellas con buena fotometría y 40 con tipos MK. En 1979 Levato et al., usando la técnica de la clasificación espectral, descubrieron que la mayoría de las estrellas en el rango B8-A0 eran binarias espectroscópicas con una inusual proporción de binarias con dos espectros. El presente proyecto tuvo el propósito de confirmar la naturaleza binaria de los miembros del cúmulo. Hemos obtenido espectros con resolución 14000 de 15 estrellas clasificadas como binarias. Los espectros, que abarcan la región λ 3500-λ 6000 Å, permitieron confirmar la naturaleza binaria de varias de las estrellas en la muestra. Hacemos notar el considerable interés astrofísico de este cúmulo abierto.

  1. Another new and threatened species of lancehead genus Bothrops (Serpentes, Viperidae) from Ilha dos Franceses, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbo, Fausto E; Gasparini, João Luiz; Almeida, Antonio P; Zaher, Hussam; Grazziotin, Felipe G; Gusmão, Rodrigo B; Ferrarini, José Mário G; Sawaya, Ricardo J

    2016-04-04

    A new insular species of the genus Bothrops is described from Ilha dos Franceses, a small island off the coast of Espírito Santo State, in southeastern Brazil. The new species differs from mainland populations of B. jararaca mainly by its small size, relative longer tail, relative smaller head length, and relative larger eyes. The new species is distinguished from B. alcatraz, B. insularis and B. otavioi by the higher number of ventral and subcaudal scales, relative longer tail and smaller head. The new species is highly abundant on the island, being nocturnal, semiarboreal, and feeding on small lizards and centipeds. Due its unique and restricted area of occurrence, declining quality of habitat, and constant use of the island for tourism, the new species may be considered as critically endangered.

  2. Application of geostatistical methods to arsenic data from soil samples of the Cova dos Mouros mine (Vila Verde-Portugal).

    PubMed

    Reis, A P; Sousa, A J; Da Silva, E Ferreira; Fonseca, E Cardoso

    2005-09-01

    A total of 286 soil samples were collected in the Cova dos Mouros area. All samples were dry sieved into the <200 mesh size fraction and analysed for Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, Ni, Bi and Mn by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and for As, Se, Sb and Te by atomic absorption spectrometry-hydrid generation (AAS-HG). Only the results of arsenic are discussed in this paper although the survey was extended to all analysed chemical elements. The purpose of this study was to make a risk probability mapping for arsenic that would allow better knowledge about the vulnerability of the soil to arsenic contamination. To achieve this purpose, the initial variable was transformed into an indicator variable using as thresholds the risk-based standards (intervention values) for soils, as proposed by [Swartjes 1999. Risk based assessment of soil and groundwater quality in the Netherlands: Standards and remediation. J. Geochem. Explor.73 1-10]. To account for spatial structure, sample variograms were computed for the main directions of the sampling grid and a spherical model was fitted to each sample variogram (arsenic variable and indicator variables). The parameters of the spherical model fitted to the arsenic variable were used to predict arsenic concentrations at unsampled locations. A risk probability mapping was also done to assess the vulnerability of the soil towards the mining works. The parameters of the spherical model fitted to each indicator variable were used to estimate probabilities of exceeding the corresponding threshold. The use of indicator kriging as an alternative to ordinary kriging for the soil data of Cova dos Mouros produced unbiased probability maps that allowed assessment of the quality of the soil.

  3. Observações no âmbito dos "additional programs" do satélite COROT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janot Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    O satélite Fraco-europeu COROT fará fotometria de altissima precisão (pretende-se atingir uma parte em um milhão), grande campo (3x3 graus) e por longos períodos, de duas regiões pré-determinadas do céu, com 10 graus de raio. Suas finalidades básicas serão estudos em sismologia estelar e a procura de exoplanetas. A comunidade astronômica brasileira participará dessa missão espacial, com direitos iguais aos dos parceiros europeus. Isso se deve a que o satélite utilizará a estação de recepção de dados de Natal (INPE), 5 a 6 brasileiros participarão das equipes de software e cientistas do país atuarão na fase de pré-lançamento. Apresentamos nesta comunicação sugestões para a preparação de propostas de observações com COROT, no âmbito dos Programas Adicionais, que contemplam outros projetos que não de sismologia ou exoplanetas. As últimas definições técnicas e decisões tomadas na 4th Corot Week de junho último serão igualmente apresentadas, em particular quanto às regiões de observação escolhidas e quanto aos procedimentos a seguir para se propor observações.

  4. Long term exposure to organochlorine pesticides and thyroid function in children from Cidade dos Meninos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carmen; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Sarcinelli, Paula; Rosa, Ana Cristina; Clapauch, Ruth; Koifman, Sergio

    2012-08-01

    A pesticide factory in Cidade dos Meninos village, Duque de Caxias County, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, ended its activity in 1961, leading to widespread contamination of the environment by several organochlorine pesticides. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic exposure to organochlorine pesticides on thyroid hormone levels in children residing in Cidade dos Meninos. In a population-based survey carried out between 2003 and 2004, serum concentration of 19 pesticides and levels of free thyroxine (T4), total triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined in 193 children younger than 15 years old. Multivariate linear regression was conducted to examine thyroid hormone levels according to quintiles of organochlorine exposure, controlling for age, gender and serum lipid content. Free T4 and TSH levels were within reference values (0.7-1.8 ng/dl and 0.35-5.5 mU/l), whereas total T3 was above the reference range (80-180 ng/dl) in 28% of children. More than 60% of the children had detectable levels of most organochlorine pesticides. With the exception of heptachlor and methoxychlor, total T3 levels showed a significant increasing linear trend regardless of pesticide type to which children were exposed. Free T4 levels were positively and significantly associated only with exposure to p,p'-DDD, endosulfan 1, and dieldrin. No significant trend was found for TSH. Data showed that exposure of children to organochlorine pesticides produced a significant increase in serum total T3 concentrations. The clinical implications of such a total T3 elevation and subsequent development are uncertain and warrant the need for health monitoring of these children.

  5. Dynamics of the T cell response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR and Rpf antigens in a Colombian population of household contacts of recently diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Leonar; Rojas, Mauricio; Ortíz, Blanca L; Franken, Kees L M C; García, Luis F; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; Barrera, Luis F

    2016-03-01

    Immune response to DosR and Rpf antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) seems to be important for latency maintenance. Little is known about the dynamics of the immune response to these antigens in an endemic community. Thus, the IFNγ response and cytokine production in response to PPD, Esat6-Cfp10 (E6-C10), DosR and Rpf antigens in healthy HHC of tuberculosis (TB) patients over a 12 (T12) months period (short-term, stLTBI) was investigated. This response was compared with a group of LTBI, who have remained healthy for 5-7 years (long-term, ltLTBI). According to the IFNγ response, two groups of HHCs were identified in stLTBI in response to E6-C10. At T12, E6-C10(+) HHCs displayed a decrease in the IFNγ levels and a generalized decrease in cytokines production. The E6-C10(-) HHC showed an increase in the IFNγ response and cytokine levels. In stLTBI, the responses to E6-C10, DosR, and Rpf may be interpreted as a protective immune response controlling Mtb infection and may be leading to a state of latent infection. Comparing the response of stLTBI and ltLTBI, we observed significant changes in the proportions of CD45RO(+)CD27(+) T cells to specific DosR and Rpf, which may indicate a persistent immune response to Mtb antigens in ltLTBI.

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR is Required for Activity of the PmbtB and PmbtI Promoters under Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Schreuder, Lise J.; Parish, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis has the ability to survive for extended periods of time under conditions of low oxygen, low pH, low iron and low nutrients. The mycobactins (M. tuberculosis siderophores) play a key role in scavenging iron from the environment and are induced in response to low iron in an IdeR-regulated manner. We demonstrate that the promoters of two mycobactin gene (mbt) operons are also expressed during adaptation to low oxygen, and that this expression is dependent on the DosR regulator. Up-regulation of mbt operons induced by low iron was not DosR-dependent. DosR is a member of a two component regulatory system which responds to oxygen availability. Deletion of the DosR regulator led to increased expression of bacterioferritin and increased capacity to grow under iron depletion. These data provide a link between the mycobacterial response to two conditions likely to be encountered in vivo, low iron and low oxygen. PMID:25211224

  7. 48 CFR 653.219-71 - DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. 653.219-71 Section 653.219-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 653.219-71 DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. As prescribed in 619.102-70(i),...

  8. 48 CFR 653.219-71 - DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. 653.219-71 Section 653.219-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 653.219-71 DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. As prescribed in 619.102-70(i),...

  9. 48 CFR 653.219-71 - DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. 653.219-71 Section 653.219-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 653.219-71 DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. As prescribed in 619.102-70(i),...

  10. 48 CFR 653.219-71 - DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. 653.219-71 Section 653.219-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 653.219-71 DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. As prescribed in 619.102-70(i),...

  11. 48 CFR 653.219-71 - DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. 653.219-71 Section 653.219-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 653.219-71 DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. As prescribed in 619.102-70(i),...

  12. Immunogenicity of Novel DosR Regulon-Encoded Candidate Antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Three High-Burden Populations in Africa▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Black, Gillian F.; Thiel, Bonnie A.; Ota, Martin O.; Parida, Shreemanta K.; Adegbola, Richard; Boom, W. Henry; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; Friggen, Annemiek H.; Hill, Philip C.; Klein, Michel R.; Lalor, Maeve K.; Mayanja, Harriet; Schoolnik, Gary; Stanley, Kim; Weldingh, Karin; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.; Walzl, Gerhard; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing knowledge about DosR regulon-encoded proteins has led us to produce novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens for immunogenicity testing in human populations in three countries in Africa to which tuberculosis (TB) is endemic. A total of 131 tuberculin skin test-positive and/or ESAT-6/CFP10-positive, human immunodeficiency virus-negative adult household contacts of active pulmonary TB cases from South Africa (n = 56), The Gambia (n = 26), and Uganda (n = 49) were tested for gamma interferon responses to 7 classical and 51 DosR regulon-encoded M. tuberculosis recombinant protein antigens. ESAT-6/CFP10 fusion protein evoked responses in >75% of study participants in all three countries. Of the DosR regulon-encoded antigens tested, Rv1733c was the most commonly recognized by participants from both South Africa and Uganda and the third most commonly recognized antigen in The Gambia. The four most frequently recognized DosR regulon-encoded antigens in Uganda (Rv1733c, Rv0081, Rv1735c, and Rv1737c) included the three most immunogenic antigens in South Africa. In contrast, Rv3131 induced the highest percentage of responders in Gambian contacts (38%), compared to only 3.4% of Ugandan contacts and no South African contacts. Appreciable percentages of TB contacts with a high likelihood of latent M. tuberculosis infection responded to several novel DosR regulon-encoded M. tuberculosis proteins. In addition to significant similarities in antigen recognition profiles between the three African population groups, there were also disparities, which may stem from genetic differences between both pathogen and host populations. Our findings have implications for the selection of potential TB vaccine candidates and for determining biosignatures of latent M. tuberculosis infection, active TB disease, and protective immunity. PMID:19553548

  13. MprA and DosR coregulate a Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence operon encoding Rv1813c and Rv1812c.

    PubMed

    Bretl, Daniel J; He, Hongjun; Demetriadou, Crystalla; White, Mark J; Penoske, Renee M; Salzman, Nita H; Zahrt, Thomas C

    2012-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a significant global pathogen, causing extensive morbidity and mortality worldwide. This bacterium persists within granulomatous lesions in a poorly characterized, nonreplicating state. The two-component signal transduction systems MprAB and DosRS-DosT (DevRS-Rv2027c) are responsive to conditions likely to be present within granulomatous lesions and mediate aspects of M. tuberculosis persistence in vitro and in vivo. Here, we describe a previously uncharacterized locus, Rv1813c-Rv1812c, that is coregulated by both MprA and DosR. We demonstrate that MprA and DosR bind to adjacent and overlapping sequences within the promoter region of Rv1813c and direct transcription from an initiation site located several hundred base pairs upstream of the Rv1813 translation start site. We further show that Rv1813c and Rv1812c are cotranscribed, and that the genomic organization of this operon is specific to M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis. Although Rv1813c is not required for survival of M. tuberculosis in vitro, including under conditions in which MprAB and DosRST signaling are activated, an M. tuberculosis ΔRv1813c mutant is attenuated in the low-dose aerosol model of murine tuberculosis, where it exhibits a lower bacterial burden, delayed time to death, and decreased ability to stimulate proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-12. Interestingly, overcomplementation of these phenotypes is observed in the M. tuberculosis ΔRv1813c mutant expressing both Rv1813c and Rv1812c, but not Rv1813c alone, in trans. Therefore, Rv1813c and Rv1812c may represent general stress-responsive elements that are necessary for aspects of M. tuberculosis virulence and the host immune response to infection.

  14. MprA and DosR Coregulate a Mycobacterium tuberculosis Virulence Operon Encoding Rv1813c and Rv1812c

    PubMed Central

    Bretl, Daniel J.; He, Hongjun; Demetriadou, Crystalla; White, Mark J.; Penoske, Renee M.; Salzman, Nita H.

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a significant global pathogen, causing extensive morbidity and mortality worldwide. This bacterium persists within granulomatous lesions in a poorly characterized, nonreplicating state. The two-component signal transduction systems MprAB and DosRS-DosT (DevRS-Rv2027c) are responsive to conditions likely to be present within granulomatous lesions and mediate aspects of M. tuberculosis persistence in vitro and in vivo. Here, we describe a previously uncharacterized locus, Rv1813c-Rv1812c, that is coregulated by both MprA and DosR. We demonstrate that MprA and DosR bind to adjacent and overlapping sequences within the promoter region of Rv1813c and direct transcription from an initiation site located several hundred base pairs upstream of the Rv1813 translation start site. We further show that Rv1813c and Rv1812c are cotranscribed, and that the genomic organization of this operon is specific to M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis. Although Rv1813c is not required for survival of M. tuberculosis in vitro, including under conditions in which MprAB and DosRST signaling are activated, an M. tuberculosis ΔRv1813c mutant is attenuated in the low-dose aerosol model of murine tuberculosis, where it exhibits a lower bacterial burden, delayed time to death, and decreased ability to stimulate proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-12. Interestingly, overcomplementation of these phenotypes is observed in the M. tuberculosis ΔRv1813c mutant expressing both Rv1813c and Rv1812c, but not Rv1813c alone, in trans. Therefore, Rv1813c and Rv1812c may represent general stress-responsive elements that are necessary for aspects of M. tuberculosis virulence and the host immune response to infection. PMID:22689819

  15. Activation of ATP binding for the autophosphorylation of DosS, a Mycobacterium tuberculosis histidine kinase lacking an ATP lid motif.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ha Yeon; Lee, Young-Hoon; Bae, Young-Seuk; Kim, Eungbin; Kang, Beom Sik

    2013-05-03

    The sensor histidine kinases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, DosS and DosT, are responsible for sensing hypoxic conditions and consist of sensor and kinase cores responsible for accepting signals and phosphorylation activity, respectively. The kinase core contains a dimerization and histidine phosphate-accepting (DHp) domain and an ATP binding domain (ABD). The 13 histidine kinase genes of M. tuberculosis can be grouped based on the presence or absence of the ATP lid motif and F box (elements known to play roles in ATP binding) in their ABDs; DosS and DosT have ABDs lacking both these elements, and the crystal structures of their ABDs indicated that they were unsuitable for ATP binding, as a short loop covers the putative ATP binding site. Although the ABD alone cannot bind ATP, the kinase core is functional in autophosphorylation. Appropriate spatial arrangement of the ABD and DHp domain within the kinase core is required for both autophosphorylation and ATP binding. An ionic interaction between Arg(440) in the DHp domain and Glu(537) in the short loop of the ABD is available and may open the ATP binding site, by repositioning the short loop away from the site. Mutations at Arg(440) and Glu(537) reduce autophosphorylation activity. Unlike other histidine kinases containing an ATP lid, which protects bound ATP, DosS is unable to accept ATP until the ABD is properly positioned relative to the histidine; this may prevent unexpected ATP reactions. ATP binding can, therefore, function as a control mechanism for histidine kinase activity.

  16. [Manifestatations of violence in adolescents in public schools in the municipality of Jaboatão dos Guararapes].

    PubMed

    Melo, Monica Cristina Batista de; Barros, Erika Neves de; Almeida, Andréa Maria Lages Gomes de

    2011-10-01

    Adolescence is a period in human development characterized by profound biological, psychological and social modifications affecting both adolescents and their entire social and family environment. This stage, which has good character forming opportunities, is also permeated by various risks, including violence. Nowadays, violence is the main cause of death among adolescents and is considered a public health concern. This research sought to investigate manifestations of violence in adolescents from public schools of the municipality of Jaboatão dos Guararapes. This is a qualitative study, in which the data obtained from a questionnaire was analyzed using the content analysis technique. The results show that the main manifestations of violence involve harm to others. Drug usage was revealed as the main motive behind physical violence. The deployment of more policemen was the strategy most cited and strengthening the family unit was the most commented preventative measure. In conclusion, the importance of further discussion about disguised manifestations of violence is clear as this would contribute to reflections on new prevention proposals and greater visibility of the phenomenon.

  17. Impacts of the globalized economy on the environment: the tanning industry in the Vale do Rio dos Sinos.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo-Sganderla, J A; Prodanov, C C; Daroit, D

    2010-12-01

    This case study analysed the impact of the global economy on the environment of the Vale do Rio do Sinos region in southern Brazil. Interviews and questionnaires were used to collect data from social, cultural, economic and political agents in this region, and documents about the tanning industry were reviewed and analysed. Global perspectives and local conditions were brought together to understand the causes and consequences of social, political and economic structures and to evaluate the intrinsic association of the tanning industry with the social, historical and cultural development of the Vale do Rio dos Sinos. The behaviour of the local community, where individuals believe that progress is primordially based on industrial development and go to any lengths to achieve it, was also studied. The analysis of industries that have a high contamination potential revealed that dirty industries moved from central to peripheral countries up to the 1980s, but movement is currently internal and occurs between states in Brazil due to several types of incentives.

  18. Groundwater radon, radium and uranium concentrations in Região dos Lagos, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, R M R; Lauria, D C; Ferreira, A C; Sracek, O

    2004-01-01

    Ground water from Região dos Lagos, a coastal area of Rio de Janeiro state, was analysed for (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (222)Rn, (238)U, major ion concentrations, and physico-chemical parameters were also measured. Concentrations values ranged from <0.002 to 0.492 Bq l(-1) for (226)Ra, from <0.01 to 1.50 Bq l(-1) for (228)Ra and from < 1.0 x 10(-4) to 8.0 x 10(-2) Bq l(-1) for (238)U. Detectable (222)Rn concentrations (>3 Bq l(-1)) were found only in two samples. The spatial distribution of Ra concentration delineated one distinct area and some hot spots with high Ra concentration. Low pH value is the most important water parameter linked to high radium concentration. This is probably related to limited adsorption of radium on soil ferric oxides and hydroxides at low pH range. There was a significant correlation between uranium concentrations and electrical conductivity values, and also between uranium concentrations and concentrations of Ca, Mg, Na, K, and Cl, indicating sea water impact. Uranium concentrations were lower than maximum contaminant level for drinking water, whereas 17 out of the 88 ground water samples had levels of radium that exceeded the maximum contaminant level for tap water. The total annual effective dose for adult due to the water consumption reaches values up to 0.8 mSv.

  19. ESR dating of Smilodon populator from Toca de Cima dos Pilão, Piauí, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Angela; Mollemberg, Michelle; Santana, William; G Figueiredo, Ana Maria; Guidon, Niede; Fátima da Luz, Maria de; Guérin, Claude; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2017-02-01

    Smilodon is a genus of big cats that lived from the early to the late Pleistocene in regions extending from North to South America. The fossil records of the "saber-toothed cats" are uneven, with some taxa being quite abundant in certain regions. In Brazil, Smilodon populator is a well-known species whose remains, although scarce in comparison to other large mammals, are found all across the country. In particular, there are multiple records of this species in the region of the Serra da Capivara National Park. This area was home to a rich Pleistocene-Holocene fauna, including many mammals. Here, we report on the Electron Spin Resonance dating of a Smilodon populator tooth found in "Toca de Cima dos Pilão", located in the surroundings of the Serra da Capivara National Park. The equivalent dose found after exponential fitting of dose-response curve was (2.7±0.3)x10(2)Gy. Neutron Activation Analysis was used to determine the concentration of radioisotopes present in the sample and in the sediment to calculate the internal and external dose rates. The result of age found is 93±9ka, which confirmed the presence of this species in Serra da Capivara National Park in the late Pleistocene.

  20. Brief communication: "Zuzu" strikes again--morphological affinities of the early holocene human skeleton from Toca dos Coqueiros, Piaui, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hubbe, Mark; Neves, Walter A; do Amaral, Heleno Licurgo; Guidon, Niéde

    2007-10-01

    The Serra da Capivara National Park in northeastern Brazil is one of the richest archaeological regions in South America. Nonetheless, so far only two paleoindian skeletons have been exhumed from the local rockshelters. The oldest one (9870 +/- 50 BP; CAL 11060 +/- 50), uncovered in Toca dos Coqueiros and known as "Zuzu," represents a rare opportunity to explore the biological relationships of paleoindian groups living in northeastern Brazil. As previously demonstrated, South and Central America Paleoindians present skull morphology distinct from the one found nowadays in Amerindians and similar to Australo-Melanesians. Here we test the hypothesis that Zuzu shows higher morphological affinity with Paleoindians. However, Zuzu is a controversial skeleton since previous osteological assessments have disagreed on several aspects, especially regarding its sex. Thus, we compared Zuzu to males and females independently. Morphological affinities were assessed through clustering of principal components considering 18 worldwide populations and through principal components analysis of the individual dispersion of five key regions for America's settlement. The results obtained do not allow us to refute the hypothesis, expanding the known geographical dispersion of the Paleoindian morphology into northeast Brazil. To contribute to the discussion regarding Zuzu's sex, a new estimation is presented based on visual inspection of cranial and post-cranial markers, complemented by a discriminant analysis of its morphology in relation to the paleoindian sample. The results favor a male classification and are consistent with the mortuary offerings found in the burial, yet do not agree with a molecular determination.

  1. Power-efficiency trade-off due to density of states (DOS) distortion in a molecular thermoelectric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desouza, Priyanka; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran

    2013-03-01

    The issue of how a distortion in the electronic DOS affects nanoscale thermoelectric performance is addressed within an ``electrical engineering'' perspective. This view point is based on the direct evaluation of the overall efficiency and power from device current-voltage characteristics and gives a more complete picture of the thermoelectric performance in comparison to the traditional ``figure of merit'' based material science approach. We use representative examples from molecular conduction to study the trade-off between maximum efficiency and the maximum power generated within the set up. The trade-off is maximum for the well known example of a sharply resonant molecular level which represents the ultimate distortion in the electronic density of states. As the distortion is reduced via contact induced broadening, we obtain a smaller trade-off between maximum power and efficiency. We then present the effects of self consistent charging, contact induced asymmetry and the HOMO-LUMO gap on the thermoelectric performance. In all cases we compare our non-equilibrium calculations with zT calculations, and our results depict that zT is not the sole metric for the assessment of nanoscale thermoelectric performance.

  2. Holocene history of a lake filling and vegetation dynamics of the Serra Sul dos Carajás, southeast Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, José T F; Sahoo, Prafulla K; Souza-Filho, Pedro W M; Figueiredo, Mariana M J Costa DE; Reis, Luiza S; Silva, Marcio S DA; Rodrigues, Tarcísio M

    2017-07-24

    Down-core changes in sedimentary facies, elemental geochemistry, pollen, spore, δ13C, δ15N and radiocarbon records from a filled lake, named R4, of the Serra Sul dos Carajás were used to study the relationship between the paleomorphological and paleoecological processes and their significance for Holocene paleoclimatology of the southeast Amazonia. The sediment deposition of the R4 lake started around 9500 cal yr BP. Increase of detrital components from 9500 to 7000 cal yr BP suggests high weathering of surrounding catchment rocks and soils, and deposition into the lake basin under mudflows. At that time, montane savanna and forest formation were already established suggesting predominance of wet climate. However, from 7000 to 3000 cal yr BP, a decline of detrital input occurred. Also, forest formation and pteridophytes were declined, while palms and macrophytes were remained relatively stable, indicating that water levels of the lake is likely dropped allowing the development of plants adapted to subaerial condition under drier climate conditions. After 3000 cal yr BP, eutrophication and low accommodation space lead to high lake productivity and the final stage of the lake filling respectively, and forest formation may has acquired its current structure, which suggests return of wetter climate conditions.

  3. Dos Amigos... (Two Friends...).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Rosalie M.

    Intended for supplementary reading material for Spanish speaking children in elementary grades, this illustrated Spanish text was developed by students in the Bilingual Teacher Aide Program at Mesa Community College. Both language and content have been controlled to provide linguistically and culturally sensitive material relevant to the…

  4. [Hypertension in women: study in mothers of students from Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Pernambuco, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Teodósio, Marta Regueira; Freitas, Clara Lúcia C de; Santos, Naíde Teodósio Valois; Oliveira, Eliane da Cunha Mendonça de

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the prevalence of hypertension in apparently healthy women community with a view preparing a program for primary prevention of hypertension. The population survey involved a representative sample of mothers of 126.800 students enrolled at schools of Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Pernambuco, Brasil. The population size (1.273 students) was selected from a 5% +/- 2% expected frequency of the hypertension in children with a confidence level of 99.9%. This study comprised 21 schools and a random sample of 986 mothers of 1.601 students). Two blood pressure measurements separated by 2 minutes were carried out in the schools on two subsequent visits. The corporal mass index was determined in 893 mothers. In a group of 671 mothers, a midstream urine specimen was collected and the dip - stick was used to assess the presence of urinary abnormalities. The prevalence of the hypertension was 27.7% and it was significantly higher (p<0.01) in overweight (28.5%) and obese women (57%) than normal weight women (14%) and underweight women (12%). There was significant difference regarding the presence of glucosuria between the hypertensives and the normotensives women (3% and 0%, respectively). In a group of 62 hypertensives women with followup at 3 to 12 month interval, the blood pressure has been controlled in 13 (21%) and remains below the initial hypertensive stage in 27 (43.5%). The prevalence of hypertension (27,7%) do agree with the data in the literature concerning hypertension in women (26%), showing a higher tendency in overweight and obese women. We are continuing the followup of the hypertensive women as well as developing a community program for primary prevention of hypertension in the target population.

  5. En la búsqueda de características en eyecciones coronales de masa que discriminen entre dos paradigmas físicos en modelos de ECMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paissan, G.; Stenborg, G.; Rovira, M.

    Se conocen tres diferentes fenómenos de gran escala que ocurren en la atmósfera solar, denominados eyecciones coronales de masa (ECMs), protuberancias eruptivas y grandes fulguraciones de dos bandas. Estos fenómenos están estrechamente relacionados y podrían ser distintas manifestaciones de un único proceso físico. Las ECMs son definidas como eyecciones de gran escala de masa y flujo magnético desde la baja corona al espacio interplanetario. Desde su descubrimiento en los '70, muchos modelos han sido propuestos para explicar su origen y evolución. La explicación física de las ECMs es un tema de debate intenso. No obstante, los modelos pueden sintetizarse en dos grandes grupos: 1) los modelos de inyección de flujo y 2) los modelos de almacenamiento y liberación. En este trabajo, se presentan los estudios realizados con una serie de eventos observados con el coronógrafo MICA (Mirror Coronograph for Argentina), el telescopio en H-alfa HASTA (H-alpha Solar Telescope for Argentina) y los coronógrafos C2 y C3 de la sonda SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory). Los eventos que pudieron ser identificados como ECMs son contrastados dentro del esquema de los dos paradigmas teóricos propuestos.

  6. The petrochemistry of the auriferous, volcanosedimentary Riacho dos Machados Group, Central-eastern Brazil: geotectonic implications for shear-hosted gold mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Fonseca, E.; Lobato, L. M.; Baars, F. J.

    1997-12-01

    The Ouro Fino Gold Deposit at the Riacho dos Machados Mine is located in the Araçuaí Fold Belt at the eastern margin of the São Francisco Craton. The gold is shear zone-hosted and associated principally with a sulphide-bearing, quartzmuscovite schist, derived from the hydrothermal alteration of pelitic and quartzofeldspathic schists of the Riacho dos Machados Group (RMG). Along the shear zones, mineral associations typical of the amphibolite facies are progressively altered to assemblages typical of the greenschist facies. It has become evident from the studies that the process of segregation and concentration of chemical elements and minerals is the very process of mineralization, involving the concentration of Au. The RMG comprises ultramafic, mafic and acid metavolcanic rocks intercalated in a sequence of metapelites. The metapelites have textures and geochemistry compatible with greywackes. The dacitic and mafic/ultramafic rocks are of calc-alkaline and tholeiitic subalkaline association, respectively. The RMG probably formed within a continental volcanic arc. The thrust faults that establish the regional architecture, and which host the Riacho dos Machados gold mineralization, are related to a continental collision of unknown age between the precursor to the São Francisco Craton and the Guanambi-Correntina Block.

  7. Queda dos homicídios em São Paulo, Brasil: uma análise descritiva

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Vicentin, Diego; Nery, Marcelo Batista; de Lima, Renato Sérgio; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, e Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo Descrever a evolução da mortalidade por homicídios no Município de São Paulo segundo tipo de arma, sexo, raça ou cor, idade e áreas de exclusão/inclusão social entre 1996 e 2008. Métodos Estudo ecológico de série temporal. Os dados sobre óbitos ocorridos no Município foram coletados da base de dados do Programa de Aprimoramento das Informações sobre Mortalidade, seguindo a Classificação Internacional de Doenças, Décima Revisão (CID-10). Foram calculadas as taxas de mortalidade por homicídio (TMH) para a população total, por sexo, raça ou cor, faixa etária, tipo de arma e área de exclusão/inclusão social. As TMH foram padronizadas por idade pelo método direto. Foram calculados os percentuais de variação no período estudado. Para as áreas de exclusão/inclusão social foram calculados os riscos relativos de morte por homicídio. Resultados As TMH apresentaram queda de 73,7% entre 2001 e 2008. Foi observada redução da TMH em todos os grupos analisados, mais pronunciada em homens (−74,5%), jovens de 15 a 24 anos (−78,0%) e moradores de áreas de exclusão social extrema (−79,3%). A redução ocorreu, sobretudo, nos homicídios cometidos com armas de fogo (−74,1%). O risco relativo de morte por homicídio nas áreas de exclusão extrema (tendo como referência áreas com algum grau de exclusão social) foi de 2,77 em 1996, 3,9 em 2001 e 2,13 em 2008. Nas áreas de alta exclusão social, o risco relativo foi de 2,07 em 1996 e 1,96 em 2008. Conclusões Para compreender a redução dos homicídios no Município, é importante considerar macrodeterminantes que atingem todo o Município e todos os subgrupos populacionais e microdeterminantes que atuam localmente, influenciando de forma diferenciada os homicídios com armas de fogo e os homicídios na população jovem, no sexo masculino e em residentes em áreas de alta exclusão social. PMID:21390415

  8. Difficulties of First Years Elementary School Teachers with the Teaching of Astronomy. (Breton Title: Dificuldades de Professores dos Anos Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental em Relação ao Ensino da Astronomia. ) Dificultades de LOS Profesores de los Primeros Años de la Escuela Primaria en Relación a la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo; Nardi, Roberto

    2005-12-01

    programa de formação continuada neste tema. O estudo se justifica mediante o fato de que planejamentos de cursos como estes só se adequarão à realidade do professor (e do aluno) se houver uma investigação antecipada sobre o que os docentes precisam saber e saber fazer a respeito da Astronomia, o que se concretizou em nosso caso pela interpretação dos discursos de uma amostra de professores coletados através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, utilizando para interpretação os princípios e métodos da análise do discurso em sua linha francesa. Os resultados da pesquisa indicaram dificuldades de ordem pessoal, metodológica, de formação, de infra-estrutura e outras relacionadas às fontes de informações para docentes. Este artículo que relata las dificultades de los profesores en relación a la enseñanza da laAstronomía es parte de un estudio preliminar para la implantación dela Astrnomía enla formación de profesores de ls primeros años del ciclo primario.El estudio considera las concepciones alternativas de alumnos y profesores respecto a los fenómenos astronómicos, los errores conceptuales en los libros didácticos y las sugerencias de contenidos de Astronomía que constan en los Parámetros Curriculares Nacionales del Brasil. Caracterizar las dificultades de los profesores constituye la cuestión central de este texto, apuntando para el objetivo de contribuir para un futuro programa de educación contínua en este tema. El estudio se justifica mediante el hecho que la planificación de cursos de este tipo solo se adecuarán a la realidade del profesor (y del alumno) si existe una investigación anterior a respecto de lo que los docentes precisan saber y saber realizar en Astronomía, lo cual se concretó en nuestro caso por medio de la interpretación de los discursos de una muestra de profesores obtenidos através de entrevistas semiestructuradas, utilizand para esta interpretación los principios y métodos de análisis del discurso en su l

  9. 2.3 Å X-ray Structure of the Heme-Bound GAF Domain of Sensory Histidine Kinase DosT of Mycobacterium tuberculosis†

    PubMed Central

    Podust, Larissa M.; Ioanoviciu, Alexandra; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis responds to the changes in environmental conditions through a two-component signaling system that detects reduced O2 tension and NO and CO exposures via the heme-binding GAF domains of two sensory histidine kinases, DosT and DevS, and the transcriptional regulator DosR. We report the first x-ray structure of the DosT heme-bound GAF domain (GAFDosT) in both oxy and deoxy forms determined to a resolution of 2.3 Å. In GAFDosT, heme binds in an orientation orthogonal to that in the PAS domains via a highly conserved motif including invariant H147 as a proximal heme axial ligand. On the distal side, invariant Y169 is in stacking interactions with the heme with its long axis parallel and the plane of the ring orthogonal to the heme plane. In one of the two protein monomers in an asymmetric unit, O2 binds as a second axial ligand to the heme iron, and is stabilized via an H-bond to the OH-group of Y169. The structure reveals two small tunnel-connected cavities and a pore on the protein surface that suggest a potential route for O2 access to the sensing pocket. The limited conformational differences observed between differently heme iron-ligated GAFDosT monomers in the asymmetric unit may result from crystal lattice limitations since atmospheric oxygen binding likely occurs in the crystal as a result of x-ray induced Fe3+ photoreduction during diffraction data collection. Determination of the GAFDosT structure sets up a framework in which to address ligand-recognition, discrimination, and signal propagation schemes in the heme-based GAF domains of biological sensors. PMID:18980385

  10. [Species from genus Eimeria observed in domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) feces raised at the Municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Adriana J; Mayen, Friederike L; de Oliveira, Francisco C R

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to identify species of the genus Eimeria from eleven rabbit meat breeders from Campos dos Goytacazes. Fecal samples were collected from rabbits with different health conditions and consintence of feces. The following species of Eimeria were identified: E. perforans; E. magna; E. coecicola; E. irresidua; E. media; E. flavescens; E. nagpurensis; E. intestinalis, E. exigua and E. stiedae. Parasites from this genus were detected in 81.82% (9) of the rabbit meat production sites, regardless of the management and hygiene conditions. In all cases the infection was always caused from more than one species of Eimeria.

  11. Hepatitis A seroprevalence in public school children in Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, prior to the introduction of the hepatitis A universal childhood vaccination.

    PubMed

    Kury, Charbell Miguel; Pinto, Marcelo Alves; Silva, Jaquelline Pereira da; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Vitral, Claudia Lamarca

    2016-11-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried out between August 2011 and July 2012 in the city of Campos dos Goytacazes in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Dried blood spot samples were collected on filter paper from 919 individuals between the ages of 1 and 19 and were tested for antibodies against the hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV). The total prevalence was 20.7%, while 94.7% of children under the age of 5 were found to be susceptible to HAV infection. The prevalence of anti-HAV increased with age, reaching 33.3% among individuals aged between 15 and 19, thereby indicating that this municipality has a low level of endemicity for hepatitis A. Age, non-white skin color, accustomed to swimming in the river and more than five people living at home were the factors that were associated with an increase in the chance of a positive anti-HAV result. Mother's education level (secondary or tertiary) was considered a protective factor for HAV infection. The data obtained showed that a large proportion of the children from Campos dos Goytacazes were at risk of HAV infection, which should be minimized with the introduction of the vaccination program against hepatitis A that was launched in the municipality in 2011.

  12. Católicos, fidelidade conjugal e AIDS: entre a cruz da doutrina moral e as espadas do cotidiano sexual dos adeptos1

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Luis Felipe; de Aquino, Francisca Luciana; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Oliveira, Cinthia; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Neste artigo discutimos a visão da Igreja Católica sobre sexualidade na interface com a epidemia do HIV/AIDS. Nossa reflexão está embasada em pesquisa etnográfica que envolveu dois meses de observação participante do cotidiano de católicos de um bairro popular da Região Metropolitana do Recife, além de contar com entrevistas a onze dos leigos engajados nos serviços religiosos da igreja do bairro e a oito sacerdotes que realizam seus trabalhos religiosos em outras localidades. Nelas abordamos diferentes temáticas relacionadas ao enfrentamento da epidemia da AIDS. Nesse contexto, conjugalidade e fidelidade se afiguram como importantes analisadores de como aqueles lidam com a epidemia, em uma variedade de re-descrições práticas e de re-interpretações conceptuais das assertivas do discurso moral religioso – ainda que, muitos impasses permaneçam em aberto em termos das prerrogativas da Igreja e seus possíveis rebatimentos na saúde sexual dos adeptos. PMID:21765650

  13. Detection of IgG1 antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR and Rpf antigens in tuberculosis patients before and after chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Ana Márcia Menezes; Chaves, Alexandre Silva; Franken, Kees L M C; Figueiredo, Bárbara Bruna Muniz; Ferreira, Ana Paula; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; Teixeira, Henrique Couto

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) remains challenging. Serum IgG1 antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis active growth phase antigens (ESAT-6/CFP-10, Rv0717 and Rv3353), DosR regulon-encoded proteins (Rv1733, Rv1737, Rv2628 and Rv2029), and resuscitation-promoting factors (Rv0867 and Rv2389) were evaluated in TB patients using ELISA. Active TB patients showed elevated levels of IgG1 antibodies against ESAT-6/CFP-10, Rv0717, Rv3353, Rv1733, Rv2628, Rv2029 and Rv0867 in comparison to healthy controls (p < 0.001). These levels remained high after the initiation of treatment, while responses to Rv0717 and Rv1733 peaked early during treatment. IgG1 responses to ESAT-6/CFP-10, Rv3353, Rv2628, Rv2029 and Rv0867 declined to control levels after the completion of 6 months chemotherapy. ROC analysis confirmed the good diagnostic performance of Rv0717, Rv1733, Rv3353, Rv2628, Rv2029 and Rv0867antigens. These data suggest that detecting IgG1 antibodies against M. tuberculosis antigens, including DosR and Rpf proteins, may represent an additional tool in the diagnosis of tuberculosis.

  14. A Influência da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2006-08-01

    O universo em que vivemos possui segredos jamais imaginados pelo homem, fruto da pequena proporção que ocupamos diante de um cosmos infinito. A astronomia funciona como um instrumento que sacia a sede humana em desvendar esses segredos, estudando as galáxias, quasares, pulsares além da existência de todos os elementos que preenchem o espaço cósmico, o vácuo, não mais vazio como se pensou em outros tempos. A mídia explora esse campo de forma mística e também científica. A difusão adequada e dentro dos padrões educacionais vigentes, de conceitos astronômicos, se faz necessária, devido sua presença nos conteúdos escolares, centros de ciência e na mídia, de modo geral. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros introduziu conceitos astronômicos desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1.032 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um questionário que abordava conheciment os básicos em astronomia, como estes foram adquiridos e qual era a infra-estrutura oferecida pela escola: para 66,2% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 44,5% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 28,1% através da televisão e 27,4% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio na forma em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia ainda explora e muitas vezes desperta o interesse pela astronomia com assuntos que não fazem parte de nosso cotidiano como, por exemplo, o homem na Lua, os projetos espaciais e a primeira viagem de um astronauta brasileiro no espaço. Porém, em certos casos, a mídia pode promover conhecimentos incompletos ou mesmo equivocados sobre os conceitos que envolvam

  15. Qual o Papel da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    É amplamente reconhecido que as pessoas em geral têm grande fascínio e interesse pela Astronomia. Por outro lado, o conteúdo dessa área incluído no ensino formal está longe de ser abrangente e suficiente para suprir a demanda. Esse interesse permite aperfeiçoar a divulgação e o ensino não formal de Astronomia através da mídia aliando a adequação do conteúdo à expectativa das pessoas. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros tem introduzido Astronomia desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1180 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um formulário contendo questões que abordavam conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia, como foram adquiridos tais conhecimentos e à infra-estrutura da escola. Para 66,1% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de Astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 54,4% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 18,4% através da televisão e 27,1% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, livros didáticos, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio no meio em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia busca não somente sua difusão, mas a disponibilização desse conhecimento de maneira correta, que às vezes, não é atingido, apresentando conceitos sem fundamentação e incorretos. Por outro lado, no dia-a-dia escolar, é comum encontrar professores que vêm para as aulas com concepções prévias, que podem diferir substancialmente das idéias a serem ensinadas, dificultando o aprendizado de futuros conceitos científicos. Uma avaliação criteriosa, avaliando as dificuldades dos professores em determinar o sentido correto dos conceitos e observando a metodologia que utilizam no ensino, poderá proporcionar uma melhor

  16. Multifunctional T Cell Response to DosR and Rpf Antigens Is Associated with Protection in Long-Term Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Infected Individuals in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, Leonar; Rojas, Mauricio; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Multifunctional T cells have been shown to be protective in chronic viral infections. In mycobacterial infections, however, evidence for a protective role of multifunctional T cells remains inconclusive. Short-term cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis RD1 antigens 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT6) and 10-kDa culture filtrate antigen (CFP10), which are induced in the early infection phase, have been mainly used to assess T cell multifunctionality, although long-term culture assays have been proposed to be more sensitive than short-term assays for assessment of memory T cells, which are essential for long-term immunity. Here we used a long-term culture assay system to study the T cell immune responses to the M. tuberculosis latency-associated DosR antigens and reactivation-associated Rpf antigens, compared to ESAT6 and CFP10, in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and household contacts of PTB patients with long-term latent tuberculosis infection (ltLTBI), in a community in which M. tuberculosis is endemic. Our results showed that the DosR antigens Rv1737c (narK2) and Rv2029c (pfkB) and the Rv2389c (rpfD) antigen of M. tuberculosis induced higher frequencies of CD4+ or CD8+ mono- or bifunctional (but not multifunctional) T cells producing interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and/or tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α) in ltLTBI, compared to PTB. Moreover, the frequencies of CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cells with a CD45RO+ CD27+ phenotype were higher in ltLTBI than in PTB. Thus, the immune responses to selected DosR and Rpf antigens may be associated with long-term latency, correlating with protection from M. tuberculosis reactivation in ltLTBI. Further study of the functional and memory phenotypes may contribute to further discrimination between the different states of M. tuberculosis infections. PMID:27489136

  17. Geochemical and isotopic evidence for the petrogenesis and emplacement tectonics of the Serra dos Órgãos batholith in the Ribeira belt, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, Rômulo; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; McReath, Ian; Peucat, Jean Jacques

    2016-07-01

    The Serra dos Órgãos batholith in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) is a NE-SW-trending elongated body that occupies ca. 5000 km2 in plan view. It is a foliated intrusion, especially at its borders and is crosscut by syn-magmatic shear zones, with foliations that are moderately-to steeply-dipping to the northwest and moderately-to shallow-dipping in the center and to the southeast, in a configuration of a large laccolith. It was emplaced between 560 and 570 Ma, during an extensional episode that was part of a series of events that comprise the Brasiliano Orogeny in SE Brazil, and which includes deformation, metamorphism and granite intrusion during the interval between 630 and 480 Ma. The two main rock types in the batholith are biotite-hornblende monzogranite, and biotite leucogranite, with subordinate tonalite, granodiorite, diorite, quartz diorite (enclaves), aplite and pegmatite. Harker-type diagrams help show two rock groups with similar trends of evolution: a dioritic and a granitic. The first one is tholeiitic, whereas the second is calc-alkaline, with medium-to high-K calc-alkaline affinity and metaluminous to slightly peraluminous character. In both groups strong decrease in Al2O3, MgO, FeOT and CaO relative to silica contents are observed, which is compatible with trends of fractional crystallization involving clinopyroxene and/or hornblende, plagioclase, opaque minerals, apatite, microcline and biotite. The Sr and Nd isotopic data suggest recycling of a Paleoproterozoic crust as an important petrological process to generate the batholith rocks. Geothermometry (amphibole composition) and geobarometry (saturation in zircon and apatite) indicate that most of the batholith solidified at mid to lower crustal levels at about 750 °C and between 5 and 5.5 kbar. We consider that Serra dos Órgãos crustal protoliths underwent melting caused by the interaction with hotter mafic magma at the base of the crust. These two magmas, with distinct initial

  18. Multifunctional T Cell Response to DosR and Rpf Antigens Is Associated with Protection in Long-Term Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Infected Individuals in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Leonar; Rojas, Mauricio; Franken, Kees L M C; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; Barrera, Luis F

    2016-10-01

    Multifunctional T cells have been shown to be protective in chronic viral infections. In mycobacterial infections, however, evidence for a protective role of multifunctional T cells remains inconclusive. Short-term cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis RD1 antigens 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT6) and 10-kDa culture filtrate antigen (CFP10), which are induced in the early infection phase, have been mainly used to assess T cell multifunctionality, although long-term culture assays have been proposed to be more sensitive than short-term assays for assessment of memory T cells, which are essential for long-term immunity. Here we used a long-term culture assay system to study the T cell immune responses to the M. tuberculosis latency-associated DosR antigens and reactivation-associated Rpf antigens, compared to ESAT6 and CFP10, in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and household contacts of PTB patients with long-term latent tuberculosis infection (ltLTBI), in a community in which M. tuberculosis is endemic. Our results showed that the DosR antigens Rv1737c (narK2) and Rv2029c (pfkB) and the Rv2389c (rpfD) antigen of M. tuberculosis induced higher frequencies of CD4(+) or CD8(+) mono- or bifunctional (but not multifunctional) T cells producing interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and/or tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α) in ltLTBI, compared to PTB. Moreover, the frequencies of CD4(+) and/or CD8(+) T cells with a CD45RO(+) CD27(+) phenotype were higher in ltLTBI than in PTB. Thus, the immune responses to selected DosR and Rpf antigens may be associated with long-term latency, correlating with protection from M. tuberculosis reactivation in ltLTBI. Further study of the functional and memory phenotypes may contribute to further discrimination between the different states of M. tuberculosis infections.

  19. Geology and geochemistry of Pelagatos, Cerro del Agua, and Dos Cerros monogenetic volcanoes in the Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field, south of México City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustín-Flores, Javier; Siebe, Claus; Guilbaud, Marie-Noëlle

    2011-04-01

    This study focuses on the geology and geochemistry of three closely-spaced monogenetic volcanoes that are located in the NE sector of the Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field near México City. Pelagatos (3020 m.a.s.l.) is a small scoria cone (0.0017 km 3) with lava flows (0.036 km 3) that covered an area of 4.9 km 2. Cerro del Agua scoria cone (3480 m.a.s.l., 0.028 km 3) produced several lava flows (0.24 km 3) covering an area of 17.6 km 2. Dos Cerros is a lava shield which covers an area of 80.3 km 2 and is crowned by two scoria cones: Tezpomayo (3080 m.a.s.l., 0.022 km 3) and La Ninfa (3000 m.a.s.l., 0.032 km 3). The eruptions of Cerro del Agua and Pelagatos occurred between 2500 and 14,000 yr BP. The Dos Cerros eruption took place close to 14,000 yr BP as constrained by radiocarbon dating. Rocks from these three volcanoes are olivine-hypersthene normative basaltic andesites and andesites with porphyritic, aphanitic, and glomeroporphyritic textures. Their mineral assemblages include olivine, clinopyroxene, and orthopyroxene phenocrysts (≤ 10 vol.%) embedded in a trachytic groundmass which consists mainly of plagioclase microlites and glass. Pelagatos rocks also present quartz xenocrysts. Due to their high Cr and Ni contents, and high Mg#s, Pelagatos rocks are considered to be derived from primitive magmas, hence the importance of this volcano for understanding petrogenetic processes in this region. Major and trace element abundances and petrography of products from these volcanoes indicate a certain degree of crystal fractionation during ascent to the surface. However, the magmas that formed the volcanoes evolved independently from each other and are not cogenetically related. REE, HFSE, LILE, and isotopic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) compositions point towards a heterogeneous mantle source that has been metasomatized by aqueous/melt phases from the subducted Cocos slab. There is no clear evidence of important crustal contributions in the compositions of Pelagatos and

  20. Osteobiographic analysis of skeleton I, Sítio Toca dos Coqueiros, Serra da Capivara National Park, Brazil, 11,060 BP: first results.

    PubMed

    Lessa, Andrea; Guidon, Niéde

    2002-06-01

    This paper presents an osteobiographic analysis of a single skeleton found in a small rock shelter known as Toca dos Coqueiros, Piauí, Brazil. This find is of interest because of an exceptionally old radiocarbon date associated with it. The date (11,060 BP) was obtained from charcoal associated directly with the skeleton. This is an interesting find because of the rarity of osteobiographic studies of skeletons of such antiquity. Despite the existence of two projectile points in association with the burial, the morphological and molecular analyses of the skeleton demonstrated that this was a female. She was about 35-45 years of age at death. The skeleton exhibited acute and chronic bone lesions. Oral pathology was also observed, including an interproximal dental groove, probably caused by the therapeutic use of a cactus thorn. This could be one of the oldest cases of an analgesic plant used in the prehistoric Americas.

  1. Occurrence of Aglae caerulea Lepeletier & Serville (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini) in the Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    dos Anjos-Silva, Evandson J; Camillo, Evandro; Garófalo, Carlos A

    2006-01-01

    In a study conducted in the gallery forest of the Vale doVeu de Noiva in the Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso state, chemical baits were used to attract and sample male orchid bees. From September 2003 to July 2005, male euglossine bees were captured monthly, from 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. as they arrived at the baits. Of the 264 males captured, eight males belonged to Aglae caerulea Lepeletier & Serville, a cleptoparasitic euglossine species that presumably occurred only in the Amazon basin. Therefore, the occurrence of A. caerulea in this study area extends its geographical distribution range by approximately 2,400 km southwards in South America, as it is now recorded in both the Amazon and Platina basins.

  2. Feeding ecology of the lizard Tropidurus oreadicus Rodrigues 1987 (Tropiduridae) at Serra dos Carajás, Pará state, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, C F D; Siqueira, C C

    2008-02-01

    Tropidurus species commonly prey on arthropods, but they may also feed on vertebrates and plant material. The lizard Tropidurus oreadicus (Tropiduridae) is common in open vegetation habitats and generally has sexual dimorphism. In this study we analyzed the diet of T. oreadicus at Serra dos Carajás, Pará, in the north of Brazil. Snout-vent length (SVL) and jaw width (JW) were taken for 34 lizards. There was a significant difference in SVL and in JW, with males being larger than females. All lizards analyzed contained food in their stomachs. The diet of T. oreadicus at Serra dos Carajás was characterized by the consumption of a relative wide spectrum of food item categories (21 types of items), consisting of arthropods, part of one vertebrate and plant material, which characterizes the diet of a generalist predator. Volumetrically, the most important items in the diet of both sexes of T. oreadicus were flowers (M = 61.7%; F = 33%) and orthopterans (M = 1.7%; F = 3.5%). Ants were the most frequently consumed (100% for both sexes) and the most numerous (M = 94.5%; F = 89.4%) food item. Flowers also were frequently consumed (M = 91.7%; F = 54.5%), with their relative consumption differing significantly between sexes. There was not a significant sexual difference in prey volume, neither in number of preys per stomach, nor in type of prey ingested. There was no relationship between lizard jaw width and the mean volume of prey. The data showed that T. oreadicus is a relatively generalist lizard in terms of diet and that consumes large volumes of plant material, especially flowers of one species of genus Cassia.

  3. Geochemistry of upland lacustrine sediments from Serra dos Carajás, Southeastern Amazon, Brazil: Implications for catchment weathering, provenance, and sedimentary processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Prafulla Kumar; Felix Guimarães, José Tasso; Martins Souza-Filho, Pedro Walfir; Sousa da Silva, Marcio; Maurity, Clovis Wagner; Powell, Mike A.; Rodrigues, Tarcísio Magevski; Fonseca da Silva, Delmo; Mardegan, Sílvia Fernanda; Furtini Neto, Antonio Eduardo; Dall'Agnol, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    A multi-proxy geochemical study of surficial sediments of an upland lake (Amendoim Lake), located in the Serra dos Carajás region, Brazil, was carried out to understand catchment weathering and provenance of sediments in the basin, as well as sedimentary processes. The carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of organic matter in the sediment were quite homogeneous, and suggest that the organic sources for this lake are mainly composed of palms and submerged macrophytes. The R-mode factor analysis indicates that most of the trace elements, including rare earth elements (REEs), are clustered with Al (Group 1), Si is grouped with Zr and Hf (Group 4), total organic carbon (TOC) with TS and Hg (Group 2), and Fe with Mn and As (Group 3). The elements of the Group 1 show strong positive correlations with Al, suggesting that these elements are hosted in detrital minerals during laterization in the catchment basin and not significantly affected by diagenesis. The high CIA values (96-99) of sediments together with their position in A-CN-K and log (Fe2O3/K2O) vs log (SiO2/Al2O3) plots indicate intense chemical weathering in source area. However, similar geochemical signatures between lake sediments and catchment lateritic crust indicates that mechanical erosion was the dominant sediment formation process. REE patterns normalized to chondrite along with geochemical indices (Al/K, Al/Ti, La/Th, La/Al, Ti/Zr, Zr/Hf, Th/Sc, Co/Th, Ba/Sr, and Eu/Eu*) also indicate that the sediments are mainly derived from laterite crust. This study provides reliable background information to reconstruct weathering processes and lake evolution in the Serra dos Carajás area.

  4. Diet of Ameerega braccata (Steindachner, 1864) (Anura: Dendrobatidae) from Chapada dos Guimarães and Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Forti, L R; Tissiani, A S O; Mott, T; Strüssmann, C

    2011-02-01

    The understanding of feeding habits is important for anurans in general, both from an ecological and a phylogenetic perspective. For diurnal poison frogs belonging to the Dendrobatidae family, diet aspects play a crucial role in their defense and survival. Herein, we investigated feeding habits, foraging behaviour, and overall effects of habitat, sex, and body size on the diet of individuals of Ameerega braccata, a poorly known dendrobatid species. Specimens were observed and collected in the type-locality, Chapada dos Guimarães, and in the neighbouring municipality of Cuiabá, both in the State of Mato Grosso, Midwestern Brazil. The most important prey categories for A. braccata were Formicidae, Isoptera, and Acari, whose representatives were caught during active foraging. Individuals from Chapada dos Guimarães population consumed more Acari but fewer Isoptera than individuals from Cuiabá. Despite this, niche breadth values were narrow and similar for the two populations. Individuals from two distinct habitats (campo sujo and cerrado stricto sensu) showed differences in their diet, probably as an effect of differential prey availability. Females consumed more Isoptera than males. The number of prey categories used as food was not influenced by the variation of body size of the target species. However, the abundance and the volume of consumed Acari were statistically correlated with body size. The main results suggest that Ameerega braccata has a narrow niche breadth, as well as a specialised diet in ants, termites, and mites, which reinforces the hypotheses of close association between Acari consumption and the presence of skin toxic alkaloids, already found in other species of Dendrobatidae. Although differences in prey consumption between sexes are uncommon among poisonous frogs, differences in the diet composition between age classes, which probably reduce intraspecific competition, are frequently reported.

  5. Novel vaccine potential of Rv3131, a DosR regulon-encoded putative nitroreductase, against hyper-virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain K.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Kee Woong; Kim, Woo Sik; Kim, Hongmin; Han, Seung Jung; Hahn, Mi-Young; Lee, Jong Seok; Nam, Ki Taek; Cho, Sang-Nae; Shin, Sung Jae

    2017-03-08

    Accumulating evidence indicates that latency-associated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific antigens from the dormancy survival regulator regulon (DosR) may be promising novel vaccine target antigens for the development of an improved tuberculosis vaccine. After transcriptional profiling of DosR-related genes in the hyper-virulent Beijing Mtb strain K and the reference Mtb strain H37Rv, we selected Rv3131, a hypothetical nitroreductase, as a vaccine antigen and evaluated its vaccine efficacy against Mtb K. Mtb K exhibited stable and constitutive up-regulation of rv3131 relative to Mtb H37Rv under three different growth conditions (at least 2-fold induction) including exponential growth in normal culture conditions, hypoxia, and inside macrophages. Mice immunised with Rv3131 formulated in GLA-SE, a well-defined TLR4 adjuvant, displayed enhanced Rv3131-specific IFN-γ and serum IgG2c responses along with effector/memory T cell expansion and remarkable generation of Rv3131-specific multifunctional CD4(+) T cells co-producing TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-2 in both spleen and lung. Following challenge with Mtb K, the Rv3131/GLA-SE-immunised group exhibited a significant reduction in bacterial number and less extensive lung inflammation accompanied by the obvious persistence of Rv3131-specific multifunctional CD4(+) T cells. These results suggest that Rv3131 could be an excellent candidate for potential use in a multi-antigenic Mtb subunit vaccine, especially against Mtb Beijing strains.

  6. Novel vaccine potential of Rv3131, a DosR regulon-encoded putative nitroreductase, against hyper-virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain K

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Kee Woong; Kim, Woo Sik; Kim, Hongmin; Han, Seung Jung; Hahn, Mi-Young; Lee, Jong Seok; Nam, Ki Taek; Cho, Sang-Nae; Shin, Sung Jae

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that latency-associated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific antigens from the dormancy survival regulator regulon (DosR) may be promising novel vaccine target antigens for the development of an improved tuberculosis vaccine. After transcriptional profiling of DosR-related genes in the hyper-virulent Beijing Mtb strain K and the reference Mtb strain H37Rv, we selected Rv3131, a hypothetical nitroreductase, as a vaccine antigen and evaluated its vaccine efficacy against Mtb K. Mtb K exhibited stable and constitutive up-regulation of rv3131 relative to Mtb H37Rv under three different growth conditions (at least 2-fold induction) including exponential growth in normal culture conditions, hypoxia, and inside macrophages. Mice immunised with Rv3131 formulated in GLA-SE, a well-defined TLR4 adjuvant, displayed enhanced Rv3131-specific IFN-γ and serum IgG2c responses along with effector/memory T cell expansion and remarkable generation of Rv3131-specific multifunctional CD4+ T cells co-producing TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-2 in both spleen and lung. Following challenge with Mtb K, the Rv3131/GLA-SE-immunised group exhibited a significant reduction in bacterial number and less extensive lung inflammation accompanied by the obvious persistence of Rv3131-specific multifunctional CD4+ T cells. These results suggest that Rv3131 could be an excellent candidate for potential use in a multi-antigenic Mtb subunit vaccine, especially against Mtb Beijing strains. PMID:28272457

  7. Espectros en el infrarrojo medio de discos de escombros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, L.; Gómez, M. N.

    In this contribution we report mid-infrared spectra of 3 stars (ages 10 -- 10 yrs) with known debris disks. These spectra are compared with the absorption profiles of crystalline and amorphous silicates. The presence of absorption bands can be explained by considering the existence of amorphous compounds together with those of the crystalline type. In addition; dust particles may have typical sizes 1.5 m. This would indicate that the material in the debris disks is in a more advanced evolutionary state than in disks around T - Tauri stars ( years) or in the interstellar medium; populated by dust particles with sizes 0.1 m consisting of amorphous silicates. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  8. El medio interestelar alrededor de estrellas Of: HD 108

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappa, C.; Testori, J. C.

    Hemos analizado la distribución del hidrógeno neutro interestelar en la vecindad de la estrella Of HD 108 en base a perfiles de la línea de 21 cm. Estos datos nos han permitido encontrar una probable burbuja interestelar asociada a la estrella. Comparamos estos resultados con la emisión en otros rangos espectrales y estimamos los principales parámetros físicos de la estructura.

  9. Hyponatremia and hypernatremia in the newborn: in medio stat virtus.

    PubMed

    Marcialis, Maria Antonietta; Dessi, Angelica; Pintus, Maria Cristina; Marinelli, Viviana; Fanos, Vassilios

    2012-01-01

    Hyponatremia and hypernatremia are complex clinical problems that occur frequently in full term newborns and in preterm infants admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) although their real frequency and etiology are incompletely known. Pathogenetic mechanisms and clinical timing of hypo-hypernatremia are well known in adult people whereas in the newborn is less clear how and when hypo-hypernatremia could alter cerebral osmotic equilibrium and after how long time brain cells adapt themselves to the new hypo-hypertonic environment. Aim of this review is to present a practical approach and management of hypo-hypernatremia in newborns, especially in preterms.

  10. Conversion of a heme-based oxygen sensor to a heme oxygenase by hydrogen sulfide: effects of mutations in the heme distal side of a heme-based oxygen sensor phosphodiesterase (Ec DOS).

    PubMed

    Du, Yongming; Liu, Gefei; Yan, Yinxia; Huang, Dongyang; Luo, Wenhong; Martinkova, Marketa; Man, Petr; Shimizu, Toru

    2013-10-01

    The heme-based oxygen-sensor phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli (Ec DOS), is composed of an N-terminal heme-bound oxygen sensing domain and a C-terminal catalytic domain. Oxygen (O2) binding to the heme Fe(II) complex in Ec DOS substantially enhances catalysis. Addition of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to the heme Fe(III) complex in Ec DOS also remarkably stimulates catalysis in part due to the heme Fe(III)-SH and heme Fe(II)-O2 complexes formed by H2S. In this study, we examined the roles of the heme distal amino acids, M95 (the axial ligand of the heme Fe(II) complex) and R97 (the O2 binding site in the heme Fe(II)-O2 complex) of the isolated heme-binding domain of Ec DOS (Ec DOS-PAS) in the binding of H2S under aerobic conditions. Interestingly, R97A and R97I mutant proteins formed an oxygen-incorporated modified heme, verdoheme, following addition of H2S combined with H2O2 generated by the reactions. Time-dependent mass spectroscopic data corroborated the findings. In contrast, H2S did not interact with the heme Fe(III) complex of M95H and R97E mutants. Thus, M95 and/or R97 on the heme distal side in Ec DOS-PAS significantly contribute to the interaction of H2S with the Fe(III) heme complex and also to the modification of the heme Fe(III) complex with reactive oxygen species. Importantly, mutations of the O2 binding site of the heme protein converted its function from oxygen sensor to that of a heme oxygenase. This study establishes the novel role of H2S in modifying the heme iron complex to form verdoheme with the aid of reactive oxygen species.

  11. Humoral Responses to Rv1733c, Rv0081, Rv1735c, and Rv1737c DosR Regulon-Encoded Proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Individuals with Latent Tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nalwoga, Angela; Levin, Jonathan; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.; Elliott, Alison M.; Cose, Stephen; Andia-Biraro, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is evidence of immunological control of tuberculosis. Dormancy survival regulator (DosR) regulon-encoded proteins may have a role in the maintenance of LTBI. T cell responses to Rv1733c, Rv0081, Rv1735c, and Rv1737c DosR regulon-encoded proteins were found to be most frequent among household contacts of TB cases from Uganda compared to other DosR proteins, but antibody responses were not described. We characterized antibody responses to these proteins in individuals from Uganda. Antibodies to Rv1733c, Rv0081, Rv1735c, and Rv1737c DosR regulon-encoded proteins were measured in 68 uninfected individuals, 62 with LTBI, and 107 with active pulmonary tuberculosis (APTB) cases. There were no differences in the concentrations of antibodies to Rv0081, Rv1735c, and Rv1737c DosR regulon-encoded proteins between individuals with LTBI and APTB and those who were uninfected. LTBI was associated with higher concentrations of antibodies to Rv1733c in female participants [adjusted geometric mean ratio: 1.812, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.105 2.973, and p = 0.019] but not in males (p value for interaction = 0.060). Antibodies to the four DosR regulon-encoded proteins investigated may not serve as good biomarkers of LTBI in the general population. More of the M.tb proteome needs to be screened to identify proteins that induce strong antibody responses in LTBI. PMID:28255560

  12. Medio ambiente y cáncer pediátrico en la Región de Murcia (España): integrando la historia clínica medioambiental en un sistema de información geográfica

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-García, J.A.; López-Hernández, F.A.; Sobrino-Najul, E.; Febo, I.; Fuster-Soler, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Introducción Medio Ambiente y Cáncer Pediátrico (CP) en la Región de Murcia (RM) es un proyecto de investigación, cuya principal meta es el desarrollo de una cuidadosa historia ambiental pediátrica (HAP) y el uso de sistemas de información geográfica (SIG) para crear mapas de incidencia y analizar la distribución geográfica del CP en la RM. El objetivo es presentar la metodología, el estudio descriptivo y los primeros resultados sobre la incidencia espacial y temporal del CP en la RM (España). Material y métodos Estudio descriptivo y de georreferenciación de todos los casos de CP menores de 15 años, diagnosticados entre el 1 de enero de 1998 y el 31 de diciembre de 2009. Se han asociado a cada caso tres direcciones postales, durante el embarazo, en el período posnatal y en el momento del diagnóstico. También se han utilizado las siguientes variables: sexo, fechas de nacimiento y diagnóstico y el diagnóstico patológico. Resultados No se observa un incremento en la tendencia de la incidencia del CP. La tasa cruda de incidencia fue de 14,3 casos por 100.000 niños menores de 15 años. La razón de incidencia estandarizada es más elevada en el noroeste de la RM. El 30% tienen un domicilio previo al diagnóstico distinto al del embarazo. Conclusiones La integración de la información temporal y espacial de la HAP en un SIG permitirá la identificación y el estudio de conglomerados espacio-temporales a través de un sistema de vigilancia medioambiental que ayude a ponderar la importancia de los factores de riesgo asociados. PMID:21315667

  13. A estabilidade dos PAHS em função da energia da radiação interestelar nas faixas UV e raios-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinotti, R.; Costa, R. K.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Lago, A.; Souza, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    A nebulosa CRL 618, uma proto-nebulosa planetária cuja nuvem molecular espessa envolve uma estrela B0, contém uma grande quantidade de C2H2 e CH4. Estas moléculas são consideradas os tijolos da criação de grandes moléculas carbonadas como os Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos (PAHs). Esta nebulosa, por estar exposta a intensos campos de UV e Raios-X, é uma região de fotodissociação molecular que propicia a formação de novas moléculas, confirmada pela presença de C4H2 e C6H6 (Benzeno), que é a unidade básica dos PAHs. Atribui-se a esta família de moléculas orgânicas duas propriedades fundamentais, a resistência para sobreviver ao campo de radiação UV interestelar e a geração das bandas de emissão não identificadas (UIR) observadas no infravermelho. No entanto, alguns autores questionam a resistência dos PAHs ao campo de radiação UV interestelar. Empregando a técnica de Espectrometria de Massas por Tempo de Vôo, no modo de coincidência fotoelétron-fotoíon, estudamos a ionização e fragmentação das seguintes moléculas: Benzeno, Benzeno deuterado, Naftaleno, Antraceno e Fenantreno. Utilizamos uma fonte de Hélio monocromática em 21,21 eV (584,5 Å) e a radiação Síncroton do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncroton (LNLS) em diferentes energias nas proximidades da borda do C 1s ( 290 eV). Comprovamos a estabilidade dos PAHs sob ação de UV (21,21 eV), onde eles apresentam um baixo nível de fotodissociação, produzindo fragmentos ionizados com rendimento total na ordem de 5 por cento em relação ao íon molecular pai. Entretanto, em altas energias, na faixa de Raios-X, a quebra destas moléculas torna-se mais intensa, com a produção de muitos fragmentos. Como uma das rotas de fragmentação do Naftaleno é [(C10H8) = > (C6H6+) + (C4H2) + (e-)], e como temos as evidências observacionais da existência do C4H2 e C6H6 na nebulosa CRL 618, sugerimos que este ambiente também possui o Naftaleno.

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DevR/DosR Dormancy Regulator Activation Mechanism: Dispensability of Phosphorylation, Cooperativity and Essentiality of α10 Helix

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Saurabh; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

    2016-01-01

    DevR/DosR is a well-characterized regulator in Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is implicated in various processes ranging from dormancy/persistence to drug tolerance. DevR induces the expression of an ~48-gene dormancy regulon in response to gaseous stresses, including hypoxia. Strains of the Beijing lineage constitutively express this regulon, which may confer upon them a significant advantage, since they would be ‘pre-adapted’ to the environmental stresses that predominate during infection. Aerobic DevR regulon expression in laboratory-manipulated overexpression strains is also reported. In both instances, the need for an inducing signal is bypassed. While a phosphorylation-mediated conformational change in DevR was proposed as the activation mechanism under hypoxia, the mechanism underlying constitutive expression is not understood. Because DevR is implicated in bacterial dormancy/persistence and is a promising drug target, it is relevant to resolve the mechanistic puzzle of hypoxic activation on one hand and constitutive expression under ‘non-inducing’ conditions on the other. Here, an overexpression strategy was employed to elucidate the DevR activation mechanism. Using a panel of kinase and transcription factor mutants, we establish that DevR, upon overexpression, circumvents DevS/DosT sensor kinase-mediated or small molecule phosphodonor-dependent activation, and also cooperativity-mediated effects, which are key aspects of hypoxic activation mechanism. However, overexpression failed to rescue the defect of C-terminal-truncated DevR lacking the α10 helix, establishing the α10 helix as an indispensable component of DevR activation mechanism. We propose that aerobic overexpression of DevR likely increases the concentration of α10 helix-mediated active dimer species to above the threshold level, as during hypoxia, and enables regulon expression. This advance in the understanding of DevR activation mechanism clarifies a long standing question as to

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DevR/DosR Dormancy Regulator Activation Mechanism: Dispensability of Phosphorylation, Cooperativity and Essentiality of α10 Helix.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Saurabh; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

    2016-01-01

    DevR/DosR is a well-characterized regulator in Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is implicated in various processes ranging from dormancy/persistence to drug tolerance. DevR induces the expression of an ~48-gene dormancy regulon in response to gaseous stresses, including hypoxia. Strains of the Beijing lineage constitutively express this regulon, which may confer upon them a significant advantage, since they would be 'pre-adapted' to the environmental stresses that predominate during infection. Aerobic DevR regulon expression in laboratory-manipulated overexpression strains is also reported. In both instances, the need for an inducing signal is bypassed. While a phosphorylation-mediated conformational change in DevR was proposed as the activation mechanism under hypoxia, the mechanism underlying constitutive expression is not understood. Because DevR is implicated in bacterial dormancy/persistence and is a promising drug target, it is relevant to resolve the mechanistic puzzle of hypoxic activation on one hand and constitutive expression under 'non-inducing' conditions on the other. Here, an overexpression strategy was employed to elucidate the DevR activation mechanism. Using a panel of kinase and transcription factor mutants, we establish that DevR, upon overexpression, circumvents DevS/DosT sensor kinase-mediated or small molecule phosphodonor-dependent activation, and also cooperativity-mediated effects, which are key aspects of hypoxic activation mechanism. However, overexpression failed to rescue the defect of C-terminal-truncated DevR lacking the α10 helix, establishing the α10 helix as an indispensable component of DevR activation mechanism. We propose that aerobic overexpression of DevR likely increases the concentration of α10 helix-mediated active dimer species to above the threshold level, as during hypoxia, and enables regulon expression. This advance in the understanding of DevR activation mechanism clarifies a long standing question as to the

  16. Novas determinações dos parâmetros atmosféricos das estrelas anãs brancas DA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, O.; Costa, A. F. M.; Kepler, S. O.

    2003-08-01

    Nós temos selecionado uma amostra de estrelas anãs brancas DA (atmosfera de hidrogênio) a partir dos índices de Strömgren cujos valores estão próximos a região de instabilidade das estrelas anãs brancas DA variáveis, as chamadas estrelas DAV ou ZZ Ceti. O objetivo é determinar os parâmetros fundamentais (temperatura efetiva, Teff, aceleração da gravidade, log g, e massa) destas estrelas para verificar quais os parâmetros estelares estão envolvidos com o mecanismo de pulsação das estrelas DAV. Nós obtemos, até agora, mais de 120 espectros óticos de estrelas DA. Entre as estrelas selecionadas há 20 estrelas variáveis (DAV). Assim, podemos verificar se existem ou não estrelas não variáveis dentro da faixa de instabilidade das estrelas ZZ Ceti. Neste trabalho nós apresentamos a determinação dos parâmetros atmosféricos (temperatura efetiva, Teff, e aceleração da gravidade, log g) das estrelas anãs brancas DA usando os novos modelos de atmosfera ML2/a = 0.6. Estes modelos têm sido utilizados recentemente por fornecerem uma excelente consistência interna na determinação das temperaturas nas regiões do ultra-violeta e ótico. Os parâmetros atmosféricos são determinados espectroscopicamente através da comparação do fluxo de energia das linhas de Balmer (Hb à H9) entre os espectros observados e sintéticos (gerados pelos modelos de atmosfera). As temperaturas obtidas com os novos modelos são, em geral, menores (~ 1000 K menos) que as temperaturas determinadas anteriormente, com modelos ML1. Os valores de log g não mudaram significativamente (menos de 10%). A faixa de instabilidade das DAVs está entre 11000 e 13000 K, consistente com dados de outros autores.

  17. [Unified National Health System costs in São José dos Campos, São Paulo State, Brazil, for hospital admissions due to external causes].

    PubMed

    Melione, Luís Paulo Rodrigues; Mello-Jorge, Maria Helena Prado de

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify direct expenditures for hospitalizations due to external causes in the Unified National Health System (SUS) in the city of São José dos Campos, São Paulo State, Brazil. Admissions to the Dr. José de Carvalho Florence Municipal Hospital resulting from external causes or injuries - ICD-10, chapters XIX and XX respectively - were analyzed for the first semester of 2003. 976 patient admission forms were analyzed, after data evaluation. Admissions with the highest total cost were those resulting from motor vehicle accidents and falls. The highest mean cost for hospitalization for injury was due to motor vehicle accidents (BRL 614.63), followed by assault (BRL 594.90). The highest mean cost for hospitalization due to injury was for cervical fractures (BRL 1,191.42) and head injuries (BRL 1,000.44). Hospitalizations with the highest daily cost were skull and facial fractures (BRL 166.72) and abdominal trauma (BRL 148.26). The study confirmed that motor vehicle accidents, falls, and assault are an important source of costs due to hospitalization for injuries.

  18. Analysis of the Astronomical Concepts Presented by Teachers of Science, Physics, and Mathematics of São José dos Campos / SP Municipality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira Gonzaga, Edson; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this work is to conduct a survey of alternative conceptions about the basic concepts of Astronomy from schoolteachers in the City of São José dos Campos. This study covers the the state-run education system and complies with legal documents related to the curriculum of educational systems, such as the Curriculum of São Paulo State and the Parameters of the National Curriculum (PCN). Alternative conceptions, mentioned in Langhi (2009) as very important, were used, because it is believed that if a student can learn these concepts before the methodological intervention, it is possible to prepare contextualized presentations for teachers, and consequently students, to compare what they already know with the new information they obtain in the sessions at the digital mobile planetarium (DMP) of the Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul. Afterwards, they may discuss in a forum, in the form of debate, seeking to draw conclusions relevant to the topic, and transmitting the same to students in Basic Education (EB). This is a case study with a quantitative survey and a qualitative analysis of data on astronomical concepts collected through two questionnaires, one before and one after the intervention, respecting the implementation period of the study,- here called methodological intervention of content presentations at the mobile planetarium - and on respective discussions.

  19. Implementing a Knowledge Translation Intervention in Long-Term Care: Feasibility Results From the Vitamin D and Osteoporosis Study (ViDOS)

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Courtney C.; Thabane, Lehana; Ioannidis, George; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Papaioannou, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the feasibility of implementing an interdisciplinary, multifaceted knowledge translation intervention within long-term care (LTC) and to identify any challenges that should be considered in designing future studies. Design Cluster randomized controlled trial. Setting Forty LTC homes across the province of Ontario, Canada. Participants LTC teams composed of physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and other staff. Measurements Cluster-level feasibility measures, including recruitment, retention, data completion, and participation in the intervention. A process evaluation was completed by directors of care indicating which process/policy changes had been implemented. Results Recruitment and retention rates were 22% and 63%, respectively. Good fidelity with the intervention was achieved, including attendance at educational meetings. After ViDOS, 7 process indicators were being newly implemented by more than 50% of active intervention homes. Conclusion Despite recruitment and retention challenges, the multifaceted intervention produced a number of policy/process changes and had good intervention fidelity. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01398527. PMID:24953541

  20. ASPECTS OF THE ECOLOGY OF PHLEBOTOMINES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) IN AN AREA OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS OCCURRENCE, MUNICIPALITY OF ANGRA DOS REIS, COAST OF RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de Aguiar, Gustavo Marins; de Azevedo, Alfredo Carlos Rodrigues; de Medeiros, Wagner Muniz; Alves, João Ricardo Carreira; Rendeiro, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Over a complete two-year period, phlebotomine specimens were caught in an area of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurrence in the municipality of Angra dos Reis. A manual suction tube was used to catch phlebotomines on house walls, and also light traps in domestic and peridomestic settings and in the forest. This yielded 14,170 specimens of 13 species: two in the genus Brumptomyia and eleven in the genus Lutzomyia. L. intermedia predominantly in domestic and peridomestic settings, with little presence in the forest, with the same trend being found in relation to L. migonei, thus proving that these species have adapted to the human environment. L. fischeri appeared to be eclectic regarding location, but was seen to be proportionally more endophilic. L. intermedia and L. migonei were more numerous in peridomestic settings, throughout the year, while L. fischeri was more numerous in domestic settings except in March, April, May and September. From the prevalence of L. intermedia, its proven anthropophily and findings of this species naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, it can be incriminated as the main vector for this agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the study area, especially in the peridomestic environment. L. fischeri may be a coadjuvant in carrying the parasite. PMID:24626417

  1. Combined use of aerogammaspectrometry and geochemistry to access sediment sources in a shallow coral site at Armação dos Búzios, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godiva, Danielly; Evangelista, Heitor; Kampel, Milton; Licinio, Marcus Vinicius; Munita, Casimiro

    2010-05-01

    Coral and reef environments in shallow waters are negatively affected by human activities in several coastal areas worldwide. It has been demonstrated that sediment influx and macronutrient discharges induce decline of coral population structure and diversity. Therefore, efforts to quantify sediment flux, sources and the biological response to sedimentation were conducted by several marine researchers. Herein, we investigated the case study of Armação dos Búzios/Brazil/Western South Atlantic, where coral colonies (mostly Siderastrea stellata) are under stress due to sediment apportionment as a consequence of regional human occupation. Classification of potential sediment source regions was based on a high-resolution aerogammaspectrometry survey for 232Th, 238U and 40K in main land near shore, used as primarily tool, in combination with sediment geochemistry. This approach allowed distinguishing three hydrographic basins (Macaé river basin, São João river basin and Una river basin) as potential sources. Hierarchical cluster analysis applied to the set of parameters identified the Macaé River as the most probable sediment contributor to the coralline site.

  2. Seroprevalence of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia felis in dogs, São José dos Pinhais, State of Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Fernanda Silva; Silveira, Iara; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Leite, Ronaldo Viana; Bonacim, José Edivaldo; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão

    2010-01-01

    Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) is a vector-borne zoonosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii bacteria. Dogs can be host sentinels for this bacterium. The aim of the study was to determine the presence of antibodies against Rickettsia spp. in dogs from the city of São José dos Pinhais, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil, where a human case of BSF was first reported in the state. Between February 2006 and July 2007, serum samples from 364 dogs were collected and tested at 1:64 dilutions by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) against R. rickettsii and R. parkeri. All sera that reacted at least to one of Rickettsia species were tested against the six main Rickettsia species identified in Brazil: R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. bellii, R. rhipicephali, R. amblyommii and R. felis. Sixteen samples (4.4%) reacted to at least one Rickettsia species. Among positive animals, two dogs (15.5%) showed suggestive titers for R. bellii exposure. One sample had a homologous reaction to R. felis, a confirmed human pathogen. Although Rickettsia spp. circulation in dogs in the area studied may be considered at low prevalence, suggesting low risk of human infection, the present data demonstrate for the first time the exposure of dogs to R. bellii and R. felis in Southern Brazil.

  3. [Ecological aspects of phlebotomus of the Parque Nacional da Serra dos Orgãos, Rio de Janeiro. I. Monthly frequency in human baits (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae)].

    PubMed

    de Aguiar, G M; Soucasaux, T

    1984-01-01

    During two full years--from October 1980 to September 1982--we captured sandflies in the National Park of Serra dos Orgãos, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The captures, with human bait, were carried out weekly, each with a duration of two hours, and at three different times (6 to 8 a.m., 5 to 7 a.m. and 7:30 to 9:30 p.m.). In every capture, we recorded the phase of the moon and, at each hour, the temperature, relative humidity, wind and rain. In 586 hours 4,834 sandflies of ten species were captured, all belonging to genus Lutzomyia França, 1924. L. ayrozai and L. hirsuta represented 92% of the total species captured. However, they were dominant at different times, the former being more frequent in the warm and wet months, and considerably declining in the cold and dry months, in which the latter gradually prevailed. L. fischeri and L. shannoni were shown to be the most resistant to unfavourable weather conditions. Whenever there was any rain or wind, they were, in general, the only species captured. With regard to lunar cycle, we observed that new moon was the most favourable phase for the capture of sandflies and full moon the one with the smallest yield, except for L. shannoni which occurred more frequently during this period.

  4. Earth and Heavens: Two Separate Universes? (Spanish Title: Tierra y Cielos: ¿Dos Universos Separados?) Terra e Céus: Dois Universos Separados?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrascosa, Jaime; Gil-Pérez, Daniel; Solbes, Jordi; Vilches, Amparo

    2005-12-01

    complexidade, considerando, entre outros aspectos: as situações problemáticas relevantes que levaram à construção dos conhecimentos, as dificuldades de todo tipo que se teve que enfrentar nessa construção e, muito em particular,a necessidade de se superar as "evidências do senso comum" que estabeleciam uma suposta barreira intransponível entre a Terra e os Céus e que foram um obstáculo durante séculos para o desenvolvimento científico. Neste trabalho apresentamos um programa de atividades para o estudo da gravitação nos últimos anos do ensino médio, orientado a favorecer a participação dos estudantes, em alguma medida, na reconstrução deste processo que constituiu a denominada primeira grande revolução científica e a nos aproximarmos do estudo de uma das ciências mais antigas, a Astronomia, que hoje continua despertando grande interesse.

  5. Techniques of remote sensing applied to the environmental analysis of part of an aquifer located in the São José dos Campos Region sp, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Mariana Affonseca; Dos Anjos, Célio Eustáquio

    2003-05-01

    The anthropogenic activity on the surface can modify and introduce new mechanisms of recharging the groundwater system, modifying the tax, the frequency and the quality of recharge of underground waters. The understanding of these mechanisms and the correct evaluation of such modifications are fundamental in determining the vulnerability of groundwater contamination. The groundwater flow of the South Paraíba Compartment, in the region of São José dos Campos, São Paulo, is directly related to structural features of the Taubaté Basin and, therefore, the analysis of its behaviour enhances the understanding of tectonic structure. The methodology adopted for this work consists in pre-processing and processing of the satellite images, visual interpretation of HSI products, field work and data integration. The derivation of the main structural features was based on visual analysis of the texture elements of drainage, and the relief in sedimentary and crystalline rocks. Statistical analysis of the feature densities and the metric-geometric relations between the analysed elements have been conducted. The crystalline rocks, on which the sediments were laying, conditions and controls the structural arrangement of sedimentary formations. The formation of the South Paraíba Grabén is associated with Cenozoic distensive movement which reactivated old features of crust weakness and generated previous cycles with normal characteristics. The environmental analysis is based on the integration of the existing methodology to characterise vulnerability of an universal pollutant and density fracture zone. The digital integration was processed using GIS (Geographic Information System) to delineate five defined vulnerability classes. The hydrogeological settings were analysed in each thematic map and, using fuzzy logic, an index for each different vulnerability class was compiled. Evidence maps could be combined in a series of steps using map algebra.

  6. [Governance, sustainability, and equity in the health program for the municipality of São José dos Pinhais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bueno, Roberto Eduardo; Moysés, Simone Tetu; Bueno, Paula Alexandra Reis; Moysés, Samuel Jorge

    2013-12-01

    To analyze the Final Report of the VIII Health Conference and the São José dos Pinhais City Health Program for 2010-2013 and investigate whether these documents addressed the themes of sustainability, governance, and equity and the interfaces between these themes--government policies, power balance, and inclusive processes/impacting results--that make up the Concept Model for Human Development and Health Promotion developed by the authors. This case study analyzed 331 proposals approved for incorporation in the City Health Program. The six thematical categories of the Concept Model were analyzed using ATLAS Ti 5.0 software. The proposals were classified according to the number of themes and interfaces of the Concept Model: full health proposals contained all six categories; partial proposals contained three categories; and incipient proposals contained one category. Of 331 proposals approved, 162 (49%) contemplated the six thematical categories and were classified as full health promotion proposals. Ninety-five (29%) contemplated three categories (partial health promotion). Of these, 38 (12%) addressed Governance, Sustainability, and Government Policies, 33 (10%) addressed Governance, Power Balance, and Equity and 24 (7%) addressed Equity, Inclusive Processes/Impact Results, and Sustainability. Finally, 74 (22%) proposals contemplated only one category and were classified as incipient: 36 (11%) addressed Governance, 27 (8%) addressed sustainability, and 11 (3%) addressed equity. Based on the fact that 49% of the proposals approved were classified as full health promotion, it is considered that the effectiveness of social control and popular participation in the construction of health policies at the local level contritute to the promotion of health in the city.

  7. Prevalence of intestinal parasites versus knowledge, attitudes, and practices of inhabitants of low-income communities of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Moraes Neto, Antonio Henrique A; Pereira, Adriana P M F; Alencar, Maria de Fátima L; Souza, Paulo R B; Dias, Rodrigo C; Fonseca, Juliana G; Santos, Clóvis P; Almeida, João C A

    2010-07-01

    Intestinal parasites are the causative agents of common infections responsible for significant public health problems in developing countries and generally linked to lack of sanitation, safe water, and improper hygiene. More than two billion people throughout the world live with unrelenting illness due to intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs). The purposes of this study are to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices on IPIs and investigate the relationship with prevalence of intestinal parasites among a low-income group of inhabitants from two communities of the Travessão District area, Campos dos Goytacazes, north of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The two communities are known as "Parque Santuário," which is an urban slum with miserable living conditions, and "Arraial," where the socioeconomic and educational levels are better, neither having a sanitary infrastructure with an excreta collection system. Questionnaires revealed that both communities had local and specific codification to denominate the intestinal parasites and present correct knowledge on the theme but ignored some aspects of IPI transmission, with the Arraial population being better informed (p < 0.05). The overall prevalence of IPIs in Parque Santuário (49.7%) was greater than in Arraial (27.2%) (p < 0.001; prevalence ratio/95% confidence interval 1.83/1.50-2.23). This study reports the real IPI situation in the Travessão District and also reinforces the need to continue the investigation on the impact of combined prophylactic methods, educational measures, and socioeconomic and sanitary improvements by governmental authorities and the local popular organization.

  8. Diverging DOS strategy using an allene-containing tryptophan scaffold and a library design that maximizes biologically relevant chemical space while minimizing the number of compounds.

    PubMed

    Painter, Thomas O; Wang, Lirong; Majumder, Supriyo; Xie, Xiang-Qun; Brummond, Kay M

    2011-03-14

    A diverging diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS) strategy using an allene-containing tryptophan as a key starting material was investigated. An allene-yne substituted derivative of tryptophan 12 gave indolylmethylazabicyclooctadiene 17 when subjected to a microwave-assisted allenic [2 + 2] cycloaddition reaction. This same tryptophan-derived precursor afforded an indolylmethyldihydrocyclopentapyridinone 14 when subjected to a rhodium(I)-catalyzed cyclocarbonylation reaction and an indolylmethylpyrrolidinocyclopentenones 16 when reacted with molybdenum hexacarbonyl. Construction of allenic tetrahydro-β-carboline scaffolds via a Pictet-Spengler reaction and subsequent silver(I)-catalyzed cycloisomerization afforded tetrahydroindolizinoindoles (21). Attachment of allene and alkyne groups to the tetrahydro-β-carboline, followed by a microwave-assisted allenic [2 + 2] cycloaddition reaction, provided tetrahydrocyclobutaindoloquinolizinones 24 and the tetrahydrocyclopentenone indolizinoindolone 26 when reacted with molybdenum hexacarbonyl. These six scaffolds were used as templates for the construction of a virtual library of 11 748 compounds employing 44 indoles, 12 aldehydes, and 51 alkynes. Diversity analyses using a combination of cell-based chemistry space computations using BCUT (Burden (B) CAS (C) Pearlman at the University of Texas (UT)) metrics and Tanimoto coefficient (Tc) similarity calculations using two-dimensional (2D) fingerprints showed that the compounds in the virtual library occupied new chemical space when compared to the 327,000 compounds in the molecular libraries small molecule repository (MLSMR). A subset of fifty-three compounds was identified from the virtual library using the DVS package of Sybyl 8.0; this subset represents the most diverse compounds within the chemical space defined by these compounds and will be synthesized and screened for biological activity.

  9. Estudio fotométrico y espectroscópico de dos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes del disco con apariencia globular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.

    Se presentan y discuten resultados obtenidos en el CASLEO y en el Observatorio de Las Campanas de dos cúmulos abiertos compactos con apariencia globular: Westerlund1 (BH197), ubicado en dirección hacia el centro galáctico, y Westerlund2. A partir de espectroscopía CCD integrada de ambos e imágenes CCD en las bandas VI obtenidas para el primero de ellos, se derivan sus parámetros fundamentales y se examinan sus apariencias estructurales. Se encuentra que Westerlund1 es un cúmulo joven (7 ± 3 millones de años), ubicado sobre el plano galáctico a 1.0 ± 0.4 kpc del sol, en una región caracterizada por una absorción excepcionalmente elevada (Av~=13.0 mag), en tanto que Westerlund2 es también un cúmulo joven (4-6 millones de años) ubicado sobre el plano, en una región afectada por una absorción menor (Av~=5.7 mag). Desde el punto de vista estructural, Westerlund 1 se presenta como uno de los pocos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes de la Galaxia con apariencia tipicamente globular, en contraste con los cúmulos azules de las Nubes de Magallanes en los cuales la apariencia globular constituye un fenómeno común. Westerlund2, aunque menos rico en estrellas, puede también ser incluído dentro de esta interesante clase de objetos.

  10. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd whole rock analyses of basalts of the Grao Para Group, Serra dos Carajas, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, W.J. Jr.; Gibbs, A.K.; Wirth, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Grao Para Group at Serra dos Carajas in the Guapore Shield of Brazil is a 6 km thick sequence of bimodal metavolcanic rock with interbedded iron formations. Rhyolites are a minor part of the low grade meta-volcanic section, with the bulk consisting of subalkaline basalt, basaltic andesite, and shoshonite. Rb-Sr whole rock analyses of 7 basalts yield an age of 2687 +/- 54 Ma. This agrees well with an age of 2758 +/- 39 Ma from zircon U-Pb analyses of the interbedded rhyolites. Except for the allocthonous Imataca Complex of Venezuela, these dates for the Grao Para Group are the first well-constrained Archean ages from the Amazonian Craton. An even older age for the basement to the Grao Para Group is also implied. Sm-Nd whole-rock analyses of four of these basalts did not yield an isochron because of the limited range of /sup 147/Sm//sup 144/Nd values, but element of/sub Nd/ values relative to CHUR were calculated using the Rb-Sr age. The typical LREE-enrichment, lack of Ce depletion or spilitic alteration of alkalies, and the high Sr initial ratios, may indicate that these isotopic patterns were derived by incorporation of some older continental crust in the mafic melts. These data together with an element of/sub Sr/ of +63.6 might indicate significant seawater exchange with volcanic rocks derived from mantle with chondritic REE patterns. This demonstrates the presence of significant continental crust in the Archean and seawater-volcanic rock interaction in a rifting environment similar to modern analogs.

  11. SU-E-T-115: Analysis of Patient Specific QA for VMAT by Disease Site and Planning-Delivery System Using the ScandiDos Delta4 Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Giaddui, T; Hardin, M; Keller, J; Kremmel, E; Peng, C; Doyle, L; Yu, Y; Xiao, Y; Harrison, A; Fu, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate patient specific quality assurance (PSQA) for the delivery of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) by disease site. To compare planning-delivery system (PDS) PSQA pass rates in a dual vendor institution. Methods: PSQA is performed for VMAT plans using a ScandiDos Delta4 phantom. Verification plans are calculated using Varian Eclipse and Elekta Monaco treatment planning systems (TPS) for patients treated using Varian Truebeam and Elekta linear accelerators respectively. Individual arcs are delivered to the Delta4 phantoms and assessed using the gamma index pass criterion(3% Dose Deviation(DD%), 3mm Distance to Agreement(DTA),10% dose threshold and 90% gamma index). Results: A total of 287 VMAT plans and 680 arcs were analyzed. The passing rates for VMAT QA plans were 95% and 98% for head/neck and pelvis/prostate plans respectively, and 100% for chest/abdomen, spine, lung Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) and Stereotactic Radiosurgery(SRS) plans. Average gamma indices were: (99 ± 2) % for pelvis/prostate, chest/abdomen and lung SBRT plans, (97 ± 4) % for head and neck plans and (98 ± 3) % for spine plans. The average DD% and DTA pass rates ranged from 82% to 90% and 98% to 99% respectively for plans in different disease sites. Paired t-test analysis (two tails) indicated no significant differences in the gamma indices between plans delivered using different PDS; the P values were: 0.08, 0.45, and 0.94 for lung SBRT, head/neck and pelvis/prostate plans respectively. The statistical power for comparing PDS in different disease sites with an alpha of 0.05 is 1. Conclusion: The Gamma indices based on 3% DD%, 3 mm DTA and 10% dose threshold for the VMAT QA plans in all disease sites were well above 90%, suggesting the possibility of using a more stringent PSQA criterion. No significant differences were observed in the QA of VMAT plans delivered using different PDS.

  12. Stratigraphy of fluvial sediment sequences and their palaeoenvironmental information in the foreland of the Serra dos Órgãos, southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, André; Nehren, Udo; Heinrich, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    In the hinterland of Rio de Janeiro city the rivers Guapiaçu, Macacu and Iconha originate in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range and drain into the Atlantic Ocean. Since their channelization in the 1950s, higher flow velocities caused an incision of the rivers into the valley fills. These circumstances provide the possibility to study the alluvial deposits along the streams during low water level and allow conclusions on palaeoenvironmental change and landscape history. Sedimentological investigations of 13 exposures as well as AMS 14C measurements were carried out to investigate sediment properties and reconstruct the sedimentation history within the floodplains. These results enable to distinguish three different facies units. A late Pleistocene Unit I can be detected at the base of the observed exposures and consists of clast-supported fine to coarse gravels. It can be assumed that the gravel bodies were formed by a climatically induced erosional-depositional cycle within a braided river system. The gravels are overlaid by Unit II, a grayish to bluish loam mainly of mid-Holocene age. During generally drier climates these loams have been deposited during high water stages or flooding events as a splay facies proximal to the rivers. A reduced flow competence and relatively stable morphodynamic conditions are assumed for that period. Unit III accumulated in the late Holocene typically consists of several meters of planar or cross bedded sands to fine gravels, interfingered by loamy inclusions, buried peat bogs and organic debris. Fining-upward sequences can be frequently studied within Unit III which were completed by loamy sediments in the uppermost parts of the exposures. The increased flow competence from Unit II to Unit III seems to be a fluvial response to the increased humidity of the late Holocene as well as the enhancement of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Heavy rainfall likely caused higher sediment supply from the steep slopes as well as a

  13. The Serra Pelada Au-PGE deposit, Serra dos Carajás (Pará State, Brazil): geological and geochemical indications for a composite mineralising process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroni, Marilena; Girardi, Vicente A.; Ferrario, Alfredo

    2001-12-01

    The Serra Pelada Au-PGE-rich deposit is located in the Serra dos Carajás, a leading mining area in Brazil. This region is characterised by a complex geological and structural framework and is affected by deep lateritisation which has lasted for more than 70 Ma. The Serra Pelada deposit is emplaced in a late-Archean low-grade metasedimentary sequence (Rio Fresco/Águas Claras Formation) which is host to other gold deposits in the region (Igarapé Bahia, Águas Claras). The Rio Fresco/Águas Claras sequence was deposited in tectonic basins developed on Archean basement and Au-bearing greenstone terranes which were intruded by PGE-rich layered mafic complexes (e.g. Luanga). The Serra Pelada mineralisation is located along a regional, complex system of strike-slip faults (Cinzento-Carajás systems) which were active during the late Archean to early Proterozoic. The mineralisation appears to be concentrated along a faulted hinge zone of a fold. Ore zone rock facies are dominated by low-grade ferruginous to carbonaceous metasiltstones and minor sandstones, locally brecciated and cemented by quartz (±sulphide) stockwork. Supergene alteration led to partial to total transformation into friable aggregates of kaolinite, Fe oxide-hydroxides, silica and secondary phosphate-sulphates even at depths exceeding 200 m. Precious metals are exceptionally enriched, with up to more than 1,000 ppm Au+PGE in some peculiar ferruginous-graphitic zones locally called "hidrotermalito". Geochemistry shows complex patterns of major and trace elements, particularly rare-earth elements (REE), in mineralised vs. nonmineralised samples. These patterns are interpreted in terms of variable degree of superposition of hydrothermal and supergene alteration. Precious metals show progressive increase from samples with hydrothermal imprint to samples with supergene imprint. The geological evolution of the Carajás region and the characteristics of mineralisation at Serra Pelada may suggest a composite

  14. An interdisciplinary knowledge translation intervention in long-term care: study protocol for the vitamin D and osteoporosis study (ViDOS) pilot cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Courtney C; Ioannidis, George; Giangregorio, Lora M; Adachi, Jonathan D; Thabane, Lehana; Morin, Suzanne N; Crilly, Richard G; Marr, Sharon; Josse, Robert G; Lohfeld, Lynne; Pickard, Laura E; King, Susanne; van der Horst, Mary-Lou; Campbell, Glenda; Stroud, Jackie; Dolovich, Lisa; Sawka, Anna M; Jain, Ravi; Nash, Lynn; Papaioannou, Alexandra

    2012-05-24

    Knowledge translation (KT) research in long-term care (LTC) is still in its early stages. This protocol describes the evaluation of a multifaceted, interdisciplinary KT intervention aimed at integrating evidence-based osteoporosis and fracture prevention strategies into LTC care processes. The Vitamin D and Osteoporosis Study (ViDOS) is underway in 40 LTC homes (n = 19 intervention, n = 21 control) across Ontario, Canada. The primary objectives of this study are to assess the feasibility of delivering the KT intervention, and clinically, to increase the percent of LTC residents prescribed ≥800 IU of vitamin D daily. Eligibility criteria are LTC homes that are serviced by our partner pharmacy provider and have more than one prescribing physician. The target audience within each LTC home is the Professional Advisory Committee (PAC), an interdisciplinary team who meets quarterly. The key elements of the intervention are three interactive educational sessions led by an expert opinion leader, action planning using a quality improvement cycle, audit and feedback reports, nominated internal champions, and reminders/point-of-care tools. Control homes do not receive any intervention, however both intervention and control homes received educational materials as part of the Ontario Osteoporosis Strategy. Primary outcomes are feasibility measures (recruitment, retention, attendance at educational sessions, action plan items identified and initiated, internal champions identified, performance reports provided and reviewed), and vitamin D (≥800 IU/daily) prescribing at 6 and 12 months. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of residents prescribed calcium supplements and osteoporosis medications, and falls and fractures. Qualitative methods will examine the experience of the LTC team with the KT intervention. Homes are centrally randomized to intervention and control groups in blocks of variable size using a computer generated allocation sequence. Randomization is

  15. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Mesoarchean granites from the Canaã dos Carajás area, Carajás Province, Brazil: Implications for the origin of Archean granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feio, G. R. L.; Dall'Agnol, R.

    2012-12-01

    Four Mesoarchean (2.93 to 2.83 Ga) granite units, which encompass the Canaã dos Carajás, Bom Jesus, Cruzadão and Serra Dourada granites, were recognized in the Canaã dos Carajás area of the Archean Carajás Province. The Mesoarchean units are composed dominantly of biotite leucomonzogranites. They are compared with the Neoarchean Planalto suite (2.73 Ga) which encompasses biotite-hornblende monzogranites to syenogranites. The Canaã dos Carajás, Bom Jesus and the variety of the Cruzadão granite with higher (La/Yb)N are geochemically more akin to the calc-alkaline granites, whereas the other varieties of the Cruzadão granite are transitional between calc-alkaline and alkaline granites. The Serra Dourada granite has an ambiguous geochemical character with some features similar to those of calc-alkaline granites and other peraluminous granites. The Planalto granites have ferroan character, are similar geochemically to reduced A-type granites and show a strong geochemical contrast with the Mesoarchean studied granites. The Mesoarchean granites described in the Canaã dos Carajás area are geochemically distinct to those of the Rio Maria domain of the Carajás Province. The Canaã dos Carajás and Bom Jesus granites are similar to the high-Ca granites, whereas the Cruzadão and Serra Dourada are more akin to the low-CaO granites of the Yilgarn craton. The geochemical characteristics of the Mesoarchean studied granites approach those of the biotite granite group of Dharwar but the latter are enriched in HFSE and HREE compared to the Canaã dos Carajás granites. The Neoarchean Planalto suite granite has no counterpart in the Mesoarchean Rio Maria domain of the Carajás Province, neither in the Yilgarn and Dharwar cratons. Geochemical modeling suggests that partial melting of a source similar in composition to an Archean basaltic andesite of the Carajás Province could give origin to the Bom Jesus and Cruzadão granites. In the case of the Bom Jesus granite the

  16. Investigação dos perfís temporais de alta resolução de explosões solares tipo-III decimétricas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Sawant, H. S.; Madsen, F. R. H.

    2003-08-01

    Explosões solares tipo-III indicam a presença de feixes de elétrons acelerados durante "flares" solares. Sua investigação fornece informações tanto sobre os processos de aceleração de partículas quanto das características do agente causador e do local de aceleração. Explosões tipo-III decimétricas são geradas por feixes de elétrons viajando através de arcos magnéticos densos da baixa coroa solar. Os perfís temporais destes fenômenos, quando tomados com alta resolução, informam sobre os mecanismos de aceleração de partículas do feixe e o meio de transporte da energia liberada a partir da região de aceleração. Usando o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS), em operação no INPE, foram registradas dezenas de explosões tipo-III decimétricas, dentro da faixa de 2050-2250 MHz com alta resolução temporal (20 ms), em 13 de setembro de 2001, entre 13:00 e 16:10 UT. Foram selecionadas 10 explosões isoladas para uma investigação estatística detalhada de seus perfís temporais, em todos os cerca de 50 canais de freqüência. Os resultados indicam que cerca de 70% dos perfís temporais são complexos tanto durante a subida quanto descida. Os 30% restantes indicam que os perfís da subida podem ser bem representados, na maioria dos casos, por um processo não-linear e uma parcela significativa por processos lineares. Os perfís temporais da descida são dominados por um decaimento não-linear. Neste trabalho, será efetuada uma análise dos perfís temporais, tanto durante a subida quanto descida do fluxo, para as explosões selecionadas, em termos dos prováveis mecanismos de aceleração e relaxamento. 2

  17. Determinação de elementos próprios dos asteróides troianos: comparação entre as teorias semi-analítica e sintética

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, F.; Beaugé, C.

    2003-08-01

    Além do cálculo semi-analítico de elementos próprios dos asteróides Troianos (Beaugé & Roig 2001, Icarus 153, 391), recentemente foi apresentado um novo conjunto destes elementos próprios determinado através de uma teoria sintética (Knenezevic & Milani 2003, comunicação pessoal). As bases de dados contendo estas determinações estão disponiveis na pagina web do Asteroid Dynamical Site (http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/cgi-bin/astdys/astibo). Nesta comunicação apresentamos os primeiros resultados de um estudo comparativo entre ambos conjuntos de elementos próprios, analisando suas vantagens e desvantagens, assim como os limites de precisão de cada conjunto. Mostramos que os elementos próprios sintéticos são mais precisos que os smi-analíticos para grandes amplitudes de libração do ângulo s = l-lJup, embora acontece o contrario para os corpos cuja amplitude de libração é muito pequena. Finalmente discutimos a influencia destes erros na determinação de familias de asteroides e da estrutura resonante em torno dos pontos Lagrangeanos L4 e L5.

  18. Factores socio-económicos asociados a la percepción de situación socioeconómica entre adultos mayores de dos países latinoamericanos

    PubMed Central

    Brenes-Camacho, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo principal del artículo es estudiar la asociación entre la percepción subjetiva sobre la situación económica propia y una serie de medidas objetivas de bienestar socioeconómico –fuentes de ingresos, tenencia de vivienda, nivel educativo y transferencias familiares informales de dinero- entre adultos mayores de dos países Latinoamericanos: México y Costa Rica. Los datos se obtienen de las primeras rondas de dos encuestas sobre envejecimiento: CRELES para Costa Rica y ENASEM para México. La variable dependiente más importante se obtiene de las respuestas a las pregunta “¿Cómo califica su situación económica actual?” en Costa Rica y “¿Diría usted que su situación económica es…?” en México. Para ambas encuestas, las respuestas se codificaron en forma binaria; el código 0 representa las categorías Excelente, Muy buena y Buena, y el código 1 representa a las categorías Regular y Mala. Se encontró que el ingreso por jubilación es un importante determinante de la percepción de bienestar en ambos países. En Costa Rica, el ingreso del cónyuge y la tenencia de vivienda son importantes predictores de la percepción de bienestar, mientras que en México, los ingresos por transferencias están fuertemente asociados con dicha percepción. PMID:25360057

  19. Identificabilidade e estabilidade dos parâmetros no método Grade of Membership (GoM): considerações metodológicas e práticas

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Caetano, André Junqueira; Machado, Carla Jorge; Brondízio, Eduardo Sonewend

    2011-01-01

    O método Grade of Membership (GoM) tem sido cada vez mais utilizado por demógrafos brasileiros e tem a vantagem de possuir um parâmetro que mensura a heterogeneidade individual, com base nas correlações não-observáveis entre as categorias de resposta das variáveis de interesse, gerando um medida do grau de pertencimento de cada indivíduo a perfis extremos. Alguns autores, contudo, chamam atenção para questões importantes na calibragem dos modelos finais que utilizam o programa GoM versão 3.4, como o problema de identificabilidade – soluções múltiplas para parâmetros estimados. Neste artigo, é sugerido um procedimento capaz de identificar um modelo final com solução única que descreva os tipos puros mais fidedignos à base de dados, em uma tentativa de otimização. Para ilustrar esse processo, utilizou-se uma base de dados correspondente a um levantamento econômico e sociodemográfico de uma população de pequenos agricultores residentes ao longo da Rodovia Transamazônica, no Estado do Pará. Também identificou-se a existência de instabilidade nos parâmetros estimados pelo programa GoM 3.4, sendo proposto um método de estabilização de seus valores. Com esses procedimentos combinados, os usuários do programa GoM 3.4 poderão descrever sua base de dados de forma mais adequada e responder às críticas sobre questões de identificabilidade e estabilidade dos modelos resultantes. Essas soluções empíricas são relevantes por afetarem cálculos de prevalência e de incidência de eventos de interesse, além de trazerem consequências importantes sobre o ponto e o momento corretos para intervenções de políticas públicas ou de planejamento prospectivo em análises de projeção. PMID:21709732

  20. Tritium ((3)H) as a tracer for monitoring the dispersion of conservative radionuclides discharged by the Angra dos Reis nuclear power plants in the Piraquara de Fora Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Gomes, Franciane; Godoy, José Marcus; de Carvalho, Zenildo Lara; de Souza, Elder Magalhães; Rodrigues Silva, José Ivan; Tadeu Lopes, Ricardo

    2014-10-01

    Presently, two nuclear power plants operate in Brazil. Both are located at Itaorna beach, Angra dos Reis, approximately 133 km from Rio de Janeiro city. The reactor cooling circuits require the input of seawater, which is later discharged through a pipeline into the adjacent Piraquara de Fora Cove. The radioactive effluents undergo ion-exchange treatment prior to their release in batches, causing the enrichment of (3)H relative to other radionuclides in the discharged waters. Under steady state conditions, the (3)H gradient in the Piraquara de Fora waters can be used to determine the dependence of the dilution factor on the distance from the discharge point. The present work describes experiments carried out at the reactor site during batch release episodes, including time series sampling at the discharge point and surface seawater sampling every 250 m to a distance of 1250 m, after a double distillation, the (3)H concentration was measured by liquid scintillation counting applying a Quantulus liquid scintillation spectrometer. The obtained results showed a linear relationship between the (3)H concentration and distance from the discharge point. At 1250 m from the discharge point a dilution index of 1:15 was measured which fits the expected value based on modeling.

  1. Automatic scaling of critical frequency foF2 from ionograms recorded at São José dos Campos, Brazil: a comparison between Autoscala and UDIDA tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzopane, Michael; Pillat, Valdir Gil; Fagundes, Paulo Roberto

    2017-02-01

    This paper considers a dataset of ionograms recorded by the CADI ionosonde installed at São José dos Campos (SJC; 23.2°S, 45.9°W, magnetic latitude 14.1°S), Brazil, to compare two autoscaling systems: Autoscala, developed by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, and the UDIDA-scaling, developed by the Universidade do Vale do Paraíba. The analysis, focused on the critical frequency of the F2 layer, foF2, shows that the two systems work differently. The UDIDA-scaling gives always a value of foF2 as output, regardless of the presence of the ionogram trace and its definition, while Autoscala tends to reject ionograms for which the digital information is considered insufficient. As a consequence, the UDIDA-scaling can autoscale more foF2 values than Autoscala, but Autoscala can discard a larger number of ionograms for which the trace is unidentifiable. Discussions are made on the accuracy of the foF2 values given as output, as well as on the main shortcomings characterizing the two systems.

  2. Pepita Talks Twice = Pepita habla dos veces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachtman, Ofelia Dumas

    This illustrated bilingual children's book (English and Spanish), relates the story of Pepita, a young Hispanic girl who is fluent in both Spanish and English. Pepita always helps when asked to talk for others in Spanish and English. But one day Pepita decides she doesn't want to help anymore. She wants to hurry and get home from school before her…

  3. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contour line and Poonkinny Road, proceed southerly and then easterly along the meandering 2,000-foot contour line to its intersection with the eastern boundary of section 2, T21N, R13W, immediately south of... then westerly along the meandering 2,000-foot contour line, crossing Big Water Canyon, Doghouse...

  4. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contour line and Poonkinny Road, proceed southerly and then easterly along the meandering 2,000-foot contour line to its intersection with the eastern boundary of section 2, T21N, R13W, immediately south of... then westerly along the meandering 2,000-foot contour line, crossing Big Water Canyon, Doghouse...

  5. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contour line and Poonkinny Road, proceed southerly and then easterly along the meandering 2,000-foot contour line to its intersection with the eastern boundary of section 2, T21N, R13W, immediately south of... then westerly along the meandering 2,000-foot contour line, crossing Big Water Canyon, Doghouse...

  6. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contour line and Poonkinny Road, proceed southerly and then easterly along the meandering 2,000-foot contour line to its intersection with the eastern boundary of section 2, T21N, R13W, immediately south of... then westerly along the meandering 2,000-foot contour line, crossing Big Water Canyon, Doghouse...

  7. DOS/Russian - US program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Pifer, M.L.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the organization and describes the objectives for the science and technology agreements between the U.S.A. and Russia. The Gore-Chernomyrdin Commission objectives and the Civilian Research and the Development Foundation for the Independent States of the former Soviet Union (CRDF) are discussed.

  8. DOS Design/Application Tools. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    a distributed program must be partitioned into a number of program units (objects and clients ) and subsequently allocated to the various processors...initiates the appropriate processes (objects and clients ) on the designated nodes. Payoff for Developers Performance: The allocation tool directly addresses...the relationship between a particular Unit of Distribution and the Processor to which it has been assigned for execution. Finally, note that Client (a

  9. Pepita Talks Twice = Pepita habla dos veces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachtman, Ofelia Dumas

    This illustrated bilingual children's book (English and Spanish), relates the story of Pepita, a young Hispanic girl who is fluent in both Spanish and English. Pepita always helps when asked to talk for others in Spanish and English. But one day Pepita decides she doesn't want to help anymore. She wants to hurry and get home from school before her…

  10. DIGLIB. PC-DOS Graphics Subroutine Library

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, H.R.

    1989-02-01

    DIGLIB is a collection of general graphics subroutines. It was designed to be small, reasonably fast, and device-independent. The software is readily usable by casual programmers for two-dimensional plotting.

  11. Molecular Characterization of Human Pathogenic Bunyaviruses of the Nyando and Bwamba/Pongola Virus Groups Leads to the Genetic Identification of Mojuí dos Campos and Kaeng Khoi Virus

    PubMed Central

    Groseth, Allison; Mampilli, Veena; Weisend, Carla; Dahlstrom, Eric; Porcella, Stephen F.; Russell, Brandy J.; Tesh, Robert B.; Ebihara, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Background Human infection with Bwamba virus (BWAV) and the closely related Pongola virus (PGAV), as well as Nyando virus (NDV), are important causes of febrile illness in Africa. However, despite seroprevalence studies that indicate high rates of infection in many countries, these viruses remain relatively unknown and unstudied. In addition, a number of unclassified bunyaviruses have been isolated over the years often with uncertain relationships to human disease. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to better understand the genetic and evolutionary relationships among orthobunyaviruses associated with human disease, we have sequenced the complete genomes for all 3 segments of multiple strains of BWAV (n = 2), PGAV (n = 2) and NDV (n = 4), as well as the previously unclassified Mojuí dos Campos (MDCV) and Kaeng Khoi viruses (KKV). Based on phylogenetic analysis, we show that these viruses populate 2 distinct branches, one made up of BWAV and PGAV and the other composed of NDV, MDCV and KKV. Interestingly, the NDV strains analyzed form two distinct clades which differed by >10% on the amino acid level across all protein products. In addition, the assignment of two bat-associated bunyaviruses into the NDV group, which is clearly associated with mosquito-borne infection, led us to analyze the ability of these different viruses to grow in bat (RE05 and Tb 1 Lu) and mosquito (C6/36) cell lines, and indeed all the viruses tested were capable of efficient growth in these cell types. Conclusions/Significance On the basis of our analyses, it is proposed to reclassify the NDV strains ERET147 and YM176-66 as a new virus species. Further, our analysis definitively identifies the previously unclassified bunyaviruses MDCV and KKV as distinct species within the NDV group and suggests that these viruses may have a broader host range than is currently appreciated. PMID:25188437

  12. Impact of natural climate change and historical land use on vegetation cover and geomorphological process dynamics in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehren, U.; Sattler, D.; Heinrich, J.

    2010-03-01

    The Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in the hinterland of Rio de Janeiro contains extensive remnants of the Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) biome, which once covered about 1.5 million km² from Northeast to South Brazil and further inland to Paraguay and Argentina. As a result of historical deforestation and recent land use intensification processes today only 5 to 8% of the original Atlantic Forest remains. Despite the dramatic habitat loss and a high degree of forest fragmentation, the remnants are among the Earth’s most diverse habitats in terms of species richness. Furthermore, they are characterized by a high level of endemism. Therefore, the biome is considered a "hotspot of biodiversity". In the last years many efforts have been taken to investigate the Mata Atlântica biome in different spatial and time scales and from different scientific perspectives. We are working in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro since 2004 and focus in our research particularly on Quaternary landscape evolution and landscape history. By means of landscape and soil archives we reconstruct changes in the landscape system, which are mainly the result of Quaternary climate variability, young tectonic uplift and human impact. The findings throw light on paleoecological conditions in the Late Quaternary and the impact of pre-colonial and colonial land use practices on these landscapes. In this context, a main focus is set on climate and human-driven changes of the vegetation cover and its consequences for the geomorphological process dynamics, in particular erosion and sedimentation processes. Research methods include geomorphological field studies, interpretation of satellite images, physical and chemical sediment and soil analyses as well as relative and absolute dating (Feo/Fed ratio and 14C dating). For the Late Quaternary landscape evolution, the findings are compared with results from paleoclimatic and paloecological investigations in Southeast and South Brazil using other

  13. El medio interestelar en los alrededores de la region HII Sh2-183

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cichowolski, S.; Cappa, C. E.; Blanco, A.; Eppens, L.; Ertini, K.; Leiva, M. M.

    2017-10-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the HII region Sh2-183, located at (,) = (123.3,+3.0) at a distance of 7.0 1.5 kpc from the Sun. Based on the radio continuum data we estimated the amount of ionized gas, the electronic density, and the number of ionizing photons needed to keep the region ionized, which is important since the star/s responsible of the region was/were not detected yet. On the other hand, based on IRAS data we have analyzed the dust temperature and distribution. The Hi line data allowed the detection of a shell-like structure surrounding the ionized gas and the CO data revealed the presence of 6 molecular clouds probably related to Sh2-183, which harbor several young stellar object candidates.

  14. Vinculación entre varios cúmulos estelares y estructuras del medio interestelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corti, M. A.; Baume, G. L.; Panei, J. A.; Suad, L. A.; Testori, J. C.; Borissova, J.; Kurtev, R.; Chené, A. N.; Ramirez Alegría, S.

    2015-08-01

    We study the embedded clusters DBS77, 78, 102, 160, and 161 located in the Galactic plane in the fourth quadrant of the Milky Way and the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). We analyzed UBVIc photometry (SOAR) and infrared spectroscopy (NTT, ESO). We complemented these data with JHK (VVV2MASS), HI 21 cm bands (SGPS), 1.4 GHz (ATCA), and 4.85 GHz (PMN). We did multiband analysis and spectral classification of the brightest stars in each area. We also identified the ISM structures possibly related to the clusters. Finally, we obtained the main parameters of the studied clusters, the structures of the ISM and the link between them.

  15. Estrellas Wolf-Rayet y el medio interestelar: huellas de una fuerte interacción

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cichowolski, S.; Arnal, E. M.

    Se presentan resultados observacionales de un estudio de la distribución de hidrógeno neutro en los alrededores de estrellas Wolf-Rayet (WR) galácticas. Los datos de la línea de 21 cm provienen de observaciones de resolución angular intermedia (9') tomadas con el radiotelescopio de Effelsberg. La muestra está compuesta por cuatro WR de la serie del nitrógeno (WN): WR130, WR131, WR155, WR156 y tres WR de la serie del carbono (WC): WR154, WR117 y WR126. Este análisis ha permitido detectar cavidades y envolturas de HI en expansión presumiblemente vinculadas a dichas estrellas.

  16. Seminario latinoamericano de didactica de los medios audiovisuales (Latin American Seminar on Teaching with Audiovisual Aids).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eduplan Informa, 1971

    1971-01-01

    This seminar on the use of audiovisual aids reached several conclusions on the need for and the use of such aids in Latin America. The need for educational innovation in the face of a new society, a new type of communication, and a new vision of man is stressed. A new definition of teaching and learning as a fundamental process of communication is…

  17. In medio stat virtus: theoretical and methodological extremes regarding reciprocity will not explain complex social behaviors.

    PubMed

    Civai, Claudia; Langus, Alan

    2012-02-01

    Guala contests the validity of strong reciprocity as a key element in shaping social behavior by contrasting evidence from experimental games to that of natural and historic data. He suggests that in order to understand the evolution of social behavior researchers should focus on natural data and weak reciprocity. We disagree with Guala's proposal to shift the focus of the study from one extreme of the spectrum (strong reciprocity) to the other extreme (weak reciprocity). We argue that the study of the evolution of social behavior must be comparative in nature, and we point out experimental evidence that shows that social behavior is not cooperation determined by a set of fixed factors. We argue for a model that sees social behavior as a dynamic interaction of genetic and environmental factors.

  18. Amazonian Triatomine Biodiversity and the Transmission of Chagas Disease in French Guiana: In Medio Stat Sanitas.

    PubMed

    Péneau, Julie; Nguyen, Anne; Flores-Ferrer, Alheli; Blanchet, Denis; Gourbière, Sébastien

    2016-02-01

    The effects of biodiversity on the transmission of infectious diseases now stand as a cornerstone of many public health policies. The upper Amazonia and Guyana shield are hot-spots of biodiversity that offer genuine opportunities to explore the relationship between the risk of transmission of Chagas disease and the diversity of its triatomine vectors. Over 730 triatomines were light-trapped in four geomorphological landscapes shaping French-Guiana, and we determined their taxonomic status and infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. We used a model selection approach to unravel the spatial and temporal variations in species abundance, diversity and infection. The vector community in French-Guiana is typically made of one key species (Panstrongylus geniculatus) that is more abundant than three secondary species combined (Rhodnius pictipes, Panstrongylus lignarius and Eratyrus mucronatus), and four other species that complete the assemblage. Although the overall abundance of adult triatomines does not vary across French-Guiana, their diversity increases along a coastal-inland gradient. These variations unravelled a non-monotonic relationship between vector biodiversity and the risk of transmission of Chagas disease, so that intermediate biodiversity levels are associated with the lowest risks. We also observed biannual variations in triatomine abundance, representing the first report of a biannual pattern in the risk of Chagas disease transmission. Those variations were highly and negatively correlated with the average monthly rainfall. We discuss the implications of these patterns for the transmission of T. cruzi by assemblages of triatomine species, and for the dual challenge of controlling Amazonian vector communities that are made of both highly diverse and mostly intrusive species.

  19. Observando con Gemini desde el óptico al infrarrojo medio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, E. R.

    The Gemini Observatory consists of twin 8.1 meter telescopes capable to observe the entire sky in the optical and infrared. Located in one the best observing sites in the planet: Mauna Kea in Hawaii and Cerro Pachón in Chile, both telescopes are equipped with a number of very complex instru- ments designed to obtain high quality science data for the Gemini commu- nity. In this contribution I present a summary of the observing capabilities of the telescopes, their instrumentation and future development. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  20. Maternal uterine natural killer cells nurture fetal growth: in medio stat virtus.

    PubMed

    Colucci, Francesco; Kieckbusch, Jens

    2015-02-01

    Much research in reproductive immunology is preoccupied with maternal tolerance of the semi-allogeneic fetus. This inevitably leads to the assumption that the maternal immune system should be suppressed, similarly to the immunosuppression needed to avoid rejection of an allograft. However, the parallels with transplantation immunology are misleading, and we discuss how interactions between variable immune system genes expressed on maternal natural killer (NK) cells and on the fetal trophoblast modulate fetal growth. Exaggerated suppression or activation of maternal NK cells associates with both extremes of birth weight. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. La Socializacion Linguistica en un Medio Bilingue (Linguistic Socialization within a Bilingual Context).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Amalio

    1980-01-01

    In order to arrive at a better theory of linguistic socialization, the study examined the relationship of the language of socialization, the content of the communication and the social reality in which socialization takes place by administering a questionnaire to 31 Mexican American mothers. (Author/SB)

  2. Amplitude effects of medio-lateral mechanical and visual perturbations on gait.

    PubMed

    Terry, Kevin; Sinitski, Emily H; Dingwell, Jonathan B; Wilken, Jason M

    2012-07-26

    Falls during walking are a major contributor to accidental deaths and injuries that can result in debilitating hospitalization costs, lost productivity, and diminished quality of life. To reduce these losses, we must develop a more profound understanding of the characteristic responses to perturbations similar to those encountered in daily life. This study addresses this issue by building on our earlier studies that examined mechanical and visual perturbations in the same environment by applying the same continuous pseudo-random perturbations at multiple (3 mechanical, 5 visual) amplitudes. Walking variability during mechanical perturbations increased significantly with amplitude for all subjects and differences as measured by variabilities of step width, COM position, and COM velocity. These parameters were the only ones sensitive to the presence of visual perturbations, but none of them changed significantly with perturbation amplitude. Additionally, visual perturbation effects were far less consistent across participants, with several who were essentially unaffected by visual perturbations at any level. The homogeneity of the mechanical perturbation effects demonstrates that human responses to mechanical perturbations are similar because they are driven by kinetics that require similar corrections that must be made in order to maintain balance. Conversely, responses to visual perturbations are driven by the perceived need to make corrections and this perception is not accurate enough to produce amplitude-related corrections, even for a single participant, nor is this perception consistent across individuals. This latter finding is likely to be relevant to future visual perturbation studies and the diagnosis and rehabilitation of gait and balance disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sh2-206: medio interestelar y formación estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, M. C.; Cappa, C. E.

    The analysis of the interstellar matter around the HII region Sh2-206 shows extended emission in a region of more than 30 pc from the optical nebula detected both in the radio continuum and in the far IR. The distribution of dust, atomic and molecular gas, is compatible with the fact that the nebula is density bounded towards the east, and ionization bounded towards the south and west. This region is consistent with the champagne model. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  4. [Reconsideration of psychomotor seizure--importance of medio-dorsal thalmic nucleus].

    PubMed

    Murasaki, Mitsukuni

    2007-01-01

    Recently, to my regret, the opportunities for psychiatrists to join in clinical and experimental activities to combat epilepsy are decreasing. In the period of 1960-1980, experimental epileptology was one of the main areas in the field of psychiatry. Now, I have been given an opportunity to reevaluate my paper, entitled "Role of the Mediodorsal Thalamic Nucleus in Temporal Lobe Seizures--An Experimental Study", published in this journal in 1968. Therefore, I would like to reconsider psychomotor seizures, which are classified as complex partial seizures at present. The psychomotor seizures mentioned above are so-called amygdalo hippocampal seizures. At first, I was very much interested in the amygdala and hippocampus, because these seizures are quite similar to psychomotor seizures which are clinically observed in epileptics. I observed a lot of important phenomena. A amygdaloid and hippocampal seizures are quite different from each other, both regarding their behavior and EEG findings which are observed during the attacks. Hippocampal seizures consisted of staring in the arrest reaction. On the contrary, amygdaloid seizures showed typical automatisms, such as facial and behavioral automatisms. From these results, it was considered that the clinically observed psychomotor seizures began in the hippocampus and immediately induced the self-sustained amygdaloid seizures. In my experiments, I often observed that self-sustained amygdaloid seizures were easily induced by hippocampal seizures. Moreover, I noted the fact that stimulation of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus elicited both amygdaloid and hippocampal seizures. By means of stimulation and surgical interruption methods among the dorsomedial thalamic nucleus, amygdala, and hippocampus, I found that the dorsomedial thalamic nucleus plays the main role in amygdalo-hippocampal seizures. According to my experiments, the thalamic nucleus controls the limbic seizures. So, I concluded that the therapeutic approach to the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus is clinically very important. I think that, through these experimental studies, I could profoundly understand epilepsy itself and the development of seizure discharge in the brain, and put this understanding to good use in my clinical activities. It is my belief that experiments which are performed by clinicians field useful results which can be utilized clinically.

  5. Effects of temporal constraints on medio-lateral stability when negotiating obstacles.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Wataru; Fukaya, Takashi; Kanai, Yoshihide; Akizuki, Kazunori; Ohashi, Yukari

    2015-07-01

    If an obstacle suddenly appears during walking, either the crossing step can be lengthened or the precrossing step shortened to avoid the obstacle. We investigated the effects of temporal constraints on dynamic stability during step adjustments. Twelve healthy young adults avoided a virtual white planar obstacle by lengthening or shortening their steps under free or constrained conditions. When constrained, participants had only one step to avoid the obstacle. The results indicated that center of mass (COM) displacement in the mediolateral (ML) direction and the COM velocity toward the swing-leg side during the crossing step were significantly increased in the long-constraint compared with the long-free condition. Consequently, the extrapolated COM (XcoM) position at the swing foot contact was also located further toward the swing-leg side. However, the distances between the XcoM and base of support (BOS) at the swing foot contact in the ML direction was unchanged because of greater lateral foot placement. In the anteriorposterior (AP) direction, temporal constraints led to greater AP COM displacement. The XcoM-BOS distance in the AP direction was unchanged in the long-constraint condition because of greater step length. However, the value became negative in the short-constraint condition, violating the conditions for dynamic stability, because step length adjustments were obstructed by the spatial constraints of the obstacles. These results suggest that temporal constraints affect postural stability in the AP and ML directions during step adjustments. AP and ML stability at swing foot contact are maintained through adjustments of step length and lateral foot placement, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ensenando El Espanol por Medio de Accion (Teaching Spanish through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level Spanish lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, individual…

  7. The controversy of patellar resurfacing in total knee arthroplasty: Ibisne in medio tutissimus?

    PubMed

    Schindler, Oliver S

    2012-07-01

    Early arthroplasty designs were associated with a high level of anterior knee pain as they failed to cater for the patello-femoral joint. Patellar resurfacing was heralded as the saviour safeguarding patient satisfaction and success but opinion on its necessity has since deeply divided the scientific community and has become synonymous to topics of religion or politics. Opponents of resurfacing contend that the native patella provides better patellar tracking, improved clinical function, and avoids implant-related complications, whilst proponents argue that patients have less pain, are overall more satisfied, and avert the need for secondary resurfacing. The question remains whether complications associated with patellar resurfacing including those arising from future component revision outweigh the somewhat increased incidence of anterior knee pain recorded in unresurfaced patients. The current scientific literature, which is often affected by methodological limitations and observer bias, remains confusing as it provides evidence in support of both sides of the argument, whilst blinded satisfaction studies comparing resurfaced and non-resurfaced knees generally reveal equivalent results. Even national arthroplasty register data show wide variations in the proportion of patellar resurfacing between countries that cannot be explained by cultural differences alone. Advocates who always resurface or never resurface indiscriminately expose the patella to a random choice. Selective resurfacing offers a compromise by providing a decision algorithm based on a propensity for improved clinical success, whilst avoiding potential complications associated with unnecessary resurfacing. Evidence regarding the validity of selection criteria, however, is missing, and the decision when to resurface is often based on intuitive reasoning. Our lack of understanding why, irrespective of pre-operative symptoms and patellar resurfacing, some patients may suffer pain following TKA and others may not have so far stifled our efforts to make the strategy of selective resurfacing succeed. We should hence devote our efforts in defining predictive criteria and indicators that will enable us to reliably identify those individuals who might benefit from a resurfacing procedure. Level of evidence V.

  8. La interacción de estrellas WN con el medio circundante

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, M.; Cappa, C.; Rizzo, J. R.; Cichovolski, S.

    Se presentan resultados preliminares de un estudio de la distribución del hidrógeno neutro en los alrededores de estrellas WR de la serie del nitrógeno. Los datos observacionales de la línea de 21 cm provienen de un relevamineto de baja resolución angular (36'), así como de observaciones de resolución angular intermedia (9') tomadas con el radiotelescopio de Effelsberg. Este análisis ha permitido detectar cavidades y envolturas de H I en expansión vinculadas a las estrellas que componen la muestra.

  9. World bank and the environment. Progress report. Banco mundial y el medio ambiente

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The second annual report describes specific environmental strategies and environmental lending in the Bank's four operational regions: Africa; Asia; Europe, Middle East, and North Africa; and Latin America and the Caribbean. It details the Bank's progress in eight environmental categories: energy and the environment, pollution, urban environment, water resources management, forest and land management, social and cultural, environmental economics, and the global environment. One chapter is devoted exclusively to tropical forests, studying ways in which the Bank is dealing with deforestation as a part of the constant review of its forest policies. Suggestions are made for decreasing the degradation of tropical forests while meeting demands for forest products. This chapter reflects a shift in Bank emphasis from commercial ventures to conservation measures. The publication reports on other initiatives by the Bank during fiscal 1991, including the launching of the Global Environment Facility (GEF)--a pilot program to oversee reduction of global warming, preservation of biological diversity, protection of international waters, and prevention of ozone depletion.

  10. Estandares: El medio ambiente de las politicas (Standards: The Policy Environment). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadderman, Margaret

    This digest in Spanish offers a snapshot of the standards movement: its origins, the definitions of standards and which ones matter, its successes at the district and state levels, the backlash against the movement, and possible policy directions. While a broad coalition of constituencies has embraced standards-based reform as a means of improving…

  11. Amazonian Triatomine Biodiversity and the Transmission of Chagas Disease in French Guiana: In Medio Stat Sanitas

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Ferrer, Alheli; Blanchet, Denis; Gourbière, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    The effects of biodiversity on the transmission of infectious diseases now stand as a cornerstone of many public health policies. The upper Amazonia and Guyana shield are hot-spots of biodiversity that offer genuine opportunities to explore the relationship between the risk of transmission of Chagas disease and the diversity of its triatomine vectors. Over 730 triatomines were light-trapped in four geomorphological landscapes shaping French-Guiana, and we determined their taxonomic status and infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. We used a model selection approach to unravel the spatial and temporal variations in species abundance, diversity and infection. The vector community in French-Guiana is typically made of one key species (Panstrongylus geniculatus) that is more abundant than three secondary species combined (Rhodnius pictipes, Panstrongylus lignarius and Eratyrus mucronatus), and four other species that complete the assemblage. Although the overall abundance of adult triatomines does not vary across French-Guiana, their diversity increases along a coastal-inland gradient. These variations unravelled a non-monotonic relationship between vector biodiversity and the risk of transmission of Chagas disease, so that intermediate biodiversity levels are associated with the lowest risks. We also observed biannual variations in triatomine abundance, representing the first report of a biannual pattern in the risk of Chagas disease transmission. Those variations were highly and negatively correlated with the average monthly rainfall. We discuss the implications of these patterns for the transmission of T. cruzi by assemblages of triatomine species, and for the dual challenge of controlling Amazonian vector communities that are made of both highly diverse and mostly intrusive species. PMID:26867025

  12. La Socializacion Linguistica en un Medio Bilingue (Linguistic Socialization within a Bilingual Context).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Amalio

    1980-01-01

    In order to arrive at a better theory of linguistic socialization, the study examined the relationship of the language of socialization, the content of the communication and the social reality in which socialization takes place by administering a questionnaire to 31 Mexican American mothers. (Author/SB)

  13. [Cribra orbitalia (Porotic hyperostosis) in a prehistoric population of Parana Medio].

    PubMed

    Cornero, Silvia; Puche, Rodolfo C

    2002-01-01

    The observation of porotic hyperostosis in the orbits (criba orbitalia) in bone remains of a funeral site at the north of the Santa Fe province strongly suggests the occurrence of severe anemia among dwellers. Intestinal parasitosis (by Ancylostoma duodenalis or Necator americanus) is deemed the most likely cause of the anemia.

  14. Maternal thyroid dysfunction during gestation, preterm delivery, and birthweight. The Infancia y Medio Ambiente Cohort, Spain.

    PubMed

    León, Gemma; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Álvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Castilla, Ane M; Basterrechea, Mikel; Iñiguez, Carmen; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Blarduni, Elizabeth; Foradada, Carles M; Tardón, Adonina; Vioque, Jesús

    2015-03-01

    Maternal clinical thyroid disorders can cause reproductive complications. However, the effects of mild thyroid dysfunctions are not yet well established. The aim was to evaluate the association of maternal thyroid function during the first half of pregnancy with birthweight and preterm delivery. We analysed data on 2170 pregnant women and their children from a prospective population-based cohort study in four Spanish areas. Mid-gestation maternal serum and urine samples were gathered to determine thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4 ), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Thyroid status was defined according to percentile distribution as: euthyroid (TSH and fT4 >5th and <95th percentiles); hypothyroxinaemia (fT4  < 5 th percentile and TSH normal), hypothyroidism (TSH > 95th percentile and fT4 normal or <5th percentile), hyperthyroxinaemia (fT4  > 95 th percentile and TSH normal), and hyperthyroidism (TSH < 5 th percentile and fT4 normal or >95th percentile). Response variables were birthweight, small and large for gestational age (SGA/LGA), and preterm delivery. An inverse association of fT4 and TSH with birthweight was found, the former remaining when restricted to euthyroid women. High fT4 levels were also associated with an increased risk of SGA [odds ratio, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28 (95% CI 1.08, 1.51)]. Mean birthweight was higher in the hypothyroxinaemic group (β = 109, P < 0.01). Iodine intake and UIC were not associated with birth outcomes. High maternal fT4 levels during the first half of pregnancy were related to lower birthweight and increased risk of SGA newborns, suggesting that maternal thyroid function may affect fetal growth, even within the normal range. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Ensenando El Espanol por Medio de Accion (Teaching Spanish through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level Spanish lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, individual…

  16. ANÁLISE DA INSERÇÃO DOS TEMAS DE HUMANIDADES E ÉTICA, COM METODOLOGIA DE APRENDIZAGEM BASEADA EM PROBLEMAS, EM CURRICULO MÉDICO INTEGRADO EM ESCOLA PÚBLICA NO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando; Silveira, Carla; Guiotti, Murilo

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Realizar uma análise da inserção da ética e humanidades no currículo do Curso de Medicina da Escola Superior em Ciências da Saúde - ESCS, escola pública do Distrito Federal, Brasil, de forma a contribuir com o processo de gestão curricular. Metodologia O Estudo é de coorte e documental. Foram pesquisados 37 termos relacionados à ética e 36 referentes à humanização nos objetivos educacionais e conteúdo dos módulos temáticos, habilidades e atitudes e interação ensino-serviço-comunidade, de 1a a 4a série e no programa do internato no currículo (ano 2006) e no projeto pedagógico do Curso de Medicina (2001). Resultados Maior inserção da humanização, ética e bioética na 1a e 2a série, quando comparado à inserção na 3a e 4a série e no internato, (IC95%-α=0,034, pvalue=0,007). Unidade de habilidades e atitudes: freqüência das 3 temáticas no currículo da 1a a 4a séries (IC95%-α=0,026, pvalue=0,013). Quando comparada a inserção entre o internato e as quatro primeiras séries, observa-se que nestas a inserção da temática humanização é superior (IC95%-α=0,042, pvalue=0,029). Conclusão O currículo desenvolvido no ano de 2006 na ESCS apresentou correlação com o projeto pedagógico do curso e contemplou a temática de forma abrangente, em todas as séries e internato. PMID:20396594

  17. Screening for pulmonary tuberculosis in Teresópolis, RJ, Brazil: the search for respiratory symptomatic patients in emergency service of "Hospital das Clínicas de Teresópolis Costantino Ottaviano, Fundação Educacional Serra dos Orgãos".

    PubMed

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Bisaglia, Joana B; Borlot, Paulo Estevão W; D'avila Junior, Heraldo X; Faria, Carolina Gonçalves P P de; Braga, Bernardo D; Bezerra, Tiago S; Cedrola, Juan Pedro V; Almeida, Guilherme C; Couto, Lílian S; Nacif, Marcelo; Crivano, Elvira

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the detection percentage of tuberculosis among patients that are respiratory symptomatic (TB suspects). In this work, we present the preliminary results of research carried out at "Hospital das Clínicas de Teresópolis Costantino Ottaviano da Fundacao Educacional Serra dos Orgãos (FESO)" from November 2003 to April 2004. Among the 40 respiratory symptomatic individuals identified and referred to the Tuberculosis Control Program in Teresópolis , two (5.0%) were characterized as smear-positive. These results confirm reports in the literature and underscore the need for and importance of this strategy.

  18. The world bank and the environment, exercise 1992. Annual report. Banco mundial y el medio ambiente, ejercicio de 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The report describes the Bank's activities in assisting countries with environmental management, such as programs to reduce poverty without exhausting natural resources. Included are assessments of the environmental impacts of projects supported by World Bank loans, and accounts of efforts to meet global environmental challenges with coordinated international action through the Global Environment Facility (GEF). Among the events in the period covered by the report are the affirmation of the World Bank's participation with United Nations organizations in the GEF and the Bank's administration of pilot programs aimed at finding solutions to such global environmental problems as pollution of international waters, global warming, depletion of the Earth's ozone layer, and dwindling biological diversity; the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development; and the publication of the World Development Report 1992, with its theme of development and the environment.

  19. Structure and dynamics of ecosystems during the recent glaciations of the Quaternary in Medio-European and Mediterranean areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrieu-Ponel, Valerie

    2010-05-01

    The ecological interpretation of pollen data from last glacial times in Western Europe remains difficult, probably because well preserved and continuous records are scarce and often analysed in low resolution (both chronologically and taxonomically). Moreover datings older than 40 ka are questionable. Another crucial point is the lack of modern ecosystems analogues, even at high latitude or high altitude. Lastly, the diversity of depositional environments (lacustrine, fluviatile, eolian) of glacial pollen archives contribute to blur the ecological and climatic signal. We present here the results of recent high time resolution analyses (pollen, geochemical markers) from the glacial section (OIS 4, 3 and 2) of the EC1 lacustrine sequence of Les Echets (foothill of the French Alps, alt. 267 m.). The biological and geochemical data testify to the strong climate instability during the last glaciation, marked with an alternance of 1) cold phases characterized by an arctico-boreal vegetation made of grasslands with Poaceae, Artemisia and various steppic herbs, 2) less cold phases, characterized by the return of open forests of taïga type, dominated by Pinus, Betula and Juniperus. The age model obtained from the glacial section of EC1 (Wolhfarth and al., 2008) enables to date the biological events recorded in this continental sequence, using a chronology independent of those acquired in marine or polar cores. The duration of these events is also estimated. This sketch needs of course to be discussed in the light of future new chronologies proposed for the same period from new continental lacustrine sequences. The comparison of pollen records of Les Echets with other european glacial sequences shows that during the "warmest" periods of the last glaciation (OIS3, Middle Würm), deciduous and sclerophyllous forest persisted in the Mediterranean regions.

  20. Índices de color en el infrarrojo cercano y medio de enanas blancas con y sin discos de escombros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saker, L.; Gómez, M.; Chavero C.

    2015-08-01

    In this contribution we use different color indices in near and mid infrared (IR) to identify white dwarfs (WDs) with and without debris disks. To this aim, we employ magnitudes from WISE and 2MASS for a sample of 41 EBs with disks and other 52 objects without evidence of disks, but with similar stellar properties as the first group. For each of the analyzed color-color diagrams (W1W2 vs. W1W3, HW1 vs. JH) we define regions in which EBs with or without disks are located preferably. The usefulness of the color indices, particularly in WISE bands, to select candidates EBs with disks is discussed. Also, we investigate possible correlations between the color indices and other properties of stars, such as metal abundances.

  1. Structural covariance mapping delineates medial and medio-lateral temporal networks in déjà vu.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel Joel; Mareček, Radek; Brázdil, Milan

    2016-12-01

    Déjà vu (DV) is an eerie phenomenon experienced frequently as an aura of temporal lobe epilepsy, but also reported commonly by healthy individuals. The former pathological manifestation appears to result from aberrant neural activity among brain structures within the medial temporal lobes. Recent studies also implicate medial temporal brain structures in the non-pathological experience of DV, but as one element of a diffuse neuroanatomical correlate; it remains to be seen if neural activity among the medial temporal lobes also underlies this benign manifestation. The present study set out to investigate this. Due to its unpredictable and infrequent occurrence, however, non-pathological DV does not lend itself easily to functional neuroimaging. Instead, we draw on research showing that brain structure covaries among regions that interact frequently as nodes of functional networks. Specifically, we assessed whether grey-matter covariance among structures implicated in non-pathological DV differs according to the frequency with which the phenomenon is experienced. This revealed two diverging patterns of structural covariation: Among the first, comprised primarily of medial temporal structures and the caudate, grey-matter volume becomes more positively correlated with higher frequency of DV experience. The second pattern encompasses medial and lateral temporal structures, among which greater DV frequency is associated with more negatively correlated grey matter. Using a meta-analytic method of co-activation mapping, we demonstrate a higher probability of functional interactions among brain structures constituting the former pattern, particularly during memory-related processes. Our findings suggest that altered neural signalling within memory-related medial temporal brain structures underlies both pathological and non-pathological DV.

  2. Estrellas Be: diagnóstico del medio circunestelar mediante líneas de H del IR cercano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granada, A.; Arias, M. L.; Cidale, L. S.; Mennickent, R. E.

    We describe the behavior of the IR emission lines that appear in the K and L band spectra of Be stars and discuss the physical properties of the circum- stellar envelopes based on the classification scheme proposed by Mennick- ent et al. (2009). We found that for stars of Group I, Pfund and Humphreys lines form in an optical thick region, while for Group II stars, Humphreys lines form in optically thinner regions. The transition between Groups I and II could be interpreted in terms of the evolution of the circumstellar disc. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  3. Reduction of hip joint reaction force via medio-lateral foot center of pressure manipulation in bilateral hip osteoarthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Solomonow-Avnon, Deborah; Haim, Amir; Levin, Daniel; Elboim-Gabyzon, Michal; Rozen, Nimrod; Peled, Eli; Wolf, Alon

    2016-10-01

    Loading/excessive loading of the hip joint has been linked to onset and progression of hip osteoarthritis. Footwear-generated biomechanical manipulation in the frontal plane has been previously shown in a cohort of healthy subjects to cause a specific gait adaption when the foot center of pressure trajectory was shifted medially, which thereby significantly reduced hip joint reaction force. The objective of the present study was to validate these results in a cohort of female bilateral hip osteoarthritis patients. Sixteen patients underwent gait analysis while using a footworn biomechanical device, allowing controlled foot center of pressure manipulation, in three para-sagittal configurations: medial, lateral, and neutral. Hip osteoarthritis patients exhibited similar results to those observed in healthy subjects in that a medial center of pressure led to an increase in inter-maleolar distance while step width (i.e., distance between right and left foot center of pressure) remained constant. This adaptation, which we speculate subjects adopt to maintain base of support, was associated with significantly greater hip abduction, significantly decreased hip adduction moment, and significantly reduced joint reaction force compared to the neutral and lateral configurations. Recommendations for treatment of hip osteoarthritis emphasize reduction of loads on the pathological joint(s) during daily activities and especially in gait. Our results show that a medially deviated center of pressure causes a reduction in hip joint reaction force. The present study does not prove, but rather suggests, clinical significance, and further investigation is required to assess clinical implications. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1762-1771, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. GS118+0144: una supercáscara de H I con contrapartida en el IR medio y lejano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suad, L. A.; Cichowolski, S.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Arnal, E. M.; Testori, J. C.; Flagey, N.

    2016-08-01

    GS118+0144 is a supershell detected in the neutral hydrogen (H i) emission distribution, centred at ()=(117.7, 1.4) with a systemic velocity of kms, an effective radius of pc, and it is located at a distance of kpc from the Sun. The total gaseous mass associated with the supershell is M, and its kinetic energy is erg. Using mid- and far-infrared data a good morphological coincidence with the H i structure was detected indicating that the dust components coexist with the gas. Carrying out infrared fluxes measurements at different far-infrared bands the dust associated with this structure could be characterized and it was concluded that cool temperatures dominate the area of the supershell.

  5. The medio-basal hypothalamus as a dynamic and plastic reproduction-related kisspeptin-gnrh-pituitary center in fish.

    PubMed

    Zmora, Nilli; Stubblefield, John; Golan, Matan; Servili, Arianna; Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Zohar, Yonathan

    2014-05-01

    Kisspeptin regulates reproductive events, including puberty and ovulation, primarily via GnRH neurons. Prolonged treatment of prepubertal striped bass females with kisspeptin (Kiss) 1 or Kiss2 peptides failed to enhance puberty but suggested a gnrh-independent pituitary control pathway. Kiss2 inhibited, but Kiss1 stimulated, FShβ expression and gonadal development, although hypophysiotropic gnrh1 and gnrh receptor expression remained unchanged. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry on brains and pituitaries revealed a differential plasticity between the 2 kisspeptin neurons. The differences were most pronounced at the prespawning phase in 2 regions along the path of gnrh1 axons: the nucleus lateralis tuberis (NLT) and the neurohypophysis. Kiss1 neurons appeared in the NLT and innervated the neurohypophysis of prespawning males and females, reaching Lh gonadotropes in the proximal pars distalis. Males, at all reproductive stages, had Kiss2 innervations in the NLT and the neurohypophysis, forming large axonal bundles in the former and intermingling with gnrh1 axons. Unlike in males, only preovulatory females had massive NLT-neurohypophysis staining of kiss2. Kiss2 neurons showed a distinct appearance in the NLT pars ventralis-equivalent region only in spawning zebrafish, indicating that this phenomenon is widespread. These results underscore the NLT as important nuclei for kisspeptin action in 2 facets: 1) kisspeptin-gnrh interaction, both kisspeptins are involved in the regulation of gnrh release, in a stage- and sex-dependent manner, especially at the prespawning phase; and 2) gnrh-independent effect of Kiss peptides on the pituitary, which together with the plastic nature of their neuronal projections to the pituitary implies that a direct gonadotropic regulation is plausible.

  6. Effects of medio-lateral postural perturbation induced by voluntary arm raising on the biomechanical organization of rapid step initiation.

    PubMed

    Yiou, Eric; Do, Manh-Cuong

    2011-10-01

    This study examined how the central nervous system organizes mediolateral (ML) "anticipatory postural adjustments" (APAs) for stepping initiation (SI) to take into account the postural perturbation induced by voluntary lateral arm raising. Subjects purposely stepped in isolation ("isolated stepping") or in combination with lateral raising of dominant arm ("motor sequence"). SI was carried out with the leg ipsilateral or controlateral to raising arm. Results showed that APA amplitude increased from "ipsilateral isolated stepping" to "ipsilateral sequence", but did not change in conditions involving controlateral leg; ML instability increased from "ipsilateral isolated stepping" to "ipsilateral sequence", but decreased from "controlateral isolated stepping" to "controlateral sequence". These changes were exacerbated when inertia was added at the hand during raising. These results suggest that APAs for SI are globally scaled as a function of the biomechanical consequences of forthcoming arm movement on ML postural stability.

  7. Medical and Medio-social Measures for the Health Protection of Mothers and Young Children in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Roy; Evans, Patricia G.

    1983-01-01

    Provides English translation of a French study of legislation and programs providing preventive medical and social services to pregnant women and young children. Discussed are legislative objectives and organizational levels, strategies and modes of executive action, the contribution of social security to medical protection for mother and child,…

  8. How the brain predicts people's behavior in relation to rules and desires. Evidence of a medio-prefrontal dissociation.

    PubMed

    Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Corrado; Turri, Francesco; Kaufmann, Laurence; Clément, Fabrice; Schwartz, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    Forming and updating impressions about others is critical in everyday life and engages portions of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC), the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the amygdala. Some of these activations are attributed to "mentalizing" functions necessary to represent people's mental states, such as beliefs or desires. Evolutionary psychology and developmental studies, however, suggest that interpersonal inferences can also be obtained through the aid of deontic heuristics, which dictate what must (or must not) be done in given circumstances. We used fMRI and asked 18 participants to predict whether unknown characters would follow their desires or obey external rules. Participants had no means, at the beginning, to make accurate predictions, but slowly learned (throughout the experiment) each character's behavioral profile. We isolated brain regions whose activity changed during the experiment, as a neural signature of impression updating: whereas dMPFC was progressively more involved in predicting characters' behavior in relation to their desires, the medial orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala were progressively more recruited in predicting rule-based behavior. Our data provide evidence of a neural dissociation between deontic inference and theory-of-mind (ToM), and support a differentiation of orbital and dorsal prefrontal cortex in terms of low- and high-level social cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Medical and Medio-social Measures for the Health Protection of Mothers and Young Children in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Roy; Evans, Patricia G.

    1983-01-01

    Provides English translation of a French study of legislation and programs providing preventive medical and social services to pregnant women and young children. Discussed are legislative objectives and organizational levels, strategies and modes of executive action, the contribution of social security to medical protection for mother and child,…

  10. Interacciones de galaxias en medios de diferente densidad a partir del catálogo SDSS DR2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, M. S.; García Lambas, D.; Tissera, P.; Coldwell, G.

    From the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Data Release 2 (SDSS DR2), we construct a Catalog of 11274 pair galaxies with orbital parameters: rp< 100 kpc h-1 and Delta V < 350 km/sec. We analyze the star formation rate and colour indexes (u-r), (g-r) as a funcion of the orbital parameters in different environments. At low separation between pair members there is an important increase in the star formation activity and the fraction of blue colour indexes, which indicates that interactions are responsible of triggering SFR, increasing the young stellar population. The triggering of star formation by tidal torques seems to be more efficient in low density environments

  11. Reconnaissance evaluation of Honduran geothermal sites. Una evaluacion por medio de reconocimiento de seis areas geotermicas en Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.; Fakundiny, R.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-12-01

    Six geothermal spring sites were selected on the basis of preliminary investigations conducted in Honduras over the last decade and were evaluated in terms of their development potential. Of the six, the Platanares and San Ignacio sites have high base temperatures and high surface fluid discharge rates and appear to have the best potential for further development as sources of electrical power. A third site, Azacualpa, has a high enough base temperature and discharge rate to be considered as a back-up, but the logistical problems involved in geophysical surveys make it less attractive than the two primary sites. Of the remaining three sites, Pavana may be a source of direct-use heat for local agricultural processing. Sambo Creek and El Olivar have either severe logistical problems that would impede further investigation and development or base temperatures and flow rates that are too low to warrant detailed investigation at this time.

  12. Mellizas o medio hermanas? estudiando NGC 3258 y NGC 3268 a partir de sus cúmulos globulares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caso, J. P.; Bassino, L. P.

    2017-10-01

    This work presents preliminary results of the globular cluster systems in both giant ellipticals in the Antlia cluster. This partially new dataset spans a larger field-of-view than previous studies. We also study properties from the globular cluster systems in the context of recent results.

  13. En otras palabras: Perfeccionamiento del espanol por medio de la traduccion (In Other Words: Perfecting Spanish Language Skills through Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Patricia V.; Lunsford, Ernest J.

    This publication, written primarily in Spanish, is an activity book designed to teach Spanish through translation based on the theory that, in order to produce an acceptable translation, students must focus their attention on lexical and grammatical detail. The book combines incisive grammar explanations, relevant lexical information, and a wide…

  14. Life Support Systems. Environment Booklet 1. Teacher's Edition=Sistemas vitales. Libro del medio ambiente 1. Manual para El Maestro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    The booklet is part of a grade 10-12 social studies series produced for bilingual education. The series consists of six major thematic modules, with four to five booklets in each. The interdisciplinary modules are based on major ideas and designed to help students understand some major human problems and make sound, responsive decisions to improve…

  15. Urban Ecosystems. Environment Booklet 4. Teacher's Edition =Ecosist urbanos. Libro del medio ambiente 4. Manual para El Maestro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    The booklet is part of a grade 10-12 social studies series produced for bilingual education. The series consists of six major thematic modules, with four to five booklets in each. The interdisciplinary modules are based on major ideas and are designed to help students understand some major human problems and make sound, responsive decisions to…

  16. Conservation, Pollution. Environment Booklet 3. Teacher's Edition=Conservacion, contaminacion. Libro del medio ambiente 3. Manual para El Maestro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    The booklet is part of a grade 10-12 social studies series produced for bilingual education. The series consists of six major thematic modules, with four to five booklets in each. The interdisciplinary modules are based on major ideas and designed to help students understand some major human problems and make sound, responsive decisions to improve…

  17. En otras palabras: Perfeccionamiento del espanol por medio de la traduccion (In Other Words: Perfecting Spanish Language Skills through Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Patricia V.; Lunsford, Ernest J.

    This publication, written primarily in Spanish, is an activity book designed to teach Spanish through translation based on the theory that, in order to produce an acceptable translation, students must focus their attention on lexical and grammatical detail. The book combines incisive grammar explanations, relevant lexical information, and a wide…

  18. Exercise beyond menopause: Dos and Don’ts

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Nalini; Mishra, V. N.; Devanshi

    2011-01-01

    With a significant number of women belonging to the status of menopause and beyond, it is imperative to plan a comprehensive health program for them, including lifestyle modifications. Exercise is an integral part of the strategy. The benefits are many, most important being maintenance of muscle mass and thereby the bone mass and strength. The exercise program for postmenopausal women should include the endurance exercise (aerobic), strength exercise and balance exercise; it should aim for two hours and 30 minutes of moderate aerobic activity each week. Every woman should be aware of her target heart rate range and should track the intensity of exercise employing the talk test. Other deep breathing, yoga and stretching exercises can help to manage the stress of life and menopause-related symptoms. Exercises for women with osteoporosis should not include high impact aerobics or activities in which a fall is likely. The women and the treating medical practitioner should also be aware of the warning symptoms and contraindications regarding exercise prescription in women beyond menopause. The role of exercise in hot flashes, however, remains inconclusive. Overall, exercising beyond menopause is the only noncontroversial and beneficial aspect of lifestyle modification and must be opted by all. PMID:22408332

  19. Face mask ventilation--the dos and don'ts.

    PubMed

    Wood, Fiona E; Morley, Colin J

    2013-12-01

    Face mask ventilation provides respiratory support to newly born or sick infants. It is a challenging technique and difficult to ensure that an appropriate tidal volume is delivered because large and variable leaks occur between the mask and face; airway obstruction may also occur. Technique is more important than the mask shape although the size must appropriately fit the face. The essence of the technique is to roll the mask on to the face from the chin while avoiding the eyes, with a finger and thumb apply a strong even downward pressure to the top of the mask, away from the stem and sloped sides or skirt of the mask, place the other fingers under the jaw and apply a similar upward pressure. Preterm infants require continuous end-expiratory pressure to facilitate lung aeration and maintain lung volume. This is best done with a T-piece device, not a self-inflating or flow-inflating bag. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. ORAMUS(DOS). Ozone Risk AssessMent Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Whitfield, R.G.; Jusko, M.J.; Biller, W.F.

    1998-12-01

    ORAMUS is a user-friendly, menu-driven software system that calculates and displays user-selected risk estimates for health effects attributable to short-term exposure to tropospheric ozone. Inputs to the risk assessment are estimates of exposure to ozone and exposure-response relationships to produce overall risk estimates in the form of probability distributions. Three fundamental models are included: headcount risk, benchmark risk, and hospital admissions. Exposure-response relationships are based on results of controlled human exposure studies. Exposure estimates are based on the EPA`s probabilistic national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) exposure model, pNEM/Osub3, which simulates air quality associated with attainment of alternative NAAQS. Using ORAMUS, risk results for 27 air quality scenarios, air quality in 9 urban areas, 33 acute health endpoints, and 4 chronic health endpoints can be calculated.

  1. Los Dos Mundos: Rural Mexican Americans, Another America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Richard

    This book explores race relations between Mexican Americans and Anglo Americans in "Middlewest," a fictitious name for an actual rural Idaho community with the highest proportion of Mexican Americans in the state. Many Mexican Americans in this predominantly agricultural area are current or former migrant workers. The first chapter…

  2. Dos and Don'ts for a Fabulous Pedicure

    MedlinePlus

    ... stick under your nails. This helps keep your nails clean and removes the dirt, glitter, and other types of build-up you may not be able to see. Do bring your own pedicure utensils to the salon. Why? Because bacteria and fungus can move easily from one person to the ...

  3. Dos and don’ts in response priming research

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Filipp; Haberkamp, Anke; Schmidt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Response priming is a well-understood but sparsely employed paradigm in cognitive science. The method is powerful and well-suited for exploring early visuomotor processing in a wide range of tasks and research fields. Moreover, response priming can be dissociated from visual awareness, possibly because it is based on the first sweep of feedforward processing of primes and targets. This makes it a theoretically interesting device for separating conscious and unconscious vision. We discuss the major opportunities of the paradigm and give specific recommendations (e.g., tracing the time-course of priming in parametric experiments). Also, we point out typical confounds, design flaws, and data processing artifacts. PMID:22253674

  4. 48 CFR 632.702-70 - DOS policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... incremental funding of cost-reimbursement contracts. Fixed-price, labor-hour, and time-and-materials contracts... requirements office, justifying the need for incremental funding due to the unavailability of funds. ...

  5. Dos and Don'ts for Beginning Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Coleen

    1993-01-01

    Beginning teachers are advised to pace themselves; provide disciplinary options; learn to justify their teaching; be tolerant about student gripes; use the Socratic method to elicit thoughtful responses; refrain from killing discussion, solving students' personal problems, and insulting students' intelligence; listen to veteran teachers; begin…

  6. CRONUS, A Distributed Operating System: CRONUS DOS Implementation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This is the final report for the second contract phase for development of the CRONUS Project. CRONUS is the name given to the distributed operating...Force Rome Air Development Center (RADC). The project was begun in 1981. The CRONUS distributed operating system is intended to promote resources...remote data, to collections of complex subsystems tailored to take advantage of a distributed architecture. One of the main contributions of CRONUS is

  7. Treating rheumatic diseases in pregnancy: dos and don'ts

    PubMed Central

    Lockshin, M D

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a critical appraisal of the current evidence and recommendations regarding the use of pharmaceuticals and biologicals in pregnancy. Clinical experience is often at variance with published recommendations as studies have not taken into account the differences in physiology in the various stages of gestation and between animal and human pregnancies. Physicians should bear in mind that pregnancy causes disruption in several organ systems; the effects of an intervention may depend on the stage of gestation; and some effects of interventions in pregnancy may not manifest until adulthood. PMID:17038475

  8. Los Dos Mundos: Rural Mexican Americans, Another America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Richard

    This book explores race relations between Mexican Americans and Anglo Americans in "Middlewest," a fictitious name for an actual rural Idaho community with the highest proportion of Mexican Americans in the state. Many Mexican Americans in this predominantly agricultural area are current or former migrant workers. The first chapter…

  9. Dos and Don'ts for Beginning Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Coleen

    1993-01-01

    Beginning teachers are advised to pace themselves; provide disciplinary options; learn to justify their teaching; be tolerant about student gripes; use the Socratic method to elicit thoughtful responses; refrain from killing discussion, solving students' personal problems, and insulting students' intelligence; listen to veteran teachers; begin…

  10. Dos Hermanas Chicanas: Overcoming Barriers to Professional Advancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prospero, Moises

    2007-01-01

    Women and ethnic minorities face steep barriers to professional advancement, and those who rise to the executive level typically use a variety of strategies to overcome obstacles in their way. This study first reviewed the literature on barriers to professional advancement for women and ethnic minorities and the strategies that they report using…

  11. Dos and Don'ts of Writing Presidential Contracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In the not-so-distant past, an employment agreement between a university president and a governing board was often nothing more than a handshake. Today, formal contracts are requirements for presidents, with boards and presidents typically relying on lawyers to extensively document terms of employment, salary and benefits, and, perhaps most…

  12. Estudo da Polarizacao dos Hiperons $\\Xi^-$ E $\\Omega^-$

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho De Gouvea, Andre Luiz

    1995-01-01

    ln this thesis the polarization of the $\\Xi^-$ hyperon and the $\\Xi^+$ antihyperon produced in the Fermilab Experiment E791 was determined by the analysis of the weak decay $\\Xi^- \\to \\Lambda^0 + \\pi^-$. For $\\Xi^-$ produced in the interaction between a 500 GeV/c $\\pi^-$ beam and a unpolarized carbon (platinum) target in the region $p_t$ > 0.8 GeV/c and $X_F$ > 0, -10.9% ± 1.5% (-14.7% ± 3.1%) polarization was obtained perpendicular to the production plane and -5.92% ± 1.69% (-2.41%±3.53% $\\approx O$) polarization was measured for $\\Xi^+$. Evidence was also found for a polarized $\\Omega^-$ hyperon produced in the same experiment in the region $X_F$ >0, after analysis of the weak decay $\\Omega^- \\to \\Lambda^0 + K^-$.

  13. [Pharmacokinetic implications associated to the use of drugs as racemates or pure enantiomers].

    PubMed

    Speisky, H; Squella, J A; Nuñez-Vergara, L J

    1995-07-01

    This article critically reviews the recent specialized literature concerning the influence of the stereochemical nature of quiral drugs on the pharmacokinetic processes and its pharmacological implications. Evidence is presented indicating that as a function of the type of enantiomer administered, profound differences in the pharmacokinetic profiles, e.g. absorption, distribution, biotransformation and elimination can occur. As a consequence of the enantioselective nature of the drug-organism interaction, major differences in the therapeutic responses can be envisaged depending on whether the drug is administered as a pure enantiomer or as a racemic mixture.

  14. Peptide bond formation of alanine on silica and alumina surfaces as a catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Arenillas, M.; Mateo-Martí, E.

    2012-09-01

    Polymerization of amino acids has been important for the origin of life because the peptides may have been the first self-replicating systems. The amino acid concentrations in the oceans may have been too diluted in the early phases of the Earth. The formation of the biopolymers could have been due to the catalytic action of various minerals (such as silica or alumina). Our work is based on the comparison between alumina and silica minerals with and without prior activation of their silanol groups for the formation of peptide bonds using alanina like amino acid which it is the simplest quiral amino acid.

  15. [Effects of a programme of aquatic Ai Chi exercise in patients with fibromyalgia. A pilot study].

    PubMed

    Perez-De la Cruz, Sagrario; Lambeck, Johan

    2015-01-16

    Introduccion. La fibromialgia es un trastorno reumatico que presenta sintomatologia fisica, psicologica y social. El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar los beneficios de un programa de Ai Chi en el medio acuatico sobre la calidad de vida, depresion y dolor en pacientes con fibromialgia. Pacientes y metodos. Se realizo un estudio experimental con 20 pacientes diagnosticadas de fibromialgia de dos localidades distintas. Las dimensiones del estudio fueron la capacidad funcional (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire), la valoracion del dolor (escala analogica visual) y la salud fisica y mental (Short Form-36). Las evaluaciones se llevaron a cabo en el momento basal y al finalizar las 20 sesiones. Resultados. Finalizadas las diez semanas de tratamiento, se obtuvieron diferencias significativas (p < 0,05) en practicamente todas las variables valoradas. Conclusion. Un programa de Ai Chi en el medio acuatico contribuye a mejorar la salud fisica y mental, el dolor y la calidad de vida de pacientes con fibromialgia.

  16. Estudio estadístico de la actividad de formación estelar en galaxias interactuantes: dependencia con el medio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, M. S.; García Lambas, D.; Tissera, P.; Coldwell, G.

    We analyse the effects of galaxy interactions on star formation in groups and clusters of galaxies with virial masses in the range 1013 - 10 15 M⊙. We find a trend for galaxy-galaxy interactions to be less efficient in high density regions in comparison with galaxies with no close companion. However, the relative projected distance and relative radial velocity thresholds ,rp ˜ 25 h-1 kpc and Δ V ˜ 100 km s-1, to trigger significant star formation activity are nearly independent of environment. The above results reflect, on one hand, the local nature of star formation induced by tidal interactions and, on the other, the role play by the internal properties of galaxies. The similarity of the distribution of radius and velocity of the pairs normalised to the group virial radius and group mean velocity dispersion is similar to that of other typical group members. We find that galaxy pairs in rich groups are systematically redder and with a lower present-day star formation activity than other group members, suggesting a higher efficiency of galaxy-galaxy interactions in these dense regions in the past.

  17. Comparative effects of split Orimulsion{reg_sign}, fuel oil {number_sign}6 and Lago Medio Crude oil over functional variables of an estuarine community

    SciTech Connect

    Quilici, A.; Rodriguez-Grau, J.; Vasquez, P.; Infante, C.; Schiazza, J. La; Briceno, H.; Pereira, N.

    1995-12-31

    This study evaluates the effects, on comparative bases, of three different kinds of hydrocarbon products, on physiological and dynamic parameters of a mangrove community (located East of Venezuela), by experimentally monitoring changes on those parameters using Laguncularia racemosa as a bioindicator mangrove species. Orimulsion{reg_sign} has been introduced recently in the World market; and it is, in essence, an emulsion produced from bitumen mixed with water and stabilized with a surfactant. Results indicate that litter disappearance rate, a parameter directly related to nutrient cycling and dynamics, is not altered by the split Orimulsion{reg_sign}, when compared to controls; while the other hydrocarbon products tested, seem to exert an impact over this parameter. In addition, Orimulsion{reg_sign}, is less retained in mangrove sediments compared with the other two products, as indicated by the remaining percent mean of total hydrocarbon soil content sampled on the same consecutive dates. Nonetheless, the photosynthetic capacity of leaves as well as soil respiratory rates, monitored at treatment and control plots, were not affected by any of the products tested. In conclusion, L. racemosa, in terms of its photosynthetic capacity, is not directly affected by any of the hydrocarbon products tested, nor does there seem to be an effect on soil respiration; however, Orimulsion{reg_sign}, in contrast to the other products, does not seem to be causing an impact with regard to litter dynamics.

  18. Global environment facility: Independent evaluation of the pilot phase; Fondo para el medio ambiente mundial: evaluacion independiente de la etapa experimental

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-01

    This study responds to a request by participants in the Global Environment Facility (GEF) for an independent evaluation of the pilot phase. It profiles the GEF, discusses its policy framework, and reviews project development procedures and the strategies and projects in each of the GEF`s four focal areas. The study concludes that fundamental changes must occur and recommends specific reforms, such as articulating more clearly the GEF`s mandate, objectives, and strategies; addressing deficiencies in meeting its global focus; improving capacities and procedures within implementing agencies for managing the portfolio; and increasing non-government organization (NGO), country and community-level participation.

  19. QUALITY ASSURANCE PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT FOR THE SECRETARIA DEL MEDIO AMBIENTE CIUDAD DE MEXICO, DF, MEXICO RED AUTOMATICA DE MONITOREO ATMOSFERICO (RAMA) AIR QUALITY MONITORING STATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) conducted this evaluation of the air monitoring network, known as RAM (Red Automatica de Monitoreo Atmosferico) at the request of the Mexico City Secretariat of the Environment on October 16-27, 2000. This evaluation...

  20. Can medio-lateral baseplate position and load sharing induce asymptomatic local bone resorption of the proximal tibia? A finite element study.

    PubMed

    Innocenti, Bernardo; Truyens, Evelyn; Labey, Luc; Wong, Pius; Victor, Jan; Bellemans, Johan

    2009-07-17

    Asymptomatic local bone resorption of the tibia under the baseplate can occasionally be observed after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Its occurrence is not well documented, and so far no explanation is available. We report the incidence of this finding in our practice, and investigate whether it can be attributed to specific mechanical factors. The postoperative radiographs of 500 consecutive TKA patients were analyzed to determine the occurrence of local medial bone resorption under the baseplate. Based on these cases, a 3D FE model was developed. Cemented and cementless technique, seven positions of the baseplate and eleven load sharing conditions were considered. The average VonMises stress was evaluated in the bone-baseplate interface, and the medial and lateral periprosthetic region. Sixteen cases with local bone resorption were identified. In each, bone loss became apparent at 3 months post-op and did not increase after one year. None of these cases were symptomatic and infection screening was negative for all. The FE analysis demonstrated an influence of baseplate positioning, and also of load sharing, on stresses. The average stress in the medial periprosthetic region showed a non linear decrease when the prosthetic baseplate was shifted laterally. Shifting the component medially increased the stress on the medial periprosthetic region, but did not significantly unload the lateral side. The presence of a cement layer decreases the stresses. Local bone resorption of the proximal tibia can occur after TKA and might be attributed to a stress shielding effect. This FE study shows that the medial periprosthetic region of the tibia is more sensitive than the lateral region to mediolateral positioning of the baseplate. Medial cortical support of the tibial baseplate is important for normal stress transfer to the underlying bone. The absence of medial cortical support of the tibial baseplate may lead to local bone resorption at the proximal tibia, as a result of the stress shielding effect. The presence of a complete layer of cement can reduce stress shielding, though. Despite the fact that the local bone resorption is asymptomatic and non-progressive, surgeons should be aware of this phenomenon in their interpretation of follow-up radiographs.

  1. Morphology and synaptic organization of non-dopaminergic nigral projections to the medio dorsal thalamic nucleus of the rat, a study by anterograde transport of PHA-L.

    PubMed

    Pasbakhsh, Parichehr; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Behzadi, Gila

    2008-10-01

    Mediodorsal (MD) thalamic nucleus, which is considered to take place between extra pyramidal and limbic feedback circuit, receives projective fibers from ventrolateral neurons of reticular part of substantia nigra (SNr). In order to better understand the influence and chemical reaction of these fibers upon MD nucleus, the morphology and synaptology of them were examined in the present study. Phaseolous vulgaris-leucoagglutin (PHA-L) was injected into substantia nigra pars reticulate. After 3-4 days, the sections of SNr injection site and MD nucleus were prepared. Then, we examined organization, morphology and, synaptology of PHA-L labeled SNr fibers that go to caudal and lateral part of MD thalamic nucleus. At the electron microscopic level, the SNr terminals made synapses predominantly with the medium to small dendrites and far less frequently with soma and large dendrites. These terminals were packed with polymorphic synaptic vesicles and formed symmetrical synapses; furthermore, it has been already recognized that cortico straital fibers from sensory-motor cortex go to region of the SNr that give rise to the nigrothalamic fibers. This data suggest that upon the synaptic organization, morphology and chemical nature of GABAergic, SNr fibers may have different inhibitory influence on MD neurons regulating the thalamic output from MD to cerebral cortex in the control of limbic and extra pyramidal feedback system.

  2. Inter- and intra-tester reliability of clinical measurement to determine medio-lateral patellar position using a pachymeter or visual assessment.

    PubMed

    Sacco, I C N; Onodera, A N; Butugan, M K; Taddei, U T; Mendes, Y C; Galhardo, B; Padua, M; Dreyer, S H; Lobo, R A S; Aliberti, S

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate inter-tester and intra-tester reliability and parallel reliability between a visual assessment method and a method using a pachymeter for locating the mid-point of the patella in determining the medial/lateral patella orientation. Fifteen asymptomatic subjects were assessed and the mid-point of the patella was determined by both methods on two separate occasions two weeks apart. Inter-tester reliability was obtained by ANOVA and by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC); intra-tester reliability was obtained by a paired t-test and ICC; and parallel reliability was obtained by Pearson's Correlation and ICC, for the measurement on the first and second evaluations. There was acceptable inter-tester agreement (p=0.490) and reliability for the visual inspection (ICC=0.747) and for the pachymeter (ICC=0.716) at the second evaluation. The inter-tester reliability in the first evaluation was unacceptable (visual ICC=0.604; pachymeter ICC=0.612). Although there was statistical similarity between measurements for the first and second evaluations for all testers, intra-tester reliability was not acceptable for both methods: visual (examiner 1 ICC=0.175; examiner 2 ICC=0.189; examiner 3 ICC=0.155) and pachymeter (examiner 1 ICC=0.214; examiner 2 ICC=0.246; examiner 3 ICC=0.069). Parallel reliability gave a perfect correlation at the first evaluation (r=0.828; p<0.001) and at the second (r=0.756; p<0.001) and reliability was between acceptable and very good (ICC=[0.748-0.813]). Both visual and pachymeter methods provide reliable and similar medial/lateral patella orientation and are reliable between different examiners, but the results between the two assessments at 2 weeks' interval demonstrated an unacceptable reliability.

  3. Relation of carotid intima-media thickness and aortic valve sclerosis (from the ISMIR study ["Ispessimento Medio Intimale e Rischio Cardiovascolare"] of the Italian Society of Cardiovascular Echography).

    PubMed

    Antonini-Canterin, Francesco; Di Bello, Vitantonio; Di Salvo, Giovanni; La Carrubba, Salvatore; Bellieni, Giancarlo; Benedetto, Frank; Perticone, Francesco; Maio, Raffaele; Giannini, Danilo; Balbarini, Alberto; Nicolosi, Gian Luigi; Pezzano, Antonio; Carerj, Scipione

    2009-06-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and aortic valve sclerosis (AVS) have recently emerged as important predictive factors for cardiovascular (CV) events. However, few data are available on their association and the respective roles of major CV risk factors in determining either condition. In this study, 479 asymptomatic subjects (mean age 58 +/- 13 years, 62% men) were assessed, without histories of CV disease, consecutively referred for comprehensive evaluations by echocardiography and carotid ultrasonography because of the presence of > or = 1 risk factor. Common carotid artery IMT and aortic valve morphology and function were analyzed. The mean IMT was 0.82 +/- 0.19 mm. The prevalence of increased carotid IMT (>0.80 mm) and AVS was 60.8% and 18.4%, respectively. The prevalence of increased IMT was 79.6% in subjects with AVS and 56.5% in those without AVS (relative risk 2.99, 95% confidence interval 1.72 to 5.21, p <0.001). On multivariate analysis, increased IMT was significantly and independently associated with hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, family history of CV disease, and age. Only age emerged as an independent predictor of AVS. The presence of both markers was independently associated only with hypertension and age. In conclusion, increased carotid IMT was strongly associated with AVS in a population of asymptomatic patients. IMT and AVS were differently related to individual CV risk factors, and their association seems to be correlated mainly with age and hypertension.

  4. The impact of EPI voxel size on SNR and BOLD sensitivity in the anterior medio-temporal lobe: a comparative group study of deactivation of the Default Mode.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Simon D; Pripfl, Jürgen; Bauer, Herbert; Moser, Ewald

    2008-07-01

    To quantify the gain in time-series SNR that can be achieved in the amygdala by reducing EPI voxel size, and to assess the extent to which this advantage is carried through to statistical significance in a group fMRI study, using a cognitive task to trigger task-independent deactivation of anterior medial temporal structures. Two groups of seven subjects were posed number-series tasks to induce deactivation of the Default Mode network. This is known from PET work to include the amygdala, which lies in a region of high magnetic field gradient. In 3 T imaging, one group was studied with high resolution EPI with 6 mul voxels, the other with lower resolution EPI with 17 mul voxels. Field maps were acquired to allow field gradients in relevant ROIs to be assessed. Time-series SNR was 45% higher in the amygdala in the high resolution EPI data than in the low resolution data. In activation results, whilst there was good agreement between other areas, the involvement of the amygdala could only be demonstrated in the high resolution data. We find that reduction in signal dephasing afforded by high resolution EPI is realized as a substantial increase in SNR and BOLD sensitivity in group fMRI data. This has allowed the first demonstration of the involvement of the amygdala in the Default Mode in fMRI.

  5. Construccion/Communicacion y Medios Publicitarios. Libro del Profesor (Construction/Communication & Media. Teacher's Guide). B5. CHOICE (Challenging Options in Career Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-Hudson Migrant Education Center, New Paltz, NY.

    The guide, written in Spanish, comprises the fourth grade unit of a career education curriculum for migrant students. Focus of the unit is on the tools and tasks of workers in 11 jobs in the construction, communication, and media occupational clusters: heavy equipment operator, architect, mason, carpenter, plumber, electrician, telephone line…

  6. Our World, Our Future: Bilingual Activities on Population and the Environment = Nuestro Mundo, Nuestro Futuro: Actividades Bilingues Acerca de la Poblacion y el Medio Ambiente.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This bilingual activity guide helps to develop students' understandings of the interdependence of people and the environment. Interdisciplinary resources are provided featuring environmental education lessons with applications to the social studies, science, math, and family life education curricula. It is designed for the middle school level, but…

  7. QUALITY ASSURANCE PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT FOR THE SECRETARIA DEL MEDIO AMBIENTE CIUDAD DE MEXICO, DF, MEXICO RED AUTOMATICA DE MONITOREO ATMOSFERICO (RAMA) AIR QUALITY MONITORING STATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) conducted this evaluation of the air monitoring network, known as RAM (Red Automatica de Monitoreo Atmosferico) at the request of the Mexico City Secretariat of the Environment on October 16-27, 2000. This evaluation...

  8. Experiencias Educativas en el Medio Rural Colombiano. Serie Divulgacion No. 2. [Educational Experiences in the Rural Colombian Milieu. Circulation Series No. 2].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion Nacional, Bogota (Colombia). Centro Nacional de Documentacion e Informacion Pedagogica.

    In fulfillment of the Colombian National Government's educational policy aimed toward improving the rural population's level of living, two fundamental projects have been implemented. These projects have led to the creation of schools, the continuous extension of grades, and the creation of "Concentraciones de Desarrollo Rural." They…

  9. La influencia del medio interestelar sobre la evolución del remanente de supernova (RSN) G53.6-2.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacani, E. B.; Dubner, G.; Cappa, C.; Testori, J. C.

    G53.6-2.2 is a supernova remnant with an unusual morphology: in the radio band the overall shape can be described as two shells that overlap on the NW side of the remnant. The X-ray emission fills the source and peaks in the region where the radio rings overlap; while in the optical range the emission consists of filaments that correlate with portions of radio rings that overlap in the NW. The aim of the present project is to investigate the neutral hydrogen distribution around the remnant in search for signatures that allow to disclose the role of the surrounding gas in conditioning the observed morphology.

  10. Limited Resources, Unlimited Wants. Environment Booklet 2. Teacher's Edition=Recursos limitados, deseos ilimitados. Libro del medio ambiente 2. Manual para El Maestro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    The booklet is part of a grade 10-12 social studies series produced for bilingual education. The series consists of six major thematic modules, with four to five booklets in each. The interdisciplinary modules are based on major ideas and are designed to help students understand some major human problems and make sound, responsive decisions to…

  11. Reduction of frontal-plane hip joint reaction force via medio-lateral foot center of pressure manipulation: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Solomonow-Avnon, Deborah; Wolf, Alon; Herman, Amir; Rozen, Nimrod; Haim, Amir

    2015-02-01

    Footwear-generated biomechanical manipulation of lower-limb joints has been shown to influence lower-limb biomechanics. Numerous studies report the influence of such interventions on the knee, however little is known about the influence of these interventions on the hip. The present study analyzed kinetic and kinematic changes about the hip of 12 healthy young males who underwent biomechanical manipulation utilizing the APOS biomechanical device (APOS-Medical and Sports Technologies Ltd., Herzliya, Israel) allowing controlled foot center of pressure manipulation. Subjects underwent gait testing in four para-sagittal device configurations: Medial, lateral, neutral, and regular shoes. In the medial configuration, subjects demonstrated no change in step width (i.e., distance between right and left foot center of pressure), however inter-malleolar distance significantly increased. Likewise with the medial setting, greater hip abduction was recorded, while hip adduction moment and joint reaction force decreased significantly. We speculate that subjects adopt a modified gait pattern aimed to maintain constant base of support. As a result, hip abductor muscle moment arm increases and adduction moment and joint reaction force decreases. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study to show this relationship. These results contribute to the understanding of lower-limb biomechanics and warrant further investigation.

  12. Diet quality in early pregnancy and its effects on fetal growth outcomes: the Infancia y Medio Ambiente (Childhood and Environment) Mother and Child Cohort Study in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Bernal, Clara L; Rebagliato, Marisa; Iñiguez, Carmen; Vioque, Jesús; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva M; Murcia, Mario; Bolumar, Francisco; Marco, Alfredo; Ballester, Ferran

    2010-06-01

    Maternal diet has been associated with fetal growth outcomes; however, evidence is scarce on the role of dietary quality. The objective was to assess the effect of diet quality during the first trimester of pregnancy, as measured by the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) adapted for pregnancy, on fetal growth. We studied 787 women and their newborns from a Spanish cohort study. Diet quality was assessed by using a modification of the AHEI. Adjusted birth weight, birth length, and head circumference were used as continuous outcomes. We used a customized model to define fetal growth restriction in weight, length, and head circumference. After adjustment of multivariate models, a positive association was observed between diet quality and adjusted birth weight and adjusted birth length. The greatest differences were found between the fourth and first quintiles of the AHEI. Newborns of women in the fourth quintile were on average 126.3 g (95% CI: 38.5, 213.9 g) heavier and 0.47 cm (95% CI: 0.08, 0.86 cm) longer than those in the lowest quintile (P for trend = 0.009 and 0.013, respectively). Women with the highest AHEI scores had a significantly lower risk of delivering a fetal growth-restricted infant for weight (odds ratio: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.55; P for trend = 0.001) than did women in the lowest quintile, but this was not the case for fetal growth restriction in length (P for trend = 0.538) or head circumference (P for trend = 0.070). A high-quality diet in the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with birth size and the risk of fetal growth restriction.

  13. Establishing the Empirical Relationship Between Non-Science Majoring Undergraduate Learners' Spatial Thinking Skills and Their Conceptual Astronomy Knowledge. (Spanish Title: Estableciendo Una Relación Empírica Entre el Razonamiento Espacial de los Estudiantes de Graduación de Carreras no Científicas y su Conocimento Conceptual de la Astronomía.) Estabelecendo Uma Relação Empírica Entre o RacioCínio Espacial dos Estudantes de Graduação EM Carreiras Não Científicas e Seu Conhecimento Conceitual da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, Inge; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2013-12-01

    The astronomy education community has tacitly assumed that learning astronomy is a conceptual domain resting upon spatial thinking skills. As a first step to formally identify an empirical relationship, undergraduate students in a non-major introductory astronomy survey class at a mediumsized, Ph.D. granting, mid-western US university were given pre- and post-astronomy conceptual diagnostics and spatial reasoning diagnostics, Instruments used were the "Test Of Astronomy Standards" and "What Do You Know?" Using only fully matched data for analysis, our sample consisted of 86 undergraduate non-science majors. Students' normalized gains for astronomy surveys were low at .26 and .13 respectively. Students' spatial thinking was measured using an instrument designed specifically for this study. Correlations between the astronomy instruments' pre- to post-course gain scores and the spatial assessment instrument show moderate to strong relationships suggesting the relationship between spatial reasoning and astronomy ability can explain about 25% of the variation in student achievement. La comunidad de educación en astronomía ha supuesto de forma tácita que el aprendizaje de la astronomía consiste en un dominio conceptual fundamentado en el razonamiento espacial. Como un primer paso para identificar formalmente una relación empírica entre estas dos cosas, utilizamos como muestra los estudantes de graduación de carreras no científicas de un curso experimental en una universidad norteamericana del medioeste de porte mediano con programa de Doctorado em curso, en el cual estos estudiantes se sometieron a un diagnóstico de razonamiento espacial y conceptos astronómicos antes e después del mismo. Las herramientas utilizadas fueron el Test Of Astronomy Standards (TOAST) y el cuestionario What do you know? Utilizando solo los datos completamente consistentes para este análisis, nuestra muestra consistió en 86 estudantes de graduación. Las mejoras, depués de

  14. [Health and the media in Spain].

    PubMed

    Revuelta, Gemma

    2006-03-01

    The so-called media agenda has a great influence on the issues considered to be important by society. In this article, based on the Informe Quiral (Quiral Survey), the author analyses the coverage of health issues in Spanish press. In Spain, media concentration causes a clear tendency to information homogeneity and thus, health issues are rarely dealt with in an independent way or in its own specific space or by specialized professionals. The main chronic issues the Spanish press has followed during the years included in the survey have been: cancer, sexuality and reproduction, aids, drugs (including tobacco), mental disorders and nutrition-related issues. Politicians or individuals with political and technical posts are the sources which carry the burden of informing about health issues (49%). On the other hand, the more specialized sector is the source of information in only 26% of the cases. In order to improve health information, the author suggests establishing communication platforms and closer collaboration between the specialized sector and the media, fostering mutual knowledge of all professional groups taking part in the process and ridding health information of all political influences.

  15. Apparent Motion of the Sun, Shadows of Objects and Measurement of Time in the View of Seventh Grade Students of Middle School. (Breton Title: Movimento Aparente do Sol, Sombras dos Objetos e Medição do Tempo na Visão de Alunos do Sétimo Ano do Ensino Fundamental.) Movimiento Aparente del Sol, Sombras de los Objetos y Medición del Tiempo en la Visión de Estudiantes del Séptimo Grado del Ciclo Pirmario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    The apparent motion of the Sun on the celestial sphere and the behavior of the shadows of objects over time are observable phenomena in everyday life. However, students often do not have a proper understanding of such occurrences, and can even display misconceptions about them. Therefore, we performed a research in order to know students' notions about these subjects and to evaluate the contribution to their understanding brought about by an activity performed with an interactive sundial in an informal learning environment. We investigated the ideas of 43 students from the seventh grade of middle school by applying a test with open questions before and after an activity with an analemmatic sundial, conducted by a monitor. A significant proportion of students were initially unaware of most of the phenomena treated. The intervention performed helped the students to assimilate new concepts, providing the contact with new phenomena and to a lesser degree, the development of explanations about them, indicating an educational potential of this action. However, the contribution to the understanding of some of the ideas explored was small, pointing to the need to make additional observations, studies and discussions. O movimento aparente do Sol na esfera celeste e o comportamento das sombras dos objetos com o passar do tempo são fenômenos observáveis no dia a dia. No entanto, muitas vezes os estudantes não possuem uma compreensão adequada de tais ocorrências, podendo inclusive exibir concepções alternativas a seu respeito. Por isso, efetuou-se uma pesquisa com o intuito de conhecer as noções dos alunos sobre esses temas e avaliar a contribuição para seu entendimento propiciada por uma atividade feita com um relógio de Sol interativo, em um ambiente de ensino informal. Foram investigadas as ideias de 43 alunos do sétimo ano do Ensino Fundamental mediante a aplicação de um teste com questões abertas antes e depois de uma atividade com um relógio de Sol

  16. Use of elephant grass for energy production in Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Daher, R F; Souza, L B; Gravina, G A; Machado, J C; Ramos, H C C; Silva, V Q R; Menezes, B R S; Schneider, L S A; Oliveira, M L F; Gottardo, R D

    2014-12-19

    Elephant grass is a tropical forage plant widely distributed throughout Brazil. It was first exclusively used in the livestock sector as cattle feed. The grass is characterized by its high productivity and photosynthetic capacity and is considered as an alternative source of renewable energy. Here, we estimated the general combining ability of the parents and specific combining ability of the hybrids based on morpho-agronomic biomass-quality traits. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with 3 replicates. The diallel was composed of 16 hybrids and 2 groups of genitors. In the diallel analysis of variance, we observed a significant difference among treatments. A significant difference was observed among genitors for dry matter production (DMP). For the general combining ability of group 1, the traits leaf blade width, DMP, height, percentage of neutral detergent fiber, percentage of hemicellulose, percentage of lignin, percentage of acid detergent fiber, and percentage of cellulose were significant. For the estimates of general combining ability of DMP, parents Porto Rico 534-B, Vruckwona, Taiwan A-146, and Mercker S. E. A. were 0.4748, 3.2819, 1.1659, and 0.4317. The parents of Mercker S. E. A. and Porto Rico 534-B produced the highest percentage of detergent fiber and percentage of lignin with values of 0.1482 and 0.0856. Thus, parents Vruckwona, Porto Rico 534-B, and Taiwan A-146 are promising for integration into breeding programs. The best hybrid combinations for DMP were 1 x 5, 1 x 8, 2 x 6, 3 x 7, and 4 x 5.

  17. The Politics of Hispanic Education. Un Paso pa'lante y dos pa'tras.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Kenneth J.; Stewart, Joseph, Jr.

    This book presents an in-depth examination of 142 U.S. school districts (containing at least 5,000 students and 5 percent Hispanic enrollment) in order to understand Hispanic inequities in education and what can be done to correct these inequities. Chapter 1 presents political theory of educational policy. Chapter 2 presents an overview of the…

  18. One? "Dos" Drei. A Study of Code Switching in Child Trilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidiak, Elena

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study focuses on the language production of two siblings, aged 6 and 9 at the beginning of the data collection period, who have been brought up in a bilingual family in New York. The parents of the two girls are native speakers of German and Spanish, respectively, and English for them is the language of education and the larger…

  19. Ensuring the relocatability of programs in the operational system DOS YeS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novoseltsev, S. K.; Orlov, I. G.; Chesalin, A. S.

    1979-01-01

    Specific modifications in the Disk Operational System Unified Series to insure the relocatability of programs stored permanently in the core image library is described. A self-relocating method for loading programs into the working memory with re-editing all the programs recorded in the core image library is presented. The modified linkage editor can be included in a relocation dictionary containing data about each address constant at the assembly stage at the request of the programmer. The relocation dictionary increases the dimension of the RL-phase in comparison with the dimension of this same phase when edited by the standard method, making possible the creation of multiphase program complexes. Generation and use of the modified system using Assembly language is described. An example of the use of the system is given, and limitations of the use of the relocatable programs in the modified system are outlined.

  20. Dos and Donts for Conditional Acceptance of Nonconforming Supplies or Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    have quite a few options in dealing with this prob-lem, including conditional acceptance. The purpose of this article is, first, to share a personal ...accom- modate that request. Out of all the choices (reject, rework at no additional cost, replacement or terminate for default) avail- able under FAR...sub-part 46.407 to the government, conditional acceptance was probably thought to be the easiest and most expeditious choice . But for whom

  1. Denoised ordered subset statistically penalized algebraic reconstruction technique (DOS-SPART) in digital breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, John; Li, Yinsheng; Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2017-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a three dimensional (3D) breast imaging modality in which projections are acquired over a limited angular span around the compressed breast and reconstructed into image slices parallel to the detector. DBT has been shown to help alleviate the breast tissue overlapping issues of two dimensional (2D) mammography. Since the overlapping tissues may simulate cancer masses or obscure true cancers, this improvement is critically important for improved breast cancer screening and diagnosis. In this work, a model-based image reconstruction method is presented to show that spatial resolution in DBT volumes can be maintained while dose is reduced using the presented method when compared to that of a state-of-the-art commercial reconstruction technique. Spatial resolution was measured in phantom images and subjectively in a clinical dataset. Noise characteristics were explored in a cadaver study. In both the quantitative and subjective results the image sharpness was maintained and overall image quality was maintained at reduced doses when the model-based iterative reconstruction was used to reconstruct the volumes.

  2. Dos Puertorriquenos Visitan Puerto Rico (Two Puerto Ricans Visit Puerto Rico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Harry Grover

    These materials for Spanish instruction are based on the meeting and friendship of two Puerto Ricans arriving in Puerto Rico for visits to their hometowns, their discussions of Puerto Rican life, and a sightseeing tour of San Juan. Introductory passages to the visitors' dialogues are in English, and dialogues are in Spanish, with photographs,…

  3. Nuevos rangos altitudinales para dos especies de la avifauna de Nicaragua

    Treesearch

    M.A. Torrez; Wayne Arendt; I. Castillo

    2015-01-01

    We document the elevational range expansions of two Nicaraguan bird species, scaled pigeon (Patagioenas speciosa) and collared plover (Charadrius collaris). The previously reported elevational range of Patagioenas speciosa was sea level to 600 m. We observed the species in shade coffee at Santa Maura farm at an elevation of 1115 masl. Historically, the second species,...

  4. Organogel formation rationalized by Hansen solubility parameters: dos and don'ts.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Julien; Suissa, Gad; Raynal, Matthieu; Bouteiller, Laurent

    2014-05-14

    Some organic compounds gelate liquids by forming a network of anisotropic fibres. Hansen solubility parameters can be used to predict the range of liquids that are likely to be gelled by any given gelator. We critically review the various approaches recently proposed in the literature. In particular, we discuss the shape of the gelation domain, the relevance of the Teas plot representation and the use of group contribution calculations. We also propose an improved scheme for the solubility tests, and a detailed procedure for the determination of the gelation domain.

  5. One? "Dos" Drei. A Study of Code Switching in Child Trilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidiak, Elena

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study focuses on the language production of two siblings, aged 6 and 9 at the beginning of the data collection period, who have been brought up in a bilingual family in New York. The parents of the two girls are native speakers of German and Spanish, respectively, and English for them is the language of education and the larger…

  6. Dos Puertorriquenos Visitan Puerto Rico (Two Puerto Ricans Visit Puerto Rico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Harry Grover

    These materials for Spanish instruction are based on the meeting and friendship of two Puerto Ricans arriving in Puerto Rico for visits to their hometowns, their discussions of Puerto Rican life, and a sightseeing tour of San Juan. Introductory passages to the visitors' dialogues are in English, and dialogues are in Spanish, with photographs,…

  7. Notas sobre dos autores mejicoamericanos de California (Notes on Two Mexican-American Authors in California).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moesser, Alba

    This paper discusses the work of two Mexican American authors, Jose A. Villerreal and Richard Vazquez, using "Pocho" by Villarreal and "Chicano" by Vazquez as the focus for discussion. Both authors describe the world of Mexican Americans and their social conditions, and both underscore the need for conserving their native…

  8. Land disposal of San Luis drain sediments, Panoche Water District, South Dos Palos, California

    SciTech Connect

    Zawislanski, Peter; Benson, Sally; TerBerg, Robert; Borglin, Sharon

    2002-07-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), LFR Levine-Fricke (LFR), the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and the Panoche Water District, have completed a pilot-scale test of the viability of land application of selenium- (Se-) enriched San Luis Drain (SLD) sediments. The project was initiated in October 1998 by LBNL. LFR assumed the role of primary subcontractor on the project in July 2001. Substantial portions of this report, describing work performed prior to November 2000, were previously prepared by LBNL personnel. The data set, findings, and recommendations are herein updated with information collected since November 2000. Local land disposal is an attractive option due to its low cost and the proximity of large areas of available land. Two modes of disposal are being tested: (1) the application to a nearby SLD embankment, and (2) the application to and incorporation with nearby farm soils. The study of these options considers the key problems that may potentially arise from this approach. These include disturbance of SLD sediments during dredging, resulting in increased downstream Se concentrations; movement of the land-applied Se to groundwater; reduced productivity of farm crops; and Se uptake by wild and crop plants. This report describes field and laboratory activities carried out from 1998 through February 2002, and results of these investigations.

  9. Dos Idiomas, Un Mundo. Dual Language Project. Title VII Biennial Evaluation Report, 1995-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernest, Harishini M.; Gonzalez, Rosa M.

    This is an evaluation of the first 2 years of a 5-year comprehensive Bilingual Education grant funded by Title VII Part A of the Improving America's Schools Act of 1994 in the Austin Independent School District (AISD) (Texas). The grant awarded to the AISD funds a program of Developmental Bilingual Education at two elementary schools where more…

  10. NASA Glenn Steady-State Heat Pipe Code Users Manual, DOS Input. Version 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, Leonard K.

    2000-01-01

    The heat pipe code LERCHP has been revised, corrected, and extended. New features include provisions for pipes with curvature and bends in "G" fields. Heat pipe limits are examined in detail and limit envelopes are shown for some sodium and lithium-filled heat pipes. Refluxing heat pipes and gas-loaded or variable conductance heat pipes were not considered.

  11. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

  12. Lessons Learned from Sleep Education in Schools: A Review of Dos and Don'ts.

    PubMed

    Blunden, Sarah; Rigney, Gabrielle

    2015-06-15

    Sleep duration and quality are associated with negative neuropsychological and psychosocial outcomes in children and adolescents. However, community awareness of this is low and sleep education programs in schools are attempting to address this issue. Several studies now exist assessing the efficacy of these sleep education programs for improving sleep knowledge, sleep hygiene and sleep patterns. This paper presents these sleep education programs, most particularly, it presents the strengths and weaknesses of the current available studies in the hope that this can identify areas where future sleep education programs can improve. A systematic search of all school-based sleep education studies in adolescents was undertaken. Studies were scrutinized for author, teacher and participant comment regarding strengths and limitations of each study, which were then extracted and summarized. Two specific types of sleep education programs emerged from the review, those that sought to change sleep behavior and those that sought simply to disseminate information. Issues that dictated the strength or weakness of a particular study including who delivers the program, the theoretical basis, the tools utilized to measure sleep patterns, the content, and their capacity to engage students were assessed. Sleep education was considered important by teachers, students and parents alike. Future sleep education programs need to take into account lessons learned from previous sleep education efforts in order to maximize the potential for sleep education programs to improve the sleep health of our young people. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 595. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  13. Aspectos linguisticos dos emprestimos em portugues (Linguistic Aspects of Adaptation into Portuguese).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Ronald M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the process through which modern Portuguese borrows from other languages, mainly French and English. Portuguese adapts these derivatives to conform to its own rules of phonology, morphology, and semantics. (four references) (Author/CK)

  14. "Mi Hija Vale Dos Personas": Latino Immigrant Parents' Perspectives about Their Children's Bilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Jo; Rodriguez-Galindo, Alejandra

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the voices of 16 Latino immigrant parents whose children were upper elementary students in a bilingual education class in the southwestern United States. In interviews that focused on their children's language learning and usage, the parents spoke of a commitment to a better life for their children. All believed that English…

  15. Unidad: Las influencias culturales en el arte mexicana (Unit: Cultural Influences in Mexican Art). Dos semanas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finere, Neal

    This two-week unit, appropriate for bilingual education settings as well as foreign language programs, deals with the three primary cultural influences found in Mexican contemporary art. The multisensory materials, pragmatic focus, and direct creative student involvement are designed to make it a microcosmic, real-life experience. The first part…

  16. Dos and Don'ts of Giving OTC Cough and Cold Medicines to Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness ... Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness ...

  17. 33 CFR 104.255 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Officer (FSO), or their designated representative, of any vessel or facility with which it interfaces. (1) For a vessel-to-facility interface, prior to arrival of a vessel to a facility, the FSO and Master... 1 and 2, VSOs of vessels that frequently interface with the same facility may implement a continuing...

  18. 33 CFR 104.255 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Officer (FSO), or their designated representative, of any vessel or facility with which it interfaces. (1) For a vessel-to-facility interface, prior to arrival of a vessel to a facility, the FSO and Master... 1 and 2, VSOs of vessels that frequently interface with the same facility may implement a continuing...

  19. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

  20. Von Willebrand disease - the 'Dos' and 'Don'ts' in surgery.

    PubMed

    Miesbach, Wolfgang; Berntorp, Erik

    2017-02-01

    Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is the most common genetic bleeding disorder. VWD is caused by a deficiency or dysfunction of von Willebrand factor (VWF), a plasma protein that mediates the initial adhesion of platelets at sites of vascular injury and binds and stabilises coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) in the blood. Prophylaxis of surgical bleeding in patients with VWD requires consideration of the individual situation, including the type of procedure and the bleeding rate, before decisions about treatment type, dose, duration and adjunctive therapy with antifibrinolytics or antithrombotic prophylaxis can be made. Although desmopressin (DDAVP)-stimulated release of endogenous VWD is an effective treatment strategy in many patients, plasma concentrates containing VWF are the preferred option for most patients undergoing surgical procedures. Recommendations for the management of surgery in patients with VWD are summarised, including the severity of VWD and the type of the surgical procedure.

  1. Unidad: Las influencias culturales en el arte mexicana (Unit: Cultural Influences in Mexican Art). Dos semanas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finere, Neal

    This two-week unit, appropriate for bilingual education settings as well as foreign language programs, deals with the three primary cultural influences found in Mexican contemporary art. The multisensory materials, pragmatic focus, and direct creative student involvement are designed to make it a microcosmic, real-life experience. The first part…

  2. "Being Present in the World": A Conversation with Professor Jose Marques dos Santos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Richard N.; Dodds, Ted

    2008-01-01

    The University of Porto was awarded the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Elite Award for its innovative application of information technology to a European university. This university--nearly one hundred years old--is pressing hard, on a number of fronts, to place itself in the top rank of European universities. The Rector of the…

  3. A social media primer for professionals: digital dos and don'ts.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Jay M; Alber, Julia; Gold, Robert S

    2014-03-01

    Social media sites have become powerful and important tools for health education, promotion, and communication activities as they have dramatically grown in popularity. Social media sites also offer many features that can be used for professional development and advancement. When used wisely and prudently, social media sites and platforms offer great potential for professional development by building and cultivating professional networks, as well as sharing information to increase one's recognition and improve one's reputation. They also provide a medium for increasing one's knowledge and awareness of timely news and trends by following important organizations, opinion leaders, and influential professionals. When used unwisely and imprudently, there is the potential to delay, damage, or even destroy one's professional and personal life. In this commentary, we offer recommendations for using Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter for professional development and caution against online behaviors that may have negative professional consequences. In summary, we believe that the strengths and benefits of social media for professional advancement and development far outweigh the risks and encourage health promotion professionals to properly engage these powerful tools.

  4. Buscando Su Voz en Dos Culturas = Finding Your Voice in Two Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Zulmara

    1998-01-01

    An administrator/former teacher ponders difficulties of living in two cultures: a professional world that respects her degrees and credentials and a Latina world that questions pursuit of the "American dream." Although she used her American voice to coax a Latina student back to school, she sympathized with the mother's family-centered…

  5. The Puerto Ricans--Two Communities, One Culture. (Los Puertorriquenos--Dos Comunidades, Una Cultura.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivo, Paquita

    1980-01-01

    Puerto Rican roots stem from the ethnic mixture of Indians, Europeans, and Africans. This article describes the advent of each of the groups on the island, the historical and cultural impact each made, and the retention of heritage among Puerto Rican migrants to the U.S. (DS)

  6. Influencias africanas na lingua brasileira dos terreiros (African Influences in Brazilian Language of the Voodoo Rites).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megenney, William W.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses how determination of lexical items with Sub-Saharan origin in songs of voodoo rites of candomble and umbanda in southern and northeastern Brazil is complicated by factors like existence of phonological correspondence without accompanying semantic correspondence, difficulty of determining meaning of word in a given text, and high…

  7. Estudio de dos cúmulos abiertos del tercer cuadrante galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solivella, G. R.; Giorgi, E. E.; Vázquez, R. A.; De Laurenti, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    Results from photometric observations in the open clusters Ruprecht 42 and Ruprecht 43 are presented. In the last case spectroscopic observations were added. The open cluster entity of Ruprecht 42, not previously studied, is confirmed. While the preliminary analysis of Ruprecht 43 suggests that it does not exist, at the same time evidences of a blue distant population in the same direction are found. The connection of both clusters with the near spiral structure is commented.

  8. The Puerto Ricans--Two Communities, One Culture. (Los Puertorriquenos--Dos Comunidades, Una Cultura.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivo, Paquita

    1980-01-01

    Puerto Rican roots stem from the ethnic mixture of Indians, Europeans, and Africans. This article describes the advent of each of the groups on the island, the historical and cultural impact each made, and the retention of heritage among Puerto Rican migrants to the U.S. (DS)

  9. Buscando Su Voz en Dos Culturas = Finding Your Voice in Two Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Zulmara

    1998-01-01

    An administrator/former teacher ponders difficulties of living in two cultures: a professional world that respects her degrees and credentials and a Latina world that questions pursuit of the "American dream." Although she used her American voice to coax a Latina student back to school, she sympathized with the mother's family-centered…

  10. DOS Design/Application Tools System/Segment Specification. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    development tools by automating and coordin- ating information exchange between tools, through use of the CRONUS distributed system and the ONTOS object...3.1.7.2. Cronus to CSCI Interfaces ...................................................................... 24 3.1.7.2. 1. Cronus to Tool Integration...Framework CSCI Interface .................. 24 3 1.7.2.2. Cronus to Tool CSCI Interfaces ...................................................... 25 3

  11. 33 CFR 101.505 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., or between vessels in the case of a vessel-to-vessel activity, as to the respective security measures each must undertake during a specific vessel-to-facility interface, during a series of interfaces between the vessel and the facility, or during a vessel-to-vessel activity. (b) Details as to who must...

  12. 33 CFR 101.505 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., or between vessels in the case of a vessel-to-vessel activity, as to the respective security measures each must undertake during a specific vessel-to-facility interface, during a series of interfaces between the vessel and the facility, or during a vessel-to-vessel activity. (b) Details as to who must...

  13. 33 CFR 104.255 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Officer (FSO), or their designated representative, of any vessel or facility with which it interfaces. (1) For a vessel-to-facility interface, prior to arrival of a vessel to a facility, the FSO and Master... 1 and 2, VSOs of vessels that frequently interface with the same facility may implement a...

  14. 33 CFR 104.255 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Officer (FSO), or their designated representative, of any vessel or facility with which it interfaces. (1) For a vessel-to-facility interface, prior to arrival of a vessel to a facility, the FSO and Master... 1 and 2, VSOs of vessels that frequently interface with the same facility may implement a...

  15. 33 CFR 104.255 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Officer (FSO), or their designated representative, of any vessel or facility with which it interfaces. (1) For a vessel-to-facility interface, prior to arrival of a vessel to a facility, the FSO and Master... 1 and 2, VSOs of vessels that frequently interface with the same facility may implement a...

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Solar Twin Planet Search. IV. (dos Santos+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, L. A.; Melendez, J.; Do Nascimento, J.-D. Jr; Bedell, M.; Ramirez, I.; Bean, J. L.; Asplund, M.; Spina, L.; Dreizler, S.; Alves-Brito, A.; Casagrande, L.

    2016-07-01

    Ages, the measured projected rotational velocities (vsini) and stellar parameters of the 81 solar twins and the Sun. The ages of all solar twins and stellar parameters for HIP68468 were obtained by Tucci Maia et al. (2016A&A...590A..32T). Stellar parameters for the other solar twins were obtained by Ramirez et al. (2014A&A...572A..48R). The vsini were measured by line profile fitting using red spectra from HARPS (R=115000). Macroturbulence velocities were inferred from the scaling Eq. 2 in our study. (1 data file).

  17. A Methodology for the Evaluation of Structural Design Software for DOS- Based Microcomputers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    09235 Fort Iheiri 92310 SETAF ATTN: AFZ7-EH USA Eap Activty. Capital Arc ATTN: AESE-EN D 09613 Fot Hood 76544 ATrN: Lbrwy 22211 ATTN: AESE-EN 09630 ATTN...Ehnendorf AFB. AK 99506-5001 HQ AFLCODEE Wright-Patemno AFB. OH 45433-5001 HQ AFRES/DEE Robhin AFB, DC 20334-5000 HQ AFSCODEE Andrews AFB. DC DC 20334

  18. Portulano frente a Landsat: Dos sistemas de georreferenciacion para el Estrecho de Gibraltar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barranco Molina, Carlos

    The purpose of this research is to study and an compare two different images of the same area, from geographical, topographical and historical perspectives. The main differences between them are the temporal localization and the techniques and tools required in the process of getting both images. One of them is a 17th century map and the other is a contemporary satellite image. Any cartographical document would be expected to be precise, exact and cutting edge thanks to the application of the new technologies to cartography, geodesy and computing. The document can therefore be considered as insuperable and definitive. In this context, this research is a starting point for my future doctoral dissertation which will deal with the importance of the portulano maps in the Scientific Revolution of the 15th and 16 th century.

  19. Deflecting Hurakan: Enhancing DOD and DOS Interagency Hurricane Response Operations in Central America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    INformation ―Coordinacion logistica y vías de acceso en la RAAN - Informacion actualizada‖, 15 Sep 2007; http://www.logcluster.org/ops/hurricane-felix...coordination/coordinacion- logistica -y- vias-de-acceso-en-la-raan-informacion-actualizada. 80 MC1 Michael Wimbish, ―U.S. Military Forces Wrap up Hurricane...Dept04.htm (accessed 02 March 2010). Puente Aéreo (Air Bridge) Information ―Coordinacion logistica y vías de acceso en la RAAN – Informacion

  20. Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds: Bicultural Development in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacallao, Martica L.; Smokowski, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    How do Mexican immigrant adolescents balance different, and often oppositional, cultural influences in the acculturation process? In this article, we explore how acculturating adolescents absorb cultural messages and go about creating their (multiple) identities. Guided by Alternation Theory, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 12…

  1. Sobre las soluciones acotadas del problema instantáneo de dos cuerpos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altavista, C.

    La demostración se basa en el hecho de que las integrales del problema de los N-cuerpos admiten componentes en el campo complejo según las raíces n-ésimas de la unidad. Definida la matriz unitaria correspondiente, la fórmula de Cayley permite transformar la matriz unitaria en una matriz hermitiana. Utilizando como parámetros los cosenos direccionales de un sistema de coordenadas orbitales referidos a un sistema de referencia fijo, puede construirse, utilizando el operador hermitiano antes definido, una forma cuadrática cuyas raíces mínima y máxima definen las cotas respectivas de los movimientos de los mencionados cosenos direccionales.

  2. The Latinas' Guide to the Information Superhighway: A Bilingual Guide for Latinas by Latinas = Guia para Mujeres Latinas sobre la Supercarretera de la Informacion: Una Guia Bilingue para Latinas por medio de Latinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANA, A National Latina Organization, Washington, DC.

    This guide to the Internet is designed to give Latinas basic information on computers and the information superhighway. Written in both Spanish and English, the guide begins by defining the Internet and making some suggestions about acquiring access to a computer. Among the topics discussed are how to choose an Internet service provider, how to…

  3. The Latinas' Guide to the Information Superhighway: A Bilingual Guide for Latinas by Latinas = Guia para Mujeres Latinas sobre la Supercarretera de la Informacion: Una Guia Bilingue para Latinas por medio de Latinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANA, A National Latina Organization, Washington, DC.

    This guide to the Internet is designed to give Latinas basic information on computers and the information superhighway. Written in both Spanish and English, the guide begins by defining the Internet and making some suggestions about acquiring access to a computer. Among the topics discussed are how to choose an Internet service provider, how to…

  4. Environment Module. Test Booklet. Test Items for Booklets 1, 2, 3, 4=Libro de prueba. Modulo del medio ambiente. Itemes de prueba para los libros 1, 2, 3, 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    The booklet is part of a grade 10-12 social studies series produced for bilingual education. The series consists of six major thematic modules, with four to five booklets in each. The interdisciplinary modules are based on major ideas and are designed to help students understand some major human problems and make sound, responsive decisions to…

  5. Comparación de la efectividad de ranibizumab intravítreo para el tratamiento del edema macular diabético en ojos vitrectomizados y no vitrectomizados.

    PubMed

    Koyanagi, Yoshito; Yoshida, Shigeo; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Kubo, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Muneo; Nakama, Takahito; Nakao, Shintaro; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Ohshima, Yuji; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Sonoda, Kohhei

    2017-07-11

    Objetivo: Comparar la efectividad de ranibizumab intravítreo (RIV) para el tratamiento del edema macular diabético (EMD) en ojos con y sin vitrectomía previa. Procedimientos: Evaluamos de manera prospectiva la mejor agudeza visual corregida (MAVC) y el grosor macular central (GMC) tras el tratamiento con RIV durante 6 meses. Resultados: No se observaron diferencias significativas en la MAVC o GMC inicial en ninguno de los dos grupos. En el grupo no vitrectomizado (n = 15), los cambios medios en la MAVC y GMC hasta el sexto mes de tratamiento con respecto al valor inicial resultaron significativos (p < 0,01). En el grupo vitrectomizado (n = 10), se observó una mejora más lenta, y la mejora media en la MAVC no resultó significativa (p = 0,5), aunque la media en la disminución del GMC sí que lo fue (p < 0,05). No se observaron diferencias significativas en los cambios medios en la MAVC y el GMC entre ambos grupos a los 6 meses del tratamiento. Conclusiones: La diferencia en la efectividad de RIV entre ambos grupos no resultó significativa. Ranibizumab intravítreo puede ser una opción de tratamiento incluso en pacientes vitrectomizados con EMD. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Regiones de formación de la línea de He II λ 1640 en una atmósfera en expansión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venero, R.; Cidale, L.; Ringuelet, A.

    Se calculan perfiles de la línea del He II λ1640 empleando un modelo de atmósfera en expansión con una estructura cromosférica para determinar la región de formación de la línea. El problema se trata en geometría esférica, fuera de equilibrio termodinámico. La ecuación de transporte radiativo se resuelve rigurosamente en el marco de referencia del fluído para distintas leyes de velocidad, monótonamente crecientes, y diferentes leyes de temperatura. Se buscan relaciones globales entre las características del perfil y los parámetros físicos atribuídos a la atmósfera estelar, con la finalidad de definir una herramienta de diagnóstico de las propiedades del medio.

  7. Building a world-wide open source community around a software framework: progress, dos, and don'ts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibsen, Jorge; Antognini, Jonathan; Avarias, Jorge; Caproni, Alessandro; Fuessling, Matthias; Gimenez, Guillermo; Verma, Khushbu; Mora, Matias; Schwarz, Joseph; Staig, Tomás.

    2016-08-01

    As we all know too well, building up a collaborative community around a software infrastructure is not easy. Besides recruiting enthusiasts to work as part of it, mostly for free, to succeed you also need to overcome a number of technical, sociological, and, to our surprise, some political hurdles. The ALMA Common Software (ACS) was developed at ESO and partner institutions over the course of more than 10 years. While it was mainly intended for the ALMA Observatory, it was early on thought as a generic distributed control framework. ACS has been periodically released to the public through an LGPL license, which encouraged around a dozen non-ALMA institutions to make use of ACS for both industrial and educational applications. In recent years, the Cherenkov Telescope Array and the LLAMA Observatory have also decided to adopt the framework for their own control systems. The aim of the "ACS Community" is to support independent initiatives in making use of the ACS framework and to further contribute to its development. The Community provides access to a growing network of volunteers eager to develop ACS in areas that are not necessarily in ALMA's interests, and/or were not within the original system scope. Current examples are: support for additional OS platforms, extension of supported hardware interfaces, a public code repository and a build farm. The ACS Community makes use of existing collaborations with Chilean and Brazilian universities, reaching out to promising engineers in the making. At the same time, projects actively using ACS have committed valuable resources to assist the Community's work. Well established training programs like the ACS Workshops are also being continued through the Community's work. This paper aims to give a detailed account of the ongoing (second) journey towards establishing a world-wide open source collaboration around ACS. The ACS Community is growing into a horizontal partnership across a decentralized and diversified group of actors, and we are excited about its technical and human potential.

  8. Full-screen ultrafast video modes over-clocked by simple VESA routines and registers reprogramming under MS-DOS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zuxiang; Wang, Bo

    2002-05-01

    Fast full-screen presentation of stimuli is necessary in psychological research. Although Spitczok von Brisinski (1994) introduced a method that achieved ultrafast display by reprogramming the registers, he could not produce an acceptable full-screen display. In this report, the author introduces a new method combining VESA routine calling with registers reprogramming that can yield a display at 640 x 480 resolution, with a refresh rate of about 150 Hz.

  9. [Implementation of indigenous people's health policy in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: obstacles and prospects].

    PubMed

    Chaves, Maria de Betania Garcia; Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Almeida, Celia

    2006-02-01

    This article discusses the Brazilian National Policy for Indigenous People's Health, formulated in the 1990s as part of the national Health Reform Movement and based on the creation (in 1999) of the Indigenous Healthcare Sub-System. Coordinated at the central government level under the administration of the National Health Foundation/Ministry of Health, the implementation of this sub-system required adaptations in the organization of health services systems at the local level, with the creation of Special Indigenous Health Districts. This configuration showed the need for dialogue and negotiation among the various institutions involved with indigenous affairs, from the perspective of overcoming various conflicts and operational difficulties. The current analysis identifies the difficulties in the implementation of a differentiated indigenous health policy under federal responsibility and within the decentralized Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), since the absence of specific mechanisms and instruments regulating the operationalization of these services at the local level and the lack of more effective supervision and on-going evaluation of this policy mean that differentiated care for the indigenous population is subject to both the vices and virtues of local policy.

  10. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #9: ORD PROVIDES TECHNICAL SUPPORT TO EPA/OIA & DOS INITIATIVE IN EGYPT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This ninth edition reports on a workshop on global climate change that was held in Cairo, Egypt, on May 10-12, 1999. The workshop represented a successful partnership between EPA's Office of International Affairs, Office of Research and Development (ORD), Office of Air and Radiat...

  11. NGC 2849 y NGC 6134: dos cúmulos abiertos más para el proyecto BOCCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, A. V.; Bragaglia, A.; Cignoni, M.; Donati, P.; Tosi, M.; Marconi, G.

    The "Bologna Open Cluster Chemical Evolution" (BOCCE) project is a photometric and spectroscopic survey of Galactic open clusters (OCs), to be used as tracers of the properties and evolution of the Galactic disk. The main OCs parameters are derived in a precise and homogeneous way, and they will be used, for example, to determine the metallicity distribution in the Galactic disk and how it has evolved with time. We present here part of our last effort, concerning the photometric data obtained for NGC 2849 and NGC 6134. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  12. Cozinha: Um Lugar para a "bildung" dos Educadores (The Kitchen: A Place for the "bildung" of Educators).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damiano, Gilberto

    2000-01-01

    Uses a kitchen metaphor for philosophy of education, in dialogue with Augustine, Erasmus of Rotterdam, Brillat-Savarin, and others. Mixes and cooks ingredients in thinking: the centrality of the human being, corporeality, historicity, and transcendency; food as sign-symbol; eating-linguistic habits; educator-cook; space of the kitchen; sensuality,…

  13. Computer Aided Drafting Packages for Secondary Education. Edition 2. PC DOS Compatible Programs. A MicroSIFT Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Jim

    This report reviews eight IBM-compatible software packages that are available to secondary schools to teach computer-aided drafting (CAD). Software packages to be considered were selected following reviews of CAD periodicals, computers in education periodicals, advertisements, and recommendations of teachers. The packages were then rated by…

  14. Protective Action Evaluator for Chemical Emergencies: A user's manual (MS-DOS reg sign Version 1. 0)

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, G.O.; Sharp, R.D.

    1990-10-01

    The protective action evaluator for chemical emergencies (PAECE) is a package of computer programs developed to simulate an emergency response to airborne release of chemical agents. This user's manual documents the use of PAECE in the evaluation of chemical agent emergencies in areas potentially affected by the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Planning Program (CSEPP). This research documents the development and use of a method for the evaluation of protective action alternatives in conjunction with potential chemical agent emergencies. The user's manual highlights the development of the PAECE model, the selection of appropriate parameters to represent various scenarios, generate results and interpret them in the analysis of protective action alternatives during the planning and preparedness phases of the CSEPP. The PAECE model is designed to evaluate protective actions in the context of potential accidents, the emergency management systems required to implement protective actions, and the anticipated consequences for human receptors. The implications and uncertainties of the model are discussed to provide potential users with insight into the use, limitations, and uncertainties associated with evaluating the effectiveness of protective action alternatives. While PAECE represents a unique and powerful tool to evaluate protective actions, the user must exercise caution when interpreting the results to avoid misrepresentation. The expected value interpretation of the PAECE results biases the results toward extreme values. Hence, the PAECE results have to be interpreted in the context exposures similar to those represented by the unprotected exposure and the protection capacity that tend to be associated with people completing the implementation of the required actions later than and earlier than average, respectively. 16 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab. (JF)

  15. Turbo Pascal Implementation of a Distributed Processing Network of MS-DOS Microcomputers Connected in a Master-Slave Configuration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    sequence as recommended in the Xmcdem protocol. The Master operator can check for a "live" Slave by watching for the received NAK characters, displayed...04H <aJ> 05H * nak [ 15H <can. 18H 2. Transmission Medium Level Protocol Asynchronous, 8 data bits, no parity, one stop bit. The protocol imposes no...it does in the current implementations. b. Receive Program Considerations The receiver has a 10-second timeout. It sends a < nak > every time it times

  16. Buen Comienzo, Buen Futuro: El Bebe de Dos Meses (Healthy Start, Grow Smart: Your Two-Month-Old).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Distributed by the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, Education, and Health and Human Services, this Spanish-language pamphlet provides parents with information and advice about their infants in the second month of life. The pamphlet outlines typical infant behavior at 2 months of age, the need for regular visits to a physician, health insurance,…

  17. Cornell Produces a Video of Safety Dos and Don'ts for the YouTube Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Don't drink too much, download pirated files, light candles, or prop open doors. Warnings like those pervade the weighty work of admonition known as the student handbook. However, Allen J. Bova wonders, "Who ever reads that?" So Mr. Bova, director of risk management and insurance at Cornell University, tried to reach students with a…

  18. Hybrid Identity in Academic Writing: "Are There Two of Me?" (Identidad híbrida: "¿hay dos yo?")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Troy; Lengeling, Martha; Mora Pablo, Irasema; Heredia Ocampo, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the construction of identity in an academic learning environment in Central Mexico, and shows how identity may be linked to non-language factors such as emotions or family. These issues are associated with elements of hybrid identity. To analyze this we draw on language choice as a tool used for the construction of identity and…

  19. What You Ask for Is What You Get: Some Dos and Don'ts for Assigning Research Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Deborah

    1986-01-01

    Guidelines for developing effective research assignments were distributed to University of Colorado, Boulder, teaching assistants and faculty by the Instructional Services Librarian. Suggestions concerning what to do (i.e., clarify research objectives, schedule library presentation) and what not to do (i.e., limit research to particular index or…

  20. Evaluation of Migrant Education, Numero Dos, Title I-M Programs in the State of Oregon. September 1972 - August 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, William G., Comp.; And Others

    The Migrant Education Section of the Oregon State Department of Education is responsible for providing educational and ancillary services to children of migrant agricultural workers. Title I, Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), provides payment to state educational agencies for assistance in educating migrant children. Funds provided by…

  1. 76 FR 58074 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-7001 and DS-7005, DOS-Sponsored Academic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... information collection request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for approval in accordance with... Collection. Originating Office: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, ECA/A/E/EUR. Form Number: DS-7001... to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for up to 30 days from September 19, 2011....

  2. Early effects of low dos 12C6+ ion or X-ray irradiation on human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yingtai; Li, Yumin; Zhang, Hong; Xie, Yi; Chen, Xuezhong; Ren, Jinyu; Zhang, Xiaowei; Zhu, Zijiang; Liu, Hongliang; Zhang, Yawei

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the acute effects of low dose 12C6+ ions or X-ray radiation on human immune function. The human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBL) of seven healthy donors were exposed to 0.05Gy 12C6+ ions or X-ray radiation and cell responses were measured at 24 hours after exposure. The cytotoxic activities of HPBL were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT); the percentages of T and NK cells subsets were detected by flow cytometry; mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ were examined by real time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR); and these cytokines protein levels in supernatant of cultured cells were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The results showed that the cytotoxic activity of HPBL, mRNA expression of IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α in HPBL and their protein levels in supernatant were significantly increased at 24 hours after exposure to 0.05Gy 12C6+ ions radiation and the effects were stronger than observed for X-ray exposure. However, there was no significant change in the percentage of T and NK cells subsets of HPBL. These results suggested that 0.05Gy high linear energy transfer (LET) 12C6+ radiation was a more effective approach to host immune enhancement than that of low LET X-ray. We conclude that cytokines production might be used as sensitive indicators of acute response to LDI. PMID:20401163

  3. The DOS 1 neutron dosimetry experiment at the HB-4-A key 7 surveillance site on the HFIR pressure vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, K.; Kam, F.B.; Baldwin, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive neutron dosimetry experiment was made at one of the prime surveillance sites at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) pressure vessel to aid radiation embrittlement studies of the vessel and to benchmark neutron transport calculations. The thermal neutron flux at the key 7, position 5 site was found, from measurements of radioactivation of four cobalt wires and four silver wires, to be 2.4 {times} 10{sup 12} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}s{sup {minus}1}. The thermal flux derived from two helium accumulation monitors was 2.3 {times} 10{sup 12} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}{sup {minus}1}. The thermal flux estimated by neutron transport calculations was 3.7 {times} 10{sup 12} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}. The fast flux, >1 MeV, determined from two nickel activation wires, was 1.5 {times} 10{sup 12} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}s{sup {minus}1}, in keeping with values obtained earlier from stainless steel surveillance monitors and with a computed value of 1.2 {times} 10{sup 13} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}{sup {minus}1}. The fast fluxes given by two reaction-product-type monitors, neptunium-237 and beryllium, were 2.6 {times} 10{sup 13} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}s {sup {minus}1} and 2.2 {times} 10{sup 13} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Follow-up experiments indicate that these latter high values of fast flux are reproducible but are false; they are due to the creation of greater levels of reaction products by photonuclear events induced by an exceptionally high ratio of gamma flux to fast neutron flux at the vessel.

  4. PETROMAP: MS-DOS software package for quantitative processing of X-ray maps of zoned minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossio, Roberto; Borghi, Alessandro

    1998-10-01

    This paper shows an application of energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) for digital acquisition of multi-element X-ray compositional maps of minerals in polished thin sections. A square matrix of n EDS spectra with known X, Y coordinates is collected, converted and exported to a personal computer. Each spectrum of the matrix is processed and the apparent concentration of each analyzed element is calculated by means of PETROMAP, a program written in Quick-Basic which applies a quantitative ZAF/FLS correction. The results of processing are comparable to the conventional quantitative microprobe analyses, with similar counting statistics. The output is a numerical matrix, compatible with the most popular graphic and spreadsheet programs from which it is possible to produce two-dimensional wt% oxide, mole fractions and mineral end-members pseudocolored or black/white maps. The procedure has been tested using a metamorphic garnet of the medium-grade Stilo unit (Calabrian Arc, Southern Italy).

  5. Cornell Produces a Video of Safety Dos and Don'ts for the YouTube Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Don't drink too much, download pirated files, light candles, or prop open doors. Warnings like those pervade the weighty work of admonition known as the student handbook. However, Allen J. Bova wonders, "Who ever reads that?" So Mr. Bova, director of risk management and insurance at Cornell University, tried to reach students with a…

  6. First approach to studies of sulphur electron DOS in prostate cancer cell lines and tissues studied by XANES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatek, Wojciech M.; Czapla, Joanna; Podgórczyk, Magdalena; Kisiel, Andrzej; Konior, Jerzy; Balerna, Antonella

    2011-10-01

    Urological cancers comprise approximately one-third of all cancers diagnosed in men worldwide and out of these, prostate cancer is the most common one ( WHO World Cancer Report, 2008). Several risk factors such as age, hormone levels, environmental conditions and family history are suspected to play a role in the onset of this disease of otherwise obscure aetiology. It is therefore the medical need that drives multidisciplinary research in this field, carried out by means of various experimental and theoretical techniques. Out of many relevant factors, it is believed that sulphur can take an important part in cancer transformations. We have investigated the prostate cancer cell lines and tissues, along with selected organic and inorganic compounds used as references, by the X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy near the sulphur edge energy region. Particularly, the comparison of the experimental results collected during XANES measurements and theoretical calculations of electron density of states with use of the FEFF8 code and LAPW (linearised augmented plane-wave) method has been performed and in this work the first results of our studies are presented.

  7. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #9: ORD PROVIDES TECHNICAL SUPPORT TO EPA/OIA & DOS INITIATIVE IN EGYPT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This ninth edition reports on a workshop on global climate change that was held in Cairo, Egypt, on May 10-12, 1999. The workshop represented a successful partnership between EPA's Office of International Affairs, Office of Research and Development (ORD), Office of Air and Radiat...

  8. [Dos and don'ts for crystalloids in intensive care medicine. Can too much water be bad?].

    PubMed

    Wildenauer, R

    2015-04-01

    Notwithstanding the use of colloids, crystalloids have a firm position in today's intensive care: In addition to the substitution as a basic requirement of the human organism or drug carriers, they are primarily used for volume replacement. A common complication is the development of interstitial edema, which is due to the composition of these solutions and the permeability of the glycocalyx.With the large variety available on the market, bicarbonate-based precursor isotonic-balanced full electrolyte solutions have become established in the meantime. The use of 0.9% saline solution is regarded as obsolete. With low cost and a good safety profile, a few relevant aspects, e.g., the risk of hypervolemia and electrolyte imbalance, must be taken into account in the use of crystalloids.

  9. Reviewing three dimensional dosimetry: basics and utilization as presented over 17 Years of DosGel and IC3Ddose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, L. J.

    2017-05-01

    For seventeen years a community of basic and clinical scientists and researchers has been meeting bi-annually to promote the clinical advance of techniques to measure radiation dose in three dimensions. The interest in this dosimetry was motivated by its promise as an effective methodology for 3D measurement of the complex conformal dose distributions achieved by modern techniques such as Intensity Modulated and Volumetric Arc Radiation Therapy. Each of the International Conferences on 3D Radiation Dosimetry resulted in the publication of informative proceedings [1-8], the majority openly available on the internet. The proceedings included papers that: i) reviewed the basic science of the radiation sensitive materials used to accumulate the dose information, ii) introduced the science and engineering of the imaging systems required to read the information out, iii) described the work flows and systems required for efficient dosimetry, iv) reported the protocols required for reproducible dosimetry, and v) showed examples of clinical use illustrating advantage and limitations of the dosimetry. This paper is intended to use the framework provided by these proceedings to review the current 3D chemical dosimeters available and to discuss the requirements for their use. The paper describes how 3D dosimetry can complement other dose delivery validation approaches available in the clinic. It closes with some personal reflections of how the motivation for, and practice of, 3D dosimetry have changed (or not) over the years.

  10. Evaluation of PTW Seven29 for tomotherapy patient-specific quality assurance and comparison with ScandiDos Delta(4).

    PubMed

    Myers, Pamela; Stathakis, Sotirios; Gutiérrez, Alonso N; Esquivel, Carlos; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Papanikolaou, Niko

    2012-04-01

    For routine quality assurance of helical tomotherapy plans, an alternative method, as opposed to the TomoTherapy suggested cylindrical solid water phantom with film and ionization chamber, is proposed using the PTW Seven29 2D-ARRAY inserted in a dedicated octagonal phantom, called Octavius. First, the sensitivity of the array to pitch was studied by varying the pitch during planning to 0.287, 0.433, 1.0, and 2.0. For each pitch selected, the dependence on field size was investigated by generating plans with field widths (FWs) of 1.06 cm, 2.49 cm, and 5.02 cm, for a total of 12 plans. Secondly, a total of 15 patient QA plans were delivered using helical tomotherapy with the Delta(4) and Seven29/Octavius for comparison. Using the clinical gamma criteria, 3% and 3 mm, all FW and pitch plans had a passing percentage of >90%. For patient QA plans, the average gamma pass percentage was 97.0% (94.4-99.8%) for the Delta(4) and 97.6% (92.5-100.0%) for the Seven29/Octavius. Both the Seven29/Octavius and Delta(4) performed to a high standard of measurement accuracy and had a 90% or greater gamma percent for all plans and were considered clinically acceptable.

  11. Evaluation of PTW Seven29 for tomotherapy patient-specific quality assurance and comparison with ScandiDos Delta4

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Pamela; Stathakis, Sotirios; Gutiérrez, Alonso N.; Esquivel, Carlos; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Papanikolaou, Niko

    2012-01-01

    For routine quality assurance of helical tomotherapy plans, an alternative method, as opposed to the TomoTherapy suggested cylindrical solid water phantom with film and ionization chamber, is proposed using the PTW Seven29 2D-ARRAY inserted in a dedicated octagonal phantom, called Octavius. First, the sensitivity of the array to pitch was studied by varying the pitch during planning to 0.287, 0.433, 1.0, and 2.0. For each pitch selected, the dependence on field size was investigated by generating plans with field widths (FWs) of 1.06 cm, 2.49 cm, and 5.02 cm, for a total of 12 plans. Secondly, a total of 15 patient QA plans were delivered using helical tomotherapy with the Delta4 and Seven29/Octavius for comparison. Using the clinical gamma criteria, 3% and 3 mm, all FW and pitch plans had a passing percentage of >90%. For patient QA plans, the average gamma pass percentage was 97.0% (94.4–99.8%) for the Delta4 and 97.6% (92.5-100.0%) for the Seven29/Octavius. Both the Seven29/Octavius and Delta4 performed to a high standard of measurement accuracy and had a 90% or greater gamma percent for all plans and were considered clinically acceptable. PMID:22557796

  12. A new generation of real-time DOS technology for mission-oriented system integration and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, E. Douglas

    1988-01-01

    Information is given on system integration and operation (SIO) requirements and a new generation of technical approaches for SIO. Real-time, distribution, survivability, and adaptability requirements and technical approaches are covered. An Alpha operating system program management overview is outlined.

  13. The Dos and Don'ts of how to Build a Planet, Using the Moon as an Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. H.

    2006-01-01

    The bulk chemical compositions of planets may yield important clues concerning planetary origins. Failing that, bulk compositions are still important, in that they constrain calculation of planetary mineralogies and also constrain the petrogenesis of basaltic magmas. In the case of the Earth, there is little or no debate about the composition of the Earth's upper mantle. This is because our sample collections contain peridotitic xenoliths of that mantle. The most fertile of these are believed to have been little modified from their primary compositions. Using these samples and chondritic meteorites as a starting point, small perturbations on the compositions of existing samples allow useful reconstruction of the bulk silicate Earth (BSE). Elsewhere, I have argued that the next simplest case is the Eucrite Parent Body (EPB). Reconstructions based on Sc partitioning indicate that the EPB can be well approximated by a mixture of 20% eucrite and 80% equilibrium olivine. This leads to a parent body that is similar to CO (or devolatilized CM) chondrites. Partial melting experiments on CM chondrites confirm this model, because the residual solids in these experiments are dominated by olivine with minor pigonite [3]. The most difficult bodies to reconstruct are those that have undergone the most differentiation. Both the Moon and Mars may have passed through a magma ocean stage. In any event, lunar and martian basalts, unlike eucrites, were not derived from undifferentiated source regions. Reconstructions are primarily based on compositional trends within the basalts themselves with some critical assumptions: (i) Refractory lithophile elements (Ca, Al, REE, actinides) are presumed to be in chondritic relative abundances; and (ii) some major element ratio is believed to exist in a chondritic ratio (e.g., Mg/Si, Mg/Al). The most commonly used parameter is Mg/Si.

  14. Projeto do sistema anti-ressonante da fiação dos transdutores para o detector Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, S. J.., Jr.; Melo, J. L.

    2003-08-01

    O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg está sendo projetado e construído pelo grupo Gráviton. Sua construção está ocorrendo no Laboratório de Estado Sólido e Baixas Temperaturas (LESBT) da Universidade de São Paulo, na cidade de São Paulo. Esse detector possui uma massa ressonante esférica de cobre-alumínio, com 65 cm de diâmetro, pesando aproximadamente 1150 Kg, suspensa por um sistema de isolamento vibracional, que se encontra em fase de testes preliminares. A real eficácia desse sistema, entretanto, só poderá ser comprovada quando o detector estiver aparelhado com, pelo menos, um transdutor eletromecânico de altíssima sensibilidade acoplado à massa ressonante. Neste momento, não só este sistema de isolamento vibracional será posto em teste, como o do projeto da fiação que transporta os sinais de microondas até os transdutores e destes para a pré-amplificação. Apesar dessa fiação ter sido projetada para não apresentar nenhum contato com a superfície esférica da antena, de maneira a não haver nenhuma transmissão de ruído vibracional do laboratório para esta, deve-se minimizar o ruído microfônico produzido nessa fiação por oscilações mecânicas, uma vez que ela não utiliza nenhum sistema de isolamento vibracional. Com o intuito de resolver este problema, projetamos uma estrutura, formada por pequenos cilindros conectados por barras, a qual não terá nenhuma ressonância mecânica na faixa de freqüências de interesse para detecção (3000 - 3400 Hz). Desta forma, as vibrações nessa faixa não serão amplificadas. O projeto foi feito usando iterativamente, de maneira a otimizar os resultados obtidos, o programa de elementos finitos Msc/Nastran. Através de simulações feitas neste programa, determinamos os parâmetros geométricos ideais a serem utilizados, os quais proporcionam a maior região espectral de interesse livre de ressonâncias.

  15. [Validity of the 24-h previous day physical activity recall (PDPAR-24) in Spanish adolescents].

    PubMed

    Cancela, José María; Lago, Joaquín; Ouviña, Lara; Ayán, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: El control del nivel de práctica de actividad física que realizan los adolescentes, de sus factores determinantes y susceptibilidad al cambio resulta indispensable para intervenir sobre la epidemia de obesidad que afecta a la sociedad española. Sin embargo, el número de cuestionarios validados para valorar la actividad física en adolescentes españoles es escaso. Objetivos: Evaluar la validez del cuestionario24hPrevious Day Physical Activity Recall (PDPAR-24) cuando es aplicado a la población de adolescentes españoles. Método: Participaron en este estudio estudiantes de 14-15 años de dos centros de educación secundaria del norte de Galicia. Como criterio objetivo de la actividad física realizada se utilizó el registro proporcionado por el acelerómetro Actigraph GT3X.Se monitorizó a los sujetos durante un día por medio del acelerómetro y al día siguiente se administró el cuestionario de auto-informe. Resultados: Un total de 79 alumnos (15.16 ± 0.81 años, 39% mujeres) finalizaron el estudio. Se observan correlaciones positivas estadísticamente significativas de tamaño medio a grande en ambos sexos (r=0.50-0.98), para la actividad física ligera y moderada. Las correlaciones observadas son más elevadas a medida que aumenta la intensidad de la actividad física realizada. Conclusiones: El cuestionario de auto-informe PDPAR-24 puede ser considerado como una herramienta válida a la hora de valorar el nivel de actividad física en adolescentes españoles.

  16. [Bilateral carotid artery occlusion: prognosis and neurosonological features].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sánchez, Javier R; García-Pastor, Andrés; Díaz-Otero, Fernando; Sobrino-García, Pilar; Rodríguez-Cruz, Pedro M; Vicente-Peracho, Gema; Vázquez-Alén, Pilar; Fernández-Bullido, Yolanda; Villanueva-Osorio, José A; Gil-Núñez, Antonio

    2014-07-16

    Introduccion. La oclusion carotidea bilateral (OCB) es una entidad infrecuente y poco estudiada. El pronostico a medio y largo plazo comunicado es variable. La circulacion colateral desempeña, probablemente, un papel crucial en su pronostico; sin embargo, existen pocos trabajos en la bibliografia al respecto. Objetivo. Describir el pronostico y las caracteristicas neurosonologicas de una serie de pacientes con OCB. Pacientes y metodos. Se seleccionaron pacientes del laboratorio de neurosonologia por un periodo de cinco años. El diagnostico de OCB se realizo mediante ultrasonografia duplex y se confirmo con angiotomografia computarizada o angiografia convencional. Se registraron las variables clinico-diagnosticas, el seguimiento de recurrencias, y se realizo un estudio neurosonologico completo y un test de reserva hemodinamica cerebral (RHC) con acetazolamida intravenosa. Resultados. Se revisaron 2.780 estudios neurosonologicos y se confirmo el diagnostico de OCB en 10 pacientes. Ocho pacientes se diagnosticaron a raiz de una isquemia cerebral. Se realizo un seguimiento medio de 2,7 años. Un paciente presento un ataque isquemico transitorio carotideo derecho durante el seguimiento, lo que resulto en una tasa anual de ictus isquemico del 4,1%. Seis se mantuvieron funcionalmente independientes y dos fallecieron. Se realizo un estudio neurosonologico completo en seis pacientes, y se evidencio una circulacion colateral extensa y RHC patologica en todos. El paciente que sufrio la recurrencia presento una RHC exhausta y circulacion colateral desfavorable en el hemisferio sintomatico. Conclusiones. En la serie estudiada, los pacientes con OCB presentaron una baja tasa de recurrencias cerebrovasculares. Una RHC patologica y una circulacion colateral insuficiente podrian relacionarse con un mayor riesgo de recurrencias.

  17. [Nutritional analysis of dietary patterns in students of primary education with normal nutritional status].

    PubMed

    Durá-Gúrpide, Beatriz; Durá-Travé, Teodoro

    2014-06-01

    Objetivo: Realizar un análisis nutricional del modelo dietético en un grupo de alumnos de Educación Primaria (9-12 años) con estado nutricional normal. Material y Métodos: Registro de consumo de alimentos de dos días lectivos consecutivos en una muestra de 353 alumnos de Educación Primaria (188 varones y 165 mujeres) con una situación nutricional normal. Se ha calculado el consumo calórico y de macronutrientes, minerales y vitaminas comparándose con las ingestas recomendadas. Resultados: El valor medio del aporte calórico diario era de 2.066,9 kcal. Los cereales (33%), lácteos (19%) y carnes (17%) aportaban el 70% de la ingesta calórica total. Las proteínas aportaban el 20,3% de la ingesta calórica, los glúcidos el 48,8%, los lípidos el 30,9%, y las grasas saturadas el 12,6%. La ingesta de colesterol era excesiva y 2/3 de la ingesta proteica eran de origen animal. El valor medio de la ingesta de calcio, yodo y vitaminas A, D y E eran inferiores a los aportes dietéticos recomendados. Conclusiones: El modelo dietético de los alumnos de Educación Primaria con estado nutricional normal difiere del prototipo mediterráneo, con un consumo excesivo de carnes, limitado de cereales y lácteos, y deficiente en verduras y hortalizas, frutas, legumbres y pescados; dando lugar a un incremento del aporte de proteínas y grasas animales en detrimento de los hidratos de carbono complejos y un aporte deficiente de calcio, yodo y vitaminas A, D y E.

  18. [Habitat heterogeneity, richness and structure of assemblages of dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) in areas of cerrado in the Chapada dos Parecis, Mato Grosso state, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silva, Ricardo J da; Diniz, Soraia; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z

    2010-01-01

    Ecological theory of habitat heterogeneity and limited niche-similarity assumes that more heterogeneous environments provide a greater amount and diversity of resources than simple environments, resulting in a greater diversity of species. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the habitat heterogeneity on the richness of dung beetles and to examine the spatial patterns of assemblage structure in relation to patterns of habitat heterogeneity. Dung beetles were collected using pitfall traps without bait in 30 points distributed in an area of cerrado sensu lato, in the region of Tangará da Serra, MT, Brazil, including areas of cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, cerradão and gallery forest. A total of 1,291 dung beetles were collected, distributed in 16 genera and 29 species. Overall habitat heterogeneity exerted a negative effect on patterns of dung beetles richness. Higher levels of species richness were observed in areas of cerrado campo sujo, while the areas of gallery forest were the most species poor. Regarding assembly structure, it was found that the dung beetles were separated into two major groups, one formed by the presence of specialized species in forest areas and other composed of species that occurred predominantly in cerrado. In conclusion, it was found that habitat complexity influenced the distribution of dung beetles, but the level of turnover in species composition along the heterogeneity gradient was relatively weak.

  19. Efeitos dos sais na planta e tolerância das culturas à salinidade (Salinity effects on plants and tolerance of crops to salinity)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The major challenge for world agriculture today is to maintain food and water supplies that can meet the demands of a growing world population. The shortage of fresh water, and its use mainly for human consumption, leaves the farmers with the choice of using reclycled city water, or underground sali...

  20. El Proyecto Cunningham: Dos Idiomas; Muchos Paises, 1995-96 (The Cunningham Project: Two Languages, Many Countries, 1995-96). Research Report on Educational Grants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston Independent School District, TX. Dept. of Research and Evaluation.

    This report presents an evaluation of a two-way bilingual program in English and Spanish at the Cunningham Elementary School (Texas). The program was designed to extend and expand educational reform by shifting the instructional program at the school over the 5-year time span from a transitional bilingual program to a two-way bilingual, or dual…